WorldWideScience

Sample records for plasma volume replacement

  1. 99mTc-albumin can replace 125I-albumin to determine plasma volume repeatedly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonfils, Peter K; Damgaard, Morten; Stokholm, Knud H

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Plasma volume assessment may be of importance in several disorders. The purpose of the present study was to compare the reliability of plasma volume measurements by technetium-labeled human serum albumin ((99m)Tc-HSA) with a simultaneously performed plasma volume determination with iod......OBJECTIVE: Plasma volume assessment may be of importance in several disorders. The purpose of the present study was to compare the reliability of plasma volume measurements by technetium-labeled human serum albumin ((99m)Tc-HSA) with a simultaneously performed plasma volume determination...

  2. PLASMA VOLUME EXPANSION 24-HOURS POST-EXERCISE: EFFECT OF DOUBLING THE VOLUME OF REPLACEMENT FLUID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartholomew Kay

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of two volumes (1.5 L or 3.0 L of commercially available electrolyte beverage (1.44 mM·L-1 Na+ taken during a 24-hour recovery period post-exercise, on plasma volume (PV expansion 24-hours post-exercise were assessed. A simple random-order crossover research design was used. Subjects (n = 9 males: age 21 ± 4 years, body mass 80.0 ± 9.0 kg, peak incremental 60-second cycling power output 297 ± 45 W [means ± SD] completed an identical exercise protocol conducted in hot ambient conditions (35oC, 50% relative humidity on two occasions; separated by 7-days. On each occasion, subjects received a different volume of 24-hour fluid intake (commercial beverage in random order. In each case, the fluid was taken in five equal aliquots over 24-hours. PV expansions 24-hours post-exercise were estimated from changes in haemoglobin and haematocrit. Dependent t-testing revealed no significant differences in PV expansions between trials, however a significant expansion with respect to zero was identified in the 3.0 L trial only. Specifically, PV expansions (% were; 1.5 L trial: (mean ± SE 2.3 ± 2.0 (not significant with respect to zero, 3.0 L trial: 5.0 ± 2.0 (p < 0.05, with respect to zero. Under the conditions imposed in the current study, ingesting the greater volume of the beverage lead to larger mean PV expansion

  3. (99m) Tc-labelled human serum albumin cannot replace (125) I-labelled human serum albumin to determine plasma volume in patients with liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Ulrik Lütken; Henriksen, Jens H; Bendtsen, Flemming

    2013-01-01

    -labelled human serum albumin (99mTc-HSA) and iodine-labelled human serum albumin (125I-HSA), as the former may have advantages at repeated measurements and the latter is the classical gold standard. Study population and methods In 88 patients, (64 with liver disease, mainly cirrhosis, and 24 patients without......Summary Background and aims Determination of plasma volume (PV) is important in several clinical situations. Thus, patients with liver disease often have augmented PV as part of their sodium–water retention. This study was undertaken to compare PV determination by two indicators: technetium...... liver disease), simultaneous measurements of PV were taken with 99mTc-HSA and 125I-HSA after 1 h in the supine position. Blood samples were obtained before and 10 min after quantitative injection of the two indicators. In a subset of patients (n = 32), the measurements were repeated within 1 h. Results...

  4. Plasma volume changes during hypoglycaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Christensen, N J

    1991-01-01

    -induced hypoglycaemia with total autonomic blockade (alpha-adrenoceptor blockade combined with beta-adrenoceptor blockade and atropine); and insulin-induced hypoglycaemia without any autonomic blockade. In the experiments without autonomic blockade the peripheral venous hematocrit increased, plasma volume decreased......, intravascular albumin content decreased and the transcapillary escape rate of albumin increased. In both experiments with autonomic blockade the increase in venous haematocrit was abolished, yet plasma volume decreased, intravascular albumin content decreased and the transcapillary escape rate of albumin...... increased in these experiments. Thus, the changes in plasma volume and composition in response to hypoglycaemia are due to the combined actions of adrenaline and of insulin....

  5. Plasma volume changes during hypoglycaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Bendtsen, F; Christensen, N J

    1990-01-01

    To investigate whether previously reported changes in venous blood volume and composition induced by acute hypoglycaemia in humans are representative for the entire body we measured erythrocyte 51Cr content, haematocrit, plasma volume, intravascular albumin content and transcapillary escape rate...... of albumin in arterial and venous blood in seven healthy subjects before and during insulin-induced hypoglycaemia. In both vascular sites blood 51Cr content and the haematocrit increased, plasma volume and intravascular albumin content decreased and the transcapillary escape rate of albumin increased during...

  6. Volume of Requests for Internet Medicare Replacement Cards

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This dataset provides monthly volumes at the national level from federal fiscal year 2008 onwards for Internet Medicare Replacement Card. The dataset includes only...

  7. Plasma volume in acute hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, T D; Klausen, T; Richalet, J P

    1998-01-01

    Exposure to acute hypoxia is associated with changes in body fluid homeostasis and plasma volume (PV). This study compared a dye dilution technique using Evans' blue (PV[Evans']) with a carbon monoxide (CO) rebreathing method (PV[CO]) for measurements of PV in ten normal subjects at sea level...

  8. Plasma volume nomograms for use in therapeutic plasma exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffaloe, G W; Heineken, F G

    1983-01-01

    Nomograms have been developed for the convenient estimation of the plasma volumes of patients undergoing therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE), based on equations employing height, body weight, and hematocrit. These nomograms are offered as an aid to prescribing continuous-flow TPE procedure exchange volumes.

  9. Prostate volume and growth during testosterone replacement therapy is related to visceral obesity in Klinefelter syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selice, R; Caretta, N; Di Mambro, A; Torino, M; Palego, P; Ferlin, A; Foresta, C

    2013-12-01

    Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is a chromosomal alteration characterized by increased risk of metabolic syndrome, mainly caused by visceral obesity. In the last years, obesity has been studied as a potential risk factor for prostate disease and recently a link has been demonstrated between visceral adiposity with prostate volume. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between obesity and prostate volume and growth during testosterone therapy in KS subjects. We evaluated reproductive hormones, metabolic parameters, anthropometric measures, PSA, and prostate volume in 121 naïve non-mosaic KS patients and 60 age-matched healthy male controls. Fifty-six KS hypogonadic subjects were treated with testosterone-gel 2% and reevaluated after 18 months of treatment. Prostate volume in KS was positively related to waist circumference (WC). The KS group with WC ≥94 cm had significantly higher prostate volume, BMI, insulin plasma levels, homeostasis model assessment index, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and glycemia with respect to the KS group with WC testosterone replacement therapy, only hypogonadic KS men with WC ≥94 cm had a statistically significant increase in prostate volume. Furthermore, in untreated KS subjects, prostate volume showed a statistically significant increase after 18 months of follow-up only in subjects with WC ≥94 cm. This study showed that visceral obesity, insulin resistance, and lipid and glucose metabolism alterations are associated with prostate volume and growth during testosterone replacement therapy in KS, independently from androgen or estrogen levels. These latter findings might provide the basis for a better management and follow-up of KS subjects.

  10. Comparative changes in plasma protein concentration, hematocrit and plasma volume during exercise, bedrest and + Gz acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Beaumont, W.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1972-01-01

    Discussion of experiments which indicate that under conditions of a constant red cell volume the proportional changes in hematocrit and plasma volume during exercise are never equal. On the basis of direct measurements and calculated changes of plasma volume it is concluded that during maximal exercise there is a small loss of protein from the plasma. It is clear that changes in content of blood constituents can only be evaluated correctly after determination of changes in plasma volume.

  11. Subarachnuid cerebral hemorrhage treated with unequal volume of cerebrospinal fluid replacement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Min; Zhejiang; Tongxiang; Shen jinsong; Lu jianhong; Xu Yusi; Cai Aiying; Qiu Jiannin

    2000-01-01

    Objective To asscss the effcct and safely of treatment with unequal volume replacement of cerebrospinal fluid(CSF) in cases of subarachnosd hemorrhage(SAH). Background 48 cases of SAH were seleeted which comply to the diagnostic standard set bh the 2nd National meeting of cerebro-vascular diseases and confirmed by CT and CSF examination. Randomly 24 cases were treated as above called treated cases and the other 24 cases as control. Method Treated Treated cases, after successful spinal puncture, 5to 10 ml of CSF were withdrawn. Normal saline were replaced but the volume were 2ml less than the amount withdraw. This is repeated until 6-10ml were withdrawn. The last injeetion of normal saline was aeeompanied with 5mg of dexamethasonum. Cases treated replacement were between 1 to 4times. Result After replacement intracranial pressure (ICP) were generally lowered and headache immediately lcssened or relieved. No further bleeding or herniation of brain occurred. Discussion At present the replaccment of CSF are generally of equal volame. This may cause recurrent bleeding or herniation of brain. After unequal volume replacement, great fluctuation of ICP bu comparison may be lowered. In treated cases duration of headache cerebral vasospasm(CVS), ocurance of hydrocephlus were generally less than the control cases(p<0.05). No intracranial infection in treated casea. Conelusion Unequal volume replacement of CSF in treatment of SAH is effeetive. It is safer than equal volume replacement

  12. Blunted autonomic response to volume expansion in formerly preeclamptic women with low plasma volume.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krabbendam, I.; Courtar, D.A.; Janssen, B.J.; Aardenburg, R.; Peeters, L.L.; Spaanderman, M.E.A.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We hypothesize that low plasma volume in normotensive formerly preeclamptic women reflects reduced venous storage capacity. To test this hypothesis, we compared circulatory and autonomic responses to acute volume loading between women with low and those with normal plasma volume. METHODS:

  13. Platelet-rich plasma can replace fetal bovine serum in human meniscus cell cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gonzales, V.K.; Mulder, E.L.W. de; Boer, T. den; Hannink, G.; Tienen, T.G. van; Heerde, W.L. van; Buma, P.

    2013-01-01

    Concerns over fetal bovine serum (FBS) limit the clinical application of cultured tissue-engineered constructs. Therefore, we investigated if platelet-rich plasma (PRP) can fully replace FBS for meniscus tissue engineering purposes. Human PRP and platelet-poor plasma (PPP) were isolated from three h

  14. Counseling patients on facial volume replacement and adherence with posttreatment instructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris Day

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Doris DayDay Dermatology and Aesthetics New York, USAAbstract: Use of injectable volume replacement products has increased dramatically in the US in recent years. An optimal outcome with volume replacement depends on a thorough ­knowledge of the products on the part of the dermatologic/aesthetic physician specialist, identification of patients with a likelihood of benefiting from volume replacement procedures, selection of an appropriate product for the individual patient, and effective patient counseling to ensure adherence to posttreatment care instructions. Adherence to physician instructions in the field of dermatology appears limited, and there is very little published information on adherence to physician instructions following facial volume replacement procedures. The purpose of this review is to provide strategies for understanding and overcoming the barriers to adherence with the widely used dermal fillers. Strategies include using patient-centered techniques, such as a motivational interview encouraging the patient to follow postprocedure care instructions, eg, massage. In this case, demonstrating massage techniques while the patient is still in the office, with patient participation and detailed feedback, also contributes to good adherence with posttreatment care instructions. Telephone counseling, reminder postcards, and text messages may help improve clinic attendance for follow-up. Motivated patients who demonstrate good ­adherence to physician instructions generally respond well to volume replacement treatments, and usually experience fewer adverse events than patients who do not follow instructions. Although promoting adherence to pretreatment and posttreatment protocols remains a challenge, patient counseling throughout the treatment process can lead to successful results.Keywords: improving adherence, injectable volume replacement, product selection, ­rejuvenation procedure, soft tissue augmentation

  15. Acute plasma volume change with high-intensity sprint exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomer, Richard J; Farney, Tyler M

    2013-10-01

    When exercise is of long duration or of moderate to high intensity, a decrease in plasma volume can be observed. This has been noted for both aerobic and resistance exercise, but few data are available with regard to high-intensity sprint exercise. We measured plasma volume before and after 3 different bouts of acute exercise, of varying intensity, and/or duration. On different days, men (n = 12; 21-35 years) performed aerobic cycle exercise (60 minutes at 70% heart rate reserve) and 2 different bouts of cycle sprints (five 60-second sprints at 100% maximum wattage obtained during graded exercise testing (GXT) and ten 15-second sprints at 200% maximum wattage obtained during GXT). Blood was collected before and 0, 30, and 60 minutes postexercise and analyzed for hematocrit and hemoglobin and plasma volume was calculated. Plasma volume decreased significantly for all exercise bouts (p sprint bouts (∼19%) compared with aerobic exercise bouts (∼11%). By 30 minutes postexercise, plasma volume approached pre-exercise values. We conclude that acute bouts of exercise, in particular high-intensity sprint exercise, significantly decrease plasma volume during the immediate postexercise period. It is unknown what, if any negative implications these transient changes may have on exercise performance. Strength and conditioning professionals may aim to rehydrate athletes appropriately after high-intensity exercise bouts.

  16. Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Radhakrishnan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The fishmeal replaced with Spirulina platensis, Chlorella vulgaris and Azolla pinnata and the formulated diet fed to Macrobrachium rosenbergii postlarvae to assess the enhancement ability of non-enzymatic antioxidants (vitamin C and E, enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT and lipid peroxidation (LPx were analysed. In the present study, the S. platensis, C. vulgaris and A. pinnata inclusion diet fed groups had significant (P < 0.05 improvement in the levels of vitamins C and E in the hepatopancreas and muscle tissue. Among all the diets, the replacement materials in 50% incorporated feed fed groups showed better performance when compared with the control group in non-enzymatic antioxidant activity. The 50% fishmeal replacement (best performance diet fed groups taken for enzymatic antioxidant study, in SOD, CAT and LPx showed no significant increases when compared with the control group. Hence, the present results revealed that the formulated feed enhanced the vitamins C and E, the result of decreased level of enzymatic antioxidants (SOD, CAT and LPx revealed that these feeds are non-toxic and do not produce any stress to postlarvae. These ingredients can be used as an alternative protein source for sustainable Macrobrachium culture.

  17. Volume regulatory hormones and plasma volume in pregnant women with sickle cell disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosede B Afolabi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sickle cell disease (haemoglobin SS (HbSS mainly affects those of West African origin and is associated with hypervolaemia. Plasma volume rises by up to 50% in normal pregnancy but was previously found to be paradoxically contracted in late sickle cell pregnancy. The renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system is activated very early in human pregnancy to support the plasma volume expansion. We hypothesised that activation of the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system would be blunted in pregnant women with sickle cell disease. Materials and methods: We measured plasma volume and concentrations of plasma renin, angiotensinogen, aldosterone and other volume-related hormones in a cross-sectional study of pregnant and non-pregnant Nigerian women with HbSS or HbAA. Results: Plasma volume was higher in non-pregnant HbSS than HbAA women, but had not risen by 16 weeks, unlike plasma volume in HbAA women. The concentration of plasma renin also rose significantly less by 16 weeks in HbSS; angiotensinogen and aldosterone concentrations increased. Conclusions: The lower plasma renin concentration at 16 weeks with HbSS could be either primary or secondary to vasoconstriction related to inadequate vasodilator activity. The contracted plasma volume might then stimulate aldosterone synthesis by non-angiotensin II dependent stimulation. Studies of vasodilators such as nitric oxide, vasodilator eicosanoids or the PlGF/VEGF/sFlT-1 axis in pregnant HbSS and HbAA women will test this hypothesis.

  18. Capillary plasma jet: A low volume plasma source for life science applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Topala, I., E-mail: ionut.topala@uaic.ro, E-mail: tmnagat@ipc.shizuoka.ac.jp [Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi, Faculty of Physics, Iasi Plasma Advanced Research Center (IPARC), Bd. Carol I No. 11, Iasi 700506 (Romania); Nagatsu, M., E-mail: ionut.topala@uaic.ro, E-mail: tmnagat@ipc.shizuoka.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Shizuoka University, 3-5-1 Johoku, Naka-ku, Hamamatsu 432-8561 (Japan)

    2015-02-02

    In this letter, we present results from multispectroscopic analysis of protein films, after exposure to a peculiar plasma source, i.e., the capillary plasma jet. This plasma source is able to generate very small pulsed plasma volumes, in kilohertz range, with characteristic dimensions smaller than 1 mm. This leads to specific microscale generation and transport of all plasma species. Plasma diagnosis was realized using general electrical and optical methods. Depending on power level and exposure duration, this miniature plasma jet can induce controllable modifications to soft matter targets. Detailed discussions on protein film oxidation and chemical etching are supported by results from absorption, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and microscopy techniques. Further exploitation of principles presented here may consolidate research interests involving plasmas in biotechnologies and plasma medicine, especially in patterning technologies, modified biomolecule arrays, and local chemical functionalization.

  19. Formerly preeclamptic women with a subnormal plasma volume are unable to maintain a rise in stroke volume during moderate exercise.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aardenburg, R.; Spaanderman, M.E.A.; Eijndhoven, H.W. van; Leeuw, P.W. de; Peeters, L.L.

    2005-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In formerly preeclamptic women with a low plasma volume, the recurrence rate of preeclampsia is higher than in women with a normal prepregnant plasma volume. In a recent study, we demonstrated that the low plasma volume subgroup also had a subnormal venous capacitance. In the present

  20. Formerly preeclamptic women with a subnormal plasma volume are unable to maintain a rise in stroke volume during moderate exercise.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aardenburg, R.; Spaanderman, M.E.A.; Eijndhoven, H.W. van; Leeuw, P.W. de; Peeters, L.L.

    2005-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In formerly preeclamptic women with a low plasma volume, the recurrence rate of preeclampsia is higher than in women with a normal prepregnant plasma volume. In a recent study, we demonstrated that the low plasma volume subgroup also had a subnormal venous capacitance. In the present s

  1. Relationship between Plasma Albumin Concentration and Plasma Volume in 5 Inbred Rat Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Rajiv; Klemcke, Harold G

    2015-09-01

    Using the Evans Blue procedure, we previously found strain-related differences in plasma volumes in 5 inbred rat strains. Because albumin binds strongly with Evans blue, this protein is important in the Evans blue method of plasma volume determination. Therefore, we speculated that interstrain differences in plasma albumin concentration (PAC) could distort calculated plasma volumes. To address this concern, we used ELISA techniques to measure PAC in these inbred rat strains. In study A, the blood volume was measured by using Evans blue dye, and albumin was measured at the start of hemorrhage. In study B, blood volume was not measured, and albumin was measured twice, near the start and end of hemorrhage (approximately 14 min apart). Neither study revealed any interstrain differences in PAC, which decreased after hemorrhage in all 5 strains. No correlation was found between PAC and plasma volume, survival time, blood lactate, or blood base excess. Percentage changes in PAC during hemorrhage were greater in salt-sensitive compared with Lewis rats. Moreover, these percentage changes were associated with survival time in Fawn hooded hypertensive rats. Our data show that the plasma volumes we measured previously were not misrepresented due to variations in PAC.

  2. Influence of Feeding Pooled Colostrum or Colostrum Replacement on IgG Levels and Evaluation of Animal Plasma as a Milk Replacer Protein Source

    OpenAIRE

    Mowrey, Coleen Marie

    2001-01-01

    Newborn Holstein (n = 48) and Jersey (n = 30) calves were studied to compare the absorption of immunoglobulin G (IgG) from maternal colostrum (n = 39) or a colostrum replacement product derived from bovine serum (n = 39). Calves were also fed milk replacer with (n = 38) or without (n = 40) animal plasma to 29 d of age to determine the effect of plasma protein on IgG status, health, and growth. Colostrum or colostrum replacement was fed at 1.05 and 13.5 h of age and provided a total of 250, 18...

  3. Plasma Volume during Heat Stress and Exercise in Women,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-11-01

    subjectively determined "thermoneutral" environment. Methods Five healthy women (Table 1), who were not using oral contraceptive agents, volunteered to...with no difference between phases. Blood volume was estimated by the method of Allen et al (1) using the weight of the subject measured during the...a hemoglobinometer (Coulter Electronics). Plasma protein concentration (Pp) was measured by refractometry . Plasma sodium (Na + ) and potassium (K

  4. Benefits of fresh-frozen plasma as a replacement fluid to neutralize ABO antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Won, Dong Il; Ham, Ji Yeon; Kim, Chan Duck; Suh, Jang Soo; Kim, Byung Chang

    2015-10-01

    ABO-incompatible organ transplantation requires pre-transplant conditioning to reduce ABO antibody levels in the recipients. With respect to replacement fluids used in plasma exchange, we intended to verify whether fresh-frozen plasma (FFP) containing soluble ABO substance (SAS) is more effective than albumin solution in reducing ABO IgG antibody levels. Apheresis data were retrospectively studied for in vivo effects, and in vitro plasma mixing studies were prospectively performed. The amount of ABO IgG antibodies bound to red cells was measured as the mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) using flow cytometry. Neutralization of ABO antibodies in the recipientst plasma by an ABO-incompatible donornc plasma was measured using the inhibition assay principle. The MFI value of the unneutralized control tube was divided by that of the neutralized test tube (neutralizing-capacity index, NCI). The plasma exchange procedures replaced with group AB FFP showed a significantly greater decreased titer than those replaced with albumin (P = 0.010). The in vitro plasma mixing study simulating plasma exchange also produced consistent results. When the pooled group O plasma was neutralized for anti-A by individual group AB plasmas (AB-to-O, N = 30), the NCI was 12.8 ± 5.4 (6.5-29.5). When this group O plasma was neutralized by pooled group AB or A plasma, the repeatedly measured NCI (N = 5) of A-to-O (11.4 ± 1.4) was not significantly different from that of AB-to-O (9.7 ± 1.3, P = 0.074). ABO antibody levels are reduced more effectively by group AB FFP than by albumin. Either group AB or donor type (group A or B) FFP can be infused to group O recipients. FFP units with higher SAS levels can be selected from multiple available candidate units using our protocol for measuring the neutralizing-capacity. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Generation of Diffuse Large Volume Plasma by an Ionization Wave from a Plasma Jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laroussi, Mounir; Razavi, Hamid

    2015-09-01

    Low temperature plasma jets emitted in ambient air are the product of fast ionization waves that are guided within a channel of a gas flow, such as helium. This guided ionization wave can be transmitted through a dielectric material and under some conditions can ignite a discharge behind the dielectric material. Here we present a novel way to produce large volume diffuse low pressure plasma inside a Pyrex chamber that does not have any electrodes or electrical energy directly applied to it. The diffuse plasma is ignited inside the chamber by a plasma jet located externally to the chamber and that is physically and electrically unconnected to the chamber. Instead, the plasma jet is just brought in close proximity to the external wall/surface of the chamber or to a dielectric tubing connected to the chamber. The plasma thus generated is diffuse, large volume and with physical and chemical characteristics that are different than the external plasma jet that ignited it. So by using a plasma jet we are able to ``remotely'' ignite volumetric plasma under controlled conditions. This novel method of ``remote'' generation of a low pressure, low temperature diffuse plasma can be useful for various applications including material processing and biomedicine.

  6. A large volume uniform plasma generator for the experiments of electromagnetic wave propagation in plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Min; Li Xiaoping; Xie Kai; Liu Donglin [School of Electronical and Mechanical Engineering, Xidian University, Xi' an Shaanxi 710071 (China); Liu Yanming [School of Telecommunications Engineering, Xidian University, Xi' an Shaanxi 710071 (China)

    2013-01-15

    A large volume uniform plasma generator is proposed for the experiments of electromagnetic (EM) wave propagation in plasma, to reproduce a 'black out' phenomenon with long duration in an environment of the ordinary laboratory. The plasma generator achieves a controllable approximate uniform plasma in volume of 260 mm Multiplication-Sign 260 mm Multiplication-Sign 180 mm without the magnetic confinement. The plasma is produced by the glow discharge, and the special discharge structure is built to bring a steady approximate uniform plasma environment in the electromagnetic wave propagation path without any other barriers. In addition, the electron density and luminosity distributions of plasma under different discharge conditions were diagnosed and experimentally investigated. Both the electron density and the plasma uniformity are directly proportional to the input power and in roughly reverse proportion to the gas pressure in the chamber. Furthermore, the experiments of electromagnetic wave propagation in plasma are conducted in this plasma generator. Blackout phenomena at GPS signal are observed under this system and the measured attenuation curve is of reasonable agreement with the theoretical one, which suggests the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  7. Accurate mass replacement method for the sediment concentration measurement with a constant volume container

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ban, Yunyun; Chen, Tianqin; Yan, Jun; Lei, Tingwu

    2017-04-01

    The measurement of sediment concentration in water is of great importance in soil erosion research and soil and water loss monitoring systems. The traditional weighing method has long been the foundation of all the other measuring methods and instrument calibration. The development of a new method to replace the traditional oven-drying method is of interest in research and practice for the quick and efficient measurement of sediment concentration, especially field measurements. A new method is advanced in this study for accurately measuring the sediment concentration based on the accurate measurement of the mass of the sediment-water mixture in the confined constant volume container (CVC). A sediment-laden water sample is put into the CVC to determine its mass before the CVC is filled with water and weighed again for the total mass of the water and sediments in the container. The known volume of the CVC, the mass of sediment-laden water, and sediment particle density are used to calculate the mass of water, which is replaced by sediments, therefore sediment concentration of the sample is calculated. The influence of water temperature was corrected by measuring water density to determine the temperature of water before measurements were conducted. The CVC was used to eliminate the surface tension effect so as to obtain the accurate volume of water and sediment mixture. Experimental results showed that the method was capable of measuring the sediment concentration from 0.5 up to 1200 kg m‑3. A good liner relationship existed between the designed and measured sediment concentrations with all the coefficients of determination greater than 0.999 and the averaged relative error less than 0.2%. All of these seem to indicate that the new method is capable of measuring a full range of sediment concentration above 0.5 kg m‑3 to replace the traditional oven-drying method as a standard method for evaluating and calibrating other methods.

  8. Disproportional changes in hematocrit, plasma volume, and proteins during exercise and bed rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Beaumont, W.; Greenleaf, J. E.; Juhos, L.

    1972-01-01

    The interrelationships between the changes in plasma volume, hematocrit, and plasma proteins during muscular exercise and bed rest were investigated. Proportionally, the changes in hematocrit are always smaller than the changes in plasma volume. For this reason changes in the concentration of blood constituents can only be quantitated on the basis of plasma volume changes. During short periods of intensive exercise, there was a small loss of plasma proteins. With prolonged submaximal exercise there was a net gain in plasma protein, which contributes to stabilization of the vascular volume. Prolonged bed rest induced hypoproteinemia; this loss of plasma protein probably plays an important role in recumbency hypovolemia.

  9. Acid-base and electrolyte status during normovolemic hemodilution with succinylated gelatin or HES-containing volume replacement solutions in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna K Teloh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the past, several studies have compared different colloidal replacement solutions, whereby the focus was usually on the respective colloid. We therefore systematically studied the influence of the carrier solution's composition of five approved colloidal volume replacement solutions (Gelafundin, Gelafusal, Geloplasma, Voluven and Volulyte on acid-base as well as electrolyte status during and following acute severe normovolemic hemodilution. The solutions differed in the colloid used (succinylated gelatin vs. HES and in the presence and concentration of metabolizable anions as well as in their electrolyte composition. METHODS: Anesthetized Wistar rats were subjected to a stepwise normovolemic hemodilution with one of the solutions until a final hematocrit of 10%. Subsequent to dilution (162 min, animals were observed for an additional period (150 min. During dilution and observation time blood gas analyses were performed eight times in total. Additionally, in the Voluven and Volulyte groups as well as in 6 Gelafundin animals, electrolyte concentrations, glucose, pH and succinylated gelatin were measured in urine and histopathological evaluation of the kidney was performed. RESULTS: All animals survived without any indications of injury. Although the employed solutions differed in their respective composition, comparable results in all plasma acid-base and electrolyte parameters studied were obtained. Plasma pH increased from approximately 7.28 to 7.39, the plasma K(+ concentration decreased from circa 5.20 mM to 4.80-3.90 mM and the plasma Cl(- concentration rose from approximately 105 mM to 111-120 mM. Urinary analysis revealed increased excretion of K(+, H(+ and Cl(-. CONCLUSIONS: The present data suggest that the carrier solution's composition with regard to metabolizable anions as well as K(+, Ca(2+ only has a minor impact on acid-base and electrolyte status after application of succinylated gelatin or HES-containing colloidal

  10. The History, Technical Specifications and Efficacy of Plasma Spray Coatings Applied to Joint Replacement Prostheses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew McCabe

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Thermal plasma sprayed coatings are designed to improve both the biocompatibility and durability of implantable medical devices, and include pure titanium, cobalt/chrome alloy and hydroxyapatite.  Coated joint replacements have now been in continuous clinical use for thirty years and are applied to products manufactured or used in Europe, North America, South America, Africa, Asia and Australasia. Prostheses incorporating such coatings have been successfully implanted into several million of patients worldwide and to date there have been very few reports of any failure of an implant which could be attributed to problems with, or failure of, the coating. This paper summarises the early history of cementless prostheses and subsequent development, specification, validation, regulatory requirements and clinical performance of thermal plasma spray coatings provided by Accentus Medical.

  11. Studies on plasma production in a large volume system using multiple compact ECR plasma sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarey, R. D.; Ganguli, A.; Sahu, D.; Narayanan, R.; Arora, N.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a scheme for large volume plasma production using multiple highly portable compact ECR plasma sources (CEPS) (Ganguli et al 2016 Plasma Source Sci. Technol. 25 025026). The large volume plasma system (LVPS) described in the paper is a scalable, cylindrical vessel of diameter  ≈1 m, consisting of source and spacer sections with multiple CEPS mounted symmetrically on the periphery of the source sections. Scaling is achieved by altering the number of source sections/the number of sources in a source section or changing the number of spacer sections for adjusting the spacing between the source sections. A series of plasma characterization experiments using argon gas were conducted on the LVPS under different configurations of CEPS, source and spacer sections, for an operating pressure in the range 0.5-20 mTorr, and a microwave power level in the range 400-500 W per source. Using Langmuir probes (LP), it was possible to show that the plasma density (~1  -  2  ×  1011 cm-3) remains fairly uniform inside the system and decreases marginally close to the chamber wall, and this uniformity increases with an increase in the number of sources. It was seen that a warm electron population (60-80 eV) is always present and is about 0.1% of the bulk plasma density. The mechanism of plasma production is discussed in light of the results obtained for a single CEPS (Ganguli et al 2016 Plasma Source Sci. Technol. 25 025026).

  12. Efficient replacement of plasma membrane outer leaflet phospholipids and sphingolipids in cells with exogenous lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangtao; Kim, JiHyun; Huang, Zhen; St Clair, Johnna R; Brown, Deborah A; London, Erwin

    2016-12-06

    Our understanding of membranes and membrane lipid function has lagged far behind that of nucleic acids and proteins, largely because it is difficult to manipulate cellular membrane lipid composition. To help solve this problem, we show that methyl-α-cyclodextrin (MαCD)-catalyzed lipid exchange can be used to maximally replace the sphingolipids and phospholipids in the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane of living mammalian cells with exogenous lipids, including unnatural lipids. In addition, lipid exchange experiments revealed that 70-80% of cell sphingomyelin resided in the plasma membrane outer leaflet; the asymmetry of metabolically active cells was similar to that previously defined for erythrocytes, as judged by outer leaflet lipid composition; and plasma membrane outer leaflet phosphatidylcholine had a significantly lower level of unsaturation than phosphatidylcholine in the remainder of the cell. The data also provided a rough estimate for the total cellular lipids residing in the plasma membrane (about half). In addition to such lipidomics applications, the exchange method should have wide potential for investigations of lipid function and modification of cellular behavior by modification of lipids.

  13. Usefulness of Oncoplastic Volume Replacement Techniques after Breast Conserving Surgery in Small to Moderate-sized Breasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Dug Yang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundIn Korean women, many of whom have small to moderate-sized breasts, it is difficult to cover a partial breast defect using oncoplastic volume displacement techniques after removal of an adequate volume of tissue during oncologic surgery. In such cases, oncoplastic volume replacement techniques are more useful.MethodsFrom January 2007 to December 2011, 104 women underwent a total of 107 breast-conserving surgeries with various kinds of oncoplastic volume replacement techniques. We used latissimus dorsi (LD myocutaneous flap for cases in which the resection mass was greater than 150 g. In case with a resection mass less than 150 g, we used regional flaps such as a lateral thoracodorsal flap, a thoracoepigastric flap, or perforator flaps such as an intercostal artery perforator (ICAP flap or a thoracodorsal artery perforator (TDAP flap.ResultsThe mean age was 46.1 years, and the average follow-up interval was 10.3 months. The patients underwent oncoplastic volume replacement techniques with a lateral thoracodorsal flap (n=9, thoracoepigastric flap (n=7, ICAP flap (n=25, TDAP flap (n=12, and LD flap (n=54. There was one case of congestion in an LD flap, and two cases of fat necrosis in an ICAP flap. Most of the patients were satisfied with the cosmetic results.ConclusionsOncoplastic volume replacement techniques can be reliable and useful for the correction of breast deformity after breast-conserving surgery, especially in patients with small to moderate-sized breasts.

  14. Development of reduced fat minced meats using inulin and bovine plasma proteins as fat replacers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez Furlán, Laura T; Padilla, Antonio Pérez; Campderrós, Mercedes E

    2014-02-01

    This work deals with the effect of the addition of inulin and bovine plasma proteins as fat replacers, on the quality of minced meat. The proteins are obtained by ultrafiltration and freeze-drying. The following determinations were carried out: chemical composition, sensorial analysis (color, flavor, taste and consistency), emulsion stability and instrumental texture analysis of samples. The resulting formulations were compared with full-fat minced meat, as control. The results showed an increase of protein contents after fat replacement, while a fat reduction of 20-35% produced light products enriched with proteins and inulin as the functional ingredient. No change was observed in color, flavor, or taste among the samples. However, the sensory analysis showed that the combination of plasma protein (2.5%w/w) and inulin (2%w/w) had the best acceptability with respect to consistency, and had a lower fat drain from the emulsion. Texture profile analysis revealed that this formulation assimilated the control texture properties, being that this result is required for adequate consumer acceptance.

  15. An experimental study of rill sediment delivery in purple soil, using the volume-replacement method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuhan; Chen, Xiaoyan; Luo, Banglin; Ding, Linqiao; Gong, Chunming

    2015-01-01

    Experimental studies provide a basis for understanding the mechanisms of rill erosion and can provide estimates for parameter values in physical models simulating the erosion process. In this study, we investigated sediment delivery during rill erosion in purple soil. We used the volume-replacement method to measure the volume of eroded soil and hence estimate the mass of eroded soil. A 12 m artificial rill was divided into the following sections: 0-0.5 m, 0.5-1 m, 1-2 m, 2-3 m, 3-4 m, 4-5 m, 5-6 m, 6-7 m, 7-8 m, 8-10 m, and 10-12 m. Erosion trials were conducted with three flow rates (2 L/min, 4 L/min, and 8 L/min) and five slope gradients (5°, 10°, 15°, 20°, and 25°). The eroded rill sections were refilled with water to measure the eroded volume in each section and subsequently calculate the eroded sediment mass. The cumulative sediment mass was used to compute the sediment concentration along the length of the rill. The results show that purple soil sediment concentration increases with rill length before eventually reaching a maximal value; that is, the rate of increase in sediment concentration is greatest at the rill inlet and then gradually slows. Steeper slopes and higher flow rates result in sediment concentration increasing more rapidly along the rill length and the maximum sediment concentration being reached at an earlier location in the rill. Slope gradient and flow rate both result in an increase in maximal sediment concentration and accumulated eroded amount. However, slope gradient has a greater influence on rill erosion than flow rate. The results and experimental method in this study may provide a reference for future rill-erosion experiments.

  16. An experimental study of rill sediment delivery in purple soil, using the volume-replacement method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhan Huang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Experimental studies provide a basis for understanding the mechanisms of rill erosion and can provide estimates for parameter values in physical models simulating the erosion process. In this study, we investigated sediment delivery during rill erosion in purple soil. We used the volume-replacement method to measure the volume of eroded soil and hence estimate the mass of eroded soil. A 12 m artificial rill was divided into the following sections: 0–0.5 m, 0.5–1 m, 1–2 m, 2–3 m, 3–4 m, 4–5 m, 5–6 m, 6–7 m, 7–8 m, 8–10 m, and 10–12 m. Erosion trials were conducted with three flow rates (2 L/min, 4 L/min, and 8 L/min and five slope gradients (5°, 10°, 15°, 20°, and 25°. The eroded rill sections were refilled with water to measure the eroded volume in each section and subsequently calculate the eroded sediment mass. The cumulative sediment mass was used to compute the sediment concentration along the length of the rill. The results show that purple soil sediment concentration increases with rill length before eventually reaching a maximal value; that is, the rate of increase in sediment concentration is greatest at the rill inlet and then gradually slows. Steeper slopes and higher flow rates result in sediment concentration increasing more rapidly along the rill length and the maximum sediment concentration being reached at an earlier location in the rill. Slope gradient and flow rate both result in an increase in maximal sediment concentration and accumulated eroded amount. However, slope gradient has a greater influence on rill erosion than flow rate. The results and experimental method in this study may provide a reference for future rill-erosion experiments.

  17. Comparative study of NO removal in surface-plasma and volume-plasma reactors based on pulsed corona discharges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Muhammad Arif; Kolb, Juergen F; Sun, Yaohong; Schoenbach, Karl H

    2011-12-15

    Nitric oxide (NO) conversion has been studied for two different types of atmospheric-pressure pulsed-corona discharges, one generates a surface-plasma and the other provides a volume-plasma. For both types of discharges the energy cost for NO removal increases with decreasing oxygen concentration and initial concentration of NO. However, the energy cost for volume plasmas for 50% NO removal, EC(50), from air was found to be 120 eV/molecule, whereas for the surface plasma, it was only 70 eV/molecule. A smaller difference in energy cost, but a higher efficiency for removal of NO was obtained in a pure nitrogen atmosphere, where NO formation is restricted due to the lack of oxygen. For the volume plasma, EC(50) in this case was measured at 50 eV/molecule, and for the surface plasma it was 40 eV/molecule. Besides the higher NO removal efficiency of surface plasmas compared to volume plasmas, the energy efficiency of surface-plasmas was found to be almost independent of the amount of electrical energy deposited in the discharge, whereas the efficiency for volume plasmas decreases considerably with increasing energy. This indicates the possibility of operating surface plasma discharges at high energy densities and in more compact reactors than conventional volume discharges.

  18. Comparative study of NO removal in surface-plasma and volume-plasma reactors based on pulsed corona discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malik, Muhammad Arif, E-mail: MArifMalik@gmail.com [Frank Reidy Research Center for Bioelectrics, Old Dominion University, 4211 Monarch Way, Suite 300, Norfolk, VA 23508 (United States); Kolb, Juergen F.; Sun, Yaohong; Schoenbach, Karl H. [Frank Reidy Research Center for Bioelectrics, Old Dominion University, 4211 Monarch Way, Suite 300, Norfolk, VA 23508 (United States)

    2011-12-15

    Nitric oxide (NO) conversion has been studied for two different types of atmospheric-pressure pulsed-corona discharges, one generates a surface-plasma and the other provides a volume-plasma. For both types of discharges the energy cost for NO removal increases with decreasing oxygen concentration and initial concentration of NO. However, the energy cost for volume plasmas for 50% NO removal, EC{sub 50}, from air was found to be 120 eV/molecule, whereas for the surface plasma, it was only 70 eV/molecule. A smaller difference in energy cost, but a higher efficiency for removal of NO was obtained in a pure nitrogen atmosphere, where NO formation is restricted due to the lack of oxygen. For the volume plasma, EC{sub 50} in this case was measured at 50 eV/molecule, and for the surface plasma it was 40 eV/molecule. Besides the higher NO removal efficiency of surface plasmas compared to volume plasmas, the energy efficiency of surface-plasmas was found to be almost independent of the amount of electrical energy deposited in the discharge, whereas the efficiency for volume plasmas decreases considerably with increasing energy. This indicates the possibility of operating surface plasma discharges at high energy densities and in more compact reactors than conventional volume discharges.

  19. AmBe Radiological Source Replacement Using Dense Plasma Focus Z-Pinch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Brian; Povilus, Alexander; Chapman, Steven; Podpaly, Yuri; Cooper, Christopher; Higginson, Drew; Link, Anthony; Schmidt, Andrea

    2016-10-01

    A dense plasma focus (DPF) is a compact plasma gun that produces high energy ion beams up to several MeV through strong potential gradients formed from m=0 plasma instabilities. These ion beams can be used to replace radiological sources for a variety of applications. Americium-beryllium (AmBe) neutron sources are commonly used for oil well logging. An optimized DPF produces high energy helium ion beams of 2+ MeV which can interact with a beryllium target to produce neutrons. The alpha-Be interaction produces a neutron energy spectrum similar to the neutrons produced by the AmBe reaction. To demonstrate this concept experimentally a 2 kJ DPF is used to produce a beam of alpha particles which interacts with a beryllium target. We report on the improvements made to the DPF platform using He gas and the observation of 3.0 ×104 peak neutrons generated per shot. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  20. Changes in plasma volume and baroreflex function following resistance exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploutz, L. L.; Tatro, D. L.; Dudley, G. A.; Convertino, V. A.

    1993-01-01

    The dynamics of change in plasma volume (PV) and baroreflex responses have been reported over 24 h immediately following maximal cycle exercise. The purpose of this study was to determine if PV and baroreflex showed similar changes for 24 h after resistance exercise. Eight men were studied on 2 test days, 1 week apart. On 1 day, per cent change (% delta) in PV was estimated at 0,3, and 6 h after resistance exercise using haematocrit and haemoglobin. Baseline PV was measured 24 h after exercise using Evans blue dye. The carotid baroreceptor-cardiac reflex response was measured before, and 3, 6, 9, 12, and 24 h post-exercise. Each subject performed six sets of the bench press and leg press with 10 repetitions per set with a load that induced failure within each set. On a control day, the protocol was used without exercise. Plasma volume did not change during the control day. There was a 20% decrease in PV immediately post-exercise; the recovery of the PV was rapid and complete within 3 h. PV was 20% greater 24 h post-exercise than on the control day. There were no differences in any of the baroreflex measurements. Therefore, it is suggested that PV shifts may occur without altering baroreflex sensitivity.

  1. Lipid asymmetry in plant plasma membranes: phosphate deficiency-induced phospholipid replacement is restricted to the cytosolic leaflet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjällström, H; Hellgren, Lars; Wieslander, Å;

    2010-01-01

    barrier) and rafts both contain only trace amounts of DGDG, we conclude that this lipid class is not compatible with membrane functions requiring a high degree of lipid order. By not replacing phospholipids site specifically with DGDG, negative functional effects of this lipid in the plasma membrane...... are avoided.-Tjellström, H., Hellgren, L. I., Wieslander, A., Sandelius, A. S. Lipid asymmetry in plant plasma membranes: phosphate deficiency-induced phospholipid replacement is restricted to the cytosolic leaflet.......As in other eukaryotes, plant plasma membranes contain sphingolipids, phospholipids, and free sterols. In addition, plant plasma membranes also contain sterol derivatives and usually 5 mol% DGDG was included. As both the apoplastic plasma membrane leaflet (probably the major water permeability...

  2. Left Atrial Volume as Predictor of Valve Replacement and Cardiovascular Events in Patients with Asymptomatic Mild to Moderate Aortic Stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Morten; Egstrup, Kenneth; Wachtell, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    Left atrial (LA) size is known to increase with chronically increased left ventricular (LV) filling pressure. We hypothesized that LA volume was predictive of aortic valve replacement (AVR) and cardiovascular events in a large cohort of patients with asymptomatic mild to moderate aortic valve...

  3. How to achieve synergy between volume replacement and filling products for global facial rejuvenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspaldo, Hervé; Aziza, Richard; Belhaouari, Lakhdar; Berros, Philippe; Body, Sylvie; Galatoire, Olivier; Le Louarn, Claude; Michaud, Thierry; Niforos, François; Rousseaux, Isabelle; Runge, Marc; Taieb, Maryna

    2011-04-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide an expert consensus regarding facial rejuvenation using a combination of volume replacement (Juvéderm(®) VOLUMA(®)), filling products (Juvéderm(®) Ultra product line) and botulinum toxin. The Juvéderm product line exploits innovative 3-D technology, producing a range of cohesive, homogenous gels that produce predictable, long-lasting and natural results. The products are easy to use by practitioners and are well-tolerated by patients, and used in combination can provide additional benefits not achieved with one product alone. An assessment of facial anatomy and consideration of the aging process, as well as available treatment options, are also addressed in determining the best combination of products to use. Outcomes from a questionnaire and workshop sessions focusing on specific aspects of use of the Juvéderm product line and botulinum toxin in daily clinical practice are discussed, and recommendations for product use following debate amongst the experts are provided.

  4. A brief on high-volume Class F fly ash as cement replacement – A guide for Civil Engineer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa M. Rashad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Disposal of fly ash (FA resulting from the combustion of coal-fired electric power stations is one of the major environmental challenges. This challenge continues to increase with increasing the amount of FA and decreasing the capacity of landfill space. Therefore, studies have been carried out to re-use high-volumes of fly ash (HVFA as cement replacement in building materials. This paper presents an overview of the previous studies carried out on the use of high volume Class F FA as a partial replacement of cement in traditional paste/mortar/concrete mixtures based on Portland cement (PC. Fresh properties, mechanical properties, abrasion resistance, thermal properties, drying shrinkage, porosity, water absorption, sorptivity, chemical resistance, carbonation resistance and electrical resistivity of paste/mortar/concrete mixtures containing HVFA (⩾45% as cement replacement have been reviewed. Furthermore, additives used to improve some properties of HVFA system have been reviewed.

  5. Comparison of loess and purple rill erosions measured with volume replacement method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-yan; Huang, Yu-han; Zhao, Yu; Mo, Bin; Mi, Hong-xing

    2015-11-01

    Rills are commonly found on sloping farm fields in both the loess and the purple soil regions of China. A comparative study on rill erosion between the two soils is important to increase research knowledge and exchange application experiences. Rill erosion processes of loess and purple soils were determined through laboratory experiments with the volume replacement method. Water was used to refill the eroded rill segments to compute eroded volume before sediment concentration distribution along the rill was computed using the soil bulk density, flow rate, and water flow duration. The experimental loess soil materials were from the Loess Plateau and purple soil from the southwestern part of China, Chongqing City. A laboratory experimental platform was used to construct flumes to simulate rills with 12.0 m length, 0.1 m width, and 0.3 m depth. Soil materials were filled into the flumes at a bulk density of 1.2 g cm-3 to a depth of 20 cm to form rills for experiments on five slope gradients (5°, 10°, 15°, 20°, and 25°) and three flow rates (2, 4, and 8 L/min). After each experimental run under the given slope gradient and flow rate, the rill segments from the upper slope between 0-0.5, 0.5-1, 1-2, 2-3, …, 7-8, 8-10, and 10-12 m were lined with plastic sheets before be re-filled with water to determine sediment concentration after the eroded volumes was measured. Rill erosion differed between the two soils. As purple soil started to erode at a higher erosive force than loess soil, it possibly exhibits higher resistance to water erosion. The subsequent erosion process in the eroding purple rill was similar to that in the loess rill. However, the total erosion in the eroding loess rill was more than that in the eroding purple rill. The maximum sediment concentration transported by the eroding purple rills was significantly lower, approximately 55% of those transported by the loess rills under the same flow rate and slope gradient. Hence, less purple sediments can

  6. Low Plasma Volume in Normotensive Formerly Preeclamptic Women Predisposes to Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholten, Ralph R; Lotgering, Fred K; Hopman, Maria T; Van Dijk, Arie; Van de Vlugt, Maureen; Janssen, Mirian C H; Spaanderman, Marc E A

    2015-11-01

    Formerly preeclamptic women are at risk for cardiovascular disease. Low plasma volume may reflect latent hypertension and potentially links preeclampsia with chronic cardiovascular disease. We hypothesized that low plasma volume in normotensive formerly preeclamptic women predisposes to hypertension. We longitudinally studied n=104 formerly preeclamptic women in whom plasma volume was measured 3 to 30 months after the preeclamptic pregnancy. Cardiovascular variables were assessed at 2 points in time (3-30 months postpartum and 2-5 years thereafter). Study population was divided into low plasma volume (≤1373 mL/m(2)) and normal plasma volume (>1373 mL/m(2)). Primary end point was hypertension at the second visit: defined as ≥140 mm Hg systolic or ≥90 mm Hg diastolic. Secondary outcome of this study was change in traditional cardiovascular risk profile between visits. Variables correlating univariately with change in blood pressure between visits were introduced in regression analysis. Eighteen of 104 (17%) formerly preeclamptic women who were normotensive at first visit had hypertension at second evaluation 2 to 5 years later. Hypertension developed more often in women with low plasma volume (10/35 [29%]) than in women with normal plasma volume (8/69 [12%]; odds ratio, 3.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.4-8.6). After adjustments, relationship between plasma volume status and subsequent hypertension persisted (adjusted odds ratio, 3.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-8.5). Mean arterial pressure at second visit correlated inverse linearly with plasma volume (r=-0.49; Phypertension within 5 years. Women with low plasma volume have higher chance to develop hypertension than women with normal plasma volume. Clinically, follow-up of blood pressure seems warranted in women with history of preeclampsia, even when initially normotensive.

  7. Hypophosphatemia on the intensive care unit: individualized phosphate replacement based on serum levels and distribution volume.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bech, A.; Blans, M.; Raaijmakers, M.; Mulkens, C.; Telting, D.; Boer, H. de

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hypophosphatemia occurs in about 25% of patients admitted to the intensive care unit. To date, a safe and validated phosphate replacement protocol is not available. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate an individualized phosphate replacement regimen. DESIGN: Fifty consecutive intensive care unit patie

  8. A brief on high-volume Class F fly ash as cement replacement – A guide for Civil Engineer

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Disposal of fly ash (FA) resulting from the combustion of coal-fired electric power stations is one of the major environmental challenges. This challenge continues to increase with increasing the amount of FA and decreasing the capacity of landfill space. Therefore, studies have been carried out to re-use high-volumes of fly ash (HVFA) as cement replacement in building materials. This paper presents an overview of the previous studies carried out on the use of high volume Class F FA as a part...

  9. The importance of plasma volume expansion and nutrition in twin pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, D M; MacGillivray, I

    1984-01-01

    Physiological adaptation including expansion in plasma volume is exaggerated in women with twin pregnancies. In singleton pregnancy and multiparous twin pregnancies there is an association between plasma volume expansion and birth weight, but this is not so in primigravid twin pregnancies. Women with twin pregnancies have a similar dietary intake to singleton pregnancies, but it is not known whether there are differences with parity or zygosity. Absorption and utilisation of nutrients may be increased to meet demands for extra fetal growth. Nutrient supply and plasma volume expansion will be further discussed and their association with birth weight presented.

  10. Effect of hydration on plasma volume and endocrine responses to water immersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, M. H.; Keil, L. C.; Wade, C. A.; Silver, J. E.; Geelen, G.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of hydration status on early endocrine responses and on osmotic and intravascular volume changes during immersion was determined in humans undergoing successive periods of dehydration, immersion, rehydration, and immersion. Immersion caused an isotonic expansion of plasma volume, as well as suppression of plasma renin activity and aldosterone, which all occurred independently of hydration status. On the other hand, the concentration of plasma vasopressin (PVP) was found to decrease during dehydrated immersion, but not during rehydrated immersion. It is concluded that plasma tonicity is not a factor influencing PVP suppression during water immersion.

  11. Effect of catecholamines and insulin on plasma volume and intravascular mass of albumin in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Christensen, N J; Larsen, S

    1989-01-01

    1. The effect of intravenous catecholamine infusions and of intravenous insulin on plasma volume and intravascular mass of albumin was investigated in healthy males. 2. Physiological doses of adrenaline (0.5 microgram/min and 3 microgram/min) increased peripheral venous packed cell volume...... significantly; intravenous noradrenaline at 0.5 microgram/min had no effect on packed cell volume, whereas packed cell volume increased significantly at 3 micrograms of noradrenaline/min. No significant change in packed cell volume was found during saline infusion. 3. During adrenaline infusion at 6 micrograms...... in packed cell volume, plasma volume, intravascular mass of albumin and transcapillary escape rate of albumin during hypoglycaemia may be explained by the combined actions of adrenaline and insulin....

  12. Antibody repertoire diversification through VH gene replacement in mice cloned from an IgA plasma cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rashmi; Bach, Martina P; Mainoldi, Federica; Maruya, Mikako; Kishigami, Satoshi; Jumaa, Hassan; Wakayama, Teruhiko; Kanagawa, Osami; Fagarasan, Sidonia; Casola, Stefano

    2015-02-01

    In mammals, VDJ recombination is responsible for the establishment of a highly diversified preimmune antibody repertoire. Acquisition of a functional Ig heavy (H) chain variable (V) gene rearrangement is thought to prevent further recombination at the IgH locus. Here, we describe VHQ52(NT); Vκgr32(NT) Ig monoclonal mice reprogrammed from the nucleus of an intestinal IgA(+) plasma cell. In VHQ52(NT) mice, IgA replaced IgM to drive early B-cell development and peripheral B-cell maturation. In VHQ52(NT) animals, over 20% of mature B cells disrupted the single productive, nonautoimmune IgH rearrangement through VH replacement and exchanged it with a highly diversified pool of IgH specificities. VH replacement occurred in early pro-B cells, was independent of pre-B-cell receptor signaling, and involved predominantly one adjacent VH germ-line gene. VH replacement was also identified in 5% of peripheral B cells of mice inheriting a different productive VH rearrangement expressed in the form of an IgM H chain. In summary, editing of a productive IgH rearrangement through VH replacement can account for up to 20% of the IgH repertoire expressed by mature B cells.

  13. Salt wastage, plasma volume contraction and hypokalemic paralysis in self-induced water intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanneau, R S; Pennec, Y L; Morin, J F; Codet, J P; Bourbigot, B; Garre, M; Le Menn, G

    1993-01-01

    Eleven episodes of severe hyponatremia secondary to hiccup-induced potomania were recorded in 3 years in a man who had essential hypertension, a low protein intake and a normal diluting ability. Paradoxical increase in hematocrit and plasma protein with acute extensive natriuresis was associated as well as urine potassium loss and hypokalemia producing paralysis in 1 episode. During a chronic water loading test, the defect in water excretion was related to a low urine solute delivery which was partially reverted by the natriuretic response to plasma volume expansion, promoting water diuresis. In acute water intoxication, this natriuretic response was exaggerated, producing a brisk water diuresis. Plasma volume was rapidly normalized but without any improvement in plasma sodium due to the concomitant negative sodium balance. Thus, water diuresis persisted until plasma volume was significantly contracted. Potassium loss appeared to be related to sodium excretion. Metabolic disturbances have not reoccurred despite persistent hiccup and potomania during 2 years of urea therapy.

  14. Effect of copolymer latexes on physicomechanical properties of mortar containing high volume fly ash as a replacement material of cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negim, El-Sayed; Kozhamzharova, Latipa; Gulzhakhan, Yeligbayeva; Khatib, Jamal; Bekbayeva, Lyazzat; Williams, Craig

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the physicomechanical properties of mortar containing high volume of fly ash (FA) as partial replacement of cement in presence of copolymer latexes. Portland cement (PC) was partially replaced with 0, 10, 20, 30 50, and 60% FA. Copolymer latexes were used based on 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate (2-HEA) and 2-hydroxymethylacrylate (2-HEMA). Testing included workability, setting time, absorption, chemically combined water content, compressive strength, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The addition of FA to mortar as replacement of PC affected the physicomechanical properties of mortar. As the content of FA in the concrete increased, the setting times (initial and final) were elongated. The results obtained at 28 days of curing indicate that the maximum properties of mortar occur at around 30% FA. Beyond 30% FA the properties of mortar reduce and at 60% FA the properties of mortar are lower than those of the reference mortar without FA. However, the addition of polymer latexes into mortar containing FA improved most of the physicomechanical properties of mortar at all curing times. Compressive strength, combined water, and workability of mortar containing FA premixed with latexes are higher than those of mortar containing FA without latexes.

  15. Effect of Copolymer Latexes on Physicomechanical Properties of Mortar Containing High Volume Fly Ash as a Replacement Material of Cement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Sayed Negim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the physicomechanical properties of mortar containing high volume of fly ash (FA as partial replacement of cement in presence of copolymer latexes. Portland cement (PC was partially replaced with 0, 10, 20, 30 50, and 60% FA. Copolymer latexes were used based on 2-hydroxyethyl acrylate (2-HEA and 2-hydroxymethylacrylate (2-HEMA. Testing included workability, setting time, absorption, chemically combined water content, compressive strength, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The addition of FA to mortar as replacement of PC affected the physicomechanical properties of mortar. As the content of FA in the concrete increased, the setting times (initial and final were elongated. The results obtained at 28 days of curing indicate that the maximum properties of mortar occur at around 30% FA. Beyond 30% FA the properties of mortar reduce and at 60% FA the properties of mortar are lower than those of the reference mortar without FA. However, the addition of polymer latexes into mortar containing FA improved most of the physicomechanical properties of mortar at all curing times. Compressive strength, combined water, and workability of mortar containing FA premixed with latexes are higher than those of mortar containing FA without latexes.

  16. Clinical aspects of the control of plasma volume at microgravity and during return to one gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convertino, V. A.

    1996-01-01

    Plasma volume is reduced by 10-20% within 24-48 h of exposure to simulated or actual microgravity. The clinical importance of microgravity induced hypovolemia is manifested by its relationship with orthostatic intolerance and reduced maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) after return to one gravity (1G). Since there is no evidence to suggest that plasma volume reduction during microgravity is associated with thirst or renal dysfunctions, a diuresis induced by an immediate blood volume shift to the central circulation appears responsible for microgravity-induced hypovolemia. Since most astronauts choose to restrict their fluid intake before a space mission, absence of increased urine output during actual space flight may be explained by low central venous pressure (CVP) which accompanies dehydration. Compelling evidence suggests that prolonged reduction in CVP during exposure to microgravity reflects a "resetting" to a lower operating point, which acts to limit plasma volume expansion during attempts to increase fluid intake. In ground based and space flight experiments, successful restoration and maintenance of plasma volume prior to returning to an upright posture may depend upon development of treatments that can return CVP to its baseline IG operating point. Fluid-loading and lower body negative pressure (LBNP) have not proved completely effective in restoring plasma volume, suggesting that they may not provide the stimulus to elevate the CVP operating point. On the other hand, exercise, which can chronically increase CVP, has been effective in expanding plasma volume when combined with adequate dietary intake of fluid and electrolytes. The success of designing experiments to understand the physiological mechanisms of and development of effective counter measures for the control of plasma volume in microgravity and during return to IG will depend upon testing that can be conducted under standardized controlled baseline conditions during both ground-based and space

  17. TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT: RETECH'S PLASMA CENTRIFUGAL FURNACE - VOLUME I

    Science.gov (United States)

    A demonstration of the Retech, Inc. Plasma Centrifugal Furnace (PCF) was conducted under the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program at the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Component Development and Integration Facility in Butte, Montana. The furnace uses heat gen...

  18. Replacement Nuclear Research Reactor. Supplement to Draft Environmental Impact Statement. Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    The Draft Environmental Impact Statement for a replacement research reactor at Lucas Heights, was available for public examination and comment for some three months during 1998. A Supplement to the Draft Environmental Impact Statement (Draft EIS) has been completed and was lodged with Environment Australia on 18 January 1999. The Supplement is an important step in the overall environmental assessment process. It reviews submissions received and provides the proponent`s response to issues raised in the public review period. General issues extracted from submissions and addressed in the Supplement include concern over liability issues, Chernobyl type accidents, the ozone layer and health issues. Further studies, relating to issues raised in the public submission process, were undertaken for the Supplementary EIS. These studies confirm, in ANSTO`s view, the findings of the Draft EIS and hence the findings of the Final EIS are unchanged from the Draft EIS

  19. Red cell volume with changes in plasma osmolarity during maximal exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Beaumont, W.

    1973-01-01

    The volume of the red cell in vivo was measured during acute changes in plasma osmolarity evoked through short (6 to 8 min) maximal exercise in six male volunteer subjects. Simultaneous measurements of mean corpuscular red cell volume (MCV), hematocrit, blood hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), and plasma osmolarity showed that there was no change in the MCV or MCHC with a concomitant rise of nearly 6% in plasma osmolarity. Apparently, in vivo, the volume of the red cell in exercising healthy human subjects does not change measurably, in spite of significant changes in osmotic pressure of the surrounding medium. Consequently, it is not justified to correct postexercise hematocrit measurements for changes in plasma osmolarity.

  20. Red cell volume with changes in plasma osmolarity during maximal exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Beaumont, W.

    1973-01-01

    The volume of the red cell in vivo was measured during acute changes in plasma osmolarity evoked through short (6 to 8 min) maximal exercise in six male volunteer subjects. Simultaneous measurements of mean corpuscular red cell volume (MCV), hematocrit, blood hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), and plasma osmolarity showed that there was no change in the MCV or MCHC with a concomitant rise of nearly 6% in plasma osmolarity. Apparently, in vivo, the volume of the red cell in exercising healthy human subjects does not change measurably, in spite of significant changes in osmotic pressure of the surrounding medium. Consequently, it is not justified to correct postexercise hematocrit measurements for changes in plasma osmolarity.

  1. HIGH ENERGY REPLACEMENT FOR TEFLON PROPELLANT IN PULSED PLASMA THRUSTERS Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This program will utilize a well-characterized Pulsed Plasma Thruster (PPT) to test experimental high-energy extinguishable solid propellants (HE), instead of...

  2. Plasma physics and environmental perturbation laboratory. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    Space physics and plasma physics experiments that can be performed from the space shuttle were identified. Potential experiment concepts were analyzed to derive requirements for a spaceborne experiment facility. The laboratory, known as the Plasma Physics and Environmental Perturbation Laboratory consists of a 33-foot pallet of instruments connected to a 25-foot pressurized control module. Two 50-meter booms, two subsatellites, a high power transmitter, a multipurpose accelerator array, a set of deployable canisters, and a gimbaled instrument platform are the primary systems deployed from the pallet. The pressurized module contains all the control and display equipment required to conduct the experiments, and life support and power subsystems.

