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Sample records for plasma wake field

  1. Wake fields in semiconductor plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berezhiani, V.I.; Mahajan, S.M.

    1994-05-01

    It is shown that an intense short laser pulse propagating through a semiconductor plasma will generated longitudinal Langmuir waves in its wake. The measurable wake field can be used as a diagnostic to study nonlinear optical phenomena. For narrow gap semiconductors (for examples InSb) with Kane-type dispersion relation, the system can simulate, at currently available laser powers, the physics underlying wake-field accelerators. (author). 9 refs, 1 fig

  2. Wake field in electron-positron plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avinash, K.; Berezhiani, V.I.

    1993-03-01

    We study the creation of wake field in cold electron positron plasma by electron bunches. In the resulting plasma inhomogeneity we study the propagation of short electromagnetic pulse. In is found that wake fields can change the frequency of the radiation substantially. (author). 7 refs, 1 fig

  3. Experimental studies of plasma wake-field acceleration and focusing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenzweig, J.B.; Cole, B.; Ho, C.; Argonne National Lab., IL

    1989-01-01

    More than four years after the initial proposal of the Plasma Wake-field Accelerator (PWFA), it continues to be the object of much investigation, due to the promise of the ultra-high accelerating gradients that can exist in relativistic plasma waves driven in the wake of charged particle beams. These large amplitude plasma wake-fields are of interest in the laboratory, both for the wealth of basic nonlinear plasma wave phenomena which can be studied, as well as for the applications of acceleration of focusing of electrons and positrons in future linear colliders. Plasma wake-field waves are also of importance in nature, due to their possible role in direct cosmic ray acceleration. The purpose of the present work is to review the recent experimental advances made in PWFA research at Argonne National Laboratory, in which many interesting beam and plasma phenomena have been observed. Emphasis is given to discussion of the nonlinear aspects of the PWFA beam-plasma interaction. 29 refs., 13 figs

  4. Modulation of continuous electron beams in plasma wake-fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenzweig, J.B.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the interaction of a continuous electron beam with wake-field generated plasma waves. Using a one-dimensional two fluid model, a fully nonlinear analytical description of the interaction is obtained. The phenomena of continuous beam modulation and wave period shortening are discussed. The relationship between these effects and the two-stream instability is also examined. 12 refs., 1 fig

  5. Wake field accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, P.B.

    1986-02-01

    In a wake field accelerator a high current driving bunch injected into a structure or plasma produces intense induced fields, which are in turn used to accelerate a trailing charge or bunch. The basic concepts of wake field acceleration are described. Wake potentials for closed cavities and periodic structures are derived, as are wake potentials on a collinear path with a charge distribution. Cylindrically symmetric structures excited by a beam in the form of a ring are considered

  6. Self-modulated dynamics of a relativistic charged particle beam in plasma wake field excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhter, T.; Fedele, R. [Dipartimento di Fisica ‘Ettore Pancini’, Università di Napoli Federico II and INFN Sezione di Napoli, Napoli (Italy); Nicola, S. De [CNR-SPIN and INFN Sezione di Napoli, Napoli (Italy); Tanjia, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica ‘Ettore Pancini’, Università di Napoli Federico II and INFN Sezione di Napoli, Napoli (Italy); Jovanović, D. [Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia); Mannan, A. [Department of Physics, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka (Bangladesh)

    2016-09-01

    The self-modulated dynamics of a relativistic charged particle beam is provided within the context of the theory of plasma wake field excitation. The self-consistent description of the beam dynamics is provided by coupling the Vlasov equation with a Poisson-type equation relating the plasma wake potential to the beam density. An analysis of the beam envelope self-modulation is then carried out and the criteria for the occurrence of the instability are discussed thereby.

  7. Wake fields and wake field acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bane, K.L.F.; Wilson, P.B.; Weiland, T.

    1984-12-01

    In this lecture we introduce the concepts of wake fields and wake potentials, examine some basic properties of these functions, show how they can be calculated, and look briefly at a few important applications. One such application is wake field acceleration. The wake field accelerator is capable of producing the high gradients required for future very high energy e + e - linear colliders. The principles of wake field acceleration, and a brief description of experiments in progress in this area, are presented in the concluding section. 40 references, 27 figures

  8. Collinear wake field acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bane, K.L.F.; Chen, P.; Wilson, P.B.

    1985-04-01

    In the Voss-Weiland scheme of wake field acceleration a high current, ring-shaped driving bunch is used to accelerate a low current beam following along on axis. In such a structure, the transformer ratio, i.e., the ratio of maximum voltage that can be gained by the on-axis beam and the voltage lost by the driving beam, can be large. In contrast, it has been observed that for an arrangement in which driving and driven bunches follow the same path, and where the current distribution of both bunches is gaussian, the transformer ratio is not normally greater than two. This paper explores some of the possibilities and limitations of a collinear acceleration scheme. In addition to its application to wake field acceleration in structures, this study is also of interest for the understanding of the plasma wake field accelerator. 11 refs., 4 figs

  9. Final Report: Experimental Investigation of Nonlinear Plasma Wake-Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenzweig, J.

    1997-01-01

    We discuss the exploration of the newly proposed blowout regime of the plasma wakefield accelerator and advanced photoinjector technology for linear collider applications. The plasma wakefield experiment at ANL produced several ground-breaking results in the physics of the blowout regime. The photoinjector R and D effort produced breakthroughs in theoretical, computational, and experimental methods in high brightness beam physics. Results have been published

  10. Wake-Field Wave Resonant Excitation in Magnetized Plasmas by Electromagnetic Pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milant'ev, V.P.; Turikov, V.A.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper the space charge wave excitation process at electromagnetic pulse propagation along external magnetic field in vicinity of electron cyclotron resonance. In hydrodynamic approach it is obtained an equation for plasma density under ponderomotive force action. With help of this equation we investigated a wake-field wave amplitude dependence from resonance detuning. The numerical simulation using a PIC method electromagnetic pulse propagation process in the resonant conditions was done

  11. A non-linear theory for the bubble regime of plasma wake fields in tailored plasma channels

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a first full analytical bubble and blow-out model for a radially inhomogeneous plasma in a quasi-static approximation. For both cases we calculate the accelerating and the focusing fields. In our model we also assume a thin electron layer that surrounds the wake field and calculate the field configuration within. Our theory holds for arbitrary radial density profiles and reduces to known models in the limit of a homogeneous plasma. From a previous study of hollow plasma channels with smooth boundaries for laser-driven electron acceleration in the bubble regime we know that pancake-like laser pulses lead to highest electron energies [Pukhov et al, PRL 113, 245003 (2014)]. As it was shown, the bubble fields can be adjusted to balance the laser depletion and dephasing lengths by varying the plasma density profile inside a deep channel. Now we show why the radial fields in the vacuum part of a channel become defocussing.

  12. The plasma wake field excitation: Recent developments from thermal to quantum regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedele, Renato; Tanjia, Fatema; de Nicola, Sergio; Jovanović, Dušan; Jovanović

    2013-12-01

    To describe the transverse nonlinear and collective self-consistent interaction of a long relativistic electron or positron beam with an unmagnetized plasma, a pair of coupled nonlinear differential equations were proposed by Fedele and Shukla in 1992 (Fedele, R. and Shukla, P. K. 1992a Phys. Rev. A 45, 4045). They were obtained within the quantum-like description provided by the thermal wave model and the theory of plasma wake field excitation. The pair of equations comprises a 2D Schrödinger-like equation for a complex wave function (whose squared modulus is proportional to beam density) and a Poisson-like equation for the plasma wake potential. The dispersion coefficient of the Schrödinger-like equation is proportional to the beam thermal emittance. More recently, Fedele-Shukla equations have been further applied to magnetized plasmas, and solutions were found in the form of nonlinear vortex states and ring solitons. They have been also applied to plasma focusing problems and extended from thermal to quantum regimes. We present here a review of the original approach, and subsequent developments.

  13. A Concept of Plasma Wake Field Acceleration Linear Collider (PWFA-LC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seryi, Andrei; Hogan, Mark; Pei, Shilun; Raubenheimer, Tor; Tenenbaum, Peter; Katsouleas, Tom; Huang, Chengkun; Joshi, Chan; Mori, Warren; Muggli, Patric

    2009-01-01

    Plasma Wake-Field Acceleration (PWFA) has demonstrated acceleration gradients above 50 GeV/m. Simulations have shown drive/witness bunch configurations that yield small energy spreads in the accelerated witness bunch and high energy transfer efficiency from the drive bunch to the witness bunch, ranging from 30% for a Gaussian drive bunch to 95% for a shaped longitudinal profile. These results open the opportunity for a linear collider that could be compact, efficient and more cost effective that the present microwave technologies. A concept of a PWFA-based Linear Collider (PWFA-LC) has been developed and is described in this paper. The drive beam generation and distribution, requirements on the plasma cells, and optimization of the interaction region parameters are described in detail. The R and D steps needed for further development of the concept are also outlined.

  14. On the phase velocity of plasma waves in a self-modulated laser wake-field accelerator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andreev, N. E.; Kirsanov, V. I.; Sakharov, A. S.; van Amersfoort, P. W.; Goloviznin, V. V.

    1996-01-01

    The properties of the wake field excited by a flattop laser pulse with a sharp leading edge and a power below the critical one for relativistic self-focusing are studied analytically and numerically with emphasis on the phase velocity of the plasma wave. The paraxial model describing modulation of

  15. Numerical simulations of a sounding rocket in ionospheric plasma: Effects of magnetic field on the wake formation and rocket potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darian, D.; Marholm, S.; Paulsson, J. J. P.; Miyake, Y.; Usui, H.; Mortensen, M.; Miloch, W. J.

    2017-09-01

    The charging of a sounding rocket in subsonic and supersonic plasma flows with external magnetic field is studied with numerical particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. A weakly magnetized plasma regime is considered that corresponds to the ionospheric F2 layer, with electrons being strongly magnetized, while the magnetization of ions is weak. It is demonstrated that the magnetic field orientation influences the floating potential of the rocket and that with increasing angle between the rocket axis and the magnetic field direction the rocket potential becomes less negative. External magnetic field gives rise to asymmetric wake downstream of the rocket. The simulated wake in the potential and density may extend as far as 30 electron Debye lengths; thus, it is important to account for these plasma perturbations when analyzing in situ measurements. A qualitative agreement between simulation results and the actual measurements with a sounding rocket is also shown.

  16. 2014 CERN Accelerator Schools: Plasma Wake Acceleration

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    A specialised school on Plasma Wake Acceleration will be held at CERN, Switzerland from 23-29 November, 2014.   This course will be of interest to staff and students in accelerator laboratories, university departments and companies working in or having an interest in the field of new acceleration techniques. Following introductory lectures on plasma and laser physics, the course will cover the different components of a plasma wake accelerator and plasma beam systems. An overview of the experimental studies, diagnostic tools and state of the art wake acceleration facilities, both present and planned, will complement the theoretical part. Topical seminars and a visit of CERN will complete the programme. Further information can be found at: http://cas.web.cern.ch/cas/PlasmaWake2014/CERN-advert.html http://indico.cern.ch/event/285444/

  17. Multi-stage wake-field accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gai, Wei.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper we propose a multi-stage wake field acceleration scheme to overcome the low transformer ratio problem and still provide high accelerating gradients. The idea is very simple. We use a train of several electron bunches from a linear accelerator (main linac) with well defined separations between the bunches (tens of ns) to drive wake field devices. Here we have made the assumption that the wake field devices are available, whether plasma, iris-loaded metallic or dielectric wake field structures. 10 refs

  18. Wake field acceleration experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    Where and how will wake field acceleration devices find use for other than, possibly, accelerators for high energy physics? I don't know that this can be responsibly answered at this time. What I can do is describe some recent results from an ongoing experimental program at Argonne which support the idea that wake field techniques and devices are potentially important for future accelerators. Perhaps this will spawn expanded interest and even new ideas for the use of this new technology. The Argonne program, and in particular the Advanced Accelerator Test Facility (AATF), has been reported in several fairly recent papers and reports. But because this is a substantially new audience for the subject, I will include a brief review of the program and the facility before describing experiments. 10 refs., 7 figs

  19. On the acceleration of charged particles by strong longitudinal plasma wake fields excited by electron bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amatuni, A.Ts.; Elbakyan, S.S.; Sekhpossyan, E.V.

    1985-01-01

    The possibility of the use of longitudinal field excited in a plasma by electron bunches to accelerate charged particles is investigated. It is shown that the highets value of accelerating fields proportional to the square root of factor of electrons in the bunch is achieved in the case when bunch particle density approaches a limit equal to the half of the the plasma electron equilibrium density

  20. Electron-Cloud Wake Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Rumolo, Giovanni

    2002-01-01

    The electron cloud gives rise to coherent and incoherent single-bunch wake fields, both in the longitudinal and in the transverse direction, and to coherent coupled-bunch wakes. These wake fields can be computed using the simulation programs ECLOUD and HEADTAIL developed at CERN. We present the wake fields simulated for the LHC beam in the CERN SPS and at injection into the LHC in different magnetic field configurations (field-free region, dipole, and solenoid), where the magnetic field affects both the elec-tron motion during a bunch passage and the overall electron distribution in the beam pipe.

  1. Self consistent hydrodynamic description of the plasma wake field excitation induced by a relativistic charged-particle beam in an unmagnetized plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanović, Dušan; Fedele, Renato; De Nicola, Sergio; Akhter, Tamina; Belić, Milivoj

    2017-12-01

    A self-consistent nonlinear hydrodynamic theory is presented of the propagation of a long and thin relativistic electron beam, for a typical plasma wake field acceleration configuration in an unmagnetized and overdense plasma. The random component of the trajectories of the beam particles as well as of their velocity spread is modelled by an anisotropic temperature, allowing the beam dynamics to be approximated as a 3D adiabatic expansion/compression. It is shown that even in the absence of the nonlinear plasma wake force, the localisation of the beam in the transverse direction can be achieved owing to the nonlinearity associated with the adiabatic compression/rarefaction and a coherent stationary state is constructed. Numerical calculations reveal the possibility of the beam focussing and defocussing, but the lifetime of the beam can be significantly extended by the appropriate adjustments, so that transverse oscillations are observed, similar to those predicted within the thermal wave and Vlasov kinetic models.

  2. Measurement of Wake fields in Plasma by a Probing Electron Beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiselev, V.A.; Linnik, A.F.; Onishchenko, I.N.; Uskov, V.V.

    2006-01-01

    The device for measuring intensity of wakefield, excited in plasma by a sequence of bunches of relativistic electrons is presented. Field amplitude is determined by measuring deflection of a probing electron beam (10 keV, 50 μA, of 1 mm diameter), which is injected perpendicularly to a direction of bunches movement. Results of measurement of focusing radial wakefield excited in plasma of density 5 x 10 11 cm - 3 by a sequence of needle electron bunches (each bunch of length 10 mm, diameter 1.5 mm, energy 14 MeV, 2 x 10 9 electrons in bunch, number of bunches 1500) are given. The measured radial wakefield strength was 2.5 kV/cm

  3. Self-Resonant Plasma Wake-Field Excitation by a Laser-Pulse with a Steep Leading-Edge for Particle-Acceleration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goloviznin, V. V.; van Amersfoort, P. W.

    1995-01-01

    The self-modulational instability of a relatively long laser pulse with a power close to or less than the critical power for relativistic self-focusing in plasma is considered. Strong wake-field excitation occurs as the result of a correlated transverse and longitudinal evolution of the pulse. The

  4. Conformal FDTD modeling wake fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jurgens, T.; Harfoush, F.

    1991-05-01

    Many computer codes have been written to model wake fields. Here we describe the use of the Conformal Finite Difference Time Domain (CFDTD) method to model the wake fields generated by a rigid beam traveling through various accelerating structures. The non- cylindrical symmetry of some of the problems considered here requires the use of a three dimensional code. In traditional FDTD codes, curved surfaces are approximated by rectangular steps. The errors introduced in wake field calculations by such an approximation can be reduced by increasing the mesh size, therefore increasing the cost of computing. Another approach, validated here, deforms Ampere and Faraday contours near a media interface so as to conform to the interface. These improvements of the FDTD method result in better accuracy of the fields at asymptotically no computational cost. This method is also capable of modeling thin wires as found in beam profile monitors, and slots and cracks as found in resistive wall motions. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  5. The concept of coupling impedance in the self-consistent plasma wake field excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedele, R.; Akhter, T.; De Nicola, S.; Migliorati, M.; Marocchino, A.; Massimo, F.; Palumbo, L.

    2016-01-01

    Within the framework of the Vlasov–Maxwell system of equations, we describe the self-consistent interaction of a relativistic charged-particle beam with the surroundings while propagating through a plasma-based acceleration device. This is done in terms of the concept of coupling (longitudinal) impedance in full analogy with the conventional accelerators. It is shown that also here the coupling impedance is a very useful tool for the Nyquist-type stability analysis. Examples of specific physical situations are finally illustrated.

  6. Dynamics of plasma ions motion in ultra-intense laser-excited plasma wakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Suyun; Li Jing

    2013-01-01

    The effects of heavy ions and protons motion in an ultra-intense laser-driven plasma wake are compared by rebuilding a plasma wake model. It is shown that with the same laser and plasma background electron density n 0 , the heavy ions' motion suppresses wake-field resonant excitation less than the protons' motion in their own plasma wake. Though heavy ions obtain more kinetic energy from the plasma wake, its energy density is less than that of the protons due to the ion density being far less than the proton density. As a result, the total energy of heavy ions obtained from the wake-field is far less than that of protons. The dependence of the kinetic energy and the energy density of protons and heavy ions on n 0 is discussed. (paper)

  7. Shaping of pulses in optical grating-based laser systems for optimal control of electrons in laser plasma wake-field accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, Cs.; Faure, J.; Geddes, C.G.R.; Tilborg, J. van; Leemans, W.P.

    2003-01-01

    In typical chirped pulse amplification (CPA) laser systems, scanning the grating separation in the optical compressor causes the well know generation of linear chirp of frequency vs. time in a laser pulse, as well as a modification of all the higher order phase terms. By setting the compressor angle slightly different from the optimum value to generate the shortest pulse, a typical scan around this value will produce significant changes to the pulse shape. Such pulse shape changes can lead to significant differences in the interaction with plasmas such as used in laser wake-field accelerators. Strong electron yield dependence on laser pulse shape in laser plasma wake-field electron acceleration experiments have been observed in the L'OASIS Lab of LBNL [1]. These experiments show the importance of pulse skewness parameter, S, defined here on the basis of the ratio of the ''head-width-half-max'' (HWHM) and the ''tail-width-halfmax'' (TWHM), respectively

  8. Studies of Particle Wake Potentials in Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Ian; Graziani, Frank; Glosli, James; Strozzi, David; Surh, Michael; Richards, David; Decyk, Viktor; Mori, Warren

    2011-10-01

    Fast Ignition studies require a detailed understanding of electron scattering, stopping, and energy deposition in plasmas with variable values for the number of particles within a Debye sphere. Presently there is disagreement in the literature concerning the proper description of these processes. Developing and validating proper descriptions requires studying the processes using first-principle electrostatic simulations and possibly including magnetic fields. We are using the particle-particle particle-mesh (PPPM) code ddcMD and the particle-in-cell (PIC) code BEPS to perform these simulations. As a starting point in our study, we examine the wake of a particle passing through a plasma in 3D electrostatic simulations performed with ddcMD and with BEPS using various cell sizes. In this poster, we compare the wakes we observe in these simulations with each other and predictions from Vlasov theory. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 and by UCLA under Grant DE-FG52-09NA29552.

  9. Probes, Moons, and Kinetic Plasma Wakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, I. H.; Malaspina, D.; Zhou, C.

    2017-10-01

    Nonmagnetic objects as varied as probes in tokamaks or moons in space give rise to flowing plasma wakes in which strong distortions of the ion and electron velocity distributions cause electrostatic instabilities. Non-linear phenomena such as electron holes are then produced. Historic probe theory largely ignores the resulting unstable character of the wake, but since we can now simulate computationally the non-linear wake phenomena, a timely challenge is to reassess the influence of these instabilities both on probe measurements and on the wakes themselves. Because the electron instability wavelengths are very short (typically a few Debye-lengths), controlled laboratory experiments face serious challenges in diagnosing them. That is one reason why they have long been neglected as an influence in probe interpretation. Space-craft plasma observations, by contrast, easily obtain sub-Debye-length resolution, but have difficulty with larger-scale reconstruction of the plasma spatial variation. In addition to surveying our developing understanding of wakes in magnetized plasmas, ongoing analysis of Artemis data concerning electron holes observed in the solar-wind lunar wake will be featured. Work partially supported by NASA Grant NNX16AG82G.

  10. CAS course on Plasma Wake Acceleration

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Accelerator School

    2015-01-01

    The CERN Accelerator School (CAS) recently organised a specialised course on Plasma Wake Acceleration, held at CERN, Geneva, Switzerland, from 23 to 29 November 2014.    Following a number of introductory lectures on laser and plasma physics, as well as an overview of conventional accelerators and their limitations, the course covered a large number of aspects of plasma wake acceleration schemes: the creation of plasma by high power lasers or particle beams, a description of the plasma creation process through simulations and the characteristics of the accelerated particle beams, including results of the latest achievements. Lectures on beam diagnostics, the applications of plasma accelerated beams, and topical seminars completed the programme.  The course was very successful, with 109 students of 26 nationalities attending; most participants coming from European counties, but also from the US, Israel, India, South Korea, Russia and Ukraine. Feedback from the participants was...

  11. Oscillatory wake potential with exchange-correlation in plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Arroj A.; Zeba, I.; Jamil, M.; Asif, M.

    2017-12-01

    The oscillatory wake potential of a moving test charge is studied in quantum dusty plasmas. The plasma system consisting of electrons, ions and negatively charged dust species is embedded in an ambient magnetic field. The modified equation of dispersion is derived using a Quantum Hydrodynamic Model for magnetized plasmas. The quantum effects are inculcated through Fermi degenerate pressure, the tunneling effect and exchange-correlation effects. The study of oscillatory wake is important to know the existence of silence zones in space and astrophysical objects as well as for crystal formation. The graphical description of the potential depicts the significance of the exchange and correlation effects arising through spin and other variables on the wake potential.

  12. Wake field in matched kicker magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyahara, Y.

    1979-01-01

    Coherent transverse instability observed in KEK booster proton synchrotron has been reported previously. This instability is induced by the interaction of the beam with kicker magnet for the fast beam extraction. To understand the mechanism completely, it is necessary to know the wake field in detail. Here, the wake field or induced current in the kicker magnet which is terminated with matched resistance is considered

  13. Fast particle tracking with wake fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dohlus, M.; Floettmann, K.; Henning, C.

    2012-01-15

    Tracking calculations of charged particles in electromagnetic fields require in principle the simultaneous solution of the equation of motion and of Maxwell's equations. In many tracking codes a simpler and more efficient approach is used: external fields like that of the accelerating structures are provided as field maps, generated in separate computations and for the calculation of self fields the model of a particle bunch in uniform motion is used. We describe how an externally computed wake function can be approximated by a table of Taylor coefficients and how the wake field kick can be calculated for the particle distribution in a tracking calculation. The integrated kick, representing the effect of a distributed structure, is applied at a discrete time. As an example, we use our approach to calculate the emittance growth of a bunch in an undulator beam pipe due to resistive wall wake field effects. (orig.)

  14. Electron holes observed in the Moon Plasma Wake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, I. H.; Malaspina, D.; Zhou, C.

    2017-10-01

    Electrostatic instabilities are predicted in the magnetized wake of plasma flowing past a non-magnetic absorbing object such as a probe or the moon. Analysis of the data from the Artemis satellites, now orbiting the moon at distances ten moon radii and less, shows very clear evidence of fast-moving isolated solitary potential structures causing bipolar electric field excursions as they pass the satellite's probes. These structures have all the hallmarks of electron holes: BGK solitons typically a few Debye-lengths in size, self-sustaining by a deficit of phase-space density on trapped orbits. Electron holes are now observed to be widespread in space plasmas. They have been observed in PIC simulations of the moon wake to be the non-linear consequence of the predicted electron instabilities. Simulations document hole prevalence, speed, length, and depth; and theory can explain many of these features from kinetic analysis. The solar wind wake is certainly the cause of the overwhelming majority of the holes observed by Artemis, because we observe almost all holes to be in or very near to the wake. We compare theory and simulation of the hole generation, lifetime, and transport mechanisms with observations. Work partially supported by NASA Grant NNX16AG82G.

  15. DIELECTRIC WAKE FIELD RESONATOR ACCELERATOR MODULE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirshfield, Jay L.

    2013-11-06

    Results are presented from experiments, and numerical analysis of wake fields set up by electron bunches passing through a cylindrical or rectangular dielectric-lined structure. These bunches excite many TM-modes, with Ez components of the wake fields sharply localized on the axis of the structure periodically behind the bunches. The experiment with the cylindrical structure, carried out at ATF Brookhaven National Laboratory, used up to three 50 MeV bunches spaced by one wake field period (21 cm) to study the superposition of wake fields by measuring the energy loss of each bunch after it passed through the 53-cm long dielectric element. The millimeter-wave spectrum of radiation excited by the passage of bunches is also studied. Numerical analysis was aimed not only to simulate the behavior of our device, but in general to predict dielectric wake field accelerator performance. It is shown that one needs to match the radius of the cylindrical dielectric channel with the bunch longitudinal rms-length to achieve optimal performance.

  16. Molecular Dynamic Studies of Particle Wake Potentials in Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Ian; Graziani, Frank; Glosli, James; Strozzi, David; Surh, Michael; Richards, David; Decyk, Viktor; Mori, Warren

    2010-11-01

    Fast Ignition studies require a detailed understanding of electron scattering, stopping, and energy deposition in plasmas with variable values for the number of particles within a Debye sphere. Presently there is disagreement in the literature concerning the proper description of these processes. Developing and validating proper descriptions requires studying the processes using first-principle electrostatic simulations and possibly including magnetic fields. We are using the particle-particle particle-mesh (P^3M) code ddcMD to perform these simulations. As a starting point in our study, we examined the wake of a particle passing through a plasma. In this poster, we compare the wake observed in 3D ddcMD simulations with that predicted by Vlasov theory and those observed in the electrostatic PIC code BEPS where the cell size was reduced to .03λD.

  17. Wake Field of the e-Cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heifets, Samuel A

    2001-01-01

    The wake field of the cloud is derived analytically taking into account the finite size of the cloud and nonlinearity of the electron motion. The analytic expression for the effective transverse wake field caused by the electron cloud in a positron storage ring is derived. The derivation includes the frequency spread in the cloud, which is the main effect of the nonlinearity of electron motion in the cloud. This approach allows calculation of the Q-factor and study the tune spread in a bunch

  18. Study on the effects of ion motion on laser-induced plasma wakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Suyun; Yu Wei; Yuan Xiao; Xu Han; Cao, L. H.; Cai, H. B.; Zhou, C. T.

    2012-01-01

    A 2D analytical model is presented for the generation of plasma wakes (or bubbles) with an ultra-intense laser pulse by taking into account the response of plasma ions. It is shown that the effect of ion motion becomes significant at the laser intensity exceeding 10 21 W/cm 2 and plasma background density below 10 19 cm −3 . In this regime, ion motion tends to suppress the electrostatic field induced by charge separation and makes the electron acceleration less effective. As a result, the assumption of immobile ions overestimates the efficiency of laser wake-field acceleration of electrons. Based on the analytical model, the dynamics of plasma ions in laser-induced wake field is investigated. It is found that only one bubble appears as the plasmas background density exceeds the resonant density and the deposited laser energy is concentrated into the bubble, resulting in the generation of an ion bunch with extremely high energy density.

  19. Electron acceleration by laser produced wake field: Pulse shape effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Hitendra K.; Kumar, Sandeep; Nishida, Yasushi

    2007-12-01

    Analytical expressions are obtained for the longitudinal field (wake field: Ex), density perturbations ( ne') and the potential ( ϕ) behind a laser pulse propagating in a plasma with the pulse duration of the electron plasma period. A feasibility study on the wake field is carried out with Gaussian-like (GL) pulse, rectangular-triangular (RT) pulse and rectangular-Gaussian (RG) pulse considering one-dimensional weakly nonlinear theory ( ne'/n0≪1), and the maximum energy gain acquired by an electron is calculated for all these three types of the laser pulse shapes. A comparative study infers that the RT pulse yields the best results: In its case maximum electron energy gain is 33.5 MeV for a 30 fs pulse duration whereas in case of GL (RG) pulse of the same duration the gain is 28.6 (28.8)MeV at the laser frequency of 1.6 PHz and the intensity of 3.0 × 10 18 W/m 2. The field of the wake and hence the energy gain get enhanced for the higher laser frequency, larger pulse duration and higher laser intensity for all types of the pulses.

  20. Wake-field generation by the ponderomotive memory effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, U.; Schamel, H.

    1997-01-01

    An analytical and numerical investigation of the plasma response to an imposed high frequency wave packet with a slow explicit time-dependent envelope is presented. An underlying picture of ponderomotive effects is developed, which shows that the explicit time dependence forces us to treat the problem kinetically, and furthermore, that a wake field is generated by the ponderomotive memory effect. The latter supplements the well-known ponderomotive force and fake heating effect. Several perturbation schemes are compared showing that the influence of resonant particles, treated by the method of characteristics, has to be taken into account for Langmuir wave packets with kλ d ≥0.2, where k is the wave number and λ d the Debye length. A self-consistent Vlasov simulation shows the disappearance of the density depression in the case of immobile ions, whereas the wake-field pattern survives self-consistency. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  1. Numerical challenges of short range wake field calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, Thomas; Gjonaj, Erion; Weiland, Thomas [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany). Institut fuer Theorie Elektromagnetischer Felder (TEMF)

    2011-07-01

    For present and future accelerator projects with ultra short bunches the accurate and reliable calculation of short range wake fields is an important issue. However, the numerical calculation of short range wake fields is a numerical challenging task. The presentation gives an overview over the numerical challenges and techniques for short range wake field calculations. Finally, some simulation results obtained by the program PBCI developed at the TU Darmstadt are presented.

  2. Large amplitude waves and fields in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelis, U. de; Naples Univ.

    1990-02-01

    In this review, based mostly on the results of the recent workshop on ''Large Amplitude Waves and Fields in Plasmas'' held at ICTP (Trieste, Italy) in May 1989 during the Spring College on Plasma Physics, I will mostly concentrate on underdense, cold, homogeneous plasmas, discussing some of the alternative (to fusion) uses of laser-plasma interaction. In Part I an outline of some basic non-linear processes is given, together with some recent experimental results. The processes are chosen because of their relevance to the applications or because new interesting developments have been reported at the ICTP workshop (or both). In Part II the excitation mechanisms and uses of large amplitude plasma waves are presented: these include phase-conjugation in plasmas, plasma based accelerators (beat-wave, plasma wake-field and laser wake-field), plasma lenses and plasma wigglers for Free Electron Lasers. (author)

  3. Detailed field test of yaw-based wake steering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleming, P.; Churchfield, M.; Scholbrock, A.

    2016-01-01

    production. In the first phase, a nacelle-mounted scanning lidar was used to verify wake deflection of a misaligned turbine and calibrate wake deflection models. In the second phase, these models were used within a yaw controller to achieve a desired wake deflection. This paper details the experimental......This paper describes a detailed field-test campaign to investigate yaw-based wake steering. In yaw-based wake steering, an upstream turbine intentionally misaligns its yaw with respect to the inflow to deflect its wake away from a downstream turbine, with the goal of increasing total power...... design and setup. All data collected as part of this field experiment will be archived and made available to the public via the U.S. Department of Energy’s Atmosphere to Electrons Data Archive and Portal....

  4. Measurement of potentials in the wake region of an unmagnetized plasma by using a DC-heated emissive probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Yong Ho; Chung, Kyu Sun

    1995-01-01

    An emissive probe was designed and manufactured to measure the floating and the space potentials of a plasma in the wake region. The 'floating potential method', among various schemes, was used for the measurement and analysis. To generate the wake, a plane artificial satellite with a circular shape was introduced into a simply discharged argon plasma without a magnetic field. Potentials along the radial direction in and out of the wake region of the artificial satellite were measured, and the plasma parameters were compared in both regions. In the wake region, the floating potential was higher than that out of the wake; the space potential was approximately equal to that out of the wake; when a positive voltage was applied to the artificial satellite, the floating and the space potentials were lower than those out of the wake; and when a negative voltage was applied to the artificial satellite, the floating potential was higher and the space potential was lower than the corresponding potentials out of the wake. (author)

  5. Field test of wake steering at an offshore wind farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Fleming

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a field test of wake-steering control is presented. The field test is the result of a collaboration between the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL and Envision Energy, a smart energy management company and turbine manufacturer. In the campaign, an array of turbines within an operating commercial offshore wind farm in China have the normal yaw controller modified to implement wake steering according to a yaw control strategy. The strategy was designed using NREL wind farm models, including a computational fluid dynamics model, Simulator fOr Wind Farm Applications (SOWFA, for understanding wake dynamics and an engineering model, FLOw Redirection and Induction in Steady State (FLORIS, for yaw control optimization. Results indicate that, within the certainty afforded by the data, the wake-steering controller was successful in increasing power capture, by amounts similar to those predicted from the models.

  6. Plasma wake and nuclear forces on fragmented H+ transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barriga-Carrasco, Manuel D; Deutsch, Claude

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the present work is to study the target electronic and nuclear interactions produced when a H + ion traverses classical plasma matter. Electronic interactions are treated by means of the dielectric formalism while nuclear interactions are dealt within the classical dispersion theory through a Monte Carlo computer code. The interactions through plasma electronic medium among close ions are called wake forces. We checked that these forces screen the Coulomb explosions of the two fragmented protons from the same H + ion decreasing their relative distance in the analysed cases. These forces align the interproton vector along the motion direction. They also tend the two-proton energy loss to the value of two isolated protons when at early times it is rather larger. Nevertheless most parts of these wake effects cannot be corroborated experimentally as they are masked by the projectile collisions with target nuclei in our numerical experiment. These collisions cancel the screening produced by the wake forces, increasing the interproton distance even faster than for bare Coulomb explosion. Also they misalign the interproton vector along the motion direction and contribute moderately to increase the energy loss of the fragmented H + ion. These nuclear collisions effects are more significant in reducing projectile velocity

  7. The study of field and density cavity in the near wake region of a space vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Qing; Wang Jing; Hu Taoping

    2011-01-01

    Under the static limit,using the method of Fourier transformation, the non-steady, nonlinear interactions between plasma and field in the near wake region of a space vehicle are investigated. Numerical calculations are performed and the results show that there are the formation of the electromagnetic soliton and density caviton in the near wake region of the space vehicle, which can be detected due to the collapse of electric field. Therefore, we can trace out the space vehicle by means of observing the structure and intensity of the density caviton and electromagnetic soliton although the space vehicle may be have a disguised characteristic. (authors)

  8. Longitudinal wake field for an electron beam accelerated through a ultra-high field gradient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geloni, G.; Saldin, E.; Schneidmiller, E.; Yurkov, M.

    2006-12-15

    Electron accelerators with higher and higher longitudinal field gradients are desirable, as they allow for the production of high energy beams by means of compact and cheap setups. The new laser-plasma acceleration technique appears to constitute the more promising breakthrough in this direction, delivering unprecedent field gradients up to TV/m. In this article we give a quantitative description of the impact of longitudinal wake fields on the electron beam. Our paper is based on the solution of Maxwell's equations for the longitudinal field. Our conclusions are valid when the acceleration distance is much smaller than the the overtaking length, that is the length that electrons travel as a light signal from the tail of the bunch overtakes the head of the bunch. This condition is well verified for laser-plasma devices. We calculate a closed expression for the impedance and the wake function that may be evaluated numerically. It is shown that the rate of energy loss in the bunch due to radiative interaction is equal to the energy emitted through coherent radiation in the far-zone. Furthermore, an expression is found for the asymptotic limit of a large distance of the electron beam from the accelerator compared with the overtaking length. Such expression allows us to calculate analytical solutions for a Gaussian transverse and longitudinal bunch shape. Finally, we study the feasibility of Table-Top Free-Electron Lasers in the Vacuum Ultra-Violet (TT-VUV FEL) and X-ray range (TT-XFEL), respectively based on 100 MeV and 1 GeV laser-plasma accelerator drivers. Numerical estimations presented in this paper indicate that the effects of the time-dependent energy change induced by the longitudinal wake pose a serious threat to the operation of these devices. (orig.)

  9. Evolution of plasma wakes in density up- and down-ramps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C. J.; Joshi, C.; Xu, X. L.; Mori, W. B.; Li, F.; Wan, Y.; Hua, J. F.; Pai, C. H.; Wang, J.; Lu, W.

    2018-02-01

    The time evolution of plasma wakes in density up- and down-ramps is examined through theory and particle-in-cell simulations. Motivated by observation of the reversal of a linear plasma wake in a plasma density upramp in a recent experiment (Zhang et al 2017 Phys. Rev. Lett. 119 064801) we have examined the behaviour of wakes in plasma ramps that always accompany any plasma source used for plasma-based acceleration. In the up-ramp case it is found that, after the passage of the drive pulse, the wavnumber/wavelength of the wake starts to decrease/increase with time until it eventually tends to zero/infinity, then the wake reverses its propagation direction and the wavenunber/wavelength of the wake begins to increase/shrink. The evolutions of the wavenumber and the phase velocity of the wake as functions of time are shown to be significantly different in the up-ramp and the down-ramp cases. In the latter case the wavenumber of the wake at a particular position in the ramp increases until the wake is eventually damped. It is also shown that the waveform of the wake at a particular time after being excited can be precisely controlled by tuning the initial plasma density profile, which may enable a new type of plasma-based ultrafast optics.

  10. Wake-field studies on photonic band gap accelerator cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, D.; Kroll, N.; Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, M/S 26, P.O. Box 4349, Stanford, California; Smith, D.R.; Schultz, S.

    1997-01-01

    We have studied the wake-field of several metal Photonic Band Gap (PBG) cavities which consist of either a square or a hexagonal array of metal cylinders, bounded on top and bottom by conducting or superconducting sheets, surrounded by placing microwave absorber at the periphery or by replacing outer rows of metal cylinders with lossy dielectric ones, or by metallic walls. A removed cylinder from the center of the array constitutes a site defect where a localized electromagnetic mode can occur. While both monopole and dipole wake-fields have been studied, we confine our attention here mainly to the dipole case. The dipole wake-field is produced by modes in the propagation bands which tend to fill the entire cavity more or less uniformly and are thus easy to damp selectively. MAFIA time domain simulation of the transverse wake-field has been compared with that of a cylindrical pill-box comparison cavity. Even without damping the wake-field of the metal PBG cavity is substantially smaller than that of the pill-box cavity and may be further reduced by increasing the size of the lattice. By introducing lossy material at the periphery we have been able to produce Q factors for the dipole modes in the 40 to 120 range without significantly degrading the accelerating mode. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  11. The resonant wake field transformer (RWT)-collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiland, T.; Holtkamp, N.; Schuett, P.; Wanzenberg, R.

    1990-01-01

    Future e + e - Linear Colliders with center of mass energies of 2 TeV need average accelerating gradients of 100 MeV/m to be built within a length of 20 km. The gradients required by colliders at this energy range can be economically provided by resonant Wake Field Transformers. At the Wake Field Experiment at DESY (Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron) a 20 cm long transformer section was investigated and the most recent results are presented. The second part gives a short overview of the present status of research concerning the proposed next stage of a multibunch driver linac with superconducting cavities and long Wake Field Transformer sections. (author) 9 refs.; 5 figs.; 1 tab

  12. Magnetic energy density and plasma energy density in the Venus wake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez De Tejada, H. A.; Durand-Manterola, H. J.; Lundin, R.; Barabash, S.; Zhang, T.; Reyes-Ruiz, M.; Sauvaud, J.

    2013-05-01

    Magnetic energy density and plasma energy density in the Venus wake H. Pérez-de-Tejada1, H. Durand-Manterola1, R. Lundin2, S. Barabash2, T. L. Zhang3, A. Sauvaud4, M. Reyes-Ruiz5. 1 - Institute of Geophysics, UNAM, México, D. F. 2 - Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Umea, Sweden 3 - Space Research Institute, Graz, Austria 4 - CESR, Toulouse, France 5 - Institute of Astronomy, UNAM, Ensenada, México Measurements conducted in the Venus wake with the magnetometer and the Aspera-4 plasma instrument of the Venus Express spacecraft show that average values of the kinetic energy density of the plasma in that region are comparable to average local values of the magnetic energy density. Observations were carried out in several orbits of the Venus Express near the midnight plane and suggest that the total energy content in the Venus wake is distributed with nearly comparable values between the plasma and the magnetic field. Processes associated with the solar wind erosion of planetary ions from the polar magnetic regions of the ionosphere are involved in the comparable distribution of both energy components.

  13. Multidimensional Plasma Wake Excitation in the Non-linear Blowout Regime

    CERN Document Server

    Vieira, J.; Silva, L.O.

    2016-01-01

    Plasma accelerators can sustain very high acceleration gradients. They are promising candidates for future generations of particle accelerators for sev- eral scientific, medical and technological applications. Current plasma based acceleration experiments operate in the relativistic regime, where the plasma response is strongly non-linear. We outline some of the key properties of wake- field excitation in these regimes. We outline a multidimensional theory for the excitation of plasma wakefields in connection with current experiments. We then use these results and provide design guidelines for the choice of laser and plasma parameters ensuring a stable laser wakefield accelerator that maximizes the quality of the accelerated electrons. We also mention some of the future challenges associated with this technology.

  14. Three-dimensional wake field analysis by boundary element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyata, K.

    1987-01-01

    A computer code HERTPIA was developed for the calculation of electromagnetic wake fields excited by charged particles travelling through arbitrarily shaped accelerating cavities. This code solves transient wave problems for a Hertz vector. The numerical analysis is based on the boundary element method. This program is validated by comparing its results with analytical solutions in a pill-box cavity

  15. Longitudinal- and transverse-wake-field effects in dielectric structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosing, M.; Gai, W.

    1990-01-01

    A dielectric-loaded circular waveguide structure is a potential high-gradient linear wake-field accelerator. A complete solution is given for the longitudinal electric and magnetic fields excited by a δ function and a Gaussian charge distribution moving parallel to the guide axis. The fields are then given in the limit of particle velocity equal to the speed of light. Example calculations are given for a structure with inner radius of 2 mm, outer radius of 5 mm, dielectric constant of 3, and total charge of 100 nC. Peak wake fields in excess of 200 MV/m are found. Azimuthal modes 0 and 1 are investigated for the particular interest of acceleration and deflection problems

  16. Field measurements in the wake of a model wind turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pol, Suhas; Taylor, Amelia; Doostalab, Ali; Novoa, Santiago; Castillo, Luciano; Bilbao, Argenis; Sheng, Jian; Giesselmann, Michael; Westergaard, Carsten; Hussain, Fazle; Ren, Beibei; Glauser, Mark

    2014-01-01

    As a first step to study the dynamics of a wind farm' we experimentally explored the flow field behind a single wind turbine of diameter 1.17 m at a hub height of 6.25 m. A 10 m tower upstream of the wind farm characterizes the atmospheric conditions and its influence on the wake evolution. A vertical rake of sonic anemometers is clustered around the hub height on a second tower' 6D downstream of the turbine. We present preliminary observations from a 1- hour block of data recorded in near-neutral atmospheric conditions. The ratio of the standard deviation of power to the inflow velocity is greater than three' revealing adverse effects of inflow turbulence on the power and load fluctuations. Furthermore' the wake defect and Reynolds stress and its gradient are pronounced at 6D. The flux of energy due to Reynolds stresses is similar to that reported in wind tunnel studies. The swirl and mixing produces a constant temperature wake which results in a density jump across the wake interface. Further field measurements will explore the dynamics of a model wind farm' including the effects of atmospheric variability

  17. Distant interplanetary wake of Venus: plasma observations from pioneer Venus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihalov, J.D.; Barnes, A.

    1982-01-01

    In June 1979 the Pioneer Venus orbiter made its first series of passes through the distant solar wind wake of Venus at distances of 8--12 R/sub V/ behind the planet. During this period the plasma analyzer aboard the spacecraft detected disturbed magnetosheath plasma that intermittently disappeared and reappeared, suggesting a tattered, filamentary cavity trailing behind the planet. The magnetosheath dropouts almost always occurred inside the region of 'magnetotail' observed by Russell et al. Sporadic bursts of energetic ions (E/q> or approx. =4kV) are detected inside and, occasionally, outside the magnetotail; all such bursts are consistent with identification of the ion as O + of planetary origin moving at the local magnetosheath flow speed. The morphology of the plasma dropouts and of the O + bursts is analyzed in detail. The cavity appears to contract at times of high solar wind dynamic pressure. The intensity of the O + component is highly variable, and appears not to be strongly correlated with solar wind dynamic pressure. The most intense bursts correspond to a flux 7 ions cm - 2 s - 1 . This maximum flux, if steady and filling a cylinder 1 R/sub V/ in radius would correspond to a mass loss rate of 25 ions s - 1 ; the intermittency and variability of the flux suggest that the true mean loss rate is very much lower. The kinetic temperature of the O + component is estimated as 10 5 --10 6 K in order of magnitude

  18. Longitudinal wake field corrections in circular machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Symon, K.R.

    1996-01-01

    In computations of longitudinal particle motions in accelerators and storage rings, the fields produced by the interactions of the beam with the cavity in which it circulates are usually calculated by multiplying Fourier components of the beam current by the appropriate impedances. This procedure neglects the slow variation with time of the Fourier coefficients and of the beam revolution frequency. When there are cavity elements with decay times that are comparable with or larger than the time during which changes in the beam parameters occur, these changes can not be neglected. Corrections for this effect have been worked out in terms of the response functions of elements in the ring. The result is expressed as a correction to the impedance which depends on the way in which the beam parameters are changing. A method is presented for correcting a numerical simulation by keeping track of the steady state and transient terms in the response of a cavity

  19. Conformal FDTD modeling of 3-D wake fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jurgens, T.G.; Harfoush, F.A.

    1991-01-01

    Many computer codes have been written to model wake fields. Here the authors describe the use of the Conformal Finite Difference Time Domain (CFDTD) method to model the wake fields generated by a rigid beam traveling through various accelerating structures. The non-cylindrical symmetry of some of the problems considered here requires the use of a three dimensional code. In traditional FDTD codes, curved surfaces are approximated by rectangular steps. The errors introduced in wake field calculations by such an approximation can be reduced by increasing the mesh size, therefore increasing the cost of computing. Another approach, validated here, deforms Ampere and Faraday contours near a media interface so as to conform to the interface. These improvements so as to conform to the interface. These improvements to the FDTD method result in better accuracy of the fields at asymptotically no computational cost. This method is also capable of modeling thin wires as found in beam profile monitors, and slots and cracks as found in resistive wall monitors

  20. Fourier spectral simulations for wake fields in conducting cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, M.; Chin, Y.-H.; Fischer, P.F.; Chae, Y.-Chul; Kim, K.-J.

    2007-01-01

    We investigate Fourier spectral time-domain simulations applied to wake field calculations in two-dimensional cylindrical structures. The scheme involves second-order explicit leap-frogging in time and Fourier spectral approximation in space, which is obtained from simply replacing the spatial differentiation operator of the YEE scheme by the Fourier differentiation operator on nonstaggered grids. This is a first step toward investigating high-order computational techniques with the Fourier spectral method, which is relatively simple to implement.

  1. A study of single and binary ion plasma expansion into laboratory-generated plasma wakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Kenneth Herbert, Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Plasma expansion into the wake of a large rectangular plate immersed in a collisionless, supersonic plasma was investigated in laboratory experiments. The experimental conditions address both single ion and binary ion plasma flows for the case of a body whose size is large in comparison with the Debye length, when the potential difference between the body and the plasma is relatively small. A new plasma source was developed to generate equi-velocity, binary ion plasma flows, which allows access to new parameter space that have previously been unavailable for laboratory studies. Specifically, the new parameters are the ionic mass ratio and the ionic component density ratio. In a series of experiments, a krypton-neon plasma is employed where the ambient density ratio of neon to krypton is varied more than an order of magnitude. The expansion in both the single ion and binary ion plasma cases is limited to early times, i.e., a few ion plasma periods, by the combination of plasma density, plasma drift speed, and vacuum chamber size, which prevented detailed comparison with self-similar theory.

  2. Study of single and binary ion plasma expansion into laboratory-generated plasma wakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, K.H. Jr.

    1988-02-01

    Plasma expansion into the wake of a large rectangular plate immersed in a collisionless, supersonic plasma was investigated in laboratory experiments. The experimental conditions address both single ion and binary ion plasma flows for the case of a body whose size is large in comparison with the Debye length, when the potential difference between the body and the plasma is relatively small. A new plasma source was developed to generate equi-velocity, binary ion plasma flows, which allows access to new parameter space that have previously been unavailable for laboratory studies. Specifically, the new parameters are the ionic mass ratio and the ionic component density ratio. In a series of experiments, a krypton-neon plasma is employed where the ambient density ratio of neon to krypton is varied more than an order of magnitude. The expansion in both the single ion and binary ion plasma cases is limited to early times, i.e., a few ion plasma periods, by the combination of plasma density, plasma drift speed, and vacuum chamber size, which prevented detailed comparison with self-similar theory

  3. From Color Fields to Quark Gluon Plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fries, Rainer J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis MN 55455 (United States); Kapusta, Joseph I. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis MN 55455 (United States); Li, Yang [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis MN 55455 (United States)

    2006-08-07

    We discuss a model for the energy distribution and the early space-time evolution of a heavy ion collision. We estimate the gluon field generated in the wake of hard processes and through primordial fluctuations of the color charges in the nuclei. Without specifying the dynamical mechanism of thermalization we calculate the energy momentum tensor of the following plasma phase. The results of this model can be used as initial conditions for a further hydrodynamic evolution.

  4. Ion-wake Field inside a Glass Box

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Mudi; Dropmann, Michael; Zhang, Bo; Matthews, Lorin S.; Hyde, Truell W.

    2016-01-01

    The confinement provided by a glass box is proving ideal for the formation of vertically aligned structures and a convenient method for controlling the number of dust particles comprising these dust structures, as well as their size and shape. In this paper, the electronic confinement of the glass box is mapped and the particle interactions between the particle pairs inside the glass box are measured. The ion-wake field is shown to exist within the glass box and its vertical and horizontal ex...

  5. Acceleration of electrons by the wake field of proton bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggiero, A.G.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses a novel idea to accelerate low-intensity bunches of electrons (or positrons) by the wake field of intense proton bunches travelling along the axis of a cylindrical rf structure. Accelerating gradients in excess of 100 MeV/m and large ''transformer ratios'', which allow for acceleration of electrons to energies in the TeV range, are calculated. A possible application of the method is an electron-positron linear collider with luminosity of 10 33 cm -2 s -1 . The relatively low cost and power consumption of the method is emphasized

  6. First Results from ARTEMIS, A New Two-Spacecraft Lunar Mission: Counter-Streaming Plasma Populations in the Lunar Wake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halekas, J. S.; Angelopoulos, V.; Sibeck, D. G.; Khurana, K. K.; Russell, C. T.; Delory, G. T.; Farrell, W. M.; McFadden, J. P.; Bonnell, J. W.; Larson, D.; hide

    2014-01-01

    We present observations from the first passage through the lunar plasma wake by one of two spacecraft comprising ARTEMIS (Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence, and Electrodynamics of the Moon's Interaction with the Sun), a new lunar mission that re-tasks two of five probes from the THEMIS magnetospheric mission. On Feb 13, 2010, ARTEMIS probe P1 passed through the wake at approximately 3.5 lunar radii downstream from the Moon, in a region between those explored by Wind and the Lunar Prospector, Kaguya, Chandrayaan, and Chang'E missions. ARTEMIS observed interpenetrating proton, alpha particle, and electron populations refilling the wake along magnetic field lines from both flanks. The characteristics of these distributions match expectations from self-similar models of plasma expansion into vacuum, with an asymmetric character likely driven by a combination of a tilted interplanetary magnetic field and an anisotropic incident solar wind electron population. On this flyby, ARTEMIS provided unprecedented measurements of the interpenetrating beams of both electrons and ions naturally produced by the filtration and acceleration effects of electric fields set up during the refilling process. ARTEMIS also measured electrostatic oscillations closely correlated with counter-streaming electron beams in the wake, as previously hypothesized but never before directly measured. These observations demonstrate the capability of the comprehensively instrumented ARTEMIS spacecraft and the potential for new lunar science from this unique two spacecraft constellation.

  7. Axial electric wake field inside the induction gap exited by the intense electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Kaizhi; Zhang Huang; Long Jidong; Yang Guojun; He Xiaozhong; Wang Huacen

    2008-01-01

    While an intense electron beam passes through the accelerating gaps of a linear induction accelerator, a strong wake field will be excited. In this paper a relatively simple model is established based on the interaction between the transverse magnetic wake field and the electron beam, and the numerical calculation in succession generates a magnetic wake field distribution along the accelerator and along the beam pulse as well. The axial electric wake field is derived based on the relation between field components of a resonant mode. According to some principles in existence, the influence of this field on the high voltage properties of the induction gap is analyzed. The Dragon-I accelerator is taken as an example, and its maximum electric wake field is about 17 kV/cm, which means the effect of the wake field is noticeable. (authors)

  8. Femtosecond planar electron beam source for micron-scale dielectric wake field accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. C. Marshall

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available A new accelerator, LACARA (laser-driven cyclotron autoresonance accelerator, under construction at the Accelerator Test Facility at Brookhaven National Laboratory, is to be powered by a 1 TW CO_{2} laser beam and a 50 MeV injected electron pulse. LACARA will produce inside a 2 m, 6 T solenoid a 100 MeV gyrating electron bunch, with ∼3% energy spread, approximately 1 psec in length with particles advancing in phase at the laser frequency, executing one cycle each 35 fsec. A beamstop with a small off axis channel will transmit a short beam pulse every optical cycle, thereby producing a train of about 30, 3.5 fsec long, 1–3 pC microbunches for each laser pulse. We describe here a novel accelerator, a micron-scale dielectric wake field accelerator driven by a 500 MeV LACARA-type injector that takes the output train of microbunches and transforms them into a near-rectangular cross section having a narrow dimension of ∼10 μm and height of ∼150 μm using a magnetic quadrupole; these bunches may be injected into a planar dielectric-lined waveguide (slightly larger than the bunch where cumulative buildup of wake fields can lead to an accelerating gradient >1 GV/m. This proposed vacuum-based wake field structure is physically rigid and capable of microfabrication accuracy, factors important in staging a large number of accelerator modules. Furthermore, the accelerating gradients it promises are comparable with those for plasma accelerators. A LACARA unit for preparing suitable bunches at 500 MeV is described. Physics issues are discussed, including bunch spreading and transport, bunch shaping, coherent diffraction radiation from the aperture, dielectric breakdown, and bunch stability in the rectangular wake field structure.

  9. Femtosecond Planar Electron Beam Source for Micron-Scale Dielectric Wake Field Accelerator. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirshfield, Jay L.

