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Sample records for plasma volume osmolality

  1. Contrast media osmolality and plasma volume changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hine, A.L.; Lui, D.; Dawson, P.; Middlesex Hospital, London

    1985-01-01

    A theoretical and experimental study of the plasma volume expansion consequent on the hyperosmolality of contrast media is presented. In the case of the ratio 1.5 media theory and experiment coincide closely but in the case of the ratio 3 media the observed changes exceed the predicted. It is proposed that this is due partly to the slower diffusion of the ratio 3 media out of the intravascular space and partly due to the fact that the osmotic load presented by these media is greater than would be expected from a study of their commercial solutions in which osmolality is reduced by molecular aggregation. The implications for the relative haemodynamic effects of different contrast media are discussed. The osmotic effects of contrast media also play a part in determining the image quality achievable in intravenous digital subtraction angiography (IV-DSA). It is predicted that ratio 3 contrast media will give better quality images in IV-DSA than ratio 1.5 media. (orig.)

  2. Plasma volume, osmolality, vasopressin, and renin activity during graded exercise in man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convertino, V. A.; Keil, L. C.; Bernauer, E. M.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1981-01-01

    The influence of work intensity on plasma volume, osmolality, vasopressin and renin activity and the interrelationships between these responses are investigated. Plasma volume, renin activity and osmotic, sodium and arginine vasopressin concentrations were measured in venous blood samples taken from 15 healthy male subjects before and after six minutes of bicycle ergometer exercise at 100, 175 and 225 W. Plasma volume is found to decrease significantly with increasing work intensity, while increases in Na(+) concentration, osmolality and vasopressin are only observed to be significant when the work intensity exceeds 40% maximal aerobic capacity and plasma resin activity increased linearly at all work levels. In addition, significant correlations are observed between plasma volume and osmolality and sodium changes, and between vasopressin and osmolality and sodium content changes. Data thus support the hypotheses that (1) vasopressin may be the primary controlling endocrine for fluid and electrolyte levels following exercise; (2) an exercise intensity greater than 40% maximal aerobic capacity is required to stimulate vasopressin release through changes in plasma osmolality; and (3) the stimulation of the renin-angiotensin system is a more general stress response.

  3. Oligonol supplementation modulates plasma volume and osmolality and sweating after heat load in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, JeongBeom; Shin, YoungOh; Murota, Hiroyuki

    2015-05-01

    Oligonol is a low-molecular-weight polyphenol that possesses antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. This study investigated the effects of Oligonol supplementation on sweating response, plasma volume (PV), and osmolality (Osm) after heat load in human volunteers. We conducted a placebo-controlled crossover trial. Participants took a daily dose of 200 mg Oligonol or placebo for 1 week. After a 2-week washout period, the subjects were switched to the other study arm. As a heat load, half-body immersion into hot water (42°C±0.5°C for 30 min) was performed in an automated climate chamber. Tympanic and mean body temperature (Tty, mTb) and whole-body sweat loss volume (WBSLV) were measured. Changes in PV, Osm, and serum levels of aldosterone and sodium were analyzed. Oligonol intake attenuated increases in Tty, mTb, and WBSLV after heat load compared with the placebo (Pbody temperature and excessive sweating under heat load in healthy humans, but interpretation of the results requires caution due to the potent diuretic effect of Oligonol.

  4. Effect of Rehydration Fluid Osmolality on Plasma Volume and Vasopressin in Resting Dehydrated Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geelen, Ghislaine; Greenleaf, J. E.; Keil, L. C.; Wade, Charles E. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Elevated plasma vasopressin concentration [PVP], which may act as a dipsogen, decreases promptly following the ingestion of fluids in many mammals including humans. The purpose for this study was to determine whether fluids of varied electrolyte and carbohydrate composition and osmolality (Osm] would modify post-drinking decreases in [PVP] which could be attributed to interaction with plasma volume (PV)- or fluid-electrolyte interactive hormones. Five men (23-41 yr, 78.0 +/- SD 8.2 kg), water deprived for 24 h, drank six fluids (12 ml/kg, at 16.5C in 4.0-6.2 min): water (30 m0sm/kg), NaCl (70 mOsm/kg), NaCl + NaCitrate (270 mOsm/kg), NaCl + 9.7% glucose (650 mOsm/kg), and two commercial drinks containing various ionic and carbohydrate contents (380 and 390 mOsm/kg). Blood (20 ml/sample) was drawn at -5 min before and at +3, +9, +15, +30, and +70 min after drinking. Heart rate, blood pressures, and plasma renin activity, {Na+], [K+], [Osm], aldosterone, atrial natriuretic peptide, and epinephrine concentrations were unchanged after drinking. Post-drinking [PVP] decreased from 1.7 - 3.7 pg/ml within 3 min with all fluids independently of their composition, [Osm], or delta PV; with maximal depression to 0.1-0.7 pg/ml (p<0.05) by 15 min. The continued [PVP] depression with all fluids from 15 to 70 min was accompanied by unchanged plasma (Osm] but 1.8-7.6% increases (p<0.05) in PV with 3) fluids (2 commercial and NaCitrate) and no change with the others. Percent changes in mean [PVP] and plasma norepinephrine concentrations [PNE] at 15 min correlated -0.70 (P<0.10) suggesting that about half the variability in [PVP I I depression was associated with [PNE]. Thus, part of the mechanism for post-drinking [PVP] depression may involve a drinking stimulated norepinephrine (neural) factor.