  3. Plasma Volume Expansion in Rats: Effects on Thermoregulation and Exercise,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-02-01

    15,18), and especially during the euhydrated and hyperhydrated condition. Methods Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (Charles River Breeding Laboratories...microcentrifugation. The plasma fraction from the microhematocrit tube was immediately analyzed for protein content by refractometry . The ~ ~ * ~ V...automated spectrophotometer (Stasar IV) and Gilford Diagnostic reagent kits according to methods outlined in the respective technical bulletins. Sodium

  4. Effect of volume replacement with hydroxyethyl starch solution on splanchnic oxygenation in patients undergoing cytoreductive surgery for ovarian cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭向阳; 徐仲煌; 任洪智; 罗爱伦; 黄宇光; 叶铁虎

    2003-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effectiveness of using a medium molecular weight hydroxyethyl starch solution (HES) administered as a replacement for estimated blood loss (EBL) during cytoreductive surgery for ovarian cancer on splanchnic oxygenation. Methods Forty-two patients undergoing cytoreductive surgery for ovarian cancer were enrolled in this prospective randomized study. As soon as the EBL exceeded 10% but was less than 20% of the estimated blood volume, the patients were randomly assigned to receive either a volume of lactated Ringer's solution (LRS) equal to three times the EBL (LRS group, n=22) or a volume of 6% HES equal to the EBL (HES group, n=20). Tissue oxygenation was assessed indirectly by measuring tonometric parameters, including the difference between gastric intramucosal PsCO2 and arterial PaCO2 (Ps-a CO2 gap), gastric intramucosal pH (pHi) and arterial lactate acid concentration at 30 min after induction of anesthesia (baseline value), 1 hour and 2 hours after skin incision, and at the end of surgery. Results At the end of surgery,the Ps-a CO2 gap in the HES group (8.7±1.6 mmHg) was significantly lower than that of the LRS group (18.74±4.4 mmHg, P<0.01), while the pHi (7.30±0.05 mmHg) in the HES group was significantly higher than that of the LRS group (7.21±0.07 mmHg, P<0.01). There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of arterial lactate acid concentration. Conclusion In patients undergoing major surgery with relatively large blood losses, volume resuscitation with medium molecular weight hydroxyethyl starch solution may improve splanchnic blood flow and tissue oxygenation.

  5. Replacement of margarine on bread by rapeseed and olive oils: effects on plasma fatty acid composition and serum cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppänen-Laakso, T; Vanhanen, H; Laakso, I; Kohtamäki, H; Viikari, J

    1993-01-01

    The effects of zero erucic acid rapeseed oil and olive oil on plasma fatty acid composition and serum cholesterol were studied in margarine users (n = 46). The replacement of margarine on bread by these oils accounted, on average, for 16% of the total fat and 7% of the total energy intake. Fatty acid analysis of total plasma indicated a dose-dependent rise in alpha-linolenic (alpha-LLA) and oleic acid (OA) levels during rapeseed and olive oil substitutions, respectively. Rapeseed oil substitution increased the proportion of eicosapentaenoic acid (0.4%- units, on average) in plasma phospholipids. A slight decrease in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and an increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, 4.5%, p acids, but also in the relationships with serum lipids, since the changes in alpha-LLA, rather than in OA, were associated with those in LDL-C and the HDL-C/TC ratio. No competitive action of polyunsaturated acids comparable to rapeseed oil was found during olive oil substitution. In contrast to the rapeseed oil diet, the reduced proportion of linoleic acid (LA) in plasma phospholipids was not restored; this may be unfavorable if the habitual intake of LA is low. However, the effects on LDL-C levels were beneficial: the concentration decreased by 5.9% (p olive oil substitution.

  6. Plasma volume, osmolality, vasopressin, and renin activity during graded exercise in man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convertino, V. A.; Keil, L. C.; Bernauer, E. M.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1981-01-01

    The influence of work intensity on plasma volume, osmolality, vasopressin and renin activity and the interrelationships between these responses are investigated. Plasma volume, renin activity and osmotic, sodium and arginine vasopressin concentrations were measured in venous blood samples taken from 15 healthy male subjects before and after six minutes of bicycle ergometer exercise at 100, 175 and 225 W. Plasma volume is found to decrease significantly with increasing work intensity, while increases in Na(+) concentration, osmolality and vasopressin are only observed to be significant when the work intensity exceeds 40% maximal aerobic capacity and plasma resin activity increased linearly at all work levels. In addition, significant correlations are observed between plasma volume and osmolality and sodium changes, and between vasopressin and osmolality and sodium content changes. Data thus support the hypotheses that (1) vasopressin may be the primary controlling endocrine for fluid and electrolyte levels following exercise; (2) an exercise intensity greater than 40% maximal aerobic capacity is required to stimulate vasopressin release through changes in plasma osmolality; and (3) the stimulation of the renin-angiotensin system is a more general stress response.

  7. Comparison of serum immunoglobulin G half-life in dairy calves fed colostrum, colostrum replacer or administered with intravenous bovine plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Jacob M; Hagey, Jill V; Chigerwe, Munashe

    2014-04-15

    In calves, passive immunity of immunoglobulins can be acquired through ingestion of colostrum or colostrum replacers. Plasma can been used to supplement immunoglobulins in healthy or sick calves. Serum half-life of colostral derived immuglobulin G (IgG) is estimated to be 20 days. Half-life of IgG is important in determining response to antigens and timing of vaccination in calves. To date studies evaluating half-life of colostrum replacer or plasma derived IgG are lacking. The objectives of this study were to compare the serum half-life of IgG derived from colostrum, colostrum replacer and plasma in dairy calves reared up to 35 days of age. Thirty Jersey calves were randomly assigned to receive colostrum or colostrum replacer by oroesophageal tubing or plasma by intravenous administration. Serum samples were collected at 2, 5, 7, 10, 14, 21, 28 and 35 days. Serum IgG concentrations were determined by radial immunodiffusion. The results indicated that half-life for IgG in colostrum fed (28.5 days) or plasma transfused calves (27.3 days) was longer than colostrum replacer fed calves (19.1 days). Further studies are required to evaluate pathogen specific immunoglobulins in order to recommend vaccination timing in calves fed colostrum replacers.

  8. Prediction of Long-term Post-operative Testosterone Replacement Requirement Based on the Pre-operative Tumor Volume and Testosterone Level in Pituitary Macroadenoma

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng-Chi Lee; Chung-Ming Chen; Shih-Tseng Lee; Kuo-Chen Wei; Ping-Ching Pai; Cheng-Hong Toh; Chi-Cheng Chuang

    2015-01-01

    Non-functioning pituitary macroadenomas (NFPAs) are the most prevalent pituitary macroadenomas. One common symptom of NFPA is hypogonadism, which may require long-term hormone replacement. This study was designed to clarify the association between the pre-operative tumor volume, pre-operative testosterone level, intraoperative resection status and the need of long-term post-operative testosterone replacement. Between 2004 and 2012, 45 male patients with NFPAs were enrolled in this prospective...

  9. Plasma volume and electrolyte shifts with heavy exercise in sitting and supine positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Van Beaumont, W.; Brock, P. J.; Morse, J. T.; Mangseth, G. R.

    1979-01-01

    An experimental study was carried out to compare fluid and electrolyte shifts after heavy exercise performed by four voluntary male subjects (26-45 yr) in sitting and supine positions. Plasma volume and electrolyte shifts were measured during the 6-min control period and for 60 min after a continuous peak oxygen uptake test. The results indicate that the most likely driving force for the restitution of plasma volume after peak exercise is provided by a change in hydrostatic and/or systemic blood pressures when exercise ceases.

  10. Plasma volume expanders: use in medicine and detecting misuse in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoni, Ruth E; Scalco, Fernanda B; de Oliveira, Maria Lucia C; Aquino Neto, Francisco R

    2011-01-01

    Plasma volume expanders comprise a heterogeneous group of substances used in medicine that are intravenously administered in cases of great blood loss owing to surgery or medical emergency. These substances, however, can also be used to artificially enhance performance of healthy athletes in sport activities, and to mask the presence of others substances. These practices are considered doping, and are therefore prohibited by the International Olympic Committee and the World Antidoping Agency. Consequently, drug testing procedures are essential. The present work provides an overview of plasma volume expanders, assembling pertinent data such as chemical characteristics, physiological aspects, adverse effects, doping and analytical detection methods, which are currently dispersed in the literature.

  11. Prediction of Long-term Post-operative Testosterone Replacement Requirement Based on the Pre-operative Tumor Volume and Testosterone Level in Pituitary Macroadenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cheng-Chi; Chen, Chung-Ming; Lee, Shih-Tseng; Wei, Kuo-Chen; Pai, Ping-Ching; Toh, Cheng-Hong; Chuang, Chi-Cheng

    2015-11-05

    Non-functioning pituitary macroadenomas (NFPAs) are the most prevalent pituitary macroadenomas. One common symptom of NFPA is hypogonadism, which may require long-term hormone replacement. This study was designed to clarify the association between the pre-operative tumor volume, pre-operative testosterone level, intraoperative resection status and the need of long-term post-operative testosterone replacement. Between 2004 and 2012, 45 male patients with NFPAs were enrolled in this prospective study. All patients underwent transsphenoidal surgery. Hypogonadism was defined as total serum testosterone levels of testosterone to patients with defined hypogonadism or clinical symptoms of hypogonadism. Hormone replacement for longer than 1 year was considered as long-term therapy. The need for long-term post-operative testosterone replacement was significantly associated with larger pre-operative tumor volume (p = 0.0067), and lower pre-operative testosterone level (p = 0.0101). There was no significant difference between the gross total tumor resection and subtotal resection groups (p = 0.1059). The pre-operative tumor volume and testosterone level impact post-operative hypogonadism. By measuring the tumor volume and the testosterone level and by performing adequate tumor resection, surgeons will be able to predict post-operative hypogonadism and the need for long-term hormone replacement.

  12. Plasma volume substitution does not inhibit plasma noradrenaline and muscle nerve sympathetic responses to insulin-induced hypoglycaemia in healthy humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Berne, C; Fagius, J;

    1989-01-01

    underly the sympathetic activation. To study the effect of prevention of plasma volume reduction during hypoglycaemia, saline containing albumin was infused intravenously in healthy adult volunteers during hypoglycaemia. Hypoglycaemia was induced by an intravenous injection of soluble insulin in a dose...... of 0.15 IU/kg body weight. Peripheral venous plasma noradrenaline concentrations were identical in experiments without and with plasma volume substitution. Muscle nerve sympathetic activity increased to the same extent during hypoglycaemia with and without plasma volume substitution. It is concluded...

  13. Paradoxical relationship between atriopeptin plasma levels and diuresis-natriuresis induced by acute volume expansion.

    OpenAIRE

    Sakata, M.; Greenwald, J E; Needleman, P

    1988-01-01

    Surgical removal of one or both atrial appendages was employed in rats to reduce the intrinsic stores of atriopeptin (AP). In conscious rats (with intact baroreceptor reflexes), bilateral or unilateral atrial appendectomy suppressed the diuresis and natriuresis produced by acute volume expansion. Surprisingly, volume expansion (with 4% bovine serum albumin in saline at 1.5 ml/kg per min for 15 min) did not result in an increase in plasma AP immunoreactivity (APir) in control or atrial-appende...

  14. Study of scattering cross section of a plasma column using Green's function volume integral equation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltanmoradi, Elmira; Shokri, Babak

    2017-05-01

    In this article, the electromagnetic wave scattering from plasma columns with inhomogeneous electron density distribution is studied by the Green's function volume integral equation method. Due to the ready production of such plasmas in the laboratories and their practical application in various technological fields, this study tries to find the effects of plasma parameters such as the electron density, radius, and pressure on the scattering cross-section of a plasma column. Moreover, the incident wave frequency influence of the scattering pattern is demonstrated. Furthermore, the scattering cross-section of a plasma column with an inhomogeneous collision frequency profile is calculated and the effect of this inhomogeneity is discussed first in this article. These results are especially used to determine the appropriate conditions for radar cross-section reduction purposes. It is shown that the radar cross-section of a plasma column reduces more for a larger collision frequency, for a relatively lower plasma frequency, and also for a smaller radius. Furthermore, it is found that the effect of the electron density on the scattering cross-section is more obvious in comparison with the effect of other plasma parameters. Also, the plasma column with homogenous collision frequency can be used as a better shielding in contrast to its inhomogeneous counterpart.

  15. Finite-volume cumulant expansion in QCD-colorless plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ladrem, M. [Taibah University, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Madinah, Al-Munawwarah (Saudi Arabia); Physics Department, Algiers (Algeria); ENS-Vieux Kouba (Bachir El-Ibrahimi), Laboratoire de Physique et de Mathematiques Appliquees (LPMA), Algiers (Algeria); Ahmed, M.A.A. [Taibah University, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Madinah, Al-Munawwarah (Saudi Arabia); ENS-Vieux Kouba (Bachir El-Ibrahimi), Laboratoire de Physique et de Mathematiques Appliquees (LPMA), Algiers (Algeria); Taiz University in Turba, Physics Department, Taiz (Yemen); Alfull, Z.Z. [Taibah University, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Madinah, Al-Munawwarah (Saudi Arabia); Cherif, S. [ENS-Vieux Kouba (Bachir El-Ibrahimi), Laboratoire de Physique et de Mathematiques Appliquees (LPMA), Algiers (Algeria); Ghardaia University, Sciences and Technologies Department, Ghardaia (Algeria)

    2015-09-15

    Due to the finite-size effects, the localization of the phase transition in finite systems and the determination of its order, become an extremely difficult task, even in the simplest known cases. In order to identify and locate the finite-volume transition point T{sub 0}(V) of the QCD deconfinement phase transition to a colorless QGP, we have developed a new approach using the finite-size cumulant expansion of the order parameter and the L{sub mn}-method. The first six cumulants C{sub 1,2,3,4,5,6} with the corresponding under-normalized ratios (skewness Σ, kurtosis κ, pentosis Π{sub ±}, and hexosis H{sub 1,2,3}) and three unnormalized combinations of them, (O = σ{sup 2}κΣ{sup -1},U = σ{sup -2}Σ{sup -1},N = σ{sup 2}κ) are calculated and studied as functions of (T, V). A new approach, unifying in a clear and consistent way the definitions of cumulant ratios, is proposed.Anumerical FSS analysis of the obtained results has allowed us to locate accurately the finite-volume transition point. The extracted transition temperature value T{sub 0}(V) agrees with that expected T{sub 0}{sup N}(V) from the order parameter and the thermal susceptibility χ{sub T} (T, V), according to the standard procedure of localization to within about 2%. In addition to this, a very good correlation factor is obtained proving the validity of our cumulants method. The agreement of our results with those obtained by means of other models is remarkable. (orig.)

  16. High-volume plasma exchange in patients with acute liver failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Fin Stolze; Schmidt, Lars Ebbe; Bernsmeier, Christine

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Acute liver failure (ALF) often results in cardiovascular instability, renal failure, brain oedema and death either due to irreversible shock, cerebral herniation or development of multiple organ failure. High-volume plasma exchange (HVP), defined as exchange of 8-12 or 15...

  17. Physiological adaptation of maternal plasma volume during pregnancy: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haas, S.; Ghossein-Doha, C.; Kuijk, S.M. van; Drongelen, J. van; Spaanderman, M.E.A.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the physiological pattern of gestational plasma volume adjustments in normal singleton pregnancy and compare this with the pattern in pregnancies complicated by pregnancy-induced hypertension, pre-eclampsia or fetal growth restriction. METHODS: We performed a meta-analysis of

  18. Low contrast medium-volume third-generation dual-source computed tomography angiography for transcatheter aortic valve replacement planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felmly, Lloyd M. [Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Charleston, SC (United States); De Cecco, Carlo N.; Varga-Szemes, Akos; McQuiston, Andrew D. [Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Schoepf, U.J.; Litwin, Sheldon E.; Bayer, Richard R. [Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Charleston, SC (United States); Mangold, Stefanie [Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); University Hospital of Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Tuebingen (Germany); Vogl, Thomas J. [University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Frankfurt (Germany); Wichmann, Julian L. [Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); University Hospital Frankfurt, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Frankfurt (Germany)

    2017-05-15

    To investigate feasibility, image quality and safety of low-tube-voltage, low-contrast-volume comprehensive cardiac and aortoiliac CT angiography (CTA) for planning transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). Forty consecutive TAVR candidates prospectively underwent combined CTA of the aortic root and vascular access route (270 mgI/ml iodixanol). Patients were assigned to group A (second-generation dual-source CT [DSCT], 100 kV, 60 ml contrast, 4.0 ml/s flow rate) or group B (third-generation DSCT, 70 kV, 40 ml contrast, 2.5 ml/s flow rate). Vascular attenuation, noise, signal-to-noise (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) were compared. Subjective image quality was assessed by two observers. Estimated glomerular filtration (eGFR) at CTA and follow-up were measured. Besides a higher body-mass-index in group B (24.8±3.8 kg/m{sup 2} vs. 28.1±5.4 kg/m{sup 2}, P=0.0339), patient characteristics between groups were similar (P≥0.0922). Aortoiliac SNR (P=0.0003) was higher in group B. Cardiac SNR (P=0.0003) and CNR (P=0.0181) were higher in group A. Subjective image quality was similar (P≥0.213) except for aortoiliac image noise (4.42 vs. 4.12, P=0.0374). TAVR-planning measurements were successfully obtained in all patients. There were no significant changes in eGFR among and between groups during follow-up (P≥0.302). TAVR candidates can be safely and effectively evaluated by a comprehensive CTA protocol with low contrast volume using low-tube-voltage acquisition. (orig.)

  19. Finite Volume Cumulant Expansion in QCD-Colorless Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Ladrem, M; Al-Full, Z; Cherif, S

    2015-01-01

    Due to the finite size effects, the localisation of the phase transition in finite systems and the determination of its order, become an extremely difficult task, even in the simplest known cases. In order to identify and locate the finite volume transition point $T_{0}(V)$ of the QCD deconfinement phase transition to a Colorless QGP, we have developed a new approach using the finite size cumulant expansion of the order parameter and the $L_{mn}$-method. The first six cumulants $C_{1,2,3,4,5,6}$ with the corresponding under-normalized ratios(skewness $\\Sigma$, kurtosis $\\kappa$ ,pentosis $\\Pi_{\\pm}$ and hexosis $\\mathcal{H}_{1,2,3}$) and three unnormalized combinations of them ($\\mathcal{O}={\\mathcal{\\sigma }^{2} \\mathcal{\\kappa } }{\\mathbf{\\Sigma }^{-1} }$, $\\mathcal{U} ={\\mathcal{\\sigma }^{-2} \\mathbf{\\Sigma }^{-1} }$, $\\mathcal{N} = \\mathcal{\\sigma }^{2} \\mathcal{\\kappa }$) are calculated and studied as functions of $(T,V)$. A new approach, unifying in a clear and consistent way the definitions of cumulant...

  20. The rapid plasma reagin test cannot replace the venereal disease research laboratory test for neurosyphilis diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Christina M; Tantalo, Lauren C; Maxwell, Clare L; Ho, Emily L; Sahi, Sharon K; Jones, Trudy

    2012-06-01

    The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) test is a mainstay for neurosyphilis diagnosis, but it lacks diagnostic sensitivity and is logistically complicated. The rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test is easier to perform, but its appropriateness for use on CSF is controversial. RPR reactivity was determined for CSF from 149 individuals with syphilis using 2 methods. The CSF-RPR was performed according to the method for serum. The CSF-RPR-V was performed using the method recommended for the CSF-VDRL. Laboratory-defined neurosyphilis included reactive CSF-fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption test and CSF white blood cells >20/uL. Symptomatic neurosyphilis was defined as vision loss or hearing loss. CSF-VDRL was reactive in 45 (30.2%) patients. Of these, 29 (64.4%) were CSF-RPR reactive and 37 (82.2%) were CSF-RPR-V reactive. There were no instances where the CSF-VDRL was nonreactive but the CSF-RPR or CSF-RPR-V was reactive. Among the 28 samples that were reactive in all 3 tests, CSF-VDRL titers (median [IQR], 1:4 [1:4-1:16]) were significantly higher than CSF-RPR (1:2 [1:1-1:4], P = 0.0002) and CSF-RPR-V titers (1:4 [1:2-1:8], P = 0.01). The CSF RPR and the CSF-RPR-V tests had lower sensitivities than the CSF-VDRL: 56.4% and 59.0% versus 71.8% for laboratory-diagnosed neurosyphilis and 51.5% and 57.6% versus 66.7% for symptomatic neurosyphilis. Compared with the CSF-VDRL, the CSF-RPR has a high false-negative rate, thus not improving upon this known limitation of the CSF-VDRL for neurosyphilis diagnosis. Adapting the RPR procedure to mimic the CSF-VDRL decreased, but did not eliminate, the number of false negatives and did not avoid all the logistical complications of the CSF-VDRL.

  1. Severe Leptospirosis with Multiple Organ Failure Successfully Treated by Plasma Exchange and High-Volume Hemofiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Bourquin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Leptospirosis is a spirochetal zoonosis with complex clinical features including renal and liver failure. Case report. We report the case of a Swiss fisherman presenting with leptospirosis. After initial improvement, refractory septic shock and severe liver and kidney failure developed. The expected mortality was estimated at 90% with clinical scores. The patient underwent plasma exchanges and high-volume hemofiltration (HVHF with complete recovery of hepatic and kidney functions. Discussion. Plasma exchanges and HVHF may confer survival benefit on patients with severe leptospirosis, refractory septic shock, and multiple-organ failure.

  2. Predicted changes in fatty acid intakes, plasma lipids, and cardiovascular disease risk following replacement of trans fatty acid-containing soybean oil with application-appropriate alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefevre, Michael; Mensink, Ronald P; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; Petersen, Barbara; Smith, Kim; Flickinger, Brent D

    2012-10-01

    The varied functional requirements satisfied by trans fatty acid (TFA)--containing oils constrains the selection of alternative fats and oils for use as potential replacements in specific food applications. We aimed to model the effects of replacing TFA-containing partially hydrogenated soybean oil (PHSBO) with application-appropriate alternatives on population fatty acid intakes, plasma lipids, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 24-hour dietary recalls for 1999-2002, we selected 25 food categories, accounting for 86 % of soybean oil (SBO) and 79 % of TFA intake for replacement modeling. Before modeling, those in the middle quintile had a mean PHSBO TFA intake of 1.2 % of energy. PHSBO replacement in applications requiring thermal stability by either low-linolenic acid SBO or mid-oleic, low-linolenic acid SBO decreased TFA intake by 0.3 % of energy and predicted CVD risk by 0.7-0.8 %. PHSBO replacement in applications requiring functional properties with palm-based oils reduced TFA intake by 0.8 % of energy, increased palmitic acid intake by 1.0 % of energy, and reduced predicted CVD risk by 0.4 %, whereas replacement with fully hydrogenated interesterified SBO reduced TFA intake by 0.7 % of energy, increased stearic acid intake by 1.0 % of energy, and decreased predicted CVD risk by 1.2 %. PHSBO replacement in both thermal and functional applications reduced TFA intake by 1.0 % of energy and predicted CVD risk by 1.5 %. Based solely on changes in plasma lipids and lipoproteins, all PHSBO replacement models reduced estimated CVD risk, albeit less than previously reported using simpler replacement models.

  3. Modification of the Steel Surface Treated by a Volume Discharge Plasma in Nitrogen at Atmospheric Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erofeev, M. V.; Shulepov, M. A.; Ivanov, Yu. F.; Oskomov, K. V.; Tarasenko, V. F.

    2016-03-01

    Effect of volume discharge plasma initiated by an avalanche electron beam on the composition, structure, and properties of the surface steel layer is investigated. Voltage pulses with incident wave amplitude up to 30 kV, full width at half maximum of about 4 ns, and wave front of about 2.5 ns were applied to the gap with an inhomogeneous electric field. Changes indicating the hardening effect of the volume discharge initiated by an avalanche electron beam are revealed in St3-grade steel specimens treated by the discharge of this type.

  4. Relationship between Prolactin Plasma Levels and White Matter Volume in Women with Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. De Giglio

    2015-01-01

    two months. There was no difference in PRL plasma levels between patients with and without gadolinium enhancement on MRI. PRL plasma levels correlated with white matter volume (WMV (rho = 0.284, p=0.014 but not with grey matter volume (GMV. Moreover, PRL levels predicted changes in WMV (Beta: 984, p=0.034. Conclusions. Our data of a positive association between PRL serum levels and WMV support the role of PRL in promoting myelin repair as documented in animal models of demyelination. The lack of an increase of PRL in the presence of gadolinium enhancement, contrasts with the view considering this hormone as an immune-stimulating and detrimental factor in the inflammatory process associated with MS.

  5. Curling probe measurement of large-volume pulsed plasma confined by surface magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Anil; Sakakibara, Wataru; Matsuoka, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Keiji; Sugai, Hideo; Chubu University Team; DOWA Thermotech Collaboration

    2015-09-01

    Curling probe (CP) has recently been developed which enables the local electron density measurement even in plasma for non-conducting film CVD. The electron density is obtained from a shift of resonance frequency of spiral antenna in discharge ON and OFF monitored by a network analyzer (NWA). In case of a pulsed glow discharge, synchronization of discharge pulse with frequency sweep of NWA must be established. In this paper, we report time and space-resolved CP measurement of electron density in a large volume plasma (80 cm diameter, 110 cm length) confined by surface magnetic field (multipole cusp field ~0.03 T). For plasma-aided modification of metal surface, the plasma is produced by 1 kV glow discharge at pulse frequency of 0.3 - 25 kHz with various duty ratio in gas (Ar, N2, C2H2) at pressure ~ 1 Pa. A radially movable CP revealed a remarkable effect of surface magnetic confinement: detach of plasma from the vessel wall and a fairly uniform plasma in the central region. In afterglow phase, the electron density was observed to decrease much faster in C2H2 discharge than in Ar discharge.

  6. Plasma catecholamines and blood volume in native Andeans during hypoxia and normoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamboa, Alfredo; Gamboa, Jorge L; Holmes, Courtney; Sharabi, Yehonatan; Leon-Velarde, Fabiola; Fischman, Gary J; Appenzeller, Otto; Goldstein, David S

    2006-02-01

    Plasma catechols and blood volume were measured in 20 male, native high-altitude residents of Cerro de Pasco, Peru (4338 m), while hypoxic and subsequently while normoxic at sea level. Ten subjects were healthy controls,with hematocrits lower than 61%, and ten had chronic mountain sickness (CMS), a syndrome of maladaptation to altitude, characterized by polycythemia (hematocrit > 61%), profound hypoxemia, and neurologic symptoms. The main aim of the study was to evaluate the chronic effects of hypoxia on plasma catechols and on blood volume, by studying these parameters during hypoxia at high altitude (HA) and shortly after exposure to normoxia at sea level (SL). Subjects were first studied at HA in their habitual hypoxic environment, and measurements were repeated within 4 hours of arrival at SL (Lima, Peru, 150 m). All subjects had higher plasma norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), and dihydroxyphenylglycol (DHPG) levels in HA (NE in controls and CMS: 414+/-47 and 514+/-35 pg/mL; DA: 9+/-1 and 13+/-1 pg/mL, DHPG: 817+/-48 and 972+/-77 pg/mL) than at SL (NE: 164+/-9 and 243+/-28 pg/mL; DA: 4+/-0.5 and 5+/-1 pg/mL DHPG: 502+/-23 and 649+/-39 pg/mL). Group differences were statistically significant only for NE in the CMS group. Plasma volume was higher in HA in both groups (p<0.05); red cell volume was higher in HA only in the CMS group. The results indicate sympathetic nervous stimulation by chronic ambient hypoxia at altitude in Andean natives, independent of maladaptation to their native environment.

  7. Genetic variation in estrogen receptor, C-reactive protein and fibrinogen does not predict the plasma levels of inflammation markers after longterm hormone replacement therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Maat, Moniek P M; Madsen, Jonna Skov; Langdahl, Bente

    2007-01-01

    Markers of inflammation, such as C-reactive protein (CRP) and fibrinogen, are associated with the risk of atherothrombosis. Plasma levels of these markers of inflammation are affected by hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and modulated by smoking. We studied whether genetic variation in the estrogen......). The effect of HRT, smoking and genetic variations in ESR1 (PvuII and XbaI), CRP (1444C/T) and fibrinogen-beta (FGB, -455G/A) were determined. The plasma concentration of CRP was higher in the HRT group than in the control group (2.03 mg/l and 1.41 mg/l, respectively; p ... concentration (n.s.). Genetic polymorphisms in ESR1, CRP and fibrinogen were not associated with an effect of HRT on the CRP and fibrinogen plasma levels, and no significant interaction with smoking was observed. In conclusion, higher plasma levels of CRP and lower plasma levels of fibrinogen were observed...

  8. Effects of fresh frozen plasma, Ringer's acetate and albumin on plasma volume and on circulating glycocalyx components following haemorrhagic shock in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nelson, Axel; Statkevicius, Svajunas; Schött, Ulf;

    2016-01-01

    and syndecan-1. Hemodynamic effects of resuscitation were evaluated by measuring lactate and mean arterial pressure (MAP). RESULTS: Resuscitation with FFP or albumin resulted in plasma volume expansion equalling the blood loss (to 55 ± 5 ml/kg and 54 ± 4 ml/kg (mean ± S.D.), respectively), whereas plasma...

  9. Volume Diffuse Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma Produced by Nanosecond High Voltage Pulse in Airflow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Haicheng; GAO Wei; FAN Zhihui; LIU Yidi; REN Chunsheng

    2016-01-01

    Volume diffuse dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma is produced in subsonic airflow by nanosecond high-voltage pulse power supply with a plate-to-plate discharge cell at 6 mm air gap length.The discharge images,optical emission spectra (OES),the applied voltage and current waveforms of the discharge at the changed airflow rates are obtained.When airflow rate is increased,the transition of the discharge mode and the variations of discharge intensity,breakdown characteristics and the temperature of the discharge plasma are investigated.The results show that the discharge becomes more diffuse,discharge intensity is decreased accompanied by the increased breakdown voltage and time lag,and the temperature of the discharge plasma reduces when airflow of small vclocity is introduced into the discharge gap.These phenomena are because that the airflow changes the spatial distribution of the heat and the space charge in the discharge gap.

  10. Volume Diffuse Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma Produced by Nanosecond High Voltage Pulse in Airflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Haicheng; Gao, Wei; Fan, Zhihui; Liu, Yidi; Ren, Chunsheng

    2016-05-01

    Volume diffuse dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma is produced in subsonic airflow by nanosecond high-voltage pulse power supply with a plate-to-plate discharge cell at 6 mm air gap length. The discharge images, optical emission spectra (OES), the applied voltage and current waveforms of the discharge at the changed airflow rates are obtained. When airflow rate is increased, the transition of the discharge mode and the variations of discharge intensity, breakdown characteristics and the temperature of the discharge plasma are investigated. The results show that the discharge becomes more diffuse, discharge intensity is decreased accompanied by the increased breakdown voltage and time lag, and the temperature of the discharge plasma reduces when airflow of small velocity is introduced into the discharge gap. These phenomena are because that the airflow changes the spatial distribution of the heat and the space charge in the discharge gap. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51437002)

  11. Volume effect of laser produced plasma on X-ray emissions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V K Senecha; Y B S R Prasad; M P Kamath; A S Joshi; G S Solanki; A P Kulkarni; S Gupta; R Pareek; H C Pant

    2000-11-01

    An investigation of x-ray emission from Cu plasma produced by 1.054 m Nd:glass laser pulses of 5 ns duration, at 2 × 1012-2 × 1013 W cm-2 is reported. The x-ray emission has been studied as a function of target position with respect to the laser beam focus position. It has been observed that x-ray emissions from ns duration plasma show a volume effect similar to subnanosecond plasmas. Due to this effect the x-ray yield increases when target is moved away relative to the best focal plane of the laser beam. This result supports the theoretical model of Tallents and has also been testified independently using suitably modified theoretical model for our experimental conditions. While above result is in good agreement with similar experimental results obtained for sub-nanosecond laser produced plasmas, it differs from result claiming filamentation rather than pure geometrical effect leading to x-ray enhancement for ns plasmas.

  12. [Effect of continuous renal replacement therapy on the plasma concentration of imipenem in severe infection patients with acute renal injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bin; Liu, Lixia; Xing, Dong; Zhao, Congcong; Hu, Zhenjie

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the extracorporeal clearance rate of imipenem in severe infection patients in the mode of continuous vena-venous hemofiltration (CVVH) during continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT), in order to approach if the concentration of imipenem in plasma could achieve effective levels of anti-infection, and to explore the effect of time and anticoagulation measure on imipenem clearance during CRRT treatment. A prospective observational study was conducted. All adult severe infection patients complicating acute kidney injury (AKI) in the Department of Critical Care Medicine of the Fourth Hospital of Hebei Medical University from March 2013 to September 2014, who were prescribed imipenem as part of their required medical care, and CRRT for treatment of AKI were enrolled. 0.5 g doses of imipenem was administered intravenously every 6 hours or 8 hours according to random number table, and infused over 0.5 hour. The unfractionated heparin was used for anticoagulation in the patients without contraindications, and no anticoagulation strategy was used in the patients with high risk of bleeding. At 24 hours after first time of administration, postfilter venous blood and ultrafiltrate samples were collected at 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 2, 5, 6, and 8 hours after imipenem administration. The concentration of imipenem in above samples was determined with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometer/mass spectrometer (LC-MS/MS). A total of 25 patients were enrolled. Thirteen patients received imipenem intravenously every 6 hours, and 12 patients, every 8 hours. The anticoagulation was conducted with heparin in 13 cases, and 12 cases without anticoagulation. The intra-day precision, inter-day precision, matrix effect, and recovery rate in low, medium, and high concentration of plasma and ultrafiltrate, and the stability of samples under different conditions showed a good result, the error of accuracy was controlled in the range of ±15%. With the application of Prismaflex

  13. Genetic variation in estrogen receptor, C-reactive protein and fibrinogen does not predict the plasma levels of inflammation markers after longterm hormone replacement therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Maat, Moniek P M; Madsen, Jonna Skov; Langdahl, Bente Lomholt;

    2007-01-01

    Markers of inflammation, such as C-reactive protein (CRP) and fibrinogen, are associated with the risk of atherothrombosis. Plasma levels of these markers of inflammation are affected by hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and modulated by smoking. We studied whether genetic variation in the estrogen...... receptor- 1 (ESR1), CRP and fibrinogen-beta genes influences the plasma levels of inflammation markers after HRT. Plasma CRP and fibrinogen were measured after five years follow-up in healthy postmenopausal women (per-protocol group) who were randomised to hormone therapy (n=187) or no treatment (n=249......). The effect of HRT, smoking and genetic variations in ESR1 (PvuII and XbaI), CRP (1444C/T) and fibrinogen-beta (FGB, -455G/A) were determined. The plasma concentration of CRP was higher in the HRT group than in the control group (2.03 mg/l and 1.41 mg/l, respectively; p

  14. A 5 kA pulsed power supply for inductive and plasma loads in large volume plasma device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, P. K., E-mail: pkumar@ipr.res.in; Singh, S. K.; Sanyasi, A. K.; Awasthi, L. M., E-mail: kushagra.lalit@gmail.com; Mattoo, S. K. [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar (India)

    2016-07-15

    This paper describes 5 kA, 12 ms pulsed power supply for inductive load of Electron Energy Filter (EEF) in large volume plasma device. The power supply is based upon the principle of rapid sourcing of energy from the capacitor bank (2.8 F/200 V) by using a static switch, comprising of ten Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBTs). A suitable mechanism is developed to ensure equal sharing of current and uniform power distribution during the operation of these IGBTs. Safe commutation of power to the EEF is ensured by the proper optimization of its components and by the introduction of over voltage protection (>6 kV) using an indigenously designed snubber circuit. Various time sequences relevant to different actions of power supply, viz., pulse width control and repetition rate, are realized through optically isolated computer controlled interface.

  15. A 5 kA pulsed power supply for inductive and plasma loads in large volume plasma device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, P. K.; Singh, S. K.; Sanyasi, A. K.; Awasthi, L. M.; Mattoo, S. K.

    2016-07-01

    This paper describes 5 kA, 12 ms pulsed power supply for inductive load of Electron Energy Filter (EEF) in large volume plasma device. The power supply is based upon the principle of rapid sourcing of energy from the capacitor bank (2.8 F/200 V) by using a static switch, comprising of ten Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBTs). A suitable mechanism is developed to ensure equal sharing of current and uniform power distribution during the operation of these IGBTs. Safe commutation of power to the EEF is ensured by the proper optimization of its components and by the introduction of over voltage protection (>6 kV) using an indigenously designed snubber circuit. Various time sequences relevant to different actions of power supply, viz., pulse width control and repetition rate, are realized through optically isolated computer controlled interface.

  16. Effect on plasma lipids and lipoproteins of replacing partially hydrogenated fish oil with vegetable fat in margarine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, H; Jordal, O; Seljeflot, I; Kierulf, P; Kirkhus, B; Ledsaak, O; Pedersen, J I

    1998-09-01

    We have compared the effects on lipoproteins and haemostatic variables of two hard margarines with similar functional properties, one traditional margarine containing partially hydrogenated fish oil (PHFO), and one experimental margarine based on vegetable oil (VO). Both were all-purpose cooking margarines with nearly identical functional properties. Trans fatty acids from PHFO in the traditional margarine were replaced mostly by saturated, monounsaturated and trans fatty acids of vegetable origin in the new formulation. Both test margarines contained approximately the same amount of cis polyunsaturated fatty acids. Sixteen female normolipidaemic students consumed each diet with the two test margarines for 14 d in random order (crossover design). The amount of fat was 31% energy in the PHFO diet and 32% energy in the VO diet. The test margarines provided approximately 26% energy in both diets. In the PHFO diet 7.8% of the energy was derived from trans fatty acids and 9.2% from saturated fatty acids (12:0, 14:0 and 16:0) while in the VO diet, 1.1% energy was derived from trans fatty acids and 13.3% from saturated fatty acids (12:0, 14:0 and 16:0). The natural content of cholesterol in PHFO was deliberately not balanced by addition of cholesterol to the VO diet, thus the PHFO diet contained 215 mg and the VO diet 86 mg cholesterol per 8.5 MJ. LDL-cholesterol concentration was 19% higher in subjects on the PHFO diet compared with the VO diet (P oils in margarine without appreciable loss of functional properties but with significant improvement in the effects on plasma lipoproteins.

  17. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric determination of rufinamide in low volume plasma samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gáll, Zsolt; Vancea, Szende; Dogaru, Maria T; Szilágyi, Tibor

    2013-12-01

    Quantification of rufinamide in plasma was achieved using a selective and sensitive liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method. The chromatographic separation was achieved on a reversed phase column (Zorbax SB-C18 100mm×3mm, 3.5μm) under isocratic conditions. The mobile phase consisted of a mixture of water containing 0.1% formic acid and methanol (50:50, v/v). The mass spectrometric detection of the analyte was in multiple reaction monitoring mode (MRM) using an electrospray positive ionization (ESI positive). The monitored ions were 127m/z derived from 239m/z rufinamide and 108m/z derived from 251m/z the internal standard (lacosamide). Protein precipitation with methanol was applied for sample preparation using only 50μl aliquots. The concentration range was 40-2000ng/ml for rufinamide in plasma. The limit of detection was 1.25ng/ml and the lower limit of quantification was established at 5ng/ml rufinamide concentration. Selectivity and matrix effect was verified using individual human, rat and rabbit plasma samples. Short-term, post-preparative and freeze-thaw stability was also investigated. The proposed method provides accuracy, precision and high-throughput (short runtime 4.5min) for quantitative determination of rufinamide in plasma. This is the first reported liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method for analysis of rufinamide from low volume plasma samples. The LC-MS/MS method was validated according to the current official guidelines and can be applied to accurately measure rufinamide level of large number of plasma samples from clinical studies or therapeutic drug monitoring.

  18. Noninvasive in vivo plasma volume and hematocrit in humans: observing long-term baseline behavior to establish homeostasis for intravascular volume and composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dent, Paul; Deng, Bin; Goodisman, Jerry; Peterson, Charles M.; Narsipur, Sriram; Chaiken, J.

    2016-04-01

    A new device incorporating a new algorithm and measurement process allows simultaneous noninvasive in vivo monitoring of intravascular plasma volume and red blood cell volume. The purely optical technique involves probing fingertip skin with near infrared laser light and collecting the wavelength shifted light, that is, the inelastic emission (IE) which includes the unresolved Raman and fluorescence, and the un-shifted emission, that is, the elastic emission (EE) which includes both the Rayleigh and Mie scattered light. Our excitation and detection geometry is designed so that from these two simultaneous measurements we can calculate two parameters within the single scattering regime using radiation transfer theory, the intravascular plasma volume fraction and the red blood cell volume fraction. Previously calibrated against a gold standard FDA approved device, 2 hour monitoring sessions on three separate occasions over a three week span for a specific, motionless, and mostly sleeping individual produced 3 records containing a total of 5706 paired measurements of hematocrit and plasma volume. The average over the three runs, relative to the initial plasma volume taken as 100%, of the plasma volume±1σ was 97.56+/-0.55 or 0.56%.For the same three runs, the average relative hematocrit (Hct), referenced to an assumed initial value of 28.35 was 29.37+/-0.12 or stable to +/-0.4%.We observe local deterministic circulation effects apparently associated with the pressure applied by the finger probe as well as longer timescale behavior due to normal ebb and flow of internal fluids due to posture changes and tilt table induced gravity gradients.

  19. Impact of diuretic treatment and sodium intake on plasma volume in patients with compensated systolic heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonfils, Peter K; Damgaard, Morten; Taskiran, Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    AIMS: In patients with heart failure (HF), the use of diuretics may be a double-edged sword that can alleviate symptoms of congestion, but also result in over-diuresis and intravascular volume depletion. The purpose of the present study was to examine plasma volume (PV) in HF patients receiving...... from 0 to 160 mg of furosemide and to investigate whether determination of plasma N-terminal fragment of pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) concentrations can predict PV-status. METHODS AND RESULTS: Plasma volume, extracellular volume, glomerular filtration rate, NT-proBNP, and daily renal...... sodium excretion were measured in 18 patients with medically treated, compensated HF and in 27 healthy volunteers. Cardiac function was examined by non-invasive cardiac output determination and echocardiography. Exercise capacity was evaluated by 6 min walk test. There was a borderline significant...

  20. Physiological adaptation of maternal plasma volume during pregnancy: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haas, S; Ghossein-Doha, C; van Kuijk, S M J; van Drongelen, J; Spaanderman, M E A

    2017-02-01

    To describe the physiological pattern of gestational plasma volume adjustments in normal singleton pregnancy and compare this with the pattern in pregnancies complicated by pregnancy-induced hypertension, pre-eclampsia or fetal growth restriction. We performed a meta-analysis of the current literature on plasma volume adjustments during physiological and complicated pregnancies. Literature was retrieved from PubMed (NCBI) and EMBASE (Ovid) databases. Included studies reported both reference plasma volume measurements (non-pregnant, prepregnancy or postpartum) and measurements obtained during predetermined gestational ages. Mean differences bet ween the reference and pregnancy plasma volume measurements were calculated for predefined intervals of gestational age using a random-effects model described by DerSimonian and Laird. Thirty studies were included in the meta-analysis with publication dates ranging from 1934 to 2007. Plasma volume increased in the first weeks of pregnancy, with the steepest increase occurring during the second trimester. Plasma volume continued to increase in the third trimester with a pooled maximum increase of 1.13 L (95% CI, 1.07-1.19 L), an increase of 45.6% (95% CI, 43.0-48.1%) in physiological pregnancies compared with the reference value. The plasma volume expansion in gestational hypertensive and growth-restricted pregnancies was 0.80 L (95% CI, 0.59-1.02 L), an increase of 32.3% (95% CI, 23.6-41.1%) in the third trimester, a smaller increase than in physiological pregnancies (P literatura actual sobre los cambios en el volumen de plasma durante embarazos complicados y fisiológicos. La literatura se obtuvo de las bases de datos PubMed (NCBI) y EMBASE (Ovid). Los estudios incluidos mencionaban tanto mediciones de referencia del volumen plasmático (no embarazada, antes del embarazo o después del parto) como mediciones tomadas a edades gestacionales predeterminadas. Se calcularon las medias de las diferencias entre las

  1. Enhancement of H{sup -}/D{sup -} volume production in a double plasma type negative ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukumasa, Osamu; Nishimura, Hideki; Sakiyama, Satoshi [Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-02-01

    H{sup -}/D{sup -} production in a pure volume source has been studied. In our double plasma type negative ion source, both energy and density of fast electrons are well controlled. With the use of this source, the enhancement of H{sup -}/D{sup -} production has been observed. Namely, under the same discharge power, the extracted H{sup -}/D{sup -} current in the double plasma operation is higher than that in the single plasma operation. At the same time, measurements of plasma parameters have been made in the source and the extractor regions for these two cases. (author)

  2. Venous and fingertip blood to calculate plasma volume shift following exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlton, R G; Brown, D D; Hetzler, R K; Sikora, L M

    1990-12-01

    This study determined whether fingertip blood samples used to calculate percentage change in calculated plasma volume following exercise were in agreement with values obtained from venous blood samples. Twenty-five subjects engaged in two cycle ergometer exercises at 100 and 200 W, with percentage plasma volume shift (% PVS) determined after each from venous (VB) and fingertip (FT) blood. Values for % PVS were FT -6.25% compared with VB -8.04% (P less than 0.05), with the correlation between the two methods at r = 0.88. The following equation was established: corrected FT % PVS = (0.8662 * FT) - 2.625; SEE = 2.60%. In order to cross-validate this equation, fifteen additional subjects submitted to VB and FT. Corrected FT % PVS using the established equation resulted in a mean value of 9.53 compared with 10.53% for actual VB % PVS. Although these means were not significantly different, there was approximately a 25% chance that the corrected FT % PVS would be more than one standard error of estimate from the regression line. It was concluded that FT underestimates VB % PVS. However, when limited to group data, FT can be corrected to favorably represent VB % PVS following moderate to heavy cycle ergometer exercise.

  3. [Three shades of fluids: Bergström 2.0 / Furosemide stress test / replacement fluid for therapeutic plasma exchange].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Julius J; Kielstein, Jan T

    2015-06-01

    Fluids play an important role in clinical nephrology.1) Temperature of dialysate fluid has recently re-attracted a lot of attention. Individualized cooling of the dialysate (0.5 °C below predialysis ear temperature) has been shown to not only prevent intradialytic hypotension but also to improve myocardial contractility and to prevent white matter changes in CKD5D.2) Access fluid in AKI is associated with an increased mortality. While Furosemide has no place in treating AKI the Furosemide stress test can help to identify patients with AKI that will eventually need renal replacement therapy.3) Components of replacement fluid for therapeutic plasma exchange (albumin or fresh frozen plasma) are high in demand. Especially the cost for albumin increases year by year. Alternative solutions such as immunoadsorption should be studied and employed for those indications where replenishment of plasma components is not necessary. Further, a seperate reimbursement of repalcement fluid seems necessary to avoid a decline in treatment quality.

  4. Alternations in plasma volume and protein during and after a continuous 110-kilometer march with 20-kilogram backpack load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashkenazi, I; Epshtein, Y

    1998-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a continuous 110-km march with a 20-kg backpack load on plasma volume and intravascular protein content. Twenty-two healthy male volunteers, aged 19 to 20 years (mean, 19.4 years), physically conditioned for continuous strenuous exercise, with a mean (+/- SD) maximal oxygen consumption of 59.1 (+/- 7.9) ml/kg/min, participated in the study. The march was performed under ambient conditions of 17 to 32 degrees C dry temperature and 45 to 85% relative humidity. Venous blood samples were obtained before, during, and after the march. The average calculated oxygen consumption during the march was about 30% of maximal oxygen consumption. Mean body weight loss was 3.4% of the premarch weight, mean water ingestion was 14,250 ml, and mean urine volume was 2,687 ml. Relative changes of plasma volume and total content of plasma protein were calculated from hematocrit ratio and hemoglobin concentration. A significant reduction (-6.1 +/- 1.7%, mean +/- SE) in plasma volume and a minimal elevation in intravascular protein content (1.6 +/- 2.5%) were observed during the march. During the first 24 hours of recovery, plasma volume was further reduced (-8.4 +/- 1.8%), with a significant reduction in protein content (-6.6 +/- 1.8%), mainly albumin (-9.3 +/- 1.7%). During the second day of recovery, peak elevations in plasma volume (3.7 +/- 1.4%) and protein content (6.0 +/- 1.6%) were observed. The changes in protein content were related to elevations in albumin (3.7 +/- 1.3%) and globulin (10.7 +/- 3.2%) content. The elevated plasma volume and protein content were also maintained 96 hours after the end of the march. Although the changes in plasma volume during the march were associated with changes in serum albumin and globulin content, during the recovery period there was association only with the changes in serum globulin content. The possible mechanism of these findings is discussed.

  5. The influence of the local volume fluctuations on the equation-of-state of hot and dense plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzmann, David; Fisher, Dima; Barshalom, Avraham; Oreg, Joseph

    2008-04-01

    Generally, equation-of-state (EOS) of hot and dense plasmas is computed under the assumption that there is a constant volume available to every ion/atom in the plasma. In the present paper we combined two recently developed models to evaluate the influence of local density fluctuations around the ions on the corresponding EOS. The first of these is the so-called Ion Ellipsoid Model (IEM). IEM assumes that the local volume of the ion is a 3-dimensional ellipsoidal enclosure. Full description of the model is given in Ref. [1]. From IEM semi-empirical formulas were derived for the ions volume distribution function [1] for 0INFERNO models to calculate opacities and EOS on the same footing. We will describe the model and present preliminary results indicating the effect of the volume fluctuations around the ions on EOS results.

  6. A Volume-Weighting Cloud-in-Cell Model for Particle Simulation of Axially Symmetric Plasmas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永东; 何锋; 刘纯亮

    2005-01-01

    A volume-weighting cloud-in-cell (VW-CIC) model is developed to implement the particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation in axially symmetric systems. This model gives a first-order accuracy in the cylindrical system, and it is incorporated into a PIC code. A planar diode with a finite-radius circular emitter is simulated with the code. The simulation results show that the VW-CIC model has a better accuracy and a lower noise than the conventional area-weighting cloud-in-cell (AW-CIC) model, especially on those points near the axis. The two-dimensional (2-D) space-charge-limited current density obtained from VW-CIC model is in better agreement with Lau's analytical result. This model is more suitable for 2.5-D PIC simulation of axially symmetric plasmas.

  7. A High-Order Finite-Volume Algorithm for Fokker-Planck Collisions in Magnetized Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Z; Cohen, R H; Rognlien, T D; Xu, X Q

    2007-04-18

    A high-order finite volume algorithm is developed for the Fokker-Planck Operator (FPO) describing Coulomb collisions in strongly magnetized plasmas. The algorithm is based on a general fourth-order reconstruction scheme for an unstructured grid in the velocity space spanned by parallel velocity and magnetic moment. The method provides density conservation and high-order-accurate evaluation of the FPO independent of the choice of the velocity coordinates. As an example, a linearized FPO in constant-of-motion coordinates, i.e. the total energy and the magnetic moment, is developed using the present algorithm combined with a cut-cell merging procedure. Numerical tests include the Spitzer thermalization problem and the return to isotropy for distributions initialized with velocity space loss cones. Utilization of the method for a nonlinear FPO is straightforward but requires evaluation of the Rosenbluth potentials.

  8. Plasma waves excited at interface by femtosecond laser irradiation enabling formation of volume nanograting in glass

    CERN Document Server

    Liao, Yang; Qiao, Lingling; Huang, Min; Bellouard, Yves; Sugioka, Koji; Cheng, Ya

    2014-01-01

    Irradiation of intense ultrafast laser pulses in glasses can lead to formation of nanogratings whose periods are significantly smaller than the incident irradiation wavelength. The mechanism of the exotic phenomenon is still under debate. Here, we access the snapshots of morphologies in the laser affected regions in a porous glass which reveal the evolution of the formation of nanogratings with increasing number of laser pulses. Combined with further theoretical analyses, our observation provides important clues which suggest that excitation of standing plasma waves at the interfaces between areas modified and unmodified by the femtosecond laser irradiation plays a crucial role for promoting the growth of periodic nanogratings. The finding indicates that the formation of volume nanogratings induced by irradiation of femtosecond laser pulses is initiated with a mechanism similar to the formation of surface nanoripples.

  9. Relationship between plasma metalloproteinase-9 levels and volume and severity of infarct in patients with acute ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Recep; Ulvi, Hızır; Özel, Lütfi; Özdemir, Gökhan; Güzelcik, Metin; Aygül, Recep

    2012-12-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) constitute an endopeptidase family involved in various physiological and pathological processes. It was demonstrated that plasma MMP-9 level was increased in patients with acute ischemic stroke. In this study, it was investigated whether there was a relationship between the levels of plasma MMP-9 and the severity of stroke and infarct volume in patients with acute ischemic stroke. A total of 32 patients with acute ischemic stroke, (16 males and 16 females) and 30 healthy controls were included in the study. Plasma MMP-9 levels were measured using ELISA method. Computed tomography was performed at 48th hour and infarct volume was calculated using the Cavalieri method. The National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) was checked at baseline, 12, 24, and 48th hour. Plasma MMP-9 levels of the patient group at baseline, 12, 24, and 48th hour were found significantly higher compared to the control group (p acute period of ischemic cerebrovascular disease and correlated with the severity of the disease and infarct volume. The definition of the exact role of plasma MMP-9 after ischemic stroke will have important diagnostic implications for stroke and for the development of therapeutic strategies aimed at modulating plasma MMP-9.

  10. Curling probe measurement of a large-volume pulsed plasma with surface magnetic confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, A.; Tashiro, H.; Sakakibara, W.; Nakamura, K.; Sugai, H.

    2016-12-01

    A curling probe (CP) based on microwave resonance is applied to the measurement of electron density in a pulsed DC glow discharge under surface magnetic confinement (SMC) provided by a number of permanent magnets on a chamber wall. Owing to the SMC effects, a 1 m scale large-volume plasma is generated by a relatively low voltage (~1 kV) at low pressure (~1 Pa) in various gases (Ar, CH4, and C2H2). Temporal variation of the electron density is measured for pulse frequency f  =  0.5-25 kHz for various discharge-on times (T ON) with a high resolution time (~0.2 µs), using the on-point mode. In general, the electron density starts to increase at time t  =  0 after turn-on of the discharge voltage, reaches peak density at t  =  T ON, and then decreases after turn-off. The peak electron density is observed to increase with the pulse frequency f for constant T ON owing to the residual plasma. This dependence is successfully formulated using a semi-empirical model. The spatio-temporal evolution of the cathode sheath in the pulsed discharge is revealed by a 1 m long movable CP. The measured thickness of the high-voltage cathode fall in a steady state coincides with the value of the so-called Child-Langmuir sheath.

  11. Effect of Rehydration Fluid Osmolality on Plasma Volume and Vasopressin in Resting Dehydrated Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geelen, Ghislaine; Greenleaf, J. E.; Keil, L. C.; Wade, Charles E. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Elevated plasma vasopressin concentration [PVP], which may act as a dipsogen, decreases promptly following the ingestion of fluids in many mammals including humans. The purpose for this study was to determine whether fluids of varied electrolyte and carbohydrate composition and osmolality (Osm] would modify post-drinking decreases in [PVP] which could be attributed to interaction with plasma volume (PV)- or fluid-electrolyte interactive hormones. Five men (23-41 yr, 78.0 +/- SD 8.2 kg), water deprived for 24 h, drank six fluids (12 ml/kg, at 16.5C in 4.0-6.2 min): water (30 m0sm/kg), NaCl (70 mOsm/kg), NaCl + NaCitrate (270 mOsm/kg), NaCl + 9.7% glucose (650 mOsm/kg), and two commercial drinks containing various ionic and carbohydrate contents (380 and 390 mOsm/kg). Blood (20 ml/sample) was drawn at -5 min before and at +3, +9, +15, +30, and +70 min after drinking. Heart rate, blood pressures, and plasma renin activity, {Na+], [K+], [Osm], aldosterone, atrial natriuretic peptide, and epinephrine concentrations were unchanged after drinking. Post-drinking [PVP] decreased from 1.7 - 3.7 pg/ml within 3 min with all fluids independently of their composition, [Osm], or delta PV; with maximal depression to 0.1-0.7 pg/ml (pplasma (Osm] but 1.8-7.6% increases (pplasma norepinephrine concentrations [PNE] at 15 min correlated -0.70 (P<0.10) suggesting that about half the variability in [PVP I I depression was associated with [PNE]. Thus, part of the mechanism for post-drinking [PVP] depression may involve a drinking stimulated norepinephrine (neural) factor.

  12. Pulmonary Edema and Plasma Volume Changes in Dysbarism. M.S. Thesis - Texas Univ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joki, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    Two groups of anesthetized, fasted pigs were utilized. One group of 13 animals (8.5 to 16.6 kilograms) was exposed to a high-pressure environment, and the other group of eight animals (6.9 to 20.0 kilograms) constituted the control group. The experimental group was subjected to an atmosphere of 90 percent nitrogen and 10 percent oxygen at a pressure of 50 psig for 30 minutes and then decompressed at a rate 10 psi/min. Plasma volumes, using both iodine-125-tagged-albumin and chromium-51-tagged-cell dilution techniques, were measured before, immediately after, and at 30 and 60 minutes after decompression. Aortic and right-ventricular systolic pressures were also recorded. At 60 minutes after decompression, blood samples were taken, the animals were sacrificed, and the water content of the lungs, kidneys, livers, and spleens was estimated by measuring tissue wet weight and dry weight. Protein extravasation and tissue blood volumes were determined by measuring the iodine-125-tagged-albumin and chromium-51-tagged-cell spaces in homo-genates of the organs under investigation.

  13. Changes in plasma volume during bed rest - Effects of menstrual cycle and estrogen administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortney, S. M.; Beckett, W. S.; Carpenter, A. J.; Davis, J.; Drew, H.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of increased blood estrogen concentration, caused either during normal menstrual cycles or by exogenous administration of premarin, on the bed-rest (BR) induced decrease in plasma volume (PV) was investigated. In women who underwent duplicate 11-day BR without estrogen supplementation, the PV was found to decrease significantly, during the first 5 days of BR, to a lower level at which it remained for the rest of the BR period. In women who began BR in the periovulatory stage of the menstrual cycle, the loss of PV was delayed, while women who began BR during other stages of the cycle exhibited the usual trend of the PV decrease during the BR. In women who underwent a single 12-day BR period while taking premarin (1.25 mg/day), PV was found to decrease during the first 4-5 days of BR, but then returned toward the pre-BR level during the remainder of the BR, indicating that estrogens have a role in stabilizing body fluid volume.

  14. A single-center prospective study on the safety of plasma exchange procedures using a double-viral-inactivated and prion-reduced solvent/detergent fresh-frozen plasma as the replacement fluid in the treatment of thrombotic microangiopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendramin, Chiara; McGuckin, Siobhan; Alwan, Ferras; Westwood, John-Paul; Thomas, Mari; Scully, Marie

    2017-01-01

    Patients presenting with acute episodes of thrombotic microangiopathies (TMAs) require urgent access to plasma exchange (PEX). OctaplasLG, a solvent/detergent fresh-frozen plasma product that has undergone viral inactivation and prion reduction step, has been used in our institution since 2013, replacing Octaplas. We prospectively reviewed 981 PEX procedures where OctaplasLG was the replacement fluid in 90 patients admitted acutely with a TMA presentation within our institution from January 1, 2013, to December 31, 2015. We recorded citrate toxicities, plasma reactions, viral transfer, complications related to central venous catheter, and venous thrombotic events (VTEs). Citrate toxicities were 5.4%, plasma reactions were 2%, and all were classified as Grade 1 or 2. VTE had an incidence of 12.2%, although 50% of the episodes occurred in early remission when patients were not receiving PEX. No line insertions complications were recorded. Line-associated infections were 2.2%. Hepatitis B and C serology and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were checked on admission. There were four patients who may have had passive transient transfer of hepatitis B antibodies from pooled plasma. No hepatitis C or HIV viral transfer was documented after treatment and no seroconversion was detected after treatment. Our data have demonstrated that the incidence of complications during PEX is low and using OctaplasLG is comparable to the low incidence of reactions. No cases of anaphylaxis, transfusion-related acute lung injury, or fatal plasma reactions were seen. There was no evidence of viral transmission or seroconversion after treatment. © 2016 AABB.

  15. Effect of volume replacement during combined experimental hemorrhagic shock and traumatic brain injury in prostanoids, brain pathology and pupil status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Campos Gomes Pinto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI is the main cause of trauma-related deaths. Systemic hypotension and intracranial hypertension causes cerebral ischemia by altering metabolism of prostanoids. We describe prostanoid, pupilar and pathological response during resuscitation with hypertonic saline solution (HSS in TBI. Method Fifteen dogs were randomized in three groups according to resuscitation after TBI (control group; lactated Ringer’s (LR group and HSS group, with measurement of thromboxane, prostaglandin, macroscopic and microscopic pathological evaluation and pupil evaluation.Result Concentration of prostaglandin is greater in the cerebral venous blood than in plasma and the opposite happens with concentration of thromboxane. Pathology revealed edema in groups with the exception of group treated with HSS.Discussion and conclusion There is a balance between the concentrations of prostaglandin and thromboxane. HSS prevented the formation of cerebral edema macroscopically detectable. Pupillary reversal occurred earlier in HSS group than in LR group.

  16. Variations in plasma and urinary lipids in response to enzyme replacement therapy for Fabry disease patients by nanoflow UPLC-ESI-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byeon, Seul Kee; Kim, Jin Yong; Lee, Jin-Sung; Moon, Myeong Hee

    2016-03-01

    A deficiency of α-galactosidase A causes Fabry disease (FD) by disrupting lipid metabolism, especially trihexosylceramide (THC). Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) is clinically offered to FD patients in an attempt to lower the accumulated lipids. Studies on specific types of lipids that are directly or indirectly altered by FD are very scarce, even though they are crucial in understanding the biological process linked to the pathogenesis of FD. We performed a comprehensive lipid profiling of plasma and urinary lipids from FD patients with nanoflow liquid chromatography electrospray-ionization tandem mass spectrometry (nLC-ESI-MS/MS) and identified 129 plasma and 111 urinary lipids. Among these, lipids that exhibited alternations (>twofold) in patients were selected as targets for selected reaction monitoring (SRM)-based high-speed quantitation using nanoflow ultra-performance LC-ESI-MS/MS (nUPLC-ESI-MS/MS) and 31 plasma and 26 urinary lipids showed significant elevation among FD patients. Higher percentages of sphingolipids (SLs; 48% for plasma and 42% for urine) were highly elevated in patients; whereas, a smaller percentage of phospholipids (PLs; 15% for plasma and 13% for urine) were significantly affected. Even though α-galactosidase A is reported to affect THC only, the results show that other classes of lipids (especially SLs) are changed as well, indicating that FD not only alters metabolism of THC but various classes of lipids too. Most lipids showing significant increases in relative amounts before ERT decreased after ERT, but overall, ERT influenced plasma lipids more than urinary lipids.