    2006-01-01

    A new accelerator LACARA is under construction at ATF, Brookhaven National Laboratory. LACARA is to be powered by a 1 TW CO2 laser, and will utilize a 6-T 2-m long solenoidal magnetic field. For a 50 MeV injected electron bunch, LACARA is expected to produce a 100 MeV 1 ps gyrating beam with ∼ 3% energy spread. Beam electrons advance in phase at the laser frequency, executing one cycle each 35 fs. A beam stop with a small off-axis channel will transmit a short beam pulse every optical cycle, thereby producing a train of about 30, 3.5 fs, 1-3 pC microbunches for each laser pulse. One application for this train of microbunches obtained from a LACARA-type device involves focusing a portion of the beam using a magnetic quadrupole into a rectangular cross-section having a narrow dimension of a few microns and a height of a few hundred microns. These microbunches may be injected into a planar dielectric-lined waveguide where cumulative buildup of wake fields can lead to an accelerating gradient > 1 GV/m. This proposed vacuum-based wake field structure is mechanically rigid and capable of accurate microfabrication, factors important in staging a large number of accelerator modules. Furthermore, the accelerating gradients it promises are comparable with those for plasma accelerators. A LACARA unit for preparing suitable bunches at 500 MeV is described. Physics issues are discussed including bunch spreading and transport, bunch shaping, aperture radiation, dielectric breakdown, and bunch stability in the rectangular wake field structure. In appendices to this report, three supporting documents are attached. These include a set of drawings that show the layout of the beam line and optical line for LACARA at ATF-BNL; and two reprints of recent articles published in PRST-AB. The first article describes measurements of the coherent superposition of wake fields that arise from a periodic train of bunches, with supporting analysis. The second article presents theory that

  10. Magnetic field in expanding quark-gluon plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Evan; Tuchin, Kirill

    2018-04-01

    Intense electromagnetic fields are created in the quark-gluon plasma by the external ultrarelativistic valence charges. The time evolution and the strength of this field are strongly affected by the electrical conductivity of the plasma. Yet, it has recently been observed that the effect of the magnetic field on the plasma flow is small. We compute the effect of plasma flow on magnetic field and demonstrate that it is less than 10%. These observations indicate that the plasma hydrodynamics and the dynamics of electromagnetic field decouple. Thus, it is a very good approximation, on the one hand, to study QGP in the background electromagnetic field generated by external sources and, on the other hand, to investigate the dynamics of magnetic field in the background plasma. We also argue that the wake induced by the magnetic field in plasma is negligible.

  11. COAXIAL TWO-CHANNEL DIELECTRIC WAKE FIELD ACCELERATOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirshfield, Jay L. [Omega-P, Inc.

    2013-04-30

    Theory, computations, and experimental apparatus are presented that describe and are intended to confirm novel properties of a coaxial two-channel dielectric wake field accelerator. In this configuration, an annular drive beam in the outer coaxial channel excites multimode wakefields which, in the inner channel, can accelerate a test beam to an energy much higher than the energy of the drive beam. This high transformer ratio is the result of judicious choice of the dielectric structure parameters, and of the phase separation between drive bunches and test bunches. A structure with cm-scale wakefields has been build for tests at the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator Laboratory, and a structure with mm-scale wakefields has been built for tests at the SLAC FACET facility. Both tests await scheduling by the respective facilities.

  12. Accelerating field step-up transformer in wake-field accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chojnacki, E.; Gai, W.; Schoessow, P.; Simpson, J.

    1991-01-01

    In the wake-field scheme of particle acceleration, a short, intense drive bunch of electrons passes through a slow-wave structure, leaving behind high rf power in its wake field. The axial accelerating electric field associated with the rf can be quite large, > 100 MeV/m, and is used to accelerate a much less intense ''witness'' beam to eventual energies > 1 TeV. The rf power is deposited predominantly in the fundamental mode of the structure, which, for dielectric-lined waveguide as used at Argonne, is the TM 01 mode. In all likelihood on the field amplitude will be limited only by rf breakdown of the dielectric material, the limit of which is currently unknown in the short time duration, high frequency regime of wake-field acceleration operation. To obtain such strong electric fields with given wake-field rf power, the dimensions of the dielectric-lined waveguide have to be fairly small, OD of the order of a cm and ID of a few mm, and this gives rise to the generation of strong deflection modes with beam misalignment. While a scheme exists to damp such deflection modes on a bunch-to-bunch time scale, head-tail beam deflection could still be a problem and BNS damping as well as FODO focusing are incomplete cures. Presented here are details of a scheme by which the rf power is generated by in a large-diameter wake-field tube, where deflection mode generation by the intense drive beam is tolerable, and then fed into a small-diameter acceleration tube where the less intense witness beam is accelerated by the greatly enhanced axial electric field. The witness beam generates little deflection-mode power itself, even in the small acceleration tube, thus a final high-quality, high-energy electron beam is produced

  13. The Effect of Ion Motion on Laser-Driven Plasma Wake in Capillary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Suyun; Li Yanfang; Chen Hui

    2016-01-01

    The effect of ion motion in capillary-guided laser-driven plasma wake is investigated through rebuilding a two-dimensional analytical model. It is shown that laser pulse with the same power can excite more intense wakefield in the capillary of a smaller radius. When laser intensity exceeds a critical value, the effect of ion motion reducing the wakefield rises, which becomes significant with a decrease of capillary radius. This phenomenon can be attributed to plasma ions in smaller capillary obtaining more energy from the plasma wake. The dependence of the difference value between maximal scalar potential of wake for two cases of ion rest and ion motion on the radius of the capillary is discussed. (paper)

  14. Planetary plasmas and fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roederer, J.G.

    1976-01-01

    The magnetospheres of earth, Jupiter, and Mercury are discussed. The main features and physical processes characteristic of the quiet time earth magnetosphere are examined. Jupiter's larger and more distant magnetosphere is compared with the earth's and recent findings are reviewed. The plasma and field environment of Mercury is also discussed and similarities with the earth's magnetosphere are noted

  15. Semi-analytical fluid study of the laser wake field excitation in the strong intensity regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jovanović, D., E-mail: djovanov@ipb.ac.rs [Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia); Fedele, R., E-mail: renato.fedele@na.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universitá di Napoli Federico II, Napoli (Italy); INFN Sezione di Napoli, Napoli (Italy); Belić, M., E-mail: milivoj.belic@qatar.tamu.edu [Texas A & M University at Qatar, Doha (Qatar); De Nicola, S., E-mail: sergio.denicola@spin.cnr.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universitá di Napoli Federico II, Napoli (Italy); INFN Sezione di Napoli, Napoli (Italy); CNR-SPIN, Complesso Universitario di Monte S' Angelo, Napoli (Italy)

    2016-09-01

    We present an analytical and numerical study of the interaction of a multi-petawatt, pancake-shaped laser pulse with an unmagnetized plasma. The study has been performed in the ultrarelativistic regime of electron jitter velocities, in which the plasma electrons are almost completely expelled from the pulse region. The calculations are applied to a laser wake field acceleration scheme with specifications that may be available in the next generation of Ti:Sa lasers and with the use of recently developed pulse compression techniques. A set of novel nonlinear equations is derived using a three-timescale description, with an intermediate timescale associated with the nonlinear phase of the electromagnetic wave and with the spatial bending of its wave front. They describe, on an equal footing, both the strong and the moderate laser intensity regimes, pertinent to the core and to the edges of the pulse.

  16. Analysis of a high brightness photo electron beam with self field and wake field effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsa, Z.

    1991-01-01

    High brightness sources are the basic ingredients in the new accelerator developments such as Free-Electron Laser experiments. The effects of the interactions between the highly charged particles and the fields in the accelerating structure, e.g. R.F., Space charge and Wake fields can be detrimental to the beam and the experiments. We present and discuss the formulation used, some simulation and results for the Brookhaven National Laboratory high brightness beam that illustrates effects of the accelerating field, space charge forces (e.g. due to self field of the bunch), and the wake field (e.g. arising from the interaction of the cavity surface and the self field of the bunch)

  17. A prescribed wake rotor inflow and flow field prediction analysis, user's manual and technical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egolf, T. A.; Landgrebe, A. J.

    1982-01-01

    A user's manual is provided which includes the technical approach for the Prescribed Wake Rotor Inflow and Flow Field Prediction Analysis. The analysis is used to provide the rotor wake induced velocities at the rotor blades for use in blade airloads and response analyses and to provide induced velocities at arbitrary field points such as at a tail surface. This analysis calculates the distribution of rotor wake induced velocities based on a prescribed wake model. Section operating conditions are prescribed from blade motion and controls determined by a separate blade response analysis. The analysis represents each blade by a segmented lifting line, and the rotor wake by discrete segmented trailing vortex filaments. Blade loading and circulation distributions are calculated based on blade element strip theory including the local induced velocity predicted by the numerical integration of the Biot-Savart Law applied to the vortex wake model.

  18. CFD simulation on Kappel propeller with a hull wake field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shin, Keun Woo; Andersen, Poul; Møller Bering, Rasmus

    2013-01-01

    Marine propellers are designed not for the open-water operation, but for the operation behind a hull due to the inhomogeneous hull wake and thrust deduction. The adaptation for the hull wake is important for the propulsive efficiency and cavitation risk especially on single-screw ships. CFD...... simulations for a propeller with a hull model have showed acceptable agreement with a model test result in the thrust and torque (Larsson et al. 2010). In the current work, a measured hull wake is applied to the simulation instead of modelling a hull, because the hull geometry is mostly not available...... for propeller designers and the computational effort can be reduced by excluding the hull. The CFD simulation of a propeller flow with a hull wake is verified in order to use CFD as a propeller design tool. A Kappel propeller, which is an innovative tip-modified propeller, is handled. Kappel propellers...

  19. Evaluation of Fast-Time Wake Models Using Denver 2006 Field Experiment Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nash’at N.; Pruis, Matthew J.

    2015-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration conducted a series of wake vortex field experiments at Denver in 2003, 2005, and 2006. This paper describes the lidar wake vortex measurements and associated meteorological data collected during the 2006 deployment, and includes results of recent reprocessing of the lidar data using a new wake vortex algorithm and estimates of the atmospheric turbulence using a new algorithm to estimate eddy dissipation rate from the lidar data. The configuration and set-up of the 2006 field experiment allowed out-of-ground effect vortices to be tracked in lateral transport further than any previous campaign and thereby provides an opportunity to study long-lived wake vortices in moderate to low crosswinds. An evaluation of NASA's fast-time wake vortex transport and decay models using the dataset shows similar performance as previous studies using other field data.

  20. On the wake structure in streaming complex plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, Patrick; Kählert, Hanno; Bonitz, Michael; Miloch, Wojciech J

    2012-01-01

    The theoretical description of complex (dusty) plasmas requires multiscale concepts that adequately incorporate the correlated interplay of streaming electrons and ions, neutrals and dust grains. Knowing the effective dust-dust interaction, the multiscale problem can be effectively reduced to a one-component plasma model of the dust subsystem. The goal of this paper is a systematic evaluation of the electrostatic potential distribution around a dust grain in the presence of a streaming plasma environment by means of two complementary approaches: (i) a high-precision computation of the dynamically screened Coulomb potential from the dynamic dielectric function and (ii) full 3D particle-in-cell simulations, which self-consistently include dynamical grain charging and nonlinear effects. The range of applicability of these two approaches is addressed. (paper)

  1. Evidence of circular Rydberg states in beam-foil experiments: Role of the surface wake field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Gaurav; Puri, Nitin K.; Kumar, Pravin; Nandi, T.

    2017-12-01

    We have employed the concept of the surface wake field to model the formation of the circular Rydberg states in the beam-foil experiments. The experimental studies of atomic excitation processes show the formation of circular Rydberg states either in the bulk of the foil or at the exit surface, and the mechanism is explained by several controversial theories. The present model is based on the interesting fact that the charge state fraction as well as the surface wake field depend on the foil thickness and it resolves a long-standing discrepancy on the mechanism of the formation of circular Rydberg states. The influence of exit layers is twofold. Initially, the high angular momentum Rydberg states are produced in the last layers of the foil by the Stark switching due to the bulk wake field and finally, they are transferred to the circular Rydberg states as a single multiphoton process due to the influence of the surface wake field.

  2. Ion motion in the wake driven by long particle bunches in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, J.; Silva, L. O.; Fonseca, R. A.; Mori, W. B.

    2014-01-01

    We explore the role of the background plasma ion motion in self-modulated plasma wakefield accelerators. We employ Dawson's plasma sheet model to derive expressions for the transverse plasma electric field and ponderomotive force in the narrow bunch limit. We use these results to determine the on-set of the ion dynamics and demonstrate that the ion motion could occur in self-modulated plasma wakefield accelerators. Simulations show the motion of the plasma ions can lead to the early suppression of the self-modulation instability and of the accelerating fields. The background plasma ion motion can nevertheless be fully mitigated by using plasmas with heavier plasmas

  3. Bifurcation of space-charge wave in a plasma waveguide including the wake potential effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myoung-Jae [Department of Physics and Research Institute for Natural Sciences, Hanyang University, Seoul 04763 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Young-Dae, E-mail: ydjung@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Applied Physics and Department of Bionanotechnology, Hanyang University, Ansan, Kyunggi-Do 15588, South Korea and Department of Physics, Applied Physics, and Astronomy, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 8th Street, Troy, New York 12180-3590 (United States)

    2016-09-15

    The wake potential effects on the propagation of the space-charge dust ion-acoustic wave are investigated in a cylindrically bounded dusty plasma with the ion flow. The results show that the wake potential would generate the double frequency modes in a cylindrically bounded dusty plasma. It is found that the upper mode of the wave frequency with the root of higher-order is smaller than that with the root of lower-order in intermediate wave number domains. However, the lower mode of the scaled wave frequency with the root of higher-order is found to be greater than that with the root of lower-order. It is found that the influence in the order of the root of the Bessel function on the wave frequency of the space-charge dust-ion-acoustic wave in a cylindrically confined dusty plasma decreases with an increase in the propagation wave number. It is also found that the double frequency modes increase with increasing Mach number due to the ion flow in a cylindrical dusty plasma. In addition, it is found that the upper mode of the group velocity decreases with an increase in the scaled radius of the plasma cylinder. However, it is shown that the lower mode of the scaled group velocity of the space-charge dust ion acoustic wave increases with an increase in the radius of the plasma cylinder. The variation of the space-charge dust-ion-acoustic wave due to the wake potential and geometric effects is also discussed.

  4. Experimental studies of laser guiding and wake excitation in plasma channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volfbeyn, P.; Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA

    1998-06-01

    This thesis presents results of experimental investigations of laser guiding in plasma channels. A new technique for plasma channel creation, the Ignitor-Heater scheme was proposed and experimentally tested in hydrogen and nitrogen. It made use of two laser pulses. The Ignitor, an ultrashort ( 17 W/cm 2 , 75fs laser pulse. The guiding properties and transmission and coupling efficiency were studied as a function of relative position of the channel and the injection pulse focus. Whereas entrance coupling efficiency into the channel was lower than expected, channel coupling to continuum losses were found to be in good agreement with analytical predictions. The authors speculate that increased coupling efficiency can be achieved through better mode matching into the channel. Analytic and numerical one dimensional (1-D), nonrelativistic theory of laser pulse propagation in underdense plasma was presented, in the context of laser wakefield acceleration. The relation between the laser pulse energy depletion, longitudinal laser pulse shape distortion, and changes in the group velocity and center wavelength was explored. 1-D theory was extended to treat the case of a laser exciting a wake in a hollow plasma channel, by making use of an energy conservation argument. Based on the results of this theory, a laser wakefield diagnostic was proposed where, by measuring the changes in phase or spectrum of the driving laser pulse, it is possible to infer the amplitude of the plasma wake

  5. Blunt body near wake flow field at Mach 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Thomas J.; McGinley, Catherine B.; Hannemann, Klaus

    1996-01-01

    Tests were conducted in a Mach 6 flow to examine the reattachment process of an axisymmetric free shear layer associated with the near wake of a 70 deg. half angle, spherically blunted cone with a cylindrical after body. Model angle of incidence was fixed at 0 deg. and free-stream Reynolds numbers based on body diameter ranged from 0.5 x 10(exp 6) to 4 x 10(exp 6). The sensitivity of wake shear layer transition on reattachment heating was investigated. The present perfect gas study was designed to compliment results obtained previously in facilities capable of producing real gas effects. The instrumented blunted cone model was designed primarily for testing in high enthalpy hypervelocity shock tunnels in both this country and abroad but was amenable for testing in conventional hypersonic blowdown wind tunnels as well. Surface heating rates were inferred from temperature - time histories from coaxial surface thermocouples on the model forebody and thin film resistance gages along the model base and cylindrical after body. General flow feature (bow shock, wake shear layer, and recompression shock) locations were visually identified by schlieren photography. Mean shear layer position and growth were determined from intrusive pitot pressure surveys. In addition, wake surveys with a constant temperature hot-wire anemometer were utilized to qualitatively characterize the state of the shear layer prior to reattachment. Experimental results were compared to laminar perfect gas predictions provided by a 3-D Navier Stokes code (NSHYP). Shear layer impingement on the instrumented cylindrical after body resulted in a localized heating maximum that was 21 to 29 percent of the forebody stagnation point heating. Peak heating resulting from the reattaching shear layer was found to be a factor of 2 higher than laminar predictions, which suggested a transitional shear layer. Schlieren flow visualization and fluctuating voltage time histories and spectra from the hot wire surveys

  6. Plasma wake and nuclear forces on fragmented H{sub {sup +}} transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barriga-Carrasco, Manuel D [E.T.S.I. Industriales, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, E-13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Deutsch, Claude [Laboratoire de Physique des Gaz et des Plasmas, UMR-8578, Bat. 210, Universite Paris XI, F-91405 Orsay (France)

    2006-12-15

    The objective of the present work is to study the target electronic and nuclear interactions produced when a H{sub {sup +}} ion traverses classical plasma matter. Electronic interactions are treated by means of the dielectric formalism while nuclear interactions are dealt within the classical dispersion theory through a Monte Carlo computer code. The interactions through plasma electronic medium among close ions are called wake forces. We checked that these forces screen the Coulomb explosions of the two fragmented protons from the same H{sub {sup +}} ion decreasing their relative distance in the analysed cases. These forces align the interproton vector along the motion direction. They also tend the two-proton energy loss to the value of two isolated protons when at early times it is rather larger. Nevertheless most parts of these wake effects cannot be corroborated experimentally as they are masked by the projectile collisions with target nuclei in our numerical experiment. These collisions cancel the screening produced by the wake forces, increasing the interproton distance even faster than for bare Coulomb explosion. Also they misalign the interproton vector along the motion direction and contribute moderately to increase the energy loss of the fragmented H{sub {sup +}} ion. These nuclear collisions effects are more significant in reducing projectile velocity.

  7. Self-guiding of high-intensity laser pulses for laser wake field acceleration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umstader, D.; Liu, X.

    1992-01-01

    A means of self-guiding an ultrashort and high-intensity laser pulse is demonstrated both experimentally and numerically. Its relevance to the laser wake field accelerator concept is discussed. Self-focusing and multiple foci formation are observed when a high peak power (P>100 GW), 1 μm, subpicosecond laser is focused onto various gases (air or hydrogen). It appears to result from the combined effects of self-focusing by the gas, and de-focusing both by diffraction and the plasma formed in the central high-intensity region. Quasi-stationary computer simulations show the same multiple foci behavior as the experiments. The results suggest much larger nonlinear electronic susceptibilities of a gas near or undergoing ionization in the high field of the laser pulse. Although self-guiding of a laser beam by this mechanism appears to significantly extend its high-intensity focal region, small-scale self-focusing due to beam non-uniformity is currently a limitation

  8. TE/TM alternating direction scheme for wake field calculation in 3D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zagorodnov, Igor [Institut fuer Theorie Elektromagnetischer Felder (TEMF), Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Schlossgartenstrasse 8, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany)]. E-mail: zagor@temf.de; Weiland, Thomas [Institut fuer Theorie Elektromagnetischer Felder (TEMF), Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Schlossgartenstrasse 8, D-64289 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2006-03-01

    In the future, accelerators with very short bunches will be used. It demands developing new numerical approaches for long-time calculation of electromagnetic fields in the vicinity of relativistic bunches. The conventional FDTD scheme, used in MAFIA, ABCI and other wake and PIC codes, suffers from numerical grid dispersion and staircase approximation problem. As an effective cure of the dispersion problem, a numerical scheme without dispersion in longitudinal direction can be used as it was shown by Novokhatski et al. [Transition dynamics of the wake fields of ultrashort bunches, TESLA Report 2000-03, DESY, 2000] and Zagorodnov et al. [J. Comput. Phys. 191 (2003) 525]. In this paper, a new economical conservative scheme for short-range wake field calculation in 3D is presented. As numerical examples show, the new scheme is much more accurate on long-time scale than the conventional FDTD approach.

  9. The wake field acceleration using a cavity of elliptical cross section, part 1: WELL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, Yongho.

    1983-11-01

    A computer code WELL is developed for the calculation of the wake fields in a cavity of elliptical cross section. The method is basically an extention of that of BCI to the 3-dimensional computation, i.e., Maxwell's equations are solved in the time domain with boundary conditions. Open boundary conditions are used so as to simulate infinitely long beam pipes. Good agreements within a few percents are shown between the results of the computation by WELL and BCI in a cylindrically symmetrical structure. An example of computation in an elliptical structure gives a reasonable result and points out that the deflection of particles by the transverse wake field is severe. (author)

  10. Calculation of longitudinal and transverse wake-field effects in dielectric structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gai, W.

    1989-01-01

    The electro-magnetic radiation of a charged particle passing through a dielectric structure has many applications to accelerator physics. Recently a new acceleration scheme, called the dielectric wake field accelerator, has been proposed. It also can be used as a pick up system for a storage ring because of its slow wave characteristics. In order to study these effects in detail, in this paper we will calculate the wake field effects produced in a dielectric structure by a charged particle. 8 refs., 2 figs

  11. Characterization of wake region by using and emissive probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Yong Ho

    1993-02-01

    An emissive probe was designed and manufactured to measure the floating and the space potentials of plasma in the wake region. The floating potential method' among various schemes was used for the measurement and analysis. To generate the wake, a plane artificial satellite with circular shape was introduced in a simply discharged argon plasma without the magnetic field. Potentials along the radial direction in and out of the wake regions of artificial satellite were measured, and plasma parameters were compared in the both regions. In the wake region, the floating potential was higher than that out of the wake, the space potential was approximately equal to that out of the wake, when the positive voltage was applied to artificial satellite, the floating and the space potentials were lower than that out of the wake and when the negative voltage was applied to artificial satellite, the floating potential was higher, the space potential was lower than that out of the wake

  12. Traversing field of view and AR-PIV for mid-field wake vortex investigation in a towing tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarano, F.; van Wijk, C.; Veldhuis, L. L. M.

    2002-08-01

    Wake vortex flow experiments are performed in a water tank where a 1:48 scaled model of a large transport aircraft A340-300 is towed at the speed of 3 and 5 ms-1 with values of the angle of attack α={2°, 4°, 8°}. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements are performed in a plane perpendicular to the towing direction describing the streamwise component of the wake vorticity. The instantaneous field of view (I-FOV) is traversed vertically with an underwater moving-camera device tracking the vortex core during the downward motion. An adaptive resolution (AR) image-processing technique is introduced that enhances the PIV interrogation in terms of spatial resolution and accuracy. The main objectives of the investigation are to demonstrate the applicability of PIV diagnostics in wake vortex research with towing-tank facilities. The specific implementation of the traversing field-of-view (T-FOV) technique and the AR image processing are driven by the need to characterize the vortex wake global properties as well as the vortex decay phenomenon in the mid- and far-field. Relevant aerodynamic information is obtained in the mid-field where the time evolution of the vortex structure (core radius and tangential velocity) and of the overall vortex wake (vortex trajectory, descent velocity, circulation) are discussed.

  13. Ultra fast imaging of a laser wake field accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saevert, Alexander; Schnell, Michael; Nicolai, Maria; Reuter, Maria; Schwab, Matthew B.; Moeller, Max [Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet, Jena (Germany); Mangles, Stuart P.D.; Cole, Jason M.; Poder, Kristjan; Najmudin, Zulfikar [The John Adams Institute Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Jaeckel, Oliver; Paulus, Gerhard G.; Spielmann, Christian; Kaluza, Malte C. [Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet, Jena (Germany); Helmholtz Institut Jena, Jena (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    Ultra intense laser pulses are known to excite plasma waves with a relativistic phase velocity. By harnessing these waves it is possible to generate quasi-monoenergetic, ultra-short electron pulses with kinetic energies from 0.1 to 2 GeV by guiding the laser pulse over several Rayleigh lengths. To further improve the stability of these particle pulses and ultimately to be able to tailor the energy spectrum toward their suitability for various applications, the physics underlying the different acceleration scenarios need to be understood as completely as possible. To be able to resolve the acceleration process diagnostics well-suited for this plasma environment need to be designed and realized. By using sub-10 fs probe pulses we were able to freeze the transient accelerating structure in the plasma. We will present the first results of an experiment which was carried out with the 30 TW JETi Laser and a few cycle probe pulse at the Institute of Optics and Quantum Electronics Jena. The resulting snapshots show unprecedented details from the laser plasma interaction and allow a direct comparison to computer simulations.

  14. Plasma production via field ionization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. O’Connell

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Plasma production via field ionization occurs when an incoming particle beam is sufficiently dense that the electric field associated with the beam ionizes a neutral vapor or gas. Experiments conducted at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center explore the threshold conditions necessary to induce field ionization by an electron beam in a neutral lithium vapor. By independently varying the transverse beam size, number of electrons per bunch, or bunch length, the radial component of the electric field is controlled to be above or below the threshold for field ionization. Additional experiments ionized neutral xenon and neutral nitric oxide by varying the incoming beam’s bunch length. A self-ionized plasma is an essential step for the viability of plasma-based accelerators for future high-energy experiments.

  15. The wave model of mesothermal plasma near wakes and korteweg-de vries equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, C.; Liu, V.C.

    1982-01-01

    The stationary two-dimensional (x,z) near wakes behind a flat-based projectile which moves at a constant mesothermal speed (V sub(infinity)) along a z-axis in a rarefied, fully ionized, plasma is studied using the wave model previously proposed by one of the authors (VCL). One-fluid theory is used to depict the free expansion of ambient plasma into the vacuum produced behind a fast-moving projectile. This nonstationary, one-dimensional (x,t) flow which is approximated by the K-dV equation can be transformed, through substitution, t=z/V sub(infinity), into a stationary two-dimensional(x,z) near wake flow seen by an observer moving with the body velocity (V sub(infinity)). The initial value problem of the K-dV equation in (x,t) variables is solved by a specially devised numerical method. Comparisons of the present numerical solution for the asymptotically small and large times with available analytical solutions are made and found in satisfactory agreements. (author)

  16. Wake field of electron beam accelerated in a RF-gun of free electron laser 'ELSA'

    CERN Document Server

    Salah, W

    1999-01-01

    Wake field effects driven by a coasting relativistic charged particle beam have been studied for various cavity geometries. In the particular case of a cylindrical 'pill-box' cavity, an analytical expression of the (E, B)(x, t) map has been obtained as a development on the complete base cavity normal modes. We extend this method to the case of an accelerated beam, which leaves the downstream face of the cavity with a thermal velocity, and becomes relativistic in a few cm. This situation is very different from the classical wake of an ultrarelativistic beam for two reasons: (a) in the case of an ultrarelativistic beam, the field directly generated by beam particles in their wake can be neglected, and the so-called wake field is the electromagnetic linear response of the cavity to the exciting signal which is the beam. For a transrelativistic beam, the direct field must be taken into account and added to cavity response, which is no longer linear, except for low-intensity beam; (b) causality prevents any beam's...

  17. Surface impedance of superconductors in wide frequency ranges for wake field calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidovskii, V.G.

    2006-01-01

    The problem of the surface impedance of superconductors in wide frequency ranges for calculations of wake fields, generated by bunches of charged particles moving axially inside a metallic vacuum chambers, is solved. The case of specular electron reflection at the superconductor surface is considered. The expression for the surface impedance of superconductors suitable for numerical computation is derived [ru

  18. Investigation on wind turbine wakes: wind tunnel tests and field experiments with LIDARs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iungo, Giacomo; Wu, Ting; Cöeffé, Juliette; Porté-Agel, Fernando; WIRE Team

    2011-11-01

    An investigation on the interaction between atmospheric boundary layer flow and wind turbines is carried out with wind tunnel and LIDAR measurements. The former were carried out using hot-wire anemometry and multi-hole pressure probes in the wake of a three-bladed miniature wind turbine. The wind turbine wake is characterized by a strong velocity defect in the proximity of the rotor, and its recovery is found to depend on the characteristics of the incoming atmospheric boundary layer (mean velocity and turbulence intensity profiles). Field experiments were performed using three wind LIDARs. Bi-dimensional scans are performed in order to analyse the wake wind field with different atmospheric boundary layer conditions. Furthermore, simultaneous measurements with two or three LIDARs allow the reconstruction of multi-component velocity fields. Both LIDAR and wind tunnel measurements highlight an increased turbulence level at the wake boundary for heights comparable to the top-tip of the blades; this flow feature can produce dangerous fatigue loads on following wind turbines.

  19. Low mass planets in protoplanetary disks with net vertical magnetic fields: the Planetary Wake and Gap Opening

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Zhaohuan; Stone, James M.; Rafikov, Roman R.

    2013-01-01

    We study wakes and gap opening by low mass planets in gaseous protoplanetary disks threaded by net vertical magnetic fields which drive magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) turbulence through the magnetorotational instabilty (MRI), using three dimensional simulations in the unstratified local shearing box approximation. The wakes, which are excited by the planets, are damped by shocks similar to the wake damping in inviscid hydrodynamic (HD) disks. Angular momentum deposition by shock damping opens ga...

  20. Lasers plasmas and magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albertazzi, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    We studied the coupling between a laser produced plasmas and a magnetic field in two cases: 1) in the context of Inertial Fusion Confinement (ICF), we first studied how magnetic fields are self generated during the interaction between a target and a laser, then 2) to progress in the understanding of the large-scale shaping of astrophysical jets, we studied the influence of an externally applied magnetic field on the dynamics of a laser-produced plasma expanding into vacuum. The first part of this thesis is thus dedicated to a numerical and experimental study of the self generated magnetic fields that are produced following the irradiation of a solid target by a high power laser (having pulse duration in the nanosecond and picosecond regimes). These fields play an important role in the frame of ICF since they influence the dynamics of the electrons produced during the laser-matter interaction, and thus condition the success of ICF experiments. The second part of this thesis is a numerical and experimental study of the influence of an externally applied magnetic field on the morphology of a laser produced plasma freely otherwise expanding into vacuum. This work aims at better understanding the observed large-scale collimation of astrophysical jets which cannot be understood in the frame of existing models. We notably show that a purely axial magnetic field can force an initially isotropic laboratory flow, scaled to be representative of a flow emerging from a Young Star Object, in a re-collimation shock, from which emerges a narrow, well collimated jet. We also show that the plasma heating induced at the re-collimation point could explain the 'puzzling' observations of stationary X ray emission zones embedded within astrophysical jets. (author) [fr

  1. Numerical simulation and experimental research on wake field of ships under off-design conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chun-yu; Wu, Tie-cheng; Zhang, Qi; Gong, Jie

    2016-10-01

    Different operating conditions (e.g. design and off-design) may lead to a significant difference in the hydrodynamics performance of a ship, especially in the total resistance and wake field of ships. This work investigated the hydrodynamic performance of the well-known KRISO 3600 TEU Container Ship (KCS) under three different operating conditions by means of Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). The comparison results show that the use of PIV to measure a ship's nominal wake field is an important method which has the advantages of being contactless and highly accurate. Acceptable agreements between the results obtained by the two different methods are achieved. Results indicate that the total resistances of the KCS model under two off-design conditions are 23.88% and 13.92% larger than that under the designed condition, respectively.

  2. Longitudinal effects of near-uniform beam-wall wake fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggiero, A.G.; Talmann, R.

    1979-01-01

    Several theories have been developed in the past to explain longitudinal instabilities of individual bunches in particle accelerators and storage rings. But they are less than satisfactory because in one way or another they rely on some mathematical approximation of doubtful physical meaning. Here, the basic physical model is simplified in order to help to understand a little better the physics involved. Initially, the motion of two particles executing phase oscillations in the same bunch under the influence of the wake field generated by the other is investigated. This motion is stable and bounded even for the case of a slowly varying wake field. But the distortions of the trajectories can, nevertheless, be significant and can be interpreted as bunch lengthening and widening. These models generalized to an N particle model. If the wake field is constant, the equations are simple enough that it is possible to solve exactly for the intensity-limited, self-consistent, longitudinal particle distribution. It is not necessary to solve, or even introduce, the Vlasov equation. These models exhibit effects like dipole and quadrupole oscillations and bunch lengthening, in qualitative agreement with observed behavior, but no attempt has been made at quantitative comparison with observation

  3. Velocity field in the wake of a hydropower farm equipped with Achard turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgescu, A-M; Cosoiu, C I; Alboiu, N; Hamzu, Al; Georgescu, S C

    2010-01-01

    The study consists of experimental and numerical investigations related to the water flow in the wake of a hydropower farm, equipped with three Achard turbines. The Achard turbine is a French concept of vertical axis cross-flow marine current turbine, with three vertical delta-blades, which operates irrespective of the water flow direction. A farm model built at 1:5 scale has been tested in a water channel. The Achard turbines run in stabilized current, so the flow can be assumed to be almost unchanged in horizontal planes along the vertical z-axis, thus allowing 2D numerical modelling, for different farm configurations: the computational domain is a cross-section of all turbines at a certain z-level. The two-dimensional numerical model of that farm has been used to depict the velocity field in the wake of the farm, with COMSOL Multiphysics and FLUENT software, to compute numerically the overall farm efficiency. The validation of the numerical models with experimental results is performed via the measurement of velocity distribution, by Acoustic Doppler Velocimetry, in the wake of the middle turbine within the farm. Three basic configurations were studied experimentally and numerically, namely: with all turbines aligned on a row across the upstream flow direction; with turbines in an isosceles triangular arrangement pointing downstream; with turbines in an isosceles triangular arrangement pointing upstream. As long as the numerical flow in the wake fits the experiments, the numerical results for the power coefficient (turbine efficiency) are trustworthy. The farm configuration with all turbines aligned on a same row leads to lower values of the experimental velocities than the numerical ones, while the farm configurations where the turbines are in isosceles triangular arrangement, pointing downstream or upstream, present a better match between numerical and experimental data.

  4. Prediction and Observation of Electron Instabilities and Phase Space Holes Concentrated in the Lunar Plasma Wake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Ian H.; Malaspina, David M.

    2018-05-01

    Recent theory and numerical simulation predicts that the wake of the solar wind flow past the Moon should be the site of electrostatic instabilities that give rise to electron holes. These play an important role in the eventual merging of the wake with the background solar wind. Analysis of measurements from the ARTEMIS satellites, orbiting the Moon at distances from 1.2 to 11 RM, detects holes highly concentrated in the wake, in agreement with prediction. The theory also predicts that the hole flux density observed should be hollow, peaking away from the wake axis. Observation statistics qualitatively confirm this hollowness, lending extra supporting evidence for the identification of their generation mechanism.

  5. Modulational instability for an induced field in the far-wake region of a space vehicle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Jingjing; Deng Qian; Qu Wen

    2012-01-01

    The behavior of the induced field and the generation of density cavitons in the far-wake region (|k 0 | → 0) of a space vehicle can be described by a set of nonlinear coupling equations. Modulational instability of the induced field is investigated on the basis of the nonlinear equations. The results show that the induced field is modulationally unstable and will collapse into spatial localized structures; meanwhile, density cavitons will be generated. The characteristic scale and the maximum growth rate of the induced field depend not only on the angle between the amplitude of pump waves E 0 and the perturbation wave vector k, but also on the energy density of pump waves |E 0 | 2 . (paper)

  6. Comments on the impedances of the SSC shielded bellows at low frequencies due to the truncation of the wake fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, K.Y.

    1986-09-01

    The behavior of the longitudinal impedance of the SSC shielded bellow at low frequencies depends very much on the length of the wake field used in the Fourier transformation. We show analytically and numerically that, regardless of the difference, single-bunch effects are independent of the actual shape of the impedance when the length of the wake used is bigger than the bunch length

  7. Extended definitions of wake fields and their influence on beam dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Danilov

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on experience gained from present machines, a new generation of accelerators with high intensities and low losses is being designed. For example, the design for the Spallation Neutron Source storage ring specifies fractional beam losses of the order of 10^{-4}, so that even small instabilities or resonances can lead to the violation of this number. The purpose of this paper is to show that there exist potentially important beam fields, missing from standard analyses, that can lead either to instabilities or to large deviations of instability thresholds from their conventional values. Some of these fields and related effects, e.g., “fast damping,” were discovered earlier and are presented here in more standard form as an extension of the wake field's definition. In addition, nonrelativistic collective phenomena are analyzed. It is shown that the nonrelativistic case could be significantly different from the relativistic case.

  8. TBCI and URMEL - New computer codes for wake field and cavity mode calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiland, T.

    1983-01-01

    Wake force computation is important for any study of instabilities in high current accelerators and storage rings. These forces are generated by intense bunches of charged particles passing cylindrically symmetric structures on or off axis. The adequate method for computing such forces is the time domain approach. The computer Code TBCI computes for relativistic as well as for nonrelativistic bunches of arbitrary shape longitudinal and transverse wake forces up to the octupole component. TBCI is not limited to cavity-like objects and thus applicable to bellows, beam pipes with varying cross sections and any other nonresonant structures. For the accelerating cavities one also needs to know the resonant modes and frequencies for the study of instabilities and mode couplers. The complementary code named URMEL computes these fields for any azimuthal dependence of the fields in ascending order. The mathematical procedure being used is very safe and does not miss modes. Both codes together represent a unique tool for accelerator design and are easy to use

  9. Olfactory Bulb Field Potentials and Respiration in Sleep-Wake States of Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessberger, Jakob; Zhong, Weiwei; Brankačk, Jurij; Draguhn, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that local field potentials (LFP) in the rodent olfactory bulb (OB) follow respiration. This respiration-related rhythm (RR) in OB depends on nasal air flow, indicating that it is conveyed by sensory inputs from the nasal epithelium. Recently RR was found outside the olfactory system, suggesting that it plays a role in organizing distributed network activity. It is therefore important to measure RR and to delineate it from endogenous electrical rhythms like theta which cover similar frequency bands in small rodents. In order to validate such measurements in freely behaving mice, we compared rhythmic LFP in the OB with two respiration-related biophysical parameters: whole-body plethysmography (PG) and nasal temperature (thermocouple; TC). During waking, all three signals reflected respiration with similar reliability. Peak power of RR in OB decreased with increasing respiration rate whereas power of PG increased. During NREM sleep, respiration-related TC signals disappeared and large amplitude slow waves frequently concealed RR in OB. In this situation, PG provided a reliable signal while breathing-related rhythms in TC and OB returned only during microarousals. In summary, local field potentials in the olfactory bulb do reliably reflect respiratory rhythm during wakefulness and REM sleep but not during NREM sleep.

  10. Olfactory Bulb Field Potentials and Respiration in Sleep-Wake States of Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakob Jessberger

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well established that local field potentials (LFP in the rodent olfactory bulb (OB follow respiration. This respiration-related rhythm (RR in OB depends on nasal air flow, indicating that it is conveyed by sensory inputs from the nasal epithelium. Recently RR was found outside the olfactory system, suggesting that it plays a role in organizing distributed network activity. It is therefore important to measure RR and to delineate it from endogenous electrical rhythms like theta which cover similar frequency bands in small rodents. In order to validate such measurements in freely behaving mice, we compared rhythmic LFP in the OB with two respiration-related biophysical parameters: whole-body plethysmography (PG and nasal temperature (thermocouple; TC. During waking, all three signals reflected respiration with similar reliability. Peak power of RR in OB decreased with increasing respiration rate whereas power of PG increased. During NREM sleep, respiration-related TC signals disappeared and large amplitude slow waves frequently concealed RR in OB. In this situation, PG provided a reliable signal while breathing-related rhythms in TC and OB returned only during microarousals. In summary, local field potentials in the olfactory bulb do reliably reflect respiratory rhythm during wakefulness and REM sleep but not during NREM sleep.

  11. Modal analysis of wake fields and its application to elliptical pill-box cavity with finite aperture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.H.; Chen, K.W.; Yang, J.S.

    1990-01-01

    The potential of the wake-field produced by a bunch of relativistic charged particles passing through a pill-box cavity is expressed by using Floquet's theorem, and an obvious requirement that the energy gain over all acceleration cavity of many pill boxes must be proportional to the number of pill boxes, based on the previous modal approach (BWW theory). It is found that the wake-field is consisted of two classes of modes: the longitudinal modes which are independent of the aperture and the pill-box gap, the hybrid (pill-box) modes which are dependent of the pill-box gap. The wake field is predominated by the fundamental longitudinal mode whose wavelength is on the order of the effective diameter of the cavity, and its magnitude is inversely proportional to the cross sectional area of the cavity for practical cavities with small apertures. Both longitudinal and transverse wake fields due to the longitudinal modes in an elliptical pill box cavity are expressed analytically in a closed series form by solving exactly the longitudinal eigenmode equation in the elliptical cylindrical coordinates in terms of Mathieu functions. It is found that both longitudinal and transverse wake fields whose amplitudes per driving charge are greater than 100 MV/m/μC can be generated in an elliptical cavity

  12. Fast wake measurements with LiDAR at Risø test field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bingöl, Ferhat; Trujillo, J.J.; Mann, Jakob

    2008-01-01

    . Downstream wind speed can be quantified spatially in one and two dimensions. Data analysis allows us to identify the wake transversal position, thus enabling us to quantify the wake meandering as well as the instantaneous wake expansion expressed in a meandering frame of reference. The experimental results...

  13. Observation of high-resolution wind fields and offshore wind turbine wakes using TerraSAR-X imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gies, Tobias; Jacobsen, Sven; Lehner, Susanne; Pleskachevsky, Andrey

    2014-05-01

    1. Introduction Numerous large-scale offshore wind farms have been built in European waters and play an important role in providing renewable energy. Therefore, knowledge of behavior of wakes, induced by large wind turbines and their impact on wind power output is important. The spatial variation of offshore wind turbine wake is very complex, depending on wind speed, wind direction, ambient atmospheric turbulence and atmospheric stability. In this study we demonstrate the application of X-band TerraSAR-X (TS-X) data with high spatial resolution for studies on wind turbine wakes in the near and far field of the offshore wind farm Alpha Ventus, located in the North Sea. Two cases which different weather conditions and different wake pattern as observed in the TS-X image are presented. 2. Methods The space-borne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) is a unique sensor that provides two-dimensional information on the ocean surface. Due to their high resolution, daylight and weather independency and global coverage, SARs are particularly suitable for many ocean and coastal applications. SAR images reveal wind variations on small scales and thus represent a valuable means in detailed wind-field analysis. The general principle of imaging turbine wakes is that the reduced wind speed downstream of offshore wind farms modulates the sea surface roughness, which in turn changes the Normalized Radar Cross Section (NRCS, denoted by σ0) in the SAR image and makes the wake visible. In this study we present two cases at the offshore wind farm Alpha Ventus to investigate turbine-induced wakes and the retrieved sea surface wind field. Using the wind streaks, visible in the TS-X image and the shadow behind the offshore wind farm, induced by turbine wake, the sea surface wind direction is derived and subsequently the sea surface wind speed is calculated using the latest generation of wind field algorithm XMOD2. 3. Case study alpha ventus Alpha Ventus is located approximately 45 km from the

  14. Electric fields in plasmas under pulsed currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsigutkin, K.; Doron, R.; Stambulchik, E.; Bernshtam, V.; Maron, Y.; Fruchtman, A.; Commisso, R. J.

    2007-01-01

    Electric fields in a plasma that conducts a high-current pulse are measured as a function of time and space. The experiment is performed using a coaxial configuration, in which a current rising to 160 kA in 100 ns is conducted through a plasma that prefills the region between two coaxial electrodes. The electric field is determined using laser spectroscopy and line-shape analysis. Plasma doping allows for three-dimensional spatially resolved measurements. The measured peak magnitude and propagation velocity of the electric field is found to match those of the Hall electric field, inferred from the magnetic-field front propagation measured previously

  15. Field reversal produced by a plasma gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, C.W.; Condit, W.; Granneman, E.H.A.; Prono, D.; Smith, A.C. Jr.; Taska, J.; Turner, W.C.

    1980-01-01

    Experimental results are presented of the production of Field-Reversed Plasma with a high energy coaxial plasma gun. The gun is magnetized with solenoids inside the center electrode and outside the outer electrode so that plasma emerging from the gun entrains the radial fringer field at the muzzle. The plasma flow extends field lines propagating a high electrical conductivity, the flux inside the center electrode should be preserved. However, for low flux, the trapped flux exceeds by 2 or more the initial flux, possibly because of helical deformation of the current channel extending from the center electrode

  16. Plasma heating in a variable magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kichigin, G. N., E-mail: king@iszf.irk.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics (Russian Federation)

    2013-05-15

    The problem of particle acceleration in a periodically variable magnetic field that either takes a zero value or passes through zero is considered. It is shown that, each time the field [0]passes through zero, the particle energy increases abruptly. This process can be regarded as heating in the course of which plasma particles acquire significant energy within one field period. This mechanism of plasma heating takes place in the absence of collisions between plasma particles and is analogous to the mechanism of magnetic pumping in collisional plasma considered by Alfven.

  17. Sandia Wake Imaging System Field Test Report: 2015 Deployment at the Scaled Wind Farm Technology (SWiFT) Facility.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naughton, Brian Thomas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Herges, Thomas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-10-01

    This report presents the objectives, configuration, procedures, reporting , roles , and responsibilities and subsequent results for the field demonstration of the Sandia Wake Imaging System (SWIS) at the Sandia Scaled Wind Farm Technology (SWiFT) facility near Lubbock, Texas in June and July 2015.

  18. Wind field re-construction of 3D Wake measurements from a turbine-installed scanning lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Torben Krogh; Herges, Tommy; Astrup, Poul

    High-resolution wake flow measurements obtained from a turbine-mounted scanning lidar have been obtained from 1D to 5D behind a V27 test turbine. The measured line-of-sight projected wind speeds have, in connection with a fast CFD wind field reconstruction model, been used to generate 3D wind fie...

  19. Ground Simulations of Near-Surface Plasma Field and Charging at the Lunar Terminator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polansky, J.; Ding, N.; Wang, J.; Craven, P.; Schneider, T.; Vaughn, J.

    2012-12-01

    Charging in the lunar terminator region is the most complex and is still not well understood. In this region, the surface potential is sensitively influenced by both solar illumination and plasma flow. The combined effects from localized shadow generated by low sun elevation angles and localized wake generated by plasma flow over the rugged terrain can generate strongly differentially charged surfaces. Few models currently exist that can accurately resolve the combined effects of plasma flow and solar illumination over realistic lunar terminator topographies. This paper presents an experimental investigation of lunar surface charging at the terminator region in simulated plasma environments in a vacuum chamber. The solar wind plasma flow is simulated using an electron bombardment gridded Argon ion source. An electrostatic Langmuir probe, nude Faraday probes, a floating emissive probe, and retarding potential analyzer are used to quantify the plasma flow field. Surface potentials of both conducting and dielectric materials immersed in the plasma flow are measured with a Trek surface potential probe. The conducting material surface potential will simultaneously be measured with a high impedance voltmeter to calibrate the Trek probe. Measurement results will be presented for flat surfaces and objects-on-surface for various angles of attack of the plasma flow. The implications on the generation of localized plasma wake and surface charging at the lunar terminator will be discussed. (This research is supported by the NASA Lunar Advanced Science and Exploration Research program.)

  20. Non-Maxwellian and magnetic field effects in complex plasma wakes★

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Patrick; Jung, Hendrik; Kählert, Hanno; Joost, Jan-Philip; Greiner, Franko; Moldabekov, Zhandos; Carstensen, Jan; Sundar, Sita; Bonitz, Michael; Piel, Alexander

    2018-05-01

    In a streaming plasma, negatively charged dust particles create complex charge distributions on the downstream side of the particle, which are responsible for attractive forces between the like-charged particles. This wake phenomenon is studied by means of refined linear response theory and molecular dynamics simulations as well as in experiments. Particular attention is paid to non-Maxwellian velocity distributions that are found in the plasma sheath and to situations with strong magnetic fields, which are becoming increasingly important. Non-Maxwellian distributions and strong magnetic fields result in a substantial damping of the oscillatory wake potential. The interaction force in particle pairs is explored with the phase-resolved resonance method, which demonstrates the non-reciprocity of the interparticle forces in unmagnetized and magnetized systems.

  1. Reversed-Field Pinch plasma model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miley, G.H.; Nebel, R.A.; Moses, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    The stability of a Reversed-Field Pinch (RFP) is strongly dependent on the plasma profile and the confining sheared magnetic field. Magnetic diffusion and thermal transport produce changing conditions of stability. Despite the limited understanding of RFP transport, modelling is important to predict general trends and to study possible field programming options. To study the ZT-40 experiment and to predict the performance of future RFP reactors, a one-dimensional transport code has been developed. This code includes a linear, ideal MHD stability check based on an energy principle. The transport section integrates plasma profiles forward in time while the stability section periodically checks the stability of the evolving plasma profile

  2. General connected and reconnected fields in plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Swadesh M.; Asenjo, Felipe A.

    2018-02-01

    For plasma dynamics, more encompassing than the magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) approximation, the foundational concepts of "magnetic reconnection" may require deep revisions because, in the larger dynamics, magnetic field is no longer connected to the fluid lines; it is replaced by more general fields (one for each plasma specie) that are weighted combination of the electromagnetic and the thermal-vortical fields. We study the two-fluid plasma dynamics plasma expressed in two different sets of variables: the two-fluid (2F) description in terms of individual fluid velocities, and the one-fluid (1F) variables comprising the plasma bulk motion and plasma current. In the 2F description, a Connection Theorem is readily established; we show that, for each specie, there exists a Generalized (Magnetofluid/Electro-Vortic) field that is frozen-in the fluid and consequently remains, forever, connected to the flow. This field is an expression of the unification of the electromagnetic, and fluid forces (kinematic and thermal) for each specie. Since the magnetic field, by itself, is not connected in the first place, its reconnection is never forbidden and does not require any external agency (like resistivity). In fact, a magnetic field reconnection (local destruction) must be interpreted simply as a consequence of the preservation of the dynamical structure of the unified field. In the 1F plasma description, however, it is shown that there is no exact physically meaningful Connection Theorem; a general and exact field does not exist, which remains connected to the bulk plasma flow. It is also shown that the helicity conservation and the existence of a Connected field follow from the same dynamical structure; the dynamics must be expressible as an ideal Ohm's law with a physical velocity. This new perspective, emerging from the analysis of the post MHD physics, must force us to reexamine the meaning as well as our understanding of magnetic reconnection.

  3. Comparison of the Dynamic Wake Meandering Model, Large-Eddy Simulation, and Field Data at the Egmond aan Zee Offshore Wind Plant: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Churchfield, M. J.; Moriarty, P. J.; Hao, Y.; Lackner, M. A.; Barthelmie, R.; Lundquist, J.; Oxley, G. S.

    2014-12-01

    The focus of this work is the comparison of the dynamic wake meandering model and large-eddy simulation with field data from the Egmond aan Zee offshore wind plant composed of 36 3-MW turbines. The field data includes meteorological mast measurements, SCADA information from all turbines, and strain-gauge data from two turbines. The dynamic wake meandering model and large-eddy simulation are means of computing unsteady wind plant aerodynamics, including the important unsteady meandering of wakes as they convect downstream and interact with other turbines and wakes. Both of these models are coupled to a turbine model such that power and mechanical loads of each turbine in the wind plant are computed. We are interested in how accurately different types of waking (e.g., direct versus partial waking), can be modeled, and how background turbulence level affects these loads. We show that both the dynamic wake meandering model and large-eddy simulation appear to underpredict power and overpredict fatigue loads because of wake effects, but it is unclear that they are really in error. This discrepancy may be caused by wind-direction uncertainty in the field data, which tends to make wake effects appear less pronounced.

  4. Relaxed plasmas in external magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spies, G.O.; Li, J.

    1991-08-01

    The well-known theory of relaxed plasmas (Taylor states) is extended to external magnetic fields whose field lines intersect the conducting toroidal boundary. Application to an axially symmetric, large-aspect-ratio torus with circular cross section shows that the maximum pinch ratio, and hence the phenomenon of current saturation, is independent of the external field. The relaxed state is explicitly given for an external octupole field. In this case, field reversal is inhibited near parts of the boundary if the octupole generates magnetic x-points within the plasma. (orig.)

  5. Surface multipole guide field for plasma injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breun, R.A.; Rael, B.H.; Wong, A.Y.

    1977-01-01

    Described here is a surface guide field system which is useful for injection of plasmas into confinement devices. Experimental results are given for 5--25-eV hydrogen plasmas produced by a coaxial discharge (Marshall) gun. It is found that better than 90% of the plasma produced by the gun is delivered to the end of the guide 180 cm away, while the neutral component falls by more than an order of magnitude. For these results the rod current providing the magnetic field had to be large enough to provide at least 1.5-ion gyroradii from the center of the guide to the surface of the inner rod

  6. Plasma Signatures of Radial Field Power Dropouts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucek, E.A.; Horbury, T.S.; Balogh, A.; McComas, D.J.

    1998-01-01

    A class of small scale structures, with a near-radial magnetic field and a drop in magnetic field fluctuation power, have recently been identified in the polar solar wind. An earlier study of 24 events, each lasting for 6 hours or more, identified no clear plasma signature. In an extension of that work, radial intervals lasting for 4 hours or more (89 in total), have been used to search for a statistically significant plasma signature. It was found that, despite considerable variations between intervals, there was a small but significant drop, on average, in plasma temperature, density and β during these events

  7. Field investigation of a wake structure downwind of a VANT (Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine) in a wind farm array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H. T.; Buck, J. W.; Germain, A. C.; Hinchee, M. E.; Solt, T. S.; Leroy, G. M.; Srnsky, R. A.

    1988-09-01

    The effects of upwind turbine wakes on the performance of a FloWind 17-m vertical-axis wind turbine (VAWT) were investigated through a series of field experiments conducted at the FloWind wind farm on Cameron Ridge, Tehachapi, California. From the field measurements, we derived the velocity and power/energy deficits under various turbine on/off configurations. Much information was provided to characterize the structure of VAWT wakes and to assess their effects on the performance of downwind turbines. A method to estimate the energy deficit was developed based on the measured power deficit and the wind speed distributions. This method may be adopted for other turbine types and sites. Recommendations are made for optimizing wind farm design and operations, as well as for wind energy management.

  8. Analysis of the wake field effects in the PEP-II storage rings with extremely high currents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novokhatski, A., E-mail: novo@slac.stanford.edu; Seeman, J.; Sullivan, M.

    2014-01-21

    We present the history and analysis of different wake field effects throughout the operational life of the PEP-II SLAC B-factory. Although the impedance of the high and low energy rings is small, the intense high-current beams generated a lot of power. The effects from these wake fields are: heating and damage of vacuum beam chamber elements like RF seals, vacuum valves, shielded bellows, BPM buttons and ceramic tiles; vacuum spikes, vacuum instabilities and high detector background; and beam longitudinal and transverse instabilities. We also discuss the methods used to eliminate these effects. Results of this analysis and the PEP-II experience may be very useful in the design of new storage rings and light sources.

  9. Magnetic Field Effects on Plasma Plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebersohn, F.; Shebalin, J.; Girimaji, S.; Staack, D.

    2012-01-01

    Here, we will discuss our numerical studies of plasma jets and loops, of basic interest for plasma propulsion and plasma astrophysics. Space plasma propulsion systems require strong guiding magnetic fields known as magnetic nozzles to control plasma flow and produce thrust. Propulsion methods currently being developed that require magnetic nozzles include the VAriable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket (VASIMR) [1] and magnetoplasmadynamic thrusters. Magnetic nozzles are functionally similar to de Laval nozzles, but are inherently more complex due to electromagnetic field interactions. The two crucial physical phenomenon are thrust production and plasma detachment. Thrust production encompasses the energy conversion within the nozzle and momentum transfer to a spacecraft. Plasma detachment through magnetic reconnection addresses the problem of the fluid separating efficiently from the magnetic field lines to produce maximum thrust. Plasma jets similar to those of VASIMR will be studied with particular interest in dual jet configurations, which begin as a plasma loops between two nozzles. This research strives to fulfill a need for computational study of these systems and should culminate with a greater understanding of the crucial physics of magnetic nozzles with dual jet plasma thrusters, as well as astrophysics problems such as magnetic reconnection and dynamics of coronal loops.[2] To study this problem a novel, hybrid kinetic theory and single fluid magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) solver known as the Magneto-Gas Kinetic Method is used.[3] The solver is comprised of a "hydrodynamic" portion based on the Gas Kinetic Method and a "magnetic" portion that accounts for the electromagnetic behaviour of the fluid through source terms based on the resistive MHD equations. This method is being further developed to include additional physics such as the Hall effect. Here, we will discuss the current level of code development, as well as numerical simulation results

  10. Preliminary Analysis on Linac Oscillation Data LI05-19 and Wake Field Energy Loss in FACET Commissioning 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Yipeng; /SLAC

    2012-07-23

    In this note, preliminary analysis on linac ocsillation data in FACET linac LI05-09 plus LI11-19 is presented. Several quadrupoles are identified to possibly have different strength, compared with their designed strength in the MAD optics model. The beam energy loss due to longitudinal wake fields in the S-band linac is also analytically calculated, also by LITRACK numerical simulations.

