WorldWideScience

Sample records for plasma volume osmolality

  1. Plasma volume, osmolality, vasopressin, and renin activity during graded exercise in man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convertino, V. A.; Keil, L. C.; Bernauer, E. M.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1981-01-01

    The influence of work intensity on plasma volume, osmolality, vasopressin and renin activity and the interrelationships between these responses are investigated. Plasma volume, renin activity and osmotic, sodium and arginine vasopressin concentrations were measured in venous blood samples taken from 15 healthy male subjects before and after six minutes of bicycle ergometer exercise at 100, 175 and 225 W. Plasma volume is found to decrease significantly with increasing work intensity, while increases in Na(+) concentration, osmolality and vasopressin are only observed to be significant when the work intensity exceeds 40% maximal aerobic capacity and plasma resin activity increased linearly at all work levels. In addition, significant correlations are observed between plasma volume and osmolality and sodium changes, and between vasopressin and osmolality and sodium content changes. Data thus support the hypotheses that (1) vasopressin may be the primary controlling endocrine for fluid and electrolyte levels following exercise; (2) an exercise intensity greater than 40% maximal aerobic capacity is required to stimulate vasopressin release through changes in plasma osmolality; and (3) the stimulation of the renin-angiotensin system is a more general stress response.

  2. Effect of Rehydration Fluid Osmolality on Plasma Volume and Vasopressin in Resting Dehydrated Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geelen, Ghislaine; Greenleaf, J. E.; Keil, L. C.; Wade, Charles E. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Elevated plasma vasopressin concentration [PVP], which may act as a dipsogen, decreases promptly following the ingestion of fluids in many mammals including humans. The purpose for this study was to determine whether fluids of varied electrolyte and carbohydrate composition and osmolality (Osm] would modify post-drinking decreases in [PVP] which could be attributed to interaction with plasma volume (PV)- or fluid-electrolyte interactive hormones. Five men (23-41 yr, 78.0 +/- SD 8.2 kg), water deprived for 24 h, drank six fluids (12 ml/kg, at 16.5C in 4.0-6.2 min): water (30 m0sm/kg), NaCl (70 mOsm/kg), NaCl + NaCitrate (270 mOsm/kg), NaCl + 9.7% glucose (650 mOsm/kg), and two commercial drinks containing various ionic and carbohydrate contents (380 and 390 mOsm/kg). Blood (20 ml/sample) was drawn at -5 min before and at +3, +9, +15, +30, and +70 min after drinking. Heart rate, blood pressures, and plasma renin activity, {Na+], [K+], [Osm], aldosterone, atrial natriuretic peptide, and epinephrine concentrations were unchanged after drinking. Post-drinking [PVP] decreased from 1.7 - 3.7 pg/ml within 3 min with all fluids independently of their composition, [Osm], or delta PV; with maximal depression to 0.1-0.7 pg/ml (pplasma (Osm] but 1.8-7.6% increases (pplasma norepinephrine concentrations [PNE] at 15 min correlated -0.70 (P<0.10) suggesting that about half the variability in [PVP I I depression was associated with [PNE]. Thus, part of the mechanism for post-drinking [PVP] depression may involve a drinking stimulated norepinephrine (neural) factor.

  3. Regulation of plasma osmolality: thirst and vasopressin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toto, K H

    1994-12-01

    Sudden changes in plasma osmolality may have lethal consequences, because of abrupt changes in the volume of cells in the central nervous system. Acute osmotic disequilibrium can result in brain shrinkage or brain swelling. This article explores how the integrated responses of vasopressin and thirst maintain osmotic equilibrium through regulation of body water balance. These two mechanisms provide almost insurmountable barriers to excessive dilution or concentration of body fluids.

  4. Changes in plasma osmolality in food poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čanović Predrag

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Changes in plasma osmolality may occur during acute intestinal infections due to dehydration (loss of water and/or electrolytes. Depending on whether the water and electrolyte deficit is primary, or a proportional loss of water and electrolytes, dehydration can be classified into three categories: hypertonic, hypotonic and isotonic. Material and methods. Thirty (30 patients with food poisoning were included in this research. All patients were hospitalized because of frequent vomiting, with resultant dehydration. A diagnosis of food poisoning was made based on the clinical picture, short incubation period and positive epidemiological history. Plasma osmolality was measured by a freezing point depression with an osmometer, while effective plasma osmolality was determined by using the following formula: EPO (eff. plasma osmolality = 2 x serum sodium concentration + serum glucose level. Apart from plasma osmolality, other parameters were also measured in patients' sera: sodium, chloride, potassium, urea, glucose and hematocrit. In order to follow-up the changes in these parameters, they were also measured after treatment of the gastrointestinal disorder. Statistical analysis was performed using the equality of mean values for 2 basic groups. Results. The statistical results showed that the values of total and effective plasma osmolality (TPO and EPO among patients with gastrointestinal disorders were not significantly higher than values after the alimentary infection. Discussion. Such results suggest that food poisoning is associated with disorders of water and electrolyte metabolism, that is isotonic type of dehydration. .

  5. Effects of cigarette smoking on hemorheologic parameters, plasma osmolality and lung function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergun, Dilek Duzgun; Karis, Denizhan; Alkan, Fatma Ates; Cakmak, Gulfidan; Yenigun, Mustafa; Ercan, Meltem

    2016-10-05

    Cigarette smoking deteriorates human health via vascular disorders, cancer and especially respiratory diseases. The aim of this study is to investigate effects of cigarette smoking on hemorheologic parameters, plasma osmolality and lung function in individuals without diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Patients diagnosed without COPD utilizing respiratory function test were enrolled in the study with three groups, ex-smokers (n = 21), current-smokers (n = 35) and never-smokers (n = 43). Hemorheologic parameters and plasma osmolality were measured in hemorheology laboratory. SPSS 17.0 was used for statistical analysis. Blood and plasma viscosity, fibrinogen and hematocrit levels, mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration were significantly elevated in ex-smokers and current-smokers compared to never-smokers. The standardized red blood cell deformability and oxygen delivery index and lung function were statistically lower in current-smokers than never-smokers. Pulmonary blood flow rate was statistically lower in current-smokers and ex-smokers than never-smokers. Plasma osmolality was statistically significantly higher in ex-smokers and current-smokers than never-smokers. Our findings clearly show that cigarette smoking has severe effects on hemorheologic parameters, plasma osmolality and lung function even in individuals without COPD. Blood and plasma viscosity with plasma osmolality might be useful markers to detect early hemorheologic-hemodynamic alterations in cigarette smokers.

  6. Infinite dilution conductimetry of plasma and urine: correlation with osmolality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genain, C; Tellier, P; Syrota, A; Pocidalo, J J; Hans, M

    1978-08-15

    The infinite dilution conductivity (IDC) of plasma and urine allows a measurement of the electrolyte content in small samples (5 to 15 microliter). The method was compared to the corrected osmolality (II'p) measured by the freezing-point depression. A linear correlation existed between II'p and the IDC: for plasma: II'p = 13.10 sigma o,p + 37.00 (n = 46 and r = 0.9949) for urine: II'u = 12.75 sigma o,u + 16.56 (n = 85 and r = 0.9504). The measurement of the IDC does not depend on protein concentration and can be used instead of the osmometer methods to determine the total plasma and urine electrolyte content.

  7. Plasma osmolality predicts mortality in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, HakkI; Yücel, Oğuzhan; Ege, Meltem Refiker; Zorlu, Ali; Yücel, Hasan; Güneş, Hakan; Ekmekçi, Ahmet; Yılmaz, Mehmet Birhan

    2017-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a fatal disease. Plasma osmolality with individual impacts of sodium, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and glucose has not been studied prognostically in patients with HF. This study aims to investigate the impact of serum osmolality on clinical endpoints in HF patients. A total of 509 patients (383 males, 126 females) with HF with reduced ejection fraction in three HF centres were retrospectively analysed between January 2007 and December 2013. Follow-up data were completed for 496 patients. Plasma osmolality was calculated as (2 × Na) + (BUN/2.8) + (Glucose/18). Quartiles of plasma osmolality were produced, and the possible relationship between plasma osmolality and cardiovascular mortality was investigated. The mean follow-up was 25 ± 22 months. The mean age was 56.5 ± 17.3 years with a mean EF of 26 ± 8%. The mean levels of plasma osmolality were as follows in the quartiles: 1st % = 280 ± 6, 2nd % = 288 ± 1, 3rd % = 293 ± 2 (95% confidence interval [CI] 292.72-293.3), and 4th % = 301 ± 5 mOsm/kg. The EF and B-type natriuretic peptide levels were similar in the four quartiles. Univariate and multivariate analyses in the Cox proportional hazard model revealed a significantly higher rate of mortality in the patients with hypo-osmolality. The Kaplan-Meier plot showed graded mortality curves with the 1st quartile having the worst prognosis, followed by the 4th quartile and the 2nd quartile, while the 3rd quartile was shown to have the best prognosis. Our study results suggest that normal plasma osmolality is between 275 and 295 mOsm/kg. However, being close to the upper limit of normal range (292-293 mOsm/kg) seems to be the optimal plasma osmolality level in terms of cardiovascular prognosis in patients with HF.

  8. Plasma osmolality and oxygen consumption of perch Perca fluviatilis in response to different salinities and temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Emil Aputsiaq Flindt; Svendsen, Morten Bo Søndergaard; Steffensen, John Fleng

    2017-01-01

    The present study determined the blood plasma osmolality and oxygen consumption of the perch Perca fluviatilis at different salinities (0, 10 and 15) and temperatures (5, 10 and 20° C). Blood plasma osmolality increased with salinity at all temperatures. Standard metabolic rate (SMR) increased...... beneficial during cold periods (winter). It is suggested, therefore, that the seasonal migrations of P. fluviatilis between brackish and fresh water is to select an environment that is optimal for metabolism and aerobic scope....

  9. Do Acartia tonsa (Dana) eggs regulate their volume and osmolality as salinity changes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Benni Winding; Drillet, Guillaume; Pedersen, Morten Foldager;

    2012-01-01

    Subitaneous eggs from an euryhaline calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa were challenged by changes in salinity within the range from full strength salinity, down to zero and up to >70 psu. Egg volume changed immediately, increasing from 2.8 × 105 μm3 at full strength salinity (35 psu) to 3.8 × 105 μm3...... at 0 psu and back to its initial volume when gradually being returned to full strength salinity. Egg osmolality followed the molality of the surrounding water when challenged within a salinity range from 2 to 50 psu. Egg respiration was not affected when eggs kept at 35 psu was exposed to low salinity...... (2 psu). These results suggest that eggs are unable to regulate their volume or osmolality when challenged with changes in salinity. Gradual changes in salinity from 35 to 2 psu and back did not harm the eggs (embryos), since the hatching success remained unaffected by such changes in salinity...

  10. Leucocytosis, Thrombocytosis, and Plasma Osmolality During Rest and Exercise: A Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, M. A.; Greenleaf, John E.; Looft-Wilson, R.; Barnes, P. R.

    1999-01-01

    The mechanism for inducing leucocytosis (increase in white blood cells) and thrombocytosis (increase in platelets) during exercise is unclear. Because plasma osmolality (Osm) may influence T-cell proliferation, Osm and the number of leucocytes (WBC) and platelets in blood were measured periodically during a 90 min rest period, and were compared with those during upright sitting ergometer exercise in six unt.rained, healthy men who cycled for 70 min at 71% of their maximal oxygen uptake (V prime O(sub 2(sub max)). There were 6 experiments in which the subjects drank different fluid formula-t4ilons (10 ml/kg) of various ionic and osmotic concentrations intermittently during 60 min of the rest period and during the exercise period. Osmolality, and WBC and platelet counts increased significantly (pthrombocytosis. There were low but significant correlations between individual values of total WBC and total Osm during exercise (r(sub 0.001(2),284) = 0.39) and during rest plus exercise (r(sub 0.001(2),499) = 0.43). With combined data from the six experiments, mean Osm correlated highly and significantly with both mean WBC (r(sub 0.001(2),6) = 0.95, p thrombocytosis, or hyperosmolality. The high correlations between plasma Osm and WBC or platelet counts suggest changes in osmolality may contribute to the mechanism of leucocytosis and thrombocytosis induced by exercise.

  11. Leucocytosis, Thrombocytosis, and Plasma Osmolality During Rest and Exercise: A Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, M. A.; Greenleaf, John E.; Looft-Wilson, R.; Barnes, P. R.

    1999-01-01

    The mechanism for inducing leucocytosis (increase in white blood cells) and thrombocytosis (increase in platelets) during exercise is unclear. Because plasma osmolality (Osm) may influence T-cell proliferation, Osm and the number of leucocytes (WBC) and platelets in blood were measured periodically during a 90 min rest period, and were compared with those during upright sitting ergometer exercise in six unt.rained, healthy men who cycled for 70 min at 71% of their maximal oxygen uptake (V prime O(sub 2(sub max)). There were 6 experiments in which the subjects drank different fluid formula-t4ilons (10 ml/kg) of various ionic and osmotic concentrations intermittently during 60 min of the rest period and during the exercise period. Osmolality, and WBC and platelet counts increased significantly (pexercise, but the additional 60 min of exercise did not significantly change the leucocytosis or thrombocytosis. There were low but significant correlations between individual values of total WBC and total Osm during exercise (r(sub 0.001(2),284) = 0.39) and during rest plus exercise (r(sub 0.001(2),499) = 0.43). With combined data from the six experiments, mean Osm correlated highly and significantly with both mean WBC (r(sub 0.001(2),6) = 0.95, p exercise phase. These data indicate that increases in leucocytes, thrombocytes, and osmolality occur primarily within the first 10 min of high-intensity exercise, but neither hypovolemia nor hyperthermia during exercise contributed to the leucocytosis, thrombocytosis, or hyperosmolality. The high correlations between plasma Osm and WBC or platelet counts suggest changes in osmolality may contribute to the mechanism of leucocytosis and thrombocytosis induced by exercise.

  12. Evaluation of Talbot's Safety Zone of Infusion Volume and Osmolality in Infusion Therapy for Decompensated Liver Cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuasa,Shiro

    1985-06-01

    Full Text Available Problems with infusion therapy for correcting fluid and sodium imbalance in decompensated liver cirrhosis (DLC were investigated by establishing the safety zone of Talbot et al. for parenteral fluid therapy in 4 DLC patients infused with over 900 ml of fluid each day for at least 9 days. The safety zone was different in each case. The safe infusion volume decreased and the safe electrolyte concentration shifted to a lower osmolality when there was ascites with renal failure than ascites without renal failure. Infusion therapy was performed without deterioration of the water and sodium balance in those patients whose infusion volume and fluid osmolality were in the safety zone. In contrast, ascites retention increased and peripheral edema appeared in patients whose infusion volume and osmolality were out of the safety zone. Therefore, the safety zone should be determined repeatedly during infusion therapy.

  13. Osmolality Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drug therapies such as mannitol, used to treat cerebral edema . It is also ordered to help monitor the ... stable "therapeutic" osmotic gap and the relief of cerebral edema . Serum osmolality may be increased with: Dehydration Diabetes ...

  14. Evaluation of selected-ion flow-tube mass spectrometry for the measurement of ethanol, methanol and isopropanol in physiological fluids: effect of osmolality and sample volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowbottom, Lynn; Workman, Clive; Roberts, Norman B

    2009-09-01

    Selected-ion flow-tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS) is particularly suited for the analysis of volatile low molecular weight compounds. We have evaluated this technique for the assay of different alcohols in aqueous solutions, including blood plasma, and in particular whether the osmolality or sample volume affected vapourisation. Solutions of three different alcohols (methanol, ethanol and isopropanol) ranging from 0.005 to 50 mmol/L were prepared in deionised water (0 milliosmol), phosphate-buffered saline (690 mOsm), isotonic saline (294 mOsm) and plasma (296 mOsm). The vapour above the sample (50 to 1000 microL) contained in air-tight tubes at 37 degrees C was aspirated into the instrument. The outputs for ethanol, methanol and isopropanol were linear over the concentration range and independent of the sample volume and relatively independent of the osmolar concentration. SIFT-MS can reliably and accurately measure common alcohols in the headspace above aqueous solutions, including serum/plasma. This novel application of SIFT-MS is easy to follow, requires no sample preparation and the wide dynamic range will facilitate measurement of alcohols present from normal metabolism as well as when taken in excess or in accidental poisoning.

  15. Plasma osmolality reference values in African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus erithacus), Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis), and red-fronted macaws (Ara rubrogenys).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaufrère, Hugues; Acierno, Mark; Mitchell, Mark; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Bryant, Heather; Tully, Thomas N

    2011-06-01

    Birds are routinely presented to veterinarians for dehydration. Success with these cases ultimately depends on providing replacement fluids and re-establishing fluid homeostasis. Few studies have been done to determine reference ranges for plasma osmolality in birds. The goals of this study were to determine reference values for plasma osmolality in 3 species of parrots and to provide recommendations on fluid selection for replacement therapy in these species. Blood samples were collected from 21 adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis), 21 Congo African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus erithacus), and 9 red-fronted macaws (Ara rubrogenys), and were placed into lithium heparin containers. Plasma osmolality was measured in duplicate with a freezing point depression osmometer. Summary statistics were computed from the average values. Reference ranges, calculated by using the robust method, were 288-324, 308-345, and 223-369 mOsm/kg in African grey parrots, Hispaniolan Amazon parrots, and red-fronted macaws, respectively. The mean +/- SD values were 306 +/- 7, 327 +/- 7, and 304 +/- 18 mOsm/kg in African grey parrots, Hispaniolan Amazon parrots, and red-fronted macaws, respectively. Comparisons with osmolality values in mammals and values previously reported for psittacine bird species suggest that plasma osmolality is slightly higher in parrots than in mammals, species-specific differences exist, and differences between reported values occur. Overall, fluids with an osmolarity close to 300-320 mOsm/L, such as Normosol-R, Plasmalyte-R, Plasmalyte-A, and NaCl 0.9%, can be recommended in parrots for fluid replacement therapy when isotonic fluids are required.

  16. Effect of osmolality on erythrocyte rheology and perfusion of an artificial microvascular network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhart, Walter H; Piety, Nathaniel Z; Goede, Jeroen S; Shevkoplyas, Sergey S

    2015-03-01

    Plasma sodium concentration is normally held within a narrow range. It may however vary greatly under pathophysiological conditions. Changes in osmolality lead to either swelling or shrinkage of red blood cells (RBCs). Here we investigated the influence of suspension osmolality on biophysical properties of RBCs and their ability to perfuse an artificial microvascular network (AMVN). Blood was drawn from healthy volunteers. RBC deformability was measured by osmotic gradient ektacytometry over a continuous range of osmolalities. Packed RBCs were suspended in NaCl solutions (0.45, 0.6, 0.9, 1.2, and 1.5 g/dL), resulting in supernatant osmolalities of 179 ± 4, 213 ± 1, 283 ± 2, 354 ± 3, and 423 ± 5 mOsm/kg H2O. Mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were determined using centrifuged microhematocrit. RBC suspensions at constant cell numbers were used to measure viscosity at shear rates ranging from 0.11 to 69.5s(-1) and the perfusion rate of the AMVN. MCV was inversely and MCHC directly proportional to osmolality. RBC deformability was maximized at isosmotic conditions (290 mOsm/kg H2O) and markedly decreased by either hypo- or hyperosmolality. The optimum osmolality for RBC suspension viscosity was shifted toward hyperosmolality, while lower osmolalities increased suspension viscosity exponentially. However, the AMVN perfusion rate was maximized at 290 mOsm/kg H2O and changed by less than 10% over a wide range of osmolalities. These findings contribute to the basic understanding of blood flow in health and disease and may have significant implications for the management of osmotic homeostasis in clinical practice.

  17. Plasma volume changes during hypoglycaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Christensen, N J

    1991-01-01

    -induced hypoglycaemia with total autonomic blockade (alpha-adrenoceptor blockade combined with beta-adrenoceptor blockade and atropine); and insulin-induced hypoglycaemia without any autonomic blockade. In the experiments without autonomic blockade the peripheral venous hematocrit increased, plasma volume decreased......, intravascular albumin content decreased and the transcapillary escape rate of albumin increased. In both experiments with autonomic blockade the increase in venous haematocrit was abolished, yet plasma volume decreased, intravascular albumin content decreased and the transcapillary escape rate of albumin...... increased in these experiments. Thus, the changes in plasma volume and composition in response to hypoglycaemia are due to the combined actions of adrenaline and of insulin....

  18. Plasma volume changes during hypoglycaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Bendtsen, F; Christensen, N J

    1990-01-01

    To investigate whether previously reported changes in venous blood volume and composition induced by acute hypoglycaemia in humans are representative for the entire body we measured erythrocyte 51Cr content, haematocrit, plasma volume, intravascular albumin content and transcapillary escape rate...... of albumin in arterial and venous blood in seven healthy subjects before and during insulin-induced hypoglycaemia. In both vascular sites blood 51Cr content and the haematocrit increased, plasma volume and intravascular albumin content decreased and the transcapillary escape rate of albumin increased during...

  19. Effects of Na+/K+ Ratio of Groundwaters on the Gill Ion-Transport Enzyme Activity, Plasma Osmolality and Growth of Cynoglossus semilaevis Juveniles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Huizan; PAN Luqing; HU Fawen; LIU Hongyu

    2008-01-01

    The effects of environmental Na+/K+ ratio on the gill ion-transport enzyme activity,plasma osmolality and growth ofCynoglossus semi/aevis juveniles were investigated.The results showed that,plasma osmolality was similar among flounder adaptedto different Na+/K+ ratios of saline groundwaters (P>0.05),while the growth,gill Na+,K+-ATPase and HCO,3'--ATPase activities wereaffected by Na+/K+ ratio significantly (P<0.05).The gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity reached its maximum on day 3,then decreasedgradually from day 3 to day 9 and remained constant from day 9 to day 15.The peak values of gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity weredetected on day 3 for all Na+/K+ ratios of saline groundwaters,then the enzyme activities descended,and on day 9 the enzyme activi-ties achieved steady state,and the gill HCO,3--ATPase activity increased rapidly and achieved steady state after one day.Duringsteady state,the gill Na+,K+-ATPase and HCO,3--ATPase activity of Na+/K+ ratios 20 and 40 treatments were significantly higherthan those in the control group (Na+/K+ ratio 27.5),while there were no significant differences between the Na+/K+ ratio 30 treatmentand the control group; the gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity of Na+/K+ ratio 20 and 40 treatments were significantly higher than that forratio 30 treatment,but there were no significant differences of gill HCO3-ATPase activity among these treatments.At the end of the15-day experiment,the weight gain (%) and specific growth rate (SGR) of flounders maintained in seawater were significantly higherthan those in groundwaters; significant differences also occurred among the treatments; Na+/K+ ratio 30 treatment had the highestvalues (33.7% and 1.94 respectively),which were significantly higher than those under Na+/K+ ratios 20 and 40 treatments.There-fore,for the saline groundwater used in this experiment,it is suggested that the Na+/K+ ratio be adjusted to approximately 30,I.e.,asclose to that of natural seawater as possible in the culture of flounder.

  20. Plasma volume in acute hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, T D; Klausen, T; Richalet, J P

    1998-01-01

    Exposure to acute hypoxia is associated with changes in body fluid homeostasis and plasma volume (PV). This study compared a dye dilution technique using Evans' blue (PV[Evans']) with a carbon monoxide (CO) rebreathing method (PV[CO]) for measurements of PV in ten normal subjects at sea level...

  1. [Osmolality of frequently consumed beverages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dini, Elizabeth; De Abreu, Jorge; López, Emeris

    2004-12-01

    The objective of this work was to determine the osmolality of beverages frequently consumed by children and adolescents due to the scarce information available in our country. The samples were grouped as follows: milks; refreshments; beverages based on fruits, vegetables, cereals, and tubers; sport drinks; energizing drinks; oral rehydrating solutions; reconstituted drinks and infusions. A vapor pressure digital osmometer was used, five samples of each beverage from different lots were analyzed. Four osmolality determinations were made on each sample and the average of such values was calculated. When the variation coefficient of the osmolality measurements of the five samples was higher than 10%, five additional samples were analyzed. As many samples as possible were used with breast milk in the time period of the study. Osmolality averages, standard deviation, and the osmolality confidence intervals (95% reliability) were calculated. The osmolality (mmol/kg) of breast milk and that of cow milk were between 273 and 389; refreshments, white, black and flavored colas, and malts ranged between 479-811; and soda and light drinks: 44-62; fresh fruit and commercial drinks (coconut, peach, apple, orange, pear, pineapple, grape, plum, tamarind): 257-1152 and light juices: 274; sports beverages: 367; energizing drinks: 740; drinks based on vegetables and cereals: 213-516; oral rehydrating solutions: 236-397; reconstituted drinks: 145; infusions: 25. Beverages with adequate osmolality levels for children were: milks, light refreshments, soda, fresh and light juices, oral rehydrating, soy, and reconstituted drinks and infusions.

  2. Osmolality of nonionic contrast media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miklautz, H; Fichte, K; Wegscheider, K

    1989-01-01

    Solutions of different low osmolar contrast media (CM) obviously show clinically relevant differences in the osmolality despite equal iodine concentrations and similar molecular structure. To obtain precise and comparable data, the osmolality of five batches (usually) each of contrast media, iopamidol, iohexol, iopromide, and ioxaglate-all preparations commercially available-were measured by means of the vapor pressure method. The osmolality of the solutions of sodium meglumine ioxaglate with the same iodine concentration is lower than that of the nonionic CM examined. Iopromide showed the lowest osmolality and iohexol the highest value of the nonionic preparations. The differences are statistically significant as a rule. They are attributed to a varying association and hydration of the CM molecules in the solution.

  3. Plasma volume nomograms for use in therapeutic plasma exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffaloe, G W; Heineken, F G

    1983-01-01

    Nomograms have been developed for the convenient estimation of the plasma volumes of patients undergoing therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE), based on equations employing height, body weight, and hematocrit. These nomograms are offered as an aid to prescribing continuous-flow TPE procedure exchange volumes.

  4. SPORT DRINKS WITH DIFFERENT OSMOLALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kozonova

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article the assortment sport drinks’ extending possibility is represented. The juice component compositions for sport drinks with different osmolality were designed. The feasibility of adding into the drink calcium lactate as a source of quick body energy renovation and as calcium deficiency’s reducer were proved.

  5. Hypo - and hypernatremia results in inaccurate Erythrocytes mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV) measurement in vitro, when using Sysmex XE 2100

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kirsten Vikkelsø; Philipsen, Jens Peter

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Automated hematology analyzers dilute patient erythrocytes with an isosmotic diluent before quantitating the erythrocyte Mean Cell Volume (MCV). However, if patient plasma osmolality differs from the diluent, water will cross the erythrocytes membrane and establish a new equilibrium...

  6. A retrospective analysis of glycol and toxic alcohol ingestion: utility of anion and osmolal gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasowski Matthew D

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients ingesting ethylene glycol, isopropanol, methanol, and propylene glycol ('toxic alcohols' often present with non-specific signs and symptoms. Definitive diagnosis of toxic alcohols has traditionally been by gas chromatography (GC, a technique not commonly performed on-site in hospital clinical laboratories. The objectives of this retrospective study were: 1 to assess the diagnostic accuracy of the osmolal gap in screening for toxic alcohol ingestion and 2 to determine the common reasons other than toxic alcohol ingestion for elevated osmolal gaps. Methods Electronic medical records from an academic tertiary care medical center were searched to identify all patients in the time period from January 1, 1996 to September 1, 2010 who had serum/plasma ethanol, glucose, sodium, blood urea nitrogen, and osmolality measured simultaneously, and also all patients who had GC analysis for toxic alcohols. Detailed chart review was performed on all patients with osmolal gap of 9 or greater. Results In the study period, 20,669 patients had determination of serum/plasma ethanol and osmolal gap upon presentation to the hospitals. There were 341 patients with an osmolal gap greater than 14 (including correction for estimated contribution of ethanol on initial presentation to the medical center. Seventy-seven patients tested positive by GC for one or more toxic alcohols; all had elevated anion gap or osmolal gap or both. Other than toxic alcohols, the most common causes for an elevated osmolal gap were recent heavy ethanol consumption with suspected alcoholic ketoacidosis, renal failure, shock, and recent administration of mannitol. Only 9 patients with osmolal gap greater than 50 and no patients with osmolal gap greater than 100 were found to be negative for toxic alcohols. Conclusions Our study concurs with other investigations that show that osmolal gap can be a useful diagnostic test in conjunction with clinical history and physical

  7. Microdrop preparation factors influence culture-media osmolality, which can impair mouse embryo preimplantation development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, J E; Cabrera, L; Xu, X; Smith, G D

    2012-02-01

    Because media osmolality can impact embryo development, the effect of conditions during microdrop preparation on osmolality was examined. Various sizes of microdrops were prepared under different laboratory conditions. Drops were pipetted directly onto a dish and covered by oil (standard method) or pipetted on the dish, overlaid with oil before removing the underlying media and replaced with fresh media (wash-drop method). Drops were made at 23°C or on a heated stage (37°C) and with or without airflow. Osmolality was assessed at 5 min and 24h. The biological impact of osmolality change was demonstrated by culturing 1-cell mouse embryos in media with varying osmolality. Reduced drop volume, increased temperature and standard method were associated with a significant increase in osmolality at both 5 min and 24h (P-values media with elevated osmolality (>310mOsm/kg; P<0.05). Procedures in the IVF laboratory can alter osmolality and impact embryo development.

  8. Twenty-Four-Hour Urine Osmolality as a Physiological Index of Adequate Water Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica T. Perrier

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available While associations exist between water, hydration, and disease risk, research quantifying the dose-response effect of water on health is limited. Thus, the water intake necessary to maintain optimal hydration from a physiological and health standpoint remains unclear. The aim of this analysis was to derive a 24 h urine osmolality (UOsm threshold that would provide an index of “optimal hydration,” sufficient to compensate water losses and also be biologically significant relative to the risk of disease. Ninety-five adults (31.5 ± 4.3 years, 23.2 ± 2.7 kg·m−2 collected 24 h urine, provided morning blood samples, and completed food and fluid intake diaries over 3 consecutive weekdays. A UOsm threshold was derived using 3 approaches, taking into account European dietary reference values for water; total fluid intake, and urine volumes associated with reduced risk for lithiasis and chronic kidney disease and plasma vasopressin concentration. The aggregate of these approaches suggest that a 24 h urine osmolality ≤500 mOsm·kg−1 may be a simple indicator of optimal hydration, representing a total daily fluid intake adequate to compensate for daily losses, ensure urinary output sufficient to reduce the risk of urolithiasis and renal function decline, and avoid elevated plasma vasopressin concentrations mediating the increased antidiuretic effort.

  9. Comparative changes in plasma protein concentration, hematocrit and plasma volume during exercise, bedrest and + Gz acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Beaumont, W.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1972-01-01

    Discussion of experiments which indicate that under conditions of a constant red cell volume the proportional changes in hematocrit and plasma volume during exercise are never equal. On the basis of direct measurements and calculated changes of plasma volume it is concluded that during maximal exercise there is a small loss of protein from the plasma. It is clear that changes in content of blood constituents can only be evaluated correctly after determination of changes in plasma volume.

  10. Blunted autonomic response to volume expansion in formerly preeclamptic women with low plasma volume.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krabbendam, I.; Courtar, D.A.; Janssen, B.J.; Aardenburg, R.; Peeters, L.L.; Spaanderman, M.E.A.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We hypothesize that low plasma volume in normotensive formerly preeclamptic women reflects reduced venous storage capacity. To test this hypothesis, we compared circulatory and autonomic responses to acute volume loading between women with low and those with normal plasma volume. METHODS:

  11. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity and volume regulating factors in healthy pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charkoudian, Nisha; Usselman, Charlotte W; Skow, Rachel J; Staab, Jeffery S; Julian, Colleen Glyde; Stickland, Michael K; Chari, Radha S; Khurana, Rshmi; Davidge, Sandra T; Davenport, Margie H; Steinback, Craig D

    2017-07-21

    Healthy, normotensive human pregnancies are associated with striking increases in both plasma volume and vascular sympathetic nerve activity (SNA). In non-pregnant humans, volume regulatory factors including plasma osmolality, vasopressin and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system have important modulatory effects on control of sympathetic outflow. We hypothesized that pregnancy would be associated with changes in the relationships between SNA (measured as muscle SNA) and volume regulating factors, including plasma osmolality, plasma renin activity and arginine vasopressin (AVP). We studied 46 healthy, normotensive young women (23 pregnant and 23 non-pregnant). We measured SNA, arterial pressure, plasma osmolality, plasma renin activity, AVP and other volume regulatory factors in resting, semi-recumbent posture. Pregnant women had significantly higher resting SNA (38 ± 12 vs. non-pregnant: 23 ± 6 bursts/minute), lower osmolality and higher plasma renin activity and aldosterone (all P pregnant] vs. 5.17 ± 2.03 [pregnant], P > 0.05). However, regression analysis detected a significant relationship between individual values for SNA and AVP in pregnant (r = 0.71, P pregnant women (r = 0.04). No relationships were found for other variables. These data suggest that the link between AVP release and resting SNA becomes stronger in pregnancy, which may contribute importantly to blood pressure regulation in healthy women during pregnancy. Copyright © 2017, American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology.

  12. Acute plasma volume change with high-intensity sprint exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomer, Richard J; Farney, Tyler M

    2013-10-01

    When exercise is of long duration or of moderate to high intensity, a decrease in plasma volume can be observed. This has been noted for both aerobic and resistance exercise, but few data are available with regard to high-intensity sprint exercise. We measured plasma volume before and after 3 different bouts of acute exercise, of varying intensity, and/or duration. On different days, men (n = 12; 21-35 years) performed aerobic cycle exercise (60 minutes at 70% heart rate reserve) and 2 different bouts of cycle sprints (five 60-second sprints at 100% maximum wattage obtained during graded exercise testing (GXT) and ten 15-second sprints at 200% maximum wattage obtained during GXT). Blood was collected before and 0, 30, and 60 minutes postexercise and analyzed for hematocrit and hemoglobin and plasma volume was calculated. Plasma volume decreased significantly for all exercise bouts (p sprint bouts (∼19%) compared with aerobic exercise bouts (∼11%). By 30 minutes postexercise, plasma volume approached pre-exercise values. We conclude that acute bouts of exercise, in particular high-intensity sprint exercise, significantly decrease plasma volume during the immediate postexercise period. It is unknown what, if any negative implications these transient changes may have on exercise performance. Strength and conditioning professionals may aim to rehydrate athletes appropriately after high-intensity exercise bouts.

  13. Effects of osmolality on sperm morphology, motility and flagellar wave parameters in Northern pike (Esox lucius L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, S M Hadi; Rodina, Marek; Viveiros, Ana T M; Cosson, Jacky; Gela, David; Boryshpolets, Sergei; Linhart, Otomar

    2009-07-01

    Northern pike (Esox lucius L.) spermatozoa are uniflagellated cells differentiated into a head without acrosome, a midpiece and a flagellar tail region flanked by a fin structure. Total, flagellar, head and midpiece lengths of spermatozoa were measured and show mean values of 34.5, 32.0, 1.32, 1.17 microm, respectively, with anterior and posterior widths of the midpiece measuring 0.8 and 0.6 microm, respectively. The osmolality of seminal plasma ranged from 228 to 350 mOsmol kg(-1) (average: 283.88+/-33.05). After triggering of sperm motility in very low osmolality medium (distilled water), blebs appeared along the flagellum. At later periods in the motility phase, the tip of the flagellum became curled into a loop shape which resulted in a shortening of the flagellum and a restriction of wave development to the proximal part (close to head). Spermatozoa velocity and percentage of motile spermatozoa decreased rapidly as a function of time postactivation and depended on the osmolality of activation media (Ppike is inhibited due to high osmolality in the seminal plasma. Osmolality of activation medium affects the percentage of motile sperm and spermatozoa velocity due to changes in flagellar wave parameters.

  14. Volume regulatory hormones and plasma volume in pregnant women with sickle cell disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosede B Afolabi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sickle cell disease (haemoglobin SS (HbSS mainly affects those of West African origin and is associated with hypervolaemia. Plasma volume rises by up to 50% in normal pregnancy but was previously found to be paradoxically contracted in late sickle cell pregnancy. The renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system is activated very early in human pregnancy to support the plasma volume expansion. We hypothesised that activation of the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system would be blunted in pregnant women with sickle cell disease. Materials and methods: We measured plasma volume and concentrations of plasma renin, angiotensinogen, aldosterone and other volume-related hormones in a cross-sectional study of pregnant and non-pregnant Nigerian women with HbSS or HbAA. Results: Plasma volume was higher in non-pregnant HbSS than HbAA women, but had not risen by 16 weeks, unlike plasma volume in HbAA women. The concentration of plasma renin also rose significantly less by 16 weeks in HbSS; angiotensinogen and aldosterone concentrations increased. Conclusions: The lower plasma renin concentration at 16 weeks with HbSS could be either primary or secondary to vasoconstriction related to inadequate vasodilator activity. The contracted plasma volume might then stimulate aldosterone synthesis by non-angiotensin II dependent stimulation. Studies of vasodilators such as nitric oxide, vasodilator eicosanoids or the PlGF/VEGF/sFlT-1 axis in pregnant HbSS and HbAA women will test this hypothesis.

  15. Capillary plasma jet: A low volume plasma source for life science applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Topala, I., E-mail: ionut.topala@uaic.ro, E-mail: tmnagat@ipc.shizuoka.ac.jp [Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi, Faculty of Physics, Iasi Plasma Advanced Research Center (IPARC), Bd. Carol I No. 11, Iasi 700506 (Romania); Nagatsu, M., E-mail: ionut.topala@uaic.ro, E-mail: tmnagat@ipc.shizuoka.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Shizuoka University, 3-5-1 Johoku, Naka-ku, Hamamatsu 432-8561 (Japan)

    2015-02-02

    In this letter, we present results from multispectroscopic analysis of protein films, after exposure to a peculiar plasma source, i.e., the capillary plasma jet. This plasma source is able to generate very small pulsed plasma volumes, in kilohertz range, with characteristic dimensions smaller than 1 mm. This leads to specific microscale generation and transport of all plasma species. Plasma diagnosis was realized using general electrical and optical methods. Depending on power level and exposure duration, this miniature plasma jet can induce controllable modifications to soft matter targets. Detailed discussions on protein film oxidation and chemical etching are supported by results from absorption, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and microscopy techniques. Further exploitation of principles presented here may consolidate research interests involving plasmas in biotechnologies and plasma medicine, especially in patterning technologies, modified biomolecule arrays, and local chemical functionalization.

  16. Formerly preeclamptic women with a subnormal plasma volume are unable to maintain a rise in stroke volume during moderate exercise.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aardenburg, R.; Spaanderman, M.E.A.; Eijndhoven, H.W. van; Leeuw, P.W. de; Peeters, L.L.

    2005-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In formerly preeclamptic women with a low plasma volume, the recurrence rate of preeclampsia is higher than in women with a normal prepregnant plasma volume. In a recent study, we demonstrated that the low plasma volume subgroup also had a subnormal venous capacitance. In the present

  17. Formerly preeclamptic women with a subnormal plasma volume are unable to maintain a rise in stroke volume during moderate exercise.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aardenburg, R.; Spaanderman, M.E.A.; Eijndhoven, H.W. van; Leeuw, P.W. de; Peeters, L.L.

    2005-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In formerly preeclamptic women with a low plasma volume, the recurrence rate of preeclampsia is higher than in women with a normal prepregnant plasma volume. In a recent study, we demonstrated that the low plasma volume subgroup also had a subnormal venous capacitance. In the present s

  18. Relationship between Plasma Albumin Concentration and Plasma Volume in 5 Inbred Rat Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Rajiv; Klemcke, Harold G

    2015-09-01

    Using the Evans Blue procedure, we previously found strain-related differences in plasma volumes in 5 inbred rat strains. Because albumin binds strongly with Evans blue, this protein is important in the Evans blue method of plasma volume determination. Therefore, we speculated that interstrain differences in plasma albumin concentration (PAC) could distort calculated plasma volumes. To address this concern, we used ELISA techniques to measure PAC in these inbred rat strains. In study A, the blood volume was measured by using Evans blue dye, and albumin was measured at the start of hemorrhage. In study B, blood volume was not measured, and albumin was measured twice, near the start and end of hemorrhage (approximately 14 min apart). Neither study revealed any interstrain differences in PAC, which decreased after hemorrhage in all 5 strains. No correlation was found between PAC and plasma volume, survival time, blood lactate, or blood base excess. Percentage changes in PAC during hemorrhage were greater in salt-sensitive compared with Lewis rats. Moreover, these percentage changes were associated with survival time in Fawn hooded hypertensive rats. Our data show that the plasma volumes we measured previously were not misrepresented due to variations in PAC.

  19. The effect of lactase and formula reconstitution on milk osmolality.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Malone, A J

    2012-02-03

    These experiments investigated the reaction rate of lactase on milk lactose by measuring milk osmolality; and explored the effect of formula reconstitution on milk osmolality. The investigations measured milk osmolality with the Fiske Os, freezing-point osmometer. Lactase (Lactaid) incubated with pure lactose solutions established the validity of the method. Lactase was incubated for 24 hours with four reconstituted milk formulas (Milumil, and Cow and Gate Nutrilon Plus, Farley\\'s First Milk, SMA Gold). Milk osmolality increased most rapidly in the first 4 hours after the addition of lactase. The lactase enzyme completed over 90% of the reaction within 12 hours. The milk osmolalities ranged from 487 to 591 mosm\\/kg after 24 hours with 2-4 drops of lactase in 240 ml of formula. A clinical guideline osmolality of 400 mosm\\/kg was reached in 240 ml of formula at 1 to 12 hours depending on the dose of lactase. High milk osmolalities due to prolonged enzyme incubation, or high lactase doses could be reduced to around 400 mosm\\/kg by dilution of 240 ml of formula with an extra 60 ml of water. The initial osmolality of formula after reconstitution by paediatric nurses varied widely and usually exceeded the manufacturer\\'s quoted osmolality. This initial osmolality was a further influence on the final osmolality reached after the addition of lactase. It is concluded that the recommended incubation time for Lactaid of 24 hours is unnecessary as lactase exerts the majority of its effect in less than 12 hours. Adjustment of Lactaid dose and incubation times will maintain milk formula osmolality within standard guidelines. Dilution with extra water will correct inadvertent high enzyme doses and prolonged incubation times. The normal method of reconstituting milk formulas from powder may be unreliable as the manufacturer\\'s quoted osmolality was not reproduced when milk formulas were reconstituted by paediatric nurses.

  20. Plasma Volume during Heat Stress and Exercise in Women,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-11-01

    subjectively determined "thermoneutral" environment. Methods Five healthy women (Table 1), who were not using oral contraceptive agents, volunteered to...with no difference between phases. Blood volume was estimated by the method of Allen et al (1) using the weight of the subject measured during the...a hemoglobinometer (Coulter Electronics). Plasma protein concentration (Pp) was measured by refractometry . Plasma sodium (Na + ) and potassium (K

  1. Generation of Diffuse Large Volume Plasma by an Ionization Wave from a Plasma Jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laroussi, Mounir; Razavi, Hamid

    2015-09-01

    Low temperature plasma jets emitted in ambient air are the product of fast ionization waves that are guided within a channel of a gas flow, such as helium. This guided ionization wave can be transmitted through a dielectric material and under some conditions can ignite a discharge behind the dielectric material. Here we present a novel way to produce large volume diffuse low pressure plasma inside a Pyrex chamber that does not have any electrodes or electrical energy directly applied to it. The diffuse plasma is ignited inside the chamber by a plasma jet located externally to the chamber and that is physically and electrically unconnected to the chamber. Instead, the plasma jet is just brought in close proximity to the external wall/surface of the chamber or to a dielectric tubing connected to the chamber. The plasma thus generated is diffuse, large volume and with physical and chemical characteristics that are different than the external plasma jet that ignited it. So by using a plasma jet we are able to ``remotely'' ignite volumetric plasma under controlled conditions. This novel method of ``remote'' generation of a low pressure, low temperature diffuse plasma can be useful for various applications including material processing and biomedicine.

  2. A large volume uniform plasma generator for the experiments of electromagnetic wave propagation in plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Min; Li Xiaoping; Xie Kai; Liu Donglin [School of Electronical and Mechanical Engineering, Xidian University, Xi' an Shaanxi 710071 (China); Liu Yanming [School of Telecommunications Engineering, Xidian University, Xi' an Shaanxi 710071 (China)

    2013-01-15

    A large volume uniform plasma generator is proposed for the experiments of electromagnetic (EM) wave propagation in plasma, to reproduce a 'black out' phenomenon with long duration in an environment of the ordinary laboratory. The plasma generator achieves a controllable approximate uniform plasma in volume of 260 mm Multiplication-Sign 260 mm Multiplication-Sign 180 mm without the magnetic confinement. The plasma is produced by the glow discharge, and the special discharge structure is built to bring a steady approximate uniform plasma environment in the electromagnetic wave propagation path without any other barriers. In addition, the electron density and luminosity distributions of plasma under different discharge conditions were diagnosed and experimentally investigated. Both the electron density and the plasma uniformity are directly proportional to the input power and in roughly reverse proportion to the gas pressure in the chamber. Furthermore, the experiments of electromagnetic wave propagation in plasma are conducted in this plasma generator. Blackout phenomena at GPS signal are observed under this system and the measured attenuation curve is of reasonable agreement with the theoretical one, which suggests the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  3. 99mTc-albumin can replace 125I-albumin to determine plasma volume repeatedly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonfils, Peter K; Damgaard, Morten; Stokholm, Knud H

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Plasma volume assessment may be of importance in several disorders. The purpose of the present study was to compare the reliability of plasma volume measurements by technetium-labeled human serum albumin ((99m)Tc-HSA) with a simultaneously performed plasma volume determination with iod......OBJECTIVE: Plasma volume assessment may be of importance in several disorders. The purpose of the present study was to compare the reliability of plasma volume measurements by technetium-labeled human serum albumin ((99m)Tc-HSA) with a simultaneously performed plasma volume determination...

  4. Disproportional changes in hematocrit, plasma volume, and proteins during exercise and bed rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Beaumont, W.; Greenleaf, J. E.; Juhos, L.

    1972-01-01

    The interrelationships between the changes in plasma volume, hematocrit, and plasma proteins during muscular exercise and bed rest were investigated. Proportionally, the changes in hematocrit are always smaller than the changes in plasma volume. For this reason changes in the concentration of blood constituents can only be quantitated on the basis of plasma volume changes. During short periods of intensive exercise, there was a small loss of plasma proteins. With prolonged submaximal exercise there was a net gain in plasma protein, which contributes to stabilization of the vascular volume. Prolonged bed rest induced hypoproteinemia; this loss of plasma protein probably plays an important role in recumbency hypovolemia.

  5. Is specific gravity a good estimate of urine osmolality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran, Sethi; Eva, Goldwater; Christopher, Shutty; Flynn, Ethan; Henner, David

    2010-01-01

    Urine specific gravity (USG) is often used by clinicians to estimate urine osmolality. USG is measured either by refractometry or by reagent strip. We studied the correlation of USG obtained by either method with a concurrently obtained osmolality. Using our laboratory's records, we retrospectively gathered data on 504 urine specimens on patients on whom a simultaneously drawn USG and an osmolality were available. Out of these, 253 USG's were measured by automated refractometry and 251 USG's were measured by reagent strip. Urinalysis data on these subjects were used to determine the correlation between USG and osmolality, adjusting for other variables that may impact the relationship. The other variables considered were pH, protein, glucose, ketones, nitrates, bilirubin, urobilinogen, hemoglobin, and leukocyte esterase. The relationships were analyzed by linear regression. This study demonstrated that USG obtained by both reagent strip and refractometry had a correlation of approximately 0.75 with urine osmolality. The variables affecting the correlation included pH, ketones, bilirubin, urobilinogen, glucose, and protein for the reagent strip and ketones, bilirubin, and hemoglobin for the refractometry method. At a pH of 7 and with an USG of 1.010 predicted osmolality is approximately 300  mosm/kg/H(2)O for either method. For an increase in SG of 0.010, predicted osmolality increases by 182  mosm/kg/H(2) O for the reagent strip and 203  mosm/kg/H(2)O for refractometry. Pathological urines had significantly poorer correlation between USG and osmolality than "clean" urines. In pathological urines, direct measurement of urine osmolality should be used. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Studies on plasma production in a large volume system using multiple compact ECR plasma sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarey, R. D.; Ganguli, A.; Sahu, D.; Narayanan, R.; Arora, N.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a scheme for large volume plasma production using multiple highly portable compact ECR plasma sources (CEPS) (Ganguli et al 2016 Plasma Source Sci. Technol. 25 025026). The large volume plasma system (LVPS) described in the paper is a scalable, cylindrical vessel of diameter  ≈1 m, consisting of source and spacer sections with multiple CEPS mounted symmetrically on the periphery of the source sections. Scaling is achieved by altering the number of source sections/the number of sources in a source section or changing the number of spacer sections for adjusting the spacing between the source sections. A series of plasma characterization experiments using argon gas were conducted on the LVPS under different configurations of CEPS, source and spacer sections, for an operating pressure in the range 0.5-20 mTorr, and a microwave power level in the range 400-500 W per source. Using Langmuir probes (LP), it was possible to show that the plasma density (~1  -  2  ×  1011 cm-3) remains fairly uniform inside the system and decreases marginally close to the chamber wall, and this uniformity increases with an increase in the number of sources. It was seen that a warm electron population (60-80 eV) is always present and is about 0.1% of the bulk plasma density. The mechanism of plasma production is discussed in light of the results obtained for a single CEPS (Ganguli et al 2016 Plasma Source Sci. Technol. 25 025026).

  7. Evidence for functional interaction of plasma membrane electron transport, voltage-dependent anion channel and volume-regulated anion channel in frog aorta

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rashmi P Rao; J Prakasa Rao

    2010-12-01

    Frog aortic tissue exhibits plasma membrane electron transport (PMET) owing to its ability to reduce ferricyanide even in the presence of mitochondrial poisons, such as cyanide and azide. Exposure to hypotonic solution (108 mOsmol/kg H2O) enhanced the reduction of ferricyanide in excised aortic tissue of frog. Increment in ferricyanide reductase activity was also brought about by the presence of homocysteine (100 M dissolved in isotonic frog Ringer solution), a redox active compound and a potent modulator of PMET. Two plasma-membrane-bound channels, the volume regulated anion channel (VRAC) and the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), are involved in the response to hypotonic stress. The presence of VRAC and VDAC antagonists–tamoxifen, glibenclamide, fluoxetine and verapamil, and 4,4′-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2′-disulphonic acid (DIDS), respectively–inhibited this enhanced activity brought about by either hypotonic stress or homocysteine. The blockers do not affect the ferricyanide reductase activity under isotonic conditions. Taken together, these findings indicate a functional interaction of the three plasma membrane proteins, namely, ferricyanide reductase (PMET), VDAC and VRAC.

  8. Comparative study of NO removal in surface-plasma and volume-plasma reactors based on pulsed corona discharges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Muhammad Arif; Kolb, Juergen F; Sun, Yaohong; Schoenbach, Karl H

    2011-12-15

    Nitric oxide (NO) conversion has been studied for two different types of atmospheric-pressure pulsed-corona discharges, one generates a surface-plasma and the other provides a volume-plasma. For both types of discharges the energy cost for NO removal increases with decreasing oxygen concentration and initial concentration of NO. However, the energy cost for volume plasmas for 50% NO removal, EC(50), from air was found to be 120 eV/molecule, whereas for the surface plasma, it was only 70 eV/molecule. A smaller difference in energy cost, but a higher efficiency for removal of NO was obtained in a pure nitrogen atmosphere, where NO formation is restricted due to the lack of oxygen. For the volume plasma, EC(50) in this case was measured at 50 eV/molecule, and for the surface plasma it was 40 eV/molecule. Besides the higher NO removal efficiency of surface plasmas compared to volume plasmas, the energy efficiency of surface-plasmas was found to be almost independent of the amount of electrical energy deposited in the discharge, whereas the efficiency for volume plasmas decreases considerably with increasing energy. This indicates the possibility of operating surface plasma discharges at high energy densities and in more compact reactors than conventional volume discharges.

  9. Comparative study of NO removal in surface-plasma and volume-plasma reactors based on pulsed corona discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malik, Muhammad Arif, E-mail: MArifMalik@gmail.com [Frank Reidy Research Center for Bioelectrics, Old Dominion University, 4211 Monarch Way, Suite 300, Norfolk, VA 23508 (United States); Kolb, Juergen F.; Sun, Yaohong; Schoenbach, Karl H. [Frank Reidy Research Center for Bioelectrics, Old Dominion University, 4211 Monarch Way, Suite 300, Norfolk, VA 23508 (United States)

    2011-12-15

    Nitric oxide (NO) conversion has been studied for two different types of atmospheric-pressure pulsed-corona discharges, one generates a surface-plasma and the other provides a volume-plasma. For both types of discharges the energy cost for NO removal increases with decreasing oxygen concentration and initial concentration of NO. However, the energy cost for volume plasmas for 50% NO removal, EC{sub 50}, from air was found to be 120 eV/molecule, whereas for the surface plasma, it was only 70 eV/molecule. A smaller difference in energy cost, but a higher efficiency for removal of NO was obtained in a pure nitrogen atmosphere, where NO formation is restricted due to the lack of oxygen. For the volume plasma, EC{sub 50} in this case was measured at 50 eV/molecule, and for the surface plasma it was 40 eV/molecule. Besides the higher NO removal efficiency of surface plasmas compared to volume plasmas, the energy efficiency of surface-plasmas was found to be almost independent of the amount of electrical energy deposited in the discharge, whereas the efficiency for volume plasmas decreases considerably with increasing energy. This indicates the possibility of operating surface plasma discharges at high energy densities and in more compact reactors than conventional volume discharges.

  10. Reliability of a Cryoscopic Micro-Osmometer Using 15-µL Plasma Samples to Measure Hydration Status in Varied Environmental Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlan, Aaron T.; Richter-Stretton, Gina L.; Madueno, Maria C.; Borges, Nattai R.; Fenning, Andrew S.

    2017-01-01

    Measurement of plasma osmolality (P[subscript osm]) remains popular for assessing hydration status in exercise science. However, a controlled reliability assessment of micro-osmometry using small sample volumes to measure Posm remains to be performed. This study aimed to examine the reliability of a cryoscopic micro-osmometer requiring 15-µL…

  11. Reliability of a Cryoscopic Micro-Osmometer Using 15-µL Plasma Samples to Measure Hydration Status in Varied Environmental Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlan, Aaron T.; Richter-Stretton, Gina L.; Madueno, Maria C.; Borges, Nattai R.; Fenning, Andrew S.

    2017-01-01

    Measurement of plasma osmolality (P[subscript osm]) remains popular for assessing hydration status in exercise science. However, a controlled reliability assessment of micro-osmometry using small sample volumes to measure Posm remains to be performed. This study aimed to examine the reliability of a cryoscopic micro-osmometer requiring 15-µL…

  12. Osmolality and respiratory regulation in humans: respiratory compensation for hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis is absent after infusion of hypertonic saline in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, Vibeke; Brudin, Lars; Rundgren, Mats; Irestedt, Lars

    2014-10-01

    Several animal studies show that changes in plasma osmolality may influence ventilation. Respiratory depression caused by increased plasma osmolality is interpreted as inhibition of water-dependent thermoregulation because conservation of body fluid predominates at the cost of increased core temperature. Respiratory alkalosis, on the other hand, is associated with a decrease in plasma osmolality and strong ion difference (SID) during human pregnancy. We investigated the hypothesis that osmolality would influence ventilation, so that increased osmolality will decrease ventilation and decreased osmolality will stimulate ventilation in both men and women. Our study participants were healthy volunteers of both sexes (ASA physical status I). Ten men (mean 28 years; range 20-40) and 9 women (mean 33 years; range 22-43) were included. All women participated in both the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle. Hyperosmolality was induced by IV infusion of hypertonic saline 3%, and hypoosmolality by drinking tap water. Arterial blood samples were collected for analysis of electrolytes, osmolality, and blood gases. Sensitivity to CO2 was determined by rebreathing tests performed before and after the fluid-loading procedures. Infusion of hypertonic saline caused hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis with decreased SID in all subjects. Analysis of pooled data showed absence of respiratory compensation. Baseline arterial PCO2 (PaCO2) mean (SD) 37.8 (2.9) mm Hg remained unaltered, with lowest PaCO2 37.8 (2.9) mm Hg after 100 minutes, P = 0.70, causing a decrease in pH from mean (SD) 7.42 (0.02) to 7.38 (0.02), P acidosis was also observed during water loading. Pooled results show that PaCO2 decreased from 38.2 (3.3) mm Hg at baseline to 35.7 (2.8) mm Hg after 80 minutes of drinking water, P = 0.002, and pH remained unaltered: pH 7.43 (0.02) at baseline to pH 7.42 (0.02), P = 0.14, mean difference (confidence interval) = pH -0.007 (-0.017 to 0.003). Our results indicate

  13. Changes in plasma volume and baroreflex function following resistance exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploutz, L. L.; Tatro, D. L.; Dudley, G. A.; Convertino, V. A.

    1993-01-01

    The dynamics of change in plasma volume (PV) and baroreflex responses have been reported over 24 h immediately following maximal cycle exercise. The purpose of this study was to determine if PV and baroreflex showed similar changes for 24 h after resistance exercise. Eight men were studied on 2 test days, 1 week apart. On 1 day, per cent change (% delta) in PV was estimated at 0,3, and 6 h after resistance exercise using haematocrit and haemoglobin. Baseline PV was measured 24 h after exercise using Evans blue dye. The carotid baroreceptor-cardiac reflex response was measured before, and 3, 6, 9, 12, and 24 h post-exercise. Each subject performed six sets of the bench press and leg press with 10 repetitions per set with a load that induced failure within each set. On a control day, the protocol was used without exercise. Plasma volume did not change during the control day. There was a 20% decrease in PV immediately post-exercise; the recovery of the PV was rapid and complete within 3 h. PV was 20% greater 24 h post-exercise than on the control day. There were no differences in any of the baroreflex measurements. Therefore, it is suggested that PV shifts may occur without altering baroreflex sensitivity.

  14. Propylene Glycol Poisoning From Excess Whiskey Ingestion: A Case of High Osmolal Gap Metabolic Acidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Courtney A; Ku, Kevin; Sue, Gloria R

    2015-01-01

    In this report, we describe a case of high anion gap metabolic acidosis with a significant osmolal gap attributed to the ingestion of liquor containing propylene glycol. Recently, several reports have characterized severe lactic acidosis occurring in the setting of iatrogenic unintentional overdosing of medications that use propylene glycol as a diluent, including lorazepam and diazepam. To date, no studies have explored potential effects of excess propylene glycol in the setting of alcohol intoxication. Our patient endorsed drinking large volumes of cinnamon flavored whiskey, which was likely Fireball Cinnamon Whisky. To our knowledge, this is the first case of propylene glycol toxicity from an intentional ingestion of liquor containing propylene glycol.

  15. Low Plasma Volume in Normotensive Formerly Preeclamptic Women Predisposes to Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholten, Ralph R; Lotgering, Fred K; Hopman, Maria T; Van Dijk, Arie; Van de Vlugt, Maureen; Janssen, Mirian C H; Spaanderman, Marc E A

    2015-11-01

    Formerly preeclamptic women are at risk for cardiovascular disease. Low plasma volume may reflect latent hypertension and potentially links preeclampsia with chronic cardiovascular disease. We hypothesized that low plasma volume in normotensive formerly preeclamptic women predisposes to hypertension. We longitudinally studied n=104 formerly preeclamptic women in whom plasma volume was measured 3 to 30 months after the preeclamptic pregnancy. Cardiovascular variables were assessed at 2 points in time (3-30 months postpartum and 2-5 years thereafter). Study population was divided into low plasma volume (≤1373 mL/m(2)) and normal plasma volume (>1373 mL/m(2)). Primary end point was hypertension at the second visit: defined as ≥140 mm Hg systolic or ≥90 mm Hg diastolic. Secondary outcome of this study was change in traditional cardiovascular risk profile between visits. Variables correlating univariately with change in blood pressure between visits were introduced in regression analysis. Eighteen of 104 (17%) formerly preeclamptic women who were normotensive at first visit had hypertension at second evaluation 2 to 5 years later. Hypertension developed more often in women with low plasma volume (10/35 [29%]) than in women with normal plasma volume (8/69 [12%]; odds ratio, 3.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.4-8.6). After adjustments, relationship between plasma volume status and subsequent hypertension persisted (adjusted odds ratio, 3.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-8.5). Mean arterial pressure at second visit correlated inverse linearly with plasma volume (r=-0.49; Phypertension within 5 years. Women with low plasma volume have higher chance to develop hypertension than women with normal plasma volume. Clinically, follow-up of blood pressure seems warranted in women with history of preeclampsia, even when initially normotensive.

  16. Estradiol and osmolality: Behavioral responses and central pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Kathleen S

    2015-12-01

    Regulation of appropriate osmolality of body fluid is critical for survival, yet there are sex differences in compensatory responses to osmotic challenges. Few studies have focused on the role of sex hormones such as estradiol in behavioral responses to increases or decreases in systemic osmolality, and even fewer studies have investigated whether central actions of estrogens contribute to these responses. This overview integrates findings from a series of ongoing and completed experiments conducted in my laboratory to assess estradiol effects on water and NaCl intake in response to osmotic challenges, and on activity in central pathways that mediate such responses.

  17. PLASMA VOLUME EXPANSION 24-HOURS POST-EXERCISE: EFFECT OF DOUBLING THE VOLUME OF REPLACEMENT FLUID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartholomew Kay

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of two volumes (1.5 L or 3.0 L of commercially available electrolyte beverage (1.44 mM·L-1 Na+ taken during a 24-hour recovery period post-exercise, on plasma volume (PV expansion 24-hours post-exercise were assessed. A simple random-order crossover research design was used. Subjects (n = 9 males: age 21 ± 4 years, body mass 80.0 ± 9.0 kg, peak incremental 60-second cycling power output 297 ± 45 W [means ± SD] completed an identical exercise protocol conducted in hot ambient conditions (35oC, 50% relative humidity on two occasions; separated by 7-days. On each occasion, subjects received a different volume of 24-hour fluid intake (commercial beverage in random order. In each case, the fluid was taken in five equal aliquots over 24-hours. PV expansions 24-hours post-exercise were estimated from changes in haemoglobin and haematocrit. Dependent t-testing revealed no significant differences in PV expansions between trials, however a significant expansion with respect to zero was identified in the 3.0 L trial only. Specifically, PV expansions (% were; 1.5 L trial: (mean ± SE 2.3 ± 2.0 (not significant with respect to zero, 3.0 L trial: 5.0 ± 2.0 (p < 0.05, with respect to zero. Under the conditions imposed in the current study, ingesting the greater volume of the beverage lead to larger mean PV expansion

  18. Osmolality of preterm formulas supplemented with nonprotein energy supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira-da-Silva, L; Dias, M Pitta-Grós; Virella, D; Moreira, A C; Serelha, M

    2008-02-01

    Addition of energy supplements to preterm formulas is an optional strategy to increase the energy intake in infants requiring fluid restriction, in conditions like bronchopulmonary dysplasia. This strategy may lead to an undesirable increase in osmolality of feeds, the maximum recommended safe limit being 400 mOsm/kg. The aim of the study was to measure the changes in osmolality of several commercialized preterm formulas after addition of glucose polymers and medium-chain triglycerides. Osmolality was measured by the freezing point depression method. Six powdered formulas with concentrations of 14 g/100 ml and 16 g/100 ml, and five ready-to-feed liquid formulas were analyzed. All formulas, were supplemented with 10% (low supplementation) or 20% (high supplementation) of additional calories, respectively, in the form of glucose polymers and medium chain triglycerides, maintaining a 1:1 glucose:lipid calorie ratio. Inter-analysis and intra-analysis coefficients of variation of the measurements were always supplemented formulas varied between 268.5 and 315.3 mOsm/kg, increasing by 3-5% in low supplemented formulas, and by 6-10% in high supplemented formulas. None of the formulas analyzed exceeded 352.8 mOsm/kg. The supplementation of preterm formulas with nonprotein energy supplements with up to 20% additional calories did not exceed the maximum recommended osmolality for neonatal feedings.

  19. Urine Osmolality in Treatment-naïve HIV-positive Subjects in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-14

    Sep 14, 2017 ... water. However, urine osmolality has been shown to. 1Division of Nephrology, .... Osmolality was determined by the freezing point depression method using the Precision Osmette ..... associated with a salt-losing syndrome.