  17. NT pro BNP plasma level and atrial volume are linked to the severity of liver cirrhosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Licata

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Plasma levels of NT-pro-BNP, a natriuretic peptide precursor, are raised in the presence of fluid retention of cardiac origin and can be used as markers of cardiac dysfunction. Recent studies showed high levels of NT pro BNP in patients with cirrhosis. We assessed NT pro-BNP and other parameters of cardiac dysfunction in patients with cirrhosis, with or without ascites, in order to determine whether the behaviour of NT pro BNP is linked to the stage of liver disease or to secondary cardiac dysfunction. METHODS: Fifty eight consecutive hospitalized patients mostly with viral or NAFLD-related cirrhosis were studied. All underwent abdominal ultrasound and upper GI endoscopy. Cardiac morpho-functional changes were evaluated by echocardiography and NT-pro-BNP plasma levels determined upon admission. Twenty-eight hypertensive patients, without evidence of liver disease served as controls. RESULTS: Fifty eight cirrhotic patients (72% men with a median age of 62 years (11% with mild arterial hypertension and 31% with type 2 diabetes had a normal renal function (mean creatinine 0.9 mg/dl, range 0.7-1.06. As compared to controls, cirrhotic patients had higher NT pro-BNP plasma levels (365.2±365.2 vs 70.8±70.6 pg/ml; p<0.001. Left atrial volume (LAV (61.8±26.3 vs 43.5±14.1 ml; p = 0.001, and left ventricular ejection fraction (62.7±6.9 vs. 65.5±4%,; p = 0.05 were also altered in cirrhotic patients that in controls. Patients with F2-F3 oesophageal varices as compared to F0/F1, showed higher e' velocity (0.91±0.23 vs 0.66±0.19 m/s, p<0.001, and accordingly a higher E/A ratio (1.21±0.46 vs 0.89±0.33 m/s., p = 0.006. CONCLUSION: NT-pro-BNP plasma levels are increased proportionally to the stage of chronic liver disease. Advanced cirrhosis and high NT-pro-BNP levels are significantly associated to increased LAV and to signs of cardiac diastolic dysfunction. NT pro-BNP levels could hence be an useful prognostic

  18. Recurrent pre-eclampsia in women with metabolic syndrome and low plasma volume: a retrospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stekkinger, E.; Scholten, R.R.; Heidema, W.M.; Spaanderman, M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of recurrent pre-eclampsia in women with a history of pre-eclampsia with both metabolic syndrome and low plasma volume postpartum, as compared with women without either entity. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Three tertiary referral hospitals in th

  19. High-volume natural volcanic pozzolan and limestone powder as partial replacements for portland cement in self-compacting and sustainable concrete

    KAUST Repository

    Celik, Kemal

    2014-01-01

    A laboratory study demonstrates that high volume, 45% by mass replacement of portland cement (OPC) with 30% finely-ground basaltic ash from Saudi Arabia (NP) and 15% limestone powder (LS) produces concrete with good workability, high 28-day compressive strength (39 MPa), excellent one year strength (57 MPa), and very high resistance to chloride penetration. Conventional OPC is produced by intergrinding 95% portland clinker and 5% gypsum, and its clinker factor (CF) thus equals 0.95. With 30% NP and 15% LS portland clinker replacement, the CF of the blended ternary PC equals 0.52 so that 48% CO2 emissions could be avoided, while enhancing strength development and durability in the resulting self-compacting concrete (SCC). Petrographic and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) investigations of the crushed NP and finely-ground NP in the concretes provide new insights into the heterogeneous fine-scale cementitious hydration products associated with basaltic ash-portland cement reactions. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Plasma volume expansion by albumin in cirrhosis. Relation to blood volume distribution, arterial compliance and severity of disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinch, Kim; Bendtsen, Flemming; Becker, Povl Ulrik;

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of a standard albumin load on blood volume distribution, arterial compliance, and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in patients with different degrees of cirrhosis. METHODS: 31 patients with cirrhosis (Child classes A/B/C=...... effective arterial blood volume of such patients, which may be important in the prevention of circulatory dysfunction....

  1. The role of plasma volume, plasma renin and the sympathetic nervous system in the posture-induced decline in renal lithium clearance in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D F; Shimizu, M

    1978-01-01

    Excretion of lithium in urine was studied in 2 healthy males while recumbent and while upright, either walking or standing quietly. An oral dose of 24.3 mmol of Lit was taken as three lithium carbonate tablets 13 h before clearance tests. Renal lithium clearance decreased and lithium fractional reabsorption increased while upright. Standing immersed to the neck in water, which prevents the fall in plasma volume upon changing posture from recumbent to upright, prevented the fall in renal lithium clearance as well as the rise in lithium fractional reabsorption while upright. Oral doses of guanethidine (total dose of 200 mg) or oxprenolol (total dose of 140 mg) taken to prevent high levels of sympathetic nervous system activity and plasma renin, respectively, failed to prevent the fall in renal lithium clearance or the rise in lithium fractional reabsorption upon changing posture from recumbent to upright. The findings indicate that the fall in renal lithium clearance and the rise in lithium fractional reabsorption upon changing posture from recumbent to upright is related to the fall in plasma volume but not to high levels of sympathetic nervous system activity or plasma renin activity.

  2. Impact of Plasma Epstein-Barr Virus-DNA and Tumor Volume on Prognosis of Locally Advanced Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This retrospective study aims to examine the association of plasma Epstein-Barr virus- (EBV- DNA levels with the tumor volume and prognosis in patients with locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC. A total of 165 patients with newly diagnosed locally advanced NPC were identified from September 2011 to July 2012. EBV-DNA was detected using fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR amplification. The tumor volume was calculated by the systematic summation method of computer software. The median copy number of plasma EBV-DNA before treatment was 3790 copies/mL. The median gross tumor volume of the primary nasopharyngeal tumor (GTVnx, the lymph node lesions (GTVnd, and the total GTV before treatment were 72.46, 23.26, and 106.25 cm3, respectively; the EBV-DNA levels were significantly correlated with the GTVnd and the total GTV (P<0.01. The 2-year overall survival (OS rates in patients with positive and negative pretreatment plasma EBV-DNA were 100% and 98.4% (P=1.000, and the disease-free survival (DFS rates were 94.4% and 80.8% (P=0.044, respectively. These results indicate that high pretreatment plasma EBV-DNA levels in patients with locally advanced NPC are associated with the degree of lymph node metastasis, tumor burden, and poor prognosis.

  3. The component content of active particles in a plasma-chemical reactor based on volume barrier discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloshenko, I. A.; Tsiolko, V. V.; Pogulay, S. S.; Terent'yeva, A. G.; Bazhenov, V. Yu; Shchedrin, A. I.; Ryabtsev, A. V.; Kuzmichev, A. I.

    2007-02-01

    In this paper the results of theoretical and experimental studies of the component content of active particles formed in a plasma-chemical reactor composed of a multiple-cell generator of active particles, based on volume barrier discharge, and a working chamber are presented. For calculation of the content of uncharged plasma components an approach is proposed which is based on averaging of the power introduced over the entire volume. Advantages of such an approach lie in an absence of fitting parameters, such as the dimensions of microdischarges, their surface density and rate of breakdown. The calculation and the experiment were accomplished with the use of dry air (20% relative humidity) as the plasma generating medium. Concentrations of O3, HNO3, HNO2, N2 O5 and NO3 were measured experimentally in the discharge volume and working chamber for the residence time of particles on a discharge of 0.3 s and more and discharge specific power of 1.5 W cm-3. It has been determined that the best agreement between the calculation and the experiment occurs at calculated gas medium temperatures in the discharge plasma of about 400-425 K, which correspond to the experimentally measured rotational temperature of nitrogen. In most cases the calculated concentrations of O3, HNO3, HNO2, N2O5 and NO3 for the barrier discharge and the working chamber are in fairly good agreement with the respective measured values.

  4. Separate and combined influence of posture and sprint running on plasma volume changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsampoukos, Antonios; Stokes, Keith; Nevill, Mary

    2014-01-01

    It is currently unknown whether any changes in plasma volume (PV) after sprint running are inherent to sprint running per se or are due to other confounding factors such as changes in posture. The purpose of the present study was to examine the independent effects of sprint running on PV changes. Eight females completed two trials on separate days: (1) a 30-s sprint on a non-motorised treadmill and (2) a control trial where no exercise was undertaken but blood samples were taken at identical time points as in the exercise trial. Changes in PV were calculated using haematocrit and haemoglobin. Post-sprint PV reductions were greater in the sprint than the control trial (mean: -17.7, SD=3.1% vs. mean: -7.5, s = 4.9, Psprint than the control trial in most sampling points. These data show that sprint running of only 30 s induces transient reductions in PV independently of posture change. The present findings suggest that PV changes due to sprint running should be routinely reported as well as the posture and the exact time in this posture.

  5. Second harmonic wave generation from a nonlinear combination of volume wave and overdense plasma in negative permeability space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwai, Akinori; Nakamura, Yoshihiro; Sakai, Osamu

    2016-09-01

    We clarify the relation between second harmonic wave (SH wave) and plasma generation in various experimental conditions by detecting properties of propagating electromagnetic waves (EM waves). Plasma has a nonlinear reaction against EM wave, generating harmonic waves which depends on electron density ne. In the case with increased ne, EM wave comes to be prevented from going into plasma with negative permittivity ɛp. Double-split-ring resonators (DSRRs), one of metamaterials, make permeability μD negative. We have shown that EM wave being volume wave can propagate into the combination of overdense plasma and DSRRs because of real negative value refractive index N. In our previous paper, we have confirmed enhanced SH wave (4.9 GHz) generation in the composite with 2.45-GHz input. In this report, we show the dependence of the SH wave emission with plasma generation on plasma parameters and gas conditions of plasma. Furthermore, we show the phase change with N variation of the composite space in the case with various input power as the proof of the negative index state.

  6. GLUT4 expression at the plasma membrane is related to fibre volume in human skeletal muscle fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaster, M; Vach, W; Beck-Nielsen, H

    2002-01-01

    In this study we examined the relationship between GLUT4 expression at the plasma membrane and muscle fibre size in fibre-typed human muscle fibres by immunocytochemistry and morphometry in order to gain further insight into the regulation of GLUT4 expression. At the site of the plasma membrane......, GLUT4 was more abundantly expressed in slow as compared to fast fibres at the same fibre diameter (p diabetic and obese was reduced...... compared to control subjects at the same diameter (p diabetic subjects expressed a fibre-volume-dependent GLUT4 expression (p diabetic p = 0.06). Our results show that increasing...

  7. [Extracellular fluid, plasma and interstitial volume in cirrhotic patients without clinical edema or ascites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguera Viñas, E C; Hames, W; Mothe, G; Barrionuevo, M P

    1989-01-01

    Extracellular fluid volume (E.C.F.) and plasma volume (P.V.), were measured with sodium sulfate labeled with 35I and 131I human serum albumin, respectively, by the dilution technique in control subjects and in cirrhotic patients without clinical ascites or edema, renal or hepatic failure, gastrointestinal bleeding or diuretics. Results are expressed as mean +/- DS in both ml/m2 and ml/kg. In normal subjects E.C.F. (n = 8) was 7,533 +/- 817 ml/m2 (201.3 +/- 182 ml/kg), P.V. (n = 11) 1,767 +/- 337 ml/m2 (47.2 +/- 9.3 ml/kg), and interstitial fluid (I.S.F.) (n = 7) 5,758 +/- 851 ml/m2 (Table 2). In cirrhotic patients E.C.F. (n = 11) was 10,318 +/- 2,980 ml/m2 (261.7 +/- 76.8 ml/kg), P.V. (n = 12) 2,649 +/- 558 ml/m2 (67.7 +/- 15.6 ml/kg) and I.S.F. (n = 11) 7,866 +/- 2,987 ml/m2 (Table 3). Cirrhotic patients compared with normal subjects have hypervolemia due to a significant E.C.F. and P.V. expansion (p less than 0.02 and less than 0.001 respectively) (Fig. 1). Reasons for E.C.F. and P.V. abnormalities in cirrhotic patients may reflect urinary sodium retention related to portal hipertension which stimulates aldosterone release or enhanced renal tubular sensitivity to the hormone. However, it is also possible that these patients, in the presence of hypoalbuminemia (Table 1), have no clinical edema or ascites due to increased glomerular filtration, suppressed release of vasopressin, increased natriuretic factor, and urinary prostaglandin excretion, in response to the intravascular expansion, all of which increased solute and water delivery to the distal nephron and improved renal water excretion. We conclude that in our clinical experience cirrhotic patients without ascites or edema have hypervolemia because of a disturbance in E.C.F.

  8. Resistance exercise-induced fluid shifts: change in active muscle size and plasma volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.; Convertino, V. A.; Dudley, G. A.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that the reduction in plasma volume (PV) induced by resistance exercise reflects fluid loss to the extravascular space and subsequently selective increase in cross-sectional area (CSA) of active but not inactive skeletal muscle. We compared changes in active and inactive muscle CSA and PV after barbell squat exercise. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to quantify muscle involvement in exercise and to determine CSA of muscle groups or individual muscles [vasti (VS), adductor (Add), hamstring (Ham), and rectus femoris (RF)]. Muscle involvement in exercise was determined using exercise-induced contrast shift in spin-spin relaxation time (T2)-weighted MR images immediately postexercise. Alterations in muscle size were based on the mean CSA of individual slices. Hematocrit, hemoglobin, and Evans blue dye were used to estimate changes in PV. Muscle CSA and PV data were obtained preexercise and immediately postexercise and 15 and 45 min thereafter. A hierarchy of muscle involvement in exercise was found such that VS > Add > Ham > RF, with the Ham and RF showing essentially no involvement. CSA of the VS and Add muscle groups were increased 10 and 5%, respectively, immediately after exercise in each thigh with no changes in Ham and RF CSA. PV was decreased 22% immediately following exercise. The absolute loss of PV was correlated (r2 = 0.75) with absolute increase in muscle CSA immediately postexercise, supporting the notion that increased muscle size after resistance exercise reflects primarily fluid movement from the vascular space into active but not inactive muscle.

  9. Replacing with whole grains and legumes reduces Lp-PLA2 activities in plasma and PBMCs in patients with prediabetes or T2D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minjoo; Jeung, Se Ri; Jeong, Tae-Sook; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Jong Ho

    2014-08-01

    To determine dietary effects on circulating lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 (Lp-PLA2) activity and enzyme activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), 99 patients with impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, or newly-diagnosed T2D were randomly assigned to either a control group (usual diet with refined rice) or the whole grain and legume group. Substitution of whole grains and legumes for refined rice was associated with the replacement of 7% of energy from carbohydrates with energy from protein (about 4%) and fat. After 12 weeks, the whole grain and legume group showed a significant decrease in fasting glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance, hemoglobin A1c, malondialdehyde, plasma Lp-PLA2 activity, and oxidized LDL (ox-LDL), and an increase in LDL particle size. The changes (Δs) in these variables in the whole grain and legume group were significantly different from those in controls after adjustment for the baseline levels. When all subjects were considered, Δ plasma Lp-PLA2 positively correlated with Δ glucose, Δ PBMC Lp-PLA2, Δ ox-LDL, and Δ urinary 8-epi-prostaglandin F2α after being adjusted for confounding factors. The Δ PBMC Lp-PLA2 correlated positively with Δ glucose and Δ ox-LDL, and negatively with Δ LDL particle size and baseline PBMC Lp-PLA2 The substitution of whole grains and legumes for refined rice resulted in a reduction in Lp-PLA2 activities in plasma and PBMCs partly through improved glycemic control, increased consumption of protein relative to carbohydrate, and reduced lipid peroxides.

  10. Ankle replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ankle arthroplasty - total; Total ankle arthroplasty; Endoprosthetic ankle replacement; Ankle surgery ... You may not be able to have a total ankle replacement if you have had ankle joint infections in ...

  11. Knee Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knee replacement is surgery for people with severe knee damage. Knee replacement can relieve pain and allow you to ... Your doctor may recommend it if you have knee pain and medicine and other treatments are not ...

  12. The volume-expanding effects of autologous liquid stored plasma following hemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzer, Peter; Thomas, Owain D; Westborg, Johan;

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background. Plasma use has increased since studies have suggested that early treatment with blood components in trauma with severe hemorrhage may improve outcome. Plasma is also commonly used to correct coagulation disturbances in non-bleeding patients. Little is known about the effects...

  13. Low density lipoprotein for oxidation and metabolic studies. Isolation from small volumes of plasma using a tabletop ultracentrifuge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himber, J; Bühler, E; Moll, D; Moser, U K

    1995-01-01

    A rapid method is described for the isolation of small volumes of plasma low density lipoprotein (LDL) free of plasma protein contaminants using the TL-100 Tabletop Ultracentrifuge (Beckman). The isolation of LDL was achieved by a 25 min discontinuous gradient density centrifugation between the density range of 1.006 and 1.21 g/ml, recovery of LDL by tube slicing followed by a 90 min flotation step (d = 1.12 g/ml). The purity of LDL and apolipoprotein B100 (apo B100) were monitored by agarose electrophoresis, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), radial immunodiffusion and micropreparative fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC). The ability of LDL oxidation was assessed by following absorbance at 234 nm after addition of copper ions. The functional integrity of the isolated LDL was checked by clearance kinetics after injection of [125I]-labelled LDL in estrogen-treated rats. The additional purification step led to LDL fractions free of protein contamination and left apo B100, alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene intact. The LDL prepared in this way was free of albumin, as evident from analytic tests and from its enhanced oxidative modification by copper ions. Used for analytical purposes, this method allows LDL preparations from plasma volumes up to 570 microliters. This method is also convenient for metabolic studies in small animals, especially those relating to the determination of kinetic parameters of LDL in which LDL-apo B100 has to be specifically radiolabelled.

  14. von Willebrand Factor and Prekallikrein in Plasma Are Associated With Thrombus Volume in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghulam, Qasam M; Bredahl, Kim K; Gram, Jørgen B;

    2016-01-01

    anticoagulant therapy, renal impairment, or nonappearance, thus leaving 30 patients for further analysis. All patients had computed tomography angiography, and intraluminal volume was quantified off-line by OsiriX 6.5. RESULTS: Median intraluminal thrombus volume was 42.7 mL. Spearman correlation analysis...

  15. Accuracy and convergence of coupled finite-volume/Monte Carlo codes for plasma edge simulations of nuclear fusion reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghoos, K., E-mail: kristel.ghoos@kuleuven.be [KU Leuven, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Celestijnenlaan 300A, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Dekeyser, W. [KU Leuven, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Celestijnenlaan 300A, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Samaey, G. [KU Leuven, Department of Computer Science, Celestijnenlaan 200A, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Börner, P. [Institute of Energy and Climate Research (IEK-4), FZ Jülich GmbH, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Baelmans, M. [KU Leuven, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Celestijnenlaan 300A, 3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2016-10-01

    The plasma and neutral transport in the plasma edge of a nuclear fusion reactor is usually simulated using coupled finite volume (FV)/Monte Carlo (MC) codes. However, under conditions of future reactors like ITER and DEMO, convergence issues become apparent. This paper examines the convergence behaviour and the numerical error contributions with a simplified FV/MC model for three coupling techniques: Correlated Sampling, Random Noise and Robbins Monro. Also, practical procedures to estimate the errors in complex codes are proposed. Moreover, first results with more complex models show that an order of magnitude speedup can be achieved without any loss in accuracy by making use of averaging in the Random Noise coupling technique.

  16. Whole-volume integrated gyrokinetic simulation of plasma turbulence in realistic diverted-tokamak geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, C S; Ku, S; Greengard, L; Park, G [Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, NY 10012 (United States); Diamond, P; Dif-Pradalier, G [University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Adams, M; Keyes, D [Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Barreto, R; D' Azevedo, E; Klasky, S; Podhorszki, N [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Chen, Y; Parker, S [University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Cummings, J [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Ethier, S; Hahm, T S [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Hinton, F [Hinton Associates, Escondido, CA 92029 (United States); Lin, Z [University of California at Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Lofstead, J, E-mail: cschang@cims.nyu.ed [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Performance prediction for ITER is based upon the ubiquitous experimental observation that the plasma energy confinement in the device core is strongly coupled to the edge confinement for an unknown reason. The coupling time-scale is much shorter than the plasma transport time-scale. In order to understand this critical observation, a multi-scale turbulence-neoclassical simulation of integrated edge-core plasma in a realistic diverted geometry is a necessity, but has been a formidable task. Thanks to the recent development in high performance computing, we have succeeded in the integrated multiscale gyrokinetic simulation of the ion-temperature-gradient driven turbulence in realistic diverted tokamak geometry for the first time. It is found that modification of the self-organized criticality in the core plasma by nonlocal core-edge coupling of ITG turbulence can be responsible for the core-edge confinement coupling.

  17. Whole-volume integrated gyrokinetc simulation of plasma turbulence in realistic diverted-tokamak geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, C S [New York University; Ku, Seung-Hoe [New York University; Diamond, Patrick [Columbia University; Adams, Mark [Columbia University; Tchoua, Roselyne B [ORNL; Chen, Yang [University of Colorado, Boulder; Cummings, Julian [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena; D' Azevedo, Eduardo [ORNL; Dif-Pradalier, Guilhem [University of California, San Diego; Ethier, Stephane [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Greengard, Leslie [New York University; Hahm, Taik Soo [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Hinton, Fred [University of California, San Diego; Keyes, David E [Columbia University; Klasky, Scott A [ORNL; Lin, Zhihong [University of California, Irvine; Lofstead, J. [Georgia Institute of Technology; Park, G. [New York University; Parker, Scott [University of Colorado, Boulder; Podhorszki, Norbert [ORNL; Schwan, Karsten [Georgia Institute of Technology; Shoshani, A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Silver, D. [Rutgers University; Weitzner, Harold [New York University; Wolf, M. [Georgia Institute of Technology; Worley, Patrick H [ORNL; Yoon, E. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Zorin, Denis [New York University

    2009-01-01

    Performance prediction for ITER is based upon the ubiquitous experimental observation that the plasma energy confinement in the device core is strongly coupled to the edge confinement for an unknown reason. The coupling time-scale is much shorter than the plasma transport time-scale. In order to understand this critical observation, a multi-scale turbulence-neoclassical simulation of integrated edge-core plasma in a realistic diverted geometry is a necessity, but has been a formidable task. Thanks to the recent development in high performance computing, we have succeeded in the integrated multiscale gyrokinetic simulation of the ion-temperature-gradient driven turbulence in realistic diverted tokamak geometry for the first time. It is found that modification of the self-organized criticality in the core plasma by nonlocal core-edge coupling of ITG turbulence can be responsible for the core-edge confinement coupling.

  18. Whole-volume integrated gyrokinetic simulation of plasma turbulence in realistic diverted-tokamak geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C. S.; Ku, S.; Diamond, P.; Adams, M.; Barreto, R.; Chen, Y.; Cummings, J.; D'Azevedo, E.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Ethier, S.; Greengard, L.; Hahm, T. S.; Hinton, F.; Keyes, D.; Klasky, S.; Lin, Z.; Lofstead, J.; Park, G.; Parker, S.; Podhorszki, N.; Schwan, K.; Shoshani, A.; Silver, D.; Wolf, M.; Worley, P.; Weitzner, H.; Yoon, E.; Zorin, D.

    2009-07-01

    Performance prediction for ITER is based upon the ubiquitous experimental observation that the plasma energy confinement in the device core is strongly coupled to the edge confinement for an unknown reason. The coupling time-scale is much shorter than the plasma transport time-scale. In order to understand this critical observation, a multi-scale turbulence-neoclassical simulation of integrated edge-core plasma in a realistic diverted geometry is a necessity, but has been a formidable task. Thanks to the recent development in high performance computing, we have succeeded in the integrated multiscale gyrokinetic simulation of the ion-temperature-gradient driven turbulence in realistic diverted tokamak geometry for the first time. It is found that modification of the self-organized criticality in the core plasma by nonlocal core-edge coupling of ITG turbulence can be responsible for the core-edge confinement coupling.

  19. Whole-volume integrated gyrokinetic simulation of plasma turbulence in realistic diverted-tokamak geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, C S [New York University; Ku, Seung-Hoe [New York University; Diamond, P. H. [University of California, San Diego; Adams, Mark [Columbia University; Tchoua, Roselyne B [ORNL; Chen, Yang [University of Colorado, Boulder; Cummings, J. [California Institute of Technology, University of California, Davis; D' Azevedo, Ed F [ORNL; Dif-Pradalier, Guilhem [University of California, San Diego; Ethier, Stephane [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Greengard, Leslie [New York University; Hahm, Taik Soo [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Hinton, Fred [University of California, San Diego; Keyes, David E [Columbia University; Klasky, Scott A [ORNL; Lin, Z. [University of California, Irvine; Lofstead, J. [Georgia Institute of Technology; Park, G. [New York University; Podhorszki, Norbert [ORNL; Schwan, Karsten [Georgia Institute of Technology; Shoshani, A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Silver, D. [Rutgers University; Wolf, M. [Georgia Institute of Technology; Worley, Patrick H [ORNL; Zorin, Denis [New York University

    2009-01-01

    Performance prediction for ITER is based upon the ubiquitous experimental observation that the plasma energy confinement in the device core is strongly coupled to the edge confinement for an unknown reason. The coupling time-scale is much shorter than the plasma transport time-scale. In order to understand this critical observation, a multi-scale turbulence-neoclassical simulation of integrated edge-core plasma in a realistic diverted geometry is a necessity, but has been a formidable task. Thanks to the recent development in high performance computing, we have succeeded in the integrated multiscale gyrokinetic simulation of the ion-temperature-gradient driven turbulence in realistic diverted tokamak geometry for the first time. It is found that modification of the self-organized criticality in the core plasma by nonlocal core-edge coupling of ITG turbulence can be responsible for the core-edge confinement coupling.

  20. Plasma volume expansion does not increase maximal cardiac output or VO2 max in lowlanders acclimatized to altitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calbet, José A L; Rådegran, Göran; Boushel, Robert Christopher

    2004-01-01

    With altitude acclimatization, blood hemoglobin concentration increases while plasma volume (PV) and maximal cardiac output (Qmax) decrease. This investigation aimed to determine whether reduction of Qmax at altitude is due to low circulating blood volume (BV). Eight Danish lowlanders (3 females, 5...... males: age 24.0 +/- 0.6 yr; mean +/- SE) performed submaximal and maximal exercise on a cycle ergometer after 9 wk at 5,260 m altitude (Mt. Chacaltaya, Bolivia). This was done first with BV resulting from acclimatization (BV = 5.40 +/- 0.39 liters) and again 2-4 days later, 1 h after PV expansion with 1...... level Qmax and exercise capacity were restored with hyperoxia at altitude independently of BV. Low BV is not a primary cause for reduction of Qmax at altitude when acclimatized. Furthermore, hemodilution caused by PV expansion at altitude is compensated for by increased systemic O2 extraction...

  1. Prospective observational study for perioperative volume replacement with 6% HES 130/0,42, 4% gelatin and 6% HES 200/0,5 in cardiac surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winterhalter M

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The constantly growing amount of different kinds of colloid fluids necessitates comparative investigations with regards to the safety and effectivity in clinical use of these preparations. Hence we compared three colloid fluids in an observational study. The objective was the exploration of the influence of these three colloids on blood coagulation, hemodynamics and renal function of the cardiac surgical patient. Methods We included 90 patients undergoing an elective open-heart surgery with the use of the heart-lung machine and observed them consecutively. Group 1 [gelatin 4% (n = 30], Group 2 [HES 200/0,5 (n = 30] and Group 3 [HES 130/0,42 (n = 30]. We measured the perioperative volume replacement, the administration of blood- and coagulation-products, the application of catecholamines, the renal function, blood gas and the platelet aggregation using multiplate electrode analyzer (Multiplate®, Dynabyte medical, Munich, Germany. Results The gelatin-group needed significantly more norepinephrine than the HES 130/0.42 group. The responsible surgeon considered the blood coagulation in the HES 200/0.5 group most frequently as impaired. Furthermore we saw a significant decrease in platelet function in the HES 200/0.5 group when performing the multiplate®-analysis (ADP-and COL-test. HES 130/0.4 as well as gelatin 4% showed no significant change in platelet function. The gelatin-group and the HES 200/0.5 needed significantly more aprotinine than the HES 130/0.4 group. We saw no significant difference with regards to administration of blood and coagulation products between the three groups. The urinary excretion during the intervention was significantly higher in the HES 200/0.5 group and in the gelatin group than in the HES 130/0.4 group. Conclusions Our results confirm the lower stabilizing effect of gelatin on circulation during fluid resuscitation. The blood coagulation was mostly impaired due to HES 200/0.5 confirmed by the

  2. Directed Replacement

    CERN Document Server

    Karttunen, L

    1996-01-01

    This paper introduces to the finite-state calculus a family of directed replace operators. In contrast to the simple replace expression, UPPER -> LOWER, defined in Karttunen (ACL-95), the new directed version, UPPER @-> LOWER, yields an unambiguous transducer if the lower language consists of a single string. It transduces the input string from left to right, making only the longest possible replacement at each point. A new type of replacement expression, UPPER @-> PREFIX ... SUFFIX, yields a transducer that inserts text around strings that are instances of UPPER. The symbol ... denotes the matching part of the input which itself remains unchanged. PREFIX and SUFFIX are regular expressions describing the insertions. Expressions of the type UPPER @-> PREFIX ... SUFFIX may be used to compose a deterministic parser for a ``local grammar'' in the sense of Gross (1989). Other useful applications of directed replacement include tokenization and filtering of text streams.

  3. Fatigue testing of plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coatings, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruse, T. A.; Nagy, A.; Popelar, C. F.

    1990-01-01

    A plasma sprayed thermal barrier coating for diesel engines were fatigue tested. Candidate thermal barrier coating materials were fatigue screened and a data base was generated for the selected candidate material. Specimen configurations are given for the bend fatigue tests, along with test setup, specimen preparation, test matrix and procedure, and data analysis.

  4. Fatigue testing of plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coatings, Volume 2. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruse, T.A.; Nagy, A.; Popelar, C.F.

    1990-07-01

    A plasma sprayed thermal barrier coating for diesel engines were fatigue tested. Candidate thermal barrier coating materials were fatigue screened and a data base was generated for the selected candidate material. Specimen configurations are given for the bend fatigue tests, along with test setup, specimen preparation, test matrix and procedure, and data analysis.

  5. Dual effect of insulin on plasma volume and transcapillary albumin transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Christensen, N J

    1992-01-01

    During the past decade it has been demonstrated that insulin, apart from its effects on metabolism and ion fluxes, has acute effects on the cardiovascular system and capillary permeability. Intravenous infusion of insulin in doses which increase plasma insulin to physiological levels, induced vas...... in a normal transfer of macromolecules from the blood to the extracellular space after food intake. This process may be greatly disturbed in insulin-dependent diabetic patients....

  6. Knee Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... need knee replacement surgery usually have problems walking, climbing stairs, and getting in and out of chairs. Some ... a total living space on one floor since climbing stairs can be difficult. Install safety bars or a ...

  7. Replacing penalties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly Stepashin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available УДК 343.24The subject. The article deals with the problem of the use of "substitute" penalties.The purpose of the article is to identify criminal and legal criteria for: selecting the replacement punishment; proportionality replacement leave punishment to others (the formalization of replacement; actually increasing the punishment (worsening of legal situation of the convicted.Methodology.The author uses the method of analysis and synthesis, formal legal method.Results. Replacing the punishment more severe as a result of malicious evasion from serving accused designated penalty requires the optimization of the following areas: 1 the selection of a substitute punishment; 2 replacement of proportionality is serving a sentence other (formalization of replacement; 3 ensuring the actual toughening penalties (deterioration of the legal status of the convict. It is important that the first two requirements pro-vide savings of repression in the implementation of the replacement of one form of punishment to others.Replacement of punishment on their own do not have any specifics. However, it is necessary to compare them with the contents of the punishment, which the convict from serving maliciously evaded. First, substitute the punishment should assume a more significant range of restrictions and deprivation of certain rights of the convict. Second, the perfor-mance characteristics of order substitute the punishment should assume guarantee imple-mentation of the new measures.With regard to replacing all forms of punishment are set significant limitations in the application that, in some cases, eliminates the possibility of replacement of the sentence, from serving where there has been willful evasion, a stricter measure of state coercion. It is important in the context of the topic and the possibility of a sentence of imprisonment as a substitute punishment in cases where the original purpose of the strict measures excluded. It is noteworthy that the

  8. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI assessment of hyperemic fractional microvascular blood plasma volume in peripheral arterial disease: initial findings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bas Versluis

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of the current study was to describe a method that assesses the hyperemic microvascular blood plasma volume of the calf musculature. The reversibly albumin binding contrast agent gadofosveset was used in dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE MRI to assess the microvascular status in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD and healthy controls. In addition, the reproducibility of this method in healthy controls was determined. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten PAD patients with intermittent claudication and 10 healthy control subjects were included. Patients underwent contrast-enhanced MR angiography of the peripheral arteries, followed by one DCE MRI examination of the musculature of the calf. Healthy control subjects were examined twice on different days to determine normative values and the interreader and interscan reproducibility of the technique. The MRI protocol comprised dynamic imaging of contrast agent wash-in under reactive hyperemia conditions of the calf musculature. Using pharmacokinetic modeling the hyperemic fractional microvascular blood plasma volume (V(p, unit: % of the anterior tibial, gastrocnemius and soleus muscles was calculated. RESULTS: V(p was significantly lower for all muscle groups in PAD patients (4.3±1.6%, 5.0±3.3% and 6.1±3.6% for anterior tibial, gastrocnemius and soleus muscles, respectively compared to healthy control subjects (9.1±2.0%, 8.9±1.9% and 9.3±2.1%. Differences in V(p between muscle groups were not significant. The coefficient of variation of V(p varied from 10-14% and 11-16% at interscan and interreader level, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Using DCE MRI after contrast-enhanced MR angiography with gadofosveset enables reproducible assessment of hyperemic fractional microvascular blood plasma volume of the calf musculature. V(p was lower in PAD patients than in healthy controls, which reflects a promising functional (hemodynamic biomarker for the

  9. The impact of maternal plasma volume expansion and antihypertensive treatment with intravenous dihydralazine on fetal and maternal hemodynamics during pre-eclampsia: a clinical, echo-Doppler and viscometric study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boito, S.M.; Struijk, P.C.; Pop, G.A.M.; Visser, W. de; Steegers, E.A.P.; Wladimiroff, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To establish the effects of plasma volume expansion (PVE) followed by intravenous dihydralazine (DH) administration on maternal whole blood viscosity (WBV) and hematocrit, uteroplacental and fetoplacental downstream impedance and umbilical venous (UV) volume flow in pre-eclampsia. METHOD

  10. Effect of High-Volume Injection, Platelet-Rich Plasma, and Sham Treatment in Chronic Midportion Achilles Tendinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, Anders Ploug; Hansen, Rudi; Boesen, Morten Ilum

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Injection therapies are often considered alongside exercise for chronic midportion Achilles tendinopathy (AT), although evidence of their efficacy is sparse. PURPOSE: To determine whether eccentric training in combination with high-volume injection (HVI) or platelet-rich plasma (PRP...... with eccentric training in chronic AT seems more effective in reducing pain, improving activity level, and reducing tendon thickness and intratendinous vascularity than eccentric training alone. HVI may be more effective in improving outcomes of chronic AT than PRP in the short term. Registration: NCT02417987......) injections improves outcomes in AT. STUDY DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1. METHODS: A total of 60 men (age, 18-59 years) with chronic (>3 months) AT were included and followed for 6 months (n = 57). All participants performed eccentric training combined with either (1) one HVI...

  11. Finite Volume schemes on unstructured grids for non-local models: Application to the simulation of heat transport in plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goudon, Thierry, E-mail: thierry.goudon@inria.fr [Team COFFEE, INRIA Sophia Antipolis Mediterranee (France); Labo. J.A. Dieudonne CNRS and Univ. Nice-Sophia Antipolis (UMR 7351), Parc Valrose, 06108 Nice cedex 02 (France); Parisot, Martin, E-mail: martin.parisot@gmail.com [Project-Team SIMPAF, INRIA Lille Nord Europe, Park Plazza, 40 avenue Halley, F-59650 Villeneuve d' Ascq cedex (France)

    2012-10-15

    In the so-called Spitzer-Haerm regime, equations of plasma physics reduce to a nonlinear parabolic equation for the electronic temperature. Coming back to the derivation of this limiting equation through hydrodynamic regime arguments, one is led to construct a hierarchy of models where the heat fluxes are defined through a non-local relation which can be reinterpreted as well by introducing coupled diffusion equations. We address the question of designing numerical methods to simulate these equations. The basic requirement for the scheme is to be asymptotically consistent with the Spitzer-Haerm regime. Furthermore, the constraints of physically realistic simulations make the use of unstructured meshes unavoidable. We develop a Finite Volume scheme, based on Vertex-Based discretization, which reaches these objectives. We discuss on numerical grounds the efficiency of the method, and the ability of the generalized models in capturing relevant phenomena missed by the asymptotic problem.

  12. Replacing the Transfusion of 1–2 Units of Blood with Plasma Expanders that Increase Oxygen Delivery Capacity: Evidence from Experimental Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy G. Tsai

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available At least a third of the blood supply in the world is used to transfuse 1–2 units of packed red blood cells for each intervention and most clinical trials of blood substitutes have been carried out at this level of oxygen carrying capacity (OCC restoration. However, the increase of oxygenation achieved is marginal or none at all for molecular hemoglobin (Hb products, due to their lingering vasoactivity. This has provided the impetus for the development of “oxygen therapeutics” using Hb-based molecules that have high oxygen affinity and target delivery of oxygen to anoxic areas. However it is still unclear how these oxygen carriers counteract or mitigate the functional effects of anemia due to obstruction, vasoconstriction and under-perfusion. Indeed, they are administered as a low dosage/low volume therapeutic Hb (subsequently further diluted in the circulatory pool and hence induce extremely small OCC changes. Hyperviscous plasma expanders provide an alternative to oxygen therapeutics by increasing the oxygen delivery capacity (ODC; in anemia they induce supra-perfusion and increase tissue perfusion (flow by as much as 50%. Polyethylene glycol conjugate albumin (PEG-Alb accomplishes this by enhancing the shear thinning behavior of diluted blood, which increases microvascular endothelial shear stress, causes vasodilation and lowering peripheral vascular resistance thus facilitating cardiac function. Induction of supra-perfusion takes advantage of the fact that ODC is the product of OCC and blood flow and hence can be maintained by increasing either or both. Animal studies suggest that this approach may save a considerable fraction of the blood supply. It has an additional benefit of enhancing tissue clearance of toxic metabolites.

  13. Renal responses to plasma volume expansion and hyperosmolality in fasting seal pups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Rudy M.; Wade, Charles E.; Costa, Daniel P.; Ortiz, C. Leo

    2002-01-01

    Renal responses were quantified in northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris) pups during their postweaning fast to examine their excretory capabilities. Pups were infused with either isotonic (0.9%; n = 8; Iso) or hypertonic (16.7%; n = 7; Hyper) saline via an indwelling catheter such that each pup received 3 mmol NaCl/kg. Diuresis after the infusions was similar in magnitude between the two treatments. Osmotic clearance increased by 37% in Iso and 252% in Hyper. Free water clearance was reduced 3.4-fold in Hyper but was not significantly altered in Iso. Glomerular filtration rate increased 71% in the 24-h period after Hyper, but no net change occurred during the same time after Iso. Natriuresis increased 3.6-fold in Iso and 5.3-fold in Hyper. Iso decreased plasma arginine vasopressin (AVP) and cortisol acutely, whereas Hyper increased plasma and excreted AVP and cortisol. Iso was accompanied by the retention of water and electrolytes, whereas the Hyper load was excreted within 24 h. Natriuresis is attributed to increased filtration and is independent of an increase in atrial natriuretic peptide and decreases in ANG II and aldosterone. Fasting pups appear to have well-developed kidneys capable of both extreme conservation and excretion of Na(+).

  14. Esophageal replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunisaki, Shaun M; Coran, Arnold G

    2017-04-01

    This article focuses on esophageal replacement as a surgical option for pediatric patients with end-stage esophageal disease. While it is obvious that the patient׳s own esophagus is the best esophagus, persisting with attempts to retain a native esophagus with no function and at all costs are futile and usually detrimental to the overall well-being of the child. In such cases, the esophagus should be abandoned, and the appropriate esophageal replacement is chosen for definitive reconstruction. We review the various types of conduits used for esophageal replacement and discuss the unique advantages and disadvantages that are relevant for clinical decision-making. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Plasma volume expansion does not increase maximal cardiac output or VO2 max in lowlanders acclimatized to altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calbet, José A L; Rådegran, Göran; Boushel, Robert; Søndergaard, Hans; Saltin, Bengt; Wagner, Peter D

    2004-09-01

    With altitude acclimatization, blood hemoglobin concentration increases while plasma volume (PV) and maximal cardiac output (Qmax) decrease. This investigation aimed to determine whether reduction of Qmax at altitude is due to low circulating blood volume (BV). Eight Danish lowlanders (3 females, 5 males: age 24.0 +/- 0.6 yr; mean +/- SE) performed submaximal and maximal exercise on a cycle ergometer after 9 wk at 5,260 m altitude (Mt. Chacaltaya, Bolivia). This was done first with BV resulting from acclimatization (BV = 5.40 +/- 0.39 liters) and again 2-4 days later, 1 h after PV expansion with 1 liter of 6% dextran 70 (BV = 6.32 +/- 0.34 liters). PV expansion had no effect on Qmax, maximal O2 consumption (VO2), and exercise capacity. Despite maximal systemic O2 transport being reduced 19% due to hemodilution after PV expansion, whole body VO2 was maintained by greater systemic O2 extraction (P VO2 during exercise regardless of PV. Pulmonary ventilation, gas exchange, and acid-base balance were essentially unaffected by PV expansion. Sea level Qmax and exercise capacity were restored with hyperoxia at altitude independently of BV. Low BV is not a primary cause for reduction of Qmax at altitude when acclimatized. Furthermore, hemodilution caused by PV expansion at altitude is compensated for by increased systemic O2 extraction with similar peak muscular O2 delivery, such that maximal exercise capacity is unaffected.

  16. Design aspects of a compact, single-frequency, permanent magnet ECR ion source with a large uniformly distributed resonant plasma volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Y.; Alton, G.D.; Mills, G.D.; Reed, C.A.; Haynes, D.L.

    1997-09-01

    A compact, all-permanent-magnet single-frequency ECR ion source with a large uniformly distributed ECR plasma volume has been designed and is presently under construction at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The central region of the field is designed to achieve a flat-field (constant mod-B) which extends over the length of the central field region along the axis of symmetry and radially outward to form a uniformly distributed ECR plasma volume. The magnetic field design strongly contrasts with those used in conventional ECR ion sources where the central field regions are approximately parabolic and the consequent ECR zones are surfaces. The plasma confinement magnetic field mirror has a mirror ratio B{sub max}/B{sub ECR} of slightly greater than two. The source is designed to operate at a nominal RF frequency of 6 GHz. The central flat magnetic field region can be easily adjusted by mechanical means to tune the source to the resonant conditions within the limits of 5.5 to 6.8 GHz. The RF injection system is broadband to ensure excitation of transverse electric (TE) modes so that the RF power is largely concentrated in the resonant plasma volume which lies along and surrounds the axis of symmetry of the source. Because of the much larger ECR zone, the probability for absorption of microwave power is dramatically increased thereby increasing the probability for acceleration of electrons, the electron temperature of the plasma and, consequently, the hot electron population within the plasma volume of the source. The creation of an ECR volume rather than a surface is commensurate with higher charge states and higher beam intensities within a particular charge state.

  17. Measurement of the ratio of glomerular filtration rate to plasma volume from the technetium-99m diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid renogram: comparison with glomerular filtration rate in relation to extracellular fluid volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, A.M. (Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Hammersmith Hospital, London (United Kingdom)); Allison, H. (Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Hammersmith Hospital, London (United Kingdom)); Ussov, W.Yu. (Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Hammersmith Hospital, London (United Kingdom))

    1994-04-01

    We describe a technique which does not require a blood sample, is already normalised for plasma volume and uses the robust Patlak plot for measuring renal uptake. The rate of kidney uptake, dR(t)/dt, at time = 0, as a fraction of the injected dose, is equal to the fraction of the plasma volume (PV) filtered per minute, i.e. IKGFR/PV. The gradient dR(0)/dt cannot be accurately measured directly but is equal to [[alpha] . LV(0)], where [alpha] is the renal uptake constant (proportional to IKGFR) and LV is the count rate over a left ventricular ROI. LV(0) was obtained by extrapolation of LV(t), while [alpha] is the slope of the Patlak plot up to 3 min. GFR/PV (i.e. right plus left kidneys) in patients with normal renal function was about 0.04 min[sup -1], as would be expected from normal values of GFR (120 ml/min) and plasma volume (3 l). GFR/PV correlated significantly with the ratio of GFR to extracellular fluid volume (ECV), measured from the terminal exponential of the plasma clearance curve (GFR/PV = 3.2.GFR/ECV + 5.3 ml/min/l [r = 0.82, n = 82]). GFR/PV (r = 0.74) and GFR/ECV (r = 0.82) both correlated inversely and non-linearly with plasma creatinine in 43 studies where the measurement was made within 1 week of the [sup 99m]Tc-DTPA study. They also correlated significantly with the plasma cyclosporin trough level in 14 patients with dermatomyositis on the 30 occasions when this measurement was made within 1 week of the renogram (r = -0.38, P < 0.05 for GFR/PV and r = -0.77, P < 0.001 for GFR/ECV). The ratio of GFR/PV to GFR/ECV is the ratio of extracellular fluid volume to plasma volume, and this was 4.0 (SD 0.99). We conclude that both GFR/PV and GFR/ECV can be easily measured with [sup 99m]Tc-DTPA and are physiologically valid expressions of GFR. (orig./MG)

  18. Effects of oral powder electrolyte administration on packed cell volume, plasma chemistry parameters, and incidence of colic in horses participating in a 6-day 162-km trail ride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Wade T; Callan, Robert J; Hill, Ashley E; Tisher, Kelly B

    2014-08-01

    This study evaluated the effects of administering oral powder electrolytes on packed cell volume (PCV), plasma chemistry parameters, and incidence of colic in horses participating on a 6-day 162-km trail ride in which water was not offered ad libitum. Twenty-three horses received grain with powder electrolytes daily while 19 control horses received grain only. Horses were ridden approximately 32 km a day at a walk or trot. Packed cell volume and plasma chemistry parameters were analyzed daily. Episodes of colic were diagnosed and treated by a veterinarian unaware of treatment group allocation. Blood parameters and incidence of colic were compared between treatment groups. Electrolyte administration did not alter PCV or plasma chemistry parameters compared to controls. The incidence of colic was significantly higher in treated horses (P = 0.05). Oral powder electrolytes did not enhance hydration status or electrolyte homeostasis and may be associated with colic in horses participating on long distance trail rides similar to this model.

  19. Placental Underperfusion in a Rat Model of Intrauterine Growth Restriction Induced by a Reduced Plasma Volume Expansion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Bibeau

    Full Text Available Lower maternal plasma volume expansion was found in idiopathic intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR but the link remains to be elucidated. An animal model of IUGR was developed by giving a low-sodium diet to rats over the last week of gestation. This treatment prevents full expansion of maternal circulating volume and the increase in uterine artery diameter, leading to reduced placental weight compared to normal gestation. We aimed to verify whether this is associated with reduced remodeling of uteroplacental circulation and placental hypoxia. Dams were divided into two groups: IUGR group and normal-fed controls. Blood velocity waveforms in the main uterine artery were obtained by Doppler sonography on days 14, 18 and 21 of pregnancy. On day 22 (term = 23 days, rats were sacrificed and placentas and uterine radial arteries were collected. Diameter and myogenic response of uterine arteries supplying placentas were determined while expression of hypoxia-modulated genes (HIF-1α, VEGFA and VEGFR2, apoptotic enzyme (Caspase -3 and -9 and glycogen cells clusters were measured in control and IUGR term-placentas. In the IUGR group, impaired blood velocity in the main uterine artery along with increased resistance index was observed without alteration in umbilical artery blood velocity. Radial uterine artery diameter was reduced while myogenic response was increased. IUGR placentas displayed increased expression of hypoxia markers without change in the caspases and increased glycogen cells in the junctional zone. The present data suggest that reduced placental and fetal growth in our IUGR model may be mediated, in part, through reduced maternal uteroplacental blood flow and increased placental hypoxia.

  20. Emission characteristics and electron kinetic coefficients of the plasma of a transverse volume discharge initiated in a mixture of heavy inert gases with chlorine molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuaibov, A. K.; Chygin, V. I.; Shimon, L. L.; Shevera, I. V.; Gorun, P. P.; Obukhovskii, R. O.

    2010-05-01

    The results of studying the radiation due to argon, krypton, and xenon monochloride bands, as well as to the bands of chlorine molecules, from the plasma of a transverse Ar-Kr-Xe-Cl2 volume discharge are reported. The working mixture of a pulse radiation source is optimized with regard to its pressure and elemental composition and parameters of an excitation system. By numerically solving the Boltzmann kinetic equation for the electron energy distribution function, the transport characteristics of plasma electrons and discharge power specific losses are found for different values of the reduced electric field strength. The plasma parameters are simulated for the quaternary mixture, which is most appropriate for a multiwave UV-VUV source. Qualitative analysis is conducted for the most important electron processes in the multicomponent plasma that govern the joint formation of argon, krypton, and xenon monochlorides in the transverse discharge.

  1. Genetic variation in estrogen receptor, C-reactive protein and fibrinogen does not predict the plasma levels of inflammation markers after longterm hormone replacement therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Maat, Moniek P M; Madsen, Jonna Skov; Langdahl, Bente;

    2007-01-01

    ). The effect of HRT, smoking and genetic variations in ESR1 (PvuII and XbaI), CRP (1444C/T) and fibrinogen-beta (FGB, -455G/A) were determined. The plasma concentration of CRP was higher in the HRT group than in the control group (2.03 mg/l and 1.41 mg/l, respectively; p ... receptor- 1 (ESR1), CRP and fibrinogen-beta genes influences the plasma levels of inflammation markers after HRT. Plasma CRP and fibrinogen were measured after five years follow-up in healthy postmenopausal women (per-protocol group) who were randomised to hormone therapy (n=187) or no treatment (n=249...... concentration (n.s.). Genetic polymorphisms in ESR1, CRP and fibrinogen were not associated with an effect of HRT on the CRP and fibrinogen plasma levels, and no significant interaction with smoking was observed. In conclusion, higher plasma levels of CRP and lower plasma levels of fibrinogen were observed...

  2. Emission characteristics of plasma of a transverse volume discharge in mixtures of helium, argon, and krypton with sulfur hexafluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuaibov, A. K.; Shevera, I. V.; Sabov, I. I.; Gomoki, Z. T.

    2007-03-01

    The emission characteristics of the plasma of repetitively pulsed spontaneous UV-VUV radiation sources on the basis of ArF* (193 nm) and KrF* (249 nm) molecules, and the products of decomposition of sulfur hexafluoride molecules pumped by a transverse volume discharge in a mixture of inert gases with sulfur hexafluoride molecules have been investigated. The discharge emission spectra in the range of 190 780 nm at the low-current and high-current stages of the transverse discharge, the time characteristics of the voltage across the electrodes, the pump current, and the emission of excimer molecules and the products of decomposition of sulfur hexafluoride have been studied. It is shown that, in the gas-static operation mode of the radiator at the number of discharge pulses smaller than 103, the 193-nm ArF* and 249-nm KrF* bands are main in the emission spectrum. Upon further operation of the radiator, a spectral continuum is formed on the basis of sulfur molecular bands in the range 260 550 nm.

  3. Effect of the sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor canagliflozin on plasma volume in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, S; Polidori, D; Heise, T; Natarajan, J; Farrell, K; Wang, S-S; Sica, D; Rothenberg, P; Plum-Mörschel, L

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate the effects of canagliflozin on plasma volume, urinary glucose excretion (UGE), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and additional measures of fluid/electrolyte balance in patients with type 2 diabetes on background therapy with metformin and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers. Patients (N = 36) were randomized (1:1) to receive canagliflozin 300 mg or placebo for 12 weeks. Pharmacodynamic parameters were assessed at baseline and at weeks 1 and 12. Increased 24-h UGE was seen in the canagliflozin group compared with a reduction in the placebo group at both week 1 (91.8 vs. -2.4 g) and week 12 (82.6 vs. -0.4 g). Canagliflozin also reduced both FPG and HbA1c. Reductions in body weight and blood pressure were observed at weeks 1 and 12. Canagliflozin decreased plasma volume compared with an increase with placebo at week 1 (-5.4 vs. 4.3%; p = 0.02), but this was largely attenuated at week 12 (4.6 vs. 5.8%; p = 0.76). A modest numerical increase in urine volume was observed with canagliflozin at week 1 that was attenuated at week 12; other measures of volume status (i.e. blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine and haematocrit) remained modestly increased with canagliflozin at week 12. Canagliflozin provided sustained effects on UGE and FPG over 12 weeks and a transient reduction in plasma volume that was largely attenuated by week 12. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. [Plasma exchange in nephrology: Indications and technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridel, Christophe; Kissling, Sébastien; Mesnard, Laurent; Hertig, Alexandre; Rondeau, Éric

    2017-02-01

    Plasma exchange is a non-selective apheresis technique that can be performed by filtration or centrifugation allowing rapid purification of high molecular weight pathogens. An immunosuppressive treatment is generally associated to reduce the rebound effect of the purified substance. Substitution solutes such as human albumin and macromolecules are needed to compensate for plasma extraction. Compensation by viro-attenuated plasma is reserved solely for the treatment of thrombotic microangiopathies or when there is a risk of bleeding, because this product is very allergenic and expensive. The treatment goal for a plasma exchange session should be between one and one and one-half times the patient's plasma volume estimated at 40 mL/kg body weight. The anticoagulation is best ensured by the citrate. Complications of plasma exchange are quite rare according to the French hemapheresis registry. The level of evidence of efficacy of plasma exchange in nephrology varies from one pathology to another. Main indications of plasma exchange in nephrology are Goodpasture syndrome, antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody vasculitis when plasma creatinine is greater than 500 μmol/L, and thrombotic microangiopathies. During renal transplantation, plasma exchange may be proposed in the context of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) desensitization protocols or ABO-incompatible graft. After renal transplantation, plasma exchange is indicated as part of the treatment of acute humoral rejection or recurrent focal segmental glomerulosclerosis on the graft. Plasma exchanges are also proposed in the management of cryoglobulinemia or polyarteritis nodosa. Hemodialysis with membranes of very high permeability tends to replace plasma exchange for myeloma nephropathy. The benefit from plasma exchange has not been formally demonstrated for the treatment of severe lupus or antiphospholipid antibody syndrome. There is no indication of plasma exchange in the treatment of scleroderma or nephrogenic

  5. Changes in the electro-physical properties of MCT epitaxial films affected by a plasma volume discharge induced by an avalanche beam in atmospheric-pressure air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoryev, D. V.; Voitsekhovskii, A. V.; Lozovoy, K. A.; Tarasenko, V. F.; Shulepov, M. A.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper the influence of the plasma volume discharge of nanosecond duration formed in a non-uniform electric field at atmospheric pressure on samples of epitaxial films HgCdTe (MCT) films are discussed. The experimental data show that the action of pulses of nanosecond volume discharge in air at atmospheric pressure leads to changes in the electrophysical properties of MCT epitaxial films due to formation of a near-surface high- conductivity layer of the n-type conduction. The preliminary results show that it is possible to use such actions in the development of technologies for the controlled change of the properties of MCT.

  6. Does increased prehospital replacement volume lead to a poor clinical course and an increased mortality? A matched-pair analysis of 1896 patients of the Trauma Registry of the German Society for Trauma Surgery who were managed by an emergency doctor at the accident site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussmann, Bjoern; Lefering, Rolf; Waydhas, Christian; Touma, Alexander; Kauther, Max D; Ruchholtz, Steffen; Lendemans, Sven

    2013-05-01

    Severe bleeding after trauma frequently leads to a poor outcome. Prehospital fluid replacement therapy is regarded as an important primary treatment option. Our study aimed to assess the influence of prehospital fluid replacement therapy on the post-traumatic course of severely injured patients in a retrospective analysis of matched pairs. The data of 51,425 patients of the Trauma Registry of the German Society for Trauma Surgery were analysed. The following patients were included: Injury Severity Score ≥ 16 points, primary admission, age ≥ 16 years, no isolated brain injury, transfusion of at least one unit of packed red blood cells (pRBC), systolic blood pressure ≥ 60 mmHg at the accident site. The patients were divided into two groups according to the following matched-pair criteria (low-volume: 0-1500 ml prehospital volume replaced; high-volume: ≥ 1501 ml prehospital volume): intubation at the accident site (yes/no), time from injury to hospital ± 10 min., means of rescue (emergency helicopter, MICU), Abbreviated Injury Scale (body regions), injury year, systolic blood pressure and age (years). All patients were managed by an emergency doctor at the accident site. A total of 948 patients in each group met the inclusion criteria. Increasing replacement volume was associated with an increased need for transfusion (pRBCs: low-volume: 7 units, high-volume: 8.3 units; ptrauma. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Effect of Ramadan Fasting and Weight-Lifting Training on Plasma Volume, Glucose and Lipids Profile of Male Weight-Lifters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Morteza Tayebi

    Full Text Available Objective(sThe purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Ramadan fasting and weight-lifting training on plasma volume, glucose, and lipids profile of male weight-lifter.Materials and MethodsForty male weight-lifters were recruited and divided into 4 groups (n=10 each and as the following groups: control (C, fasting (F, training (T and fasting-training (F-T. The T and F-T groups performed weight-lifting technique trainings and hypertrophy body building (3 sessions/week, 90 min/session. All subjects were asked to complete a medical examination as well as a medical questionnaire to ensure that they were not taking any medication, were free of cardiac, respiratory, renal, and metabolic diseases, and were not using steroids. Blood samples were taken at 24 hr before and 24 hr after one month of fasting and weight-lifting exercise. The plasma volume, fasting blood sugar (FBS, lipid profiles, and lipoproteins were analyzed in blood samples. ResultsBody weight and plasma volume showed significant (P< 0.05 decrease and increase in the F group (P< 0.05 respectively. Also, a significant reduction was observed in F-T group body weight (P< 0.01. A significant increase was found in FBS level of F group (P< 0.05. The lipid profiles and lipoproteins didn’t change significantly in C, F, T and the F-T groups.ConclusionThe effect of Ramadan fasting on body weight and plasma volumes may be closely related to the nutritional diet or biochemical response to fasting.

  8. Colorimetric determinations of lithium levels in drop-volumes of human plasma for monitoring patients with bipolar mood disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qassem, M; Hickey, M; Kyriacou, P A

    2016-08-01

    Lithium preparations are considered the most reliable form of mood stabilizing medication for patients with Bipolar disorder. Nevertheless, lithium is a toxic element and its therapeutic range is extremely narrow, with levels of 0.61.0 mEq considered normal, whereas levels above 1.5 mEq are toxic. Thus unfortunately, many patients reach toxic levels that lead to unnecessary complications. It is believed that personal monitoring of blood lithium levels would benefit patients taking lithium medication. Therefore, our aim is to develop a personal lithium blood level analyzer for patients with bipolar mood disorder, and we report here our initial results of a colorimetric-based method used to test drop-volumes of human plasma that had been spiked with lithium. It was possible to validate results with standard flame photometry readings. Applying the Partial Least Squares (PLS) method on preprocessed spectra, therapeutic concentrations of lithium in a single drop can be predicted in a rapid manner, and furthermore, the calibration results were used to select effective wavelengths which were employed as inputs in Multiple Linear Regression (MLR). The simplified algorithms of this would prove useful when developing a personal lithium analyzer. Overall, both calibration methods gave high correlation and small error outputs with a R2= 0.99036 and RMSEC = 0.03778, and R2= 0.994148 and RMSEC= 0.0294404, for PLS and MLR methods, respectively. The results show that the spectrophotometric determination of blood lithium levels can be extended beyond laboratory applications and indicate the capability of this testing principle to be employed in a personal monitoring device. Future work will now focus on the technical development of a miniaturized system for measurement of lithium levels in blood with an acceptable level of accuracy and sensitivity.

  9. Differentiation between focal malignant marrow-replacing lesions and benign red marrow deposition of the spine with T2{sup *}-corrected fat-signal fraction map using a three -echo volume interpolated breath-hold gradient echo dixon sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Pyo; Kim, Sung Jun; Chung, Tae Sub; Yoo, Yeon Hwa; Yoon, Choon Sik [Dept. of Radiology, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kanneengiesser, Stephan [MR Applications Development, Siemens AG, Healthcare Sector, Erlangen (Germany); Paek, Moon Young [Siemens Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, Ho Taek; Lee, Young Han; Suh, Jin Suck [Dept. of Radiology, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    To assess the feasibility of T2{sup *}-corrected fat-signal fraction (FF) map by using the three-echo volume interpolated breath-hold gradient echo (VIBE) Dixon sequence to differentiate between malignant marrow-replacing lesions and benign red marrow deposition of vertebrae. We assessed 32 lesions from 32 patients who underwent magnetic resonance imaging after being referred for assessment of a known or possible vertebral marrow abnormality. The lesions were divided into 21 malignant marrow-replacing lesions and 11 benign red marrow depositions. Three sequences for the parameter measurements were obtained by using a 1.5-T MR imaging scanner as follows: three-echo VIBE Dixon sequence for FF; conventional T1-weighted imaging for the lesion-disc ratio (LDR); pre- and post-gadolinium enhanced fat-suppressed T1-weighted images for the contrast-enhancement ratio (CER). A region of interest was drawn for each lesion for parameter measurements. The areas under the curve (AUC) of the parameters and their sensitivities and specificities at the most ideal cutoff values from receiver operating characteristic curve analysis were obtained. AUC, sensitivity, and specificity were respectively compared between FF and CER. The AUCs of FF, LDR, and CER were 0.96, 0.80, and 0.72, respectively. In the comparison of diagnostic performance between the FF and CER, the FF showed a significantly larger AUC as compared to the CER (p = 0.030), although the difference of sensitivity (p = 0.157) and specificity (p = 0.157) were not significant. Fat-signal fraction measurement using T2{sup *}-corrected three-echo VIBE Dixon sequence is feasible and has a more accurate diagnostic performance, than the CER, in distinguishing benign red marrow deposition from malignant bone marrow-replacing lesions.