  11. Rotating field current drive in spherical plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brotherton-Ratcliffe, D.; Storer, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    The technique of driving a steady Hall current in plasmas using a rotating magnetic field is studied both numerically and analytically in the approximation of negligible ion flow. A spherical plasma bounded by an insulating wall and immersed in a uniform magnetic field which has both a rotating component (for current drive) and a constant ''vertical'' component (for MHD equilibrium) is considered. The problem is formulated in terms of an expansion of field quantities in vector spherical harmonics. The numerical code SPHERE solves the resulting pseudo-harmonic equations by a multiple shooting technique. The results presented, in addition to being relevant to non-inductive current drive generally, have a direct relevance to the rotamak experiments. For the case of no applied vertical field the steady state toroidal current driven by the rotating field per unit volume of plasma is several times less than in the long cylinder limit for a plasma of the same density, resistivity and radius. The application of a vertical field, which for certain parameter regimes gives rise to a compact torus configuration, improves the current drive dramatically and in many cases gives ''better'' current drive than the long cylinder limit. This result is also predicted by a second order perturbation analysis of the pseudo-harmonic equations. A steady state toroidal field is observed which appears consistent with experimental observations in rotamaks regarding magnitude and spatial dependence. This is an advance over previous analytical theory which predicted an oppositely directed toroidal field of undefined magnitude. (author)

  12. Plasma diffusion due to magnetic field fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuda, H.; Lee, W.W.; Lin, A.T.

    1979-01-01

    Plasma diffusion due to magnetic field fluctuations has been studied in two dimensions for a plasma near thermal equilibrium and when the fluctuations are suprathermal. It is found that near thermal equilibrium electron diffusion varies as B -2 when the collisionless skin depth is greater than the thermal electron gyroradius and is generally smaller than the diffusion due to collisions or electrostatic fluctuations for a low-β plasma. When the suprathermal magnetic fluctuation exists because of macroscopic plasma currents, electron diffusion is enhanced due to the coalescence of current filaments and magnetic islands. Magnetic field energy is found to condense to the longest wavelength available in the system and stays there longer than the electron diffusion time scale

  13. Detection of electric field around field-reversed configuration plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeyama, Taeko; Hiroi, Masanori; Nogi, Yasuyuki; Ohkuma, Yasunori

    2010-01-01

    Electric-field probes consisting of copper plates are developed to measure electric fields in a vacuum region around a plasma. The probes detect oscillating electric fields with a maximum strength of approximately 100 V/m through a discharge. Reproducible signals from the probes are obtained with an unstable phase dominated by a rotational instability. It is found that the azimuthal structure of the electric field can be explained by the sum of an n=2 mode charge distribution and a convex-surface electron distribution on the deformed separatrix at the unstable phase. The former distribution agrees with that anticipated from the diamagnetic drift motions of plasma when the rotational instability occurs. The latter distribution suggests that an electron-rich plasma covers the separatrix.

  14. The analytical solution of wake-fields in an elliptical pillbox cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, J.S.; Chen, K.W.

    1991-01-01

    The wake potential of a bunch of relativistic charged particles traversing an elliptical pillbox cavity is derived analytically in the limit of vanishing aperture. It is found that the resonant modes of an elliptical cavity can be expressed in terms of Mathieu functions. Calculation results are presented and compared with numerical ones. (author) 10 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs

  15. Hydrodynamic optical-field-ionized plasma channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalloo, R. J.; Arran, C.; Corner, L.; Holloway, J.; Jonnerby, J.; Walczak, R.; Milchberg, H. M.; Hooker, S. M.

    2018-05-01

    We present experiments and numerical simulations which demonstrate that fully ionized, low-density plasma channels could be formed by hydrodynamic expansion of plasma columns produced by optical field ionization. Simulations of the hydrodynamic expansion of plasma columns formed in hydrogen by an axicon lens show the generation of 200 mm long plasma channels with axial densities of order ne(0 ) =1 ×1017cm-3 and lowest-order modes of spot size WM≈40 μ m . These simulations show that the laser energy required to generate the channels is modest: of order 1 mJ per centimeter of channel. The simulations are confirmed by experiments with a spherical lens which show the formation of short plasma channels with 1.5 ×1017cm-3≲ne(0 ) ≲1 ×1018cm-3 and 61 μ m ≳WM≳33 μ m . Low-density plasma channels of this type would appear to be well suited as multi-GeV laser-plasma accelerator stages capable of long-term operation at high pulse repetition rates.

  16. Self-similar potential in the near wake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diebold, D.; Hershkowitz, N.; Intrator, T.; Bailey, A.

    1987-01-01

    The plasma potential is measured near the edge of an electrically floating obstacle placed in a steady-state, supersonic, unmagnetized, neutral plasma flow. Equipotential contours show the sheath of the upstream side of the obstacle wrapping around the edge of the obstacle and fanning out into the near wake. Both fluid theory and the data find the near-wake plasma potential to be self-similar when ionization, charge exchange, and magnetic field can be neglected. The theory also finds that fluid velocity is self-similar, the near wake is nonneutral, and plasma density is not self-similar. Strong electric fields are found near the obstacle and equipotential contours are found to conform to all boundaries

  17. A multidimensional theory for electron trapping by a plasma wake generated in the bubble regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostyukov, I; Nerush, E; Pukhov, A; Seredov, V

    2010-01-01

    We present a theory for electron self-injection in nonlinear, multidimensional plasma waves excited by a short laser pulse in the bubble regime or by a short electron beam in the blowout regime. In these regimes, which are typical for electron acceleration in the last impressive experiments, the laser radiation pressure or the electron beam charge pushes out plasma electrons from some region, forming a plasma cavity or a bubble with a huge ion charge. The plasma electrons can be trapped in the bubble and accelerated by the plasma wakefields up to a very high energy. We derive the condition of the electron trapping in the bubble. The developed theory predicts the trapping cross section in terms of the bubble radius and the bubble velocity. It is found that the dynamic bubble deformations observed in the three-dimensional (3D) particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations influence the trapping process significantly. The bubble elongation reduces the gamma-factor of the bubble, thereby strongly enhancing self-injection. The obtained analytical results are in good agreement with the 3D PIC simulations.

  18. Plasma instabilities in high electric fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morawetz, K.; Jauho, Antti-Pekka

    1994-01-01

    expression is derived for the nonequilibrium dielectric function epsilon(K, omega). For certain values of momenta K and frequency omega, Imepsilon(K, omega) becomes negative, implying a plasma instability. This new instability exists only for strong electric fields, underlining its nonequilibrium origin....

  19. Analyses of experimental observations of electron temperatures in the near wake of a model in a laboratory-simulated solar wind plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intriligator, D.S.; Steele, G.R.

    1985-01-01

    Laboratory experiments have been performed that show the effect on the electron temperature of inserting a spherical conducting model, larger than the Debye length, into a free-streaming high-energy (1 kv) unmagnetized hydrogen plasma. These experiments are the first electron temperature experiments conducted at energies and compositions directly relevant to solar wind and astrophysical plasma phenomena. The incident plasma parameters were held constant. A large number of axial profiles of the electron temperature ratios T/sub e//sub in// T/sub e//sub out/ behind the model downstream in the model wake are presented. A rigorous statistical approach is used in the analysis of the electron temperature ratio data in both our experimental laboratory data and in our reanalysis of the published data of others. The following new results ae obtained: (1) In energetic plasma flow there is no overall temperature enhancement in the near wake since the best fit to the T/sub e//sub i/n/ T/sub e//sub out/ data is a horizontal straight line having a mean value of 1.05; (2) No statistically significant electron temperature enhancement peaks or depressions exist in the near-wake region behind a model at zero potential in a high-energy plasma even at distances less than or equal to Ma, where M is the acoustic Mach number and a is the model radius. This implies a ''filling in'' of electrons in the wake region which may be due to the higher mobility of these energetic electrons. This mechanism may permit the solar wind electrons to significantly contribute to the maintenance of the nightside ionosphere at Venus

  20. Influence of error fields on the plasma confining field and the plasma confinement in tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Shinzaburo

    1977-05-01

    Influence of error fields on the plasma confining field and the plasma confinement is treated in the standpoint of design. In the initial breakdown phase before formation of the closed magnetic surfaces, the vertical field properly applied is the most important. Once the magnetic surfaces are formed, the non-axisymmetric error field is important. Effect of the shell gap associated with iron core and with pulsed vertical coils is thus studied. The formation of magnetic islands due to the external non-axisymmetric error field is studied with a simple model. A method of suppressing the islands by choosing the minor periodicity is proposed. (auth.)

  1. Tomo-PIV measurements of the flow field in the wake of a sphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshbal, Lior; David, Tom; Rinsky, Vladislav; van Hout, Rene; Greenblatt, David

    2017-11-01

    A sphere can be considered as a prototypical 3D bluff body. In order to improve our understanding of its 3D wake flow, a combination of time-resolved planar particle image velocimetry (PIV) and tomographic PIV (tomo-PIV) was implemented. Experiments were performed in a closed-loop water channel facility and sphere Reynolds numbers ReD = UD/ ν = 400, 800, 1200 and 2000, where U is the free-stream velocity, ν the kinematic viscosity and D the sphere diameter. The measurement volume (Height x Length x Width, 5 x 5 x 1.5 D3) comprised the sphere and the downstream wake. Tomo-PIV snap-shots were correlated with the time-resolved PIV such that the 3D temporal evolution of the shed vortices became clear. At ReD = 400, this procedure revealed shed hairpin vortices having a vertical plane of symmetry in agreement with many dye visualization studies. However, the measurements also revealed weaker induced hairpins resulting from the interaction of the near-wake flow and the surrounding free stream. These induced vortices were not visible in previous dye and smoke visualizations and have only been observed in simulations. Data processing of the data at higher ReD is currently ongoing. Israel Science Foundation Grant No. 1596/14.

  2. Magnetic fields in laser heated plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiranoff, F.; Brackbill, J.; Colombant, D.; Grandjouan, N.

    1984-01-01

    With a fixed-ion code for the study of self-generated magentic fields in laser heated plasmas, the inhibition of thermal transport and the effect of the Nernst term are modeled for a KrF laser. For various values of the flux limiter, the response of a foil to a focused laser is calculated without a magnetic field and compared with the response calculated with a magnetic field. The results are: The Nernst term convects the magnetic field to densities above critical as found by Nishiguchi et al. (1984), but the field does not strongly inhibit transport into the foil. The field is also transported to sub-critical densities, where it inhibits thermal diffusion and enhance lateral transport by convection

  3. Plasma flow in a curved magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindberg, L.

    1977-09-01

    A beam of collisionless plasma is injected along a longitudinal magnetic field into a region of curved magnetic field. Two unpredicted phenomena are observed: The beam becomes deflected in the direction opposite to that in which the field is curved, and it contracts to a flat slab in the plane of curvature of the magnetic field. The phenomenon is of a general character and can be expected to occur in a very wide range of densities. The lower density limit is set by the condition for self-polarization, nm sub(i)/epsilon 0 B 2 >> 1 or, which is equivalent, c 2 /v 2 sub(A) >> 1, where c is the velocity of light, and v sup(A) the Alfven velocity. The upper limit is presumably set by the requirement ωsub(e)tau(e) >> 1. The phenomenon is likely to be of importance e.g. for injection of plasma into magnetic bottles and in space and solar physics. The paper illustrates the comlexity of plasma flow phenomena and the importance of close contact between experimental and theoretical work. (author)

  4. Super-high magnetic fields in spatially inhomogeneous plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nastoyashchiy, Anatoly F.

    2012-01-01

    The new phenomenon of a spontaneous magnetic field in spatially inhomogeneous plasma is found. The criteria for instability are determined, and both the linear and nonlinear stages of the magnetic field growth are considered; it is shown that the magnetic field can reach a considerable magnitude, namely, its pressure can be comparable with the plasma pressure. Especially large magnetic fields can arise in hot plasma with a high electron density, for example, in laser-heated plasma. In steady-state plasma, the magnetic field can be self-sustaining. The considered magnetic fields may play an important role in thermal insulation of the plasma. (author)

  5. HIGH-GRADIENT, HIGH-TRANSFORMER-RATIO, DIELECTRIC WAKE FIELD ACCELERATOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirshfield, Jay L

    2012-04-12

    The Phase I work reported here responds to DoE'ss stated need "...to develop improved accelerator designs that can provide very high gradient (>200 MV/m for electrons...) acceleration of intense bunches of particles." Omega-P's approach to this goal is through use of a ramped train of annular electron bunches to drive a coaxial dielectric wakefield accelerator (CDWA) structure. This approach is a direct extension of the CDWA concept from acceleration in wake fields caused by a single drive bunch, to the more efficient acceleration that we predict can be realized from a tailored (or ramped) train of several drive bunches. This is possible because of a much higher transformer ratio for the latter. The CDWA structure itself has a number of unique features, including: a high accelerating gradient G, potentially with G > 1 GeV/m; continuous energy coupling from drive to test bunches without transfer structures; inherent transverse focusing forces for particles in the accelerated bunch; highly stable motion of high charge annular drive bunches; acceptable alignment tolerances for a multi-section system. What is new in the present approach is that the coaxial dielectric structure is now to be energized by-not one-but by a short train of ramped annular-shaped drive bunches moving in the outer coaxial channel of the structure. We have shown that this allows acceleration of an electron bunch traveling along the axis in the inner channel with a markedly higher transformer ratio T than for a single drive bunch. As described in this report, the structure will be a GHz-scale prototype with cm-scale transverse dimensions that is expected to confirm principles that can be applied to the design of a future THz-scale high gradient (> 500 MV/m) accelerator with mm-scale transverse dimensions. We show here a new means to significantly increase the transformer ratio T of the device, and thereby to significantly improve its suitability as a flexible and effective component in

  6. Plasma opening switch with extrinsic magnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Dolgachev, G; Maslennikov, D

    2001-01-01

    Summary form only given, as follows. We have demonstrated in series of experiments that plasma opening switch (POS) switching voltage (UPOS) is defined by energy density (w) deposited in the POS plasma. If we then consider a plasma erosion mainly responsible for the effect of POS switching (the erosion effect could be described by Hall or Child-Langmuir models) the energy density (w) could be measured as a function of a system "macro-parameter" such as the initial charging voltage of the capacity storage system (the Marx pulsed voltage generator) UMarx. The POS voltage in this case could be given by UPOS"aw=aUMarx4/7, where a is a constant. This report demonstrates that for the high-impedance POS which has limited charge density transferred through the POS plasma a"2.5 (MV3/7) with no external magnetic field applied. The use of the extrinsic magnetic field allows to increase a up to 3.6 (MV3/7) and to achieve higher voltages at the opening phase - UPOS=3.6UMarx4/7. To verify this approach set of experimental ...

  7. Electric field measurements in moving ionization fronts during plasma breakdown

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaars, E.; Bowden, M.D.; Kroesen, G.M.W.

    2006-01-01

    We have performed time-resolved, direct measurements of electric field strengths in moving ionization fronts during the breakdown phase of a pulsed plasma. Plasma breakdown, or plasma ignition, is a highly transient process marking the transition from a gas to a plasma. Some aspects of plasma

  8. Relativistic degenerate electron plasma in an intense magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delsante, A.E.; Frankel, N.E.

    1978-01-01

    The dielectric response function for a dense, ultra-degenerate relativistic electron plasma in an intense uniform magnetic field is presented. Dispersion relations for plasma oscillations parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field are obtained

  9. Magnetic field compression using pinch-plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, K.; Tanimoto, M.; Matsumoto, Y.; Veno, I.

    1987-01-01

    In a previous report, the method for ultra-high magnetic field compression by using the pinchplasma was discussed. It is summarized as follows. The experiment is performed with the Mather-type plasma focus device tau/sub 1/4/ = 2 μs, I=880 kA at V=20 kV). An initial DC magnetic field is fed by an electromagnet embedded in the inner electrode. The axial component of the magnetic field diverges from the maximum field of 1 kG on the surface of the inner electrode. The density profile deduced from a Mach-Zehnder interferogram with a 2-ns N/sub 2/-laser shows a density dip lasting for 30 ns along the axes. Using the measured density of 8 x 10/sup 18/ cm/sup -3/, the temperature of 1.5 keV and the pressure balance relation, the magnitude of the trapped magnetic field is estimated to be 1.0 MG. The magnitude of the compressed magnetic field is also measured by Faraday rotation in a single-mode quartz fiber and a magnetic pickup soil. A protective polyethylene tube (3-mm o.d.) is used along the central axis through the inner electrode and the discharge chamber. The peak value of the compressed field range from 150 to 190 kG. No signal of the magnetic field appears up to the instance of the maximum pinch

  10. Chaotic magnetic field line in toroidal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatori, Tadatsugu; Abe, Yoshihiko; Urata, Kazuhiro; Irie, Haruyuki.

    1989-05-01

    This is an introductory review of chaotic magnetic field line in plasmas, together with some new results, with emphasis on the long-time tail and the fractional Brownian motion of the magnetic field line. The chaotic magnetic field line in toroidal plasmas is a typical chaotic phenomena in the Hamiltonian dynamical systems. The onset of stochasticity induced by a major magnetic perturbation is thought to cause a macroscopic rapid phenomena called the current disruption in the tokamak discharges. Numerical simulations on the basis of magnetohydrodynamics reveal in fact the disruptive phenomena. Some dynamical models which include the area-preserving mapping such as the standard mapping, and the two-wave Hamiltonian system can model the stochastic magnetic field. Theoretical results with use of the functional integral representation are given regarding the long-time tail on the basis of the radial twist mapping. It is shown that application of renormalization group technique to chaotic orbit in the two-wave Hamiltonian system proves decay of the velocity autocorrelation function with the power law. Some new numerical results are presented which supports these theoretical results. (author)

  11. Beam emittance and the effects of the rf, space charge and wake fields: Application to the ATF photoelectron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsa, Z.

    1991-01-01

    Laser driven photoelectron guns are of interest for use in new methods of accelerations, future development of Linear Colliders and new experiments such as Free Electron laser (IFEL). Such guns are potential source of low emittance-high current and short bunch length electron beams, where the emitted electrons are accelerated quickly to a relativistic energy by a strong rf, electric field in the cavity. We present a brief overview of the beam dynamic studies, e.g. emittance for the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) ATF high brightness photocathode radio frequency gun (now in operation), and show the effects of the rf, Space Charge, and Wake fields on the photoelectrons. 4 refs., 7 figs

  12. Dynamic wake meandering modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Gunner C.; Aagaard Madsen, H.; Bingoel, F. (and others)

    2007-06-15

    well as of control strategies for the individual turbine. Implementation of the methodology with aeroelastic codes is straight forward and performed simply by replacing traditional turbulence input files with wind field files containing the combined effect of atmospheric turbulence and wake meandering. (au)

  13. Interaction between laser-produced plasma and guiding magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Jun; Takahashi, Kazumasa; Ikeda, Shunsuke; Nakajima, Mitsuo; Horioka, Kazuhiko

    2013-01-01

    Transportation properties of laser-produced plasma through a guiding magnetic field were examined. A drifting dense plasma produced by a KrF laser was injected into an axisymmetric magnetic field induced by permanent ring magnets. The plasma ion flux in the guiding magnetic field was measured by a Faraday cup at various distances from the laser target. Numerical analyses based on a collective focusing model were performed to simulate plasma particle trajectories and then compared with the experimental results. (author)

  14. Wake Conference 2017

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-01-01

    The 52 papers in this volume constitute the proceedings of the 2017 Wake Conference, held in Visby on the island of Gotland, Sweden. The Wake Conference series began in Visby, where it was held in 2009 and 2011. In 2013 the conference took place in Copenhagen where it was combined with the International Conference on Offshore Wind Energy and Ocean Energy. In 2015 it went back to where it started, Visby, and this time it once again takes place at Uppsala University’s Gotland campus, May 30 th - June 1 st . Modern wind turbines are today clustered in large farms with a total production capacity reaching those of a nuclear power plant. When placed in a wind farm, the turbines will be fully or partially influenced by the wake of upstream turbines. This wake interaction results in a decreased power production, caused by the lower kinetic energy in the wind, and an increase in the turbulence intensity. Therefore, understanding the physical nature of vortices and their dynamics in the wake of a turbine is important for the optimal design of wind farms. The increased importance and interest in the field of wake and wind farm aerodynamics can be seen in the increased number of scientific articles on the subject. For example, on the Web of Science citation index, the number citations on the topic ‘wind turbine wakes’ increased from about 50 in 2006 to more than 3800 in 2016. This citation growth essentially shows that the growth in the global production of electrical energy has become a scientific problem to be solved by scientists and engineers. In order to make a substantial impact on one of the most significant challenges of our time, global climate change, the wind industry’s growth must continue. A part of making this growth possible will require research into the physics of wind turbine wakes and wind farms. This conference is aimed at scientists and PhD students working in the field of wake dynamics. The conference covers the following subject areas: Wake and

  15. Neutral beam injection and plasma convection in a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuda, H.; Hiroe, S.

    1988-06-01

    Injection of a neutral beam into a plasma in a magnetic field has been studied by means of numerical plasma simulations. It is found that, in the absence of a rotational transform, the convection electric field arising from the polarization charges at the edges of the beam is dissipated by turbulent plasma convection, leading to anomalous plasma diffusion across the magnetic field. The convection electric field increases with the beam density and beam energy. In the presence of a rotational transform, polarization charges can be neutralized by the electron motion along the magnetic field. Even in the presence of a rotational transform, a steady-state convection electric field and, hence, anomalous plasma diffusion can develop when a neutral beam is constantly injected into a plasma. Theoretical investigations on the convection electric field are described for a plasma in the presence of rotational transform. 11 refs., 19 figs

  16. Evaluations of electric field in laser-generated pulsed plasma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Torrisi, L.; Gammino, S.; Láska, Leoš; Krása, Josef; Rohlena, Karel; Wolowski, J.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 56, Suppl. B (2006), B580-B585 ISSN 0011-4626. [Symposium on Plasma Physics and Technology /22./. Prague, 26.06.2006-29.06.2006] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : electric field in plasma * debye length * plasma temperature * plasma density Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 0.568, year: 2006

  17. 3D wake measurements from a scanning wind lidar in combination with a fast wind field reconstruction model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Torben Krogh; Herges, T. G.; Astrup, Poul

    2017-01-01

    University of Denmark. The purpose of the SpinnerLidar measurements at SWIFT is to measure the response of a V27 turbine wake to varying inflow conditions and turbine operating states. Although our fast scanning SpinnerLidar is able to measure the line-of-sight projected wind speed at up to 400 points per......-Stokes CFD code “Lincom Cyclop-buster model,”3 the corresponding 3D wind vector field (u, v, w) can be reconstructed under constraints for conservation of mass and momentum. The resulting model calculated line-of-sight projections of the 3D wind velocity vectors will become consistent with the line...

  18. Wind turbine wake interactions at field scale: An LES study of the SWiFT facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Xiaolei; Boomsma, Aaron; Sotiropoulos, Fotis; Barone, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    The University of Minnesota Virtual Wind Simulator (VWiS) code is employed to simulate turbine/atmosphere interactions in the Scaled Wind Farm Technology (SWiFT) facility developed by Sandia National Laboratories in Lubbock, TX, USA. The facility presently consists of three turbines and the simulations consider the case of wind blowing from South such that two turbines are in the free stream and the third turbine in the direct wake of one upstream turbine with separation of 5 rotor diameters. Large-eddy simulation (LES) on two successively finer grids is carried out to examine the sensitivity of the computed solutions to grid refinement. It is found that the details of the break-up of the tip vortices into small-scale turbulence structures can only be resolved on the finer grid. It is also shown that the power coefficient C P of the downwind turbine predicted on the coarse grid is somewhat higher than that obtained on the fine mesh. On the other hand, the rms (root-mean-square) of the C P fluctuations are nearly the same on both grids, although more small-scale turbulence structures are resolved upwind of the downwind turbine on the finer grid

  19. Production of field-reversed mirror plasma with a coaxial plasma gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, C.W.; Shearer, J.W.

    The use of a coaxial plasma gun to produce a plasma ring which is directed into a magnetic field so as to form a field-reversed plasma confined in a magnetic mirror. Plasma thus produced may be used as a target for subsequent neutral beam injection or other similarly produced and projected plasma rings or for direct fusion energy release in a pulsed mode.

  20. Production of field-reversed mirror plasma with a coaxial plasma gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, C.W.; Shearer, J.W.

    1982-01-01

    The use of a coaxial plasma gun to produce a plasma ring which is directed into a magnetic field so as to form a field-reversed plasma confined in a magnetic mirror. Plasma thus produced may be used as a target for subsequent neutral beam injection or other similarly produced and projected plasma rings or for direct fusion energy release in a pulsed mode

  1. Transformation of QSPA plasma streams in longitudinal magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makhlaj, V.A.; Bandura, A.N.; Chebotarev, V.V.; Kulik, N.V.; Wuerz, H.

    2002-01-01

    The main aim of this work is analysis of efficiency of QSPA powerful plasma streams transportation in longitudinal magnetic field in dependence on operational mode of accelerator and plasma stream parameters

  2. Confinement of laser plasma expansion with strong external magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hui-bo; Hu, Guang-yue; Liang, Yi-han; Tao, Tao; Wang, Yu-lin; Hu, Peng; Zhao, Bin; Zheng, Jian

    2018-05-01

    The evolutions of laser ablation plasma, expanding in strong (∼10 T) transverse external magnetic field, were investigated in experiments and simulations. The experimental results show that the magnetic field pressure causes the plasma decelerate and accumulate at the plasma-field interface, and then form a low-density plasma bubble. The saturation size of the plasma bubble has a scaling law on laser energy and magnetic field intensity. Magnetohydrodynamic simulation results support the observation and find that the scaling law (V max ∝ E p /B 2, where V max is the maximum volume of the plasma bubble, E p is the absorbed laser energy, and B is the magnetic field intensity) is effective in a broad laser energy range from several joules to kilo-joules, since the plasma is always in the state of magnetic field frozen while expanding. About 15% absorbed laser energy converts into magnetic field energy stored in compressed and curved magnetic field lines. The duration that the plasma bubble comes to maximum size has another scaling law t max ∝ E p 1/2/B 2. The plasma expanding dynamics in external magnetic field have a similar character with that in underdense gas, which indicates that the external magnetic field may be a feasible approach to replace the gas filled in hohlraum to suppress the wall plasma expansion and mitigate the stimulated scattering process in indirect drive ignition.

  3. Magnetic Field Analysis of Plasma Guide in Galathea Trimyx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Xianji

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available You Galathea Trimyx is a kind of small size, multipole magnetic confinement devices in controlled thermonuclear fusion. Plasma guide is one of important part in Galathea Trimyx which is responsible for transporting fast and slow plasma bunches ejected from plasma gun. The distribution and uniformity of magnetic field in completed plasma guide is analyzed in detail, including in x -axis direction and in z-axis direction. On the basis, the motion of plasma in the guide is discussed.

  4. Probing plasma wakefields using electron bunches generated from a laser wakefield accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C. J.; Wan, Y.; Guo, B.; Hua, J. F.; Pai, C.-H.; Li, F.; Zhang, J.; Ma, Y.; Wu, Y. P.; Xu, X. L.; Mori, W. B.; Chu, H.-H.; Wang, J.; Lu, W.; Joshi, C.

    2018-04-01

    We show experimental results of probing the electric field structure of plasma wakes by using femtosecond relativistic electron bunches generated from a laser wakefield accelerator. Snapshots of laser-driven linear wakes in plasmas with different densities and density gradients are captured. The spatiotemporal evolution of the wake in a plasma density up-ramp is recorded. Two parallel wakes driven by a laser with a main spot and sidelobes are identified in the experiment and reproduced in simulations. The capability of this new method for capturing the electron- and positron-driven wakes is also shown via 3D particle-in-cell simulations.

  5. Lazer-produced plasma in a strong magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaitmazov, S.D.; Shklovskij, E.I.

    1978-01-01

    Investigations on interaction of laser plasma with the magnetic field in the range of 100-300 kOe are surveyed. Problems associated with the effect of the field on the optical breakdown threshold in gases, the geometry (kinetics) of laser plasma and its radiation are mainly considered. It is noted that the magnetic field may reduce the o tical breakdown threshold in gases, promote the spreading of plasma predominantly in the direction of tice magnetic field, and also affect (increase in the visible range) the radiation intensity of the laser plasma. The effect of the magnetic field on the temperature of the laser plasma is not completely understood yet, but the very fact of existence of this dependence is important; it enables one to search for conditions under which the magnetic field would promote the increase at the temperature of laser plasma

  6. Ion Motion in a Plasma Interacting with Strong Magnetic Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weingarten, A.; Grabowski, C.; Chakrabarti, N.; Maron, Y.; Fruchtmant, A.

    1999-01-01

    The interaction of a plasma with strong magnetic fields takes place in many laboratory experiments and astrophysical plasmas. Applying a strong magnetic field to the plasma may result in plasma displacement, magnetization, or the formation of instabilities. Important phenomena in plasma, such as the energy transport and the momentum balance, take a different form in each case. We study this interaction in a plasma that carries a short-duration (80-ns) current pulse, generating a magnetic field of up to 17 kG. The evolution of the magnetic field, plasma density, ion velocities, and electric fields are determined before and during the current pulse. The dependence of the plasma limiting current on the plasma density and composition are studied and compared to theoretical models based on the different phenomena. When the plasma collisionality is low, three typical velocities should be taken into consideration: the proton and heavier-ion Alfven velocities (v A p and v A h , respectively) and the EMHD magnetic-field penetration velocity into the plasma (v EMHD ). If both Alfven velocities are larger than v EMHD the plasma is pushed ahead of the magnetic piston and the magnetic field energy is dissipated into ion kinetic energy. If v EMHD is the largest of three velocities, the plasma become magnetized and the ions acquire a small axial momentum only. Different ion species may drift in different directions along the current lines. In this case, the magnetic field energy is probably dissipated into electron thermal energy. When vs > V EMHD > vi, as in the case of one of our experiments, ion mass separation occurs. The protons are pushed ahead of the piston while the heavier-ions become magnetized. Since the plasma electrons are unmagnetized they cannot cross the piston, and the heavy ions are probably charge-neutralized by electrons originating from the cathode that are 'born' magnetized

  7. Space charge and wake field analysis for a high brightness electron source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsa, Z.

    1991-01-01

    We present a brief overview of the formalism used, and some simulation results for transverse and longitudinal motion of a bunch of particles moving through a cavity (e.g., the Brookhaven National Laboratory high brightness photocathode gun), including effects of the accelerating field, space charge forces (e.g., arising from the interaction of the cavity surface and the self field of the bunch). 3 refs., 12 figs

  8. Plasma behaviors in the open field region of reversed-field theta-pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aso, Yoshiyuki; Hirano, Keiichi.

    1983-03-01

    A characteristic behavior of the plasma in an open field region of reversed field theta pinch has been studied with the guide field (GF) which extends the field line along the axial direction. The experimental result suggests that the rotaional instability may be induced in FRC after the plasma touches the wall at the ends of the open field. (author)

  9. On plasma stability under anisotropic random electric field influence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabich, L.N.; Sosenko, P.P.

    1987-01-01

    The influence of anisotropic random field on plasma stability is studied. The thresholds and instability increments are obtained. The stabilizing influence of frequency missmatch and external magnetic field is pointed out

  10. Plasma Flows in Crossed Magnetic and Electric Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belikov, A.G.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of the magnitude and direction of an external electric field on the plasma flowing through a magnetic barrier is studied by numerically solving two-fluid MHD equations. The drift velocity of the plasma flow and the distribution of the flow electrons over transverse velocities are found to depend on the magnitude and direction of the electric field. It is shown that the direction of the induced longitudinal electric field is determined by the direction of the external field and that the electric current generated by the plasma flow significantly disturbs the barrier field

  11. Plasma cluster acceleration by means of external magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kracik, J.; Maloch, J.; Sobra, K.

    1975-01-01

    The electromagnetic shock tubes are used not only for shock wave creation and study but also for pulse plasma acceleration. By applying the rail acceleration the external magnetic field perpendicular to the plasma cluster velocity can be increased. In the present work is theoretically and experimentally confirmed the external magnetic field influence on the plasma cluster acceleration when the 'snow plough' model is used. (Auth.)

  12. LOMEGA: a low frequency, field implicit method for plasma simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, D.C.; Kamimura, T.

    1982-04-01

    Field implicit methods for low frequency plasma simulation by the LOMEGA (Low OMEGA) codes are described. These implicit field methods may be combined with particle pushing algorithms using either Lorentz force or guiding center force models to study two-dimensional, magnetized, electrostatic plasmas. Numerical results for ωsub(e)deltat>>1 are described. (author)

  13. Prediction of multi-wake problems using an improved Jensen wake model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Linlin; Zhu, Wei Jun; Shen, Wen Zhong

    2017-01-01

    The improved analytical wake model named as 2D_k Jensen model (which was proposed to overcome some shortcomes in the classical Jensen wake model) is applied and validated in this work for wind turbine multi-wake predictions. Different from the original Jensen model, this newly developed 2D_k Jensen...... model uses a cosine shape instead of the top-hat shape for the velocity deficit in the wake, and the wake decay rate as a variable that is related to the ambient turbulence as well as the rotor generated turbulence. Coupled with four different multi-wake combination models, the 2D_k Jensen model...... is assessed through (1) simulating two wakes interaction under full wake and partial wake conditions and (2) predicting the power production in the Horns Rev wind farm for different wake sectors around two different wind directions. Through comparisons with field measurements, results from Large Eddy...

  14. Cross-field Mobility in a Pure Electron Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fossum, E.C.; King, L.B.

    2006-01-01

    An electron trapping apparatus was constructed in order to study electron dynamics in the defining electric and magnetic field of a Hall-effect thruster. The approach presented here decouples the cross-field mobility from plasma effects by conducting measurements on a pure electron plasma in a highly controlled environment. Dielectric walls are removed completely eliminating all wall effect; thus, electrons are confined solely by a radial magnetic field and a crossed, independently-controlled, axial electric field that induces the closed-drift azimuthal Hall current. Electron trajectories and cross-field mobility were examined in response to electric and magnetic field strength and background neutral density

  15. PREFACE: Wake Conference 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barney, Andrew; Nørkær Sørensen, Jens; Ivanell, Stefan

    2015-06-01

    at scientists and PhD students working in the field of wake dynamics. The conference covers the following subject areas: Wake and vortex dynamics, instabilities in trailing vortices and wakes, simulation and measurements of wakes, analytical approaches for modeling wakes, wake interaction and other wind farm investigations. Many people have been involved in producing the 2015 Wake Conference proceedings. The work by the more than 60 reviewers ensuring the quality of the papers is greatly appreciated. The timely evaluation and coordination of the reviews would not have been possible without the work of the section editors: Christian Masson, ÉTS, Fernando Porté-Agel, EPFL, Gerard Schepers, ECN Wind Energy, Gijs Van Kuik, Delft University, Gunner Larsen, DTU Wind Energy, Jakob Mann, DTU Wind Energy, Javier Sanz Rodrigo, CENER, Johan Meyers, KU Leuven, Rebecca Barthelmie, Cornell University, Sandrine Aubrun-Sanches, Université d'Orléans and Thomas Leweke, IRPHE-CNRS. We are also immensely indebted to the very responsive support from the editorial team at IOP Publishing, especially Sarah Toms, during the review process of these proceedings. Visby, Sweden, June 2015 Andrew Barney, Jens Nørkær Sørensen and Stefan Ivanell Uppsala University - Campus Gotland

  16. Collisional effects on interaction potential in complex plasma in presence of magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bezbaruah, Pratikshya, E-mail: pratphd@tezu.ernet.in; Das, Nilakshi [Department of Physics, Tezpur University, Tezpur, Assam 784028 (India)

    2016-04-15

    Interaction potential in complex plasma with streaming ions is derived analytically in presence of ion-neutral collision and magnetic field. The linear dielectric response function obtained describes the behavior of charged micron sized dust particles in strong collisional limit. A new type of repulsive potential is found to be operative among the dust grains apart from the normal Debye–Hückel potential. The amplitude and shielding length involved in the potential are substantially affected by the parameters describing ion cyclotron frequency, collision frequency among ions and neutrals, and ion streaming. It is also observed that the usual mechanism of ion focusing surrounding the grain is inhibited due to collision. As a result, the attractive wake potential structure is destroyed in the ion flow direction. The horizontal interaction involves only Debye–Hückel potential.

  17. Collisional effects on interaction potential in complex plasma in presence of magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezbaruah, Pratikshya; Das, Nilakshi

    2016-01-01

    Interaction potential in complex plasma with streaming ions is derived analytically in presence of ion-neutral collision and magnetic field. The linear dielectric response function obtained describes the behavior of charged micron sized dust particles in strong collisional limit. A new type of repulsive potential is found to be operative among the dust grains apart from the normal Debye–Hückel potential. The amplitude and shielding length involved in the potential are substantially affected by the parameters describing ion cyclotron frequency, collision frequency among ions and neutrals, and ion streaming. It is also observed that the usual mechanism of ion focusing surrounding the grain is inhibited due to collision. As a result, the attractive wake potential structure is destroyed in the ion flow direction. The horizontal interaction involves only Debye–Hückel potential.

  18. Theory of plasma confinement in non-axisymmetric magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helander, Per

    2014-08-01

    The theory of plasma confinement by non-axisymmetric magnetic fields is reviewed. Such fields are used to confine fusion plasmas in stellarators, where in contrast to tokamaks and reversed-field pinches the magnetic field generally does not possess any continuous symmetry. The discussion is focussed on magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium conditions, collisionless particle orbits, and the kinetic theory of equilbrium and transport. Each of these topics is fundamentally affected by the absence of symmetry in the magnetic field: the field lines need not trace out nested flux surfaces, the particle orbits may not be confined, and the cross-field transport can be very large. Nevertheless, by tailoring the magnetic field appropriately, well-behaved equilibria with good confinement can be constructed, potentially offering an attractive route to magnetic fusion. In this article, the mathematical apparatus to describe stellarator plasmas is developed from first principles and basic elements underlying confinement optimization are introduced.

  19. Impact of magnetic perturbation fields on tokamak plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fietz, Sina; Maraschek, Marc; Suttrop, Wolfgang; Zohm, Hartmut [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Classen, Ivo [FOM-Institute DIFFER, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Collaboration: the ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2015-05-01

    Non-axisymmetric external magnetic perturbation (MP) fields arise in every tokamak e.g. due to not perfectly positioned external coils. Additionally many tokamaks, like ASDEX Upgrade (AUG), are equipped with a set of external coils, which produce a 3D MP field in addition to the equilibrium field. This field is used to either compensate for the intrinsic MP field or to influence MHD instabilities such as Edge Localised Modes (ELMs) or Neoclassical Tearing Modes (NTMs). But these MP fields can also give rise to a more global plasma response. The resonant components can penetrate the plasma and influence the stability of existing NTMs or even lead to their formation via magnetic reconnection. In addition they exert a local torque on the plasma. These effects are less pronounced at high plasma rotation where the resonant field components are screened. The non-resonant components do not influence NTMs directly but slow down the plasma rotation globally via the neoclassical toroidal viscous torque. The island formation caused by the MP field as well as the interaction of pre-existing islands with the MP field at AUG is presented. It is shown that these effects can be modelled using a simple forced reconnection theory. Also the effect of resonant and non-resonant MPs on the plasma rotation at AUG is discussed.

  20. Confinement of plasma along shaped open magnetic fields from the centrifugal force of supersonic plasma rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodorescu, C; Young, W C; Swan, G W S; Ellis, R F; Hassam, A B; Romero-Talamas, C A

    2010-08-20

    Interferometric density measurements in plasmas rotating in shaped, open magnetic fields demonstrate strong confinement of plasma parallel to the magnetic field, with density drops of more than a factor of 10. Taken together with spectroscopic measurements of supersonic E × B rotation of sonic Mach 2, these measurements are in agreement with ideal MHD theory which predicts large parallel pressure drops balanced by centrifugal forces in supersonically rotating plasmas.

  1. Revisiting the Anomalous rf Field Penetration into a Warm Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaganovich, Igor D.; Polomarov, Oleg V.; Theodosiou, Constantine E.

    2005-01-01

    Radio-frequency [rf] waves do not penetrate into a plasma and are damped within it. The electric field of the wave and plasma current are concentrated near the plasma boundary in a skin layer. Electrons can transport the plasma current away from the skin layer due to their thermal motion. As a result, the width of the skin layer increases when electron temperature effects are taken into account. This phenomenon is called anomalous skin effect. The anomalous penetration of the rf electric field occurs not only for transversely propagating to the plasma boundary wave (inductively coupled plasmas) but also for the wave propagating along the plasma boundary (capacitively coupled plasmas). Such anomalous penetration of the rf field modifies the structure of the capacitive sheath. Recent advances in the nonlinear, non-local theory of the capacitive sheath are reported. It is shown that separating the electric field profile into exponential and non-exponential parts yields an efficient qualitative and quantitative description of the anomalous skin effect in both inductively and capacitively coupled plasma

  2. Edge plasmas and plasma/wall interactions in an ignition-class reversed field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werley, K.A.; Bathke, C.G.; Krakowski, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    A range of limiter, armor, and divertor options are examined as a means to minimize plasma/wall interactions for a high-power-density, ignition-class reversed field pinch. An open, toroidal-field divertor can operate at maximum powers, while isolating the core plasma from impurities and protecting the wall. 16 refs

  3. Dynamics of a rarefied plasma in a magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagdeyev, R S; Kadomtsev, B B; Rudakov, L I; Vedyonov, A A

    1958-07-01

    The nature of the motion and properties of high temperature plasma in a magnetic field is of particular interest for the problem of producing controlled thermonuclear reactions. The most general theoretical approach to such problems lies in the description of the plasma by the Boltzmann and Maxwell equations that connect the self-consistent electric and magnetic fields with the ion and electron distribution functions. The exact equations for the motion of plasma in an electromagnetic field can only be solved in certain simple cases especially because the fields are influenced by the collective motion of all the particles. For a certain class of problems it is possible to work out a procedure for decreasing the number of variables and thus simplify the characteristic equations. In this work the following cases are considered and equations derived: equations for the macroscopic motion of the plasma; hydrodynamics of a low pressure plasma; instability of plasma in a magnetic field with an anisotropic ion velocity distribution; stability of a pinched cylindrical plasma using the kinetic equation; non-linear one-dimensional motion of a rarefied plasma.

  4. Fast shoreline erosion induced by ship wakes in a coastal lagoon: Field evidence and remote sensing analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Zaggia

    Full Text Available An investigation based on in-situ surveys combined with remote sensing and GIS analysis revealed fast shoreline retreat on the side of a major waterway, the Malamocco Marghera Channel, in the Lagoon of Venice, Italy. Monthly and long-term regression rates caused by ship wakes in a reclaimed industrial area were considered. The short-term analysis, based on field surveys carried out between April 2014 and January 2015, revealed that the speed of shoreline regression was insignificantly dependent on the distance from the navigation channel, but was not constant through time. Periods of high water levels due to tidal forcing or storm surges, more common in the winter season, are characterized by faster regression rates. The retreat is a discontinuous process in time and space depending on the morpho-stratigraphy and the vegetation cover of the artificial deposits. A GIS analysis performed with the available imagery shows an average retreat of 3-4 m/yr in the period between 1974 and 2015. Digitization of historical maps and bathymetric surveys made in April 2015 enabled the construction of two digital terrain models for both past and present situations. The two models have been used to calculate the total volume of sediment lost during the period 1968-2015 (1.19×106 m3. The results show that in the presence of heavy ship traffic, ship-channel interactions can dominate the morphodynamics of a waterway and its margins. The analysis enables a better understanding of how shallow-water systems react to the human activities in the post-industrial period. An adequate evaluation of the temporal and spatial variation of shoreline position is also crucial for the development of future scenarios and for the sustainable management port traffic worldwide.

  5. Fast shoreline erosion induced by ship wakes in a coastal lagoon: Field evidence and remote sensing analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaggia, Luca; Lorenzetti, Giuliano; Manfé, Giorgia; Scarpa, Gian Marco; Molinaroli, Emanuela; Parnell, Kevin Ellis; Rapaglia, John Paul; Gionta, Maria; Soomere, Tarmo

    2017-01-01

    An investigation based on in-situ surveys combined with remote sensing and GIS analysis revealed fast shoreline retreat on the side of a major waterway, the Malamocco Marghera Channel, in the Lagoon of Venice, Italy. Monthly and long-term regression rates caused by ship wakes in a reclaimed industrial area were considered. The short-term analysis, based on field surveys carried out between April 2014 and January 2015, revealed that the speed of shoreline regression was insignificantly dependent on the distance from the navigation channel, but was not constant through time. Periods of high water levels due to tidal forcing or storm surges, more common in the winter season, are characterized by faster regression rates. The retreat is a discontinuous process in time and space depending on the morpho-stratigraphy and the vegetation cover of the artificial deposits. A GIS analysis performed with the available imagery shows an average retreat of 3-4 m/yr in the period between 1974 and 2015. Digitization of historical maps and bathymetric surveys made in April 2015 enabled the construction of two digital terrain models for both past and present situations. The two models have been used to calculate the total volume of sediment lost during the period 1968-2015 (1.19×106 m3). The results show that in the presence of heavy ship traffic, ship-channel interactions can dominate the morphodynamics of a waterway and its margins. The analysis enables a better understanding of how shallow-water systems react to the human activities in the post-industrial period. An adequate evaluation of the temporal and spatial variation of shoreline position is also crucial for the development of future scenarios and for the sustainable management port traffic worldwide.

  6. Application of plasma technology to nuclear engineering fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Masaaki; Akatsuka, Hiroshi

    1996-01-01

    In order to discuss about the application of the plasma technology to nuclear engineering fields, we mention two subjects, the oxygenation of metal chloride waste by oxygen plasma and the characterization of fine particles generated in the plasma process. Through the experimental results of two subjects, both of the advantage and the disadvantage of the plasma technology and their characteristics are shown and discussed. The following conclusions are obtained. The reactive plasma is effective to oxygenate the chloride wastes. The particle generation which is one of the disadvantages must not be specialized and its characteristics can be estimated. Consequently, the plasma technology should be applicable to nuclear engineering fields adopting its advantage and overcoming its disadvantage. (author)

  7. Effects of pulsed electric field on ULQ and RFP plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, M.; Saito, K.; Suzuki, T.

    1997-01-01

    Dynamo activity and self-organization processes are investigated using the application of pulsed poloidal and toroidal electric fields on ULQ and RFP plasmas. Synchronized to the application of the pulsed electric fields, the remarkable responses of the several plasma parameters are observed. The plasma has a preferential magnetic field structure, and the external perturbation activates fluctuation to maintain the structure through dynamo effect. This process changes the total dissipation with the variation of magnetic helicity in the system, showing that self organization accompanies an enhanced dissipation. (author)

  8. Initial plasma production by induction electric field on QUEST tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Makoto; Nakamura, Kazuo; Sato, Kohnosuke

    2007-01-01

    Induction electric field by center solenoid coil plays a roll to produce initial plasma. According to Townsend avalanche theory, minimum electric field for plasma breakdown depends on neutral gas pressure and connection length. On QUEST spherical tokamak, a connection length is evaluated as 966m on null point neighborhood with coil current ratio I PF26 /I CS =0.1, and induction electric field considering eddy current of vacuum vessel is evaluated as about 0.1 V/m on null point neighborhood. With Townsend avalanche theory, these values manage to produce initial plasma on QUEST. (author)

  9. Magnetic Field Measurements In Magnetized Plasmas Using Zeeman Broadening Diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Showera; Wallace, Matthew; Presura, Radu; Neill, Paul

    2017-10-01

    The Zeeman effect has been used to measure the magnetic field in high energy density plasmas. This method is limited when plasma conditions are such that the line broadening due to the high plasma density and temperature surpasses the Zeeman splitting. We have measured magnetic fields in magnetized laser plasmas under conditions where the Zeeman splitting was not spectrally resolved. The magnetic field strength was determined from the difference in widths of two doublet components, using an idea proposed by Tessarin et al. (2011). Time-gated spectra with one-dimensional space-resolution were obtained at the Nevada Terawatt Facility for laser plasmas created by 20 J, 1 ns Leopard laser pulses, and expanding in the azimuthal magnetic field produced by the 0.6 MA Zebra pulsed power generator. We explore the response of the Al III 4s 2S1/2 - 4p 2P1 / 2 , 3 / 2 doublet components to the external magnetic field spatially along the plasma. Radial magnetic field and electron density profiles were measured within the plasma plume. This work was supported by the DOE/OFES Grant DE-SC0008829 and DOE/NNSA contract DE-FC52-06NA27616.

  10. Resistivity of flame plasma in an electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikuta, Kazunari.

    1989-01-01

    A generalized Ohm's law is obtained for a flame plasma in an electric field for the study of arc resistivity in an electromagnetic launcher (EML). The effective resistivity of flame plasma is reduced by the source, which suggests the injection of premixed combustible fuel into the arc plasma in EML in order to reduce the electron energy of the arc. The reduction of electron energy in the arc is desirable to minimize the damage of electrodes in EML. (author)

  11. A reversed-field theta-pinch plasma machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasojima, Yoshiyuki; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Sasao, Hiroyuki; Ueno, Noboru; Tanaka, Toshihide

    1984-01-01

    Mitsubishi Electric has constructed a reversed-field theta-pinch machine at its Central Research Laboratory and initiated a series of plasma diagnostics and control studies for development of nuclear-fusion technology. Although the device has a linear configuration, a stable high-temperature, high-density toroidal plasma can be generated. The article describes the overall structure, vacuum system, power-supply system, and diagnostics and control system of the plasma machine. (author)

  12. Effect of solenoidal magnetic field on drifting laser plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kazumasa; Okamura, Masahiro; Sekine, Megumi; Cushing, Eric; Jandovitz, Peter

    2013-04-01

    An ion source for accelerators requires to provide a stable waveform with a certain pulse length appropriate to the application. The pulse length of laser ion source is easy to control because it is expected to be proportional to plasma drifting distance. However, current density decay is proportional to the cube of the drifting distance, so large current loss will occur under unconfined drift. We investigated the stability and current decay of a Nd:YAG laser generated copper plasma confined by a solenoidal field using a Faraday cup to measure the current waveform. It was found that the plasma was unstable at certain magnetic field strengths, so a baffle was introduced to limit the plasma diameter at injection and improve the stability. Magnetic field, solenoid length, and plasma diameter were varied in order to find the conditions that minimize current decay and maximize stability.

  13. Effect of solenoidal magnetic field on drifting laser plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Kazumasa; Sekine, Megumi; Okamura, Masahiro; Cushing, Eric; Jandovitz, Peter

    2013-01-01

    An ion source for accelerators requires to provide a stable waveform with a certain pulse length appropriate to the application. The pulse length of laser ion source is easy to control because it is expected to be proportional to plasma drifting distance. However, current density decay is proportional to the cube of the drifting distance, so large current loss will occur under unconfined drift. We investigated the stability and current decay of a Nd:YAG laser generated copper plasma confined by a solenoidal field using a Faraday cup to measure the current waveform. It was found that the plasma was unstable at certain magnetic field strengths, so a baffle was introduced to limit the plasma diameter at injection and improve the stability. Magnetic field, solenoid length, and plasma diameter were varied in order to find the conditions that minimize current decay and maximize stability.

  14. Effect of solenoidal magnetic field on drifting laser plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Kazumasa; Sekine, Megumi [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan); Okamura, Masahiro [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States) and RIKEN, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198 (United States); Cushing, Eric [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Jandovitz, Peter [Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2013-04-19

    An ion source for accelerators requires to provide a stable waveform with a certain pulse length appropriate to the application. The pulse length of laser ion source is easy to control because it is expected to be proportional to plasma drifting distance. However, current density decay is proportional to the cube of the drifting distance, so large current loss will occur under unconfined drift. We investigated the stability and current decay of a Nd:YAG laser generated copper plasma confined by a solenoidal field using a Faraday cup to measure the current waveform. It was found that the plasma was unstable at certain magnetic field strengths, so a baffle was introduced to limit the plasma diameter at injection and improve the stability. Magnetic field, solenoid length, and plasma diameter were varied in order to find the conditions that minimize current decay and maximize stability.

  15. Laser surface wakefield in a plasma column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbunov, L.M.; Mora, P.; Ramazashvili, R.R.

    2003-01-01

    The structure of the wakefield in a plasma column, produced by a short intense laser pulse, propagating through a gas affected by tunneling ionization is investigated. It is shown that besides the usual plasma waves in the bulk part of the plasma column [see Andreev et al., Phys. Plasmas 9, 3999 (2002)], the laser pulse also generates electromagnetic surface waves propagating along the column boundary. The length of the surface wake wave substantially exceeds the length of the plasma wake wave and its electromagnetic field extends far outside the plasma column

  16. Wake field measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palumbo, L.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper the concept of Wakefields and Machine Impedance are introduced. Several measurements technique of these quantities either in the laboratory before installation or from beam observation are presented

  17. Impact of error fields on plasma identification in ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martone, R., E-mail: Raffaele.Martone@unina2.it [Ass. EURATOM/ENEA/CREATE, Seconda Università di Napoli, Via Roma 29, Aversa (CE) (Italy); Appel, L. [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Chiariello, A.G.; Formisano, A.; Mattei, M. [Ass. EURATOM/ENEA/CREATE, Seconda Università di Napoli, Via Roma 29, Aversa (CE) (Italy); Pironti, A. [Ass. EURATOM/ENEA/CREATE, Università degli Studi di Napoli “Federico II”, Via Claudio 25, Napoli (Italy)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► The paper deals with the effect on plasma identification of error fields generated by field coils manufacturing and assembly errors. ► EFIT++ is used to identify plasma gaps when poloidal field coils and central solenoid coils are deformed, and the gaps sensitivity with respect to such errors is analyzed. ► Some examples of reconstruction errors in the presence of deformations are reported. -- Abstract: The active control of plasma discharges in present Tokamak devices must be prompt and accurate to guarantee expected performance. As a consequence, the identification step, calculating plasma parameters from diagnostics, should provide in a very short time reliable estimates of the relevant quantities, such as plasma centroid position, plasma-wall distances at given points called gaps, and other geometrical parameters as elongation and triangularity. To achieve the desired response promptness, a number of simplifying assumptions are usually made in the identification algorithms. Among those clearly affecting the quality of the plasma parameters reconstruction, one of the most relevant is the precise knowledge of the magnetic field produced by active coils. Since uncertainties in their manufacturing and assembly process may cause misalignments between the actual and expected geometry and position of magnets, an analysis on the effect of possible wrong information about magnets on the plasma shape identification is documented in this paper.