  20. Near-fatal persistent anion- and osmolal-gap acidosis due to massive gamma-butyrolactone/ethanol intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heytens, Luc; Neels, Hugo; Van Regenmortel, Niels; van den Brink, Wim; Henckes, Manu; Schouwers, Sofie; Dockx, Greet; Crunelle, Cleo L

    2015-03-01

    We report a case of an ethanol and massive gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) intoxication, the precursor of the recreational drug gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), resulting in life-threatening metabolic acidosis (pH 6.5) with a highly increased anion- and osmolal gap. Rapid analysis using gas chromatography revealed a GHB plasma concentration of 4400 mg/L, far above the upper limit concentration of 1000 mg/L found in adult fatalities attributed to GBL. Full recovery was established following supportive treatment including haemodialysis. This is the first report of a combined ethanol/GBL intoxication as a cause of high serum anion- and osmolal-gap metabolic acidosis. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  1. The importance of plasma volume expansion and nutrition in twin pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, D M; MacGillivray, I

    1984-01-01

    Physiological adaptation including expansion in plasma volume is exaggerated in women with twin pregnancies. In singleton pregnancy and multiparous twin pregnancies there is an association between plasma volume expansion and birth weight, but this is not so in primigravid twin pregnancies. Women with twin pregnancies have a similar dietary intake to singleton pregnancies, but it is not known whether there are differences with parity or zygosity. Absorption and utilisation of nutrients may be increased to meet demands for extra fetal growth. Nutrient supply and plasma volume expansion will be further discussed and their association with birth weight presented.

  2. Effect of hydration on plasma volume and endocrine responses to water immersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, M. H.; Keil, L. C.; Wade, C. A.; Silver, J. E.; Geelen, G.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of hydration status on early endocrine responses and on osmotic and intravascular volume changes during immersion was determined in humans undergoing successive periods of dehydration, immersion, rehydration, and immersion. Immersion caused an isotonic expansion of plasma volume, as well as suppression of plasma renin activity and aldosterone, which all occurred independently of hydration status. On the other hand, the concentration of plasma vasopressin (PVP) was found to decrease during dehydrated immersion, but not during rehydrated immersion. It is concluded that plasma tonicity is not a factor influencing PVP suppression during water immersion.

  3. Effect of catecholamines and insulin on plasma volume and intravascular mass of albumin in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Christensen, N J; Larsen, S

    1989-01-01

    1. The effect of intravenous catecholamine infusions and of intravenous insulin on plasma volume and intravascular mass of albumin was investigated in healthy males. 2. Physiological doses of adrenaline (0.5 microgram/min and 3 microgram/min) increased peripheral venous packed cell volume...... significantly; intravenous noradrenaline at 0.5 microgram/min had no effect on packed cell volume, whereas packed cell volume increased significantly at 3 micrograms of noradrenaline/min. No significant change in packed cell volume was found during saline infusion. 3. During adrenaline infusion at 6 micrograms...... in packed cell volume, plasma volume, intravascular mass of albumin and transcapillary escape rate of albumin during hypoglycaemia may be explained by the combined actions of adrenaline and insulin....

  4. Salt wastage, plasma volume contraction and hypokalemic paralysis in self-induced water intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanneau, R S; Pennec, Y L; Morin, J F; Codet, J P; Bourbigot, B; Garre, M; Le Menn, G

    1993-01-01

    Eleven episodes of severe hyponatremia secondary to hiccup-induced potomania were recorded in 3 years in a man who had essential hypertension, a low protein intake and a normal diluting ability. Paradoxical increase in hematocrit and plasma protein with acute extensive natriuresis was associated as well as urine potassium loss and hypokalemia producing paralysis in 1 episode. During a chronic water loading test, the defect in water excretion was related to a low urine solute delivery which was partially reverted by the natriuretic response to plasma volume expansion, promoting water diuresis. In acute water intoxication, this natriuretic response was exaggerated, producing a brisk water diuresis. Plasma volume was rapidly normalized but without any improvement in plasma sodium due to the concomitant negative sodium balance. Thus, water diuresis persisted until plasma volume was significantly contracted. Potassium loss appeared to be related to sodium excretion. Metabolic disturbances have not reoccurred despite persistent hiccup and potomania during 2 years of urea therapy.

  5. Clinical aspects of the control of plasma volume at microgravity and during return to one gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convertino, V. A.

    1996-01-01

    Plasma volume is reduced by 10-20% within 24-48 h of exposure to simulated or actual microgravity. The clinical importance of microgravity induced hypovolemia is manifested by its relationship with orthostatic intolerance and reduced maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) after return to one gravity (1G). Since there is no evidence to suggest that plasma volume reduction during microgravity is associated with thirst or renal dysfunctions, a diuresis induced by an immediate blood volume shift to the central circulation appears responsible for microgravity-induced hypovolemia. Since most astronauts choose to restrict their fluid intake before a space mission, absence of increased urine output during actual space flight may be explained by low central venous pressure (CVP) which accompanies dehydration. Compelling evidence suggests that prolonged reduction in CVP during exposure to microgravity reflects a "resetting" to a lower operating point, which acts to limit plasma volume expansion during attempts to increase fluid intake. In ground based and space flight experiments, successful restoration and maintenance of plasma volume prior to returning to an upright posture may depend upon development of treatments that can return CVP to its baseline IG operating point. Fluid-loading and lower body negative pressure (LBNP) have not proved completely effective in restoring plasma volume, suggesting that they may not provide the stimulus to elevate the CVP operating point. On the other hand, exercise, which can chronically increase CVP, has been effective in expanding plasma volume when combined with adequate dietary intake of fluid and electrolytes. The success of designing experiments to understand the physiological mechanisms of and development of effective counter measures for the control of plasma volume in microgravity and during return to IG will depend upon testing that can be conducted under standardized controlled baseline conditions during both ground-based and space

  6. TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT: RETECH'S PLASMA CENTRIFUGAL FURNACE - VOLUME I

    Science.gov (United States)

    A demonstration of the Retech, Inc. Plasma Centrifugal Furnace (PCF) was conducted under the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program at the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Component Development and Integration Facility in Butte, Montana. The furnace uses heat gen...

  7. Red cell volume with changes in plasma osmolarity during maximal exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Beaumont, W.

    1973-01-01

    The volume of the red cell in vivo was measured during acute changes in plasma osmolarity evoked through short (6 to 8 min) maximal exercise in six male volunteer subjects. Simultaneous measurements of mean corpuscular red cell volume (MCV), hematocrit, blood hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), and plasma osmolarity showed that there was no change in the MCV or MCHC with a concomitant rise of nearly 6% in plasma osmolarity. Apparently, in vivo, the volume of the red cell in exercising healthy human subjects does not change measurably, in spite of significant changes in osmotic pressure of the surrounding medium. Consequently, it is not justified to correct postexercise hematocrit measurements for changes in plasma osmolarity.

  8. Red cell volume with changes in plasma osmolarity during maximal exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Beaumont, W.

    1973-01-01

    The volume of the red cell in vivo was measured during acute changes in plasma osmolarity evoked through short (6 to 8 min) maximal exercise in six male volunteer subjects. Simultaneous measurements of mean corpuscular red cell volume (MCV), hematocrit, blood hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), and plasma osmolarity showed that there was no change in the MCV or MCHC with a concomitant rise of nearly 6% in plasma osmolarity. Apparently, in vivo, the volume of the red cell in exercising healthy human subjects does not change measurably, in spite of significant changes in osmotic pressure of the surrounding medium. Consequently, it is not justified to correct postexercise hematocrit measurements for changes in plasma osmolarity.

  9. Plasma physics and environmental perturbation laboratory. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    Space physics and plasma physics experiments that can be performed from the space shuttle were identified. Potential experiment concepts were analyzed to derive requirements for a spaceborne experiment facility. The laboratory, known as the Plasma Physics and Environmental Perturbation Laboratory consists of a 33-foot pallet of instruments connected to a 25-foot pressurized control module. Two 50-meter booms, two subsatellites, a high power transmitter, a multipurpose accelerator array, a set of deployable canisters, and a gimbaled instrument platform are the primary systems deployed from the pallet. The pressurized module contains all the control and display equipment required to conduct the experiments, and life support and power subsystems.

  10. Plasma Volume Expansion in Rats: Effects on Thermoregulation and Exercise,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-02-01

    15,18), and especially during the euhydrated and hyperhydrated condition. Methods Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (Charles River Breeding Laboratories...microcentrifugation. The plasma fraction from the microhematocrit tube was immediately analyzed for protein content by refractometry . The ~ ~ * ~ V...automated spectrophotometer (Stasar IV) and Gilford Diagnostic reagent kits according to methods outlined in the respective technical bulletins. Sodium

  11. Dynamic control of osmolality and ionic composition of the xylem sap in two mangrove species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Portillo, Jorge; Ewers, Frank W; Méndez-Alonzo, Rodrigo; Paredes López, Claudia L; Angeles, Guillermo; Alarcón Jiménez, Ana Luisa; Lara-Domínguez, Ana Laura; Torres Barrera, María Del Carmen

    2014-06-01

    • Premise of the study: Xylem sap osmolality and salinity is a critical unresolved issue in plant function with impacts on transport efficiency, pressure gradients, and living cell turgor pressure, especially for halophytes such as mangrove trees.• Methods: We collected successive xylem vessel sap samples from stems and shoots of Avicennia germinans and Laguncularia racemosa using vacuum and pressure extraction and measured their osmolality. Following a series of extractions with the pressure chamber, we depressurized the shoot and pressurized again after various equilibration periods (minutes to hours) to test for dynamic control of osmolality. Transpiration and final sap osmolality were measured in shoots perfused with deionized water or different seawater dilutions.• Key results: For both species, the sap osmolality values of consecutive samples collected by vacuum extraction were stable and matched those of the initial samples extracted with the pressure chamber. Further extraction of samples with the pressure chamber decreased sap osmolality, suggesting reverse osmosis occurred. However, sap osmolalities increased when longer equilibration periods after sap extraction were allowed. Analysis of expressed sap with HPLC indicated a 1:1 relation between measured osmolality and the osmolality of the inorganic ions in the sap (mainly Na(+), K(+), and Cl(-)), suggesting no contamination by organic compounds. In stems perfused with deionized water, the sap osmolality increased to mimic the native sap osmolality.• Conclusions: Xylem sap osmolality and ionic contents are dynamically adjusted by mangroves and may help modulate turgor pressure, hydraulic conductivity, and water potential, thus being important for mangrove physiology, survival, and distribution. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  12. Increased concentration of vasopressin in plasma of essential fatty acid-deficient rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Harald S.; Jensen, B.; Warberg, J.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of essential fatty acid deficiency (EFA-D) on the plasma concentration of arginine-vasopressin (AVP) and the urinary AVP excretion was investigated. Weanling rats were fed a fat-free diet (FF-rats). Control rats received the same diet in which 6% by wt. of sucrose was replaced by arachis...... oil. After 4-6 weeks of feeding, urine and plasma were analysed for AVP, osmolality, sodium and potassium. When compared to control rats FF-rats had decreased urine volume (6.0 ± 1.6 ml/24 hr versus 11.7 ± 3.2 ml/24 hr), increased urine osmolality (2409 ± 691 mOsm/kg versus 1260 ± 434 m...

  13. Plasma volume and electrolyte shifts with heavy exercise in sitting and supine positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Van Beaumont, W.; Brock, P. J.; Morse, J. T.; Mangseth, G. R.

    1979-01-01

    An experimental study was carried out to compare fluid and electrolyte shifts after heavy exercise performed by four voluntary male subjects (26-45 yr) in sitting and supine positions. Plasma volume and electrolyte shifts were measured during the 6-min control period and for 60 min after a continuous peak oxygen uptake test. The results indicate that the most likely driving force for the restitution of plasma volume after peak exercise is provided by a change in hydrostatic and/or systemic blood pressures when exercise ceases.

  14. Plasma volume expanders: use in medicine and detecting misuse in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoni, Ruth E; Scalco, Fernanda B; de Oliveira, Maria Lucia C; Aquino Neto, Francisco R

    2011-01-01

    Plasma volume expanders comprise a heterogeneous group of substances used in medicine that are intravenously administered in cases of great blood loss owing to surgery or medical emergency. These substances, however, can also be used to artificially enhance performance of healthy athletes in sport activities, and to mask the presence of others substances. These practices are considered doping, and are therefore prohibited by the International Olympic Committee and the World Antidoping Agency. Consequently, drug testing procedures are essential. The present work provides an overview of plasma volume expanders, assembling pertinent data such as chemical characteristics, physiological aspects, adverse effects, doping and analytical detection methods, which are currently dispersed in the literature.

  15. Plasma volume substitution does not inhibit plasma noradrenaline and muscle nerve sympathetic responses to insulin-induced hypoglycaemia in healthy humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Berne, C; Fagius, J;

    1989-01-01

    underly the sympathetic activation. To study the effect of prevention of plasma volume reduction during hypoglycaemia, saline containing albumin was infused intravenously in healthy adult volunteers during hypoglycaemia. Hypoglycaemia was induced by an intravenous injection of soluble insulin in a dose...... of 0.15 IU/kg body weight. Peripheral venous plasma noradrenaline concentrations were identical in experiments without and with plasma volume substitution. Muscle nerve sympathetic activity increased to the same extent during hypoglycaemia with and without plasma volume substitution. It is concluded...

  16. Paradoxical relationship between atriopeptin plasma levels and diuresis-natriuresis induced by acute volume expansion.

    OpenAIRE

    Sakata, M.; Greenwald, J E; Needleman, P

    1988-01-01

    Surgical removal of one or both atrial appendages was employed in rats to reduce the intrinsic stores of atriopeptin (AP). In conscious rats (with intact baroreceptor reflexes), bilateral or unilateral atrial appendectomy suppressed the diuresis and natriuresis produced by acute volume expansion. Surprisingly, volume expansion (with 4% bovine serum albumin in saline at 1.5 ml/kg per min for 15 min) did not result in an increase in plasma AP immunoreactivity (APir) in control or atrial-appende...

  17. Hypervolemia and plasma vasopressin response during water immersion in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Morse, J. T.; Barnes, P. R.; Silver, J.; Keil, L. C.

    1983-01-01

    Immersion studies were performed on seven mildly dehydrated male subjects to examine the effect of suppression of plasma vasopressin (PVP) on diuresis in water immersion. The water was kept at close to 34.5 C and the subjects remained in the water for 4 hr after sitting for 2 hr. Na and K levels in the serum and urine were analyzed, as were osmolality, red blood cell count, renin activity, total protein, albumin amounts, hematocrit, and hemoglobin. Plasma volume was monitored from samples drawn at specified intervals during immersion. The plasma volume increased significantly 30 min after immersion, but no PVP was observed. The dehydration induced elevated serum osmotic concentrations. It is concluded that the hydration condition before immersion and the volume of fluid intake during immersion affects the hemodilution during immersion.

  18. Use of spin labels to evaluate effects of cold shock and osmolality on sperm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammerstedt, R.H.; Keith, A.D.; Snipes, W.; Amann, R.P.; Arruda, D.; Griel, L.C. Jr.

    1978-05-01

    Spin labels were used to evaluate the effects of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), rapid cooling to 0/sup 0/C and osmolality on the integrity of sperm membranes. In vitro incubation of rabbit sperm with 0.5 mM BHT prior to artificial insemination did not alter the fertilizing ability of the sperm. Sperm from 6 species were ranked in terms of susceptibility to membrane damage caused by rapid cooling to 0/sup 0/C. The integrity of bull and ram sperm membranes was destroyed by the rapid cooling; BHT protected membranes of these spermatozoa from cold-induced lysis. Boar sperm membranes were porous after rapid cooling and BHT did not prevent this membrane damage. Membranes of rabbit and rooster sperm were not damaged by rapid cooling to 0/sup 0/C. Stallion sperm could not be analyzed because their membranes were altered by addition of reagents necessary to use the technique. The responses of bull, ram and rabbit sperm membranes to hyper- and hypo-osmotic conditions were determined. Hypotonic treatment (less than 200 mOsm) resulted in a 50 percent expansion of the volume of the aqueous compartment of sperm while hypertonic (700 mOsm) conditions compressed the volume of the aqueous compartment to 25 to 30 percent of the volume measured at 300 mOsm. Bull sperm, but not rabbit or ram sperm, responded as ''perfect osmometers'' between 300 and 700 mOsm.

  19. Study of scattering cross section of a plasma column using Green's function volume integral equation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltanmoradi, Elmira; Shokri, Babak

    2017-05-01

    In this article, the electromagnetic wave scattering from plasma columns with inhomogeneous electron density distribution is studied by the Green's function volume integral equation method. Due to the ready production of such plasmas in the laboratories and their practical application in various technological fields, this study tries to find the effects of plasma parameters such as the electron density, radius, and pressure on the scattering cross-section of a plasma column. Moreover, the incident wave frequency influence of the scattering pattern is demonstrated. Furthermore, the scattering cross-section of a plasma column with an inhomogeneous collision frequency profile is calculated and the effect of this inhomogeneity is discussed first in this article. These results are especially used to determine the appropriate conditions for radar cross-section reduction purposes. It is shown that the radar cross-section of a plasma column reduces more for a larger collision frequency, for a relatively lower plasma frequency, and also for a smaller radius. Furthermore, it is found that the effect of the electron density on the scattering cross-section is more obvious in comparison with the effect of other plasma parameters. Also, the plasma column with homogenous collision frequency can be used as a better shielding in contrast to its inhomogeneous counterpart.

  20. Comparison of osmolality and refractometric readings of Hispaniolan Amazon parrot (Amazona ventralis) urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, A Paige; Grunkemeyer, Vanessa L; Fry, Michael M; Hall, James S; Bartges, Joseph W

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate the relationship between osmolality and specific gravity of urine samples from clinically normal adult parrots and to determine a formula to convert urine specific gravity (USG) measured on a reference scale to a more accurate USG value for an avian species, urine samples were collected opportunistically from a colony of Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). Samples were analyzed by using a veterinary refractometer, and specific gravity was measured on both canine and feline scales. Osmolality was measured by vapor pressure osmometry. Specific gravity and osmolality measurements were highly correlated (r = 0.96). The linear relationship between refractivity measurements on a reference scale and osmolality was determined. An equation was calculated to allow specific gravity results from a medical refractometer to be converted to specific gravity values of Hispaniolan Amazon parrots: USGHAp = 0.201 +0.798(USGref). Use of the reference-canine scale to approximate the osmolality of parrot urine leads to an overestimation of the true osmolality of the sample. In addition, this error increases as the concentration of urine increases. Compared with the human-canine scale, the feline scale provides a closer approximation to urine osmolality of Hispaniolan Amazon parrots but still results in overestimation of osmolality.

  1. Finite-volume cumulant expansion in QCD-colorless plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ladrem, M. [Taibah University, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Madinah, Al-Munawwarah (Saudi Arabia); Physics Department, Algiers (Algeria); ENS-Vieux Kouba (Bachir El-Ibrahimi), Laboratoire de Physique et de Mathematiques Appliquees (LPMA), Algiers (Algeria); Ahmed, M.A.A. [Taibah University, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Madinah, Al-Munawwarah (Saudi Arabia); ENS-Vieux Kouba (Bachir El-Ibrahimi), Laboratoire de Physique et de Mathematiques Appliquees (LPMA), Algiers (Algeria); Taiz University in Turba, Physics Department, Taiz (Yemen); Alfull, Z.Z. [Taibah University, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Madinah, Al-Munawwarah (Saudi Arabia); Cherif, S. [ENS-Vieux Kouba (Bachir El-Ibrahimi), Laboratoire de Physique et de Mathematiques Appliquees (LPMA), Algiers (Algeria); Ghardaia University, Sciences and Technologies Department, Ghardaia (Algeria)

    2015-09-15

    Due to the finite-size effects, the localization of the phase transition in finite systems and the determination of its order, become an extremely difficult task, even in the simplest known cases. In order to identify and locate the finite-volume transition point T{sub 0}(V) of the QCD deconfinement phase transition to a colorless QGP, we have developed a new approach using the finite-size cumulant expansion of the order parameter and the L{sub mn}-method. The first six cumulants C{sub 1,2,3,4,5,6} with the corresponding under-normalized ratios (skewness Σ, kurtosis κ, pentosis Π{sub ±}, and hexosis H{sub 1,2,3}) and three unnormalized combinations of them, (O = σ{sup 2}κΣ{sup -1},U = σ{sup -2}Σ{sup -1},N = σ{sup 2}κ) are calculated and studied as functions of (T, V). A new approach, unifying in a clear and consistent way the definitions of cumulant ratios, is proposed.Anumerical FSS analysis of the obtained results has allowed us to locate accurately the finite-volume transition point. The extracted transition temperature value T{sub 0}(V) agrees with that expected T{sub 0}{sup N}(V) from the order parameter and the thermal susceptibility χ{sub T} (T, V), according to the standard procedure of localization to within about 2%. In addition to this, a very good correlation factor is obtained proving the validity of our cumulants method. The agreement of our results with those obtained by means of other models is remarkable. (orig.)

  2. High-volume plasma exchange in patients with acute liver failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Fin Stolze; Schmidt, Lars Ebbe; Bernsmeier, Christine

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Acute liver failure (ALF) often results in cardiovascular instability, renal failure, brain oedema and death either due to irreversible shock, cerebral herniation or development of multiple organ failure. High-volume plasma exchange (HVP), defined as exchange of 8-12 or 15...

  3. Physiological adaptation of maternal plasma volume during pregnancy: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haas, S.; Ghossein-Doha, C.; Kuijk, S.M. van; Drongelen, J. van; Spaanderman, M.E.A.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the physiological pattern of gestational plasma volume adjustments in normal singleton pregnancy and compare this with the pattern in pregnancies complicated by pregnancy-induced hypertension, pre-eclampsia or fetal growth restriction. METHODS: We performed a meta-analysis of

  4. Vapor pressure and freezing point osmolality measurements applied to a volatile screen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draviam, E J; Custer, E M; Schoen, I

    1984-12-01

    This is a report of a rapid and precise screening procedure, developed for the determination of ethanol in serum using osmolality measurements. The osmolality of the patient is determined by freezing point method (freezing point osmometry) and dew point (water vapor pressure osmometry) method. The difference between freezing point osmolality and vapor pressure osmolality (delta osm) is due to the presence of volatiles in the serum, because the volatiles are not measured by vapor pressure osmometry. The amount of ethanol (mg/dL) in serum is estimated by multiplying delta osm by a factor of 4.2. As a comparison method, ethanol also is measured by a spectrophotometric alcohol dehydrogenase method. In addition, a significant difference between an osmometric alcohol assayed value and enzymatic spectrophotometric measurement indicates the presence of volatiles, other than ethanol. In addition to ethanol there is a linear relationship between osmolality and isopropanol or methanol when added in vitro to serum.

  5. Finite Volume Cumulant Expansion in QCD-Colorless Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Ladrem, M; Al-Full, Z; Cherif, S

    2015-01-01

    Due to the finite size effects, the localisation of the phase transition in finite systems and the determination of its order, become an extremely difficult task, even in the simplest known cases. In order to identify and locate the finite volume transition point $T_{0}(V)$ of the QCD deconfinement phase transition to a Colorless QGP, we have developed a new approach using the finite size cumulant expansion of the order parameter and the $L_{mn}$-method. The first six cumulants $C_{1,2,3,4,5,6}$ with the corresponding under-normalized ratios(skewness $\\Sigma$, kurtosis $\\kappa$ ,pentosis $\\Pi_{\\pm}$ and hexosis $\\mathcal{H}_{1,2,3}$) and three unnormalized combinations of them ($\\mathcal{O}={\\mathcal{\\sigma }^{2} \\mathcal{\\kappa } }{\\mathbf{\\Sigma }^{-1} }$, $\\mathcal{U} ={\\mathcal{\\sigma }^{-2} \\mathbf{\\Sigma }^{-1} }$, $\\mathcal{N} = \\mathcal{\\sigma }^{2} \\mathcal{\\kappa }$) are calculated and studied as functions of $(T,V)$. A new approach, unifying in a clear and consistent way the definitions of cumulant...

  6. Morphology engineering - Osmolality and its effect on Aspergillus niger morphology and productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krull Rainer

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger is a widely used strain in a broad range of industrial processes from food to pharmaceutical industry. One of the most intriguing and often uncontrollable characteristics of this filamentous organism is its complex morphology, ranging from dense spherical pellets to viscous mycelia depending on culture conditions. Optimal productivity correlates strongly with a specific morphological form, thus making high demands on process control. Results In about 50 2L stirred tank cultivations the influence of osmolality on A. niger morphology and productivity was investigated. The specific productivity of fructofuranosidase producing strain A. niger SKAn 1015 could be increased notably from 0.5 to 9 U mg-1 h-1 around eighteen fold, by increasing the culture broth osmolality by addition of sodium chloride. The specific productivity of glucoamylase producing strain A. niger AB1.13, could be elevated using the same procedure. An optimal producing osmolality was shown to exist well over the standard osmolality at about 3.2 osmol kg-1 depending on the strain. Fungal morphology of all cultivations was examined by microscope and characterized by digital image analysis. Particle shape parameters were combined to a dimensionless Morphology number, which enabled a comprehensive characterization of fungal morphology correlating closely with productivity. A novel method for determination of germination time in submerged cultivations by laser diffraction, introduced in this study, revealed a decelerated germination process with increasing osmolality. Conclusions Through the introduction of the versatile Morphology number, this study provides the means for a desirable characterization of fungal morphology and demonstrates its relation to productivity. Furthermore, osmolality as a fairly new parameter in process engineering is introduced and found to affect fungal morphology and productivity. Osmolality might

  7. Osmolality of Cerebrospinal Fluid from Patients with Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension (IIH.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth A Wibroe

    Full Text Available Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH is a disorder of increased intracranial fluid pressure (ICP of unknown etiology. This study aims to investigate osmolality of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF from patients with IIH.We prospectively collected CSF from individuals referred on suspicion of IIH from 2011-2013. Subjects included as patients fulfilled Friedman and Jacobson's diagnostic criteria for IIH. Individuals in whom intracranial hypertension was refuted were included as controls. Lumbar puncture with ICP measurement was performed at inclusion and repeated for patients after three months of treatment. Osmolality was measured with a Vapor Pressure Osmometer.We collected 90 CSF samples from 38 newly diagnosed patients and 28 controls. At baseline 27 IIH-samples and at 3 months follow-up 35 IIH-samples were collected from patients. We found no significant differences in osmolality between 1 patients at baseline and controls (p = 0. 86, 2 patients at baseline and after 3 months treatment (p = 0.97, and 3 patients with normalized pressure after 3 months and their baseline values (p = 0.79. Osmolality in individuals with normal ICP from 6-25 cmH2O (n = 41 did not differ significantly from patients with moderately elevated ICP from 26-45 cmH2O (n = 21 (p = 0.86 and patients with high ICP from 46-70 cmH2O (n = 4 (p = 0.32, respectively. There was no correlation between osmolality and ICP, BMI, age and body height, respectively. Mean CSF osmolality was 270 mmol/kg (± 1 SE, 95% confidence interval 267-272 for both patients and controls.CSF osmolality was normal in patients with IIH, and there was no relation to treatment, ICP, BMI, age and body height. Mean CSF osmolality was 270 mmol/kg and constitutes a reference for future studies. Changes in CSF osmolality are not responsible for development of IIH. Other underlying pathophysiological mechanisms must be searched.

  8. Severe Leptospirosis with Multiple Organ Failure Successfully Treated by Plasma Exchange and High-Volume Hemofiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Bourquin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Leptospirosis is a spirochetal zoonosis with complex clinical features including renal and liver failure. Case report. We report the case of a Swiss fisherman presenting with leptospirosis. After initial improvement, refractory septic shock and severe liver and kidney failure developed. The expected mortality was estimated at 90% with clinical scores. The patient underwent plasma exchanges and high-volume hemofiltration (HVHF with complete recovery of hepatic and kidney functions. Discussion. Plasma exchanges and HVHF may confer survival benefit on patients with severe leptospirosis, refractory septic shock, and multiple-organ failure.

  9. Modification of the Steel Surface Treated by a Volume Discharge Plasma in Nitrogen at Atmospheric Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erofeev, M. V.; Shulepov, M. A.; Ivanov, Yu. F.; Oskomov, K. V.; Tarasenko, V. F.

    2016-03-01

    Effect of volume discharge plasma initiated by an avalanche electron beam on the composition, structure, and properties of the surface steel layer is investigated. Voltage pulses with incident wave amplitude up to 30 kV, full width at half maximum of about 4 ns, and wave front of about 2.5 ns were applied to the gap with an inhomogeneous electric field. Changes indicating the hardening effect of the volume discharge initiated by an avalanche electron beam are revealed in St3-grade steel specimens treated by the discharge of this type.

  10. Relationship between Prolactin Plasma Levels and White Matter Volume in Women with Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. De Giglio

    2015-01-01

    two months. There was no difference in PRL plasma levels between patients with and without gadolinium enhancement on MRI. PRL plasma levels correlated with white matter volume (WMV (rho = 0.284, p=0.014 but not with grey matter volume (GMV. Moreover, PRL levels predicted changes in WMV (Beta: 984, p=0.034. Conclusions. Our data of a positive association between PRL serum levels and WMV support the role of PRL in promoting myelin repair as documented in animal models of demyelination. The lack of an increase of PRL in the presence of gadolinium enhancement, contrasts with the view considering this hormone as an immune-stimulating and detrimental factor in the inflammatory process associated with MS.

  11. Curling probe measurement of large-volume pulsed plasma confined by surface magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Anil; Sakakibara, Wataru; Matsuoka, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Keiji; Sugai, Hideo; Chubu University Team; DOWA Thermotech Collaboration

    2015-09-01

    Curling probe (CP) has recently been developed which enables the local electron density measurement even in plasma for non-conducting film CVD. The electron density is obtained from a shift of resonance frequency of spiral antenna in discharge ON and OFF monitored by a network analyzer (NWA). In case of a pulsed glow discharge, synchronization of discharge pulse with frequency sweep of NWA must be established. In this paper, we report time and space-resolved CP measurement of electron density in a large volume plasma (80 cm diameter, 110 cm length) confined by surface magnetic field (multipole cusp field ~0.03 T). For plasma-aided modification of metal surface, the plasma is produced by 1 kV glow discharge at pulse frequency of 0.3 - 25 kHz with various duty ratio in gas (Ar, N2, C2H2) at pressure ~ 1 Pa. A radially movable CP revealed a remarkable effect of surface magnetic confinement: detach of plasma from the vessel wall and a fairly uniform plasma in the central region. In afterglow phase, the electron density was observed to decrease much faster in C2H2 discharge than in Ar discharge.

  12. Plasma catecholamines and blood volume in native Andeans during hypoxia and normoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamboa, Alfredo; Gamboa, Jorge L; Holmes, Courtney; Sharabi, Yehonatan; Leon-Velarde, Fabiola; Fischman, Gary J; Appenzeller, Otto; Goldstein, David S

    2006-02-01

    Plasma catechols and blood volume were measured in 20 male, native high-altitude residents of Cerro de Pasco, Peru (4338 m), while hypoxic and subsequently while normoxic at sea level. Ten subjects were healthy controls,with hematocrits lower than 61%, and ten had chronic mountain sickness (CMS), a syndrome of maladaptation to altitude, characterized by polycythemia (hematocrit > 61%), profound hypoxemia, and neurologic symptoms. The main aim of the study was to evaluate the chronic effects of hypoxia on plasma catechols and on blood volume, by studying these parameters during hypoxia at high altitude (HA) and shortly after exposure to normoxia at sea level (SL). Subjects were first studied at HA in their habitual hypoxic environment, and measurements were repeated within 4 hours of arrival at SL (Lima, Peru, 150 m). All subjects had higher plasma norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), and dihydroxyphenylglycol (DHPG) levels in HA (NE in controls and CMS: 414+/-47 and 514+/-35 pg/mL; DA: 9+/-1 and 13+/-1 pg/mL, DHPG: 817+/-48 and 972+/-77 pg/mL) than at SL (NE: 164+/-9 and 243+/-28 pg/mL; DA: 4+/-0.5 and 5+/-1 pg/mL DHPG: 502+/-23 and 649+/-39 pg/mL). Group differences were statistically significant only for NE in the CMS group. Plasma volume was higher in HA in both groups (p<0.05); red cell volume was higher in HA only in the CMS group. The results indicate sympathetic nervous stimulation by chronic ambient hypoxia at altitude in Andean natives, independent of maladaptation to their native environment.

  13. Effects of fresh frozen plasma, Ringer's acetate and albumin on plasma volume and on circulating glycocalyx components following haemorrhagic shock in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nelson, Axel; Statkevicius, Svajunas; Schött, Ulf;

    2016-01-01

    and syndecan-1. Hemodynamic effects of resuscitation were evaluated by measuring lactate and mean arterial pressure (MAP). RESULTS: Resuscitation with FFP or albumin resulted in plasma volume expansion equalling the blood loss (to 55 ± 5 ml/kg and 54 ± 4 ml/kg (mean ± S.D.), respectively), whereas plasma...

  14. Volume Diffuse Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma Produced by Nanosecond High Voltage Pulse in Airflow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Haicheng; GAO Wei; FAN Zhihui; LIU Yidi; REN Chunsheng

    2016-01-01

    Volume diffuse dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma is produced in subsonic airflow by nanosecond high-voltage pulse power supply with a plate-to-plate discharge cell at 6 mm air gap length.The discharge images,optical emission spectra (OES),the applied voltage and current waveforms of the discharge at the changed airflow rates are obtained.When airflow rate is increased,the transition of the discharge mode and the variations of discharge intensity,breakdown characteristics and the temperature of the discharge plasma are investigated.The results show that the discharge becomes more diffuse,discharge intensity is decreased accompanied by the increased breakdown voltage and time lag,and the temperature of the discharge plasma reduces when airflow of small vclocity is introduced into the discharge gap.These phenomena are because that the airflow changes the spatial distribution of the heat and the space charge in the discharge gap.

  15. Volume Diffuse Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma Produced by Nanosecond High Voltage Pulse in Airflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Haicheng; Gao, Wei; Fan, Zhihui; Liu, Yidi; Ren, Chunsheng

    2016-05-01

    Volume diffuse dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma is produced in subsonic airflow by nanosecond high-voltage pulse power supply with a plate-to-plate discharge cell at 6 mm air gap length. The discharge images, optical emission spectra (OES), the applied voltage and current waveforms of the discharge at the changed airflow rates are obtained. When airflow rate is increased, the transition of the discharge mode and the variations of discharge intensity, breakdown characteristics and the temperature of the discharge plasma are investigated. The results show that the discharge becomes more diffuse, discharge intensity is decreased accompanied by the increased breakdown voltage and time lag, and the temperature of the discharge plasma reduces when airflow of small velocity is introduced into the discharge gap. These phenomena are because that the airflow changes the spatial distribution of the heat and the space charge in the discharge gap. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51437002)

  16. Vanadate inhibition of hepatocytic autophagy. Calcium-modulated and osmolality-modulated antagonism by asparagine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosse, M; Berg, T O; O'Reilly, D S; Seglen, P O

    1995-05-15

    The phosphate analogue vanadate, at 10 mM, strongly (approximately 90%) inhibited the autophagic sequestration of endogenous lactate dehydrogenase in isolated rat hepatocytes. The effect of vanadate was markedly (approximately 80%) antagonized by asparagine (20 mM), and to a lesser extent by glutamine, glycine, and alanine. The antagonism was only observed in the presence of Ca2+ when an isotonic standard incubation medium was used, but by increasing the medium osmolality this Ca2+ requirement could be eliminated. Asparagine induced a cell swelling (17% at 20 mM) that might account for at least part of its vanadate antagonism, since hypotonic cell swelling by itself stimulated autophagy (with a maximal effect at approximately 200 mosM). Conversely, hypertonic media inhibited autophagy and were additive to vanadate. In a strongly hypotonic medium (less than 200 mosM), both asparagine and vanadate were inhibitory. However, since vanadate alone had no effect on cell volume, the vanadate-asparagine antagonism could not be exerted exclusively at the level of cell volume regulation. An additional mechanism might be a partial deamination of asparagine, generating ammonia, which was found to oppose the vanadate inhibition of autophagy while having no effect on cell volume. Other metabolizable amino acids, like alanine and glycine, were moderately vanadate-antagonistic while failing to induce cell swelling. These results are compatible with a vanadate-antagonistic effect of asparagine mediated partly through an unknown mechanism (possibly pH change) by its deamination product, ammonia, partly through cell swelling and a secondary Ca2+ influx that could compensate for a vanadate-induced depletion of intracellular calcium stores.

  17. Salt and fluid loading: effects on blood volume and exercise performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo; Hamouti, Nassim

    2012-01-01

    During prolonged exercise, fluid and salt losses through sweating reduce plasma volume which leads to heart rate drift in association with hyperthermia and reductions in performance. Oral rehydration with water reduces the loss of plasma volume and lessens heart rate drift and hyperthermia. Moreover, the inclusion of sodium in the rehydration solution to levels that double those in sweat (i.e., around 90 mmol/l Na(+)) restores plasma volume when ingested during exercise, and expands plasma volume if ingested pre-exercise. Pre-exercise salt and fluid ingestion with the intention of expanding plasma volume has received an increasing amount of attention in the literature in recent years. In four studies, pre-exercise salt and fluid ingestion improved performance, measured as time to exhaustion, either during exercise in a thermoneutral or in a hot environment. While in a hot environment, the performance improvements were linked to lowering of core temperatures and heart rate, the reasons for the improved performance in a thermoneutral environment remain unclear. However, when ingesting pre-exercise saline solutions above 0.9% (i.e., > 164 mmol/l Na(+)), osmolality and plasma sodium increase and core temperature remain at dehydration levels. Thus, too much salt counteracts the beneficial effects of plasma volume expansion on heat dissipation and hence in performance. In summary, the available literature suggests that pre-exercise saline ingestion with concentrations not over 164 mmol/l Na(+) is an ergogenic aid for subsequent prolonged exercise in a warm or thermoneutral environment.

  18. Volume effect of laser produced plasma on X-ray emissions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V K Senecha; Y B S R Prasad; M P Kamath; A S Joshi; G S Solanki; A P Kulkarni; S Gupta; R Pareek; H C Pant

    2000-11-01

    An investigation of x-ray emission from Cu plasma produced by 1.054 m Nd:glass laser pulses of 5 ns duration, at 2 × 1012-2 × 1013 W cm-2 is reported. The x-ray emission has been studied as a function of target position with respect to the laser beam focus position. It has been observed that x-ray emissions from ns duration plasma show a volume effect similar to subnanosecond plasmas. Due to this effect the x-ray yield increases when target is moved away relative to the best focal plane of the laser beam. This result supports the theoretical model of Tallents and has also been testified independently using suitably modified theoretical model for our experimental conditions. While above result is in good agreement with similar experimental results obtained for sub-nanosecond laser produced plasmas, it differs from result claiming filamentation rather than pure geometrical effect leading to x-ray enhancement for ns plasmas.

  19. Hormonal and electrolyte responses to acute isohemic volume expansion in unanesthetized rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenault, V. M.; Morris, M.; Lynch, C. D.; Maultsby, S. J.; Hutchins, P. M.

    1993-01-01

    This study was undertaken to explore the time course of the metabolic response to isohemic blood volume expansion (30%) in normotensive, unanesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats. Whole blood, drawn from a femoral artery catheter of conscious donor rats, was infused into the jugular vein of recipient rats. Blood samples were drawn from a carotid artery of recipient rats at time points beginning immediately post-volume expansion (IPVE) up through 5 days post-volume expansion (PVE). To characterize the attendant compensatory mechanisms, the plasma concentrations of electrolytes and fluid regulatory hormones were determined. Hematocrit began to raise IPVE and was significantly elevated above control IPVE 20, 30, 40, 60, and 90 min, and 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, and 24 hr PVE. Consistent with our current understanding of the hormonal response to excess volume, atrial natriuretic factor was significantly increased above the prevolume expansion (control) values 0-30 min PVE. Surprisingly, plasma aldosterone levels were significantly increased above control at 20 and 30 min and 6 hr PVE, whereas plasma renin activity was significantly decreased 30-40 min PVE. Plasma sodium was not changed from control values except for a significant increase at 6 hr post-volume expansion. Plasma potassium, osmolality, and arginine vasopressin levels were not altered by the volume expansion. These studies delineate the physiologic time scheme operative in the regulation of fluid volume during acute ischemic volume expansion.

  20. A 5 kA pulsed power supply for inductive and plasma loads in large volume plasma device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, P. K., E-mail: pkumar@ipr.res.in; Singh, S. K.; Sanyasi, A. K.; Awasthi, L. M., E-mail: kushagra.lalit@gmail.com; Mattoo, S. K. [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar (India)

    2016-07-15

    This paper describes 5 kA, 12 ms pulsed power supply for inductive load of Electron Energy Filter (EEF) in large volume plasma device. The power supply is based upon the principle of rapid sourcing of energy from the capacitor bank (2.8 F/200 V) by using a static switch, comprising of ten Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBTs). A suitable mechanism is developed to ensure equal sharing of current and uniform power distribution during the operation of these IGBTs. Safe commutation of power to the EEF is ensured by the proper optimization of its components and by the introduction of over voltage protection (>6 kV) using an indigenously designed snubber circuit. Various time sequences relevant to different actions of power supply, viz., pulse width control and repetition rate, are realized through optically isolated computer controlled interface.

  1. A 5 kA pulsed power supply for inductive and plasma loads in large volume plasma device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, P. K.; Singh, S. K.; Sanyasi, A. K.; Awasthi, L. M.; Mattoo, S. K.

    2016-07-01

    This paper describes 5 kA, 12 ms pulsed power supply for inductive load of Electron Energy Filter (EEF) in large volume plasma device. The power supply is based upon the principle of rapid sourcing of energy from the capacitor bank (2.8 F/200 V) by using a static switch, comprising of ten Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBTs). A suitable mechanism is developed to ensure equal sharing of current and uniform power distribution during the operation of these IGBTs. Safe commutation of power to the EEF is ensured by the proper optimization of its components and by the introduction of over voltage protection (>6 kV) using an indigenously designed snubber circuit. Various time sequences relevant to different actions of power supply, viz., pulse width control and repetition rate, are realized through optically isolated computer controlled interface.

  2. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric determination of rufinamide in low volume plasma samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gáll, Zsolt; Vancea, Szende; Dogaru, Maria T; Szilágyi, Tibor

    2013-12-01

    Quantification of rufinamide in plasma was achieved using a selective and sensitive liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method. The chromatographic separation was achieved on a reversed phase column (Zorbax SB-C18 100mm×3mm, 3.5μm) under isocratic conditions. The mobile phase consisted of a mixture of water containing 0.1% formic acid and methanol (50:50, v/v). The mass spectrometric detection of the analyte was in multiple reaction monitoring mode (MRM) using an electrospray positive ionization (ESI positive). The monitored ions were 127m/z derived from 239m/z rufinamide and 108m/z derived from 251m/z the internal standard (lacosamide). Protein precipitation with methanol was applied for sample preparation using only 50μl aliquots. The concentration range was 40-2000ng/ml for rufinamide in plasma. The limit of detection was 1.25ng/ml and the lower limit of quantification was established at 5ng/ml rufinamide concentration. Selectivity and matrix effect was verified using individual human, rat and rabbit plasma samples. Short-term, post-preparative and freeze-thaw stability was also investigated. The proposed method provides accuracy, precision and high-throughput (short runtime 4.5min) for quantitative determination of rufinamide in plasma. This is the first reported liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method for analysis of rufinamide from low volume plasma samples. The LC-MS/MS method was validated according to the current official guidelines and can be applied to accurately measure rufinamide level of large number of plasma samples from clinical studies or therapeutic drug monitoring.

  3. Noninvasive in vivo plasma volume and hematocrit in humans: observing long-term baseline behavior to establish homeostasis for intravascular volume and composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dent, Paul; Deng, Bin; Goodisman, Jerry; Peterson, Charles M.; Narsipur, Sriram; Chaiken, J.

    2016-04-01

    A new device incorporating a new algorithm and measurement process allows simultaneous noninvasive in vivo monitoring of intravascular plasma volume and red blood cell volume. The purely optical technique involves probing fingertip skin with near infrared laser light and collecting the wavelength shifted light, that is, the inelastic emission (IE) which includes the unresolved Raman and fluorescence, and the un-shifted emission, that is, the elastic emission (EE) which includes both the Rayleigh and Mie scattered light. Our excitation and detection geometry is designed so that from these two simultaneous measurements we can calculate two parameters within the single scattering regime using radiation transfer theory, the intravascular plasma volume fraction and the red blood cell volume fraction. Previously calibrated against a gold standard FDA approved device, 2 hour monitoring sessions on three separate occasions over a three week span for a specific, motionless, and mostly sleeping individual produced 3 records containing a total of 5706 paired measurements of hematocrit and plasma volume. The average over the three runs, relative to the initial plasma volume taken as 100%, of the plasma volume±1σ was 97.56+/-0.55 or 0.56%.For the same three runs, the average relative hematocrit (Hct), referenced to an assumed initial value of 28.35 was 29.37+/-0.12 or stable to +/-0.4%.We observe local deterministic circulation effects apparently associated with the pressure applied by the finger probe as well as longer timescale behavior due to normal ebb and flow of internal fluids due to posture changes and tilt table induced gravity gradients.

  4. Osmolality of antisense oligonucleotide parenteral formulations: Implications on counterion dissociation and recommended osmometry techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Marc; Dibble, Andrew

    2016-12-30

    The intrinsic osmolality of aqueous solutions of sodium salt antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) has been studied to inform formulation practices, understand the molecular basis underlying the difference between theoretical and empirical results, and determine suitable measurement methods. It was found that regardless of nucleotide sequence, ASO concentration of ∼140mg/mL has isotonic osmolality of ∼290mOsm/kg water (SI unit: mmol osmotically-active particles/kg water), such that lower concentration formulations require excipients for tonicity adjustment. The range of osmolality values at a given active ingredient concentration can be ascribed to drug substance lot-to-lot purity differences impacting total oligonucleotide content (i.e., including oligonucleotide-related impurities). Empirical osmolality measurements were found to be ∼70% of theoretical values, which corresponds to an osmotic coefficient value of ∼0.7, thus inferring incomplete counterion dissociation. When comparing theoretical (ideal) osmolality of multiple sequences with various nucleotide compositions and chemistries at the same w/v concentration, the "average osmolar mass" (molar mass of the oligonucleotide, including the sodium counterions, divided by the ideal Van't Hoff factor, i(id)) appears to be the strongest factor governing theoretical osmolality values. Other factors examined were the sequence length, backbone chemistry, 2' sugar chemistry, and nucleotide composition. A head-to-head comparison between two osmolality techniques showed that vapor pressure osmometry is generally more suitable than freezing point osmometry for oligonucleotide solutions greater than ∼150mg/mL due to viscosity effects, but the two techniques are comparable otherwise. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Impact of diuretic treatment and sodium intake on plasma volume in patients with compensated systolic heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonfils, Peter K; Damgaard, Morten; Taskiran, Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    AIMS: In patients with heart failure (HF), the use of diuretics may be a double-edged sword that can alleviate symptoms of congestion, but also result in over-diuresis and intravascular volume depletion. The purpose of the present study was to examine plasma volume (PV) in HF patients receiving...... from 0 to 160 mg of furosemide and to investigate whether determination of plasma N-terminal fragment of pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) concentrations can predict PV-status. METHODS AND RESULTS: Plasma volume, extracellular volume, glomerular filtration rate, NT-proBNP, and daily renal...... sodium excretion were measured in 18 patients with medically treated, compensated HF and in 27 healthy volunteers. Cardiac function was examined by non-invasive cardiac output determination and echocardiography. Exercise capacity was evaluated by 6 min walk test. There was a borderline significant...

  6. Physiological adaptation of maternal plasma volume during pregnancy: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haas, S; Ghossein-Doha, C; van Kuijk, S M J; van Drongelen, J; Spaanderman, M E A

    2017-02-01

    To describe the physiological pattern of gestational plasma volume adjustments in normal singleton pregnancy and compare this with the pattern in pregnancies complicated by pregnancy-induced hypertension, pre-eclampsia or fetal growth restriction. We performed a meta-analysis of the current literature on plasma volume adjustments during physiological and complicated pregnancies. Literature was retrieved from PubMed (NCBI) and EMBASE (Ovid) databases. Included studies reported both reference plasma volume measurements (non-pregnant, prepregnancy or postpartum) and measurements obtained during predetermined gestational ages. Mean differences bet ween the reference and pregnancy plasma volume measurements were calculated for predefined intervals of gestational age using a random-effects model described by DerSimonian and Laird. Thirty studies were included in the meta-analysis with publication dates ranging from 1934 to 2007. Plasma volume increased in the first weeks of pregnancy, with the steepest increase occurring during the second trimester. Plasma volume continued to increase in the third trimester with a pooled maximum increase of 1.13 L (95% CI, 1.07-1.19 L), an increase of 45.6% (95% CI, 43.0-48.1%) in physiological pregnancies compared with the reference value. The plasma volume expansion in gestational hypertensive and growth-restricted pregnancies was 0.80 L (95% CI, 0.59-1.02 L), an increase of 32.3% (95% CI, 23.6-41.1%) in the third trimester, a smaller increase than in physiological pregnancies (P literatura actual sobre los cambios en el volumen de plasma durante embarazos complicados y fisiológicos. La literatura se obtuvo de las bases de datos PubMed (NCBI) y EMBASE (Ovid). Los estudios incluidos mencionaban tanto mediciones de referencia del volumen plasmático (no embarazada, antes del embarazo o después del parto) como mediciones tomadas a edades gestacionales predeterminadas. Se calcularon las medias de las diferencias entre las

  7. Osmolality of elemental and semi-elemental formulas supplemented with nonprotein energy supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira-da-Silva, L; Pitta-Grós Dias, M; Virella, D; Serelha, M

    2008-12-01

    Elemental and semi-elemental formulas are used to feed infants with short bowel syndrome, who may not be able to tolerate feeds of more than 310 mOsm kg(-1). The present study aimed to measure the osmolality of elemental and semi-elemental formulas at different concentrations, with and without the addition of nonprotein energy supplements. The osmolality of one elemental and three semi-elemental formulas was measured by the freezing point depression method at concentrations of 10, 12, 14 and 16 g per 100 mL, with and without 10% or 20% of additional calories, in the form of glucose polymers and medium chain triglycerides. Inter-analysis and intra-analysis coefficients of variation of the measurements were less than 3.9%. The mean osmolalities of formulas reconstituted up to 12 g per 100 mL did not exceed 305.3 mOsm kg(-1), even with added energy supplements. The mean osmolalities of formulas at 14 and 16 g per 100 mL, with or without added energy supplements varied between 205.8 and 421.6 mOsm kg(-1). A comprehensive list of elemental and semi-elemental formulas at different concentrations, enriched or not with calories, is made available. This will enable professionals to customize feeds with the optimum composition, without exceeding the osmolality suggested for infants with short bowel syndrome.

  8. NFAT5 Contributes to Osmolality-Induced MCP-1 Expression in Mesothelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Küper

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased expression of the C-C chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 in mesothelial cells in response to high glucose concentrations and/or high osmolality plays a crucial role in the development of peritoneal fibrosis during continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD. Recent studies suggest that in kidney cells osmolality-induced MCP-1 upregulation is mediated by the osmosensitive transcription factor, nuclear factor of activated T cells 5 (NFAT5. The present study addressed the question of whether activation of NFAT5 by hyperosmolality, as present in PD fluids, contributes to MCP-1 expression in the mesothelial cell line Met5A. Hyperosmolality, induced by addition of glucose, NaCl, or mannitol to the growth medium, increased NFAT5 activity and stimulated MCP-1 expression in Met5A cells. siRNA-mediated knockdown of NFAT5 attenuated osmolality-induced MCP-1 upregulation substantially. Hyperosmolality also induced activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB. Accordingly, pharmacological inhibition of NF-κB significantly decreased osmolality-induced MCP-1 expression. Taken together, these results indicate that high osmolalities activate the transcription factor NFAT5 in mesothelial cells. NFAT5 in turn upregulates MCP-1, likely in combination with NF-κB, and thus may participate in the development of peritoneal fibrosis during CAPD.

  9. Enhancement of H{sup -}/D{sup -} volume production in a double plasma type negative ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukumasa, Osamu; Nishimura, Hideki; Sakiyama, Satoshi [Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-02-01

    H{sup -}/D{sup -} production in a pure volume source has been studied. In our double plasma type negative ion source, both energy and density of fast electrons are well controlled. With the use of this source, the enhancement of H{sup -}/D{sup -} production has been observed. Namely, under the same discharge power, the extracted H{sup -}/D{sup -} current in the double plasma operation is higher than that in the single plasma operation. At the same time, measurements of plasma parameters have been made in the source and the extractor regions for these two cases. (author)

  10. Venous and fingertip blood to calculate plasma volume shift following exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlton, R G; Brown, D D; Hetzler, R K; Sikora, L M

    1990-12-01

    This study determined whether fingertip blood samples used to calculate percentage change in calculated plasma volume following exercise were in agreement with values obtained from venous blood samples. Twenty-five subjects engaged in two cycle ergometer exercises at 100 and 200 W, with percentage plasma volume shift (% PVS) determined after each from venous (VB) and fingertip (FT) blood. Values for % PVS were FT -6.25% compared with VB -8.04% (P less than 0.05), with the correlation between the two methods at r = 0.88. The following equation was established: corrected FT % PVS = (0.8662 * FT) - 2.625; SEE = 2.60%. In order to cross-validate this equation, fifteen additional subjects submitted to VB and FT. Corrected FT % PVS using the established equation resulted in a mean value of 9.53 compared with 10.53% for actual VB % PVS. Although these means were not significantly different, there was approximately a 25% chance that the corrected FT % PVS would be more than one standard error of estimate from the regression line. It was concluded that FT underestimates VB % PVS. However, when limited to group data, FT can be corrected to favorably represent VB % PVS following moderate to heavy cycle ergometer exercise.

  11. Characteristics of spermatozoa of whole ejaculate and sperm-rich fraction of dog semen following exposure to media varying in osmolality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strzezek, Rafał; Fraser, Leyland

    2009-07-01

    This study aimed to analyze the effects of different osmolalities on the characteristics of spermatozoa originating from whole ejaculates (WE; including the prostatic fluid) and the sperm-rich fractions (SRF). Ejaculates, collected from four mixed-breed dogs, were exposed for 10 min at room temperature to Tris-fructose-citrate (TFC) solution with osmolality ranging from 150 to 1100 mOsm. After treatment spermatozoa were evaluated by microscopic analysis of motility and fluorescent assessments of plasma membrane integrity (carboxyfluorescein diacetate and propidium iodide, CFDA/PI) and mitochondrial function (rhodamine 123, R123). Irrespective of the sperm source, there was a complete loss of motility when spermatozoa were exposed to TFC solution with 1100 mOsm. There were no marked differences in the sperm characteristics between media with 300 and 350 mOsm, regardless of the ejaculate collection procedure. However, a marked reduction in motility of spermatozoa retrieved either from the WE or SRF was observed after exposure to different anisosmotic conditions (150, 550 and 800 mOsm). In all dogs, spermatozoa from the WE exhibited greater osmotolerance in terms of plasma membrane integrity and mitochondrial function when exposed to anisosmotic conditions (150, 550, 800 and 1100 mOsm). There were inter-dog variations in response to various osmotic conditions. The findings of this study indicated that spermatozoa from the WE tolerated exposure to a wider range of osmolality than those from the SRF. It seemed that the presence of prostatic fluid of dog semen rendered the sperm membrane structures less susceptible to osmotic stress.

  12. Alternations in plasma volume and protein during and after a continuous 110-kilometer march with 20-kilogram backpack load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashkenazi, I; Epshtein, Y

    1998-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a continuous 110-km march with a 20-kg backpack load on plasma volume and intravascular protein content. Twenty-two healthy male volunteers, aged 19 to 20 years (mean, 19.4 years), physically conditioned for continuous strenuous exercise, with a mean (+/- SD) maximal oxygen consumption of 59.1 (+/- 7.9) ml/kg/min, participated in the study. The march was performed under ambient conditions of 17 to 32 degrees C dry temperature and 45 to 85% relative humidity. Venous blood samples were obtained before, during, and after the march. The average calculated oxygen consumption during the march was about 30% of maximal oxygen consumption. Mean body weight loss was 3.4% of the premarch weight, mean water ingestion was 14,250 ml, and mean urine volume was 2,687 ml. Relative changes of plasma volume and total content of plasma protein were calculated from hematocrit ratio and hemoglobin concentration. A significant reduction (-6.1 +/- 1.7%, mean +/- SE) in plasma volume and a minimal elevation in intravascular protein content (1.6 +/- 2.5%) were observed during the march. During the first 24 hours of recovery, plasma volume was further reduced (-8.4 +/- 1.8%), with a significant reduction in protein content (-6.6 +/- 1.8%), mainly albumin (-9.3 +/- 1.7%). During the second day of recovery, peak elevations in plasma volume (3.7 +/- 1.4%) and protein content (6.0 +/- 1.6%) were observed. The changes in protein content were related to elevations in albumin (3.7 +/- 1.3%) and globulin (10.7 +/- 3.2%) content. The elevated plasma volume and protein content were also maintained 96 hours after the end of the march. Although the changes in plasma volume during the march were associated with changes in serum albumin and globulin content, during the recovery period there was association only with the changes in serum globulin content. The possible mechanism of these findings is discussed.

  13. Osmolality and non-structural carbohydrate composition in the secondary phloem of trees across a latitudinal gradient in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lintunen, Anna; Paljakka, Teemu; Jyske, Tuula; Peltoniemi, Mikko; Sterck, Frank; Arx, Von Georg; Cochard, Hervé; Copini, Paul; Caldeira, Maria C.; Delzon, Sylvain; Gebauer, Roman; Grönlund, Leila; Kiorapostolou, Natasa; Lechthaler, Silvia; Lobo-Do-Vale, Raquel; Peters, Richard L.; Petit, Giai; Prendin, Angela L.; Salmon, Yann; Steppe, Kathy; Urban, Josef; Juan, Sílvia Roig; Robert, Elisabeth M.R.; Hölttä, Teemu

    2016-01-01

    Phloem osmolality and its components are involved in basic cell metabolism, cell growth, and in various physiological processes including the ability of living cells to withstand drought and frost. Osmolality and sugar composition responses to environmental stresses have been extensively studied

  14. The influence of the local volume fluctuations on the equation-of-state of hot and dense plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzmann, David; Fisher, Dima; Barshalom, Avraham; Oreg, Joseph

    2008-04-01

    Generally, equation-of-state (EOS) of hot and dense plasmas is computed under the assumption that there is a constant volume available to every ion/atom in the plasma. In the present paper we combined two recently developed models to evaluate the influence of local density fluctuations around the ions on the corresponding EOS. The first of these is the so-called Ion Ellipsoid Model (IEM). IEM assumes that the local volume of the ion is a 3-dimensional ellipsoidal enclosure. Full description of the model is given in Ref. [1]. From IEM semi-empirical formulas were derived for the ions volume distribution function [1] for 0INFERNO models to calculate opacities and EOS on the same footing. We will describe the model and present preliminary results indicating the effect of the volume fluctuations around the ions on EOS results.

  15. A Volume-Weighting Cloud-in-Cell Model for Particle Simulation of Axially Symmetric Plasmas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永东; 何锋; 刘纯亮

    2005-01-01

    A volume-weighting cloud-in-cell (VW-CIC) model is developed to implement the particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation in axially symmetric systems. This model gives a first-order accuracy in the cylindrical system, and it is incorporated into a PIC code. A planar diode with a finite-radius circular emitter is simulated with the code. The simulation results show that the VW-CIC model has a better accuracy and a lower noise than the conventional area-weighting cloud-in-cell (AW-CIC) model, especially on those points near the axis. The two-dimensional (2-D) space-charge-limited current density obtained from VW-CIC model is in better agreement with Lau's analytical result. This model is more suitable for 2.5-D PIC simulation of axially symmetric plasmas.

  16. A High-Order Finite-Volume Algorithm for Fokker-Planck Collisions in Magnetized Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Z; Cohen, R H; Rognlien, T D; Xu, X Q

    2007-04-18

    A high-order finite volume algorithm is developed for the Fokker-Planck Operator (FPO) describing Coulomb collisions in strongly magnetized plasmas. The algorithm is based on a general fourth-order reconstruction scheme for an unstructured grid in the velocity space spanned by parallel velocity and magnetic moment. The method provides density conservation and high-order-accurate evaluation of the FPO independent of the choice of the velocity coordinates. As an example, a linearized FPO in constant-of-motion coordinates, i.e. the total energy and the magnetic moment, is developed using the present algorithm combined with a cut-cell merging procedure. Numerical tests include the Spitzer thermalization problem and the return to isotropy for distributions initialized with velocity space loss cones. Utilization of the method for a nonlinear FPO is straightforward but requires evaluation of the Rosenbluth potentials.

  17. Plasma waves excited at interface by femtosecond laser irradiation enabling formation of volume nanograting in glass

    CERN Document Server

    Liao, Yang; Qiao, Lingling; Huang, Min; Bellouard, Yves; Sugioka, Koji; Cheng, Ya

    2014-01-01

    Irradiation of intense ultrafast laser pulses in glasses can lead to formation of nanogratings whose periods are significantly smaller than the incident irradiation wavelength. The mechanism of the exotic phenomenon is still under debate. Here, we access the snapshots of morphologies in the laser affected regions in a porous glass which reveal the evolution of the formation of nanogratings with increasing number of laser pulses. Combined with further theoretical analyses, our observation provides important clues which suggest that excitation of standing plasma waves at the interfaces between areas modified and unmodified by the femtosecond laser irradiation plays a crucial role for promoting the growth of periodic nanogratings. The finding indicates that the formation of volume nanogratings induced by irradiation of femtosecond laser pulses is initiated with a mechanism similar to the formation of surface nanoripples.

  18. Relationship between plasma metalloproteinase-9 levels and volume and severity of infarct in patients with acute ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Recep; Ulvi, Hızır; Özel, Lütfi; Özdemir, Gökhan; Güzelcik, Metin; Aygül, Recep

    2012-12-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) constitute an endopeptidase family involved in various physiological and pathological processes. It was demonstrated that plasma MMP-9 level was increased in patients with acute ischemic stroke. In this study, it was investigated whether there was a relationship between the levels of plasma MMP-9 and the severity of stroke and infarct volume in patients with acute ischemic stroke. A total of 32 patients with acute ischemic stroke, (16 males and 16 females) and 30 healthy controls were included in the study. Plasma MMP-9 levels were measured using ELISA method. Computed tomography was performed at 48th hour and infarct volume was calculated using the Cavalieri method. The National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) was checked at baseline, 12, 24, and 48th hour. Plasma MMP-9 levels of the patient group at baseline, 12, 24, and 48th hour were found significantly higher compared to the control group (p acute period of ischemic cerebrovascular disease and correlated with the severity of the disease and infarct volume. The definition of the exact role of plasma MMP-9 after ischemic stroke will have important diagnostic implications for stroke and for the development of therapeutic strategies aimed at modulating plasma MMP-9.

  19. Curling probe measurement of a large-volume pulsed plasma with surface magnetic confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, A.; Tashiro, H.; Sakakibara, W.; Nakamura, K.; Sugai, H.

    2016-12-01

    A curling probe (CP) based on microwave resonance is applied to the measurement of electron density in a pulsed DC glow discharge under surface magnetic confinement (SMC) provided by a number of permanent magnets on a chamber wall. Owing to the SMC effects, a 1 m scale large-volume plasma is generated by a relatively low voltage (~1 kV) at low pressure (~1 Pa) in various gases (Ar, CH4, and C2H2). Temporal variation of the electron density is measured for pulse frequency f  =  0.5-25 kHz for various discharge-on times (T ON) with a high resolution time (~0.2 µs), using the on-point mode. In general, the electron density starts to increase at time t  =  0 after turn-on of the discharge voltage, reaches peak density at t  =  T ON, and then decreases after turn-off. The peak electron density is observed to increase with the pulse frequency f for constant T ON owing to the residual plasma. This dependence is successfully formulated using a semi-empirical model. The spatio-temporal evolution of the cathode sheath in the pulsed discharge is revealed by a 1 m long movable CP. The measured thickness of the high-voltage cathode fall in a steady state coincides with the value of the so-called Child-Langmuir sheath.

  20. Pulmonary Edema and Plasma Volume Changes in Dysbarism. M.S. Thesis - Texas Univ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joki, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    Two groups of anesthetized, fasted pigs were utilized. One group of 13 animals (8.5 to 16.6 kilograms) was exposed to a high-pressure environment, and the other group of eight animals (6.9 to 20.0 kilograms) constituted the control group. The experimental group was subjected to an atmosphere of 90 percent nitrogen and 10 percent oxygen at a pressure of 50 psig for 30 minutes and then decompressed at a rate 10 psi/min. Plasma volumes, using both iodine-125-tagged-albumin and chromium-51-tagged-cell dilution techniques, were measured before, immediately after, and at 30 and 60 minutes after decompression. Aortic and right-ventricular systolic pressures were also recorded. At 60 minutes after decompression, blood samples were taken, the animals were sacrificed, and the water content of the lungs, kidneys, livers, and spleens was estimated by measuring tissue wet weight and dry weight. Protein extravasation and tissue blood volumes were determined by measuring the iodine-125-tagged-albumin and chromium-51-tagged-cell spaces in homo-genates of the organs under investigation.