  10. Maternal nutritional status in early pregnancy is associated with body water and plasma volume changes in a pregnancy cohort in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gernand, Alison D; Christian, Parul; Schulze, Kerry J; Shaikh, Saijuddin; Labrique, Alain B; Shamim, Abu Ahmed; West, Keith P

    2012-06-01

    Plasma volume expansion has been associated with fetal growth. Our objective was to examine the associations between maternal nutritional status in early pregnancy and extracellular water (ECW), total body water (TBW), and percentage plasma volume change across pregnancy. In a subsample of 377 pregnant women participating in a cluster-randomized trial of micronutrient supplementation, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance were measured at ~10, 20, and 32 wk of gestation. In early pregnancy, women were short (mean ± SD, 148.9 ± 5.3 cm) and thin (19.5 ± 2.5 kg/m(2)). In mixed-effects multiple regression models, a 1-unit higher BMI at ~10 wk was associated with higher ECW and TBW (0.27 and 0.66 kg per kg/m(2), respectively; P pregnancy BMI was negatively associated with gains in ECW and TBW (-0.06 and -0.14 kg per kg/m(2), respectively; P pregnancy have lower ECW and TBW in early, mid, and late pregnancy and lower late pregnancy plasma volume expansion, potentially increasing risk of fetal growth restriction.

  11. Effects of Hypertonic Saline Solution on Clinical Parameters, Serum Electrolytes and Plasma Volume in the Treatment of Haemorrhagic Septicaemia in Buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Arif Zafar*, G. Muhammad, Zafar Iqbal1 and M. Riaz2

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the efficacy of hypertonic saline solution (HSS along with antibiotic (ceftiofur HCl and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (ketoprofen in the treatment of haemorrhagic septicaemia in buffaloes. For this purpose, 50 buffaloes suffering from haemorrhagic septicaemia were randomly divided in two equal groups A and B. Group A served as control and was treated with ceftiofur HCl (IM and ketoprofen (IV @ 6 and 2 mg/Kg BW, respectively, for five days. Buffaloes of group B were administered with rapid intravenous infusion of hypertonic saline solution (7.5% NaCl @ 4 ml/Kg BW once in combination with ceftiofur HCl and ketoprofen. Animals were monitored for 24 hours after initiation of treatment. Clinical parameters, serum electrolytes, plasma volume and survival index were recorded at different intervals after treatment. Survival rate (80% in group B was significantly higher (P<0.05 than 48% in group A. The heart rate and respiration rate recovered more effectively in the buffaloes administered with treatment protocol B. Plasma volume was 98% which was almost normal within 24 hours after the infusion of hypertonic saline solution to the animals of group B. It was concluded from the study that hypertonic saline solution as an adjunct to antibiotic and a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug more efficiently improved respiration and heart rates and effectively restored plasma volume in resuscitating the buffaloes from haemorrhagic septicaemia than the conventional treatment.

  12. Incremental replacement of saturated fats by n-3 fatty acids in high-fat, high-cholesterol diets reduces elevated plasma lipid levels and arterial lipoprotein lipase, macrophages and atherosclerosis in LDLR-/- mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chuchun L; Torrejon, Claudia; Jung, Un Ju; Graf, Kristin; Deckelbaum, Richard J

    2014-06-01

    Effects of progressive substitution of dietary n-3 fatty acids (FA) for saturated FA (SAT) on modulating risk factors for atherosclerosis have not been fully defined. Our previous reports demonstrate that SAT increased, but n-3 FA decreased, arterial lipoprotein lipase (LpL) levels and arterial LDL-cholesterol deposition early in atherogenesis. We now questioned whether incremental increases in dietary n-3 FA can counteract SAT-induced pro-atherogenic effects in atherosclerosis-prone LDL-receptor knockout (LDLR-/-) mice and have identified contributing mechanisms. Mice were fed chow or high-fat diets enriched in SAT, n-3, or a combination of both SAT and n-3 in ratios of 3:1 (S:n-3 3:1) or 1:1 (S:n-3 1:1). Each diet resulted in the expected changes in fatty acid composition in blood and aorta for each feeding group. SAT-fed mice became hyperlipidemic. By contrast, n-3 inclusion decreased plasma lipid levels, especially cholesterol. Arterial LpL and macrophage levels were increased over 2-fold in SAT-fed mice but these were decreased with incremental replacement with n-3 FA. n-3 FA partial inclusion markedly decreased expression of pro-inflammatory markers (CD68, IL-6, and VCAM-1) in aorta. SAT diets accelerated advanced atherosclerotic lesion development, whereas all n-3 FA-containing diets markedly slowed atherosclerotic progression. Mechanisms whereby dietary n-3 FA may improve adverse cardiovascular effects of high-SAT, high-fat diets include improving plasma lipid profiles, increasing amounts of n-3 FA in plasma and the arterial wall. Even low levels of replacement of SAT by n-3 FA effectively reduce arterial lipid deposition by decreasing aortic LpL, macrophages and pro-inflammatory markers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Transfer factor (diffusing capacity) standardized for alveolar volume: validation, reference values and applications of a new linear model to replace KCO (TL/VA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinn, D J; Cotes, J E; Flowers, R; Marks, A M; Reed, J W

    1996-06-01

    Transfer factor (TL) varies with alveolar volume (VA), but not in the manner implied by the carbon monoxide transfer coefficient (KCO (TL/VA)). This paper considers two other simple models (one linear and one exponential) which might standardize TL for VA, and asks the questions: 1) Is either model valid? 2) What are appropriate reference values? and 3) Will the model be useful? The relationship of TL to VA within subjects at different depths of inspiration, and between subjects having lungs of different sizes, were measured and compared. The subjects were asymptomatic, nonsmoking, Caucasian adults, including 31 males assessed in the laboratory and 503 male and female participants in population studies. The linear partial regression coefficients of TL on VA (L corrected for body temperature, atmospheric pressure and water saturation (BTPS)) standardized for height (H) in metres, were similar within- and between-subjects; the coefficients applied over a wide range of values for VA. This was not the case for the exponential model. The resulting reference equations in SI units for males and females were: TL = 11.52 H + 2.72 VA.H-2 - 0.051 Age -12.35. RSD 1.17; and TL = 4.87 H + 2.29 VA.H-2 - 0.019 Age -3.03. RSD 0.92, respectively. The residual standard deviations (RSD) about the new relationships were less than in other series. The new linear model could account for much of the variation between different published reference values for TL; it could be useful clinically, in circumstances when VA deviates from the norm. The model does not explain differences in TL associated with gender. Inclusion of VA.H-2 as a covariate in the reference equation for transfer factor, in addition to age and height, improves the accuracy of prediction of normal transfer factor compared with current reference values; its use suggests that some of the differences between published values is due to the volume term. The equations can be used clinically, and eliminate the need for carbon

  14. Prostate cancer volume associates with preoperative plasma levels of testosterone that independently predicts high grade tumours which show low densities (quotient testosterone/tumour volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio B. Porcaro

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: The investigation shows that TT relates to volume and grade of PCa; moreover, the density of TT relative to TV inversely associates with rate of increase of cancer that depends on the grade of the tumour.

  15. [Estrogen replacement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søgaard, A J; Berntsen, G K; Magnus, J H; Tollan, A

    1998-02-10

    Recent research on long-term postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy (HRT) indicates a positive effect on both total mortality and morbidity. This has raised the question of widespread preventive long-term use of HRT. Possible side-effects and ideological issues related to preventive HRT have led to debate and uncertainty among health professionals, in the media, and in the population at large. In order to evaluate the level of knowledge about and attitudes towards HRT, a randomly selected group of 737 Norwegian women aged 16-79 was interviewed by the Central Bureau of Statistics. One in three women had received information about HRT in the last two years, mainly through weekly magazines and physicians. The proportion who answered the questions on knowledge correctly varied from 36% to 47%. Those who had been given information by a physician possessed accurate knowledge, had more positive attitudes towards HRT and were more willing to use HRT than women who had reviewed information through other channels. Women with a higher level of education were better informed and more knowledgeable than others, but were nevertheless more reluctant to use HRT than those who were less educated. The limited number of women who actually receive information on HRT, the low level of knowledge and the ambivalent attitudes toward HRT are a major challenge to the public health service.

  16. Significant Reduction in Mitral Regurgitation Volume Is the Main Contributor for Increase in Systolic Forward Flow in Patients with Functional Mitral Regurgitation after Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement: Hemodynamic Analysis Using Echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itabashi, Yuji; Shibayama, Kentaro; Mihara, Hirotsugu; Utsunomiya, Hiroto; Berdejo, Javier; Arsanjani, Reza; Siegel, Robert; Chakravarty, Tarun; Jilaihawi, Hasan; Makkar, Raj R; Shiota, Takahiro

    2015-11-01

    Reduction in mitral regurgitation (MR) after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has previously been reported. However, the hemodynamic effects of TAVR in patients with MR have not been previously evaluated. We analyzed 571 patients who underwent TAVR from December 2010 to December 2013. We studied 20 patients with moderate or severe preprocedural functional mitral regurgitation (FMR) who also had a follow-up transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) examination between 90 and 360 days (median 213 days) after TAVR (Significant FMR Group). We also studied age- and gender-matched 20 patients with mild or lesser MR (Nonsignificant MR Group). Left ventricular functional measurements were assessed using echocardiography before and after TAVR. Left ventricular outflow tract stroke volume measurements using pulsed-wave Doppler (SVLVOT ) were calculated as a representative of systolic forward flow, and stroke volume by the Simpson's method (SVSimpson ) was calculated as a parameter of degree of LV contraction. MR grade improved in 22 of 40 patients after TAVR. In both groups, BNP level decreased, left ventricular ejection fraction increased, and SVLVOT increased after TAVR. SVSimpson increased in the Nonsignificant MR Group and remained unchanged in the Significant FMR Group. Vena contracta width of MR (MRVC) decreased in the Significant FMR Group. Using multivariable analysis in the Significant FMR Group, the increase in SVLVOT significantly correlated with the decrease in MRVC (P FMR. In these patients, increase in SVLVOT after TAVR was associated with decrease in severity of MR. © 2015, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. 99mTc-labelled human serum albumin cannot replace 125I-labelled human serum albumin to determine plasma volume in patients with liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Ulrik Lütken; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Bendtsen, Flemming

    2013-01-01

    −1) in liver patients as compared to 260 ml (3·5 ml kg−1) in patients without liver disease (Pcoefficient of variation) with 99mTc-HSA and 1·71% with 125I-HSA (ns), and similar values were found in patients with and without liver disease...

  18. Preliminary feasibility study of pallet-only mode for magnetospheric and plasmas in space payloads, volume 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Results of studies performed on the magnetospheric and plasma portion of the AMPS are presented. Magnetospheric and plasma in space experiments and instruments are described along with packaging (palletization) concepts. The described magnetospheric and plasma experiments were considered as separate entities. Instrumentation ospheric and plasma experiments were considered as separate entities. Instrumentation requirements and operations were formulated to provide sufficient data for unambiguous interpretation of results without relying upon other experiments of the series. Where ground observations are specified, an assumption was made that large-scale additions or modifications to existing facilities were not required.

  19. Medium-chain plasma acylcarnitines, ketone levels, cognition, and gray matter volumes in healthy elderly, mildly cognitively impaired, or Alzheimer's disease subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciavardelli, Domenico; Piras, Fabrizio; Consalvo, Ada; Rossi, Claudia; Zucchelli, Mirco; Di Ilio, Carmine; Frazzini, Valerio; Caltagirone, Carlo; Spalletta, Gianfranco; Sensi, Stefano L

    2016-07-01

    Aging, amyloid deposition, and tau-related pathology are key contributors to the onset and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, AD is also associated with brain hypometabolism and deficits of mitochondrial bioenergetics. Plasma acylcarnitines (ACCs) are indirect indices of altered fatty acid beta-oxidation, and ketogenesis has been found to be decreased on aging. Furthermore, in elderly subjects, alterations in plasma levels of specific ACCs have been suggested to predict conversion to mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or AD. In this study, we assayed plasma profiles of ACCs in a cohort of healthy elderly control, MCI subjects, and AD patients. Compared with healthy controls or MCI subjects, AD patients showed significant lower plasma levels of several medium-chain ACCs. Furthermore, in AD patients, these lower concentrations were associated with lower prefrontal gray matter volumes and the presence of cognitive impairment. Interestingly, lower levels of medium-chain ACCs were also found to be associated with lower plasma levels of 2-hydroxybutyric acid. Overall, these findings suggest that altered metabolism of medium-chain ACCs and impaired ketogenesis can be metabolic features of AD.

  20. The effect on plasma lipids of the isoenergetic replacement of table sucrose by dried glucose syrup (maize-syrup solids) in the normal diet of adult men over a period of 1 year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, S; Ford, M A; Bagley, R; Green, L F

    1980-03-01

    1. Eighteen males (31-62 years) who habitually consumed significant amounts of table sucrose (approximately 25% of total carbohydrate intake) were supplied with their usual intake of sucrose for consumption in conjunction with their normal diet for 1 year, and a record kept of the amount consumed. The sucrose was then replaced isoenergetically by dried glucose syrup (55 D.E.) which contained saccharin to equate the sweetness to that of sucrose. 2. Fasting blood samples were taken every 4 weeks during the 2 years, and the plasma analysed for glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides and phospholipid-P by automated colorimetric methods. Dietary questionnaires were issued every 3 months to confirm the subjects were not substantially altering their diets. 3. In subjects whose weight remained unchanged and in those who lost weight there was a significant fall in cholesterol (P less than 0.025) and phospholipid.P (P less than 0.025) in the glucose-syrup period compared with the sucrose period; triglycerides did not change. In subjects who gained weight there was a significant increase in triglycerides (P less than 0.05), but no change in cholesterol; phospholipid-P fell significantly (P less than 0.0005). 4. The dietary modification in this experiment was sufficiently long to ensure that subjects had adapted, and the results obtained show stable changes in blood lipids which may be attributed to the isoenergetic replacement of table sucrose by glucose syrup.

  1. Treatment of Alzheimer disease using combination therapy with plasma exchange and haemapheresis with albumin and intravenous immunoglobulin: Rationale and treatment approach of the AMBAR (Alzheimer Management By Albumin Replacement) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boada, M; Ramos-Fernández, E; Guivernau, B; Muñoz, F J; Costa, M; Ortiz, A M; Jorquera, J I; Núñez, L; Torres, M; Páez, A

    2016-09-01

    There is a growing interest in new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of Alzheimer disease (AD) which focus on reducing the beta-amyloid peptide (Aβ) burden in the brain by sequestering plasma Aβ, a large proportion of which is bound to albumin and other proteins. This review discusses the concepts of interaction between Aβ and albumin that have given rise to AMBAR (Alzheimer's Disease Management by Albumin Replacement) project, a new multicentre, randomised, controlled clinical trial for the treatment of AD. Results from preliminary research suggest that Albutein(®) (therapeutic albumin, Grifols) contains no quantifiable levels of Aβ. Studies also show that Albutein(®) has Aβ binding capacity. On the other hand, AD entails a high level of nitro-oxidative stress associated with fibrillar aggregates of Aβ that can induce albumin modification, thus affecting its biological functions. Results from the phase ii study confirm that using therapeutic apheresis to replace endogenous albumin with Albutein(®) 5% is feasible and safe in patients with AD. This process resulted in mobilisation of Aβ and cognitive improvement in treated patients. The AMBAR study will test combination therapy with therapeutic apheresis and haemopheresis with the possible leverage effect of Albutein(®) with intravenous immunoglobulin replacement (Flebogamma(®) DIF). Cognitive, functional, and behavioural changes in patients with mild to moderate AD will be assessed. the AMBAR study represents a new therapeutic perspective for AD. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Longitudinal relationships between fluid status, inflammation, urine volume and plasma metabolites of icodextrin in patients randomized to glucose or icodextrin for the long exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Simon J; Garcia Lopez, Elvia; Woodrow, Graham; Donovan, Kieron; Plum, Jorg; Williams, Paul; Johansson, Ann Catherine; Bosselmann, Hans-Peter; Heimburger, Olof; Simonsen, Ole; Davenport, Andrew; Lindholm, Bengt; Tranaeus, Anders; Divino Filho, Jose C

    2008-09-01

    Randomized trials have shown that icodextrin reduces the volume of extra-cellular fluid (ECFv) with variable effects on residual renal function. To explore this fluid shift and its possible mechanisms in more detail, prospectively collected data from one such trial, including measures of inflammation (C-reactive protein, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, albumin and low and high molecular weight hyaluronan) ANP (atrial naturetic peptide), an indirect marker of intra-vascular volume, plasma concentrations of icodextrin metabolites and alpha-amylase activity were analysed. 50 patients were randomized to either 2.27% glucose or icodextrin (n = 28) for a long exchange following a month run in. Blood samples were obtained at -1, 0, 3 and 6 months, coincident with measurements of urine volume and fluid status. In both randomized groups, a significant correlation between the fall in ECFv and the decline in urine volume was observed (P = 0.001), although the relative drop in urine volume for patients randomized to icodextrin tended to be less. At baseline, ANP was higher in patients with proportionately more ECFv for a given body water or height. Icodextrin patients had non-significantly higher ANP levels at baseline, whereas by 3 (P = 0.026) and 6 months (P = 0.016) these differed between groups due to divergence. There was a correlation between increasing ANP and reduced ECF at 3 months, r = -0.46, P = 0.007, in patients randomized to icodextrin, but not glucose. There were no relationships between fluid status and any inflammatory markers at any point of the study, with the exception of albumin at baseline, r = -0.39, P = 0.007. Amylase activities at -1 month and baseline were highly correlated, r = 0.89, P volume, fluid or inflammatory status. This analysis supports observational data that changes in fluid status are associated with changes in urine volume. Icodextrin was not associated with a greater fall in urine output despite its larger effect on ECFv. Changes in fluid

  3. Blood parasites, total plasma protein and packed cell volume of small wild mammals trapped in three mountain ranges of the Atlantic Forest in Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, M A M L; Ronconi, A; Cordeiro, N; Bossi, D E P; Bergallo, H G; Costa, M C C; Balieiro, J C C; Varzim, F L S B

    2007-08-01

    A study of blood parasites in small wild non-flying mammals was undertaken in three areas of the Atlantic Forest in Southeastern Brazil: Serra de Itatiaia, RJ, Serra da Bocaina, SP and Serra da Fartura, SP, from June 1999 to May 2001. A total of 450 animals (15 species) were captured in traps and it was observed in 15.5% of the blood smears the presence of Haemobartonella sp. and Babesia sp. in red blood cells. There was no statistically significant difference between parasited and non-parasited specimens regarding total plasma protein, packed cell volume and body weight, which strongly suggests that these specimens might be parasite reservoirs.

  4. Acute severe organophosphate poisoning in a child who was successfully treated with therapeutic plasma exchange, high-volume hemodiafiltration, and lipid infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesilbas, Osman; Kihtir, Hasan S; Altiti, Mohammad; Petmezci, Mey Talip; Balkaya, Seda; Bursal Duramaz, Burcu; Ersoy, Melike; Sevketoglu, Esra

    2016-10-01

    Acute severe organophosphate poisoning is a serious complication seen in developing and agricultural countries. Pralidoxime and high dose atropine are the standard treatments. There is no consensus about acute severe organophosphate poisonings that are unresponsive to pralidoxime, atropine, and supportive therapies. We report a case of acute severe organophosphate poisoning that was unresponsive to standard treatments and successfully treated with high-volume continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration and therapeutic plasma exchange combined with lipid infusion. J. Clin. Apheresis 31:467-469, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Physics of Plasmas in Thermonuclear Regimes. Proceedings of the 1979 Workshop, International School of Plasma Physics, Varenna, Italy, 27 August - 8 September 1979. Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coppi, B.; Sadowski, W. [eds.

    1979-08-27

    The workshop was run concurrently with the International School of Plasma Physics and was organized as a sequence of afternoon meetings concerning a set of topics that correspond to the individual chapters of these proceedings. The workshop consisted of both individual presentations and moderated discussions among the participants. A selected group of topics that were found to deserve a more in-depth analysis, such as the question of anomalous particle transport and the theory of collective modes induced by alpha-particles were discussed in separate Working Groups.

  6. Plasma volume and water/sodium balance differences due to sex and menstrual phase after 4 hours of head-down bed rest (HDBR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgell, Heather; Grinberg, Anna; Beavers, Keith; Gagne, Nathalie; Totosy de Zepetnek, Julia; Greaves, Danielle; Hughson, Richard L.

    In both sexes, orthostatic responses are impaired by spaceflight or head-down bed-rest (HDBR), with a greater impact in women. Decreased plasma volume (PV) could contribute to reductions in cardiac output and blood pressure upon an orthostatic challenge. We hypothesized that a greater decrease in PV in women might lead to poorer orthostatic responses. We further hypothesized that the responses in women would differ throughout the menstrual cycle. We studied the responses of men (n=6) and women (n= 6) to 4-hr HDBR and 4-hr seated control (SEAT). Furthermore, we studied women in both the follicular (Day 8-11) and luteal (Day 18-24) phases of menstruation in a repeated measures design. After 4-hr HDBR, PV decreased in men (-175.1 ± 56.8 mL; vs. SEAT: P=0.076) and in the follicular phase, but did not change in the luteal phase (Luteal: -55.0 ± 54.6 mL; Follicular: -226.4 ± 88.2 mL (Interaction effect: P=0.01)). After 4-hr HDBR, only men appear to exhibit increased urine volume (Men, difference from SEAT: +298.3 ± 105.5 mL; Luteal, difference from SEAT: +59.4 ± 34.3 mL; Follicular, difference from SEAT: +43.7 ± 190.0 mL; P=0.16). No changes in urinary sodium after 4-hr HDBR were observed in any group (Men, difference from SEAT: -16.5 ± 13.5 µmol; Luteal, difference from SEAT: -8.0 ± 8.8 µmol; Follicular, difference from SEAT: +28.2 ± 29.5 µmol; P=0.264). No changes in urinary osmolarity were observed after 4-hr HDBR in any group (Men, difference from SEAT: -38.8 ± 126.2 mmol/kg; Luteal, difference from SEAT: -85.1 ± 66.9 mmol/kg; Follicular, difference from SEAT: -99.1 ± 98.5 mmol/kg; P=0.906). The changes in plasma volume do not appear to be a result of urinary water and sodium loss. Perhaps actions of atrial natriuretic peptide, urodilatin, the RAAS pathway, and/or capillary filtration are involved. From these observed changes in plasma volume, we surmise that women in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle may exhibit lower cardiac output and thus

  7. Evidence for functional interaction of plasma membrane electron transport, voltage-dependent anion channel and volume-regulated anion channel in frog aorta

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rashmi P Rao; J Prakasa Rao

    2010-12-01

    Frog aortic tissue exhibits plasma membrane electron transport (PMET) owing to its ability to reduce ferricyanide even in the presence of mitochondrial poisons, such as cyanide and azide. Exposure to hypotonic solution (108 mOsmol/kg H2O) enhanced the reduction of ferricyanide in excised aortic tissue of frog. Increment in ferricyanide reductase activity was also brought about by the presence of homocysteine (100 M dissolved in isotonic frog Ringer solution), a redox active compound and a potent modulator of PMET. Two plasma-membrane-bound channels, the volume regulated anion channel (VRAC) and the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), are involved in the response to hypotonic stress. The presence of VRAC and VDAC antagonists–tamoxifen, glibenclamide, fluoxetine and verapamil, and 4,4′-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2′-disulphonic acid (DIDS), respectively–inhibited this enhanced activity brought about by either hypotonic stress or homocysteine. The blockers do not affect the ferricyanide reductase activity under isotonic conditions. Taken together, these findings indicate a functional interaction of the three plasma membrane proteins, namely, ferricyanide reductase (PMET), VDAC and VRAC.

  8. Report of the Plasma Physics and Environmental Perturbation Laboratory (PPEPL) working groups. Volume 1: Plasma probes, wakes, and sheaths working group

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    It is shown in this report that comprehensive in-situ study of all aspects of the entire zone disturbance caused by a body in a flowing plasma resulted in a large number if requirements on the shuttle-PPEPL facility. A large amount of necessary in-situ observation can be obtained by adopting appropriate modes of performing the experiments. Requirements are indicated for worthwhile studies, of some aspects of the problems, which can be carried out effectively while imposing relatively few constraints on the early missions. Considerations for the desired growth and improvement of the PPEPL to facilitate more complete studies in later missions are also discussed. For Vol. 2, see N74-28170; for Vol# 3, see N74-28171.

  9. Solar High-energy Astrophysical Plasmas Explorer (SHAPE). Volume 1: Proposed concept, statement of work and cost plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Brian R.; Martin, Franklin D.; Prince, T.; Lin, R.; Bruner, M.; Culhane, L.; Ramaty, R.; Doschek, G.; Emslie, G.; Lingenfelter, R.

    1986-01-01

    The concept of the Solar High-Energy Astrophysical Plasmas Explorer (SHAPE) is studied. The primary goal is to understand the impulsive release of energy, efficient acceleration of particles to high energies, and rapid transport of energy. Solar flare studies are the centerpieces of the investigation because in flares these high energy processes can be studied in unmatched detail at most wavelenth regions of the electromagnetic spectrum as well as in energetic charged particles and neutrons.

  10. Novel system using microliter order sample volume for measuring arterial radioactivity concentrations in whole blood and plasma for mouse PET dynamic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yuichi; Seki, Chie; Hashizume, Nobuya; Yamada, Takashi; Wakizaka, Hidekatsu; Nishimoto, Takahiro; Hatano, Kentaro; Kitamura, Keishi; Toyama, Hiroshi; Kanno, Iwao

    2013-11-21

    This study aimed to develop a new system, named CD-Well, for mouse PET dynamic study. CD-Well allows the determination of time-activity curves (TACs) for arterial whole blood and plasma using 2-3 µL of blood per sample; the minute sample size is ideal for studies in small animals. The system has the following merits: (1) measures volume and radioactivity of whole blood and plasma separately; (2) allows measurements at 10 s intervals to capture initial rapid changes in the TAC; and (3) is compact and easy to handle, minimizes blood loss from sampling, and delay and dispersion of the TAC. CD-Well has 36 U-shaped channels. A drop of blood is sampled into the opening of the channel and stored there. After serial sampling is completed, CD-Well is centrifuged and scanned using a flatbed scanner to define the regions of plasma and blood cells. The length measured is converted to volume because the channels have a precise and uniform cross section. Then, CD-Well is exposed to an imaging plate to measure radioactivity. Finally, radioactivity concentrations are computed. We evaluated the performance of CD-Well in in vitro measurement and in vivo (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose and [(11)C]2-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-fluorophenyl) tropane studies. In in vitro evaluation, per cent differences (mean±SE) from manual measurement were 4.4±3.6% for whole blood and 4.0±3.5% for plasma across the typical range of radioactivity measured in mouse dynamic study. In in vivo studies, reasonable TACs were obtained. The peaks were captured well, and the time courses coincided well with the TAC derived from PET imaging of the heart chamber. The total blood loss was less than 200 µL, which had no physiological effect on the mice. CD-Well demonstrates satisfactory performance, and is useful for mouse PET dynamic study.

  11. Blood parasites, total plasma protein and packed cell volume of small wild mammals trapped in three mountain ranges of the Atlantic Forest in Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAML. Silva

    Full Text Available A study of blood parasites in small wild non-flying mammals was undertaken in three areas of the Atlantic Forest in Southeastern Brazil: Serra de Itatiaia, RJ, Serra da Bocaina, SP and Serra da Fartura, SP, from June 1999 to May 2001. A total of 450 animals (15 species were captured in traps and it was observed in 15.5% of the blood smears the presence of Haemobartonella sp. and Babesia sp. in red blood cells. There was no statistically significant difference between parasited and non-parasited specimens regarding total plasma protein, packed cell volume and body weight, which strongly suggests that these specimens might be parasite reservoirs.

  12. High-volume plasma exchange in a patient with acute liver failure due to non-exertional heat stroke in a sauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuan-Jung; Chen, Tso-Hsiao; Sue, Yuh-Mou; Chen, Tzay-Jinn; Cheng, Chung-Yi

    2014-10-01

    Heat stroke is a life-threatening condition characterized by an increased core body temperature (over 40°C) and a systemic inflammatory response, which may lead to a syndrome of multiple organ dysfunction. Heat stroke may be due to either strenuous exercise or non-exercise-induced exposure to a high environmental temperature. Current management of heat stroke is mostly supportive, with an emphasis on cooling the core body temperature and preventing the development of multiple organ dysfunction. Prognosis of heat stroke depends on the severity of organ involvement. Here, we report a rare case of non-exercise-induced heat stroke in a 73-year-old male patient who was suffering from acute liver failure after prolonged exposure in a hot sauna room. We successfully managed this patient by administering high-volume plasma exchange, and the patient recovered completely after treatment.

  13. HPLC analysis of asymmetric dimethylarginine, symmetric dimethylarginine, homoarginine and arginine in small plasma volumes using a Gemini-NX column at high pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Catherine E; Darcy, Christabelle J; Woodberry, Tonia; Anstey, Nicholas M; McNeil, Yvette R

    2010-01-01

    There is increasing recognition of the clinical importance of endogenous nitric oxide synthase inhibitors in critical illness. This has highlighted the need for an accurate high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for detection of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) in small volumes of blood. Here, the validation of an accurate, precise HPLC method for the determination of ADMA, SDMA, homoarginine and arginine concentrations in plasma is described. Solid phase extraction is followed by derivatisation with AccQ-Fluor and reversed phase separation on a Gemini-NX column at pH 9. Simultaneous detection by both UV-vis and fluorescence detectors affords extra validation. This solid phase extraction method gives absolute recoveries of more than 85% for ADMA and SDMA and relative recoveries of 102% for ADMA and 101% for SDMA. The intra-assay relative standard deviations are 2.1% and 2.3% for ADMA and SDMA, respectively, with inter-assay relative standard deviations of 2.7% and 3.1%, respectively. Advantages of this method include improved recovery of all analytes using isopropanol in the solid phase extraction; sharp, well-resolved chromatographic peaks using a high pH mobile phase; a non-endogenous internal standard, n-propyl L-arginine; and accurate and precise determination of methylated arginine concentrations from only 100microL of plasma.

  14. Quantification of low levels of organochlorine pesticides using small volumes ({<=}100 {mu}l) of plasma of wild birds through gas chromatography negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera-Rodriguez, Laura B. [Centro de Investigaciones Biologicas del Noroeste, S.C., Environmental Planning and Conservation Program, Mar Bermejo No. 195, Col. Playa Palo de Santa Rita, Ado. Postal 128, La Paz, BCS. 23090 (Mexico)]. E-mail: lrivera04@cibnor.mx; Rodriguez-Estrella, Ricardo [Centro de Investigaciones Biologicas del Noroeste, S.C., Environmental Planning and Conservation Program, Mar Bermejo No. 195, Col. Playa Palo de Santa Rita, Ado. Postal 128, La Paz, BCS. 23090 (Mexico); Ellington, James Jackson [National Exposure Research Laboratory, US Environmental Protection Agency, 960 College Station Road, Athens, GA 30605 (United States); Evans, John J. [National Exposure Research Laboratory, US Environmental Protection Agency, 960 College Station Road, Athens, GA 30605 (United States); Senior Service America Inc. (United States)

    2007-07-15

    A solid phase extraction and gas chromatography with negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry in scan mode (GC-NCI-MS) method was developed to identify and quantify for the first time low levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCs) in plasma samples of less than 100 {mu}l from wild birds. The method detection limits ranged from 0.012 to 0.102 pg/{mu}l and the method reporting limit from 0.036 to 0.307 pg/{mu}l for {alpha}, {gamma}, {beta} and {delta}-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), heptachlor, aldrin, heptachlor epoxide, endosulfan I, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p'-DDE), dieldrin, endrin, endosulfan-II, endrin-aldehyde and endosulfan-sulfate. Pesticide levels in small serum samples from individual Falco sparverius, Sturnella neglecta, Mimus polyglottos and Columbina passerina were quantified. Concentrations ranged from not detected (n/d) to 204.9 pg/{mu}l for some OC pesticides. All levels in the food web in and around cultivated areas showed the presence of pesticides notwithstanding the small areas for agriculture existing in the desert of Baja California peninsula. - This technique allows small birds to be used as indicators of chemical contamination in habitats because pesticides can be quantified in very small volumes of plasma.

  15. Plasma physics

    CERN Document Server

    Drummond, James E

    2013-01-01

    A historic snapshot of the field of plasma physics, this fifty-year-old volume offers an edited collection of papers by pioneering experts in the field. In addition to assisting students in their understanding of the foundations of classical plasma physics, it provides a source of historic context for modern physicists. Highly successful upon its initial publication, this book was the standard text on plasma physics throughout the 1960s and 70s.Hailed by Science magazine as a ""well executed venture,"" the three-part treatment ranges from basic plasma theory to magnetohydrodynamics and microwa

  16. Shoulder Joint Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Shoulder Replacement Options Shoulder replacement surgery is highly technical. It should be performed by a surgical team ... area and will meet a doctor from the anesthesia department. You, your anesthesiologist, and your surgeon will ...

  17. Partial knee replacement - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100225.htm Partial knee replacement - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Knee Replacement A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited ...

  18. Volume nanograting formation in laser-silica interaction as a result of the 1D plasma-resonance ionization instability

    CERN Document Server

    Gildenburg, V B

    2016-01-01

    The initial stage of the small-scale ionization-induced instability developing inside the fused silica volume exposed to the femtosecond laser pulse is studied as a possible initial cause of the self-organized nanograting formation. We have calculated the spatial spectra of the instability with the electron-hole diffusion taken into account for the first time and have found that it results in the formation of some hybrid (diffusion-wave) 1D structure with the spatial period determined as geometrical mean of the laser wavelength and characteristic diffusion length of the process considered. Near the threshold of the instability this period occurs to be approximately equal to the laser half-wavelength in the silica, close to the one experimentally observed.

  19. Volume nanograting formation in laser-silica interaction as a result of the 1D plasma-resonance ionization instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gildenburg, V. B.; Pavlichenko, I. A.

    2016-08-01

    The initial stage of the small-scale ionization-induced instability developing inside the fused silica volume exposed to the femtosecond laser pulse is studied as a possible initial cause of the self-organized nanograting formation. We have calculated the spatial spectra of the instability with the electron-hole diffusion taken into account for the first time and have found that it results in the formation of some hybrid (diffusion-wave) 1D structure with the spatial period determined as the geometrical mean of the laser wavelength and characteristic diffusion length of the process considered. Near the threshold of the instability, this period occurs to be approximately equal to the laser half-wavelength in the silica, close to the one experimentally observed.

  20. Property Assessment of Sponge Cake Added with Egg Replacer

    OpenAIRE

    Yaqiang He; Linlin Wang; Qian Lu

    2015-01-01

    Chicken egg which is always used in sponge cake production is likely to deteriorate during storage or transportation. This weakness prevents the wide use of chicken egg in sponge cake making. In order to solve this problem, egg replacer has been developed. In this study, effect of egg replacer on the property of sponge cake was analyzed. The result indicated egg replacer could improve the yield rate and specific volume of sponge cake. However, high content of egg replacer would negatively imp...

  1. Plasma confinement

    CERN Document Server

    Hazeltine, R D

    2003-01-01

    Detailed and authoritative, this volume examines the essential physics underlying international research in magnetic confinement fusion. It offers readable, thorough accounts of the fundamental concepts behind methods of confining plasma at or near thermonuclear conditions. Designed for a one- or two-semester graduate-level course in plasma physics, it also represents a valuable reference for professional physicists in controlled fusion and related disciplines.

  2. Peak plasma interleukin-6 and other peripheral markers of inflammation in the first week of ischaemic stroke correlate with brain infarct volume, stroke severity and long-term outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    del Zoppo Gregory J

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cerebral ischaemia initiates an inflammatory response in the brain and periphery. We assessed the relationship between peak values of plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6 in the first week after ischaemic stroke, with measures of stroke severity and outcome. Methods Thirty-seven patients with ischaemic stroke were prospectively recruited. Plasma IL-6, and other markers of peripheral inflammation, were measured at pre-determined timepoints in the first week after stroke onset. Primary analyses were the association between peak plasma IL-6 concentration with both modified Rankin score (mRS at 3 months and computed tomography (CT brain infarct volume. Results Peak plasma IL-6 concentration correlated significantly (p Conclusions These data provide evidence that the magnitude of the peripheral inflammatory response is related to the severity of acute ischaemic stroke, and clinical outcome.

  3. Aeronautical Information System Replacement -

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Aeronautical Information System Replacement is a web-enabled, automation means for the collection and distribution of Service B messages, weather information, flight...

  4. Effect of curd suppression in a milk replacer on physiological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... to determine the effect of abomasal curd suppression on selected blood profiles. ... Fasting (0 h) plasma free essential amino acid (EAA) concentration tended to be ... Keywords: Blood profiles, calves, casein curd formation, milk replacers, ...

  5. Accurate monitoring of intravascular fluid volume: A novel application of intrathoracic impedance measures for the guidance of volume reduction therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara A. Lara

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: Impedance vectors derived from a multivector monitoring system reflect changes in intravascular plasma volume. Two of these vectors most closely track changes in plasma volume and may be used to more accurately guide and optimize volume reduction therapy.

  6. Radiation Source Replacement Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Moran, Traci L.; Bond, Leonard J.

    2010-12-01

    This report summarizes a Radiation Source Replacement Workshop in Houston Texas on October 27-28, 2010, which provided a forum for industry and researchers to exchange information and to discuss the issues relating to replacement of AmBe, and potentially other isotope sources used in well logging.

  7. 前列腺素E1降低心脏瓣膜置换术患者心肌细胞NF-κB活性及血浆TNF-α水平%Effects of prostaglandin E1 on the levels of myocardium NF-κB and plasma TNF-α in patients underwent heart valve replacement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文斌; 朱成均; 石泉; 赵振海

    2015-01-01

    目的:评价前列腺素E1(PGE1)对心脏瓣膜置换术患者心肌细胞核转录因子κB(NF‐κB)活性和血浆肿瘤坏死因子α(T N F‐α)水平的影响。方法择期行体外循环下心脏瓣膜置换术的患者40例,年龄32~67岁,体质量指数17~28 kg/m2,美国麻醉师协会(ASA)分级Ⅱ或Ⅲ级,纽约心脏病协会(NYHA)分级Ⅱ或Ⅲ级。采用随机数字表法,将患者分为2组(n=20):对照组(C组)和PGE1组(P组)。麻醉诱导后P组静脉输注PGE120 ng · kg -1· min-1,至手术结束,C组给予等容量生理盐水。于体外循环前(T0,基础值)、体外循环开始后30 min(T1)、体外循环结束时(T2)、体外循环结束后12 h(T3)、体外循环结束后24 h(T4)抽取动脉血,检测血浆TNF‐α水平;于T0和T2时取右心耳组织,观察组织病理学变化,并用蛋白免疫印迹法(Western blot)检测NF‐κB活性。结果与C组比较,P组T1~T4时血浆 TNF‐α水平下降(P<0.05),T2时心肌病理学损伤明显减轻,心肌细胞NF‐κB活性下降(P<0.05)。结论 PGE1可减轻心脏瓣膜置换术患者心肌损伤,其机制与抑制心肌细胞NF‐κB活性,减少血浆TNF‐α水平有关。%Objective To investigate the effects of prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) on the levels of myocardium nuclear factor‐κB (NF‐κB) and plasma tumor necrosis factor‐α (TNF‐α) in patients underwent heart valve replacement .Methods Forty ASA Ⅱ orⅢ degree patients (NYHA Ⅱ or Ⅲ degree) ,aged 32 to 67 years with body mass index of 17 to 28 kg/m2 ,underwent heart valve replacement ,were randomly divided into 2 groups (n=20):control group (group C) and PGE1 group (group P) .After induction of anesthesia ,PGE1 20 ng · kg -1 · min-1 was infused intravenously in group P ,while the equivalent volume of normal saline was giv‐en in group C ,and the infusion was completed at the end of

  8. The effect of fat replacers on batter and cake properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psimouli, Vassiliki; Oreopoulou, Vassiliki

    2013-10-01

    Fat was replaced at 35% to 100% in cakes by maltodextrin (dextrose equivalent = 3), inulin (high performance and granulated), oligofructose, citrus pectin, and microparticulated protein. Fat replacement by 35% did not induce significant differences in general. Above 65% fat replacement resulted in statistically significant (P < 0.05) decreased viscosity (except for pectin) that was followed by statistically significant decrease in air incorporation and broader bubble size distribution. The starch gelatinization temperature showed a statistically significant increase when fat was replaced by fructose oligosaccharides. The cakes presented statistically significant increase of hardness, elasticity, and decrease of volume development as fat replacement increased above 65%. Also cakes with increased fat replacement received lower scores on taste and flavor, whereas at total fat replacement they were evaluated as not acceptable. Nevertheless, at 65% fat replacement, the samples presented acceptable textural, physical, and sensorial attributes. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  9. Evolution of high tooth replacement rates in sauropod dinosaurs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D D'Emic

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tooth replacement rate can be calculated in extinct animals by counting incremental lines of deposition in tooth dentin. Calculating this rate in several taxa allows for the study of the evolution of tooth replacement rate. Sauropod dinosaurs, the largest terrestrial animals that ever evolved, exhibited a diversity of tooth sizes and shapes, but little is known about their tooth replacement rates. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We present tooth replacement rate, formation time, crown volume, total dentition volume, and enamel thickness for two coexisting but distantly related and morphologically disparate sauropod dinosaurs Camarasaurus and Diplodocus. Individual tooth formation time was determined by counting daily incremental lines in dentin. Tooth replacement rate is calculated as the difference between the number of days recorded in successive replacement teeth. Each tooth family in Camarasaurus has a maximum of three replacement teeth, whereas each Diplodocus tooth family has up to five. Tooth formation times are about 1.7 times longer in Camarasaurus than in Diplodocus (315 vs. 185 days. Average tooth replacement rate in Camarasaurus is about one tooth every 62 days versus about one tooth every 35 days in Diplodocus. Despite slower tooth replacement rates in Camarasaurus, the volumetric rate of Camarasaurus tooth replacement is 10 times faster than in Diplodocus because of its substantially greater tooth volumes. A novel method to estimate replacement rate was developed and applied to several other sauropodomorphs that we were not able to thin section. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Differences in tooth replacement rate among sauropodomorphs likely reflect disparate feeding strategies and/or food choices, which would have facilitated the coexistence of these gigantic herbivores in one ecosystem. Early neosauropods are characterized by high tooth replacement rates (despite their large tooth size, and derived titanosaurs and

  10. Plasma detachment in linear devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, N.

    2017-03-01

    Plasma detachment research in linear devices, sometimes called divertor plasma simulators, is reviewed. Pioneering works exploring the concept of plasma detachment were conducted in linear devices. Linear devices have contributed greatly to the basic understanding of plasma detachment such as volume plasma recombination processes, detached plasma structure associated with particle and energy transport, and other related issues including enhancement of convective plasma transport, dynamic response of plasma detachment, plasma flow reversal, and magnetic field effect. The importance of plasma detachment research using linear devices will be highlighted aimed at the design of future DEMO.

  11. Replacing a Missing Tooth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vessels in the tooth pulps are rather large. Drilling down these teeth for crowns may expose the ... porcelain replacement tooth is held in place by metal extensions cemented to the backs of the adjacent ...

  12. Hormone Replacement Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... before and during menopause, the levels of female hormones can go up and down. This can cause ... hot flashes and vaginal dryness. Some women take hormone replacement therapy (HRT), also called menopausal hormone therapy, ...

  13. Knee joint replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of your kneecap. Your kneecap is called the patella. The replacement part is usually made from a ... long. Then your surgeon will: Move your kneecap (patella) out of the way, then cut the ends ...

  14. Knee joint replacement - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100088.htm Knee joint replacement - series—Normal anatomy To use the ... to slide 4 out of 4 Overview The knee is a complex joint. It contains the distal ...

  15. Product Platform Replacements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sköld, Martin; Karlsson, Christer

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – It is argued in this article that too little is known about product platforms and how to deal with them from a manager's point of view. Specifically, little information exists regarding when old established platforms are replaced by new generations in R&D and production environments...... originality and value is achieved by focusing on product platform replacements believed to represent a growing management challenge....

  16. Fluid replacement and exercise stress. A brief review of studies on fluid replacement and some guidelines for the athlete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, R J; Noakes, T D

    1991-07-01

    Fluid ingestion during exercise has the twin aims of providing a source of carbohydrate fuel to supplement the body's limited stores and of supplying water and electrolytes to replace the losses incurred by sweating. Increasing the carbohydrate content of drinks will increase the amount of fuel which can be supplied, but will tend to decrease the rate at which water can be made available; where provision of water is the first priority, the carbohydrate content of drinks will be low, thus restricting the rate at which substrate is provided. The composition of drinks to be taken will thus be influenced by the relative importance of the need to supply fuel and water, this in turn depends on the intensity and duration of the exercise task, on the ambient temperature and humidity, and on the physiological and biochemical characteristics of the individual athlete. Carbohydrate ingested during exercise appears to be readily available as a fuel for the working muscles, at least when the exercise intensity does not exceed 70 to 75% of maximum oxygen uptake. Carbohydrate-containing solutions appear to be more effective in improving performance than plain water. Water and electrolytes are lost form the body in sweat: although the composition of sweat is rather variable, it is invariably hypotonic with respect to plasma. Sweat rate is determined primarily by the metabolic rate and the environmental temperature and humidity. The sweat rate may exceed the maximum rate of gastric emptying of ingested fluids, and some degree of dehydration is commonly observed. Excessive replacement of sweat losses with plain water or fluids with a low sodium content may result in hyponatraemia. Sodium replacement is essential for postexercise rehydration. The optimum frequency, volume and composition of drinks will vary widely depending on the intensity and duration of the exercise, the environmental conditions and the physiology of the individual. The athlete must determine by trial and error

  17. Property Assessment of Sponge Cake Added with Egg Replacer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaqiang He

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Chicken egg which is always used in sponge cake production is likely to deteriorate during storage or transportation. This weakness prevents the wide use of chicken egg in sponge cake making. In order to solve this problem, egg replacer has been developed. In this study, effect of egg replacer on the property of sponge cake was analyzed. The result indicated egg replacer could improve the yield rate and specific volume of sponge cake. However, high content of egg replacer would negatively impact the internal structure and sensory property of sponge cake. Based on the result of this research, optimum content of egg replacer in sponge cake is 3.6 g. In the industrial production of sponge cake, different types of wheat flour and additives would be used. The optimum content of egg replacer may be different from the result of this research. Therefore, in the industrial production, the optimum content of egg replacer should be determined based on experiment.

  18. Effect of High-Volume Injection, Platelet-Rich Plasma, and Sham Treatment in Chronic Midportion Achilles Tendinopathy: A Randomized Double-Blinded Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesen, Anders Ploug; Hansen, Rudi; Boesen, Morten Ilum; Malliaras, Peter; Langberg, Henning

    2017-07-01

    Injection therapies are often considered alongside exercise for chronic midportion Achilles tendinopathy (AT), although evidence of their efficacy is sparse. To determine whether eccentric training in combination with high-volume injection (HVI) or platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injections improves outcomes in AT. Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1. A total of 60 men (age, 18-59 years) with chronic (>3 months) AT were included and followed for 6 months (n = 57). All participants performed eccentric training combined with either (1) one HVI (steroid, saline, and local anesthetic), (2) four PRP injections each 14 days apart, or (3) placebo (a few drops of saline under the skin). Randomization was stratified for age, function, and symptom severity (Victorian Institute of Sports Assessment-Achilles [VISA-A]). Outcomes included function and symptoms (VISA-A), self-reported tendon pain during activity (visual analog pain scale [VAS]), tendon thickness and intratendinous vascularity (ultrasonographic imaging and Doppler signal), and muscle function (heel-rise test). Outcomes were assessed at baseline and at 6, 12, and 24 weeks of follow-up. VISA-A scores improved in all groups at all time points ( P PRP (6 weeks = 14 ± 4; 12 weeks = 15 ± 3) and placebo (6 weeks = 10 ± 3; 12 weeks = 11 ± 3) at 6 and 12 weeks ( P PRP (20 ± 5) groups versus placebo (9 ± 3) at 24 weeks ( P PRP (6 weeks = 37 ± 7 mm; 12 weeks = 41 ± 7 mm; 24 weeks = 37 ± 6 mm) versus placebo (6 weeks = 23 ± 6 mm; 12 weeks = 30 ± 5 mm; 24 weeks = 18 ± 6 mm) at all time points ( P PRP at 6 weeks ( P PRP groups during the intervention, and this was greater in the HVI versus PRP and placebo groups at 6 and 12 weeks ( P PRP groups versus the placebo group at 24 weeks ( P PRP in combination with eccentric training in chronic AT seems more effective in reducing pain, improving activity level, and reducing tendon thickness and intratendinous vascularity than eccentric training alone. HVI may be

  19. Reviews of plasma physics

    CERN Document Server

    2008-01-01

    "Reviews of Plasma Physics Volume 24," edited by V.D. Shafranov, presents two reviews from the cutting-edge of Russian plasma physics research. The first review by V.A. Rozhansky devoted to the mechanisms of transverse conductivity and generation of self-consistent electric fields in strongly ionized magnetized plasma. The second review by O.G. Bakunin considers numerous aspects of turbulent transport in plasma and fluids. This review is focused on scaling arguments for describing anomalous diffusion in the presence of complex structures. These topics are especially important for fusion plasma research, plasma astrophysics, discharge physics, and turbulence

  20. Reviews of plasma physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafranov, Vitalii Dmitrievich (ed.); Bakunin, Oleg G. (comps.) [Rossijskij Nauchnyj Tsentr ' ' Kurchatovskij Inst.' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation). Nuclear Fusion Inst.; Rozhansky, V. [St. Petersburg State Polytechnical Univ. (Russian Federation)

    2008-07-01

    Reviews of Plasma Physics Volume 24, edited by V.D. Shafranov, presents two reviews from the cutting-edge of Russian plasma physics research. The first review by V.A. Rozhansky devoted to the mechanisms of transverse conductivity and generation of self-consistent electric fields in strongly ionized magnetized plasma. The second review by O.G. Bakunin considers numerous aspects of turbulent transport in plasma and fluids. This review is focused on scaling arguments for describing anomalous diffusion in the presence of complex structures. These topics are especially important for fusion plasma research, plasma astrophysics, discharge physics, and turbulence (orig.)

  1. Robotic mitral valve replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senay, Sahin; Gullu, Ahmet Umit; Kocyigit, Muharrem; Degirmencioglu, Aleks; Karabulut, Hasan; Alhan, Cem

    2014-01-01

    Robotic surgical techniques allow surgeons to perform mitral valve surgery. This procedure has gained acceptance, particularly for mitral valve repair in degenerative mitral disease. However, mitral repair may not always be possible, especially in severely calcified mitral valve of rheumatic origin. This study demonstrates the basic concepts and technique of robotic mitral valve replacement for valve pathologies that are not suitable for repair.

  2. Replacing America's Job Bank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollman, Jim

    2009-01-01

    The Job Central National Labor Exchange (www.jobcentral.com) has become the effective replacement for America's Job Bank with state workforce agencies and, increasingly, with community colleges throughout the country. The American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) has formed a partnership with Job Central to promote its use throughout the…

  3. Replacing America's Job Bank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollman, Jim

    2009-01-01

    The Job Central National Labor Exchange (www.jobcentral.com) has become the effective replacement for America's Job Bank with state workforce agencies and, increasingly, with community colleges throughout the country. The American Association of Community Colleges (AACC) has formed a partnership with Job Central to promote its use throughout the…

  4. Principles of antibacterial dosing in continuous renal replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Gordon; Gomersall, Charles D; Tian, Qi; Joynt, Gavin M; Freebairn, Ross; Lipman, Jeffrey

    2009-07-01

    To outline the concepts involved in optimizing antibacterial dosing in critically ill patients with acute renal failure undergoing continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT), provide a strategy for optimizing dosing, and summarize the data required to implement the strategy. MEDLINE search from February 1986 to 2008. Optimal dosing of antibacterials is dependent on achieving pharmacokinetic targets associated with maximal killing of bacteria and improved outcomes. The initial dose is dependent on the volume of distribution. Maintenance doses are dependent on clearance. Both should be adjusted according to the pharmacokinetic target associated with optimal bacterial killing, when known. The volume of distribution of some antibacterials is altered by critical illness or acute renal failure or both. Clearance by CRRT is dependent on the dose and mode of CRRT and the sieving or saturation coefficient of the drug. Both sieving and saturation coefficient are related to the plasma protein binding and thus may be altered in renal failure. Appropriate dose calculation requires knowledge of the pharmacokinetic target and the usual minimum inhibitory concentration of the suspected organism in the patient's locality (or if unavailable, the break point for the organism), published pharmacokinetic data (volume of distribution, non-CRRT clearance) on critically ill patients receiving CRRT (which may differ substantially from noncritically ill patients or those without renal failure), the sieving or saturation coefficient of the relevant drug in critically ill patients, the dose and mode of CRRT being used, and the actual dose of CRRT that is delivered. This large number of variables results in considerable inter- and intrapatient heterogeneity in dose requirements. This article provides basic principles and relevant data to guide the clinician in prescribing individualized dosing regimes.

  5. Plasma processing for VLSI

    CERN Document Server

    Einspruch, Norman G

    1984-01-01

    VLSI Electronics: Microstructure Science, Volume 8: Plasma Processing for VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration) discusses the utilization of plasmas for general semiconductor processing. It also includes expositions on advanced deposition of materials for metallization, lithographic methods that use plasmas as exposure sources and for multiple resist patterning, and device structures made possible by anisotropic etching.This volume is divided into four sections. It begins with the history of plasma processing, a discussion of some of the early developments and trends for VLSI. The second section

  6. Plasma volume expansion for treatment of preeclampsia: a Meta analysis%先兆子痫扩容治疗的Meta分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琳; 田庚; 崔满华

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate effect of plasma volume expansion treatment for preeclampsia by Meta analysis. Methods A comprehensive literature search was performed at PubMed, Medline, Ovid, Embase, CNKI in English language for randomized controlled trials, hand search was also made to retrieve the current reference and research reports. Strict inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied to choose original research, and for quality assessment and data extraction, the software Revman 5. 0 was used for the Meta analysis. Results A total of 5 reports met the inclusion criteria of, including a total of 297 patients. Meta analysis results suggest that the volume - expansion group, compared with non - expansion groups: ① had no statistically significant difference in cesarean section rate, RR = 1.08, 95% CI; 0. 96 ~ 1.22, P = 0.19, ②the difference in the rate of premature delivery was not statistically significant between two groups, RR = 0.91, 95%C7;0.26 ~3.22, P = 0.89. ③perinatal mortality rate had no significant difference between the two groups, RR = 1. 65 , 95% C/;0. 77 ~ 3. 54, P = 0. 20.④the proportion of Apgar score < 7 had no significant difference between the two groups, RR = 1. 11, 95% C/:0. 54 ~ 2. 28 , P = 0. 77. ⑤the ratio of an additional drugs had no significant difference, RR = 1. 91, 95% C/:0. 90 ~ 4. 05, P = 0. 09. Conclusion The volume expansion does not improve the treatment of preeclampsia maternal cesarean section rate, perinatal mortality, Apgar score < 7 and the application of an additional drug ( magnesium sulfate and antihypertensive drugs ) ratio.%目的 通过Meta分析的方法评价先兆子痫扩容治疗的临床疗效.方法 检索1979 ~2010年中外文数据库收录的公开发表与研究目的相关的随机对照试验的文献,手工检索当前能够检索到的参考资料及研究报告.制定严格的纳入与排除标准,选择原始研究并对其进行质量评价和数据提取,利用Revman5.0版软件对所纳

  7. [Drugs dosing in intensive care unit during continuous renal replacement therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourquin, Vincent; Ponte, Belén; Saudan, Patrick; Martin, Pierre-Yves

    2009-11-01

    Drug dosing in the intensive care unit can be challenging. Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication of sepsis and a part of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) is increasingly used as dialysis therapy in this critically ill population. Available data demonstrate that sepsis, AKI and different modalities of CRRT can profoundly change drugs pharmacokinetic. The severity of these changes depends on molecules characteristics (volume of distribution, plasma protein binding, molecular weight, plasma half-life, plasma clearance), patient itself (volemia, residual renal function, tissue perfusion, hepatic dysfunction) and modality of CRRT (diffusion, convection, adsorption). There are no available recommendations to adapt drug dosing in a given critically ill patient with a given modality of CRRT. It is necessary to fully understand the different methods of CRRT and drug pharmacokinetic to prescribe the appropriate dose and to avoid under or potentially toxic overdosing. Monitoring the plasma level of drug - when available - can establish a relation between the blood concentration and its effect; thus, facilitating drug dosing.

  8. 低潮气量机械通气对瓣膜置换病人肺换气功能影响的临床研究%Effects of low tidal volume ventilation on pulmonary gas exchange before and after mitral valve replacement with cardiopulmonary bypass

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡宏伟; 田玉科; 任飞; 张海萍

    2006-01-01

    [Objective] To investigate the effect of low tidal volume ventilation on pulmonary gas exchange in patients undergoing mitral valve replacement with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). [Methods] A prospective randomized study was done in university hospital. Thirty patients undergoing mitral valve replacement with CPB were randomized to receive traditional tidal volume ventilation (TV; tidal volume, 9 mL/kg; respiratory rate, 12 times/min),or low tidal volume ventilation with conventional respiratory rate (LV; tidal volume, 7 mL/kg; respiratory rate, 12times/min), or low tidal volume ventilation with high respiratory rate (HR; tidal volume 7 mL/kg, 15 times/min)throughout surgery. During CPB, patients' lungs were kept inflated with 100% oxygen. [Results] Pulmonary gas exchange parameters were determined twice before CPB and after CPB. When final values after CPB were compared with the values before CPB, the arterial oxygen tension-inspired oxygen concentration ratio (PaO2/FiO2) was significantly decreased, and alveolar-artetal (A-a) oxygen gradient [P(A-a)O2] and intrapulmonary shunt (Qs/QT) were significantly increased in group LV. No significant differences were found in either group TV or group HR. [Conclusions] Low tidal volume ventilation with conventional respiratory rate in patients undergoing mitral valve replacement impaired pulmonary gas exchange early after CPB, while low tidal volume ventilation with high respiratory rate did not. These results suggest that low tidal volume ventilation with high respiratory rate may be useful for reducing lung injury caused by CPB and mechanical ventilation in patients undergoing mitral valve replacement.%目的以心输出量和肺换气功能为指标研究低潮气量通气对瓣膜置换病人心肺功能的影响.方法30例择期行二尖瓣置换手术病人随机分成3组:常规(传统)潮气量组(组Ⅰ),潮气量9mL/kg,呼吸频率12次/min;低潮气量常规频率组(组Ⅱ),潮气量7 mL/kg,呼吸频率12次/min

  9. Ulnar head replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Timothy J; van Schoonhoven, Joerg

    2007-03-01

    Recent years have seen an increasing awareness of the anatomical and biomechanical significance of the distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ). With this has come a more critical approach to surgical management of DRUJ disorders and a realization that all forms of "excision arthroplasty" can only restore forearm rotation at the expense of forearm stability. This, in turn, has led to renewed interest in prosthetic replacement of the ulnar head, a procedure that had previously fallen into disrepute because of material failures with early implants, in particular, the Swanson silicone ulnar head replacement. In response to these early failures, a new prosthesis was developed in the early 1990s, using materials designed to withstand the loads across the DRUJ associated with normal functional use of the upper limb. Released onto the market in 1995 (Herbert ulnar head prosthesis), clinical experience during the last 10 years has shown that this prosthesis is able to restore forearm function after ulnar head excision and that the materials (ceramic head and noncemented titanium stem), even with normal use of the limb, are showing no signs of failure in the medium to long term. As experience with the use of an ulnar head prosthesis grows, so does its acceptance as a viable and attractive alternative to more traditional operations, such as the Darrach and Sauve-Kapandji procedures. This article discusses the current indications and contraindications for ulnar head replacement and details the surgical procedure, rehabilitation, and likely outcomes.

  10. Human protein C: new preparations. Effective replacement therapy for some clotting disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-02-01

    (1) Depending on its severity, congenital protein C deficiency can cause a variety of problems, such as increasing the frequency of venous thrombosis in high risk situations; recurrent venous thrombosis; skin necrosis at the start of treatment with a vitamin K antagonist; and severe thrombotic events in neonates. For many years the only available replacement treatment consisted of fresh frozen plasma which, among other adverse effects, carries a risk of hypervolemia. (2) Two human protein C concentrates prepared from donated blood have been given marketing authorisation in Europe for intravenous replacement therapy (Ceprotin from Baxter, and Protexel from LFB). (3) Their clinical files contain only retrospective case series (22 children with severe deficiency treated with Ceprotin; and 10 patients of various ages and with different degrees of severity treated with Protexel). The two preparations have not been compared with each other. (4) In patients with severe protein C deficiency, including neonates, replacement therapy with human protein C is effective, especially for treating cutaneous thrombosis and preventing thrombosis in high risk situations. (5) In patients with moderate deficiency, a short-course of human protein C prophylaxis reduces the frequency of thrombosis in high risk situations. (6) In long-term prophylaxis, human protein C replacement therapy, added to ongoing (but inadequately effective) vitamin K antagonist therapy, seems to reduce the risk of recurrent venous thrombosis even though it has some constraints. (7) The adverse effects of the two preparations are poorly documented. Allergic reactions and bleeding have been reported. Human protein C is a blood product, and therefore carries a risk of infection. (8) Ceprotin offers a small advantage, being available in two dose strengths: for a given dose the volume injected is halved. (9) In practice, Ceprotin and Protexel are the reference drugs for replacement therapy of constitutional protein C

  11. Correlation between left ventricular diastolic function before and after valve replacement surgery and myocardial ultrastructural changes in patients with left ventricular volume-overloaded valvular heart diseases; Evaluation with gated blood pool scintigraphy using [sup 99m]Tc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, Tomiro (Okayama Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1993-06-01

    Left ventricular (LV) diastolic functions in 23 patients with aortic regurgitation (AR) and 22 patients with mitral regurgitation (MR) were evaluated by gated blood pool scintigraphy. LV myocardial biopsy was performed during open heart surgery, and LV myocardial ultrastructural changes were evaluated by electron microscope. Correlation between LV diastolic function and myocardial ultrastructural changes was examined. It was suggested that preoperative LV diastolic dysfunction occurred earlier than LV systolic dysfunction in patients with AR and MR. LV early diastolic dysfunction was especially significant in patients with AR. LV systolic function was significantly improved postoperatively compared with LV diastolic function in patients with AR and MR. It was suggested that LV interstitial fibrosis caused LV diastolic dysfunction in patients with AR and MR, and insufficiency of myocardial thickening as compensation in patients with MR. It was presumed that LV diastolic dysfunction was irreversible in patients with AR and MR in the distant postoperative period due to persistence of the preoperative myocardial ultrastructural change, e.g., interstitial fibrosis. These LV diastolic indices measured by gated pool scintigraphy were useful in predicting LV ultrastructural changes and postoperative LV dysfunction in patients with LV volume-overloaded valvular heart disease. (author).