  18. Plasma transport across a braided magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stix, T.H.

    1978-01-01

    Simple fluid and particle models are used to estimate the transport of density, current, and electron heat for a plasma immersed in a region through which magnetic lines of force meander in a stochastic fashion and in which magnetic surfaces are destroyed. (author)

  19. Improvements in ECN Wake Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Versteeg, M.C. [University of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands); Ozdemir, H.; Brand, A.J. [ECN Wind Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-08-15

    Wind turbines extract energy from the flow field so that the flow in the wake of a wind turbine contains less energy and more turbulence than the undisturbed flow, leading to less energy extraction for the downstream turbines. In large wind farms, most turbines are located in the wake of one or more turbines causing the flow characteristics felt by these turbines differ considerably from the free stream flow conditions. The most important wake effect is generally considered to be the lower wind speed behind the turbine(s) since this decreases the energy production and as such the economical performance of a wind farm. The overall loss of a wind farm is very much dependent on the conditions and the lay-out of the farm but it can be in the order of 5-10%. Apart from the loss in energy production an additional wake effect is formed by the increase in turbulence intensity, which leads to higher fatigue loads. In this sense it becomes important to understand the details of wake behavior to improve and/or optimize a wind farm layout. Within this study improvements are presented for the existing ECN wake model which constructs the fundamental basis of ECN's FarmFlow wind farm wake simulation tool. The outline of this paper is as follows: first, the governing equations of the ECN wake farm model are presented. Then the near wake modeling is discussed and the results compared with the original near wake modeling and EWTW (ECN Wind Turbine Test Site Wieringermeer) data as well as the results obtained for various near wake implementation cases are shown. The details of the atmospheric stability model are given and the comparison with the solution obtained for the original surface layer model and with the available data obtained by EWTW measurements are presented. Finally the conclusions are summarized.

  20. Generalized coupled wake boundary layer model: applications and comparisons with field and LES data for two wind farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stevens, Richard Johannes Antonius Maria; Gayme, Dennice F.; Meneveau, Charles

    2016-01-01

    We describe a generalization of the coupled wake boundary layer (CWBL) model for wind farms that can be used to evaluate the performance of wind farms under arbitrary wind inflow directions, whereas the original CWBL model (Stevens et al., J. Renewable and Sustainable Energy 7, 023115 (2015))

  1. Radio frequency conductivity of plasma in inhomogeneous magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Sanae; Nishikawa, Kyoji; Fukuyama, Atsushi; Itoh, Kimitaka.

    1985-01-01

    Nonlocal conductivity tensor is obtained to study the kinetic effects on propagation and absorption of radio frequency (rf) waves in dispersive plasmas. Generalized linear propagator in the presence of the inhomogeneity of magnetic field strength along the field line is calculated. The influence of the inhomogeneity to the rf wave-energy deposition is found to be appreciable. Application to toroidal plasmas is shown. (author)

  2. Wind farm array wake losses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, R.W. [Impact Weather, Washougal, WA (United States); McCarthy, E.F. [Wind Economics & Technology, Inc., Martinez, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    A wind turbine wake study was conducted in the summer of 1987 at an Altamont Pass wind electric generating facility. The wind speed deficits, turbulence, and power deficits from an array consisting of several rows of wind turbines is discussed. A total of nine different test configurations were evaluated for a downwind spacing ranging from 7 rotor diameters (RD) to 34 RD and a cross wind spacing of 1.3 RD and 2.7 RD. Wake power deficits of 15% were measured at 16 RD and power losses of a few percent were even measurable at 27 RD for the closer cross wind spacing. For several rows of turbines separated by 7-9 RD the wake zones overlapped and formed compound wakes with higher velocity deficits. The wind speed and direction turbulence in the wake was much higher than the ambient turbulence. The results from this study are compared to the findings from other similar field measurements.

  3. Behaviour of the peripheral plasma in the reversed field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, A.; Sato, K.I.; Arimoto, H.; Yamada, S.; Nagata, A.; Murata, H.

    1986-01-01

    By using Langmuir probes installed behind limiters, time behaviour of the peripheral plasma in the Reversed Field Pinch (RFP) are investigated. They are strongly affected by the confined RFP plasma and are divided into three phases (the initial phase before setting up the RFP configuration, the current rising phase, and the quiescent phase), which are just the same as those of the confined RFP plasma. Typical behaviour of the peripheral plasma have relations to the pump out phenomena and of the toroidal flux generation. (author)

  4. Dynamics of Dust in a Plasma Sheath with Magnetic Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan Ping; Liu Jinyuan; Gon Ye; Liu Yue; Wang Xiaogang

    2007-01-01

    Dynamics of dust in a plasma sheath with a magnetic field was investigated using a single particle model. The result shows that the radius, initial position, initial velocity of the dust particles and the magnetic field do effect their movement and equilibrium position in the plasma sheath. Generally, the dust particles with the same size, whatever original velocity and position they have, will locate at the same position in the end under the net actions of electrostatic, gravitational, neutral collisional, and Lorentz forces. But the dust particles will not locate in the plasma sheath if their radius is beyond a certain value

  5. Penetration of magnetic fields into plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bengtson, R.D.

    1976-01-01

    A pulsed plasma experiment was constructed to study the penetration of a fast-rising magnetic pulse into an initially unmagnetized, weakly ionized plasma of density 10 11 to 10 13 cm -3 . Magnetic probe data was analyzed using a magnetohydrodynamic approach to obtain detailed information about the dynamics of the penetration mechanism. In particular it is possible to obtain the local resistivity and thus the collision frequency from this data. These collision frequencies compare favorably with theoretical estimates of turbulent collision frequencies. The data indicates that sufficient energy is absorbed to heat the bulk of the plasma to temeratures in excess of 1 keV. A differential rotation of a collisionless theta-pinch column during implosion has been observed and explained by a model in which the driving mechanism is the off-diagonal element p/sub r theta/ of the pressure tensor. Rotational motion was detected by directional probes and spectroscopic techniques. Experimental data were modeled by a one-dimensional hybrid code which included ionization and charge exchange of protons with neutral H atoms

  6. Cross-field plasma injection into mirror geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uzun-Kaymak, I U; Clary, R; Ellis, R; Elton, R; Teodorescu, C; Young, W [Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Messer, S; Bomgardner, R; Case, A; Witherspoon, F D, E-mail: uzunkaymak@wisc.ed [HyperV Technologies Corp., Chantilly, VA 20151 (United States)

    2009-09-15

    The Maryland Centrifugal Experiment (MCX) and HyperV Technologies Corp. are collaborating on a series of experiments to test the use of a plasma gun to inject mass and momentum into a magnetic-confinement device. HyperV has designed, built and installed a prototype coaxial gun to drive rotation in MCX. The gun has been designed to avoid the blow-by instability via a combination of electrode shaping and a tailored plasma armature. Preliminary measurements at HyperV indicate the gun generates plasma jets with a mass of 160 {mu}g, velocities up to 90 km s{sup -1} and plasma density in the high 10{sup 14} cm{sup -3}. This paper emphasizes characteristics of the plasma gun and penetration of the plasma jet through the MCX magnetic field. Plans for future injection experiments are briefly discussed.

  7. Production of a rapidly rotating plasma by cross-field injection of gun-produced plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohzu, Akira; Ikehata, Takashi; Tanabe, Toshio; Mase, Hiroshi

    1984-01-01

    Cross-field plasma injection with use of a JxB plasma gun is described as a method to produce rapidly rotating plasma in a crossed electric and magnetic field system. The rotational velocity of the plasma is seriously limited by neutrals surrounding the plasma through strong interactions at the boundary layer. The concentration of neutrals can be reduced by the injection of fully or partially ionized plasma into the discharge volume instead of filling the volume with an operating gas. With use of this method, it is observed that the rotational velocity increases by a factor of 2 to 3 when compared with the conventional method of stationary gas-filling. (author)

  8. Enhanced field emission from carbon nanotubes by hydrogen plasma treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhi, C.Y.; Bai, X.D.; Wang, E.G.

    2002-01-01

    The field emission capability of the carbon nanotubes (CNTs) has been improved by hydrogen plasma treatment, and the enhanced emission mechanism has been studied systematically using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman, and transmission electron microscopy. The hydrogen concentration in the samples increases with increasing plasma treatment duration. A C δ- -H δ+ dipole layer may form on CNTs' surface and a high density of defects results from the plasma treatment, which is likely to make the external surface of CNTs more active to emit electrons after treatment. In addition, the sharp edge of CNTs' top, after removal of the catalyst particles, may increase the local electronic field more effectively. The present study suggests that hydrogen plasma treatment is a useful method for improving the field electron emission property of CNTs

  9. High magnetic field generation for laser-plasma experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollock, B. B.; Froula, D. H.; Davis, P. F.; Ross, J. S.; Fulkerson, S.; Bower, J.; Satariano, J.; Price, D.; Krushelnick, K.; Glenzer, S. H.

    2006-01-01

    An electromagnetic solenoid was developed to study the effect of magnetic fields on electron thermal transport in laser plasmas. The solenoid, which is driven by a pulsed power system supplying 30 kJ, achieves magnetic fields of 13 T. The field strength was measured on the solenoid axis with a magnetic probe and optical Zeeman splitting. The measurements agree well with analytical estimates. A method for optimizing the solenoid design to achieve magnetic fields exceeding 20 T is presented

  10. Strong magnetic field generation in laser plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakarmi, J.J.; Jha, L.N.

    1996-12-01

    An attempt has been made to solve the magnetic field evolution equation by using Green function and taking convective, diffusion and nabla n x nabla T as a dominant source term. The maximum magnetic field is obtained to be an order of megagauss. (author). 14 refs, 1 fig

  11. Production of field-reversed plasma with a magnetized coaxial plasma gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, W.C.; Granneman, E.H.A.; Hartman, C.W.; Prono, D.S.; Taska, J.; Smith, A.C. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Experimental data are presented on the production of field-reversed deuterium plasma by a modified coaxial plasma gun. The coaxial gun is constructed with solenoid coils along the inner and outer electrodes that, together with an external guide field solenoid, form a magnetic cusp at the gun muzzle. The net flux inside the inner electrode is arranged to be opposite the external guide field and is the source of field-reversed flux trapped by the plasma. The electrode length is 145 cm, the diameter of the inner (outer) electrode is 15 cm (32 cm). The gun discharge is driven with a 232-μF 40-kV capacitor bank. Acceleration of plasma through the magnetic cusp at the gun muzzle results in entrainment of field-reversed flux that is detected by magnetic probes 75 cm from the gun muzzle. Field-reversed plasma has been produced for a variety of experimental conditions. In one typical case, the guide magnetic field was B 0 =4.8 kG and the change in axial magnetic field ΔB/sub z/ normalized to B 0 was ΔB/sub z/ /B 0 =-3.1. Total field-reversed flux (poloidal flux) obtained by integrating ΔB/sub z/ profiles is in the range 2 x 10 3 kG cm 2 . Measurement of the orthogonal field component indicates a sizable toroidal field peaked off axis at rapprox. =10 cm with a magnitude of roughly one-half the poloidal field component that is measured on magnetic axis. Reconnection of the poloidal field lines has not been established for the data reported in the paper and will be addressed in future experiments which attempt to trap and confine the field-reversed plasma in a magnetic mirror

  12. Magnetic Field Dependence and Q of the Josephson Plasma Resonance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Niels Falsig; Finnegan, T. F.; Langenberg, D. N.

    1972-01-01

    of supercurrent density which is not observed in conventional measurements of the field-dependent critical current. The frequency and field dependence of the plasma-resonance linewidth are interpreted as evidence that the previously unobserved quasiparticle-pair-interference tunnel current predicted by Josephson...

  13. Periodical plasma structures controlled by external magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweigert, I. V.; Keidar, M.

    2017-11-01

    The plasma of Hall thruster type in external magnetic field is studied in 2D3V kinetic simulations using PIC MCC method. The periodical structure with maxima of electron and ion densities is formed and becomes more pronounced with increase of magnetic field incidence angle in the plasma. These ridges of electron and ion densities are aligned with the magnetic field vector and shifted relative each other. This leads to formation of two-dimensional double-layers structure in cylindrical plasma chamber. Depending on Larmor radius and Debye length up to nineteen potential steps appear across the oblique magnetic field. The electrical current gathered on the wall is associated with the electron and ion density ridges.

  14. A soft x-ray free electron laser (FEL) using a two-beam elliptical pill-box wake-field cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.H.; Chen, K.W.

    1988-01-01

    Stimulated bremsstrahlung in an undulating electric field in the lasing beam direction (electric wiggler) was shown to be possible from the quantum- mechanical viewpoint. Herein, this possibility is scrutinized from the viewpoint of classical electrodynamics. It is found that if stimulated bremsstrahlung in a transverse undulating magnetic field (magnetic wiggler) occurs, stimulated bremsstrahlung in the electric wiggler must also occur. We further show that a free electron laser (FEL) using a magnetic wiggler to provide a catalyzer field for stimulated bremsstrahlung cannot serve as a practical FEL operating in the soft x-ray region from both theoretical and experimental viewpoints. On the other hand, the authors demonstrate that the FEL using a traveling wake field in a two-beam elliptical pill-box cavity is well suited as a source of coherent radiation in the soft x-ray region

  15. Fast reconnection of magnetic fields in a plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, P.N.

    1983-01-01

    Reconnection process of magnetic fields in a plasma is analytically studied by perturbing the boundary conditions on a slab of incompressible plasma with a resonant surface inside. It is found, for small resistivity, that the reconnection takes place on Alfven time scale and continues into a slow time scale t 1 = eta/sup 1/3/t. Both time scales are faster than the usual tearing time scale. Furthermore, the plasma evolves globally from its initial equilibrium on the slow time scale and settles down to a different final equilibrium

  16. Plasma production and thermalisation in a strong field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinnik, D.V.; Schmidt, S.M.; Prozorkevich, A.V.; Smolyansky, S.A.; Toneev, V.D.; Hecht, M.B.; Roberts, C.D.

    2001-01-01

    Aspects of the formation and equilibration of a quark-gluon plasma are explored using a quantum kinetic equation, which involves a non-Markovian, Abelian source term for quark and antiquark production and, for the collision term, a relaxation time approximation that defines a time-dependent quasi-equilibrium temperature and collective velocity. The strong Abelian field is determined via the simultaneous solution of Maxwell's equation. A particular feature of this approach is the appearance of plasma oscillations in all thermodynamic observables. Their presence can lead to a sharp increase in the time-integrated dilepton yield, although a rapid expansion of the plasma may eliminate this signal. (orig.)

  17. Multi-scale magnetic field intermittence in the plasma sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Vörös

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates that intermittent magnetic field fluctuations in the plasma sheet exhibit transitory, localized, and multi-scale features. We propose a multifractal-based algorithm, which quantifies intermittence on the basis of the statistical distribution of the "strength of burstiness", estimated within a sliding window. Interesting multi-scale phenomena observed by the Cluster spacecraft include large-scale motion of the current sheet and bursty bulk flow associated turbulence, interpreted as a cross-scale coupling (CSC process.Key words. Magnetospheric physics (magnetotail; plasma sheet – Space plasma physics (turbulence

  18. On the electric and magnetic field generation in expanding plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gielen, H.J.G.

    1989-01-01

    This thesis deals with the generation of electric and magnetic fields in expanding plasmas. The theoretical model used to calculate the different field quantities in such plasmas is discussed in part 1 and is in fact an analysis of Ohm's law. A general method is given that decomposes each of the forces terms in Ohm's law in a component that induces a charge separation in the plasma and in a component that can drive current. This decomposition is unambiguous and depends upon the boundary conditions for the electric potential. It is shown that in calculating the electromagnetic field quantities in a plasma that is located in the vicinity of a boundary that imposes constraints on the electric potential, Ohm's law should be analyzed instead of the so-called induction equation. Three applications of the model are presented. A description is given of the unipolar arc discharge where both plasma and sheath effects have been taken into account. Secondly a description is presented of the plasma effects of a cathode spot. The third application of the model deals with the generation of magnetic fields in laser-produced plasmas. The second part of this thesis describes the experiments on a magnetized argon plasma expanding from a cascaded arc. With the use of spectroscopic techniques the electron density, ion temperature and the rotation velocity profiles of the ion gas have been determined. The magnetic field generated by the plasma has been measured with the use of the Zeeman effect. Depending on the channel diameter of the nozzle of the cascaded arc, self-generated magnetic fields with axial components of the order of 1% of the externally applied mangetic field have been observed. From the measured ion rotation it has been concluded that this magnetic field is mainly generated by azimuthal electron currents. The corresponding azimuthal current density is of the order of 15% of the axial current density. The observed ion rotation is caused by electron-ion friction. (author

  19. Theoretical approach of the photoinjector exit aperture influence on the wake field driven by an electron beam accelerated in an RF gun of free-electron laser 'ELSA'

    CERN Document Server

    Salah, W

    2000-01-01

    The wake field generated in the cylindrical cavity of an RF photoinjector, by a strongly accelerated electron beam, has been analytically calculated (Salah, Dolique, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 437 (1999) 27) under the assumption that the perturbation of the field map by the exit hole is negligible as long as the ratio: exit hole radius/cavity radius is lower than approximately 1/3. Shown experimentally in the different context of a long accelerating structure formed by a sequence of bored pill-box cavity (Figuera et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 60 (1988) 2144; Kim et al., J. Appl. Phys. 68 (1990) 4942), this often-quoted result must be checked for the wake field map excited in a photo injector cavity. Further, in the latter case, the empirical rule in question can be broken more easily because, due to causality, the cavity radius to be considered is not the physical radius but that of the part of the anode wall around the exit hole reached by the beam electromagnetic influence. We present an analytical treatment of th...

  20. Indirect methods for wake potential integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zagorodnov, I.

    2006-05-01

    The development of the modern accelerator and free-electron laser projects requires to consider wake fields of very short bunches in arbitrary three dimensional structures. To obtain the wake numerically by direct integration is difficult, since it takes a long time for the scattered fields to catch up to the bunch. On the other hand no general algorithm for indirect wake field integration is available in the literature so far. In this paper we review the know indirect methods to compute wake potentials in rotationally symmetric and cavity-like three dimensional structures. For arbitrary three dimensional geometries we introduce several new techniques and test them numerically. (Orig.)

  1. Wake effect in rocket observation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Haruya; Kaya, Nobuyuki; Yamanaka, Akira; Hayashi, Tomomasa

    1975-01-01

    The mechanism of the wake phenomena due to a probe and in rocket observation is discussed on the basis of experimental data. In the low energy electron measurement performed with the L-3H-5 rocket, the electron count rate changed synchronously with the rocket spin. This seems to be a wake effect. It is also conceivable that the probe itself generates the wake of ion beam. The latter problem is considered in the first part. Experiment was performed with laboratory plasma, in which a portion of the electron component of the probe current was counted with a CEM (a channel type multiplier). The change of probe voltage-count rate charactersitics due to the change of relative position of the ion source was observed. From the measured angular distributions of electron density and electron temperature around the probe, it is concluded that anisotropy exists around the probe, which seems to be a kinds of wake structure. In the second part, the wake effect due to a rocket is discussed on the basis of the measurement of leaking electrons with L-3H-5 rocket. Comparison between the theory of wake formation and the measured results is also shortly made in the final part. (Aoki, K.)

  2. Magnetic field line draping in the plasma depletion layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibeck, D. G.; Lepping, R. P.; Lazarus, A. J.

    1990-01-01

    Simultaneous IMP 8 solar wind and ISEE 1/2 observations for a northern dawn ISEE 1/2 magnetopause crossing on November 6, 1977. During this crossing, ISEE 1/2 observed quasi-periodic pulses of magnetosheathlike plasma on northward magnetic field lines. The ISEE 1/2 observations were originally interpreted as evidence for strong diffusion of magnetosheath plasma across the magnetopause and the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability at the inner edge of the low-latitude boundary layer. An alternate explanation, in terms of magnetic field merging and flux transfer events, has also been advocated. In this paper, a third interpretation is proposed in terms of quasi-periodic magnetopause motion which causes the satellites to repeatedly exit the magnetosphere and observe draped northward magnetosheath magnetic field lines in the plasma depletion layer.

  3. Stability of axisymmetric plasmas in closed line magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simakov, A.N.; Vernon Wong, H.; Berk, H.L.

    2003-01-01

    The stability of axisymmetric plasmas confined by closed poloidal magnetic field lines is considered. The results are relevant to plasmas in the dipolar fields of stars and planets, as well as the Levitated Dipole Experiment, multipoles, Z pinches and field reversed configurations. The ideal MHD energy principle is employed to study the stability of pressure driven shear Alfven modes. A point dipole is considered in detail to demonstrate that equilibria exist which are MHD stable for arbitrary beta. Effects of sound waves and plasma resistivity are investigated for Z pinch and point dipole equilibria by means of resistive MHD theory. Kinetic theory is used to study drift frequency modes and their interaction with MHD modes near the ideal stability boundary for different collisionality regimes. Effects of collisional dissipation on drift mode stability are explicitly evaluated and applied to a Z pinch. The role of finite Larmor radius effects and drift reversed particles in modifying ideal stability thresholds is examined. (author)

  4. Electro-Magnetic Fields and Plasma in the Cosmos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, Donald E.

    2006-01-01

    It is becoming widely recognized that a majority of baryons in the cosmos are in the plasma state. But, fundamental disagreements about the properties and behavior of electro-magnetic fields in these plasmas exist between the science of modern astronomy and the experimentally verified laws of electrical engineering and physics. Some astronomers claim that magnetic fields can be open-ended - that they begin on or beneath the Sun's surface and extend outward to infinity. Astrophysicists have claimed that galactic magnetic fields begin and end on molecular clouds. Electrical engineers, most physicists, and the pioneers in electromagnetic field theory disagree - magnetic fields have no beginning or end. Since these two viewpoints are mutually exclusive, both cannot be correct; one must be completely false. Many astrophysicists claim that magnetic fields are 'frozen into' electric plasma. We also examine the basis for this claim. It has been shown to be incorrect in the laboratory. The hypothetical 'magnetic merging' mechanism is also reviewed in light of both theoretical and experimental investigations. The cause of large-scale filamentation in the cosmos is also simply revealed by experimental results obtained in plasma laboratories

  5. Edge Plasma Response to Non-Axisymmetric Fields in Tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferraro, N. M.; Lao, L. L.; Buttery, R. J.; Evans, T. E.; Snyder, P. B.; Wade, M.R., E-mail: ferraro@fusion.gat.com [General Atomics, San Diego (United States); Moyer, R. A.; Orlov, D. M. [University of California San Diego, La Jolla (United States); Lanctot, M. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore (United States)

    2012-09-15

    Full text: The application of non-axisymmetric fields is found to have significant effects on the transport and stability of H-mode tokamak plasmas. These effects include dramatic changes in rotation and particle transport, and may lead to the partial or complete suppression of edge-localized modes (ELMs) under some circumstances. The physical mechanism underlying these effects is presently not well understood, in large part because the response of the plasma to non- axisymmetric fields is significant and complex. Here, recent advances in modeling the plasma response to non-axisymmetric fields are discussed. Calculations using a resistive two-fluid model in diverted toroidal geometry confirm the special role of the perpendicular electron velocity in suppressing the formation of islands in the plasma. The possibility that islands form near the top of the pedestal, where the zero-crossing of the perpendicular electron velocity may coincide with a mode-rational surface, is explored, and the implications for ELM suppression are discussed. Modeling results are compared with empirical data. It is shown that numerical modeling is successful in reproducing some experimentally observed effects of applied non-axisymmetric fields on the edge temperature and density profiles. The numerical model self-consistently includes the plasma, separatrix, and scrape-off layer. Rotation and diamagnetic effects are also included self-consistently. Solutions are calculated using the M3D-C1 extended-MHD code. (and others)

  6. Calculation of wake field and couple impedance of upgraded and old RF cavity in Hefei electron storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Hongliang; Wang Lin; Sun Baogen; Li Weimin; Liu Jinying; He Duohui

    2003-01-01

    The phase II upgrading project of Hefei 800 MeV electron storage ring is being done, and the important component of the project, the RF cavity, will be finished soon. The old RF cavity with many disadvantages will be replaced by the new one. To estimate the effect of RF cavity coupling impedance to storing bunch intensity fully, the wake potential and the broad band couple impedance of RF cavity were calculated with MAFIA program. And the calculation results were compared between new and old cavity, it is found that the impedance of the new is bigger than that of the old

  7. Plasma pressure and anisotropy inferred from the Tsyganenkomagnetic field model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Cao

    Full Text Available A numerical procedure has been developed to deduce the plasma pressure and anisotropy from the Tsyganenko magnetic field model. The Tsyganenko empirical field model, which is based on vast satellite field data, provides a realistic description of magnetic field configuration in the magnetosphere. When the force balance under the static condition is assumed, the electromagnetic J×B force from the Tsyganenko field model can be used to infer the plasma pressure and anisotropy distributions consistent with the field model. It is found that the J×B force obtained from the Tsyganenko field model is not curl-free. The curl-free part of the J×B force in an empirical field model can be balanced by the gradient of the isotropic pressure, while the nonzero curl of the J×B force can only be associated with the pressure anisotropy. The plasma pressure and anisotropy in the near-Earth plasma sheet are numerically calculated to obtain a static equilibrium consistent with the Tsyganenko field model both in the noon-midnight meridian and in the equatorial plane. The plasma pressure distribution deduced from the Tsyganenko 1989 field model is highly anisotropic and shows this feature early in the substorm growth phase. The pressure anisotropy parameter αP, defined as αP=1-PVertP, is typically ~0.3 at x ≈ -4.5RE and gradually decreases to a small negative value with an increasing tailward distance. The pressure anisotropy from the Tsyganenko 1989 model accounts for 50% of the cross-tail current at maximum and only in a highly localized region near xsim-10RE. In comparison, the plasma pressure anisotropy inferred from the Tsyganenko 1987 model is much smaller. We also find that the boundary

  8. Study of electric field pulsation in helical plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toda, S; Itoh, K

    2011-01-01

    A model for the experimental results of the periodic oscillation of the electric field, so-called the electric field pulsation, observed in the Compact Helical Device (Fujisawa et al 1998 Phys. Rev. Lett. 81 2256) and the Large Helical Device (Shimizu et al 2010 Plasma Fusion Res. 5 S1015) is presented. A self-generated oscillation of the radial electric field is shown as the simulation result in helical plasmas. The reduction of the anomalous transport diffusivity in the core region is observed due to the strong shear of the radial electric field when the positive electric field is shown in the core region in the periodic oscillation of E r . Two different time scales are found in the self-generated oscillation, which are the transport time scale and the fast time scale at the transition of the radial electric field. This oscillation because of the hysteresis characteristic is attributed to the electric field pulsation observed in helical plasmas. The parameter region of the condition for the self-generated oscillation is derived. It is shown that the multiple solutions of the radial electric field for the ambipolar condition are necessary but not sufficient for obtaining the self-generated oscillation.

  9. Study on the plasma diode in the external magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenev, S.A.

    1981-01-01

    The experimental investigations of plasma diode with cathode plasma formation on the basis of an incomplete charge over dielectric surface in the external longitudinal magnetic field with the intensity of Hsub(z) up to 2000 Oe are presented. It is demonstrated that at the 150-250 keV diode voltage and the current density of up to 300 A/cm 2 the homogeneity of the current density over transverse cross section is preserved up to the cell size of metallic grid onto cathode with the change of the magnetic field up to 2000 Oe [ru

  10. Periodical plasma structures controlled by external magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweigert, I. V.; Keidar, M.

    2017-06-01

    The characteristics of two-dimensional periodical structures in a magnetized plasma are studied using kinetic simulations. Ridges (i.e. spikes in electron and ion density) are formed and became more pronounced with an increase of magnetic field incidence angle in the plasma volume in the cylindrical chamber. These ridges are shifted relative to each other, which results in the formation of a two-dimensional double-layer structure. Depending on Larmor radius and Debye length up to 19 potential steps appear across the oblique magnetic field. The electrical current gathered into the channels is associated with the electron and ion density ridges.

  11. Emittance growth due to the wake field driven by an electron beam accelerated in an RF-gun of free electron laser 'ELSA'

    CERN Document Server

    Salah, W

    2000-01-01

    It appears that the ease of the parameter chosen for 'ELSA' photo injector, the influence of the exit aperture, in terms of beam quality, is slight concerning the transverse emittance: (DELTA epsilon sub p sub e sub r sub p sub e sub n sub d sub i sub c sub u sub l sub a sub r /epsilon sub p sub e sub r sub p sub e sub n sub d sub i sub c sub u sub l sub a sub = = r)(z)approx 3% at maximum, and negligible concerning the axial emittance. To complete this paper, we recall the results previously obtained concerning the wake field of a closed or open cavity for a beam approaching the anode . They had quantitatively specified the expected deep asymmetry between the conducting walls regarding their contribution to the total wake field, besides the space-charge contribution. (Given that the radial walls have no time to contribute, these conducting walls are the cathode and the anode.) Thus, concerning the effects on whole-beam emittances, the correction (DELTA epsilon sub p sub e sub r sub p sub e sub n sub d sub i ...

  12. Rotation of dust plasma crystals in an axial magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, F.; Prior, N.; Mitchell, L.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: Micron-sized melamine formaldehyde particles were introduced into argon plasma. As a result, the particles were negatively charged due to collision with the electrons within the plasma. With the right conditions, these particles formed a stable macroscopic crystal lattice, known as dust plasma crystal. In our experiment we conduct at Flinders University, we apply an external axial magnetic field to various configurations of dust plasma crystal. These configurations include small crystal lattices consisting of one to several particles, and large crystal lattices with many hundreds of particles. The magnetic field strength ranged from 0-32G and was uniform over the extent of the crystal. The crystals were observed to be rotating collectively in the left-handed direction under the influence of the axial magnetic field. In the case of the large crystals, the angular velocity was about 2 complete rotations per minute and was proportional to the applied magnetic field. The angular velocity changes only slightly depending on the plasma conditions. Neither radial variance in the angular velocity nor shear velocity in the vertical direction was observed in the crystal's rotational motion. In the case of the small crystals, we managed to rotate 2-6 particles (whether they are planar, 2 layers or tetrahedral). We discovered that the ease and the uniformity of the rotation of the different crystals increase as its rotational symmetry increases. Also an increase in the magnetic field strength will correspond to an increase in the angular velocity. Crystals in the shape of an annulus were also tested for theoretical reasons. The poster presentation will contain the experimental procedures, a detailed analysis and an explanation for such dust plasma crystal rotational motion

  13. LONGITUDINAL AND TRANSVERSAL PLASMA WAVE INSTABILITIES IN TWO COUNTERSTREAMING PLASMAS WITHOUT EXTERNAL FIELDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buenemann, D

    1963-03-15

    Some aspects of the theory of longitudinal and transversal waves in a collisionless nonrelativistic plasma are treated. A dispersion relation for multicomponent plasmas is derived from the linearized Boltzmann-Vlasov equation using the full set of Maxwell's equations without an external field. The velocity distributions of the plasma streams are assumed to be Maxwellian. For the particular case of two counterstreaming plasmas it is shown that there exists transversal instabilities for all counterstreaming velocities whereas the well known two stream instabilities only exist for velocities greater than a critical velocity. Exact solutions for the onset of the instabilities can be given. This kind of instability may occur for any nonisotropic velocity distribution in a collisionless plasma. (auth)

  14. Toroidal plasma reactor with low external magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beklemishev, A.D.; Khayrutdinov, R.R.; Petviashvili, V.I.; Tajima, T.; Gordin, V.A.; Tajima, T.

    1991-01-01

    A toroidal pinch configuration with safety factor q < 0.5 decreasing from the center to periphery without field reversal is proposed. This is capable of containing high pressure plasma with only small toroidal external magnetic field. Sufficient conditions for magnetohydrodynamic stability are fulfilled in this configuration. The stability is studied by constructing the Lyapunov functional and investigating its extrema both analytically and numerically. Comparison of the Lyapunov stability conditions with the conventional linear theory is carried out. Stable configurations are found with average β near 15%, with magnetic field associated mainly with plasma current. The β value calculated with the external magnetic field can be over 100%. Fast charged particles produced by fusion reactions are asymmetrically confined by the poloidal magnetic field (and due to the lack of strong toroidal field). They thus generate a current in the noncentral part of plasma to reinforce the poloidal field. This current drive can sustain the monotonic decrease of q with radius. 20 refs., 9 figs

  15. Magnetosphere of Uranus: plasma sources, convection, and field configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voigt, G.; Hill, T.W.; Dessler, A.J.

    1983-01-01

    At the time of the Voyager 2 flyby of Uranus, the planetary rotational axis will be roughly antiparallel to the solar wind flow. If Uranus has a magnetic dipole moment that is approximately aligned with its spin axis, and if the heliospheric shock has not been encountered, we will have the rare opportunity to observe a ''pole-on'' magnetosphere as discussed qualitatively by Siscoe. Qualitative arguments based on analogy with Earth, Jupiter, and Saturn suggest that the magnetosphere of Uranus may lack a source of plasma adequate to produce significant internal currents, internal convection, and associated effects. In order to provide a test of this hypothesis with the forthcoming Voyager measurements, we have constructed a class of approximately self-consistent quantitative magnetohydrostatic equilibrium configurations for a pole-on magnetosphere with variable plasma pressure parameters. Given a few simplifying assumptions, the geometries of the magnetic field and of the tail current sheet can be computed for a given distribution of trapped plasma pressure. The configurations have a single funnel-shaped polar cusp that points directly into the solar wind and a cylindrical tail plasma sheet whose currents close within the tail rather than on the tail magnetopause, and whose length depends on the rate of decrease of thermal plasma pressure down the tail. Interconnection between magnetospheric and interplanetary fields results in a highly asymmetric tail-field configuration. These features were predicted qualtitatively by Siscoe; the quantitative models presented here may be useful in the interpretation of Voyager encounter results

  16. Collimation of laser-produced plasmas using axial magnetic field

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Roy, Amitava; Harilal, S.S.; Hassan, S.M.; Endo, Akira; Mocek, Tomáš; Hassanein, A.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 2 (2015), s. 175-182 ISSN 0263-0346 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/01.0027; GA MŠk EE2.3.20.0143; GA MŠk EE2.3.30.0057 Grant - others:HILASE(XE) CZ.1.05/2.1.00/01.0027; OP VK 6(XE) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0143; OP VK 4 POSTDOK(XE) CZ.1.07/2.3.00/30.0057 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : laser-produced plasma * optical emission spectroscopy * plasma-B field interaction * plasma temperature and density * tin plasma Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers OBOR OECD: Optics (including laser optics and quantum optics) Impact factor: 1.649, year: 2015

  17. Electromagnetic field theory. Solely theories with plasma in focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenstrom, L.

    1979-01-01

    The Institute of Electromagnetic Field Theory at Chalmers Technical University is concerned with purely theoretical work on plasma physics for nuclear fusion. The team concerned is looking at nonlinear effects in the plasma energy exchange mechanism. Both inertia restricted and magnetically enclosed plasma are considered. Analytic and computer methods are used upon the model equations of the plasma. The Institute has associations with Euratom and with work in Maryland and in Grenoble. Work on particle paths is of interst. It also is associated with the construction at Sundsvik of an accelerator to give zero keV negative ions. A problem is to find staff of a sufficiently high quality for such complex work. The difficulties are not economic, but mainly that the desired practical results appear to be so far into the future. (G.P.)

  18. Relaxational dissipation of magnetic field energy in a rarefied plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vekshtejn, G.E.

    1987-01-01

    A mechanism of solar corona plasma heating connected with relaxation of a magnetic configuration in the corona to the state of the magnetic energy minimum at restrictions imposed by high conductivity of a medium is considered. Photospheric plasma pulsations leading to generation of longitudinal currents in the corona are in this case energy sources. The excess magnetic energy of these currents is dissipated as a result of reclosing of force lines of the magnetic field in narrow current layers. Plasmaturbulence related to the process of magnetic reclosing is phenomenologically described in this case by introducing certain characteristic time of relaxation. Such an approach permits to relate the plasma heating energy with parameters of photospheric motions in the framework of a simple model of the magnetic field

  19. Superstrong fields in Plasmas: First International Conference. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lontano, M.; Mourou, G.; Pegoraro, F.; Sindoni, E.

    1998-01-01

    These proceedings are based on papers presented at the first International Conference on Superstrong Fields in Plasmas held in Varenna, Italy in August endash September, 1997. The conference attracted more than 100 participants from fourteen countries. A wide range of topics were discussed, including fundamental atomic and plasma processes, relativistic nonlinear optics, solid density plasmas, laser systems for ultrahigh-intensity physics, applications of ultrastrong fields and applications of ultraintense pulses to astrophysics. The progress in laser technology was brought into focus at this conference, especially the creation of pulses with peak power exceeding multiple TW range and the interaction of these pulses with superrelativistic electrons. There were 74 papers presented; out of these, 6 have been abstracted for the Energy Science and Technology database

  20. Focusing of relativistic electron bunch, moving in cylindrical plasma waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amatuni, A.Ts.; Ehlbakyan, S.S.; Sekhpossyan, E.V.

    1994-01-01

    The problem on the focusing of electron bunches moving with the relativistic velocity along the axis of cylindrical overdense plasma waveguide with the conducting internal surface is considered. The existence of periodic and nonperiodic components of the fields, generated in the plasma is shown. The conditions of electron bunch self-focusing by transverse electrical field and azimuthal magnetic field are derived. The possibility of the acceleration and focusing of electron or positron bunches by driving electron bunch wake field is discussed. The conditions, when the bunch in plasma waveguide moves without wake fields generating are obtained, which could be of the interest for the transport of relativistic electron (positron) bunches. 5 refs

  1. Interaction of plasma with magnetic fields in coaxial discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soliman, H.M.; Masoud, M.M. (National Research Centre, Cairo (Egypt))

    1991-01-01

    Previous experiments have shown that, in normal mode of focus operation (67 KJ-20 KV) i.e. without external magnetic fields, the focus exhibits instability growths as revealed by the time integrated X-ray pinhole photographs. A magnetic field which is trapped ahead of the current sheath will reduce the high ejection rate of plasma which occurs during the (r,z) collapse stage. This reduction should lead to a more uniform plasma of larger dimension. If an externally excited axial magnetic field of (10[sup 2]-10[sup 3] G) is introduced at the end of the central electrode of coaxial discharge with 45 [mu]f capacitor bank, U[sub ch]=13-17 KV, peak current [approx]0.5 MA, the decay rate of the current sheath is slowed down and the minimum radius of the column remains large enough. Experiment investigation of the X-ray emission in axial direction from a (12 KJ/20 KV, 480 KA), Mather type focus, showed that the X-ray intensity changes drastically, by superimposing an axial magnetic field of 55 G on the focus. By introducing an external axial magnetic field of intensity 2.4 KG along the coaxial electrodes, this magnetic field has a radial component at distances approach to muzzle of coaxial discharge with charging voltage 10 KV and peak discharge current 100 KA. Presence of these magnetic fields, will cause an increase in intensity of soft X-ray emission. The main purpose of this work is to study the interactions of axial and transverse magnetic fields with plasma sheath during the axial interelectrode propagation, and its effects on the X-ray emission from plasma focus. (author) 4 refs., 7 figs.

  2. Interaction of plasma with magnetic fields in coaxial discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soliman, H.M.; Masoud, M.M.

    1991-01-01

    Previous experiments have shown that, in normal mode of focus operation (67 KJ-20 KV) i.e. without external magnetic fields, the focus exhibits instability growths as revealed by the time integrated X-ray pinhole photographs. A magnetic field which is trapped ahead of the current sheath will reduce the high ejection rate of plasma which occurs during the (r,z) collapse stage. This reduction should lead to a more uniform plasma of larger dimension. If an externally excited axial magnetic field of (10 2 -10 3 G) is introduced at the end of the central electrode of coaxial discharge with 45 μf capacitor bank, U ch =13-17 KV, peak current ∼0.5 MA, the decay rate of the current sheath is slowed down and the minimum radius of the column remains large enough. Experiment investigation of the X-ray emission in axial direction from a (12 KJ/20 KV, 480 KA), Mather type focus, showed that the X-ray intensity changes drastically, by superimposing an axial magnetic field of 55 G on the focus. By introducing an external axial magnetic field of intensity 2.4 KG along the coaxial electrodes, this magnetic field has a radial component at distances approach to muzzle of coaxial discharge with charging voltage 10 KV and peak discharge current 100 KA. Presence of these magnetic fields, will cause an increase in intensity of soft X-ray emission. The main purpose of this work is to study the interactions of axial and transverse magnetic fields with plasma sheath during the axial interelectrode propagation, and its effects on the X-ray emission from plasma focus. (author) 4 refs., 7 figs

  3. Relativistic electron beam - plasma interaction with intense self-fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    The major interest in the equilibrium, stability and radiation properties of relativistic electron beams and in beam-plasma interactions originates from several diverse research areas. It is well known that a many-body collection of charged particles in which there is not overall charge neutrality and/or current neutrality can be characterized by intense self-electric fields and/or self-magnetic fields. Moreover, the intense equilibrium self-fields associated with the lack of charge neutrality and/or current neutrality can have a large effect on particle trajectories and on detailed equilibrium and stability behavior. The main emphasis in Sections 9.1.2-9.1.5 of this chapter is placed on investigations of the important influence of self-fields on the equilibrium and stability properties of magnetically confined electron beam-plasma systems. Atomic processes and discrete particle interactions (binary collisions) are omitted from the analysis, and collective processes are assumed to dominate on the time and length scales of interest. Moreover, both macroscopic (Section 9.1.2) and kinetic (Sections 9.1.3-9.1.5) theoretical models are developed and used to investigate equilibrium and stability properties in straight cylindrical geometry. Several of the classical waves and instabilities characteristic of nonneutral plasmas and beam-plasma systems are analyzed in Sections 9.1.2-9.1.5, including stable surface oscillation on a nonneutral electron beam, the ion resonance instability, the diocotron instability, two-stream instabilities between beam electrons and plasma electrons and between beam electrons and plasma ions, the filamentation instability, the modified two-stream instability, etc

  4. Dielectric permittivity of a plasma in an external electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweigert, V.A.

    2001-01-01

    The ion contribution to the dielectric function of a plasma in an external electric field is determined by applying a kinetic approach to the ions in a parent gas in which the main mechanism for ion scattering is resonant charge exchange. The ion scattering frequency is assumed to be constant

  5. ECR plasma source in a flaring magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meis, C.; Compant La Fontaine, A.; Louvet, P.

    1992-01-01

    The propagation and absorption of an electromagnetic wave, near the electron cyclotron zone, of a cold plasma (T e ∼ 1-5 eV) confined in a flaring magnetic field is studied. The case of both extraordinary and ordinary modes has been considered. Temperature effects and electron-neutral collisions have been taken account in the dielectric tensor

  6. Unstable plasma characteristics in mirror field electron cyclotron ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    left hand polarized (LHP) wave. Shufflbotham and ... of a Maxwellian distribution and also the non-effectiveness of a magnetic field on plasma ... Plot of microwave input power versus reflected power and ion current density at pressure 0.4 ...

  7. Plasma Heating and Losses in Toroidal Multipole Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armentrout, C. J.; Barter, J. D.; Breun, R. A.; Cavallo, A. J.; Drake, J. R.; Etzweiler,; Greenwood, J. R.

    1974-01-01

    The heating and loss of plasmas have been studied in three pulsed, toroidal multipole devices: a large levitated octupole, a small supported octupole and a very small supported quadrupole. Plasmas are produced by gun injection and heated by electron and ion cyclotron resonance heating and ohmic heating. Electron cyclotron heating rates have been measured over a wide range of parameters, and the results are in quantitative agreement with stochastic heating theory. Electron cyclotron resonance heating produces ions with energies larger than predicted by theory. With the addition of a toroidal field, ohmic heating gives densities as high as 10 13 cm -3 in the toroidal quadrupole and 10 12 cm -3 in the small octupole. Plasma losses for n=5 x 10 9 cm -3 plasmas are inferred from Langmuir probe and Fabry-Perot interferometer measurements, and measured with special striped collectors on the wall and rings. The loss to a levitated ring is measured using a modulated light beam telemeter. The confinement is better than Bohm but considerably worse than classical. Low frequency convective cells which are fixed in space are observed. These cells around the ring are diminished when a weak toroidal field is added, and loss collectors show a vastly reduced flux to the rings. Analysis of the spatial density profile shows features of B-independent diffusion. The confinement is sensitive to some kinds of dc field errors, but surprisingly insensitive to perturbations of the ac confining field

  8. Control of radial electric field in torus plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ida, K.; Idei, H.; Sanuki, H.

    1994-09-01

    The radial electric fields is controlled by changing the direction of neutral beam from co to counter to plasma current in tokamak, while it is controlled by the 2nd harmonic ECH and NBI and pellet injection in heliotron/torsatron. (author)

  9. Boundary between a plasma and a field with particle losses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konkhashbaev, I.K.; Zandman, I.S.; Ilinich, F.R.

    1978-01-01

    For open magnetic traps with β=1, the formation of plasma-field boundary (skin-layer) and the rate of the magnetic field fiffusion into plasma were investigated through the consideration of an evolution of a wide skin-layer. A large value of the mirror ratio is assumed for the sake of simplicity. The skin-layer structure is formed by two mechanisms: a mutual plasma-field diffusion tending to expand the boundary, and escape of particles trapped in the skin-layer region, along lines of force through the magnetic mirror, which tends to compress the boundary. It is shown that compression of the wide boundary occurs for the time of the order of the ion-ion collision time when the ion and electron temperatures change substantially. The final skin-layer width proved to be larger than a hybrid one, but smaller than the ion Larmour radius and depends slightly on initial temperatures. It has been established that the diffusion of the magnetic field into the plasma of magnetic trap has the character of a stationary wave of a width equal to the ion Larmour radius and of the velocity V approximately Vsub(Ti)/(ωsub(i)tausub(i))(Vsub(Ti) is the thermal ion velocity, ωsub(i), tausub(i) - the ion cyclotron frequency and collision time)

  10. Numerical investigation of a plasma beam entering transverse magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koga, J.; Geary, J.L.; Tajima, T.; Rostoker, N.

    1988-11-01

    We study plasma beam injection into transverse magnetic fields using both electrostatic and electromagnetic particle-in-cell (PIC) codes. In the case of small beam momentum or energy (low drift kinetic /beta/) we study both large and small ion gyroradius beams. Large ion gyroradius beams with a large dielectric constant /epsilon/ /muchreverse arrowgt/ (M/m)/sup /1/2// are found to propagate across the magnetic field via E /times/ B drifts at nearly the initial injection velocity, where /epsilon/ = 1 + (/omega//sup pi//sup 2/)/(/Omega//sub i//sup 2/) and (M/m) is the ion to electron mass ratio. Beam degradation and undulations are observed in agreement with previous experimental and analytical results. When /epsilon/ is on the order of (M/m)/sup /1/2//, the plasma beam propagates across field lines at only half its initial velocity and loses its coherent structure. When /epsilon/ is much less than (M/m)/sup /1/2//, the beam particles decouple at the magnetic field boundary, scattering the electrons and slightly deflecting the ions. For small ion gyroradius beam injection a flute type instability is observed at the beam magnetic fields interface. In the case of large beam momentum or energy (high drift kinetic /beta/) we observe good penetration of a plasma beam which shields the magnetic field from the interior of the beam (diagmagnetism). 25 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab

  11. A new multi-line cusp magnetic field plasma device (MPD) with variable magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, A. D.; Sharma, M.; Ramasubramanian, N.; Ganesh, R.; Chattopadhyay, P. K.

    2018-04-01

    A new multi-line cusp magnetic field plasma device consisting of electromagnets with core material has been constructed with a capability to experimentally control the relative volume fractions of magnetized to unmagnetized plasma volume as well as accurate control on the gradient length scales of mean density and temperature profiles. Argon plasma has been produced using a hot tungsten cathode over a wide range of pressures 5 × 10-5 -1 × 10-3 mbar, achieving plasma densities ranging from 109 to 1011 cm-3 and the electron temperature in the range 1-8 eV. The radial profiles of plasma parameters measured along the non-cusp region (in between two consecutive magnets) show a finite region with uniform and quiescent plasma, where the magnetic field is very low such that the ions are unmagnetized. Beyond that region, both plasma species are magnetized and the profiles show gradients both in temperature and density. The electrostatic fluctuation measured using a Langmuir probe radially along the non-cusp region shows less than 1% (δIisat/Iisat physics parameter space relevant to both laboratory multi-scale plasmas and astrophysical plasmas.

  12. Methods for studying plasma charge transport across a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popovich, A.S.

    1978-01-01

    A comparative analysis of experimental methods for the diffusion transfer of plasma charged particles accross the magnetic field at the study of its confinement effectiveness, instability effect is carried out. Considered are the methods based on the analysis of particle balance in the charge and possibilities of diffusion coefficient determination according to measuring parameters of density gradient and particle flow on the wall, rate of plasma decay after switching off ionization source radial profile of plasma density outside the active region of stationary charge. Much attension is payed to the research methods of diffusion transfer, connected with the study of propagation of periodic and aperiodic density perturbation in a plasma. Analysed is the Golubev and Granovsky method of diffusion waves and its different modifications, phase analysis method of ''test charges'' movement, as well as different modifications of correlation methods. Considered are physical preconditions of the latter and criticized is unilateral interpretation of correlation measurings, carried out in a number of works. The analysis of study possibilities of independent (non-ambipolar) diffusion of electrons and ions in a plasma in the magnetic field is executed

  13. Does shaping bring an advantage for reversed field pinch plasmas?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, S.C.; Xu, X.Y.; Wang, Z.R.; Liu, Y.Q.

    2013-01-01

    The MHD–kinetic hybrid toroidal stability code MARS-K (Liu et al 2008 Phys. Plasmas 15 112503) is applied to study the shaping effects on magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stabilities in reversed field pinch (RFP) plasmas, where both elongation and triangularity are taken into account. The ideal wall β (the ratio of the gaso-kinetic to magnetic pressures) limit set by the ideal kink mode/resistive wall mode in shaped RFP is investigated first, followed by a study of the kinetic damping on the resistive wall mode. Physics understanding of the results is provided by a systematic numerical analysis. Furthermore, the stability boundary of the linear resistive tearing mode in shaped RFP plasmas is computed and compared with that of the circular case. Finally, bootstrap currents are calculated for both circular and shaped RFP plasmas. Overall, the results of these studies indicate that the current circular cross-section is an appropriate choice for RFP devices, in the sense that the plasma shaping does not bring an appreciable advantage to the RFP performance in terms of macroscopic stabilities. In order to reach a steady-state operation, future RFP fusion reactors will probably need a substantial fraction of external current drives, due to the unfavourable scaling for the plasma-generated bootstrap current in the RFP configuration. (paper)

  14. FOREWORD: Workshop on Large Amplitude Waves and Fields in Plasmas, sponsored by the Commission of the European Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, R.; De Angelis, U.; Shukla, P. K.; Stenflo, L.

    1990-01-01

    During the last decade considerable progress has been made in the area of nonlinear plasma wave phenomena and their applications. In order to exhibit the present state-of-art in this field, a one-week (22-26 May) workshop on Large Amplitude Waves and Fields was organized at the International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), Trieste, Italy, during the bi-yearly activity of the Spring College on Plasma Physics (15 May-9 June, 1989). Most of the invited lectures are published in this Topical Issue of Physica Scripta so that scientists working, or who want to enter the field of nonlinear plasma wave theory, can find out what has been achieved and what are the current research trends in this area. The material included here consists of general plasma wave theory, results of computer simulations, and experimental verifications. Without going into any detail, we shall just highlight the topics and the general features of the lectures contained in these proceedings. Various aspects of the excitation, propagation and interaction of nonlinear waves in plasmas are reviewed. Their relevance to plasma-based beat wave accelerators, short pulse laser and particle beam wake-field accelerators, plasma lenses, laser fusion and ionospheric modification experiments is discussed. Some introductory lectures present the general physics of nonlinear plasma waves including the saturation mechanisms and wave breaking conditions for both non-relativistic and relativistic nonlinearities. Three wave and four wave processes which include stimulated Raman, Brillouin and Compton scattering, modulational instabilities, self-focusing and collapse of the waves are discussed, emphasizing the important effects due to the relativistic electron mass variation and ponderomotive force. Detailed numerical studies of the interaction of high frequency plasma waves with low frequency density fluctuations described by the Zakharov equations show the localization of the high frequency field in density

  15. Time dependent convection electric fields and plasma injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaye, S.M.; Kivelson, M.G.

    1979-01-01

    Large-scale electric fields associated with storms or substorms are responsible for inward convection and energization of plasma sheet plasma. Calculations based on steady state convection theory show that the response to such electric fields qualitatively accounts for many features of the injected particle distribution, but quantitative agreement with the theory has not yet been obtained. It is known that the predictions can be improved by introducing the concept of convection in response to a time dependent electric field. On the other hand, time dependent calculations are sensitive to the choice of initial conditions, and most models have failed to incorporate these conditions in a realistic and self-consistent manner. In this paper we present a more complete model consisting of realisic initial conditions and time dependent convection to explain a typical substorm-associated electron injection event. We find very good agreement between the observed electron flux changes and those predicted by our model

  16. Advanced Channeling Technologies in Plasma and Laser Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dabagov Sultan B.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Channeling is the phenomenon well known in the world mostly related to the motion of the beams of charged particles in aligned crystals. However, recent studies have shown the feasibility of channeling phenomenology application for description of other various mechanisms of interaction of charged as well as neutral particle beams in solids, plasmas and electromagnetic fields covering the research fields from crystal based undulators, collimators and accelerators to capillary based X-ray and neutron optical elements. This brief review is devoted to the status of channeling-based researches at different centers within international and national collaborations. Present and future possible developments in channeling tools applied to electron interactions in strong plasma and laser fields will be analyzed.

  17. Plasma cleaning of ITER First Mirrors in magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moser, Lucas, E-mail: lucas.moser@unibas.ch [Department of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Steiner, Roland [Department of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland); Leipold, Frank; Reichle, Roger [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, 13115 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Marot, Laurent; Meyer, Ernst [Department of Physics, University of Basel, Klingelbergstrasse 82, CH-4056 Basel (Switzerland)

    2015-08-15

    To avoid reflectivity losses in ITER’s optical diagnostic systems, plasma sputtering of metallic First Mirrors is foreseen in order to remove deposits coming from the main wall (mainly beryllium and tungsten). Therefore plasma cleaning has to work on large mirrors (up to a size of 200 × 300 mm) and under the influence of strong magnetic fields (several Tesla). This work presents the results of plasma cleaning of aluminium and aluminium oxide (used as beryllium proxy) deposited on molybdenum mirrors. Using radio frequency (13.56 MHz) argon plasma, the removal of a 260 nm mixed aluminium/aluminium oxide film deposited by magnetron sputtering on a mirror (98 mm diameter) was demonstrated. 50 nm of pure aluminium oxide were removed from test mirrors (25 mm diameter) in a magnetic field of 0.35 T for various angles between the field lines and the mirrors surfaces. The cleaning efficiency was evaluated by performing reflectivity measurements, Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy.

  18. Morphology of magnetic fields generated in laser-produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, T.J.M.; Cooke, D.

    1988-01-01

    Magnetic fields in the megagauss range have been measured in experiments on plasmas generated by irradiating targets with high power lasers. A study of the morphology of these self-generated fields is important not only for its intrinsic interest but for possible implications in laser--target physics. In this paper work on the numerical modeling of large magnetic fields generated in target experiments is reported. The results show generally satisfactory agreement with the fields measured experimentally both in terms of the magnitude of the peak fields and their morphology. In the numerical model the contribution from the Hall term in describing the evolution of the magnetic field is shown to be important especially in short pulse (≅100 psec) experiments

  19. Proton radiography of magnetic field in laser produced plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Pape, S.; Patel, P.; Chen, S.; Town, R.; Mackinnon, A.