  1. Changes in plasma volume during bed rest - Effects of menstrual cycle and estrogen administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortney, S. M.; Beckett, W. S.; Carpenter, A. J.; Davis, J.; Drew, H.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of increased blood estrogen concentration, caused either during normal menstrual cycles or by exogenous administration of premarin, on the bed-rest (BR) induced decrease in plasma volume (PV) was investigated. In women who underwent duplicate 11-day BR without estrogen supplementation, the PV was found to decrease significantly, during the first 5 days of BR, to a lower level at which it remained for the rest of the BR period. In women who began BR in the periovulatory stage of the menstrual cycle, the loss of PV was delayed, while women who began BR during other stages of the cycle exhibited the usual trend of the PV decrease during the BR. In women who underwent a single 12-day BR period while taking premarin (1.25 mg/day), PV was found to decrease during the first 4-5 days of BR, but then returned toward the pre-BR level during the remainder of the BR, indicating that estrogens have a role in stabilizing body fluid volume.

  2. NT pro BNP plasma level and atrial volume are linked to the severity of liver cirrhosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Licata

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Plasma levels of NT-pro-BNP, a natriuretic peptide precursor, are raised in the presence of fluid retention of cardiac origin and can be used as markers of cardiac dysfunction. Recent studies showed high levels of NT pro BNP in patients with cirrhosis. We assessed NT pro-BNP and other parameters of cardiac dysfunction in patients with cirrhosis, with or without ascites, in order to determine whether the behaviour of NT pro BNP is linked to the stage of liver disease or to secondary cardiac dysfunction. METHODS: Fifty eight consecutive hospitalized patients mostly with viral or NAFLD-related cirrhosis were studied. All underwent abdominal ultrasound and upper GI endoscopy. Cardiac morpho-functional changes were evaluated by echocardiography and NT-pro-BNP plasma levels determined upon admission. Twenty-eight hypertensive patients, without evidence of liver disease served as controls. RESULTS: Fifty eight cirrhotic patients (72% men with a median age of 62 years (11% with mild arterial hypertension and 31% with type 2 diabetes had a normal renal function (mean creatinine 0.9 mg/dl, range 0.7-1.06. As compared to controls, cirrhotic patients had higher NT pro-BNP plasma levels (365.2±365.2 vs 70.8±70.6 pg/ml; p<0.001. Left atrial volume (LAV (61.8±26.3 vs 43.5±14.1 ml; p = 0.001, and left ventricular ejection fraction (62.7±6.9 vs. 65.5±4%,; p = 0.05 were also altered in cirrhotic patients that in controls. Patients with F2-F3 oesophageal varices as compared to F0/F1, showed higher e' velocity (0.91±0.23 vs 0.66±0.19 m/s, p<0.001, and accordingly a higher E/A ratio (1.21±0.46 vs 0.89±0.33 m/s., p = 0.006. CONCLUSION: NT-pro-BNP plasma levels are increased proportionally to the stage of chronic liver disease. Advanced cirrhosis and high NT-pro-BNP levels are significantly associated to increased LAV and to signs of cardiac diastolic dysfunction. NT pro-BNP levels could hence be an useful prognostic

  3. Recurrent pre-eclampsia in women with metabolic syndrome and low plasma volume: a retrospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stekkinger, E.; Scholten, R.R.; Heidema, W.M.; Spaanderman, M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of recurrent pre-eclampsia in women with a history of pre-eclampsia with both metabolic syndrome and low plasma volume postpartum, as compared with women without either entity. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Three tertiary referral hospitals in th

  4. An evaluation of the osmole gap as a screening test for toxic alcohol poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu-Laban Riyad B

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The osmole gap is used routinely as a screening test for the presence of exogenous osmotically active substances, such as the toxic alcohols ethylene glycol and methanol, particularly when the ability to measure serum concentrations of the substances is not available. The objectives of this study were: 1 to measure the diagnostic accuracy of the osmole gap for screening for ethylene glycol and methanol exposure, and 2 to identify whether a recently proposed modification of the ethanol coefficient affects the diagnostic accuracy. Methods Electronic laboratory records from two tertiary-care hospitals were searched to identify all patients for whom a serum ethylene glycol and methanol measurement was ordered between January 1, 1996 and March 31, 2002. Cases were eligible for analysis if serum sodium, blood urea nitrogen, glucose, ethanol, ethylene glycol, methanol, and osmolality were measured simultaneously. Serum molarity was calculated using the Smithline and Gardner equation and ethanol coefficients of 1 and 1.25 mOsm/mM. The diagnostic accuracy of the osmole gap was evaluated for identifying patients with toxic alcohol levels above the recommended threshold for antidotal therapy and hemodialysis using receiver-operator characteristic curves, likelihood ratios, and positive and negative predictive values. Results One hundred and thirty-one patients were included in the analysis, 20 of whom had ethylene glycol or methanol serum concentrations above the threshold for antidotal therapy. The use of an ethanol coefficient of 1.25 mOsm/mM yielded higher specificities and positive predictive values, without affecting sensitivity and negative predictive values. Employing an osmole gap threshold of 10 for the identification of patients requiring antidotal therapy resulted in a sensitivity of 0.9 and 0.85, and a specificity of 0.22 and 0. 5, with equations 1 and 2 respectively. The sensitivity increased to 1 for both equations for the

  5. Plasma volume expansion by albumin in cirrhosis. Relation to blood volume distribution, arterial compliance and severity of disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinch, Kim; Bendtsen, Flemming; Becker, Povl Ulrik;

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of a standard albumin load on blood volume distribution, arterial compliance, and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in patients with different degrees of cirrhosis. METHODS: 31 patients with cirrhosis (Child classes A/B/C=...... effective arterial blood volume of such patients, which may be important in the prevention of circulatory dysfunction....

  6. The role of plasma volume, plasma renin and the sympathetic nervous system in the posture-induced decline in renal lithium clearance in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D F; Shimizu, M

    1978-01-01

    Excretion of lithium in urine was studied in 2 healthy males while recumbent and while upright, either walking or standing quietly. An oral dose of 24.3 mmol of Lit was taken as three lithium carbonate tablets 13 h before clearance tests. Renal lithium clearance decreased and lithium fractional reabsorption increased while upright. Standing immersed to the neck in water, which prevents the fall in plasma volume upon changing posture from recumbent to upright, prevented the fall in renal lithium clearance as well as the rise in lithium fractional reabsorption while upright. Oral doses of guanethidine (total dose of 200 mg) or oxprenolol (total dose of 140 mg) taken to prevent high levels of sympathetic nervous system activity and plasma renin, respectively, failed to prevent the fall in renal lithium clearance or the rise in lithium fractional reabsorption upon changing posture from recumbent to upright. The findings indicate that the fall in renal lithium clearance and the rise in lithium fractional reabsorption upon changing posture from recumbent to upright is related to the fall in plasma volume but not to high levels of sympathetic nervous system activity or plasma renin activity.

  7. Radioimmunoassay of arginine vasopressin in Rhesus Monkey plasma. [/sup 125/I tracer technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayward, J.N.; Pavasuthipaisit, K.; Perez-Lopez, F.R.; Sofroniew, M.V.

    1976-04-01

    Using a new antiserum and an enzymatic radioiodination of arginine vasopressin (AVP), we have developed a sensitive and specific radioimmunoassay for plasma AVP in the monkey. The sensitivity of the assay is 0.5 ..mu..U/ml, the cross reaction with oxytocin (OT), minimal. We used this assay to study the effects that variations in blood osmolality have in regulating AVP secretion in unanesthetized, chair-restrained, chamber-isolated, adult female rhesus monkeys. Under water ad lib conditions, plasma AVP and osmolality were relatively constant, averaging 1.7 +- 0.6 (SD) ..mu..U/ml and 298 +- 3 mosmol/kg, respectively. Water loading decreased plasma AVP and osmolality to 0.6 +- 0.2 ..mu..U/ml and 282 +- 6 mosmol/kg, respectively. When fluid restriction increased osmolality, plasma AVP rose progressively to twice the baseline after 1 day, and to 6 times the baseline after 3 days. The rise in plasma AVP was linearly correlated with the rise in osmolality (r = 0.93; P less than 0.001). Intravenous infusions of hypertonic saline produced significant rises in plasma osmolality and plasma AVP. There was a dose-related rise in plasma AVP that declined later at the expected rate with the infusion of physiological amounts of synthetic AVP.

  8. Impact of Plasma Epstein-Barr Virus-DNA and Tumor Volume on Prognosis of Locally Advanced Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This retrospective study aims to examine the association of plasma Epstein-Barr virus- (EBV- DNA levels with the tumor volume and prognosis in patients with locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC. A total of 165 patients with newly diagnosed locally advanced NPC were identified from September 2011 to July 2012. EBV-DNA was detected using fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR amplification. The tumor volume was calculated by the systematic summation method of computer software. The median copy number of plasma EBV-DNA before treatment was 3790 copies/mL. The median gross tumor volume of the primary nasopharyngeal tumor (GTVnx, the lymph node lesions (GTVnd, and the total GTV before treatment were 72.46, 23.26, and 106.25 cm3, respectively; the EBV-DNA levels were significantly correlated with the GTVnd and the total GTV (P<0.01. The 2-year overall survival (OS rates in patients with positive and negative pretreatment plasma EBV-DNA were 100% and 98.4% (P=1.000, and the disease-free survival (DFS rates were 94.4% and 80.8% (P=0.044, respectively. These results indicate that high pretreatment plasma EBV-DNA levels in patients with locally advanced NPC are associated with the degree of lymph node metastasis, tumor burden, and poor prognosis.

  9. The component content of active particles in a plasma-chemical reactor based on volume barrier discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloshenko, I. A.; Tsiolko, V. V.; Pogulay, S. S.; Terent'yeva, A. G.; Bazhenov, V. Yu; Shchedrin, A. I.; Ryabtsev, A. V.; Kuzmichev, A. I.

    2007-02-01

    In this paper the results of theoretical and experimental studies of the component content of active particles formed in a plasma-chemical reactor composed of a multiple-cell generator of active particles, based on volume barrier discharge, and a working chamber are presented. For calculation of the content of uncharged plasma components an approach is proposed which is based on averaging of the power introduced over the entire volume. Advantages of such an approach lie in an absence of fitting parameters, such as the dimensions of microdischarges, their surface density and rate of breakdown. The calculation and the experiment were accomplished with the use of dry air (20% relative humidity) as the plasma generating medium. Concentrations of O3, HNO3, HNO2, N2 O5 and NO3 were measured experimentally in the discharge volume and working chamber for the residence time of particles on a discharge of 0.3 s and more and discharge specific power of 1.5 W cm-3. It has been determined that the best agreement between the calculation and the experiment occurs at calculated gas medium temperatures in the discharge plasma of about 400-425 K, which correspond to the experimentally measured rotational temperature of nitrogen. In most cases the calculated concentrations of O3, HNO3, HNO2, N2O5 and NO3 for the barrier discharge and the working chamber are in fairly good agreement with the respective measured values.

  10. Separate and combined influence of posture and sprint running on plasma volume changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsampoukos, Antonios; Stokes, Keith; Nevill, Mary

    2014-01-01

    It is currently unknown whether any changes in plasma volume (PV) after sprint running are inherent to sprint running per se or are due to other confounding factors such as changes in posture. The purpose of the present study was to examine the independent effects of sprint running on PV changes. Eight females completed two trials on separate days: (1) a 30-s sprint on a non-motorised treadmill and (2) a control trial where no exercise was undertaken but blood samples were taken at identical time points as in the exercise trial. Changes in PV were calculated using haematocrit and haemoglobin. Post-sprint PV reductions were greater in the sprint than the control trial (mean: -17.7, SD=3.1% vs. mean: -7.5, s = 4.9, Psprint than the control trial in most sampling points. These data show that sprint running of only 30 s induces transient reductions in PV independently of posture change. The present findings suggest that PV changes due to sprint running should be routinely reported as well as the posture and the exact time in this posture.

  11. Second harmonic wave generation from a nonlinear combination of volume wave and overdense plasma in negative permeability space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwai, Akinori; Nakamura, Yoshihiro; Sakai, Osamu

    2016-09-01

    We clarify the relation between second harmonic wave (SH wave) and plasma generation in various experimental conditions by detecting properties of propagating electromagnetic waves (EM waves). Plasma has a nonlinear reaction against EM wave, generating harmonic waves which depends on electron density ne. In the case with increased ne, EM wave comes to be prevented from going into plasma with negative permittivity ɛp. Double-split-ring resonators (DSRRs), one of metamaterials, make permeability μD negative. We have shown that EM wave being volume wave can propagate into the combination of overdense plasma and DSRRs because of real negative value refractive index N. In our previous paper, we have confirmed enhanced SH wave (4.9 GHz) generation in the composite with 2.45-GHz input. In this report, we show the dependence of the SH wave emission with plasma generation on plasma parameters and gas conditions of plasma. Furthermore, we show the phase change with N variation of the composite space in the case with various input power as the proof of the negative index state.

  12. Can we use plasma hyperosmolality as a predictor of mortality for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatlisu, Mustafa A; Kaya, Adnan; Keskin, Muhammed; Uzman, Osman; Borklu, Edibe B; Cinier, Goksel; Hayiroglu, Mert I; Tatlisu, Kiymet; Eren, Mehmet

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association of plasma osmolality with all-cause mortality in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients treated with a primary percutaneous coronary intervention. This study included 3748 patients (mean age 58.3±11.8 years, men 81%) with STEMI treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention. The following formula was used to measure the plasma osmolality at admission: osmolality=1.86×sodium (mmol/l)+glucose (mg/dl)/18+BUN (mg/dl)/2.8+9. The patients were followed up for a mean period of 22±10 months. Patients with higher plasma osmolality had 3.7 times higher in-hospital (95% confidence interval: 2.7-5.1) and 3.2 times higher long-term (95% confidence interval: 2.5-4.1) all-cause mortality rates than patients with lower plasma osmolality. Plasma osmolality was found to be a predictor of both in-hospital and long-term all-cause mortality. Hence, plasma osmolality can be used to detect high-risk patients in STEMI.

  13. Actinoplanes utahensis ZJB-08196 fed-batch fermentation at elevated osmolality for enhancing acarbose production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya-Jun; Liu, Li-Ling; Wang, Yuan-Shan; Xue, Ya-Ping; Zheng, Yu-Guo; Shen, Yin-Chu

    2012-01-01

    Acarbose, a potent α-glucosidase inhibitor, is as an oral anti-diabetic drug for treatment of the type two, noninsulin-dependent diabetes. Actinoplanes utahensis ZJB-08196, an osmosis-resistant actinomycete, had a broad osmolality optimum between 309 mOsm kg(-1) and 719 mOsm kg(-1). Utilizing this unique feature, an fed-batch culture process under preferential osmolality was constructed through intermittently feeding broths with feed medium consisting of 14.0 g l(-1) maltose, 6.0 g l(-1) glucose and 9.0 g l(-1) soybean meal, at 48 h, 72 h, 96 h and 120 h. This intermittent fed-batch culture produced a peak acarbose titer of 4878 mg l(-1), increased by 15.9% over the batch culture.

  14. GLUT4 expression at the plasma membrane is related to fibre volume in human skeletal muscle fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaster, M; Vach, W; Beck-Nielsen, H

    2002-01-01

    In this study we examined the relationship between GLUT4 expression at the plasma membrane and muscle fibre size in fibre-typed human muscle fibres by immunocytochemistry and morphometry in order to gain further insight into the regulation of GLUT4 expression. At the site of the plasma membrane......, GLUT4 was more abundantly expressed in slow as compared to fast fibres at the same fibre diameter (p diabetic and obese was reduced...... compared to control subjects at the same diameter (p diabetic subjects expressed a fibre-volume-dependent GLUT4 expression (p diabetic p = 0.06). Our results show that increasing...

  15. Serum osmolality in the coelacanth, Latimeria chalumnae: urea retention and ion regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickford, G E; Grant, F B

    1967-02-03

    Samples of blood (hemolyzed) were obtained from the renal vein, the hepatic portal vein, and the heart of a freshly thawed specimen of Latimeria chalumnae. The coelacanth uses high concentrations of urea to maintain its serum osmolality at approximately that of sea water. The mean value for the total osmolality was 1181 milliosmoles per liter. The mean values (milliequivalents per liter) were: for sodium, 181; for potassium, 51.3; for calcium, 6.9; for magnesium, 28.7; for chloride, 199; and for bicarbonate, 4.7. The mean urea concentration was 355 millimoles per liter, and the mean nonprotein nitrogen was 1343 milligrams percent. Heart blood showed significantly lower values for osmolality (921 milliosmoles per liter) and nonprotein nitrogen (1030 mg percent) and was probably less severely contaminated with products of protein breakdown. Fluid from the anterior chamber of the eye showed values of 952 milliosmole/liter; the urea value for this fluid was 303 mmole/liter, and the magnesium was 7.3 meq/liter. The magnesium value for the aqueous humor was used to correct the abnormally high concentrations in the hemolyzed serum. The high level of serum potassium also was attributed to hemolysis.

  16. Diuresis and reduced urinary osmolality in rats produced by small-molecule UT-A-selective urea transport inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteva-Font, Cristina; Cil, Onur; Phuan, Puay-Wah; Su, Tao; Lee, Sujin; Anderson, Marc O; Verkman, A S

    2014-09-01

    Urea transport (UT) proteins of the UT-A class are expressed in epithelial cells in kidney tubules, where they are required for the formation of a concentrated urine by countercurrent multiplication. Here, using a recently developed high-throughput assay to identify UT-A inhibitors, a screen of 50,000 synthetic small molecules identified UT-A inhibitors of aryl-thiazole, γ-sultambenzosulfonamide, aminocarbonitrile butene, and 4-isoxazolamide chemical classes. Structure-activity analysis identified compounds that inhibited UT-A selectively by a noncompetitive mechanism with IC50 down to ∼1 μM. Molecular modeling identified putative inhibitor binding sites on rat UT-A. To test compound efficacy in rats, formulations and administration procedures were established to give therapeutic inhibitor concentrations in blood and urine. We found that intravenous administration of an indole thiazole or a γ-sultambenzosulfonamide at 20 mg/kg increased urine output by 3-5-fold and reduced urine osmolality by ∼2-fold compared to vehicle control rats, even under conditions of maximum antidiuresis produced by 1-deamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin (DDAVP). The diuresis was reversible and showed urea > salt excretion. The results provide proof of concept for the diuretic action of UT-A-selective inhibitors. UT-A inhibitors are first in their class salt-sparing diuretics with potential clinical indications in volume-overload edemas and high-vasopressin-associated hyponatremias.

  17. Effect of Increased Plasma Osmolality on Cold-Induced Thirst Attenuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    Physiol 99:1972–1976. doi:10.1152/jappl- physiol.00329.2005 Costill DL, Fox EL (1969) Energetics of marathon running. Med Sci Sports 1(2):81–86 Edwards...human Xuid balance. In: Marriott BM, Carlson SJ (eds) Nutritional needs in cold and high altitude environments. National Academy Press, Washington DC, pp... Nutrition 9:480–491 Sobocinska J, Kozlowski S (1987) Osmotic thirst suppression in dogs exposed to low ambient temperature. Physiol Behav 40:171–175

  18. [Extracellular fluid, plasma and interstitial volume in cirrhotic patients without clinical edema or ascites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguera Viñas, E C; Hames, W; Mothe, G; Barrionuevo, M P

    1989-01-01

    Extracellular fluid volume (E.C.F.) and plasma volume (P.V.), were measured with sodium sulfate labeled with 35I and 131I human serum albumin, respectively, by the dilution technique in control subjects and in cirrhotic patients without clinical ascites or edema, renal or hepatic failure, gastrointestinal bleeding or diuretics. Results are expressed as mean +/- DS in both ml/m2 and ml/kg. In normal subjects E.C.F. (n = 8) was 7,533 +/- 817 ml/m2 (201.3 +/- 182 ml/kg), P.V. (n = 11) 1,767 +/- 337 ml/m2 (47.2 +/- 9.3 ml/kg), and interstitial fluid (I.S.F.) (n = 7) 5,758 +/- 851 ml/m2 (Table 2). In cirrhotic patients E.C.F. (n = 11) was 10,318 +/- 2,980 ml/m2 (261.7 +/- 76.8 ml/kg), P.V. (n = 12) 2,649 +/- 558 ml/m2 (67.7 +/- 15.6 ml/kg) and I.S.F. (n = 11) 7,866 +/- 2,987 ml/m2 (Table 3). Cirrhotic patients compared with normal subjects have hypervolemia due to a significant E.C.F. and P.V. expansion (p less than 0.02 and less than 0.001 respectively) (Fig. 1). Reasons for E.C.F. and P.V. abnormalities in cirrhotic patients may reflect urinary sodium retention related to portal hipertension which stimulates aldosterone release or enhanced renal tubular sensitivity to the hormone. However, it is also possible that these patients, in the presence of hypoalbuminemia (Table 1), have no clinical edema or ascites due to increased glomerular filtration, suppressed release of vasopressin, increased natriuretic factor, and urinary prostaglandin excretion, in response to the intravascular expansion, all of which increased solute and water delivery to the distal nephron and improved renal water excretion. We conclude that in our clinical experience cirrhotic patients without ascites or edema have hypervolemia because of a disturbance in E.C.F.

  19. Resistance exercise-induced fluid shifts: change in active muscle size and plasma volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.; Convertino, V. A.; Dudley, G. A.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that the reduction in plasma volume (PV) induced by resistance exercise reflects fluid loss to the extravascular space and subsequently selective increase in cross-sectional area (CSA) of active but not inactive skeletal muscle. We compared changes in active and inactive muscle CSA and PV after barbell squat exercise. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to quantify muscle involvement in exercise and to determine CSA of muscle groups or individual muscles [vasti (VS), adductor (Add), hamstring (Ham), and rectus femoris (RF)]. Muscle involvement in exercise was determined using exercise-induced contrast shift in spin-spin relaxation time (T2)-weighted MR images immediately postexercise. Alterations in muscle size were based on the mean CSA of individual slices. Hematocrit, hemoglobin, and Evans blue dye were used to estimate changes in PV. Muscle CSA and PV data were obtained preexercise and immediately postexercise and 15 and 45 min thereafter. A hierarchy of muscle involvement in exercise was found such that VS > Add > Ham > RF, with the Ham and RF showing essentially no involvement. CSA of the VS and Add muscle groups were increased 10 and 5%, respectively, immediately after exercise in each thigh with no changes in Ham and RF CSA. PV was decreased 22% immediately following exercise. The absolute loss of PV was correlated (r2 = 0.75) with absolute increase in muscle CSA immediately postexercise, supporting the notion that increased muscle size after resistance exercise reflects primarily fluid movement from the vascular space into active but not inactive muscle.

  20. Hemodynamic and ADH responses to central blood volume shifts in cardiac-denervated humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convertino, V. A.; Thompson, C. A.; Benjamin, B. A.; Keil, L. C.; Savin, W. M.; Gordon, E. P.; Haskell, W. L.; Schroeder, J. S.; Sandler, H.

    1990-01-01

    Hemodynamic responses and antidiuretic hormone (ADH) were measured during body position changes designed to induce blood volume shifts in ten cardiac transplant recipients to assess the contribution of cardiac and vascular volume receptors in the control of ADH secretion. Each subject underwent 15 min of a control period in the seated posture, then assumed a lying posture for 30 min at 6 deg head down tilt (HDT) followed by 20 min of seated recovery. Venous blood samples and cardiac dimensions (echocardiography) were taken at 0 and 15 min before HDT, 5, 15, and 30 min of HDT, and 5, 15, and 30 min of seated recovery. Blood samples were analyzed for hematocrit, plasma osmolality, plasma renin activity (PRA), and ADH. Resting plasma volume (PV) was measured by Evans blue dye and percent changes in PV during posture changes were calculated from changes in hematocrit. Heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) were recorded every 2 min. Results indicate that cardiac volume receptors are not the only mechanism for the control of ADH release during acute blood volume shifts in man.

  1. Osmolality - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you have signs of any of the following: Low sodium ( hyponatremia ) or water loss Poisoning from harmful substances ... lung cancer Drinking too much water or fluid Low sodium level (hyponatremia) Underactive thyroid gland ( hypothyroidism ) Risks Veins ...

  2. The volume-expanding effects of autologous liquid stored plasma following hemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzer, Peter; Thomas, Owain D; Westborg, Johan;

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background. Plasma use has increased since studies have suggested that early treatment with blood components in trauma with severe hemorrhage may improve outcome. Plasma is also commonly used to correct coagulation disturbances in non-bleeding patients. Little is known about the effects...

  3. Osmolality of Cerebrospinal Fluid from Patients with Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension (IIH)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wibroe, Elisabeth A; Yri, Hanne M; Jensen, Rigmor H

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a disorder of increased intracranial fluid pressure (ICP) of unknown etiology. This study aims to investigate osmolality of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients with IIH. METHODS: We prospectively collected CSF from individuals referred...... on suspicion of IIH from 2011-2013. Subjects included as patients fulfilled Friedman and Jacobson's diagnostic criteria for IIH. Individuals in whom intracranial hypertension was refuted were included as controls. Lumbar puncture with ICP measurement was performed at inclusion and repeated for patients after...

  4. Low density lipoprotein for oxidation and metabolic studies. Isolation from small volumes of plasma using a tabletop ultracentrifuge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himber, J; Bühler, E; Moll, D; Moser, U K

    1995-01-01

    A rapid method is described for the isolation of small volumes of plasma low density lipoprotein (LDL) free of plasma protein contaminants using the TL-100 Tabletop Ultracentrifuge (Beckman). The isolation of LDL was achieved by a 25 min discontinuous gradient density centrifugation between the density range of 1.006 and 1.21 g/ml, recovery of LDL by tube slicing followed by a 90 min flotation step (d = 1.12 g/ml). The purity of LDL and apolipoprotein B100 (apo B100) were monitored by agarose electrophoresis, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), radial immunodiffusion and micropreparative fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC). The ability of LDL oxidation was assessed by following absorbance at 234 nm after addition of copper ions. The functional integrity of the isolated LDL was checked by clearance kinetics after injection of [125I]-labelled LDL in estrogen-treated rats. The additional purification step led to LDL fractions free of protein contamination and left apo B100, alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene intact. The LDL prepared in this way was free of albumin, as evident from analytic tests and from its enhanced oxidative modification by copper ions. Used for analytical purposes, this method allows LDL preparations from plasma volumes up to 570 microliters. This method is also convenient for metabolic studies in small animals, especially those relating to the determination of kinetic parameters of LDL in which LDL-apo B100 has to be specifically radiolabelled.

  5. von Willebrand Factor and Prekallikrein in Plasma Are Associated With Thrombus Volume in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghulam, Qasam M; Bredahl, Kim K; Gram, Jørgen B;

    2016-01-01

    anticoagulant therapy, renal impairment, or nonappearance, thus leaving 30 patients for further analysis. All patients had computed tomography angiography, and intraluminal volume was quantified off-line by OsiriX 6.5. RESULTS: Median intraluminal thrombus volume was 42.7 mL. Spearman correlation analysis...

  6. Accuracy and convergence of coupled finite-volume/Monte Carlo codes for plasma edge simulations of nuclear fusion reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghoos, K., E-mail: kristel.ghoos@kuleuven.be [KU Leuven, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Celestijnenlaan 300A, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Dekeyser, W. [KU Leuven, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Celestijnenlaan 300A, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Samaey, G. [KU Leuven, Department of Computer Science, Celestijnenlaan 200A, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Börner, P. [Institute of Energy and Climate Research (IEK-4), FZ Jülich GmbH, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Baelmans, M. [KU Leuven, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Celestijnenlaan 300A, 3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2016-10-01

    The plasma and neutral transport in the plasma edge of a nuclear fusion reactor is usually simulated using coupled finite volume (FV)/Monte Carlo (MC) codes. However, under conditions of future reactors like ITER and DEMO, convergence issues become apparent. This paper examines the convergence behaviour and the numerical error contributions with a simplified FV/MC model for three coupling techniques: Correlated Sampling, Random Noise and Robbins Monro. Also, practical procedures to estimate the errors in complex codes are proposed. Moreover, first results with more complex models show that an order of magnitude speedup can be achieved without any loss in accuracy by making use of averaging in the Random Noise coupling technique.

  7. Gadolinium contrast media are more nephrotoxic than iodine media. The importance of osmolality in direct renal artery injections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmstaahl, Barbara; Leander, Peter; Almen, Torsten [Malmoe University Hospital, Lund University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Malmoe (Sweden); Nyman, Ulf [Lasarettet Trelleborg, Department of Radiology, Trelleborg (Sweden); Chai, Chun-Ming [Malmoe University Hospital, Lund University, Department of Experimental Research, Malmoe (Sweden); Golman, Klaes [Biosciences, GE Health, Malmoe (Sweden); Bjoerk, Jonas [University Hospital, Lund University, Competence Center for Clinical Research, Lund (Sweden)

    2006-12-15

    A study was undertaken of the role of osmotoxicity in gadolinium (Gd) and iodine contrast media (CM) nephrotoxicity in ischemic porcine kidneys. Test solutions: mannitol iso-osmotic to 0.5 M gadopentetate (1.96 Osm/kg H{sub 2}O), 0.5 M gadodiamide (0.78 Osm/kg H{sub 2}O) and 0.5 M iohexol (190 mg I/ml, 0.42 Osm/kg H{sub 2}O). Each solution was injected [3 ml/kg body weight (BW)] into the balloon-occluded (10 min) renal artery of eight left-sided nephrectomized pigs. The plasma half-life of a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) marker was used to compare their effects on GFR 1-3 h post-injection. The median half-lives of the GFR marker after injection of gadopentetate (1,730 min) and mannitol 1.96 Osm/kg H{sub 2}O (2,782 min) did not differ statistically (P=0.28), but were significantly longer than after all other solutions (P<0.001). There was no significant difference (P=0.06) between gadodiamide (218 min) and mannitol 0.82 Osm/kg H{sub 2}O (169 min), while there was (P=0.03) between iohexol (181 min) and mannitol 0.43 Osm/kg H{sub 2}O (148 min). The difference between gadodiamide and iohexol was significant (P=0.01). Reduction in GFR, as a marker of nephrotoxicity, induced by gadopentetate correlated with its high osmolality, while the effect of gadodiamide and iohexol may include chemotoxicity. Iohexol molecules were less nephrotoxic than the Gd-CM molecules and contain three-times the number of attenuating atoms per molecule. (orig.)

  8. Whole-volume integrated gyrokinetic simulation of plasma turbulence in realistic diverted-tokamak geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, C S; Ku, S; Greengard, L; Park, G [Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, NY 10012 (United States); Diamond, P; Dif-Pradalier, G [University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Adams, M; Keyes, D [Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Barreto, R; D' Azevedo, E; Klasky, S; Podhorszki, N [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Chen, Y; Parker, S [University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Cummings, J [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Ethier, S; Hahm, T S [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Hinton, F [Hinton Associates, Escondido, CA 92029 (United States); Lin, Z [University of California at Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Lofstead, J, E-mail: cschang@cims.nyu.ed [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Performance prediction for ITER is based upon the ubiquitous experimental observation that the plasma energy confinement in the device core is strongly coupled to the edge confinement for an unknown reason. The coupling time-scale is much shorter than the plasma transport time-scale. In order to understand this critical observation, a multi-scale turbulence-neoclassical simulation of integrated edge-core plasma in a realistic diverted geometry is a necessity, but has been a formidable task. Thanks to the recent development in high performance computing, we have succeeded in the integrated multiscale gyrokinetic simulation of the ion-temperature-gradient driven turbulence in realistic diverted tokamak geometry for the first time. It is found that modification of the self-organized criticality in the core plasma by nonlocal core-edge coupling of ITG turbulence can be responsible for the core-edge confinement coupling.

  9. Whole-volume integrated gyrokinetc simulation of plasma turbulence in realistic diverted-tokamak geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, C S [New York University; Ku, Seung-Hoe [New York University; Diamond, Patrick [Columbia University; Adams, Mark [Columbia University; Tchoua, Roselyne B [ORNL; Chen, Yang [University of Colorado, Boulder; Cummings, Julian [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena; D' Azevedo, Eduardo [ORNL; Dif-Pradalier, Guilhem [University of California, San Diego; Ethier, Stephane [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Greengard, Leslie [New York University; Hahm, Taik Soo [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Hinton, Fred [University of California, San Diego; Keyes, David E [Columbia University; Klasky, Scott A [ORNL; Lin, Zhihong [University of California, Irvine; Lofstead, J. [Georgia Institute of Technology; Park, G. [New York University; Parker, Scott [University of Colorado, Boulder; Podhorszki, Norbert [ORNL; Schwan, Karsten [Georgia Institute of Technology; Shoshani, A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Silver, D. [Rutgers University; Weitzner, Harold [New York University; Wolf, M. [Georgia Institute of Technology; Worley, Patrick H [ORNL; Yoon, E. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Zorin, Denis [New York University

    2009-01-01

    Performance prediction for ITER is based upon the ubiquitous experimental observation that the plasma energy confinement in the device core is strongly coupled to the edge confinement for an unknown reason. The coupling time-scale is much shorter than the plasma transport time-scale. In order to understand this critical observation, a multi-scale turbulence-neoclassical simulation of integrated edge-core plasma in a realistic diverted geometry is a necessity, but has been a formidable task. Thanks to the recent development in high performance computing, we have succeeded in the integrated multiscale gyrokinetic simulation of the ion-temperature-gradient driven turbulence in realistic diverted tokamak geometry for the first time. It is found that modification of the self-organized criticality in the core plasma by nonlocal core-edge coupling of ITG turbulence can be responsible for the core-edge confinement coupling.

  10. Whole-volume integrated gyrokinetic simulation of plasma turbulence in realistic diverted-tokamak geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C. S.; Ku, S.; Diamond, P.; Adams, M.; Barreto, R.; Chen, Y.; Cummings, J.; D'Azevedo, E.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Ethier, S.; Greengard, L.; Hahm, T. S.; Hinton, F.; Keyes, D.; Klasky, S.; Lin, Z.; Lofstead, J.; Park, G.; Parker, S.; Podhorszki, N.; Schwan, K.; Shoshani, A.; Silver, D.; Wolf, M.; Worley, P.; Weitzner, H.; Yoon, E.; Zorin, D.

    2009-07-01

    Performance prediction for ITER is based upon the ubiquitous experimental observation that the plasma energy confinement in the device core is strongly coupled to the edge confinement for an unknown reason. The coupling time-scale is much shorter than the plasma transport time-scale. In order to understand this critical observation, a multi-scale turbulence-neoclassical simulation of integrated edge-core plasma in a realistic diverted geometry is a necessity, but has been a formidable task. Thanks to the recent development in high performance computing, we have succeeded in the integrated multiscale gyrokinetic simulation of the ion-temperature-gradient driven turbulence in realistic diverted tokamak geometry for the first time. It is found that modification of the self-organized criticality in the core plasma by nonlocal core-edge coupling of ITG turbulence can be responsible for the core-edge confinement coupling.

  11. Whole-volume integrated gyrokinetic simulation of plasma turbulence in realistic diverted-tokamak geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, C S [New York University; Ku, Seung-Hoe [New York University; Diamond, P. H. [University of California, San Diego; Adams, Mark [Columbia University; Tchoua, Roselyne B [ORNL; Chen, Yang [University of Colorado, Boulder; Cummings, J. [California Institute of Technology, University of California, Davis; D' Azevedo, Ed F [ORNL; Dif-Pradalier, Guilhem [University of California, San Diego; Ethier, Stephane [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Greengard, Leslie [New York University; Hahm, Taik Soo [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Hinton, Fred [University of California, San Diego; Keyes, David E [Columbia University; Klasky, Scott A [ORNL; Lin, Z. [University of California, Irvine; Lofstead, J. [Georgia Institute of Technology; Park, G. [New York University; Podhorszki, Norbert [ORNL; Schwan, Karsten [Georgia Institute of Technology; Shoshani, A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Silver, D. [Rutgers University; Wolf, M. [Georgia Institute of Technology; Worley, Patrick H [ORNL; Zorin, Denis [New York University

    2009-01-01

    Performance prediction for ITER is based upon the ubiquitous experimental observation that the plasma energy confinement in the device core is strongly coupled to the edge confinement for an unknown reason. The coupling time-scale is much shorter than the plasma transport time-scale. In order to understand this critical observation, a multi-scale turbulence-neoclassical simulation of integrated edge-core plasma in a realistic diverted geometry is a necessity, but has been a formidable task. Thanks to the recent development in high performance computing, we have succeeded in the integrated multiscale gyrokinetic simulation of the ion-temperature-gradient driven turbulence in realistic diverted tokamak geometry for the first time. It is found that modification of the self-organized criticality in the core plasma by nonlocal core-edge coupling of ITG turbulence can be responsible for the core-edge confinement coupling.

  12. Plasma volume expansion does not increase maximal cardiac output or VO2 max in lowlanders acclimatized to altitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calbet, José A L; Rådegran, Göran; Boushel, Robert Christopher

    2004-01-01

    With altitude acclimatization, blood hemoglobin concentration increases while plasma volume (PV) and maximal cardiac output (Qmax) decrease. This investigation aimed to determine whether reduction of Qmax at altitude is due to low circulating blood volume (BV). Eight Danish lowlanders (3 females, 5...... males: age 24.0 +/- 0.6 yr; mean +/- SE) performed submaximal and maximal exercise on a cycle ergometer after 9 wk at 5,260 m altitude (Mt. Chacaltaya, Bolivia). This was done first with BV resulting from acclimatization (BV = 5.40 +/- 0.39 liters) and again 2-4 days later, 1 h after PV expansion with 1...... level Qmax and exercise capacity were restored with hyperoxia at altitude independently of BV. Low BV is not a primary cause for reduction of Qmax at altitude when acclimatized. Furthermore, hemodilution caused by PV expansion at altitude is compensated for by increased systemic O2 extraction...

  13. Optimized conditions for primary culture of pituitary cells from the Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). The importance of osmolality, pCO₂, and pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodne, Kjetil; von Krogh, Kristine; Weltzien, Finn-Arne; Sand, Olav; Haug, Trude M

    2012-09-01

    Protocols for primary cultures of teleost cells are commonly only moderately adjusted from similar protocols for mammalian cells, the main adjustment often being of temperature. Because aquatic habitats are in general colder than mammalian body temperatures and teleosts have gills in direct contact with water, pH and buffer capacity of blood and extracellular fluid are different in fish and mammals. Plasma osmolality is generally higher in marine teleosts than in mammals. Using Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) as a model, we have optimized these physiological parameters to maintain primary pituitary cells in culture for an extended period without loosing key properties. L-15 medium with adjusted osmolality, adapted to low pCO(2) (3.8mm Hg) and temperature (12°C), and with pH 7.85, maintained the cells in a physiologically sounder state than traditional culture medium, significantly improving cell viability compared to the initial protocol. In the optimized culture medium, resting membrane potential and response to releasing hormone were stable for at least two weeks, and the proportion of cells firing action potentials during spawning season was about seven times higher than in the original culture medium. The cells were moderately more viable when the modified medium was supplemented with newborn calf serum or artificial serum substitute. Compared to serum-free L-15 medium, expression of key genes (lhb, fshb, and gnrhr2a) was better maintained in medium containing SSR, whereas NCS tended to decrease the expression level. Although serum-free medium is adequate for many applications, serum supplement may be preferable for experiments dependent on membrane integrity.

  14. Fatigue testing of plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coatings, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruse, T. A.; Nagy, A.; Popelar, C. F.

    1990-01-01

    A plasma sprayed thermal barrier coating for diesel engines were fatigue tested. Candidate thermal barrier coating materials were fatigue screened and a data base was generated for the selected candidate material. Specimen configurations are given for the bend fatigue tests, along with test setup, specimen preparation, test matrix and procedure, and data analysis.

  15. Fatigue testing of plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coatings, Volume 2. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruse, T.A.; Nagy, A.; Popelar, C.F.

    1990-07-01

    A plasma sprayed thermal barrier coating for diesel engines were fatigue tested. Candidate thermal barrier coating materials were fatigue screened and a data base was generated for the selected candidate material. Specimen configurations are given for the bend fatigue tests, along with test setup, specimen preparation, test matrix and procedure, and data analysis.

  16. Effect of radiologic contrast media on cell volume regulation in rabbit proximal renal tubules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galtung, H K; Løken, M; Sakariassen, K S

    2001-05-01

    Most radiographic contrast media are hyperosmotic and able to shrink cells with which they are in contact. The authors studied cell volume control in rabbit proximal renal tubules after incubation with three contrast media: iohexol, ioxaglate, and iodixanol. Proximal renal tubules were isolated from rabbit kidneys. The tubules were exposed to Ringer solutions containing 5% vol/vol iohexol (final osmolality, 330 mOsm), ioxaglate (323 mOsm), iodixanol (305 mOsm), or mannitol (control solutions with identical osmolalities), and tubule volumes were monitored. After 2 hours of incubation, the tubules were stimulated with a hyposmotic Ringer solution (165 mOsm). Three groups of 10 experiments were performed. All solutions induced cell shrinkage (8.3%+/-3.8 [standard error] to 15.4%+/-0.5), which was completely or partly reversible in most experiments (volume increase, 44.8%+/-14.7 to 149.9%+/-107.3) but not those with iohexol and iodixanol. With exposure to the hyposmotic solution, the cells swelled by 11.0%+/-1.8 to 39.7%+/-4.8. In general, the tubules that had been exposed to the most hyperosmotic solution swelled the most. Those exposed to contrast media showed less swelling than the mannitol-exposed controls. In all control experiments, the cells exhibited a gradual shrinkage (43.6%+/-28.5 to 87.0%+/-13). This regulatory response was partly inhibited in tubules exposed to iohexol (39.9%+/-15.8 shrinkage) or iodixanol (8.9%+/-15.8) and completely inhibited in those exposed to ioxaglate. Iohexol and ioxaglate exposure also led to a decrease in water permeability. Exposure to hyperosmotic contrast medium tends to induce prolonged cell shrinkage, decrease the water permeability of the cellular plasma membranes, and compromise the ability to regulate cellular volume. These changes seem to reflect both the hyperosmolality of the solutions and their inherent chemical properties.

  17. Dual effect of insulin on plasma volume and transcapillary albumin transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Christensen, N J

    1992-01-01

    During the past decade it has been demonstrated that insulin, apart from its effects on metabolism and ion fluxes, has acute effects on the cardiovascular system and capillary permeability. Intravenous infusion of insulin in doses which increase plasma insulin to physiological levels, induced vas...... in a normal transfer of macromolecules from the blood to the extracellular space after food intake. This process may be greatly disturbed in insulin-dependent diabetic patients....

  18. Effects of pH, temperature and osmolality on the level and composition of soluble N in feedstuffs for ruminants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, de L.H.; Spek, J.W.; Laar, van H.; Dijkstra, J.

    2009-01-01

    Solubility of N is an important parameter in many protein evaluation systems for ruminants. The influence of different rumen conditions, such as pH, osmolality and temperature of solvents, on solubility of N compounds in various animal feed ingredients was examined in two experiments. In the first e

  19. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI assessment of hyperemic fractional microvascular blood plasma volume in peripheral arterial disease: initial findings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bas Versluis

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of the current study was to describe a method that assesses the hyperemic microvascular blood plasma volume of the calf musculature. The reversibly albumin binding contrast agent gadofosveset was used in dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE MRI to assess the microvascular status in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD and healthy controls. In addition, the reproducibility of this method in healthy controls was determined. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten PAD patients with intermittent claudication and 10 healthy control subjects were included. Patients underwent contrast-enhanced MR angiography of the peripheral arteries, followed by one DCE MRI examination of the musculature of the calf. Healthy control subjects were examined twice on different days to determine normative values and the interreader and interscan reproducibility of the technique. The MRI protocol comprised dynamic imaging of contrast agent wash-in under reactive hyperemia conditions of the calf musculature. Using pharmacokinetic modeling the hyperemic fractional microvascular blood plasma volume (V(p, unit: % of the anterior tibial, gastrocnemius and soleus muscles was calculated. RESULTS: V(p was significantly lower for all muscle groups in PAD patients (4.3±1.6%, 5.0±3.3% and 6.1±3.6% for anterior tibial, gastrocnemius and soleus muscles, respectively compared to healthy control subjects (9.1±2.0%, 8.9±1.9% and 9.3±2.1%. Differences in V(p between muscle groups were not significant. The coefficient of variation of V(p varied from 10-14% and 11-16% at interscan and interreader level, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Using DCE MRI after contrast-enhanced MR angiography with gadofosveset enables reproducible assessment of hyperemic fractional microvascular blood plasma volume of the calf musculature. V(p was lower in PAD patients than in healthy controls, which reflects a promising functional (hemodynamic biomarker for the

  20. Osmolality and non-structural carbohydrate composition in the secondary phloem of trees across a latitudinal gradient in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eLintunen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Phloem osmolality and its components are involved in basic cell metabolism, cell growth, and in various physiological processes including the ability of living cells to withstand drought and frost. Osmolality and sugar composition responses to environmental stresses have been extensively studied for leaves, but less for the secondary phloem of plant stems and branches. Leaf osmotic concentration and the share of pinitol and raffinose among soluble sugars increase with increasing drought or cold stress, and osmotic concentration is adjusted with osmoregulation. We hypothesize that similar responses occur in the secondary phloem of branches. We collected living bark samples from branches of adult Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies, Betula pendula and Populus tremula trees across Europe, from boreal Northern Finland to Mediterranean Portugal. In all studied species, the observed variation in phloem osmolality was mainly driven by variation in phloem water content, while tissue solute content was rather constant across regions. Osmoregulation, in which osmolality is controlled by variable tissue solute content, was stronger for Betula and Populus in comparison to the evergreen conifers. Osmolality was lowest in mid-latitude region, and from there increased by 37% towards northern Europe and 38% towards southern Europe due to low phloem water content in these regions. The ratio of raffinose to all soluble sugars was negligible at mid-latitudes and increased towards north and south, reflecting its role in cold and drought tolerance. For pinitol, another sugar known for contributing to stress tolerance, no such latitudinal pattern was observed. The proportion of sucrose was remarkably low and that of hexoses (i.e. glucose and fructose high at mid-latitudes. The ratio of starch to all non-structural carbohydrates increased towards the northern latitudes in agreement with the build-up of osmotically inactive C reservoir that can be converted into soluble

  1. Osmolality and Non-Structural Carbohydrate Composition in the Secondary Phloem of Trees across a Latitudinal Gradient in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lintunen, Anna; Paljakka, Teemu; Jyske, Tuula; Peltoniemi, Mikko; Sterck, Frank; von Arx, Georg; Cochard, Hervé; Copini, Paul; Caldeira, Maria C.; Delzon, Sylvain; Gebauer, Roman; Grönlund, Leila; Kiorapostolou, Natasa; Lechthaler, Silvia; Lobo-do-Vale, Raquel; Peters, Richard L.; Petit, Giai; Prendin, Angela L.; Salmon, Yann; Steppe, Kathy; Urban, Josef; Roig Juan, Sílvia; Robert, Elisabeth M. R.; Hölttä, Teemu

    2016-01-01

    Phloem osmolality and its components are involved in basic cell metabolism, cell growth, and in various physiological processes including the ability of living cells to withstand drought and frost. Osmolality and sugar composition responses to environmental stresses have been extensively studied for leaves, but less for the secondary phloem of plant stems and branches. Leaf osmotic concentration and the share of pinitol and raffinose among soluble sugars increase with increasing drought or cold stress, and osmotic concentration is adjusted with osmoregulation. We hypothesize that similar responses occur in the secondary phloem of branches. We collected living bark samples from branches of adult Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies, Betula pendula and Populus tremula trees across Europe, from boreal Northern Finland to Mediterranean Portugal. In all studied species, the observed variation in phloem osmolality was mainly driven by variation in phloem water content, while tissue solute content was rather constant across regions. Osmoregulation, in which osmolality is controlled by variable tissue solute content, was stronger for Betula and Populus in comparison to the evergreen conifers. Osmolality was lowest in mid-latitude region, and from there increased by 37% toward northern Europe and 38% toward southern Europe due to low phloem water content in these regions. The ratio of raffinose to all soluble sugars was negligible at mid-latitudes and increased toward north and south, reflecting its role in cold and drought tolerance. For pinitol, another sugar known for contributing to stress tolerance, no such latitudinal pattern was observed. The proportion of sucrose was remarkably low and that of hexoses (i.e., glucose and fructose) high at mid-latitudes. The ratio of starch to all non-structural carbohydrates increased toward the northern latitudes in agreement with the build-up of osmotically inactive C reservoir that can be converted into soluble sugars during winter

  2. Osmolality and Non-Structural Carbohydrate Composition in the Secondary Phloem of Trees across a Latitudinal Gradient in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lintunen, Anna; Paljakka, Teemu; Jyske, Tuula; Peltoniemi, Mikko; Sterck, Frank; von Arx, Georg; Cochard, Hervé; Copini, Paul; Caldeira, Maria C; Delzon, Sylvain; Gebauer, Roman; Grönlund, Leila; Kiorapostolou, Natasa; Lechthaler, Silvia; Lobo-do-Vale, Raquel; Peters, Richard L; Petit, Giai; Prendin, Angela L; Salmon, Yann; Steppe, Kathy; Urban, Josef; Roig Juan, Sílvia; Robert, Elisabeth M R; Hölttä, Teemu

    2016-01-01

    Phloem osmolality and its components are involved in basic cell metabolism, cell growth, and in various physiological processes including the ability of living cells to withstand drought and frost. Osmolality and sugar composition responses to environmental stresses have been extensively studied for leaves, but less for the secondary phloem of plant stems and branches. Leaf osmotic concentration and the share of pinitol and raffinose among soluble sugars increase with increasing drought or cold stress, and osmotic concentration is adjusted with osmoregulation. We hypothesize that similar responses occur in the secondary phloem of branches. We collected living bark samples from branches of adult Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies, Betula pendula and Populus tremula trees across Europe, from boreal Northern Finland to Mediterranean Portugal. In all studied species, the observed variation in phloem osmolality was mainly driven by variation in phloem water content, while tissue solute content was rather constant across regions. Osmoregulation, in which osmolality is controlled by variable tissue solute content, was stronger for Betula and Populus in comparison to the evergreen conifers. Osmolality was lowest in mid-latitude region, and from there increased by 37% toward northern Europe and 38% toward southern Europe due to low phloem water content in these regions. The ratio of raffinose to all soluble sugars was negligible at mid-latitudes and increased toward north and south, reflecting its role in cold and drought tolerance. For pinitol, another sugar known for contributing to stress tolerance, no such latitudinal pattern was observed. The proportion of sucrose was remarkably low and that of hexoses (i.e., glucose and fructose) high at mid-latitudes. The ratio of starch to all non-structural carbohydrates increased toward the northern latitudes in agreement with the build-up of osmotically inactive C reservoir that can be converted into soluble sugars during winter

  3. The impact of maternal plasma volume expansion and antihypertensive treatment with intravenous dihydralazine on fetal and maternal hemodynamics during pre-eclampsia: a clinical, echo-Doppler and viscometric study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boito, S.M.; Struijk, P.C.; Pop, G.A.M.; Visser, W. de; Steegers, E.A.P.; Wladimiroff, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To establish the effects of plasma volume expansion (PVE) followed by intravenous dihydralazine (DH) administration on maternal whole blood viscosity (WBV) and hematocrit, uteroplacental and fetoplacental downstream impedance and umbilical venous (UV) volume flow in pre-eclampsia. METHOD

  4. Effect of High-Volume Injection, Platelet-Rich Plasma, and Sham Treatment in Chronic Midportion Achilles Tendinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, Anders Ploug; Hansen, Rudi; Boesen, Morten Ilum

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Injection therapies are often considered alongside exercise for chronic midportion Achilles tendinopathy (AT), although evidence of their efficacy is sparse. PURPOSE: To determine whether eccentric training in combination with high-volume injection (HVI) or platelet-rich plasma (PRP...... with eccentric training in chronic AT seems more effective in reducing pain, improving activity level, and reducing tendon thickness and intratendinous vascularity than eccentric training alone. HVI may be more effective in improving outcomes of chronic AT than PRP in the short term. Registration: NCT02417987......) injections improves outcomes in AT. STUDY DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1. METHODS: A total of 60 men (age, 18-59 years) with chronic (>3 months) AT were included and followed for 6 months (n = 57). All participants performed eccentric training combined with either (1) one HVI...

  5. Finite Volume schemes on unstructured grids for non-local models: Application to the simulation of heat transport in plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goudon, Thierry, E-mail: thierry.goudon@inria.fr [Team COFFEE, INRIA Sophia Antipolis Mediterranee (France); Labo. J.A. Dieudonne CNRS and Univ. Nice-Sophia Antipolis (UMR 7351), Parc Valrose, 06108 Nice cedex 02 (France); Parisot, Martin, E-mail: martin.parisot@gmail.com [Project-Team SIMPAF, INRIA Lille Nord Europe, Park Plazza, 40 avenue Halley, F-59650 Villeneuve d' Ascq cedex (France)

    2012-10-15

    In the so-called Spitzer-Haerm regime, equations of plasma physics reduce to a nonlinear parabolic equation for the electronic temperature. Coming back to the derivation of this limiting equation through hydrodynamic regime arguments, one is led to construct a hierarchy of models where the heat fluxes are defined through a non-local relation which can be reinterpreted as well by introducing coupled diffusion equations. We address the question of designing numerical methods to simulate these equations. The basic requirement for the scheme is to be asymptotically consistent with the Spitzer-Haerm regime. Furthermore, the constraints of physically realistic simulations make the use of unstructured meshes unavoidable. We develop a Finite Volume scheme, based on Vertex-Based discretization, which reaches these objectives. We discuss on numerical grounds the efficiency of the method, and the ability of the generalized models in capturing relevant phenomena missed by the asymptotic problem.

  6. Renal responses to plasma volume expansion and hyperosmolality in fasting seal pups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Rudy M.; Wade, Charles E.; Costa, Daniel P.; Ortiz, C. Leo

    2002-01-01

    Renal responses were quantified in northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris) pups during their postweaning fast to examine their excretory capabilities. Pups were infused with either isotonic (0.9%; n = 8; Iso) or hypertonic (16.7%; n = 7; Hyper) saline via an indwelling catheter such that each pup received 3 mmol NaCl/kg. Diuresis after the infusions was similar in magnitude between the two treatments. Osmotic clearance increased by 37% in Iso and 252% in Hyper. Free water clearance was reduced 3.4-fold in Hyper but was not significantly altered in Iso. Glomerular filtration rate increased 71% in the 24-h period after Hyper, but no net change occurred during the same time after Iso. Natriuresis increased 3.6-fold in Iso and 5.3-fold in Hyper. Iso decreased plasma arginine vasopressin (AVP) and cortisol acutely, whereas Hyper increased plasma and excreted AVP and cortisol. Iso was accompanied by the retention of water and electrolytes, whereas the Hyper load was excreted within 24 h. Natriuresis is attributed to increased filtration and is independent of an increase in atrial natriuretic peptide and decreases in ANG II and aldosterone. Fasting pups appear to have well-developed kidneys capable of both extreme conservation and excretion of Na(+).

  7. Plasma volume expansion does not increase maximal cardiac output or VO2 max in lowlanders acclimatized to altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calbet, José A L; Rådegran, Göran; Boushel, Robert; Søndergaard, Hans; Saltin, Bengt; Wagner, Peter D

    2004-09-01

    With altitude acclimatization, blood hemoglobin concentration increases while plasma volume (PV) and maximal cardiac output (Qmax) decrease. This investigation aimed to determine whether reduction of Qmax at altitude is due to low circulating blood volume (BV). Eight Danish lowlanders (3 females, 5 males: age 24.0 +/- 0.6 yr; mean +/- SE) performed submaximal and maximal exercise on a cycle ergometer after 9 wk at 5,260 m altitude (Mt. Chacaltaya, Bolivia). This was done first with BV resulting from acclimatization (BV = 5.40 +/- 0.39 liters) and again 2-4 days later, 1 h after PV expansion with 1 liter of 6% dextran 70 (BV = 6.32 +/- 0.34 liters). PV expansion had no effect on Qmax, maximal O2 consumption (VO2), and exercise capacity. Despite maximal systemic O2 transport being reduced 19% due to hemodilution after PV expansion, whole body VO2 was maintained by greater systemic O2 extraction (P VO2 during exercise regardless of PV. Pulmonary ventilation, gas exchange, and acid-base balance were essentially unaffected by PV expansion. Sea level Qmax and exercise capacity were restored with hyperoxia at altitude independently of BV. Low BV is not a primary cause for reduction of Qmax at altitude when acclimatized. Furthermore, hemodilution caused by PV expansion at altitude is compensated for by increased systemic O2 extraction with similar peak muscular O2 delivery, such that maximal exercise capacity is unaffected.

  8. Design aspects of a compact, single-frequency, permanent magnet ECR ion source with a large uniformly distributed resonant plasma volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Y.; Alton, G.D.; Mills, G.D.; Reed, C.A.; Haynes, D.L.

    1997-09-01

    A compact, all-permanent-magnet single-frequency ECR ion source with a large uniformly distributed ECR plasma volume has been designed and is presently under construction at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The central region of the field is designed to achieve a flat-field (constant mod-B) which extends over the length of the central field region along the axis of symmetry and radially outward to form a uniformly distributed ECR plasma volume. The magnetic field design strongly contrasts with those used in conventional ECR ion sources where the central field regions are approximately parabolic and the consequent ECR zones are surfaces. The plasma confinement magnetic field mirror has a mirror ratio B{sub max}/B{sub ECR} of slightly greater than two. The source is designed to operate at a nominal RF frequency of 6 GHz. The central flat magnetic field region can be easily adjusted by mechanical means to tune the source to the resonant conditions within the limits of 5.5 to 6.8 GHz. The RF injection system is broadband to ensure excitation of transverse electric (TE) modes so that the RF power is largely concentrated in the resonant plasma volume which lies along and surrounds the axis of symmetry of the source. Because of the much larger ECR zone, the probability for absorption of microwave power is dramatically increased thereby increasing the probability for acceleration of electrons, the electron temperature of the plasma and, consequently, the hot electron population within the plasma volume of the source. The creation of an ECR volume rather than a surface is commensurate with higher charge states and higher beam intensities within a particular charge state.

  9. Early high-sodium solid diet does not affect sodium intake, sodium preference, blood volume and blood pressure in adult Wistar-Kyoto rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ufnal, Marcin; Drapala, Adrian; Sikora, Mariusz; Zera, Tymoteusz

    2011-07-01

    A high-Na diet may lead to the development of hypertension in both humans and rats; however, the causes of Na intake in amounts greater than physiologically needed as well as the mechanisms whereby high-Na food elevates blood pressure are not clear. Therefore, we decided to test the hypothesis that a high-Na diet introduced after suckling affects Na intake, food preference, resting blood pressure and blood volume in adult rats. Male Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, 4 weeks old, were divided into three groups and placed on either a high-Na (3.28%), a medium-Na (0.82%) or a regular diet (0.22%) with the same energy content for 8 weeks. Subsequently, food preference, resting arterial blood pressure, blood volume, plasma osmolality and Na blood level were evaluated. When offered a choice of diets, all the groups preferred the regular chow, and there was no significant difference in total Na intake between the groups. When the rats experienced the change from their initial chow to a new one with different Na content, they continued to eat the same amount of food. Body weight, resting arterial blood pressure, blood volume, plasma osmolality and Na blood level were comparable between the groups. In conclusion, the results show that a high-Na diet introduced immediately after suckling does not affect Na preference and Na intake in adult WKY rats. Furthermore, the findings provide evidence that both blood volume and arterial blood pressure are highly protected in normotensive rats on a high-Na diet.

  10. Whole-body volume regulation and escape from antidiuresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbalis, Joseph G

    2006-07-01

    Both individual cells and organs regulate their volume in response to sustained hypo-osmolality via solute and water losses. Similar processes occur in the whole body to regulate the volumes of extracellular fluid (ECF) and intravascular spaces toward normal levels. Body water losses occur via the phenomena "escape from antidiuresis"; solute losses occur through the secondary natriuresis induced by water retention. As a result of resistance to arginine vasopressin (AVP) signaling, escape from antidiuresis is caused by downregulation of kidney aquaporin-2 expression despite high AVP plasma levels. Recent data have implicated downregulation of vasopressin V2R as a potential mechanism of resistance, and suggest that this may be a result of decreased intrarenal angiotensin II signaling in combination with increased intrarenal nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 signaling. The natriuresis that results in volume regulation of the ECF and vascular spaces is the result of intrarenal hemodynamic changes produced by volume expansion, but the degree to which these effects are modulated by aldosterone secretion and the activity of distal sodium cotransporters and channels remains to be elucidated. The clinical implication of these volume-regulatory processes is that the chronic hyponatremic state is one of water retention and solute losses from intracellular fluid and ECF compartments. The degree to which solute losses versus water retention contribute to hyponatremia will vary in association with many factors, including the etiology of the hyponatremia, the rapidity of development of the hyponatremia, the chronicity of the hyponatremia, the volume of daily water loading, and individual variability. Understanding these volume-regulatory processes allows a better understanding of many aspects of the conundrum of patients with "clinical euvolemia" and dilutional hyponatremia from AVP-induced water retention.

  11. Characterization of hybridoma cell responses to elevated pCO(2) and osmolality: intracellular pH, cell size, apoptosis, and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    deZengotita, Vivian M; Schmelzer, Albert E; Miller, William M

    2002-02-15

    CO(2) partial pressure (pCO(2)) in industrial cell culture reactors may reach 150-200 mm Hg, which can significantly inhibit cell growth and recombinant protein production. The inhibitory effects of elevated pCO(2) at constant pH are due to a combination of the increases in pCO(2) and [HCO(-) (3)], per se, and the associated increase in osmolality. To decouple the effects of pCO(2) and osmolality, low-salt basal media have been used to compensate for this associated increase in osmolality. Under control conditions (40 mm Hg-320 mOsm/kg), hybridoma cell growth and metabolism was similar in DMEM:F12 with 2% fetal bovine serum and serum-free HB GRO. In both media, pCO(2) and osmolality made dose-dependent contributions to the inhibition of hybridoma cell growth and synergized to more extensively inhibit growth when combined. Elevated osmolality was associated with increased apoptosis. In contrast, elevated pCO(2) did not increase apoptotic cell death. Specific antibody production also increased with osmolality although not with pCO(2). In an effort to understand the mechanisms through which elevated pCO(2) and osmolality affect hybridoma cells, glucose metabolism, glutamine metabolism, intracellular pH (pHi), and cell size were monitored in batch cultures. Elevated pCO(2) (with or without osmolality compensation) inhibited glycolysis in a dose-dependent fashion in both media. Osmolality had little effect on glycolysis. On the other hand, elevated pCO(2) alone had no effect on glutamine metabolism, whereas elevated osmolality increased glutamine uptake. Hybridoma mean pHi was approximately 0.2 pH units lower than control at 140 mm Hg pCO(2) (with or without osmolality compensation) but further increases in pCO(2) did not further decrease pHi. Osmolality had little effect on pHi. Cell size was smaller than control at elevated pCO(2) at 320 mOsm/kg, and greater than control in hyperosmotic conditions at 40 mm Hg.

  12. Measurement of the ratio of glomerular filtration rate to plasma volume from the technetium-99m diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid renogram: comparison with glomerular filtration rate in relation to extracellular fluid volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, A.M. (Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Hammersmith Hospital, London (United Kingdom)); Allison, H. (Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Hammersmith Hospital, London (United Kingdom)); Ussov, W.Yu. (Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Hammersmith Hospital, London (United Kingdom))

    1994-04-01

    We describe a technique which does not require a blood sample, is already normalised for plasma volume and uses the robust Patlak plot for measuring renal uptake. The rate of kidney uptake, dR(t)/dt, at time = 0, as a fraction of the injected dose, is equal to the fraction of the plasma volume (PV) filtered per minute, i.e. IKGFR/PV. The gradient dR(0)/dt cannot be accurately measured directly but is equal to [[alpha] . LV(0)], where [alpha] is the renal uptake constant (proportional to IKGFR) and LV is the count rate over a left ventricular ROI. LV(0) was obtained by extrapolation of LV(t), while [alpha] is the slope of the Patlak plot up to 3 min. GFR/PV (i.e. right plus left kidneys) in patients with normal renal function was about 0.04 min[sup -1], as would be expected from normal values of GFR (120 ml/min) and plasma volume (3 l). GFR/PV correlated significantly with the ratio of GFR to extracellular fluid volume (ECV), measured from the terminal exponential of the plasma clearance curve (GFR/PV = 3.2.GFR/ECV + 5.3 ml/min/l [r = 0.82, n = 82]). GFR/PV (r = 0.74) and GFR/ECV (r = 0.82) both correlated inversely and non-linearly with plasma creatinine in 43 studies where the measurement was made within 1 week of the [sup 99m]Tc-DTPA study. They also correlated significantly with the plasma cyclosporin trough level in 14 patients with dermatomyositis on the 30 occasions when this measurement was made within 1 week of the renogram (r = -0.38, P < 0.05 for GFR/PV and r = -0.77, P < 0.001 for GFR/ECV). The ratio of GFR/PV to GFR/ECV is the ratio of extracellular fluid volume to plasma volume, and this was 4.0 (SD 0.99). We conclude that both GFR/PV and GFR/ECV can be easily measured with [sup 99m]Tc-DTPA and are physiologically valid expressions of GFR. (orig./MG)

  13. Effects of oral powder electrolyte administration on packed cell volume, plasma chemistry parameters, and incidence of colic in horses participating in a 6-day 162-km trail ride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Wade T; Callan, Robert J; Hill, Ashley E; Tisher, Kelly B

    2014-08-01

    This study evaluated the effects of administering oral powder electrolytes on packed cell volume (PCV), plasma chemistry parameters, and incidence of colic in horses participating on a 6-day 162-km trail ride in which water was not offered ad libitum. Twenty-three horses received grain with powder electrolytes daily while 19 control horses received grain only. Horses were ridden approximately 32 km a day at a walk or trot. Packed cell volume and plasma chemistry parameters were analyzed daily. Episodes of colic were diagnosed and treated by a veterinarian unaware of treatment group allocation. Blood parameters and incidence of colic were compared between treatment groups. Electrolyte administration did not alter PCV or plasma chemistry parameters compared to controls. The incidence of colic was significantly higher in treated horses (P = 0.05). Oral powder electrolytes did not enhance hydration status or electrolyte homeostasis and may be associated with colic in horses participating on long distance trail rides similar to this model.