  12. [Pharmacokinetic principles and drug-dosing adjustments during continuous renal replacement therapies (CRRT)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabito, S; Guzzo, I; Vitaliano, E; Muzi, L; Solazzo, A; Pistolesi, V; Pierucci, A

    2006-01-01

    In the critically ill, acute renal failure (ARF) and "Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome" (MODS) can be associated with significant modifications of many pharmacokinetic parameters, such as protein binding, volume of distribution and total body clearance. The start of renal replacement therapy (RRT) represents an additional variable to take in consideration for drug-dosing adjustments. Drugs significantly eliminated by the kidney are likely to be removed during RRT and a supplemental dose or further dosing adjustments are required if extracorporeal clearance is more than 25-30% of total body clearance. The impact of RRT on plasma drug concentrations can be substantially different in relation to the type of treatment (diffusive, convective or both), membrane characteristics (low-flux or high-flux), filter surface area and prescribed dialysis dose. The molecular weight cut-offs of high-flux membrane are much higher than the molecular weight of most drugs. Therefore, molecular size will not be a limitation for the removal of the unbound fraction of the drugs most commonly used in the critically ill undergoing continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). However, diffusive clearance could be significantly lower than convective clearance for drugs in the middle molecular weight range. In any case, the extracorporeal clearances report-ed with the use of high-volume CRRT (>50-60 L/2 h) are often surprisingly elevated and can lead to drug underdosing in clinical conditions where adequate antibiotic treatment is essential.

  13. The inclusion of a partial meal replacement with or without inulin to a calorie restricted diet contributes to reach recommended intakes of micronutrients and decrease plasma triglycerides: A randomized clinical trial in obese Mexican women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tovar Alma

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is a major public health problem in many poor countries where micronutrient deficiencies are prevalent. A partial meal replacement may be an effective strategy to decrease obesity and increase micronutrient intake in such populations. The objective was to evaluate the efficacy of a partial meal replacement with and without inulin on weight reduction, blood lipids and micronutrients intake in obese Mexican women. Methods In a randomized controlled clinical trial 144 women (18–50 y with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2, were allocated into one of the following treatments during 3 months: 1 Two doses/d of a partial meal replacement (PMR, 2 Two doses/d of PMR with inulin (PMR + I , 3 Two doses/d of 5 g of inulin (INU and 4 Control group (CON. All groups received a low calorie diet (LCD. Weight, height, hip and waist circumference were measured every 2 weeks and body composition, lipids and glucose concentration and nutrient intake were assessed at baseline and after 3 months. Results All groups significantly reduced weight, BMI, waist and hip circumference. Differences between groups were only observed in BMI and weight adjusted changes: At 45 days PMR group lost more weight than INU and CON groups by 0.9 and 1.2Kg, respectively. At 60 days, PMR + I and PMR groups lost more weight than in INU by 0.7 and 1Kg, respectively. Subjects in PMR, PMR + I and INU significantly decreased triglycerides. Energy intake was reduced in all groups. Fiber intake increased in PMR + I and INU groups. Some minerals and vitamins intakes were higher in PMR and PMR + I compared with INU and CON groups. Conclusion Inclusion of PMR with and without inulin to a LCD had no additional effect on weight reduction than a LCD alone but reduced triglycerides and improved intake of micronutrients during caloric restriction. PMR could be a good alternative for obese populations with micronutrient deficiencies. ClinicalTrials.Gov ID

  14. Aortic valve replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapetanakis, Emmanouil I; Athanasiou, Thanos; Mestres, Carlos A

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS OF THE STUDY: Prompted by anecdotal evidence and observations by surgeons, an investigation was undertaken into the potential differences in implanted aortic valve prosthesis sizes, during aortic valve replacement (AVR) procedures, between northern and southern European...... countries. METHODS: A multi-institutional, non-randomized, retrospective analysis was conducted among 2,932 patients who underwent AVR surgery at seven tertiary cardiac surgery centers throughout Europe. Demographic and perioperative variables including valve size and type, body surface area (BSA) and early...

  15. Total ankle joint replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    Ankle arthritis results in a stiff and painful ankle and can be a major cause of disability. For people with end-stage ankle arthritis, arthrodesis (ankle fusion) is effective at reducing pain in the shorter term, but results in a fixed joint, and over time the loss of mobility places stress on other joints in the foot that may lead to arthritis, pain and dysfunction. Another option is to perform a total ankle joint replacement, with the aim of giving the patient a mobile and pain-free ankle. In this article we review the efficacy of this procedure, including how it compares to ankle arthrodesis, and consider the indications and complications.

  16. Plasma etching an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Manos, Dennis M

    1989-01-01

    Plasma etching plays an essential role in microelectronic circuit manufacturing. Suitable for researchers, process engineers, and graduate students, this book introduces the basic physics and chemistry of electrical discharges and relates them to plasma etching mechanisms. Throughout the volume the authors offer practical examples of process chemistry, equipment design, and production methods.

  17. Plasma diagnostics discharge parameters and chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Auciello, Orlando

    1989-01-01

    Plasma Diagnostics, Volume 1: Discharge Parameters and Chemistry covers seven chapters on the important diagnostic techniques for plasmas and details their use in particular applications. The book discusses optical diagnostic techniques for low pressure plasmas and plasma processing; plasma diagnostics for electrical discharge light sources; as well as Langmuir probes. The text also describes the mass spectroscopy of plasmas, microwave diagnostics, paramagnetic resonance diagnostics, and diagnostics in thermal plasma processing. Electrical engineers, nuclear engineers, microwave engineers, che

  18. The Optimum Replacement of Weapon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiao; ZHANG Jin-chun

    2002-01-01

    The theory of LCC (Life Cycle Cost) is applied in this paper. The relation between the economic life of weapon and the optimum replacement is analyzed. The method to define the optimum replacement time of weapon is discussed.

  19. Power Plant Replacement Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, Gary

    2010-09-30

    This report represents the final report for the Eastern Illinois University power plant replacement study. It contains all related documentation from consideration of possible solutions to the final recommended option. Included are the economic justifications associated with the chosen solution along with application for environmental permitting for the selected project for construction. This final report will summarize the results of execution of an EPC (energy performance contract) investment grade audit (IGA) which lead to an energy services agreement (ESA). The project includes scope of work to design and install energy conservation measures which are guaranteed by the contractor to be self‐funding over its twenty year contract duration. The cost recovery is derived from systems performance improvements leading to energy savings. The prime focus of this EPC effort is to provide a replacement solution for Eastern Illinois University’s aging and failing circa 1925 central steam production plant. Twenty‐three ECMs were considered viable whose net impact will provide sufficient savings to successfully support the overall project objectives.

  20. Total disc replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vital, J-M; Boissière, L

    2014-02-01

    Total disc replacement (TDR) (partial disc replacement will not be described) has been used in the lumbar spine since the 1980s, and more recently in the cervical spine. Although the biomechanical concepts are the same and both are inserted through an anterior approach, lumbar TDR is conventionally indicated for chronic low back pain, whereas cervical TDR is used for soft discal hernia resulting in cervicobrachial neuralgia. The insertion technique must be rigorous, with precise centering in the disc space, taking account of vascular anatomy, which is more complex in the lumbar region, particularly proximally to L5-S1. All of the numerous studies, including prospective randomized comparative trials, have demonstrated non-inferiority to fusion, or even short-term superiority regarding speed of improvement. The main implant-related complication is bridging heterotopic ossification with resulting loss of range of motion and increased rates of adjacent segment degeneration, although with an incidence lower than after arthrodesis. A sufficiently long follow-up, which has not yet been reached, will be necessary to establish definitively an advantage for TDR, particularly in the cervical spine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. REPLACEMENT OF FRENCH CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    HR/SOC

    2001-01-01

    The French Ministry of Foreign Affairs has informed the Organization that it is shortly to replace all diplomatic cards, special cards and employment permits ('attestations de fonctions') now held by members of the personnel and their families. Between 2 July and 31 December 2001, these cards are to be replaced by secure, computerized equivalents. The old cards may continue to be used until 31 December 2001. For the purposes of the handover, members of the personnel must go personally to the cards office (33/1-015), in order to fill in a 'fiche individuelle' form, taking the following documents for themselves and members of their families already in possession of a French card : A recent identity photograph in 4.5 cm x 3.5 cm format. The French card in their possession. An A4 photocopy of the same French card, certified by the cards office as being a true copy. Those members of the personnel whose cards (and/or cards belonging to members of their families) are shortly due to expire, or have recently done...

  2. REPLACEMENT OF FRENCH CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division; Cards.Service@cern.ch

    2001-01-01

    The French Ministry of Foreign Affairs is currently replacing all diplomatic cards, special cards and employment permits («attestations de fonctions») held by members of the personnel and their families. These cards are replaced by secure, computerized equivalents. The old cards may no longer be used after 31 December 2001. For the purposes of the handover, members of the personnel must go personally to the cards office (33/1-015) between 8h30 and 12h30, in order to fill in a «fiche individuelle» form, taking the following documents for themselves and members of their families already in possession of a French card : A recent identity photograph in 4.5 cm x 3.5 cm format, the French card in their possession, an A4 photocopy of the same French card, certified by the cards office as being a true copy. Those members of the personnel whose cards (and/or cards belonging to members of their families) are shortly due to expire, or have recently done so, are also requested...

  3. REPLACEMENT OF FRENCH CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    The French Ministry of Foreign Affairs has informed the Organization that it is shortly to replace all diplomatic cards, special cards and employment permits ('attestations de fonctions') now held by members of the personnel and their families. Between 2 July and 31 December 2001, these cards are to be replaced by secure, computerized equivalents. The old cards may continue to be used until 31 December 2001. For the purposes of the handover, members of the personnel are asked to go to the cards office (33/1-015), taking the following documents for themselves and members of their families already in possession of a French card : A recent identity photograph in 4.5 cm x 3.5 cm format, The French card in their possession, an A4 photocopy of the same French card, certified by the cards office as being a true copy. Those members of the personnel whose cards (and/or cards belonging to members of their families) are shortly due to expire, or have recently done so, are also requested to take these items to the c...

  4. REPLACEMENT OF FRENCH CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    The French Ministry of Foreign Affairs has informed the Organization that it is shortly to replace all diplomatic cards, special cards and employment permits ('attestations de fonctions') now held by members of the personnel and their families. Between 2 July and 31 December 2001, these cards are to be replaced by secure, computerized equivalents. A 'personnel office' stamped photocopy of the old cards may continue to be used until 31 December 2001. For the purposes of the handover, members of the personnel must go personally to the cards office (33/1-015), between 8:30 and 12:30, in order to fill a 'fiche individuelle' form (in black ink only), which has to be personally signed by themselves and another separately signed by members of their family, taking the following documents for themselves and members of their families already in possession of a French card : A recent identity photograph in 4.5 cm x 3.5 cm format (signed on the back) The French card in their possession an A4 photocopy of the same Fre...

  5. Power Plant Replacement Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, Gary

    2010-09-30

    This report represents the final report for the Eastern Illinois University power plant replacement study. It contains all related documentation from consideration of possible solutions to the final recommended option. Included are the economic justifications associated with the chosen solution along with application for environmental permitting for the selected project for construction. This final report will summarize the results of execution of an EPC (energy performance contract) investment grade audit (IGA) which lead to an energy services agreement (ESA). The project includes scope of work to design and install energy conservation measures which are guaranteed by the contractor to be self-funding over its twenty year contract duration. The cost recovery is derived from systems performance improvements leading to energy savings. The prime focus of this EPC effort is to provide a replacement solution for Eastern Illinois University's aging and failing circa 1925 central steam production plant. Twenty-three ECMs were considered viable whose net impact will provide sufficient savings to successfully support the overall project objectives.

  6. Faster Replacement Paths

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Virginia Vassilevska

    2010-01-01

    The replacement paths problem for directed graphs is to find for given nodes s and t and every edge e on the shortest path between them, the shortest path between s and t which avoids e. For unweighted directed graphs on n vertices, the best known algorithm runtime was \\tilde{O}(n^{2.5}) by Roditty and Zwick. For graphs with integer weights in {-M,...,M}, Weimann and Yuster recently showed that one can use fast matrix multiplication and solve the problem in O(Mn^{2.584}) time, a runtime which would be O(Mn^{2.33}) if the exponent \\omega of matrix multiplication is 2. We improve both of these algorithms. Our new algorithm also relies on fast matrix multiplication and runs in O(M n^{\\omega} polylog(n)) time if \\omega>2 and O(n^{2+\\eps}) for any \\eps>0 if \\omega=2. Our result shows that, at least for small integer weights, the replacement paths problem in directed graphs may be easier than the related all pairs shortest paths problem in directed graphs, as the current best runtime for the latter is \\Omega(n^{2.5...

  7. Power Plant Replacement Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, Gary

    2010-09-30

    This report represents the final report for the Eastern Illinois University power plant replacement study. It contains all related documentation from consideration of possible solutions to the final recommended option. Included are the economic justifications associated with the chosen solution along with application for environmental permitting for the selected project for construction. This final report will summarize the results of execution of an EPC (energy performance contract) investment grade audit (IGA) which lead to an energy services agreement (ESA). The project includes scope of work to design and install energy conservation measures which are guaranteed by the contractor to be self-funding over its twenty year contract duration. The cost recovery is derived from systems performance improvements leading to energy savings. The prime focus of this EPC effort is to provide a replacement solution for Eastern Illinois University’s aging and failing circa 1925 central steam production plant. Twenty-three ECMs were considered viable whose net impact will provide sufficient savings to successfully support the overall project objectives.

  8. Renal Replacement Therapy in Support of Combat Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    was used to create viable sets; pediatric chest tubes were used as PD catheters and dialysate was made using either intravenous saline solution with...important logistic factor in performing RRT is the volume of fluid required for dialysate (for hemodi- alysis and peritoneal dialysis) or replace- ment...treatment may range on the order of 100 to 1000 L per day per patient. Both the dialysate and replacement fluid must be sterile, and no approach for

  9. Cardiovascular implantable electronic device replacement infections and prevention: results from the REPLACE Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uslan, Daniel Z; Gleva, Marye J; Warren, David K; Mela, Theofanie; Chung, Mina K; Gottipaty, Venkateshwar; Borge, Richard; Dan, Dan; Shinn, Timothy; Mitchell, Kevin; Holcomb, Richard G; Poole, Jeanne E

    2012-01-01

    Infection following cardiovascular implantable electronic device (CIED) replacement is a serious complication, and rates of infection have increased. Analysis of procedural and clinical data from device replacement procedures collected by the REPLACE Registry may provide insights into infection prevention strategies and outcomes. We prospectively evaluated procedural complications in patients undergoing CIED replacement over 6 months from 72 U.S. sites. Major and minor infections were predefined and adjudicated by an independent blinded clinical events committee. Data regarding infection prevention strategies and infectious outcomes were analyzed for their potential relationships. A total of 1,744 patients were included in REPLACE. All patients received preoperative intravenous antibiotics and 68.7% received postoperative systemic antibiotic therapy. CIED infection developed in 22 patients (1.3%), of which 14 cases were major (0.8%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.4%-1.3%) and eight were minor (0.5%, 95% CI 0.2%-0.9%). Patients with infections were more likely to have had postoperative hematomas (five of 22 [22.7%] vs 17 of 1,722 [0.98%], P = 0.002). Participating sites experiencing infection rates >5% were more likely to use povidone-iodine for topical antisepsis, had lower implantation volume, and had patients with higher Charlson Comorbidity Index (2.79 vs 2.32, 95% CI for difference 0.08-0.86, P = 0.019). In this multicenter prospective study with 6 months of follow-up, infections associated with CIED replacements were surprisingly infrequent, possibly due to the use of preoperative antibiotics. Patients with infections were more likely to have had a postoperative hematoma, and sites with higher infection rates had sicker patients and lower overall procedural volume. ©2011, The Authors. Journal compilation ©2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Toleration, Synthesis or Replacement?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Jakob v. H.; Madsen, Mikael Rask

    2016-01-01

    to have considerable problems keeping a clear focus on the key question: What are the implications of this empirical turn in terms of philosophy of legal science, of the social understanding of IL, and, not least, of the place of doctrinal scholarship after the alleged Wende? What is needed, we argue......, in order to answer is not yet another partisan suggestion, but rather an attempt at making intelligible both the oppositions and the possibilities of synthesis between normative and empirical approaches to law. Based on our assessment and rational reconstruction of current arguments and positions, we...... therefore outline a taxonomy consisting of the following three basic, ideal-types in terms of the epistemological understanding of the interface of law and empirical studies: toleration, synthesis and replacement. This tripartite model proves useful with a view to teasing out and better articulating...

  11. Magnetic Fusion Energy Plasma Interactive and High Heat Flux Components: Volume 5, Technical assessment of critical issues in the steady state operation of fusion confinement devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    Critical issues for the steady state operation of plasma confinement devices exist in both the physics and technology fields of fusion research. Due to the wide range and number of these issues, this technical assessment has focused on the crucial issues associated with the plasma physics and the plasma interactive components. The document provides information on the problem areas that affect the design and operation of a steady state ETR or ITER type confinement device. It discusses both tokamaks and alternative concepts, and provides a survey of existing and planned confinement machines and laboratory facilities that can address the identified issues. A universal definition of steady state operation is difficult to obtain. From a physics point of view, steady state is generally achieved when the time derivatives approach zero and the operation time greatly exceeds the characteristic time constants of the device. Steady state operation for materials depends on whether thermal stress, creep, fatigue, radiation damage, or power removal are being discussed. For erosion issues, the fluence and availability of the machine for continuous operation are important, assuming that transient events such as disruptions do not limit the component lifetimes. The panel suggests, in general terms, that steady state requires plasma operation from 100 to 1000 seconds and an availability of more than a few percent, which is similar to the expectations for an ETR type device. The assessment of critical issues for steady state operation is divided into four sections: physics issues; technology issues; issues in alternative concepts; and devices and laboratory facilities that can address these problems.

  12. Comparison of fluid neutral models for one-dimensional plasma edge modeling with a finite volume solution of the Boltzmann equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horsten, N., E-mail: niels.horsten@kuleuven.be; Baelmans, M. [KU Leuven, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Celestijnenlaan 300A, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Dekeyser, W. [ITER Organization, route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, 13067 St. Paul lez Durance Cedex (France); Samaey, G. [KU Leuven, Department of Computer Science, Celestijnenlaan 200A, 3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2016-01-15

    We derive fluid neutral approximations for a simplified 1D edge plasma model, suitable to study the neutral behavior close to the target of a nuclear fusion divertor, and compare its solutions to the solution of the corresponding kinetic Boltzmann equation. The plasma is considered as a fixed background extracted from a detached 2D simulation. We show that the Maxwellian equilibrium distribution is already obtained very close to the target, justifying the use of a fluid approximation. We compare three fluid neutral models: (i) a diffusion model; (ii) a pressure-diffusion model (i.e., a combination of a continuity and momentum equation) assuming equal neutral and ion temperatures; and (iii) the pressure-diffusion model coupled to a neutral energy equation taking into account temperature differences between neutrals and ions. Partial reflection of neutrals reaching the boundaries is included in both the kinetic and fluid models. We propose two methods to obtain an incident neutral flux boundary condition for the fluid models: one based on a diffusion approximation and the other assuming a truncated Chapman-Enskog distribution. The pressure-diffusion model predicts the plasma sources very well. The diffusion boundary condition gives slightly better results overall. Although including an energy equation still improves the results, the assumption of equal ion and neutral temperature already gives a very good approximation.

  13. A critical survey of fresh-frozen plasma use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumberg, N; Laczin, J; McMican, A; Heal, J; Arvan, D

    1986-01-01

    The use of 534 units of fresh-frozen plasma (FFP) during 160 transfusion episodes in 135 consecutive patients was reviewed. Only 27 percent of transfusions were indicated by a need for replacement of labile coagulation factors. Other uses included volume repletion (31%), intraoperative bleeding or massive transfusion without coagulopathy (19%), and miscellaneous indications unrelated to labile coagulation factors (23%). Data from other institutions and national sources support the hypothesis that much of the increase in FFP use over the last decade is related to decreases in whole blood availability rather than to use for labile coagulation factor replacement. The use of FFP and red cells as a substitute for, or in preference to, whole blood may have significant adverse implications in terms of the cost and safety of blood transfusion.

  14. Optical plasma microelectronic devices

    CERN Document Server

    Forati, Ebrahim; Dill, Thyler; Sievenpiper, Dan

    2015-01-01

    The semiconductor channel in conventional microelectronic devices was successfully replaced with an optically triggered gas plasma channel. The combination of DC and laser-induced gas ionizations controls the conductivity of the channel, enabling us to realize different electronic devices such as transistors, switches, modulators, etc. A special micro-scale metasurface was used to enhance the laser-gas interaction, as well as combining it with DC ionization properly. Optical plasma devices benefit form the advantages of plasma/vacuum electronic devices while preserving most of the integrablity of semiconductor based devices.

  15. Iron replacement therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole Haagen; Coskun, Mehmet; Weiss, Günter

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Approximately, one-third of the world's population suffers from anemia, and at least half of these cases are because of iron deficiency. With the introduction of new intravenous iron preparations over the last decade, uncertainty has arisen when these compounds should be admini...... treatment, when to follow-up for relapse, which dosage and type of therapy should be recommended or not recommended, and if some patients should not be treated....... be administered and under which circumstances oral therapy is still an appropriate and effective treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: Numerous guidelines are available, but none go into detail about therapeutic start and end points or how iron-deficiency anemia should be best treated depending on the underlying cause...... of iron deficiency or in regard to concomitant underlying or additional diseases. SUMMARY: The study points to major issues to be considered in revisions of future guidelines for the true optimal iron replacement therapy, including how to assess the need for treatment, when to start and when to stop...

  16. Function curve of the membranes that regulate amniotic fluid volume in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Job; Anderson, Debra; Hohimer, Roger; Yang, Qin; Giraud, George; Davis, Lowell

    2005-07-01

    Seven singleton 120-day fetal lambs were prepared with a shunt from the lung to the gastric end of the esophagus, a bladder catheter, and multiple amniotic fluid and vascular catheters. The urachus was ligated. Beginning 7 days later, amniotic fluid volumes were determined by drainage, followed by replacement with 1 liter of lactated Ringer (LR) solution. Urine flow into the amnion was measured continuously. In 14 of 27 experiments, amniotic fluid volumes were determined again 2 days after the inflow into the amnion had consisted of urine only and in 13 experiments after the inflow of urine had been supplemented by an intraamniotic infusion of LR solution. Intramembranous absorption was calculated from the inflows and the changes in volume between the beginning and end of each experiment. The relations between absorption rate and amniotic fluid volume, the "function curves," were highly individual. Urine production during the infusion of LR solution did not decrease, fetal plasma renin activity decreased (P amniotic fluid volume increased by 140% [SE (27%), P amniotic fluid per day. During the infusion of LR solution, the increase in the rate of absorption matched the rate of infusion (both in ml/h), with a regression coefficient of 0.75 (P amniotic fluid volumes, volume is not limited by the absorptive capacity of the amniochorion, and, at least in these preparations, the position of the function curve and not the natural rate of inflow was the major determinant of resting amniotic fluid volume.

  17. Determination of cefoperazone and sulbactam by LC-MS/MS in plasma and ultrafiltrate of patients undergone continuous renal replacement therapy%液相色谱-串联质谱法测定连续肾脏替代治疗患者血浆及超滤液中头孢哌酮与舒巴坦浓度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王睿华; 程龙妹; 曲恒燕; 郝光涛; 刘泽源; 夏鹄

    2015-01-01

    Objective To establish a sensitiv e and specific LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous determination of cefoperazone and sulbactam in plasma and ultrafiltrate of patients undergone continuous renal replacement therapy(CRRT). Methods Cefuroxime axetil was used as the internal standard,the plasma samples were separated on an WatersAtlantis dC18 column (150 mm× 4.6 mm, 5.0 μm). A tandem mass spectrometer equipped with ESI was used as the detector and operated in the mode of multiple reaction monitoring.Quantitive analysis of[M-H]-ions were m/z 644.1→528.1(cefoperazone), m/z 231.8→188.0(sulbactam) and m/z 509.3→206.9(the internal standard, IS), respectively. Results The linear range of cefoperazone and sulbactam in human plasma and ultrafiltrate were(10-500) and(6-300)μg/ml, respectively. Extraction recoveries were more than 90.0%, and intra- and inter-day relative standard deviation was less than 15%. The matrix effect of plasma and ultrafiltrate showed that the matrix effect of the two media had little influence on the measurement of cefoperazone, sulbactam and IS. Conclusion The method is simple, fast, and highly sensitive. The two drugs can be detected simultaneously in the same sample. It is appropriate to monitor drug concentration in plasma and ultrafiltrate of the patients undergone CRRT. Sieving coefficient could be calculated and provide an accurate basis for dose adjustment.%目的:建立液相色谱-串联质谱法(LC-MS/MS)测定连续肾脏替代治疗(continuous renal replacement therapy, CRRT)患者血浆及超滤液中头孢哌酮与舒巴坦浓度。方法以头孢呋辛酯为内标,采用WatersAtlantis dC18色谱柱(150 mm×4.6 mm,5.0μm)进行分离,通过串联质谱仪,以多反应监测方式进行测定。用于定量分析的离子对分别是m/z 644.1→528.1(头孢哌酮)、m/z 231.8→188.0(舒巴坦)和m/z 509.3→206.9〔头孢呋辛酯,内标(IS)〕。结果头孢哌酮在10~500

  18. The Effect of Inhalation Volume and Breath-Hold Duration on the Retention of Nicotine and Solanesol in the Human Respiratory Tract and on Subsequent Plasma Nicotine Concentrations During Cigarette Smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armitage AK

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of inhalation depth and breath-hold duration on the retention of nicotine and solanesol in the human respiratory tract and on nicotine uptake was studied in ten cigarette smokers. In a first series of experiments, the subjects took seven puffs from a 10 mg ‘tar’ yield, test cigarette and a fixed volume of air (0, 75, 250, 500 or 1000 mL, as required by the protocol was inhaled after each puff in order to give a controlled ‘depth’ of inhalation. The inhalation was drawn from a bag containing the required volume of air. Following a 2 s breath-hold, subjects exhaled normally, with the first exhalation after each puff passing through a single acidified filter pad for collection of the non-retained nicotine and solanesol. Blood samples were taken before and at intervals during and after smoking for the sessions with 0, 75 and 500 mL inhalation volumes for determination of plasma nicotine and carboxyhaemoglobin levels. Another series of experiments was conducted with a fixed inhalation volume (500 mL and two further breath-hold durations (0 and 10 s in addition to 2 s from above. Nicotine and solanesol retentions were measured for each breath-hold condition. The amounts of nicotine retained within the respiratory system, expressed as a percentage of the amount taken into the mouth, were consistently higher than the corresponding values for solanesol in all five inhalation conditions (0-1000 mL, 2 s breath-hold. Nicotine retention increased from 46.5% at zero inhalation to 99.5% at 1000 mL inhalation (2 s breath-hold and from 98.0% at zero breath-hold to 99.9% at 10 s breath-hold (500 mL inhalation. Solanesol retention increased from 34.2% at zero inhalation volume to 71.9% at 1000 mL inhalation (2 s breath-hold and from 51.8% at zero breath-hold to 87.6% at 10 s breath-hold (500 mL inhalation. Plasma nicotine decreased from pre-smoking levels after zero inhalation indicating that the nicotine retained within the mouth was poorly

  19. Determination of cilostazol and its active metabolite 3,4-dehydro cilostazol from small plasma volume by UPLC-MS/MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nejal M. Bhatt; Vijay D. Chavada; Daxesh P. Patel; Primal Sharma; Mallika Sanyal; Pranav S. Shrivastav

    2015-01-01

    A simple, rapid and sensitive ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass cilostazol and its pharmacologically active metabolite 3,4-dehydro cilostazol in human plasma using deuterated analogs as internal standards (ISs). Plasma samples were prepared using solid phase extraction 18 (50 mm ? 2.1 mm, 1.7 mm) column. The method was established over a concentration range of 0.5–1000 ng/mL for cilostazol and 0.5–mL for 3,4-dehydro cilostazol. Intra-and inter-batch precision (%CV) and accuracy for the analytes were found within 0.93–1.88 and 98.8–101.7% for cilostazol and 0.91–2.79 and 98.0–102.7% for the metabolite respectively. The assay recovery was within 95–97% for both the analytes and internal standards. The method was successfully applied to support a bioequivalence study of 100 mg cilostazol in 30 healthy subjects.

  20. Determination of cilostazol and its active metabolite 3,4-dehydro cilostazol from small plasma volume by UPLC−MS/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nejal M. Bhatt

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A simple, rapid and sensitive ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC−MS/MS method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of cilostazol and its pharmacologically active metabolite 3,4-dehydro cilostazol in human plasma using deuterated analogs as internal standards (ISs. Plasma samples were prepared using solid phase extraction and chromatographic separation was performed on UPLC BEH C18 (50 mm×2.1 mm, 1.7 µm column. The method was established over a concentration range of 0.5–1000 ng/mL for cilostazol and 0.5–500 ng/mL for 3,4-dehydro cilostazol. Intra- and inter-batch precision (% CV and accuracy for the analytes were found within 0.93–1.88 and 98.8–101.7% for cilostazol and 0.91–2.79 and 98.0–102.7% for the metabolite respectively. The assay recovery was within 95–97% for both the analytes and internal standards. The method was successfully applied to support a bioequivalence study of 100 mg cilostazol in 30 healthy subjects.

  1. A semi-automated multiplex high-throughput assay for measuring IgG antibodies against Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) domains in small volumes of plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cham, Gerald K K; Kurtis, Jonathan; Lusingu, John;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The level of antibodies against PfEMP1 is routinely quantified by the conventional microtitre enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). However, ELISA only measures one analyte at a time and requires a relatively large plasma volume if the complete antibody profile of the sample...... of twenty nine PfEMP1 domains were PCR amplified from 3D7 genomic DNA, expressed in the Baculovirus system and purified by metal-affinity chromatography. The antibody reactivity level to the recombinant PfEMP1 proteins in human hyper-immune plasma was measured by ELISA. In parallel, these recombinant PfEMP1......-based assay was sensitive, accurate and reproducible. Four recombinant PfEMP1 proteins C17, D5, D9 and D12, selected on the basis that they showed a spread of median fluorescent intensity (MFI) values from low to high when analysed by the bead-based assay were analysed by ELISA and the results from both...

  2. A validated LC-MS/MS method for the determination of canagliflozin, a sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitor, in a lower volume of rat plasma: application to pharmacokinetic studies in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobuchi, Shinji; Yano, Kyoka; Ito, Yukako; Sakaeda, Toshiyuki

    2016-10-01

    Canagliflozin is a novel, orally selective inhibitor of sodium-dependent glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) for the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this study, a validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the quantitative analysis of canagliflozin in a lower volume of rat plasma (0.1 mL) was established and applied to a pharmacokinetic study in rats. Following liquid-liquid extraction by tert-butyl methyl ether, chromatographic separation of canagliflozin was performed on a Quicksorb ODS (2.1 mm i.d. × 150 mm, 5 µm size) using acetonitrile-0.1% formic acid (90:10, v/v) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.2 mL/min. The detection was carried out using an API 3200 triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer operating in the positive electrospray ionization mode. Selected ion monitoring transitions of m/z = 462.0 [M + NH4 ](+)  → 191.0 for canagliflozin and m/z = 451.2 [M + H](+)  → 71.0 for empagliflozin (internal standard) were obtained. The validation of the method was investigated, and it was found to be of sufficient specificity, accuracy and precision. Canagliflozin in rat plasma was stable under the analytical conditions used. This validated method was successfully applied to assess the pharmacokinetics of canagliflozin in rats using 0.1 mL rat plasma. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Effects of Milk Replacer on Growth Performance and Plasma Biochemical Indices of Qianbeima Lambs%代乳粉对黔北麻羊断奶羔羊生长性能和血浆生化指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田兴舟; 肖玉贵; 李明忠; 韦济友; 莘海亮; 韩晓洁; 朱伦琴; 赵文金; 吴文旋

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of milk replacer on growth performance and plasma biochemical indices of Qianbeima lambs. Forty healthy lambs with similar body weight were randomly assigned to 4 groups with 10 lambs in each group. Lambs in control group and groups 1, 2 and 3 were 1 of 4 diets diffe-ring in milk replacer level at 0, 2%, 4% and 6%, respectively. The results showed as follows:1) the supple-mentation of milk replacer significantly increased dry matter intake ( supplemented at 2% to 6%) , and apparent digestibility of dry matter ( supplemented at 4%) , crude protein ( supplemented at 4%) , neutral detergent fiber ( supplemented at 2% to 6%) , acid detergent fiber ( supplemented at 2% to 6%) , ash ( supplemented at 2%and 4%) in diet, as well as absorbed nitrogen ( supplemented at 2% to 6%) , retained nitrogen ( supplemented at 4%) , digestibility of nitrogen( supplemented at 4%) , net protein utilization ( supplemented at 4%) and bio-logical value of nitrogen ( supplemented at 4%) ( P0.05) . The results indicate that dietary supplementation of milk replacer can improve average daily gain, nutrient digestibility, reduce feed to gain rati-o, and was beneficial for protein efficiency, plasma anti-oxidative capacity and immunity improvements for Qianbeima lambs. Overall, it is suggested that the supplemental level of 4% shows the best performance under the conditions in the present study.%本试验旨在研究代乳粉对黔北麻羊断奶羔羊生长性能与血浆生化指标的影响. 采用单因子随机区组设计,选取体重相近、体况良好的黔北麻羊断奶羔羊40只,随机分成4组,每组10只羊. 对照组饲喂基础饲粮,1组、2组、3组分别在基础饲粮中添加2%、4%、6%的代乳粉.结果表明:1)补饲代乳粉可显著提高羔羊干物质采食量(补饲2%~6%)及饲粮干物质(补饲4%)、粗蛋白质(补饲4%)、中性洗涤纤维(补饲2%~6%)、酸性洗涤纤维(补饲2%~6%)、

  4. A comparative study on the efficacy of impact of hormone and hormone impact associated plasma replacement in treatment of ANCA re-lated vasculitis%激素冲击和激素冲击联合血浆置换治疗ANCA相关性血管炎的疗效比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周培一; 白文英; 武剑; 崔玉萍; 贾丽芳

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare the efficacy of impact of hormone and impact of hormone combined plasma replacement in treatment of anti - neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies(ANCA)related vasculitis(AAV). Methods A total of 63 cases pathologically diagnosed as AAV with clinical manifestations eligible to rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis syndrome were randomly divided into two groups:control group(n = 31) and obversation group(n = 32),patients in control group were given with hormone and immunosuppressant therapy,and patients in observation group were given with plasma replacement therapy on the basis of treatment in control group. BVAS2003 scores,levels of ANCA,creatinine(SCr) and urea nitrogen(BUN)and incidence of complications were compared between patients of these 2 groups. Results The rating of BVAS2003 in patients of these two groups were significantly lower than those before treatmennt( P 0. 05). The difference in incidence of complicated infections in patients between these 2 groups was not significant( P > 0. 05). Conclusion The efficacy of treatment with impact of hormone combined plasma replacement in treatment of patients with AAV is significantly better than that of simple hormonal impact,and it has better effect in removal of ANCA and it can improve the renal func-tion with high safety.%目的:比较单纯激素冲击和激素冲击联合血浆置换治疗抗中性粒细胞胞质抗体( ANCA)相关性血管炎(AAV)的临床疗效。方法将63例病理诊断为 AAV 且临床表现符合急进性肾小球肾炎综合征的患者随机分为两组,对照组(n =31)单纯给予激素免疫抑制剂治疗,观察组(n =32)在对照组治疗方案基础上联合血浆置换治疗,比较两组患者的 BVAS2003评分,ANCA、肌酐(SCr)、尿素氮(BUN)水平和感染并发症发生情况。结果两组患者的 BVAS2003评分均较治疗前有明显降低( P 0.05);两组患者的感染并发症情况无显著差异( P >0.05

  5. Using your shoulder after replacement surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joint replacement surgery - using your shoulder; Shoulder replacement surgery - after ... You have had shoulder replacement surgery to replace the bones of your shoulder joint with artificial parts. The parts include a stem made of metal and a ...

  6. Limitations to fluid replacement during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, R J; Leiper, J B

    1999-04-01

    Fluid replacement during exercise is essential for endurance exercise performance and reducing the risk of heat illness. Fluids supply water, which ameliorates dehydration, and also substrate for the working muscles. Absorption of water and nutrients occurs in the upper part of the small intestine, and replacement may be limited by the rate at which fluid is emptied from the stomach or absorbed in the intestine. Gastric emptying of liquids is influenced primarily by the volume of fluid in the stomach and by its energy density. Increasing the volume will speed emptying, but increasing the nutrient content will slow emptying. Osmolality, temperature, and pH of drinks, as well as exercise intensity, are of minor importance. Intestinal water absorption is a passive process: water follows osmotic gradients but will also follow the active absorption of nutrients, especially glucose, which is actively co-transported with sodium. Water transport is maximised by the presence in the intestine of hypotonic solutions of glucose and sodium. Hypertonic solutions promote net water secretion into the intestinal lumen, resulting in a temporary net loss of water from the body. The amount of fluid ingested by athletes is normally much less than can be tolerated, therefore issues such as palatability and practising drinking during training are important.

  7. Educating My Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarter, Jill

    , in partnership with the dedicated teachers out there, I think I can help promote the critical thinking skills and scientific literacy of the next generation of voters. Hopefully, I can also help train my replacement to be a better scientist, capable of seizing all the opportunities generated by advances in technology and our improved understanding of the universe to craft search strategies with greater probability of success than those I have initiated.

  8. Ultra-trace plutonium determination in small volume seawater by sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with application to Fukushima seawater samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Wenting; Zheng, Jian; Guo, Qiuju; Aono, Tatsuo; Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo; Tazoe, Hirofumi; Yamada, Masatoshi

    2014-04-11

    Long-term monitoring of Pu isotopes in seawater is required for assessing Pu contamination in the marine environment from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. In this study, we established an accurate and precise analytical method based on anion-exchange chromatography and SF-ICP-MS. This method was able to determine Pu isotopes in seawater samples with small volumes (20-60L). The U decontamination factor was 3×10(7)-1×10(8), which provided sufficient removal of interfering U from the seawater samples. The estimated limits of detection for (239)Pu and (240)Pu were 0.11fgmL(-1) and 0.08fgmL(-1), respectively, which corresponded to 0.01mBqm(-3) for (239)Pu and 0.03mBqm(-3) for (240)Pu when a 20L volume of seawater was measured. We achieved good precision (2.9%) and accuracy (0.8%) for measurement of the (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratio in the standard Pu solution with a (239)Pu concentration of 11fgmL(-1) and (240)Pu concentration of 2.7fgmL(-1). Seawater reference materials were used for the method validation and both the (239+240)Pu activities and (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios agreed well with the expected values. Surface and bottom seawater samples collected off Fukushima in the western North Pacific since March 2011 were analyzed. Our results suggested that there was no significant variation of the Pu distribution in seawater in the investigated areas compared to the distribution before the accident.

  9. [Ascending aorta replacement late after aortic valve replacement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yasunari; Ito, Toshiaki; Maekawa, Atsuo; Sawaki, Sadanari; Fujii, Genyo; Hoshino, Satoshi; Tokoro, Masayoshi; Yanagisawa, Junji

    2013-07-01

    Replacement of the asceding aorta is indicated in patients undergoing aortic valve replacement( AVR), if the diameter of the ascending aorta is greater than 5.0 cm. If the diameter of the asceding aorta is from 4.0 to 5.0 cm, it was arguable whether replacement of the ascending aorta should be performed. Nine patients who underwent reoperative ascending aorta replacement after AVR were reviewed retrospectively. Reoperation on the asending aorta replacement was performed 11.8±7.2 years (range 1y5m~23y3m) after AVR. Mean patient age was 69.9±6.3 (range 60~81). In 2 cases, reoperations were performed early year after AVR. Although ascending aorta was dilated at the 1st operation, replacement wasn't performed for the age and minimally invasive cardiac surgery (MICS). In 3 cases, reoperations were performed more than 10 years later. On these cases, ascending aorta aneurysm and dissection occurred with no pain and were pointed out by computed tomography(CT) or ultrasonic cardiogram(UCG). We think that patients with dilatation of the ascending aorta should undergo AVR and aorta replacement at the 1st operation regardness of age. It is important that patients who underwent AVR should undergo a regular checkup on the ascending aorta.

  10. Volume Entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Astuti, Valerio; Rovelli, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Building on a technical result by Brunnemann and Rideout on the spectrum of the Volume operator in Loop Quantum Gravity, we show that the dimension of the space of the quadrivalent states --with finite-volume individual nodes-- describing a region with total volume smaller than $V$, has \\emph{finite} dimension, bounded by $V \\log V$. This allows us to introduce the notion of "volume entropy": the von Neumann entropy associated to the measurement of volume.

  11. Quantification of low levels of organochlorine pesticides using small volumes (plasma of wild birds through gas chromatography negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Rodríguez, Laura B; Rodríguez-Estrella, Ricardo; Ellington, James Jackson; Evans, John J

    2007-07-01

    A solid phase extraction and gas chromatography with negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry in scan mode (GC-NCI-MS) method was developed to identify and quantify for the first time low levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCs) in plasma samples of less than 100 microl from wild birds. The method detection limits ranged from 0.012 to 0.102 pg/microl and the method reporting limit from 0.036 to 0.307 pg/microl for alpha, gamma, beta and delta-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), heptachlor, aldrin, heptachlor epoxide, endosulfan I, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p'-DDE), dieldrin, endrin, endosulfan-II, endrin-aldehyde and endosulfan-sulfate. Pesticide levels in small serum samples from individual Falco sparverius, Sturnella neglecta, Mimus polyglottos and Columbina passerina were quantified. Concentrations ranged from not detected (n/d) to 204.9 pg/microl for some OC pesticides. All levels in the food web in and around cultivated areas showed the presence of pesticides notwithstanding the small areas for agriculture existing in the desert of Baja California peninsula.

  12. Electrocatalysts Prepared by Galvanic Replacement

    OpenAIRE

    Athanasios Papaderakis; Ioanna Mintsouli; Jenia Georgieva; Sotiris Sotiropoulos

    2017-01-01

    Galvanic replacement is the spontaneous replacement of surface layers of a metal, M, by a more noble metal, Mnoble, when the former is treated with a solution containing the latter in ionic form, according to the general replacement reaction: nM + mMnoblen+ → nMm+ + mMnoble. The reaction is driven by the difference in the equilibrium potential of the two metal/metal ion redox couples and, to avoid parasitic cathodic processes such as oxygen reduction and (in some cases) hydrogen evolution too...

  13. Therapy of hypoparathyroidism by replacement with parathyroid hormone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rejnmark, Lars; Underbjerg, Line; Sikjaer, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    Hypoparathyroidism (HypoPT) is a state of hypocalcemia due to inappropriate low levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH). HypoPT is normally treated by calcium supplements and activated vitamin D analogues. Although plasma calcium is normalized in response to conventional therapy, quality of life (Qo......L) seems impaired and patients are at increased risk of renal complications. A number of studies have suggested subcutaneous injections with PTH as an alternative therapy. By replacement with the missing hormone, urinary calcium may be lowered and QoL may improve. PTH replacement therapy (PTH-RT) possesses...

  14. Minimally invasive aortic valve replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foghsgaard, Signe; Schmidt, Thomas Andersen; Kjaergard, Henrik K

    2009-01-01

    In this descriptive prospective study, we evaluate the outcomes of surgery in 98 patients who were scheduled to undergo minimally invasive aortic valve replacement. These patients were compared with a group of 50 patients who underwent scheduled aortic valve replacement through a full sternotomy....... The 30-day mortality rate for the 98 patients was zero, although 14 of the 98 mini-sternotomies had to be converted to complete sternotomies intraoperatively due to technical problems. Such conversion doubled the operative time over that of the planned full sternotomies. In the group of patients whose...... is an excellent operation in selected patients, but its true advantages over conventional aortic valve replacement (other than a smaller scar) await evaluation by means of randomized clinical trial. The "extended mini-aortic valve replacement" operation, on the other hand, is a risky procedure that should...

  15. Development and validation of a rapid and high-sensitivity liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay for the determination of neostigmine in small-volume beagle dog plasma and its application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Di; Li, Wenxue; Zhao, Xin; Ye, Xiaolan; Sun, Fanlu; Li, Jinying; Song, Fenyun; Fan, Guorong

    2014-03-01

    A simple, rapid and high sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the determination of neostigmine in small-volume beagle dog plasma was developed to assess the plasma pharmacokinetics of neostigmine. After protein precipitation in a Sirocco 96-well filtration plate, the filtrate was directly injected into the LC-MS/MS system. The analytes were separated on a Hanbon Hedera CN column (100 × 4.6 mm, 5 µm) with a mobile phase composed of methanol-water (60:40, v/v) and the water containing 0.01% formic acid at a flow rate of 0.6mL/min, with a split ratio of 1:1 flowing 300 μL into the mass spectrometer. The run time was 3 min. Detection was accomplished by electrospray ionization source in multiple reactions monitoring mode with the precursor-to-product ion transitions m/z 223.0 → 72.0 and 306.0 → 140.0 for neostigmine and anisodamine (internal standard), respectively. The method was sensitive with a lower limit of quantitation of 0.1 ng/mL, and good linearity in the range 0.1-100ng/mL for neostigmine (r ≥ 0.998). All the validation data, such as accuracy, intra-run and inter-run precision, were within the required limits. The method was successfully applied to pharmacokinetic study of neostigmine methylsulfate injection in beagle dogs.

  16. Chronic intrarenal insulin replacement reverses diabetes mellitus-induced natriuresis and diuresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manhiani, M Marlina; Duggan, A Daniel; Wilson, Hunter; Brands, Michael W

    2012-02-01

    We showed recently that sustained natriuresis in type 1 diabetic dogs was attributed to the decrease in insulin rather than the hyperglycemia alone. The sodium-retaining action of insulin appeared to require hyperglycemia, and it completely reversed the diabetic natriuresis and diuresis. This study tested whether the sodium-retaining effect was attributed to direct intrarenal actions of insulin. Alloxan-treated dogs (D; n=7) were maintained normoglycemic using 24-h/d IV insulin replacement. After control measurements, IV insulin was decreased to begin a 6-day diabetic period. Blood glucose increased from 84±6 mg/dL to an average of 428 mg/dL on days 5 and 6, sodium excretion increased from 74±8 to 98±7 meq/d over the 6 days, and urine volume increased from 1645±83 to 2198±170 mL/d. Dir dogs (n=7) were subjected to the same diabetic regimen, but, in addition, insulin was infused continuously into the renal artery at 0.3 mU/kg per minute during the 6-day period. This did not affect plasma insulin. Blood glucose increased from 94±10 mg/dL to an average of 380 mg/dL on days 5 and 6, but sodium excretion averaged 76±5 and 69±8 meq/d during control and diabetes mellitus, respectively. The diuresis also was prevented. Glomerular filtration rate increased only in Dir dogs, and there was no change in mean arterial pressure in either group. This intrarenal insulin infusion had no effect on sodium or volume excretion in normal dogs. Intrarenal insulin replacement in diabetic dogs caused a sustained increase in tubular reabsorption that completely reversed diabetic natriuresis. Insulin plus glucose may work to prevent salt wasting in uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  17. Radiofrequency power in plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    This document includes the various communications that were presented at the 11th topical conference on radio frequency power in plasmas which took place in Palm Springs in May 1995. It includes current diffusion studies to assess the non-inductive current deposition profiles, experiments for plasma to reach quickly an equilibrium state, and modelling of electrons in plasma. Some comparison studies also reveal the efficiency of the Quasi-Optical Grill antenna for reactor applications. Finally, a scenario for efficient mode conversion heating in the ion cyclotron range of frequency is presented. Separate abstracts were prepared for the 6 papers in this volume. (TEC).

  18. Inductive Pulsed Plasma Thruster Model with Time-Evolution of Energy and State Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Sankaran, Kamesh

    2012-01-01

    A model for pulsed inductive plasma acceleration is presented that consists of a set of circuit equations coupled to both a one-dimensional equation of motion and an equation governing the partitioning of energy. The latter two equations are obtained for the plasma current sheet by treating it as a single element of finite volume and integrating the governing equations over that volume. The integrated terms are replaced where necessary by physically-equivalent quantities that are calculated through the solution of other parts of the governing equation set. The model improves upon previous one-dimensional performance models by permitting the time-evolution of the energy and state properties of the plasma, the latter allowing for the tailoring of the model to different gases that may be chosen as propellants. The time evolution of the various energy modes in the system and the associated plasma properties, calculated for argon propellant, are presented to demonstrate the efficacy of the model. The model produces a result where efficiency is maximized at a given value of the electrodynamic scaling term known as the dynamic impedance parameter. Qualitatively and quantitatively, the model compares favorably with performance measured for two separate inductive pulsed plasma thrusters, with disagreements attributable to simplifying assumptions employed in the generation of the model solution.

  19. Microphysics of cosmic plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Bykov, Andrei; Cargill, Peter; Dendy, Richard; Wit, Thierry; Raymond, John

    2014-01-01

    This title presents a review of the detailed aspects of the physical processes that underlie the observed properties, structures and dynamics of cosmic plasmas. An assessment of the status of understanding of microscale processes in all astrophysical collisionless plasmas is provided. The topics discussed include  turbulence in astrophysical and solar system plasmas as a phenomenological description of their dynamic properties on all scales; observational, theoretical and modelling aspects of collisionless magnetic reconnection; the formation and dynamics of shock waves; and a review and assessment of microprocesses, such as the hierarchy of plasma instabilities, non-local and non-diffusive transport processes and ionisation and radiation processes.  In addition, some of the lessons that have been learned from the extensive existing knowledge of laboratory plasmas as applied to astrophysical problems are also covered.   This volume is aimed at graduate students and researchers active in the areas of cosmi...

  20. Exaggerated natriuretic response to isotonic volume expansion in hypertensive renal transplant recipients: evaluation of proximal and distal tubular reabsorption by simultaneous determination of renal plasma clearance of lithium and 51Cr-EDTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, A H; Knudsen, F; Danielsen, H; Pedersen, E B; Fjeldborg, P; Madsen, M; Brøchner-Mortensen, J; Kornerup, H J

    1987-02-01

    In fourteen hypertensive and fourteen normotensive renal transplant recipients, and in a group of thirteen healthy controls, changes in natriuresis, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and tubular reabsorption of sodium were determined in relation to intravenous infusion of 2 mmol isotonic sodium chloride per kg body weight. An exaggerated natriuresis was demonstrated in the hypertensive renal transplant recipients. This new finding indicates that the augmented natriuresis following plasma volume expansion, which is a characteristic finding in subjects with arterial hypertension, is not mediated by the renal nerves. Investigation of the tubular reabsorption rates of sodium by simultaneous determination of the renal clearance of 51Cr-EDTA and lithium showed that in the hypertensives the changes in tubular handling of sodium were different from those registered in the normotensive subjects. The increased sodium excretion in the hypertensive renal transplant recipients was caused by an increased output of sodium from the proximal tubules which was not fully compensated for by an increased distal reabsorption. Whether this increased delivery of sodium to the distal segments was caused by changes in GFR or in the proximal tubular reabsorption of sodium could not be clarified in the present study and warrants further investigations.

  1. 维持性血液透析患者血浆容量与血压关系的研究%Clinical study on relationship between plasma volume and blood pressure in patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方燕; 张伟明; 严玉澄; 陆任华; 王咏梅; 朱铭力; 倪兆慧; 钱家麒

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨维持性血液透析患者透析过程中血浆容量变化与血压的关系.方法 36例维持性血液透析患者根据透析前血压水平分为正常血压组(n=16)和高血压组(n=20).记录透析前后患者的血压和体质量,检测血清总蛋白水平并计算血浆容量变化值(△Pv).所有数据采用SPSS 13.0软件进行统计学分析.结果 在正常血压组,透析前后收缩压分别为(123.3±19.9) mmHg(1 mmHg=0.133 kPa)和(122.3±27.0) mmHg,舒张压分别为(69.6+9.2) mmHg和(70.9+17.0) mmHg,透析前后收缩压和舒张压比较差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05);透析过程中,体质量变化值为(2.7±1.4)kg,△PV为(14.7±10.8)%.在高血压组,透析前后收缩压分别为(162.6±16.2) mmHg和(148.2±31.1) mmHg,透析前后舒张压分别为(86.6±9.6) mmHg和(82.1±14.4) mmHg,透析后收缩压较透析前显著下降(P<0.05),而透析前后舒张压比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);透析过程中,体质量变化值为(3.2±1.3)kg,△PV为(20.4±14.4)%.相关性分析结果显示:正常血压组和高血压组患者透析前后血压与透析过程中的△PV和体质量变化均无显著相关性(P>0.05).结论 透析过程中,血浆容量改变未对患者透析前后血压变化产生显著影响;体质量下降尚不足以确切反映患者血浆容量状态,且用于预示透析前后血压变化的作用有限.%Objective To explore the association between plasma volume and blood pressure during hemodialysis in patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis. Methods Thirty-six patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis were divided into normotensive group (n = 16) and hypertensive group (n = 20) according to blood pressure before hemodialysis. The blood pressure and body weight before hemodialysis and after hemodialysis were recorded, and serum total protein concentrations were measured to determine the changes of plasma volumes ( APV). Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS 13. 0

  2. Knee Replacement: What you can Expect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... improves function lessen with each additional surgery. Artificial knees can wear out Another risk of knee replacement ... replacement surgery to last about two hours. After knee replacement surgery After surgery, you're wheeled to ...

  3. Homologous gene replacement in Physarum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burland, T.G. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Pallotta, D. [Laval Univ., Quebec (Canada)

    1995-01-01

    The protist Physarum polycephalum is useful for analysis of several aspects of cellular and developmental biology. To expand the opportunities for experimental analysis of this organism, we have developed a method for gene replacement. We transformed Physarum amoebae with plasmid DNA carrying a mutant allele, ardD{Delta}1, of the ardD actin gene; ardD{Delta}1 mutates the critical carboxy-terminal region of the gene product. Because ardD is not expressed in the amoeba, replacement of ardD{sup +} with ardD{Delta}1 should not be lethal for this cell type. Transformants were obtained only when linear plasmid DNA was used. Most transformants carried one copy of ardD{Delta}1 in addition to ardD{sup +}, but in two (5%), ardD{sup +} was replaced by a single copy of ardD{Delta}1. This is the first example of homologous gene replacement in Physarum. ardD{Delta}1 was stably maintained in the genome through growth, development and meiosis. We found no effect of ardD{Delta}l on viability, growth, or development of any of the various cell types of Physarum. Thus, the carboxy-terminal region of the ardD product appears not to perform a unique essential role in growth or development. Nevertheless, this method for homologous gene replacement can be applied to analyze the function of any cloned gene. 38 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Volume replacement with hydroxyethyl starch or Ringer lactate solution in hemorrhagic gastroenteritis dogs with parvovirusReposição volêmica com hidroxietilamido ou solução de ringer lactato em cães com gastroenterite hemorrágica por parvovírus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Ghiggi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Parvovirus is an infectious viral disease, highly contagious, affecting dogs causing acute enteritis. Dehydration is a minor problem and acute evolution, which is the main focus of treatment. The objective of this study was to evaluate two treatments volume replacement in dogs with confirmed diagnosis of parvovirus infection by antigen detection in stool by ELISA. A total of 15 dogs, mixed, male and female, aged from 3 to 6 months, these four they had died during treatment and 11 were included in the study. Patients were randomly divided into two groups: hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 (HES, n=6 and Group Ringer Lactate (RL, n=5, which received fluid resuscitation with hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 and Ringer’s solution lactate, respectively, based on calculations of fluid deficit. All animals received intravenously: cephalothin, metronidazole, ranitidine and metoclopramide. During hospitalization, every 12 hours were evaluated arterial blood gas, electrolyte dosing and clinical examination (heart rate, respiratory rate, rectal temperature, capillary refill time, vomiting, appetite, dehydration, weight gain, hematochezia, melena, hematemesis and presence abdominal pain and 24 hours each blood count was performed. In group RL was increase in the values of PaO2 and decreases in hemoglobin, hematocrit, phosphorus and magnesium, and group HES, a decrease in the percentage of dehydration, hemoglobin, phosphorus and potassium. There were no differences in other parameters between the groups. Both treatments were effective in fluid replacement of patients, no difference in any variable analyzed. A parvovirose é uma doença infecciosa viral, altamente contagiosa, que acomete cães causando enterite aguda. A desidratação é um problema secundário e de evolução aguda, sendo este o foco principal do tratamento. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar dois tratamentos de reposição volêmica em cães com diagnóstico confirmado de parvovirose por detec

  5. Cobra Probes Containing Replaceable Thermocouples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, John; Redding, Adam

    2007-01-01

    A modification of the basic design of cobra probes provides for relatively easy replacement of broken thermocouples. Cobra probes are standard tube-type pressure probes that may also contain thermocouples and that are routinely used in wind tunnels and aeronautical hardware. They are so named because in side views, they resemble a cobra poised to attack. Heretofore, there has been no easy way to replace a broken thermocouple in a cobra probe: instead, it has been necessary to break the probe apart and then rebuild it, typically at a cost between $2,000 and $4,000 (2004 prices). The modified design makes it possible to replace the thermocouple, in minimal time and at relatively low cost, by inserting new thermocouple wire in a tube.

  6. Plasma turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horton, W. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Inst. for Fusion Studies; Hu, G. [Globalstar LP, San Jose, CA (United States)

    1998-07-01

    The origin of plasma turbulence from currents and spatial gradients in plasmas is described and shown to lead to the dominant transport mechanism in many plasma regimes. A wide variety of turbulent transport mechanism exists in plasmas. In this survey the authors summarize some of the universally observed plasma transport rates.

  7. Effect of safflower yellow pigment sodium chloride injection on hemorheology and blood coagulation function in patients with hip replacement surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi Wang; Wei-Xin Yang; Xiu-Hua Zhang; Xian Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effect of safflower yellow pigment sodium chloride injection on hemorheology and coagulation function in patients with hip replacement surgery.Methods:A total of 80 cases of hip joint replacement were divided into two groups according to the random number table method, 40 cases in each group. Patients in two groups were conducted with regular hip replacement, postoperative conventional symptomatic treatment. Based on it, patients of the observation group started to get the safflower yellow pigment and sodium chloride injection in the first week after operation, intravenous injection. A total of 3 weeks of treatment. blood rheological index were compared including plasma viscosity, whole blood viscosity at high shear, low shear whole blood viscosity, red blood cell hematocrit and blood coagulation indexes: prothrombin time (PT), activation activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), thrombin time (TT), D-Dimer (D-D), fibrinogen (FIB) between the two groups postoperative 1 week, postoperative 2 weeks and postoperative 4 weeks.Results:The plasma viscosity, high shear viscosity of whole blood, low shear viscosity of whole blood, D-D in control group postoperative 2 week and 4 week were significantly higher than that of preoperative 1 week; while red blood cell volume, PT, APTT, TT, Fib were significantly lower than preoperative 1 week (P0.05). The PT, APTT in observation group postoperative 2 week and 4 week were significantly increased compared with preoperative 1 week, and the TT in observation group postoperative 4 week was significantly increased compared with preoperative 1 week (P<0.05); The plasma viscosity, high shear viscosity of whole blood, low shear viscosity of whole blood, D-D in observation group were significantly lower, while the PT, APTT, TT, Fib in observation group were significantly higher than that in control group in the same time point (P<0.05).Conclusions:Hip replacement will cause the change of blood rheology in

  8. Petroleum supply annual 1995: Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    The {ital Petroleum Supply Annual} contains information on supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. It reflects data collected from the petroleum industry during 1995 through monthly surveys, and it is divided into 2 volumes. This volume contains three sections: summary statistics, detailed statistics, and selected refinery statistics, each with final annual data. (The other volume contains final statistics for each month and replaces data previously published in the {ital Petroleum Supply Monthly}).

  9. Renal replacement therapy in ICU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Deepa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosing and managing critically ill patients with renal dysfunction is a part of the daily routine of an intensivist. Acute kidney insufficiency substantially contributes to the morbidity and mortality of critically ill patients. Renal replacement therapy (RRT not only does play a significant role in the treatment of patients with renal failure, acute as well as chronic, but also has spread its domains to the treatment of many other disease conditions such as myaesthenia gravis, septic shock and acute on chronic liver failure. This article briefly outlines the role of renal replacement therapy in ICU.

  10. Prioritization methodology for chemical replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Ben; Cruit, Wendy; Schutzenhofer, Scott

    1995-01-01

    This methodology serves to define a system for effective prioritization of efforts required to develop replacement technologies mandated by imposed and forecast legislation. The methodology used is a semi quantitative approach derived from quality function deployment techniques (QFD Matrix). QFD is a conceptual map that provides a method of transforming customer wants and needs into quantitative engineering terms. This methodology aims to weight the full environmental, cost, safety, reliability, and programmatic implications of replacement technology development to allow appropriate identification of viable candidates and programmatic alternatives.

  11. Wafer Replacement Cluster Tool (Presentation);

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branz, H. M.

    2008-04-01

    This presentation on wafer replacement cluster tool discusses: (1) Platform for advanced R and D toward SAI 2015 cost goal--crystal silicon PV at area costs closer to amorphous Si PV, it's 15% efficiency, inexpensive substrate, and moderate temperature processing (<800 C); (2) Why silicon?--industrial and knowledge base, abundant and environmentally benign, market acceptance, and good efficiency; and (3) Why replace wafers?--expensive, high embedded energy content, and uses 50-100 times more silicon than needed.

  12. Petroleum supply annual 1994. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-22

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1994 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains four sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, Refinery Capacity, and Oxygenate Capacity each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1994, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Below is a description of each section in Volume 1 of the PSA.