    2009-01-01

    Electromagnetic fields generated by the interaction with plasmas of long-pulse laser beams relevant to inertial confinement fusion have been measure. A proton beam generated by the interaction of an ultra intense laser with a thin metallic foil is used to probe the B-fields. The proton beam then generated is temporally short (of the order of a ps), highly laminar and hence equivalent to a virtual point which makes it an ideal source for radiography. We have investigated, using face-on radiography, B fields at intensity around 10 14 W/cm 2 due to the non co-linearity of temperature and density gradients. (authors)

  20. Studies of the formation of field reversed plasma by a magnetized co-axial plasma gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, W.C.; Granneman, E.H.A.; Hartman, C.W.; Prono, D.S.; Taska, J.; Smith, A.C. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The gun injects axially into a drift tank followed by a magnetic mirror. For the experiments reported here, only the guide coils outside the vacuum vessel and solenoids on the plasma gun electrodes were used; the mirror coil was not energized. A stainless steel flux conserver is placed in the mirror throat to prevent the plasma from contacting the nonconducting vacuum wall in the region of the mirror. An axis encircling array of magnetic loop probes includes four diamagnetic loops and a loop which measures the azimuthally averaged outward pointing radial component of magnetic field. These loop probes are stainless steel jacketed and form a flux conserving boundary (at a radius = 30 cm) for plasma emitted from the gun. A five tip probe that can be positioned anywhere along the axis of the experiment is used to measure internal components of magnetic field

  1. Fields and plasmas in the outer solar system. [Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, E J [Jet Propulsion Lab., Pasadena, CA (USA); Wolfe, J H [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Moffett Field, CA (USA). Ames Research Center

    1979-04-01

    The most significant information about fields and plasmas in the outer solar system, based on observations by Pioneer 10 and 11 investigations, is reviewed. The characteristic evolution of solar wind streams beyond 1 AU has been observed. The region within which the velocity increases continuously near 1 AU is replaced at larger distances by a thick interaction region with abrupt jumps in the solar wind speed at the leading and trailing edges. These abrupt increases, accompanied by corresponding jumps in the field magnitude and in the solar wind density and temperature, consist typically of a forward and a reverse shock. The existance of two distinct corotating regions, separated by sharp boundaries, is a characteristic feature of the interplanetary medium in the outer solar system. Within the interaction regions, compression effects are dominant and the field strength, plasma density, plasma temperature and the level of fluctuations are enhanced. Within the intervening quiet regions, rarefaction effects dominante and the field magnitude, solar wind density and fluctuation level are very low. These changes in the structure of interplanetary space have significant consequences for the many energetic particles propagating through the medium.

  2. End-shorting and electric field in edge plasmas with application to field-reversed configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinhauer, Loren C.

    2002-01-01

    The shorting of open field lines where they intersect external boundaries strongly modifies the transverse electric field all along the field lines. The modified electric field is found by an extension of the familiar Boltzmann relation for the electric potential. This leads to a prediction of the electric drift. Flow generation by electrical shorting is applied here to three aspects of elongated field-reversed configurations: plasma rotation rate; the particle-loss spin-up mechanism; and the sustainability of the rotating magnetic field current drive method

  3. Properties of partially ionized hydrogen plasmas in high electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morawetz, K.

    1993-03-01

    In this thesis the fundamental equations of many-particle quantum-statistics of nonequilibrium are treated in respect to arbitrary high electric fields. Generalizations are found for the T-matrix approximation as well as for the shielded potential approximation valid for any field strength. These result in a non-Markovian behavior of the obtained collision integrals, also known as intra-collisional-field-effect (ICFE), and in a broadening of the energy conservation, the so-called collisional broadening (CB), caused by applied electric fields. In linear response it is shown in a new way, how the Debye-Onsager relaxation effect can be rederived from these collision integrals. Furthermore the complete quantum result is presented. Both effects, ICFE and CB, contribute to the right classical limit. The quantum result yields an surprising maximum of this field effects in dependence of the interacting mass ratio, which may be important in exciton-plasmas and semiconductors. (orig.)

  4. Multi-Model Ensemble Wake Vortex Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koerner, Stephan; Holzaepfel, Frank; Ahmad, Nash'at N.

    2015-01-01

    Several multi-model ensemble methods are investigated for predicting wake vortex transport and decay. This study is a joint effort between National Aeronautics and Space Administration and Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt to develop a multi-model ensemble capability using their wake models. An overview of different multi-model ensemble methods and their feasibility for wake applications is presented. The methods include Reliability Ensemble Averaging, Bayesian Model Averaging, and Monte Carlo Simulations. The methodologies are evaluated using data from wake vortex field experiments.

  5. Poloidal field coil design for known plasma equilibrium states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulson, C.C.; Todd, A.M.M.; Reusch, M.F.

    1986-01-01

    The technique for obtaining plasma equilibria with given boundary conditions has long been known and understood. The inverse problem of obtaining a poloidal field (PF) coil system from a given plasma equilibrium has been widely studied, however its solution has remained largely an art form. An investigation, by the writers, of this fundamentally ill-posed inverse problem has resulted in a new understanding of the requirements that solutions must satisfy. A set of interacting computer codes has been written which may be used to successfully design PF coil systems capable of supporting given plasma equilibria. It is shown that for discrete coil systems with a reasonable number of elements the standard minimization of the R M S flux error can lead to undesirable results. Examples are given to show that an additional stability requirement must be imposed on the regularization parameter to obtain correct solutions. For some equilibria, the authors find that the inverse problem admits dual solutions corresponding to two possible magnetic field configurations that fit the constraining relations on the plasma surface equally well. An additional minimization of the absolute value of the limiter flux is required to discriminate between these solutions

  6. Quark-gluon plasma in strong magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalaydzhyan, Tigran

    2013-04-01

    One of the fundamental problems in subatomic physics is the determination of properties of matter at extreme temperatures, densities and electromagnetic fields. The modern ultrarelativistic heavy-ion experiments are able to study such states (the quark-gluon plasma) and indicate that the physics at extreme conditions differs drastically from what is known from the conventional observations. Also the theoretical methods developed mostly within the perturbative framework face various conceptual problems and need to be replaced by a nonperturbative approach. In this thesis we study the physics of the strongly-coupled quark-gluon plasma in external magnetic fields as well as general electromagnetic and topological properties of the QCD and QCD-like systems. We develop and apply various nonperturbative techniques, based on e.g. gauge-gravity correspondence, lattice QCD simulations, relativistic hydrodynamics and condensed-matter-inspired models.

  7. Quark-gluon plasma in strong magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalaydzhyan, Tigran

    2013-04-15

    One of the fundamental problems in subatomic physics is the determination of properties of matter at extreme temperatures, densities and electromagnetic fields. The modern ultrarelativistic heavy-ion experiments are able to study such states (the quark-gluon plasma) and indicate that the physics at extreme conditions differs drastically from what is known from the conventional observations. Also the theoretical methods developed mostly within the perturbative framework face various conceptual problems and need to be replaced by a nonperturbative approach. In this thesis we study the physics of the strongly-coupled quark-gluon plasma in external magnetic fields as well as general electromagnetic and topological properties of the QCD and QCD-like systems. We develop and apply various nonperturbative techniques, based on e.g. gauge-gravity correspondence, lattice QCD simulations, relativistic hydrodynamics and condensed-matter-inspired models.

  8. Experiments on plasma turbulence induced by strong, steady electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamberger, S.M.

    1975-01-01

    The author discusses the effect of applying a strong electric field to collisionless plasma. In particular are compared what some ideas and prejudices lead one to expect to happen, what computer simulation experiments tell one ought to happen, and what actually does happen in two laboratory experiments which have been designed to allow the relevant instability and turbulent processes to occur unobstructed and which have been studied in sufficient detail. (Auth.)

  9. On the geometry of field lines in plasma flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagewadi, C.S.; Prasanna Kumar, K.N.

    1988-01-01

    Many research investigators have applied differential geometry to plasma. Intrinsic properties of fluid flows in streamline, vortex line geometries are we ll known under certain set of geometric conditions. Though this approach has yielded some interesting results but the most general properties of flows can be obtained, using eight geometric parameters ksub(s), tsub(s) θsub(ns), θsub(bs), phisub(s), Ωsub(s), div n, div b and the basic necessary conditions to be satisfied by the flow in general anholonomic co-ordinate system together with the conditions to be satisfied by the geometric parameters of triply orthogonal spatial curves of congruences. Adopting the above techniques for triply orthogonal spatial curves of congruences related to the lines of forces, Purushottam has studied the geometric properties of spatial hydromagnetic fluid flows. Again these results have been studied by him in general along the field lines. These results have been studied for plasma along field lines and the basic equations of plasma have been expressed in intrinsic decomposition forms. Furthe r complex lamellar magnetic field have been studied by introducing Lie surface. (a uthor)

  10. Laboratory Experiments on Propagating Plasma Bubbles into Vacuum, Vacuum Magnetic Field, and Background Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Alan G.; Zhang, Yue; Gilmore, Mark; Hsu, Scott

    2014-10-01

    We discuss the dynamics of plasma ``bubbles'' as they propagate through a variety of background media. These bubbles are formed by a pulsed coaxial gun with an externally applied magnetic field. Bubble parameters are typically ne ~1020 m-3, Te ~ 5 - 10 eV, and Ti ~ 10 - 15 eV. The structure of the bubbles can range from unmagnetized jet-like structures to spheromak-like structures with complex magnetic flux surfaces. Some of the background media the bubbles interact with are vacuum, vacuum with magnetic field, and other magnetized plasmas. These bubbles exhibit different qualitative behavior depending on coaxial gun parameters such as gas species, gun current, and gun bias magnetic field. Their behavior also depends on the parameters of the background they propagate through. Multi-frame fast camera imaging and magnetic probe data are used to characterize the bubble evolution under various conditions.

  11. Effects of magnetic fields on the quark–gluon plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bali, G.S. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Universität Regensburg, D-93040 Regensburg (Germany); Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400005 (India); Bruckmann, F. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Universität Regensburg, D-93040 Regensburg (Germany); Endrődi, G., E-mail: gergely.endrodi@physik.uni-r.de [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Universität Regensburg, D-93040 Regensburg (Germany); Fodor, Z. [Eötvös University, Theoretical Physics, Pázmány P. s 1/A, H-1117, Budapest (Hungary); Bergische Universität Wuppertal, Theoretical Physics, 42119 Wuppertal (Germany); Jülich Supercomputing Centre, Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Katz, S.D. [Eötvös University, Theoretical Physics, Pázmány P. s 1/A, H-1117, Budapest (Hungary); MTA-ELTE Lendület Lattice Gauge Theory Research Group (Hungary); Schäfer, A. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Universität Regensburg, D-93040 Regensburg (Germany)

    2014-11-15

    In this talk, the response of the thermal QCD medium to external (electro)magnetic fields is studied using continuum extrapolated lattice results at physical quark masses. The magnetic susceptibility of QCD is calculated, revealing a strong paramagnetic response at high temperatures. This paramagnetism is shown to result in an anisotropic squeezing of the quark–gluon plasma in non-central heavy-ion collisions, implying a sizeable contribution to the elliptic flow. Another aspect is the magnetic response of topologically non-trivial domains to the magnetic field. We quantify this effect on the lattice and compare the results to a simple model estimate.

  12. Time development of electric fields and currents in space plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Y. Lui

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Two different approaches, referred to as Bu and Ej, can be used to examine the time development of electric fields and currents in space plasmas based on the fundamental laws of physics. From the Bu approach, the required equation involves the generalized Ohm's law with some simplifying assumptions. From the Ej approach, the required equation can be derived from the equation of particle motion, coupled self-consistently with Maxwell's equation, and the definition of electric current density. Recently, some strong statements against the Ej approach have been made. In this paper, we evaluate these statements by discussing (1 some limitations of the Bu approach in solving the time development of electric fields and currents, (2 the procedure in calculating self-consistently the time development of the electric current in space plasmas without taking the curl of the magnetic field in some cases, and (3 the dependency of the time development of magnetic field on electric current. It is concluded that the Ej approach can be useful to understand some magnetospheric problems. In particular, statements about the change of electric current are valid theoretical explanations of change in magnetic field during substorms.

  13. Magnetic field approaches in dc thermal plasma modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freton, P; Gonzalez, J J; Masquere, M; Reichert, Frank

    2011-01-01

    The self-induced magnetic field has an important role in thermal plasma configurations generated by electric arcs as it generates velocity through Lorentz forces. In the models a good representation of the magnetic field is thus necessary. Several approaches exist to calculate the self-induced magnetic field such as the Maxwell-Ampere formulation, the vector potential approach combined with different kinds of boundary conditions or the Biot and Savart (B and S) formulation. The calculation of the self-induced magnetic field is alone a difficult problem and only few papers of the thermal plasma community speak on this subject. In this study different approaches with different boundary conditions are applied on two geometries to compare the methods and their limitations. The calculation time is also one of the criteria for the choice of the method and a compromise must be found between method precision and computation time. The study shows the importance of the current carrying path representation in the electrode on the deduced magnetic field. The best compromise consists of using the B and S formulation on the walls and/or edges of the calculation domain to determine the boundary conditions and to solve the vector potential in a 2D system. This approach provides results identical to those obtained using the B and S formulation over the entire domain but with a considerable decrease in calculation time.

  14. Dynamics of the plasma injected into the gap of a plasma opening switch across a strong magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolgachev, G. I.; Maslennikov, D. D.; Ushakov, A. G.; Fedotkin, A. S.; Khodeev, I. A.; Shvedov, A. A.

    2011-01-01

    A method is proposed to increase the linear charge density transferred through a plasma opening switch (POS) and, accordingly, reduce the POS diameter by enhancing the external magnetic field in the POS gap. Results are presented from experimental studies of the dynamics of the plasma injected into the POS gap across a strong magnetic field. The possibility of closing the POS gap by the plasma injected across an external magnetic field of up to 60 kG is demonstrated.

  15. Wake potential in a nonuniform self-gravitating dusty magnetoplasma in the presence of ion streaming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salimullah, M.; Ehsan, Z.; Zubia, K.; Shah, H. A.; Murtaza, G.

    2007-01-01

    A detailed investigation of the electrostatic asymmetric shielding potential and consequent generation of the dynamical oscillatory wake potential has been examined analytically in an inhomogeneous self-gravitating dusty magnetoplasma in the presence of uniform ion streaming. It is found that the wake potential depends significantly on the test particle speed, ambient magnetic field, ion streaming velocity, and the plasma inhomogeneity. The periodic oscillatory potential might lead to an alternative approach to the Jeans instability for the formation of dust agglomeration leading to gravitational collapse of the self-gravitating systems

  16. Plasma-induced field emission and plasma expansion of carbon nanotube cathodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao Qingliang; Zhang Yue; Qi Junjie; Huang Yunhua; Xia Liansheng; Gao Zhanjun; Gu Yousong

    2007-01-01

    High intensity electron emission cathodes based on carbon nanotube films have been successfully fabricated. An investigation of the explosive field emission properties of the carbon nanotube cathode in a double-pulse mode was presented and a high emission current density of 245 A cm -2 was obtained. The formation of the cathode plasma layer was proved and the production process of the electron beams from the cathode was explained. The time and space resolution of the electron beams flow from the cathode was investigated. The plasma expanded at a velocity of ∼8.17 cm μs -1 towards the anode and influenced on the intensity and distribution of electron beams obviously. The formation of cathode plasma had no preferential position and the local enhancement of electron beams was random. This carbon nanotube cathode appears to be suitable for high-power microwave device applications

  17. Induced magnetic-field effects in inductively coupled plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, R.H.; Rognlien, T.D.

    1995-01-01

    In inductive plasma sources, the rapid spatial decay of the electric field arising from the skin effect produces a large radio frequency (RF) magnetic field via Faraday's law. We previously determined that this magnetic field leads to a reduction of the electron density in the skin region, as well as a reduction in the collisionless heating rate. The electron deficit leads to the formation of an electrostatic potential which pulls electrons in to restore quasineutrality. Here we calculate the electron density including both the induced and electrostatic fields. If the wave frequency is not too low, the ions respond only to the averaged fields, and hence the electrostatic field is oscillatory, predominantly at the second harmonic of the applied field. We calculate the potential required to establish a constant electron density, and compare with numerical orbit-code calculations. For times short compared to ion transit times, the quasineutral density is just the initial ion density. For timescales long enough that the ions can relax, the density profile can be found from the solution of fluid equations with an effective (ponderomotive-like) potential added. Although the time-varying electrostatic potential is an extra source of heating, the net effect of the induced magnetic and electrostatic fields through trapping, early turning, and direct heating is a significant reduction in collisionless heating for parameters of interest

  18. Multiple Turbine Wakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machefaux, Ewan; Mann, Jakob

    and to obtain an estimate of the wake expansion in a fixed frame of reference. A comparison of selected datasets from the campaign showed good far wake agreements of mean wake expansion with Actuator Line CFD computations and simpler engineering models. An empirical relationship, relating maximum wake induction...... for modeling the resulting double wake deficit is only relevant at high turbine thrust coefficients. For high wind speed and low thrust coefficient, linear summation should be primarily used. The first iteration of a new engineering model capable of modeling the overlapped wake deficit is formulated and its...... measurement and simulation is seen in both the fixed and the meandering frame of reference. A benchmark of several wake accumulation models is performed as a basis for the subsequent development of an engineering model for wake interaction.Finally, the validated numerical CFD model is used as part...

  19. Ponderomotive force, magnetic fields and hydrodynamics of laser produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobin, J.-L.; Wee Woo; Degroot, J.-S.

    1977-01-01

    Nonlinear effects deeply change the structure of a laser driven plasma flow. For high intensities, the radiation pressure should be taken into account. It acts through a ponderomotive force proportional to the electron density and to the gradient of the mean electric field energy density of the incident wave. Static magnetic fields originate from a term in the ponderomotive force which includes radiation absorption and whose curl is non zero. The basic properties of the structure are determined analytically in the absence of thermal conductivity and magnetic fields: steep density gradient close to the cut-off density, shelf at lower densities. The conditions of a steady state regime are set up. The isothermal case is specially investigated. It is shown that the cavities which are created in a motionless plasma may disappear due to the onset of a flow. Regions in which electromagnetic forces arising from the static field compensate the ponderomotive force are determined. The subsequent effects on the flow itself are studied [fr

  20. Transport of plasma across a braided magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stix, T.H.

    1976-10-01

    Transport rates are calculated for a plasma immersed in a region through which magnetic lines of force meander in a stochastic fashion and in which the magnetic surfaces are destroyed. Such a magnetic condition, termed magnetic braiding, may be brought about by asymmetric magnetic perturbations, perhaps quite weak, which typically produce overlap of two sets of magnetic islands. Plasma transport is calculated for this environment, using both a fluid and a kinetic drift model. The latter gives an appreciably higher rate, namely, a fast-particle diffusion coefficient equal to ( 1 / 2 )D/sub M/ [absolute value of v/sub ''/], where D/sub M/ is the coefficient of spatial diffusion for the magnetic lines of force. Correction terms, due to polarization-associated E/sub ''/ fields, are small unless components of the braiding field resonate with ion-acoustic or drift waves. Insertion of a Bhatnager--Gross--Krook collision term shows the diffusion rate is unaffected by weak collisions. Diffusion due to magnetic braiding is of interest for tokamaks, particularly with respect to enhanced electron heat transport, enhanced current penetration, plasma disruption, and internal sawtooth oscillations

  1. High frequency electric field spikes formed by electron beam-plasma interaction in plasma density gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunell, H.; Loefgren, T.

    1997-02-01

    In the electron beam-plasma interaction at an electric double layer the beam density is much higher than in the classical beam-plasma experiments. The wave propagation takes place along the density gradient, that is present at the high potential side of the double layer. Such a case is studied experimentally by injecting the electron beam from a plane cathode, without any grids suppressing the gradient, and by particle simulations. The high frequency field concentrates in a sharp 'spike' with a half width of the order of one wavelength. The spike is found to be a standing wave surrounded by regions dominated by propagating waves. It forms at a position where its frequency is close to the local plasma frequency. The spike forms also when the electric field is well below the threshold for modulational instability, and long before a density cavity is formed in the simulations. Particle simulations reveal that, at the spike, there is a backward travelling wave that, when it is strongly damped, accelerates electrons back towards the cathode. In a simulation of a homogeneous plasma without the density gradient no spike is seen, and the wave is purely travelling instead of standing. 9 refs

  2. Electric field spikes formed by electron beam endash plasma interaction in plasma density gradients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunell, H.; Loefgren, T.

    1997-01-01

    In the electron beam endash plasma interaction at an electric double layer the beam density is much higher than in the classical beam endash plasma experiments. The wave propagation takes place along the density gradient that is present at the high potential side of the double layer. Such a case is studied experimentally by injecting the electron beam from a plane cathode, without any grids suppressing the gradient, and by particle simulations. The high frequency field concentrates in a sharp open-quotes spikeclose quotes with a half width of the order of one wavelength. The spike is found to be a standing wave surrounded by regions dominated by propagating waves. It forms at a position where its frequency is close to the local plasma frequency. The spike forms also when the electric field is well below the threshold for modulational instability, and long before a density cavity is formed in the simulations. Particle simulations reveal that, at the spike, there is a backward traveling wave that, when it is strongly damped, accelerates electrons back towards the cathode. In a simulation of a homogeneous plasma without the density gradient no spike is seen, and the wave is purely travelling instead of standing. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  3. Experimental investigation of coaxial-gun-formed plasmas injected into a background transverse magnetic field or plasma

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yue; Fisher, Dustin M.; Gilmore, Mark; Hsu, Scott C.; Lynn, Alan G.

    2017-01-01

    Injection of coaxial-gun-formed magnetized plasmas into a background transverse vacuum magnetic field or into a background magnetized plasma has been studied in the helicon-cathode (HelCat) linear plasma device at the University of New Mexico [M. Gilmore et al., J. Plasma Phys.81, 345810104 (2015)]. Magnetized plasma jet launched into a background transverse magnetic field shows emergent kink stabilization of the jet due to the formation of a sheared flow in the jet above the kink-stabilizati...

  4. Collisionless scattering of plasma cloud in a dipole magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osipyan, D.A.

    2006-01-01

    Results of numerical simulation of dense plasma cloud scattering dynamics in a magnetized background and MHD indignations generation are presented. The magnetic field has dipole structure. The initial system of equations includes the Vlasov equations for ionic components of plasma, hydrodynamic approach for electrons and Maxwell's system of equations. The method of solution is based on the use of the method of particles in cells and finite difference splitting schemes. Quantitative characteristics of dependence of scattering cloud parameters from the Mach-Alfven number and parameter of magnetic laminar interaction are observed. In particular, a condition of more effective deformation of a cloud is large values of the Mach-Alfven numbers and small parameters of the magnetic laminar interaction

  5. Light pressure of time-dependent fields in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeidler, A.; Schnabl, H.; Mulser, P.

    1985-01-01

    An expression of the light pressure Pi is derived for the case of a nearly monochromatic electromagnetic wave with arbitrarily time-dependent amplitude. Thereby Pi is defined as the time-averaged force density exerted on a plasma by the wave. The resulting equations are valid for both transverse and longitudinal waves. The light pressure turns out to consist of two components: the well-known gradient-type term and a new nonstationary solenoidal term. This is true for warm as well as cold plasmas. The importance of the new term for the generation of static magnetic fields is shown, and a model in which shear forces may result is given. Formulas for the nonstationary light pressure developed previously are discussed

  6. Steady state models for filamentary plasma structures associated with force free magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marklund, G.

    1978-05-01

    This paper presents a model for filamentary plasma structures associated with force-free magnetic fields. A homogenous electric field parallel to the symmetry axis of the magnetic field is assumed. Under the influence of these fields, the plasma will drift radially inwards resulting in an accumulation of plasma in the central region. We assume recombination losses to keep the central plasma density at a finite value, and the recombined plasma i.e. the neutrals to diffuse radially outwards. Plasma density and some neutral gas density distributions for a steady state situation are calculated for various cases

  7. Multi-field plasma sandpile model in tokamaks and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, X. D.; Xu, J. Q.

    2016-08-01

    A multi-field sandpile model of tokamak plasmas is formulated for the first time to simulate the dynamic process with interaction between avalanche events on the fast/micro time-scale and diffusive transports on the slow/macro time-scale. The main characteristics of the model are that both particle and energy avalanches of sand grains are taken into account simultaneously. New redistribution rules of a sand-relaxing process are defined according to the transport properties of special turbulence which allows the uphill particle transport. Applying the model, we first simulate the steady-state plasma profile self-sustained by drift wave turbulences in the Ohmic discharge of a tokamak. A scaling law as f = a q0 b + c for the relation of both center-density n ( 0 ) and electron (ion) temperatures T e ( 0 ) ( T i ( 0 ) ) with the center-safety-factor q 0 is found. Then interesting work about the nonlocal transport phenomenon observed in tokamak experiments proceeds. It is found that the core electron temperature increases rapidly in response to the edge cold pulse and inversely it decreases in response to the edge heat pulse. The results show that the nonlocal response of core electron temperature depending on the amplitudes of background plasma density and temperature is more remarkable in a range of gas injection rate. Analyses indicate that the avalanche transport caused by plasma drift instabilities with thresholds is a possible physical mechanism for the nonlocal transport in tokamaks. It is believed that the model is capable of being applied to more extensive questions occurring in the transport field.

  8. Plasma polarization spectroscopy on the ECR helium plasma in a cusp magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, T.; Iwamae, A.; Fujimoto, T.; Uchida, M.; Maekawa, T.

    2004-01-01

    Helium emission lines have been observed on the ECR plasma in a cusp field with the polarized components resolved. The polarization map is constructed for the 501.6 nm (2 1 S-3 1 P) line emission. Lines from n 1 P and n 1 D levels are strongly polarized and those from n 3 D levels are weakly polarized. As the helium pressure increases the polarization degree decreases. (author)

  9. Electromagnetically Driven Plasma-Field Dynamics in Modified Ionosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochetov, Andrey; Terina, Galina

    Under sounding of an artificial ionospheric turbulence by short probing radio pulses of ordinary polarization the two types of scattered signals were observed: a "caviton" signal (CS) and a "plasma" signal (PS), which appeared with the heating transmitter switching on and disap-peared after its switching off (G.I. Terina J. Atm. Terr. Phys, 57, 1995, 273, Izv. VUZov, Radiofizika, 39, 1998, 203). The scattered signal of PS type was revealed also after the heating switching off. It was called an "aftereffect plasma signal" (AEPS) (G.I. Terina Izv .VUZov, Radiofizika, 43, 2000, 958). This signal had large time and spatial delays and appeared mostly when corresponding PS had envelope fluctuations. The aftereffect phenomenon was expressed at time on CS by amplitude increasing at once after the heating transmitter turning off. The theoretical model of this phenomenon is proposed in and some peculiarities of the aftereffect phenomena of the scattered signals in modified ionospheric plasma are considered and discussed. For theoretical interpretation of the characteristics of CS and AEPS the numerical solution of nonlinear Shrüdinger equation (NSE) with driven extension were carried out in inhomogeneous plasma layer with linear electron density profile (A.V. Kochetov, V.A. Mironov, G.I. Terina, Adv. Space Reseacrh, 29, 2002, 1369) and for the one with prescribed density depletion (and A.V. Kochetov, G.I. Terina, Adv. Space Reseacrh, 38, 2006, 2490). The simulation results obtained for linear inhomogeneous plasma layer and for plasma one with density depletion al-low us to interpret the aftereffect of CS and PS qualitatively. The field amplitude increase at relaxation stage displayed at calculations allows us to interpret of CS aftereffect. The large time delays of AEPS can be explained as a result of powerful radio waves trapping in the forming at the plasma resonance regions density depletions (E. Mjøhus, J. Geophys. Res. 103, 1998, 14711; B. Eliasson and L. Stenflo, J

  10. Green Functions for the Radial Electric Component of the Monopole Wake Field in a Round Resistive Chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmermann, Frank

    1998-01-01

    We compare different approximations to the point-charge Green function for the radial electric monopole field excited by an ultrarelativistic particle propagating through a resistive pipe, and study the applicability of these approximations for calculating the field of a bunch with finite length. It has been speculated that the exact form of the electric field could be important for simulations of the electron-cloud instability. In this paper, we show, however, that the usual approximation of the Green function by a delta function is adequate, except for extremely short bunch lengths

  11. The low-field permanent magnet electrostatic plasma lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncharov, A.; Gorshkov, V.; Maslov, V.; Zadorozhny, V.; Brown, I.

    2004-01-01

    We describe the status of ongoing research and development of the electrostatic plasma lens as used for the manipulation of high current broad beams of heavy ions of moderate energy. In some collaborative work at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory the lens was used to good effect for carrying out high dose ion implantation processing. In the process of this work a very narrow range of low magnetic field was found for which the ion-optical characteristics of the lens improved markedly. Subsequent theoretical analysis and computer modeling has led to an understanding of this phenomenon. These serendipitous results open up some attractive possibilities for the development of a new compact and low cost plasma lens based on permanent magnets rather than on current-driven field coils surrounding the lens volume. The development of this kind of lens, including both very low noise and minimal spherical aberration effects, may lead to a tool suitable for use in the injection beam lines of high current heavy ion linear accelerators. Here we briefly review the lens fundamentals, some characteristics of focusing heavy ion beams at low magnetic fields, and summarize recent theoretical and experimental developments, with emphasis on the relevance and suitability of the lens for accelerator injection application

  12. Fueling moving ring field-reversed mirror reactor plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felber, F.S.

    1980-01-01

    The concept of small fusion reactors is being studied jointly by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory General Atomic Company, and Pacific Gas and Electric Company. The objective is to investigate alternatives and then to develop a conceptual design for a small reactor that could produce useful, though not necessarily economical, energy by the late 1980s. Three methods of fueling a small moving ring field-reversed mirror are considered: injection of fuel pellets accelerated by laser ablation, injection of fuel pellets accelerated by deflagration-gun ablation, and direct injection of plasma by a deflagration gun. 13 refs

  13. Magnetic field generation during intense laser channelling in underdense plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smyth, A. G.; Sarri, G.; Doria, D.; Kar, S.; Borghesi, M. [School of Mathematics and Physics, The Queen' s University of Belfast, University Road, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Vranic, M.; Guillaume, E.; Silva, L. O.; Vieira, J. [GoLP/IPFN, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Amano, Y.; Habara, H.; Tanaka, K. A. [Graduate School of Engineering Osaka University. Suita, Osaka 5650871 (Japan); Heathcote, R.; Norreys, P. A. [STFC Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Didcot, Oxon OX1 0Qx (United Kingdom); Hicks, G.; Najmudin, Z.; Nakamura, H. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BZ (United Kingdom)

    2016-06-15

    Channel formation during the propagation of a high-energy (120 J) and long duration (30 ps) laser pulse through an underdense deuterium plasma has been spatially and temporally resolved via means of a proton imaging technique, with intrinsic resolutions of a few μm and a few ps, respectively. Conclusive proof is provided that strong azimuthally symmetric magnetic fields with a strength of around 0.5 MG are created inside the channel, consistent with the generation of a collimated beam of relativistic electrons. The inferred electron beam characteristics may have implications for the cone-free fast-ignition scheme of inertial confinement fusion.

  14. Effect of magnetic field gradient on power absorption in compact microwave plasma sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dey, Indranuj; Shamim, Md.; Bhattacharjee, Sudeep

    2006-01-01

    We study the effect of the change in magnetic field gradient at the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) point, on the generated plasma for two different cylindrical minimum B-field configurations, viz. the hexapole and the octupole. The plasma parameters such as the electron and ion density, electron temperature including the wave field characteristics (B-field and E-field) in the plasma will be measured and compared for the two configurations. (author)

  15. Relation between magnetic fields and electric currents in plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Vasyliunas

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Maxwell's equations allow the magnetic field B to be calculated if the electric current density J is assumed to be completely known as a function of space and time. The charged particles that constitute the current, however, are subject to Newton's laws as well, and J can be changed by forces acting on charged particles. Particularly in plasmas, where the concentration of charged particles is high, the effect of the electromagnetic field calculated from a given J on J itself cannot be ignored. Whereas in ordinary laboratory physics one is accustomed to take J as primary and B as derived from J, it is often asserted that in plasmas B should be viewed as primary and J as derived from B simply as (c/4π∇×B. Here I investigate the relation between ∇×B and J in the same terms and by the same method as previously applied to the MHD relation between the electric field and the plasma bulk flow vmv2001: assume that one but not the other is present initially, and calculate what happens. The result is that, for configurations with spatial scales much larger than the electron inertial length λe, a given ∇×B produces the corresponding J, while a given J does not produce any ∇×B but disappears instead. The reason for this can be understood by noting that ∇×B≠4π/cJ implies a time-varying electric field (displacement current which acts to change both terms (in order to bring them toward equality; the changes in the two terms, however, proceed on different time scales, light travel time for B and electron plasma period for J, and clearly the term changing much more slowly is the one that survives. (By definition, the two time scales are equal at λe. On larger scales, the evolution of B (and hence also of ∇×B is governed by

  16. Electrodeless plasma acceleration system using rotating magnetic field method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Furukawa

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We have proposed Rotating Magnetic Field (RMF acceleration method as one of electrodeless plasma accelerations. In our experimental scheme, plasma generated by an rf (radio frequency antenna, is accelerated by RMF antennas, which consist of two-pair, opposed, facing coils, and these antennas are outside of a discharge tube. Therefore, there is no wear of electrodes, degrading the propulsion performance. Here, we will introduce our RMF acceleration system developed, including the experimental device, e.g., external antennas, a tapered quartz tube, a vacuum chamber, external magnets, and a pumping system. In addition, we can change RMF operation parameters (RMF applied current IRMF and RMF current phase difference ϕ, focusing on RMF current frequency fRMF by adjusting matching conditions of RMF, and investigate the dependencies on plasma parameters (electron density ne and ion velocity vi; e.g., higher increases of ne and vi (∼360 % and 55 %, respectively than previous experimental results were obtained by decreasing fRMF from 5 MHz to 0.7 MHz, whose RMF penetration condition was better according to Milroy’s expression. Moreover, time-varying component of RMF has been measured directly to survey the penetration condition experimentally.

  17. Plasma-induced field emission study of carbon nanotube cathode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Shen

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available An investigation on the plasma-induced field emission (PFE properties of a large area carbon nanotube (CNT cathode on a 2 MeV linear induction accelerator injector is presented. Experimental results show that the cathode is able to emit intense electron beams. Intense electron beams of 14.9–127.8  A/cm^{2} are obtained from the cathode. The CNT cathode desorbs gases from the CNTs during the PFE process. The fast cathode plasma expansion affects the diode perveance. The amount of outgassing is estimated to be 0.06–0.49  Pa·L, and the ratio of outgassing and electron are roughly calculated to be within the range of 170–350 atoms per electron. The effect of the outgassing is analyzed, and the outgassing mass spectrum of the CNT cathode has been studied during the PFE. There is a significant desorption of CO_{2}, N_{2}(CO, and H_{2} gases, which plays an important role during the PFE process. All the experiments demonstrate that the outgassing plays an important role in the formation of the cathode plasma. Moreover, the characteristic turn-on time of the CNT cathode was measured to be 39 ns.

  18. Effect of radial electric field inhomogeneity on anomalous cross field plasma flux in Heliotron/Torsatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagishi, Tomejiro; Sanuki, Heiji.

    1996-01-01

    Anomalous cross field plasma fluxes induced by the electric field fluctuations has been evaluated in a rotating plasma with shear flow in a helical system. The anomalous ion flux is evaluated by the contribution from ion curvature drift resonance continuum in the test particle model. The radial electric field induces the Doppler frequency shift which disappears in the frequency integrated anomalous flux. The inhomogeneity of the electric field (shear flow effect), however, induces a new force term in the flux. The curvature drift resonance also induces a new force term '/ which, however, did not make large influence in the ion flux in the CHS configuration. The shear flow term in the flux combined with the electric field in neoclassical flux reduces to a first order differential equation which governs the radial profile of the electric field. Numerical results indicate that the shear flow effect is important for the anomalous cross field flux and for determination of the radial electric field particularly in the peripheral region. (author)

  19. The acceleration of a gaseous plasma by intense microwave fields in a constant inhomogeneous magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourier, Georges

    1971-01-01

    A gaseous plasma excited by a powerful microwave source (up to 300 kW) was studied theoretically and experimentally. The large amplitude electric field excites, in a constant inhomogeneous magnetic field, a plasma near to the electron cyclotron resonance. These particles are accelerated to energies of between 100 and 10000 eV and subsequently drift to the regions of lower magnetic field. The ions are accelerated by the resulting electrostatic forces. Ion and electron currents of some tens of milli-amperes to a few amperes are obtained. The energy of the electrons is limited by their relativistic mass; a three-dimensional of space charge model is set up to describe the particle flow. (author) [fr

  20. Neutral Beam Injection for Plasma and Magnetic Field Diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vainionpaa, Jaakko Hannes; Leung, Ka Ngo; Kwan, Joe W.; Levinton, Fred

    2007-01-01

    At the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) a diagnostic neutral beam injection system for measuring plasma parameters, flow velocity, and local magnetic field is being developed. High proton fraction and small divergence is essential for diagnostic neutral beams. In our design, a neutral hydrogen beam with an 8 cm x 11 cm (or smaller) elliptical beam spot at 2.5 m from the end of the extraction column is produced. The beam will deliver up to 5 A of hydrogen beam to the target with a pulse width of ∼1 s, once every 1-2 min. The H1+ ion species of the hydrogen beam will be over 90 percent. For this application, we have compared two types of RF driven multicusp ion sources operating at 13.56MHz. The first one is an ion source with an external spiral antenna behind a dielectric RF-window. The second one uses an internal antenna in similar ion source geometry. The source needs to generate uniform plasma over a large (8 cm x 5 cm) extraction area. We expect that the ion source with internal antenna will be more efficient at producing the desired plasma density but might have the issue of limited antenna lifetime, depending on the duty factor. For both approaches there is a need for extra shielding to protect the dielectric materials from the backstreaming electrons. The source walls will be made of insulator material such as quartz that has been observed to generate plasma with higher atomic fraction than sources with metal walls. The ion beam will be extracted and accelerated by a set of grids with slits, thus forming an array of 6 sheet-shaped beamlets. The multiple grid extraction will be optimized using computer simulation programs. Neutralization of the beam will be done in neutralization chamber, which has over 70 percent neutralization efficiency

  1. Anisotropic temperature relaxation of plasmas in an external magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, M.H.A.

    1977-01-01

    The magnetized kinetic equation derived in an earlier paper (Hassan and Watson, 1977) is used to study the problem of relaxation of anisotropic electron and ion temperatures in a magnetized plasma. In the case of anisotropic electron temperature relaxation, it is shown that for small anisotropies the exchange of energy within the electrons between the components parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field direction determine the relaxation rate. For anisotropic ion temperature relaxation it is shown that the essential mechanism for relaxation is provided by energy transfer between ions and electrons, and that the expression for the relaxation rate perpendicular to the magnetic field contains a significant term proportional to ln eta 0 ln (msub(e)/msub(i)) (where eta 0 = Ωsub(e)/ksub(D)Vsub(e perpendicular to)), in addition to the term proportional to the Coulomb logarithm. (author)

  2. Plasma behaviour in large reversed-field pinches and reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christiansen, J.P.; Bodin, H.A.B.; Carolan, P.G.; Johnston, J.W.; Newton, A.A.; Roberts, K.V.; Robinson, D.C.; Watts, M.R.C.; Piotrowicz, V.A.

    1981-01-01

    Recent analytic and numerical results on large reversed-field-pinch (RFP) systems and RFP reactors are presented. Predictions are made of the plasma behaviour in Eta Beta II, HBTXIA (under construction) and RFX (planned). The setting-up phase of an RFP is studied by using turbulence theory in transport equilibrium calculations, and estimates are made of the volt-seconds consumption for four different modes of field control. A prescription is given for a dynamo producing self-reversal which yields finite-β configurations. Residual instabilities of these equilibria may be resistive pressure-driven g-modes, and a new study of these modes that includes parallel viscosity indicates stability for anti β approximately 10%. The sustainment phase of the RFP is examined with tokamak scaling laws assumed for the energy confinement time. Temperatures in excess of 1keV are predicted for currents of 2MA in RFX. An operating cycle for a pulsed RFP reactor including gas puffing to reach ignition is proposed following a study of the energy replacement time for an Ohmically heated plasma. The scaling of the reactor parameters with minor radius is also investigated. (author)

  3. Cold atmospheric plasma jet in an axial DC electric field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Li, E-mail: lilin@gwu.edu, E-mail: keidar@gwu.edu; Keidar, Michael, E-mail: lilin@gwu.edu, E-mail: keidar@gwu.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, School of Engineering and Applied Science, The George Washington University, Washington, DC 20052 (United States)

    2016-08-15

    Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) jet is currently intensively investigated as a tool for new and potentially transformative cancer treatment modality. However, there are still many unknowns about the jet behavior that requires attention. In this paper, a helium CAP jet is tested in an electrostatic field generated by a copper ring. Using Rayleigh microwave scattering method, some delays of the electron density peaks for different ring potentials are observed. Meanwhile, a similar phenomenon associated with the bullet velocity is found. Chemical species distribution along the jet is analyzed based on the jet optical emission spectra. The spectra indicate that a lower ring potential, i.e., lower DC background electric field, can increase the amount of excited N{sub 2}, N{sub 2}{sup +}, He, and O in the region before the ring, but can decrease the amount of excited NO and HO almost along the entire jet. Combining all the results above, we discovered that an extra DC potential mainly affects the temporal plasma jet properties. Also, it is possible to manipulate the chemical compositions of the jet using a ring with certain electric potentials.

  4. Merging of magnetic fields with field-aligned plasma flow components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, H.G. Jr.; Kan, J.R.

    1978-01-01

    The Sonnerup merging model for an incompressible plasma is extended to allow a flow component along the field lines in the inflow regions. Solutions are found to exist as long as the difference between the quantities B. V for the two inflow regions does not exceed a critical magnitude dependent on the inflow field magnitudes and plasma densities. All such solutions satisfy Vasyliunas' definition of merging, but some classes of solution have radically altered geometries, i.e. geometries in which the inflow regions are much smaller than the outflow regions. The necessary but not sufficient condition for these unusual geometries is that the field-aligned flow component in at least one inflow region be super-Alfvenic. A solution for the case of a vacuum field in one inflow region is obtained in which any flow velocity is allowed in the non-vacuum inflow region, although super-Alfvenic flow can still result in an unusual geometry. For symmetric configurations, the usual geometry, that of Petschek and Sonnerup, is retained as long as both field-aligned flow components in the inflow regions are less than twice the inflow Alfven speed. For the case of a vacuum field on one side and fields approximating the boundary between the solar wind and the earth's dayside magnetosphere, the usual geometry is retained for flow less than about 2.5 times the local Alfven speed. (author)

  5. Radial interchange motions of plasma filaments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, O.E.; Bian, N.H.; Fundamenski, W.

    2006-01-01

    on a biperiodic domain perpendicular to the magnetic field. It is demonstrated that a blob-like plasma structure develops dipolar vorticity and electrostatic potential fields, resulting in rapid radial acceleration and formation of a steep front and a trailing wake. While the dynamical evolution strongly depends...

  6. Electric field measurements on plasma bullets in N2 using four-wave mixing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schans, M.; Böhm, P.; Nijdam, S.; IJzerman, W.L.; Czarnetzki, U.

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric pressure plasma jets driven by pulsed DC or kHz AC voltages typically consist of discrete guided ionisation waves called plasma bullets. In this work, the electric field of plasma bullets generated in a pulsed DC jet with N2 as feed gas is investigated. Electric field measurements in N2

  7. Dynamic Hybrid Simulation of the Lunar Wake During ARTEMIS Crossing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiehle, S.; Plaschke, F.; Angelopoulos, V.; Auster, H.; Glassmeier, K.; Kriegel, H.; Motschmann, U. M.; Mueller, J.

    2010-12-01

    The interaction of the highly dynamic solar wind with the Moon is simulated with the A.I.K.E.F. (Adaptive Ion Kinetic Electron Fluid) code for the ARTEMIS P1 flyby on February 13, 2010. The A.I.K.E.F. hybrid plasma simulation code is the improved version of the Braunschweig code. It is able to automatically increase simulation grid resolution in areas of interest during runtime, which greatly increases resolution as well as performance. As the Moon has no intrinsic magnetic field and no ionosphere, the solar wind particles are absorbed at its surface, resulting in the formation of the lunar wake at the nightside. The solar wind magnetic field is basically convected through the Moon and the wake is slowly filled up with solar wind particles. However, this interaction is strongly influenced by the highly dynamic solar wind during the flyby. This is considered by a dynamic variation of the upstream conditions in the simulation using OMNI solar wind measurement data. By this method, a very good agreement between simulation and observations is achieved. The simulations show that the stationary structure of the lunar wake constitutes a tableau vivant in space representing the well-known Friedrichs diagram for MHD waves.

  8. LOW-MASS PLANETS IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS WITH NET VERTICAL MAGNETIC FIELDS: THE PLANETARY WAKE AND GAP OPENING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Zhaohuan; Stone, James M.; Rafikov, Roman R., E-mail: zhzhu@astro.princeton.edu, E-mail: jstone@astro.princeton.edu, E-mail: rrr@astro.princeton.edu [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, 08544 (United States)

    2013-05-10

    Some regions in protoplanetary disks are turbulent, while some regions are quiescent (e.g. the dead zone). In order to study how planets open gaps in both inviscid hydrodynamic disk (e.g. the dead zone) and the disk subject to magnetorotational instability (MRI), we carried out both shearing box two-dimensional inviscid hydrodynamical simulations and three-dimensional unstratified magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) simulations (having net vertical magnetic fields) with a planet at the box center. We found that, due to the nonlinear wave steepening, even a low mass planet can open gaps in both cases, in contradiction to the ''thermal criterion'' for gap opening. In order to understand if we can represent the MRI turbulent stress with the viscous {alpha} prescription for studying gap opening, we compare gap properties in MRI-turbulent disks to those in viscous HD disks having the same stress, and found that the same mass planet opens a significantly deeper and wider gap in net vertical flux MHD disks than in viscous HD disks. This difference arises due to the efficient magnetic field transport into the gap region in MRI disks, leading to a larger effective {alpha} within the gap. Thus, across the gap, the Maxwell stress profile is smoother than the gap density profile, and a deeper gap is needed for the Maxwell stress gradient to balance the planetary torque density. Comparison with previous results from net toroidal flux/zero flux MHD simulations indicates that the magnetic field geometry plays an important role in the gap opening process. We also found that long-lived density features (termed zonal flows) produced by the MRI can affect planet migration. Overall, our results suggest that gaps can be commonly produced by low mass planets in realistic protoplanetary disks, and caution the use of a constant {alpha}-viscosity to model gaps in protoplanetary disks.

  9. LOW-MASS PLANETS IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS WITH NET VERTICAL MAGNETIC FIELDS: THE PLANETARY WAKE AND GAP OPENING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Zhaohuan; Stone, James M.; Rafikov, Roman R.

    2013-01-01

    Some regions in protoplanetary disks are turbulent, while some regions are quiescent (e.g. the dead zone). In order to study how planets open gaps in both inviscid hydrodynamic disk (e.g. the dead zone) and the disk subject to magnetorotational instability (MRI), we carried out both shearing box two-dimensional inviscid hydrodynamical simulations and three-dimensional unstratified magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) simulations (having net vertical magnetic fields) with a planet at the box center. We found that, due to the nonlinear wave steepening, even a low mass planet can open gaps in both cases, in contradiction to the ''thermal criterion'' for gap opening. In order to understand if we can represent the MRI turbulent stress with the viscous α prescription for studying gap opening, we compare gap properties in MRI-turbulent disks to those in viscous HD disks having the same stress, and found that the same mass planet opens a significantly deeper and wider gap in net vertical flux MHD disks than in viscous HD disks. This difference arises due to the efficient magnetic field transport into the gap region in MRI disks, leading to a larger effective α within the gap. Thus, across the gap, the Maxwell stress profile is smoother than the gap density profile, and a deeper gap is needed for the Maxwell stress gradient to balance the planetary torque density. Comparison with previous results from net toroidal flux/zero flux MHD simulations indicates that the magnetic field geometry plays an important role in the gap opening process. We also found that long-lived density features (termed zonal flows) produced by the MRI can affect planet migration. Overall, our results suggest that gaps can be commonly produced by low mass planets in realistic protoplanetary disks, and caution the use of a constant α-viscosity to model gaps in protoplanetary disks.

  10. Continuing studies of the plasma beat wave accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, C.

    1990-01-01

    This is a proposal for the release of third year funds for the ''Plasma Beat Wave Accelerator'' program (PBWA) at UCLA under the direction of Professor C. Joshi. This report is also a summary of progress on this project since March 1990; i.e., the date of the last report to the DOE. Once again we note that although the program is for historical reasons called the Plasma Beat Wave Accelerator Program, our group is active in all areas of applications of lasers and plasmas in future high energy accelerators. These are as follows: heat gradient plasma structures; excited by plasma beat wave technique; laser wake field technique; and plasma wake field technique. Development of a photoinjector-driven, 20 MeV linac; and theoretical studies of the plasma lens and use of plasmas at the final focus

  11. Importance of field-reversing ion ring formation in hot electron plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikuta, K.

    1975-11-01

    Formation of the field reversing ion ring in the mirror confined hot electron plasma may offer a device to confine the fusion plasma even under the restriction of the present technology. (Author) (GRA)

  12. Experimental investigation of coaxial-gun-formed plasmas injected into a background transverse magnetic field or plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue; Fisher, Dustin M.; Gilmore, Mark; Hsu, Scott C.; Lynn, Alan G.

    2018-05-01

    Injection of coaxial-gun-formed magnetized plasmas into a background transverse vacuum magnetic field or into a background magnetized plasma has been studied in the helicon-cathode (HelCat) linear plasma device at the University of New Mexico [M. Gilmore et al., J. Plasma Phys. 81, 345810104 (2015)]. A magnetized plasma jet launched into a background transverse magnetic field shows emergent kink stabilization of the jet due to the formation of a sheared flow in the jet above the kink stabilization threshold 0.1kVA [Y. Zhang et al., Phys. Plasmas 24, 110702 (2017)]. Injection of a spheromak-like plasma into a transverse background magnetic field led to the observation of finger-like structures on the side with a stronger magnetic field null between the spheromak and the background field. The finger-like structures are consistent with magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Jets or spheromaks launched into a background, low-β magnetized plasma show similar behavior as above, respectively, in both cases.

  13. Wake modeling and simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Madsen Aagaard, Helge; Larsen, Torben J.

    We present a consistent, physically based theory for the wake meandering phenomenon, which we consider of crucial importance for the overall description of wind turbine loadings in wind farms. In its present version the model is confined to single wake situations. The model philosophy does, howev...... methodology has been implemented in the aeroelastic code HAWC2, and example simulations of wake situations, from the small Tjæreborg wind farm, have been performed showing satisfactory agreement between predictions and measurements...

  14. Wake modeling and simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, G.C.; Aagaard Madsen, H.; Larsen, T.J.; Troldborg, N.

    2008-07-15

    We present a consistent, physically based theory for the wake meandering phenomenon, which we consider of crucial importance for the overall description of wind turbine loadings in wind farms. In its present version the model is confined to single wake situations. The model philosophy does, however, have the potential to include also mutual wake interaction phenomenons. The basic conjecture behind the dynamic wake meandering (DWM) model is that wake transportation in the atmospheric boundary layer is driven by the large scale lateral- and vertical turbulence components. Based on this conjecture a stochastic model of the downstream wake meandering is formulated. In addition to the kinematic formulation of the dynamics of the 'meandering frame of reference', models characterizing the mean wake deficit as well as the added wake turbulence, described in the meandering frame of reference, are an integrated part the DWM model complex. For design applications, the computational efficiency of wake deficit prediction is a key issue. A computationally low cost model is developed for this purpose. Likewise, the character of the added wake turbulence, generated by the up-stream turbine in the form of shed and trailed vorticity, has been approached by a simple semi-empirical model essentially based on an eddy viscosity philosophy. Contrary to previous attempts to model wake loading, the DWM approach opens for a unifying description in the sense that turbine power- and load aspects can be treated simultaneously. This capability is a direct and attractive consequence of the model being based on the underlying physical process, and it potentially opens for optimization of wind farm topology, of wind farm operation as well as of control strategies for the individual turbine. To establish an integrated modeling tool, the DWM methodology has been implemented in the aeroelastic code HAWC2, and example simulations of wake situations, from the small Tjaereborg wind farm, have

  15. Chaos in reversed-field-pinch plasma simulation and experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watts, C.; Newman, D.E.; Sprott, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    We investigate the possibility that chaos and simple determinism are governing the dynamics of reversed-field-pinch (RFP) plasmas using data from both numerical simulations and experiment. A large repertoire of nonlinear-analysis techniques is used to identify low-dimensional chaos. These tools include phase portraits and Poincare sections, correlation dimension, the spectrum of Lyapunov exponents, and short-term predictability. In addition, nonlinear-noise-reduction techniques are applied to the experimental data in an attempt to extract any underlying deterministic dynamics. Two model systems are used to simulate the plasma dynamics. These are the DEBS computer code, which models global RFP dynamics, and the dissipative trapped-electron-mode model, which models drift-wave turbulence. Data from both simulations show strong indications of low-dimensional chaos and simple determinism. Experimental data were obtained from the Madison Symmetric Torus RFP and consist of a wide array of both global and local diagnostic signals. None of the signals shows any indication of low-dimensional chaos or other simple determinism. Moreover, most of the analysis tools indicate that the experimental system is very high dimensional with properties similar to noise. Nonlinear noise reduction is unsuccessful at extracting an underlying deterministic system

  16. Plasma oscillations in a stationary external magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciulli, S [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Moscow (USSR); Micu, M [Institute of Atomic Physics, Bucharest (Romania)

    1958-07-01

    The stationary distribution function as well as the small deviations from the stationary state of a gas discharge using the Boltzmann equation is studied as a basis for the calculations. The stationary problem which is discussed corresponds to plasma with cylindrical symmetry. It leads to a Maxwell velocity distribution and to a spatial distribution function which has the asymptotic form 1/r{sup 4}. The plasma perturbations are estimated by the deviations of the first order moments from their Maxwell values. A homogeneous system of differential equations is derived for the Fourier amplitudes of the magnetic field and their asymptotic form is studied. The dispersion relation is obtained by joining smoothly a solution regular at the origin with the regular asymptotic one.A number of idealizations and approximations have been made in the present analysis which limit the utility of the formulae obtained. For example, if the collision term is included in the Boltzmann equation additional quantities appear in the final results, i.e., viscosity, thermal and electrical conductivity, etc. Furthermore, the finite dimensions of linear discharge tubes or the toroidal form of some discharges strongly modify the present results. Taking into account these additional effects, exact solutions are to be obtained numerically for different values of the experimental parameters.

  17. Possibility of internal transport barrier formation and electric field bifurcation in LHD plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanuki, H.; Itoh, K.; Yokoyama, M.; Fujisawa, A.; Ida, K.; Toda, S.; Itoh, S.-I.; Yagi, M.; Fukuyama, A.

    1999-05-01

    Theoretical analysis of the electric field bifurcation is made for the LHD plasma. For given shapes of plasma profiles, a region of bifurcation is obtained in a space of the plasma parameters. In this region of plasma parameters, the electric field domain interface is predicted to appear in the plasma column. The reduction of turbulent transport is expected to occur in the vicinity of the interface, inducing a internal transport barrier. Within this simple model, the plasma with internal barriers is predicted to be realized for the parameters of T e (0) ∼ 2 keV and n(0) ≅ 10 18 m -3 . (author)

  18. Measurements on the extended range of the wake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumbartzki, G.J.; Kroesing, G; Neuburger, H.

    1981-01-01

    The Coulomb explosion of H 2 + -ions at 28 MeV is used to probe the wake over a range of about 400 A in Al. Preliminary results give food agreement with the wavelength prediction of the simple plasma oscillation wake model. (author)

  19. Radiation sources based on laser-plasma interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jaroszynski, D.A.; Bingham, R.; Brunetti, E.; Ersfeld, B.; Gallacher, J.G.; Geer, van der S.B.; Issac, R.; Jamison, S.P.; Jones, D.; Loos, de M.J.; Lyachev, A.; Pavlov, V.M.; Reitsma, A.J.W.; Saveliev, Y.M.; Vieux, G.; Wiggins, S.M.

    2006-01-01

    Plasma waves excited by intense laser beams can be harnessed to produce femtosecond duration bunches of electrons with relativistic energies. The very large electrostatic forces of plasma density wakes trailing behind an intense laser pulse provide field potentials capable of accelerating charged

  20. Plasma-column instabilities in a reversed-field pinch without a shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmid, P.G.