  14. ECG changes during cerebral angiography; A comparison of low osmolality contrast media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitsumori, Michihide; Abe, Mitsuyuki (Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine); Hayakawa, Katsumi (Kyoto City Hospital (Japan). Department of Radiology)

    334 electrocardiographic recordings obtained from 109 patients who underwent cerebral angiography with low osmolality contrast media (CM) were analysed. CM used in this study included meglumine sodium ioxaglate, iopamidol and iohexol. A tachycardial effect greater than 10 percent was seen in 8.3 percent of the recordings, while a bradycardial effect greater than 10 percent was seen in 11.1 percent. Assessment was based on the type of CM used, age of the patients, usage of atropine sulfate as premedication, and the vessel injected. Patients who were under 19 years of age, and unpremedicated had a significantly higher incidence of bradycardia. On the other hand, there was no significant difference of the incidence of electrocardiographic abnormality between the 3 CM, and between the 2 injected vessel groups. The authors have also analysed the incidence of generalized adverse effect. There was no serious complication, however, 11.9 percent of the patients who under-went cerebral angiography with ioxaglate developed urticaria and this was significantly higher than in the other 2 CM groups. (author). 17 refs.; 9 tabs.

  15. Taking alcohol with a (large) pinch of salt: Understanding the osmoles in "beer potomania" and "starvation potomania".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imam, T H

    2014-07-01

    Alcoholism is a major problem globally and beer drinking is on the rise. Many of the alcoholics sustain only on beer for days and do not get adequate solutes in the form of food. Similar situation can arise in cases of decreased food intake due to severe deliberate restriction or other factors like decreased appetite from cocaine. In these cases, salt free liquid intake may still be adequate. Such situations are conducive to the development of hyponatremia. Some of the solutes in diet, such as salt and protein, act as osmoles in urine. In these conditions, understanding the role played by solutes in diet and osmoles in urine is of vital importance for appropriate treatment of hyponatremia.

  16. Placental Underperfusion in a Rat Model of Intrauterine Growth Restriction Induced by a Reduced Plasma Volume Expansion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Bibeau

    Full Text Available Lower maternal plasma volume expansion was found in idiopathic intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR but the link remains to be elucidated. An animal model of IUGR was developed by giving a low-sodium diet to rats over the last week of gestation. This treatment prevents full expansion of maternal circulating volume and the increase in uterine artery diameter, leading to reduced placental weight compared to normal gestation. We aimed to verify whether this is associated with reduced remodeling of uteroplacental circulation and placental hypoxia. Dams were divided into two groups: IUGR group and normal-fed controls. Blood velocity waveforms in the main uterine artery were obtained by Doppler sonography on days 14, 18 and 21 of pregnancy. On day 22 (term = 23 days, rats were sacrificed and placentas and uterine radial arteries were collected. Diameter and myogenic response of uterine arteries supplying placentas were determined while expression of hypoxia-modulated genes (HIF-1α, VEGFA and VEGFR2, apoptotic enzyme (Caspase -3 and -9 and glycogen cells clusters were measured in control and IUGR term-placentas. In the IUGR group, impaired blood velocity in the main uterine artery along with increased resistance index was observed without alteration in umbilical artery blood velocity. Radial uterine artery diameter was reduced while myogenic response was increased. IUGR placentas displayed increased expression of hypoxia markers without change in the caspases and increased glycogen cells in the junctional zone. The present data suggest that reduced placental and fetal growth in our IUGR model may be mediated, in part, through reduced maternal uteroplacental blood flow and increased placental hypoxia.

  17. Critical role of quorum sensing-dependent glutamate metabolism in homeostatic osmolality and outer membrane vesiculation in Burkholderia glumae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yongsung; Goo, Eunhye; Kim, Jinwoo; Hwang, Ingyu

    2017-01-01

    Metabolic homeostasis in cooperative bacteria is achieved by modulating primary metabolism in a quorum sensing (QS)-dependent manner. A perturbed metabolism in QS mutants causes physiological stress in the rice bacterial pathogen Burkholderia glumae. Here, we show that increased bacterial osmolality in B. glumae is caused by unusually high cellular concentrations of glutamate and betaine generated by QS deficiencies. QS negatively controls glutamate uptake and the expression of genes involved in the glutamine synthetase and glutamine oxoglutarate aminotransferase cycles. Thus, cellular glutamate levels were significantly higher in the QS mutants than in the wild type, and they caused hyperosmotic cellular conditions. Under the hypotonic conditions of the periplasm in the QS mutants, outer membrane bulging and vesiculation were observed, although these changes were rescued by knocking out the gltI gene, which encodes a glutamate transporter. Outer membrane modifications were not detected in the wild type. These results suggest that QS-dependent glutamate metabolism is critical for homeostatic osmolality. We suggest that outer membrane bulging and vesiculation might be the outcome of a physiological adaptation to relieve hypotonic osmotic stress in QS mutants. Our findings reveal how QS functions to maintain bacterial osmolality in a cooperative population. PMID:28272446

  18. Emission characteristics and electron kinetic coefficients of the plasma of a transverse volume discharge initiated in a mixture of heavy inert gases with chlorine molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuaibov, A. K.; Chygin, V. I.; Shimon, L. L.; Shevera, I. V.; Gorun, P. P.; Obukhovskii, R. O.

    2010-05-01

    The results of studying the radiation due to argon, krypton, and xenon monochloride bands, as well as to the bands of chlorine molecules, from the plasma of a transverse Ar-Kr-Xe-Cl2 volume discharge are reported. The working mixture of a pulse radiation source is optimized with regard to its pressure and elemental composition and parameters of an excitation system. By numerically solving the Boltzmann kinetic equation for the electron energy distribution function, the transport characteristics of plasma electrons and discharge power specific losses are found for different values of the reduced electric field strength. The plasma parameters are simulated for the quaternary mixture, which is most appropriate for a multiwave UV-VUV source. Qualitative analysis is conducted for the most important electron processes in the multicomponent plasma that govern the joint formation of argon, krypton, and xenon monochlorides in the transverse discharge.

  19. Emission characteristics of plasma of a transverse volume discharge in mixtures of helium, argon, and krypton with sulfur hexafluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuaibov, A. K.; Shevera, I. V.; Sabov, I. I.; Gomoki, Z. T.

    2007-03-01

    The emission characteristics of the plasma of repetitively pulsed spontaneous UV-VUV radiation sources on the basis of ArF* (193 nm) and KrF* (249 nm) molecules, and the products of decomposition of sulfur hexafluoride molecules pumped by a transverse volume discharge in a mixture of inert gases with sulfur hexafluoride molecules have been investigated. The discharge emission spectra in the range of 190 780 nm at the low-current and high-current stages of the transverse discharge, the time characteristics of the voltage across the electrodes, the pump current, and the emission of excimer molecules and the products of decomposition of sulfur hexafluoride have been studied. It is shown that, in the gas-static operation mode of the radiator at the number of discharge pulses smaller than 103, the 193-nm ArF* and 249-nm KrF* bands are main in the emission spectrum. Upon further operation of the radiator, a spectral continuum is formed on the basis of sulfur molecular bands in the range 260 550 nm.

  20. Effect of the sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor canagliflozin on plasma volume in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, S; Polidori, D; Heise, T; Natarajan, J; Farrell, K; Wang, S-S; Sica, D; Rothenberg, P; Plum-Mörschel, L

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate the effects of canagliflozin on plasma volume, urinary glucose excretion (UGE), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and additional measures of fluid/electrolyte balance in patients with type 2 diabetes on background therapy with metformin and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers. Patients (N = 36) were randomized (1:1) to receive canagliflozin 300 mg or placebo for 12 weeks. Pharmacodynamic parameters were assessed at baseline and at weeks 1 and 12. Increased 24-h UGE was seen in the canagliflozin group compared with a reduction in the placebo group at both week 1 (91.8 vs. -2.4 g) and week 12 (82.6 vs. -0.4 g). Canagliflozin also reduced both FPG and HbA1c. Reductions in body weight and blood pressure were observed at weeks 1 and 12. Canagliflozin decreased plasma volume compared with an increase with placebo at week 1 (-5.4 vs. 4.3%; p = 0.02), but this was largely attenuated at week 12 (4.6 vs. 5.8%; p = 0.76). A modest numerical increase in urine volume was observed with canagliflozin at week 1 that was attenuated at week 12; other measures of volume status (i.e. blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine and haematocrit) remained modestly increased with canagliflozin at week 12. Canagliflozin provided sustained effects on UGE and FPG over 12 weeks and a transient reduction in plasma volume that was largely attenuated by week 12. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Comparison of low osmolality ionic (ioxaglate) versus nonionic (iopamidol) contrast media in cardiac angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisneski, J A; Gertz, E W; Dahlgren, M; Muslin, A

    1989-02-15

    A double-blind randomized study was performed in 60 patients to compare the electrocardiographic and hemodynamic changes induced during cardiac angiography by 2 contrast media with relatively low osmolality. Ioxaglate meglumine sodium, an ionic dimer contrast medium, was compared with iopamidol, a nonionic compound. Of the 30 patients who received ioxaglate, 13 (43%) experienced a mild to moderate adverse reaction to the contrast media, while only 2 of the 30 patients (7%) in the iopamidol group had similar side effects (p less than 0.005). Significant prolongations of the QT intervals occurred with the ioxaglate injections. The QT intervals increased from 402 +/- 46 to 442 +/- 59 ms (p less than 0.001) with the right coronary artery injection and similar changes were observed after the left coronary artery injection and left ventriculography. Significant ST-segment and T-wave amplitude changes also occurred in the ioxaglate group. With iopamidol injections, there were no significant changes in any of these parameters. After the left ventriculogram, there were similar decreases in the systolic arterial pressures in both groups (-14 +/- 10 mm Hg with ioxaglate and -21 +/- 9 mm Hg with iopamidol). The left ventricular end-diastolic pressures increased after the ventriculogram in both groups (5 +/- 5 vs 2 +/- 3 mm Hg with ioxaglate and iopamidol, respectively, 60 seconds after the injection). This report demonstrates that mild to moderate adverse reactions, QT-interval prolongations, ST and T-wave changes were significantly greater during coronary angiography with ioxaglate when compared with iopamidol.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Extreme Variation of Nutritional Composition and Osmolality of Commercially Available Carbohydrate Energy Gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuguang; O'Kennedy, Niamh; Morton, James P

    2015-10-01

    The provision of exogenous carbohydrate (CHO) in the form of energy gels is regularly practiced among endurance and team sport athletes. However, in those instances where athletes ingest suboptimal fluid intake, consuming gels during exercise may lead to gastrointestinal (GI) problems when the nutritional composition of the gel is not aligned with promoting gastric emptying. Accordingly, the aim of the current study was to quantify the degree of diversity in nutritional composition of commercially available CHO gels intended for use in the global sports nutrition market. We surveyed 31 product ranges (incorporating 51 flavor variants) from 23 brands (Accelerade, CNP, High5, GU, Hammer, Maxim, Clif, USN, Mule, Multipower, Nectar, Carb- Boom, Power Bar, Lucozade, Shotz, TORQ, Dextro, Kinetica, SiS, Zipvit, Maxifuel, Gatorade and Squeezy). Gels differed markedly in serving size (50 ± 22 g: 29-120), energy density (2.34 ± 0.7 kcal/g: 0.83-3.40), energy content (105 ± 24 kcal: 78-204), CHO content (26 ± 6 g: 18-51) and free sugar content (9.3 ± 7.0 g: 0.6-26.8). Most notably, gels displayed extreme variation in osmolality (4424 ± 2883 mmol/kg: 303-10,135) thereby having obvious implications for both GI discomfort and the total fluid intake likely required to optimize CHO delivery and oxidation. The large diversity of nutritional composition of commercially available CHO gels illustrate that not all gels should be considered the same. Sports nutrition practitioners should therefore consider the aforementioned variables to make better-informed decisions regarding which gel product best suits the athlete's specific fueling and hydration requirements.

  3. Arterial enhancement at abdominal CT angiography: Low- versus high-osmolality contrast media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouviere, O.; Berger, P.; Pangaud, C.; Lyonnet, D. [Hopital E. Herriot, Lyon (France). Dept. of Vascular and Genitourinary Radiology; Ecochard, R. [Hospices Civils de Lyon (France). Dept of Biostatistics; Fontaine, B. [Laboratoire Guerbet, Roissy (France)

    2000-09-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effects of contrast media pharmokinetic differences on aortic enhancement at abdominal CT angiography and to determine whether these effects are of clinical relevance. Material and Methods: Two hundred and twelve patients referred for abdominal CT angiography were included in the study. All abdominal CT angiograms were performed with the same parameters (collimation 3 mm, pitch ratio 1.7, scan delay 30 s) after i.v. injection of 120 ml of contrast medium at 3 ml/s. After randomization, patients received either iobitridol 300 (low-osmolar, 300 mg I/ml), iobitridol 350 (low-osmolar, 350 mg I/ml) or ioxithalamate 350 (high-osmolar, 350 mg I/ml). The time attenuation curves obtained with the three contrast media were compared. Results: The time attenuation curve obtained with ioxithalamate 350 was not parallel to those obtained with iobitridol 300 and iobitridol 350. Mean peak enhancements obtained with iobitridol 350 and ioxithalamate 350 were not significantly different but iobitridol 350 provided higher mean peak enhancement than iobitridol 300. Mean delays of the peak enhancements were the same with the three contrast media. After peak enhancement, the decrease of aortic opacification under a selected threshold of 200 HU was significantly slower with iobitridol 350 than with iobitridol 300 and ioxithalamate 350, whereas iobitridol 300 and ioxithalamate 350 showed no significant differences. Conclusion: For a given iodine concentration, low-osmolality contrast media provide longer aortic opacification and may be recommended for CT angiography when long acquisition times are needed.

  4. Expansion of extracellular volume in early polycystic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielsen, H; Pedersen, E B; Nielsen, A H; Herlevsen, P; Kornerup, H J; Posborg, V

    1986-01-01

    Blood volume (BV), extracellular volume (ECV), blood pressure (BP), creatinine clearance (CCr), plasma levels of angiotensin II (AII), aldosterone (Aldo) and arginine vasopressin (AVP), and serum osmolality (Sosm) were determined in 18 patients with adult polycystic kidney disease, 8 normotensive (group I), 10 hypertensive (group II), and in 11 control subjects (group III). ECV but not BV was increased in group I compared with group III, whereas BV and ECV did not differ significantly between groups II and III. In group II, Aldo and AVP were increased and AII tended to be increased, while in group I the hormone levels did not differ significantly from those in group III. Sosm did not differ significantly between the groups. In the combined patient group, CCr correlated positively with BV and ECV and negatively with BP. In the patients, AII and AVP were positively correlated with BP but not with CCr. The results suggest that both the renin-angiotensin system and AVP might be involved in the BP elevation, whereas expansion of ECV can be found without an increase in BP.

  5. Changes in the electro-physical properties of MCT epitaxial films affected by a plasma volume discharge induced by an avalanche beam in atmospheric-pressure air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoryev, D. V.; Voitsekhovskii, A. V.; Lozovoy, K. A.; Tarasenko, V. F.; Shulepov, M. A.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper the influence of the plasma volume discharge of nanosecond duration formed in a non-uniform electric field at atmospheric pressure on samples of epitaxial films HgCdTe (MCT) films are discussed. The experimental data show that the action of pulses of nanosecond volume discharge in air at atmospheric pressure leads to changes in the electrophysical properties of MCT epitaxial films due to formation of a near-surface high- conductivity layer of the n-type conduction. The preliminary results show that it is possible to use such actions in the development of technologies for the controlled change of the properties of MCT.

  6. The Effect of Ramadan Fasting and Weight-Lifting Training on Plasma Volume, Glucose and Lipids Profile of Male Weight-Lifters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Morteza Tayebi

    Full Text Available Objective(sThe purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Ramadan fasting and weight-lifting training on plasma volume, glucose, and lipids profile of male weight-lifter.Materials and MethodsForty male weight-lifters were recruited and divided into 4 groups (n=10 each and as the following groups: control (C, fasting (F, training (T and fasting-training (F-T. The T and F-T groups performed weight-lifting technique trainings and hypertrophy body building (3 sessions/week, 90 min/session. All subjects were asked to complete a medical examination as well as a medical questionnaire to ensure that they were not taking any medication, were free of cardiac, respiratory, renal, and metabolic diseases, and were not using steroids. Blood samples were taken at 24 hr before and 24 hr after one month of fasting and weight-lifting exercise. The plasma volume, fasting blood sugar (FBS, lipid profiles, and lipoproteins were analyzed in blood samples. ResultsBody weight and plasma volume showed significant (P< 0.05 decrease and increase in the F group (P< 0.05 respectively. Also, a significant reduction was observed in F-T group body weight (P< 0.01. A significant increase was found in FBS level of F group (P< 0.05. The lipid profiles and lipoproteins didn’t change significantly in C, F, T and the F-T groups.ConclusionThe effect of Ramadan fasting on body weight and plasma volumes may be closely related to the nutritional diet or biochemical response to fasting.

  7. Colorimetric determinations of lithium levels in drop-volumes of human plasma for monitoring patients with bipolar mood disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qassem, M; Hickey, M; Kyriacou, P A

    2016-08-01

    Lithium preparations are considered the most reliable form of mood stabilizing medication for patients with Bipolar disorder. Nevertheless, lithium is a toxic element and its therapeutic range is extremely narrow, with levels of 0.61.0 mEq considered normal, whereas levels above 1.5 mEq are toxic. Thus unfortunately, many patients reach toxic levels that lead to unnecessary complications. It is believed that personal monitoring of blood lithium levels would benefit patients taking lithium medication. Therefore, our aim is to develop a personal lithium blood level analyzer for patients with bipolar mood disorder, and we report here our initial results of a colorimetric-based method used to test drop-volumes of human plasma that had been spiked with lithium. It was possible to validate results with standard flame photometry readings. Applying the Partial Least Squares (PLS) method on preprocessed spectra, therapeutic concentrations of lithium in a single drop can be predicted in a rapid manner, and furthermore, the calibration results were used to select effective wavelengths which were employed as inputs in Multiple Linear Regression (MLR). The simplified algorithms of this would prove useful when developing a personal lithium analyzer. Overall, both calibration methods gave high correlation and small error outputs with a R2= 0.99036 and RMSEC = 0.03778, and R2= 0.994148 and RMSEC= 0.0294404, for PLS and MLR methods, respectively. The results show that the spectrophotometric determination of blood lithium levels can be extended beyond laboratory applications and indicate the capability of this testing principle to be employed in a personal monitoring device. Future work will now focus on the technical development of a miniaturized system for measurement of lithium levels in blood with an acceptable level of accuracy and sensitivity.

  8. Maternal nutritional status in early pregnancy is associated with body water and plasma volume changes in a pregnancy cohort in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gernand, Alison D; Christian, Parul; Schulze, Kerry J; Shaikh, Saijuddin; Labrique, Alain B; Shamim, Abu Ahmed; West, Keith P

    2012-06-01

    Plasma volume expansion has been associated with fetal growth. Our objective was to examine the associations between maternal nutritional status in early pregnancy and extracellular water (ECW), total body water (TBW), and percentage plasma volume change across pregnancy. In a subsample of 377 pregnant women participating in a cluster-randomized trial of micronutrient supplementation, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance were measured at ~10, 20, and 32 wk of gestation. In early pregnancy, women were short (mean ± SD, 148.9 ± 5.3 cm) and thin (19.5 ± 2.5 kg/m(2)). In mixed-effects multiple regression models, a 1-unit higher BMI at ~10 wk was associated with higher ECW and TBW (0.27 and 0.66 kg per kg/m(2), respectively; P pregnancy BMI was negatively associated with gains in ECW and TBW (-0.06 and -0.14 kg per kg/m(2), respectively; P pregnancy have lower ECW and TBW in early, mid, and late pregnancy and lower late pregnancy plasma volume expansion, potentially increasing risk of fetal growth restriction.

  9. Effects of Hypertonic Saline Solution on Clinical Parameters, Serum Electrolytes and Plasma Volume in the Treatment of Haemorrhagic Septicaemia in Buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Arif Zafar*, G. Muhammad, Zafar Iqbal1 and M. Riaz2

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the efficacy of hypertonic saline solution (HSS along with antibiotic (ceftiofur HCl and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (ketoprofen in the treatment of haemorrhagic septicaemia in buffaloes. For this purpose, 50 buffaloes suffering from haemorrhagic septicaemia were randomly divided in two equal groups A and B. Group A served as control and was treated with ceftiofur HCl (IM and ketoprofen (IV @ 6 and 2 mg/Kg BW, respectively, for five days. Buffaloes of group B were administered with rapid intravenous infusion of hypertonic saline solution (7.5% NaCl @ 4 ml/Kg BW once in combination with ceftiofur HCl and ketoprofen. Animals were monitored for 24 hours after initiation of treatment. Clinical parameters, serum electrolytes, plasma volume and survival index were recorded at different intervals after treatment. Survival rate (80% in group B was significantly higher (P<0.05 than 48% in group A. The heart rate and respiration rate recovered more effectively in the buffaloes administered with treatment protocol B. Plasma volume was 98% which was almost normal within 24 hours after the infusion of hypertonic saline solution to the animals of group B. It was concluded from the study that hypertonic saline solution as an adjunct to antibiotic and a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug more efficiently improved respiration and heart rates and effectively restored plasma volume in resuscitating the buffaloes from haemorrhagic septicaemia than the conventional treatment.

  10. Prostate cancer volume associates with preoperative plasma levels of testosterone that independently predicts high grade tumours which show low densities (quotient testosterone/tumour volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio B. Porcaro

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: The investigation shows that TT relates to volume and grade of PCa; moreover, the density of TT relative to TV inversely associates with rate of increase of cancer that depends on the grade of the tumour.

  11. Measurement of osmolality and sodium concentration in heated-cup sweat collections for the investigation of cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, J M; Adams, A; Westwood, A; McCrae, W M

    1983-11-01

    A new system (Wescor) for sweat collection and analysis was examined with respect to its suitability for the investigation of children suspected to have cystic fibrosis. The effects of iontophoresis current, sweat collection time, sweat storage and analysis were examined, and as a result the technique was modified to allow collection and storage of sufficient sweat for sodium and potassium as well as osmolality assays in 10-20 minutes. The small electrodes and speed of the procedure make it practical for use with small children, with a reproducibility of 13-24% (coefficient of variation for whole procedure).

  12. Changes in Plasma Copeptin Levels during Hemodialysis: Are the Physiological Stimuli Active in Hemodialysis Patients?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmée M Ettema

    Full Text Available Plasma levels of copeptin, a surrogate marker for the vasoconstrictor hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP, are increased in hemodialysis patients. Presently, it is unknown what drives copeptin levels in hemodialysis patients. We investigated whether the established physiological stimuli for copeptin release, i.e. plasma osmolality, blood volume and mean arterial pressure (MAP, are operational in hemodialysis patients.One hundred and eight prevalent, stable hemodialysis patients on a thrice-weekly dialysis schedule were studied during hemodialysis with constant ultrafiltration rate and dialysate conductivity in this observational study. Plasma levels of copeptin, sodium, MAP, and blood volume were measured before, during and after hemodialysis. Multivariate analysis was used to determine the association between copeptin (dependent variable and the physiological stimuli plasma sodium, MAP, excess weight as well as NT-pro-BNP immediately prior to dialysis and between copeptin and changes of plasma sodium, MAP and blood volume with correction for age, sex and diabetes during dialysis treatment.Patients were 63 ± 15.6 years old and 65% were male. Median dialysis vintage was 1.6 years (IQR 0.7-4.0. Twenty-three percent of the patients had diabetes and 82% had hypertension. Median predialysis copeptin levels were 141.5 pmol/L (IQR 91.0-244.8 pmol/L. Neither predialysis plasma sodium levels, nor NT-proBNP levels, nor MAP were associated with predialysis copeptin levels. During hemodialysis, copeptin levels rose significantly (p<0.01 to 163.0 pmol/L (96.0-296.0 pmol/L. Decreases in blood volume and MAP were associated with increases in copeptin levels during dialysis, whereas there was no significant association between the change in plasma sodium levels and the change in copeptin levels.Plasma copeptin levels are elevated predialysis and increase further during hemodialysis. Volume stimuli, i.e. decreases in MAP and blood volume, rather than osmotic

  13. Preliminary feasibility study of pallet-only mode for magnetospheric and plasmas in space payloads, volume 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Results of studies performed on the magnetospheric and plasma portion of the AMPS are presented. Magnetospheric and plasma in space experiments and instruments are described along with packaging (palletization) concepts. The described magnetospheric and plasma experiments were considered as separate entities. Instrumentation ospheric and plasma experiments were considered as separate entities. Instrumentation requirements and operations were formulated to provide sufficient data for unambiguous interpretation of results without relying upon other experiments of the series. Where ground observations are specified, an assumption was made that large-scale additions or modifications to existing facilities were not required.

  14. Medium-chain plasma acylcarnitines, ketone levels, cognition, and gray matter volumes in healthy elderly, mildly cognitively impaired, or Alzheimer's disease subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciavardelli, Domenico; Piras, Fabrizio; Consalvo, Ada; Rossi, Claudia; Zucchelli, Mirco; Di Ilio, Carmine; Frazzini, Valerio; Caltagirone, Carlo; Spalletta, Gianfranco; Sensi, Stefano L

    2016-07-01

    Aging, amyloid deposition, and tau-related pathology are key contributors to the onset and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, AD is also associated with brain hypometabolism and deficits of mitochondrial bioenergetics. Plasma acylcarnitines (ACCs) are indirect indices of altered fatty acid beta-oxidation, and ketogenesis has been found to be decreased on aging. Furthermore, in elderly subjects, alterations in plasma levels of specific ACCs have been suggested to predict conversion to mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or AD. In this study, we assayed plasma profiles of ACCs in a cohort of healthy elderly control, MCI subjects, and AD patients. Compared with healthy controls or MCI subjects, AD patients showed significant lower plasma levels of several medium-chain ACCs. Furthermore, in AD patients, these lower concentrations were associated with lower prefrontal gray matter volumes and the presence of cognitive impairment. Interestingly, lower levels of medium-chain ACCs were also found to be associated with lower plasma levels of 2-hydroxybutyric acid. Overall, these findings suggest that altered metabolism of medium-chain ACCs and impaired ketogenesis can be metabolic features of AD.

  15. Amygdala kindling elevates plasma vasopressin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, R S; Meeker, R B; Hayward, J N

    1991-01-01

    Acute and chronic effects of epilepsy on endocrine function are known to occur in humans with partial seizures of limbic origin and in animals with limbic kindled seizures. The amygdala, a component of the limbic system, has dense hypothalamic connections and amygdala stimulation in monkeys and cats result in vasopressin release. In the present study we sought to determine if amygdala stimulation in the rats results in an immediate acute release of vasopressin and to determine if acute or chronic changes occur in vasopressin release in the fully kindled animal. Plasma vasopressin, osmolality and hematocrit were measured in blood samples drawn from rats with implanted venous catheters before and after stimulation and at different stages of kindling. Low-frequency (15 Hz) electrical stimulation of the amygdala was followed by an immediate, 3-fold increase in plasma vasopressin concentration. Moreover, although the 60 Hz kindling stimulus did not result in a significant immediate rise in plasma vasopressin prior to kindling, after kindling to stage 5 seizures the 60 Hz kindling stimulus resulted in seizures and a significant immediate rise in plasma vasopressin. In addition, we found that kindling was followed by a significant, though modest, rise in the resting plasma vasopressin without an accompanying change in osmolality or hematocrit. We conclude that kindling results in a persistent alteration in the vasopressinergic neuroendocrine system.

  16. Longitudinal relationships between fluid status, inflammation, urine volume and plasma metabolites of icodextrin in patients randomized to glucose or icodextrin for the long exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Simon J; Garcia Lopez, Elvia; Woodrow, Graham; Donovan, Kieron; Plum, Jorg; Williams, Paul; Johansson, Ann Catherine; Bosselmann, Hans-Peter; Heimburger, Olof; Simonsen, Ole; Davenport, Andrew; Lindholm, Bengt; Tranaeus, Anders; Divino Filho, Jose C

    2008-09-01

    Randomized trials have shown that icodextrin reduces the volume of extra-cellular fluid (ECFv) with variable effects on residual renal function. To explore this fluid shift and its possible mechanisms in more detail, prospectively collected data from one such trial, including measures of inflammation (C-reactive protein, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, albumin and low and high molecular weight hyaluronan) ANP (atrial naturetic peptide), an indirect marker of intra-vascular volume, plasma concentrations of icodextrin metabolites and alpha-amylase activity were analysed. 50 patients were randomized to either 2.27% glucose or icodextrin (n = 28) for a long exchange following a month run in. Blood samples were obtained at -1, 0, 3 and 6 months, coincident with measurements of urine volume and fluid status. In both randomized groups, a significant correlation between the fall in ECFv and the decline in urine volume was observed (P = 0.001), although the relative drop in urine volume for patients randomized to icodextrin tended to be less. At baseline, ANP was higher in patients with proportionately more ECFv for a given body water or height. Icodextrin patients had non-significantly higher ANP levels at baseline, whereas by 3 (P = 0.026) and 6 months (P = 0.016) these differed between groups due to divergence. There was a correlation between increasing ANP and reduced ECF at 3 months, r = -0.46, P = 0.007, in patients randomized to icodextrin, but not glucose. There were no relationships between fluid status and any inflammatory markers at any point of the study, with the exception of albumin at baseline, r = -0.39, P = 0.007. Amylase activities at -1 month and baseline were highly correlated, r = 0.89, P volume, fluid or inflammatory status. This analysis supports observational data that changes in fluid status are associated with changes in urine volume. Icodextrin was not associated with a greater fall in urine output despite its larger effect on ECFv. Changes in fluid

  17. A novel osmolality-shift fermentation strategy for improving acarbose production and concurrently reducing byproduct component C formation by Actinoplanes sp. A56.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xin; Peng, Wei-Fu; Huang, Lin; Zhang, Bao; Li, Kun-Tai

    2014-12-01

    Component C (Acarviosy-1,4-Glc-1,1-Glc) was a highly structural acarbose analog, which could be largely formed during acarbose fermentation process, resulting in acarbose purification being highly difficult. By choosing osmolality level as the key fermentation parameter of acarbose-producing Actinoplanes sp. A56, this paper successfully established an effective and simplified osmolality-shift strategy to improve acarbose production and concurrently reduce component C formation. Firstly, the effects of various osmolality levels on acarbose fermentation were firstly investigated in a 50-l fermenter. It was found that 400-500 mOsm/kg of osmolality was favorable for acarbose biosynthesis, but would exert a negative influence on the metabolic activity of Actinoplanes sp. A56, resulting in an obviously negative increase of acarbose and a sharp formation of component C during the later stages of fermentation (144-168 h). Based on this fact, an osmolality-shift fermentation strategy (0-48 h: 250-300 mOsm/kg; 49-120 h: 450-500 mOsm/kg; 121-168 h: 250-300 mOsm/kg) was further carried out. Compared with the osmolality-stat (450-500 mOsm/kg) fermentation process, the final accumulation amount of component C was decreased from 498.2 ± 27.1 to 307.2 ± 9.5 mg/l, and the maximum acarbose yield was increased from 3,431.9 ± 107.7 to 4,132.8 ± 111.4 mg/l.

  18. Validity of protein-osmolality versus protein-creatinine ratios in the estimation of quantitative proteinuria from random samples of urine in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, Bruce Z; Butani, Lavjay; Wollan, Peter; Wilson, David M; Larson, Timothy S

    2003-04-01

    Proteinuria is an important marker of kidney disease. Simple methods to determine the presence of proteinuria in a semiquantitative fashion require measurement of either a protein-creatinine or protein-osmolality ratio. Urine samples from 134 healthy infants and children and 150 children from the pediatric nephrology practice were analyzed to develop normative data for protein-osmolality ratios on random urine samples and compare protein-osmolality with protein-creatinine ratio as a predictor of 24-hour urine protein excretion. Children were grouped according to age. Three groups were established: infants (<2 years), younger children (2 to 8 years), and older children (9 to 18 years). An adult cohort was similarly analyzed. For healthy children older than 2 years, the optimal value discriminating normal from abnormal protein excretion was determined to be a protein-osmolality ratio of 0.15 mg x kg H2O/mOsm. L; for children between 2 and 8 years old, 0.14; and for children older than 8 years, 0.17 (P = not significant between age groups). The corresponding optimal cutoff value for protein-creatinine ratio for the entire group of children older than 2 years is 0.20. Area under the curve analysis of receiver operator characteristic curves showed protein-creatinine ratio was superior to protein-osmolality ratio for predicting abnormal amounts of proteinuria in children and adolescents (P < 0.0001). In adults, both ratios are equally accurate. Given the superiority of protein-creatinine ratio in children, it would be appropriate to screen urine samples for proteinuria using protein-creatinine ratio rather than protein-osmolality ratio.

  19. Efectos de la ingesta ad libitum de bebidas hidratantes sobre el peso corporal, la frecuencia cardíaca y el volumen plasmático durante una actividad física de alta intensidad y larga duración -Informe preliminar- Body weight, the heart rate, and the plasma volume during a high-intesity, long-duration run

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubiela Flórez Manrique

    2004-02-01

    , no ingieren la cantidad adecuada de líquidos para obtener los beneficios atribuidos a la hidratación. Objetive: to determine the amount of ad libitum intake of three rehydrating beverages of different osmolalities, and to establish their effects on the percentage of body weight loss, the increase of heart rate and the reduction of plasma volume, in nine subjects with aerobic training, during a highintensity,long-duration run. Methodology : the experiment was carried out on a treadmill with 1% of inclination that was kept constant throughout the procedure; it started with 9 minutes of warm-up at a speed equivalent to 59% of the reserve heart rate; then, 88 minutes of running divided in three intervals (29, 29, and 30 minutes at 80% of the reserve heart rate; finally, 90 minutes of recovery in three intervals of 30 minutes each. During the “dehydrated treatment” no fluid replacement was done; during the “Hydrating treatments” (H-I, H-II, H-III equivalent volumes were drunk of the aforementioned rehydrating beverages. Results: during the exercise period the fluid loss was 1.440 ml/h. In each one of the treatments there was a loss of body weight (p<0.001, an increase of heart rate (<0.05 and, except for HII and H-III, a reduction of plasma volume (p<0.05. There were no differences between the treatments in these three parameters. Conclusions: ad libitum intake was less than the amount internationally recommended; probably that explains that the effects of osmolality of the rehydrating beverages on the analyzed parameters could not be determined. These findings ought to motivate a review of the hydrating practices of our athletes because, seemingly, they are not ingesting an adequate amount of fluids to obtain the benefits attributed to hydration.

  20. Blood parasites, total plasma protein and packed cell volume of small wild mammals trapped in three mountain ranges of the Atlantic Forest in Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, M A M L; Ronconi, A; Cordeiro, N; Bossi, D E P; Bergallo, H G; Costa, M C C; Balieiro, J C C; Varzim, F L S B

    2007-08-01

    A study of blood parasites in small wild non-flying mammals was undertaken in three areas of the Atlantic Forest in Southeastern Brazil: Serra de Itatiaia, RJ, Serra da Bocaina, SP and Serra da Fartura, SP, from June 1999 to May 2001. A total of 450 animals (15 species) were captured in traps and it was observed in 15.5% of the blood smears the presence of Haemobartonella sp. and Babesia sp. in red blood cells. There was no statistically significant difference between parasited and non-parasited specimens regarding total plasma protein, packed cell volume and body weight, which strongly suggests that these specimens might be parasite reservoirs.

  1. Acute severe organophosphate poisoning in a child who was successfully treated with therapeutic plasma exchange, high-volume hemodiafiltration, and lipid infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesilbas, Osman; Kihtir, Hasan S; Altiti, Mohammad; Petmezci, Mey Talip; Balkaya, Seda; Bursal Duramaz, Burcu; Ersoy, Melike; Sevketoglu, Esra

    2016-10-01

    Acute severe organophosphate poisoning is a serious complication seen in developing and agricultural countries. Pralidoxime and high dose atropine are the standard treatments. There is no consensus about acute severe organophosphate poisonings that are unresponsive to pralidoxime, atropine, and supportive therapies. We report a case of acute severe organophosphate poisoning that was unresponsive to standard treatments and successfully treated with high-volume continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration and therapeutic plasma exchange combined with lipid infusion. J. Clin. Apheresis 31:467-469, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Oral fluid therapy: sodium and potassium content and osmolality of some commercial "clear" soups, juices and beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendland, B E; Arbus, G S

    1979-01-01

    Analysis of nearly 90 commercial "clear" fluids, including soups, juices, fruit-flavoured drinks and ices, carbonated beverages and gelatins, showed a range of 0.1 to 251 mmol of sodium and 0.0 to 65 mmol of potassium per litre; the osmolality ranged from 246 to more than 2000 mOsm/kg of water. Knowledge of these values is useful in the home or hospital management of patients for whom control of fluid and electrolyte intake is indicated. The results of the analyses are presented in tabular form for use by physicians and nutritionists when counselling patients to ingest clear-type fluids for various illnesses. Examples are given using these data to show how clear-fluid therapy can be tailored in one such illness--gastroenteritis (infectious diarrhea). PMID:497946

  3. Relationship between urinary concentrating ability, arginine vasopressin in plasma and blood pressure after renal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, E B; Danielsen, H; Nielsen, A H; Knudsen, F; Jensen, T; Kornerup, H J; Madsen, M

    1985-06-01

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP) and serum osmolality (Sosm) were determined in plasma before and after a 24-h period of water deprivation in 19 patients with post-renal-transplant hypertension (group I), 14 patients with normal blood pressure after renal transplantation (group II), and 16 healthy control subjects (group III). Urine was collected in four periods of 6 h each for measurement of urine volume (V), urine osmolality (Uosm) and tubular capacity for reabsorption of water (Tc water). AVP and Sosm increased significantly in all groups. The AVP levels were the same in groups I and II, but higher in group I than III both before and after water deprivation. In group II, AVP was higher than in group III only after water deprivation; V was significantly reduced in all groups. In groups I and II, V, Tc water and Uosm were the same. In group III, V was significantly lower than in groups I and II in the last three 6-h periods, and in group III, Tc water was higher in the first 6-h period than in groups I and II. There was a significant positive correlation between AVP and Sosm in all groups. In conclusion, renal water excretion cannot be reduced as rapidly and to the same degree in renal transplant recipients as in control subjects because of a decreased renal capacity for reabsorption of water. The higher AVP level in the transplant recipients may be a compensatory phenomenon for the decreased responsiveness of the renal collecting ducts in the transplanted kidneys. The sensitivity of the osmoreceptors to changes in osmotic stimuli was normal.

  4. Physics of Plasmas in Thermonuclear Regimes. Proceedings of the 1979 Workshop, International School of Plasma Physics, Varenna, Italy, 27 August - 8 September 1979. Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coppi, B.; Sadowski, W. [eds.

    1979-08-27

    The workshop was run concurrently with the International School of Plasma Physics and was organized as a sequence of afternoon meetings concerning a set of topics that correspond to the individual chapters of these proceedings. The workshop consisted of both individual presentations and moderated discussions among the participants. A selected group of topics that were found to deserve a more in-depth analysis, such as the question of anomalous particle transport and the theory of collective modes induced by alpha-particles were discussed in separate Working Groups.

  5. Prolactin 177, prolactin 188, and extracellular osmolality independently regulate the gene expression of ion transport effectors in gill of Mozambique tilapia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inokuchi, Mayu; Breves, Jason P; Moriyama, Shunsuke; Watanabe, Soichi; Kaneko, Toyoji; Lerner, Darren T; Grau, E Gordon; Seale, Andre P

    2015-11-15

    This study characterized the local effects of extracellular osmolality and prolactin (PRL) on branchial ionoregulatory function of a euryhaline teleost, Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus). First, gill filaments were dissected from freshwater (FW)-acclimated tilapia and incubated in four different osmolalities, 280, 330, 380, and 450 mosmol/kg H2O. The mRNA expression of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase α1a (NKA α1a) and Na(+)/Cl(-) cotransporter (NCC) showed higher expression with decreasing media osmolalities, while Na(+)/K(+)/2Cl(-) cotransporter 1a (NKCC1a) and PRL receptor 2 (PRLR2) mRNA levels were upregulated by increases in media osmolality. We then incubated gill filaments in media containing ovine PRL (oPRL) and native tilapia PRLs (tPRL177 and tPRL188). oPRL and the two native tPRLs showed concentration-dependent effects on NCC, NKAα1a, and PRLR1 expression; Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 3 (NHE3) expression was increased by 24 h of incubation with tPRLs. Immunohistochemical observation showed that oPRL and both tPRLs maintained a high density of NCC- and NKA-immunoreactive ionocytes in cultured filaments. Furthermore, we found that tPRL177 and tPRL188 differentially induce expression of these ion transporters, according to incubation time. Together, these results provide evidence that ionocytes of Mozambique tilapia may function as osmoreceptors, as well as directly respond to PRL to modulate branchial ionoregulatory functions.

  6. Plasma volume and water/sodium balance differences due to sex and menstrual phase after 4 hours of head-down bed rest (HDBR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgell, Heather; Grinberg, Anna; Beavers, Keith; Gagne, Nathalie; Totosy de Zepetnek, Julia; Greaves, Danielle; Hughson, Richard L.

    In both sexes, orthostatic responses are impaired by spaceflight or head-down bed-rest (HDBR), with a greater impact in women. Decreased plasma volume (PV) could contribute to reductions in cardiac output and blood pressure upon an orthostatic challenge. We hypothesized that a greater decrease in PV in women might lead to poorer orthostatic responses. We further hypothesized that the responses in women would differ throughout the menstrual cycle. We studied the responses of men (n=6) and women (n= 6) to 4-hr HDBR and 4-hr seated control (SEAT). Furthermore, we studied women in both the follicular (Day 8-11) and luteal (Day 18-24) phases of menstruation in a repeated measures design. After 4-hr HDBR, PV decreased in men (-175.1 ± 56.8 mL; vs. SEAT: P=0.076) and in the follicular phase, but did not change in the luteal phase (Luteal: -55.0 ± 54.6 mL; Follicular: -226.4 ± 88.2 mL (Interaction effect: P=0.01)). After 4-hr HDBR, only men appear to exhibit increased urine volume (Men, difference from SEAT: +298.3 ± 105.5 mL; Luteal, difference from SEAT: +59.4 ± 34.3 mL; Follicular, difference from SEAT: +43.7 ± 190.0 mL; P=0.16). No changes in urinary sodium after 4-hr HDBR were observed in any group (Men, difference from SEAT: -16.5 ± 13.5 µmol; Luteal, difference from SEAT: -8.0 ± 8.8 µmol; Follicular, difference from SEAT: +28.2 ± 29.5 µmol; P=0.264). No changes in urinary osmolarity were observed after 4-hr HDBR in any group (Men, difference from SEAT: -38.8 ± 126.2 mmol/kg; Luteal, difference from SEAT: -85.1 ± 66.9 mmol/kg; Follicular, difference from SEAT: -99.1 ± 98.5 mmol/kg; P=0.906). The changes in plasma volume do not appear to be a result of urinary water and sodium loss. Perhaps actions of atrial natriuretic peptide, urodilatin, the RAAS pathway, and/or capillary filtration are involved. From these observed changes in plasma volume, we surmise that women in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle may exhibit lower cardiac output and thus

  7. Report of the Plasma Physics and Environmental Perturbation Laboratory (PPEPL) working groups. Volume 1: Plasma probes, wakes, and sheaths working group

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    It is shown in this report that comprehensive in-situ study of all aspects of the entire zone disturbance caused by a body in a flowing plasma resulted in a large number if requirements on the shuttle-PPEPL facility. A large amount of necessary in-situ observation can be obtained by adopting appropriate modes of performing the experiments. Requirements are indicated for worthwhile studies, of some aspects of the problems, which can be carried out effectively while imposing relatively few constraints on the early missions. Considerations for the desired growth and improvement of the PPEPL to facilitate more complete studies in later missions are also discussed. For Vol. 2, see N74-28170; for Vol# 3, see N74-28171.

  8. Solar High-energy Astrophysical Plasmas Explorer (SHAPE). Volume 1: Proposed concept, statement of work and cost plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Brian R.; Martin, Franklin D.; Prince, T.; Lin, R.; Bruner, M.; Culhane, L.; Ramaty, R.; Doschek, G.; Emslie, G.; Lingenfelter, R.

    1986-01-01

    The concept of the Solar High-Energy Astrophysical Plasmas Explorer (SHAPE) is studied. The primary goal is to understand the impulsive release of energy, efficient acceleration of particles to high energies, and rapid transport of energy. Solar flare studies are the centerpieces of the investigation because in flares these high energy processes can be studied in unmatched detail at most wavelenth regions of the electromagnetic spectrum as well as in energetic charged particles and neutrons.

  9. 链脲佐菌素诱导糖尿病大鼠血、尿渗透压的变化%The changes of urinary osmolalities and plasma osmolalities in diabetic rats induced by STZ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白利萍; 杜娟; 魏丽晶

    2007-01-01

    目的 测定糖尿病(diabetes mellitus,DM)大鼠血、尿渗透压的改变并讨论其在糖尿病肾病(DN)早期诊断中的意义.方法 以链脲佐菌素(strap tozocin,STZ)诱导大鼠制成DM动物模型,分为糖尿病组(DM组)和正常对照组(Con组),在成模后3星期,用生化自动分析仪测定其血渗透压,采用冰点法测定尿渗透压,组间数据比较采用t检验.结果 0星期时DM组与Con组比较体重无差异,3星期时DM组体重明显低于Con组,尿量高于Con),相对肾重高于Con组,二组间CRE无明显变化.最大尿浓缩渗透压DM组低于Con组(P<0.05),血渗透压DM组高于Con组(P<0.05).结论 尿渗透压可作为DN早期诊断的辅助指标.

  10. Novel system using microliter order sample volume for measuring arterial radioactivity concentrations in whole blood and plasma for mouse PET dynamic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yuichi; Seki, Chie; Hashizume, Nobuya; Yamada, Takashi; Wakizaka, Hidekatsu; Nishimoto, Takahiro; Hatano, Kentaro; Kitamura, Keishi; Toyama, Hiroshi; Kanno, Iwao

    2013-11-21

    This study aimed to develop a new system, named CD-Well, for mouse PET dynamic study. CD-Well allows the determination of time-activity curves (TACs) for arterial whole blood and plasma using 2-3 µL of blood per sample; the minute sample size is ideal for studies in small animals. The system has the following merits: (1) measures volume and radioactivity of whole blood and plasma separately; (2) allows measurements at 10 s intervals to capture initial rapid changes in the TAC; and (3) is compact and easy to handle, minimizes blood loss from sampling, and delay and dispersion of the TAC. CD-Well has 36 U-shaped channels. A drop of blood is sampled into the opening of the channel and stored there. After serial sampling is completed, CD-Well is centrifuged and scanned using a flatbed scanner to define the regions of plasma and blood cells. The length measured is converted to volume because the channels have a precise and uniform cross section. Then, CD-Well is exposed to an imaging plate to measure radioactivity. Finally, radioactivity concentrations are computed. We evaluated the performance of CD-Well in in vitro measurement and in vivo (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose and [(11)C]2-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-fluorophenyl) tropane studies. In in vitro evaluation, per cent differences (mean±SE) from manual measurement were 4.4±3.6% for whole blood and 4.0±3.5% for plasma across the typical range of radioactivity measured in mouse dynamic study. In in vivo studies, reasonable TACs were obtained. The peaks were captured well, and the time courses coincided well with the TAC derived from PET imaging of the heart chamber. The total blood loss was less than 200 µL, which had no physiological effect on the mice. CD-Well demonstrates satisfactory performance, and is useful for mouse PET dynamic study.

  11. Blood parasites, total plasma protein and packed cell volume of small wild mammals trapped in three mountain ranges of the Atlantic Forest in Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAML. Silva

    Full Text Available A study of blood parasites in small wild non-flying mammals was undertaken in three areas of the Atlantic Forest in Southeastern Brazil: Serra de Itatiaia, RJ, Serra da Bocaina, SP and Serra da Fartura, SP, from June 1999 to May 2001. A total of 450 animals (15 species were captured in traps and it was observed in 15.5% of the blood smears the presence of Haemobartonella sp. and Babesia sp. in red blood cells. There was no statistically significant difference between parasited and non-parasited specimens regarding total plasma protein, packed cell volume and body weight, which strongly suggests that these specimens might be parasite reservoirs.

  12. (99m) Tc-labelled human serum albumin cannot replace (125) I-labelled human serum albumin to determine plasma volume in patients with liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Ulrik Lütken; Henriksen, Jens H; Bendtsen, Flemming

    2013-01-01

    -labelled human serum albumin (99mTc-HSA) and iodine-labelled human serum albumin (125I-HSA), as the former may have advantages at repeated measurements and the latter is the classical gold standard. Study population and methods In 88 patients, (64 with liver disease, mainly cirrhosis, and 24 patients without......Summary Background and aims Determination of plasma volume (PV) is important in several clinical situations. Thus, patients with liver disease often have augmented PV as part of their sodium–water retention. This study was undertaken to compare PV determination by two indicators: technetium...... liver disease), simultaneous measurements of PV were taken with 99mTc-HSA and 125I-HSA after 1 h in the supine position. Blood samples were obtained before and 10 min after quantitative injection of the two indicators. In a subset of patients (n = 32), the measurements were repeated within 1 h. Results...

  13. High-volume plasma exchange in a patient with acute liver failure due to non-exertional heat stroke in a sauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuan-Jung; Chen, Tso-Hsiao; Sue, Yuh-Mou; Chen, Tzay-Jinn; Cheng, Chung-Yi

    2014-10-01

    Heat stroke is a life-threatening condition characterized by an increased core body temperature (over 40°C) and a systemic inflammatory response, which may lead to a syndrome of multiple organ dysfunction. Heat stroke may be due to either strenuous exercise or non-exercise-induced exposure to a high environmental temperature. Current management of heat stroke is mostly supportive, with an emphasis on cooling the core body temperature and preventing the development of multiple organ dysfunction. Prognosis of heat stroke depends on the severity of organ involvement. Here, we report a rare case of non-exercise-induced heat stroke in a 73-year-old male patient who was suffering from acute liver failure after prolonged exposure in a hot sauna room. We successfully managed this patient by administering high-volume plasma exchange, and the patient recovered completely after treatment.

  14. HPLC analysis of asymmetric dimethylarginine, symmetric dimethylarginine, homoarginine and arginine in small plasma volumes using a Gemini-NX column at high pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Catherine E; Darcy, Christabelle J; Woodberry, Tonia; Anstey, Nicholas M; McNeil, Yvette R

    2010-01-01

    There is increasing recognition of the clinical importance of endogenous nitric oxide synthase inhibitors in critical illness. This has highlighted the need for an accurate high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for detection of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) in small volumes of blood. Here, the validation of an accurate, precise HPLC method for the determination of ADMA, SDMA, homoarginine and arginine concentrations in plasma is described. Solid phase extraction is followed by derivatisation with AccQ-Fluor and reversed phase separation on a Gemini-NX column at pH 9. Simultaneous detection by both UV-vis and fluorescence detectors affords extra validation. This solid phase extraction method gives absolute recoveries of more than 85% for ADMA and SDMA and relative recoveries of 102% for ADMA and 101% for SDMA. The intra-assay relative standard deviations are 2.1% and 2.3% for ADMA and SDMA, respectively, with inter-assay relative standard deviations of 2.7% and 3.1%, respectively. Advantages of this method include improved recovery of all analytes using isopropanol in the solid phase extraction; sharp, well-resolved chromatographic peaks using a high pH mobile phase; a non-endogenous internal standard, n-propyl L-arginine; and accurate and precise determination of methylated arginine concentrations from only 100microL of plasma.

  15. Quantification of low levels of organochlorine pesticides using small volumes ({<=}100 {mu}l) of plasma of wild birds through gas chromatography negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera-Rodriguez, Laura B. [Centro de Investigaciones Biologicas del Noroeste, S.C., Environmental Planning and Conservation Program, Mar Bermejo No. 195, Col. Playa Palo de Santa Rita, Ado. Postal 128, La Paz, BCS. 23090 (Mexico)]. E-mail: lrivera04@cibnor.mx; Rodriguez-Estrella, Ricardo [Centro de Investigaciones Biologicas del Noroeste, S.C., Environmental Planning and Conservation Program, Mar Bermejo No. 195, Col. Playa Palo de Santa Rita, Ado. Postal 128, La Paz, BCS. 23090 (Mexico); Ellington, James Jackson [National Exposure Research Laboratory, US Environmental Protection Agency, 960 College Station Road, Athens, GA 30605 (United States); Evans, John J. [National Exposure Research Laboratory, US Environmental Protection Agency, 960 College Station Road, Athens, GA 30605 (United States); Senior Service America Inc. (United States)

    2007-07-15

    A solid phase extraction and gas chromatography with negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry in scan mode (GC-NCI-MS) method was developed to identify and quantify for the first time low levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCs) in plasma samples of less than 100 {mu}l from wild birds. The method detection limits ranged from 0.012 to 0.102 pg/{mu}l and the method reporting limit from 0.036 to 0.307 pg/{mu}l for {alpha}, {gamma}, {beta} and {delta}-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), heptachlor, aldrin, heptachlor epoxide, endosulfan I, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p'-DDE), dieldrin, endrin, endosulfan-II, endrin-aldehyde and endosulfan-sulfate. Pesticide levels in small serum samples from individual Falco sparverius, Sturnella neglecta, Mimus polyglottos and Columbina passerina were quantified. Concentrations ranged from not detected (n/d) to 204.9 pg/{mu}l for some OC pesticides. All levels in the food web in and around cultivated areas showed the presence of pesticides notwithstanding the small areas for agriculture existing in the desert of Baja California peninsula. - This technique allows small birds to be used as indicators of chemical contamination in habitats because pesticides can be quantified in very small volumes of plasma.

  16. Plasma physics

    CERN Document Server

    Drummond, James E

    2013-01-01

    A historic snapshot of the field of plasma physics, this fifty-year-old volume offers an edited collection of papers by pioneering experts in the field. In addition to assisting students in their understanding of the foundations of classical plasma physics, it provides a source of historic context for modern physicists. Highly successful upon its initial publication, this book was the standard text on plasma physics throughout the 1960s and 70s.Hailed by Science magazine as a ""well executed venture,"" the three-part treatment ranges from basic plasma theory to magnetohydrodynamics and microwa

  17. Extreme Mountain Ultra-Marathon Leads to Acute but Transient Increase in Cerebral Water Diffusivity and Plasma Biomarkers Levels Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanchi, Davide; Viallon, Magalie; Le Goff, Caroline; Millet, Grégoire P.; Giardini, Guido; Croisille, Pierre; Haller, Sven

    2017-01-01

    Background: Pioneer studies demonstrate the impact of extreme sport load on the human brain, leading to threatening conditions for athlete's health such as cerebral edema. The investigation of brain water diffusivity, allowing the measurement of the intercellular water and the assessment of cerebral edema, can give a great contribution to the investigation of the effects of extreme sports on the brain. We therefore assessed the effect of supra-physiological effort (extreme distance and elevation changes) in mountain ultra-marathons (MUMs) athletes combining for the first time brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and blood parameters. Methods:This longitudinal study included 19 volunteers (44.2 ± 9.5 years) finishing a MUM (330 km, elevation + 24000 m). Quantitative measurements of brain diffusion-weighted images (DWI) were performed at 3 time-points: Before the race, upon arrival and after 48 h. Multiple blood biomarkers were simultaneously investigated. Data analyses included brain apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and physiological data comparisons between three time-points. Results:The whole brain ADC significantly increased from baseline to arrival (p = 0.005) and then significantly decreased at recovery (p = 0.005) to lower values than at baseline (p = 0.005). While sodium, potassium, calcium, and chloride as well as hematocrit (HCT) changed over time, the serum osmolality remained constant. Significant correlations were found between whole brain ADC changes and osmolality (p = 0.01), cholesterol (p = 0.009), c-reactive protein (p = 0.04), sodium (p = 0.01), and chloride (p = 0.002) plasma level variations. Conclusions:These results suggest the relative increase of the inter-cellular volume upon arrival, and subsequently its reduction to lower values than at baseline, indicating that even after 48 h the brain has not fully recovered to its equilibrium state. Even though serum electrolytes may only indirectly indicate modifications at the brain level due

  18. Osmolality-dependent relocation of penicillin-binding protein PBP2 to the division site in Caulobacter crescentus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, Jason; Priyadarshini, Richa; Takacs, Constantin N; Costa, Teresa; Dye, Natalie A; Shapiro, Lucy; Vollmer, Waldemar; Jacobs-Wagner, Christine

    2012-06-01

    The synthesis of the peptidoglycan cell wall is carefully regulated in time and space. In nature, this essential process occurs in cells that live in fluctuating environments. Here we show that the spatial distributions of specific cell wall proteins in Caulobacter crescentus are sensitive to small external osmotic upshifts. The penicillin-binding protein PBP2, which is commonly branded as an essential cell elongation-specific transpeptidase, switches its localization from a dispersed, patchy pattern to an accumulation at the FtsZ ring location in response to osmotic upshifts as low as 40 mosmol/kg. This osmolality-dependent relocation to the division apparatus is initiated within less than a minute, while restoration to the patchy localization pattern is dependent on cell growth and takes 1 to 2 generations. Cell wall morphogenetic protein RodA and penicillin-binding protein PBP1a also change their spatial distribution by accumulating at the division site in response to external osmotic upshifts. Consistent with its ecological distribution, C. crescentus displays a narrow range of osmotolerance, with an upper limit of 225 mosmol/kg in minimal medium. Collectively, our findings reveal an unsuspected level of environmental regulation of cell wall protein behavior that is likely linked to an ecological adaptation.

  19. Effect of radiologic contrast media on cell volume regulatory mechanisms in human red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galtung, Hilde Kanli; Sørlundsengen, Vibeke; Sakariassen, Kjell S; Benestad, Haakon B

    2002-08-01

    The authors performed this study to evaluate cell volume regulation in human red blood cells (RBCs) after incubation in solutions of three contrast media: iohexol (830 mOsm), ioxaglate (520 mOsm), and iodixanol (300 mOsm). Whole blood sampled from six healthy subjects was exposed to Ringer solutions containing 25% or 5% vol/vol iohexol (final osmolality, 440 or 340 mOsm, respectively), ioxaglate (final osmolality, 395 or 335 mOsm, respectively), iodixanol (final osmolality, 330 or 315 mOsm, respectively), or NaCl (control solutions with the same osmolality as that of the contrast media). In some experiments, control RBCs were subjected to a hyposmotic solution (100 mOsm). RBC volumes were obtained with a Coulter counter. The RBCs showed normal regulatory cell shrinkage after hyposmotically induced swelling. All 25% vol/vol contrast material solutions and their control solutions induced RBC shrinkage (range, 6% +/- 1 [standard error] to 22% +/- 3). The same was true for cells exposed to 5% vol/vol contrast material (range, 4% +/- 1 to 7% +/- 1). The shrinkage phase was followed by cell swelling (10% +/- 2 to 20% +/- 2 for 25% contrast material and their control solutions and 8% +/- 1 to 15% +/- 2 for 5% contrast material and their control solutions). No contrast material-exposed RBCs increased their volumes to the level reached with their control solutions. RBCs exposed to hyperosmotic iohexol, ioxaglate, or iodixanol solutions shrank and then swelled. The degree of shrinkage and subsequent swelling could not be explained simply with the osmolality of the test solutions. Physicochemical properties of the contrast media must be involved, putatively affecting electrolyte fluxes over the RBC membrane. Possible targets of these effects are the K+/Cl- symporter, K+ channels, and the Na+/K+/Cl- symporter.

  20. Taking alcohol with a (large) pinch of salt: Understanding the osmoles in “beer potomania” and “starvation potomania”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imam, T. H.

    2014-01-01

    Alcoholism is a major problem globally and beer drinking is on the rise. Many of the alcoholics sustain only on beer for days and do not get adequate solutes in the form of food. Similar situation can arise in cases of decreased food intake due to severe deliberate restriction or other factors like decreased appetite from cocaine. In these cases, salt free liquid intake may still be adequate. Such situations are conducive to the development of hyponatremia. Some of the solutes in diet, such as salt and protein, act as osmoles in urine. In these conditions, understanding the role played by solutes in diet and osmoles in urine is of vital importance for appropriate treatment of hyponatremia. PMID:25097331

  1. Volume nanograting formation in laser-silica interaction as a result of the 1D plasma-resonance ionization instability

    CERN Document Server

    Gildenburg, V B

    2016-01-01

    The initial stage of the small-scale ionization-induced instability developing inside the fused silica volume exposed to the femtosecond laser pulse is studied as a possible initial cause of the self-organized nanograting formation. We have calculated the spatial spectra of the instability with the electron-hole diffusion taken into account for the first time and have found that it results in the formation of some hybrid (diffusion-wave) 1D structure with the spatial period determined as geometrical mean of the laser wavelength and characteristic diffusion length of the process considered. Near the threshold of the instability this period occurs to be approximately equal to the laser half-wavelength in the silica, close to the one experimentally observed.

  2. Volume nanograting formation in laser-silica interaction as a result of the 1D plasma-resonance ionization instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gildenburg, V. B.; Pavlichenko, I. A.

    2016-08-01

    The initial stage of the small-scale ionization-induced instability developing inside the fused silica volume exposed to the femtosecond laser pulse is studied as a possible initial cause of the self-organized nanograting formation. We have calculated the spatial spectra of the instability with the electron-hole diffusion taken into account for the first time and have found that it results in the formation of some hybrid (diffusion-wave) 1D structure with the spatial period determined as the geometrical mean of the laser wavelength and characteristic diffusion length of the process considered. Near the threshold of the instability, this period occurs to be approximately equal to the laser half-wavelength in the silica, close to the one experimentally observed.

  3. Bicarbonate concentration and osmolality are key determinants in the inhibition of CHO cell polysialylation under elevated pCO(2) or pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanghi, J A; Schmelzer, A E; Mendoza, T P; Knop, R H; Miller, W M

    1999-10-20

    Accumulation of CO(2) in animal cell cultures can be a significant problem during scale-up and production of recombinant glycoprotein biopharmaceuticals. By examining the cell-surface polysialic acid (PSA) content, we show that elevated CO(2) partial pressure (pCO(2)) can alter protein glycosylation. PSA is a high-molecular-weight polymer attached to several complex N-linked oligosaccharides on the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), so that small changes in either core glycosylation or in polysialylation are amplified and easily measured. Flow-cytometric analysis revealed that PSA levels on Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells decrease with increasing pCO(2) in a dose-dependent manner, independent of any change in NCAM content. The results are highly pH-dependent, with a greater decrease in PSA at higher pH. By manipulating medium pH and pCO(2), we showed that decreases in PSA correlate well with bicarbonate concentration ([HCO(3)(-)]). In fact, it was possible to offset a 60% decrease in PSA content at 120 mm Hg pCO(2) by decreasing the pH from 7.3 to 6.9, such that [HCO(3)(-)] was lowered to that of control (38 mm Hg pCO(2)). When the increase in osmolality associated with elevated [HCO(3)(-)] was offset by decreasing the basal medium [NaCl], elevated [HCO(3)(-)] still caused a decrease in PSA, although less extensive than without osmolality control. By increasing [NaCl], we show that hyperosmolality alone decreases PSA content, but to a lesser extent than for the same osmolality increase due to elevated [NaHCO(3)]. In conclusion, we demonstrate the importance of pH and pCO(2) interactions, and show that [HCO(3)(-)] and osmolality can account for the observed changes in PSA content over a wide range of pH and pCO(2) values.