  13. Petroleum supply annual 1993. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1993 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains four sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, Refinery Capacity, and Oxygenate Capacity each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1993, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Below is a description of each section in Volume 1 of the PSA.

  14. [Renal replacement therapy for refractory heart failure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwenger, V; Remppis, A B

    2012-07-01

    After broad cardiological and nephrological evaluation and consideration of optimal conservative options according to national and international guidelines, renal replacement therapy might be helpful in patients with refractory heart failure even if they are not dialysis-dependent. This is even more important as renal failure is a strong predictor for mortality in patients with severe congestive heart failure (CHF) and CHF is one of the fastest growing morbidities in western countries. Although peritoneal dialysis (PD) is frequently used in patients with CHF its role remains unclear. Acute chronic volume overload in refractory CHF is still an unresolved clinical problem. In patients with acute heart and renal failure with need of management in an intensive care unit, extracorporeal ultrafiltration or a dialysis modality should be preferred. In patients with chronic refractory CHF, volume overload and renal failure, peritoneal dialysis should be the therapy of choice. Due to the limited data available, treatment and outcome parameters should be recorded in the registry of the German Society of Nephrology (http://www.herz-niere.de).

  15. Double emulsions as fat replacers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oppermann, Anika

    2017-01-01

    The use of double (w1/o/w2) emulsions, in which part of the oil is replaced by small water droplets, is a promising strategy to reduce oil content in food products. For successful applications, (1) significant levels of fat reduction (i.e. significant amounts of water inside the oil droplets) have

  16. Replacement policies for dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Relund

    In a recent paper a hierarchical Markov decision processes (MDP) with finite state and action space was formulated for the dairy cow replacement problem with stage lengths of 1 d. Bayesian updating was used to predict the performance of each cow in the herd and economic decisions were based...

  17. Electrocatalysts Prepared by Galvanic Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Papaderakis

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Galvanic replacement is the spontaneous replacement of surface layers of a metal, M, by a more noble metal, Mnoble, when the former is treated with a solution containing the latter in ionic form, according to the general replacement reaction: nM + mMnoblen+ → nMm+ + mMnoble. The reaction is driven by the difference in the equilibrium potential of the two metal/metal ion redox couples and, to avoid parasitic cathodic processes such as oxygen reduction and (in some cases hydrogen evolution too, both oxygen levels and the pH must be optimized. The resulting bimetallic material can in principle have a Mnoble-rich shell and M-rich core (denoted as Mnoble(M leading to a possible decrease in noble metal loading and the modification of its properties by the underlying metal M. This paper reviews a number of bimetallic or ternary electrocatalytic materials prepared by galvanic replacement for fuel cell, electrolysis and electrosynthesis reactions. These include oxygen reduction, methanol, formic acid and ethanol oxidation, hydrogen evolution and oxidation, oxygen evolution, borohydride oxidation, and halide reduction. Methods for depositing the precursor metal M on the support material (electrodeposition, electroless deposition, photodeposition as well as the various options for the support are also reviewed.

  18. Plasma harmonics

    CERN Document Server

    Ganeev, Rashid A

    2014-01-01

    Preface; Why plasma harmonics? A very brief introduction Early stage of plasma harmonic studies - hopes and frustrations New developments in plasma harmonics studies: first successes Improvements of plasma harmonics; Theoretical basics of plasma harmonics; Basics of HHG Harmonic generation in fullerenes using few-cycle pulsesVarious approaches for description of observed peculiarities of resonant enhancement of a single harmonic in laser plasmaTwo-colour pump resonance-induced enhancement of odd and even harmonics from a tin plasmaCalculations of single harmonic generation from Mn plasma;Low-o

  19. Bonding over Dentin Replacement Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meraji, Naghmeh; Camilleri, Josette

    2017-08-01

    Dentin replacement materials are necessary in large cavities to protect the pulp and reduce the bulk of filling material. These materials are layered with a composite resin restorative material. Microleakage caused by poor bonding of composite resin to underlying dentin replacement material will result in pulp damage. The aim of this study was to characterize the interface between dentin replacement materials and composite resin and to measure the shear bond strength after dynamic aging. Biodentine (Septodont, Saint Maur-des-Fosses, France), Theracal LC (Bisco, Schaumburg, IL), and Fuji IX (GC, Tokyo, Japan) were used as dentin replacement materials. They were then overlaid with a total-etch and bonding agent or a self-etch primer and composite resin or a glass ionomer cement. All combinations were thermocycled for 3000 cycles. The interface was characterized using scanning electron microscopy and elemental mapping. Furthermore, the shear bond strength was assessed. The Biodentine surface was modified by etching. The Theracal LC and Fuji IX microstructure was unchanged upon the application of acid etch. The Biodentine and glass ionomer interface showed an evident wide open space, and glass particles from the glass ionomer adhered to the Biodentine surface. Elemental migration was shown with aluminum, barium, fluorine, and ytterbium present in Biodentine from the overlying composite resin. Calcium was more stable. The bond strength between Theracal LC and composite using a total-etch technique followed by self-etch primer achieved the best bond strength values. Biodentine exhibited the weakest bond with complete failure of bonding shown after demolding and thermocycling. Dynamic aging is necessary to have clinically valid data. Bonding composite resin to water-based dentin replacement materials is still challenging, and further alternatives for restoration of teeth using such materials need to be developed. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists

  20. Post-renal-transplant hypertension. Urine volume, free water clearance and plasma concentrations of arginine vasopressin, angiotensin II and aldosterone before and after oral water loading in hypertensive and normotensive renal transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, E B; Danielsen, H; Knudsen, F; Nielsen, A H; Jensen, T; Kornerup, H J; Madsen, M

    1986-09-01

    Urine volume (V), free water clearance (CH2O) and plasma concentrations of arginine vasopressin (AVP), angiotensin II (A II) and aldosterone (Aldo) were determined before and three times during the first 5 h after an oral water load of 20 ml/kg body wt in 19 patients with post-renal-transplant hypertension (group I), in 13 normotensive renal transplant recipients (group II) and in 20 control subjects (group III). Both V and CH2O increased significantly in all groups, but considerably less in groups I and II than in group III. When CH2O was related to glomerular filtration rate no differences existed between patients and control subjects. Basal AVP was the same in groups I (3.3 pmol/l, median) and II (3.0 pmol/l), but significantly (p less than 0.01) higher than in group III (1.9 pmol/l). Basal A II was significantly (p less than 0.01) elevated in group I (18 pmol/l) when compared to both groups II (10 pmol/l) and III (11 pmol/l), and the level was independent of the presence of native kidneys. Basal Aldo was the same in all groups. During loading, AVP was reduced in all groups, A II was almost unchanged, and Aldo was increased in groups I and II and reduced in group III depending on alterations in serum potassium. Thus urinary diluting ability is reduced in renal transplant recipients due to a reduced glomerular filtration rate. The enhanced A II in hypertensive renal transplant recipients gives further evidence for the point of view that hypertension is angiotensin-dependent in most of these patients.

  1. Variações em metabólitos no plasma e hormônios no soro sangüíneo de coelhas alimentadas com farelo de canola em substituição gradual ao farelo de soja Changes in metabolic plasma and serum hormones in female rabbits fed on diets with canola meal gradually replacing soybean meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia Vieira Lage

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as possíveis variações dos níveis plasmáticos de glicose, triglicerídeos, colesterol total, uréia e os níveis do soro sanguíneo de estradiol, progesterona, insulina, T3 e T4 em coelhas alimentadas com dietas em que o farelo de canola substituiu em 00%, 33%, 66% e 100% o farelo de soja, no período de 43 aos 225 dias de idade (final da primeira lactação. Foram utilizadas quarenta coelhas da raça Nova Zelândia Branca, em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com 4 tratamentos e 10 repetições. As coelhas foram cobertas aos 150 dias de idade. Aos 43, 80, 150, 184 e 225 dias, foram realizadas as coletas de sangue por punção cardíaca. Os níveis plasmáticos de glicose, triglicerídeos, colesterol total e uréia não foram alterados pelos níveis de substituição do farelo de soja pelo farelo de canola. No entanto, houve efeito quadrático em relação à idade dos animais. Os níveis no soro sanguíneo de estradiol, progesterona, insulina, T3 e T4 não apresentaram efeito de tratamento. Os níveis de progesterona e T4 apresentaram efeito quadrático em relação à idade das coelhas. As variações encontradas em função da idade dos animais poderiam ser atribuídas às variações ambientais ou fisiológicas durante o período de realização do experimento.Possible changes in plasma levels of glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, urea, serum levels of estradiol, progesterone, insulin, T3 and T4 in female rabbits are evaluated. Rabbits were fed on soybean meal in a gradual substitution (00%, 33%, 66% and 100% by canola meal. Rabbits aged 43 to 225 days, on completing first pregnancy and lactation. Forty White New Zealand rabbits female were used in a completely randomized design, with four treatments and 10 replications. At 43, 80, 150, 184 and 225 days old the animals underwent heart puncture for blood collection. Females were mated at 150 days. Levels of glucose plasma

  2. Plasma Etching Improves Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunyan, S. M.

    1982-01-01

    Etching front surfaces of screen-printed silicon photovoltaic cells with sulfur hexafluoride plasma found to increase cell performance while maintaining integrity of screen-printed silver contacts. Replacement of evaporated-metal contacts with screen-printed metal contacts proposed as one way to reduce cost of solar cells for terrestrial applications.

  3. Face-specific Replacement of Calcite by Amorphous Silica Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liesegang, M.; Milke, R.; Neusser, G.; Mizaikoff, B.

    2016-12-01

    Amorphous silica, composed of nanoscale spheres, is an important biomineral, alteration product of silicate rocks on the Earth's surface, and precursor material for stable silicate minerals. Despite constant progress in silica sphere synthesis, fundamental knowledge of natural silica particle interaction and ordering processes leading to colloidal crystals is absent so far. To understand the formation pathways of silica spheres in a geologic environment, we investigated silicified Cretaceous mollusk shell pseudomorphs from Coober Pedy (South Australia) using focused ion beam (FIB)-SEM tomography, petrographic microscopy, µ-XRD, and EMPA. The shells consist of replaced calcite crystals (product, the advancement of synchronized dissolution and precipitation fronts along lattice planes is essential. We assume that the volume-preserving replacement process proceeds via a face-specific dissolution-precipitation mechanism with intermediate subparticle aggregation and subsequent layer-by-layer deposition of spheres along a planar surface. Porosity created during the replacement reaction allows permanent fluid access to the propagating reaction interface. Fluid pH and ionic strength remain constant throughout the replacement process, permitting continuous silica nanoparticle formation and diffusion-limited colloid aggregation. Our study provides a natural example of the transformation of an atomic crystal to an amorphous, mesoscale ordered material; thus, links the research fields of natural colloidal crystal formation, carbonate-silica replacement, and crystallization by oriented particle aggregation (CPA).

  4. Urbanization, Ikization, and Replacement Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yanguang

    2015-01-01

    The phenomenon of Iks was first found by anthropologists and biologists, but it is actually a problem of human geography. However, it has not yet drawn extensive attention of geographers. In this paper, a hypothesis of ikization is presented that sudden and violent change of geographical environments results in dismantling of traditional culture, which then result in collective depravity of a nationality. By quantitative analysis and mathematical modeling, the causality between urbanization and ikization is discussed, and the theory of replacement dynamics is employed to interpret the process of ikization. Urbanization is in essence a nonlinear process of population replacement. Urbanization may result in ikization because that the migration of population from rural regions to urban regions always give rise to abrupt changes of geographical environments and traditional culture. It is necessary to protect the geographical environment against disruption, and to inherit and develop traditional culture in order t...

  5. [MINIMALLY INVASIVE AORTIC VALVE REPLACEMENT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabata, Minoru

    2016-03-01

    Minimally invasive aortic valve replacement (MIAVR) is defined as aortic valve replacement avoiding full sternotomy. Common approaches include a partial sternotomy right thoracotomy, and a parasternal approach. MIAVR has been shown to have advantages over conventional AVR such as shorter length of stay and smaller amount of blood transfusion and better cosmesis. However, it is also known to have disadvantages such as longer cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic cross-clamp times and potential complications related to peripheral cannulation. Appropriate patient selection is very important. Since the procedure is more complex than conventional AVR, more intensive teamwork in the operating room is essential. Additionally, a team approach during postoperative management is critical to maximize the benefits of MIAVR.

  6. Altitude acclimatization and blood volume: effects of exogenous erythrocyte volume expansion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sawka, M N; Young, Jette Feveile; Rock, P B;

    1996-01-01

    We studied sea-level residents during 13 days of altitude acclimatization to determine 1) altitude acclimatization effects on erythrocyte volume and plasma volume, 2) if exogenous erythrocyte volume expansion alters subsequent erythrocyte volume and plasma volume adaptations, 3) if an increased...... blood oxygen content alters erythropoietin responses during altitude acclimatization, and 4) mechanisms responsible for plasma loss at altitude. Sixteen healthy men had a series of hematologic measurements made at sea level, on the first and ninth days of altitude (4,300 m) residence, and after...... had no effect; in addition, initially at altitude, blood oxygen content was 8% higher in erythrocyte-infused than in saline-infused subjects. The new findings regarding altitude acclimatization are summarized as follows: 1) erythrocyte volume does not change during the first 13 days...

  7. Mitochondrial Replacement: Ethics And Identity

    OpenAIRE

    Wrigley, Anthony; Wilkinson, Stephen; Appleby, John B

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial replacement techniques (MRTs) have the potential to allow prospective parents who are at risk of passing on debilitating or even life-threatening mitochondrial disorders to have healthy children to whom they are genetically related. Ethical concerns have however been raised about these techniques. This article focuses on one aspect of the ethical debate, the question of whether there is any moral difference between the two types of MRT proposed: Pronuclear Transfer (PNT) and Mat...

  8. Dusty plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortov, Vladimir E; Khrapak, Aleksei G; Molotkov, Vladimir I; Petrov, Oleg F [Institute for High Energy Densities, Associated Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Khrapak, Sergei A [Max-Planck-Institut fur Extraterrestrische Physik, Garching (Germany)

    2004-05-31

    The properties of dusty plasmas - low-temperature plasmas containing charged macroparticles - are considered. The most important elementary processes in dusty plasmas and the forces acting on dust particles are investigated. The results of experimental and theoretical investigations of different states of strongly nonideal dusty plasmas - crystal-like, liquid-like, gas-like - are summarized. Waves and oscillations in dusty plasmas, as well as their damping and instability mechanisms, are studied. Some results on dusty plasma investigated under microgravity conditions are presented. New directions of experimental research and potential applications of dusty plasmas are discussed. (reviews of topical problems)

  9. Replacing magnets at the LHC

    CERN Multimedia

    LHC, LSI2, Point 4

    2013-01-01

    CERN engineers have been working through the night this week to move the final replacement dipole magnets into position on the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Though there are several still to go, the teams expect to have completed the task by the end of this month. Dipole magnets bend the paths of particles as they travel around the circular accelerator. Of the LHC's 1232 dipoles – each 15 metres long and weighing 35 tonnes – 15 are being replaced as part of the long shutdown of CERN's accelerator complex. These 15 magnets suffered wear and tear during the LHC's first 4-year run. Three quadrupole-magnet assemblies – which help to focus particles into a tight beam – have also been replaced. Moving such heavy magnets requires specially adapted cranes and trailers both above and below ground. There are several access points on the LHC. Some, such as the 100-metre vertical access shaft down to the ALICE experiment, are equipped with lifts to allow technical personnel and visitors down to the caverns. Other ...

  10. Results of Austin Moore replacement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadhav A

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Forty cases of Austin Moore Replacement done for transcervical fractures of the femur in patients were reviewed after a period of 12 to 48 months postoperatively (mean 26 mth. 30 cases (75% had mild to severe pain of non-infective origin, starting as early as 6 months postoperatively. This was irrespective of the make, size or position (varus/valgus of the prosthesis. Though the Aufranc and Sweet clinical scoring was satisfactory in 65% cases, radiological evidence of complications like sinking, protrusion, etc. were seen in majority of the cases. Calcar resorption was seen in 34 cases (85% as early as 4 months postoperatively. Results of THR and bipolar replacement done for transcervical fractures in recent literature show 85% pain-free cases at 5 years. We feel that Austin Moore Replacement should be reserved for patients more than 65 years of age and those who are less active or debilitated because of other factors, because of increased acetabular wear with time in the younger individual. This is corroborated by unsatisfactory results in patients less than 65 years of age (p < 0.05.

  11. The caudal septum replacement graft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Hossam M T

    2008-01-01

    To describe a technique for reconstructing the lost tip support in cases involving caudal septal and premaxillary deficiencies. The study included 120 patients with aesthetic and functional nasal problems resulting from the loss of caudal septal and premaxillary support. An external rhinoplasty approach was performed to reconstruct the lost support using a cartilaginous caudal septum replacement graft and premaxillary augmentation with Mersilene mesh. The majority of cases (75%) involved revisions in patients who had previously undergone 1 or more nasal surgical procedures. A caudal septum replacement graft was combined with premaxillary augmentation in 93 patients (77.5%). The mean follow-up period was 3 years (range, 1-12 years). The technique succeeded in correcting the external nasal deformities in all patients and resulted in a significant improvement in breathing in 74 patients (86%) with preoperative nasal obstruction. There were no cases of infection, displacement, or extrusion. The caudal septum replacement graft proved to be very effective in restoring the lost tip support in patients with caudal septal deficiency. Combining the graft with premaxillary augmentation using Mersilene mesh helped increase support and stability over long-term follow-up.

  12. Pulse volume discharges in high pressure gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamshchikov, V. A.

    2015-11-01

    New approach for suppression of plasma inhomogeneities and instabilities in the volume self-sustained discharge is offered. The physical model is offered and conditions of obtaining extremely homogeneous self-sustained discharge are defined (with full suppression of plasma inhomogeneity and instability). Results of calculations agree with experiments.

  13. Effects of additional milk replacer feeding on calf health, growth, and selected blood metabolites in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, J D; Wolfe, T A; Elsasser, T H

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the experiment was to evaluate effects of increased milk replacer feeding on growth, intake, feed efficiency, and health parameters in stressed calves. Holstein bull calves (n = 120; approximately 3 to 8 d of age) were purchased from sale barns and dairy farms and housed in fiberglass hutches. In addition, wood shavings contaminated with coronavirus were mixed with clean shavings and added to each hutch before the start of the experiment. Calves were fed either a fixed amount (454 g/d) of a 20% crude protein (CP), 20% fat milk replacer to weaning at 28 d or a variable amount (454, 681, 908, and 454 g/d on d 0 to 7, 8 to 14, 15 to 31, and 32 to 41, respectively) of a milk replacer containing 28% CP and 17% fat without or with added dietary supplement containing bovine serum. Calves were also fed commercial calf starter and water ad libitum. Plasma IgG concentration in most calves on arrival at the facility was feed efficiency, morbidity and mortality, and selected plasma metabolites were determined. Body weight at 28 d, 56 d, daily body weight gain, intake of milk replacer, fecal scores, days with diarrhea, and days treated with antibiotics were increased with feeding variable amount of milk replacer over the 56-d study. Starter intake from d 1 to 56 was reduced from 919 to 717 g/d in calves fed fixed and variable amounts of milk replacer, respectively. Morbidity, measured as the number of days that calves had diarrhea, was increased by 53% when a variable amount of milk replacer was fed. Calves fed variable milk replacer were treated with antibiotics for 3.1 d compared with 1.9 d for calves fed 454 g of milk replacer/d. Concentrations of plasma glucose, urea N, and insulin-like growth factor-I were increased when calves were fed variable amount of milk replacer. Dietary supplement containing bovine serum had no effect on any parameter measured. There was no effect of milk replacer feeding on concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids, total

  14. Atmospheric pressure plasma processing of polymeric materials utilizing close proximity indirect exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulauskas, Felix L.; Bonds, Truman

    2016-09-20

    A plasma treatment method that includes providing treatment chamber including an intermediate heating volume and an interior treatment volume. The interior treatment volume contains an electrode assembly for generating a plasma and the intermediate heating volume heats the interior treatment volume. A work piece is traversed through the treatment chamber. A process gas is introduced to the interior treatment volume of the treatment chamber. A plasma is formed with the electrode assembly from the process gas, wherein a reactive species of the plasma is accelerated towards the fiber tow by flow vortices produced in the interior treatment volume by the electrode assembly.

  15. Increased concentration of vasopressin in plasma of essential fatty acid-deficient rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Harald S.; Jensen, B.; Warberg, J.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of essential fatty acid deficiency (EFA-D) on the plasma concentration of arginine-vasopressin (AVP) and the urinary AVP excretion was investigated. Weanling rats were fed a fat-free diet (FF-rats). Control rats received the same diet in which 6% by wt. of sucrose was replaced by arachis...... oil. After 4-6 weeks of feeding, urine and plasma were analysed for AVP, osmolality, sodium and potassium. When compared to control rats FF-rats had decreased urine volume (6.0 ± 1.6 ml/24 hr versus 11.7 ± 3.2 ml/24 hr), increased urine osmolality (2409 ± 691 mOsm/kg versus 1260 ± 434 m...

  16. Efectos de la ingesta ad libitum de bebidas hidratantes sobre el peso corporal, la frecuencia cardíaca y el volumen plasmático durante una actividad física de alta intensidad y larga duración -Informe preliminar- Body weight, the heart rate, and the plasma volume during a high-intesity, long-duration run

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubiela Flórez Manrique

    2004-02-01

    , no ingieren la cantidad adecuada de líquidos para obtener los beneficios atribuidos a la hidratación. Objetive: to determine the amount of ad libitum intake of three rehydrating beverages of different osmolalities, and to establish their effects on the percentage of body weight loss, the increase of heart rate and the reduction of plasma volume, in nine subjects with aerobic training, during a highintensity,long-duration run. Methodology : the experiment was carried out on a treadmill with 1% of inclination that was kept constant throughout the procedure; it started with 9 minutes of warm-up at a speed equivalent to 59% of the reserve heart rate; then, 88 minutes of running divided in three intervals (29, 29, and 30 minutes at 80% of the reserve heart rate; finally, 90 minutes of recovery in three intervals of 30 minutes each. During the “dehydrated treatment” no fluid replacement was done; during the “Hydrating treatments” (H-I, H-II, H-III equivalent volumes were drunk of the aforementioned rehydrating beverages. Results: during the exercise period the fluid loss was 1.440 ml/h. In each one of the treatments there was a loss of body weight (p<0.001, an increase of heart rate (<0.05 and, except for HII and H-III, a reduction of plasma volume (p<0.05. There were no differences between the treatments in these three parameters. Conclusions: ad libitum intake was less than the amount internationally recommended; probably that explains that the effects of osmolality of the rehydrating beverages on the analyzed parameters could not be determined. These findings ought to motivate a review of the hydrating practices of our athletes because, seemingly, they are not ingesting an adequate amount of fluids to obtain the benefits attributed to hydration.

  17. Fusion following failed total ankle replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wünschel, Markus; Leichtle, Ulf G; Leichtle, Carmen I; Walter, Christian; Mittag, Falk; Arlt, Eva; Suckel, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    Although mid- to long-term results after total ankle replacement have improved because of available second- and third-generation devices, failure of total ankle replacement is still more common compared with total hip replacement and total knee replacement. The portfolio of available total ankle replacement revision component options is small. Furthermore, the bone stock of the tibiotalar region is scarce making it difficult and in some situations impossible to perform revision total ankle replacement. In these cases tibiotalar and tibiotalocalcaneal fusions are valuable options. This article describes which surgical procedures should be performed depending on the initial situation and gives detailed advice on surgical technique, postoperative care, and clinical results.

  18. Petroleum supply annual, 1997. Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1997 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Statistics; each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1997, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. 16 figs., 48 tabs.

  19. Petroleum supply annual 1998: Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    The ``Petroleum Supply Annual`` (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1998 through annual and monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Statistics; each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1998, and replaces data previously published in the PSA. The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. 16 figs., 59 tabs.

  20. Delivering enhanced testosterone replacement therapy through nanochannels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrati, Silvia; Nicolov, Eugenia; Bansal, Shyam; Zabre, Erika; Geninatti, Thomas; Ziemys, Arturas; Hudson, Lee; Ferrari, Mauro; Goodall, Randal; Khera, Mohit; Palapattu, Ganesh; Grattoni, Alessandro

    2015-02-18

    Primary or secondary hypogonadism results in a range of signs and symptoms that compromise quality of life and requires life-long testosterone replacement therapy. In this study, an implantable nanochannel system is investigated as an alternative delivery strategy for the long-term sustained and constant release of testosterone. In vitro release tests are performed using a dissolution set up, with testosterone and testosterone:2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (TES:HPCD) 1:1 and 1:2 molar ratio complexes release from the implantable nanochannel system and quantify by HPLC. 1:2 TES:HPCD complex stably achieve 10-15 times higher testosterone solubility with 25-30 times higher in vitro release. Bioactivity of delivered testosterone is verified by LNCaP/LUC cell luminescence. In vivo evaluation of testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) levels by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC/MS) and multiplex assay is performed in castrated Sprague-Dawley rats over 30 d. Animals are treated with the nanochannel implants or degradable testosterone pellets. The 1:2 TES:HPCD nanochannel implant exhibits sustained and clinically relevant in vivo release kinetics and attains physiologically stable plasma levels of testosterone, LH, and FSH. In conclusion, it is demonstrated that by providing long-term steady release 1:2 TES:HPCD nanochannel implants may represent a major breakthrough for the treatment of male hypogonadism.

  1. Plasma is a strategic resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strengers, Paul F W; Klein, Harvey G

    2016-12-01

    Plasma-derived medicinal products (PDMPs) such as immunoglobulins and clotting factors are listed by the World Health Organization as essential medicines. These and other PDMPs are crucial for the prophylaxis and treatment of patients with bleeding disorders, immune deficiencies, autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, and a variety of congenital deficiency disorders. While changes in clinical practice in developed countries have reduced the need for red blood cell transfusions thereby significantly reducing the collection volumes of whole blood and recovered plasma suitable for fractionation, the need for PDMPs worldwide continues to increase. The majority of plasma supplies for the manufacture of PDMPs is met by the US commercial plasma industry. However, geographic imbalance in the collection of plasma raises concerns that local disruptions of plasma supplies could result in regional and global shortages of essential PDMPs. Plasma, which fits the definition of a strategic resource, that is, "an economically important raw material which is subject to a higher risk of supply interruption," should be considered a strategic resource comparable to energy and drinking water. Plasma collections should be increased outside the United States, including in low- and middle-income countries. The need for capacity building in these countries is an essential part to strengthen quality plasma collection. This will require changes in national and regional policies. We advocate the need for the restoration of an equitable balance of the international plasma supply to reduce the risk of supply shortages worldwide. Strategic independence of plasma should be endorsed on a global level. © 2016 AABB.

  2. Influence of Renal Replacement Modalities on Amikacin Population Pharmacokinetics in Critically Ill Patients on Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger, Claire; Wallis, Steven C; Muller, Laurent; Saissi, Gilbert; Lipman, Jeffrey; Lefrant, Jean-Yves; Roberts, Jason A

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to describe amikacin pharmacokinetics (PK) in critically ill patients receiving equal doses (30 ml/kg of body weight/h) of continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH) and continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration (CVVHDF). Patients receiving amikacin and undergoing CVVH or CVVHDF were eligible. Population pharmacokinetic analysis and Monte Carlo simulation were undertaken using the Pmetrics software package for R. Sixteen patients (9 undergoing CVVH, 11 undergoing CVVHDF) and 20 sampling intervals were analyzed. A two-compartment linear model best described the data. Patient weight was the only covariate that was associated with drug clearance. The mean ± standard deviation parameter estimates were 25.2 ± 17.3 liters for the central volume, 0.89 ± 1.17 h(-1) for the rate constant for the drug distribution from the central to the peripheral compartment, 2.38 ± 6.60 h(-1) for the rate constant for the drug distribution from the peripheral to the central compartment, 4.45 ± 2.35 liters/h for hemodiafiltration clearance, and 4.69 ± 2.42 liters/h for hemofiltration clearance. Dosing simulations for amikacin supported the use of high dosing regimens (≥25 mg/kg) and extended intervals (36 to 48 h) for most patients when considering PK/pharmacodynamic (PD) targets of a maximum concentration in plasma (Cmax)/MIC ratio of ≥8 and a minimal concentration of ≤2.5 mg/liter at the end of the dosing interval. The mean clearance of amikacin was 1.8 ± 1.3 liters/h by CVVHDF and 1.3 ± 1 liters/h by CVVH. On the basis of simulations, a strategy of an extended-interval high loading dose of amikacin (25 mg/kg every 48 h) associated with therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) should be the preferred approach for aminoglycoside treatment in critically ill patients receiving continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). (This study is a substudy of a trial registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under number NCT01403220.). Copyright © 2016, American Society

  3. 液相色谱-串联质谱法测定微量人血浆中伏立康唑%LC-MS/MS determination of voriconazole in low-volume human plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晓华; 钟大放; 沈晓红; 陈笑艳

    2009-01-01

    AIM To develop and validate a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/ MS) method for quantification of voriconazole (VRC) only using 25 μL human plasma. METHODS Voriconazole and the internal standard, fluconazol, were isolated from 25 μL volume of plasma by liquid-liquid extraction with ether-dichloromethane (3 : 2, V : V), then chromatographed on a Zorbax Extend C_(18) column (150 mm × 4.6 mm I.D., 5 μm, USA) using a mobile phase of acetonitrile-water-formic acid (80 : 20 : 0.15, V : V : V) at a flow rate of 0.50 mL·min~(-1). A tandem mass spectrometer equipped with electrospray ionization source was used as detector and operated in positive ion mode. Quantification was performed using selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode of the transition of m/z 350→m/z (127 + 281) for VRC and m/z 307→m/z (220 + 238) for fluconazol (IS), respectively. RESULTS The complete elution was obtained in less than 4.5 min. The linear concentration ranges of the calibration curves for VRC was 5.00 - 5 000 μg · L~(-1). The lower limit of quantitation of VRC was 5.00 μg·L~(-1). The average extraction recovery was about 90% (RSD < 6.2%). The intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviations were less than 6.6%. CONCLUTION The method is accurate, sensitive, and simple for the pharmacokinetic or bioequivalence study of VRC. The accuracy was within (-1.1 - 1.8)%.%目的 建立一种快速、灵敏的液相色谱-串联质谱法(LC-MS/MS)测定微量人血浆中伏立康唑.方法 氟康唑为内标(IS),25μL血浆样品经乙醚-二氯甲烷(3:2,V:V)萃取,在Zorbax SB-C_(18)色谱柱(150 mm×4.6 mm LD.,5μm,USA)上分离,以乙腈-水-甲酸(80:20:0.15,V:V:V)为流动相.采用电喷雾电离源(ESI源),在正离子检测方式下,以选择反应监测模式进行定量分析,监测的离子反应分别为m/z 350→m/z(127+281)(伏立康唑)和m/z 307→m/z(220+238)(氟康唑).结果 本法伏立康唑的线性范围为5.00~5 000μg·L~(-1),定量下限为5

  4. Plasma waves

    CERN Document Server

    Swanson, DG

    1989-01-01

    Plasma Waves discusses the basic development and equations for the many aspects of plasma waves. The book is organized into two major parts, examining both linear and nonlinear plasma waves in the eight chapters it encompasses. After briefly discussing the properties and applications of plasma wave, the book goes on examining the wave types in a cold, magnetized plasma and the general forms of the dispersion relation that characterize the waves and label the various types of solutions. Chapters 3 and 4 analyze the acoustic phenomena through the fluid model of plasma and the kinetic effects. Th

  5. Plasma astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Kaplan, S A; ter Haar, D

    2013-01-01

    Plasma Astrophysics is a translation from the Russian language; the topics discussed are based on lectures given by V.N. Tsytovich at several universities. The book describes the physics of the various phenomena and their mathematical formulation connected with plasma astrophysics. This book also explains the theory of the interaction of fast particles plasma, their radiation activities, as well as the plasma behavior when exposed to a very strong magnetic field. The text describes the nature of collective plasma processes and of plasma turbulence. One author explains the method of elementary

  6. Radiology of total hip replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffiths, H.J.; Lovelock, J.E.; McCollister Evarts, C.; Geyer, D.

    1984-06-01

    The radiology of total hip replacement (THR) and its complications is reviewed in conjunction with a long-term follow-up study on 402 patients with 501 prostheses. The indications, contraindications, biomechanics, and operative management of these patients is discussed. Clinical complications such as deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, and hemorrhage are mentioned. Postoperative infections including granulomatous pseudotumors, dislocations and fractures, true loosening of the prosthesis, and heterotopic bone formation (HBF) are discussed and illustrated. The importance of differentiating the lucent line from true loosening is stressed. Mechanical and other clinical complications which are largely ignored by radiologists are also discussed. The uses of arthrography and bone scanning are included.

  7. [Proximal and total femur replacement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennekamp, P H; Wirtz, D C; Dürr, H R

    2012-07-01

    Reconstruction of segmental bone defects of the proximal femur following wide tumor resection or revision arthroplasty. Aggressive benign or primary malignant bone tumors of the proximal femur; destructive metastases; massive segmental bone defects of the proximal femur; periprosthetic fractures. Local infection; very short life expectancy (acetabular bone stock. Anterolateral approach. Exposure and detachment of the iliopsoas and gluteus medius muscle from the proximal femur with a sufficient safety margin to the bone; distal transsection of the vastus lateralis/intermedius and rectus femoris muscle according to the extraosseous tumor extension; distal femur osteotomy al least 3 cm beyond the farthest point of tumor extension; in case of total femur replacement, additional lateral arthrotomy of the knee with resection of the ligaments and menisci; reaming of the medullary canal after securing the shaft with a Verbrugge clamp; trial assembly and reduction followed by the definitive implantation of the prosthesis with adjustment of the femoral neck anteversion in 5° increments; soft tissue reconstruction and fixation to an attachment tube covering the prosthesis; in case of total femur replacement, the preparation of the tibia is followed by the coupling of the tibial and femoral components. Infection prophylaxis, 20 kg partial weight bearing, continuous passive motion. A total of 20  patients with proximal femur replacement and 2 patients with total femur replacement implanted between June 2007 and December 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Three patients had primary malignant bone tumors, while 19 patients underwent resection for metastatic disease. The mean age at surgery was 62.0 ± 18.1 years (18-82 years). Fifteen patients with a mean follow-up of 20.3 ± 17.2 months (4-51 months) were studied. Among the 22 cases, periprosthetic infection occurred in 3 patients (13.6%), dislocation in 2 patients (9.1%). Evaluation of the functional

  8. Collapse of nonlinear electron plasma waves in a plasma layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimalsky, V.; Koshevaya, S.; Rapoport, Yu; Kotsarenko, A.

    2016-10-01

    The excitation of nonlinear electron plasma waves in the plasma layer is investigated theoretically. This excitation is realized by means of initial oscillatory perturbations of the volume electron concentration or by initial oscillatory distributions of the longitudinal electron velocity. The amplitudes of the initial perturbations are small and the manifestation of the volume nonlinearity is absent. When the amplitudes of the initial perturbations exceed some thresholds, the values of the electron concentration near the plasma boundary increase catastrophically. The maxima of the electron concentration reach extremely high magnitudes, and sharp peaks in the electron concentration occur, which are localized both in the longitudinal and transverse directions. This effect is interpreted as wave collapse near the plasma boundary.

  9. Drug dosing during continuous renal replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchwell, Mariann D; Mueller, Bruce A

    2009-01-01

    Continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) has given clinicians an important option in the care of critically ill patients. The slow and continuous dialysate and ultrafiltrate flow rates that are employed with CRRT can yield drug clearances similar to an analogous glomerular filtration rate of the native kidneys. Advantages such as superior volume control, excellent metabolic control, and hemodynamic tolerance by critically ill patients are well documented, but an understanding of drug dosing for CRRT is still a bit of a mystery. Although some pharmaceutical companies have dedicated postmarket research in this direction, many pharmaceutical companies have chosen not to pursue this information as it is not mandated and represents a relatively small part of their market. This lack of valuable information has created many challenges in the care of the critically ill patient as intermittent hemodialysis drug dosing recommendations cannot be extrapolated to CRRT. This drug dosing review will highlight factors that clinicians should consider when determining a pharmacotherapy regimen for a patient receiving CRRT.

  10. B Plant process piping replacement feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howden, G.F.

    1996-02-07

    Reports on the feasibility of replacing existing embedded process piping with new more corrosion resistant piping between cells and between cells and a hot pipe trench of a Hanford Site style canyon facility. Provides concepts for replacement piping installation, and use of robotics to replace the use of the canyon crane as the primary means of performing/supporting facility modifications (eg, cell lining, pipe replacement, equipment reinstallation) and operational maintenenace.

  11. REMINDER REPLACEMENT OF FRENCH CARDS

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division; Cards.Service@cern.ch

    2001-01-01

    The French Ministry of Foreign Affairs is currently replacing all diplomatic cards, special cards and employment permits («attestations de fonctions») held by members of the personnel and their families. These cards are replaced by secure, computerized equivalents. The old cards may no longer be used after 31 December 2001. For the purposes of the handover, members of the personnel must go personally to the cards office (33/1-015) between 8h30 and 12h30, in order to fill in a «fiche individuelle» form, taking the following documents for themselves and members of their families already in possession of a French card : A recent identity photograph in 4.5 cm x 3.5 cm format, the French card in their possession, an A4 photocopy of the same French card, certified by the cards office as being a true copy. Those members of the personnel whose cards (and/or cards belonging to members of their families) are shortly due to expire, or have recently done so, are also requested...

  12. Total hip replacement in dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyls, Inge R A E; Rietveld, A B M Boni; Ourila, Tiia; Emerton, Mark E; Bird, H A

    2013-04-01

    A case report of a professional contemporary dancer who successfully returned to the stage after bilateral total hip replacements (THR) for osteoarthritis is presented, together with her own commentary and a retrospective cohort study of total hip replacements in dancers. In the presented cohort, there were no post-operative dislocations or infections, the original pain had been relieved, rehabilitation was objectively normal and all resumed their dance (teaching) activities. Nevertheless, they were disappointed about the prolonged rehabilitation. Due to their high demands as professional dancers, post-operative expectations were too optimistic in view of the usual quick and favourable results of THR in the older and less physically active, general population. In all dancers with unilateral osteoarthritis, the left hip was involved, which may reflect the tendency to use the left leg as standing leg and be suggestive that strenuous physical activity may lead to osteoarthritis. Better rehabilitation guidelines are needed for dancer patients undergoing THR, especially drawing their attention to realistic post-operative expectations.

  13. Properties of Cement Mortar Containing Rubber Ash as Sand Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syamir Senin, Mohamad; Shahidan, Shahiron; Syazani Leman, Alif; Izzati Raihan Ramzi Hannan, Nurul

    2016-11-01

    Discarded scrap tyres have become one of the major environmental problems nowadays. There has been increasing public worry about the mining of natural resources in recent years. In order to minimize the consumption of natural resources, rubber ash has been postulated as a potential material for partial replacement of sand in concrete materials especially for applications which are subjected to impact and vibration such as road and bridge construction. Thus, it contributes to the development of the construction industry in a sustainable way. This paper mainly emphasizes on the use of rubber ash from waste tyres in cement mortar. 100mm cubic specimens were produced by adding rubber ash volume ratios of 0%, 3%, 5% and 7% as sand replacement in M30 quality cement mortar. A compressive stress test and a density test were conducted at the end of 7, 14, and 28 days. The result shows that 5% is the optimum value for sand replacement in the cement mortar. Therefore, rubber ash is acceptable to be used as sand replacement.

  14. EDITORIAL: Plasma jets and plasma bullets Plasma jets and plasma bullets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, M. G.; Ganguly, B. N.; Hicks, R. F.

    2012-06-01

    technological solution in the early to late 1990s of confining atmospheric plasmas in a small volume of plasma generation (i.e. with a small volume-to-surface ratio) and then extending it towards a downstream sample [7]-[9]. These are among the first low-temperature atmospheric plasmas aimed particularly at the exploitation of their ability to invoke the active and rich reactive chemistry close to ambient temperature. The main applications of these early devices are precision surface modification of low-temperature dielectric materials, for example thin film deposition and etching [7]-[9]. Variations of the early plasma jets include atmospheric plasma sheet jets [10] for the treatment of largely planar objects (e.g. polymeric sheets) as well as large arrays of many plasma jets for the treatment of complex-structured objects (e.g. surgical tools and open human wounds) [11]. As a material processing technology, the sub-100oC atmospheric-pressure plasma jet has benefited over the years from many innovations. Whilst a detailed account and analysis of these is clearly outside the scope of this Editorial, it is worth stating that there are different avenues with which to maintain a moderate electron density at the plasma core so as to keep the gas temperature at the sample point below a ceiling level. Most of the early studies employed excitation at radio frequencies above 10 MHz, at which electrons are largely confined in the plasma generation region, and this limits the current flow to and gas heating in the plume region of the plasma jet. Other techniques of current limitation have since been shown to be effective, including the use of dielectric barriers across a very large frequency range of 1 kHz--50 MHz, sub-microsecond pulses sustained at kHz frequencies, pulse-modulated radio frequencies and dual-frequency excitation [12]-[15]. These and other techniques have considerably advanced the atmospheric-pressure plasma jet technology. The period of some 15 years since the above

  15. Electronegative Plasma Instabilities in Industrial Pulsed Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pribyl, Patrick; Hansen, Anders; Gekelman, Walter

    2016-10-01

    Electronegative gases that are important for industrial etch processes have a series of instabilities that occur at process relevant conditions. These have been studied since the 1990s, but are becoming a much more important today as plasma reactors are being pushed to produce ever finer features, and tight control of the etch process is becoming crucial. The experiments are being done in a plasma etch tool that closely simulates a working industrial device. ICP coils in different configurations are driven by a pulsed RF generators operating at 2-5 MHz. A computer controlled automated probe drive can access a volume above the substrate. The probe can be a Langmuir probe, a ``Bdot'' probe, or an emissive probe the latter used for more accurate determination of plasma potential. A microwave interferometer is available to measure line-averaged electron density. The negative ion instability is triggered depending upon the gas mix (Ar,SF6) , pressure and RF power. The instability can be ``burned through'' by rapidly pulsing the RF power. In this study we present measurements of plasma current and density distribution over the wafer before, after and during the rapid onset of the instability. Work suported by NSF-GOALI Award and done at the BAPSF.

  16. Renormalized Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gover, A. Rod; Waldron, Andrew

    2017-09-01

    We develop a universal distributional calculus for regulated volumes of metrics that are suitably singular along hypersurfaces. When the hypersurface is a conformal infinity we give simple integrated distribution expressions for the divergences and anomaly of the regulated volume functional valid for any choice of regulator. For closed hypersurfaces or conformally compact geometries, methods from a previously developed boundary calculus for conformally compact manifolds can be applied to give explicit holographic formulæ for the divergences and anomaly expressed as hypersurface integrals over local quantities (the method also extends to non-closed hypersurfaces). The resulting anomaly does not depend on any particular choice of regulator, while the regulator dependence of the divergences is precisely captured by these formulæ. Conformal hypersurface invariants can be studied by demanding that the singular metric obey, smoothly and formally to a suitable order, a Yamabe type problem with boundary data along the conformal infinity. We prove that the volume anomaly for these singular Yamabe solutions is a conformally invariant integral of a local Q-curvature that generalizes the Branson Q-curvature by including data of the embedding. In each dimension this canonically defines a higher dimensional generalization of the Willmore energy/rigid string action. Recently, Graham proved that the first variation of the volume anomaly recovers the density obstructing smooth solutions to this singular Yamabe problem; we give a new proof of this result employing our boundary calculus. Physical applications of our results include studies of quantum corrections to entanglement entropies.

  17. OPTIMUM ORDERING POLICY FOR PREVENTIVE AGE REPLACEMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Young T.PARK; Jing SUN

    2009-01-01

    Most of the spare ordering policies treated up to now have assumed that preventive and corrective replacement costs are equal, which implies in essential that there is no significant need for preventive replacement. This paper presents an ordering policy for preventive age replacement with minimal repair. Introducing the replacement, repair, inventory holding and shortage costs, the expected cost rate is derived. A procedure to determine jointly the ordering time for a spare and the preventive replacement time for the operating unit so as to minimize the expected cost rate is proposed. To explain the ordering policy and the optimization procedure, a numerical example is also included.

  18. ORO. The physical developer replacement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Michael A; James, Tim

    2009-12-01

    In the process of fingerprint development Physical Developer has been largely the method of choice on porous surfaces after coming into contact with wet environments. It is only recently that a new technique has been identified which could replace this standard technique. This study aims to build on previous research and expand knowledge regarding the technique. The study built on previous research and compared Physical Developer to Oil Red O, testing both on four paper types, while being placed in three different water types and an accelerant for various amounts of time. Marks were placed with both heavily 'loaded' sebaceous fingers and 'normal' un-washed fingers. Results show that Oil Red O consistently produced clearer more detailed marks from the 'loaded' fingers, but neither technique proved to work better on the 'normal' marks. Neither technique developed any prints from the accelerant.

  19. Optimal randomized scheduling by replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saias, I.

    1996-05-01

    In the replacement scheduling problem, a system is composed of n processors drawn from a pool of p. The processors can become faulty while in operation and faulty processors never recover. A report is issued whenever a fault occurs. This report states only the existence of a fault but does not indicate its location. Based on this report, the scheduler can reconfigure the system and choose another set of n processors. The system operates satisfactorily as long as, upon report of a fault, the scheduler chooses n non-faulty processors. We provide a randomized protocol maximizing the expected number of faults the system can sustain before the occurrence of a crash. The optimality of the protocol is established by considering a closely related dual optimization problem. The game-theoretic technical difficulties that we solve in this paper are very general and encountered whenever proving the optimality of a randomized algorithm in parallel and distributed computation.

  20. Controversies in hormone replacement therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baziad

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Deficiency of estrogen hormone will result in either long-term or short-term health problems which may reduce the quality of life. There are numerous methods by which the quality of female life can be achieved. Since the problems occuring are due to the deficiency of estrogen hormone, the appropriate method to tackle the problem is by administration of estrogen hormone. The administration of hormone replacement therapy (HRT with estrogen may eliminate climacteric complaints, prevent osteoporosis, coronary heart disease, dementia, and colon cancer. Although HRT has a great deal of advantage, its use is still low and may result in controversies. These controversies are due to fact that both doctor and patient still hold on to the old, outmoded views which are not supported by numerous studies. Currently, the use of HRT is not only based on experience, or temporary observation, but more on evidence based medicine. (Med J Indones 2001; 10: 182-6Keywords: controversies, HRT

  1. Replacement reactor to revolutionise magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Atkins, G

    2002-01-01

    Electric motors, hearing aids and magnetic resonance imaging are only some of the applications that will benefit from the first advances in magnets in a quarter of a century. Magnets achieve their characteristics when electrons align themselves to produce a unified magnetic field. Neutrons can probe these magnetic structures. The focus is not just on making more powerful magnets, but also identifying the characteristics that make magnets cheaper and easier for industry to manufacture. Staff from the ANSTO's Neutron Scattering Group have already performed a number of studies on the properties of magnets using using HIFAR, but the Replacement Research Reactor that will produce cold neutrons would allow scientists to investigate the atomic properties of materials with large molecules. A suite of equipment will enable studies at different temperatures, pressures and magnetic fields

  2. Renal replacement therapy in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noordzij, Marlies; Kramer, Anneke; Abad Diez, José M

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This article provides a summary of the 2011 ERA-EDTA Registry Annual Report (available at www.era-edta-reg.org). METHODS: Data on renal replacement therapy (RRT) for end-stage renal disease (ESRD) from national and regional renal registries in 30 countries in Europe and bordering the .......6-47.0], and on dialysis 39.3% (95% CI 39.2-39.4). The unadjusted 5-year patient survival after the first renal transplantation performed between 2002 and 2006 was 86.7% (95% CI 86.2-87.2) for kidneys from deceased donors and 94.3% (95% CI 93.6-95.0) for kidneys from living donors....

  3. Predictors of Renal Replacement Therapy in Acute Kidney Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Koziolek

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds: Criteria that may guide early renal replacement therapy (RRT initiation in patients with acute kidney injury (AKI currently do not exist. Methods: In 120 consecutive patients with AKI, clinical and laboratory data were analyzed on admittance. The prognostic power of those parameters which were significantly different between the two groups was analyzed by receiver operator characteristic curves and by leave-1-out cross validation. Results: Six parameters (urine albumin, plasma creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, daily urine output, fluid balance and plasma sodium were combined in a logistic regression model that estimates the probability that a particular patient will need RRT. Additionally, a second model without daily urine output was established. Both models yielded a higher accuracy (89 and 88% correct classification rate, respectively than the best single parameter, cystatin C (correct classification rate 74%. Conclusions: The combined models may help to better predict the necessity of RRT using clinical and routine laboratory data in patients with AKI.

  4. Leptin replacement improves cognitive development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto J Paz-Filho

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leptin changes brain structure, neuron excitability and synaptic plasticity. It also regulates the development and function of feeding circuits. However, the effects of leptin on neurocognitive development are unknown. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of leptin on neurocognitive development. METHODOLOGY: A 5-year-old boy with a nonconservative missense leptin gene mutation (Cys-to-Thr in codon 105 was treated with recombinant methionyl human leptin (r-metHuLeptin at physiologic replacement doses of 0.03 mg/kg/day. Cognitive development was assessed using the Differential Ability Scales (DAS, a measure of general verbal and nonverbal functioning; and selected subtests from the NEPSY, a measure of neuropsychological functioning in children. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Prior to treatment, the patient was morbidly obese, hypertensive, dyslipidemic, and hyperinsulinemic. Baseline neurocognitive tests revealed slower than expected rates of development (developmental age lower than chronological age in a majority of the areas assessed. After two years, substantial increases in the rates of development in most neurocognitive domains were apparent, with some skills at or exceeding expectations based on chronological age. We also observed marked weight loss and resolution of hypertension, dyslipidemia and hyperinsulinemia. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that replacement with r-metHuLeptin is associated with weight loss and changes in rates of development in many neurocognitive domains, which lends support to the hypothesis that, in addition to its role in metabolism, leptin may have a cognitive enhancing role in the developing central nervous system. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00659828.

  5. Surface Modification by Atmospheric Pressure Plasma for Improved Bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Thomas Scott

    An atmospheric pressure plasma source operating at temperatures below 150?C and fed with 1.0-3.0 volume% oxygen in helium was used to activate the surfaces of the native oxide on silicon, carbon-fiber reinforced epoxy composite, stainless steel type 410, and aluminum alloy 2024. Helium and oxygen were passed through the plasma source, whereby ionization occurred and ˜10 16 cm-3 oxygen atoms, ˜1015 cm -3 ozone molecules and ˜1016 cm-3 metastable oxygen molecules (O21Deltag) were generated. The plasma afterglow was directed onto the substrate material located 4 mm downstream. Surface properties of the plasma treated materials have been investigated using water contact angle (WCA), atomic force microscopy (AFM), infrared spectroscopy (IR), and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The work presented herein establishes atmospheric-pressure plasma as a surface preparation technique that is well suited for surface activation and enhanced adhesive bond strength in a variety of materials. Atmospheric plasma activation presents an environmentally friendly alternative to wet chemical and abrasive methods of surface preparation. Attenuated total internal reflection infrared spectroscopy was used to study the aging mechanism of the native oxide on silicon. During storage at ambient conditions, the water contact angle of a clean surface increased from composite, stainless steel type 410, and aluminum alloy 2024 was demonstrated with the atmospheric pressure helium-oxygen plasma. All surfaces studied were converted from a hydrophobic state with a water contact angle of 65° to 80° into a hydrophilic state with a water contact angle between 20° and 40° within 5 seconds of plasma exposure. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed that the carbon atoms on the carbon-fiber/epoxy composite were oxidized, yielding 17 atom% carboxylic acid groups, 10% ketones or aldehydes and 9% alcohols. Analysis of stainless steel and aluminum by XPS illustrate oxidation of the metal

  6. Apical Na+ permeability of frog skin during serosal Cl- replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibowich, S; DeLong, J; Civan, M M

    1988-05-01

    Gluconate substitution for serosal Cl- reduces the transepithelial short-circuit current (Isc) and depolarizes short-circuited frog skins. These effects could result either from inhibition of basolateral K+ conductance, or from two actions to inhibit both apical Na+ permeability (PapNa) and basolateral pump activity. We have addressed this question by studying whole-and split-thickness frog skins. Intracellular Na+ concentration (CcNa) and PapNa have been monitored by measuring the current-voltage relationship for apical Na+ entry. This analysis was conducted by applying trains of voltage pulses, with pulse durations of 16 to 32 msec. Estimates of PapNa and CcNa were not detectably dependent on pulse duration over the range 16 to 80 msec. Serosal Cl- replacement uniformly depolarized short-circuited tissues. The depolarization was associated with inhibition of Isc across each split skin, but only occasionally across the whole-thickness preparations. This difference may reflect the better ionic exchange between the bulk medium and the extracellular fluid in contact with the basolateral membranes, following removal of the underlying dermis in the split-skin preparations. PapNa was either unchanged or increased, and CcNa either unchanged or reduced after the anionic replacement. These data are incompatible with the concept that serosal Cl- replacement inhibits PapNa and Na,K-pump activity. Gluconate substitution likely reduces cell volume, triggering inhibition of the basolateral K+ channels, consistent with the data and conclusions of S.A. Lewis, A.G. Butt, M.J. Bowler, J.P. Leader and A.D.C. Macknight (J. Membrane Biol. 83:119-137, 1985) for toad bladder. The resulting depolarization reduces the electrical force favoring apical Na+ entry. The volume-conductance coupling serves to conserve volume by reducing K+ solute loss. Its molecular basis remains to be identified.

  7. Peramivir pharmacokinetics in two critically ill adults with 2009 H1N1 influenza A concurrently receiving continuous renal replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazan, Jose A; Bauer, Karri A; Hollister, Alan S; Shidham, Ganesh; Firstenberg, Michael S; Reed, Erica E; Mangino, Julie E; Goff, Debra A

    2010-10-01

    To determine the pharmacokinetics of intravenous peramivir-an investigational neuraminidase inhibitor for the treatment of 2009 H1N1 infection or nonsubtypable influenza A thought to be the 2009 H1N1 virus-in patients concurrently receiving continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT). Pharmacokinetic analysis. Critical care unit at a university-affiliated hospital. Two critically ill women with 2009 H1N1 influenza A treated with compassionate-use intravenous peramivir administered as a daily infusion of 600 mg over 30 minutes while receiving continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration (CVVHDF), a form of CRRT. Plasma samples were collected from the two patients before and 30 minutes after the fourth (first patient) and ninth (second patient) peramivir infusion to estimate minimum (C(min)) and maximum (C(max)) plasma concentrations, respectively. Two additional postinfusion concentrations were measured from each patient to estimate noncompartmental pharmacokinetic parameters of peramivir while receiving CVVHDF. In the two patients, respectively, C(min) was 2170 and 251 ng/ml, C(max) was 18,400 and 20,300 ng/ml, area under the plasma concentration-time curve from 0-24 hours (AUC(0-24)) was 178,000 and 94,400 ng·hour/ml, drug clearance was 56 and 106 ml/minutes, and plasma half-life was 7.6 and 3.7 hours. The volume of distribution adjusted for ideal body weight at steady state was 0.51 and 0.54 L/kg, respectively. The first patient had a slower peramivir plasma clearance compared with the second patient, but both patients had higher peramivir clearances as calculated from AUC(0-24) than those predicted by CRRT. Thus, the dosage of intravenous peramivir was appropriate in these patients. Additional pharmacokinetic data are needed to confirm these results and help guide dosing in patients receiving various forms of CRRT.

  8. Controlled fusion and plasma physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    This document presents the several speeches that took place during the 22nd European Physical Society conference on Controlled Fusion and Plasma Physics in Bournemouth, UK, between the 2nd and 7th July 1995. The talks deal with new experiments carried out on several tokamaks, particularly Tore Supra, concerning plasma confinement and fusion. Some information on specific fusion devices or tokamak devices is provided, as well as results of experiments concerning plasma instability. Separate abstracts were prepared for all the 31 papers in this volume. (TEC).

  9. Collective oscillations in a plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Akhiezer, A I; Polovin, R V; ter Haar, D

    2013-01-01

    International Series of Monographs in Natural Philosophy: Collective Oscillations in a Plasma, Volume 7 presents specific topics within the general field of radio waves propagation. This book contains five chapters that address the theory of linear oscillations in a plasma, the spectra of the eigen oscillations, and the mechanism of high-frequency heating. The opening chapters deal with the self-consistent fields; development of initial perturbation; dispersion permittivity tensor of a plasma in a magnetic field; effect of thermal motion of particles on low-frequency resonances; excitation of

  10. Plasma treatment of crane rails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Владислав Олександрович Мазур

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Crane operation results in wear and tear of rails and crane wheels. Renovation and efficiency of these details is therefore relevant. Modern technologies of wheels and rails restoration use surfacing or high-frequency currents treatment. Surface treatment with highly concentrated streams of energy- with a laser beam, plasma jet- is a promising direction.. It is proposed to increase the efficiency of crane rails by means of surface plasma treatment. The modes of treatment have been chosen.. Modelling of plasma jet thermal impact on a solid body of complex shape has been made. Plasma hardening regimes that meet the requirements of production have been defined. Structural transformation of the material in the crane rails on plasma treatment has been investigated. It has been concluded that for carbon and low alloy crane steels the plasma exposure zone is characterized by a high degree of hardened structure dispersion and higher hardness as compared to the hardness after high-frequency quenching. As this takes place phase transformations are both shift (in the upper zone of plasma influence and fluctuation (in the lower zone of the plasma. With high-speed plasma heating granular or lamellar pearlite mainly transforms into austenite. The level of service characteristics of hardened steel, which is achieved in this case is determined by the kinetics and completeness of pearlite → austenite transformation. For carbon and low alloy rail steels plasma hardening can replace bulk hardening, hardening by high-frequency currents, or surfacing. The modes for plasma treatment which make it possible to obtain a surface layer with a certain service characteristics have been defined

  11. [Extracorporeal renal replacement therapies in acute renal failure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, R M; Barenbrock, M; Teschner, M; Bahner, U

    2000-05-15

    The most serious forms of acute renal failure (ARF) are nowadays encountered in the intensive care unit (ICU), where up to 25% of new patients are reported to develop ARF. Lethality rates may reach 50 to 90% when the ARF is part of a multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. A multitude of extracorporeal procedures have been introduced into intensive care medicine. Applied with adequate skills and experience, most of these techniques will suffice to replace excretory renal function. However, because of low efficacy arterio-venous procedures (CAVH and CAVHD) have been abandoned for the veno-venous, pump-driven techniques (CVVH and CVVHD). Up to now, there is no consensus whether continuous or intermittent renal replacement therapy is more advantageous. In many cases, oliguric patients with circulatory instability will be treated by CVVH, even though there is no prospective study to show that in terms of outcome continuous treatment is superior to intermittent hemodialysis. It is equally conceivable to treat such patients with daily, prolonged (intermittent) hemodialysis. Apparently, the dose of replacement therapy, be it continuous filtration (36 to 48 l/24 h) or intermittent hemodialysis (daily 3 to 4 h) with a target BUN of less than 50 mg/dl, is more important than the modality of treatment. Moreover, there is good evidence that the use of biocompatible membranes (no complement- or leukocyte activation) is preferable and that with high-volume hemofiltration bicarbonate-containing replacement fluids should be used. However, despite all the technical advances, we firmly believe that the skills and the experience of those physicians and nurses who actually perform renal replacement therapy in the ICU are more important than the modality of treatment applied.

  12. Alfven Wave Tomography for Cold MHD Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    I.Y. Dodin; N.J. Fisch

    2001-09-07

    Alfven waves propagation in slightly nonuniform cold plasmas is studied by means of ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) nonlinear equations. The evolution of the MHD spectrum is shown to be governed by a matrix linear differential equation with constant coefficients determined by the spectrum of quasi-static plasma density perturbations. The Alfven waves are shown not to affect the plasma density inhomogeneities, as they scatter off of them. The application of the MHD spectrum evolution equation to the inverse scattering problem allows tomographic measurements of the plasma density profile by scanning the plasma volume with Alfven radiation.

  13. The physics of non-ideal plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Fortov, Vladimir E

    2000-01-01

    This book is devoted to the physical properties of nonideal plasma which is compressed so strongly that the effects of interparticle interactions govern the plasma behavior. The interest in this plasma was generated by the development of modern technologies and facilities whose operations were based on high densities of energy. In this volume, the methods of nonideal plasma generation and diagnostics are considered. The experimental results are given and the main theoretical models of nonideal plasma state are discussed. The problems of thermodynamics, electro-physics, optics and dynamic stabi

  14. Bovine Blood Constituents as Fat Replacers in Ham Pâté

    OpenAIRE

    Fabiana Ribeiro Viana; Carolina Schaper Bizzotto; Disney Ribeiro Dias; Oliveira,Afonso L.; Marialice Pinto Coelho Silvestre

    2004-01-01

    Some tests were carried out in this work with the aim of evaluating a partial replacement of fat in the raw batter of ham pâté by using bovine blood constituents, such as globin (GL), plasma (PL) or 1:1 globin and plasma (GP). Plasma was separated from red cells by blood centrifugation, and globin was extracted by the carboxymethylcellulose method. The salt-soluble protein content (SSP) and the binding properties including water holding capacity (WHC) and raw batter stability (RBS) were estim...

  15. Gene replacement in Penicillium roqueforti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goarin, Anne; Silar, Philippe; Malagnac, Fabienne

    2015-05-01

    Most cheese-making filamentous fungi lack suitable molecular tools to improve their biotechnology potential. Penicillium roqueforti, a species of high industrial importance, would benefit from functional data yielded by molecular genetic approaches. This work provides the first example of gene replacement by homologous recombination in P. roqueforti, demonstrating that knockout experiments can be performed in this fungus. To do so, we improved the existing transformation method to integrate transgenes into P. roqueforti genome. In the meantime, we cloned the PrNiaD gene, which encodes a NADPH-dependent nitrate reductase that reduces nitrate to nitrite. Then, we performed a deletion of the PrNiaD gene from P. roqueforti strain AGO. The ΔPrNiaD mutant strain is more resistant to chlorate-containing medium than the wild-type strain, but did not grow on nitrate-containing medium. Because genomic data are now available, we believe that generating selective deletions of candidate genes will be a key step to open the way for a comprehensive exploration of gene function in P. roqueforti.