    1988-01-01

    Plasma column instabilities in a Reversed Field Pinch (RFP) without a shell were investigated in the Colorado Reversatron RFP. The Reversatron RFP (aspect ration R/a = 50 cm/8cm) is a toroidal plasma containment device consisting of a vacuum chamber, a thick conducting shell, modular shells, magnetic field producing coils and diagnostics to characterize the plasma. RFP discharges were set up in the Reversatron in three different experimental configurations: with a thick conducting shell, with a modular shell and with no shell. In two of the configurations, a shell enclosed the plasma column to provide some plasma stability. A vertical magnetic field provided equilibrium in experiments without a shell. Data from discharges without a shell indicated that the plasma duration was greatly reduced and the plasma resistance increased compared to the discharges with a thick shell. Plasma position probes indicated large plasma centriod displacements corresponding to a n = 1 and a n = 3 kink coincident with the peak of the plasma current and the start of a discharge termination phase. The modular shell lengthened the discharge duration and lowered the plasma resistance to values intermediate between the plasma with a thick shell and the plasma with no shell. The modular shell suppressed the large plasma column displacements observed in the RFP plasma without a shell.

  1. Plasma-column instabilities in a reversed-field pinch without a shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, P.G.

    1988-01-01

    Plasma column instabilities in a Reversed Field Pinch (RFP) without a shell were investigated in the Colorado Reversatron RFP. The Reversatron RFP (aspect ration R/a = 50 cm/8cm) is a toroidal plasma containment device consisting of a vacuum chamber, a thick conducting shell, modular shells, magnetic field producing coils and diagnostics to characterize the plasma. RFP discharges were set up in the Reversatron in three different experimental configurations: with a thick conducting shell, with a modular shell and with no shell. In two of the configurations, a shell enclosed the plasma column to provide some plasma stability. A vertical magnetic field provided equilibrium in experiments without a shell. Data from discharges without a shell indicated that the plasma duration was greatly reduced and the plasma resistance increased compared to the discharges with a thick shell. Plasma position probes indicated large plasma centriod displacements corresponding to a n = 1 and a n = 3 kink coincident with the peak of the plasma current and the start of a discharge termination phase. The modular shell lengthened the discharge duration and lowered the plasma resistance to values intermediate between the plasma with a thick shell and the plasma with no shell. The modular shell suppressed the large plasma column displacements observed in the RFP plasma without a shell

  2. RF-plasma interactions in the antenna near fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colestock, P.; Greene, G.J.; Hosea, J.C.; Phillips, C.K.; Stevens, J.E.; Ono, M.; Wilson, J.R. (Princeton Univ., NJ (USA). Plasma Physics Lab.); D' Ippolito, D.A.; Myra, J.R. (Lodestar Research Corp., Boulder, CO (USA)); Lehrman, I.S. (Grumman Aerospace Corp., Bethpage, NY (USA))

    1990-04-01

    An assessment is made of the various linear and nonlinear mechanisms that are likely to play a role in the near-field of Faraday shielded inductive antennas commonly used in ICRF heating experiments. A number of low-level, but potentially important, RF loss mechanisms have been proposed as candidates to explain the observed surface phenomena and impurity production associated with ICRF. These range from edge heating via linear processes, such as surface wave or Bernstein wave generation to a variety of nonlinear phenomena including parametric decay and RF-driven sheath effects. The various proposed mechanisms will be examined in this work in terms of the available experimental data and an evaluation will be made of the scaling of these phenomena to higher density and temperature plasmas. (orig.).

  3. Fundamental Statistical Descriptions of Plasma Turbulence in Magnetic Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krommes, John A.

    2001-01-01

    A pedagogical review of the historical development and current status (as of early 2000) of systematic statistical theories of plasma turbulence is undertaken. Emphasis is on conceptual foundations and methodology, not practical applications. Particular attention is paid to equations and formalism appropriate to strongly magnetized, fully ionized plasmas. Extensive reference to the literature on neutral-fluid turbulence is made, but the unique properties and problems of plasmas are emphasized throughout. Discussions are given of quasilinear theory, weak-turbulence theory, resonance-broadening theory, and the clump algorithm. Those are developed independently, then shown to be special cases of the direct-interaction approximation (DIA), which provides a central focus for the article. Various methods of renormalized perturbation theory are described, then unified with the aid of the generating-functional formalism of Martin, Siggia, and Rose. A general expression for the renormalized dielectric function is deduced and discussed in detail. Modern approaches such as decimation and PDF methods are described. Derivations of DIA-based Markovian closures are discussed. The eddy-damped quasinormal Markovian closure is shown to be nonrealizable in the presence of waves, and a new realizable Markovian closure is presented. The test-field model and a realizable modification thereof are also summarized. Numerical solutions of various closures for some plasma-physics paradigms are reviewed. The variational approach to bounds on transport is developed. Miscellaneous topics include Onsager symmetries for turbulence, the interpretation of entropy balances for both kinetic and fluid descriptions, self-organized criticality, statistical interactions between disparate scales, and the roles of both mean and random shear. Appendices are provided on Fourier transform conventions, dimensional and scaling analysis, the derivations of nonlinear gyrokinetic and gyrofluid equations

  4. Fundamental Statistical Descriptions of Plasma Turbulence in Magnetic Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John A. Krommes

    2001-02-16

    A pedagogical review of the historical development and current status (as of early 2000) of systematic statistical theories of plasma turbulence is undertaken. Emphasis is on conceptual foundations and methodology, not practical applications. Particular attention is paid to equations and formalism appropriate to strongly magnetized, fully ionized plasmas. Extensive reference to the literature on neutral-fluid turbulence is made, but the unique properties and problems of plasmas are emphasized throughout. Discussions are given of quasilinear theory, weak-turbulence theory, resonance-broadening theory, and the clump algorithm. Those are developed independently, then shown to be special cases of the direct-interaction approximation (DIA), which provides a central focus for the article. Various methods of renormalized perturbation theory are described, then unified with the aid of the generating-functional formalism of Martin, Siggia, and Rose. A general expression for the renormalized dielectric function is deduced and discussed in detail. Modern approaches such as decimation and PDF methods are described. Derivations of DIA-based Markovian closures are discussed. The eddy-damped quasinormal Markovian closure is shown to be nonrealizable in the presence of waves, and a new realizable Markovian closure is presented. The test-field model and a realizable modification thereof are also summarized. Numerical solutions of various closures for some plasma-physics paradigms are reviewed. The variational approach to bounds on transport is developed. Miscellaneous topics include Onsager symmetries for turbulence, the interpretation of entropy balances for both kinetic and fluid descriptions, self-organized criticality, statistical interactions between disparate scales, and the roles of both mean and random shear. Appendices are provided on Fourier transform conventions, dimensional and scaling analysis, the derivations of nonlinear gyrokinetic and gyrofluid equations

  5. Studies on the propagation of relativistic plasma waves in high density plasmas produced by hypersonic ionizing shock waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.L.; Johnson, J.A. III

    1993-01-01

    The feasibility of using an ionizing shock wave to produce high density plasmas suitable for the propagation large amplitude relativistic plasma waves is being investigated. A 20 kv arc driven shock tube of coaxial geometry produces a hypersonic shock wave (10 p > 10 17 cm -3 ). The shock can be made to reflect off the end of the tube, collide with its wake, and thus increase the plasma density further. After reflecting, the plasma is at rest. The shock speed is measured using piezoelectric pressure probes and the ion density is measured using laser induced fluorescence (LIF) techniques on argon 488.0 nm and 422.8 nm lines. The future plans are to excite large amplitude relativistic plasma waves in this plasma by either injecting a short pulse laser (Laser Wake Field Scheme), two beating lasers (Plasma Beat Wave Scheme), or a short bunch of relativistic electrons (Plasma Wake Field Scheme). Results of recent computational and theoretical studies, as well as initial experimental measurements on the plasma using LIF, are reported. Implications for the application of high density plasmas produced in this way to such novel schemes as the plasma wave accelerator, photon accelerator, plasma wave undulator, and also plasma lens, are discussed. The effect of plasma turbulence is also discussed

  6. Laboratory experiments on plasma jets in a magnetic field using high-power lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishio K.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The experiments to simulate astrophysical jet generation are performed using Gekko XII (GXII HIPER laser system at the Institute of Laser Engineering. In the experiments a fast plasma flow generated by shooting a CH plane (10 μm thickness is observed at the rear side of the plane. By separating the focal spot of the main beams, a non-uniform plasma is generated. The non-uniform plasma flow in an external magnetic field (0.2∼0.3 T perpendicular to the plasma is more collimated than that without the external magnetic field. The plasma β, the ratio between the plasma and magnetic pressure, is ≫ 1, and the magnetic Reynolds number is ∼150 in the collimated plasma. It is considered that the magnetic field is distorted by the plasma flow and enhances the jet collimation.

  7. Electrical field excitation in non-uniform plasma by a modulated electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anisimov, I.O.; Borisov, O.A.

    2000-01-01

    Excitation of electric fields due to a modulated electron beam in a warm non-uniform plasma is treated for weak beams in warm plasma. It is shown that the maximum electric field magnitude that is reached near the local plasma resonance point depends significantly on the direction of the electron stream motion. In collisional plasma the magnitude of the Langmuir wave that propagates to the subcritical plasma also depends on the direction of the electron stream motion. The motion of the modulated electron stream front results in beatings between oscillations on the modulation frequency and on the local electron plasma frequencies at the initial moment. Later these beatings damp in the supercritical plasma, whereas in the subcritical plasma they are transformed into spatial beatings between the field of the modulated electron stream and the excited Langmuir wave. (orig.)

  8. Creation of electron-positron plasma with superstrong laser field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narozhny, N.B.; Fedotov, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    We present a short review of recent progress in studying QED effects within the interaction of ultra-relativistic laser pulses with vacuum and e - e + plasma. Current development in laser technologies promises very rapid growth of laser intensities in the near future. Two exa-watt class facilities (ELI and XCELS, Russia) in Europe are already in the planning stage. Realization of these projects will make available a laser intensity of 10 26 W/cm 2 or even higher. Therefore, discussion of nonlinear optical effects in vacuum are becoming compelling for experimentalists and are currently gaining much attention. We show that, in spite of the fact that the expected field strength is still essentially less than E S = m 2 c 3 /eℎ = 1.32*10 16 V/cm, the nonlinear vacuum effects will be accessible for observation at the ELI and XCELS facilities. The most promising effect for observation is pair creation by a laser pulse in vacuum. It is shown, that at intensities of about 5*10 25 W/cm 2 , creation even of a single pair is accompanied by the development of an avalanche QED cascade. There exists a distinctive feature of the laser-induced cascades, as compared with the air showers arising due primarily to cosmic rays entering the atmosphere. In our case the laser field plays not only the role of a target (similar to a nucleus in the case of air showers) but is also responsible for the acceleration of slow particles. It is shown that the effect of pair creation imposes a natural limit for the attainable laser intensity and, apparently, the field strength E ≅ E S is not accessible for a pair-creating electromagnetic field at all. (authors)

  9. Existence domain of electrostatic solitary waves in the lunar wake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubia, R.; Singh, S. V.; Lakhina, G. S.

    2018-03-01

    Electrostatic solitary waves (ESWs) and double layers are explored in a four-component plasma consisting of hot protons, hot heavier ions (He++), electron beam, and suprathermal electrons having κ-distribution using the Sagdeev pseudopotential method. Three modes exist: slow and fast ion-acoustic modes and electron-acoustic mode. The occurrence of ESWs and their existence domain as a function of various plasma parameters, such as the number densities of ions and electron beam, the spectral index, κ, the electron beam velocity, the temperatures of ions, and electron beam, are analyzed. It is observed that both the slow and fast ion-acoustic modes support both positive and negative potential solitons as well as their coexistence. Further, they support a "forbidden gap," the region in which the soliton ceases to propagate. In addition, slow ion-acoustic solitons support the existence of both positive and negative potential double layers. The electron-acoustic mode is only found to support negative potential solitons for parameters relevant to the lunar wake plasma. Fast Fourier transform of a soliton electric field produces a broadband frequency spectrum. It is suggested that all three soliton types taken together can provide a good explanation for the observed electrostatic waves in the lunar wake.

  10. Transient growth of a Vlasov plasma in a weakly inhomogeneous magnetic field

    KAUST Repository

    Ratushnaya, Valeria

    2016-12-17

    We investigate the stability properties of a collisionless Vlasov plasma in a weakly inhomogeneous magnetic field using non-modal stability analysis. This is an important topic in a physics of tokamak plasma rich in various types of instabilities. We consider a thin tokamak plasma in a Maxwellian equilibrium, subjected to a small arbitrary perturbation. Within the framework of kinetic theory, we demonstrate the emergence of short time scale algebraic instabilities evolving in a stable magnetized plasma. We show that the linearized governing operator (Vlasov operator) is non-normal leading to the transient growth of the perturbations on the time scale of several plasma periods that is subsequently followed by Landau damping. We calculate the first-order distribution function and the electric field and study the dependence of the transient growth characteristics on the magnetic field strength and perturbation parameters of the system. We compare our results with uniformly magnetized plasma and field-free Vlasov plasma.

  11. Transient growth of a Vlasov plasma in a weakly inhomogeneous magnetic field

    KAUST Repository

    Ratushnaya, Valeria; Samtaney, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the stability properties of a collisionless Vlasov plasma in a weakly inhomogeneous magnetic field using non-modal stability analysis. This is an important topic in a physics of tokamak plasma rich in various types of instabilities. We consider a thin tokamak plasma in a Maxwellian equilibrium, subjected to a small arbitrary perturbation. Within the framework of kinetic theory, we demonstrate the emergence of short time scale algebraic instabilities evolving in a stable magnetized plasma. We show that the linearized governing operator (Vlasov operator) is non-normal leading to the transient growth of the perturbations on the time scale of several plasma periods that is subsequently followed by Landau damping. We calculate the first-order distribution function and the electric field and study the dependence of the transient growth characteristics on the magnetic field strength and perturbation parameters of the system. We compare our results with uniformly magnetized plasma and field-free Vlasov plasma.

  12. Interaction of ultra-short ultra-intense laser pulses with under-dense plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solodov, A.

    2000-12-01

    Different aspects of interaction of ultra-short ultra-intense laser pulses with underdense plasmas are studied analytically and numerically. These studies can be interesting for laser-driven electron acceleration in plasma, X-ray lasers, high-order harmonic generation, initial confinement fusion with fast ignition. For numerical simulations a fully-relativistic particle code WAKE was used, developed earlier at Ecole Polytechnique. It was modified during the work on the thesis in the part of simulation of ion motion, test electron motion, diagnostics for the field and plasma. The studies in the thesis cover the problems of photon acceleration in the plasma wake of a short intense laser pulse, phase velocity of the plasma wave in the Self-Modulated Laser Wake-Field Accelerator (SM LWFA), relativistic channeling of laser pulses with duration of the order of a plasma period, ion dynamics in the wake of a short intense laser pulse, plasma wave breaking. Simulation of three experiments on the laser pulse propagation in plasma and electron acceleration were performed. Among the main results of the thesis, it was found that reduction of the plasma wave phase velocity in the SM LWFA is crucial for electron acceleration, only if a plasma channel is used for the laser pulse guiding. Self-similar structures describing relativistic guiding of short laser pulses in plasmas were found and relativistic channeling of initially Gaussian laser pulses of a few plasma periods in duration was demonstrated. It was shown that ponderomotive force of a plasma wake excited by a short laser pulse forms a channel in plasma and plasma wave breaking in the channel was analyzed in detail. Effectiveness of electron acceleration by the laser field and plasma wave was compared and frequency shift of probe laser pulses by the plasma waves was found in conditions relevant to the current experiments. (author)

  13. Interaction of a supersonic plasma jet with a coaxial dipole magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landes, K.

    1975-01-01

    A low pressure plasma jet of considerable conductivity can be influenced by a magnetic field. On the other hand the influencing magnetic field is changed by currents induced in the plasma jet. New astrophysical examples of suchlike interaction have been found in the investigation of the moon, where the partially not currentfree solar wind is influenced by locally confined magnetic fields. In the experiment reported, the interaction of a supersonic plasma jet with a coaxial, dipole-shaped magnetic field is investigated. A current is superimposed to the plasma jet. (Auth.)

  14. Advances and challenges in the field of plasma polymer nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Choukourov

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This contribution reviews plasma polymer nanoparticles produced by gas aggregation cluster sources either via plasma polymerization of volatile monomers or via radio frequency (RF magnetron sputtering of conventional polymers. The formation of hydrocarbon, fluorocarbon, silicon- and nitrogen-containing plasma polymer nanoparticles as well as core@shell nanoparticles based on plasma polymers is discussed with a focus on the development of novel nanostructured surfaces.

  15. Auroral electron fluxes induced by static magnetic field aligned electric field and plasma wave turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assis, A.S. de; Silva, C.E. da; Dias Tavares, A. Jr.; Leubner, C.; Kuhn, S.

    2001-07-01

    We have studied the formation of auroral electron fluxes induced by a field aligned dc electric field in the presence of plasma wave turbulence. The effect of the wave spectral shape on the production rate has been considered. This acceleration scheme was modelled by the weak turbulence approach. The electron fluxes for narrow and broad band spectra, in the case of low and high phase velocities, are calculated, and it is found as a general feature, for all modes, that their enhancement is larger the weaker the background electric field, while for its absolute enhancement it is just the opposite. The electron fluxes are enhanced by many orders of magnitude over that without turbulence. It is also shown that the modes enhance the runaway production rate via their Cherenkov dissipation, and that a synergetic effect occurs in the enhancement when more than one mode turbulent is present in the acceleration region. (author)

  16. Error Field Correction in DIII-D Ohmic Plasmas With Either Handedness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jong-Kyu; Schaffer, Michael J.; La Haye, Robert J.; Scoville, Timothy J.; Menard, Jonathan E.

    2011-01-01

    Error field correction results in DIII-D plasmas are presented in various configurations. In both left-handed and right-handed plasma configurations, where the intrinsic error fields become different due to the opposite helical twist (handedness) of the magnetic field, the optimal error correction currents and the toroidal phases of internal(I)-coils are empirically established. Applications of the Ideal Perturbed Equilibrium Code to these results demonstrate that the field component to be minimized is not the resonant component of the external field, but the total field including ideal plasma responses. Consistency between experiment and theory has been greatly improved along with the understanding of ideal plasma responses, but non-ideal plasma responses still need to be understood to achieve the reliable predictability in tokamak error field correction.

  17. Magnetic field propagation in a two ion species planar plasma opening switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strauss, H. R.; Doron, R.; Arad, R.; Rubinstein, B.; Maron, Y.; Fruchtman, A.

    2007-01-01

    Three fluid plasma evolution equations are applied to the problem of magnetic field propagation in a planar plasma opening switch. For certain initial conditions in which Hall parameter H∼1, magnetic field penetration due to the Hall field, initially, as expected, either opposes or adds to the hydromagnetic pushing, depending on the polarity of the magnetic field relative to the density gradient. Later, however, the plasma pushing by the magnetic field is found in the case studied here to modify the plasma density in a way that the density gradient tends to align with the magnetic field gradient, effectively turning off the Hall effect. The penetration of the magnetic field then ceases and plasma pushing becomes the dominant process

  18. Wind Turbines Wake Aerodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermeer, L.; Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Crespo, A.

    2003-01-01

    The aerodynamics of horizontal axis wind turbine wakes is studied. The contents is directed towards the physics of power extraction by wind turbines and reviews both the near and the far wake region. For the near wake, the survey is restricted to uniform, steady and parallel flow conditions......, thereby excluding wind shear, wind speed and rotor setting changes and yawed conditions. The emphasis is put on measurements in controlled conditions.For the far wake, the survey focusses on both single turbines and wind farm effects, and the experimental and numerical work are reviewed; the main interest...... is to study how the far wake decays downstream, in order to estimate the effect produced in downstream turbines.The article is further restricted to horizontal axis wind turbines and excludes all other types of turbines....

  19. Stabilization effect of a strong HF electrical field on beam-plasma interaction in a relativistic plasma waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Shorbagy, K.H.

    2000-07-01

    The influence effect of a strong HF electrical field on the excitation of surface waves by an electron beam under the development of instability of low-density electron beam passing through plane relativistic plasma is investigated. Starting from the two fluid plasma model we separate the problem into two parts. The 'temporal' (dynamical) part enables us to find the frequencies and growth rates of unstable waves. This part within the redefinition of natural (eigen) frequencies coincide with the system describing HF suppression of the Buneman instability in a uniform unbounded plasma. Natural frequencies of oscillations and spatial distribution of the amplitude of the self-consistent electrical field are obtained by solving a boundary value problem ('spatial' part) considering a specific spatial distribution of plasma density. Plasma electrons are considered to have a relativistic velocity. It is shown that a HF electric field has no essential influence on dispersion characteristics of unstable surface waves excited in a relativistic plasma waveguide by a low-density electron beam. The region of instability only slightly narrowing and the growth rate decreases by a small parameter and this result has been reduced compared to nonrelativistic plasma. Also, it is found that the plasma electrons have not affected the solution of the space part of the problem. (author)

  20. Effects of applied dc radial electric fields on particle transport in a bumpy torus plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    The influence of applied dc radial electric fields on particle transport in a bumpy torus plasma is studied. The plasma, magnetic field, and ion heating mechanism are operated in steady state. Ion kinetic temperature is more than a factor of ten higher than electron temperature. The electric fields raise the ions to energies on the order of kilovolts and then point radially inward or outward. Plasma number density profiles are flat or triangular across the plasma diameter. It is suggested that the radial transport processes are nondiffusional and dominated by strong radial electric fields. These characteristics are caused by the absence of a second derivative in the density profile and the flat electron temperature profiles. If the electric field acting on the minor radius of the toroidal plasma points inward, plasma number density and confinement time are increased.

  1. STRUCTURE OF PROMINENCE LEGS: PLASMA AND MAGNETIC FIELD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levens, P. J.; Labrosse, N. [SUPA School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Schmieder, B. [Observatoire de Paris, Meudon, F-92195 (France); Ariste, A. López, E-mail: p.levens.1@research.gla.ac.uk [Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planétologie, Toulouse (France)

    2016-02-10

    We investigate the properties of a “solar tornado” observed on 2014 July 15, and aim to link the behavior of the plasma to the internal magnetic field structure of the associated prominence. We made multi-wavelength observations with high spatial resolution and high cadence using SDO/AIA, the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) spectrograph, and the Hinode/Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) instrument. Along with spectropolarimetry provided by the Télescope Héliographique pour l’Etude du Magnétisme et des Instabilités Solaires telescope we have coverage of both optically thick emission lines and magnetic field information. AIA reveals that the two legs of the prominence are strongly absorbing structures which look like they are rotating, or oscillating in the plane of the sky. The two prominence legs, which are both very bright in Ca ii (SOT), are not visible in the IRIS Mg ii slit-jaw images. This is explained by the large optical thickness of the structures in Mg ii, which leads to reversed profiles, and hence to lower integrated intensities at these locations than in the surroundings. Using lines formed at temperatures lower than 1 MK, we measure relatively low Doppler shifts on the order of ±10 km s{sup −1} in the tornado-like structure. Between the two legs we see loops in Mg ii, with material flowing from one leg to the other, as well as counterstreaming. It is difficult to interpret our data as showing two rotating, vertical structures that are unrelated to the loops. This kind of “tornado” scenario does not fit with our observations. The magnetic field in the two legs of the prominence is found to be preferentially horizontal.

  2. Time and space-correlated plasma potential measurements in the near field of a coaxial Hall plasma discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A. W.; Cappelli, M. A.

    2009-01-01

    Space- and time-correlated measurements of floating and plasma potential are made in the near field, external flow cathode region of a coaxial Hall plasma discharge using an emissive probe synchronized to quasicoherent fluctuations in discharge current. The luminous axial feature frequently observed in the near field of operating plasma accelerators is found to be concomitant with a spike in the plasma potential (and electron temperature). The structure of the plasma potential allows for multiple avenues for back-streaming ions to accelerate toward the discharge front pole and may pull some classes of ions toward the central axis. The fluctuations in plasma properties exhibit a complex structure at frequencies on the order of the so-called 'breathing mode' ionization instability often seen in these types of discharges. Most notably, the plasma potential appears to fluctuate in a helical fashion, resembling tilted drift waves rotating about the central axis. A simple analysis of these waves draws attention to the possible role that they may play in driving anomalous cross-field electron transport in the near field region.

  3. Interactions between Radial Electric Field, Transport and Structure in Helical Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ida, Katsumi and others

    2006-01-01

    Control of the radial electric field is considered to be important in helical plasmas, because the radial electric field and its shear are expected to reduce neoclassical and anomalous transport, respectively. Particle and heat transport, that determines the radial structure of density and electron profiles, sensitive to the structure of radial electric field. On the other hand, the radial electric field itself is determined by the plasma parameters. In general, the sign of the radial electric field is determined by the plasma collisionality, while the magnitude of the radial electric field is determined by the temperature and/or density gradients. Therefore the structure of radial electric field and temperature and density are strongly coupled through the particle and heat transport and formation mechanism of radial electric field. Interactions between radial electric field, transport and structure in helical plasmas is discussed based on the experiments on Large Helical Device

  4. Conceptual design of plasma position control of SST-1 tokamak using vertical field coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulati, Hitesh Kumar; Patel, Kiritkumar B.; Dhongde, Jasraj

    2015-01-01

    SST-1 (Steady State Superconducting Tokamak) is a plasma confinement device in Institute for Plasma Research (IPR) India. SST-1 has been commissioned successfully and has been carrying out plasma experiments since the beginning of 2014 achieved a maximum plasma current of 75 kA at a central field of 1.5 T and the plasma duration ∼ 500 ms. SST-1 looks forward to carrying out elongated plasma experiments and stretching plasma pulses beyond 1s. Based on the solution of Grad-Shafranov equation the shift of plasma column center from geometrical centre of vacuum chamber is measured using various magnetic probes and flux loops installed in the machine. The closed feedback loop uses plasma current (Ip), Delta R as feedback signal and manipulate the vertical field current (Ivf). The discharge starts with feed forward loop using initially provided reference then the active feedback starts after discharge by few msec once plasma column is completely formed. The feedback loop time is of the order of 10 msec. The primary objective is to acquire plasma position control related signals, compute plasma position and generate position correction signal for VF coil power supply, communicate correction to VF coil power supply and modify VF power supply output in a deterministic time span. In this we present the methodology used for plasma horizontal displacement control using vertical field and discuss the preliminary results. (author)

  5. Structure of the radial electric field and toroidal/poloidal flow in high temperature toroidal plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ida, Katsumi

    2001-01-01

    The structure of the radial electric field and toroidal/poloidal flow is discussed for the high temperature plasma in toroidal systems, tokamak and Heliotron type magnetic configurations. The spontaneous toroidal and poloidal flows are observed in the plasma with improved confinement. The radial electric field is mainly determined by the poloidal flow, because the contribution of toroidal flow to the radial electric field is small. The jump of radial electric field and poloidal flow are commonly observed near the plasma edge in the so-called high confinement mode (H-mode) plasmas in tokamaks and electron root plasma in stellarators including Heliotrons. In general the toroidal flow is driven by the momentum input from neutral beam injected toroidally. There is toroidal flow not driven by neutral beam in the plasma and it will be more significant in the plasma with large electric field. The direction of these spontaneous toroidal flows depends on the symmetry of magnetic field. The spontaneous toroidal flow driven by the ion temperature gradient is in the direction to increase the negative radial electric field in tokamak. The direction of spontaneous toroidal flow in Heliotron plasmas is opposite to that in tokamak plasma because of the helicity of symmetry of the magnetic field configuration. (author)

  6. Plasma confinement in a magnetic field of the internal ring current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafranov, Vitaly; Popovich, Paul; Samitov, Marat

    2000-01-01

    Plasma confinement in compact region surrounding an internal ring current is considered. As the limiting case of large aspect ratio system the cylindrical plasma is considered initially. Analysis of the cylindrical tubular plasma equilibrium and stability against the most dangerous flute (m=0) and kink (m=1) modes revealed the possibility of the MHD stable plasma confined by magnetic field of the internal rod current, with rather peaked plasma pressure and maximal local beta β(γ)=0.4. In case of the toroidal internal ring system an additional external magnetic field creates the boundary separatrix witch limits the plasma volume. The dependence of the plasma pressure profiles, marginally stable with respect to the flute modes, from the shape of the external plasma boundary (separatrix) in such kind closed toroidal systems is investigated. The internal ring system with circular poloidal magnetic mirror, where the ring supports could be placed, is proposed. (author)

  7. Principles of spectroscopic diagnostics of a plasma with oscillating electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oks, E.A.

    1986-01-01

    Three types of main principles of spectroscopic diagnosis of the plasma with quasimonochromatic electric fields (QEF) are considered. Principles based on the effects intersectionally depending on the parameters of QEF and the plasma medium are considered. Occurrence of depressions or dips in the profiles of spectral lines is the most important effect among others. Principles based on the nonlinear theory of plasma and laser sattelites of spectral lines as well as laser-spectroscopic diagnosis of QEF in the plasma are considered

  8. Enhanced confinement with plasma biasing in the MST reversed field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, D.; Almagri, A.F.; Anderson, J.K.

    1997-06-01

    We report an increase in particle confinement with plasma biasing in a reversed field pinch. Miniature plasma sources are used as electrodes to negatively bias the plasma at the edge (r/a ∼ 0.9). Particle content increases and H α radiation decreases upon application of bias and global particle confinement roughly doubles as a result. Measurements of plasma potential, impurity flow, and floating potential fluctuations indicate that strong flows are produced and that electrostatic fluctuations are reduced

  9. Interaction of counter-streaming plasma flows in dipole magnetic field

    OpenAIRE

    Shaikhislamov, I F; Posukh, V G; Melekhov, A V; Prokopov, P A; Boyarintsev, E L; Zakharov, Yu P; Ponomarenko, A G

    2017-01-01

    Transient interaction of counter-streaming super-sonic plasma flows in dipole magnetic dipole is studied in laboratory experiment. First quasi-stationary flow is produced by teta-pinch and forms a magnetosphere around the magnetic dipole while laser beams focused at the surface of the dipole cover launch second explosive plasma expanding from inner dipole region outward. Laser plasma is energetic enough to disrupt magnetic field and to sweep through the background plasma for large distances. ...

  10. Effect of neoclassical toroidal viscosity on error-field penetration thresholds in tokamak plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, A J; Hegna, C C; Callen, J D

    2007-08-10

    A model for field-error penetration is developed that includes nonresonant as well as the usual resonant field-error effects. The nonresonant components cause a neoclassical toroidal viscous torque that keeps the plasma rotating at a rate comparable to the ion diamagnetic frequency. The new theory is used to examine resonant error-field penetration threshold scaling in Ohmic tokamak plasmas. Compared to previous theoretical results, we find the plasma is less susceptible to error-field penetration and locking, by a factor that depends on the nonresonant error-field amplitude.

  11. Method and means for measuring the anisotropy of a plasma in a magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shohet, J.L.; Greene, D.G.S.

    1973-10-23

    Anisotropy is measured of a free-free-bremsstrahlungradiation-generating plasma in a magnetic field by collimating the free-free bremsstrahlung radiation in a direction normal to the magnetic field and scattering the collimated free- free bremsstrahlung radiation to resolve the radiation into its vector components in a plane parallel to the electric field of the bremsstrahlung radiation. The scattered vector components are counted at particular energy levels in a direction parallel to the magnetic field and also normal to the magnetic field of the plasma to provide a measure of anisotropy of the plasma. (Official Gazette)

  12. Formation of Field-reversed-Configuration Plasma with Punctuated-betatron-orbit Electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welch, D.R.; Cohen, S.A.; Genoni, T.C.; Glasser, A.H.

    2010-01-01

    We describe ab initio, self-consistent, 3D, fully electromagnetic numerical simulations of current drive and field-reversed-configuration plasma formation by odd-parity rotating magnetic fields (RMFo). Magnetic-separatrix formation and field reversal are attained from an initial mirror configuration. A population of punctuated-betatron-orbit electrons, generated by the RMFo, carries the majority of the field-normal azimuthal electrical current responsible for field reversal. Appreciable current and plasma pressure exist outside the magnetic separatrix whose shape is modulated by the RMFo phase. The predicted plasma density and electron energy distribution compare favorably with RMFo experiments.

  13. In situ electromagnetic field diagnostics with an electron plasma in a Penning-Malmberg trap

    CERN Document Server

    Amole, C; Baquero-Ruiz, M.; Bertsche, W.; Butler, E.; Capra, A.; Cesar, C.L.; Charlton, M.; Deller, A.; Evetts, N.; Eriksson, S.; Fajans, J.; Friesen, T.; Fujiwara, M.C.; Gill, D.R.; Gutierrez, A.; Hangst, J.S.; Hardy, W.N.; Hayden, M.E.; Isaac, C.A.; Jonsell, S.; Kurchaninov, L.; Little, A.; Madsen, N.; McKenna, J.T.K.; Menary, S.; Napoli, S.C.; Olchanski, K.; Olin, A.; Pusa, P.; Rasmussen, C.; Robicheaux, F.; Sarid, E.; Silveira, D.M.; So, C.; Stracka, S.; Tharp, T.; Thompson, R.I.; van der Werf, D.P.; Wurtele, J.S.

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate a novel detection method for the cyclotron resonance frequency of an electron plasma in a Penning-Malmberg trap. With this technique, the electron plasma is used as an in situ diagnostic tool for measurement of the static magnetic field and the microwave electric field in the trap. The cyclotron motion of the electron plasma is excited by microwave radiation and the temperature change of the plasma is measured non-destructively by monitoring the plasma's quadrupole mode frequency. The spatially-resolved microwave electric field strength can be inferred from the plasma temperature change and the magnetic field is found through the cyclotron resonance frequency. These measurements were used extensively in the recently reported demonstration of resonant quantum interactions with antihydrogen.

  14. Effects of a nonuniform open magnetic field on the plasma presheath

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Kunihiro; Miyawaki, Fujio

    1991-01-01

    Effects of a nonuniform magnetic field on the plasma presheath is numerically investigated using the plasma equation for a collisionless plasma with a finite-temperature particle source. The present calculation confirms that analytical solutions previously published by the authors are available over a wide range of mirror ratio. Potential drop in the presheath, which considerably depends on both the magnetic strength profile and the spatial distribution of the particle source, is remarkably increased by applying an expanding magnetic field when plasma particles are generated in the inner part of the plasma. An effect of a nonuniform magnetic field on sheath formation is also discussed by using the calculated ion distribution function. If the plasma equation has no singularity at the sheath edge, its solution satisfies the generalized Bohm criterion with the inequality sign in the expanding magnetic field. (author)

  15. Formation of a three-dimensional plasma boundary after decay of the plasma response to resonant magnetic perturbation fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, O.; Evans, T. E.; Fenstermacher, M. E.; Lanctot, M. J.; Lasnier, C. L.; Mordijck, S.; Moyer, R. A.; Reimerdes, H.; the DIII-D Team

    2014-01-01

    First time experimental evidence is presented for a direct link between the decay of a n = 3 plasma response and the formation of a three-dimensional (3D) plasma boundary. We inspect a lower single-null L-mode plasma which first reacts at sufficiently high rotation with an ideal resonant screening response to an external toroidal mode number n = 3 resonant magnetic perturbation field. Decay of this response due to reduced bulk plasma rotation changes the plasma state considerably. Signatures such as density pump out and a spin up of the edge rotation—which are usually connected to formation of a stochastic boundary—are detected. Coincident, striation of the divertor single ionized carbon emission and a 3D emission structure in double ionized carbon at the separatrix is seen. The striated C II pattern follows in this stage the perturbed magnetic footprint modelled without a plasma response (vacuum approach). This provides for the first time substantial experimental evidence, that a 3D plasma boundary with direct impact on the divertor particle flux pattern is formed as soon as the internal plasma response decays. The resulting divertor structure follows the vacuum modelled magnetic field topology. However, the inward extension of the perturbed boundary layer can still not directly be determined from these measurements.

  16. Dielectric response of a relativistic degenerate electron plasma in a strong magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delsante, A.E.; Frankel, N.E.

    1979-01-01

    The longitudinal dielectric response of a relativistic ultradegenerate electron plasma in a strong magnetic field is obtained via a relativistic generalization of the Hartree self-consistent field method. Dispersion relations and damping conditions for plasma oscillations both parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field are obtained. Detailed results for the zero-field case, and applications to white dwarf stars and pulsars are given

  17. On the parallel momentum balance in low pressure plasmas with an inhomogeneous magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolyakov, A.I.; Garbet, X.; Bourdelle, C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the structure of the parallel momentum balance in low pressure plasmas with an inhomogeneous magnetic field. The parallel momentum balance equation is derived from magnetohydrodynamic equations by an expansion in the inverse magnetic field 1/B as a small parameter. Contributions of the gyroviscosity and inertia terms are clarified. It is shown that magnetic field curvature leads to important coupling of parallel flow with fluctuations of the electric field and plasma pressure.

  18. Self-consistent evolution of plasma discharge and electromagnetic fields in a microwave pulse compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shlapakovski, A. S.; Beilin, L.; Krasik, Ya. E.; Hadas, Y.; Schamiloglu, E.

    2015-01-01

    Nanosecond-scale evolution of plasma and RF electromagnetic fields during the release of energy from a microwave pulse compressor with a plasma interference switch was investigated numerically using the code MAGIC. The plasma was simulated in the scope of the gas conductivity model in MAGIC. The compressor embodied an S-band cavity and H-plane waveguide tee with a shorted side arm filled with pressurized gas. In a simplified approach, the gas discharge was initiated by setting an external ionization rate in a layer crossing the side arm waveguide in the location of the electric field antinode. It was found that with increasing ionization rate, the microwave energy absorbed by the plasma in the first few nanoseconds increases, but the absorption for the whole duration of energy release, on the contrary, decreases. In a hybrid approach modeling laser ignition of the discharge, seed electrons were set around the electric field antinode. In this case, the plasma extends along the field forming a filament and the plasma density increases up to the level at which the electric field within the plasma decreases due to the skin effect. Then, the avalanche rate decreases but the density still rises until the microwave energy release begins and the electric field becomes insufficient to support the avalanche process. The extraction of the microwave pulse limits its own power by terminating the rise of the plasma density and filament length. For efficient extraction, a sufficiently long filament of dense plasma must have sufficient time to be formed

  19. Self-consistent evolution of plasma discharge and electromagnetic fields in a microwave pulse compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlapakovski, A. S.; Beilin, L.; Hadas, Y.; Schamiloglu, E.; Krasik, Ya. E.

    2015-07-01

    Nanosecond-scale evolution of plasma and RF electromagnetic fields during the release of energy from a microwave pulse compressor with a plasma interference switch was investigated numerically using the code MAGIC. The plasma was simulated in the scope of the gas conductivity model in MAGIC. The compressor embodied an S-band cavity and H-plane waveguide tee with a shorted side arm filled with pressurized gas. In a simplified approach, the gas discharge was initiated by setting an external ionization rate in a layer crossing the side arm waveguide in the location of the electric field antinode. It was found that with increasing ionization rate, the microwave energy absorbed by the plasma in the first few nanoseconds increases, but the absorption for the whole duration of energy release, on the contrary, decreases. In a hybrid approach modeling laser ignition of the discharge, seed electrons were set around the electric field antinode. In this case, the plasma extends along the field forming a filament and the plasma density increases up to the level at which the electric field within the plasma decreases due to the skin effect. Then, the avalanche rate decreases but the density still rises until the microwave energy release begins and the electric field becomes insufficient to support the avalanche process. The extraction of the microwave pulse limits its own power by terminating the rise of the plasma density and filament length. For efficient extraction, a sufficiently long filament of dense plasma must have sufficient time to be formed.

  20. A study of the methods for the production and confinement of high energy plasmas. [injection of dense plasma into long magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, D. Y.; Wang, P.

    1972-01-01

    The injection of dense plasmas into a B sub z long magnetic field from both ends of the field coil was investigated. Deflagration plasma guns and continuous flow Z-pinch are discussed along with the possibility of a continuous flow Z-pinch fusion reactor. The injection experiments are described with emphasis on the synchronization of the two plasma deflagration guns, the collision of the two plasma beams, and the determination of plasma density.

  1. Density and magnetic field measurements in the Tormac IV-c plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coonrod, J.W. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Tormac is a concept for magnetically confining a high-β fusion plasma in a toroidal, stuffed line cusp. A Tormac plasma has two regions: an interior confined on the closed toroidal field lines of the stuffing field, and an exterior sheath on open, cusped field lines. The interior plasma gives the device a longer confinement time than a standard mirror, while the favorable curvature of the cusp fields allow the plasma to be stable at higher values of β (the ratio of the plasma pressure to magnetic pressure) than a totally closed configuration like Tokamak. This thesis describes the design, construction and operation of Tormac IV-c, and reports on the results, with emphasis on describing the behavior of the density compression and field penetration

  2. Simulation of ionization effects for high-density positron drivers in future plasma wakefield experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruhwiler, D.L.; Dimitrov, D.A.; Cary, J.R.; Esarey, E.; Leemans, W.P.

    2003-01-01

    The plasma wakefield accelerator (PWFA) concept has been proposed as a potential energy doubler for present or future electron-positron colliders. Recent particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations have shown that the self-fields of the required electron beam driver can tunnel ionize neutral Li, leading to plasma wake dynamics differing significantly from that of a preionized plasma. It has also been shown, for the case of a preionized plasma, that the plasma wake of a positron driver differs strongly from that of an electron driver. We will present new PIC simulations, using the OOPIC code, showing the effects of tunneling ionization on the plasma wake generated by high-density positron drivers. The results will be compared to previous work on electron drivers with tunneling ionization and positron drivers without ionization. Parameters relevant to the energy doubler and the upcoming E-164x experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center will be considered

  3. Interaction of ultra-short ultra-intense laser pulses with under-dense plasmas; Interaction d'impulsions laser ultra-courtes et ultra-intenses avec des plasmas sous denses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solodov, A

    2000-12-15

    Different aspects of interaction of ultra-short ultra-intense laser pulses with underdense plasmas are studied analytically and numerically. These studies can be interesting for laser-driven electron acceleration in plasma, X-ray lasers, high-order harmonic generation, initial confinement fusion with fast ignition. For numerical simulations a fully-relativistic particle code WAKE was used, developed earlier at Ecole Polytechnique. It was modified during the work on the thesis in the part of simulation of ion motion, test electron motion, diagnostics for the field and plasma. The studies in the thesis cover the problems of photon acceleration in the plasma wake of a short intense laser pulse, phase velocity of the plasma wave in the Self-Modulated Laser Wake-Field Accelerator (SM LWFA), relativistic channeling of laser pulses with duration of the order of a plasma period, ion dynamics in the wake of a short intense laser pulse, plasma wave breaking. Simulation of three experiments on the laser pulse propagation in plasma and electron acceleration were performed. Among the main results of the thesis, it was found that reduction of the plasma wave phase velocity in the SM LWFA is crucial for electron acceleration, only if a plasma channel is used for the laser pulse guiding. Self-similar structures describing relativistic guiding of short laser pulses in plasmas were found and relativistic channeling of initially Gaussian laser pulses of a few plasma periods in duration was demonstrated. It was shown that ponderomotive force of a plasma wake excited by a short laser pulse forms a channel in plasma and plasma wave breaking in the channel was analyzed in detail. Effectiveness of electron acceleration by the laser field and plasma wave was compared and frequency shift of probe laser pulses by the plasma waves was found in conditions relevant to the current experiments. (author)

  4. Translation experiment of a plasma with field reversed configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanjyo, Masayasu; Okada, Shigefumi; Ito, Yoshifumi; Kako, Masashi; Ohi, Shoichi

    1984-01-01

    Experiments to translate the FRC plasma from is formation area (pinch coil) into two kinds of metal vessels (magnetic flux conservers) with larger and smaller bore than that of the pinch coil have been carried out in OCT with an aim of improving the particle confinement time tau sub(N) by increasing xsub(s) (ratio of the plasma radius to that of the conducting wall). Demonstrated were successful translations of the plasma into both vessels. The xsub(s) of the translated plasma increased to 0.6 in the larger bore vessel and to 0.7 in the smaller one from 0.4 of the source plasma in the pinch coil. With the increase in xsub(s), tau sub(N) and also decay time of the trapped magnetic flux are extended from 15 - 20 μs of the source plasma to 50 - 80 μs. The tau sub(N) is found to have stronger dependence on xsub(s) than on rsub(s). During the translation phase, almost half of the total particle and the plasma energy are lost. The plasma volume is, therefore, about half of that expected from the analysis on the ideal translation process. It is also found that the translation process is nearly isothermal as is expected from the analysis. (author)

  5. Dissipation of Turbulence in the Wake of a Wind Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundquist, J. K.; Bariteau, L.

    2015-02-01

    The wake of a wind turbine is characterized by increased turbulence and decreased wind speed. Turbines are generally deployed in large groups in wind farms, and so the behaviour of an individual wake as it merges with other wakes and propagates downwind is critical in assessing wind-farm power production. This evolution depends on the rate of turbulence dissipation in the wind-turbine wake, which has not been previously quantified in field-scale measurements. In situ measurements of winds and turbulence dissipation from the wake region of a multi-MW turbine were collected using a tethered lifting system (TLS) carrying a payload of high-rate turbulence probes. Ambient flow measurements were provided from sonic anemometers on a meteorological tower located near the turbine. Good agreement between the tower measurements and the TLS measurements was established for a case without a wind-turbine wake. When an operating wind turbine is located between the tower and the TLS so that the wake propagates to the TLS, the TLS measures dissipation rates one to two orders of magnitude higher in the wake than outside of the wake. These data, collected between two and three rotor diameters downwind of the turbine, document the significant enhancement of turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate within the wind-turbine wake. These wake measurements suggest that it may be useful to pursue modelling approaches that account for enhanced dissipation. Comparisons of wake and non-wake dissipation rates to mean wind speed, wind-speed variance, and turbulence intensity are presented to facilitate the inclusion of these measurements in wake modelling schemes.

  6. Preliminary study of cross-field plasma injection in 2XIIB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, D.Y.; Hartman, C.W.; Simonen, T.C.

    1978-01-01

    Preliminary results are presented of a study of cross-field plasma injection in the 2XIIB mirror machine. Plasma accelerated by a coaxial deflagration gun was observed to pass 3.5M across the vacuum field, and some trapping was observed when the gun plasma intersected a plasma streaming along B at the center of the magnetic well. Parameters for the experiment are: gun plasma kinetic energy 50 to 200 eV, n/sub gun/ = 3 x 10 13 cm -3 , streaming plasma 25 to 50 eV and n/sub streaming/ = 6 x 10 11 cm -3 , duration of both 100 to 200 μsec. For the trapped plasma, n = 2.4 x 10 12 cm -3 , and the decay time is t/sub 1 / 2 / = 400 μsec consistent with Coulomb scattering loss at 100 eV mean ion energy

  7. The influence of an external magnetic axial field on the autocompression of a plasma column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoler, D.

    1979-01-01

    The results of theoretical research on the autocompression of a plasma column under the influence of its own azimuthal field, in the presence of an external magnetic axial field are presented in this paper. Focussed plasma installations are important both for the fundamental researches which can be undertaken on great density and high temperature plasma and for their possible applications since they can be used as sources of neutrons, Roentgen radiations and to obtain heavy ions. The important parameters of plasma have been studied comparatively in the presence or absence of the external magnetic axial field by means of a method of numerical simulation of phenomena from focussed plasma in a complex MHD system taking into account the dissipative and transport phenomena. The numerical data used in chapter 5 are in agreement with the parameters of the experimental installation produced at IFTAR-Bucharest, which have been indicated to us by the members of the focussed plasma staff. (author)

  8. The Influence of the Axial Magnetic Field Upon-the Coaxial Plasma Gun Parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Aragi, G.M.; EL-Demrdash, A.

    2001-01-01

    This study concerns with the influence of an applied axial magnetic field upon the electrical parameters of a coaxial plasma gun device. The experimental results are investigated with 0.5 KJ plasma gun device operated with argon gas at a pressure of 3.5 Torr. An axial time independent magnetic field with intensity of 550 G is introduced along the plasma current sheath axial region, within the annular space between the two coaxial electrodes. From the measurements of the discharge current I(t) and the voltage V(t), the electrical discharge parameters of the plasma gun device and the plasma current sheath implosion velocity are estimated, in normal mode of plasma gun operation and in the mode of presence external axial magnetic field. A comparison between these two modes is studied

  9. Self-consistent mean field forces in turbulent plasmas: Current and momentum relaxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegna, C.C.

    1997-08-01

    The properties of turbulent plasmas are described using the two-fluid equations. Under some modest assumptions, global constraints for the turbulent mean field forces that act on the ion and electron fluids are derived. These constraints imply a functional form for the parallel mean field forces in the Ohm's law and the momentum balance equation. These forms suggest that the fluctuations attempt to relax the plasma to a state where both the current and the bulk plasma momentum are aligned along the mean magnetic field with proportionality constants that are global constants. Observations of flow profile evolution during discrete dynamo activity in reversed field pinch experiments are interpreted

  10. Comparing satellite SAR and wind farm wake models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Vincent, P.; Husson, R.

    2015-01-01

    . These extend several tens of kilometres downwind e.g. 70 km. Other SAR wind maps show near-field fine scale details of wake behind rows of turbines. The satellite SAR wind farm wake cases are modelled by different wind farm wake models including the PARK microscale model, the Weather Research and Forecasting...... (WRF) model in high resolution and WRF with coupled microscale parametrization....

  11. The vacuum-arc plasma motion in a toroidal magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timoshenko, A.I.; Gnybida, M.V.; Taran, V.S.; Tereshin, V.I.; Chechelnitskij, O.G.

    2005-01-01

    The separation of the vacuum-arc plasma from macro-particles in the curvilinear plasma filters allows obtaining coatings with especially high characteristics. However, inside such filters the significant plasma losses also have been occurred. At the same time, increasing in the filter's efficiency is a difficult task without an effective mathematical model that really would describe the vacuum-arc plasma motion in a toroidal magnetic field. The description based on the flax-tube model was in fact only the first approximation in the decision of this problem. According to detailed flax-tube analysis of ions passage through the quarter torus plasma guide, the efficiency of the filter should grow up to 85% as the positive potential U, applied to the body of the plasma guide, is on the increase. However, the experiment showed that maximum of transparency reach up to ∼ 12%, at potential about of +18 Volts, and comes down under the further increase in potential. Such big digression from experiment does not justify the use of flux-tube model for designing of curvilinear plasma filters. We offer the new approach to the description of the vacuum-arc plasma motion in a toroidal magnetic field based on the solutions of steady-state (∂/∂t=0) Vlasov-Maxwell equations for the long plasma column aligned parallel to a constant axial magnetic field. The relations for the self-consistent electric polarization fields, which appear due to displacement of the electron component from ionic one on the curvilinear part of motion, were derived within a framework of the drift approximation. The dynamics of the central part of the plasma flow in the electric polarization fields was considered in detail. The displacement of the plasma flow at the output of the plasma guide was calculated for the carbon and titanium plasmas. The good agreement with the experimental data was obtained. (author)

  12. Control of tokamak plasma current and equilibrium with hybrid poloidal field coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Ryuichi

    1982-01-01

    A control method with hybrid poloidal field system is considered, which comprehensively implements the control of plasma equilibrium and plasma current, those have been treated independently in Tokamak divices. Tokamak equilibrium requires the condition that the magnetic flux function value on plasma surface must be constant. From this, the current to be supplied to each coil is determined. Therefore, each coil current is the resultant of the component related to plasma current excitation and the component required for holding equilibrium. Here, it is intended to show a method by which the current to be supplied to each coil can easily be calculated by the introduction of hybrid control matrix. The text first considers the equilibrium of axi-symmetrical plasma and the equilibrium magnetic field outside plasma, next describes the determination of current using the above hybrid control matrix, and indicates an example of controlling Tokamak plasma current and equilibrium by the hybrid poloidal field coils. It also shows that the excitation of plasma current and the maintenance of plasma equilibrium can basically be available with a single power supply by the appropriate selection of the number of turns of each coil. These considerations determine the basic system configuration as well as decrease the installed capacity of power source for the poloidal field of a Tokamak fusion reactor. Finally, the actual configuration of the power source for hybrid poloidal field coils is shown for the above system. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  13. Crosswind Shear Gradient Affect on Wake Vortices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Fred H.; Ahmad, Nashat N.

    2011-01-01

    Parametric simulations with a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) model are used to explore the influence of crosswind shear on aircraft wake vortices. Previous studies based on field measurements, laboratory experiments, as well as LES, have shown that the vertical gradient of crosswind shear, i.e. the second vertical derivative of the environmental crosswind, can influence wake vortex transport. The presence of nonlinear vertical shear of the crosswind velocity can reduce the descent rate, causing a wake vortex pair to tilt and change in its lateral separation. The LES parametric studies confirm that the vertical gradient of crosswind shear does influence vortex trajectories. The parametric results also show that vortex decay from the effects of shear are complex since the crosswind shear, along with the vertical gradient of crosswind shear, can affect whether the lateral separation between wake vortices is increased or decreased. If the separation is decreased, the vortex linking time is decreased, and a more rapid decay of wake vortex circulation occurs. If the separation is increased, the time to link is increased, and at least one of the vortices of the vortex pair may have a longer life time than in the case without shear. In some cases, the wake vortices may never link.

  14. Stochastic Wake Modelling Based on POD Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Bastine

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, large eddy simulation data is analysed to investigate a new stochastic modeling approach for the wake of a wind turbine. The data is generated by the large eddy simulation (LES model PALM combined with an actuator disk with rotation representing the turbine. After applying a proper orthogonal decomposition (POD, three different stochastic models for the weighting coefficients of the POD modes are deduced resulting in three different wake models. Their performance is investigated mainly on the basis of aeroelastic simulations of a wind turbine in the wake. Three different load cases and their statistical characteristics are compared for the original LES, truncated PODs and the stochastic wake models including different numbers of POD modes. It is shown that approximately six POD modes are enough to capture the load dynamics on large temporal scales. Modeling the weighting coefficients as independent stochastic processes leads to similar load characteristics as in the case of the truncated POD. To complete this simplified wake description, we show evidence that the small-scale dynamics can be captured by adding to our model a homogeneous turbulent field. In this way, we present a procedure to derive stochastic wake models from costly computational fluid dynamics (CFD calculations or elaborated experimental investigations. These numerically efficient models provide the added value of possible long-term studies. Depending on the aspects of interest, different minimalized models may be obtained.

  15. Experimental investigation of axial plasma injection into a magnetic dipole field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Vagn Orla

    1968-01-01

    A high-density helium plasma, accelerated from a conical pinch, is injected axially into a magnetic dipole field. Magnetic probe measurements show that, near the axis, a compression of the field is super-imposed on the standard diamagnetic depression. The compression starts downstream and moves t...... towards the injector. Simultaneously with the compression, an increase in the electron temperature and reflection of a small amount of plasma are seen. The amount of plasma transmitted through the dipole field is found to be nearly independent of the field strength.......A high-density helium plasma, accelerated from a conical pinch, is injected axially into a magnetic dipole field. Magnetic probe measurements show that, near the axis, a compression of the field is super-imposed on the standard diamagnetic depression. The compression starts downstream and moves...

  16. Doppler lidar investigation of wind turbine wake characteristics and atmospheric turbulence under different surface roughness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Xiaochun; Wu, Songhua; Liu, Bingyi

    2017-06-12

    Four field experiments based on Pulsed Coherent Doppler Lidar with different surface roughness have been carried out in 2013-2015 to study the turbulent wind field in the vicinity of operating wind turbine in the onshore and offshore wind parks. The turbulence characteristics in ambient atmosphere and wake area was analyzed using transverse structure function based on Plane Position Indicator scanning mode. An automatic wake processing procedure was developed to determine the wake velocity deficit by considering the effect of ambient velocity disturbance and wake meandering with the mean wind direction. It is found that the turbine wake obviously enhances the atmospheric turbulence mixing, and the difference in the correlation of turbulence parameters under different surface roughness is significant. The dependence of wake parameters including the wake velocity deficit and wake length on wind velocity and turbulence intensity are analyzed and compared with other studies, which validates the empirical model and simulation of a turbine wake for various atmosphere conditions.