  4. High osmolality vitrification: a new method for the simple and temperature-permissive cryopreservation of mouse embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiji Mochida

    Full Text Available Procedures for cryopreserving embryos vary considerably, each having its specific advantages and disadvantages in terms of technical feasibility, embryo survival yield, temperature permissibility and species- or strain-dependent applicability. Here we report a high osmolality vitrification (HOV method that is advantageous in these respects. Cryopreservation by vitrification is generally very simple, but, unlike slow freezing, embryos should be kept at a supercooling temperature (below -130°C to avoid cryodamage. We overcame this problem by using an HOV solution containing 42.5% (v/v ethylene glycol, 17.3% (w/v Ficoll and 1.0 M sucrose. This solution is more viscous than other cryopreservation solutions, but easy handling of embryos was assured by employing a less viscous equilibration solution before vitrification. Most (>80% embryos cryopreserved in this solution survived at -80°C for at least 30 days. Normal mice were recovered even after intercontinental transportation in a conventional dry-ice package for 2-3 days, indicating that special containers such as dry shippers with liquid nitrogen vapor are unnecessary. The HOV solution could also be employed for long-term storage in liquid nitrogen, as with other conventional cryoprotectants. Finally, we confirmed that this new vitrification method could be applied successfully to embryos of all six strains of mice we have tested so far. Thus, our HOV method provides an efficient and reliable strategy for the routine cryopreservation of mouse embryos in animal facilities and biomedical laboratories, and for easy and cheap transportation.

  5. Plasma confinement

    CERN Document Server

    Hazeltine, R D

    2003-01-01

    Detailed and authoritative, this volume examines the essential physics underlying international research in magnetic confinement fusion. It offers readable, thorough accounts of the fundamental concepts behind methods of confining plasma at or near thermonuclear conditions. Designed for a one- or two-semester graduate-level course in plasma physics, it also represents a valuable reference for professional physicists in controlled fusion and related disciplines.

  6. Peak plasma interleukin-6 and other peripheral markers of inflammation in the first week of ischaemic stroke correlate with brain infarct volume, stroke severity and long-term outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    del Zoppo Gregory J

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cerebral ischaemia initiates an inflammatory response in the brain and periphery. We assessed the relationship between peak values of plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6 in the first week after ischaemic stroke, with measures of stroke severity and outcome. Methods Thirty-seven patients with ischaemic stroke were prospectively recruited. Plasma IL-6, and other markers of peripheral inflammation, were measured at pre-determined timepoints in the first week after stroke onset. Primary analyses were the association between peak plasma IL-6 concentration with both modified Rankin score (mRS at 3 months and computed tomography (CT brain infarct volume. Results Peak plasma IL-6 concentration correlated significantly (p Conclusions These data provide evidence that the magnitude of the peripheral inflammatory response is related to the severity of acute ischaemic stroke, and clinical outcome.

  7. Accurate monitoring of intravascular fluid volume: A novel application of intrathoracic impedance measures for the guidance of volume reduction therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara A. Lara

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: Impedance vectors derived from a multivector monitoring system reflect changes in intravascular plasma volume. Two of these vectors most closely track changes in plasma volume and may be used to more accurately guide and optimize volume reduction therapy.

  8. Polysorbate 80 and low-osmolality water-soluble contrast medium enema in diagnosis and treatment of faecal obstruction in malignant phaeochromocytoma. Report of a case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratcliffe, J.F.

    Stercoral obstruction in a young woman with disseminated phaeochromocytoma was diagnosed and treated successfully using an enema of isosmolar iohexol (Omnipaque) and 1% polysorbate 80 (Tween 80) without complication. Surgical intervention was thus avoided. A low osmolality water-soluble contrast medium (iohexol 150 mg I/ml) with a wetting agent (1% Tween 80) was used because a barium suspension would have inspissated, exacerbating the constipation and a hyperosmolar contrast medium might have precipitated a hypertensive crisis and destablished her critical salt and water balance.

  9. Plasma detachment in linear devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, N.

    2017-03-01

    Plasma detachment research in linear devices, sometimes called divertor plasma simulators, is reviewed. Pioneering works exploring the concept of plasma detachment were conducted in linear devices. Linear devices have contributed greatly to the basic understanding of plasma detachment such as volume plasma recombination processes, detached plasma structure associated with particle and energy transport, and other related issues including enhancement of convective plasma transport, dynamic response of plasma detachment, plasma flow reversal, and magnetic field effect. The importance of plasma detachment research using linear devices will be highlighted aimed at the design of future DEMO.

  10. Simultaneous measurement of arginine vasopressin and oxytocin in plasma and neurohypophysis by radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landgraf, R. (Deutsche Hochschule fuer Koerperkultur, Leipzig (German Democratic Republic). Forschungsinstitut Koerperkultur und Sport)

    1981-12-01

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OXT) were measured simultaneously in the same sample by specific and sensitive radioimmunoassays (RIAs). The antibodies used did not cross-react to a variety of analogs and related peptides. The extraction procedure using Vycor glass powder resulted in mean recoveries of 84.4% (AVP) and 64.6% (OXT). In both assays, the sensitivity was 1 to 2 pg/ml plasma. A preincubation procedure that depresses plasma levels of both AVP and OXT selectively, provided specific blank values for a given plasma sample. To confirm the validity of the RIAs, dehydration experiments were performed. In rats, the basal levels of plasma AVP and OXT (means: 2,63 pg/ml and 6.80 pg/ml, respectively) are increased significantly after 24 h, 48 h and 72 h of water deprivation. Relationships are presented between both neurohormones in the plasma and neurohypophyses of control and dehydrated animals. As shown in cows, a significant correlation exists between plasma AVP and plasma osmolality but not between plasma OXT and osmolality or plasma AVP and OXT. Basal levels as well as physiological changes in plasma and neurohypophyseal AVP and OXT can be measured by the RIAs described.

  11. Regulation of body fluid volume and electrolyte concentrations in spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S. M.; Krauhs, J. M.; Leach, C. S.

    1997-01-01

    Despite a number of difficulties in performing experiments during weightlessness, a great deal of information has been obtained concerning the effects of spaceflight on the regulation of body fluid and electrolytes. Many paradoxes and questions remain, however. Although body mass, extracellular fluid volume, and plasma volume are reduced during spaceflight and remain so at landing, the changes in total body water are comparatively small. Serum or plasma sodium and osmolality have generally been unchanged or reduced during the spaceflight, and fluid intake is substantially reduced, especially during the first of flight. The diuresis that was predicted to be caused by weightlessness, has only rarely been observed as an increased urine volume. What has been well established by now, is the occurrence of a relative diuresis, where fluid intake decreases more than urine volume does. Urinary excretion of electrolytes has been variable during spaceflight, but retention of fluid and electrolytes at landing has been consistently observed. The glomerular filtration rate was significantly elevated during the SLS missions, and water and electrolyte loading tests have indicated that renal function is altered during readaptation to Earth's gravity. Endocrine control of fluid volumes and electrolyte concentrations may be altered during weightlessness, but levels of hormones in body fluids do not conform to predictions based on early hypotheses. Antidiuretic hormone is not suppressed, though its level is highly variable and its secretion may be affected by space motion sickness and environmental factors. Plasma renin activity and aldosterone are generally elevated at landing, consistent with sodium retention, but inflight levels have been variable. Salt intake may be an important factor influencing the levels of these hormones. The circadian rhythm of cortisol has undoubtedly contributed to its variability, and little is known yet about the influence of spaceflight on circadian

  12. A rapid analysis of plasma/serum ethylene and propylene glycol by headspace gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Alexandra; Morris, Cory; Krasowski, Matthew D

    2013-12-01

    A rapid headspace-gas chromatography (HS-GC) method was developed for the analysis of ethylene glycol and propylene glycol in plasma and serum specimens using 1,3-propanediol as the internal standard. The method employed a single-step derivitization using phenylboronic acid, was linear to 200 mg/dL and had a lower limit of quantitation of 1 mg/dL suitable for clinical analyses. The analytical method described allows for laboratories with HS-GC instrumentation to analyze ethanol, methanol, isopropanol, ethylene glycol, and propylene glycol on a single instrument with rapid switch-over from alcohols to glycols analysis. In addition to the novel HS-GC method, a retrospective analysis of patient specimens containing ethylene glycol and propylene glycol was also described. A total of 36 patients ingested ethylene glycol, including 3 patients who presented with two separate admissions for ethylene glycol toxicity. Laboratory studies on presentation to hospital for these patients showed both osmolal and anion gap in 13 patients, osmolal but not anion gap in 13 patients, anion but not osmolal gap in 8 patients, and 1 patient with neither an osmolal nor anion gap. Acidosis on arterial blood gas was present in 13 cases. Only one fatality was seen; this was a patient with initial serum ethylene glycol concentration of 1282 mg/dL who died on third day of hospitalization. Propylene glycol was common in patients being managed for toxic ingestions, and was often attributed to iatrogenic administration of propylene glycol-containing medications such as activated charcoal and intravenous lorazepam. In six patients, propylene glycol contributed to an abnormally high osmolal gap. The common presence of propylene glycol in hospitalized patients emphasizes the importance of being able to identify both ethylene glycol and propylene glycol by chromatographic methods.

  13. Effect of High-Volume Injection, Platelet-Rich Plasma, and Sham Treatment in Chronic Midportion Achilles Tendinopathy: A Randomized Double-Blinded Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesen, Anders Ploug; Hansen, Rudi; Boesen, Morten Ilum; Malliaras, Peter; Langberg, Henning

    2017-07-01

    Injection therapies are often considered alongside exercise for chronic midportion Achilles tendinopathy (AT), although evidence of their efficacy is sparse. To determine whether eccentric training in combination with high-volume injection (HVI) or platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injections improves outcomes in AT. Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1. A total of 60 men (age, 18-59 years) with chronic (>3 months) AT were included and followed for 6 months (n = 57). All participants performed eccentric training combined with either (1) one HVI (steroid, saline, and local anesthetic), (2) four PRP injections each 14 days apart, or (3) placebo (a few drops of saline under the skin). Randomization was stratified for age, function, and symptom severity (Victorian Institute of Sports Assessment-Achilles [VISA-A]). Outcomes included function and symptoms (VISA-A), self-reported tendon pain during activity (visual analog pain scale [VAS]), tendon thickness and intratendinous vascularity (ultrasonographic imaging and Doppler signal), and muscle function (heel-rise test). Outcomes were assessed at baseline and at 6, 12, and 24 weeks of follow-up. VISA-A scores improved in all groups at all time points ( P PRP (6 weeks = 14 ± 4; 12 weeks = 15 ± 3) and placebo (6 weeks = 10 ± 3; 12 weeks = 11 ± 3) at 6 and 12 weeks ( P PRP (20 ± 5) groups versus placebo (9 ± 3) at 24 weeks ( P PRP (6 weeks = 37 ± 7 mm; 12 weeks = 41 ± 7 mm; 24 weeks = 37 ± 6 mm) versus placebo (6 weeks = 23 ± 6 mm; 12 weeks = 30 ± 5 mm; 24 weeks = 18 ± 6 mm) at all time points ( P PRP at 6 weeks ( P PRP groups during the intervention, and this was greater in the HVI versus PRP and placebo groups at 6 and 12 weeks ( P PRP groups versus the placebo group at 24 weeks ( P PRP in combination with eccentric training in chronic AT seems more effective in reducing pain, improving activity level, and reducing tendon thickness and intratendinous vascularity than eccentric training alone. HVI may be

  14. Reviews of plasma physics

    CERN Document Server

    2008-01-01

    "Reviews of Plasma Physics Volume 24," edited by V.D. Shafranov, presents two reviews from the cutting-edge of Russian plasma physics research. The first review by V.A. Rozhansky devoted to the mechanisms of transverse conductivity and generation of self-consistent electric fields in strongly ionized magnetized plasma. The second review by O.G. Bakunin considers numerous aspects of turbulent transport in plasma and fluids. This review is focused on scaling arguments for describing anomalous diffusion in the presence of complex structures. These topics are especially important for fusion plasma research, plasma astrophysics, discharge physics, and turbulence

  15. Reviews of plasma physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafranov, Vitalii Dmitrievich (ed.); Bakunin, Oleg G. (comps.) [Rossijskij Nauchnyj Tsentr ' ' Kurchatovskij Inst.' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation). Nuclear Fusion Inst.; Rozhansky, V. [St. Petersburg State Polytechnical Univ. (Russian Federation)

    2008-07-01

    Reviews of Plasma Physics Volume 24, edited by V.D. Shafranov, presents two reviews from the cutting-edge of Russian plasma physics research. The first review by V.A. Rozhansky devoted to the mechanisms of transverse conductivity and generation of self-consistent electric fields in strongly ionized magnetized plasma. The second review by O.G. Bakunin considers numerous aspects of turbulent transport in plasma and fluids. This review is focused on scaling arguments for describing anomalous diffusion in the presence of complex structures. These topics are especially important for fusion plasma research, plasma astrophysics, discharge physics, and turbulence (orig.)

  16. 病毒性疫苗渗透压摩尔浓度的质量控制%Quality control of osmolality of viral vaccines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程鹏飞; 马雷钧; 陈英娇; 马相虎

    2013-01-01

    目的 通过检测6种病毒性疫苗成品的渗透压摩尔浓度,比较不同疫苗检测均值的差异,并观察同种疫苗检测值的批间稳定性,为增加病毒性疫苗质量控制手段提供依据.方法 采用冰点下降法检测麻疹减毒活疫苗、风疹减毒活疫苗、麻疹腮腺炎联合减毒活疫苗、麻疹腮腺炎风疹联合减毒活疫苗、水痘减毒活疫苗、流感病毒裂解疫苗的渗透压摩尔浓度,对检测值进行统计学处理,计算变异系数.以麻疹腮腺炎风疹联合减毒活疫苗的渗透压摩尔浓度检测均值作为对照,进行方差齐性检验及假设检验,比较各疫苗检测均值的差异.结果 麻疹腮腺炎联合减毒活疫苗与对照相比,均值差异无统计学意义(t =1.66,P>0.05);麻疹减毒活疫苗、风疹减毒活疫苗、水痘减毒活疫苗及流感病毒裂解疫苗与对照相比,均值差异均有统计学意义(Z>1.96,P<0.001).同种疫苗批间渗透压摩尔浓度较为稳定,变异系数均<3%,变化幅度能控制在90%~110%均值范围内.结论 6种病毒性疫苗渗透压摩尔浓度存在一定差异,但同种疫苗检测值批间稳定性较好,因此,应根据不同疫苗的渗透压摩尔浓度,分别制定质量控制标准.%Objective To compare the difference of mean osmolalities among 6 viral vaccines and observe lot-to-lot stability of a single vaccine,and provide a basis for increasing an approach of quality control of viral vaccines.Methods The osmolalities of 5 live attenuated viral vaccines (measles,mumps and rubella combined vaccine,measles and mumps combined vaccine,measles vaccine,rubella vaccine,varicella vaccine) and influenza vaccine (split virion) were determined by a method of freezing point depression.Coefficient of variation was calculated.The mean osmolality of measles,mumps and rubella combined vaccine was used as a control and mean osmolalities of the remaining 5 vaccines were compared with the control by

  17. Hemograma, sódio, potássio, cálcio, osmolalidade e viscosidade durante angiocardiografia pediátrica com ioxaglato Blood cell count, sodium, potassium, calcium, osmolality and viscosity, during pediatric angiocardiography with ioxaglate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Regis Silva Moura

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Os meios de contraste (MC introduzem alterações em alguns parâmetros sangüíneos, adquirindo, assim, mais importância na angiocardiografia pediátrica. MÉTODOS: Estudamos a presença e a severidade das mudanças no hematócrito, hemoglobina, leucócitos, sódio, potássio, cálcio, osmolalidade e viscosidade, em 35 crianças submetidas a angiocardiografia com ioxaglato, identificando, também, as variáveis independentes responsáveis por essas alterações. As amostras sangüíneas foram colhidas no início do procedimento (S1, no fim (S2 e 2h após (S3. RESULTADOS: Hematócrito: S1= 47,3±6,9%; S2= 40,7±7,4% (pPURPOSE: Children's blood changes during angiocardiography may not be only due to the contrast media (CM. METHODS: We studied the presence and severity of changes in those parameters in 35 pediatric patients undergoing angiocardiography with ioxaglate aiming to identify independent variables responsible for those changes. Blood samples were taken at the beginning of the procedure (S1, at the end (S2 and two hours later (S3. RESULTS: Hematocrit: S1= 47.3±6.9%; S2= 40.7± 7.4% (p<0.001, (related to the CM volume r=0.37, p<0.05. Hemoglobin: S1= 15±2.1g%; S2= 13.2±2.4g% (p<0.001, and S3= 12.7±2.5g% (NS. White blood cell count: S1= 7940±3040 leukocytes/mm³; S2= 6950± 2700/mm³ (NS; S3= 10830±4690 leukocytes/mm³, (p<0.001. Procedure duration (r=0.38, p<0.05 and 5% glucose fluid given between S2 and S3 (r=0.49, p<0.05 were isolated. Sodium: S1= 134.5±0.4mEq/L; S2= 130.7±0.4mEq/L (p<0.001 (due to 5% glucose fluid injected, r=0.61, p<0.01. Potassium: S1= 4.22±0.45mEq/L, S2= 3.83±0.4mEq/L (p<0.001. Calcium: S1= 9.13± 1.03mg%; S2= 8.4±0.91mg/dL. (related to the CM, r=0.43, p<0.01. Osmolality: S1= 293.3±12.5mOsm/kg; S2= 300.6±13.3mOsm/kg (p<0.001. Viscosity: S1= 3.36±0.81; S2= 3.09±0.74 (p<0.01; S3= 3.87±0.89, p<0.001. There was an indirect linear regression with the CM. CONCLUSION: There were profound

  18. Plasma processing for VLSI

    CERN Document Server

    Einspruch, Norman G

    1984-01-01

    VLSI Electronics: Microstructure Science, Volume 8: Plasma Processing for VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration) discusses the utilization of plasmas for general semiconductor processing. It also includes expositions on advanced deposition of materials for metallization, lithographic methods that use plasmas as exposure sources and for multiple resist patterning, and device structures made possible by anisotropic etching.This volume is divided into four sections. It begins with the history of plasma processing, a discussion of some of the early developments and trends for VLSI. The second section

  19. Plasma volume expansion for treatment of preeclampsia: a Meta analysis%先兆子痫扩容治疗的Meta分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琳; 田庚; 崔满华

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate effect of plasma volume expansion treatment for preeclampsia by Meta analysis. Methods A comprehensive literature search was performed at PubMed, Medline, Ovid, Embase, CNKI in English language for randomized controlled trials, hand search was also made to retrieve the current reference and research reports. Strict inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied to choose original research, and for quality assessment and data extraction, the software Revman 5. 0 was used for the Meta analysis. Results A total of 5 reports met the inclusion criteria of, including a total of 297 patients. Meta analysis results suggest that the volume - expansion group, compared with non - expansion groups: ① had no statistically significant difference in cesarean section rate, RR = 1.08, 95% CI; 0. 96 ~ 1.22, P = 0.19, ②the difference in the rate of premature delivery was not statistically significant between two groups, RR = 0.91, 95%C7;0.26 ~3.22, P = 0.89. ③perinatal mortality rate had no significant difference between the two groups, RR = 1. 65 , 95% C/;0. 77 ~ 3. 54, P = 0. 20.④the proportion of Apgar score < 7 had no significant difference between the two groups, RR = 1. 11, 95% C/:0. 54 ~ 2. 28 , P = 0. 77. ⑤the ratio of an additional drugs had no significant difference, RR = 1. 91, 95% C/:0. 90 ~ 4. 05, P = 0. 09. Conclusion The volume expansion does not improve the treatment of preeclampsia maternal cesarean section rate, perinatal mortality, Apgar score < 7 and the application of an additional drug ( magnesium sulfate and antihypertensive drugs ) ratio.%目的 通过Meta分析的方法评价先兆子痫扩容治疗的临床疗效.方法 检索1979 ~2010年中外文数据库收录的公开发表与研究目的相关的随机对照试验的文献,手工检索当前能够检索到的参考资料及研究报告.制定严格的纳入与排除标准,选择原始研究并对其进行质量评价和数据提取,利用Revman5.0版软件对所纳

  20. Osmolality, temperature, and membrane lipid composition modulate the activity of betaine transporter BetP in Corynebacterium glutamicum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ozcan, Nuran; Ejsing, Christer S.; Shevchenko, Andrej

    2007-01-01

    to low temperatures. BetP from cold-adapted cells is less sensitive to osmotic stress. In order to become susceptible for chill activation, cold-adapted cells in addition needed a certain amount of osmotic stimulation, indicating that there is cross talk of these two types of stimuli at the level of Bet......P activity. We further correlated the change in BetP regulation properties in cells grown at different temperatures to changes in the lipid composition of the plasma membrane. For this purpose, the glycerophospholipidome of C. glutamicum grown at different temperatures was analyzed by mass spectrometry using...

  1. Plasma etching an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Manos, Dennis M

    1989-01-01

    Plasma etching plays an essential role in microelectronic circuit manufacturing. Suitable for researchers, process engineers, and graduate students, this book introduces the basic physics and chemistry of electrical discharges and relates them to plasma etching mechanisms. Throughout the volume the authors offer practical examples of process chemistry, equipment design, and production methods.

  2. Plasma diagnostics discharge parameters and chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Auciello, Orlando

    1989-01-01

    Plasma Diagnostics, Volume 1: Discharge Parameters and Chemistry covers seven chapters on the important diagnostic techniques for plasmas and details their use in particular applications. The book discusses optical diagnostic techniques for low pressure plasmas and plasma processing; plasma diagnostics for electrical discharge light sources; as well as Langmuir probes. The text also describes the mass spectroscopy of plasmas, microwave diagnostics, paramagnetic resonance diagnostics, and diagnostics in thermal plasma processing. Electrical engineers, nuclear engineers, microwave engineers, che

  3. Fast, multiphase volume adaptation to hyperosmotic shock by Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teuta Pilizota

    Full Text Available All living cells employ an array of different mechanisms to help them survive changes in extra cellular osmotic pressure. The difference in the concentration of chemicals in a bacterium's cytoplasm and the external environment generates an osmotic pressure that inflates the cell. It is thought that the bacterium Escherichia coli use a number of interconnected systems to adapt to changes in external pressure, allowing them to maintain turgor and live in surroundings that range more than two-hundred-fold in external osmolality. Here, we use fluorescence imaging to make the first measurements of cell volume changes over time during hyperosmotic shock and subsequent adaptation on a single cell level in vivo with a time resolution on the order of seconds. We directly observe two previously unseen phases of the cytoplasmic water efflux upon hyperosmotic shock. Furthermore, we monitor cell volume changes during the post-shock recovery and observe a two-phase response that depends on the shock magnitude. The initial phase of recovery is fast, on the order of 15-20 min and shows little cell-to-cell variation. For large sucrose shocks, a secondary phase that lasts several hours adds to the recovery. We find that cells are able to recover fully from shocks as high as 1 Osmol/kg using existing systems, but that for larger shocks, protein synthesis is required for full recovery.

  4. Urinary concentration does not exclusively rely on plasma vasopressin. A study between genders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graugaard-Jensen, Charlotte; Hvistendahl, Gitte M; Frøkiaer, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    inpatient study under standardized conditions for measurements of plasma vasopressin, oxytocin, sodium and osmolality. Urine was fractionally collected for measurements of electrolytes, aquaporin-2 and prostaglandin E2. ResultsPlasma vasopressin expressed a diurnal rhythm with a night-time increase in both......AimWe investigated the influence of gender on the diurnal regulation of urine production with special focus on vasopressin, oxytocin and prostaglandin E2. MethodsFifteen young women in mid-follicular phase and 22 young men (20-33years) were included. All participants underwent a 24-h circadian...

  5. Magnetic Fusion Energy Plasma Interactive and High Heat Flux Components: Volume 5, Technical assessment of critical issues in the steady state operation of fusion confinement devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    Critical issues for the steady state operation of plasma confinement devices exist in both the physics and technology fields of fusion research. Due to the wide range and number of these issues, this technical assessment has focused on the crucial issues associated with the plasma physics and the plasma interactive components. The document provides information on the problem areas that affect the design and operation of a steady state ETR or ITER type confinement device. It discusses both tokamaks and alternative concepts, and provides a survey of existing and planned confinement machines and laboratory facilities that can address the identified issues. A universal definition of steady state operation is difficult to obtain. From a physics point of view, steady state is generally achieved when the time derivatives approach zero and the operation time greatly exceeds the characteristic time constants of the device. Steady state operation for materials depends on whether thermal stress, creep, fatigue, radiation damage, or power removal are being discussed. For erosion issues, the fluence and availability of the machine for continuous operation are important, assuming that transient events such as disruptions do not limit the component lifetimes. The panel suggests, in general terms, that steady state requires plasma operation from 100 to 1000 seconds and an availability of more than a few percent, which is similar to the expectations for an ETR type device. The assessment of critical issues for steady state operation is divided into four sections: physics issues; technology issues; issues in alternative concepts; and devices and laboratory facilities that can address these problems.

  6. Comparison of fluid neutral models for one-dimensional plasma edge modeling with a finite volume solution of the Boltzmann equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horsten, N., E-mail: niels.horsten@kuleuven.be; Baelmans, M. [KU Leuven, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Celestijnenlaan 300A, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Dekeyser, W. [ITER Organization, route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, 13067 St. Paul lez Durance Cedex (France); Samaey, G. [KU Leuven, Department of Computer Science, Celestijnenlaan 200A, 3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2016-01-15

    We derive fluid neutral approximations for a simplified 1D edge plasma model, suitable to study the neutral behavior close to the target of a nuclear fusion divertor, and compare its solutions to the solution of the corresponding kinetic Boltzmann equation. The plasma is considered as a fixed background extracted from a detached 2D simulation. We show that the Maxwellian equilibrium distribution is already obtained very close to the target, justifying the use of a fluid approximation. We compare three fluid neutral models: (i) a diffusion model; (ii) a pressure-diffusion model (i.e., a combination of a continuity and momentum equation) assuming equal neutral and ion temperatures; and (iii) the pressure-diffusion model coupled to a neutral energy equation taking into account temperature differences between neutrals and ions. Partial reflection of neutrals reaching the boundaries is included in both the kinetic and fluid models. We propose two methods to obtain an incident neutral flux boundary condition for the fluid models: one based on a diffusion approximation and the other assuming a truncated Chapman-Enskog distribution. The pressure-diffusion model predicts the plasma sources very well. The diffusion boundary condition gives slightly better results overall. Although including an energy equation still improves the results, the assumption of equal ion and neutral temperature already gives a very good approximation.

  7. The Water to Solute Permeability Ratio Governs the Osmotic Volume Dynamics in Beetroot Vacuoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitali, Victoria; Sutka, Moira; Amodeo, Gabriela; Chara, Osvaldo; Ozu, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Plant cell vacuoles occupy up to 90% of the cell volume and, beyond their physiological function, are constantly subjected to water and solute exchange. The osmotic flow and vacuole volume dynamics relies on the vacuole membrane -the tonoplast- and its capacity to regulate its permeability to both water and solutes. The osmotic permeability coefficient (Pf) is the parameter that better characterizes the water transport when submitted to an osmotic gradient. Usually, Pf determinations are made in vitro from the initial rate of volume change, when a fast (almost instantaneous) osmolality change occurs. When aquaporins are present, it is accepted that initial volume changes are only due to water movements. However, in living cells osmotic changes are not necessarily abrupt but gradually imposed. Under these conditions, water flux might not be the only relevant driving force shaping the vacuole volume response. In this study, we quantitatively investigated volume dynamics of isolated Beta vulgaris root vacuoles under progressively applied osmotic gradients at different pH, a condition that modifies the tonoplast Pf. We followed the vacuole volume changes while simultaneously determining the external osmolality time-courses and analyzing these data with mathematical modeling. Our findings indicate that vacuole volume changes, under progressively applied osmotic gradients, would not depend on the membrane elastic properties, nor on the non-osmotic volume of the vacuole, but on water and solute fluxes across the tonoplast. We found that the volume of the vacuole at the steady state is determined by the ratio of water to solute permeabilites (Pf/Ps), which in turn is ruled by pH. The dependence of the permeability ratio on pH can be interpreted in terms of the degree of aquaporin inhibition and the consequently solute transport modulation. This is relevant in many plant organs such as root, leaves, cotyledons, or stems that perform extensive rhythmic growth movements

  8. The water to solute permeability ratio governs the osmotic volume dynamics in beetroot vacuoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Vitali

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant cell vacuoles occupy up to 90% of the cell volume and, beyond their physiological function, are constantly subjected to water and solute exchange. The osmotic flow and vacuole volume dynamics relies on the vacuole membrane -the tonoplast- and its capacity to regulate its permeability to both water and solutes. The osmotic permeability coefficient (Pf is the parameter that better characterizes the water transport when submitted to an osmotic gradient. Usually, Pf determinations are made in vitro from the initial rate of volume change, when a fast (almost instantaneous osmolality change occurs. When aquaporins are present, it is accepted that initial volume changes are only due to water movements. However, in living cells osmotic changes are not necessarily abrupt but gradually imposed. Under these conditions, water flux might not be the only relevant driving force shaping the vacuole volume response. In this study, we quantitatively investigated volume dynamics of isolated Beta vulgaris root vacuoles under progressively applied osmotic gradients at different pH, a condition that modifies the tonoplast Pf. We followed the vacuole volume changes while simultaneously determining the external osmolality time-courses and analyzing these data with mathematical modelling. Our findings indicate that vacuole volume changes, under progressively applied osmotic gradients, would not depend on the membrane elastic properties, nor on the non-osmotic volume of the vacuole, but on water and solute fluxes across the tonoplast. We found that the volume of the vacuole at the steady state is determined by the ratio of water to solute permeabilites (Pf/Ps, which in turn is ruled by pH. The dependence of the permeability ratio on pH can be interpreted in terms of the degree of aquaporin inhibition and the consequently solute transport modulation. This is relevant in many plant organs such as root, leaves, cotyledons or stems that perform extensive rhythmic

  9. The Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN properties of 2-methyltetrols and C3–C6 polyols from osmolality and surface tension measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ekström

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A significant fraction of the organic material in aerosols is made of highly soluble compounds such as sugars (mono- and polysaccharides and polyols, including the 2-methyltetrols, methylerythritol and methyltreitol. The high solubility of these compounds has brought the question of their potentially high CCN efficiency. For the 2-methyltetrols, this would have important implications for cloud formation at global scale because they are thought to be produced by the atmospheric oxidation of isoprene. To investigate this question, the complete Köhler curves for C3–C6 polyols and the 2-methyltetrols have been determined experimentally from osmolality and surface tension measurements. Contrary to what expected, none of these compounds displayed a critical supersaturation lower than those of inorganic salts or organic acids. Their Raoult terms show that this limited CCN efficiency is due to their absence of dissociation in water, this in spite of slight surface-tension effects for the 2-methyltetrols. Thus, compounds such as sugars and polyols would not contribute more to cloud formation in the atmosphere than any other organic compounds studied so far. In particular, the presence of 2-methyltetrols in aerosols would not particularly enhance cloud formation in the atmosphere, contrary to what has been suggested.

  10. The Effect of Inhalation Volume and Breath-Hold Duration on the Retention of Nicotine and Solanesol in the Human Respiratory Tract and on Subsequent Plasma Nicotine Concentrations During Cigarette Smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armitage AK

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of inhalation depth and breath-hold duration on the retention of nicotine and solanesol in the human respiratory tract and on nicotine uptake was studied in ten cigarette smokers. In a first series of experiments, the subjects took seven puffs from a 10 mg ‘tar’ yield, test cigarette and a fixed volume of air (0, 75, 250, 500 or 1000 mL, as required by the protocol was inhaled after each puff in order to give a controlled ‘depth’ of inhalation. The inhalation was drawn from a bag containing the required volume of air. Following a 2 s breath-hold, subjects exhaled normally, with the first exhalation after each puff passing through a single acidified filter pad for collection of the non-retained nicotine and solanesol. Blood samples were taken before and at intervals during and after smoking for the sessions with 0, 75 and 500 mL inhalation volumes for determination of plasma nicotine and carboxyhaemoglobin levels. Another series of experiments was conducted with a fixed inhalation volume (500 mL and two further breath-hold durations (0 and 10 s in addition to 2 s from above. Nicotine and solanesol retentions were measured for each breath-hold condition. The amounts of nicotine retained within the respiratory system, expressed as a percentage of the amount taken into the mouth, were consistently higher than the corresponding values for solanesol in all five inhalation conditions (0-1000 mL, 2 s breath-hold. Nicotine retention increased from 46.5% at zero inhalation to 99.5% at 1000 mL inhalation (2 s breath-hold and from 98.0% at zero breath-hold to 99.9% at 10 s breath-hold (500 mL inhalation. Solanesol retention increased from 34.2% at zero inhalation volume to 71.9% at 1000 mL inhalation (2 s breath-hold and from 51.8% at zero breath-hold to 87.6% at 10 s breath-hold (500 mL inhalation. Plasma nicotine decreased from pre-smoking levels after zero inhalation indicating that the nicotine retained within the mouth was poorly

  11. Determination of cilostazol and its active metabolite 3,4-dehydro cilostazol from small plasma volume by UPLC-MS/MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nejal M. Bhatt; Vijay D. Chavada; Daxesh P. Patel; Primal Sharma; Mallika Sanyal; Pranav S. Shrivastav

    2015-01-01

    A simple, rapid and sensitive ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass cilostazol and its pharmacologically active metabolite 3,4-dehydro cilostazol in human plasma using deuterated analogs as internal standards (ISs). Plasma samples were prepared using solid phase extraction 18 (50 mm ? 2.1 mm, 1.7 mm) column. The method was established over a concentration range of 0.5–1000 ng/mL for cilostazol and 0.5–mL for 3,4-dehydro cilostazol. Intra-and inter-batch precision (%CV) and accuracy for the analytes were found within 0.93–1.88 and 98.8–101.7% for cilostazol and 0.91–2.79 and 98.0–102.7% for the metabolite respectively. The assay recovery was within 95–97% for both the analytes and internal standards. The method was successfully applied to support a bioequivalence study of 100 mg cilostazol in 30 healthy subjects.

  12. Determination of cilostazol and its active metabolite 3,4-dehydro cilostazol from small plasma volume by UPLC−MS/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nejal M. Bhatt

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A simple, rapid and sensitive ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC−MS/MS method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of cilostazol and its pharmacologically active metabolite 3,4-dehydro cilostazol in human plasma using deuterated analogs as internal standards (ISs. Plasma samples were prepared using solid phase extraction and chromatographic separation was performed on UPLC BEH C18 (50 mm×2.1 mm, 1.7 µm column. The method was established over a concentration range of 0.5–1000 ng/mL for cilostazol and 0.5–500 ng/mL for 3,4-dehydro cilostazol. Intra- and inter-batch precision (% CV and accuracy for the analytes were found within 0.93–1.88 and 98.8–101.7% for cilostazol and 0.91–2.79 and 98.0–102.7% for the metabolite respectively. The assay recovery was within 95–97% for both the analytes and internal standards. The method was successfully applied to support a bioequivalence study of 100 mg cilostazol in 30 healthy subjects.

  13. A semi-automated multiplex high-throughput assay for measuring IgG antibodies against Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) domains in small volumes of plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cham, Gerald K K; Kurtis, Jonathan; Lusingu, John;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The level of antibodies against PfEMP1 is routinely quantified by the conventional microtitre enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). However, ELISA only measures one analyte at a time and requires a relatively large plasma volume if the complete antibody profile of the sample...... of twenty nine PfEMP1 domains were PCR amplified from 3D7 genomic DNA, expressed in the Baculovirus system and purified by metal-affinity chromatography. The antibody reactivity level to the recombinant PfEMP1 proteins in human hyper-immune plasma was measured by ELISA. In parallel, these recombinant PfEMP1......-based assay was sensitive, accurate and reproducible. Four recombinant PfEMP1 proteins C17, D5, D9 and D12, selected on the basis that they showed a spread of median fluorescent intensity (MFI) values from low to high when analysed by the bead-based assay were analysed by ELISA and the results from both...

  14. Renal function and plasma levels of arginine vasotocin during free flight in pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giladi, I; Goldstein, D L; Pinshow, B; Gerstberger, R

    1997-12-01

    We examined urinary water loss and plasma levels of arginine vasotocin (AVT) in free-flying, tippler pigeons trained to fly continuously for up to 5 h. First, we used [3H]polyethyleneglycol ([3H]PEG) as a glomerular filtration marker by implanting an osmotic minipump into each bird. In two flights (10 birds in winter at an ambient temperature of 13-15 degrees C and seven in summer at 23 degrees C), we measured pre-flight (hydrated, resting control birds) and post-flight [3H]PEG activity and osmolality in blood and ureteral urine. For comparison, we measured these variables in 10 birds in winter before and after controlled dehydration (24 h at 25 or 30 degrees C). Second, we measured plasma levels of AVT in 6-8 birds before and immediately after each of three different summer flights. Urine osmolality increased significantly by up to three times the control level in both post-flight and dehydrated pigeons; urine:plasma osmolality ratios did not exceed 2. Compared with controls, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was significantly lower after flight in summer, but did not change in either post-flight or dehydrated winter pigeons. In winter, mean post-flight urine flow rate (UFR) decreased significantly to less than half the control level, while in summer, post-flight UFR did not differ from control levels. In general, mean filtered water reabsorption (FrH2O) increased from 95 % in controls to 98 % in post-flight and dehydrated birds. Plasma levels of AVT increased after flight to between three and eight times the preflight levels. The data from this first study of kidney function during flight are consistent with previous studies of dehydration in birds and exercise in mammals in which both increased FrH2O and decreased GFR contribute to renal conservation of water.

  15. A validated LC-MS/MS method for the determination of canagliflozin, a sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitor, in a lower volume of rat plasma: application to pharmacokinetic studies in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobuchi, Shinji; Yano, Kyoka; Ito, Yukako; Sakaeda, Toshiyuki

    2016-10-01

    Canagliflozin is a novel, orally selective inhibitor of sodium-dependent glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) for the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this study, a validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the quantitative analysis of canagliflozin in a lower volume of rat plasma (0.1 mL) was established and applied to a pharmacokinetic study in rats. Following liquid-liquid extraction by tert-butyl methyl ether, chromatographic separation of canagliflozin was performed on a Quicksorb ODS (2.1 mm i.d. × 150 mm, 5 µm size) using acetonitrile-0.1% formic acid (90:10, v/v) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.2 mL/min. The detection was carried out using an API 3200 triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer operating in the positive electrospray ionization mode. Selected ion monitoring transitions of m/z = 462.0 [M + NH4 ](+)  → 191.0 for canagliflozin and m/z = 451.2 [M + H](+)  → 71.0 for empagliflozin (internal standard) were obtained. The validation of the method was investigated, and it was found to be of sufficient specificity, accuracy and precision. Canagliflozin in rat plasma was stable under the analytical conditions used. This validated method was successfully applied to assess the pharmacokinetics of canagliflozin in rats using 0.1 mL rat plasma. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Ultra-trace plutonium determination in small volume seawater by sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with application to Fukushima seawater samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Wenting; Zheng, Jian; Guo, Qiuju; Aono, Tatsuo; Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo; Tazoe, Hirofumi; Yamada, Masatoshi

    2014-04-11

    Long-term monitoring of Pu isotopes in seawater is required for assessing Pu contamination in the marine environment from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. In this study, we established an accurate and precise analytical method based on anion-exchange chromatography and SF-ICP-MS. This method was able to determine Pu isotopes in seawater samples with small volumes (20-60L). The U decontamination factor was 3×10(7)-1×10(8), which provided sufficient removal of interfering U from the seawater samples. The estimated limits of detection for (239)Pu and (240)Pu were 0.11fgmL(-1) and 0.08fgmL(-1), respectively, which corresponded to 0.01mBqm(-3) for (239)Pu and 0.03mBqm(-3) for (240)Pu when a 20L volume of seawater was measured. We achieved good precision (2.9%) and accuracy (0.8%) for measurement of the (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratio in the standard Pu solution with a (239)Pu concentration of 11fgmL(-1) and (240)Pu concentration of 2.7fgmL(-1). Seawater reference materials were used for the method validation and both the (239+240)Pu activities and (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios agreed well with the expected values. Surface and bottom seawater samples collected off Fukushima in the western North Pacific since March 2011 were analyzed. Our results suggested that there was no significant variation of the Pu distribution in seawater in the investigated areas compared to the distribution before the accident.

  17. The Effect of Drinking on Plasma Vasopressin and Renin in Dehydrated Human Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geelen, G.; Keil, L. C.; Kravik, S. E.; Wade, C. E.; Thrasher, T. N.; Barnes, P. R.; Pyka, G.; Nesvig, C.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1996-01-01

    Oropharyngeal mechanisms activated by drinking have been shown to induce a rapid decline in plasma vasopressin which preceeds postabsorptive changes in plasma composition in the dehydrated dog. The present study was undertaken to determine what factor(s) inhibit(s) vasopressin secretion after rehydration in water deprived human subjects. Hematocrit (Hct) and hemoglobin (Hb) were determined on the day of the experiment, together with electrolytes and osmolalities which were measured on freshly separated serum. Plasma was immediately frozen and further analyzed by radioimmunoassay for renin activity (PRA), vasopressin (AVP), and aldosterone. The data were analyzed using an analysis of variance for repeated measurements and significant differences between the dehydrated control period and various time points after the start of rehydration were determined using a multiple-range test. began and reached water replete levels 15 minutes after drinking in the absence of any detectable decline in serum sodium or osmolality, we conclude that 427 oropharyngeal factors, alone or combined with gastric distension account for the extremely rapid inhibition of AVP secretion after drinking in the water-deprived human, as has been shown to be the case in dogs. Our findings are also in agreement wiht the recent demonstration that at the onset of drinking in the dehydrated monkey, there is an abrupt fall in plasma AVP concentration associated with a considerable decrease in the firing rate of the supraoptic neurosecretory neurons.

  18. Volume Entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Astuti, Valerio; Rovelli, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Building on a technical result by Brunnemann and Rideout on the spectrum of the Volume operator in Loop Quantum Gravity, we show that the dimension of the space of the quadrivalent states --with finite-volume individual nodes-- describing a region with total volume smaller than $V$, has \\emph{finite} dimension, bounded by $V \\log V$. This allows us to introduce the notion of "volume entropy": the von Neumann entropy associated to the measurement of volume.

  19. Quantification of low levels of organochlorine pesticides using small volumes (plasma of wild birds through gas chromatography negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Rodríguez, Laura B; Rodríguez-Estrella, Ricardo; Ellington, James Jackson; Evans, John J

    2007-07-01

    A solid phase extraction and gas chromatography with negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry in scan mode (GC-NCI-MS) method was developed to identify and quantify for the first time low levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCs) in plasma samples of less than 100 microl from wild birds. The method detection limits ranged from 0.012 to 0.102 pg/microl and the method reporting limit from 0.036 to 0.307 pg/microl for alpha, gamma, beta and delta-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), heptachlor, aldrin, heptachlor epoxide, endosulfan I, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p'-DDE), dieldrin, endrin, endosulfan-II, endrin-aldehyde and endosulfan-sulfate. Pesticide levels in small serum samples from individual Falco sparverius, Sturnella neglecta, Mimus polyglottos and Columbina passerina were quantified. Concentrations ranged from not detected (n/d) to 204.9 pg/microl for some OC pesticides. All levels in the food web in and around cultivated areas showed the presence of pesticides notwithstanding the small areas for agriculture existing in the desert of Baja California peninsula.

  20. Development and validation of a rapid and high-sensitivity liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay for the determination of neostigmine in small-volume beagle dog plasma and its application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Di; Li, Wenxue; Zhao, Xin; Ye, Xiaolan; Sun, Fanlu; Li, Jinying; Song, Fenyun; Fan, Guorong

    2014-03-01

    A simple, rapid and high sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the determination of neostigmine in small-volume beagle dog plasma was developed to assess the plasma pharmacokinetics of neostigmine. After protein precipitation in a Sirocco 96-well filtration plate, the filtrate was directly injected into the LC-MS/MS system. The analytes were separated on a Hanbon Hedera CN column (100 × 4.6 mm, 5 µm) with a mobile phase composed of methanol-water (60:40, v/v) and the water containing 0.01% formic acid at a flow rate of 0.6mL/min, with a split ratio of 1:1 flowing 300 μL into the mass spectrometer. The run time was 3 min. Detection was accomplished by electrospray ionization source in multiple reactions monitoring mode with the precursor-to-product ion transitions m/z 223.0 → 72.0 and 306.0 → 140.0 for neostigmine and anisodamine (internal standard), respectively. The method was sensitive with a lower limit of quantitation of 0.1 ng/mL, and good linearity in the range 0.1-100ng/mL for neostigmine (r ≥ 0.998). All the validation data, such as accuracy, intra-run and inter-run precision, were within the required limits. The method was successfully applied to pharmacokinetic study of neostigmine methylsulfate injection in beagle dogs.

  1. Radiofrequency power in plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    This document includes the various communications that were presented at the 11th topical conference on radio frequency power in plasmas which took place in Palm Springs in May 1995. It includes current diffusion studies to assess the non-inductive current deposition profiles, experiments for plasma to reach quickly an equilibrium state, and modelling of electrons in plasma. Some comparison studies also reveal the efficiency of the Quasi-Optical Grill antenna for reactor applications. Finally, a scenario for efficient mode conversion heating in the ion cyclotron range of frequency is presented. Separate abstracts were prepared for the 6 papers in this volume. (TEC).

  2. Plasma arginine vasopressin response to water load during labour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singhi, S. (West Indies Univ., Mona (Jamaica). Dept. of Child Health); Parshad, O. (West Indies Univ., Mona (Jamaica). Dept. of Physiology)

    1985-02-01

    To find out whether plasma vasopressin (Psub(AVP)) response to a water load during pregnancy is inappropriately high, as had been speculated, we measured Psub(AVP)by radioimmunoassay in 30 women at the time of delivery. Ten women had received infusion of aqueous glucose solution during labour for hydration (GW group); another ten received infusion of glucose solution as a vehicle for oxytocin (IOT group), and ten women did not receive any intrapartum intravenous fluid therapy (controls). Serum sodium and osmolality were also determined in all the subjects. Psub(AVP) levels were significantly lower in GW (0.70 +- 0.4 pg/ml) and OT groups (0.7 +- 0.6 pg/ml) (P < 0.05). Significant negative correlation was seen between the amount of glucose solution infused and levels of Psub(AVP) (r = -0.66; P < 0.01), while a significant positive correlation was seen between Psub(AVP) and serum sodium (r = 0.61; P < 0.01). These findings suggest that during labour, the physiological relationship between serum osmolality and Psub(AVP) in intact, and the infusion of a water load in the form of aqueous glucose solution is attended by an expected lowering of Psub(AVP). We infer that inappropriate ADH response is not the cause of water retention and hyponatremia often seen in women receiving aqueous glucose solution during labor.

  3. Microphysics of cosmic plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Bykov, Andrei; Cargill, Peter; Dendy, Richard; Wit, Thierry; Raymond, John

    2014-01-01

    This title presents a review of the detailed aspects of the physical processes that underlie the observed properties, structures and dynamics of cosmic plasmas. An assessment of the status of understanding of microscale processes in all astrophysical collisionless plasmas is provided. The topics discussed include  turbulence in astrophysical and solar system plasmas as a phenomenological description of their dynamic properties on all scales; observational, theoretical and modelling aspects of collisionless magnetic reconnection; the formation and dynamics of shock waves; and a review and assessment of microprocesses, such as the hierarchy of plasma instabilities, non-local and non-diffusive transport processes and ionisation and radiation processes.  In addition, some of the lessons that have been learned from the extensive existing knowledge of laboratory plasmas as applied to astrophysical problems are also covered.   This volume is aimed at graduate students and researchers active in the areas of cosmi...

  4. Exaggerated natriuretic response to isotonic volume expansion in hypertensive renal transplant recipients: evaluation of proximal and distal tubular reabsorption by simultaneous determination of renal plasma clearance of lithium and 51Cr-EDTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, A H; Knudsen, F; Danielsen, H; Pedersen, E B; Fjeldborg, P; Madsen, M; Brøchner-Mortensen, J; Kornerup, H J

    1987-02-01

    In fourteen hypertensive and fourteen normotensive renal transplant recipients, and in a group of thirteen healthy controls, changes in natriuresis, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and tubular reabsorption of sodium were determined in relation to intravenous infusion of 2 mmol isotonic sodium chloride per kg body weight. An exaggerated natriuresis was demonstrated in the hypertensive renal transplant recipients. This new finding indicates that the augmented natriuresis following plasma volume expansion, which is a characteristic finding in subjects with arterial hypertension, is not mediated by the renal nerves. Investigation of the tubular reabsorption rates of sodium by simultaneous determination of the renal clearance of 51Cr-EDTA and lithium showed that in the hypertensives the changes in tubular handling of sodium were different from those registered in the normotensive subjects. The increased sodium excretion in the hypertensive renal transplant recipients was caused by an increased output of sodium from the proximal tubules which was not fully compensated for by an increased distal reabsorption. Whether this increased delivery of sodium to the distal segments was caused by changes in GFR or in the proximal tubular reabsorption of sodium could not be clarified in the present study and warrants further investigations.

  5. 维持性血液透析患者血浆容量与血压关系的研究%Clinical study on relationship between plasma volume and blood pressure in patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方燕; 张伟明; 严玉澄; 陆任华; 王咏梅; 朱铭力; 倪兆慧; 钱家麒

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨维持性血液透析患者透析过程中血浆容量变化与血压的关系.方法 36例维持性血液透析患者根据透析前血压水平分为正常血压组(n=16)和高血压组(n=20).记录透析前后患者的血压和体质量,检测血清总蛋白水平并计算血浆容量变化值(△Pv).所有数据采用SPSS 13.0软件进行统计学分析.结果 在正常血压组,透析前后收缩压分别为(123.3±19.9) mmHg(1 mmHg=0.133 kPa)和(122.3±27.0) mmHg,舒张压分别为(69.6+9.2) mmHg和(70.9+17.0) mmHg,透析前后收缩压和舒张压比较差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05);透析过程中,体质量变化值为(2.7±1.4)kg,△PV为(14.7±10.8)%.在高血压组,透析前后收缩压分别为(162.6±16.2) mmHg和(148.2±31.1) mmHg,透析前后舒张压分别为(86.6±9.6) mmHg和(82.1±14.4) mmHg,透析后收缩压较透析前显著下降(P<0.05),而透析前后舒张压比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);透析过程中,体质量变化值为(3.2±1.3)kg,△PV为(20.4±14.4)%.相关性分析结果显示:正常血压组和高血压组患者透析前后血压与透析过程中的△PV和体质量变化均无显著相关性(P>0.05).结论 透析过程中,血浆容量改变未对患者透析前后血压变化产生显著影响;体质量下降尚不足以确切反映患者血浆容量状态,且用于预示透析前后血压变化的作用有限.%Objective To explore the association between plasma volume and blood pressure during hemodialysis in patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis. Methods Thirty-six patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis were divided into normotensive group (n = 16) and hypertensive group (n = 20) according to blood pressure before hemodialysis. The blood pressure and body weight before hemodialysis and after hemodialysis were recorded, and serum total protein concentrations were measured to determine the changes of plasma volumes ( APV). Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS 13. 0

  6. A Procedure-Spanning Analysis of Plasma Membrane Integrity for Assessment of Cell Viability in Sperm Cryopreservation of Zebrafish Danio rerio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huiping; Daly, Jonathan; Carmichael, Carrie; Matthews, Jen; Varga, Zoltan M; Tiersch, Terrence

    2016-04-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate plasma membrane integrity and motility for zebrafish sperm quality assessment along the cryopreservation pathway-from sample collection through refrigerated storage, cryoprotectant equilibration, freezing, thawing, and fertilization. The objectives were to: (1) evaluate the effects of osmolality, extender, and refrigerated storage on sperm plasma membrane integrity and motility, and (2) compare cryopreservation of sperm from farm-raised and well-characterized research populations by evaluating motility and membrane integrity of fresh, post-equilibration (before freezing) and post-thaw sperm, and post-thaw fertility. Osmolality, extender, and storage time each influenced sperm motility and membrane integrity. Isotonic osmolality showed the best protection for motility and membrane integrity compared to hypotonic and hypertonic osmolalities. Of the four tested extenders, Hanks' balanced salt solution (HBSS) and Ca(2+)-free HBSS showed the best protection compared with NaCl and glucose, and sperm retained motility and membrane integrity for 24 h of refrigerated storage. Sperm cryopreservation of zebrafish from a farm population (n = 20) and an AB research line (n = 20) showed significant differences in post-thaw fertility (32% ± 18% vs. 73% ± 21%). No differences were found in post-thaw motility, although the farm-raised zebrafish possessed a larger body size, testis weight, and higher fresh motility. Correlation analysis of pooled data did not identify correlations among motility, flow cytometry analysis of membrane integrity and recognizable cells, and post-thaw sperm fertility (p ≥ 0.202). More research is needed to standardize the fertilization conditions especially sperm-to-egg ratio to avoid possible overabundance of sperm to obscure the differences.

  7. Plasma turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horton, W. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Inst. for Fusion Studies; Hu, G. [Globalstar LP, San Jose, CA (United States)

    1998-07-01

    The origin of plasma turbulence from currents and spatial gradients in plasmas is described and shown to lead to the dominant transport mechanism in many plasma regimes. A wide variety of turbulent transport mechanism exists in plasmas. In this survey the authors summarize some of the universally observed plasma transport rates.

  8. Plasma harmonics

    CERN Document Server

    Ganeev, Rashid A

    2014-01-01

    Preface; Why plasma harmonics? A very brief introduction Early stage of plasma harmonic studies - hopes and frustrations New developments in plasma harmonics studies: first successes Improvements of plasma harmonics; Theoretical basics of plasma harmonics; Basics of HHG Harmonic generation in fullerenes using few-cycle pulsesVarious approaches for description of observed peculiarities of resonant enhancement of a single harmonic in laser plasmaTwo-colour pump resonance-induced enhancement of odd and even harmonics from a tin plasmaCalculations of single harmonic generation from Mn plasma;Low-o

  9. Effect of radiologic contrast material on cell volume regulation in proximal renal tubules from trout (Salmo trutta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galtung, H K; Løken, M; Sakariassen, K S

    2000-11-01

    Most radiographic contrast media (CM) are hyperosmotic and pose an osmotic threat to cells they are in contact with. To study these effects at the cellular level, cell volume regulatory mechanisms were observed in proximal renal tubules following exposure to the CM iohexol, ioxaglate, and iodixanol. Isolated renal tubules from trout (Salmo trutta) were exposed to 5% vol/vol iohexol (326 mOsm), ioxaglate (314 mOsm), or iodixanol (300 mOsm) or mannitol (to achieve the same osmolalities), and cell volume changes were observed videometrically. Iohexol and ioxaglate solutions induced a rapid shrinkage (12%-13%) not followed by cell volume regulation. Without CM (same osmolality), the cells shrank 11% but then showed a 77%-88% volume recovery. This reswelling was inhibited by 55% with the Na+, K+, Cl- symporter inhibitor bumetanide (50 micromol/L). Iodixanol did not significantly affect cell volume. Tubules preincubated with CM or mannitol were then stimulated with a hypoosmotic Ringer solution (160 mOsm) resulting in a 26%-36% cellular volume increase. Compared with results of experiments without mannitol and CM, preexposure to iohexol or ioxaglate almost completely inhibited the expected regulatory shrinkage phase, while previous exposure to hyperosmotic solutions with mannitol reduced the shrinkage response by 40%-53%. In this system, the hyperosmotic iohexol and ioxaglate cause cell shrinkage followed by an impaired cell volume regulatory response. Exposure to these two CM also inhibits cell volume regulation on hypoosmotic stimulation. The isosmotic iodixanol has no such effects. These changes appear to some extent to be a result of the CM's degree of hyperosmolality, but this property alone does not explain these findings.

  10. Post-renal-transplant hypertension. Urine volume, free water clearance and plasma concentrations of arginine vasopressin, angiotensin II and aldosterone before and after oral water loading in hypertensive and normotensive renal transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, E B; Danielsen, H; Knudsen, F; Nielsen, A H; Jensen, T; Kornerup, H J; Madsen, M

    1986-09-01

    Urine volume (V), free water clearance (CH2O) and plasma concentrations of arginine vasopressin (AVP), angiotensin II (A II) and aldosterone (Aldo) were determined before and three times during the first 5 h after an oral water load of 20 ml/kg body wt in 19 patients with post-renal-transplant hypertension (group I), in 13 normotensive renal transplant recipients (group II) and in 20 control subjects (group III). Both V and CH2O increased significantly in all groups, but considerably less in groups I and II than in group III. When CH2O was related to glomerular filtration rate no differences existed between patients and control subjects. Basal AVP was the same in groups I (3.3 pmol/l, median) and II (3.0 pmol/l), but significantly (p less than 0.01) higher than in group III (1.9 pmol/l). Basal A II was significantly (p less than 0.01) elevated in group I (18 pmol/l) when compared to both groups II (10 pmol/l) and III (11 pmol/l), and the level was independent of the presence of native kidneys. Basal Aldo was the same in all groups. During loading, AVP was reduced in all groups, A II was almost unchanged, and Aldo was increased in groups I and II and reduced in group III depending on alterations in serum potassium. Thus urinary diluting ability is reduced in renal transplant recipients due to a reduced glomerular filtration rate. The enhanced A II in hypertensive renal transplant recipients gives further evidence for the point of view that hypertension is angiotensin-dependent in most of these patients.

  11. Altitude acclimatization and blood volume: effects of exogenous erythrocyte volume expansion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sawka, M N; Young, Jette Feveile; Rock, P B;

    1996-01-01

    We studied sea-level residents during 13 days of altitude acclimatization to determine 1) altitude acclimatization effects on erythrocyte volume and plasma volume, 2) if exogenous erythrocyte volume expansion alters subsequent erythrocyte volume and plasma volume adaptations, 3) if an increased...... blood oxygen content alters erythropoietin responses during altitude acclimatization, and 4) mechanisms responsible for plasma loss at altitude. Sixteen healthy men had a series of hematologic measurements made at sea level, on the first and ninth days of altitude (4,300 m) residence, and after...... had no effect; in addition, initially at altitude, blood oxygen content was 8% higher in erythrocyte-infused than in saline-infused subjects. The new findings regarding altitude acclimatization are summarized as follows: 1) erythrocyte volume does not change during the first 13 days...

  12. Dusty plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortov, Vladimir E; Khrapak, Aleksei G; Molotkov, Vladimir I; Petrov, Oleg F [Institute for High Energy Densities, Associated Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Khrapak, Sergei A [Max-Planck-Institut fur Extraterrestrische Physik, Garching (Germany)

    2004-05-31

    The properties of dusty plasmas - low-temperature plasmas containing charged macroparticles - are considered. The most important elementary processes in dusty plasmas and the forces acting on dust particles are investigated. The results of experimental and theoretical investigations of different states of strongly nonideal dusty plasmas - crystal-like, liquid-like, gas-like - are summarized. Waves and oscillations in dusty plasmas, as well as their damping and instability mechanisms, are studied. Some results on dusty plasma investigated under microgravity conditions are presented. New directions of experimental research and potential applications of dusty plasmas are discussed. (reviews of topical problems)

  13. Pulse volume discharges in high pressure gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamshchikov, V. A.

    2015-11-01

    New approach for suppression of plasma inhomogeneities and instabilities in the volume self-sustained discharge is offered. The physical model is offered and conditions of obtaining extremely homogeneous self-sustained discharge are defined (with full suppression of plasma inhomogeneity and instability). Results of calculations agree with experiments.

  14. Formulação de dietas enterais artesanais e determinação da osmolalidade pelo método crioscópico Formulation of handmade enteral diets and determination of osmolality by cryoscopic method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Simeone Henriques

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de elaborar formulações dietéticas nutricionalmente equilibradas, com controle da osmolalidade, de fácil preparo e de baixo custo financeiro. As dietas foram preparadas predominantemente com alimentos convencionais, acrescidos de maltodextrina, caseínato de cálcio e suplementos minerais, da seguinte forma: 1 leite mais frutas; 2 caldos de vegetais mais suplemento protéico; 3 mingaus de leite mais suplemento protéico; 4 fórmulas infantis adaptadas; 5 extratos de frutas concentrados. A fluidez foi observada passando-se as formulações por sondas com diâmetro interno de 2,1 mm e a estabilidade checada por um período mínimo de 3 horas. A osmolalidade foi determinada por crioscopia, medindo-se o descenso relativo da pressão de vapor das soluções. Formulações com osmolalidade entre 250 e 400 mOsm/kg e densidade calórica entre 0,60 e 1,08 Kcal/ml foram obtidas. Dietas de baixo custo, fácil preparo, nutricionalmente equilibradas e com definição da proporção de seus componentes foram viabilizadas.This study was conducted with the objective of elaborating dietetic formulations, nutritionally balanced, with osmolality control, easy preparation and low financial cost. The diets were prepared mainly with common foods, added by maltodextrin, calcium caseinate and mineral supplements, as follows: 1 milk plus fruits; 2 vegetable juices plus protein supplement; 3 milk porridge plus protein supplement; 4 infant adapted formula; 5 concentrated fruit extract. The flow was observed by getting the formulations through tubes with internal diameter of 2.1 mm and the stability was checked by stocking the solutions in a minimum period of 3 hours. The osmolality was determined by cryoscopy, measuring the relative depression of steam pressure of the solutions. Formulations with osmolality between 250 and 400 mOsm/kg and caloric density between 0.60 and 1.08 Kcal/ml were obtained. Low cost diets, easy

  15. Atmospheric pressure plasma processing of polymeric materials utilizing close proximity indirect exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulauskas, Felix L.; Bonds, Truman

    2016-09-20

    A plasma treatment method that includes providing treatment chamber including an intermediate heating volume and an interior treatment volume. The interior treatment volume contains an electrode assembly for generating a plasma and the intermediate heating volume heats the interior treatment volume. A work piece is traversed through the treatment chamber. A process gas is introduced to the interior treatment volume of the treatment chamber. A plasma is formed with the electrode assembly from the process gas, wherein a reactive species of the plasma is accelerated towards the fiber tow by flow vortices produced in the interior treatment volume by the electrode assembly.

  16. Plasma is a strategic resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strengers, Paul F W; Klein, Harvey G

    2016-12-01

    Plasma-derived medicinal products (PDMPs) such as immunoglobulins and clotting factors are listed by the World Health Organization as essential medicines. These and other PDMPs are crucial for the prophylaxis and treatment of patients with bleeding disorders, immune deficiencies, autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, and a variety of congenital deficiency disorders. While changes in clinical practice in developed countries have reduced the need for red blood cell transfusions thereby significantly reducing the collection volumes of whole blood and recovered plasma suitable for fractionation, the need for PDMPs worldwide continues to increase. The majority of plasma supplies for the manufacture of PDMPs is met by the US commercial plasma industry. However, geographic imbalance in the collection of plasma raises concerns that local disruptions of plasma supplies could result in regional and global shortages of essential PDMPs. Plasma, which fits the definition of a strategic resource, that is, "an economically important raw material which is subject to a higher risk of supply interruption," should be considered a strategic resource comparable to energy and drinking water. Plasma collections should be increased outside the United States, including in low- and middle-income countries. The need for capacity building in these countries is an essential part to strengthen quality plasma collection. This will require changes in national and regional policies. We advocate the need for the restoration of an equitable balance of the international plasma supply to reduce the risk of supply shortages worldwide. Strategic independence of plasma should be endorsed on a global level. © 2016 AABB.