  16. VNR CMS Pixel detector replacement

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    Joel Butler, spokesperson of the CMS collaboration explains how a team from many different partner institutes installed a new detector in CMS. This detector is the silicon pixel detector and they’ve been working on it for about five years, to replace one of our existing detectors. This detectors measures particles closer to the beam than any of the other components of this huge detector behind me. It gives us the most precise picture of tracks as they come out of the collisions and expand and travel through the detector. This particular device has twice as many pixels, 120 million, as opposed to about 68 million in the old detector and it can take data faster and pump it out to the analysis more quickly. 00’53’’ Images of the descent, insertion and installation of first piece of the Pixel detector on Tue Feb 28. Images of the descent, insertion and installation of second piece of the Pixel and the two cylinders being joined.

  17. Orthogonal Matching Pursuit with Replacement

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Prateek; Dhillon, Inderjit S

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the problem of compressed sensing where the goal is to recover almost all the sparse vectors using a small number of fixed linear measurements. For this problem, we propose a novel partial hard-thresholding operator that leads to a general family of iterative algorithms. While one extreme of the family yields well known hard thresholding algorithms like ITI (Iterative Thresholding with Inversion) and HTP (Hard Thresholding Pursuit), the other end of the spectrum leads to a novel algorithm that we call Orthogonal Matching Pursuit with Replacement (OMPR). OMPR, like the classic greedy algorithm OMP, adds exactly one coordinate to the support at each iteration, based on the correlation with the current residual. However, unlike OMP, OMPR also removes one coordinate from the support. This simple change allows us to prove that OMPR has the best known guarantees for sparse recovery in terms of the Restricted Isometry Property (a condition on the measurement matrix). In contrast, OMP is kn...

  18. Visual Image Sensor Organ Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maluf, David A.

    2014-01-01

    This innovation is a system that augments human vision through a technique called "Sensing Super-position" using a Visual Instrument Sensory Organ Replacement (VISOR) device. The VISOR device translates visual and other sensors (i.e., thermal) into sounds to enable very difficult sensing tasks. Three-dimensional spatial brightness and multi-spectral maps of a sensed image are processed using real-time image processing techniques (e.g. histogram normalization) and transformed into a two-dimensional map of an audio signal as a function of frequency and time. Because the human hearing system is capable of learning to process and interpret extremely complicated and rapidly changing auditory patterns, the translation of images into sounds reduces the risk of accidentally filtering out important clues. The VISOR device was developed to augment the current state-of-the-art head-mounted (helmet) display systems. It provides the ability to sense beyond the human visible light range, to increase human sensing resolution, to use wider angle visual perception, and to improve the ability to sense distances. It also allows compensation for movement by the human or changes in the scene being viewed.

  19. [Animal experiment, can we replace?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combrisson, H

    2017-09-01

    Animal experiment is a subject of controversies. Some people, defenders of animals, think that it is not acceptable to use for scientific purposes at the risk of making them suffer or assert that the results obtained with animals are not transposable in the human beings. Others, in particular researchers in biology or medicine, think that the animal models are essential for the biomedical search. This confrontation of the opinions bases largely on an evolution of the place of animals in our society. The regulations authorize the use of animals for scientific purposes but oblige to make it under restrictive conditions. The application of 3Rs - replacement, reduction, and refinement - expressed in 1959 by Russel and Burch is an ethical guide to improve the welfare of animals in research. The alternative methods do not allow, in the present state of the knowledge, to answer all the scientific questions in biology and medicine research. They are, most of the time, complementary methods of the in vivo methods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) replacement decreases insulin resistance and lowers inflammatory cytokines in aging humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Edward P; Villareal, Dennis T; Fontana, Luigi; Han, Dong-Ho; Holloszy, John O

    2011-05-01

    Plasma dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) decreases ~80% between ages 25 and 75 yr. In a preliminary study, we found that 6 mo of DHEA replacement improved insulin action in elderly individuals. The purpose of the present larger, randomized double-blind study was to determine whether a longer period of DHEA replacement improves glucose tolerance. Fifty-seven men and 68 women aged 65 to 75 yr were randomly assigned to 50 mg DHEA or placebo once daily. Year one was a randomized, double blind trial. Year 2 was an open label continuation. DHEA replacement improved glucose tolerance in participants who had abnormal GT initially, reduced plasma triglycerides, and the inflammatory cytokines IL6 and TNFα.

  1. Epidural anesthesia, hypotension, and changes in intravascular volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holte, Kathrine; Foss, Nicolai B; Svensén, Christer

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The most common side effect of epidural or spinal anesthesia is hypotension with functional hypovolemia prompting fluid infusions or administration of vasopressors. Short-term studies (20 min) in patients undergoing lumbar epidural anesthesia suggest that plasma volume may increase when...... hypotension is present, which may have implications for the choice of treatment of hypotension. However, no long-term information or measurements of plasma volumes with or without hypotension after epidural anesthesia are available. METHODS: In 12 healthy volunteers, the authors assessed plasma (125I...... receiving hydroxyethyl starch. RESULTS: Plasma volume did not change per se after thoracic epidural anesthesia despite a decrease in blood pressure. Plasma volume increased with fluid administration but remained unchanged with vasopressors despite that both treatments had similar hemodynamic effects...

  2. Ponderomotive manipulation of cold subwavelength plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Smorenburg, P W; Luiten, O J

    2012-01-01

    Ponderomotive forces (PFs) induced in cold subwavelength plasmas by an externally applied electromagnetic wave are studied analytically. To this end, the plasma is modeled as a sphere with a radially varying permittivity, and the internal electric fields are calculated by solving the macroscopic Maxwell equations using an expansion in Debye potentials. It is found that the PF is directed opposite to the plasma density gradient, similarly to large-scale plasmas. In case of a uniform density profile, a residual spherically symmetric compressive PF is found, suggesting possibilities for contactless ponderomotive manipulation of homogeneous subwavelength objects. The presence of a surface PF on discontinuous plasma boundaries is derived. This force is essential for a microscopic description of the radiation-plasma interaction consistent with momentum conservation. It is shown that the PF integrated over the plasma volume is equivalent to the radiation pressure exerted on the plasma by the incident wave. The conce...

  3. Plasma Antenna

    OpenAIRE

    N M Vijay

    2014-01-01

    The fundamental base of plasma antenna is the use of an ionized medium as a conductor. The plasma antenna is a radiofrequency antenna formed by a plasma columns, Filaments or sheets, which are excited by a surface wave. The relevance of this device is how rapidly it can be turned on and off, only applying an electrical pulse. Besides its wide carrier frequency, the great directivity and controllable antenna shape. Otherwise a disadvantage is that it needs energy to be ionized....

  4. Biology of tooth replacement in amniotes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John A Whitlock; Joy M Richman

    2013-01-01

    Tooth replacement is a common trait to most vertebrates, including mammals. Mammals, however, have lost the capacity for continuous tooth renewal seen in most other vertebrates, and typically have only 1–2 generations of teeth. Here, we review the mechanisms of tooth replacement in reptiles and mammals, and discuss in detail the current and historical theories on control of timing and pattern of tooth replacement and development.

  5. High Phenobarbital Clearance During Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenborg, Staffan; Saraste, Lars; Wide, Katarina

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Phenobarbital is an old antiepileptic drug used in severe epilepsy. Despite this, little is written about the need for dose adjustments in renal replacement therapy. Most sources recommend a moderately increased dose guided by therapeutic drug monitoring. A 14 year old boy with nonketotic hyperglycinemia, a rare inborn error of metabolism, characterized by high levels of glycine, epilepsy, spasticity, and cognitive impairment, was admitted to the emergency department with respiratory failure after a few days of fever and cough. The boy was unconscious at admittance and had acute renal and hepatic failure. Due to the acute respiratory infection, hypoxic hepatic and renal failure occurred and the patient had a status epilepticus. The patient was intubated and mechanically ventilated. Continuous renal replacement therapy was initiated. Despite increased phenobarbital doses, therapeutic levels were not reached until the dose was increased to 500 mg twice daily. Therapeutic drug monitoring was performed in plasma and dialysate. Calculations revealed that phenobarbital was almost freely dialyzed. Correct dosing of drugs in patients on renal replacement therapy may need a multidisciplinary approach and guidance by therapeutic drug monitoring. PMID:25101986

  6. Aortic valve replacement in octogenarians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dark John H

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and Aims As our population ages and life expectancy increases the number of people aged over 80 and more referred for cardiac surgery is growing. This study sought to identify the outcome of aortic valve replacement (AVR in octogenarians. Methods 68 patients aged 80 years or more underwent AVR at the Freeman Hospital, between April 2001 and April 2004. A retrospective review of the notes and outcomes from the patients' GP and the NHS strategic tracking service was performed. 54% (37 underwent isolated AVR whilst 46% (31 underwent combined AVR and CABG. Results Follow up was 100% complete. The mean age was 83.1 ± s.d. 2.9 years, a mean gradient of 83 ± s.d. 31 mmHg and mean AVA of 0.56 cm2. The mean additive EuroSCORE was 8.6 ± s.d. 1.2, the logistic EuroSCORE mean 12.0 ± s.d. 5.9. In hospital 30 day mortality was 13 %. Survival was 80% at 1 year and 78% at 2 years. Median follow up was for 712 days. Stepwise logistic regression identified chronic obstructive airways disease as an independent predictor of mortality (p Conclusion Our study demonstrates that the operative mortality for AVR in the over eighties is good, whilst the mid to long term outcome is excellent There is a very low attrition rate with those undergoing the procedure living as long than their age matched population. This study confirms AVR is a safe, acceptable treatment for octogenarians with excellent mid term outcomes.

  7. Menopause and hormone replacement therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Baziad

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The global population in the 21st century has reached 6.2 billion people, by the year 2025 it is to be around 8.3-8.5 billion, and will increase further. Elderly people are expected to grow rapidly than other groups. The fastest increase in the elderly population will take place in Asia. Life expectancy is increasing steadily throughout developed and developing countries. For many  menopausal women, increased life expectancy will accompanied by many health problems. The consequences of estrogen deficiency are the menopausal symptoms. The treatment of menopause related complaints and diseases became an  important socioeconomic and medical issue. Long term symptoms, such as the increase in osteoporosis fractures, cardio and cerebrovascular disesses and dementia, created a large financial burden on individuals and society. All these health problems can be lreated or prevented by hormone replacement therapy (HRT. Natural HRT is usually prefened. Synthetic  estrogen in oral contraceptives (oc are not recommended for HRT. Many contra-indications for oc, but now it is widely usedfor HRT. The main reasons for discontinuing HRT are unwanted bleeding, fear of cancer, and negative side effects. Until now there are sill debates about the rebrtonship between HRT and the incidence of breast cancer. Many data showed that there were no clear relationship between the use of HRT and breast cancer. ThereÎore, nwny experts advocate the use of HRTfrom the first sign of climacteric complaints until death. (Med J Indones 2001;10: 242-51Keywords: estrogen deficiency, climacteric phases, tibolone.

  8. Total joint replacement preadmission programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messer, B

    1998-01-01

    Patients begin to formulate their expectations of the postoperative hospitalization during the preadmission program. The challenge is to better understand the factors patients consider when formulating judgments about the quality of preadmission education. For example, it may be that perceptions of the preadmission program are influenced by what patients believe about their postoperative pain and functional abilities. Specific attention needs to be given both preoperatively and postoperatively to instructing patients on realistic expectations for recovery. One other method of measuring patient outcomes is with the Health Status Profile (SF-36) (Response Healthcare Information Management, 1995). The SF-36 approach emphasizes the outcome of medical care as the patient sees it, in addition to a clinical evaluation of successful health care. This form is currently initiated in the physician's office and returned for scanning at the preadmission class. The patient then completes another SF-36 at 6 months and every year thereafter to compare measurable outcomes. Patients intending to have elective total joint replacements experience anxiety and require much support and education. An effective preadmission program is a major investment in a patient's recovery, as well as a unique marketing tool to customers. Preadmission programs can be viewed as an opportunity to enhance customer satisfaction. Preadmission clinics are an excellent means for nurses to improve the quality of patient care through patient education. the overall goal of preadmission testing programs is to ensure patient preparedness while increasing quality health care and overall customer satisfaction. To enhance program effectiveness, health care providers must lead collaborative efforts to improve the efficiency of systems.

  9. Synthesis of Diamond Films with Pulsed Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-01

    Diamond and Diamond-Like Films, The Electrochemical Society , Los Angeles, California, Volume 89-12, 114, May 1989. M. Aklufi and D. Brock, "Synthesis Of...Diamond Films By Microwave Generated Pulsed Plasmas," Proceedings of The Second International Symposium On Diamond Materials, The Electrochemical Society , Washington, DC, Volume 91-8, ’ 39, May 1991.

  10. Substituição do Milho pela Farinha de Mandioca de Varredura em Dietas de Cabras em Lactação: Fermentação Ruminal e Concentrações de Uréia Plasmática e no Leite Replacement of Corn by Cassava By-Product Meal in the Lactating Goat Diets: Effects on Diet Degradability, Ruminal Fermentation and Plasma and Milk Urea Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Fernanda Mouro

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da substituição do milho pela farinha de mandioca de varredura, em dietas de cabras Saanen em lactação, sobre a degradabilidade potencial, efetiva e efetiva corrigida das rações, bem como sobre o pH ruminal e as concentrações de amônia ruminal, uréia plasmática e uréia no leite em cabras em lactação. Foram utilizadas quatro cabras há 100 dias em lactação. O delineamento utilizado foi o quadrado latino 4 x4, em que os tratamentos consistiram em níveis de 0, 33, 67 e 100% de substituição do milho pela farinha de mandiocade varredura. A degradabilidade das rações experimentais foi determinada em bovinos pela técnica in situ. Apesar de a degradabilidade potencial das dietas experimentais ter tido pequena variação para MS, PB e amido, a degradabilidade efetiva e a degradabilidade efetiva corrigida da MS, da PB e do amido aumentaram com a substituição do milho pela farinha de varredura de mandioca. Os tratamentos não influenciaram o pH ruminal, bem como as concentrações de NH3-ruminal, uréia plasmática e uréia do leite. Houve correlação positiva (PThe objectives of this work were to evaluate effects of replacing corn by cassava by-product meal, in diets of Saanen lactating goats, on potencial, effective and corrected effective degradability of diets with steers, and on ruminal pH and ruminal ammonia, plasma urea nitrogen (PUN and milk urea nitrogen (MUN concentrations in lactating goats. Two steers and four multiparous goats fitted with ruminal cannula and 100 days in milking were used. The design was a 4 x 4 Latin square and treatments as following: 0, 33, 67 and 100% replacement of corn by cassava by-product meal. Rations degradability was determined using in situ technique. Potential degradability of experimental diets showed small variation for dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP and starch (S but effective and corrected effective degradability increased as corn was

  11. Atomic processes in optically thin plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaastra, Jelle S.; Gu, Liyi; Mao, Junjie; Mehdipour, Missagh; Raassen, Ton; Urdampilleta, Igone

    2016-10-01

    The Universe contains a broad range of plasmas with quite different properties depending on distinct physical processes. In this contribution we give an overview of recent developments in modeling such plasmas with a focus on X-ray emission and absorption. Despite the fact that such plasmas have been investigated already for decades, and that overall there is a good understanding of the basic processes, there are still areas, where improvements have to be made that are important for the analysis of astrophysical plasmas. We present recent work on the update of atomic parameters in the codes that describe the emission from collisional plasmas, where older approximations are being replaced now by more accurate data. Further we discuss the development of models for photo-ionised plasmas in the context of outflows around supermassive black holes and models for charge transfer that are needed for analyzing the data from the upcoming ASTRO-H satellite.

  12. Paper-based plasma sanitizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jingjin; Chen, Qiang; Suresh, Poornima; Roy, Subrata; White, James F.; Mazzeo, Aaron D.

    2017-05-01

    This work describes disposable plasma generators made from metallized paper. The fabricated plasma generators with layered and patterned sheets of paper provide a simple and flexible format for dielectric barrier discharge to create atmospheric plasma without an applied vacuum. The porosity of paper allows gas to permeate its bulk volume and fuel plasma, while plasma-induced forced convection cools the substrate. When electrically driven with oscillating peak-to-peak potentials of ±1 to ±10 kV, the paper-based devices produced both volume and surface plasmas capable of killing microbes. The plasma sanitizers deactivated greater than 99% of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and greater than 99.9% of Escherichia coli cells with 30 s of noncontact treatment. Characterization of plasma generated from the sanitizers revealed a detectable level of UV-C (1.9 nWṡcm-2ṡnm-1), modest surface temperature (60 °C with 60 s of activation), and a high level of ozone (13 ppm with 60 s of activation). These results deliver insights into the mechanisms and suitability of paper-based substrates for active antimicrobial sanitization with scalable, flexible sheets. In addition, this work shows how paper-based generators are conformable to curved surfaces, appropriate for kirigami-like “stretchy” structures, compatible with user interfaces, and suitable for sanitization of microbes aerosolized onto a surface. In general, these disposable plasma generators represent progress toward biodegradable devices based on flexible renewable materials, which may impact the future design of protective garments, skin-like sensors for robots or prosthetics, and user interfaces in contaminated environments.

  13. Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mylotte, Darren; Osnabrugge, Ruben L J; Windecker, Stephan;

    2013-01-01

    The authors sought to examine the adoption of transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) in Western Europe and investigate factors that may influence the heterogeneous use of this therapy.......The authors sought to examine the adoption of transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) in Western Europe and investigate factors that may influence the heterogeneous use of this therapy....

  14. Role of thrombus precursor protein in assessment of anticoagulation in patients with atrial fibrillation after mechanical heart valve replacement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦川; 肖颖彬; 陈林; 王学锋; 钟前进

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To explore the role of thrombus precursor protein (TpP) in assessment of anticoagulation and predict the risk of thromboembolism in the patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) after mechanical heart valve replacement. Methods: TpP plasma concentration and international normalization ratio (INR) were measured in 45 patients with atrial fibrillation and 45 patients with sinus rhythm both after mechanical heart valve replacement. Twenty patients with non-valvular heart diseases were selected as the control. Furthermore, the patients with AF were divided into groups based on different TpP plasma concentration and TpP plasma concentration and INR were analyzed. Results: After mechanical heart valve replacement, those with AF had higher TpP plasma concentration than those with sinus rhythm. It was found that discordancy existed between INR and TpP plasma concentration in the patients with AF. There were 28 AF patients with TpP plasma concentration lower than 6 μg/ml and without bleeding, who might be at the optimal anticoagulant state. The 95% confidence of the mean INR value was 1.90-2.30 in these patients and TpP plasma concentration was between 2.84-5.74 μg/ml. Conclusion: Patients with AF might face higher risk of thromboembolism after mechanical valve replacement; INR between 1.90-2.30 and TpP plasma concentration between 2.84-6 μg/ml might be the optimal anticoagulant range for patients with AF after mechanical valve replacement.

  15. Renormalized Volume

    CERN Document Server

    Gover, A Rod

    2016-01-01

    For any conformally compact manifold with hypersurface boundary we define a canonical renormalized volume functional and compute an explicit, holographic formula for the corresponding anomaly. For the special case of asymptotically Einstein manifolds, our method recovers the known results. The anomaly does not depend on any particular choice of regulator, but the coefficients of divergences do. We give explicit formulae for these divergences valid for any choice of regulating hypersurface; these should be relevant to recent studies of quantum corrections to entanglement entropies. The anomaly is expressed as a conformally invariant integral of a local Q-curvature that generalizes the Branson Q-curvature by including data of the embedding. In each dimension this canonically defines a higher dimensional generalization of the Willmore energy/rigid string action. We show that the variation of these energy functionals is exactly the obstruction to solving a singular Yamabe type problem with boundary data along the...

  16. Right ventricular Hemodynamic Alteration after Pulmonary Valve Replacement in Children with Congenital Heart Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Bigdelian

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:  In patients who underwent surgery to repair Tetralogy of Fallot, right ventricular dilation from pulmonary regurgitation may be result in right ventricular failure, arrhythmias and cardiac arrest. Hence, pulmonary valve replacement may be necessary to reduce right ventricular volume overload. The aim of present study was to assess the effects of pulmonary valve replacement on right ventricular function after repair of Tetralogy of Fallot.   Materials and  Method:  This retrospective study was carried out between July 2011 and October 2013 on 21 consecutive patients in Chamran Heart Center (Esfahan. The study included 13 male (61.9% and 8 female (38.1%. Cardiac magnetic resonance was performed before, 6 and 12 months after pulmonary valve replacement in all patients (Babak Imaging Center, Tehran with the 1.5 Tesla system. The main reason for surgery at Tetralogy of Fallot repaired time was Tetralogy of Fallot + Pulmonary insufficiency (17 cases and Tetralogy of Fallot + Pulmonary atresia (4 cases. Right ventricular function was assessed before and after pulmonary valve replacement with Two-dimensional echocardiography and ttest was used to evaluate follow-up data.   Results:  Right ventricular end-diastolic volume, right ventricular end- systolic volume significantly decreased (P value ˂ 0.05.Right ventricular ejection fraction had a significant increase (P value ˂ 0.05. Right ventricular mass substantially shrank after pulmonary valve replacement. Moreover, pulmonary regurgitation noticeably decreased in patients. The other hemodynamic parameter such as left ventricular ejection fraction improved but was not significant (P value= 0.79. Conclusion:  Pulmonary valve replacement can successfully restores the impaired hemodynamic function of right ventricle which is caused by direct consequence of volume unloading in patient. Pulmonary valve surgery in children with Tetralogy of Fallot who have moderate to severe pulmonary

  17. Complex and Dusty Plasmas From Laboratory to Space

    CERN Document Server

    Fortov, Vladimir E

    2009-01-01

    Dusty or complex plasmas are plasmas containing solid or liquid charged particles referred to as dust. Naturally occurring in space, on earth dust plays a key role in plasma applications associated with etching technologies in microelectronics. International in scope, this volume covers theoretical and application research.

  18. Replacing lactose from calf milk replacers : effects on digestion and post-absorptive metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert, M.S.

    2015-01-01

    Summary PhD thesis Myrthe S. Gilbert Replacing lactose from calf milk replacers – Effects on digestion and post-absorptive metabolism Veal calves are fed milk replacer (MR) and solid feed. The largest part of the energy provided to veal calves originates from

  19. Aortic valve replacement with the Nicks annulus enlargement procedure 12 years after mitral valve replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazama, S; Kurata, A; Yamashita, Y

    1999-10-01

    An aortic valve replacement was successfully performed employing the Nicks annulus enlargement procedure in a case of aortic valve stenosis with small annulus 12 years after mitral valve replacement. Previous mitral valve replacement does not preclude feasibility of the Nicks procedure.

  20. Rapid Deployment Aortic Replacement (RADAR) Registry in Spain: a protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cal-Purriños, Natalia; Arribas-Leal, Jose M; Carnero-Alcazar, Manuel; Gutierrez-Diez, Jose F; Cuenca-Castillo, Jose J

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Rapid deployment valves (RDV) represent a newly introduced approach to aortic valve replacement which facilitates surgical implantation and minimally invasive techniques, shortens surgical times and shows excellent haemodynamic performance. However, evidence on their safety, efficacy and potential complications is mostly fitted with small-volume and retrospective studies. Moreover, no current guidelines exist. To improve our knowledge on this technology, The Rapid Deployment Aortic Replacement (RADAR) Registry will be established across Spain with the aim of assessing RDV outcomes in the real-world setting. Methods and analysis The RADAR Registry is designed as a product registry that would provide information on its use and outcomes in clinical practice. This multicentre, prospective, national effort will initially involve 4 centres in Spain. Any patient undergoing cardiac surgery for aortic valve replacement and receiving an RDV as an isolated operation or in combination with other cardiac procedures may be included. Participation is voluntary. Data collection is equal to information obtained during standard care and is prospectively entered by the participating physicians perioperatively and during subsequent follow-up visits. The primary outcome assessed is in-hospital and up to 5 years of follow-up, prosthetic valve functioning and clinical status. Secondary outcomes are to perform subgroup analysis, to compare outcomes with other existing approaches and to develop future clinical guidelines. The follow-up assessments are timed with routine clinical appointments. Dissociated data will be extracted and collectively analysed. Initial target sample size for the registry is 500 participants entered with complete follow-up information. Different substudies will be implemented within the registry to investigate specific populations undergoing aortic valve replacement. Ethics and dissemination The protocol is approved by all local institutional ethics

  1. Arterial hypertension in cirrhosis: arterial compliance, volume distribution, and central haemodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Fuglsang, S; Bendtsen, F;

    2006-01-01

    were 130 normotensive cirrhotic patients, 19 controls with normal arterial blood pressure and without liver disease, and 16 patients with essential arterial hypertension. All groups underwent haemodynamic investigation with determination of cardiac output (CO), plasma volume (PV), central blood volume...

  2. Plasma chromograninx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goetze, Jens P; Hilsted, Linda M; Rehfeld, Jens F

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular risk assessment remains difficult in elderly patients. We examined whether chromogranin A (CgA) measurement in plasma may be valuable in assessing risk of death in elderly patients with symptoms of heart failure in a primary care setting. A total of 470 patients (mean age 73 years......) were followed for 10 years. For CgA plasma measurement, we used a two-step method including a screening test and a confirmative test with plasma pre-treatment with trypsin. Cox multivariable proportional regression and receiver-operating curve (ROC) analyses were used to assess mortality risk...... of follow-up showed significant additive value of CgA confirm measurements compared with NT-proBNP and clinical variables. CgA measurement in the plasma of elderly patients with symptoms of heart failure can identify those at increased risk of short- and long-term mortality....

  3. Plasma Cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintze, Paul E.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Kennedy Space Center has developed two solvent-free precision cleaning techniques: plasma cleaning and supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2), that has equal performance, cost parity, and no environmental liability, as compared to existing solvent cleaning methods.

  4. Oral nutrition or water loading before hip replacement surgery; a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljunggren Stefan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surgery induces insulin resistance that might be alleviated by a nutritional drink given preoperatively. The authors hypothesized that some of the beneficial effects of the drink could be attributed to the volume component (approximately 1 L rather than to the nutrients. Methods Sixty patients scheduled for elective total hip replacement under spinal anesthesia were recruited to a clinical trial, and randomly allocated to preoperative fasting, to oral ingestion of tap water, or to oral ingestion of a carbohydrate drink. An intravenous glucose tolerance test calculated glucose clearance and insulin sensitivity on the day before surgery, in the postoperative ward, and on the day after surgery. Other parameters were stress (cortisol in plasma and urine, muscle catabolism (urinary 3-methylhistidine, and wellbeing. Results Fifty-seven patients completed the study. In the postoperative ward, the glucose clearance and the insulin response had decreased from the previous day by 23% and 36%, respectively. Insulin sensitivity did not decrease until the next morning (−48% and was due to an increased insulin response (+51%. Cortisol excretion was highest on the day of surgery, while 3-methylhistidine increased 1 day later. Follow-up on the third postoperative day showed an average of 1.5 complications per patient. Wellbeing was better 2 weeks after than before the surgery. None of the measured parameters differed significantly between the study groups. Conclusions Preoperative ingestion of tap water or a nutritional drink had no statistically significant effect on glucose clearance, insulin sensitivity, postoperative complications, or wellbeing in patients undergoing elective hip surgery. Trial registration Registration number: NCT 01211184 (http://www.clinicaltrials.gov

  5. Conceptual Design Plan SM-43 Replacement Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    University of California, Los Alamos National Laboratory, SCC Project Office

    2000-11-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory Conceptual Design Plan for the SM-43 Replacement Project outlines plans for replacing the SM-43 Administration Building. Topics include the reasons that replacement is considered a necessity; the roles of the various project sponsors; and descriptions of the proposed site and facilities. Also covered in this proposal is preliminary information on the project schedule, cost estimates, acquisition strategy, risk assessment, NEPA strategy, safety strategy, and safeguards and security. Spreadsheets provide further detail on space requirements, project schedules, and cost estimates.

  6. Percutaneous tricuspid valve replacement in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias Emmel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Percutaneous replacement of the tricuspid valve with a bovine jugular venous valve (melody valve was successfully undertaken in a 9-year-old boy. The patient had a previous history of bacterial endocarditis of the native tricuspid valve in infancy. Initially, a pericardial patch valve was created, followed by surgical replacement of the valve using a biological tissue valve at 4 years of age. Progressive stenosis and regurgitation of the biological valve, with severe venous congestion and resulting hepatic dysfunction prompted percutaneous valve replacement.

  7. Plasma and Plasma Protein Product Transfusion: A Canadian Blood Services Centre for Innovation Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, Michelle P; Al-Habsi, Khalid S; Golder, Mia; Walsh, Geraldine M; Sheffield, William P

    2015-07-01

    worlds of transfusable plasma, plasma protein products, and recombinant and engineered replacements.

  8. Magnetic stresses in ideal MHD plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, V.O.

    1995-01-01

    and it is shown that the resulting magnetic forces on a finite volume element can be obtained by integrating the magnetic stresses over the surface of the element. The concept is used to rederive and discuss the equilibrium conditions for axisymmetric toroidal plasmas, including the virial theorem......The concept of magnetic stresses in ideal MHD plasma theory is reviewed and revisited with the aim of demonstrating its advantages as a basis for calculating and understanding plasma equilibria. Expressions are derived for the various stresses that transmit forces in a magnetized plasma...

  9. Radioimmunoassay of sodium cromoglycate in human plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, K.; Gardner, J.J.; Lockley, W.J.S.; Preston, J.R.; Wilkinson, D.J. (Fisons plc, Loughborough (UK). Pharmaceutical Div.)

    1983-01-01

    A sensitive radioimmunoassay method for sodium cromoglycate in human plasma is described. The lowest quantifiable concentration of sodium cromoglycate is 0.93 nmol/l when 0.1 ml plasma samples are analysed. The range of the method is limited; both 0.01 and 0.1 ml volumes of plasma must be analysed to encompass the concentration range 0.93-139 nmol/l which may be encountered in plasma samples from patients and human volunteers. The method is specific for sodium cromoglycate as indicated by a low cross-reactivity of the anti-cromoglycate antiserum with a number of drugs.

  10. Plasmas applied atomic collision physics, v.2

    CERN Document Server

    Barnett, C F

    1984-01-01

    Applied Atomic Collision Physics, Volume 2: Plasmas covers topics on magnetically confined plasmas. The book starts by providing the history of fusion research and describing the various approaches in both magnetically and inertially confined plasmas. The text then gives a general discussion of the basic concepts and properties in confinement and heating of a plasma. The theory of atomic collisions that result in excited quantum states, particularly highly ionized impurity atoms; and diverse diagnostic topics such as emission spectra, laser scattering, electron cyclotron emission, particle bea

  11. How can we ensure effective antibiotic dosing in critically ill patients receiving different types of renal replacement therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamal, Janattul-Ain; Mueller, Bruce A; Choi, Gordon Y S; Lipman, Jeffrey; Roberts, Jason A

    2015-05-01

    Determining appropriate antibiotic dosing for critically ill patients receiving renal replacement therapy (RRT) is complex. Worldwide unstandardized and heterogeneous prescribing of RRT as well as altered patient physiology and pathogen susceptibility all cause drug disposition to be much different to that seen in non-critically ill patients. Significant changes to pharmacokinetic parameters, including volume of distribution and clearance, could be expected, in particular, for antibiotics that are hydrophilic with low plasma protein binding and that are usually primarily eliminated by the renal system. Antibiotic clearance is likely to be significantly increased when higher RRT intensities are used. The combined effect of these factors that alter antibiotic disposition is that non-standard dosing strategies should be considered to achieve therapeutic exposure. In particular, an aggressive early approach to dosing should be considered and this may include administration of a 'loading dose', to rapidly achieve therapeutic concentrations and maximally reduce the inoculum of the pathogen. This approach is particularly important given the pharmacokinetic changes in the critically ill as well as the increased likelihood of less susceptible pathogens. Dose individualization that applies knowledge of the RRT and patient factors causing altered pharmacokinetics remains the key approach for ensuring effective antibiotic therapy for these patients. Where possible, therapeutic drug monitoring should also be used to ensure more accurate therapy. A lack of pharmacokinetic data for antibiotics during the prolonged intermittent RRT and intermittent hemodialysis currently limits evidence-based antibiotic dose recommendations for these patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Finite-volume scheme for anisotropic diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Es, Bram van, E-mail: bramiozo@gmail.com [Centrum Wiskunde & Informatica, P.O. Box 94079, 1090GB Amsterdam (Netherlands); FOM Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, The Netherlands" 1 (Netherlands); Koren, Barry [Eindhoven University of Technology (Netherlands); Blank, Hugo J. de [FOM Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, The Netherlands" 1 (Netherlands)

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we apply a special finite-volume scheme, limited to smooth temperature distributions and Cartesian grids, to test the importance of connectivity of the finite volumes. The area of application is nuclear fusion plasma with field line aligned temperature gradients and extreme anisotropy. We apply the scheme to the anisotropic heat-conduction equation, and compare its results with those of existing finite-volume schemes for anisotropic diffusion. Also, we introduce a general model adaptation of the steady diffusion equation for extremely anisotropic diffusion problems with closed field lines.

  13. Combined treatment of ulinastatin and tranexamic acid provides beneficial effects by inhibiting inflammatory and fibrinolytic response in patients undergoing heart valve replacement surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ting-Ting; Jiandong-Liu; Wang, Gang; Jiang, Sheng-Li; Li, Li-Bing; Gao, Chang-Qing

    2013-02-01

    To investigate the effect of ulinastatin and tranexamic acid administered alone or in combination on inflammatory cytokines and fibrinolytic system in patients undergoing heart valve replacement surgery during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). CPB-induced fibrinolytic hyperfunction and systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) are the leading causes responsible for the occurrence of postsurgical complications such as postsurgical cardiac insufficiency and lung injury, which may lead to an increase in postsurgical bleeding, prolongation of hospital stay, and increased costs. One hundred twenty patients undergoing heart valve replacement surgery during CPB were randomly assigned into 4 groups of 30 patients each: blank control group (Group C), tranexamic acid group (Group T), ulinastatin group (Group U), and tranexamic acid-ulinastatin combination group (Group D). Physiological saline, tranexamic acid, ulinastatin, and a combination of tranexamic acid and ulinastatin were given to each group, respectively. Arterial blood was collected from the radial artery at 4 time points: after induction of anesthesia (T1), unclamping the ascending aorta (T2), and at 1 hour (T3) and 24 hours (T4) after CPB. The levels of plasma tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6), neutrophil elastase (NE), and the concentrations of tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) and α2-antiplasmin (α2-AP) were detected. The changes in the volume of pericardial mediastinal drainage after surgery were observed and recorded. The plasma TNF-α, IL-6, and NE levels significantly increased in patients from all 4 groups at time points of T2, T3, and T4 in comparison to those before CPB (P surgery (P surgery.

  14. Trials and Tribulations with VH Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzhao eMeng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available VH replacement is a type of antibody gene rearrangement in which an upstream heavy chain variable gene segment (VH invades a pre-existing rearrangement (VDJ. In this Hypothesis and Theory article, we begin by reviewing the mechanism of VH replacement, its developmental timing and its potential biological consequences. Then we explore the hypothesis that specific sequence motifs called footprints reflect VH replacement vs. other processes. We provide a compilation of footprint sequences from different regions of the antibody heavy chain, include data from the literature and from a high throughput sequencing experiment to evaluate the significance of footprint sequences. We conclude by discussing the difficulties of attributing footprints to VH replacement.

  15. Gyrator-type circuits replace ungrounded inductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deboo, G. J.

    1968-01-01

    Gyrator circuits using only transistors, capacitors, and resistors which can replace both grounded and ungrounded inductors have been developed to permit complete microminiaturization of circuitry by integration of the components.

  16. Total ankle replacement. Design evolution and results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Heuvel, Alexander; Van Bouwel, Saskia; Dereymaeker, Greta

    2010-04-01

    The ankle joint has unique anatomical, biomechanical and cartilaginous structural characteristics that allow the joint to withstand the very high mechanical stresses and strains over years. Any minor changes to any of these features predispose the joint to osteoarthritis. Total ankle replacement (TAR) is evolving as an alternative to ankle arthrodesis for the treatment of end-stage ankle osteoarthritis. Initial implant designs from the early 1970s had unacceptably high failure and complication rates. As a result many orthopaedic surgeons have restricted the use of TAR in favour of ankle arthrodesis. Long term follow-up studies following ankle arthrodesis show risks of developing adjacent joint osteoarthritis. Therefore research towards a successful ankle replacement continues. Newer designs and longer-term outcome studies have renewed the interest in ankle joint replacement. We present an overview of the evolution, results and current concepts of total ankle replacement.

  17. Minimally Invasive Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement (TAVR)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Watch a Broward Health surgeon perform a minimally invasive Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement (TAVR) Click Here to view the BroadcastMed, Inc. Privacy Policy and Legal Notice © 2017 BroadcastMed, Inc. ...

  18. Total ankle replacement - surgical treatment and rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prusinowska, Agnieszka; Krogulec, Zbigniew; Turski, Piotr; Przepiórski, Emil; Małdyk, Paweł; Księżopolska-Orłowska, Krystyna

    2015-01-01

    Functions of the ankle joint are closely connected with the gait and ability to maintain an upright position. Degenerative lesions of the joint directly contribute to postural disorders and greatly restrict propulsion of the foot, thus leading to abnormal gait. Development of total ankle replacement is connected with the use of the method as an efficient treatment of joint injuries and continuation of achievements in hip and knee surgery. The total ankle replacement technique was introduced as an alternative to arthrodesis, i.e. surgical fixation, which made it possible to preserve joint mobility and to improve gait. Total ankle replacement is indicated in post-traumatic degenerative joint disease and joint destruction secondary to rheumatoid arthritis. In this paper, total ankle replacement and various types of currently used endoprostheses are discussed. The authors also describe principles of early postoperative rehabilitation as well as rehabilitation in the outpatient setting.

  19. 47 CFR 13.17 - Replacement license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL RADIO OPERATORS General § 13.17 Replacement... Operator License, Marine Radio Operator Permit, First Class Radiotelegraph Operator's Certificate, Second... Radio Operator's License, Restricted GMDSS Radio Operator License, GMDSS Radio Maintainer's License,...

  20. Renal replacement therapy for acute renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, E; Bouchard, J; Mehta, R L

    2009-09-01

    Renal replacement therapy became a common clinical tool to treat patients with severe acute kidney injury (AKI) since the 1960s. During this time dialytic options have expanded considerably; biocompatible membranes, bicarbonate dialysate and dialysis machines with volumetric ultrafiltration control have improved the treatment for acute kidney injury. Along with advances in methods of intermittent hemodialysis, continuous renal replacement therapies have gained widespread acceptance in the treatment of dialysis-requiring AKI. However, many of the fundamental aspects of the renal replacement treatment such as indication, timing of dialytic intervention, and choice of dialysis modality are still controversial and may influence AKI patient's outcomes. This review outlines current concepts in the use of dialysis techniques for AKI and suggests an approach for selecting the optimal method of renal replacement therapy.

  1. Minimally Invasive Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement (TAVR)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Watch a Broward Health surgeon perform a minimally invasive Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement (TAVR) Click Here to view the BroadcastMed, Inc. Privacy Policy and Legal Notice © 2017 BroadcastMed, Inc. ...

  2. SYNERGISTIC WOOD PRESERVATIVES FOR REPLACEMENT OF CCA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this project was to evaluate the potential synergistic combinations of environmentally-safe biocides as wood preservatives. These wood preservatives could be potential replacements for the heavy-metal based CCA.Didecyldimethylammonium chloride [DDAC] was...

  3. Bone Marrow Transplantation (BMT) and Gene Replacement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bone Marrow Transplantation (BMT) and Gene Replacement Therapy (GRT) In Sickle Cell Anemia. ... manifesting clinical disease, while the heterozygoste(AS) are clinically ... medicine, we argue here the case for Bone marrow transplantation

  4. Infective endocarditis following percutaneous pulmonary valve replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheung, Gary; Vejlstrup, Niels; Ihlemann, Nikolaj;

    2013-01-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) following percutaneous pulmonary valve replacement (PPVR) with the Melody valve is rarely reported. Furthermore, there are challenges in this diagnosis; especially echocardiographic evidence of vegetation within the prosthesis may be difficult.......Infective endocarditis (IE) following percutaneous pulmonary valve replacement (PPVR) with the Melody valve is rarely reported. Furthermore, there are challenges in this diagnosis; especially echocardiographic evidence of vegetation within the prosthesis may be difficult....

  5. [Replacement of tracheo-esophageal Provox prosthesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biacabe, B; Laccourreye, O; Ménard, M; Hans, S; Brasnu, D

    2000-02-01

    To compare anesthesic techniques used between 1992 and 1997 at Laënnec Hospital for replacement by tracheo-esophageal Provox prosthesis: local and general anesthesia. Theoretical financial cost for replacement was estimated according to anaesthetic techniques. Provox in situ lifetime was calculated in 58 patients who underwent 115 and 49 replacements under general and local anaesthesia respectively. Age, sex, surgical and radiotherapy backgrounds, complications and anaesthetic techniques were studied as potential factors correlated with Provox in situ lifetime. Theoretical financial cost for replacement was estimated according to anaesthetic techniques. In 1992, 12% of Provox prosthesis were inserted under local anaesthesia and 54% in 1997. Provox in situ lifetime was either not influenced by anaesthetic techniques or other factors under analysis. The theoretical financial cost was estimated at 14, 341 FFrs and 6,048 FFrs for replacement under general and local anaesthesia respectively. Due to increased control of health care costs, we advocated local anaesthesia for Provox prosthesis replacement if control endoscopy is not required.

  6. Strategic vehicle fleet management - the replacement problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Redmer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fleets constitute the most important production means in transportation. Their appropriate management is crucial for all companies having transportation duties. The paper is the third one of a series of three papers that the author dedicates to the strategic vehicle fleet management topic. Material and methods: The paper discusses ways of building replacement strategies for companies' fleets of vehicles. It means deciding for how long to exploit particular vehicles in a fleet (the fleet replacement problem - FR. The essence of this problem lies in the minimization of vehicle / fleet exploitation costs by balancing ownership and utilization costs and taking into account budget limitations. In the paper an original mathematical model (an optimization method allowing for the FR analysis is proposed. Results: An application of the proposed optimization method in a real-life decision situation (the case study within the Polish environment and the obtained solution are presented. The solution shows that there exist optimal exploitation periods of particular vehicles in a fleet. However, combination of them gives a replacement plan for an entire fleet violating budget constraints. But it is possible to adjust individual age to replacement of particular vehicles to fulfill budget constraints without losing economical optimality of a developed replacement plan for an entire fleet. Conclusions: The paper is the last one of a series of three papers that the author dedicated to the strategic vehicle fleet management topic including the following managerial decision problems: MAKE-or-BUY, sizing / composition and replacement.

  7. Plasma Mass Filters For Nuclear Waste Reprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fetterman, Abraham J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Fisch, Nathaniel J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Practical disposal of nuclear waste requires high-throughput separation techniques. The most dangerous part of nuclear waste is the fission product, which contains the most active and mobile radioisotopes and produces most of the heat. We suggest that the fission products could be separated as a group from nuclear waste using plasma mass filters. Plasmabased processes are well suited to separating nuclear waste, because mass rather than chemical properties are used for separation. A single plasma stage can replace several stages of chemical separation, producing separate streams of bulk elements, fission products, and actinoids. The plasma mass filters may have lower cost and produce less auxiliary waste than chemical processing plants. Three rotating plasma configurations are considered that act as mass filters: the plasma centrifuge, the Ohkawa filter, and the asymmetric centrifugal trap.

  8. Plasma Mass Filters For Nuclear Waste Reprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham J. Fetterman and Nathaniel J. Fisch

    2011-05-26

    Practical disposal of nuclear waste requires high-throughput separation techniques. The most dangerous part of nuclear waste is the fission product, which contains the most active and mobile radioisotopes and produces most of the heat. We suggest that the fission products could be separated as a group from nuclear waste using plasma mass filters. Plasmabased processes are well suited to separating nuclear waste, because mass rather than chemical properties are used for separation. A single plasma stage can replace several stages of chemical separation, producing separate streams of bulk elements, fission products, and actinoids. The plasma mass filters may have lower cost and produce less auxiliary waste than chemical processing plants. Three rotating plasma configurations are considered that act as mass filters: the plasma centrifuge, the Ohkawa filter, and the asymmetric centrifugal trap.

  9. Quark gluon plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Nayak, Tapan; Sarkar, Sourav

    2014-01-01

    At extremely high temperatures and densities, protons and neutrons may dissolve into a "soup" of quarks and gluons, called the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP). For a few microseconds, shortly after the Big Bang, the Universe was filled with the QGP matter. The search and study of Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) is one of the most fundamental research topics of our times. The QGP matter has been probed by colliding heavy ions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory, New York and the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, Geneva. By colliding heavy-ions at a speed close to that of light, scientists aim to obtain - albeit over a tiny volume of the size of a nucleus and for an infinitesimally short instant - a QGP state. This QGP state can be observed by dedicated experiments, as it reverts to hadronic matter through expansion and cooling. This volume presents some of the current theoretical and experimental understandings in the field of QGP.

  10. Use of unbound volumes of drug distribution in pharmacokinetic calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepensky, David

    2011-01-18

    Volume of drug distribution is a primary pharmacokinetic parameter. This study assessed effects of drugs' plasma protein binding and tissue distribution on volume of drug distribution and identified the most appropriate ways for its calculation. Effects of the distribution factors on the unbound and total drug plasma concentrations and on the corresponding volumes of distribution were studied using pharmacokinetic modeling and simulation approach based on in vitro and in vivo concentration vs. time data of diazepam, a model drug with extensive plasma protein binding and tissue distribution. Pharmacokinetics of diazepam were appropriately described by three-compartment pharmacokinetic model that incorporated the processes of plasma protein binding and tissue permeation. According to this model, displacement of the drug from plasma proteins increases the unbound (but not the total) plasma concentrations and induces faster drug elimination from the body. The distribution pattern of the drug in the body and the time course of unbound (pharmacologically active) drug concentrations correlated with the unbound volumes of distribution, but not with the total volumes of distribution. In conclusion, unbound volumes of distribution appropriately describe the drug distribution pattern and the time course of unbound drug concentrations and are recommended for use as primary pharmacokinetic parameters in pharmaceutical research. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A high-efficiency superhydrophobic plasma separator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changchun; Liao, Shih-Chuan; Song, Jinzhao; Mauk, Michael G; Li, Xuanwen; Wu, Gaoxiang; Ge, Dengteng; Greenberg, Robert M; Yang, Shu; Bau, Haim H

    2016-02-01

    To meet stringent limit-of-detection specifications for low abundance target molecules, a relatively large volume of plasma is needed for many blood-based clinical diagnostics. Conventional centrifugation methods for plasma separation are not suitable for on-site testing or bedside diagnostics. Here, we report a simple, yet high-efficiency, clamshell-style, superhydrophobic plasma separator that is capable of separating a relatively large volume of plasma from several hundred microliters of whole blood (finger-prick blood volume). The plasma separator consists of a superhydrophobic top cover with a separation membrane and a superhydrophobic bottom substrate. Unlike previously reported membrane-based plasma separators, the separation membrane in our device is positioned at the top of the sandwiched whole blood film to increase the membrane separation capacity and plasma yield. In addition, the device's superhydrophobic characteristics (i) facilitates the formation of well-defined, contracted, thin blood film with a high contact angle; (ii) minimizes biomolecular adhesion to surfaces; (iii) increases blood clotting time; and (iv) reduces blood cell hemolysis. The device demonstrated a "blood in-plasma out" capability, consistently extracting 65 ± 21.5 μL of plasma from 200 μL of whole blood in less than 10 min without electrical power. The device was used to separate plasma from Schistosoma mansoni genomic DNA-spiked whole blood with a recovery efficiency of >84.5 ± 25.8%. The S. mansoni genomic DNA in the separated plasma was successfully tested on our custom-made microfluidic chip by using loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method.

  12. Quark-gluon plasma 5

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This is the fifth volume in the series on the subject of quark-gluon plasma, a unique phase created in heavy-ion collisions at high energy. It contains review articles by the world experts on various aspects of quark-gluon plasma taking into account the advances driven by the latest experimental data collected at both the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The articles are pedagogical and comprehensive which can be helpful for both new researchers entering the field as well as the experienced physicists working on the subject.

  13. plasma treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puač Nevena

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we will present results for plasma sterilization of planktonic samples of two reference strains of bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212. We have used a plasma needle as a source of non-equilibrium atmospheric plasma in all treatments. This device is already well characterized by OES, derivative probes and mass spectrometry. It was shown that power delivered to the plasma is bellow 2 W and that it produces the main radical oxygen and nitrogen species believed to be responsible for the sterilization process. Here we will only present results obtained by electron paramagnetic resonance which was used to detect the OH, H and NO species. Treatment time and power delivered to the plasma were found to have the strongest influence on sterilization. In all cases we have observed a reduction of several orders of magnitude in the concentration of bacteria and for the longest treatment time complete eradication. A more efficient sterilization was achieved in the case of gram negative bacteria.

  14. Plasma metallization

    CERN Document Server

    Crowther, J M

    1997-01-01

    Many methods are currently used for the production of thin metal films. However, all of these have drawbacks associated with them, for example the need for UHV conditions, high temperatures, exotic metal precursors, or the inability to coat complex shaped objects. Reduction of supported metal salts by non-isothermal plasma treatment does not suffer from these drawbacks. In order to produce and analyse metal films before they become contaminated, a plasma chamber which could be attached directly to a UHV chamber with XPS capability was designed and built. This allowed plasma treatment of supported metal salts and surface analysis by XPS to be performed without exposure of the metal film to the atmosphere. Non-equilibrium plasma treatment of Nylon 66 supported gold(lll) chloride using hydrogen as the feed gas resulted in a 95% pure gold film, the remaining 5% of the film being carbon. If argon or helium were used as the feed gases during plasma treatment the resultant gold films were 100% pure. Some degree of s...

  15. Lactose in milk replacer can partly be replaced by glucose, fructose, or glycerol without affecting insulin sensitivity in veal calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantophlet, A J; Gilbert, M S; van den Borne, J J G C; Gerrits, W J J; Roelofsen, H; Priebe, M G; Vonk, R J

    2016-04-01

    Calf milk replacer (MR) contains 40 to 50% lactose. Lactose strongly fluctuates in price and alternatives are desired. Also, problems with glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity (i.e., high incidence of hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia) have been described for heavy veal calves (body weight >100 kg). Replacement of lactose by other dietary substrates can be economically attractive, and may also positively (or negatively) affect the risk of developing problems with glucose metabolism. An experiment was designed to study the effects of replacing one third of the dietary lactose by glucose, fructose, or glycerol on glucose homeostasis and insulin sensitivity in veal calves. Forty male Holstein-Friesian (body weight=114 ± 2.4 kg; age=97 ± 1.4 d) calves were fed an MR containing 462 g of lactose/kg (CON), or an MR in which 150 g of lactose/kg of MR was replaced by glucose (GLU), fructose (FRU), or glycerol (GLY). During the first 10d of the trial, all calves received CON. The CON group remained on this diet and the other groups received their experimental diets for a period of 8 wk. Measurements were conducted during the first (baseline) and last week of the trial. A frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test was performed to assess insulin sensitivity and 24 h of urine was collected to measure glucose excretion. During the last week of the trial, a bolus of 1.5 g of [U-(13)C] substrates was added to their respective meals and plasma glucose, insulin, and (13)C-glucose responses were measured. Insulin sensitivity was low at the start of the trial and remained low [1.2 ± 0.1 and 1.0 ± 0.1 (mU/L)(-1) × min(-1)], and no treatment effect was noted. Glucose excretion was low at the start of the trial (3.4 ± 1.0 g/d), but increased in CON and GLU calves (26.9 ± 3.9 and 43.0 ± 10.6g/d) but not in FRU and GLY calves. Postprandial glucose was higher in GLU, lower in FRU, and similar in GLY compared with CON calves. Postprandial insulin was lower in FRU

  16. Petroleum supply annual 1998: Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1998 through monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. The first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Statistics; each with final annual data. This second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1998, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Explanatory Notes, located at the end of this publication, present information describing data collection, sources, estimation methodology, data quality control procedures, modifications to reporting requirements and interpretation of tables. Industry terminology and product definitions are listed alphabetically in the Glossary. 35 tabs.

  17. Petroleum supply annual 1995: Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1995 through monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. This first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and selected Refinery Statistics each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1995, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Explanatory Notes, located at the end of this publication, present information describing data collection, sources, estimation methodology, data quality control procedures, modifications to reporting requirements and interpretation of tables. Industry terminology and product definitions are listed alphabetically in the Glossary.

  18. Petroleum supply annual, 1997. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1997 through monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. The first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Statistics; each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1997, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Explanatory Notes, located at the end of this publication, present information describing data collection, sources, estimation methodology, data quality control procedures, modifications to reporting requirements and interpretation of tables. Industry terminology and product definitions are listed alphabetically in the Glossary. 35 tabs.

  19. Petroleum supply annual 1996: Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The Petroleum Supply Annual (PSA) contains information on the supply and disposition of crude oil and petroleum products. The publication reflects data that were collected from the petroleum industry during 1996 through monthly surveys. The PSA is divided into two volumes. The first volume contains three sections: Summary Statistics, Detailed Statistics, and Refinery Capacity; each with final annual data. The second volume contains final statistics for each month of 1996, and replaces data previously published in the Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM). The tables in Volumes 1 and 2 are similarly numbered to facilitate comparison between them. Explanatory Notes, located at the end of this publication, present information describing data collection, sources, estimation methodology, data quality control procedures, modifications to reporting requirements and interpretation of tables. Industry terminology and product definitions are listed alphabetically in the Glossary. 35 tabs.

  20. [Pharmacokinetics of antibiotics in continuous renal replacement therapies (CRRT)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabito, Santo; Pistolesi, Valentina; Maggiore, Umberto; Fiaccadori, Enrico; Pierucci, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    In the critically ill patient, acute kidney injury (AKI) is frequently associated with infective complications requiring appropriate antimicrobial treatment. AKI and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome can affect the pharmacokinetic parameters of many drugs. Furthermore, the start of renal replacement therapy (RRT) is an additional variable to be taken into consideration to avoid inappropriate antimicrobial therapy. Continuous renal replacement therapies (CRRT) are widely adopted in the intensive care unit (ICU) and antibiotics that are significantly eliminated by the kidney are likely to be removed during RRT. Generally, drug-dosing adjustments are required if the extracorporeal clearance accounts for more than 25-30% of the total body clearance. The molecular weight cutoffs of the more widely used membranes are much higher than the molecular weight of most drugs. Therefore, molecular size will not be a limitation for the removal of the unbound fraction of the antibiotics most commonly used in ICU patients. However, CRRTs are still not standardized and the impact of RRT on plasma drug concentrations can be substantially different depending on the CRRT modality (diffusive, convective or both), membrane characteristics and delivered dialysis dose. In any case, drug-dosing adjustments should be based on the knowledge of the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of the different classes of antimicrobials, taking into account that high extracorporeal clearances could lead to drug underexposure in clinical conditions where appropriate antibiotic treatment is essential.

  1. Atmospheric Gaseous Plasma with Large Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenev, Sergey

    2012-10-01

    The forming of atmospheric plasma with large dimensions using electrical discharge typically uses the Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD). The study of atmospheric DBD was shown some problems related to homogeneous volume plasma. The volume of this plasma determines by cross section and gas gap between electrode and dielectric. The using of electron beam for volume ionization of air molecules by CW relativistic electron beams was shown the high efficiency of this process [1, 2]. The main advantage of this approach consists in the ionization of gas molecules by electrons in longitudinal direction determines by their kinetic energy. A novel method for forming of atmospheric homogeneous plasma with large volume dimensions using ionization of gas molecules by pulsed non-relativistic electron beams is presented in the paper. The results of computer modeling for delivered doses of electron beams in gases and ionization are discussed. The structure of experimental bench with plasma diagnostics is considered. The preliminary results of forming atmospheric plasma with ionization gas molecules by pulsed nanosecond non-relativistic electron beam are given. The analysis of potential applications for atmospheric volume plasma is presented. Reference: [1] S. Korenev. ``The ionization of air by scanning relativistic high power CW electron beam,'' 2002 IEEE International Conference on Plasma Science. May 2002, Alberta, Canada. [2] S. Korenev, I. Korenev. ``The propagation of high power CW scanning electron beam in air.'' BEAMS 2002: 14th International Conference on High-Power Particle Beams, Albuquerque, New Mexico (USA), June 2002, AIP Conference Proceedings Vol. 650(1), pp. 373-376. December 17.

  2. Tokamak experimental power reactor conceptual design. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-08-01

    Volume II contains the following appendices: (1) summary of EPR design parameters, (2) impurity control, (3) plasma computational models, (4) structural support system, (5) materials considerations for the primary energy conversion system, (6) magnetics, (7) neutronics penetration analysis, (8) first wall stress analysis, (9) enrichment of isotopes of hydrogen by cryogenic distillation, and (10) noncircular plasma considerations. (MOW)

  3. A New Atmospheric Pressure Microwave Plasma Source (APMPS)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Liang; ZHANG Guixin; LI Yinan; ZHU Zhijie; WANG Xinxin; LUO Chengmu

    2008-01-01

    An atmospheric pressure microwave plasma source (APMPS) that can generate a large volume of plasma at an atmospheric pressure has been developed at Tsinghua University. This paper presents the design of this APMPS, the theoretical consideration of microwave plasma ignition and the simulation results, including the distributions of the electric field and power density inside the cavity as well as the accuracy of the simulation results. In addition, a method of producing an atmospheric pressure microwave plasma and some relevant observations of the plasma are also provided. It. is expected that this research would be useful for further developing atmospheric pressure microwave plasma sources and expanding the scope of their applications.

  4. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric assay for aliskiren, a novel renin inhibitor in micro-volumes of human plasma: a pharmacokinetic application in healthy South Indian male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adireddy, Vinayender; Pilli, Nageswara Rao; Derangula, Venkata Ramu; Satla, Shobha Rani; Ganguri, Chinna Veera Badraiah; Ponneri, Venkateswarlu

    2013-08-01

    This paper describes a simple, rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry assay for the determination of aliskiren in human plasma using nevirapine as an internal standard. Analyte and the internal standard were extracted from 100 μL of human plasma via liquid-liquid extraction using tert-butyl methyl ether. The chromatographic separation was achieved on a C18 column using a mixture of acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid (90:10, v/v) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.9 mL/min. The calibration curve obtained was linear (r(2) ≥ 0.99) over the concentration range of 0.10-1013 ng/mL. Method validation was performed as per US Food and Drug Administration guidelines and the results met the acceptance criteria. A run time of 2.2 min for each sample made it possible to analyze a greater number of samples in a short time, thus increasing the productivity. The proposed method was found to be applicable to clinical studies.

  5. Experimental study of the synthesis of supramolecular complexes in hybrid dusty plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasil'eva, T. M.

    2011-01-01

    The processes that form the reaction volume as plasma-dust entities during the injection of protein drug powders into RF-discharge plasma (plasma trap) have been investigated. Using albumin and acetylsalicylic acid as an example, plasma-assisted vapor deposition of sublimable organic compounds onto

  6. Experimental study of the synthesis of supramolecular complexes in hybrid dusty plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasil'eva, T. M.

    The processes that form the reaction volume as plasma-dust entities during the injection of protein drug powders into RF-discharge plasma (plasma trap) have been investigated. Using albumin and acetylsalicylic acid as an example, plasma-assisted vapor deposition of sublimable organic compounds onto

  7. Usefulness of maximal oxygen pulse in timing of pulmonary valve replacement in patients with isolated pulmonary regurgitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legendre, Antoine; Richard, Ruddy; Pontnau, Florence; Jais, Jean-Philippe; Dufour, Marc; Grenier, Olivier; Mousseaux, Elie; Ladouceur, Magalie; Iserin, Laurence; Bonnet, Damien

    2016-10-01

    Patients with pulmonary regurgitation after tetralogy of Fallot repair have impaired aerobic capacity; one of the reasons is the decreasing global ventricular performance at exercise, reflected by decreasing peak oxygen pulse. The aims of our study were to evaluate the impact of pulmonary valve replacement on peak oxygen pulse in a population with pure pulmonary regurgitation and with different degrees of right ventricular dilatation and to determine the predictors of peak oxygen pulse after pulmonary valve replacement. The mean and median age at pulmonary valve replacement was 27 years. Mean pre-procedural right ventricular end-diastolic volume was 182 ml/m2. Out of 24 patients, 15 had abnormal peak oxygen pulse before pulmonary valve replacement. We did not observe a significant increase in peak oxygen pulse after pulmonary valve replacement (p=0.76). Among cardiopulmonary test/MRI/historical pre-procedural parameters, peak oxygen pulse appeared to be the best predictor of peak oxygen pulse after pulmonary valve replacement (positive and negative predictive values, respectively, 0.94 and 1). After pulmonary valve replacement, peak oxygen pulse was well correlated with left ventricular stroke and end-diastolic volumes (r=0.67 and 0.68, respectively). Our study confirms the absence of an effect of pulmonary valve replacement on peak oxygen pulse whatever the initial right ventricular volume, reflecting possible irreversible right and/or left ventricle lesions. Pre-procedural peak oxygen pulse seemed to well predict post-procedural peak oxygen pulse. These results encourage discussions on pulmonary valve replacement in patients showing any decrease in peak oxygen pulse during their follow-up.

  8. Plasma dynamo

    CERN Document Server

    Rincon, F; Schekochihin, A A; Valentini, F

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic fields pervade the entire Universe and, through their dynamical interactions with matter, affect the formation and evolution of astrophysical systems from cosmological to planetary scales. How primordial cosmological seed fields arose and were further amplified to $\\mu$Gauss levels reported in nearby galaxy clusters, near equipartition with kinetic energy of plasma motions and on scales of at least tens of kiloparsecs, is a major theoretical puzzle still largely unconstrained by observations. Extragalactic plasmas are weakly collisional (as opposed to collisional magnetohydrodynamic fluids), and whether magnetic-field growth and its sustainment through an efficient dynamo instability driven by chaotic motions is possible in such plasmas is not known. Fully kinetic numerical simulations of the Vlasov equation in a six-dimensional phase space necessary to answer this question have until recently remained beyond computational capabilities. Here, we show by means of such simulations that magnetic-field a...

  9. Novel Amalgams for In-Space Fabrication of Replacement Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochran, Calvin T.; Van Hoose, James R.; Grugel, R. N.