  17. Impact of bubble wakes on a developing bubble flow in a vertical pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomiyama, A.; Makino, Y.; Miyoshi, K.; Tamai, H.; Serizawa, A.; Zun, I.

    1998-01-01

    Three-dimensional two-way bubble tracking simulation of single large air bubbles rising through a stagnant water filled in a vertical pipe was conducted to investigate the structures of bubble wakes. Spatial distributions of time-averaged liquid velocity field, turbulent intensity and Reynolds stress caused by bubble wakes were deduced from the calculated local instantaneous liquid velocities. It was confirmed that wake structures are completely different from the ones estimated by a conventional wake model. Then, we developed a simple wake model based on the predicted time-averaged wake velocity fields, and implemented it into a 3D one-way bubble tracking method to examine the impact of bubble wake structures on time-spatial evolution of a developing air-water bubble flow in a vertical pipe. As a results, we confirmed that the developed wake model can give better prediction for flow pattern evolution than a conventional wake model

  18. Solenoidal magnetic field influences the beam neutralization by a background plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaganovich, I.

    2004-01-01

    An analytical electron fluid model has been developed to describe the plasma response to a propagating ion beam. The model predicts very good charge neutralization during quasi-steady-state propagation, provided the beam pulse duration is much longer than the electron plasma period. In the opposite limit, the beam pulse excites large-amplitude plasma waves. Figure 1 shows the influence of a solenoidal magnetic field on charge and current neutralization. Analytical studies show that the solenoidal magnetic field begins to influence the radial electron motion when ω ce > βω pe . Here, ω ce is the electron gyrofrequency, ω pe is the electron plasma frequency, and β = V b /c is the ion beam velocity. If a solenoidal magnetic field is not applied, plasma waves do not propagate. In contrast, in the presence of a solenoidal magnetic field, whistler waves propagate ahead of the beam and can perturb the plasma ahead of the beam pulse. In the limit ω ce >> βω pe , the electron current completely neutralizes the ion beam current and the beam self magnetic field greatly diminishes. Application of an external solenoidal magnetic field clearly makes the collective processes of ion beam-plasma interactions rich in physics content. Many results of the PIC simulations remain to be explained by analytical theory. Four new papers have been published or submitted describing plasma neutralization of an intense ion beam pulse

  19. Behavior of moving plasma in solenoidal magnetic field in a laser ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, S.; Takahashi, K.; Okamura, M.; Horioka, K.

    2016-01-01

    In a laser ion source, a solenoidal magnetic field is useful to guide the plasma and to control the extracted beam current. However, the behavior of the plasma drifting in the magnetic field has not been well understood. Therefore, to investigate the behavior, we measured the plasma ion current and the total charge within a single pulse in the solenoid by changing the distance from the entrance of the solenoid to a detector. We observed that the decrease of the total charge along the distance became smaller as the magnetic field became larger and then the charge became almost constant with a certain magnetic flux density. The results indicate that the transverse spreading speed of the plasma decreased with increasing the field and the plasma was confined transversely with the magnetic flux density. We found that the reason of the confinement was not magnetization of ions but an influence induced by electrons

  20. Behavior of moving plasma in solenoidal magnetic field in a laser ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, S., E-mail: ikeda.s.ae@m.titech.ac.jp [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama, Kanagawa 226-8502 (Japan); Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0108 (Japan); Takahashi, K. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Nagaoka University of Technology, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2137 (Japan); Okamura, M. [Collider-Accelerator Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973-5000 (United States); Horioka, K. [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama, Kanagawa 226-8502 (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    In a laser ion source, a solenoidal magnetic field is useful to guide the plasma and to control the extracted beam current. However, the behavior of the plasma drifting in the magnetic field has not been well understood. Therefore, to investigate the behavior, we measured the plasma ion current and the total charge within a single pulse in the solenoid by changing the distance from the entrance of the solenoid to a detector. We observed that the decrease of the total charge along the distance became smaller as the magnetic field became larger and then the charge became almost constant with a certain magnetic flux density. The results indicate that the transverse spreading speed of the plasma decreased with increasing the field and the plasma was confined transversely with the magnetic flux density. We found that the reason of the confinement was not magnetization of ions but an influence induced by electrons.

  1. Behavior of moving plasma in solenoidal magnetic field in a laser ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, S.; Takahashi, K.; Okamura, M.; Horioka, K.

    2016-02-01

    In a laser ion source, a solenoidal magnetic field is useful to guide the plasma and to control the extracted beam current. However, the behavior of the plasma drifting in the magnetic field has not been well understood. Therefore, to investigate the behavior, we measured the plasma ion current and the total charge within a single pulse in the solenoid by changing the distance from the entrance of the solenoid to a detector. We observed that the decrease of the total charge along the distance became smaller as the magnetic field became larger and then the charge became almost constant with a certain magnetic flux density. The results indicate that the transverse spreading speed of the plasma decreased with increasing the field and the plasma was confined transversely with the magnetic flux density. We found that the reason of the confinement was not magnetization of ions but an influence induced by electrons.

  2. Far infrared polarimetry with tokamak plasmas for determination of the poloidal magnetic field distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunz, W

    1979-01-01

    This study examines the poloidal magnetic field distribution of tokamak plasma, and the elucidation of the radial distribution of the toroidal plasma flow. A numerical and experimental determination of the poloidal field based on the Faraday effect is presented. A method is discussed for measuring the rotation of the polarization plane linear polarized electromagnetic radiation, by passing through a plasma magnetized in the direction of the radiation. The polarization behavior of a linear polarized wave passing through a tokamak plasma is presented theoretically for various wavelengths, along with the experimental investigation of a ferrite modulation procedure through the use of different far infrared detectors.

  3. Electrostatic fields and charged particle acceleration in laser produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hora, H.

    1983-01-01

    Some new aspects pioneered recently by Alfven in the theory of cosmic plasmas, indicate the possibility of a new treatment of the action of electrostatic double layers in the periphery of an expanding laser produced plasma. The thermally produced electrostatic double layer which has been re-derived for a homogeneous plasma shows that a strong upshift of ion energies is possible, in agreement with experiments. The number of accelerated ions is many orders of magnitude smaller than observed at keV and MeV energies. The nonlinear force acceleration could explain the number and energy of the observed fast ions. It is shown, however, that electrostatic double layers can be generated which should produce super-fast ions. A derivation of the spread double layers in the case of inhomogeneous plasmas is presented. It is concluded that the hydrodynamically expected multi GeV heavy ions for 10 TW laser pulses should produce super-fast ions up to the TeV range. Further conclusions are drawn from the electrostatically measured upshifted (by 300 keV) DT fusion alphas from laser compressed plasma. An analysis of alpha spectra attempts to distinguish between different models of the stopping power in the plasmas. The analysis preliminarily arrives at a preference for the collective model. (author)

  4. Effects of inhomogeneity on the Shukla-Nambu-Salimullah and wake potentials in a streaming dusty magnetoplasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salimullah, M.; Khan, M.I.U.; Amin, R.; Nitta, H.; Shukla, P.K.

    2005-10-01

    Detailed properties of the electrostatic Shukla-Nambu-Salimullah and the dynamical oscillatory wake potentials in an inhomogeneous dusty magnetoplasma in the presence of ion streaming, as in a laboratory discharge plasma, have been examined analytically. The potentials become sensitive functions of the external static magnetic field, the scale-length of inhomogeneity, and the deviation from the linear ion streaming velocity. For a decreasing ion density gradient, there is a limit of existence of the static modified shielding potential. For a strongly inhomogeneous dusty plasma, the effective length of the oscillatory wake potential increases with increasing deviation of the ion streaming velocity (u i0y ), but it does not depend on the external magnetic field. (author)

  5. Field simulation of axisymmetric plasma screw pinches by alternating-direction-implicit methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, M.A.

    1996-06-01

    An axisymmetric plasma screw pinch is an axisymmetric column of ionized gaseous plasma radially confined by forces from axial and azimuthal currents driven in the plasma and its surroundings. This dissertation is a contribution to detailed, high resolution computer simulation of dynamic plasma screw pinches in 2-d rz-coordinates. The simulation algorithm combines electron fluid and particle-in-cell (PIC) ion models to represent the plasma in a hybrid fashion. The plasma is assumed to be quasineutral; along with the Darwin approximation to the Maxwell equations, this implies application of Ampere's law without displacement current. Electron inertia is assumed negligible so that advective terms in the electron momentum equation are ignored. Electrons and ions have separate scalar temperatures, and a scalar plasma electrical resistivity is assumed. Altemating-direction-implicit (ADI) methods are used to advance the electron fluid drift velocity and the magnetic fields in the simulation. The ADI methods allow time steps larger than allowed by explicit methods. Spatial regions where vacuum field equations have validity are determined by a cutoff density that invokes the quasineutral vacuum Maxwell equations (Darwin approximation). In this dissertation, the algorithm was first checked against ideal MM stability theory, and agreement was nicely demonstrated. However, such agreement is not a new contribution to the research field. Contributions to the research field include new treatments of the fields in vacuum regions of the pinch simulation. The new treatments predict a level of magnetohydrodynamic turbulence near the bulk plasma surface that is higher than predicted by other methods

  6. Interplanetary Magnetic Field and Plasma Values Related to Hildcaas Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prestes, A.; Serra, S. L.; Vieira, L. A.

    2013-05-01

    In this work we investigate the interplanetary conditions during the occurrence of 150 HILDCAAs/QUASI-HILDCAAs events occurred between 1998 and 2007. These events were chosen by following strictly the selection criteria for this kind of phenomena and with some criteria flexible. Among the criteria used to characterize events HILDCAAs, the criterion that considers "the AE values never dropped below 200 nT for more than 2 h at a time" was more restrictive, thus only this was modified by changing from 2 to 4 hours the period in which the AE value can't be below 200 nT. In the interplanetary medium, HILDCAAs are associated with high speed solar wind streams, which are frequently embedded with alfvénic fluctuations. At the Sun, these high speed streams are originated in coronal holes. The distribution of events HILDCAAs/quasi-HILDCAAs along the solar cycle shows a pattern of double peak, a less intense around the maximum of the sunspot cycle and other intense in the descending phase, similar to the distribution of low-latitude coronal holes. For each one of the selected events we have found the most probable value of interplanetary magnetic field and plasma. The average values of AE, AU, AL and Dst indices, the density and temperature of the solar wind protons, the solar wind speed, the Bz component of the IMF, the IMF intensity, dynamic pressure and factor beta, among all the 150 events HILDCAAs/quasi-HILDCAAs, were: AE (344.5 ± 65.0 nT), AU (131.0 ± 33.0 nT), AL (-213.7 ± 51.2 nT), Dst (-25.8 ± 12.2 nT), Density (5,0 ± 1,8 cm-3), Temperature (151269.5 ± 48907.7 K), |V| (538.2 ± 83.3 km/s) Bz (-0.71 ± 1.02 nT), |B| (6.7 ± 1.4 nT) pressure (2.6 ± 0.7 nPa) and Beta (0.66 ± 0.27).

  7. Bifurcated states of a rotating tokamak plasma in the presence of a static error-field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzpatrick, R.

    1998-01-01

    The bifurcated states of a rotating tokamak plasma in the presence of a static, resonant, error-field are strongly analogous to the bifurcated states of a conventional induction motor. The two plasma states are the open-quotes unreconnectedclose quotes state, in which the plasma rotates and error-field-driven magnetic reconnection is suppressed, and the open-quotes fully reconnectedclose quotes state, in which the plasma rotation at the rational surface is arrested and driven magnetic reconnection proceeds without hindrance. The response regime of a rotating tokamak plasma in the vicinity of the rational surface to a static, resonant, error-field is determined by three parameters: the normalized plasma viscosity, P, the normalized plasma rotation, Q 0 , and the normalized plasma resistivity, R. There are 11 distinguishable response regimes. The extents of these regimes are calculated in P endash Q 0 endash R space. In addition, an expression for the critical error-field amplitude required to trigger a bifurcation from the open-quotes unreconnectedclose quotes to the open-quotes fully reconnectedclose quotes state is obtained in each regime. The appropriate response regime for low-density, ohmically heated, tokamak plasmas is found to be the nonlinear constant-ψ regime for small tokamaks, and the linear constant-ψ regime for large tokamaks. The critical error-field amplitude required to trigger error-field-driven magnetic reconnection in such plasmas is a rapidly decreasing function of machine size, indicating that particular care may be needed to be taken to reduce resonant error-fields in a reactor-sized tokamak. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  8. Inward transport of a toroidally confined plasma subject to strong radial electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, J. R.; Krawczonek, W. M.; Powers, E. J.; Hong, J.; Kim, Y.

    1977-01-01

    The paper aims at showing that the density and confinement time of a toroidal plasma can be enhanced by radial electric fields far stronger than the ambipolar values, and that, if such electric fields point into the plasma, radially inward transport can result. The investigation deals with low-frequency fluctuation-induced transport using digitally implemented spectral analysis techniques and with the role of strong applied radial electric fields and weak vertical magnetic fields on plasma density and particle confinement times in a Bumpy Torus geometry. Results indicate that application of sufficiently strong radially inward electric fields results in radially inward fluctuation-induced transport into the toroidal electrostatic potential well; this inward transport gives rise to higher average electron densities and longer particle confinement times in the toroidal plasma.

  9. First experiments probing the collision of parallel magnetic fields using laser-produced plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberg, M. J., E-mail: mros@lle.rochester.edu; Li, C. K.; Séguin, F. H.; Frenje, J. A.; Petrasso, R. D. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Fox, W. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Igumenshchev, I.; Stoeckl, C.; Glebov, V. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Town, R. P. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Novel experiments to study the strongly-driven collision of parallel magnetic fields in β ∼ 10, laser-produced plasmas have been conducted using monoenergetic proton radiography. These experiments were designed to probe the process of magnetic flux pileup, which has been identified in prior laser-plasma experiments as a key physical mechanism in the reconnection of anti-parallel magnetic fields when the reconnection inflow is dominated by strong plasma flows. In the present experiments using colliding plasmas carrying parallel magnetic fields, the magnetic flux is found to be conserved and slightly compressed in the collision region. Two-dimensional (2D) particle-in-cell simulations predict a stronger flux compression and amplification of the magnetic field strength, and this discrepancy is attributed to the three-dimensional (3D) collision geometry. Future experiments may drive a stronger collision and further explore flux pileup in the context of the strongly-driven interaction of magnetic fields.

  10. Current sustaining by RF travelling field in a collisional toroidal plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Masaji; Matsuura, Kiyokata.

    1977-06-01

    The relation between the current generation by RF travelling field and the accompanied power absorption is studied in a collisional toroidal plasma, parameters being phase velocity and filling gas pressure or electron collision frequency. It is observed at a low magnetic field that the current is proportional to the plasma conductivity and an effective electromotive force, which is a new concept introduced on the basis of fluid model; the electromotive force is proportional to the absorbed RF power and inversely proportional to the plasma density and the phase velocity of the travelling field. (auth.)

  11. Current sustaining by RF travelling field in a collisional toroidal plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Masaji; Matsuura, Kiyokata

    1978-01-01

    The relation between the current generated by RF travelling field and the absorbed power is studied in a collisional toroidal plasma, parameters being phase velocity and filling gap pressure or electron collision frequency. It is observed at a low magnetic field that the current is proportional to the plasma conductivity and an effective electromotive force, which is a new concept introduced on the basis of fluid model; the electromotive force is proportional to the absorbed RF power and inversely proportional to the plasma density and the phase velocity of the travelling field. (author)

  12. Production and Magnetic Field Confinement of Laser-Irradiated Solid Particle Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haught, A. F.; Polk, D. H.; Fader, W. J. [United Aircraft Research Laboratories East Hartford, CT (United States)

    1969-01-15

    The focused high-intensity beam from a Q-spoiled laser has been used to form a high-temperature, high-density plasma from a single 10-20 micron radius solid particle of lithium hydride which is electrically suspended in a vacuum environment free of all material supports. Time-resolved charge collection measurements of the freely expanding plasma have shown that a high degree of ionization of the 10{sup 15} atoms in the lithium hydride particle can be achieved and that the plasma produced is essentially spherically symmetric in density over the full 4 {pi} solid angle. Time-of-flight studies of the plasma expansion have shown that average electron and ion energies exceeding 200 electron volts are obtained and that the plasma expansion rate, like the plasma density, is spherically symmetric. No charge separation or separation of the lithium and hydrogen ions is observed in the expanding plasma. Numerical calculations of the plasma formation and expansion have been made using a one-dimensional spherical hydrodynamic model and, on the basis of the results obtained, an integrated similarity model has been developed for calculations of the plasma time history and energy over the range of conditions employed in the experiments. These calculations, which include the effects of laser pulse time history, fraction of the incident beam occupied by the expanding plasma, radial density and velocity gradients within the plasma, and spatial distribution of the incident laser energy, give results for the plasma radial density distribution, velocity profile, and plasma energy in good agreement with those determined experimentally over the full range of the present measurements. Measurements have been carried out to examine the interaction of these laser -produced plasmas with mirror, cusp, and minimum-B magnetic fields. Experiments with mirror and minimum-B magnetic fields up to 8 kC show that plasmas with densities of 10{sup 12} -10{sup 13} cm{sup -3} are confined for times of 5

  13. Radio emission from a helical electron beam-plasma system in a twisted magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishan, V.

    1982-01-01

    The excitation of electromagnetic radiation near the harmonics of electron plasma frequency from a helical electron beam travelling parallel to a helical magnetic field through a stationary inhomogeneous plasma is studied. The motivation behind this study is to explain the observed characteristics of the type III solar radio bursts and thus to predict the nature of the plasma system responsible for the generation of these radio bursts. (author)

  14. Reference data for plasma shaping and magnetic separatrix formation in the JET poloidal field system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazzaro, E.; Keegan, B.

    1986-01-01

    The analysis and the design of special equilibrium configurations (plasma with separatrix boundary) can be greatly simplified by a chart of the response of the plasma to currents in the poloidal field coils. This note presents this information for some interesting cases, namely for elongated plasmas eventually transformed into double null or in single null separatrix configurations. The calculations are made using the latest edition of the JET equilibrium code ''INVERSX'' including the detailed permeability characteristics of the iron core. (author)

  15. The importance of the toroidal magnetic field for the feasibility of a tokamak burning plasma experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzucato, E.

    2000-01-01

    The next step in the demonstration of the scientific feasibility of a tokamak fusion reactor is a DT burning plasma experiment for the study and control of self-heated plasmas. In this paper, the authors examine the role of the toroidal magnetic field on the confinement of a tokamak plasma in the ELMy H-mode regime--the operational regime foreseen for ITER

  16. Emergent kink stability of a magnetized plasma jet injected into a transverse background magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue; Gilmore, Mark; Hsu, Scott C.; Fisher, Dustin M.; Lynn, Alan G.

    2017-11-01

    We report experimental results on the injection of a magnetized plasma jet into a transverse background magnetic field in the HelCat linear plasma device at the University of New Mexico [M. Gilmore et al., J. Plasma Phys. 81(1), 345810104 (2015)]. After the plasma jet leaves the plasma-gun muzzle, a tension force arising from an increasing curvature of the background magnetic field induces in the jet a sheared axial-flow gradient above the theoretical kink-stabilization threshold. We observe that this emergent sheared axial flow stabilizes the n = 1 kink mode in the jet, whereas a kink instability is observed in the jet when there is no background magnetic field present.

  17. Confinement of laser plasma by solenoidal field for laser ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamura, M.; Kanesue, T.; Kondo, K.; Dabrowski, R.

    2010-01-01

    A laser ion source can provide high current, highly charged ions with a simple structure. However, it was not easy to control the ion pulse width. To provide a longer ion beam pulse, the plasma drift length, which is the distance between laser target and extraction point, has to be extended and as a result the plasma is diluted severely. Previously, we applied a solenoid field to prevent reduction of ion density at the extraction point. Although a current enhancement by a solenoid field was observed, plasma behavior after a solenoid magnet was unclear because plasma behavior can be different from usual ion beam dynamics. We measured a transverse ion distribution along the beam axis to understand plasma motion in the presence of a solenoid field.

  18. Field distribution of a source and energy absorption in an inhomogeneous magneto-active plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galushko, N.P.; Erokhin, N.S.; Moiseev, S.S.

    1975-01-01

    In the present paper the distribution of source fields in in a magnetoactive plasma is studied from the standpoint of the possibility of an effective SHF heating of an inhomogeneous plasma in both high (ωapproximatelyωsub(pe) and low (ωapproximatelyωsub(pi) frequency ranges, where ωsub(pe) and ωsub(pi) are the electron and ion plasma frequencies. The localization of the HF energy absorption regions in cold and hot plasma and the effect of plasma inhomogeneity and source dimensions on the absorption efficiency are investigated. The linear wave transformation in an inhomogeneous hot plasma is taken into consideration. Attention is paid to the difference between the region localization for collisional and non-collisional absorption. It has been shown that the HF energy dissipation in plasma particle collisions is localized in the region of thin jets going from the source; the radiation field has a sharp peak in this region. At the same time, non-collisional HF energy dissipation is spread over the plasma volume as a result of Cherenkov and cyclotron wave attenuation. The essential contribution to the source field from resonances due to standing wave excitation in an inhomogeneous plasma shell near the source is pointed out

  19. Potential load reductions on megawatt turbines exposed to wakes using individual-pitch wake compensator and trailing-edge flaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markou, Helen; Andersen, Peter Bjørn; Larsen, Gunner Chr.

    2011-01-01

    that typically focus on either load or power prediction. As a consequence, the wake affected inflow field generated by the DWM formulation opens for control strategies for the individual turbine. Two different control approaches for load reduction on the individual turbines are implemented in the multi-body aero-servo-elastic...... tool HAWC2, developed at Risø-DTU in Denmark, and their potential load reduction capabilities compared: (1) full-blade ‘individual-pitch controllers’ acting as wake compensators and (2) controllers using trailing-edge flaps. Information on the wake inflow conditions, induced by upstream turbines...... for the loading conditions of the individual turbines in the farm. The dynamic wake meandering model (DWM) is believed to capture the essential physics of the wake problem, and thus, both load and production aspects can be predicted, which is contrary to the traditional engineering wake prediction methods...

  20. Measurement of electric field distribution along the plasma column in Microwave jet discharges at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razzak, M. Abdur; Takamura, Shuichi; Tsujikawa, Takayuki; Shibata, Hideto; Hatakeyama, Yuto

    2009-01-01

    A new technique for the direct measurement of electric field distribution along the plasma column in microwave jet discharges is developed and employed. The technique is based on a servomotor-controlled reciprocating antenna moving along the nozzle axis and plasma column. The measurement technique is applied to a rectangular waveguide-based 2.45 GHz argon and helium plasma jets generated by using the modified TIAGO nozzle at atmospheric pressure with a microwave power of less than 500 W. The measurement has been done with and without igniting the plasma jet in order to investigate the standing wave propagation along the nozzle axis and plasma column. It is observed that the electric field decay occurs slowly in space with plasma ignition than that of without plasma, which indicates the surface electromagnetic wave propagation along the plasma column in order to sustain the plasma jet. This study enables one to design, determine and optimize the size and structure of launcher nozzle, which plays an important role for the stable and efficient microwave plasma generators. (author)

  1. Effects of background neutral particles on a field-reversed configuration plasma in the translation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuzawa, Yoshiki; Asai, Tomohiko; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Takahashi, Toshiki

    2008-01-01

    A field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasma was translated into a weakly ionized plasma and the effects of heating and particle buildup of the FRC plasma due to the background neutral particles and plasma injection in the translation process were investigated. Improvement of the particle and poloidal flux confinements and delay of onset of n=2 rotational instability were observed in the translation process. It was found that the internal structure of the plasma pressure (plasma temperature and density) at the separatrix and field null was deformed by the particle injection. FRC plasma translation through the background particles was equivalent to an end-on particle beam injection to the FRC plasma. Particles and energy were supplied during the translation. The results obtained for the phenomena of particle supply and plasma heating were also supported by the results of two-dimensional particle simulation. The effects of background particle injection appear to be a promising process for the regeneration of translation kinetic energy to plasma internal energy

  2. Nonlinear Eddy Viscosity Models applied to Wind Turbine Wakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laan, van der, Paul Maarten; Sørensen, Niels N.; Réthoré, Pierre-Elouan

    2013-01-01

    The linear k−ε eddy viscosity model and modified versions of two existing nonlinear eddy viscosity models are applied to single wind turbine wake simulations using a Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes code. Results are compared with field wake measurements. The nonlinear models give better results...

  3. Pressure and compressibility of a quantum plasma in a magnetic field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suttorp, L.G.

    1993-01-01

    The equilibrium pressure tensor that occurs in the momentum balance equation for a quantum plasma in a magnetic field is shown to be anisotropic. Its relation to the pressure that follows from thermodynamics is elucidated. A general proof of the compressibility rule for a magnetized quantum plasma

  4. Plasma equilibrium profiles with applied resonant fields on TBR-1 tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, R.M. de; Heller, M.V.A.P.; Caldas, I.L.; Silva, R.P. da; Brasilio, Z.A.; Oda, G.A.

    1995-01-01

    In this work we present the measurements of the plasma potential, in the edge and in the scrape-off layer regions of plasma, with and without the presence of the magnetic field perturbations produced by resonant helical windings. (author). 6 refs., 6 figs

  5. The geomagnetic field - An explanation for the microturbulence in coaxial gun plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mather, J.W.; Ahluwalia, H.S.

    1988-01-01

    The authors describe the complexity introduced by the geomagnetic field in several regions of a coaxial gun plasma device. It is shown that the annihilation of the swept-up geomagnetic flux, trapped within the highly compressed turbulent plasma, provides an explanation for varied performance and experimental results

  6. Interaction of Fast Ions with Global Plasma Modes in the C-2 Field Reversed Configuration Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, Artem; Dettrick, Sean; Clary, Ryan; Korepanov, Sergey; Thompson, Matthew; Trask, Erik; Tuszewski, Michel

    2012-10-01

    A high-confinement operating regime [1] with plasma lifetimes significantly exceeding past empirical scaling laws was recently obtained by combining plasma gun edge biasing and tangential Neutral Beam Injection (NBI) in the C-2 field-reversed configuration (FRC) experiment [2, 3]. We present experimental and computational results on the interaction of fast ions with the n=2 rotational and n=1 wobble modes in the C-2 FRC. It is found that the n=2 mode is similar to quadrupole magnetic fields in its detrimental effect on the fast ion transport due to symmetry breaking. The plasma gun generates an inward radial electric field, thus stabilizing the n=2 rotational instability without applying the quadrupole magnetic fields. The resultant FRCs are nearly axisymmetric, which enables fast ion confinement. The NBI further suppresses the n=2 mode, improves the plasma confinement characteristics, and increases the plasma configuration lifetime [4]. The n=1 wobble mode has relatively little effect on the fast ion transport, likely due to the approximate axisymmetry about the displaced plasma column. [4pt] [1] M. Tuszewski et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 255008 (2012).[0pt] [2] M. Binderbauer et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 045003 (2010).[0pt] [3] H.Y. Guo et al., Phys. Plasmas 18, 056110 (2011).[0pt] [4] M. Tuszewski et al., Phys. Plasmas 19, 056108 (2012)

  7. Imaging axial and radial electric field components in dielectric targets under plasma exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slikboer, E.T.; Sobota, A.; Guaitella, O.; Garcia-Caurel, E.

    2018-01-01

    This work presents new ways to investigate the individual electric field components in a dielectric target induced by a non thermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet. Mueller polarimetry is applied to investigate electro-optic crystals under exposure of guided ionization waves produced by a plasma

  8. Kelvin-Helmholtz instability for a bounded plasma flow in a longitudinal magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burinskaya, T. M.; Shevelev, M. M.; Rauch, J.-L.

    2011-01-01

    Kelvin-Helmholtz MHD instability in a plane three-layer plasma is investigated. A general dispersion relation for the case of arbitrarily orientated magnetic fields and flow velocities in the layers is derived, and its solutions for a bounded plasma flow in a longitudinal magnetic field are studied numerically. Analysis of Kelvin-Helmholtz instability for different ion acoustic velocities shows that perturbations with wavelengths on the order of or longer than the flow thickness can grow in an arbitrary direction even at a zero temperature. Oscillations excited at small angles with respect to the magnetic field exist in a limited range of wavenumbers even without allowance for the finite width of the transition region between the flow and the ambient plasma. It is shown that, in a low-temperature plasma, solutions resulting in kink-like deformations of the plasma flow grow at a higher rate than those resulting in quasi-symmetric (sausage-like) deformations. The transverse structure of oscillatory-damped eigenmodes in a low-temperature plasma is analyzed. The results obtained are used to explain mechanisms for the excitation of ultra-low-frequency long-wavelength oscillations propagating along the magnetic field in the plasma sheet boundary layer of the Earth’s magnetotail penetrated by fast plasma flows.

  9. Plasma engineering design of a compact reversed-field pinch reactor (CRFPR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bathke, C.G.; Embrechts, M.J.; Hagenson, R.L.; Krakowski, R.A.; Miller, R.L.

    1983-01-01

    The rationale for and the characteristics of the high-power-density Compact Reversed-Field Pinch Reactor (CRFPR) are discussed. Particular emphasis is given to key plasma engineering aspects of the conceptual design, including plasma operations, current drive, and impurity/ash control by means of pumped limiters or magnetic divertors. A brief description of the Fusion-Power-Core integration is given

  10. Current in the plasma moving in an arbitrary direction across a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samokhin, M.V.

    1991-01-01

    Condition under which freezing-in equation is satisfied in case of arbitrarily changeable direction of rate of plasma flow across the magnetic field is considered. It is shown that in the ideally frozen-in plasma there should exist current independent on the flow rate

  11. Electric field bifurcation and transition in the core plasma of CHS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujisawa, A.; Iguchi, H.; Sanuki, H.; Itoh, K.; Okamura, S.; Matsuoka, K.; Hamada, Y.; Itoh, S.-I.

    1997-01-01

    In the CHS heliotron/torsatron, dynamic phenomena associated with transitions in radial electric field were observed during combined ECH+NBI heated plasmas. The observations with high temporal resolution confirmed a nonlinear relation between radial electric field and radial current to cause these phenomena associated with electric field bifurcation. (author)

  12. Electric field measurement in the dielectric tube of helium atmospheric pressure plasma jet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sretenović, G.B.; Guaitella, O.; Sobota, A.; Krstić, I.B.; Kovačević, V.V.; Obradović, B.M.; Kuraica, M.M.

    2017-01-01

    The results of the electric field measurements in the capillary of the helium plasma jet are presented in this article. Distributions of the electric field for the streamers are determined for different gas flow rates. It is found that electric field strength in front of the ionization wave

  13. Screening of the field of a static charge in an anisotropic magnetized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arsenin, V.V.; Puzitskii, M.L.

    1991-01-01

    The field of a static charge placed in an equilibrium plasma is screened at a distance of the order of the Debye radius. Debye screening occurs both with and without an external magnetic field. This property also persists when the plasma is not an equilibrium plasma but the velocity distribution function of the particles is isotropic (the screening radius in this case contains the characteristic value of the energy instead of the temperature). The situation can change if the distribution is anisotropic. First, the drop in the field can become non-Debye. In particular, in an unmagnetized plasma some distribution functions are characterized by a power-law decrease of the field. Second, a static test charge induces a magnetic as well as an electrostatic field in an anisotropic plasma. In this communication the authors describe the anomalies of screening of the field of a static charge in a magnetized plasma. For definiteness they consider a situation (typical, e.g., of magnetic mirror systems) when the ionic component is anisotropic. The simplifications for the sake of computations are limited to the case of a charge which extends along the magnetic field and only harmonics much longer than the Debye length are significant in the Fourier expansion of the density of this charge in the longitudinal coordinate

  14. Study of aerosol sample interaction with dc plasma in the presence of oscillating magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoiljkovic, M.M.; Pavlovic, M.S.; Savovic, J.; Kuzmanovic, M.; Marinkovic, M.

    2005-01-01

    Oscillating magnetic field was used to study the efficiency of the aerosol sample introduction into the dc plasma. At atmospheric plasmas, the effect of magnetic field is reduced to Lorentz forces on the current carrying plasma, which produces motion of the plasma. The motion velocity of dc plasma caused by oscillating magnetic field was correlated to spectral emission enhancement of analytes introduced as aerosols. Emission enhancement is the consequence of the reduced barrier to introduction of analyte species and aerosol particles into the hot plasma region. Two hypotheses described in the literature for the origin of the barrier are considered: (i) barrier induced by temperature field is based upon the thermophoretic forces on the aerosol particles when their radius is comparable to the molecular free path in the surrounding gas and (ii) barrier induced by radial electric field, recently described, that originates from gradients of charged particles in radial direction. Correlation between ionization energy of the analyte atoms with experimental emission enhancement obtained by the use of oscillating magnetic field indicates that mechanism (ii) based upon the radial electric field is predominant. The ultimate emission enhancement and possible analytical advantage is discussed

  15. Fluctuations in collisional plasma in the presence of an external electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momot, A. I.; Zagorodny, A. G.

    2011-01-01

    The theory of large-scale fluctuations in a plasma is used to calculate the correlations functions of electron and ion density with regard to particle collisions described within the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) model and the presence of a constant external electric field. The changes of plasma particle distribution functions due to an external electric field and their influence on the plasma dielectric response are taken into account. The dispersion relations for longitudinal waves in such a plasma are studied in details. It is shown that external electric field can lead to the ion-acoustic wave instability and anomalous growth of the fluctuation level. Detailed numerical studies of the general relations for electron number density fluctuations are performed and the effect of external electric field on the fluctuation spectra is studied.

  16. Field stability by the electron beam in a warm magnetized plasma-filled waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, Sh.M.; Sayed, Y.A.; EI-Shorbagy, Kh.H.; EI-Gendy, A.T.

    2002-11-01

    We study the effect of the electron beam on the field stability and minimizing the energy losses in waveguide filled with plasma. Analytical calculations are performed to find the plasma dielectric tensor. By applying the boundary conditions at the plasma-conductor interface, we derive the dispersion equations, which describe the propagated E- and H- waves and their damping rate. The necessary condition for the field stability in the waveguide and the amplification coefficient for the E- wave are obtained. Realistic plasma conditions (i.e. its warmness and inhomogeneity under the effect of an external static magnetic field) are taken into consideration. The electron beam is found to play a crucial role in controlling the field attenuation in waveguide. (author)

  17. Influence of external resonant magnetic perturbation field on edge plasma of small tokamak HYBTOK-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Y., E-mail: hayashi-yuki13@ees.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8603 (Japan); Suzuki, Y.; Ohno, N. [Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8603 (Japan); Okamoto, M. [Ishikawa National College of Technology, Kitachujo, Tsubata-cho, Kahoku-gun, Ishikawa 929-0392 (Japan); Kikuchi, Y. [University of Hyogo, 2167 Shosha, Himeji, Hyogo 671-2280 (Japan); Sakakibara, S.; Watanabe, K.; Takemura, Y. [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan)

    2015-08-15

    Radial profile of externally applied resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) field with mode numbers of m = 6 and n = 2 in a small tokamak device HYBTOK-II have been investigated using a magnetic probe array, which is able to measure the radial profile of magnetic field perturbation induced by applying RMP. Results of RMP penetration into the plasma show that the RMP decreased toward the plasma center, while they were amplified around the resonant surface with a safety factor q = 3 due to the formation of magnetic islands. This suggests that RMP fields for controlling edge plasmas may trigger some kind of MHD instabilities. In addition, simulation results, based on a linearized four-field model, which agrees with the experimental ones, indicates that the penetration and amplification process of RMP strongly depend on a Doppler-shifted frequency between the RMP and plasma rotation.

  18. Current limitation and formation of plasma double layers in a non-uniform magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plamondon, R.; Teichmann, J.; Torven, S.

    1986-07-01

    Formation of strong double layers has been observed experimentally in a magnetised plasma column maintained by a plasma source. The magnetic field is approximately axially homogenous except in a region at the anode where the electric current flows into a magnetic mirror. The double layer has a stationary position only in the region of non-uniform magnetic field or at the aperture separating the source and the plasma column. It is characterized by a negative differential resistance in the current-voltage characteristic of the device. The parameter space,where the double layer exists, has been studied as well as the corresponding potential profiles and fluctuation spectra. The electric current and the axial electric field are oppositely directed between the plasma source and a potential minimum which is formed in the region of inhomogeneous magnetic field. Electron reflection by the resulting potential barrier is found to be an important current limitation mechanism. (authors)

  19. Nonlinear inertial Alfven waves in plasmas with sheared magnetic field and flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yinhua; Wang Ge; Tan Liwei

    2004-01-01

    Nonlinear equations describing inertial Alfven waves in plasmas with sheared magnetic field and flow are derived. For some specific parameters chosen, authors have found a new type of electromagnetic coherent structures in the tripolar vortex-like form

  20. Influence of the interplanetary magnetic field on the occurrence and thickness of the plasma mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sckopke, N.; Paschmann, G.; Rosenbauer, H.; Fairfield, D. H.

    1976-01-01

    The response of the plasma mantle to the orientation of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) has been studied by correlating Heos 2 plasma and Imp 6 magnetic field data. The mantle is nearly always present when the IMF has a southward component and often also when the field has a weak northward component. In addition, the mantle appears increasingly thicker with greater southward components. On the other hand, the mantle is thin or missing (from the region where it is normally found) when the average IMF has a strong northward component. This result supports the idea that polar cap convection plays a dominant role in the formation of the plasma mantle: mantle plasma originates in the magnetosheath, enters the magnetosphere through the day side polar cusps, and is transported across the cusp to the night side by means of a convection electric field whose magnitude is controlled by the orientation of the IMF.

  1. Observations of plasma tearing instabilities and associated axial translation in field-reversed experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, W.T.; Cochrane, J.C.; Lipson, J.; Tuszewski, M.

    1981-02-01

    Tearing and reconnection processes during the formation and quiescent periods of a field-reversed configuration are studied with an axial array of compensated diamagnetic loops. Several representative plasma shots are documented

  2. A reduced set of gyrofluid equations for plasma flow in a diverging magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Plasmas are often generated in a small diameter source with a strong magnetic field and subsequently flow into a region with greater diameter and smaller field. The magnetic mirror force that accelerates plasma in a diverging magnetic field appears in the gyrofluid equations developed for applications to toroidal devices, but this force is often absent from fluid equations. A set of gyrofluid equations with reduced complexity is developed in which drifts are assumed negligible and the mirror force is retained. The Chew–Goldberger–Low equations of state are used for a simple closure. These reduced gyrofluid equations are applied to plasma equilibrium in a magnetic mirror, to acceleration of plasma in a magnetic nozzle, and to space charge neutralization of an ion beam by electrons in a diverging magnetic field. The results from gyrofluid theory are compared with results from drift kinetic theory to find the accuracy of the gyrofluid approximation in these applications.

  3. Complementary variational principle method applied to thermal conductivities of a plasma in a uniform magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sehgal, A K; Gupta, S C [Punjabi Univ., Patiala (India). Dept. of Physics

    1982-12-14

    The complementary variational principles method (CVP) is applied to the thermal conductivities of a plasma in a uniform magnetic field. The results of computations show that the CVP derived results are very useful.

  4. Wind Farm Wake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Karagali, Ioanna; Volker, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    On 25 January 2016 at 12:45 UTC several photographs of the offshore wind farm Horns Rev 2 were taken by helicopter pilot Gitte Lundorff with an iPhone. A very shallow layer of fog covered the sea. The photos of the fog over the sea dramatically pictured the offshore wind farm wake. Researchers got...... together to investigate the atmospheric conditions at the time of the photos by analysing local meteorological observations and wind turbine information, satellite remote sensing and nearby radiosonde data. Two wake models and one mesoscale model were used to model the case and explain what was seen....

  5. Oscillations and Stability of Plasma in an External High-Frequency Electric Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliev, Ju.M.; Gorbunov, L.M.; Silin, V.P.; Uotson, H.

    1966-01-01

    A theory is developed for the oscillations and stability of plasma in a strong external HF electric field. The kinetic equation with self-congruent reciprocity is linearized for weak deviations from the ground state. Since the latter depends on an external HF field, the linearized equation obtained has coefficients with a periodic time dependence. From this equation and also from Maxwell's equations there is derived a dispersion equation for plasma oscillations that represents the zero value of the infinite order determinant, and that is solved both for external field frequencies considerably exceeding the electron Langmuir frequency and for frequencies that are less. The external HF field changes the oscillation branches in a plasma without an external field, and also leads to a new low-frequency oscillation branch. Movement of particles in the HF field gives spatial dispersion. If the frequency of the field exceeds the election Langmuir frequency, the plasma oscillations are stable. At frequencies less than this level there occurs a build-up of low-frequency oscillations. Here the maximum of the build-up occurs when the external field frequencies approach the electron Langmuir frequency and is equal to the product of the Langmuir frequency and the one-third power of the electron-ion mass ratio. Away from the resonance, -the increment of build-up has the same order of magnitude as the ion Langmuir frequency. An external magnetic field increases the number of possible natural plasma oscillations and thereby increases the possibility of resonance with the external HF field. Allowance for the thermal motion of the particles enables one to determine the attenuation of the oscillations in question. Expressions for the decrements are derived. The effect of the external HF field on a plasma in which there are beams is also discussed. An HF field has a destabilizing effect on a system of this kind, since on the one hand there can be a build-up of fresh, low

  6. Analysis of influence of the radial electric field on turbulent transport in tandem mirror plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khvesyuk, Vladimir I.; Chirkov, Alexei Yu.; Pshenichnikov, Anton A.

    2000-01-01

    The model of anomalous transport in cylindrical non-uniform steady state plasma in uniform magnetic field under the influence of many mode drift wave oscillations is suggested. The effect of anomalous transport suppression due to radial electric field is studied, and physical picture of H mode in plasma of GAMMA-10 tandem mirror device is considered. Presented theoretical and numerical results agree with the experimental data obtained on GAMMA-10. (author)

  7. The geomagnetic field - An explanation for the microturbulence in coaxial gun plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, J. W.; Ahluwalia, H. S.

    1988-01-01

    The complexity introduced by the geomagnetic field in several regions of a coaxial gun plasma device is described. It is shown that the annihilation of the swept-up geomagnetic flux, trapped within the highly compressed turbulent plasma, provides an explanation for varied performance and experimental results. The results indicate that the device should be aligned along the direction of the local geomagnetic field or enclosed in a mu-metal shield.

  8. A kinetic model of retarding field analyser measurements in strongly magnetized, flowing, collisional plasmas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gunn, J. P.; Fuchs, Vladimír; Kočan, M.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 4 (2013), 045012-045012 ISSN 0741-3335 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 7G10072 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : plasma * collisions * magnetic field * retarding field analyzer Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.386, year: 2013 http://iopscience.iop.org/0741-3335/55/4/045012/pdf/0741-3335_55_4_045012.pdf

  9. Spectroscopic measurement of the electric field in a helium plasma jet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmans, M.; Sobota, A.

    2017-01-01

    The electric field in a plasma jet is measured spectroscopically utilizing the Stark-effect. A cold atmospheric pressure helium plasma jet is used, which operates at a μs-pulsed applied voltage of 6 kV, a frequency of 5 kHz and with a helium flow of 1.5 slm. Due to the electric field in the jet, the

  10. Modification of the magnetic field structure of high-beta plasmas with a perturbation field in the Large Helical Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakakibara, S; Suzuki, Y; Narushima, Y; Watanabe, K Y; Ohdachi, S; Ida, K; Yoshinuma, M; Narihara, K; Yamada, I; Tanaka, K; Tokuzawa, T; Yamada, H; Takemura, Y

    2013-01-01

    The effect of resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) on MHD characteristics is investigated in high-beta plasmas of the Large Helical Device. The ramp-up and static m/n = 1/1 RMP field are applied in medium- (∼2%) and high- (∼4%) beta plasmas in order to find beta dependences of mode penetration, MHD activities and confinement. The results show that the threshold of mode penetration linearly increases with the beta value and/or plasma collisionality. The threshold of mode penetration in the RMP ramp-up experiments is roughly consistent with the static RMP case. The beta value gradually decreases with the RMP field strength before mode penetration, which is caused by a reduction in the pressure inside the ι/2π = 1 resonance. The width of the magnetic island after the penetration becomes larger than the given RMP field, and it is further enhanced by the increment of the beta value. (paper)

  11. Observations of imposed ordered structures in a dusty plasma at high magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Edward, E-mail: etjr@auburn.edu; Lynch, Brian; Konopka, Uwe [Physics Department, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama 36849 (United States); Merlino, Robert L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Rosenberg, Marlene [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California–San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States)

    2015-03-15

    Dusty plasmas have been studied in argon, rf glow discharge plasmas at magnetic fields up to 2 T, where the electrons and ions are strongly magnetized. In this experiment, plasmas are generated between two parallel plate electrodes where the lower, powered electrode is solid and the upper, electrically floating electrode supports a semi-transparent, titanium mesh. We report on the formation of an ordered dusty plasma, where the dust particles form a spatial structure that is aligned to the mesh. We discuss possible mechanisms that may lead to the formation of the “dust grid” and point out potential implications and applications of these observations.

  12. The Role of an Electric Field in the Formation of a Detached Regime in Tokamak Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senichenkov, I.; Kaveeva, E.; Rozhansky, V.; Sytova, E.; Veselova, I.; Voskoboynikov, S.; Coster, D.

    2018-03-01

    Modeling of the transition to the detachment of ASDEX Upgrade tokamak plasma with increasing density is performed using the SOLPS-ITER numerical code with a self-consistent account of drifts and currents. Their role in plasma redistribution both in the confinement region and in the scrape-off layer (SOL) is investigated. The mechanism of high field side high-density formation in the SOL in the course of detachment is suggested. In the full detachment regime, when the cold plasma region expands above the X-point and reaches closed magnetic-flux surfaces, plasma perturbation in a confined region may lead to a change in the confinement regime.

  13. Charged particle acceleration in nonuniform plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulanov, S.V.; Naumova, N.M.; Pegoraro, F.

    1996-11-01

    The high-gradient electron acceleration schemes that have been demonstrated using LWFA appear promising for the development of plasma-based laser accelerators into practical devices. However, a question still exists: how to avoid the wake field deterioration and the loss of the phase synchronism between the plasma wave and the electrons that prevent them from being accelerated up to the theoretical limit. In order to obtain the highest possible values of the wake electric field one must use as intense laser pulses as possible i.e., pulses with dimensionless amplitudes a much-gt 1. Pulses that have a dimensionless amplitude larger than one tend to be subject to a host of instabilities, such as relativistic self-focusing, self modulation and stimulated Raman scattering, that affect their propagation in the plasma. Such processes could be beneficial, in so far as they increase the pulse energy density, enhance the wake field generation, and provide the mechanism for transporting the laser radiation over several Rayleigh lengths without diffraction spreading. However, it is still far from certain that these processes can be exploited in a controlled form and can lead to regular, stationary wake fields. It is known that, in order to create good quality wake fields, it would be preferable to use laser pulses with steep fronts of order λ p . The present paper aims at analyzing the influence of the laser pulse shape and of the plasma nonuniformity on the charged particle acceleration. This study is based on the results obtained with one dimensional PIC simulations

  14. Temporally asymmetric laser pulse for magnetic-field generation in plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Mamta; Gopal, Krishna; Gupta, Devki Nandan, E-mail: dngupta@physics.du.ac.in

    2016-04-01

    Of particular interest in this article, the case study of an asymmetric laser pulse interaction with a plasma for magnetic field enhancement has been investigated. The strong ponderomotive force due to the short leading edge of the propagating laser pulse drives a large nonlinear current, producing a stronger quasistatic magnetic field. An analytical expression for the magnetic field is derived and the strength of the magnetic field is estimated for the current laser-plasma parameters. The theoretical results are validated through the particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations and are in very close agreement with the simulation based estimations. This kind of magnetic field can be useful in the plasma based accelerators as well as in the laser-fusion based experiments. - Highlights: • We employ an asymmetric laser pulse to enhance the magnetic field strength in a plasma. • Short leading front of the pulse drives a strong ponderomotive force. • An analytical expression for the magnetic field is derived. • The strength of the magnetic field is estimated for the current laser–plasma parameters.

  15. Temporally asymmetric laser pulse for magnetic-field generation in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Mamta; Gopal, Krishna; Gupta, Devki Nandan

    2016-01-01

    Of particular interest in this article, the case study of an asymmetric laser pulse interaction with a plasma for magnetic field enhancement has been investigated. The strong ponderomotive force due to the short leading edge of the propagating laser pulse drives a large nonlinear current, producing a stronger quasistatic magnetic field. An analytical expression for the magnetic field is derived and the strength of the magnetic field is estimated for the current laser-plasma parameters. The theoretical results are validated through the particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations and are in very close agreement with the simulation based estimations. This kind of magnetic field can be useful in the plasma based accelerators as well as in the laser-fusion based experiments. - Highlights: • We employ an asymmetric laser pulse to enhance the magnetic field strength in a plasma. • Short leading front of the pulse drives a strong ponderomotive force. • An analytical expression for the magnetic field is derived. • The strength of the magnetic field is estimated for the current laser–plasma parameters.

  16. Study of magnetic field expansion using a plasma generator for space radiation active protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Xianghong; Jia Shaoxia; Wan Jun; Wang Shouguo; Xu Feng; Bai Yanqiang; Liu Hongtao; Jiang Rui; Ma Hongbo

    2013-01-01

    There are many active protecting methods including Electrostatic Fields, Confined Magnetic Field, Unconfined Magnetic Field and Plasma Shielding etc. for defending the high-energy solar particle events (SPE) and Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) in deep space exploration. The concept of using cold plasma to expand a magnetic field is the best one of all possible methods so far. The magnetic field expansion caused by plasma can improve its protective efficiency of space particles. One kind of plasma generator has been developed and installed into the cylindrical permanent magnet in the eccentric. A plasma stream is produced using a helical-shaped antenna driven by a radio-frequency (RF) power supply of 13.56 MHz, which exits from both sides of the magnet and makes the magnetic field expand on one side. The discharging belts phenomenon is similar to the Earth's radiation belt, but the mechanism has yet to be understood. A magnetic probe is used to measure the magnetic field expansion distributions, and the results indicate that the magnetic field intensity increases under higher increments of the discharge power. (authors)

  17. Spectral coherence in windturbine wakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hojstrup, J. [Riso National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes an experiment at a Danish wind farm to investigate the lateral and vertical coherences in the nonequilibrium turbulence of a wind turbine wake. Two meteorological masts were instrumented for measuring profiles of mean speed, turbulence, and temperature. Results are provided graphically for turbulence intensities, velocity spectra, lateral coherence, and vertical coherence. The turbulence was somewhat influenced by the wake, or possibly from aggregated wakes further upstream, even at 14.5 diameters. Lateral coherence (separation 5m) seemed to be unaffected by the wake at 7.5 diameters, but the flow was less coherent in the near wake. The wake appeared to have little influence on vertical coherence (separation 13m). Simple, conventional models for coherence appeared to be adequate descriptions for wake turbulence except for the near wake situation. 3 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  18. About of the Electrostatic fields excitation theory by a RF wave in a plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez T, C.R.

    1991-01-01

    In an unidimensional model is shown in the cases of a semi limited plasma and a layer of plasma the excitement mechanism of electrostatic fields for a radiofrequency wave (RF) polarized lineally. This phenomenon depends strongly on the combined action of the Miller force and that of impulsion. It is shown that the action of these forces is carried out in different characteristic times when the front of wave crosses through the plasma. The cases of a semi limited plasma and of a layer of plasma without and with current are analyzed. It is shown that near the frontiers of the plasma where the field is sufficiently big arise oscillations of the width of the field that are slowly muffled in the space in an exponential way. In the cases of a plasma layer its are shown that the processes that arise near the frontier x = L are similar to the processes that arise near the frontier x = 0. The existence of current in the plasma layer leads to the blockade of the excited perturbations in the frontier x = L. (Author)

  19. The measurement and analysis of electric fields in glow discharge plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawler, J.E.; Doughty, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    Interest in glow discharge plasmas has remained high for many decades because of their widespread application as a source of incoherent and coherent light, in plasma processing materials, in pulsed power devices, and in other technologies. Plasma etching of semiconductors and various plasma deposition process emerged as major applications during the 1980s. The technological significance of plasma processing is described in Plasma Processing of Materials. More fundamental work on glow discharges also advanced greatly during the 1980s. For example, substantial progress was made through the use of laser diagnostics to study glow discharges and as a result of the dramatically increased computing power that became available in the 1980s to model glow discharges. Many of the laser diagnostics are described in Radiative Processes in Discharge Plasmas. Kinetic theory models, in particular, became far more sophisticated and realistic during the 1980s. This article is a review of recent work that used optical diagnostics to study electric fields in glow discharge plasmas. Alternative methods for measuring electric electric fields in plasmas include electron beam deflection and electrostatic probes. Optical techniques have important advantages over these methods: They can be used at higher pressures and discharge current densities than electron beam deflection; and they are noninvasive, unlike electrostatic probes. In addition, optical techniques are usually easier to apply in a highly pure system than either of the alternative methods. 46 refs., 23 figs., 1 tab

  20. Generation of static magnetic fields by a test charge in a plasma with anisotropic electron temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aliev, Yu.M.; Bychenkov, V.Yu.; Frolov, A.A. (AN SSSR, Moscow. Fizicheskij Inst.)

    Structure of electomagnetic field generated with a charge in a plasma with anisotropic electron temperature has been studied. Unlike a hydrodynamical approach to study on the magnetic field qeneration with a test charge a kinetic theory describing spatial distribution of both magnetic and electrostatic components of charge field was constructed. Such theory results permit to investigate the charge field structure both at distances larger than length of free electron path and not exceeding it. The developed theory can serve as the basis for development of new methods for anisotropic plasma diagnostics.

  1. Pioneer 7 observations of plasma flow and field reversal regions in the distant geomagnetic tail

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, R.C.; Villante, U.; Lazarus, A.J.

    1975-01-01

    We present the results of an extensive analysis of plasma and magnetic field data from Pioneer 7 taken in the geomagnetic tail approximately 1000 R/sub E/ downstream from earth. The principal observations are (1) measurable fluxes of protons in the tail, flowing away from earth, sometimes with a double-peaked velocity distribution; (2) field reversal regions in which the field changes from radial to antiradial by a vector rotation in the north-south plane; and (3) general characteristics of the tail similar to those observed near earth with good correlation between taillike magnetic fields and plasma

  2. Pioneer 7 observations of plasma flow and field reversal regions in the distant geomagnetic tail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, R. C.; Lazarus, A. J.; Villante, U.

    1975-01-01

    The present paper gives the results of an extensive analysis of plasma and magnetic-field data from Pioneer 7 taken in the geomagnetic tail approximately 1000 earth radii downstream from earth. The principal observations are: (1) measurable fluxes of protons in the tail, flowing away from earth, sometimes with a double-peaked velocity distribution; (2) field reversal regions in which the field changes from radial to antiradial by a vector rotation in the north-south plane; and (3) general characteristics of the tail similar to those observed near earth with good correlation between taillike magnetic fields and plasma.

  3. The Ionospheric Bubble Index deduced from magnetic field and plasma observations onboard Swarm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Jaeheung; Noja, Max; Stolle, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    . This product called L2-IBI is generated from magnetic field and plasma observations onboard Swarm, and gives information as to whether a Swarm magnetic field observation is affected by EPBs. We validate the performance of the L2-IBI product by using magnetic field and plasma measurements from the CHAMP...... satellite, which provided observations similar to those of the Swarm. The L2-IBI product is of interest not only for ionospheric studies, but also for geomagnetic field modeling; modelers can de-select magnetic data which are affected by EPBs or other unphysical artifacts....

  4. On the theory of the electrical field and the plasma rotation in the stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coronado-Gallardo, M.