  17. 液相色谱-串联质谱法测定微量人血浆中伏立康唑%LC-MS/MS determination of voriconazole in low-volume human plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晓华; 钟大放; 沈晓红; 陈笑艳

    2009-01-01

    AIM To develop and validate a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/ MS) method for quantification of voriconazole (VRC) only using 25 μL human plasma. METHODS Voriconazole and the internal standard, fluconazol, were isolated from 25 μL volume of plasma by liquid-liquid extraction with ether-dichloromethane (3 : 2, V : V), then chromatographed on a Zorbax Extend C_(18) column (150 mm × 4.6 mm I.D., 5 μm, USA) using a mobile phase of acetonitrile-water-formic acid (80 : 20 : 0.15, V : V : V) at a flow rate of 0.50 mL·min~(-1). A tandem mass spectrometer equipped with electrospray ionization source was used as detector and operated in positive ion mode. Quantification was performed using selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode of the transition of m/z 350→m/z (127 + 281) for VRC and m/z 307→m/z (220 + 238) for fluconazol (IS), respectively. RESULTS The complete elution was obtained in less than 4.5 min. The linear concentration ranges of the calibration curves for VRC was 5.00 - 5 000 μg · L~(-1). The lower limit of quantitation of VRC was 5.00 μg·L~(-1). The average extraction recovery was about 90% (RSD < 6.2%). The intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviations were less than 6.6%. CONCLUTION The method is accurate, sensitive, and simple for the pharmacokinetic or bioequivalence study of VRC. The accuracy was within (-1.1 - 1.8)%.%目的 建立一种快速、灵敏的液相色谱-串联质谱法(LC-MS/MS)测定微量人血浆中伏立康唑.方法 氟康唑为内标(IS),25μL血浆样品经乙醚-二氯甲烷(3:2,V:V)萃取,在Zorbax SB-C_(18)色谱柱(150 mm×4.6 mm LD.,5μm,USA)上分离,以乙腈-水-甲酸(80:20:0.15,V:V:V)为流动相.采用电喷雾电离源(ESI源),在正离子检测方式下,以选择反应监测模式进行定量分析,监测的离子反应分别为m/z 350→m/z(127+281)(伏立康唑)和m/z 307→m/z(220+238)(氟康唑).结果 本法伏立康唑的线性范围为5.00~5 000μg·L~(-1),定量下限为5

  18. Plasma waves

    CERN Document Server

    Swanson, DG

    1989-01-01

    Plasma Waves discusses the basic development and equations for the many aspects of plasma waves. The book is organized into two major parts, examining both linear and nonlinear plasma waves in the eight chapters it encompasses. After briefly discussing the properties and applications of plasma wave, the book goes on examining the wave types in a cold, magnetized plasma and the general forms of the dispersion relation that characterize the waves and label the various types of solutions. Chapters 3 and 4 analyze the acoustic phenomena through the fluid model of plasma and the kinetic effects. Th

  19. Plasma astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Kaplan, S A; ter Haar, D

    2013-01-01

    Plasma Astrophysics is a translation from the Russian language; the topics discussed are based on lectures given by V.N. Tsytovich at several universities. The book describes the physics of the various phenomena and their mathematical formulation connected with plasma astrophysics. This book also explains the theory of the interaction of fast particles plasma, their radiation activities, as well as the plasma behavior when exposed to a very strong magnetic field. The text describes the nature of collective plasma processes and of plasma turbulence. One author explains the method of elementary

  20. Collapse of nonlinear electron plasma waves in a plasma layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimalsky, V.; Koshevaya, S.; Rapoport, Yu; Kotsarenko, A.

    2016-10-01

    The excitation of nonlinear electron plasma waves in the plasma layer is investigated theoretically. This excitation is realized by means of initial oscillatory perturbations of the volume electron concentration or by initial oscillatory distributions of the longitudinal electron velocity. The amplitudes of the initial perturbations are small and the manifestation of the volume nonlinearity is absent. When the amplitudes of the initial perturbations exceed some thresholds, the values of the electron concentration near the plasma boundary increase catastrophically. The maxima of the electron concentration reach extremely high magnitudes, and sharp peaks in the electron concentration occur, which are localized both in the longitudinal and transverse directions. This effect is interpreted as wave collapse near the plasma boundary.

  1. Selective response of human airway epithelia to luminal but not serosal solution hypertonicity. Possible role for proximal airway epithelia as an osmolality transducer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willumsen, Niels J.; Davis, C.W.; Boucher, R.C.

    1994-01-01

    exposure (10 min) to 430 mosM luminal solution elicited no regulation of any parameter. Optical measurements revealed a reduction in the thickness of preparations only in response to luminal hypertonic solutions. We conclude that (a) airway epithelial cells exhibit asymmetric water transport properties......- secretion; and (d) cell volume loss increases the resistance of the paracellular path. We speculate that these properties configure human nasal epithelium to behave as an osmotic sensor, transducing information about luminal solutions to the airway wall....

  2. EDITORIAL: Plasma jets and plasma bullets Plasma jets and plasma bullets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, M. G.; Ganguly, B. N.; Hicks, R. F.

    2012-06-01

    technological solution in the early to late 1990s of confining atmospheric plasmas in a small volume of plasma generation (i.e. with a small volume-to-surface ratio) and then extending it towards a downstream sample [7]-[9]. These are among the first low-temperature atmospheric plasmas aimed particularly at the exploitation of their ability to invoke the active and rich reactive chemistry close to ambient temperature. The main applications of these early devices are precision surface modification of low-temperature dielectric materials, for example thin film deposition and etching [7]-[9]. Variations of the early plasma jets include atmospheric plasma sheet jets [10] for the treatment of largely planar objects (e.g. polymeric sheets) as well as large arrays of many plasma jets for the treatment of complex-structured objects (e.g. surgical tools and open human wounds) [11]. As a material processing technology, the sub-100oC atmospheric-pressure plasma jet has benefited over the years from many innovations. Whilst a detailed account and analysis of these is clearly outside the scope of this Editorial, it is worth stating that there are different avenues with which to maintain a moderate electron density at the plasma core so as to keep the gas temperature at the sample point below a ceiling level. Most of the early studies employed excitation at radio frequencies above 10 MHz, at which electrons are largely confined in the plasma generation region, and this limits the current flow to and gas heating in the plume region of the plasma jet. Other techniques of current limitation have since been shown to be effective, including the use of dielectric barriers across a very large frequency range of 1 kHz--50 MHz, sub-microsecond pulses sustained at kHz frequencies, pulse-modulated radio frequencies and dual-frequency excitation [12]-[15]. These and other techniques have considerably advanced the atmospheric-pressure plasma jet technology. The period of some 15 years since the above

  3. Electronegative Plasma Instabilities in Industrial Pulsed Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pribyl, Patrick; Hansen, Anders; Gekelman, Walter

    2016-10-01

    Electronegative gases that are important for industrial etch processes have a series of instabilities that occur at process relevant conditions. These have been studied since the 1990s, but are becoming a much more important today as plasma reactors are being pushed to produce ever finer features, and tight control of the etch process is becoming crucial. The experiments are being done in a plasma etch tool that closely simulates a working industrial device. ICP coils in different configurations are driven by a pulsed RF generators operating at 2-5 MHz. A computer controlled automated probe drive can access a volume above the substrate. The probe can be a Langmuir probe, a ``Bdot'' probe, or an emissive probe the latter used for more accurate determination of plasma potential. A microwave interferometer is available to measure line-averaged electron density. The negative ion instability is triggered depending upon the gas mix (Ar,SF6) , pressure and RF power. The instability can be ``burned through'' by rapidly pulsing the RF power. In this study we present measurements of plasma current and density distribution over the wafer before, after and during the rapid onset of the instability. Work suported by NSF-GOALI Award and done at the BAPSF.

  4. An in vitro model of skeletal muscle volume regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Wibberley

    Full Text Available Hypertonic media causes cells to shrink due to water loss through aquaporin channels. After acute shrinkage, cells either regulate their volume or, alternatively, undergo a number of metabolic changes which ultimately lead to cell death. In many cell types, hypertonic shrinkage is followed by apoptosis. Due to the complex 3D morphology of skeletal muscle and the difficulty in obtaining isolated human tissue, we have begun skeletal muscle volume regulation studies using the human skeletal muscle cell line TE671RD. In this study we investigated whether hypertonic challenge of the human skeletal muscle cell line TE671RD triggered cell death or evoked a cell volume recovery response.The cellular volume of TE671RD cells was calculated from the 2D surface area. Cell death was assessed by both the trypan blue live/dead assay and the TUNEL assay.Medium osmolality was increased by addition of up to 200 mM sucrose. Addition of 200 mM sucrose resulted in mean cell shrinkage of 44±1% after 30 mins. At later time points (2 and 4 hrs two separate cell subpopulations with differing mean cell volume became apparent. The first subpopulation (15±2% of the total cell number continued to shrink whereas the second subpopulation had an increased cell volume. Cell death was observed in a small proportion of cells (approximately 6-8%.We have established that a substantial proportion of TE671RD cells respond to hypertonic challenge with RVI, but that these cells are resistant to hypertonicity triggered cell death.

  5. Renormalized Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gover, A. Rod; Waldron, Andrew

    2017-09-01

    We develop a universal distributional calculus for regulated volumes of metrics that are suitably singular along hypersurfaces. When the hypersurface is a conformal infinity we give simple integrated distribution expressions for the divergences and anomaly of the regulated volume functional valid for any choice of regulator. For closed hypersurfaces or conformally compact geometries, methods from a previously developed boundary calculus for conformally compact manifolds can be applied to give explicit holographic formulæ for the divergences and anomaly expressed as hypersurface integrals over local quantities (the method also extends to non-closed hypersurfaces). The resulting anomaly does not depend on any particular choice of regulator, while the regulator dependence of the divergences is precisely captured by these formulæ. Conformal hypersurface invariants can be studied by demanding that the singular metric obey, smoothly and formally to a suitable order, a Yamabe type problem with boundary data along the conformal infinity. We prove that the volume anomaly for these singular Yamabe solutions is a conformally invariant integral of a local Q-curvature that generalizes the Branson Q-curvature by including data of the embedding. In each dimension this canonically defines a higher dimensional generalization of the Willmore energy/rigid string action. Recently, Graham proved that the first variation of the volume anomaly recovers the density obstructing smooth solutions to this singular Yamabe problem; we give a new proof of this result employing our boundary calculus. Physical applications of our results include studies of quantum corrections to entanglement entropies.

  6. Fresh water acclimation elicits a decrease in plasma corticosteroids in the euryhaline Atlantic stingray, Dasyatis sabina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Andrew N; Nunez, B Scott

    2015-10-01

    It is thought that the elasmobranch corticosteroid hormone 1α-hydroxycorticosterone (1α-B) functions as both a glucocorticoid (GC) and mineralocorticoid (MC). Classical antinatriuretic MC activities would run counter to the osmoregulatory strategy of euryhaline elasmobranchs acclimating to fresh water (FW). Therefore we hypothesize that FW acclimation will be accompanied by a decrease in plasma corticosteroids in these animals. However, events that activate the "fight-or-flight" response could mask changes associated with acclimation to lower salinities. To better define the MC role of corticosteroids in elasmobranchs, we designed a transfer system that allows the acclimation of Atlantic stingrays (Dasyatis sabina) from seawater (SW) to FW over 12h while minimizing other extraneous stressors. Blood and interrenal glands were sampled from one group of stingrays 24h after FW transfer, while another group was sampled two weeks after FW transfer. Two other groups served as mock-transfer controls in that they were treated and sampled in the same way, but remained in SW for the entire period. Plasma corticosteroids, osmolality, chloride, and urea were significantly lower in FW-acclimated stingrays (compared to mock-transfer stingrays) 24h after FW transfer. This pattern remained after two weeks in FW, with the exception that plasma corticosteroids returned to pre-acclimation levels. There were no significant differences between experimental groups in interrenal levels of mRNAs encoding key steroidogenic proteins (steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and cholesterol side chain cleavage enzyme). Temporally decreased corticosteroid levels during FW acclimation are consistent with the unique strategy of euryhaline elasmobranchs, whereby lower plasma osmolality is maintained in FW vs. SW environments to reduce hydromineral gradients.

  7. Controlled fusion and plasma physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    This document presents the several speeches that took place during the 22nd European Physical Society conference on Controlled Fusion and Plasma Physics in Bournemouth, UK, between the 2nd and 7th July 1995. The talks deal with new experiments carried out on several tokamaks, particularly Tore Supra, concerning plasma confinement and fusion. Some information on specific fusion devices or tokamak devices is provided, as well as results of experiments concerning plasma instability. Separate abstracts were prepared for all the 31 papers in this volume. (TEC).

  8. Collective oscillations in a plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Akhiezer, A I; Polovin, R V; ter Haar, D

    2013-01-01

    International Series of Monographs in Natural Philosophy: Collective Oscillations in a Plasma, Volume 7 presents specific topics within the general field of radio waves propagation. This book contains five chapters that address the theory of linear oscillations in a plasma, the spectra of the eigen oscillations, and the mechanism of high-frequency heating. The opening chapters deal with the self-consistent fields; development of initial perturbation; dispersion permittivity tensor of a plasma in a magnetic field; effect of thermal motion of particles on low-frequency resonances; excitation of

  9. Effect of seawater immersion on plasma osmotic pressure and electrolyte balance following open chest trauma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李辉; 鹿尔驯; 虞积耀; 王大鹏; 马聪

    2002-01-01

    To explore the effect of seawater immersion on serum osmotic pressure and electrolytes balance following chest trauma in dogs. Methods: Twenty-five healthy adult dogs were used in the experiment. A canine model of right open pneumothorax was established by chest puncturing on all animals. Animals were divided into three groups: a control group (n = 10) with chest trauma without any immersion;a seawater group ( n = 10) immersed in seawater after chest trauma and a normal saline group ( n = 5 ) immersed in normal saline solution following chest trauma. Blood samples were taken at different time intervals to determine plasma osmotic pressure and electrolytes. The hemodynamic changes were also recorded. Results: Mortality in the seawater group was much higher than that of the control group and the normal saline group. The mean survival time in the seawater group lasted only 45 minutes, while in the control group and the normal saline group the average survival time was more than 4 hours (P < 0.01 ). One of the most important causes of death was hypernatremia and high osmolality. Severe electrolytes imbalance was observed in seawater group.Hypernatremia and high osmolality were the most significant factors of high mortality in the seawater group. Conclusions: Seawater immersion after chest trauma appears to be associated with severe electrolyte imbalance as well as high osmotic pressure, These may be the risk factors leading to fatal outcome.

  10. Alfven Wave Tomography for Cold MHD Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    I.Y. Dodin; N.J. Fisch

    2001-09-07

    Alfven waves propagation in slightly nonuniform cold plasmas is studied by means of ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) nonlinear equations. The evolution of the MHD spectrum is shown to be governed by a matrix linear differential equation with constant coefficients determined by the spectrum of quasi-static plasma density perturbations. The Alfven waves are shown not to affect the plasma density inhomogeneities, as they scatter off of them. The application of the MHD spectrum evolution equation to the inverse scattering problem allows tomographic measurements of the plasma density profile by scanning the plasma volume with Alfven radiation.

  11. The physics of non-ideal plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Fortov, Vladimir E

    2000-01-01

    This book is devoted to the physical properties of nonideal plasma which is compressed so strongly that the effects of interparticle interactions govern the plasma behavior. The interest in this plasma was generated by the development of modern technologies and facilities whose operations were based on high densities of energy. In this volume, the methods of nonideal plasma generation and diagnostics are considered. The experimental results are given and the main theoretical models of nonideal plasma state are discussed. The problems of thermodynamics, electro-physics, optics and dynamic stabi

  12. Epidural anesthesia, hypotension, and changes in intravascular volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holte, Kathrine; Foss, Nicolai B; Svensén, Christer

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The most common side effect of epidural or spinal anesthesia is hypotension with functional hypovolemia prompting fluid infusions or administration of vasopressors. Short-term studies (20 min) in patients undergoing lumbar epidural anesthesia suggest that plasma volume may increase when...... hypotension is present, which may have implications for the choice of treatment of hypotension. However, no long-term information or measurements of plasma volumes with or without hypotension after epidural anesthesia are available. METHODS: In 12 healthy volunteers, the authors assessed plasma (125I...... receiving hydroxyethyl starch. RESULTS: Plasma volume did not change per se after thoracic epidural anesthesia despite a decrease in blood pressure. Plasma volume increased with fluid administration but remained unchanged with vasopressors despite that both treatments had similar hemodynamic effects...

  13. Ponderomotive manipulation of cold subwavelength plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Smorenburg, P W; Luiten, O J

    2012-01-01

    Ponderomotive forces (PFs) induced in cold subwavelength plasmas by an externally applied electromagnetic wave are studied analytically. To this end, the plasma is modeled as a sphere with a radially varying permittivity, and the internal electric fields are calculated by solving the macroscopic Maxwell equations using an expansion in Debye potentials. It is found that the PF is directed opposite to the plasma density gradient, similarly to large-scale plasmas. In case of a uniform density profile, a residual spherically symmetric compressive PF is found, suggesting possibilities for contactless ponderomotive manipulation of homogeneous subwavelength objects. The presence of a surface PF on discontinuous plasma boundaries is derived. This force is essential for a microscopic description of the radiation-plasma interaction consistent with momentum conservation. It is shown that the PF integrated over the plasma volume is equivalent to the radiation pressure exerted on the plasma by the incident wave. The conce...

  14. Plasma Antenna

    OpenAIRE

    N M Vijay

    2014-01-01

    The fundamental base of plasma antenna is the use of an ionized medium as a conductor. The plasma antenna is a radiofrequency antenna formed by a plasma columns, Filaments or sheets, which are excited by a surface wave. The relevance of this device is how rapidly it can be turned on and off, only applying an electrical pulse. Besides its wide carrier frequency, the great directivity and controllable antenna shape. Otherwise a disadvantage is that it needs energy to be ionized....

  15. Lack of correlation of glucose levels in filtered blood plasma to density and conductivity measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, David M; Ash, Stephen R

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research project was to determine whether the glucose level of a blood plasma sample from a diabetic patient could be predicted by measuring the density and conductivity of ultrafiltrate of plasma created by a 30,000 m.w. cutoff membrane. Conductivity of the plasma filtrate measures electrolyte concentration and should correct density measurements for changes in electrolytes and water concentration. In vitro studies were performed measuring conductivity and density of solutions of varying glucose and sodium chloride concentrations. Plasma from seven hospitalized patients with diabetes was filtered across a 30,000 m.w. cutoff membrane. The filtrate density and conductivity were measured and correlated to glucose levels. In vitro studies confirmed the ability to predict glucose from density and conductivity measurements, in varying concentrations of glucose and saline. In plasma filtrate, the conductivity and density measurements of ultrafiltrate allowed estimation of glucose in some patients with diabetes but not others. The correlation coefficient for the combined patient data was 0.45 which was significant but only explained 20% of the variability in the glucose levels. Individually, the correlation was significant in only two of the seven patients with correlation coefficients of 0.79 and 0.88. The reasons for lack of correlation are not clear, and cannot be explained by generation of idiogenic osmoles, effects of alcohol dehydrogenase, water intake, etc. This combination of physical methods for glucose measurement is not a feasible approach to measuring glucose in plasma filtrate.

  16. Synthesis of Diamond Films with Pulsed Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-01

    Diamond and Diamond-Like Films, The Electrochemical Society , Los Angeles, California, Volume 89-12, 114, May 1989. M. Aklufi and D. Brock, "Synthesis Of...Diamond Films By Microwave Generated Pulsed Plasmas," Proceedings of The Second International Symposium On Diamond Materials, The Electrochemical Society , Washington, DC, Volume 91-8, ’ 39, May 1991.

  17. Radiology today. Volume 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heuck, F.H.W.; Donner, M.W.

    1987-01-01

    The book discusses the following contents: Advances in Cardiovascular Imaging: Digital Arteriography: Ongoing Developments. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Cardiovascular System. Comparison of Vascular CT and MRI. Characterization of Vascular Lesions by Ultrasound - Progress in Vascular Interventions: Laser Angioplasty: A Review. Fibrinolytic Therapy Combined with Clot Extraction. Drugs Useful in Angioplasty. Developments in Cardiovascular Imaging: Blood Flow Measurements with Digital Arteriography. Selection of Imaging Techniques for Venous Thromboembolic Disease. Clinical Usefulness of High-Verus Low-Osmolality Contrast Agents. Developments in Angiographic and Interventional Instrumentation. Progress in Cardiovascular Interventions. Inferior Vena Cava Filters: Types, Placement, and Efficiency. Transluminal Vascular Stenting and Grafting. Venography and Sclerotherapy of Varioceles in Children and Adolescents. A New Catheter System - Important Hip Problems: Radiologic and Pathologic Correlation and Hip Disease. Comparison of Imaging Modalities in Femoral Head Necrosis. Osteoartrosis and Arthritis (Synovitis) of the Hip. Hip Anthrography.

  18. Paper-based plasma sanitizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jingjin; Chen, Qiang; Suresh, Poornima; Roy, Subrata; White, James F.; Mazzeo, Aaron D.

    2017-05-01

    This work describes disposable plasma generators made from metallized paper. The fabricated plasma generators with layered and patterned sheets of paper provide a simple and flexible format for dielectric barrier discharge to create atmospheric plasma without an applied vacuum. The porosity of paper allows gas to permeate its bulk volume and fuel plasma, while plasma-induced forced convection cools the substrate. When electrically driven with oscillating peak-to-peak potentials of ±1 to ±10 kV, the paper-based devices produced both volume and surface plasmas capable of killing microbes. The plasma sanitizers deactivated greater than 99% of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and greater than 99.9% of Escherichia coli cells with 30 s of noncontact treatment. Characterization of plasma generated from the sanitizers revealed a detectable level of UV-C (1.9 nWṡcm-2ṡnm-1), modest surface temperature (60 °C with 60 s of activation), and a high level of ozone (13 ppm with 60 s of activation). These results deliver insights into the mechanisms and suitability of paper-based substrates for active antimicrobial sanitization with scalable, flexible sheets. In addition, this work shows how paper-based generators are conformable to curved surfaces, appropriate for kirigami-like “stretchy” structures, compatible with user interfaces, and suitable for sanitization of microbes aerosolized onto a surface. In general, these disposable plasma generators represent progress toward biodegradable devices based on flexible renewable materials, which may impact the future design of protective garments, skin-like sensors for robots or prosthetics, and user interfaces in contaminated environments.

  19. Renormalized Volume

    CERN Document Server

    Gover, A Rod

    2016-01-01

    For any conformally compact manifold with hypersurface boundary we define a canonical renormalized volume functional and compute an explicit, holographic formula for the corresponding anomaly. For the special case of asymptotically Einstein manifolds, our method recovers the known results. The anomaly does not depend on any particular choice of regulator, but the coefficients of divergences do. We give explicit formulae for these divergences valid for any choice of regulating hypersurface; these should be relevant to recent studies of quantum corrections to entanglement entropies. The anomaly is expressed as a conformally invariant integral of a local Q-curvature that generalizes the Branson Q-curvature by including data of the embedding. In each dimension this canonically defines a higher dimensional generalization of the Willmore energy/rigid string action. We show that the variation of these energy functionals is exactly the obstruction to solving a singular Yamabe type problem with boundary data along the...

  20. Complex and Dusty Plasmas From Laboratory to Space

    CERN Document Server

    Fortov, Vladimir E

    2009-01-01

    Dusty or complex plasmas are plasmas containing solid or liquid charged particles referred to as dust. Naturally occurring in space, on earth dust plays a key role in plasma applications associated with etching technologies in microelectronics. International in scope, this volume covers theoretical and application research.

  1. Arterial hypertension in cirrhosis: arterial compliance, volume distribution, and central haemodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Fuglsang, S; Bendtsen, F;

    2006-01-01

    were 130 normotensive cirrhotic patients, 19 controls with normal arterial blood pressure and without liver disease, and 16 patients with essential arterial hypertension. All groups underwent haemodynamic investigation with determination of cardiac output (CO), plasma volume (PV), central blood volume...

  2. Feto-maternal osmotic balance at term. A prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, Vibeke; Brudin, Lars; Tjernberg, Ivar; Rundgren, Mats; Irestedt, Lars

    2017-06-06

    We performed the present study to investigate the feto-maternal osmotic relationship at term with the hypothesis that, in contrast to the literature, maternal plasma osmolality is lower than fetal levels. In a previous study, we found that maternal plasma sodium at delivery was consistently lower than the sodium in the umbilical artery. Our aim was to corroborate these results with analysis of osmolality. Blood was sampled from 30 women immediately before cesarean section and from the umbilical artery and vein before cord clamping and osmolality, sodium and albumin were analyzed. Maternal osmolality was (mean; 95% confidence interval) 287.0 (285.8-288.2) mOsmkg/kg, arterial cord osmolality was 289.4 (287.9-291.0) mOsm/kg and venous cord osmolality was 287.3 (286.0-288.5) mOsm/kg. The paired difference between maternal and umbilical arterial osmolality was mean (SD) -2.4 (3.3) mOsm/kg (Pfeto-maternal osmotic gradient favors water transport from the mother to the fetus and may increase the fetal risk of water intoxication when the mother ingests or is administered large volumes of electrolyte free solutions.

  3. Effect of hydration on plasma vasopressin, renin, and aldosterone responses to head-up tilt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, M. H.; Geelen, G.; Keil, L. C.; Wade, C. A.; Hill, L. C.

    1986-01-01

    If plasma vasopressin (PVP), plasma renin (PRA), and plasma aldosterone (PA) responses to change in posture are mediated only by alterations in intrathoracic baroreceptor activity hydration status should have minimal influence on these responses. To test this hypothesis, six male subjects underwent 45 min of 70 deg head-up tilt (HUT) following 26 h dehydration, and again, 105 min later, following rehydration. Compared with preceding supine hydrated control values, PVP, PRA, and PA increased (p less than 0.001) during dehydrated HUT, but only PVP and PRA increased during rehydrated HUT (p less than 0.001). The dissociation during rehydrated HUT of PRA and PA may have been related more to the reduction (p less than 0.001) in plasma potassium concentration than to the accompanying decrease (p less than 0.001) in plasma osmolality and sodium concentration. Although increases in PVP and PRA during HUT were attenuated (p less than 0.01) following rehydration, this attenuation was associated with the absence of symptoms of overt hypotension following rehydration. However, since rehydration did not abolish the increases in PVP and PRA induced by HUT, it is concluded that the present observations support the concept of intrathoracic baroreceptor involvement in the regulation of vasopressin secretion and renin release.

  4. Plasma chromograninx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goetze, Jens P; Hilsted, Linda M; Rehfeld, Jens F

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular risk assessment remains difficult in elderly patients. We examined whether chromogranin A (CgA) measurement in plasma may be valuable in assessing risk of death in elderly patients with symptoms of heart failure in a primary care setting. A total of 470 patients (mean age 73 years......) were followed for 10 years. For CgA plasma measurement, we used a two-step method including a screening test and a confirmative test with plasma pre-treatment with trypsin. Cox multivariable proportional regression and receiver-operating curve (ROC) analyses were used to assess mortality risk...... of follow-up showed significant additive value of CgA confirm measurements compared with NT-proBNP and clinical variables. CgA measurement in the plasma of elderly patients with symptoms of heart failure can identify those at increased risk of short- and long-term mortality....

  5. Plasma Cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintze, Paul E.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Kennedy Space Center has developed two solvent-free precision cleaning techniques: plasma cleaning and supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2), that has equal performance, cost parity, and no environmental liability, as compared to existing solvent cleaning methods.

  6. Exercise Thermoregulation in Men after One and 24-hours of 6 Degree Head-Down Tilt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertl, A. C.; Dearborn, A. S.; Weldhofer, A. R.; Bernauer, E. M.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1998-01-01

    Exercise thermoregulation exercise is dependent on heat loss by increased skin blood flow (convective and conductive heat loss) and through enhanced sweating (evaporative heat loss). Reduction of plasma volume (PV), increased plasma osmolality, physical deconditioning, and duration of exposure to simulated and actual microgravity reduces the ability to thermoregulate during exercise.

  7. Magnetic stresses in ideal MHD plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, V.O.

    1995-01-01

    and it is shown that the resulting magnetic forces on a finite volume element can be obtained by integrating the magnetic stresses over the surface of the element. The concept is used to rederive and discuss the equilibrium conditions for axisymmetric toroidal plasmas, including the virial theorem......The concept of magnetic stresses in ideal MHD plasma theory is reviewed and revisited with the aim of demonstrating its advantages as a basis for calculating and understanding plasma equilibria. Expressions are derived for the various stresses that transmit forces in a magnetized plasma...

  8. Radioimmunoassay of sodium cromoglycate in human plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, K.; Gardner, J.J.; Lockley, W.J.S.; Preston, J.R.; Wilkinson, D.J. (Fisons plc, Loughborough (UK). Pharmaceutical Div.)

    1983-01-01

    A sensitive radioimmunoassay method for sodium cromoglycate in human plasma is described. The lowest quantifiable concentration of sodium cromoglycate is 0.93 nmol/l when 0.1 ml plasma samples are analysed. The range of the method is limited; both 0.01 and 0.1 ml volumes of plasma must be analysed to encompass the concentration range 0.93-139 nmol/l which may be encountered in plasma samples from patients and human volunteers. The method is specific for sodium cromoglycate as indicated by a low cross-reactivity of the anti-cromoglycate antiserum with a number of drugs.

  9. Plasmas applied atomic collision physics, v.2

    CERN Document Server

    Barnett, C F

    1984-01-01

    Applied Atomic Collision Physics, Volume 2: Plasmas covers topics on magnetically confined plasmas. The book starts by providing the history of fusion research and describing the various approaches in both magnetically and inertially confined plasmas. The text then gives a general discussion of the basic concepts and properties in confinement and heating of a plasma. The theory of atomic collisions that result in excited quantum states, particularly highly ionized impurity atoms; and diverse diagnostic topics such as emission spectra, laser scattering, electron cyclotron emission, particle bea

  10. Finite-volume scheme for anisotropic diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Es, Bram van, E-mail: bramiozo@gmail.com [Centrum Wiskunde & Informatica, P.O. Box 94079, 1090GB Amsterdam (Netherlands); FOM Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, The Netherlands" 1 (Netherlands); Koren, Barry [Eindhoven University of Technology (Netherlands); Blank, Hugo J. de [FOM Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, The Netherlands" 1 (Netherlands)

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we apply a special finite-volume scheme, limited to smooth temperature distributions and Cartesian grids, to test the importance of connectivity of the finite volumes. The area of application is nuclear fusion plasma with field line aligned temperature gradients and extreme anisotropy. We apply the scheme to the anisotropic heat-conduction equation, and compare its results with those of existing finite-volume schemes for anisotropic diffusion. Also, we introduce a general model adaptation of the steady diffusion equation for extremely anisotropic diffusion problems with closed field lines.

  11. [Plasma exchange in nephrology: Indications and technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridel, Christophe; Kissling, Sébastien; Mesnard, Laurent; Hertig, Alexandre; Rondeau, Éric

    2017-02-01

    Plasma exchange is a non-selective apheresis technique that can be performed by filtration or centrifugation allowing rapid purification of high molecular weight pathogens. An immunosuppressive treatment is generally associated to reduce the rebound effect of the purified substance. Substitution solutes such as human albumin and macromolecules are needed to compensate for plasma extraction. Compensation by viro-attenuated plasma is reserved solely for the treatment of thrombotic microangiopathies or when there is a risk of bleeding, because this product is very allergenic and expensive. The treatment goal for a plasma exchange session should be between one and one and one-half times the patient's plasma volume estimated at 40 mL/kg body weight. The anticoagulation is best ensured by the citrate. Complications of plasma exchange are quite rare according to the French hemapheresis registry. The level of evidence of efficacy of plasma exchange in nephrology varies from one pathology to another. Main indications of plasma exchange in nephrology are Goodpasture syndrome, antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody vasculitis when plasma creatinine is greater than 500 μmol/L, and thrombotic microangiopathies. During renal transplantation, plasma exchange may be proposed in the context of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) desensitization protocols or ABO-incompatible graft. After renal transplantation, plasma exchange is indicated as part of the treatment of acute humoral rejection or recurrent focal segmental glomerulosclerosis on the graft. Plasma exchanges are also proposed in the management of cryoglobulinemia or polyarteritis nodosa. Hemodialysis with membranes of very high permeability tends to replace plasma exchange for myeloma nephropathy. The benefit from plasma exchange has not been formally demonstrated for the treatment of severe lupus or antiphospholipid antibody syndrome. There is no indication of plasma exchange in the treatment of scleroderma or nephrogenic

  12. Quark gluon plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Nayak, Tapan; Sarkar, Sourav

    2014-01-01

    At extremely high temperatures and densities, protons and neutrons may dissolve into a "soup" of quarks and gluons, called the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP). For a few microseconds, shortly after the Big Bang, the Universe was filled with the QGP matter. The search and study of Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) is one of the most fundamental research topics of our times. The QGP matter has been probed by colliding heavy ions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory, New York and the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, Geneva. By colliding heavy-ions at a speed close to that of light, scientists aim to obtain - albeit over a tiny volume of the size of a nucleus and for an infinitesimally short instant - a QGP state. This QGP state can be observed by dedicated experiments, as it reverts to hadronic matter through expansion and cooling. This volume presents some of the current theoretical and experimental understandings in the field of QGP.

  13. Use of unbound volumes of drug distribution in pharmacokinetic calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepensky, David

    2011-01-18

    Volume of drug distribution is a primary pharmacokinetic parameter. This study assessed effects of drugs' plasma protein binding and tissue distribution on volume of drug distribution and identified the most appropriate ways for its calculation. Effects of the distribution factors on the unbound and total drug plasma concentrations and on the corresponding volumes of distribution were studied using pharmacokinetic modeling and simulation approach based on in vitro and in vivo concentration vs. time data of diazepam, a model drug with extensive plasma protein binding and tissue distribution. Pharmacokinetics of diazepam were appropriately described by three-compartment pharmacokinetic model that incorporated the processes of plasma protein binding and tissue permeation. According to this model, displacement of the drug from plasma proteins increases the unbound (but not the total) plasma concentrations and induces faster drug elimination from the body. The distribution pattern of the drug in the body and the time course of unbound (pharmacologically active) drug concentrations correlated with the unbound volumes of distribution, but not with the total volumes of distribution. In conclusion, unbound volumes of distribution appropriately describe the drug distribution pattern and the time course of unbound drug concentrations and are recommended for use as primary pharmacokinetic parameters in pharmaceutical research. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. A high-efficiency superhydrophobic plasma separator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changchun; Liao, Shih-Chuan; Song, Jinzhao; Mauk, Michael G; Li, Xuanwen; Wu, Gaoxiang; Ge, Dengteng; Greenberg, Robert M; Yang, Shu; Bau, Haim H

    2016-02-01

    To meet stringent limit-of-detection specifications for low abundance target molecules, a relatively large volume of plasma is needed for many blood-based clinical diagnostics. Conventional centrifugation methods for plasma separation are not suitable for on-site testing or bedside diagnostics. Here, we report a simple, yet high-efficiency, clamshell-style, superhydrophobic plasma separator that is capable of separating a relatively large volume of plasma from several hundred microliters of whole blood (finger-prick blood volume). The plasma separator consists of a superhydrophobic top cover with a separation membrane and a superhydrophobic bottom substrate. Unlike previously reported membrane-based plasma separators, the separation membrane in our device is positioned at the top of the sandwiched whole blood film to increase the membrane separation capacity and plasma yield. In addition, the device's superhydrophobic characteristics (i) facilitates the formation of well-defined, contracted, thin blood film with a high contact angle; (ii) minimizes biomolecular adhesion to surfaces; (iii) increases blood clotting time; and (iv) reduces blood cell hemolysis. The device demonstrated a "blood in-plasma out" capability, consistently extracting 65 ± 21.5 μL of plasma from 200 μL of whole blood in less than 10 min without electrical power. The device was used to separate plasma from Schistosoma mansoni genomic DNA-spiked whole blood with a recovery efficiency of >84.5 ± 25.8%. The S. mansoni genomic DNA in the separated plasma was successfully tested on our custom-made microfluidic chip by using loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method.

  15. Quark-gluon plasma 5

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This is the fifth volume in the series on the subject of quark-gluon plasma, a unique phase created in heavy-ion collisions at high energy. It contains review articles by the world experts on various aspects of quark-gluon plasma taking into account the advances driven by the latest experimental data collected at both the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The articles are pedagogical and comprehensive which can be helpful for both new researchers entering the field as well as the experienced physicists working on the subject.

  16. plasma treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puač Nevena

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we will present results for plasma sterilization of planktonic samples of two reference strains of bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212. We have used a plasma needle as a source of non-equilibrium atmospheric plasma in all treatments. This device is already well characterized by OES, derivative probes and mass spectrometry. It was shown that power delivered to the plasma is bellow 2 W and that it produces the main radical oxygen and nitrogen species believed to be responsible for the sterilization process. Here we will only present results obtained by electron paramagnetic resonance which was used to detect the OH, H and NO species. Treatment time and power delivered to the plasma were found to have the strongest influence on sterilization. In all cases we have observed a reduction of several orders of magnitude in the concentration of bacteria and for the longest treatment time complete eradication. A more efficient sterilization was achieved in the case of gram negative bacteria.

  17. Plasma metallization

    CERN Document Server

    Crowther, J M

    1997-01-01

    Many methods are currently used for the production of thin metal films. However, all of these have drawbacks associated with them, for example the need for UHV conditions, high temperatures, exotic metal precursors, or the inability to coat complex shaped objects. Reduction of supported metal salts by non-isothermal plasma treatment does not suffer from these drawbacks. In order to produce and analyse metal films before they become contaminated, a plasma chamber which could be attached directly to a UHV chamber with XPS capability was designed and built. This allowed plasma treatment of supported metal salts and surface analysis by XPS to be performed without exposure of the metal film to the atmosphere. Non-equilibrium plasma treatment of Nylon 66 supported gold(lll) chloride using hydrogen as the feed gas resulted in a 95% pure gold film, the remaining 5% of the film being carbon. If argon or helium were used as the feed gases during plasma treatment the resultant gold films were 100% pure. Some degree of s...

  18. Atmospheric Gaseous Plasma with Large Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenev, Sergey

    2012-10-01

    The forming of atmospheric plasma with large dimensions using electrical discharge typically uses the Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD). The study of atmospheric DBD was shown some problems related to homogeneous volume plasma. The volume of this plasma determines by cross section and gas gap between electrode and dielectric. The using of electron beam for volume ionization of air molecules by CW relativistic electron beams was shown the high efficiency of this process [1, 2]. The main advantage of this approach consists in the ionization of gas molecules by electrons in longitudinal direction determines by their kinetic energy. A novel method for forming of atmospheric homogeneous plasma with large volume dimensions using ionization of gas molecules by pulsed non-relativistic electron beams is presented in the paper. The results of computer modeling for delivered doses of electron beams in gases and ionization are discussed. The structure of experimental bench with plasma diagnostics is considered. The preliminary results of forming atmospheric plasma with ionization gas molecules by pulsed nanosecond non-relativistic electron beam are given. The analysis of potential applications for atmospheric volume plasma is presented. Reference: [1] S. Korenev. ``The ionization of air by scanning relativistic high power CW electron beam,'' 2002 IEEE International Conference on Plasma Science. May 2002, Alberta, Canada. [2] S. Korenev, I. Korenev. ``The propagation of high power CW scanning electron beam in air.'' BEAMS 2002: 14th International Conference on High-Power Particle Beams, Albuquerque, New Mexico (USA), June 2002, AIP Conference Proceedings Vol. 650(1), pp. 373-376. December 17.

  19. Tokamak experimental power reactor conceptual design. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-08-01

    Volume II contains the following appendices: (1) summary of EPR design parameters, (2) impurity control, (3) plasma computational models, (4) structural support system, (5) materials considerations for the primary energy conversion system, (6) magnetics, (7) neutronics penetration analysis, (8) first wall stress analysis, (9) enrichment of isotopes of hydrogen by cryogenic distillation, and (10) noncircular plasma considerations. (MOW)

  20. A New Atmospheric Pressure Microwave Plasma Source (APMPS)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Liang; ZHANG Guixin; LI Yinan; ZHU Zhijie; WANG Xinxin; LUO Chengmu

    2008-01-01

    An atmospheric pressure microwave plasma source (APMPS) that can generate a large volume of plasma at an atmospheric pressure has been developed at Tsinghua University. This paper presents the design of this APMPS, the theoretical consideration of microwave plasma ignition and the simulation results, including the distributions of the electric field and power density inside the cavity as well as the accuracy of the simulation results. In addition, a method of producing an atmospheric pressure microwave plasma and some relevant observations of the plasma are also provided. It. is expected that this research would be useful for further developing atmospheric pressure microwave plasma sources and expanding the scope of their applications.

  1. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric assay for aliskiren, a novel renin inhibitor in micro-volumes of human plasma: a pharmacokinetic application in healthy South Indian male subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adireddy, Vinayender; Pilli, Nageswara Rao; Derangula, Venkata Ramu; Satla, Shobha Rani; Ganguri, Chinna Veera Badraiah; Ponneri, Venkateswarlu

    2013-08-01

    This paper describes a simple, rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry assay for the determination of aliskiren in human plasma using nevirapine as an internal standard. Analyte and the internal standard were extracted from 100 μL of human plasma via liquid-liquid extraction using tert-butyl methyl ether. The chromatographic separation was achieved on a C18 column using a mixture of acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid (90:10, v/v) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.9 mL/min. The calibration curve obtained was linear (r(2) ≥ 0.99) over the concentration range of 0.10-1013 ng/mL. Method validation was performed as per US Food and Drug Administration guidelines and the results met the acceptance criteria. A run time of 2.2 min for each sample made it possible to analyze a greater number of samples in a short time, thus increasing the productivity. The proposed method was found to be applicable to clinical studies.

  2. Experimental study of the synthesis of supramolecular complexes in hybrid dusty plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasil'eva, T. M.

    2011-01-01

    The processes that form the reaction volume as plasma-dust entities during the injection of protein drug powders into RF-discharge plasma (plasma trap) have been investigated. Using albumin and acetylsalicylic acid as an example, plasma-assisted vapor deposition of sublimable organic compounds onto

  3. Experimental study of the synthesis of supramolecular complexes in hybrid dusty plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasil'eva, T. M.

    The processes that form the reaction volume as plasma-dust entities during the injection of protein drug powders into RF-discharge plasma (plasma trap) have been investigated. Using albumin and acetylsalicylic acid as an example, plasma-assisted vapor deposition of sublimable organic compounds onto

  4. Plasma dynamo

    CERN Document Server

    Rincon, F; Schekochihin, A A; Valentini, F

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic fields pervade the entire Universe and, through their dynamical interactions with matter, affect the formation and evolution of astrophysical systems from cosmological to planetary scales. How primordial cosmological seed fields arose and were further amplified to $\\mu$Gauss levels reported in nearby galaxy clusters, near equipartition with kinetic energy of plasma motions and on scales of at least tens of kiloparsecs, is a major theoretical puzzle still largely unconstrained by observations. Extragalactic plasmas are weakly collisional (as opposed to collisional magnetohydrodynamic fluids), and whether magnetic-field growth and its sustainment through an efficient dynamo instability driven by chaotic motions is possible in such plasmas is not known. Fully kinetic numerical simulations of the Vlasov equation in a six-dimensional phase space necessary to answer this question have until recently remained beyond computational capabilities. Here, we show by means of such simulations that magnetic-field a...

  5. Plasma medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Fridman, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    This comprehensive text is suitable for researchers and graduate students of a 'hot' new topic in medical physics. Written by the world's leading experts,  this book aims to present recent developments in plasma medicine, both technological and scientific, reviewed in a fashion accessible to the highly interdisciplinary audience consisting of doctors, physicists, biologists, chemists and other scientists, university students and professors, engineers and medical practitioners. The book focuses on major topics and covers the physics required to develop novel plasma discharges relevant for medic

  6. Plasma Processes and Polymers: 16th International Symposium on Plasma Chemistry Taormina, Italy June 22-27, 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostino, Riccardo; Favia, Pietro; Oehr, Christian; Wertheimer, Michael R.

    2005-04-01

    This volume compiles essential contributions to the most innovative fields of Plasma Processes and Polymers. High-quality contributions cover the fields of plasma deposition, plasma treatment of polymers and other organic compounds, plasma processes under partial vacuum and at atmospheric pressure, biomedical, textile, automotive, and optical applications as well as surface treatment of bulk materials, clusters, particles and powders. This unique collection of refereed papers is based on the best contributions presented at the 16th International Symposium on Plasma Chemistry in Taormina, Italy (ISPC-16, June 2003). A high class reference of relevance to a large audience in plasma community as well as in the area of its industrial applications.

  7. Plasma physics and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Fridman, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Part I: Fundamentals of Plasma Physics and Plasma ChemistryPlasma in Nature, in the Laboratory, and in IndustryOccurrence of Plasma: Natural and Man MadeGas DischargesPlasma Applications, Plasmas in IndustryPlasma Applications for Environmental ControlPlasma Applications in Energy ConversionPlasma Application for Material ProcessingBreakthrough Plasma Applications in Modern TechnologyElementary Processes of Charged Species in PlasmaElementary Charged Particles in Plasma and Their Elastic and Inelastic CollisionsIonization ProcessesMechanisms of Electron Losses: The Electron-Ion RecombinationEl

  8. High Throughput Plasma Water Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujovic, Selman; Foster, John

    2016-10-01

    The troublesome emergence of new classes of micro-pollutants, such as pharmaceuticals and endocrine disruptors, poses challenges for conventional water treatment systems. In an effort to address these contaminants and to support water reuse in drought stricken regions, new technologies must be introduced. The interaction of water with plasma rapidly mineralizes organics by inducing advanced oxidation in addition to other chemical, physical and radiative processes. The primary barrier to the implementation of plasma-based water treatment is process volume scale up. In this work, we investigate a potentially scalable, high throughput plasma water reactor that utilizes a packed bed dielectric barrier-like geometry to maximize the plasma-water interface. Here, the water serves as the dielectric medium. High-speed imaging and emission spectroscopy are used to characterize the reactor discharges. Changes in methylene blue concentration and basic water parameters are mapped as a function of plasma treatment time. Experimental results are compared to electrostatic and plasma chemistry computations, which will provide insight into the reactor's operation so that efficiency can be assessed. Supported by NSF (CBET 1336375).

  9. Quantitative analysis of plasma proteins in whole blood-derived fresh frozen plasma prepared with three pathogen reduction technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrea, Luis; Ortiz-de-Salazar, María-Isabel; Martínez, Patricia; Roig, Roberto

    2015-06-01

    Several plasma pathogen reduction technologies (PRT) are currently available. We evaluated three plasma PRT processes: Cerus Amotosalen (AM), Terumo BCT riboflavin (RB) and Macopharma methylene blue (MB). RB treatment resulted in the shortest overall processing time and in the smallest volume loss (1%) and MB treatment in the largest volume loss (8%). MB treatment retained the highest concentrations of factors II, VII, X, IX, Protein C, and Antithrombin and the AM products of factor V and XI. Each PRT process evaluated offered distinct advantages such as procedural simplicity and volume retention (RB) and overall plasma protein retention (MB).

  10. Measurement of plasma levels of vascular endothelial growth factor in prostate cancer patients: relationship with clinical stage, Gleason score, prostate volume, and serum prostate-specific antigen Medida da concentração plasmática do fator de crescimento do endotélio vascular em pacientes com câncer prostático: relação com estado clinico, gleason score, volume prostático e PSA sérico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Ferreira Duque

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: This study focused on circulating levels of vascular endothelial growth factor in patients with prostate cancer compared to a normal population. METHODS: We analyzed 26 normal individuals and 80 patients with prostate cancer. Blood was drawn from all subjects, and plasma was extracted to determine the concentration of vascular endothelial growth factor using a quantitative immunoassay technique (ELISA-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: The median plasma level of vascular endothelial growth factor was significantly elevated in patients with metastatic disease compared to patients with localized disease and with healthy controls. Patients with serum prostate-specific antigen > 20 ng/mL had significantly higher levels of plasma vascular endothelial growth factor than patients with serum prostate-specific antigen OBJETIVO: Analisar os níveis circulantes do fator de crescimento do endotélio vascular em pacientes com câncer prostático comparados com uma população de indivíduos eutróficos. MÉTODOS: Vinte e seis indivíduos eutróficos e oitenta pacientes com câncer de próstata foram analisados nesse estudo. A coleta sangüínea foi realizada da mesma maneira em todos os pacientes e o plasma foi extraído para a determinação dos níveis do fator de crescimento do endotélio vascular, utilizando-se o método quantitativo ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTADOS: Os níveis de fator de crescimento do endotélio vascular plasmático encontraram-se significativamente elevados nos pacientes com doença metastática quando comparados com pacientes com doença localizada e com indivíduos sadios. Pacientes com PSA sérico maior que 20 ng/ml apresentaram níveis maiores de fator de crescimento do endotélio vascular plasmático quando comparados com pacientes com PSA menor que 20 ng/ml. Houve uma tendência dos pacientes com escore de Gleason de 8 a 10 apresentarem níveis maiores do fator de crescimento do endot

  11. Dimension effects in plasma immersion ion implantation of cylindrical bore

    CERN Document Server

    Tian Xiu Bo; Tong Hong Hui; Chu, P K

    2002-01-01

    Plasma immersion ion implantation is a new technique pertaining to ion implantation. Different from the case of exterior surface treatment, plasma immersion ion implantation of interior surface possesses dimension effects. Consequently it is a challenge to implant the inner wall of a cylindrical bore due to this finite dimension.The ion energy cannot be linearly changed with applied voltage and there exists a saturation value due to overlap effect of plasma sheath. The plasma in the bore may rapidly be depleted, which is attributed to finite plasma volume and plasma-sheath con-flowing effect. For instance the plasma depletion time is about 0.55 mu s when a bore with a diameter of 20 cm is treated under conditions of applied voltage of 30 kV and plasma density of 2 x 10 sup 1 sup 5 ions/cm sup 3. Interior plasma-source hardware may be an effective solution

  12. Magnetoresistive waves in plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felber, F. S.; Hunter, R. O., Jr.; Pereira, N. R.; Tajima, T.

    1982-10-01

    The self-generated magnetic field of a current diffusing into a plasma between conductors can magnetically insulate the plasma. Propagation of magnetoresistive waves in plasmas is analyzed. Applications to plasma opening switches are discussed.

  13. Fusion Plasma Theory project summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This Project Summary book is a published compilation consisting of short descriptions of each project supported by the Fusion Plasma Theory and Computing Group of the Advanced Physics and Technology Division of the Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy. The summaries contained in this volume were written by the individual contractors with minimal editing by the Office of Fusion Energy. Previous summaries were published in February of 1982 and December of 1987. The Plasma Theory program is responsible for the development of concepts and models that describe and predict the behavior of a magnetically confined plasma. Emphasis is given to the modelling and understanding of the processes controlling transport of energy and particles in a toroidal plasma and supporting the design of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). A tokamak transport initiative was begun in 1989 to improve understanding of how energy and particles are lost from the plasma by mechanisms that transport them across field lines. The Plasma Theory program has actively-participated in this initiative. Recently, increased attention has been given to issues of importance to the proposed Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX). Particular attention has been paid to containment and thermalization of fast alpha particles produced in a burning fusion plasma as well as control of sawteeth, current drive, impurity control, and design of improved auxiliary heating. In addition, general models of plasma behavior are developed from physics features common to different confinement geometries. This work uses both analytical and numerical techniques. The Fusion Theory program supports research projects at US government laboratories, universities and industrial contractors. Its support of theoretical work at universities contributes to the office of Fusion Energy mission of training scientific manpower for the US Fusion Energy Program.

  14. Electrosurgical plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalder, Kenneth R.; McMillen, Donald F.; Woloszko, Jean

    2005-06-01

    Electrosurgical medical devices based on repetitively pulsed nonequilibrium micron-scale to millimetre-scale plasma discharges in saline solutions are described. The formation of vapour layers (bubbles) around active electrodes appears to be a common feature at moderate (<300 V rms) voltages, and dissociation, excitation and ionization of the vapour in these bubbles produces chemical conditions that are thought to be the source of beneficial tissue removal and treatment. Experimental data are discussed, as are the results of modelling efforts of the plasma chemistry. Hydroxyl radicals, hydrogen atoms and other species are observed spectroscopically and their interactions with collagen, a common component of tissue encountered in surgical situations, are considered. Several pathways by which hydroxyl radicals interacting with collagen can lead to tissue removal are discussed.

  15. Electrosurgical plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stalder, Kenneth R; McMillen, Donald F; Woloszko, Jean [ArthroCare Corp., Sunnyvale, CA 94085-3523 (United States)

    2005-06-07

    Electrosurgical medical devices based on repetitively pulsed nonequilibrium micron-scale to millimetre-scale plasma discharges in saline solutions are described. The formation of vapour layers (bubbles) around active electrodes appears to be a common feature at moderate (<300 V rms) voltages, and dissociation, excitation and ionization of the vapour in these bubbles produces chemical conditions that are thought to be the source of beneficial tissue removal and treatment. Experimental data are discussed, as are the results of modelling efforts of the plasma chemistry. Hydroxyl radicals, hydrogen atoms and other species are observed spectroscopically and their interactions with collagen, a common component of tissue encountered in surgical situations, are considered. Several pathways by which hydroxyl radicals interacting with collagen can lead to tissue removal are discussed.

  16. Plasma physics

    CERN Document Server

    Cairns, R A

    1985-01-01

    This book is intended as an introduction to plasma physics at a level suitable for advanced undergraduates or beginning postgraduate students in physics, applied mathematics or astrophysics. The main prerequisite is a knowledge of electromagnetism and of the associated mathematics of vector calculus. SI units are used throughout. There is still a tendency amongst some plasma physics researchers to· cling to C.g.S. units, but it is the author's view that universal adoption of SI units, which have been the internationally agreed standard since 1960, is to be encouraged. After a short introductory chapter, the basic properties of a plasma con­ cerning particle orbits, fluid theory, Coulomb collisions and waves are set out in Chapters 2-5, with illustrations drawn from problems in nuclear fusion research and space physics. The emphasis is on the essential physics involved and (he theoretical and mathematical approach has been kept as simple and intuitive as possible. An attempt has been made to draw attention t...

  17. Plasma pharmacy - physical plasma in pharmaceutical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Woedtke, Th; Haertel, B; Weltmann, K-D; Lindequist, U

    2013-07-01

    During the last years the use of physical plasma for medical applications has grown rapidly. A multitude of findings about plasma-cell and plasma-tissue interactions and its possible use in therapy have been provided. One of the key findings of plasma medical basic research is that several biological effects do not result from direct plasma-cell or plasma-tissue interaction but are mediated by liquids. Above all, it was demonstrated that simple liquids like water or physiological saline, are antimicrobially active after treatment by atmospheric pressure plasma and that these effects are attributable to the generation of different low-molecular reactive species. Besides, it could be shown that plasma treatment leads to the stimulation of specific aspects of cell metabolism and to a transient and reversible increase of diffusion properties of biological barriers. All these results gave rise to think about another new and innovative field of medical plasma application. In contrast to plasma medicine, which means the direct use of plasmas on or in the living organism for direct therapeutic purposes, this field - as a specific field of medical plasma application - is called plasma pharmacy. Based on the present state of knowledge, most promising application fields of plasma pharmacy might be: plasma-based generation of biologically active liquids; plasma-based preparation, optimization, or stabilization of - mainly liquid - pharmaceutical preparations; support of drug transport across biological barriers; plasma-based stimulation of biotechnological processes.

  18. 95 Alteration of Plasma Lipid Profile and Atherogenic Indices of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JTEkanem

    2009-07-15

    Jul 15, 2009 ... procumbens on the packed cell volume (PCV), daily weight gain, plasma lipid profiles and ... conditions, whether primary or secondary to diabetes mellitus, hypertension and obesity .... (1999) Abnormalities of membrane.

  19. An LC-MS/MS assay for the quantitative determination of 2-pyridyl acetic acid, a major metabolite and key surrogate for betahistine, using low-volume human K2 EDTA plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Krunal; Bhatt, Chandrakant; Singh, Kanchan; Bhuvaneshwari, P C; Jha, Anil; Patel, Palak; Patel, Harilal; Srinivas, Nuggehally R

    2017-02-01

    Betahistine is widely used for the treatment of vertigo. Owing to first-pass metabolism, 2-pyridyl acetic acid (2PAA, major metabolite of betahistine) was considered as surrogate for quantitation. A specific and sensitive LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for quantitation of 2PAA using turbo-ion spray in a positive ion mode. A solid-phase extraction was employed for the extraction of 2PAA and 2PAA d6 (IS) from human plasma. Chromatographic separation of analytes was achieved using an ACE CN, 5 μm (50 × 4.6 mm) column with a gradient mobile phase comprising acetonitrile-methanol (90:10% v/v) and 0.7% v/v formic acid in 0.5 mm ammonium trifluoroacetate in purified water (100% v/v). The retention times of 1.15 and 1.17 min for 2PAA and internal standard, respectively, were achieved. Quantitation of 2PAA and internal standard was achieved by monitoring multiple reaction monitoring transition pairs (m/z 138.1 to m/z 92.0 and m/z 142.1 to m/z 96.1, respectively). The developed method was validated for various parameters. The calibration curves of 2PAA showed linearity from 5.0 to 1500 ng/mL, with a lower limit of quantitation of 5.0 ng/mL. The bias and precision for inter- and intra-batch assays were <10%. The developed method was used to support clinical sample analysis.

  20. Dynamics of Imploding Neon Gas Puff Plasmas. I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-26

    L-shell, but its volume is small . A broader annulus of hot plasma, situated outside the core plasma is producing most of the K- and L-shell radiation...but its volume is small . The 10 - /~. *’ -- - (totcl) spectrum. ib-10ma 20. 00 NSEC. 21. 2G. E > 19. z 17. _ 16. .01 .10 1.00 10.00 energy (key

  1. 正常人血浆成纤维细胞生长因子19与胆囊容积变化的关系%Study on the relationship between the plasma fibroblast growth factor 19 level and changes in gallbladder volume

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷铭; 徐子平; 蔡劬; 计骏; 王明亮; 蒋兆彦; 韩天权; 张圣道

    2011-01-01

    Objective Fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) is involved physiologically in the refilling of gallbladder. To measure the expression of FCF19 in gallbladder tissue and to evaluate the relationship of the plasma FGF19 level and the changes of gallbladder volume. Methods mRNA level of FGF19 in gallbladder tissues were quantified by real-time PCR. Localization of FGF19 protein in gallbladder tissues was detected by immunohistochemistry. FGF19 in plasma was assayed by EliSA during fasting and 1-4 hour after fat-diet obtained from 4 female and 4 male healthy volunteers. At each time point, the gallbladder volume was measured using B-type ultrasonic scanning. Results mRNA of FGF19 was detected in gallbladder tissue. Immunohistochemistry showed that FGF19 protein was present in the epithelium of gallbladder. The gallbladder contracted after fat-diet and reached the maximum degree 2-hour after the diet in both sexes. In females, plasma FGF19 decreased 1-hour after the fat-diet, rose afterwards, and reached the peak 3-hour after the fat-diet. This change was earlier than the refilling of the gallbladder. However, similar findings were not observed in males. Conclusions Our study shows that FGF19 is highly expressed in the human gallbladder epithelium. Plasma FGF19 may be related with gallbladder refilling after fat-diet.%目的:检测胆囊成纤维细胞生长因子19(fibroblast growth factor 19,FGF19)的表达,并探讨正常人空腹及餐后血浆FGF19的含量与胆囊容积变化的相关性。方法:采用定量PCR和免疫组化检测胆囊黏膜FGF19 mRNA和蛋白质的表达。采用酶联免疫吸附法测定8例健康志愿者(男女各4例)空腹及脂肪餐后1~4 h血浆FGF19含量,B超检查相应时段的胆囊容积。结果:胆囊具有较高的FGF19 mRNA表达量。FGF19蛋白在胆囊黏膜上皮细胞表达。脂肪餐后胆囊收缩,在餐后2 h达到最高峰。脂肪餐后1 h,女性血浆FGF19含量略有降

  2. Radioimmunoassay of sodium cromoglycate in human plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, K.; Gardner, J.J.; Lockley, W.J.S.; Preston, J.R.; Wilkinson, D.J. (Fisons Ltd., Loughborough (UK). Pharmaceutical Div.)

    1983-01-01

    A sensitive radioimmunoassay method for sodium cromoglycate in human plasma is described. The lowest quantifiable concentration of sodium cromoglycate is 0.93 nmol/1 when 0.1 ml plasma samples are analysed. Direct analysis of sodium cromoglycate concentrations in plasma samples collected up to several hours after the administration of single therapeutic doses of the compound is possible. The range of the method is limited; both 0.01 and 0.1 ml volumes of plasma must be analysed to encompass the concentration range 0.93-139 nmol/1 which may be encountered in plasma samples from patients and human volunteers. The method is specific for sodium cromoglycate as indicated by a low cross-reactivity of the anti-cromoglycate antiserum with a number of drugs.

  3. Monitoring particle growth in deposition plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlebrowski, T.; Bahre, H.; Böke, M.; Winter, J.

    2013-12-01

    Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition methods are frequently used to deposit barrier layers, e.g. on polymers for food packaging. These plasmas may suffer from particle (dust) formation. We report on a flexible monitoring system for dust. It is based on scanning a 3D plasma volume for particles by laser light scattering. The lower size limit of particles detected in the presented system is 20 nm. We report on existence diagrams for obtaining dust free or dust loaded capacitively or inductively coupled rf-plasmas in C2H2 depending on pressure, flow and rf-power. We further present growth rates for dust in these plasmas and show that monodisperse particles are only obtained during the first growth cycle.

  4. The effects of ulinastatin on the plasma volume and organ vasopermeability in dogs with severe burn during early stage%乌司他丁对严重烧伤犬早期血浆容量及脏器血管通透性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈小鹏; 胡森; 柴家科; 盛志勇

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察烧伤休克期早期给予乌司他丁对全身血浆容量和脏器血管通透性的影响.方法 采用成年Beagle犬35%TBSAⅢ度模型,随机分为两组:(1)对照组(C组):烧伤后不予治疗;(2)乌司他丁组(U组):伤后半小时按10 000 U/kg 静脉注射乌司他丁.于烧伤前和烧伤后2、4、6、8 h 抽血检测血细胞比容(HCT)、肿瘤坏死因子-α(TNF-α)和丙二醛(MDA)的含量;用吲哚菁绿法测定各时间点血浆容量.8 h 后处死动物,用伊文思蓝法测脏器血管通透性及干湿重法测脏器含水率.结果 两组HCT、TNF-α和MDA伤后均升高,但U组升高幅度明显小于C组,两组之间有显著统计学差异(P<0.01或P<0.05);两组血浆容量伤后均下降,但U组自伤后2 h 开始,血浆容量明显高于C组(P<0.01)[U组4 h 和8 h 分别为(515±25)ml 和(491±29)ml,而C组为(432±18)ml 和(366±37)ml];伤后8 h U组肝、脾、肾、空肠的伊文思蓝(EB)含量及含水率均明显低于C组(P<0.01或P<0.05).结论 烧伤休克期早期给予乌司他丁能有效缓解伤后循环血量的快速丢失,降低远隔脏器的血管通透性,减轻脏器损害及水肿程度.%Objective To observe the effects of ulinastatin used during early stage of bum shock on the plasma volume and organ vasopermeability.Methods Beagle dogs with 35% TBSA third degree were used and randomly divided into 2 groups: ( 1 ) control group(CG): No treatment was given after burn; (2) ulinastatin group( UG): Ulinastatin was given in a dose of 10000U/kg through intravenous injection 30 minutes after burn.Before burn and at 2h, 4h, 6h, 8h postburn, Blood samples were taken to determine HCT, TNF-α and MDA.Plasma volume was determined by method of indocyanine green (ICG) method at each time.At the end of 8-hour experiment, animals were sacrificed to collect organs for determining vasopermeability by Evans Blue method, and assessment of water content of organs by Dry/wet Weight method.Results HCT, TNF-ct and MDA

  5. An Investigation of the Nature Properties of Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Evans

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the characteristics of the plasma and the effect of the laser beam to best suit the plasma model behavior. Special attention is paid to the “Genuine” Two Fluid Model and the ponder-motive and transient forces. These models are translated into a numerical study of the parameters, such as the electric field density and temperature distributions once electromagnetic energy is supplied to the plasma. The parameters are presented graphically against time and distance into a small plasma fuel pellet. It is noted how field density and ions form undulations through the plasma. Types of plasma fuels are discussed with regards to their key parameters, such as density, volume and temperature. These characteristics were initially used in computations that were performed using the laser driven inertial fusion energy option based on volume ignition with the natural adiabatic self-similarity compression and expansion hydrodynamics[1].

  6. Ovarian volume throughout life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelsey, Thomas W; Dodwell, Sarah K; Wilkinson, A Graham

    2013-01-01

    cancer. To date there is no normative model of ovarian volume throughout life. By searching the published literature for ovarian volume in healthy females, and using our own data from multiple sources (combined n=59,994) we have generated and robustly validated the first model of ovarian volume from...... to about 2.8 mL (95% CI 2.7-2.9 mL) at the menopause and smaller volumes thereafter. Our model allows us to generate normal values and ranges for ovarian volume throughout life. This is the first validated normative model of ovarian volume from conception to old age; it will be of use in the diagnosis...

  7. Zeolite Nanoparticles for Selective Sorption of Plasma Proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahimi, Mehran; Ng, E. -P.; Bakhtiari, K.; Vinciguerra, M.; Ahmad, H. Ali; Awala, H.; Mintova, S.; Daghighi, M.; Rostami, F. Bakhshandeh; de Vries, Marcel; Motazacker, M. M.; Peppelenbosch, M. P.; Mahmoudi, M.; Rezaee, F.

    2015-01-01

    The affinity of zeolite nanoparticles (diameter of 8-12 nm) possessing high surface area and high pore volume towards human plasma proteins has been investigated. The protein composition (corona) of zeolite nanoparticles has been shown to be more dependent on the plasma protein concentrations and

  8. Zeolite Nanoparticles for Selective Sorption of Plasma Proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahimi, Mehran; Ng, E. -P.; Bakhtiari, K.; Vinciguerra, M.; Ahmad, H. Ali; Awala, H.; Mintova, S.; Daghighi, M.; Rostami, F. Bakhshandeh; de Vries, Marcel; Motazacker, M. M.; Peppelenbosch, M. P.; Mahmoudi, M.; Rezaee, F.