    2012-01-01

    Being able to fabricate replacement parts during extended space flight missions precludes the weight, storage volume, and speculation necessary to accommodate spares. Amalgams, widely used in dentistry, are potential candidates for fabricating parts in microgravity environments as they are moldable, do not require energy for melting, and do not pose fluid handling problems. Unfortunately, amalgams have poor tensile strength and the room temperature liquid component is mercury. To possibly resolve these issues a gallium-indium alloy was substituted for mercury and small steel fibers were mixed in with the commercial alloy powder. Subsequent microscopic examination of the novel amalgam revealed complete bonding of the components, and mechanical testing of comparable samples showed those containing steel fibers to have a significant improvement in strength. Experimental procedures, microstructures, and test results are presented and discussed in view of further improving properties.

  10. [Mitral valve replacement in a patient with Sheehan's syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morokuma, H; Nakayama, Y; Minematsu, N

    2008-09-01

    Sheehan' syndrome is caused by pituitary apoplexy occurring during parturition and results in hypopituitarism, adrenal insufficiency and hypothyroidism. A 66-year-old woman with Sheehan's syndrome had received corticosteroids and thyroid hormones for about 18 years. The patient underwent mitral valve replacement for mitral regurgitation. Intraoperatively, just after the initiation of cardiopulmonary bypass, hypotension and severe edema suddenly occurred. Crystalloid fluid was rapidly administered to increase intravascular volumes. Postoperatively the body weight increased by 9.4 kg. The patient was intubated for 64 hours, stayed in the intensive care unit (ICU) for 7 days and was discharged from hospital on the postoperative day 36. Careful perioperative hormone supplementation is necessary for patients with Sheehan's syndrome.

  11. Plasma medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Fridman, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    This comprehensive text is suitable for researchers and graduate students of a 'hot' new topic in medical physics. Written by the world's leading experts,  this book aims to present recent developments in plasma medicine, both technological and scientific, reviewed in a fashion accessible to the highly interdisciplinary audience consisting of doctors, physicists, biologists, chemists and other scientists, university students and professors, engineers and medical practitioners. The book focuses on major topics and covers the physics required to develop novel plasma discharges relevant for medic

  12. Plasma Processes and Polymers: 16th International Symposium on Plasma Chemistry Taormina, Italy June 22-27, 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostino, Riccardo; Favia, Pietro; Oehr, Christian; Wertheimer, Michael R.

    2005-04-01

    This volume compiles essential contributions to the most innovative fields of Plasma Processes and Polymers. High-quality contributions cover the fields of plasma deposition, plasma treatment of polymers and other organic compounds, plasma processes under partial vacuum and at atmospheric pressure, biomedical, textile, automotive, and optical applications as well as surface treatment of bulk materials, clusters, particles and powders. This unique collection of refereed papers is based on the best contributions presented at the 16th International Symposium on Plasma Chemistry in Taormina, Italy (ISPC-16, June 2003). A high class reference of relevance to a large audience in plasma community as well as in the area of its industrial applications.

  13. Isolation of Circulating Plasma Cells in Multiple Myeloma Using CD138 Antibody-Based Capture in a Microfluidic Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qasaimeh, Mohammad A.; Wu, Yichao C.; Bose, Suman; Menachery, Anoop; Talluri, Srikanth; Gonzalez, Gabriel; Fulciniti, Mariateresa; Karp, Jeffrey M.; Prabhala, Rao H.; Karnik, Rohit

    2017-04-01

    The necessity for bone marrow aspiration and the lack of highly sensitive assays to detect residual disease present challenges for effective management of multiple myeloma (MM), a plasma cell cancer. We show that a microfluidic cell capture based on CD138 antigen, which is highly expressed on plasma cells, permits quantitation of rare circulating plasma cells (CPCs) in blood and subsequent fluorescence-based assays. The microfluidic device is based on a herringbone channel design, and exhibits an estimated cell capture efficiency of ~40-70%, permitting detection of <10 CPCs/mL using 1-mL sample volumes, which is difficult using existing techniques. In bone marrow samples, the microfluidic-based plasma cell counts exhibited excellent correlation with flow cytometry analysis. In peripheral blood samples, the device detected a baseline of 2-5 CD138+ cells/mL in healthy donor blood, with significantly higher numbers in blood samples of MM patients in remission (20-24 CD138+ cells/mL), and yet higher numbers in MM patients exhibiting disease (45-184 CD138+ cells/mL). Analysis of CPCs isolated using the device was consistent with serum immunoglobulin assays that are commonly used in MM diagnostics. These results indicate the potential of CD138-based microfluidic CPC capture as a useful ‘liquid biopsy’ that may complement or partially replace bone marrow aspiration.

  14. The Scandinavian Total Ankle Replacement and the ideal biomechanical requirements of ankle replacements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robati, Shibby; Salih, Alan; Ghosh, Koushik; Vinayakam, Parthiban

    2016-03-01

    The complex anatomy of the articular bone surfaces, ligaments, tendon attachments and muscles makes the ankle joint difficult to replicate in prosthetic replacements. Ever since the early 1970s, which saw the dawn of the first total ankle replacements, there have been numerous other attempts at replicating the joint, often with poor clinical outcomes. The anatomy of the ankle is discussed, followed by evidence of the normal ankle biomechanics and the ideal requirements of an ankle replacement. We focus on the Scandinavian Total Ankle Replacement and evaluate whether these requirements have been met.

  15. Aortic Valve Replacement: Treatment by Sternotomy versus Minimally Invasive Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Tosoni Rodrigues Ferreira

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To compare the results of aortic valve replacement with access by sternotomy or minimally invasive approach. Methods: Retrospective analysis of medical records of 37 patients undergoing aortic valve replacement by sternotomy or minimally invasive approach, with emphasis on the comparison of time of cardiopulmonary bypass and aortic clamping, volume of surgical bleeding, time of mechanical ventilation, need for blood transfusion, incidence of atrial fibrillation, length of stay in intensive care unit, time of hospital discharge, short-term mortality and presence of surgical wound infection. Results: Sternotomy was used in 22 patients and minimally invasive surgery in 15 patients. The minimally invasive approach had significantly higher time values of cardiopulmonary bypass (114.3±23.9 versus 86.7±19.8min.; P=0.003, aortic clamping (87.4±19.2 versus 61.4±12.9 min.; P<0.001 and mechanical ventilation (287.3±138.9 versus 153.9±118.6 min.; P=0.003. No difference was found in outcomes surgical bleeding volume, need for blood transfusion, incidence of atrial fibrillation, length of stay in intensive care unit and time of hospital discharge. No cases of short-term mortality or surgical wound infection were documented. Conclusion: The less invasive approach presented with longer times of cardiopulmonary bypass, aortic clamping and mechanical ventilation than sternotomy, however without prejudice to the length of stay in intensive care unit, time of hospital discharge and morbidity.

  16. The nanochannel delivery system for constant testosterone replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrati, Silvia; Nicolov, Eugenia; Zabre, Erika; Geninatti, Thomas; Shirkey, Beverly A; Hudson, Lee; Hosali, Sharath; Crawley, Michael; Khera, Mohit; Palapattu, Ganesh; Grattoni, Alessandro

    2015-06-01

    The goal of testosterone replacement is to provide long-term physiological supplementation at sufficient levels to mitigate the symptoms of hypogonadism. The objective of this work is to determine if the implantable nanochannel delivery system (nDS) can present an alternative delivery strategy for the long-term sustained and constant release of testosterone. A formulation of common testosterone esters (F1) was developed to enable nanochannel delivery of the low water soluble hormone. In vivo evaluation of testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) levels by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry and a multiplex assay, respectively, in castrated Sprague-Dawley rats implanted with nDS-F1 implants or polymeric pellets was performed over a 6-month period. The percent of testosterone concentrations observed that fell within the normal range of testosterone levels for each animal was calculated and used to compare the study groups. Sustain release of testosterone in vivo for over 6 months. The subcutaneous release of F1 from nDS implants exhibited sustained in vivo release kinetics and attained stable clinically relevant plasma testosterone levels. Plasma LH and FSH levels were significantly diminished in nDS-F1 implant-treated animals, confirming biological activity of the released testosterone. In conclusion, we demonstrate that nDS-F1 implants represents a novel approach for the treatment of male hypogonadism. Further studies will be performed in view of translating the technology to clinical use. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  17. Plasma physics and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Fridman, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Part I: Fundamentals of Plasma Physics and Plasma ChemistryPlasma in Nature, in the Laboratory, and in IndustryOccurrence of Plasma: Natural and Man MadeGas DischargesPlasma Applications, Plasmas in IndustryPlasma Applications for Environmental ControlPlasma Applications in Energy ConversionPlasma Application for Material ProcessingBreakthrough Plasma Applications in Modern TechnologyElementary Processes of Charged Species in PlasmaElementary Charged Particles in Plasma and Their Elastic and Inelastic CollisionsIonization ProcessesMechanisms of Electron Losses: The Electron-Ion RecombinationEl

  18. Renal histology before and after effective enzyme replacement therapy in a patient with classical Fabry's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirashio, S; Taguchi, T; Naito, T; Maki, K; Ogata, S; Taniyama, K; Taniguchi, Y; Yorioka, N

    2009-05-01

    A 38-year-old man underwent renal biopsy because of proteinuria. It revealed swelling and vacuolation of glomerular epithelial cells, as well as myelin-like structures characteristic of Fabry's disease. Detection of decreased plasma activity of alpha-galactosidase A confirmed the diagnosis. Enzyme replacement therapy was provided with recombinant agalsidase-beta, resulting in improvement of his symptoms. When renal biopsy was repeated, specific staining for globotriaosylceramide showed that renal deposits were decreased by enzyme therapy.

  19. High Throughput Plasma Water Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujovic, Selman; Foster, John

    2016-10-01

    The troublesome emergence of new classes of micro-pollutants, such as pharmaceuticals and endocrine disruptors, poses challenges for conventional water treatment systems. In an effort to address these contaminants and to support water reuse in drought stricken regions, new technologies must be introduced. The interaction of water with plasma rapidly mineralizes organics by inducing advanced oxidation in addition to other chemical, physical and radiative processes. The primary barrier to the implementation of plasma-based water treatment is process volume scale up. In this work, we investigate a potentially scalable, high throughput plasma water reactor that utilizes a packed bed dielectric barrier-like geometry to maximize the plasma-water interface. Here, the water serves as the dielectric medium. High-speed imaging and emission spectroscopy are used to characterize the reactor discharges. Changes in methylene blue concentration and basic water parameters are mapped as a function of plasma treatment time. Experimental results are compared to electrostatic and plasma chemistry computations, which will provide insight into the reactor's operation so that efficiency can be assessed. Supported by NSF (CBET 1336375).

  20. Can Geothermal Power Replace Fossil Fuels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klenner, R.; Gosnold, W. D.

    2009-12-01

    Development of geothermal energy in any capacity is a positive step toward a sustainable energy future. The resource is enormous and has the capacity to supply most future demand for electrical power if technology can meet some substantial challenges. Electrical power from geothermal energy has several compelling characteristics: a small footprint, low emissions, continuous availability, and sustainability. However, a common perception of geothermal energy is that it is available only in a few isolated localities and thus cannot contribute significantly to future electrical power needs. This perception neglects the stored thermal energy available everywhere in the upper 10 km of Earth’s crust. We are investigating the potential for power production in oil-producing sedimentary basins where subsurface temperatures are sufficient for intermediate geothermal resources (90 °C -150 °C) at depths greater than 3 km. Existing estimates of geothermal energy stored at depth in sedimentary formations in the U.S. have been based only on a few aquifers and have not included the greater volume of fluids in oil-bearing formations. We reevaluated the accessible geothermal resource base for the north central US and found that including geothermal fluids in oil-producing formations increased the resource estimate by a factor of eight. Preliminary analysis of other basins indicates that the current estimate of thermal energy in the U.S. (100,000 EJ) may be of the order of 400,000 EJ. This is particularly significant due to recent technological advances leading to commercialization of scalable organic Rankine cycle (ORC) engines. Until recently, ORC systems were available only on an at large scale, i.e., 10s of MW, and had efficiencies of about 10 percent. Currently there are at least five manufacturers making scalable ORC systems in the 50 kW to 1 MW range, and at least one system has an efficiency of about 17 percent and is expected to attain an efficiency in the low 20s as it

  1. Quantitative analysis of plasma proteins in whole blood-derived fresh frozen plasma prepared with three pathogen reduction technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrea, Luis; Ortiz-de-Salazar, María-Isabel; Martínez, Patricia; Roig, Roberto

    2015-06-01

    Several plasma pathogen reduction technologies (PRT) are currently available. We evaluated three plasma PRT processes: Cerus Amotosalen (AM), Terumo BCT riboflavin (RB) and Macopharma methylene blue (MB). RB treatment resulted in the shortest overall processing time and in the smallest volume loss (1%) and MB treatment in the largest volume loss (8%). MB treatment retained the highest concentrations of factors II, VII, X, IX, Protein C, and Antithrombin and the AM products of factor V and XI. Each PRT process evaluated offered distinct advantages such as procedural simplicity and volume retention (RB) and overall plasma protein retention (MB).

  2. ADAMTS13 content in plasma-derived factor VIII/von Willebrand factor concentrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyvandi, Flora; Mannucci, Pier M; Valsecchi, Carla; Pontiggia, Silvia; Farina, Claudio; Retzios, Anastassios D

    2013-10-01

    Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a microangiopathy syndrome caused by a congenital or acquired deficiency of ADAMTS13, a plasma metalloprotease that cleaves von Willebrand factor (VWF) and thus prevents the formation of platelet-rich thrombi in the microcirculation. TTP can be fatal if not appropriately and timely treated with the infusion of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) or exchange plasmapheresis, that reverse the process of microangiopathy by removing anti-ADAMTS13 autoantibodies and replacing functional ADAMTS13. The treatment of TTP with FFP is not free from risks and must be administered in hospitals or clinics, owing to the substantial amount of plasma volume infused or exchanged and the frequent need of catheter application. Moreover, most FFPs are not subjected to treatments to remove or inactivate blood-borne infectious agents. A number of recent reports indicate that certain plasma-derived VWF-factor VIII (FVIII) concentrates are clinically effective in the treatment of congenital TTP. In this study, we measured ADAMTS13 levels in various plasma-derived VWF-FVIII concentrates, showing that Koate(®) -DVI (Grifols), contained relatively high amounts of ADAMTS13 and that Alphanate(®) (Grifols) was the closest other product in terms of protease content. Koate(®) -DVI contains, on average (five lots tested), 0.091 ± 0.007 Units of ADAMTS13 activity per IU of FVIII. On the basis of this analysis and other reports of VWF-FVIII concentrate utilization in congenital TTP, potential dosing, and future clinical developments are discussed.

  3. Measurement of plasma levels of vascular endothelial growth factor in prostate cancer patients: relationship with clinical stage, Gleason score, prostate volume, and serum prostate-specific antigen Medida da concentração plasmática do fator de crescimento do endotélio vascular em pacientes com câncer prostático: relação com estado clinico, gleason score, volume prostático e PSA sérico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Ferreira Duque

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: This study focused on circulating levels of vascular endothelial growth factor in patients with prostate cancer compared to a normal population. METHODS: We analyzed 26 normal individuals and 80 patients with prostate cancer. Blood was drawn from all subjects, and plasma was extracted to determine the concentration of vascular endothelial growth factor using a quantitative immunoassay technique (ELISA-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: The median plasma level of vascular endothelial growth factor was significantly elevated in patients with metastatic disease compared to patients with localized disease and with healthy controls. Patients with serum prostate-specific antigen > 20 ng/mL had significantly higher levels of plasma vascular endothelial growth factor than patients with serum prostate-specific antigen OBJETIVO: Analisar os níveis circulantes do fator de crescimento do endotélio vascular em pacientes com câncer prostático comparados com uma população de indivíduos eutróficos. MÉTODOS: Vinte e seis indivíduos eutróficos e oitenta pacientes com câncer de próstata foram analisados nesse estudo. A coleta sangüínea foi realizada da mesma maneira em todos os pacientes e o plasma foi extraído para a determinação dos níveis do fator de crescimento do endotélio vascular, utilizando-se o método quantitativo ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTADOS: Os níveis de fator de crescimento do endotélio vascular plasmático encontraram-se significativamente elevados nos pacientes com doença metastática quando comparados com pacientes com doença localizada e com indivíduos sadios. Pacientes com PSA sérico maior que 20 ng/ml apresentaram níveis maiores de fator de crescimento do endotélio vascular plasmático quando comparados com pacientes com PSA menor que 20 ng/ml. Houve uma tendência dos pacientes com escore de Gleason de 8 a 10 apresentarem níveis maiores do fator de crescimento do endot

  4. Testosterone replacement therapy and prostate health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polackwich, A Scott; Ostrowski, Kevin A; Hedges, Jason C

    2012-12-01

    There is an emerging evolution in the understanding of the relationship between the prostate and testosterone. It has long been generally believed that with testosterone replacement therapy (TRT), increasing serum testosterone levels led to prostatic growth and worsening of voiding dysfunction and associated complications. A new theory, the Saturation Model of Testosterone and its effect on the Prostate has gained attention. This theory suggests that the prostate's response to increasing levels of serum testosterone reaches a limit beyond which there is minimal effect. This model predicts that testosterone replacement therapy occurs above this saturation point, and replacing testosterone to eugonadal levels should not worsen prostate related benign disease. We evaluated the recent published data, with an emphasis on clinical studies done within the last 3 years, for the effects of testosterone supplementation on benign prostatic disease.

  5. Postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy--clinical implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, S H; Rosenberg, J; Bostofte, E

    1994-01-01

    in the urogenital tract. Women at risk of osteoporosis will benefit from hormone replacement therapy. The treatment should start as soon after menopause as possible and it is possible that it should be maintained for life. The treatment may be supplemented with extra calcium intake, vitamin D, and maybe calcitonin....... Physical activity should be promoted, and cigarette smoking reduced if possible. Women at risk of cardiovascular disease will also benefit from hormone replacement therapy. There is overwhelming evidence that hormone therapy will protect against both coronary heart disease and stroke...... suggest that every woman showing any signs of hormone deprivation should be treated with hormone replacement therapy. This includes women with subjective or objective vaso-motor symptoms, genito-urinary symptoms, women at risk of osteoporosis (fast bone losers), and women at risk of cardiovascular...

  6. Double Valve Replacement for Lupus Valvulitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraris, Victor A.; Hawksley, Vaughn C.; Rabinowitz, Max; Coyne, Carolyn M.; Sullivan, Thomas J.; Sprague, Merle S.

    1990-01-01

    Hemodynamically significant lupus valvulitis, requiring valve replacement, is rare: 21 cases have been reported so far in the literature, and only 2 of these have involved double valve replacement. We describe an additional case of double valve replacement in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus. The histopathologic and clinical features of this case suggest that valvular involvement resulted from both acute and chronic disease processes. Medical success in the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus, especially that achieved through prolonged or high-dose steroid therapy, may cause chronic valvular disease to become a more common surgical problem. A review of the literature supports this contention. (Texas Heart Institute Journal 1990;17:56-60) Images PMID:15227191

  7. Renal function after elective total hip replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perregaard, Helene; Damholt, Mette B; Solgaard, Søren

    2016-01-01

    and the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in an elective population of orthopedic patients undergoing primary total hip replacement, hypothesizing that chronic kidney disease predisposes to AKI. Patients and methods - This was a single-center, population-based, retrospective, registry-based cohort study...... involving all primary elective total hip replacements performed from January 2003 through December 2012. Patient demographics and creatinine values were registered. We evaluated the presence of CKD and AKI according to the international guidelines for kidney disease (KDIGO Acute Kidney Injury Workgroup 2013...... ). Results - 3,416 patients were included (2,064 females (60%)). AKI (according to KDIGO criteria) was seen in 75 patients (2.2%, 95% CI: 1.7-2.7) in the course of primary total hip replacement. Of these, 26 had pre-existing CKD of class 3-5. Pre-existing CKD of class 3-5, indicating moderately to severely...

  8. OPTIMAL MAINTENANCE AND REPLACEMENT OF EXTRACTION MACHINERY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suresh P.SETHI; Hong-Mo YEH; Rong ZHANG; Andrew K.S.JARDINE

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers a problem of optimal preventive maintenance and replacement schedule ofequipment devoted to extracting resources from known deposits. Typical examples are oil drills, mine shovels, etc. At most one replacement of the existing machinery by a new one is allowed. The problem is formulated as an optimal control problem subject to the state constraint that the remaining deposit at any given time is nonnegative. We show that the optimal preventive maintenance, production rates, and the replacement and salvage times of the existing machinery and the new one, if required, can be obtained by solving sequentially a series of free-end-point optimal control problems. Moreover, an algorithm based on this result is developed and used to solve two illustrative examples.

  9. Dead pixel replacement in LWIR microgrid polarimeters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratliff, Bradley M; Tyo, J Scott; Boger, James K; Black, Wiley T; Bowers, David L; Fetrow, Matthew P

    2007-06-11

    LWIR imaging arrays are often affected by nonresponsive pixels, or "dead pixels." These dead pixels can severely degrade the quality of imagery and often have to be replaced before subsequent image processing and display of the imagery data. For LWIR arrays that are integrated with arrays of micropolarizers, the problem of dead pixels is amplified. Conventional dead pixel replacement (DPR) strategies cannot be employed since neighboring pixels are of different polarizations. In this paper we present two DPR schemes. The first is a modified nearest-neighbor replacement method. The second is a method based on redundancy in the polarization measurements.We find that the redundancy-based DPR scheme provides an order-of-magnitude better performance for typical LWIR polarimetric data.

  10. Hip or knee replacement - after - what to ask your doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... replacement Hip pain Knee joint replacement Knee pain Osteoarthritis ... Ma, MD, Assistant Professor, Chief, Sports Medicine and Shoulder Service, UCSF Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, San Francisco, ...

  11. Hip or knee replacement - before - what to ask your doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... replacement Hip pain Knee joint replacement Knee pain Osteoarthritis ... Ma, MD, Assistant Professor, Chief, Sports Medicine and Shoulder Service, UCSF Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, San Francisco, ...

  12. The echocardiography of replacement heart valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This is a practical description of how replacement valves are assessed using echocardiography. Normal transthoracic appearances including normal variants are described. The problem of differentiating normal function, patient–prosthesis mismatch and pathological obstruction in aortic replacement valves with high gradients is discussed. Obstruction and abnormal regurgitation is described for valves in the aortic, mitral and right-sided positions and when to use echocardiography in suspected infective endocarditis. The roles of transoesophageal and stress echocardiography are described and finally when other imaging techniques may be useful. PMID:27600454

  13. Upgrade or replace?: The effect of the EPBD on the choice between improvement or replacement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomsen, A.F.; Van der Flier, C.L.

    2010-01-01

    What is better: improvement or replacement by new construction? The choice between life cycle extension and replacement of existing buildings is at itself a vital but very difficult decision, involving a wide range of different aspects and affecting several contrary and often conflicting interests.

  14. Dimension effects in plasma immersion ion implantation of cylindrical bore

    CERN Document Server

    Tian Xiu Bo; Tong Hong Hui; Chu, P K

    2002-01-01

    Plasma immersion ion implantation is a new technique pertaining to ion implantation. Different from the case of exterior surface treatment, plasma immersion ion implantation of interior surface possesses dimension effects. Consequently it is a challenge to implant the inner wall of a cylindrical bore due to this finite dimension.The ion energy cannot be linearly changed with applied voltage and there exists a saturation value due to overlap effect of plasma sheath. The plasma in the bore may rapidly be depleted, which is attributed to finite plasma volume and plasma-sheath con-flowing effect. For instance the plasma depletion time is about 0.55 mu s when a bore with a diameter of 20 cm is treated under conditions of applied voltage of 30 kV and plasma density of 2 x 10 sup 1 sup 5 ions/cm sup 3. Interior plasma-source hardware may be an effective solution

  15. Magnetoresistive waves in plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felber, F. S.; Hunter, R. O., Jr.; Pereira, N. R.; Tajima, T.

    1982-10-01

    The self-generated magnetic field of a current diffusing into a plasma between conductors can magnetically insulate the plasma. Propagation of magnetoresistive waves in plasmas is analyzed. Applications to plasma opening switches are discussed.

  16. Fusion Plasma Theory project summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This Project Summary book is a published compilation consisting of short descriptions of each project supported by the Fusion Plasma Theory and Computing Group of the Advanced Physics and Technology Division of the Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy. The summaries contained in this volume were written by the individual contractors with minimal editing by the Office of Fusion Energy. Previous summaries were published in February of 1982 and December of 1987. The Plasma Theory program is responsible for the development of concepts and models that describe and predict the behavior of a magnetically confined plasma. Emphasis is given to the modelling and understanding of the processes controlling transport of energy and particles in a toroidal plasma and supporting the design of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). A tokamak transport initiative was begun in 1989 to improve understanding of how energy and particles are lost from the plasma by mechanisms that transport them across field lines. The Plasma Theory program has actively-participated in this initiative. Recently, increased attention has been given to issues of importance to the proposed Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX). Particular attention has been paid to containment and thermalization of fast alpha particles produced in a burning fusion plasma as well as control of sawteeth, current drive, impurity control, and design of improved auxiliary heating. In addition, general models of plasma behavior are developed from physics features common to different confinement geometries. This work uses both analytical and numerical techniques. The Fusion Theory program supports research projects at US government laboratories, universities and industrial contractors. Its support of theoretical work at universities contributes to the office of Fusion Energy mission of training scientific manpower for the US Fusion Energy Program.

  17. The Relationship Between Testosterone-Replacement Therapy and Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathrins, Martin; Doersch, Karen; Nimeh, Tony; Canto, Arturo; Niederberger, Craig; Seftel, Allen

    2016-02-01

    To systematically review prospective trials evaluating the clinical effects of testosterone-replacement therapy on lower urinary tract symptoms and prostate volume. We performed a literature review through PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library from 1994 to 2015 for prospective trials of hypogonadal men with benign prostatic hyperplasia or lower urinary tract symptoms treated with testosterone-replacement therapy. We evaluated the abstracts for outcomes related to International Prostate Symptom Score, prostate volume, and urodynamic parameters. An original cohort of 3079 abstracts was reviewed. Thirty-five trials were selected for inclusion. The majority of trials reviewed found no significant prostate growth due to testosterone-replacement therapy. Studies of men with baseline mild lower urinary tract symptoms demonstrated either no change or an improvement in symptoms after treatment. There was a lack of relevant urodynamic studies. Trials of men with the metabolic syndrome demonstrated uniform improvement in lower urinary tract symptoms. Forty-six percent of all the trials identified included exclusion criteria for baseline severe-range lower urinary tract symptoms or other signs of obstructive lower urinary tract symptoms. The current literature demonstrates scant support for a causative relationship between testosterone-replacement therapy, de novo or worsening lower urinary tract symptoms, and prostate volume. Furthermore, our review found an absence of high quality evidence that would support guideline recommendations that testosterone-replacement therapy is relatively contraindicated in men with severe-range lower urinary tract symptoms. Future clinical trials with more inclusive voiding criteria are needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Electrosurgical plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalder, Kenneth R.; McMillen, Donald F.; Woloszko, Jean

    2005-06-01

    Electrosurgical medical devices based on repetitively pulsed nonequilibrium micron-scale to millimetre-scale plasma discharges in saline solutions are described. The formation of vapour layers (bubbles) around active electrodes appears to be a common feature at moderate (<300 V rms) voltages, and dissociation, excitation and ionization of the vapour in these bubbles produces chemical conditions that are thought to be the source of beneficial tissue removal and treatment. Experimental data are discussed, as are the results of modelling efforts of the plasma chemistry. Hydroxyl radicals, hydrogen atoms and other species are observed spectroscopically and their interactions with collagen, a common component of tissue encountered in surgical situations, are considered. Several pathways by which hydroxyl radicals interacting with collagen can lead to tissue removal are discussed.

  19. Electrosurgical plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stalder, Kenneth R; McMillen, Donald F; Woloszko, Jean [ArthroCare Corp., Sunnyvale, CA 94085-3523 (United States)

    2005-06-07

    Electrosurgical medical devices based on repetitively pulsed nonequilibrium micron-scale to millimetre-scale plasma discharges in saline solutions are described. The formation of vapour layers (bubbles) around active electrodes appears to be a common feature at moderate (<300 V rms) voltages, and dissociation, excitation and ionization of the vapour in these bubbles produces chemical conditions that are thought to be the source of beneficial tissue removal and treatment. Experimental data are discussed, as are the results of modelling efforts of the plasma chemistry. Hydroxyl radicals, hydrogen atoms and other species are observed spectroscopically and their interactions with collagen, a common component of tissue encountered in surgical situations, are considered. Several pathways by which hydroxyl radicals interacting with collagen can lead to tissue removal are discussed.

  20. Potential of Microbubbles as Fat Replacer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rovers, T.A.M.; Sala, Guido; Linden, Van der Erik; Meinders, M.B.J.

    2016-01-01

    The potential of microbubbles as fat replacers and texture modifiers was assessed by comparison of the rheological and tribological properties of model food systems that contained (1) microbubbles, (2) emulsion droplets or (3) no added colloidal structures. We used (a) liquids with thickener, (b)

  1. Predictors of mortality after aortic valve replacement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjang, Yanto Sandy; van Hees, Yvonne; Koerfer, Reiner; Grobbee, Diederick E.; van der Heijden, Geert J. M. G.

    Aortic valve replacement (AVR) is recommended as a standard surgical procedure for aortic valve disease. Still the evidence for commonly claimed predictors of post-AVR prognosis, in particular mortality, appears scant. This systematic review reports on the evidence for predictors of post-AVR

  2. Is physiological glucocorticoid replacement important in children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, John; Blair, Joanne; Ross, Richard J

    2017-01-01

    Cortisol has a distinct circadian rhythm with low concentrations at night, rising in the early hours of the morning, peaking on waking and declining over the day to low concentrations in the evening. Loss of this circadian rhythm, as seen in jetlag and shift work, is associated with fatigue in the short term and diabetes and obesity in the medium to long term. Patients with adrenal insufficiency on current glucocorticoid replacement with hydrocortisone have unphysiological cortisol concentrations being low on waking and high after each dose of hydrocortisone. Patients with adrenal insufficiency complain of fatigue, a poor quality of life and there is evidence of poor health outcomes including obesity potentially related to glucocorticoid replacement. New technologies are being developed that deliver more physiological glucocorticoid replacement including hydrocortisone by subcutaneous pump, Plenadren, a once-daily modified-release hydrocortisone and Chronocort, a delayed and sustained absorption hydrocortisone formulation that replicates the overnight profile of cortisol. In this review, we summarise the evidence regarding physiological glucocorticoid replacement with a focus on relevance to paediatrics. PMID:27582458

  3. 25 CFR 700.53 - Dwelling, replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... § 700.55. (b) May include existing dwellings for resale, new construction, modular homes, mobile homes... person if, after he receives a replacement housing payment and any available housing assistance payments... supplemental income payments received from public agencies. If the person's monthly income pattern is...

  4. Prosthesis infections after orthopedic joint replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Zhijun; Borgwardt, Lotte; Høiby, Niels

    2013-01-01

    Prosthesis-related infection is a serious complication for patients after orthopedic joint replacement, which is currently difficult to treat with antibiotic therapy. Consequently, in most cases, removal of the infected prosthesis is the only solution to cure the infection. It is, therefore...

  5. Criteria for the replacement of restorations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Nairn; Lynch, Christopher; Brunton, Paul Brunton

    2016-01-01

    The replacement of a restoration is one of the most common procedures in dentistry. However, the criteria for such intervention, excluding catastrophic failure and persistent discomfort and pain, continue to be the subject of considerable debate. The decision-making process remains subjective...

  6. Measure Guideline: Window Repair, Rehabilitation, and Replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, P.

    2012-12-01

    This measure guideline provides information and guidance on rehabilitating, retrofitting, and replacing existing window assemblies in residential construction. The intent is to provide information regarding means and methods to improve the energy and comfort performance of existing wood window assemblies in a way that takes into consideration component durability, in-service operation, and long term performance of the strategies.

  7. Segmental blood pressure after total hip replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gebuhr, Peter Henrik; Soelberg, M; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1992-01-01

    Twenty-nine patients due to have a total hip replacement had their systemic systolic and segmental blood pressures measured prior to operation and 1 and 6 weeks postoperatively. No patients had signs of ischemia. The segmental blood pressure was measured at the ankle and at the toes. A significant...

  8. Method of replacing corrupted audio data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stemerdink, J.; Meijerink, Arjan

    2006-01-01

    A decoding method for coded data representing original data. Corrupted data is detected and replaced with buffered data. The buffered data is stored in the buffer a time interval corresponding to an estimated periodicity or an integer multiple thereof before the corrupted data was received. The esti

  9. Analogue Assessment of the Replacement Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipani, Ennio

    2008-01-01

    The use of experimental analyses in determining behavioral function for problems behaviors is well established. Such analyses lead to functional treatment prescriptions for the target problem behavior. However, data indicative of the strength of the replacement behavior are often not collected during a functional behavioral assessment. I examine…

  10. Hormone replacement therapy and risk of glioma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lene; Friis, Søren; Hallas, Jesper;

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Several studies indicate that use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is associated with an increased risk of intracranial meningioma, while associations between HRT use and risk of other brain tumors have been less explored. We investigated the influence of HRT use on the risk of glioma...

  11. Aggression Replacement Training and Childhood Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amendola, A. Mark; Oliver, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    Aggression Replacement Training (ART) was developed by the late Arnold Goldstein of Syracuse University to teach positive alternatives to children and youth with emotional and behavioral problems (Glick & Gibbs, 2011; Goldstein, Glick, & Gibbs, 1998). ART provides cognitive, affective, and behavioral interventions to build competence in…

  12. Probability Issues in without Replacement Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joarder, A. H.; Al-Sabah, W. S.

    2007-01-01

    Sampling without replacement is an important aspect in teaching conditional probabilities in elementary statistics courses. Different methods proposed in different texts for calculating probabilities of events in this context are reviewed and their relative merits and limitations in applications are pinpointed. An alternative representation of…

  13. [Acute renal replacement therapy in pediatrics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillot, T; Ozanne, B; Bétrémieux, P; Tirel, O; Ecoffey, C

    2013-12-01

    In pediatric intensive care unit, the available modalities of acute renal replacement therapy include intermittent hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis and continuous renal replacement therapies. No prospective studies have evaluated to date the effect of dialysis modality on the outcomes of children. The decision about dialysis modality should therefore be based on local expertise, resources available, and the patient's clinical status. Poor hemodynamic tolerance of intermittent hemodialysis is a common problem in critically ill patients. Moreover, many pediatric intensive care units are not equipped with dedicated water circuit. Peritoneal dialysis, a simple and inexpensive alternative, is the most widely available form of acute renal replacement therapy. However, its efficacy may be limited in critically ill patients. The use of continuous renal replacement therapy permits usually to reach a greater estimated dialysis dose, a better control of fluid balance, and additionally, to provide adequate nutrition. Copyright © 2013 Société française d’anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Revision Total Hip Replacement: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Hafizur Rahman

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Total hip replacement is a reconstructive procedure that has improved the management of those diseases of the hip joint that have responded poorly to conventional medical therapy. Conventional, primary total hip replacement is a durable operation in the majority of patients. A hip replacement is a mechanical device with parts that are assembled before and during the operation. But the possible complications of total hip arthroplasty, and its clinical performance over time, is a challenging occasion to the surgeons, and such a challenge we faced with our presenting patient. A 68 year old lady with history of cemented bipolar hemiarthroplasty done in a tertiary care hospital, due to fracture neck of the left femur having the history of diabetes, chronic kidney disease, heart disease, anaemia, and mental disorders presented with loosened prosthesis, thinning of medial proximal cortex of the femur which had broken within few months after surgery. She complained of painful walking at left hip joint. There was also evidence of chronic infective and degenerative arthritis of acetabular component of the affected hip joint. Cemented revision total hip replacement surgery was performed with expert multidisciplinary involvement. On 2nd postoperative day the patient was allowed to walk on operated limb with the aid of walker. On 12th postoperative day all the stitches were removed and wound was found healthy.

  15. [Hormone replacement therapy: curse or blessing?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, M; Fink, D; Lang, U; Kimmig, R

    2006-01-01

    There is a controversial discussion on the risks and benefits of hormonal replacement therapy (HRT), and many women and doctors have revised their opinions of HRT over the last few years. Complementary and alternative therapies can be considered an option to treat menopausal symptoms. The following issue summarizes the actual knowledge of treatment options of menopausal symptoms.

  16. Enzyme replacement therapy for alpha-mannosidosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgwardt, Line Gutte; Dali, Christine I.; Fogh, J

    2013-01-01

    Alpha-mannosidosis (OMIM 248500) is a rare lysosomal storage disease (LSD) caused by alpha-mannosidase deficiency. Manifestations include intellectual disabilities, facial characteristics and hearing impairment. A recombinant human alpha-mannosidase (rhLAMAN) has been developed for weekly intrave...... intravenous enzyme replacement therapy (ERT). We present the preliminary data after 12 months of treatment....

  17. Plasma physics

    CERN Document Server

    Cairns, R A

    1985-01-01

    This book is intended as an introduction to plasma physics at a level suitable for advanced undergraduates or beginning postgraduate students in physics, applied mathematics or astrophysics. The main prerequisite is a knowledge of electromagnetism and of the associated mathematics of vector calculus. SI units are used throughout. There is still a tendency amongst some plasma physics researchers to· cling to C.g.S. units, but it is the author's view that universal adoption of SI units, which have been the internationally agreed standard since 1960, is to be encouraged. After a short introductory chapter, the basic properties of a plasma con­ cerning particle orbits, fluid theory, Coulomb collisions and waves are set out in Chapters 2-5, with illustrations drawn from problems in nuclear fusion research and space physics. The emphasis is on the essential physics involved and (he theoretical and mathematical approach has been kept as simple and intuitive as possible. An attempt has been made to draw attention t...

  18. Plasma pharmacy - physical plasma in pharmaceutical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Woedtke, Th; Haertel, B; Weltmann, K-D; Lindequist, U

    2013-07-01

    During the last years the use of physical plasma for medical applications has grown rapidly. A multitude of findings about plasma-cell and plasma-tissue interactions and its possible use in therapy have been provided. One of the key findings of plasma medical basic research is that several biological effects do not result from direct plasma-cell or plasma-tissue interaction but are mediated by liquids. Above all, it was demonstrated that simple liquids like water or physiological saline, are antimicrobially active after treatment by atmospheric pressure plasma and that these effects are attributable to the generation of different low-molecular reactive species. Besides, it could be shown that plasma treatment leads to the stimulation of specific aspects of cell metabolism and to a transient and reversible increase of diffusion properties of biological barriers. All these results gave rise to think about another new and innovative field of medical plasma application. In contrast to plasma medicine, which means the direct use of plasmas on or in the living organism for direct therapeutic purposes, this field - as a specific field of medical plasma application - is called plasma pharmacy. Based on the present state of knowledge, most promising application fields of plasma pharmacy might be: plasma-based generation of biologically active liquids; plasma-based preparation, optimization, or stabilization of - mainly liquid - pharmaceutical preparations; support of drug transport across biological barriers; plasma-based stimulation of biotechnological processes.

  19. Influence of Total Knee Arthroplasty on Gait Mechanics of the Replaced and Non-Replaced Limb During Stair Negotiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standifird, Tyler W; Saxton, Arnold M; Coe, Dawn P; Cates, Harold E; Reinbolt, Jeffrey A; Zhang, Songning

    2016-01-01

    This study compared biomechanics during stair ascent in replaced and non-replaced limbs of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) patients with control limbs of healthy participants. Thirteen TKA patients and fifteen controls performed stair ascent. Replaced and non-replaced knees of TKA patients were less flexed at contact compared to controls. The loading response peak knee extension moment was greater in control and non-replaced knees compared with replaced. The push-off peak knee abduction moment was elevated in replaced limbs compared to controls. Loading and push-off peak hip abduction moments were greater in replaced limbs compared to controls. The push-off peak hip abduction moment was greater in non-replaced limbs compared to controls. Future rehabilitation protocols should consider the replaced knee and also the non-replaced knee and surrounding joints.

  20. 95 Alteration of Plasma Lipid Profile and Atherogenic Indices of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JTEkanem

    2009-07-15

    Jul 15, 2009 ... procumbens on the packed cell volume (PCV), daily weight gain, plasma lipid profiles and ... conditions, whether primary or secondary to diabetes mellitus, hypertension and obesity .... (1999) Abnormalities of membrane.

  1. Surface chemical changes of atmospheric pressure plasma treated rabbit fibres important for felting process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Štěpánová, Vlasta, E-mail: vstepanova@mail.muni.cz [Department of Physical Electronics, Faculty of Science Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic); Slavíček, Pavel; Stupavská, Monika; Jurmanová, Jana [Department of Physical Electronics, Faculty of Science Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic); Černák, Mirko [Department of Physical Electronics, Faculty of Science Masaryk University, Kotlářská 2, 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic); Department of Experimental Physics, Faculty of Mathematics, Physics and Informatics, Comenius University, Mlynská dolina F2, 842 48 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2015-11-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Rabbit fibres plasma treatment is an effective method for fibres modification. • Atmospheric pressure plasma treatment is able to affect fibres properties. • Surface changes on fibres after plasma treatment were analysed via SEM, ATR-FTIR, XPS. • Significant increase of fibres wettability after plasma treatment was observed. • Plasma treatment at atmospheric pressure can replace the chemical treatment of fibres. - Abstract: We introduce the atmospheric pressure plasma treatment as a suitable procedure for in-line industrial application of rabbit fibres pre-treatment. Changes of rabbit fibre properties due to the plasma treatment were studied in order to develop new technology of plasma-based treatment before felting. Diffuse Coplanar Surface Barrier Discharge (DCSBD) in ambient air at atmospheric pressure was used for plasma treatment. Scanning electron microscopy was used for determination of the fibres morphology before and after plasma treatment. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy were used for evaluation of reactive groups. The concentration of carbon decreased and conversely the concentration of nitrogen and oxygen increased after plasma treatment. Aging effect of plasma treated fibres was also investigated. Using Washburn method the significant increase of fibres wettability was observed after plasma treatment. New approach of pre-treatment of fibres before felting using plasma was developed. Plasma treatment of fibres at atmospheric pressure can replace the chemical method which consists of application of strong acids on fibres.

  2. Substituição do milho pela casca de café ou de soja em dietas para vacas leiteiras: comportamento ingestivo, concentração de nitrogênio uréico no plasma e no leite, balanço de compostos nitrogenados e produção de proteína microbiana Replacing corn with coffee hulls or soyhulls in diets of dairy cows: chewing activity, ruminal metabolism, nitrogen utilization and microbial protein synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Soares de Oliveira

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da substituição do milho pela casca de café ou pela casca de soja em dietas à base de cana-de-açúcar, com 60% de concentrado, sobre o comportamento ingestivo, o pH e a concentração de amônia no líquido ruminal, a excreção de uréia na urina (EU, a concentração de N-uréia no plasma (NUP e no leite (NUL, o balanço de compostos nitrogenados e a síntese de proteína microbiana em vacas leiteiras, em comparação a uma dieta com silagem de milho. Foram utilizadas 12 vacas holandesas, puras e mestiças, distribuídas em três quadrados latinos 4 x 4. A dieta controle foi composta de silagem de milho e 40% de concentrado (SiMi, com base na MS. Foram utilizadas três dietas contendo cana-de-açúcar e 60% de concentrado, de modo que os percentuais de substituição do milho foram 0% (CMi, 25% com casca de café (CCC ou 50% com casca de soja (CCS, com base na MS total da dieta. O tempo total de mastigação foi menor para a dieta SiMi e não foi afetado pela inclusão de casca de café ou casca de soja. O pH ruminal não diferiu nos tempos 0 e 3 horas após a alimentação matinal. A dieta CCC resultou, três horas após alimentação, em menor concentração de amônia ruminal em relação às demais, com exceção da dieta CMi. Não foram observadas diferenças na EU e NUL, sendo registrados valores médios de 179,31 mg/kg de PV e 12,59 mg/dL, respectivamente. A substituição do milho pela casca de café ou de soja não promove melhora no ambiente ruminal. A síntese de compostos nitrogenados microbianos e a eficiência microbiana ruminal não são influenciadas pelas dietas e apresentam valores médios de 273 g/dia e 130,08 gPBmic/kg de NDT, respectivamente.Twelve purebred and crossbred Holstein cows were assigned to three replicated 4 x 4 Latin squares to evaluate the effects of replacing corn grain with coffee hulls or soyhulls on chewing activity, ruminal metabolism, nitrogen utilization, and

  3. An LC-MS/MS assay for the quantitative determination of 2-pyridyl acetic acid, a major metabolite and key surrogate for betahistine, using low-volume human K2 EDTA plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Krunal; Bhatt, Chandrakant; Singh, Kanchan; Bhuvaneshwari, P C; Jha, Anil; Patel, Palak; Patel, Harilal; Srinivas, Nuggehally R

    2017-02-01

    Betahistine is widely used for the treatment of vertigo. Owing to first-pass metabolism, 2-pyridyl acetic acid (2PAA, major metabolite of betahistine) was considered as surrogate for quantitation. A specific and sensitive LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for quantitation of 2PAA using turbo-ion spray in a positive ion mode. A solid-phase extraction was employed for the extraction of 2PAA and 2PAA d6 (IS) from human plasma. Chromatographic separation of analytes was achieved using an ACE CN, 5 μm (50 × 4.6 mm) column with a gradient mobile phase comprising acetonitrile-methanol (90:10% v/v) and 0.7% v/v formic acid in 0.5 mm ammonium trifluoroacetate in purified water (100% v/v). The retention times of 1.15 and 1.17 min for 2PAA and internal standard, respectively, were achieved. Quantitation of 2PAA and internal standard was achieved by monitoring multiple reaction monitoring transition pairs (m/z 138.1 to m/z 92.0 and m/z 142.1 to m/z 96.1, respectively). The developed method was validated for various parameters. The calibration curves of 2PAA showed linearity from 5.0 to 1500 ng/mL, with a lower limit of quantitation of 5.0 ng/mL. The bias and precision for inter- and intra-batch assays were <10%. The developed method was used to support clinical sample analysis.

  4. 25 CFR 700.183 - Determination of replacement housing benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of replacement housing benefit. 700.183... RELOCATION PROCEDURES Replacement Housing Payments § 700.183 Determination of replacement housing benefit. (a) Amount of benefit. The replacement housing benefit for a certified eligible head-of-household is...

  5. Predictive value of NGAL for use of renal replacement therapy in patients with severe sepsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortrup, P B; Haase, N; Treschow, F;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The predictive value of plasma and urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) for use of renal replacement therapy (RRT) and acute kidney injury (AKI) is not established in patients with severe sepsis. METHODS: This was a prospective observational study in three general...... intensive care units (ICUs) in adult ICU patients with severe sepsis needing fluid resuscitation and a sub-study of the 6S trial. Plasma and urine were sampled at baseline and NGAL was measured using particle-enhanced turbidimetric immunoassay (The NGAL Test). Outcome measures were use of RRT in ICU......ROCs. CONCLUSION: In ICU patients with severe sepsis, plasma and urine NGAL had low predictive power for use of RRT, AKI and 90-day mortality. These results were supported by sensitivity and exploratory analyses....

  6. Concise review: no breakthroughs for human mesenchymal and embryonic stem cell culture: conditioned medium, feeder layer, or feeder-free; medium with fetal calf serum, human serum, or enriched plasma; serum-free, serum replacement nonconditioned medium, or ad hoc formula? All that glitters is not gold!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannello, Ferdinando; Tonti, Gaetana A

    2007-07-01

    The choice of an optimal strategy of stem cell culture is at the moment an impossible task, and the elaboration of a culture medium adapted to the production of embryonic and adult mesenchymal stem cells for the clinical application of cell therapy remains a crucial matter. To make an informed choice, it is crucial to not underestimate the theoretical health risk of using xenogenic compounds, to limit the immunological reactions once stem cells are transplanted, to not overestimate the controversial results obtained with human serum, plasma, and blood derivatives, as well as to carefully examine the pros and cons of serum-free and ad hoc formulation strategies; besides that, to also maintain multipotentiality, self-renewal, and transplantability. The extent to which we are able to achieve effective cell therapies will depend on assimilating a rapidly developing base of scientific knowledge with the practical considerations of design, delivery, and host response. Although clinical studies have already started, many questions remain unsolved, and concomitantly even more evidence on suitable and safe off-the-shelf products (mainly xeno-free) for embryonic and mesenchymal stem cells is cropping up, even though there should be no rush to enter the clinical stage while the underlying basic research is still not so solid; this solely will lead to high-quality translational research, without making blunders stemming from the assumption that all that glitters is not gold. Disclosure of potential conflicts of interest is found at the end of this article.

  7. Dynamics of Imploding Neon Gas Puff Plasmas. I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-26

    L-shell, but its volume is small . A broader annulus of hot plasma, situated outside the core plasma is producing most of the K- and L-shell radiation...but its volume is small . The 10 - /~. *’ -- - (totcl) spectrum. ib-10ma 20. 00 NSEC. 21. 2G. E > 19. z 17. _ 16. .01 .10 1.00 10.00 energy (key

  8. 正常人血浆成纤维细胞生长因子19与胆囊容积变化的关系%Study on the relationship between the plasma fibroblast growth factor 19 level and changes in gallbladder volume

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷铭; 徐子平; 蔡劬; 计骏; 王明亮; 蒋兆彦; 韩天权; 张圣道

    2011-01-01

    Objective Fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) is involved physiologically in the refilling of gallbladder. To measure the expression of FCF19 in gallbladder tissue and to evaluate the relationship of the plasma FGF19 level and the changes of gallbladder volume. Methods mRNA level of FGF19 in gallbladder tissues were quantified by real-time PCR. Localization of FGF19 protein in gallbladder tissues was detected by immunohistochemistry. FGF19 in plasma was assayed by EliSA during fasting and 1-4 hour after fat-diet obtained from 4 female and 4 male healthy volunteers. At each time point, the gallbladder volume was measured using B-type ultrasonic scanning. Results mRNA of FGF19 was detected in gallbladder tissue. Immunohistochemistry showed that FGF19 protein was present in the epithelium of gallbladder. The gallbladder contracted after fat-diet and reached the maximum degree 2-hour after the diet in both sexes. In females, plasma FGF19 decreased 1-hour after the fat-diet, rose afterwards, and reached the peak 3-hour after the fat-diet. This change was earlier than the refilling of the gallbladder. However, similar findings were not observed in males. Conclusions Our study shows that FGF19 is highly expressed in the human gallbladder epithelium. Plasma FGF19 may be related with gallbladder refilling after fat-diet.%目的:检测胆囊成纤维细胞生长因子19(fibroblast growth factor 19,FGF19)的表达,并探讨正常人空腹及餐后血浆FGF19的含量与胆囊容积变化的相关性。方法:采用定量PCR和免疫组化检测胆囊黏膜FGF19 mRNA和蛋白质的表达。采用酶联免疫吸附法测定8例健康志愿者(男女各4例)空腹及脂肪餐后1~4 h血浆FGF19含量,B超检查相应时段的胆囊容积。结果:胆囊具有较高的FGF19 mRNA表达量。FGF19蛋白在胆囊黏膜上皮细胞表达。脂肪餐后胆囊收缩,在餐后2 h达到最高峰。脂肪餐后1 h,女性血浆FGF19含量略有降

  9. Radioimmunoassay of sodium cromoglycate in human plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, K.; Gardner, J.J.; Lockley, W.J.S.; Preston, J.R.; Wilkinson, D.J. (Fisons Ltd., Loughborough (UK). Pharmaceutical Div.)

    1983-01-01

    A sensitive radioimmunoassay method for sodium cromoglycate in human plasma is described. The lowest quantifiable concentration of sodium cromoglycate is 0.93 nmol/1 when 0.1 ml plasma samples are analysed. Direct analysis of sodium cromoglycate concentrations in plasma samples collected up to several hours after the administration of single therapeutic doses of the compound is possible. The range of the method is limited; both 0.01 and 0.1 ml volumes of plasma must be analysed to encompass the concentration range 0.93-139 nmol/1 which may be encountered in plasma samples from patients and human volunteers. The method is specific for sodium cromoglycate as indicated by a low cross-reactivity of the anti-cromoglycate antiserum with a number of drugs.

  10. Monitoring particle growth in deposition plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlebrowski, T.; Bahre, H.; Böke, M.; Winter, J.

    2013-12-01

    Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition methods are frequently used to deposit barrier layers, e.g. on polymers for food packaging. These plasmas may suffer from particle (dust) formation. We report on a flexible monitoring system for dust. It is based on scanning a 3D plasma volume for particles by laser light scattering. The lower size limit of particles detected in the presented system is 20 nm. We report on existence diagrams for obtaining dust free or dust loaded capacitively or inductively coupled rf-plasmas in C2H2 depending on pressure, flow and rf-power. We further present growth rates for dust in these plasmas and show that monodisperse particles are only obtained during the first growth cycle.

  11. Effects of replacing lactose from milk replacer by glucose, fructose, or glycerol on energy partitioning in veal calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert, M. S.; Pantophlet, A. J.; van den Borne, J. J. G. C.; Hendriks, W. H.; Schols, H. A.; Gerrits, W. J. J.

    2016-01-01

    Calf milk replacers contain 40 to 50% lactose. Fluctuating dairy prices are a major economic incentive to replace lactose from milk replacers by alternative energy sources. Our objective was, therefore, to determine the effects of replacement of lactose with glucose, fructose, or glycerol on energy

  12. Effects of replacing lactose from milk replacer by glucose, fructose, or glycerol on energy partitioning in veal calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert, M.S.; Pantophlet, A.J.; Borne, van den J.J.G.C.; Hendriks, W.H.; Schols, H.A.; Gerrits, W.J.J.

    2016-01-01

    Calf milk replacers contain 40 to 50% lactose. Fluctuating dairy prices are a major economic incentive to replace lactose from milk replacers by alternative energy sources. Our objective was, therefore, to determine the effects of replacement of lactose with glucose, fructose, or glycerol on

  13. Effects of replacing lactose from milk replacer by glucose, fructose, or glycerol on energy partitioning in veal calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert, M. S.; Pantophlet, A. J.; van den Borne, J. J. G. C.; Hendriks, W. H.; Schols, H. A.; Gerrits, W. J. J.

    Calf milk replacers contain 40 to 50% lactose. Fluctuating dairy prices are a major economic incentive to replace lactose from milk replacers by alternative energy sources. Our objective was, therefore, to determine the effects of replacement of lactose with glucose, fructose, or glycerol on energy

  14. The effects of ulinastatin on the plasma volume and organ vasopermeability in dogs with severe burn during early stage%乌司他丁对严重烧伤犬早期血浆容量及脏器血管通透性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈小鹏; 胡森; 柴家科; 盛志勇

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察烧伤休克期早期给予乌司他丁对全身血浆容量和脏器血管通透性的影响.方法 采用成年Beagle犬35%TBSAⅢ度模型,随机分为两组:(1)对照组(C组):烧伤后不予治疗;(2)乌司他丁组(U组):伤后半小时按10 000 U/kg 静脉注射乌司他丁.于烧伤前和烧伤后2、4、6、8 h 抽血检测血细胞比容(HCT)、肿瘤坏死因子-α(TNF-α)和丙二醛(MDA)的含量;用吲哚菁绿法测定各时间点血浆容量.8 h 后处死动物,用伊文思蓝法测脏器血管通透性及干湿重法测脏器含水率.结果 两组HCT、TNF-α和MDA伤后均升高,但U组升高幅度明显小于C组,两组之间有显著统计学差异(P<0.01或P<0.05);两组血浆容量伤后均下降,但U组自伤后2 h 开始,血浆容量明显高于C组(P<0.01)[U组4 h 和8 h 分别为(515±25)ml 和(491±29)ml,而C组为(432±18)ml 和(366±37)ml];伤后8 h U组肝、脾、肾、空肠的伊文思蓝(EB)含量及含水率均明显低于C组(P<0.01或P<0.05).结论 烧伤休克期早期给予乌司他丁能有效缓解伤后循环血量的快速丢失,降低远隔脏器的血管通透性,减轻脏器损害及水肿程度.%Objective To observe the effects of ulinastatin used during early stage of bum shock on the plasma volume and organ vasopermeability.Methods Beagle dogs with 35% TBSA third degree were used and randomly divided into 2 groups: ( 1 ) control group(CG): No treatment was given after burn; (2) ulinastatin group( UG): Ulinastatin was given in a dose of 10000U/kg through intravenous injection 30 minutes after burn.Before burn and at 2h, 4h, 6h, 8h postburn, Blood samples were taken to determine HCT, TNF-α and MDA.Plasma volume was determined by method of indocyanine green (ICG) method at each time.At the end of 8-hour experiment, animals were sacrificed to collect organs for determining vasopermeability by Evans Blue method, and assessment of water content of organs by Dry/wet Weight method.Results HCT, TNF-ct and MDA

  15. Earlier Pulmonary Valve Replacement in Down Syndrome Patients Following Tetralogy of Fallot Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Rachel T; Frommelt, Peter C; Hill, Garick D

    2017-08-01

    The association between Down syndrome and pulmonary hypertension could contribute to more severe pulmonary regurgitation after tetralogy of Fallot repair and possibly earlier pulmonary valve replacement. We compared cardiac magnetic resonance measures of pulmonary regurgitation and right ventricular dilation as well as timing of pulmonary valve replacement between those with and without Down syndrome after tetralogy of Fallot repair. Review of our surgical database from 2000 to 2015 identified patients with tetralogy of Fallot with pulmonary stenosis. Those with Down syndrome were compared to those without. The primary outcome of interest was time from repair to pulmonary valve replacement. Secondary outcomes included pulmonary regurgitation and indexed right ventricular volume on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. The cohort of 284 patients included 35 (12%) with Down syndrome. Transannular patch repair was performed in 210 (74%). Down syndrome showed greater degree of pulmonary regurgitation (55 ± 14 vs. 37 ± 16%, p = 0.01) without a significantly greater rate of right ventricular dilation (p = 0.09). In multivariable analysis, Down syndrome (HR 2.3, 95% CI 1.2-4.5, p = 0.02) and transannular patch repair (HR 5.5, 95% CI 1.7-17.6, p = 0.004) were significant risk factors for valve replacement. Those with Down syndrome had significantly lower freedom from valve replacement (p = 0.03). Down syndrome is associated with an increased degree of pulmonary regurgitation and earlier pulmonary valve replacement after tetralogy of Fallot repair. These patients require earlier assessment by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging to determine timing of pulmonary valve replacement and evaluation for and treatment of preventable causes of pulmonary hypertension.

  16. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement in elderly patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dimytri Siqueira; Alexandre Abizaid; Magaly Arrais J.; Eduardo Sousa

    2012-01-01

    Aortic stenosis is the most common native valve disease, affecting up to 5% of the elderly population. Surgical aortic valve replacement reduces symptoms and improves survival, and is the definitive therapy in patients with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis. However, despite the good results of classic surgery, risk is markedly increased in elderly patients with co-morbidities. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) allows implantation of a prosthetic heart valve within the diseased native aortic valve without the need for open heart surgery and cardiopulmonary bypass, offering a new therapeutic option to elderly patients considered at high surgical risk or with contraindications to surgery. To date, several multicenter registries and a randomized trial have confirmed the safety and efficacy of TAVR in those patients. In this chapter, we review the background and clinical applications of TAVR in elderly patients.

  17. Mitochondrial replacement therapy in reproductive medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Don P; Mitalipov, Nargiz; Mitalipov, Shoukhrat

    2015-02-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is implicated in disease and age-related infertility. Mitochondrial replacement therapies (MRT) in oocytes or zygotes, such as pronuclear (PNT), spindle (ST), or polar body (PBT) transfer, could prevent second-generation transmission of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) defects. PNT, associated with high levels of mtDNA carryover in mice but low levels in human embryos, carries ethical issues secondary to donor embryo destruction. ST, developed in primates, supports normal development to adults and low mtDNA carryover. PBT in mice, coupled with PN or ST, may increase the yield of reconstructed embryos with low mtDNA carryover. MRT also offers replacement of the deficient cytoplasm in oocytes from older patients, with the expectation of high pregnancy rates following in vitro fertilization.

  18. Nicotine replacement therapies: patient safety and persistence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferguson SG

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Stuart G Ferguson1,2, Saul Shiffman3,4, Joseph G Gitchell51School of Pharmacy, 2Menzies Research Institute Tasmania, University of Tasmania, Hobart, Australia; 3Pinney Associates, 4University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA; 5Pinney Associates, Bethesda, MD, USAAbstract: Nicotine replacement therapy (NRT has become a central part of the treatment of nicotine dependence. However, NRT’s potential efficacy is limited to some extent by patient adherence and persistence. Here we review the relationship between NRT compliance and adherence, and overall treatment outcome. We then examine the factors that likely impact on treatment compliance and persistence, with a special focus on users’ perceptions of treatment safety and efficacy as possible mediators. Potential clinical strategies for improving suboptimal medication use are also discussed.Keywords: nicotine replacement therapy, compliance, safety

  19. Replacements For Ozone-Depleting Foaming Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blevins, Elana; Sharpe, Jon B.

    1995-01-01

    Fluorinated ethers used in place of chlorofluorocarbons and hydrochlorofluorocarbons. Replacement necessary because CFC's and HCFC's found to contribute to depletion of ozone from upper atmosphere, and manufacture and use of them by law phased out in near future. Two fluorinated ethers do not have ozone-depletion potential and used in existing foam-producing equipment, designed to handle liquid blowing agents soluble in chemical ingredients that mixed to make foam. Any polyurethane-based foams and several cellular plastics blown with these fluorinated ethers used in processes as diverse as small batch pours, large sprays, or double-band lamination to make insulation for private homes, commercial buildings, shipping containers, and storage tanks. Fluorinated ethers proved useful as replacements for CFC refrigerants and solvents.

  20. The pure relationship and below replacement fertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Hall

    2003-12-01

    interest from demographers. Despite the fact that researchers have extensively modeled recent demographic changes such as skyrocketing divorce rates, rising common-law union formation, delayed childbearing, and the decline to belowreplacement fertility levels, our understanding of the causes of these trends, and the possible connections between them remains theoretically fragmented and incomplete. The goal of this paper is to advance our understanding in this area by exploring the insights on modern family formation of prominent sociologist Anthony Giddens. Specifically, this study examines whether Giddens’ “pure relationship” concept can shed light on the trend toward very low fertility. The results of this inquiry suggest that couples in both marriages and common-law unions who conform to key aspects of Giddens pure relationship are more likely to have uncertain or below-replacement fertility intentions, and less likely to embrace above-replacement fertility goals.