    1984-01-01

    In the context of neoclassical transport theory, the macroscopic torque equations for several liquids in toroidal plasmas are used with general geometry. In order to examine plasma rotation and the electrical field in equilibrium and the effect of sources of particles and pulses, the continuity and pulse balance equations are dealt with. In order to use them on the WVII-A stellarator in the Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, existing formulae are expanded and the viscosity tensor is calculated in the CGL form in the plateau range. General expressions for plasma speed, electrical field, plasma diffusion and current are obtained, in which the effect of the sources occurs explicitly. The theory is applied to the WVII-A stellarator, in which neutral particle injection represents one pulse source. (orig.) [de

  5. The role of fluctuation-induced transport in a toroidal plasma with strong radial electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, J. R.; Krawczonek, W. M.; Powers, E. J.; Hong, J. Y.; Kim, Y. C.

    1981-01-01

    Previous work employing digitally implemented spectral analysis techniques is extended to demonstrate that radial fluctuation-induced transport is the dominant ion transport mechanism in an electric field dominated toroidal plasma. Such transport can be made to occur against a density gradient, and hence may have a very beneficial effect on confinement in toroidal plasmas of fusion interest. It is shown that Bohm or classical diffusion down a density gradient, the collisional Pedersen-current mechanism, and the collisionless electric field gradient mechanism described by Cole (1976) all played a minor role, if any, in the radial transport of this plasma.

  6. Instability of the Shukla mode in a dusty plasma containing equilibrium density and magnetic field inhomogeneities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, P.K.; Bharuthram, R.; Schlickeiser, R.

    2004-01-01

    It is shown that the dispersive Shukla mode [P.K. Shukla, Phys. Lett. A 316, 238 (2003)] can become unstable in the presence of equilibrium density and magnetic field inhomogeneities in a dusty plasma. A new dispersion relation for our nonuniform dusty magnetoplasma is derived and analyzed to show the modification of the Shukla mode frequency and its amplification due to combined action of the plasma density and magnetic field gradients. The present instability may account for the origin of low-frequency electromagnetic turbulence in molecular clouds and in cometary plasmas

  7. Features of laser spectroscopy and diagnostics of plasma ions in high magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semerok, A F; Fomichev, S V

    2003-01-01

    Laser induced fluorescence and laser absorption spectroscopies of plasma ions in high magnetic fields have been investigated. Both the high degree of Zeeman splitting of the resonant transitions and the ion rotational movement drastically change the properties of the resonance interaction of the continuous wave laser radiation with ions in highly magnetized plasma. Numerical solution of the density matrix equation for a dissipative two-level system with time-dependent detuning from resonance was used to analyse this interaction. A theoretical simulation was performed and compared with the experimental results obtained from the laser spectroscopy diagnostics of barium plasma ions in high magnetic fields in the several tesla range

  8. Spectroscopic determination of the magnetic field distribution in a gas-puff Z-pinch plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregorian, L; Davara, G; Kroupp, E; Maron, Y [Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot (Israel). Dept. of Particle Physics

    1997-12-31

    The time dependent radial distribution of the magnetic field in a gas-puff Z-pinch plasma has been determined by observing the Zeeman effect on emission lines, allowed for by polarization spectroscopy and high accuracy line-profile measurements. A modeling scheme, based on a 1-D magnetic diffusion equation, is used to fit the experimental data. The plasma conductivity inferred from the field distribution was found to be consistent with the Spitzer conductivity. The current density distribution and the time dependent plasma region in which the entire circuit current flows were determined. (author). 3 figs., 6 refs.

  9. Convective plasma stability consistent with MHD equilibrium in magnetic confinement systems with a decreasing field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsventoukh, M. M.

    2010-01-01

    A study is made of the convective (interchange, or flute) plasma stability consistent with equilibrium in magnetic confinement systems with a magnetic field decreasing outward and large curvature of magnetic field lines. Algorithms are developed which calculate convective plasma stability from the Kruskal-Oberman kinetic criterion and in which the convective stability is iteratively consistent with MHD equilibrium for a given pressure and a given type of anisotropy in actual magnetic geometry. Vacuum and equilibrium convectively stable configurations in systems with a decreasing, highly curved magnetic field are calculated. It is shown that, in convectively stable equilibrium, the possibility of achieving high plasma pressures in the central region is restricted either by the expansion of the separatrix (when there are large regions of a weak magnetic field) or by the filamentation of the gradient plasma current (when there are small regions of a weak magnetic field, in which case the pressure drops mainly near the separatrix). It is found that, from the standpoint of equilibrium and of the onset of nonpotential ballooning modes, a kinetic description of convective stability yields better plasma confinement parameters in systems with a decreasing, highly curved magnetic field than a simpler MHD model and makes it possible to substantially improve the confinement parameters for a given type of anisotropy. For the Magnetor experimental compact device, the maximum central pressure consistent with equilibrium and stability is calculated to be as high as β ∼ 30%. It is shown that, for the anisotropy of the distribution function that is typical of a background ECR plasma, the limiting pressure gradient is about two times steeper than that for an isotropic plasma. From a practical point of view, the possibility is demonstrated of achieving better confinement parameters of a hot collisionless plasma in systems with a decreasing, highly curved magnetic field than those

  10. Design of next step tokamak: Consistent analysis of plasma performance flux composition and poloidal field system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ane, J.M.; Grandgirard, V.; Albajar, F.; Johner, J.

    2001-01-01

    A consistent and simple approach to derive plasma scenarios for next step tokamak design is presented. It is based on successive plasma equilibria snapshots from plasma breakdown to end of ramp-down. Temperature and density profiles for each equilibrium are derived from a 2D plasma model. The time interval between two successive equilibria is then computed from the toroidal field magnetic energy balance, the resistive term of which depends on n, T profiles. This approach provides a consistent analysis of plasma performance, flux consumption and PF system, including average voltages waveforms across the PF coils. The plasma model and the Poynting theorem for the toroidal magnetic energy are presented. Application to ITER-FEAT and to M2, a Q=5 machine designed at CEA, are shown. (author)

  11. Propagation of microwave radiation through an inhomogeneous plasma layer in a magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakirev, B. A.; Bityurin, V. A.; Bocharov, A. N.; Brovkin, V. G.; Vedenin, P. V.; Mashek, I. Ch; Pashchina, A. S.; Pervov, A. Yu; Petrovskiy, V. P.; Ryazanskiy, N. M.; Shkatov, O. Yu

    2018-01-01

    The problem of reliable microwave communication through a plasma sheath has its origin from the beginning of space flights. During reentry of spacecraft, the plasma layer can interrupt the communication. At sufficiently high plasma density, the plasma layer either reflects or attenuates radio wave communications to and from the vehicle. In this work, we present a simple analytical one-dimensional algorithm to study the propagation of electromagnetic (EM) waves through a nonuniform plasma layer in a static nonuniform magnetic field. The experimental study of the EM wave transmission and reflection through plasma layer was carried out on the (i) microwave set and (ii) on the unit using a high-voltage pulsed discharge.

  12. Cylinder wakes in flowing soap films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorobieff, P.; Ecke, R.E.; Vorobieff, P.

    1999-01-01

    We present an experimental characterization of cylinder wakes in flowing soap films. From instantaneous velocity and thickness fields, we find the vortex-shedding frequency, mean-flow velocity, and mean-film thickness. Using the empirical relationship between the Reynolds and Strouhal numbers obtained for cylinder wakes in three dimensions, we estimate the effective soap-film viscosity and its dependence on film thickness. We also compare the decay of vorticity with that in a simple Rankine vortex model with a dissipative term to account for air drag. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  13. Diffusion in building wakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramsdell, J.V.

    1988-03-01

    Straight-line Gaussian models adequately describe atmospheric diffusion for many applications. They have been modified for use in estimating diffusion in building wakes by adding terms that include projected building area and by redefining the diffusion coefficients so that the coefficients have minimum values that are related to building dimensions. In a recent study, Ramsdell reviewed the building-wake dispersion models used by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in its control room habitability assessments. The review included comparison of model estimates of centerline concentrations with concentrations observed in experiments at seven nuclear reactors. In general, the models are conservative in that they tend to predict concentrations that are greater than those actually observed. However, the models show little skill in accounting for variations in the observed concentrations. Subsequently, the experimental data and multiples linear regression techniques have been used to develop a new building wake diffusion model. This paper describes the new building wake model and compares it with other models. 8 refs., 2 figs

  14. Dynamics of Plasma Jets and Bubbles Launched into a Transverse Background Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue

    2017-10-01

    A coaxial magnetized plasma gun has been utilized to launch both plasma jets (open B-field) and plasma bubbles (closed B-field) into a transverse background magnetic field in the HelCat (Helicon-Cathode) linear device at the University of New Mexico. These situations may have bearing on fusion plasmas (e.g. plasma injection for tokamak fueling, ELM pacing, or disruption mitigation) and astrophysical settings (e.g. astrophysical jet stability, coronal mass ejections, etc.). The magnetic Reynolds number of the gun plasma is 100 , so that magnetic advection dominates over magnetic diffusion. The gun plasma ram pressure, ρjetVjet2 >B02 / 2μ0 , the background magnetic pressure, so that the jet or bubble can easily penetrate the background B-field, B0. When the gun axial B-field is weak compared to the gun azimuthal field, a current-driven jet is formed with a global helical magnetic configuration. Applying the transverse background magnetic field, it is observed that the n = 1 kink mode is stabilized, while magnetic probe measurements show contrarily that the safety factor q(a) drops below unity. At the same time, a sheared axial jet velocity is measured. We conclude that the tension force arising from increasing curvature of the background magnetic field induces the measured sheared flow gradient above the theoretical kink-stabilization threshold, resulting in the emergent kink stabilization of the injected plasma jet. In the case of injected bubbles, spheromak-like plasma formation is verified. However, when the spheromak plasma propagates into the transverse background magnetic field, the typical self-closed global symmetry magnetic configuration does not hold any more. In the region where the bubble toroidal field opposed the background B-field, the magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor (MRT) instability has been observed. Details of the experiment setup, diagnostics, experimental results and theoretical analysis will be presented. Supported by the National Science Foundation

  15. Joyce the Deconstructionist: Finnegans Wake in Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zangouei J.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Had Finnegans Wake not been written, some seminal post-1950s innovations in the field of modern literary theory and criticism would have been impossible. James Joyce, who seems to have inspiringly influenced the entire sphere of modern literary theory and criticism greatly, is a pioneer of deconstruction too. His last novel, which reflects his deconstructive tendencies, has played a seminal role in the formation of 20th century deconstruction, and comprises an inchoate mass of implicit ideas on the subject. It was perhaps not until Jacques Derrida and his deconstruction techniques that the theory implied by Finnegans Wake really came into focus. This article seeks to delineate Derrida’s theory of deconstruction as well as Joyce's deconstructive aesthetics; and taking a diachronic approach to literary theory and criticism it glances at Finnegans Wake in the light of deconstruction.

  16. Ohm close-quote s law for plasmas in reversed field pinch configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martines, E.; Vallone, F.

    1997-01-01

    An analytical relationship between current density and applied electric field in reversed field pinch (RFP) plasmas has been derived in the framework of the kinetic dynamo theory, that is assuming a radial field-aligned momentum transport caused by the magnetic field stochasticity. This Ohm close-quote s law yields current density profiles with a poloidal current density at the edge which can sustain the magnetic field configuration against resistive diffusion. The dependence of the loop voltage on plasma current and other plasma parameters for RFP experiments has been obtained. The results of the theoretical work have been compared with experimental data from the RFX experiment, and a good agreement has been found. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  17. Nonlinear electromagnetic fields in 0.5 MHz inductively coupled plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostrikov, K.N.; Tsakadze, E.L.; Xu, S.

    2003-01-01

    Radial profiles of magnetic fields in the electrostatic (E) and electromagnetic (H) modes of low-frequency (similar to500 kHz) inductively coupled plasmas have been measured using miniature magnetic probes. In the low-power (similar to170 W) E-mode, the magnetic field pattern is purely linear......, with the fundamental frequency harmonics only. After transition to higher-power (similar to1130 W) H-mode, the second-harmonic nonlinear azimuthal magnetic field B-phi(2omega) that is in 4-6 times larger than the fundamental frequency component B-phi(omega), has been observed. A simplified plasma fluid model...... explaining the generation of the second harmonics of the azimuthal magnetic field in the plasma source is proposed. The nonlinear second harmonic poloidal (r-z) rf current generating the azimuthal magnetic field B-phi(2omega) is attributed to nonlinear interactions between the fundamental frequency radial...

  18. Plasma rotation and radial electric field with a density ramp in an ohmically heated tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duval, B.P.; Joye, B.; Marchal, B.

    1991-10-01

    Measurements of toroidal and poloidal rotation of the TCA plasma with Alfven Wave Heating and different levels of gas feed are reported. The temporal evolution of the rotation was inferred from intrinsic spectral lines of CV, CIII and, using injected helium gas, from HeII. The light collection optics and line intensity permitted the evolution of the plasma rotation to be measured with a time resolution of 2ms. The rotation velocities were used to deduce the radial electric field. With Alfven heating there was no observable change of this electric field that could have been responsible for the density rise which is characteristic of the RF experiments on TCA. The behaviour of the plasma rotation with different plasma density ramp rates was investigated. The toroidal rotation was observed to decrease with increasing plasma density. The poloidal rotation was observed to follow the value of the plasma density. With hard gas puffing, changes in the deduced radial electric field were found to coincide with changes in the peaking of the plasma density profile. Finally, with frozen pellet injection, the expected increase in the radial electric field due to the increased plasma density was not observed, which may explain the poorer confinement of the injected particles. Even in an ohmically heated tokamak, the measurement of the plasma rotation and the radial electric field are shown to be strongly related to the confinement. A thorough statistical analysis of the systematic errors is presented and a new and significant source of uncertainty in the experimental technique is identified. (author) 18 figs., 18 refs

  19. About the Toroidal Magnetic Field of a Tokamak Burning Plasma Experiment with Superconducting Coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzucato, E.

    2002-01-01

    In tokamaks, the strong dependence on the toroidal magnetic field of both plasma pressure and energy confinement is what makes possible the construction of small and relatively inexpensive burning plasma experiments using high-field resistive coils. On the other hand, the toroidal magnetic field of tokamaks using superconducting coils is limited by the critical field of superconductivity. In this article, we examine the relative merit of raising the magnetic field of a tokamak plasma by increasing its aspect ratio at a constant value of the peak field in the toroidal magnet. Taking ITER-FEAT as an example, we find that it is possible to reach thermonuclear ignition using an aspect ratio of approximately 4.5 and a toroidal magnetic field of 7.3 T. Under these conditions, fusion power density and neutron wall loading are the same as in ITER [International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor], but the normalized plasma beta is substantially smaller. Furthermore, such a tokamak would be able to reach an energy gain of approximately 15 even with the deterioration in plasma confinement that is known to occur near the density limit where ITER is forced to operate

  20. Radiative properties of a plasma moving across a magnetic field. I: Theoretical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roussel-Dupre, R.; Miller, R.H.

    1993-01-01

    The early-time evolution of plasmas moving across a background magnetic field is addressed with a two-dimensional model in which a plasma cloud is assumed to have formed instantaneously with a velocity across a uniform background magnetic field and with a Gaussian density profile in the two dimensions perpendicular to the direction of motion. This model treats both the dynamics associated with the formation of a polarization field and the generation and propagation of electromagnetic waves. In general, the results indicate that, to zeroth order, the plasma cloud behaves like a large dipole antenna oriented in the direction of the polarization field which oscillates at frequencies defined by the normal mode of the system. The magnitude of the radiation field and the amount of plasma momentum and energy carried away by and stored instantaneously in the fields are discussed only qualitatively in this paper, quantitative results for specific cloud parameters and scaling laws for the magnitude of the fields and the slowing down of the plasma cloud are presented in a companion manuscript

  1. Investigation of magnetic drift on transport of plasma across magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazarika, Parismita; Chakraborty, Monojit; Das, Bidyut; Bandyopadhyay, Mainak

    2015-01-01

    When a metallic body is inserted inside plasma chamber it is always associated with sheath which depends on plasma and wall condition. The effect of sheath formed in the magnetic drift and magnetic field direction on cross field plasma transport has been investigated in a double Plasma device (DPD). The drifts exist inside the chamber in the transverse magnetic field (TMF) region in a direction perpendicular to both magnetic field direction and axis of the DPD chamber. The sheath are formed in the magnetic drift direction in the experimental chamber is due to the insertion of two metallic plates in these directions and in the magnetic field direction sheath is formed at the surface of the TMF channels. These metallic plates are inserted in order to obstruct the magnetic drift so that we can minimised the loss of plasma along drift direction and density in the target region is expected to increase due to the obstruction. It ultimately improves the negative ion formation parameters. The formation of sheath in the transverse magnetic field region is studied by applying electric field both parallel and antiparallel to drift direction. Data are acquired by Langmuir probe in source and target region of our chamber. (author)

  2. Dispersion functions for weakly relativistic magnetized plasmas in inhomogeneous magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaelzer, R.; Schneider, R.S.; Ziebell, L.F.

    1995-01-01

    The study of wave propagation and absorption inhomogeneous plasmas can be made by using a formulation in which the dielectric properties of the plasma are described by an effective dielectric tensor which incorporates inhomogeneity effects, inserted into a dispersion relation which is formally the same as that of an homogeneous plasma. We have recently utilized this formalism in the study of electron cyclotron absorption in inhomogeneous media, both in the case of homogeneous magnetic field and in the case of inhomogeneous magnetic field. In the present paper we resume the study of the case with inhomogeneous magnetic field, in order to introduce a generalized dispersion function useful for the case of a Maxwellian plasma, and discuss some of its properties. (author). 10 refs

  3. Field-matter interaction in atomic and plasma physics, from fluctuations to the strongly nonlinear regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benisti, D.

    2011-01-01

    This manuscript provides a theoretical description, sometimes illustrated by experimental results, of several examples of field-matter interaction in various domains of physics, showing how the same basic concepts and theoretical methods may be used in very different physics situations. The issues addressed here are nonlinear field-matter interaction in plasma physics within the framework of classical mechanics (with a particular emphasis on wave-particle interaction), the linear analysis of beam-plasma instabilities in the relativistic regime, and the quantum description of laser-atom interaction, including quantum electrodynamics. Novel methods are systematically introduced in order to solve some very old problems, like the nonlinear counterpart of the Landau damping rate in plasma physics, for example. Moreover, our results directly apply to inertial confinement fusion, laser propagation in an atomic vapor, ion acceleration in a magnetized plasma and the physics of the Reversed Field Pinch for magnetic fusion. (author)

  4. Ion confinement and transport in a toroidal plasma with externally imposed radial electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, J. R.; Krawczonek, W. M.; Powers, E. J.; Kim, Y. C.; Hong, H. Y.

    1979-01-01

    Strong electric fields were imposed along the minor radius of the toroidal plasma by biasing it with electrodes maintained at kilovolt potentials. Coherent, low-frequency disturbances characteristic of various magnetohydrodynamic instabilities were absent in the high-density, well-confined regime. High, direct-current radial electric fields with magnitudes up to 135 volts per centimeter penetrated inward to at least one-half the plasma radius. When the electric field pointed radially toward, the ion transport was inward against a strong local density gradient; and the plasma density and confinement time were significantly enhanced. The radial transport along the electric field appeared to be consistent with fluctuation-induced transport. With negative electrode polarity the particle confinement was consistent with a balance of two processes: a radial infusion of ions, in those sectors of the plasma not containing electrodes, that resulted from the radially inward fields; and ion losses to the electrodes, each of the which acted as a sink and drew ions out of the plasma. A simple model of particle confinement was proposed in which the particle confinement time is proportional to the plasma volume. The scaling predicted by this model was consistent with experimental measurements.

  5. Enhancement of electron field emission of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes by nitrogen plasma treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, B.B. [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University of Technology, 69 Hongguang Rd, Lijiatuo, Banan District, Chongqing 400054 (China); Plasma Nanoscience Centre Australia (PNCA), CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering, P.O. Box 218, Lindfield, NSW 2070 (Australia); Cheng, Q.J. [Plasma Nanoscience Centre Australia (PNCA), CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering, P.O. Box 218, Lindfield, NSW 2070 (Australia); Plasma Nanoscience, School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Chen, X. [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Ostrikov, K., E-mail: kostya.ostrikov@csiro.au [Plasma Nanoscience Centre Australia (PNCA), CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering, P.O. Box 218, Lindfield, NSW 2070 (Australia); Plasma Nanoscience, School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2011-09-22

    Highlights: > A new and custom-designed bias-enhanced hot-filament chemical vapor deposition system is developed to synthesize vertically aligned carbon nanotubes. > The carbon nanotubes are later treated with nitrogen plasmas. > The electron field emission characteristics of the carbon nanotubes are significantly improved after the nitrogen plasma treatment. > A new physical mechanism is proposed to interpret the improvement of the field emission characteristics. - Abstract: The electron field emission (EFE) characteristics from vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) without and with treatment by the nitrogen plasma are investigated. The VACNTs with the plasma treatment showed a significant improvement in the EFE property compared to the untreated VACNTs. The morphological, structural, and compositional properties of the VACNTs are extensively examined by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. It is shown that the significant EFE improvement of the VACNTs after the nitrogen plasma treatment is closely related to the variation of the morphological and structural properties of the VACNTs. The high current density (299.6 {mu}A/cm{sup 2}) achieved at a low applied field (3.50 V/{mu}m) suggests that the VACNTs after nitrogen plasma treatment can serve as effective electron field emission sources for numerous applications.

  6. Enhancement of electron field emission of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes by nitrogen plasma treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, B.B.; Cheng, Q.J.; Chen, X.; Ostrikov, K.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A new and custom-designed bias-enhanced hot-filament chemical vapor deposition system is developed to synthesize vertically aligned carbon nanotubes. → The carbon nanotubes are later treated with nitrogen plasmas. → The electron field emission characteristics of the carbon nanotubes are significantly improved after the nitrogen plasma treatment. → A new physical mechanism is proposed to interpret the improvement of the field emission characteristics. - Abstract: The electron field emission (EFE) characteristics from vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) without and with treatment by the nitrogen plasma are investigated. The VACNTs with the plasma treatment showed a significant improvement in the EFE property compared to the untreated VACNTs. The morphological, structural, and compositional properties of the VACNTs are extensively examined by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. It is shown that the significant EFE improvement of the VACNTs after the nitrogen plasma treatment is closely related to the variation of the morphological and structural properties of the VACNTs. The high current density (299.6 μA/cm 2 ) achieved at a low applied field (3.50 V/μm) suggests that the VACNTs after nitrogen plasma treatment can serve as effective electron field emission sources for numerous applications.

  7. Effects of external magnetic field on harmonics generated in laser interaction with underdense plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faghihi-Nik, M.; Ghorbanalilu, M.; Shokri, B.

    2010-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Generation of harmonic radiation is an important subject of laser plasma interaction and attracts great attention due to a wide range of applications. It has been seen that intense electromagnetic and quasi-static transverse magnetic fields are generated in laser plasma interaction. An extremely intense magnetic field (up to hundreds of MG) has been observed by experimental measurements in interaction of short laser pulses with plasma. These self-generated or applied magnetic fields affect the propagation of the laser pulses. In most laser interactions with homogeneous plasma, odd harmonics of laser frequency are generated. In this paper, we point out the possibility of even harmonics generation when a linearly polarized laser beam propagates in homogeneous plasma in the presence of a transverse magnetic field. It is shown that applying external field induces a transverse current density oscillating twice of the laser field which leds to generation of second harmonic radiation. This current density is derived using the perturbation method, and the steady state amplitude of the second harmonic obtained by solution of the wave equation. By the same procedure the current density and then the steady state amplitude of higher order harmonics are calculated. The efficiency of harmonic generation (the ratio of harmonic power to incident power) is a drastically function of the strength of external magnetic field. It is found that the efficiency of even harmonics is zero in the absence of magnetic field and increases as the magnetic field is increased. For odd harmonics, applying the external magnetic field enhances the generated harmonics as well. The conversion efficiency also increases with increase in plasma density and intensity of the laser beam.

  8. Field desorption and field ion surface studies of samples exposed to the plasmas of PLT and ISX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellogg, G.L.; Panitz, J.A.

    1978-01-01

    Modifications to the surface of field-ion specimens exposed to plasma discharges in PLT and ISX determined by Imaging Probe, Field Ion Microscope, and Transmission Electron Microscope analysis have in the past shown several consistent features. Surface films consisting primarily of limiter material with trapped plasma and impurity species have been found to reside on samples with direct line of sight exposure to the plasma during the discharges. Control specimens placed in the tokamak, but shielded from the plasma, on the other hand, remained free of deposits. When exposed to only high power plasma discharges, samples placed at the wall position in PLT and ISX have survived the exposures with no evidence of damage or implantation. In this paper we describe the results of a recent exposure in PLT in which for the first time samples of stainless steel were included for High-Field Surface Analysis. Tokamak operating conditions, including stainless-steel limiters, titanium gettering between discharges, and the occurrence of a disruption, also distinguished this exposure from those carried out previously. Surprisingly, even with stainless-steel limiters, carbon films were found to be deposited on the samples at a rate

  9. A simple stationary semi-analytical wake model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Gunner Chr.

    We present an idealized simple, but fast, semi-analytical algorithm for computation of stationary wind farm wind fields with a possible potential within a multi-fidelity strategy for wind farm topology optimization. Basically, the model considers wakes as linear perturbations on the ambient non......-linear. With each of these approached, a parabolic system are described, which is initiated by first considering the most upwind located turbines and subsequently successively solved in the downstream direction. Algorithms for the resulting wind farm flow fields are proposed, and it is shown that in the limit......-uniform mean wind field, although the modelling of the individual stationary wake flow fields includes non-linear terms. The simulation of the individual wake contributions are based on an analytical solution of the thin shear layer approximation of the NS equations. The wake flow fields are assumed...

  10. Electronic radiation of a plasma in a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canobbio, E.; Consoli, T.; Ichtchenko, G.; Parlance, F.

    1965-01-01

    The influence on the microwave spectrum of the number of fast electrons, density, pressure and plasma inhomogeneities, has been studied in a hot cathode reflex discharge, operating either in a steady state either in a pulsed regime. Under some conditions a strong emission is observed between the harmonics of the electron gyrofrequency. A theoretical interpretation of the results is advanced by extending a model already proposed by CANOBBIO and CROCI. In particular it is indicated that the transition radiation can be responsible for the emission observed between the harmonics. (authors) [fr

  11. Characterization of an Actively Controlled Three-Dimensional Turret Wake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Patrick; Glauser, Mark

    2012-11-01

    Three-dimensional turrets are commonly used for housing optical systems on airborne platforms. As bluff bodies, these geometries generate highly turbulent wakes that decrease the performance of the optical systems and the aircraft. The current experimental study looked to use dynamic suction in both open and closed-loop control configurations to actively control the turret wake. The flow field was characterized using dynamic pressure and stereoscopic PIV measurements in the wake of the turret. Results showed that the suction system was able to manipulate the wake region of the turret and could alter not only the spatial structure of the wake, but also the temporal behavior of the wake flow field. Closed-loop, feedback control techniques were used to determine a more optimal control input for the flow control. Similar control effects were seen for both the steady open-loop control case and the closed-loop feedback control configuration with a 45% reduction in the suction levels when comparing the closed-loop to the open-loop case. These results provide unique information regarding the development of the baseline three-dimensional wake and the wake with three different active flow control configurations.

  12. Three-dimensional structure of wind turbine wakes as measured by scanning lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodini, Nicola; Zardi, Dino; Lundquist, Julie K.

    2017-08-01

    The lower wind speeds and increased turbulence that are characteristic of turbine wakes have considerable consequences on large wind farms: turbines located downwind generate less power and experience increased turbulent loads. The structures of wakes and their downwind impacts are sensitive to wind speed and atmospheric variability. Wake characterization can provide important insights for turbine layout optimization in view of decreasing the cost of wind energy. The CWEX-13 field campaign, which took place between June and September 2013 in a wind farm in Iowa, was designed to explore the interaction of multiple wakes in a range of atmospheric stability conditions. Based on lidar wind measurements, we extend, present, and apply a quantitative algorithm to assess wake parameters such as the velocity deficits, the size of the wake boundaries, and the location of the wake centerlines. We focus on wakes from a row of four turbines at the leading edge of the wind farm to explore variations between wakes from the edge of the row (outer wakes) and those from turbines in the center of the row (inner wakes). Using multiple horizontal scans at different elevations, a three-dimensional structure of wakes from the row of turbines can be created. Wakes erode very quickly during unstable conditions and can in fact be detected primarily in stable conditions in the conditions measured here. During stable conditions, important differences emerge between the wakes of inner turbines and the wakes of outer turbines. Further, the strong wind veer associated with stable conditions results in a stretching of the wake structures, and this stretching manifests differently for inner and outer wakes. These insights can be incorporated into low-order wake models for wind farm layout optimization or for wind power forecasting.

  13. Application of optimal control theory to laser heating of a plasma in a solenoidal magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neal, R.D.

    1975-01-01

    Laser heating of a plasma column confined by a solenoidal magnetic field is studied via modern optimal control techniques. A two-temperature, constant pressure model is used for the plasma so that the temperature and density are functions of time and location along the plasma column. They are assumed to be uniform in the radial direction so that refraction of the laser beam does not occur. The laser intensity used as input to the column at one end is taken as the control variable and plasma losses are neglected. The localized behavior of the plasma heating dynamics is first studied and conventional optimal control theory applied. The distributed parameter optimal control problem is next considered with minimum time to reach a specified final ion temperature criterion as the objective. Since the laser intensity can only be directly controlled at the input end of the plasma column, a boundary control situation results. The problem is unique in that the control is the boundary value of one of the state variables. The necessary conditions are developed and the problem solved numerically for typical plasma parameters. The problem of maximizing the space-time integral of neutron production rate in the plasma is considered for a constant distributed control problem where the laser intensity is assumed fixed at maximum and the external magnetic field is taken as a control variable

  14. Self-consistent solution for a collisionless plasma slab in motion across a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echim, Marius M.; Lemaire, Joseph F.; Roth, Michel

    2005-01-01

    The problem of the dynamics of a plasma slab moving across a magnetic field is treated in the framework of the kinetic theory. A velocity distribution function (VDF) is found for each plasma species, electrons and protons, in terms of the constants of motion defined by the geometry of the problem. The zero- and first-order moments of the VDF are introduced into the right-hand side term of Maxwell's equations to compute the electric and magnetic vector potentials and corresponding fields. The solutions are found numerically. We obtain a region of plasma convection--the slab proper--where the plasma moves with a uniform velocity, V x =V 0 =(ExB/B 2 ) x . At the core margins two plasma 'wings' are formed, each being the result of a pair of interpenetrated boundary layers with different transition lengths. Inside these wings, the plasma velocity is not uniform, V x ≠(ExB/B 2 ) x . It decreases from the maximum value obtained in the core to a minimum value in the central region of the wings where a flow reversal is found with the plasma convecting in the opposite direction to the core motion. There is also an asymmetry of the velocity gradient at the borders of the core, which results in a corresponding asymmetry in the thickness of the wings. Furthermore, it is found that the reversed plasma flow in the thinner wing is larger than that in the broader wing. For a fixed direction of the magnetic field the two plasma wings interchange position with respect to the center of the slab when the plasma bulk velocity reverses sign

  15. Plasma and magnetic field characteristics of the distant polar cusp near local noon: The entry layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschmann, G.; Haerendel, G.; Sckopke, N.; Rosenbauer, H.; Hedgecock, P.C.

    1976-01-01

    Heos 2 plasma and magnetic field measurements in the distant polar cusp region reveal the existence of a plasma layer on day side field lines just inside the magnetopause. Density and temperature in this layer are nearly the same as they are in the adjacent magnetosheath, but the flow lacks the order existing both in the magnetosheath and in the plasma mantle. Flow directions toward and away from the sun but, in general, parallel to the field lines have been found. The magnetopause (as defined by a sudden rotation of the magnetic field vector) mostly coincides with the transition to ordered magnetosheath flow. The inner boundary of the layer is located just within the outer boundary of the hot ring current plasma. In the region of overlap the hot electrons have the signature of trapped particles, though often at reduced intensity. The magnetic field is strongly fluctuating in magnitude, while its orientation is more stable, consistent with a connection to the earth, but is systematically distorted out of the meridian plane. The layer is thought to be a consequence of the entry of magnetosheath plasma, which does not appear to be unobstructed, as has been claimed in the concept of a magnetospheric cleft. The magnetopause has a cusplike indentation which is elongated in local time. The existence of field-aligned currents (total strength approx. =10 6 A) and their location of flow in the inner part of the entry layer (into the ionosphere before noon and out of it after noon) are inferred from the systematic bending of field lines. It is proposed that the dynamo of the related current system is provided by the transfer of perpendicular momentum resulting from the plasma entry into the layer. The essential features of the entry layer might be compatible with the model of plasma flow through the magnetopause of Levy et al. (1964) if a 'dam' effect caused by the cusp geometry were added

  16. Diagnosing collisionless energy transfer using field-particle correlations: Vlasov-Poisson plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Gregory G.; Klein, Kristopher G.; Li, Tak Chu

    2017-02-01

    Turbulence plays a key role in the conversion of the energy of large-scale fields and flows to plasma heat, impacting the macroscopic evolution of the heliosphere and other astrophysical plasma systems. Although we have long been able to make direct spacecraft measurements of all aspects of the electromagnetic field and plasma fluctuations in near-Earth space, our understanding of the physical mechanisms responsible for the damping of the turbulent fluctuations in heliospheric plasmas remains incomplete. Here we propose an innovative field-particle correlation technique that can be used to measure directly the secular energy transfer from fields to particles associated with collisionless damping of the turbulent fluctuations. Furthermore, this novel procedure yields information about the collisionless energy transfer as a function of particle velocity, providing vital new information that can help to identify the dominant collisionless mechanism governing the damping of the turbulent fluctuations. Kinetic plasma theory is used to devise the appropriate correlation to diagnose Landau damping, and the field-particle correlation technique is thoroughly illustrated using the simplified case of the Landau damping of Langmuir waves in a 1D-1V (one dimension in physical space and one dimension in velocity space) Vlasov-Poisson plasma. Generalizations necessary to apply the field-particle correlation technique to diagnose the collisionless damping of turbulent fluctuations in the solar wind are discussed, highlighting several caveats. This novel field-particle correlation technique is intended to be used as a primary analysis tool for measurements from current, upcoming and proposed spacecraft missions that are focused on the kinetic microphysics of weakly collisional heliospheric plasmas, including the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS), Solar Probe Plus, Solar Orbiter and Turbulence Heating ObserveR (THOR) missions.

  17. Wake effects on Middelgrund Windfarm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans; Frandsen, S.; Vølund, P.

    2003-01-01

    This report describes the data analysis of the Middelgrund Wind Farm online collected data with the purpose of calculating the wake effects and turbulence intensities within the wind farm when maximum wake effects are present. The data are compared to themost commonly used wake model PARK...... decreasing wind speed through the array when the wind iscoming from north. The turbulence intensity is enhanced up to 0.3 due to the wake effects. The analysis has shown that this enhancement is nearly independent of the number of turbines involved in the wake creation....

  18. Plasma grid design for optimized filter field configuration for the NBI test facility ELISE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nocentini, R.; Gutser, R.; Heinemann, B.; Froeschle, M.; Riedl, R.

    2009-01-01

    Maintenance-free RF sources for negative hydrogen ions with moderate extraction areas (100-200 cm 2 ) have been successfully developed in the last years at IPP Garching in the test facilities BATMAN and MANITU. A facility with larger extraction area (1000 cm 2 ), ELISE, is being designed with a 'half-size' ITER-like extraction system, pulsed ion acceleration up to 60 kV for 10 s and plasma generation up to 1 h. Due to the large size of the source, the magnetic filter field (FF) cannot be produced solely by permanent magnets. Therefore, an additional magnetic field produced by current flowing through the plasma grid (PG current) is required. The filter field homogeneity and the interaction with the electron suppression magnetic field have been studied in detail by finite element method (FEM) during the ELISE design phase. Significant improvements regarding the field homogeneity have been introduced compared to the ITER reference design. Also, for the same PG current a 50% higher field in front of the grid has been achieved by optimizing the plasma grid geometry. Hollow spaces have been introduced in the plasma grid for a more homogeneous PG current distribution. The introduction of hollow spaces also allows the insertion of permanent magnets in the plasma grid.

  19. Extreme ultraviolet emission and confinement of tin plasmas in the presence of a magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, Amitava, E-mail: roy@fzu.cz, E-mail: aroy@barc.gov.in [School of Nuclear Engineering and Center for Materials Under Extreme Environment(CMUXE), Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); HiLASE Project, Department of Diode-pumped Lasers, Institute of Physics of the ASCR, Na Slovance 2, 18221 Prague (Czech Republic); Murtaza Hassan, Syed; Harilal, Sivanandan S.; Hassanein, Ahmed [School of Nuclear Engineering and Center for Materials Under Extreme Environment(CMUXE), Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States); Endo, Akira; Mocek, Tomas [HiLASE Project, Department of Diode-pumped Lasers, Institute of Physics of the ASCR, Na Slovance 2, 18221 Prague (Czech Republic)

    2014-05-15

    We investigated the role of a guiding magnetic field on extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and ion emission from a laser produced Sn plasma for various laser pulse duration and intensity. For producing plasmas, planar slabs of pure Sn were irradiated with 1064 nm, Nd:YAG laser pulses with varying pulse duration (5–15 ns) and intensity. A magnetic trap was fabricated with the use of two neodymium permanent magnets which provided a magnetic field strength ∼0.5 T along the plume expansion direction. Our results indicate that the EUV conversion efficiency do not depend significantly on applied axial magnetic field. Faraday Cup ion analysis of Sn plasma show that the ion flux reduces by a factor of ∼5 with the application of an axial magnetic field. It was found that the plasma plume expand in the lateral direction with peak velocity measured to be ∼1.2 cm/μs and reduced to ∼0.75 cm/μs with the application of an axial magnetic field. The plume expansion features recorded using fast photography in the presence and absence of 0.5 T axial magnetic field are simulated using particle-in-cell code. Our simulation results qualitatively predict the plasma behavior.

  20. Heating of a plasma by a powerful relativistic electron beam in a strong magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arzhannikov, A.V.; Brejzman, B.N.; Vyacheslavov, L.N.; Kojdan, V.S.; Konyukhov, V.V.; Ryutov, D.D.

    1975-01-01

    The results of an experimental investigation into the interaction of a powerful relativistic electron beam with plasma in the INAR apparatus are presented. The relativistic electron beam had initial energy of 1 MeV, maximum injection current of 10 kA, duration of 70 ns, and diameter of 2 cm. The total beam energy at entry into the plasma was approximately 300 J. The beam was injected into the column of a hydrogen plasma 230 cm long, 8 cm in diameter, and with a density of 3x10 14 cm -3 . The magnetic field had mirror-trap geometry (mirror ratio 1.7, intensity in the uniform region up to 15 kOe). In the experiments various diagnostic methods were used, making it possible to measure the beam current, the total current within the plasma, the total energy of the beam entering and leaving the plasma, and the distribution of beam current over the cross-section at the plasma outlet; the energy content of the plasma was determined from diamagnetic measurements; the electron distribution function was analysed by the method of Thomson scattering of light at 90 0 . From an analysis of the shape of the diamagnetic signals and distribution of diamagnetism along the length of the apparatus it was established that under the assumption of predominant electron heating, the temperature of plasma electrons in order of magnitude equals 1 keV for a plasma density of 5x10 13 cm -3 . The cause of heating cannot be dissipation of the reversed current. Thomson scattering of laser radiation indicated the presence of a comparatively cold plasma component with a temperature of 25 eV. High-energy electrons moving from the opposite direction toward the beam were recorded; their appearance evidently was associated with acceleration of plasma electrons in the induction fields. Mechanisms which can provide effective heating of the whole mass of electrons under conditions in which pair collisions are minor are indicated. (author)

  1. Stimulated Brillouin backscattering and magnetic field generation in laser-produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bawa'aneh, M.S.

    1999-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with aspects of laser-plasma interactions related to fusion reactions; in particular thermoelectric magnetic field generation around a hole dug in plasma by intense laser beams, and stimulated Brillouin back scattering (SBBS) from plasmas containing hot spots. A hole, of the size of the laser focal spot, is dug in the plasma when illuminated by intense laser if the laser pressure exceeds the plasma thermal pressure. This hole is found to have steep, radial density gradients. My first concern arose from the prediction that magnetic fields might be generated around the hole-plasma interface in places where the steep density gradients overlap with the non-aligned temperature gradients. When a high-power laser beam is focused on a solid pellet, plasma is formed at the surface. In order to create conditions for thermonuclear reactions in the interior of the pellet, an effective deposition of the laser energy to thermal energy of the pellet via laser-plasma coupling is necessary. When light irradiates a plasma collective processes occur, which can either enhance or reduce the light absorption. For a better understanding of the fusion problem a knowledge of the nature of these collective processes and of the fraction of light reflected from the plasma modes is required. Local hot spots seen experimentally lead to higher gain levels of scattered light. These local temperature inhomogeneities could lead to non-equilibrium distributions, which result in a free energy leading to some interesting phenomena in plasma. In the second part of the thesis stimulated Brillouin back scattering from an ion acoustic mode in a hot spot is studied. Temperature inhomogeneities lead to an ion acoustic instability, and to higher levels of SBBS gain, which leads to lower thresholds for the same electron to ion temperature ratios. This could be the answer for the observed high levels of scattering from hot spots. (author)

  2. Concept of a staged FEL enabled by fast synchrotron radiation cooling of laser-plasma accelerated beam by solenoidal magnetic fields in plasma bubble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seryi, Andrei; Lesz, Zsolt; Andreev, Alexander; Konoplev, Ivan

    2017-03-01

    A novel method for generating GigaGauss solenoidal fields in a laser-plasma bubble, using screw-shaped laser pulses, has been recently presented. Such magnetic fields enable fast synchrotron radiation cooling of the beam emittance of laser-plasma accelerated leptons. This recent finding opens a novel approach for design of laser-plasma FELs or colliders, where the acceleration stages are interleaved with laser-plasma emittance cooling stages. In this concept paper, we present an outline of what a staged plasma-acceleration FEL could look like, and discuss further studies needed to investigate the feasibility of the concept in detail.

  3. Particle-in-cell simulations of fast magnetic field penetration into plasmas due to the Hall electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanekamp, S.B.; Grossmann, J.M.; Fruchtman, A.; Oliver, B.V.; Ottinger, P.F.

    1996-01-01

    Particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations are used to study the penetration of magnetic field into plasmas in the electron-magnetohydrodynamic (EMHD) regime. These simulations represent the first definitive verification of EMHD with a PIC code. When ions are immobile, the PIC results reproduce many aspects of fluid treatments of the problem. However, the PIC results show a speed of penetration that is between 10% and 50% slower than predicted by one-dimensional fluid treatments. In addition, the PIC simulations show the formation of vortices in the electron flow behind the EMHD shock front. The size of these vortices is on the order of the collisionless electron skin depth and is closely coupled to the effects of electron inertia. An energy analysis shows that one-half the energy entering the plasma is stored as magnetic field energy while the other half is shared between internal plasma energy (thermal motion and electron vortices) and electron kinetic energy loss from the volume to the boundaries. The amount of internal plasma energy saturates after an initial transient phase so that late in time the rate that magnetic energy increases in the plasma is the same as the rate at which kinetic energy flows out through the boundaries. When ions are mobile it is observed that axial magnetic field penetration is followed by localized thinning in the ion density. The density thinning is produced by the large electrostatic fields that exist inside the electron vortices which act to reduce the space-charge imbalance necessary to support the vortices. This mechanism may play a role during the opening process of a plasma opening switch. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  4. Spherical fusion plasma-confinement field of Surmac type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wipf, S.L.

    1981-01-01

    The concept of a Surmac confinement field that can be completely closed is presented. The internal conductor is magnetically suspended inside large corrugations of a superconducting spherical shell structure that carries the return current. Presently available superconductor technology using superfluid helium cooling allows fields above 1.5T throughout the wall region. Such a Surmac has potential for the study of advanced fuel cycles.

  5. Resistivity at the field null of the FRC plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerwin, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    In the absence of the major destructive instabilities, the configuration time is ultimately determined by particle and flux containment. If the profiles are ''gentle,'' then the anomalous flux-loss rate depends essentially on the anomalous resistivity at the field null. Conventional electrostatic quasi-linear models of anomalous cross-field resistive diffusivity are based upon the use of rvec E x rvec B drift velocities, and hence break down at the magnetic field null. In this paper, an electromagnetic treatment valid at the field null is developed, based upon the presence of flute-parity perturbations. An expression for anomalous resistivity at the field null in the quasi-linear approximation is derived by averaging in the ignorable direction over the random phases of the perturbations. The expression is valid for arbitrary (non-local) radial shapes of the perturbing modes (for example, the eigenfunctions need not be centered at the field null), and for an arbitrary ratio of real frequency to growth rate. The effective resistivity due to flute perturbations of the MHD type will be considered. 1 ref

  6. Numerical analysis of plasma-wall interaction for an oblique magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chodura, R.

    1982-01-01

    A numerical code is used to calculate energy and incidence angle of plasma ions and electrons impinging on an absorbing wall. Plasma particles coming from a plasma of given density and temperature traverse a transition layer with an electric space charge field perpendicular to the wall and a given magnetic field of arbitrary angle before being adsorbed in the wall. The 1d electrostatic particle code determines the electric field and the change of particle velocity distributions in the transition layer. When the incidence angle psi of the magnetic field is varied from 0 0 (normal) to 90 0 (tangential), the impact energies W of ions and electrons at the wall stay nearly unchanged. Electrons reach the wall according to an isotropic Maxwellian distribution except for large angles psi where only electrons travelling along the magnetic field have a chance to escape the plasma. Ions hit the wall at increasing angles theta for increasing psi. The incidence angle of cold ions (Tsub(i0) = 0) is always steeper than that of the magnetic field. For nearly grazing incidence angle of the magnetic field psi →90 0 the ion incidence angle theta becomes grazing as well. After the distribution function is determined the sputtering yield of wall incident ions is calculated for different magnetic field angles psi showing maximum yield for psi near to 90 0 . (orig.)

  7. Diffusion and drift regimes of plasma ionization wave propagation in a microwave field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khodataev, K.V.; Gorelik, B.R.

    1997-01-01

    Investigation into diffusion and drift modes of a plasma ionization wave propagation in the microwave field are conducted within the framework of a one-dimensional model with regard to gas ionization by electron shock in an electrical field, adhesion, mobility and diffusion of electrons

  8. The permittivity of a plasma at cyclotron resonance in large amplitude e.m. fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schram, D.C.

    1970-01-01

    The permittivity of a collisionless plasma as a function of field parameters is measured in standing and in travelling waves. In both experiments the permittivity remains finite at cyclotron resonance; the resonance is broadened and shifted towards higher values of the magnetic field strength. The

  9. Laser plasma heating in the presence of electrostatic-magnetostatic crosses fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goya, A.; Fonseca, A.L.A.; Nunes, O.A.C.

    1994-01-01

    The mechanism of plasma heating by one or two lasers in the presence of electrostatic-magnetostatic crossed fields is studied. The results show that the increasing of heating ratio is bigger due to the increment of stationary electric field. 7 refs

  10. Statistical mechanics of a plasma in a very strong magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Psimopoulos, M.

    1980-03-01

    Using the guiding centre model the behaviour of a plasma in the presence of a very strong constant magnetic field has been studied. The validity of the model is discussed and the conditions concerning the strength of the magnetic field are derived. Both the equilibrium and the non-equilibrium aspects of the problem are considered. (U.K.)

  11. The dust characteristics in the collisional plasma sheath at the presence of external magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shourkaei, Hossein Akbarian [AEOI, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Plasma Physics Research Group

    2015-05-15

    The characteristics of dust in a plasma sheath are investigated in the presence of an external magnetic field and taking into account neutral collision forces. By using the fluid model, the continuity and momentum equations of ions and dusts are solved numerically with various magnitudes of collision force. In various magnitude and directions of the magnetic field, the electron and ion density distribution, ion flow velocity, electron potential have been calculated. It is shown that magnetic field has obvious effect on the plasma sheath and the collision force reduces the dust kinetic energy.

  12. Qualitative models of magnetic field accelerated propagation in a plasma due to the Hall effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukushkin, A.B.; Cherepanov, K.V.

    2000-01-01

    Two qualitatively new models of accelerated magnetic field propagation (relative to normal diffusion) in a plasma due to the Hall effect are developed within the frames of the electron magnetic hydrodynamics. The first model is based on a simple hydrodynamic approach, which, in particular, reproduces the number of known theoretical results. The second one makes it possible to obtain exact analytical description of the basic characteristics of the magnetic field accelerated propagation in a inhomogeneous iso-thermic plasma, namely, the magnetic field front and its effective width [ru

  13. Effects of a vertical magnetic field on particle confinement in a magnetized plasma torus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, S H; Fasoli, A; Labit, B; McGrath, M; Podestà, M; Poli, F M

    2004-10-15

    The particle confinement in a magnetized plasma torus with superimposed vertical magnetic field is modeled and measured experimentally. The formation of an equilibrium characterized by a parallel plasma current canceling out the grad B and curvature drifts is described using a two-fluid model. Characteristic response frequencies and relaxation rates are calculated. The predictions for the particle confinement time as a function of the vertical magnetic field are verified in a systematic experimental study on the TORPEX device, including the existence of an optimal vertical field and the anticorrelation between confinement time and density.

  14. Two-stream instability for a light ion beam-plasma system with external magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, T.; Tazawa, H.

    1992-12-01

    For inertial confinement fusion, a focused light ion beam (LIB) is required to propagate stably through a chamber to a target. We have pointed out that the applied external magnetic field is important for LIB propagation. To investigate the influence of the external magnetic field on the LIB propagation, we analysed the electrostatic dispersion relation of magnetized light ion beam-plasma system. The particle in-cell (PIC) simulation results are presented for a light ion beam-plasma system with external magnetic field. (author)

  15. Rethermalization of a field-reversed configuration plasma in translation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Himura, H.; Okada, S.; Sugimoto, S.; Goto, S.

    1995-01-01

    A translation experiment of field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasma is performed on the FIX machine [Shiokawa and Goto, Phys. Fluids B 5, 534 (1993)]. The translated FRC bounces between magnetic mirror fields at both ends of a confinement region. The plasma loses some of its axial kinetic energy when it is reflected by the magnetic mirror field, and eventually settles down in the confinement region. In this reflection process, the plasma temperature rises significantly. Such plasma rethermalization has been observed in OCT-L1 experiments [Ito et al., Phys. Fluids 30, 168 (1987)], but rarely in FRX-C/T experiments [Rej et al., Phys. Fluids 29, 852 (1986)]. It is found that the rethermalization depends on the relation between the plasma temperature and the translation velocity. The rethermalization occurs only in the case where the translation velocity exceeds the sound velocity. This result implies the rethermalization is caused by a shock wave induced within the FRC when the plasma is reflected by the magnetic mirror field. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  16. ORNL TNS Program: plasma engineering considerations and innovations for a medium field tokamak fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Y.K.M.; Attenberger, S.E.; Houlberg, W.A.; Mense, A.T.; Rome, J.A.; Uckan, N.A.

    1977-12-01

    Recent plasma engineering studies have ascertained a viable concept for The Next Step (TNS) reactor based on medium toroidal fields between 4 T and 7 T at the plasma center, plasma anti β values up to 10%, and averaged densities between 0.6 x 10 14 cm -3 and 2.5 x 10 14 cm -3 . Plasma engineering innovations that can substantially reduce the size, cost, and complexity of the TNS reactor have been explored and are summarized. It is shown that the previously anticipated requirement of high pellet velocities can be substantially reduced; the toroidal field (TF) ripple requirements may be relaxed to reduce the number of TF coils and improve machine access; hybrid equilibrium field (EF) coils have been shown to require building only small interior coils and to reduce the power supply required by the exterior coils; proper approaches of microwave plasma preheating may reduce the peak loop voltage for start-up by an order of magnitude. The medium-field TNS reactor concepts and the plasma engineering innovations discussed should be applicable to other designs of tokamak reactors; some of the suggested innovations will be tested in upcoming experiments

  17. Acceleration of particles by electron plasma waves in a moderate magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.F.

    1976-01-01

    A general scheme is established to examine any magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) configuration for its acceleration potential including the effects of various types of plasma waves. The analysis is restricted to plasma waves in a magnetic field with electron cyclotron frequency less than, but comparable to, the electron plasma frequency (moderate field). The general role of electron plasma waves is examined in this paper independent of a specific MHD configuration or generating mechanism in the weak turbulence limit. The evolution of arbitrary wave spectra in a non-relativistic plasma is examined, and it is shown that the nonlinear process of induced scattering on the polarization clouds of ions leads to the collapse of the waves to an almost one-dimensional spectrum directed along the magnetic field. The subsequent acceleration of non-relativistic and relativistic particles is considered. It is shown for non-relativistic particles that when the wave distribution has a negative slope the acceleration is retarded for lower velocities and enhanced for higher velocities compared to acceleration by an isotropic distribution of electron plasma waves in a magnetic field. This change in behaviour is expected to affect the development of wave spectra and the subsequent acceleration spectrum. (Auth.)

  18. Physical mechanism determining the radial electric field and its radial structure in a toroidal plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ida, Katsumi; Miura, Yukitoshi; Itoh, Sanae

    1994-10-01

    Radial structures of plasma rotation and radial electric field are experimentally studied in tokamak, heliotron/torsatron and stellarator devices. The perpendicular and parallel viscosities are measured. The parallel viscosity, which is dominant in determining the toroidal velocity in heliotron/torsatron and stellarator devices, is found to be neoclassical. On the other hand, the perpendicular viscosity, which is dominant in dictating the toroidal rotation in tokamaks, is anomalous. Even without external momentum input, both a plasma rotation and a radial electric field exist in tokamaks and heliotrons/torsatrons. The observed profiles of the radial electric field do not agree with the theoretical prediction based on neoclassical transport. This is mainly due to the existence of anomalous perpendicular viscosity. The shear of the radial electric field improves particle and heat transport both in bulk and edge plasma regimes of tokamaks. (author) 95 refs

  19. Development of a measuring system for poloidal field profile in JIPP T-IIU plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuramoto, Hideharu; Hiraki, Naoji; Moriyama, Shin-ichi; Toi, Kazuo; Sato, Kuninori.

    1995-01-01

    A Zeeman polarimeter has been developed to measure the poloidal magnetic field profile in the plasma edge of the JIPP T-IIU tokamak. The poloidal field strength is determined from the analysis of circular polarization of a HeII 4686A spectral lines emitted from a plasma. The polarization modulation rate, which is proportional to the magnetic field strength along a line of sight, is estimated as a ratio of the difference between the left-hand circular polarized line intensity and right-hand one to the sum of them. A newly developed fast scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer allows us to improve a time resolution up to 1.5 ms. The poloidal magnetic field profile in He-doped deuterium plasmas of JIPP T-IIU has been successfully obtained with this polarimeter system. (author)

  20. GigaGauss solenoidal magnetic field inside bubbles excited in under-dense plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lécz, Zs.; Konoplev, I. V.; Seryi, A.; Andreev, A.

    2016-10-01

    This paper proposes a novel and effective method for generating GigaGauss level, solenoidal quasi-static magnetic fields in under-dense plasma using screw-shaped high intensity laser pulses. This method produces large solenoidal fields that move with the driving laser pulse and are collinear with the accelerated electrons. This is in contrast with already known techniques which rely on interactions with over-dense or solid targets and generates radial or toroidal magnetic field localized at the stationary target. The solenoidal field is quasi-stationary in the reference frame of the laser pulse and can be used for guiding electron beams. It can also provide synchrotron radiation beam emittance cooling for laser-plasma accelerated electron and positron beams, opening up novel opportunities for designs of the light sources, free electron lasers, and high energy colliders based on laser plasma acceleration.