    2015-01-01

    The affinity of zeolite nanoparticles (diameter of 8-12 nm) possessing high surface area and high pore volume towards human plasma proteins has been investigated. The protein composition (corona) of zeolite nanoparticles has been shown to be more dependent on the plasma protein concentrations and th

  9. Zeolite Nanoparticles for Selective Sorption of Plasma Proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Rahimi (Mehran); E.-P. Ng; K. Bakhtiari (Kamran); M. Vinciguerra (Manlio); H.A. Ahmad (H. Ali); H. Awala; S. Mintova; M. Daghighi (Mojtaba); F. Bakhshandeh Rostami; M. de Vries (Marieke); M.M. Motazacker (Mohammad); M.P. Peppelenbosch (Maikel); M. Mahmoudi; F. Rezaee (Farhad)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThe affinity of zeolite nanoparticles (diameter of 8-12 nm) possessing high surface area and high pore volume towards human plasma proteins has been investigated. The protein composition (corona) of zeolite nanoparticles has been shown to be more dependent on the plasma protein concentra

  10. Sensitive determination of 4-O-methylhonokiol in rabbit plasma by high performance liquid chromatography and application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming-Yue Li; Yu-Hai Tang; Xia Liu; Hai-Yan Lu; Xi-Yan Shi

    2011-01-01

    A novel high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the determination of 4-O- methylhonokiol in rabbit plasma and was applied to its pharmacokinetic investigation. Plasma samples were treated by one-fold volume of methanol and acetoni

  11. Magnetohydrodynamic simulation study of plasma jets and plasma-surface contact in coaxial plasma accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Vivek; Raja, Laxminarayan L.

    2017-06-01

    Recent experiments by Loebner et al. [IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 44, 1534 (2016)] studied the effect of a hypervelocity jet emanating from a coaxial plasma accelerator incident on target surfaces in an effort to mimic the transient loading created during edge localized mode disruption events in fusion plasmas. In this paper, we present a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) numerical model to simulate plasma jet formation and plasma-surface contact in this coaxial plasma accelerator experiment. The MHD system of equations is spatially discretized using a cell-centered finite volume formulation. The temporal discretization is performed using a fully implicit backward Euler scheme and the resultant stiff system of nonlinear equations is solved using the Newton method. The numerical model is employed to obtain some key insights into the physical processes responsible for the generation of extreme stagnation conditions on the target surfaces. Simulations of the plume (without the target plate) are performed to isolate and study phenomena such as the magnetic pinch effect that is responsible for launching pressure pulses into the jet free stream. The simulations also yield insights into the incipient conditions responsible for producing the pinch, such as the formation of conductive channels. The jet-target impact studies indicate the existence of two distinct stages involved in the plasma-surface interaction. A fast transient stage characterized by a thin normal shock transitions into a pseudo-steady stage that exhibits an extended oblique shock structure. A quadratic scaling of the pinch and stagnation conditions with the total current discharged between the electrodes is in qualitative agreement with the results obtained in the experiments. This also illustrates the dominant contribution of the magnetic pressure term in determining the magnitude of the quantities of interest.

  12. Plasma actuator electron density measurement using microwave perturbation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirhosseini, Farid; Colpitts, Bruce [Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, New Brunswick E3B 5A3 (Canada)

    2014-07-21

    A cylindrical dielectric barrier discharge plasma under five different pressures is generated in an evacuated glass tube. This plasma volume is located at the center of a rectangular copper waveguide cavity, where the electric field is maximum for the first mode and the magnetic field is very close to zero. The microwave perturbation method is used to measure electron density and plasma frequency for these five pressures. Simulations by a commercial microwave simulator are comparable to the experimental results.

  13. Carbohydrate plasma expanders for passive tumor targeting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Stefan; Caysa, Henrike; Kuntsche, Judith

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the suitability of carbohydrate plasma volume expanders as a novel polymer platform for tumor targeting. Many synthetic polymers have already been synthesized for targeted tumor therapy, but potential advantages of these carbohydrates include...

  14. Mean nuclear volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, O.; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Bichel, P.

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated the following nine parameters with respect to their prognostic value in females with endometrial cancer: four stereologic parameters [mean nuclear volume (MNV), nuclear volume fraction, nuclear index and mitotic index], the immunohistochemical expression of cancer antigen (CA125...

  15. Heliophysics 3 Volume Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrijver, Carolus J.; Siscoe, George L.

    2010-11-01

    Volume 1: Preface; 1. Prologue Carolus J. Schrijver and George L. Siscoe; 2. Introduction to heliophysics Thomas J. Bogdan; 3. Creation and destruction of magnetic field Matthias Rempel; 4. Magnetic field topology Dana W. Longcope; 5. Magnetic reconnection Terry G. Forbes; 6. Structures of the magnetic field Mark B. Moldwin, George L. Siscoe and Carolus J. Schrijver; 7. Turbulence in space plasmas Charles W. Smith; 8. The solar atmosphere Viggo H. Hansteen; 9. Stellar winds and magnetic fields Viggo H. Hansteen; 10. Fundamentals of planetary magnetospheres Vytenis M. Vasyliūnas; 11. Solar-wind magnetosphere coupling: an MHD perspective Frank R. Toffoletto and George L. Siscoe; 12. On the ionosphere and chromosphere Tim Fuller-Rowell and Carolus J. Schrijver; 13. Comparative planetary environments Frances Bagenal; Bibliography; Index. Volume 2: Preface; 1. Perspective on heliophysics George L. Siscoe and Carolus J. Schrijver; 2. Introduction to space storms and radiation Sten Odenwald; 3. In-situ detection of energetic particles George Gloeckler; 4. Radiative signatures of energetic particles Tim Bastian; 5. Observations of solar and stellar eruptions, flares, and jets Hugh Hudson; 6. Models of coronal mass ejections and flares Terry Forbes; 7. Shocks in heliophysics Merav Opher; 8. Particle acceleration in shocks Dietmar Krauss-Varban; 9. Energetic particle transport Joe Giacalone; 10. Energy conversion in planetary magnetospheres Vytenis Vasyliūnas; 11. Energization of trapped particles Janet Green; 12. Flares, CMEs, and atmospheric responses Tim Fuller-Rowell and Stanley C. Solomon; 13. Energetic particles and manned spaceflight 358 Stephen Guetersloh and Neal Zapp; 14. Energetic particles and technology Alan Tribble; Appendix I. Authors and editors; List of illustrations; List of tables; Bibliography; Index. Volume 3: Preface; 1. Interconnectedness in heliophysics Carolus J. Schrijver and George L. Siscoe; 2. Long-term evolution of magnetic activity of Sun

  16. Plasma Reforming of Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuels in Non-Thermal Plasma-Liquid Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-30

    channel with liquid wall in the microporous media under the ultrasound cavitations has shown the following: · The action of the ultrasound field in the...microporous liquid which has a very large ratio of the plasma-liquid contact surface to the plasma volume. As is known the ultrasonic (US) cavitation is a very...2) and it ran over a flat dielectric surface of the magnetostrictive transmitter (5) which produced ultrasonic (US) cavitations , so the discharge

  17. Simulations of a beam-driven plasma antenna in the regime of plasma transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeev, I. V.; Berendeev, E. A.; Dudnikova, G. I.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, the theoretically predicted possibility to increase the efficiency of electromagnetic radiation generated by a thin beam-plasma system in the regime of oblique emission, when a plasma column becomes transparent to radiation near the plasma frequency, is investigated using particle-in-cell simulations. If a finite-size plasma column has a longitudinal density modulation, such a system is able to radiate electromagnetic waves as a dipole antenna. This radiation mechanism is based on the conversion of an electron beam-driven potential plasma wave on the periodic perturbation of plasma density. In this case, the frequency of radiated waves appears to be slightly lower than the plasma frequency. That is why their fields enable the penetration into the plasma only to the skin-depth. This case is realized when the period of density modulation coincides with the wavelength of the most unstable beam-driven mode, and the produced radiation escapes from the plasma in the purely transverse direction. In the recent theoretical paper [I. V. Timofeev et al. Phys. Plasmas 23, 083119 (2016)], however, it has been found that the magnetized plasma can be transparent to this radiation at certain emission angles. It means that the beam-to-radiation power conversion can be highly efficient even in a relatively thick plasma since not only boundary layers but also the whole plasma volume can be involved in the generation of electromagnetic waves. Simulations of steady-state beam injection into a pre-modulated plasma channel confirm the existence of this effect and show limits of validity for the simplified theoretical model.

  18. MEAN PLATELET VOLUME, PLASMA PHOSPHOLIPID FATTY ACID COMPOSITIONS AND VITAMIN B12 IN HANGZHOU MALE LACTO-VEGETARIANS AND OMNIVORES%杭州地区男性素食者平均血小板体积与血浆磷脂脂肪酸构成及维生素B12等生化指标的相关研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马小红; 王强; 沈月爽; 于小妹

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究杭州地区男性素食者平均血小板体积(meam platelet volume,MPV)与血浆磷脂脂肪酸构成、血清维生素B12 (vitamin B12,VB12)及同型半胱氨酸(homocysteine,Hey)等指标的相关性.方法 采用气相色谱法测定89例男性素食者和103例对照组的血浆磷脂脂肪酸的构成,采用常规方法测定MPV和血清生化指标.结果 与对照组相比,素食组血浆多不饱和脂肪酸(n-3 PUFA)水平降低,而n-6 PUFA水平升高;素食组血清VB12水平显著降低(160.7±64.3 vs 373.9±160.9,P<0.01),Hcy水平显著增高,约为对照组的1.74倍(23.74±12.66 vs 13.62±9.17,P<0.01);素食组MPV高于对照组(9.14±1.04 vs 8.82±1.00,P<0.05).相关性分析显示,MPV与22:5n-6(DPA n-6)呈正相关,与血清VB12水平呈负相关.结论 杭州地区男性素食者MPV增高,血清Hcy升高,VB12与n-3 PUFA摄入不足,补充VB12与n-3 PUFA可能对降低素食者的MPV和Hcy有益.%Objective To assess relationship between meatn platelet volume (MPV) and plasma phospholipid fatty acid compositions and analyze routine item such as serum vitamin B12 (VB12) and homocysteine (Hcy) in Hangzhou male lacto-vegetarians and omnivores. Method Eighty-three lacto-vegetarians and 103 omnivores were recruited. Plasma phospholipid fatty acid compositions were analyzed by gas chromatography. MPV and serum index were tested by routine method. Results Plasma n-3 poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) of vegetarians were significantly lower and n-6 PUFA were significantly higher than those of controls, serum vitamin B12 level of vegetarian was only about half of omnivores (160.7±64.3 vs 373.9±160.9, P<0.01) while serum Hcy was about twice of the controls (23.74±12.66 vs 13.62±9.17, P<0.01), MPV of vegetarians was significantly higher than controls (9.14±1.04 vs 8.82±1.00, ,P<0.05), MPV was significantly positively correlated with n-6 PUFA docosapentaenoic acid (22:5n-6; DPA) and negatively correlated with serum VB12. Conclusion

  19. The cardiovascular system in Familial Hypocalciuric Hypercalcemia (FHH)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Niels Frederik Breum; Laugesen, Esben; Rolighed, Lars;

    2016-01-01

    excretion of epithelial sodium-channels (ENaC) (p = 0.03), whereas urine aquaporin-2 and plasma sodium, aldosterone and renin did not differ between groups. FHH patients had a lower urinary volume with an increased osmolality if analyses were restricted to those not on treatments with antihypertensive drugs...

  20. Changes in total plasma content of electrolytes and proteins with maximal exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Beaumont, W.; Strand, J. C.; Petrofsky, J. S.; Hipskind, S. G.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    To determine to what extent the increases in concentration of plasma proteins and electrolytes with short maximal work were a result of hemoconcentration, the changes in plasma volume and total content of the plasma constituents were simultaneously evaluated. The results obtained from six human subjects indicated that in comparison to preexercise values there was a net decrease in total content of plasma protein, sodium, and chloride in the first 2 min of the postexercise period, due primarily to a significant loss (13-15%) of plasma fluid. The total plasma potassium content was increased immediately after exercise but was significantly below the preexercise plasma content after 2 min of recovery.

  1. Interaction of nanosecond ultraviolet laser pulses with reactive dusty plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Wetering, F. M. J. H.; Oosterbeek, W.; Beckers, J.; Nijdam, S.; Gibert, T.; Mikikian, M.; Rabat, H.; Kovačević, E.; Berndt, J.

    2016-05-01

    Even though UV laser pulses that irradiate a gas discharge are small compared to the plasma volume (≲3%) and plasma-on time (≲6 × 10-6%), they are found to dramatically change the discharge characteristics on a global scale. The reactive argon-acetylene plasma allows the growth of nanoparticles with diameters up to 1 μm, which are formed inside the discharge volume due to spontaneous polymerization reactions. It is found that the laser pulses predominantly accelerate and enhance the coagulation phase and are able to suppress the formation of a dust void.

  2. Plasma Free Metanephrines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Plasma Free Metanephrines Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Plasma Metanephrines Formal name: Fractionated Plasma Free Metanephrines (Metanephrine ...

  3. Improved plasma accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, D. Y.

    1971-01-01

    Converging, coaxial accelerator electrode configuration operates in vacuum as plasma gun. Plasma forms by periodic injections of high pressure gas that is ionized by electrical discharges. Deflagration mode of discharge provides acceleration, and converging contours of plasma gun provide focusing.

  4. Plasma physics and fusion plasma electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Bers, Abraham

    2016-01-01

    Plasma is a ubiquitous state of matter at high temperatures. The electrodynamics of plasmas encompasses a large number of applications, from understanding plasmas in space and the stars, to their use in processing semiconductors, and their role in controlled energy generation by nuclear fusion. This book covers collective and single particle dynamics of plasmas for fully ionized as well as partially ionized plasmas. Many aspects of plasma physics in current fusion energy generation research are addressed both in magnetic and inertial confinement plasmas. Linear and nonlinear dynamics in hydrodynamic and kinetic descriptions are offered, making both simple and complex aspects of the subject available in nearly every chapter. The approach of dividing the basic aspects of plasma physics as "linear, hydrodynamic descriptions" to be covered first because they are "easier", and postponing the "nonlinear and kinetic descriptions" for later because they are "difficult" is abandoned in this book. For teaching purpose...

  5. Effect of Fixed-Volume and Weight-Based Dosing Regimens on the Cost and Volume of Administered Iodinated Contrast Material at Abdominal CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Matthew S; Parikh, Kushal R; Mayo-Smith, William W; Israel, Gary M; Brown, Richard K J; Ellis, James H

    2017-03-01

    To determine the magnitude of subject-level and population-level cost savings that could be realized by moving from fixed-volume low-osmolality iodinated contrast material administration to an effective weight-based dosing regimen for contrast-enhanced abdominopelvic CT. HIPAA-compliant, institutional review board-exempt retrospective cohort study of 6,737 subjects undergoing contrast-enhanced abdominopelvic CT from 2014 to 2015. Subject height, weight, lean body weight (LBW), and body surface area (BSA) were determined. Twenty-six volume- and weight-based dosing strategies with literature support were compared with a fixed-volume strategy used at the study institution: 125 mL 300 mgI/mL for routine CT, 125 mL 370 mgI/mL for multiphasic CT (single-energy, 120 kVp). The predicted population- and subject-level effects on cost and contrast material utilization were calculated for each strategy and sensitivity analyses were performed. Most subjects underwent routine CT (91% [6,127/6,737]). Converting to lesser-volume higher-concentration contrast material had the greatest effect on cost; a fixed-volume 100 mL 370 mgI/mL strategy resulted in $132,577 in population-level savings with preserved iodine dose at routine CT (37,500 versus 37,000 mgI). All weight-based iodine-content dosing strategies (mgI/kg) with the same maximum contrast material volume (125 mL) were predicted to contribute mean savings compared with the existing fixed-volume algorithm ($4,053-$116,076/strategy in the overall study population, $1-$17/strategy per patient). Similar trends were observed in all sensitivity analyses. Large cost and material savings can be realized at abdominopelvic CT by adopting a weight-based dosing strategy and lowering the maximum volume of administered contrast material. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Electric disruption in a hydrogen toroidal plasma; Ruptura eletrica em um plasma toroidal em hidrogenio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberto, M. [UNESP, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia. Dept. de Fisica; Silva, C.A.B. [Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial (CTA-IEAv), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Estudos Avancados; Goes, L.C.S.; Sudano, J.P. [Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Inst. Tecnologico de Aeronautica

    1990-12-31

    By using a zero-dimensional model the ionizing initial phase of a toroidal plasma produced in hydrogen was investigated. The model consists on describing the plasma time evolution through the density and particle temperature space averaged on the plasma volume. The involved equations are energy and particles balance equations (electrons and ions). The electron loss is due to ambipolar diffusion in the presence of magnetic field. The electron energy loss is due to ionizing, processes of Coulomb interaction and diffusion. The ohmic heating transformer gives a initial voltage necessary to the breaking 11 refs., 2 figs.

  7. Cell volume regulation in the perfused liver of a freshwater air-breathing catfish Clarias batrachus under aniso-osmotic conditions: Roles of inorganic ions and taurine

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Carina Goswami; Nirmalendu Saha

    2006-12-01

    The roles of various inorganic ions and taurine, an organic osmolyte, in cell volume regulation were investigated in the perfused liver of a freshwater air-breathing catfish Clarias batrachus under aniso-osmotic conditions. There was a transient increase and decrease of liver cell volume following hypotonic (–80 mOsmol/l) and hypertonic (+80 mOsmol/l) exposures, respectively, which gradually decreased/increased near to the control level due to release/uptake of water within a period of 25–30 min. Liver volume decrease was accompanied by enhanced efflux of K+ (9.45 ± 0.54 mol/g liver) due to activation of Ba2+- and quinidine-sensitive K+ channel, and to a lesser extent due to enhanced efflux of Cl¯ (4.35 ± 0.25 mol/g liver) and Na+ (3.68 ± 0.37 mol/g liver). Conversely, upon hypertonic exposure, there was amiloride- and ouabain-sensitive uptake of K+ (9.78 ± 0.65 mol/g liver), and also Cl¯ (3.72 ± 0.25 mol/g liver). The alkalization/acidification of the liver effluents under hypo-/hypertonicity was mainly due to movement of various ions during volume regulatory processes. Taurine, an important organic osmolyte, appears also to play a very important role in hepatocyte cell volume regulation in the walking catfish as evidenced by the fact that hypo- and hyper-osmolarity caused transient efflux (5.68 ± 0.38 mol/g liver) and uptake (6.38 ± 0.45 mol/g liver) of taurine, respectively. The taurine efflux was sensitive to 4,4′-di-isothiocyanatostilbene-2,2′-disulphonic acid (DIDS, an anion channel blocker), but the uptake was insensitive to DIDS, thus indicating that the release and uptake of taurine during volume regulatory processes are unidirectional. Although the liver of walking catfish possesses the RVD and RVI mechanisms, it is to be noted that liver cells remain partly swollen and shrunken during anisotonic exposures, thereby possibly causing various volume-sensitive metabolic changes in the liver as reported earlier.

  8. Epidural anesthesia, hypotension, and changes in intravascular volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holte, Kathrine; Foss, Nicolai B; Svensén, Christer

    2004-01-01

    hypotension is present, which may have implications for the choice of treatment of hypotension. However, no long-term information or measurements of plasma volumes with or without hypotension after epidural anesthesia are available. METHODS: In 12 healthy volunteers, the authors assessed plasma (125I...... and ephedrine has similar hemodynamic effects, the latter may be preferred in patients with cardiopulmonary diseases in which perioperative fluid overload is undesirable....

  9. High-voltage electrode optimization towards uniform surfacetreatment by a pulsed volume discharge

    OpenAIRE

    Ponomarev, A. V.; Pedos, M. S.; Scherbinin, S. V.; Mamontov, Y. I.; Ponomarev, Sergey Viktorovich

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the shape and material of the high-voltage electrode of an atmospheric pressure plasma generation system were optimised. The research was performed with the goal of achieving maximum uniformity of plasma treatment of the surface of the low-voltage electrode with a diameter of 100 mm. In order to generate low-temperature plasma with the volume of roughly 1 cubic decimetre, a pulsed volume discharge was used initiated with a corona discharge. The uniformity of the plasma in the r...

  10. PREFACE: 1982 International Conference on Plasma Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelmsson, Hans

    1982-01-01

    essential, not only for fusion energy development, but also for astro- and space research. Plasmas in different situations often have important features in common. Results obtained under various conditions, in the laboratory or in space, should therefore be compared and interrelated. The Göteborg conference emphasized more than the previous one, which was held in Nagoya, Japan, the astro- and space aspects, but there were still more contributions from the fusion and laboratory research. The fundamental plasma theory part was, however, the most extensive one in the programme. At the conference there were seventy invited talks, including six comprehensive talks addressed to all participants. The remaining sixtyfour invited talks were topical talks. Besides, we had received about 450 contributed papers. About 300 of them were given as posters, and most of the remaining ones were presented as orals. The set of one page abstracts of these contributed papers as well as the titles of the invited talks were collected in two volumes, which were sent to all participants a month before the conference. Another set, the four page papers, which had been carefully prepared by the authors for photoreproduction to one page papers, were published in a volume of proceedings of some 460 pages available at the conference. When trying to classify the contributions, it turned out that they fell naturally into four main categories, namely: General Theory Space and Astro Plasmas Fusion Laboratory Plasmas For practical reasons we had to divide the Abstracts into two Volumes, the first one including categories (1) and (2), and the second one the two remaining categories (3) and (4). In publishing the invited talks from the conference we had to handle a great number of extensive papers. It turned out to be natural to have also the invited papers published in two parts, as two separate numbers of Physica Scripta, the first one devoted to (1) General Theory, and (2) Space and Astro Plasmas, whereas the

  11. Plasma hyperosmolality improves tolerance to combined heat stress and central hypovolemia in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Daniel; Romero, Steven A; Ngo, Hai; Poh, Paula Y S; Crandall, Craig G

    2017-03-01

    Heat stress profoundly impairs tolerance to central hypovolemia in humans via a number of mechanisms including heat-induced hypovolemia. However, heat stress also elevates plasma osmolality; the effects of which on tolerance to central hypovolemia remain unknown. This study examined the effect of plasma hyperosmolality on tolerance to central hypovolemia in heat-stressed humans. With the use of a counterbalanced and crossover design, 12 subjects (1 female) received intravenous infusion of either 0.9% iso-osmotic (ISO) or 3.0% hyperosmotic (HYPER) saline. Subjects were subsequently heated until core temperature increased ~1.4°C, after which all subjects underwent progressive lower-body negative pressure (LBNP) to presyncope. Plasma hyperosmolality improved LBNP tolerance (ISO: 288 ± 193 vs. 382 ± 145 mmHg × min, P = 0.04). However, no differences in mean arterial pressure (P = 0.10), heart rate (P = 0.09), or muscle sympathetic nerve activity (P = 0.60, n = 6) were observed between conditions. When individual data were assessed, LBNP tolerance improved ≥25% in eight subjects but remained unchanged in the remaining four subjects. In subjects who exhibited improved LBNP tolerance, plasma hyperosmolality resulted in elevated mean arterial pressure (ISO: 62 ± 10 vs. 72 ± 9 mmHg, P < 0.01) and a greater increase in heart rate (ISO: +12 ± 24 vs. HYPER: +23 ± 17 beats/min, P = 0.05) before presyncope. No differences in these variables were observed between conditions in subjects that did not improve LBNP tolerance (all P ≥ 0.55). These results suggest that plasma hyperosmolality improves tolerance to central hypovolemia during heat stress in most, but not all, individuals. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Physics through the 1990s: Plasmas and fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    The volume contains recommendations for programs in, and government support of, plasma and fluid physics. Four broad areas are covered: the physics of fluids, general plasma physics, fusion, and space and astrophysical plasmas. In the first section, the accomplishments of fluid physics and a detailed review of its sub-fields, such as combustion, non-Newtonian fluids, turbulence, aerodynamics, and geophysical fluid dynamics, are described. The general plasma physics section deals with the wide scope of the theoretical concepts involved in plasma research, and with the machines; intense beam systems, collective and laser-driven accelerators, and the associated diagnostics. The section on the fusion plasma research program examines confinement and heating systems, such as Tokamaks, magnetic mirrors, and inertial-confinement systems, and several others. Finally, theory and experiment in space and astrophysical plasma research is detailed, ranging from the laboratory to the solar system and beyond. A glossary is included.

  13. Fusion plasma physics

    CERN Document Server

    Stacey, Weston M

    2012-01-01

    This revised and enlarged second edition of the popular textbook and reference contains comprehensive treatments of both the established foundations of magnetic fusion plasma physics and of the newly developing areas of active research. It concludes with a look ahead to fusion power reactors of the future. The well-established topics of fusion plasma physics -- basic plasma phenomena, Coulomb scattering, drifts of charged particles in magnetic and electric fields, plasma confinement by magnetic fields, kinetic and fluid collective plasma theories, plasma equilibria and flux surface geometry, plasma waves and instabilities, classical and neoclassical transport, plasma-materials interactions, radiation, etc. -- are fully developed from first principles through to the computational models employed in modern plasma physics. The new and emerging topics of fusion plasma physics research -- fluctuation-driven plasma transport and gyrokinetic/gyrofluid computational methodology, the physics of the divertor, neutral ...

  14. Antimicrobial Applications of Ambient--Air Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlovich, Matthew John

    from ozone mode to nitrogen oxides mode occurs as the discharge power increases. One prominent example of plasma biotechnology is the use of plasma-derived reactive species as a novel disinfectant. Ambient-air plasma is an attractive means of disinfection because it is non-thermal, expends a small amount of power, and requires only air and electricity to operate. Both solid surfaces and liquid volumes can be effectively and efficiently decontaminated by the reactive oxygen and nitrogen species that plasma generates. Dry surfaces are decontaminated most effectively by the plasma operating in NOx mode and less effectively in ozone mode, with the weakest antibacterial effects in the transition region, and neutral reactive species are more influential in surface disinfection than charged particles. Aqueous bacterial inactivation correlates well with ozone concentration, suggesting that ozone is the dominant species for bacterial inactivation under the condition of a low-power discharge. Alternatively, air plasma operating in the higher-power, nitrogen oxides-rich mode can create a persistently antibacterial solution. Finally, when near-UV (UVA) treatment follows plasma treatment of bacterial suspension, the antimicrobial effect exceeds the effect predicted from the two treatments alone, and addition of nitrite to aqueous solution, followed by photolysis of nitrite by UVA photons, is hypothesized as the primary mechanism of synergy. The results presented in this dissertation underscore the dynamic nature of air plasma chemistry and the importance of careful chemical characterization of plasma devices intended for biological applications. The complexity of atmospheric pressure plasma devices, and their sensitivity to subtle differences in design and operation, can lead to different results with different mechanisms.

  15. The expansion of a plasma into a vacuum - Basic phenomena and processes and applications to space plasma physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, K. H., Jr.; Stone, N. H.; Samir, U.

    1983-01-01

    In this review attention is called to basic phenomena and physical processes involved in the expansion of a plasma into a vacuum, or the expansion of a plasma into a more tenuous plasma, in particular the fact that upon the expansion, ions are accelerated and reach energies well above their thermal energy. Also, in the process of the expansion a rarefaction wave propagates into the ambient plasma, an ion front moves into the expansion volume, and discontinuities in plasma parameters occur. The physical processes which cause the above phenomena are discussed, and their possible application is suggested for the case of the distribution of ions and electrons (hence plasma potential and electric fields) in the wake region behind artificial and natural obstacles moving supersonically in a rarefied space plasma. To illustrate this, some in situ results are reexamined. Directions for future work in this area via the utilization of the Space Shuttle and laboratory work are also mentioned.

  16. International movement of plasma and plasma contracting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrugia, A

    2005-01-01

    Plasma fractionation is a global business characterised by technological stability, increasing consolidation and a high level of regulatory oversight. All these factors affect the ease with which plasma derivatives can be accessed in the world market. As domestic regulatory measures in the first world blood economies become increasingly resonant to the precautionary approach, the availability of plasma as a raw material, as well as its cost, become an increasingly significant component in the cost of the final product. This decreases the amount of plasma which fractionators are able to allocate for export activities. Also, regulatory standards in the country of manufacture will reflect priorities in that country which may not be similar to those in export markets, but which will affect entry to those markets. While many countries possess a fractionation capacity, the limiting factor in supply worldwide is the amount of plasma available, and nationalistic drivers for each country to have its own plant are inimical to product safety and supply. Rather, the provision of sufficient supplies of domestic plasma should be the focus of resource allocation, with a choice of an appropriate contract fractionator. However, contract fractionation too may be affected by domestic considerations unrelated to the needs of the country of plasma origin. This chapter will review the global plasma market and the influences on plasma and plasma product movement across national borders. Problems in ensuring adequate safety and supply will be identified, and some tentative approaches to the amelioration of current barriers to the provision of plasma derivatives will be outlined.

  17. Volume Regulated Channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Thomas Kjær

    - serves a multitude of functions in the mammalian cell, regulating the membrane potential (Em), cell volume, protein activity and the driving force for facilitated transporters giving Cl- and Cl- channels a major potential of regulating cellular function. These functions include control of the cell cycle...... of volume perturbations evolution have developed system of channels and transporters to tightly control volume homeostasis. In the past decades evidence has been mounting, that the importance of these volume regulated channels and transporters are not restricted to the defense of cellular volume......, controlled cell death and cellular migration. Volume regulatory mechanisms has long been in focus for regulating cellular proliferation and my thesis work have been focusing on the role of Cl- channels in proliferation with specific emphasis on ICl, swell. Pharmacological blockage of the ubiquitously...

  18. Hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis following plasma exchange during myasthenia gravis crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritzenthaler, Thomas; Grousson, Sébastien; Dailler, Frédéric

    2016-10-01

    Therapeutic plasma exchanges are increasingly used, notably during myasthenia gravis crisis. Repeated exchanges may induce severe adverse events. We reported a case of symptomatic hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis following a therapeutic plasma exchange. Analysis of 4% albumin substitution solution revealed a chloride concentration of 145 mmol/L, which could explain this acidosis. Infusion of high volume of 4% albumin during plasma exchanges may produce hyerchloremic metabolic acidosis. Special attention should be paid when repeated plasma exchanges are performed. J. Clin. Apheresis 31:479-480, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Precision volume measurement system.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Erin E.; Shugard, Andrew D.

    2004-11-01

    A new precision volume measurement system based on a Kansas City Plant (KCP) design was built to support the volume measurement needs of the Gas Transfer Systems (GTS) department at Sandia National Labs (SNL) in California. An engineering study was undertaken to verify or refute KCP's claims of 0.5% accuracy. The study assesses the accuracy and precision of the system. The system uses the ideal gas law and precise pressure measurements (of low-pressure helium) in a temperature and computer controlled environment to ratio a known volume to an unknown volume.

  20. Communication through Plasma Sheaths

    CERN Document Server

    Korotkevich, A O; Zakharov, V E

    2007-01-01

    We wish to transmit messages to and from a hypersonic vehicle around which a plasma sheath has formed. For long distance transmission, the signal carrying these messages must be necessarily low frequency, typically 2 GHz, to which the plasma sheath is opaque. The idea is to use the plasma properties to make the plasma sheath appear transparent.

  1. Introduction to plasma dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Morozov, A I

    2013-01-01

    As the twenty-first century progresses, plasma technology will play an increasing role in our lives, providing new sources of energy, ion-plasma processing of materials, wave electromagnetic radiation sources, space plasma thrusters, and more. Studies of the plasma state of matter not only accelerate technological developments but also improve the understanding of natural phenomena. Beginning with an introduction to the characteristics and types of plasmas, Introduction to Plasma Dynamics covers the basic models of classical diffuse plasmas used to describe such phenomena as linear and shock w

  2. Charging of grains in sprite-plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serozhkin, Y.; Oryeshko, E.

    The presence of a charged dust component at a mesosphere substantially determines properties of this atmospheric layer and has manifold manifestations One of possible sources of free electrons for a charge of grains can be served the electrical discharges in a mesosphere sprites 1 As sprites take huge volume about 10000 cubic kilometer and happen approximately 1 time per one second their role in the charging of grains in a mesosphere necessarily should be taken into account In supported work is estimated the value of a charge which grains obtained in sprite-plasma The parameters of sprite-plasma velocity concentration of an electronic component duration of existence make possible a charge of submicron grains up to value at which in case of sufficient concentration of particles the sprite-plasmas can to be possessed of the dusty plasma properties 2 begin enumerate item V P Pasko U S Inan T F Bell Y N Taranenko Sprites produced by quasi-electrostatic heating ldots J Geophys Res Vol 102 No A3 pages 4529-4561 March 1 1997 item Yu Serozhkin Dusty sprite-plasma and conditions for its formation AIP Conference Proceedings New vistas in dusty plasmas Fourth International Conferences on the Physics of Dusty Plasmas Orleans France 13-17 June 2005 Vol 799 pages 383-386 end enumerate

  3. Frequency of hyponatremia and nonosmolar vasopressin release in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitting, K.E.; Gardenswartz, M.H.; Zabetakis, P.M.; Tapper, M.L.; Gleim, G.W.; Agrawal, M.; Michelis, M.F. (Lenox Hill Hospital, New York, NY (USA))

    1990-02-16

    The frequency and pathophysiology of hyponatremia were studied in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Of 71 hospitalized patients surveyed retrospectively, hyponatremia was observed in 37 (52%). Of 48 patients studied prospectively, 27 (56%) were hyponatremic. In 16 hyponatremic patients, volume status; serum and urine osmolalities; renal, adrenal, and thyroid function; and plasma vasopressin levels were assessed. Urine osmolalities were inappropriately elevated relative to serum osmolalities. Four patients had moderate renal insufficiency. Plasma vasopressin levels, measured by radioimmunoassay, were elevated in 15 patients, with the highest levels seen in patients who died. Hyponatremia of multiple etiologies occurred in a majority of inpatients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, often following the administration of hypotonic fluids, and was associated with a 30% (8/27) short-term mortality.

  4. Collisionless plasmas in astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Belmont, Gerard; Mottez, Fabrice; Pantellini, Filippo; Pelletier, Guy

    2013-01-01

    Collisionless Plasmas in Astrophysics examines the unique properties of media without collisions in plasma physics. Experts in this field, the authors present the first book to concentrate on collisionless conditions in plasmas, whether close or not to thermal equilibrium. Filling a void in scientific literature, Collisionless Plasmas in Astrophysics explains the possibilities of modeling such plasmas, using a fluid or a kinetic framework. It also addresses common misconceptions that even professionals may possess, on phenomena such as "collisionless (Landau) damping". Abundant illustrations

  5. Photoexcitation of volume plasmons in metallic nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrhold, Katja; Goesele, Ulrich [Max-Planck-Institut, Weinberg 2, 06120 Halle (Germany); Christiansen, Silke [Institut fuer Photonische Technologien, Albert-Einstein-Str. 9, 07745 Jena (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut, Weinberg 2, 06120 Halle (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    It has long been known that a vanishing permittivity enables longitudinal electromagnetic waves. The corresponding collective eigenmodes called volume plasmons should not be dipole excitable in classical electrodynamics. Thus, the typical volume modes are known to be excitable via particle beams solely. We investigated typical scattering problems for an incident plane wave determined via the Helmholtz-equation which can be solved analytically for special geometries. The analytical solution for a spherical scatterer by Gustav Mie was extended to spherical core-shell structures by Aden. Remarkably, in the case of metallic nanoshell structures the Mie extinction efficiencies have a local maximum at the natural plasma frequency corresponding to the photoexcitation of a volume plasmon. This volume mode is independent of both the shell's aspect ratio and the core material. For explanation we present a simple physical picture which is supported by analytical examples on silver and gold shells. Additionally we use finite element simulations to show a potpourri of particles which likewise enable the photoexcitation of volume modes.

  6. Cardiorenal-endocrine dynamics during and following volume expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, R.S.; Edwards, B.S.; Schwab, T.R.; Heublein, D.M.; Burnett, J.C. Jr.

    1987-02-01

    The relationship between atrial pressure, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, and renal hemodynamic and excretory function was examined during and following acute 10% body weight saline volume expansion and measurements were made at 3.3, 6.6, and 10% body weight volume expansion in pentobarbital anesthetized dogs. Right atrial pressure (RAP), pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP), fractional excretion of Na (FE/sub Na/), and ANP all increased in parallel during volume expansion. Plasma renin activity (PRA) and aldosterone decreased in parallel during 10% volume expansion. ANP, PRA and aldosterone were measured by radioimmunoassay. Following 10% volume expansion, saline was infused at the peak urine flow rate to maintain peak volume expansion. Despite continued saline infusion, RAP, PCWP, and ANP decreased in parallel. In contrast, FE/sub Na/ remained increased, and aldosterone and PRA remained depressed. These studies demonstrate that atrial pressures, ANP, and FE/sub Na/ increase in parallel during volume expansion; this suggests a role for ANP in modulating acute atrial volume overload. During stable volume expansion periods, however, despite a decrease in ANP levels, Na excretion remains elevated, suggesting that non-ANP mechanisms may be important in maintaining natriuresis during stable volume expansion.

  7. Variable volume combustor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostebee, Heath Michael; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Keener, Christopher Paul

    2017-01-17

    The present application provides a variable volume combustor for use with a gas turbine engine. The variable volume combustor may include a liner, a number of micro-mixer fuel nozzles positioned within the liner, and a linear actuator so as to maneuver the micro-mixer fuel nozzles axially along the liner.

  8. The Mars Plasma Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, C. T

    2007-01-01

    Mars sits very exposed to the solar wind and, because it is a small planet, has but a weak hold on its atmosphere. The solar wind therefore plays an important role in the evolution of the martian atmosphere. Over the last four decades a series of European missions, first from the Soviet Union and more recently from the European Space Agency, together with a single investigation from the U.S., the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft, have added immeasurably to our understanding of the interplay between the solar wind and Mars atmosphere. Most recently the measurements of the plasma and fast neutral populations, conducted on the Mars Express spacecraft by the ASPERA-3 instrument have been acquired and analyzed. Their presentation to the public, most notably at the workshop "The Solar Wind Interaction and Atmosphere Evolution of Mars" held in Kiruna in early 2006, was the inspiration for this series of articles. However participation in the Kiruna conference was not a selection criterion for this volume. The papers ...

  9. Colloidal Plasmas : Basic physics of colloidal plasmas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C B Dwivedi

    2000-11-01

    Colloidal plasma is a distinct class of the impure plasmas with multispecies ionic composition. The distinction lies in the phase distribution of the impurity-ion species. The ability to tailor the electrostatic interactions between these colloidal particles provides a fertile ground for scientists to investigate the fundamental aspects of the Coulomb phase transition behavior. The present contribution will review the basic physics of the charging mechanism of the colloidal particles as well as the physics of the collective normal mode behavior of the general multi-ion species plasmas. Emphasis will be laid on the clarification of the prevailing confusing ideas about distinct qualities of the various acoustic modes, which are likely to exist in colloidal plasmas as well as in normal multi-ion species plasmas. Introductory ideas about the proposed physical models for the Coulomb phase transition in colloidal plasma will also be discussed.

  10. Volume Regulated Channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Thomas Kjær

    of volume perturbations evolution have developed system of channels and transporters to tightly control volume homeostasis. In the past decades evidence has been mounting, that the importance of these volume regulated channels and transporters are not restricted to the defense of cellular volume...... but are also essential for a number of physiological processes such as proliferation, controlled cell death, migration and endocrinology. The thesis have been focusing on two Channels, namely the swelling activated Cl- channel (ICl, swell) and the transient receptor potential Vanilloid (TRPV4) channel. I: Cl......- serves a multitude of functions in the mammalian cell, regulating the membrane potential (Em), cell volume, protein activity and the driving force for facilitated transporters giving Cl- and Cl- channels a major potential of regulating cellular function. These functions include control of the cell cycle...

  11. Nonlinear plasma wave in magnetized plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulanov, Sergei V. [Kansai Photon Science Institute, JAEA, Kizugawa, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan); Prokhorov Institute of General Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Dolgoprudny, Moscow region 141700 (Russian Federation); Esirkepov, Timur Zh.; Kando, Masaki; Koga, James K. [Kansai Photon Science Institute, JAEA, Kizugawa, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan); Hosokai, Tomonao; Zhidkov, Alexei G. [Photon Pioneers Center, Osaka University, 2-8 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency, CREST, 2-1, Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Kodama, Ryosuke [Photon Pioneers Center, Osaka University, 2-8 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2013-08-15

    Nonlinear axisymmetric cylindrical plasma oscillations in magnetized collisionless plasmas are a model for the electron fluid collapse on the axis behind an ultrashort relativisically intense laser pulse exciting a plasma wake wave. We present an analytical description of the strongly nonlinear oscillations showing that the magnetic field prevents closing of the cavity formed behind the laser pulse. This effect is demonstrated with 3D PIC simulations of the laser-plasma interaction. An analysis of the betatron oscillations of fast electrons in the presence of the magnetic field reveals a characteristic “Four-Ray Star” pattern.

  12. Elements of plasma technology

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, Chiow San

    2016-01-01

    This book presents some fundamental aspects of plasma technology that are important for beginners interested to start research in the area of plasma technology . These include the properties of plasma, methods of plasma generation and basic plasma diagnostic techniques. It also discusses several low cost plasma devices, including pulsed plasma sources such as plasma focus, pulsed capillary discharge, vacuum spark and exploding wire; as well as low temperature plasmas such as glow discharge and dielectric barrier discharge which the authors believe may have potential applications in industry. The treatments are experimental rather than theoretical, although some theoretical background is provided where appropriate. The principles of operation of these devices are also reviewed and discussed.

  13. EDITORIAL: 80 Years of Plasma 80 Years of Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, R. N.; Braithwaite, N. St J.

    2009-02-01

    to admission to Columbia University where he studied metallurgical engineering. After graduation, as was common at that time for able students, he was encouraged to go abroad for his doctoral work. He went to Göttingen, which was then one of the leading European universities in science, and studied under Nernst. Returning to the United States he obtained a post as a teaching assistant at the Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, but the atmosphere proved too hierarchical and uncongenial for a scientist who was wanting to spread his wings. Fortunately the General Electric Company (GEC) recognized his potential; he was recruited in 1909, and remained associated with the GEC for the next 48 years. He quickly established his credentials as a research scientist and was soon given the freedom to pursue his interests wherever they took him, consistent with the overall strategy of the company. His appointment as an Associate Director at the GEC came in the same year that he introduced the term 'plasma'. Interestingly, while the term gained rapid acceptance in Europe, the associated word 'sheath', which Langmuir had already been using for several years, was translated into French, German and Russian and suffered from confusion. That confusion was there in Langmuir's writings because this ion-rich region sometimes was a region with barely any electrons and sometimes it contained a significant quantity of negative charge. The structure of the plasma-sheath and its elucidation had to await new mathematical techniques and the impact of computers as evidenced by papers in this volume and those quoted therein. It is clear that Langmuir inspired and benefited from collaboration with co-workers at the GEC, notably Kingdon, Taylor, Mott-Smith, Compton, Jones, Found, Tonks and Blodgett. In several ways he was ahead of his time in his understanding of gas discharges, and a particular example is what has since come to be known as the Bohm criterion. More than once in his plasma

  14. LLE Review Quarterly Report (April-June 1985). Volume 23

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skupsky, S. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)

    1985-06-01

    This volume of the LLE Review contains articles on the fully UV converted OMEGA laser system, mass-ablation rate experiments, reactor-size target designs, plasma processes in the target corona, degradation in optical performance of dielectric thin films, and the National Laser Users Facility activities for April-June 1985.

  15. Epidural anesthesia, hypotension, and changes in intravascular volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holte, Kathrine; Foss, Nicolai B; Svensén, Christer;

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The most common side effect of epidural or spinal anesthesia is hypotension with functional hypovolemia prompting fluid infusions or administration of vasopressors. Short-term studies (20 min) in patients undergoing lumbar epidural anesthesia suggest that plasma volume may increase wh...

  16. LLE Review Quarterly Report (January-March 1984). Volume 18

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, L. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States)

    1984-03-01

    This volume of the LLE Review contains articles on the operations of the GDL and OMEGA facilities, energy measurement and beam characterization in the ultraviolet (UV), theoretical calculations of thermal self-focusing in laser plasmas, two aspects of the picosecond optics activities at the LLE, and the NLUF activities during this quarter (January through March 1984).

  17. Endocrine responses in the rhesus monkey during acute cold exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lotz, W.G.; Saxton, J.L. (Naval Aerospace Medical Research Lab., Pensacola, FL (United States))

    1991-03-11

    The authors studied five young male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), 3.4 to 6.7 kg, to determine the relationship between fluid balance hormones and urine production during acute, dry cold exposure. Each monkey served as its own control in duplicate experimental sessions at 6C or 26C. A 6-h experimental session consisted of 120 min equilibration at 26C, 120 min experimental exposure, and 120 min recovery at 26C. Urinary and venous catheters were inserted on the morning of a session. Rectal (Tre) and skin temperatures were monitored continuously. Blood samples were taken at 0, 30, 60 and 120 min of exposure, and at 60 min postexposure. Plasma was analyzed for arginine vasopressin (AVP), atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), plasma renin activity (PRA), plasma aldosterone (PA), and osmolality. Urine samples were analyzed for osmolality, electrolytes, and creatinine. Mean Tre was 1.6C lower after 120 min at 6C than at 26C. Urine volume and osmolality were not altered by cold exposure, as they are in humans and rats. Vasopressin and PA increased sharply, with mean plasma levels in monkeys exposed to cold more than threefold and tenfold, respectively, the levels in monkeys exposed at 26C. In contrast, ANF, PRA, and plasma osmolality were not significantly changed by cold exposure. The absence of a cold-induced diuresis in the monkey may be related to the marked increase in plasma AVP level.

  18. Volume regulation in epithelia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Hoffmann, Else Kay

    2016-01-01

    function of iso-osmotic fluid transport that depends on Na+ recirculation. The causative relationship is discussed for a fluid-absorbing and a fluid-secreting epithelium of which the Na+ recirculation mechanisms have been identified. A large number of transporters and ion channels involved in cell volume...... regulation are cloned. The volume-regulated anion channel (VRAC) exhibiting specific electrophysiological characteristics seems exclusive to serve cell volume regulation. This is contrary to K+ channels as well as cotransporters and exchange mechanisms that may serve both transepithelial transport and cell...

  19. Towards the Amplituhedron Volume

    CERN Document Server

    Ferro, Livia; Orta, Andrea; Parisi, Matteo

    2015-01-01

    It has been recently conjectured that scattering amplitudes in planar N=4 super Yang-Mills are given by the volume of the (dual) amplituhedron. In this paper we show some interesting connections between the tree-level amplituhedron and a special class of differential equations. In particular we demonstrate how the amplituhedron volume for NMHV amplitudes is determined by these differential equations. The new formulation allows for a straightforward geometric description, without any reference to triangulations. Finally we discuss possible implications for volumes related to generic N^kMHV amplitudes.

  20. Unsteady flow volumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, B.G.; Lane, D.A.; Max, N.L.

    1995-03-01

    Flow volumes are extended for use in unsteady (time-dependent) flows. The resulting unsteady flow volumes are the 3 dimensional analog of streamlines. There are few examples where methods other than particle tracing have been used to visualize time varying flows. Since particle paths can become convoluted in time there are additional considerations to be made when extending any visualization technique to unsteady flows. We will present some solutions to the problems which occur in subdivision, rendering, and system design. We will apply the unsteady flow volumes to a variety of field types including moving multi-zoned curvilinear grids.

  1. Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Polkey

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Surgical lung volume reduction can improve exercise performance and forced expiratory volume in one second in patients with emphysema. However, the procedure is associated with a 5% mortality rate and a nonresponse rate of 25%. Accordingly, interest has focused on alternative ways of reducing lung volume. Two principle approaches are used: collapse of the diseased area using blockers placed endobronchially and the creation of extrapulmonary pathways. Preliminary data from the former approach suggest that it can be successful and that the magnitude of success is related to reduction in dynamic hyperinflation.

  2. A CO2 laser based two-volume collective scattering instrument for spatially localized turbulence measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saffman, Mark; Zoletnik, S.; Basse, Nils Plesner

    2001-01-01

    We describe and demonstrate a two-volume collective scattering system for localized measurements of plasma turbulence. The finite crossfield correlation length of plasma turbulence combined with spatial variations in the magnetic field direction are used to obtain spatially localized turbulence...

  3. Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS). Final report. Volume 1-A. Commercial fusion electric plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donohue, M.L.; Price, M.E. (eds.)

    1984-07-01

    Volume 1-A contains the following chapters: (1) plasma engineering, (2) magnets, (3) ecr heating systems, (4) anchor ion-cyclotron resonance heating system, (5) sloshing ion neutral beam, (6) end cell structure, (7) end plasma technology, (8) fueling, (9) startup ion cyclotron resonant heating systems, and (10) end cell radiation analysis. (MOW)

  4. Low-Frequency Waves in Space Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiling, Andreas; Lee, Dong-Hun; Nakariakov, Valery

    2016-02-01

    Low-frequency waves in space plasmas have been studied for several decades, and our knowledge gain has been incremental with several paradigm-changing leaps forward. In our solar system, such waves occur in the ionospheres and magnetospheres of planets, and around our Moon. They occur in the solar wind, and more recently, they have been confirmed in the Sun's atmosphere as well. The goal of wave research is to understand their generation, their propagation, and their interaction with the surrounding plasma. Low-frequency Waves in Space Plasmas presents a concise and authoritative up-to-date look on where wave research stands: What have we learned in the last decade? What are unanswered questions? While in the past waves in different astrophysical plasmas have been largely treated in separate books, the unique feature of this monograph is that it covers waves in many plasma regions, including: Waves in geospace, including ionosphere and magnetosphere Waves in planetary magnetospheres Waves at the Moon Waves in the solar wind Waves in the solar atmosphere Because of the breadth of topics covered, this volume should appeal to a broad community of space scientists and students, and it should also be of interest to astronomers/astrophysicists who are studying space plasmas beyond our Solar System.

  5. Blood Volume: Importance and Adaptations to Exercise Training, Environmental Stresses and Trauma Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-02-01

    the elevation of Hb concentration (from plasma loss) is the most important factor contributing to the performance improve- ment by facilitating O2...A., P. J. BROCK, L. C. KEIL, E. M. BERNAUER, and J. E. GREENLEAF. Exercise training-induced hypervolemia: role of plasma albumin, renin , and...mechanism of hypervol- emia. J. Appl. Physiol. 48:657–664, 1980. 27. CONVERTINO, V. A., L. C. KEIL, and J. E. GREENLEAF. Plasma volume, renin , and

  6. Free volume under shear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiti, Moumita; Vinutha, H. A.; Sastry, Srikanth; Heussinger, Claus

    2015-10-01

    Using an athermal quasistatic simulation protocol, we study the distribution of free volumes in sheared hard-particle packings close to, but below, the random-close packing threshold. We show that under shear, and independent of volume fraction, the free volumes develop features similar to close-packed systems — particles self-organize in a manner as to mimick the isotropically jammed state. We compare athermally sheared packings with thermalized packings and show that thermalization leads to an erasure of these structural features. The temporal evolution in particular the opening-up and the closing of free-volume patches is associated with the single-particle dynamics, showing a crossover from ballistic to diffusive behavior.

  7. Integers annual volume 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Landman, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    ""Integers"" is a refereed online journal devoted to research in the area of combinatorial number theory. It publishes original research articles in combinatorics and number theory. This work presents all papers of the 2013 volume in book form.

  8. Renormalized Volumes with Boundary

    CERN Document Server

    Gover, A Rod

    2016-01-01

    We develop a general regulated volume expansion for the volume of a manifold with boundary whose measure is suitably singular along a separating hypersurface. The expansion is shown to have a regulator independent anomaly term and a renormalized volume term given by the primitive of an associated anomaly operator. These results apply to a wide range of structures. We detail applications in the setting of measures derived from a conformally singular metric. In particular, we show that the anomaly generates invariant (Q-curvature, transgression)-type pairs for hypersurfaces with boundary. For the special case of anomalies coming from the volume enclosed by a minimal hypersurface ending on the boundary of a Poincare--Einstein structure, this result recovers Branson's Q-curvature and corresponding transgression. When the singular metric solves a boundary version of the constant scalar curvature Yamabe problem, the anomaly gives generalized Willmore energy functionals for hypersurfaces with boundary. Our approach ...

  9. Environmental chemistry: Volume A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yen, T.F.

    1999-08-01

    This is an extensive introduction to environmental chemistry for engineering and chemical professionals. The contents of Volume A include a brief review of basic chemistry prior to coverage of litho, atmo, hydro, pedo, and biospheres.

  10. Hot plasma dielectric tensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, E.

    1996-01-01

    The hot plasma dielectric tensor is discussed in its various approximations. Collisionless cyclotron resonant damping and ion/electron Bernstein waves are discussed to exemplify the significance of a kinetic description of plasma waves.

  11. Special issue: Plasma Conversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nozaki, T.; Bogaerts, A.; Tu, X.; van de Sanden, M. C. M.

    2017-01-01

    With growing concern of energy and environmental issues, the combination of plasma and heterogeneous catalysts receives special attention in greenhouse gas conversion, nitrogen fixation and hydrocarbon chemistry. Plasma gas conversion driven by renewable electricity is particularly important for the

  12. Generalized Partial Volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darkner, Sune; Sporring, Jon

    2011-01-01

    Mutual Information (MI) and normalized mutual information (NMI) are popular choices as similarity measure for multimodal image registration. Presently, one of two approaches is often used for estimating these measures: The Parzen Window (PW) and the Generalized Partial Volume (GPV). Their theoret......Mutual Information (MI) and normalized mutual information (NMI) are popular choices as similarity measure for multimodal image registration. Presently, one of two approaches is often used for estimating these measures: The Parzen Window (PW) and the Generalized Partial Volume (GPV...

  13. Turbulence and selective decay in the SSX plasma wind tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Tim; Brown, Michael; Dandurand, Dan; Fisher, Mike; Flanagan, Ken; Weinhold, Darren; Lukin, V.

    2011-10-01

    A helical, relaxed plasma state has been observed in a long cylindrical volume. The cylinder has dimensions L = 1 m and R = 0 . 08 m. The cylinder is long enough so that the predicted minimum energy state is a close approximation to the infinite cylinder solution. The plasma is injected at v >= 50 km/s by a coaxial magnetized plasma gun located at one end of the cylindrical volume. Typical plasma parameters are Ti = 25 eV, ne >=1015 cm-3, and B = 0 . 25 T. The relaxed state is rapidly attained in 1-2 axial Alfvén times after initiation of the plasma. Magnetic data is favorably compared with an analytical model. Magnetic data exhibits broadband fluctuations of the measured axial modes during the formation period. The broadband activity rapidly decays as the energy condenses into the lowest energy mode, which is in agreement to the minimum energy eigenstate of ∇ × B --> = λ B --> . While the global structure roughly corresponds to the minimum energy eigenstate for the wind tunnel geometry, the plasma is high beta (β = 0 . 5) and does not have a flat λ profile. Merging with plasma plumes injected from both ends of the cylinder will be compared to the non-merging plasmas. Supported by US DOE and NSF.

  14. Microwave Argon Plasma Torch

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    an electron-ion pair in the discharge. Fig. 2. EEDF is non - Maxwellian and changes along the plasma column The electron–neutral collision...plasma radius. Even at atmospheric pressure the EEDF is non - Maxwellian and it is changing along the plasma column. ...18 31st ICPIG, July 14-19, 2013, Granada, Spain EEDF usually strongly differs from Maxwellian and chages along the plasma column (this is

  15. Introduction to Plasma Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurnett, Donald A.; Bhattacharjee, Amitava

    2017-03-01

    Preface; 1. Introduction; 2. Characteristic parameters of a plasma; 3. Single particle motions; 4. Waves in a cold plasma; 5. Kinetic theory and the moment equations; 6. Magnetohydrodynamics; 7. MHD equilibria and stability; 8. Discontinuities and shock waves; 9. Electrostatic waves in a hot unmagnetized plasma; 10. Waves in a hot magnetized plasma; 11. Nonlinear effects; 12. Collisional processes; Appendix A. Symbols; Appendix B. Useful trigonometric identities; Appendix C. Vector differential operators; Appendix D. Vector calculus identities; Index.

  16. Plasma physics an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzpatrick, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Plasma Physics: An Introduction is based on a series of university course lectures by a leading name in the field, and thoroughly covers the physics of the fourth state of matter. This book looks at non-relativistic, fully ionized, nondegenerate, quasi-neutral, and weakly coupled plasma. Intended for the student market, the text provides a concise and cohesive introduction to plasma physics theory, and offers a solid foundation for students wishing to take higher level courses in plasma physics.

  17. Reachable volume RRT

    KAUST Repository

    McMahon, Troy

    2015-05-01

    © 2015 IEEE. Reachable volumes are a new technique that allows one to efficiently restrict sampling to feasible/reachable regions of the planning space even for high degree of freedom and highly constrained problems. However, they have so far only been applied to graph-based sampling-based planners. In this paper we develop the methodology to apply reachable volumes to tree-based planners such as Rapidly-Exploring Random Trees (RRTs). In particular, we propose a reachable volume RRT called RVRRT that can solve high degree of freedom problems and problems with constraints. To do so, we develop a reachable volume stepping function, a reachable volume expand function, and a distance metric based on these operations. We also present a reachable volume local planner to ensure that local paths satisfy constraints for methods such as PRMs. We show experimentally that RVRRTs can solve constrained problems with as many as 64 degrees of freedom and unconstrained problems with as many as 134 degrees of freedom. RVRRTs can solve problems more efficiently than existing methods, requiring fewer nodes and collision detection calls. We also show that it is capable of solving difficult problems that existing methods cannot.

  18. Effects of experimentally increased protein supply to postpartum dairy cows on plasma protein synthesis, rumen tissue proliferation, and immune homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mogens; Røntved, Christine Maria; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2017-01-01

    enrichment in arterial plasma free Phe, total plasma proteins, and albumin after 3, 5, and 7 h of jugular ring[13C]Phe infusion. Plasma volume was determined at +4 and +29 DRTC by dilution of a [125I]BSA dose. Synthesis rate of tissue protein in biopsied rumen papillae was determined by measuring [13C...

  19. Ignition threshold for non-Maxwellian plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Hay, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    An optically thin $p$-$^{11}$B plasma loses more energy to bremsstrahlung than it gains from fusion reactions, unless the ion temperature can be elevated above the electron temperature. In thermal plasmas, the temperature differences required are possible in small Coulomb logarithm regimes, characterized by high density and low temperature. The minimum Lawson criterion for thermal $p$-$^{11}$B plasmas and the minimum $\\rho R$ required for ICF volume ignition are calculated. Ignition could be reached more easily if the fusion reactivity can be improved with nonthermal ion distributions. To establish an upper bound for this utility, we consider a monoenergetic beam with particle energy selected to maximize the beam- thermal reactivity. Channeling fusion alpha energy to maintain such a beam facilitates ignition at lower densities and $\\rho R$, improves reactivity at constant pressure, and could be used to remove helium ash. The gains realized with a beam thus establish an upper bound for the reductions in igniti...

  20. Fluid Volume Overload and Congestion in Heart Failure: Time to Reconsider Pathophysiology and How Volume Is Assessed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Wayne L

    2016-08-01

    Volume regulation, assessment, and management remain basic issues in patients with heart failure. The discussion presented here is directed at opening a reassessment of the pathophysiology of congestion in congestive heart failure and the methods by which we determine volume overload status. Peer-reviewed historical and contemporary literatures are reviewed. Volume overload and fluid congestion remain primary issues for patients with chronic heart failure. The pathophysiology is complex, and the simple concept of intravascular fluid accumulation is not adequate. The dynamics of interstitial and intravascular fluid compartment interactions and fluid redistribution from venous splanchnic beds to central pulmonary circulation need to be taken into account in strategies of volume management. Clinical bedside evaluations and right heart hemodynamic assessments can alert clinicians of changes in volume status, but only the quantitative measurement of total blood volume can help identify the heterogeneity in plasma volume and red blood cell mass that are features of volume overload in patients with chronic heart failure and help guide individualized, appropriate therapy-not all volume overload is the same. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. Plasma membrane ATPases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmgren, Michael Broberg; Bækgaard, Lone; Lopez Marques, Rosa Laura

    2011-01-01

    The plasma membrane separates the cellular contents from the surrounding environment. Nutrients must enter through the plasma membrane in order to reach the cell interior, and toxic metabolites and several ions leave the cell by traveling across the same barrier. Biological pumps in the plasma me...

  2. Plasma in dentistry

    OpenAIRE

    Cha, Seunghee; Park, Young-Seok

    2014-01-01

    This review describes the contemporary aspects of plasma application in dentistry. Previous studies on plasma applications were classified into two categories, surface treatment and direct applications, and were reviewed, respectively according to the approach. The current review discussed modification of dental implant surface, enhancing of adhesive qualities, enhancing of polymerization, surface coating and plasma cleaning under the topics of surface treatment. Microbicidal activities, deco...

  3. The Plasma Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suplee, Curt

    2009-09-01

    Preface; 1. The fourth state of matter; 2. The music and dance of plasmas; 3. The Sun-Earth connection; 4. Bringing the Sun to Earth: the story of controlled thermonuclear fusion; 5. The cosmic plasma theater: galaxies, stars, and accretion disks; 6. Putting plasmas to work; Index.

  4. Measurement of Heat Propagation in a Laser Produced Plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregori, G; Glenzer, S H; Knight, J; Niemann, C; Price, D; Froula, D H; Edwards, J; Town, R P J; Brantov, A; Bychenkov, V Y; Rozmus, W

    2003-08-22

    We present the observation of a nonlocal heat wave by measuring spatially and temporally resolved electron temperature profiles in a laser produced nitrogen plasma. Absolutely calibrated measurements have been performed by resolving the ion-acoustic wave spectra across the plasma volume with Thomson scattering. We find that the experimental electron temperature profiles disagree with flux-limited models, but are consistent with transport models that account for the nonlocal effects in heat conduction by fast electrons.

  5. Association of plasma β-amyloid with MRI markers of structural brain aging the 3-City Dijon study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaffashian, Sara; Tzourio, Christophe; Soumaré, Aïcha; Dufouil, Carole; Mazoyer, Bernard; Schraen-Maschke, Susanna; Buée, Luc; Debette, Stéphanie

    2015-10-01

    Cerebral β-amyloid (Aβ) deposition and atrophy are central features of Alzheimer disease. Studies of Alzheimer disease biomarkers have largely focused on Aβ in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and there is uncertainty as to what plasma Aβ may be a marker. We examined the association of Aβ levels in the plasma with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-markers of brain aging, including longitudinal changes in global and regional brain volumes, in dementia-free persons. We studied 1530 participants of the Three-City-Dijon cohort, aged 65-80 years. Plasma Aβ measurement and magnetic resonance imaging were performed at baseline and after a 4-year follow up. Total brain, gray matter, and hippocampal volume were estimated using voxel-based morphometry, and annualized change in brain volumes was calculated. Increased plasma Aβ1-40 was associated with lower baseline hippocampal volume. Although baseline plasma Aβ levels were not associated with longitudinal change in brain volumes, consistently high plasma Aβ1-40 levels were associated with faster total brain atrophy and consistently low plasma Aβ1-42/Aβ1-40 ratio, with increased total brain atrophy and gray matter atrophy. In dementia-free older adults, high plasma Aβ1-40 and low plasma Aβ1-42/Aβ1-40 ratio were associated with smaller hippocampal volume and accelerated global and regional brain atrophy respectively.

  6. Cyclotron waves in plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Lominadze, D G

    2013-01-01

    Cyclotron Waves in Plasma is a four-chapter text that covers the basic physical concepts of the theory of cyclotron waves and cyclotron instabilities, brought about by the existence of steady or alternating plasma currents flowing perpendicular to the magnetic field.This book considers first a wide range of questions associated with the linear theory of cyclotron oscillations in equilibrium plasmas and in electron plasmas in metals and semiconductors. The next chapter deals with the parametric excitation of electron cyclotron oscillations in plasma in an alternating electric field. A chapter f

  7. Plasma Therapy: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajkumar Diwan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Definition: Plasma, the fourth state of matter, is a collection of charged particles (electrons, ions, neutral atoms. Recent demonstration of plasma technology in treatment of living cells, tissue and organs are creating a new field at the intersection of plasma science and technology with biology and medicine known as plasma medicine. Plasma medicine is one of the newest fields of modem applied plasma chemistry. It appeared several years ago and comprises studies concerning the direct action of low-temperature, one atmosphere air plasma (cold plasma/nonthermal plasmalnonequilibrium on body tissues for various noninvasive therapeutic treatments or diagnostics purpose. The study of plasma holds promise for a myriad of applications ranging from lasers and electronics, hazardous decontamination, sterilization and disinfection of foods, soil, water, instruments, to medical uses in wound healing and treating certain types of tumors and cancers. Plasma represents a new state-of-the-art sterilization and disinfection treatment for certain oral and environmental pathogens, heat-sensitive materials, hard and soft surfaces, and may assist health care facilities in the management of various health concerns. The role that low temperature atmospheric pressure plasma (LTAPP could play in the inactivation of pathogenic microorganisms might prove to be a new, faster, more economical alternative.

  8. INTRODUCTION: Nonequilibrium Processes in Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrović, Zoran; Marić, Dragana; Malović, Gordana

    2009-07-01

    This book aims to give a cross section from a wide range of phenomena that, to different degrees, fall under the heading of non-equilibrium phenomenology. The selection is, of course, biased by the interests of the members of the scientific committee and of the FP6 Project 026328 IPB-CNP Reinforcing Experimental Centre for Non-equilibrium Studies with Application in Nano-technologies, Etching of Integrated Circuits and Environmental Research. Some of the papers included here are texts based on selected lectures presented at the Second International Workshop on Non-equilibrium Processes in Plasmas and Environmental Science. However, this volume is not just the proceedings of that conference as it contains a number of papers from authors that did not attend the conference. The goal was to put together a volume that would cover the interests of the project and support further work. It is published in the Institute of Physics journal Journal of Physics: Conference Series to ensure a wide accessibility of the articles. The texts presented here range from in-depth reviews of the current status and past achievements to progress reports of currently developed experimental devices and recently obtained still unpublished results. All papers have been refereed twice, first when speakers were selected based on their reputation and recently published results, and second after the paper was submitted both by the editorial board and individual assigned referees according to the standards of the conference and of the journal. Nevertheless, we still leave the responsibility (and honours) for the contents of the papers to the authors. The papers in this book are review articles that give a summary of the already published work or present the work in progress that will be published in full at a later date (or both). In the introduction to the first volume, in order to show how far reaching, ubiquitous and important non-equilibrium phenomena are, we claimed that ever since the early

  9. Arc Plasma Torch Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Trelles, J P; Vardelle, A; Heberlein, J V R

    2013-01-01

    Arc plasma torches are the primary components of various industrial thermal plasma processes involving plasma spraying, metal cutting and welding, thermal plasma CVD, metal melting and remelting, waste treatment and gas production. They are relatively simple devices whose operation implies intricate thermal, chemical, electrical, and fluid dynamics phenomena. Modeling may be used as a means to better understand the physical processes involved in their operation. This paper presents an overview of the main aspects involved in the modeling of DC arc plasma torches: the mathematical models including thermodynamic and chemical non-equilibrium models, turbulent and radiative transport, thermodynamic and transport property calculation, boundary conditions and arc reattachment models. It focuses on the conventional plasma torches used for plasma spraying that include a hot-cathode and a nozzle anode.

  10. Laminar Plasma Dynamos

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Z; Barnes, C W; Barnes, D C; Wang, Zhehui; Pariev, Vladimir I.; Barnes, Cris W.; Barnes, Daniel C.

    2002-01-01

    A new kind of dynamo utilizing flowing laboratory plasmas has been identified. Conversion of plasma kinetic energy to magnetic energy is verified numerically by kinematic dynamo simulations for magnetic Reynolds numbers above 210. As opposed to intrinsically-turbulent liquid-sodium dynamos, the proposed plasma dynamos correspond to laminar flow topology. Modest plasma parameters, 1-20 eV temperatures, 10^{19}-10^{20} m^{-3} densities in 0.3-1.0 m scale-lengths driven by velocities on the order of the Alfven Critical Ionization Velocity (CIV), self-consistently satisfy the conditions needed for the magnetic field amplication. Growth rates for the plasma dynamos are obtained numerically with different geometry and magnetic Reynolds numbers. Magnetic-field-free coaxial plasma guns can be used to sustain the plasma flow and the dynamo.

  11. Plasma polymerization by Softplasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, J.; Wu, Zhenning; Benter, Maike

    2008-01-01

    In the late 19th century, the first depositions - known today as plasma polymers, were reported. In the last century, more and more research has been put into plasma polymers. Many different deposition systems have been developed. [1, 2] Shi F. F. broadly classified them into internal electrode......, external electrode, and electrodeless microwave or high frequency reactors. [3] Softplasma™ is an internal electrode plasma setup powered by low frequenc~ gower supply. It was developed in late 90s for surface treatment of silicone rubber. [ ]- 5] It is a low pressure, low electron density, 3D homogenous...... plasma. In this study, we are presenting the surface modification"pf polymers by plasma polymerization using Softplasma™. Softplasma™ can be used for two major types of polymerization: polymerization of vinyl monomers, where plasma acts as initiator; chemical vapour deposition, where plasma acts...

  12. Plasmas for medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Woedtke, Th.; Reuter, S.; Masur, K.; Weltmann, K.-D.

    2013-09-01

    Plasma medicine is an innovative and emerging field combining plasma physics, life science and clinical medicine. In a more general perspective, medical application of physical plasma can be subdivided into two principal approaches. (i) “Indirect” use of plasma-based or plasma-supplemented techniques to treat surfaces, materials or devices to realize specific qualities for subsequent special medical applications, and (ii) application of physical plasma on or in the human (or animal) body to realize therapeutic effects based on direct interaction of plasma with living tissue. The field of plasma applications for the treatment of medical materials or devices is intensively researched and partially well established for several years. However, plasma medicine in the sense of its actual definition as a new field of research focuses on the use of plasma technology in the treatment of living cells, tissues, and organs. Therefore, the aim of the new research field of plasma medicine is the exploitation of a much more differentiated interaction of specific plasma components with specific structural as well as functional elements or functionalities of living cells. This interaction can possibly lead either to stimulation or inhibition of cellular function and be finally used for therapeutic purposes. During recent years a broad spectrum of different plasma sources with various names dedicated for biomedical applications has been reported. So far, research activities were mainly focused on barrier discharges and plasma jets working at atmospheric pressure. Most efforts to realize plasma application directly on or in the human (or animal) body for medical purposes is concentrated on the broad field of dermatology including wound healing, but also includes cancer treatment, endoscopy, or dentistry. Despite the fact that the field of plasma medicine is very young and until now mostly in an empirical stage of development yet, there are first indicators of its enormous

  13. Nonlinear Plasma Wave in Magnetized Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Bulanov, Sergei V; Kando, Masaki; Koga, James K; Hosokai, Tomonao; Zhidkov, Alexei G; Kodama, Ryosuke

    2013-01-01

    Nonlinear axisymmetric cylindrical plasma oscillations in magnetized collisionless plasmas are a model for the electron fluid collapse on the axis behind an ultrashort relativisically intense laser pulse exciting a plasma wake wave. We present an analytical description of the strongly nonlinear oscillations showing that the magnetic field prevents closing of the cavity formed behind the laser pulse. This effect is demonstrated with 3D PIC simulations of the laser-plasma interaction. An analysis of the betatron oscillations of fast electrons in the presence of the magnetic field reveals a characteristic "Four-Ray Star" pattern which has been observed in the image of the electron bunch in experiments [T. Hosokai, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 075004 (2006)].

  14. Volumes of chain links

    CERN Document Server

    Kaiser, James; Rollins, Clint

    2011-01-01

    Agol has conjectured that minimally twisted n-chain links are the smallest volume hyperbolic manifolds with n cusps, for n at most 10. In his thesis, Venzke mentions that these cannot be smallest volume for n at least 11, but does not provide a proof. In this paper, we give a proof of Venzke's statement. The proof for n at least 60 is completely rigorous. The proof for n between 11 and 59 uses a computer calculation, and can be made rigorous for manifolds of small enough complexity, using methods of Moser and Milley. Finally, we prove that the n-chain link with 2m or 2m+1 half-twists cannot be the minimal volume hyperbolic manifold with n cusps, provided n is at least 60 or |m| is at least 8, and we give computational data indicating this remains true for smaller n and |m|.

  15. HARNESSING BIG DATA VOLUMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan DINU

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Big Data can revolutionize humanity. Hidden within the huge amounts and variety of the data we are creating we may find information, facts, social insights and benchmarks that were once virtually impossible to find or were simply inexistent. Large volumes of data allow organizations to tap in real time the full potential of all the internal or external information they possess. Big data calls for quick decisions and innovative ways to assist customers and the society as a whole. Big data platforms and product portfolio will help customers harness to the full the value of big data volumes. This paper deals with technical and technological issues related to handling big data volumes in the Big Data environment.

  16. Topological Active Volumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barreira N

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The topological active volumes (TAVs model is a general model for 3D image segmentation. It is based on deformable models and integrates features of region-based and boundary-based segmentation techniques. Besides segmentation, it can also be used for surface reconstruction and topological analysis of the inside of detected objects. The TAV structure is flexible and allows topological changes in order to improve the adjustment to object's local characteristics, find several objects in the scene, and identify and delimit holes in detected structures. This paper describes the main features of the TAV model and shows its ability to segment volumes in an automated manner.

  17. Aperiodic Volume Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerke, Tim D.

    Presented in this thesis is an investigation into aperiodic volume optical devices. The three main topics of research and discussion are the aperiodic volume optical devices that we call computer-generated volume holograms (CGVH), defects within periodic 3D photonic crystals, and non-periodic, but ordered 3D quasicrystals. The first of these devices, CGVHs, are designed and investigated numerically and experimentally. We study the performance of multi-layered amplitude computer-generated volume holograms in terms of efficiency and angular/frequency selectivity. Simulation results show that such aperiodic devices can increase diffraction efficiency relative to periodic amplitude volume holograms while maintaining angular and wavelength selectivity. CGVHs are also designed as voxelated volumes using a new projection optimization algorithm. They are investigated using a volumetric diffraction simulation and a standard 3D beam propagation technique as well as experimentally. Both simulation and experiment verify that the structures function according to their design. These represent the first diffractive structures that have the capacity for generating arbitrary transmission and reflection wave fronts and that provide the ability for multiplexing arbitrary functionality given different illumination conditions. Also investigated and discussed in this thesis are 3D photonic crystals and quasicrystals. We demonstrate that these devices can be fabricated using a femtosecond laser direct writing system that is particularly appropriate for fabrication of such arbitrary 3D structures. We also show that these devices can provide 3D partial bandgaps which could become complete bandgaps if fabricated using high index materials or by coating lower index materials with high index metals. Our fabrication method is particularly suited to the fabrication of engineered defects within the periodic or quasi-periodic systems. We demonstrate the potential for fabricating defects within

  18. The volume of a soliton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adam, C., E-mail: adam@fpaxp1.usc.es [Departamento de Física de Partículas, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela and Instituto Galego de Física de Altas Enerxias (IGFAE), E-15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Haberichter, M. [School of Mathematics, Statistics and Actuarial Science, University of Kent, Canterbury, CT2 7NF (United Kingdom); Wereszczynski, A. [Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Lojasiewicza 11, Kraków (Poland)

    2016-03-10

    There exists, in general, no unique definition of the size (volume, area, etc., depending on dimension) of a soliton. Here we demonstrate that the geometric volume (area etc.) of a soliton is singled out in the sense that it exactly coincides with the thermodynamical or continuum-mechanical volume. In addition, this volume may be defined uniquely for rather arbitrary solitons in arbitrary dimensions.

  19. Plasma Biomedicine in Orthopedics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaguchi, Satsohi

    2012-10-01

    Various effects of plasmas irradiation on cells, tissues, and biomaterials relevant for orthopedic applications have been examined. For direct application of plasmas to living cells or tissues, dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) with helium flows into ambient air were used. For biomaterial processing, on the other hand, either helium DBDs mentioned above or low-pressure discharges generated in a chamber were used. In this presentation, plasma effects on cell proliferation and plasma treatment for artificial bones will be discussed. First, the conditions for enhanced cell proliferation in vitro by plasma applications have been examined. The discharge conditions for cell proliferation depend sensitively on cell types. Since cell proliferation can be enhanced even when the cells are cultured in a plasma pre-treated medium, long-life reactive species generated in the medium by plasma application or large molecules (such as proteins) in the medium modified by the plasma are likely to be the cause of cell proliferation. It has been found that there is strong correlation between (organic) hydroperoxide generation and cell proliferation. Second, effects of plasma-treated artificial bones made of porous hydroxyapatite (HA) have been examined in vitro and vivo. It has been found that plasma treatment increases hydrophilicity of the surfaces of microscopic inner pores, which directly or indirectly promotes differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells introduced into the pores and therefore causes faster bone growth. The work has been performed in collaboration with Prof. H. Yoshikawa and his group members at the School of Medicine, Osaka University.

  20. Nanoparticle formation and thin film deposition in aniline containing plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattyn, Cedric; Dias, Ana; Hussain, Shahzad; Strunskus, Thomas; Stefanovic, Ilija; Boulmer-Leborgne, Chantal; Lecas, Thomas; Kovacevic, Eva; Berndt, Johannes

    2016-09-01

    This contribution deals with plasma based polymerization processes in mixtures of argon and aniline. The investigations are performed in a capacitively coupled RF discharge (in pulsed and continuous mode) and concern both the observed formation of nanoparticles in the plasma volume and the deposition of films. The latter process was used for the deposition of ultra-thin layers on different kind of nanocarbon materials (nanotubes and free standing graphene). The analysis of the plasma and the plasma chemistry (by means of mass spectroscopy and in-situ FTIR spectroscopy) is accompanied by several ex-situ diagnostics of the obtained materials which include NEXAFS and XPS measurements as well as Raman spectroscopy and electron microscopy. The decisive point of the investigations concern the preservation of the original monomer structure during the plasma polymerization processes and the stability of the thin films on the different substrates.

  1. Atmospheric pressure plasmas for aerosols processes in materials and environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borra, J. P.; Jidenko, N.; Bourgeois, E.

    2009-08-01

    The paper highlights applications of some atmospheric pressure plasmas (dc-corona, streamer and spark and ac-Dielectric Barrier Discharges) to aerosol processes for Materials and Environment (filtration, diagnostics). The production of vapor i.e. condensable gaseous species, leads to nano-sized particles by physical and chemical routes of nucleation in these AP plasmas: (i) when dc streamer and spark filamentary discharges as well as ac filamentary dielectric barrier discharges interact with metal or dielectric surfaces, and (ii) when discharges induce reactions with gaseous precursors in volume. It is shown how composition, size and structure of primary nano-particles are related to plasma parameters (energy, number per unit surface and time and thermal gradients). Then the growth by coagulation controls the final size of agglomerates versus plasma parameters and transit time in and after the plasma. Charging and electro-thermal collection are depicted to account for the related potential applications of controlled kinematics of charged aerosol.

  2. Advanced plasma diagnostics for plasma processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malyshev, Mikhail Victorovich

    1999-10-01

    A new, non-intrusive, non-perturbing diagnostic method was developed that can be broadly applied to low pressure, weakly ionized plasmas and glow discharges-trace rare gases optical emission spectroscopy (TRG-OES). The method is based on a comparison of intensities of atomic emission from trace amounts of inert gases (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe) that are added to the discharge to intensities calculated from the theoretical model. The model assumes a Maxwellian electron energy distribution function (EEDF), computes the population of emitting levels both from the ground state and the metastable states of rare gases, and from the best fit between theory and experiment determines electron temperature (Te). Subject to conditions, TRG-OES can also yield electron density or its upper or lower limit. From the comparison of the emission from levels excited predominantly by high energy electrons to that excited by low energy electrons, information about the EEDF can be obtained. The use of TRG-OES also allows a traditionally qualitative actinometry technique (determination of concentration of radical species in plasma through optical emission) to become a precise quantitative method by including Te and rare gases metastables effects. A combination of TRG-OES, advanced actinometry, and Langmuir probe measurements was applied to several different plasma reactors and regimes of operation. Te measurements and experiments to correct excitation cross section were conducted in a laboratory helical resonator. Two chamber configuration of a commercial (Lam Research) metal etcher were studied to determine the effects of plasma parameters on plasma-induced damage. Two different methods (RF inductive coupling and ultra-high frequency coupling) for generating a plasma in a prototype reactor were also studied. Pulsed plasmas, a potential candidate to eliminate the plasma-induced damage to microelectronics devices that occurs in manufacturing due to differential charging of the wafer, have

  3. Experimental study of collisionless super-Alfvénic interaction of interpenetrating plasma flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikhislamov, I. F.; Zakharov, Yu. P.; Posukh, V. G.; Melekhov, A. V.; Boyarintsev, E. L.; Ponomarenko, A. G.; Terekhin, V. A.

    2015-05-01

    An experiment on the interaction between an expanding super-Alfvénic laser-produced plasma flow and a magnetized background plasma under conditions in which the ion gyroradius is comparable with the characteristic scale length of magnetic field displacement is described. The depletion of the background plasma in a substantial volume and the formation of a large-amplitude compression pulse propagating with a super-Alfvénic velocity are revealed. The efficiency of energy conversion into perturbations of the background plasma was found to be 25%. Combined data from magnetic, electric, and plasma measurements indicate that the interaction occurs via the magnetic laminar mechanism.

  4. New concept of ECR driven multicusp volume H- source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacal, M.; Ivanov, A. A., Jr.; Rouillé, C.; Arnal, Y.; Béchu, S.; Pelletier, J.

    2003-10-01

    We propose a new concept of a large volume H- source. The plasma necessary to generate the negative hydrogen ions is created by several elementary multi-dipolar ECR sources. Each of these sources consists of a permanent magnet mounted at the extremity of a coaxial feedthrough. This plasma is confined in a periodic magnetic field configuration known as multicusp configuration. It traps the hot electrons at the outer boundary of the system thus favoring the creation of optimum plasma conditions necessary for H- generation (in particular, the electron temperature of the order of 0.6 - 0.8 eV). To test this idea we installed seven ECR sources (2.45GHz) on the top flange of the volume H- source Camembert III with its cylindrical multicusp configuration. The pressure was varied from 1 to 4 mTorr, the total power of the microwave generator was varied between 500 W and 1 kW. We studied the density and temperature of the plasma and of the hydrogen negative ions. We obtained encouraging results confirming the generation of the optimum plasma conditions in this system. We also compared the obtained results with the previous generation scheme, using filaments. Acknowledgement. The support of EEC (Contract HPRI-CT-2001-50021) is gratefully acknowledged.

  5. Study of Multi-Function Micro-Plasma Spraying Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Liuying; WANG Hangong; HUA Shaochun; CAO Xiaoping

    2007-01-01

    A multi-functional micro-arc plasma spraying system was developed according to aerodynamics and plasma spray theory. The soft switch IGBT (Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor) invert technique, micro-computer control technique, convergent-divergent nozzle structure and axial powder feeding techniques have been adopted in the design of the micro-arc plasma spraying system. It is not only characterized by a small volume, a light weight, highly accurate control, high deposition efficiency and high reliability, but also has multi-functions in plasma spraying, welding and quenching. The experimental results showed that the system can produce a supersonic flame at a low power, spray Al2O3 particles at an average speed up to 430 m/s, and make nanostructured AT13 coatings with an average bonding strength of 42.7 MPa. Compared to conventional 9M plasma spraying with a higher power, the coatings with almost the same properties as those by conventional plasma spray can be deposited by multi-functional micro-arc plasma spraying with a lower power plasma arc due to an improved power supply design, spray gun structure and powder feeding method. Moreover, this system is suitable for working with thin parts and undertaking on site repairs, and as a result, the application of plasma spraying will be greatly extended.

  6. Theory of a beam-driven plasma antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeev, I. V.; Volchok, E. P.; Annenkov, V. V.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we propose a theory describing generation of electromagnetic waves in a thin beam-plasma system with a characteristic transverse size comparable with the radiation wavelength. In fact, a thin plasma column with a longitudinal density modulation works like a plasma antenna in which an electron beam can excite a superluminal wave of electric current. It has previously been shown that, if the period of this modulation coincides with the wavelength of the most unstable beam-driven mode, radiation at a frequency slightly below the plasma frequency is emitted transversely to the plasma column and generated in thin boundary layers. For the plasma thickness comparable with the skin-depth, generation of the terahertz radiation can reach high efficiency ( ˜10 % ) in such a scheme, but the absolute power of this radiation cannot be increased by increasing the transverse plasma size. In this paper, we study whether the power of such an antenna can be increased in the regime of oblique emission when the magnetized plasma is transparent to the radiated electromagnetic waves and the whole plasma volume may be involved in their generation.

  7. Design for volume reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wever, R.; Boks, C.; Stevels, A.

    2007-01-01

    Traditionally packaging design-for-sustainability (DfS) strongly focuses on resource conservation and material recycling. The type and amount of materials used has been the driver in design. For consumer electronics (CE) products this weight-based approach is too limited; a volume-based approach is

  8. Introduction to the Volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emihovich, Catherine; Schroder, Barbara; Panofsky, Carolyn P.

    1999-01-01

    Introduces a volume that examines the issue of critical thinking and whether or not it is culturally specific, discussing recent research on the subject. The papers focus on critical thinking and culture, historical consciousness and critical thinking, critical thinking as cultural-historical practice, culture and the development of critical…

  9. Calculation of the Residual Blood Volume after Acute, Non-Ongoing Hemorrhage Using Serial Hematocrit Measurements and the Volume of Isotonic Fluid Infused: Theoretical Hypothesis Generating Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Won Sup; Chon, Sung-Bin

    2016-05-01

    Fluid resuscitation, hemostasis, and transfusion is essential in care of hemorrhagic shock. Although estimation of the residual blood volume is crucial, the standard measuring methods are impractical or unsafe. Vital signs, central venous or pulmonary artery pressures are inaccurate. We hypothesized that the residual blood volume for acute, non-ongoing hemorrhage was calculable using serial hematocrit measurements and the volume of isotonic solution infused. Blood volume is the sum of volumes of red blood cells and plasma. For acute, non-ongoing hemorrhage, red blood cell volume would not change. A certain portion of the isotonic fluid would increase plasma volume. Mathematically, we suggest that the residual blood volume after acute, non-ongoing hemorrhage might be calculated as 0·25N/[(Hct1/Hct2)-1], where Hct1 and Hct2 are the initial and subsequent hematocrits, respectively, and N is the volume of isotonic solution infused. In vivo validation and modification is needed before clinical application of this model.

  10. Pulsed plasma arc cladding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙; 白钢; 李振民; 张赋升; 杨思乾

    2004-01-01

    A prototype of Pulsed Plasma Arc Cladding system was developed, in which single power source supplies both transferred plasma arc (TPA) and non-transferred plasma arc (N-TPA). Both plasmas work in turn in a high frequency controlled by an IGBT connecting nozzle and workpiece. The working frequency of IGBT ranges from 50 ~ 7000Hz, in which the plasmas can work in turn smoothly. Higher than 500 Hz of working frequency is suggested for promotion of cladding quality and protection of IGBT. Drag phenomenon of TPA intensifies as the frequency goes up, which tends to increase the current proportion of TPA and suppress N-TPA. The occupation ratio of IGBT can be regulated from 5% ~ 95%, which balances the power supplies of both plasmas. An occupation ratio higher than 50% gives adequate proportion of arc current for N-TPA to preheat powder.

  11. Introduction to Complex Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Bonitz, Michael; Ludwig, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Complex plasmas differ from traditional plasmas in many ways: these are low-temperature high pressure systems containing nanometer to micrometer size particles which may be highly charged and strongly interacting. The particles may be chemically reacting or be in contact with solid surfaces, and the electrons may show quantum behaviour. These interesting properties have led to many applications of complex plasmas in technology, medicine and science. Yet complex plasmas are extremely complicated, both experimentally and theoretically, and require a variety of new approaches which go beyond standard plasma physics courses. This book fills this gap presenting an introduction to theory, experiment and computer simulation in this field. Based on tutorial lectures at a very successful recent Summer Institute, the presentation is ideally suited for graduate students, plasma physicists and experienced undergraduates.

  12. Ultracold Neutral Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Killian, T C; Gupta, P; Laha, S; Martinez, Y N; Mickelson, P G; Nagel, S B; Saenz, A D; Simien, C E; Killian, Thomas C.

    2005-01-01

    Ultracold neutral plasmas are formed by photoionizing laser-cooled atoms near the ionization threshold. Through the application of atomic physics techniques and diagnostics, these experiments stretch the boundaries of traditional neutral plasma physics. The electron temperature in these plasmas ranges from 1-1000 K and the ion temperature is around 1 K. The density can approach $10^{11}$ cm$^{-3}$. Fundamental interest stems from the possibility of creating strongly-coupled plasmas, but recombination, collective modes, and thermalization in these systems have also been studied. Optical absorption images of a strontium plasma, using the Sr$^+$ ${^2S_{1/2}} -> {^2P_{1/2}}$ transition at 422 nm, depict the density profile of the plasma, and probe kinetics on a 50 ns time-scale. The Doppler-broadened ion absorption spectrum measures the ion velocity distribution, which gives an accurate measure of the ion dynamics in the first microsecond after photoionization.

  13. What is a plasma?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Intrator, Thomas P. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-30

    This introduction will define the plasma fourth state of matter, where we find plasmas on earth and beyond, and why they are useful. There are applications to many consumer items, fusion energy, scientific devices, satellite communications, semiconductor processing, spacecraft propulsion, and more. Since 99% of our observable universe is ionized gas, plasma physics determines many important features of astrophysics, space physics, and magnetosphere physics in our solar system. We describe some plasma characteristics, examples in nature, some useful applications, how to create plasmas. A brief introduction to the theoretical framework includes the connection between kinetic and fluid descriptions, quasi neutrality, Debye shielding, ambipolar electric fields, some plasma waves. Hands-on demonstrations follow. More complete explanations will follow next week.

  14. Pulsed plasma electron sourcesa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasik, Ya. E.; Yarmolich, D.; Gleizer, J. Z.; Vekselman, V.; Hadas, Y.; Gurovich, V. Tz.; Felsteiner, J.

    2009-05-01

    There is a continuous interest in research of electron sources which can be used for generation of uniform electron beams produced at E ≤105 V/cm and duration ≤10-5 s. In this review, several types of plasma electron sources will be considered, namely, passive (metal ceramic, velvet and carbon fiber with and without CsI coating, and multicapillary and multislot cathodes) and active (ferroelectric and hollow anodes) plasma sources. The operation of passive sources is governed by the formation of flashover plasma whose parameters depend on the amplitude and rise time of the accelerating electric field. In the case of ferroelectric and hollow-anode plasma sources the plasma parameters are controlled by the driving pulse and discharge current, respectively. Using different time- and space-resolved electrical, optical, spectroscopical, Thomson scattering and x-ray diagnostics, the parameters of the plasma and generated electron beam were characterized.

  15. Transport and trapping of dust particles in a potential well created by inductively coupled diffused plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Choudhary, Mangilal; Bandyopadhyay, P

    2016-01-01

    A versatile linear dusty (complex) plasma device is designed to study the transport and dynamical behavior of dust particles in a large volume. Diffused inductively coupled plasma is generated in the background of argon gas. A novel technique is used to introduce the dust particles in the main plasma by striking a secondary direct current (DC) glow discharge. These dust particles are found to get trapped in an electrostatic potential well which is formed due to the combination of the ambipolar electric field caused by diffusive plasma and the field produced by the charged glass wall of the vacuum chamber. According to the requirements, the volume of the dust cloud can be controlled very precisely by tuning the plasma and discharge parameters. The present device can be used to address the underlying physics behind the transport of dust particles, self excited dust acoustic waves and instabilities. The detailed design of this device, plasma production and characterization, trapping and transport of the dust par...

  16. Space plasma physics research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comfort, Richard H.; Horwitz, James L.

    1993-01-01

    During the course of this grant, work was performed on a variety of topics and there were a number of significant accomplishments. A summary of these accomplishments is included. The topics studied include empirical model data base, data reduction for archiving, semikinetic modeling of low energy plasma in the inner terrestrial magnetosphere and ionosphere, O(+) outflows, equatorial plasma trough, and plasma wave ray-tracing studies. A list of publications and presentations which have resulted from this research is also included.

  17. Atmospheric Plasma Depainting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-19

    Plasma Carbon Dioxide Water Vapor 11 Atmospheric Plasma Depainting, ASETSDefense, Nov 19, 2014 Features and Benefits of APCR Technology Feature...Depainting, ASETSDefense, Nov 19, 2014 14 APC on Aluminum Removal to Primer RAM on Carbon Fiber Partial Topcoat Removal APC Topcoat RAM...60Hz Plasma Flux™ Power Supply VENT To Facility HEPA <= Filtration COTS Six-Axis Robot Aircraft part Particulate Collection System

  18. Plasma nitriding of steels

    CERN Document Server

    Aghajani, Hossein

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on the effect of plasma nitriding on the properties of steels. Parameters of different grades of steels are considered, such as structural and constructional steels, stainless steels and tools steels. The reader will find within the text an introduction to nitriding treatment, the basis of plasma and its roll in nitriding. The authors also address the advantages and disadvantages of plasma nitriding in comparison with other nitriding methods. .

  19. Bacteria-killing ability of fresh blood plasma compared to frozen blood plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Anne C; Fair, Jeanne M

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the bacteria-killing assay (BKA) has become a popular technique among ecoimmunologists. New variations of that assay allow researchers to use smaller volumes of blood, an important consideration for those working on small-bodied animals. However, this version of the assay requires access to a lab with a nanodrop spectrophotometer, something that may not be available in the field. One possible solution is to freeze plasma for transport; however, this assumes that frozen plasma samples will give comparable results to fresh ones. We tested this assumption using plasma samples from three species of birds: chickens (Gallus gallus), ash-throated flycatchers (Myiarchus cinerascens), and western bluebirds (Sialia mexicana). Chicken plasma samples lost most or all of their bacterial killing ability after freezing. This did not happen in flycatchers and bluebirds; however, frozen plasma did not produce results comparable to those obtained using fresh plasma. We caution researchers using the BKA to use fresh samples whenever possible, and to validate the use of frozen samples on a species-by-species basis.

  20. LLE review: Quarterly report, April--June 1992. Volume 51

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Short, R.W. [ed.

    1992-12-31

    This volume of the LLE Review, covering the period April--June 1992, contains articles on laser-plasma interaction experiments in long-scale-length plasmas and on the theory of a new form of the stimulated Brillouin scattering instabilitity. The advanced technology section includes reports on the optical response of superconducting films, the development of high-reflectance transport mirrors for the OMEGA Upgrade, and a new high-brightness mono-mode laser oscillator. Finally, the activities of the National Laser Users Facility and the GDL and OMEGA laser systems are summarized.

  1. Plasma adiabatic lapse rate

    CERN Document Server

    Amendt, Peter; Wilks, Scott

    2012-01-01

    The plasma analog of an adiabatic lapse rate (or temperature variation with height) in atmospheric physics is obtained. A new source of plasma temperature gradient in a binary ion species mixture is found that is proportional to the concentration gradient and difference in average ionization states . Application to inertial-confinement-fusion implosions indicates a potentially strong effect in plastic (CH) ablators that is not modeled with mainline (single-fluid) simulations. An associated plasma thermodiffusion coefficient is derived, and charge-state diffusion in a single-species plasma is also predicted.

  2. Nonlinear Physics of Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Kono, Mitsuo

    2010-01-01

    A nonlinearity is one of the most important notions in modern physics. A plasma is rich in nonlinearities and provides a variety of behaviors inherent to instabilities, coherent wave structures and turbulence. The book covers the basic concepts and mathematical methods, necessary to comprehend nonlinear problems widely encountered in contemporary plasmas, but also in other fields of physics and current research on self-organized structures and magnetized plasma turbulence. The analyses make use of strongly nonlinear models solved by analytical techniques backed by extensive simulations and available experiments. The text is written for senior undergraduates, graduate students, lecturers and researchers in laboratory, space and fusion plasmas.

  3. Physics of Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Woods, Leslie Colin

    2003-01-01

    A short, self-sufficient introduction to the physics of plasma for beginners as well as researchers in a number of fields. The author looks at the dynamics and stability of magnetoplasma and discusses wave and transport in this medium. He also looks at such applications as fusion research using magnetic confinement of Deuterium plasma, solar physics with its plasma loops reaching high into the corona, sunspots and solar wind, engineering applications to metallurgy, MHD direct generation of electricity, and railguns, finally touching on the relatively new and difficult subject of dusty plasmas.

  4. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: principal parameters achieved in experimental devices fiscal year 1990; tokamak fusion test reactor; compact ignition tokamak; Princeton beta experiment- modification; current drive experiment-upgrade; international collaboration; x-ray laser studies; spacecraft glow experiment; plasma processing: deposition and etching of thin films; theoretical studies; tokamak modeling; international thermonuclear experimental reactor; engineering department; project planning and safety office; quality assurance and reliability; technology transfer; administrative operations; PPPL patent invention disclosures for fiscal year 1990; graduate education; plasma physics; graduate education: plasma science and technology; science education program; and Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory reports fiscal year 1990.

  5. Solid expellant plasma generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Nobie H. (Inventor); Poe, Garrett D. (Inventor); Rood, Robert (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An improved solid expellant plasma generator has been developed. The plasma generator includes a support housing, an electrode rod located in the central portion of the housing, and a mass of solid expellant material that surrounds the electrode rod within the support housing. The electrode rod and the solid expellant material are made of separate materials that are selected so that the electrode and the solid expellant material decompose at the same rate when the plasma generator is ignited. This maintains a point of discharge of the plasma at the interface between the electrode and the solid expellant material.

  6. Plasma and particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Špatenka, Petr; Vacková, Tat'ana; Nováček, Vojtěch; Jeníková, Zdenka

    2016-12-01

    Plasma has been proved as a standard industrial method for surface treatment of solid bulk materials. Recently plasma has also been used in connection with production, treatment and functionalization of powder and granulate materials. Functionalization was originally developed for hydrophylization of hydrophobic surfaces of particles made from various materials. An industrial scale device with a capacity of several hundreds of tons per year based on plasma treatment will be presented. As examples of the applications are given plasma treated polyethylene powder dispersed in the water; and very good adhesion of polymer powders to metals or glass, which is promising for development of new generation of thermoplastic composites.

  7. Severe hyperosmolarity and hypernatremia in an adipsic young woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latcha, S; Lubetzky, M; Weinstein, A M

    2011-11-01

    Combined deficits in arginine vasopressin secretion (AVP) and thirst sensation can result in life threatening hyperosmolality and hypernatremia. Complications include seizures, profound volume contraction and renal failure. Fortunately, this is an uncommon clinical condition, with approximately 70 cases reported in the literature over the past 47 years [1]. Defects in AVP secretion and/or synthesis produce central diabetes insipidus (DI), polyuria with polydipsia, hypernatremia and hyperosmolality. Most awake and alert patients with an intact thirst stimulus will "drink" themselves back to a normal serum sodium and osmolality. However, if there is concomitant destruction of the osmoreceptors that regulate thirst, osmolal and volume homeostasis cannot be maintained. The relationships between urine osmolarity and serum osmolarity and plasma vasopressin levels are vital for distinguishing a reset osmostat from central DI. After obtaining approval from our institutional review board, we retrospectively reviewed the medical record of a 37-year-old patient who presented to our institution with a serum sodium of 176 mEq/l. Admission laboratory examination revealed: hemoglobin 12.8 g/dl; white blood cell count 4.7 × 103/µl, with a normal differential; random serum glucose 91 mg/dl ; sodium 176 mEq/l; plasma osmolality 366 mOsm/kg; BUN 33 mg/dl; serum creatinine 1 mg/dl; calcium 9.5 mg/dl; urine specific gravity 1.032; and urine osmolality 1,172 mOsm/kg. An MRI with contrast of the sella/ pituitary revealed an enhancing mass centered within the suprasellar cistern and anterior third ventricle, measuring 3.0 × 3.9 × 3.4 cm. The lesion appeared to involve the hypothalamus and displaced the optic chiasm inferiorly. Evaluation of pituitary function revealed normal serum levels of thyroid stimulating hormone, AM cortisol, luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone and prolactin. Figure 1 illustrates the relationship between measured serum AVP levels and serum

  8. Unilateral fluid absorption and effects on peak power after ingestion of commercially available hypotonic, isotonic, and hypertonic sports drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlands, David S; Bonetti, Darrell L; Hopkins, Will G

    2011-12-01

    Isotonic sports drinks are often consumed to offset the effects of dehydration and improve endurance performance, but hypotonic drinks may be more advantageous. The purpose of the study was to compare absorption and effects on performance of a commercially available hypotonic sports drink (Mizone Rapid: 3.9% carbohydrate [CHO], 218 mOsmol/kg) with those of an isotonic drink (PowerAde: 7.6% CHO, 281 mOsmol/ kg), a hypertonic drink (Gatorade: 6% CHO, 327 mOsmol/kg), and a noncaloric placebo (8 mOsmol/kg). In a crossover, 11 cyclists consumed each drink on separate days at 250 ml/15 min during a 2-hr preload ride at 55% peak power followed by an incremental test to exhaustion. Small to moderate increases in deuterium oxide enrichment in the preload were observed with Mizone Rapid relative to PowerAde, Gatorade, and placebo (differences of 88, 45, and 42 parts per million, respectively; 90% confidence limits ±28). Serum osmolality was moderately lower with Mizone Rapid than with PowerAde and Gatorade (-1.9, -2.4; mOsmol/L; ±1.2 mOsmol/L) but not clearly different vs. placebo. Plasma volume reduction was small to moderate with Mizone Rapid, PowerAde, and Gatorade relative to placebo (-1.9%, -2.5%, -2.9%; ± 2.5%). Gut comfort was highest with Mizone Rapid but clearly different (8.4% ± 4.8%) only vs PowerAde. Peak power was highest with Mizone Rapid (380 W) vs. placebo and other drinks (1.2-3.0%; 99% confidence limits ±4.7%), but differences were inconclusive with reference to the smallest important effect (~1.2%). The outcomes are consistent with fastest fluid absorption with the hypotonic sports drink. Further research should determine whether the effect has a meaningful impact on performance.

  9. Modeling of plasma transport and negative ion extraction in a magnetized radio-frequency plasma source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fubiani, G.; Garrigues, L.; Hagelaar, G.; Kohen, N.; Boeuf, J. P.

    2017-01-01

    Negative ion sources for fusion are high densities plasma sources in large discharge volumes. There are many challenges in the modeling of these sources, due to numerical constraints associated with the high plasma density, to the coupling between plasma and neutral transport and chemistry, the presence of a magnetic filter, and the extraction of negative ions. In this paper we present recent results concerning these different aspects. Emphasis is put on the modeling approach and on the methods and approximations. The models are not fully predictive and not complete as would be engineering codes but they are used to identify the basic principles and to better understand the physics of the negative ion sources.

  10. Ultracold neutral plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, M.; Rolston, S. L.

    2017-01-01

    By photoionizing samples of laser-cooled atoms with laser light tuned just above the ionization limit, plasmas can be created with electron and ion temperatures below 10 K. These ultracold neutral plasmas have extended the temperature bounds of plasma physics by two orders of magnitude. Table-top experiments, using many of the tools from atomic physics, allow for the study of plasma phenomena in this new regime with independent control over the density and temperature of the plasma through the excitation process. Characteristic of these systems is an inhomogeneous density profile, inherited from the density distribution of the laser-cooled neutral atom sample. Most work has dealt with unconfined plasmas in vacuum, which expand outward at velocities of order 100 m/s, governed by electron pressure, and with lifetimes of order 100 μs, limited by stray electric fields. Using detection of charged particles and optical detection techniques, a wide variety of properties and phenomena have been observed, including expansion dynamics, collective excitations in both the electrons and ions, and collisional properties. Through three-body recombination collisions, the plasmas rapidly form Rydberg atoms, and clouds of cold Rydberg atoms have been observed to spontaneously avalanche ionize to form plasmas. Of particular interest is the possibility of the formation of strongly coupled plasmas, where Coulomb forces dominate thermal motion and correlations become important. The strongest impediment to strong coupling is disorder-induced heating, a process in which Coulomb energy from an initially disordered sample is converted into thermal energy. This restricts electrons to a weakly coupled regime and leaves the ions barely within the strongly coupled regime. This review will give an overview of the field of ultracold neutral plasmas, from its inception in 1999 to current work, including efforts to increase strong coupling and effects on plasma properties due to strong coupling.

  11. Postoperative volume balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, H; Mortensen, C.R.; Secher, Niels H.

    2017-01-01

    In healthy humans, stroke volume (SV) and cardiac output (CO) do not increase with expansion of the central blood volume by head-down tilt or administration of fluid. Here, we exposed 85 patients to Trendelenburg's position about one hour after surgery while cardiovascular variables were determined...... non-invasively by Modelflow. In Trendelenburg's position, SV (83 ± 19 versus 89 ± 20 ml) and CO (6·2 ± 1·8 versus 6·8 ± 1·8 l/min; both Pheart rate (75 ± 15 versus 76 ± 14 b min(-1) ) and mean arterial pressure were unaffected (84 ± 15 versus 84 ± 16 mmHg). For the 33 patients......, determination of SV and/or CO in Trendelenburg's position can be used to evaluate whether a patient is in need of IV fluid as here exemplified after surgery....

  12. Plasma Physics An Introduction to Laboratory, Space, and Fusion Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Piel, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Plasma Physics gives a comprehensive introduction to the basic processes in plasmas and demonstrates that the same fundamental concepts describe cold gas-discharge plasmas, space plasmas, and hot fusion plasmas. Starting from particle drifts in magnetic fields, the principles of magnetic confinement fusion are explained and compared with laser fusion. Collective processes are discussed in terms of plasma waves and instabilities. The concepts of plasma description by magnetohydrodynamics, kinetic theory, and particle simulation are stepwise introduced. Space charge effects in sheath regions, double layers and plasma diodes are given the necessary attention. The new fundamental mechanisms of dusty plasmas are explored and integrated into the framework of conventional plasmas. The book concludes with a brief introduction to plasma discharges. Written by an internationally renowned researcher in experimental plasma physics, the text keeps the mathematical apparatus simple and emphasizes the underlying concepts. T...

  13. Select Papers. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    non- uniform rational B-splines (NURBS), 127 and BRL-CAD TM format. This dual-package development allowed for rapid development of components ...next generation of scientists and engineers. A fundamental component of our outreach program is to provide students research experiences at ARL...summer intern. There, I ran Volume Based Morphometry , an application of Statistical Parametric Mapping that was new to the Hirsch lab. I

  14. Perspective: The physics, diagnostics, and applications of atmospheric pressure low temperature plasma sources used in plasma medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laroussi, M.; Lu, X.; Keidar, M.

    2017-07-01

    Low temperature plasmas have been used in various plasma processing applications for several decades. But it is only in the last thirty years or so that sources generating such plasmas at atmospheric pressure in reliable and stable ways have become more prevalent. First, in the late 1980s, the dielectric barrier discharge was used to generate relatively large volume diffuse plasmas at atmospheric pressure. Then, in the early 2000s, plasma jets that can launch cold plasma plumes in ambient air were developed. Extensive experimental and modeling work was carried out on both methods and much of the physics governing such sources was elucidated. Starting in the mid-1990s, low temperature plasma discharges have been used as sources of chemically reactive species that can be transported to interact with biological media, cells, and tissues and induce impactful biological effects. However, many of the biochemical pathways whereby plasma affects cells remain not well understood. This situation is changing rather quickly because the field, known today as "plasma medicine," has experienced exponential growth in the last few years thanks to a global research community that engaged in fundamental and applied research involving the use of cold plasma for the inactivation of bacteria, dental applications, wound healing, and the destruction of cancer cells/tumors. In this perspective, the authors first review the physics as well as the diagnostics of the principal plasma sources used in plasma medicine. Then, brief descriptions of their biomedical applications are presented. To conclude, the authors' personal assessment of the present status and future outlook of the field is given.

  15. Arrested relaxation in an isolated molecular ultracold plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haenel, R.; Schulz-Weiling, M.; Sous, J.; Sadeghi, H.; Aghigh, M.; Melo, L.; Keller, J. S.; Grant, E. R.

    2017-08-01

    Spontaneous avalanche to plasma splits the core of an ellipsoidal Rydberg gas of nitric oxide. Ambipolar expansion first quenches the electron temperature of this core plasma. Then, long-range, resonant charge transfer from ballistic ions to frozen Rydberg molecules in the wings of the ellipsoid quenches the ion-Rydberg-molecule relative velocity distribution. This sequence of steps gives rise to a remarkable mechanics of self-assembly, in which the kinetic energy of initially formed hot electrons and ions drives an observed separation of plasma volumes. These dynamics adiabatically sequester energy in a reservoir of mass transport, starting a process that anneals separating volumes to form an apparent glass of strongly coupled ions and electrons. Short-time electron spectroscopy provides experimental evidence for complete ionization. The long lifetime of this system, particularly its stability with respect to recombination and neutral dissociation, suggests that this transformation affords a robust state of arrested relaxation, far from thermal equilibrium.

  16. Small-Volume Injections: Evaluation of Volume Administration Deviation From Intended Injection Volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muffly, Matthew K; Chen, Michael I; Claure, Rebecca E; Drover, David R; Efron, Bradley; Fitch, William L; Hammer, Gregory B

    2017-10-01

    In the perioperative period, anesthesiologists and postanesthesia care unit (PACU) nurses routinely prepare and administer small-volume IV injections, yet the accuracy of delivered medication volumes in this setting has not been described. In this ex vivo study, we sought to characterize the degree to which small-volume injections (≤0.5 mL) deviated from the intended injection volumes among a group of pediatric anesthesiologists and pediatric postanesthesia care unit (PACU) nurses. We hypothesized that as the intended injection volumes decreased, the deviation from those intended injection volumes would increase. Ten attending pediatric anesthesiologists and 10 pediatric PACU nurses each performed a series of 10 injections into a simulated patient IV setup. Practitioners used separate 1-mL tuberculin syringes with removable 18-gauge needles (Becton-Dickinson & Company, Franklin Lakes, NJ) to aspirate 5 different volumes (0.025, 0.05, 0.1, 0.25, and 0.5 mL) of 0.25 mM Lucifer Yellow (LY) fluorescent dye constituted in saline (Sigma Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) from a rubber-stoppered vial. Each participant then injected the specified volume of LY fluorescent dye via a 3-way stopcock into IV tubing with free-flowing 0.9% sodium chloride (10 mL/min). The injected volume of LY fluorescent dye and 0.9% sodium chloride then drained into a collection vial for laboratory analysis. Microplate fluorescence wavelength detection (Infinite M1000; Tecan, Mannedorf, Switzerland) was used to measure the fluorescence of the collected fluid. Administered injection volumes were calculated based on the fluorescence of the collected fluid using a calibration curve of known LY volumes and associated fluorescence.To determine whether deviation of the administered volumes from the intended injection volumes increased at lower injection volumes, we compared the proportional injection volume error (loge [administered volume/intended volume]) for each of the 5 injection volumes using a linear

  17. [Acute plasma cell leukemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsalbe, V; Domíngues, C; Roa, I; Busel, D; González, S

    1989-01-01

    Plasma Cell Leukemia is a very rare form of plasmocytic dyscrasia, whose clinical and pathological characteristics warrant its recognition as a distinct subentity. We report the case of a 60 years old man who presented a rapidly fatal acute plasma cell leukemia, with multiple osteolytic lesions, hipercalcemia, renal and cardiac failure.

  18. Plasma polarization spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, Takashi [Department of Engineering Physics and Mechanics, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    Polarization of radiation emitted from a plasma reflects the anisotropic properties of the plasma, especially the angular anisotropic distribution of electron velocities. Polarization has been observed on impurity ion lines from the WT-3 tokamak and the GAMMA-10 tandem mirror machines. The soft x-ray laser line from the neonlike germanium was also found polarized. (author)

  19. Plasma polarization spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwamae, Atsushi; Inoue, Takeru; Tanaka, Akihiro; Kawakami, Kazuki; Fujimoto, Takashi [Kyoto Univ., Dept. of Engineering Physics, Kyoto (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    Polarization of radiation emitted from plasma reflects the anisotropic properties of the plasma, especially the angular isotropic distribution of electron velocities. Polarization has been observed on impurity ion lines from the WT-3 tokamak and GAMMA 10 tandem mirror device. (author)

  20. Atoms in dense plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    More, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    Recent experiments with high-power pulsed lasers have strongly encouraged the development of improved theoretical understanding of highly charged ions in a dense plasma environment. This work examines the theory of dense plasmas with emphasis on general rules which govern matter at extreme high temperature and density. 106 refs., 23 figs.

  1. Modelling of Complex Plasmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akdim, M.R. (Mohamed Reda)

    2003-01-01

    Nowadays plasmas are used for various applications such as the fabrication of silicon solar cells, integrated circuits, coatings and dental cleaning. In the case of a processing plasma, e.g. for the fabrication of amorphous silicon solar cells, a mixture of silane and hydrogen gas is injected in a r

  2. "Angular" plasma cell cheilitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cunha Filho, Roberto Rheingantz; Tochetto, Lucas Baldissera; Tochetto, Bruno Baldissera; de Almeida, Hiram Larangeira; Lorencette, Nádia Aparecida; Netto, José Fillus

    2014-03-17

    Plasma cell cheilitis is an extremely rare disease, characterized by erythematous-violaceous, ulcerated and asymptomatic plaques, which evolve slowly. The histological characteristics include dermal infiltrate composed of mature plasmocytes. We report a case of Plasma cell angular cheilitis in a 58-year-old male, localized in the lateral oral commissure.

  3. "Angular" plasma cell cheilitis

    OpenAIRE

    da Cunha Filho, Roberto Rheingantz; Tochetto, Lucas Baldissera; Tochetto, Bruno Baldissera; de Almeida Jr, Hiram Larangeira; Lorencette, Nadia Aparecida; Netto, Jose Fillus

    2014-01-01

    Plasma cell cheilitis is an extremely rare disease, characterized by erythematous-violaceous, ulcerated and asymptomatic plaques, which evolve slowly. The histological characteristics include dermal infiltrate composed of mature plasmocytes. We report a case of Plasma cell angular cheilitis in a 58-year-old male, localized in the lateral oral commissure.

  4. Introduction to Plasma Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Kunze, H-J

    2009-01-01

    Based on lectures given at the Ruhr-University of Bochum for graduate students and postgraduates starting in plasma physics as well as from low- to high-density hot plasmas, this book introduces basic ideas and fundamental concepts and typical instrumentation from the X-ray to the infrared spectral regions

  5. Hypothalamic knife cuts alter fluid regulation, vasopressin secretion, and natriuresis during water deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bealer, S L; Crofton, J T; Share, L

    1983-05-01

    To investigate central neural pathways involved in release of vasopressin and in fluid electrolyte regulation, a retractable wire knife was used to make coronal knife cuts posterior to the organum vasculosum lamina terminalis (OVLT). 4 days following cuts or control surgery, animals were housed in metabolism cages and: (1) deprived of food and water for 48 h; (2) deprived of water only for 48 h; or (3) allowed continuous access to food and water. Water ingestion, food ingestion, urine volume, sodium excretion and urine osmolality were recorded daily. Trunk blood was then collected following decapitation for determination of plasma vasopressin, sodium, and protein concentrations, and osmolality. Animals with knife cuts and ad libitum access to food and water had significantly higher plasma osmolality (310 +/- 2 mosm/kg), and plasma vasopressin concentration (2.02 +/- 0.5 microunits/ml) than controls (306 +/- 1 mosm/kg and 0.60 +/- 0.04 microunits/ml, respectively). When rats were deprived of both food and water, there were no significant differences between the two groups in plasma vasopressin concentration, although plasma osmolality wa higher in animals with cuts. However, rats with knife cuts deprived of water only had significantly higher plasma osmolality (358 +/- 8 mosm/kg), sodium (164 +/- 19 mEq/l) and vasopressin (17.7 +/- 4 microunits/ml), than similarly treated control animals (317 +/- 1 mosm/kg, 145.5 +/- 1.0 mEq/1, 5.5 +/- 3 microunits/ml, respectively). These data indicate that a neural pathway in this brain region is critical for normal fluid and electrolyte balance during ad libitum access to food and water, and during water deprivation.

  6. Changes in circulating blood volume after infusion of hydroxyethyl starch 6% in critically ill patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, P; Andersson, J; Rasmussen, S E;

    2001-01-01

    The cardiovascular response to a volume challenge with hydroxyethyl starch (HES) (200/0.5) 6% depends on the relation between the volume of HES 6% infused and the expansion of the blood volume in critically ill patients. However, only relatively limited data exist on the plasma expanding effect...... of infusion of HES 6% in critically ill patients. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the variation in the expansion of the circulating blood volume (CBV) in critically ill patients after infusion of 500 ml of colloid (HES (200/0.5) 6%) using the carbon monoxide method....

  7. Innovations in plasma sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurbuchen, Thomas H.; Gershman, Daniel J.

    2016-04-01

    During the history of space exploration, ever improving instruments have continued to enable new measurements and discoveries. Focusing on plasma sensors, we examine the processes by which such new instrument innovations have occurred over the past decades. Due to risk intolerance prevalent in many NASA space missions, innovations in plasma instrumentation occur primarily when heritage systems fail to meet science requirements, functional requirements as part of its space platform, or design constraints. We will review such innovation triggers in the context of the design literature and with the help of two case studies, the Fast Imaging Plasma Spectrometer on MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging and the Fast Plasma Investigation on Magnetosphere Multiscale. We will then discuss the anticipated needs for new plasma instrument innovations to enable the science program of the next decade.

  8. Wakes in inhomogeneous plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Kompaneets, Roman; Nosenko, Vladimir; Morfill, Gregor E

    2014-01-01

    The Debye shielding of a charge immersed in a flowing plasma is an old classic problem in plasma physics. It has been given renewed attention in the last two decades in view of experiments with complex plasmas, where charged dust particles are often levitated in a region with strong ion flow. Efforts to describe the shielding of the dust particles in such conditions have been focused on the homogeneous plasma approximation, which ignores the substantial inhomogeneity of the levitation region. We address the role of the plasma inhomogeneity by rigorously calculating the point charge potential in the collisionless Bohm sheath. We demonstrate that the inhomogeneity can dramatically modify the wake, making it non-oscillatory and weaker.

  9. Basic plasma physics

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Basudev

    2014-01-01

    Basic Plasma Physics is designed to serve as an introductory compact textbook for advanced undergraduate, postgraduate and research students taking plasma physics as one of their subject of study for the first time. It covers the current syllabus of plasma physics offered by the most universities and technical institutions. The book requires no background in plasma physics but only elementary knowledge of basic physics and mathematics. Emphasis has been given on the analytical approach. Topics are developed from first principle so that the students can learn through self-study. One chapter has been devoted to describe some practical aspects of plasma physics. Each chapter contains a good number of solved and unsolved problems and a variety of review questions, mostly taken from recent examination papers. Some classroom experiments described in the book will surely help students as well as instructors.

  10. SUPERFAST THERMALIZATION OF PLASMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C.C.

    1962-06-12

    A method is given for the superfast thermalization of plasma by shock conversion of the kinetic energy stored in rotating plasma rings or plasmoids colliding at near supersonic speeds in a containment field to heat energy in the resultant confined plasma mass. The method includes means for generating rotating plasmoids at the opposite ends of a Pyrotron or Astron containment field. The plasmoids are magnetically accelerated towards each other into the opposite ends of time containment field. During acceleration of the plasmoids toward the center of the containment field, the intensity of the field is sequentially increased to adiabatically compress the plasmoids and increase the plasma energy. The plasmoids hence collide with a violent shock at the eenter of the containment field, causing the substantial kinetic energy stored in the plasmoids to be converted to heat in the resultant plasma mass. (AEC)

  11. Plasma polymerization by Softplasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, J.; Wu, Zhenning; Benter, Maike

    2008-01-01

    as reactive splvent (as shown in Figure 1). 1] H. Biederman, in Plasma Polymer Films. (ed.) H. Biederman. Imperial College Press, Singapore, 13-24 ~OO~· '. , [2] R. d'Agostino et.a!. in Plasma Depd~itiqn, 'Treatment, and Etching ofPolymers. (ed.) R. d'Agostino, Academic Press, U.S. (1990). [3] F. F. Shi......In the late 19th century, the first depositions - known today as plasma polymers, were reported. In the last century, more and more research has been put into plasma polymers. Many different deposition systems have been developed. [1, 2] Shi F. F. broadly classified them into internal electrode......, external electrode, and electrodeless microwave or high frequency reactors. [3] Softplasma™ is an internal electrode plasma setup powered by low frequenc~ gower supply. It was developed in late 90s for surface treatment of silicone rubber. [ ]- 5] It is a low pressure, low electron density, 3D homogenous...

  12. Gingival plasma cell granuloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phadnaik Mangesh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Plasma cell granuloma is a rare reactive lesion composed of polyclonal plasma cells. It manifests primarily in the lungs, but may occur in various other anatomic locations like the oral cavity. Intraoral plasma cell granulomas involving the tongue, lip, oral mucosa and gingiva have been reported in the past. This case presents a 54-year-old female with chronic periodontitis and mandibular anterior gingival overgrowth treated by Phase I therapy (scaling and root planing and excisional biopsy. Histological examination revealed inflammatory cell infiltrate containing sheets of plasma cells. Immunohistochemistry for kappa and lambda light chains showed a polyclonal staining pattern confirming a diagnosis of plasma cell granuloma. This case highlights the need to biopsy for unusual lesions to rule out potential neoplasms.

  13. Helical plasma thruster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beklemishev, A. D., E-mail: bekl@bk.ru [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics SB RAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-15

    A new scheme of plasma thruster is proposed. It is based on axial acceleration of rotating magnetized plasmas in magnetic field with helical corrugation. The idea is that the propellant ionization zone can be placed into the local magnetic well, so that initially the ions are trapped. The E × B rotation is provided by an applied radial electric field that makes the setup similar to a magnetron discharge. Then, from the rotating plasma viewpoint, the magnetic wells of the helically corrugated field look like axially moving mirror traps. Specific shaping of the corrugation can allow continuous acceleration of trapped plasma ions along the magnetic field by diamagnetic forces. The accelerated propellant is expelled through the expanding field of magnetic nozzle. By features of the acceleration principle, the helical plasma thruster may operate at high energy densities but requires a rather high axial magnetic field, which places it in the same class as the VASIMR{sup ®} rocket engine.

  14. Diagnostics of Nanodusty Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiner, Franko; Groth, Sebastian; Tadsen, Bejamin; Piel, Alexander

    2015-11-01

    The diagnostic of nanodusty plasmas, i.e. plasmas including nano-sized dust particles, is a challenging task. For both, the diagnostic of the nanodusty plasma itself, and the in-situ diagnostic of the nanoparticles, no standard diagnostic exist. Nanodust particle size and density can be estimated using light scattering techniques, namely kinetic Mie ellipsometry and extinction measurements. The charge of the nanoparticles can be estimated from the analysis of dust density waves (DDW). Parameters like the electron density, which give information about the plasma itself, may be deduced from the DDW analysis. We present detailed investigations on nanodust in a reactive Argon-Acetylene plasma created in an rf-driven parallel plate reactor at low pressure using the above mentioned portfolio of diagnostic. Funded by DFG under contract SFB TR-24/A2.

  15. Solar system plasma waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurnett, Donald A.

    1995-01-01

    An overview is given of spacecraft observations of plasma waves in the solar system. In situ measurements of plasma phenomena have now been obtained at all of the planets except Mercury and Pluto, and in the interplanetary medium at heliocentric radial distances ranging from 0.29 to 58 AU. To illustrate the range of phenomena involved, we discuss plasma waves in three regions of physical interest: (1) planetary radiation belts, (2) planetary auroral acceleration regions and (3) the solar wind. In each region we describe examples of plasma waves that are of some importance, either due to the role they play in determining the physical properties of the plasma, or to the unique mechanism involved in their generation.

  16. Quantification of air plasma chemistry for surface disinfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlovich, Matthew J.; Clark, Douglas S.; Graves, David B.

    2014-12-01

    Atmospheric-pressure air plasmas, created by a variety of discharges, are promising sources of reactive species for the emerging field of plasma biotechnology because of their convenience and ability to operate at ambient conditions. One biological application of ambient-air plasma is microbial disinfection, and the ability of air plasmas to decontaminate both solid surfaces and liquid volumes has been thoroughly established in the literature. However, the mechanism of disinfection and which reactive species most strongly correlate with antimicrobial effects are still not well understood. We describe quantitative gas-phase measurements of plasma chemistry via infrared spectroscopy in confined volumes, focusing on air plasma generated via surface micro-discharge (SMD). Previously, it has been shown that gaseous chemistry is highly sensitive to operating conditions, and the measurements we describe here extend those findings. We quantify the gaseous concentrations of ozone (O3) and nitrogen oxides (NO and NO2, or NOx) throughout the established ‘regimes’ for SMD air plasma chemistry: the low-power, ozone-dominated mode; the high-power, nitrogen oxides-dominated mode; and the intermediate, unstable transition region. The results presented here are in good agreement with previously published experimental studies of aqueous chemistry and parameterized models of gaseous chemistry. The principal finding of the present study is the correlation of bacterial inactivation on dry surfaces with gaseous chemistry across these time and power regimes. Bacterial decontamination is most effective in ‘NOx mode’ and less effective in ‘ozone mode’, with the weakest antibacterial effects in the transition region. Our results underscore the dynamic nature of air plasma chemistry and the importance of careful chemical characterization of plasma devices intended for biological applications.

  17. Simultaneous treatment of low-level miscellaneous solid waste by thermal plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amakawa, T.; Adachi, K.; Yasui, S. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    Volume reduction is a cost saving method for the final disposal of radioactive waste. On one hand, arc plasma heating can provide sufficient heat independent of the chemical and physical properties of waste, therefore enabling stable heating at high treatment rates. CRIEPI (central research institute of electric power industry) focused on the advantages of arc plasma heating, and has clarified that arc plasma heating can be used in a simultaneous melting treatment process for low-level miscellaneous mixed solid waste, generated from nuclear power plants for volume reduction, and in the stabilization of radionuclides. (authors)

  18. Effective Extraction Mechanism of Volume-Produced Ions in the NIPPER I Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Ramos

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available A mass spectrometer system is developed to extract and analyze hydrogen ions from a volume plasma hydrogen ion source. A 180° magnetic deflection-type mass analyzer is coupled to NIPPER I (National Institute of Physics Plasma Experimental Rig I, a negative ion source. Hydrogen plasma is produced from a low pressure gas (10-2 Torr with a transition of the glow discharge (254 volts, 75 mA to an arc plasma (78 volts, 14 amperes in a few seconds. The usually cylindrical plasma is converted into a sheet configuration using a pair of Sm-Co magnets. This optimizes ion current extraction by reducing (a the ion loss to the discharge anode and (b the decay of the ion current produced in the plasma. Negative hydrogen ions (H- are volume-produced by dissociative attachment of low energy electrons to highly vibrational excited hydrogen molecules.The extraction of H- ions from this volume source is optimized by the proper choice of apertures of the limiting electrodes and of the applied bias potential. A proper combination of extraction electrodes gives an optimum H- current extracted without the electrons. When one of the extraction electrodes is biased negatively near the value of the plasma floating potential, a maximum H- current is also obtained. The methods of effective extraction of H- are discussed.

  19. 15th International Congress on Plasma Physics & 13th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Leopoldo

    2014-05-01

    : Fundamentals of Plasma Physics, Fusion Plasmas, Plasmas in Astrophysics and Space Physics, Plasma Applications and Technologies, Complex Plasmas, High Energy Density Plasmas, Quantum Plasmas, Laser-Plasma Interaction and among others. A total of 180 delegates from 34 different countries took part in the ICPP-LAWPP-2010. Sixty delegates received economical assistance from the local organized committee, thanks to the support of the International Union for Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP) and the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission (CCHEN). The ICPP-LAWPP-2010 Program was elaborated by the following Program Committee: Carlos Alejaldre, ITER Maria Virginia Alves, Brazil Julio Herrera, Mexico Günter Mank, IAEA George Morales, USA Padma Kant Shukla, Germany Guido Van Oost, Belgium Leopoldo Soto, Chile (Chairman) This Program Committee was formed by selected members from the International Advisory Committee of the ICPP and by selected members from the International Advisory Committee of the LAWPP. In particular, Plenary Lectures and Invited Topical Lectures were selected by the Program Committee from a list of nominated presentations by the International Advisory Committees of both ICPP and LAWPP. Also, the classification of oral and poster presentations was elaborated by the Program Committee. The congress included: 15 invited plenary talks, 33 invited topical talks, 45 oral contributions, and 160 poster contributions. A major part of the plenary and topical lectures were published in a special issue of the Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion, IOP Publishing (Plasma Phys. Control Fusion Volume 53, Number 7, July 2011: http://iopscience.iop.org/0741-3335/53/7). The papers were refereed according to the standards of the journal Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion. An large number of the participants sent their contributions articles to this volume of Journal of Physics: Conference Series, IOP Publishing. The articles received were reviewed by the local organizing committee and by

  20. In situ impedance measurement of microwave atmospheric pressure plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. T.; Nam, W. J.; Lee, J. K.; Yun, G. S.

    2017-04-01

    The impedance of atmospheric pressure argon plasma jets driven by microwave frequency is determined in situ by a novel ‘two frequency method’. In the conventional method of reflection coefficient ({{S}}11) measurement, the frequency of the driving microwave power is scanned, which inevitably affects the plasma characters and leads to uncertainty in the estimated plasma impedance. In our proposed method, the frequency-scanning signal additional to the driving power is used to measure {{S}}11 over a wide frequency range, which enables accurate determination of the plasma impedance based on an equivalent circuit model. The measured resistance and reactance of the plasma increase with the driving power in agreement with the transmission line theory. Based on this in situ measurement of the plasma impedance, the net power coupled to the plasma has been determined. The overall power efficiency remains approximately unchanged around 45% for different input power levels owing to the competing effects between the impedance mismatch and the volume change of the plasma.