  5. Changes in plasma osmolality and anion gap: potential predictors of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Changes in plasma osmolality and anion gap: potential predictors of ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Objective: To determine the relationship of mortality to plasma osmolality and anion gap inpatients on haemodialysis.

  6. The influence of storage time and temperature on the measurement of serum, plasma and urine osmolality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezuidenhout, Karla; Rensburg, Megan A; Hudson, Careen L; Essack, Younus; Davids, M Razeen

    2016-07-01

    Many clinical laboratories require that specimens for serum and urine osmolality determination be processed within 3 h of sampling or need to arrive at the laboratory on ice. This protocol is based on the World Health Organization report on sample storage and stability, but the recommendation lacks good supporting data. We studied the effect of storage temperature and time on osmolality measurements. Blood and urine samples were obtained from 16 patients and 25 healthy volunteers. Baseline serum, plasma and urine osmolality measurements were performed within 30 min. Measurements were then made at 3, 6, 12, 24 and 36 h on samples stored at 4-8℃ and room temperature. We compared baseline values with subsequent measurements and used difference plots to illustrate changes in osmolality. At 4-8℃, serum and plasma osmolality were stable for up to 36 h. At room temperature, serum and plasma osmolality were very stable for up to 12 h. At 24 and 36 h, changes from baseline osmolality were statistically significant and exceeded the total allowable error of 1.5% but not the reference change value of 4.1%. Urine osmolality was extremely stable at room temperature with a mean change of less than 1 mosmol/kg at 36 h. Serum and plasma samples can be stored at room temperature for up to 36 h before measuring osmolality. Cooling samples to 4-8℃ may be useful when delays in measurement beyond 12 h are anticipated. Urine osmolality is extremely stable for up to 36 h at room temperature. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Stability of serum, plasma and urine osmolality in different storage conditions: Relevance of temperature and centrifugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sureda-Vives, Macià; Morell-Garcia, Daniel; Rubio-Alaejos, Ana; Valiña, Laura; Robles, Juan; Bauça, Josep Miquel

    2017-09-01

    Osmolality reflects the concentration of all dissolved particles in a body fluid, and its measurement is routinely performed in clinical laboratories for the differential diagnosis of disorders related with the hydrolytic balance regulation, the renal function and in small-molecule poisonings. The aim of the study was to assess the stability of serum, plasma and urine osmolality through time and under different common storage conditions, including delayed centrifugation. Blood and urine samples were collected, and classified into different groups according to several preanalytical variables: serum or plasma lithium-heparin tubes; spun or unspun; stored at room temperature (RT), at 4°C or frozen at -21°C. Aliquots from each group were assayed over time, for up to 14days. Statistical differences were based on three different international performance criteria. Whole blood stability was higher in the presence of anticoagulant. Serum osmolality was stable for 2days at RT and 8days at 4°C, while plasma was less stable when refrigerated. Urine stability was 5days at RT, 4days at 4°C and >14days when frozen. Osmolality may be of great interest for the management of several conditions, such as in case of a delay in the clinical suspicion, or in case of problems in sample collection or processing. The ability to obtain reliable results for samples kept up to 14days also offers the possibility to retrospectively assess baseline values for patients which may require it. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Do Acartia tonsa (Dana) eggs regulate their volume and osmolality as salinity changes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Benni Winding; Drillet, Guillaume; Pedersen, Morten Foldager

    2012-01-01

    Subitaneous eggs from an euryhaline calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa were challenged by changes in salinity within the range from full strength salinity, down to zero and up to >70 psu. Egg volume changed immediately, increasing from 2.8 × 105 μm3 at full strength salinity (35 psu) to 3.8 × 105 μm3...... at 0 psu and back to its initial volume when gradually being returned to full strength salinity. Egg osmolality followed the molality of the surrounding water when challenged within a salinity range from 2 to 50 psu. Egg respiration was not affected when eggs kept at 35 psu was exposed to low salinity...... (2 psu). These results suggest that eggs are unable to regulate their volume or osmolality when challenged with changes in salinity. Gradual changes in salinity from 35 to 2 psu and back did not harm the eggs (embryos), since the hatching success remained unaffected by such changes in salinity...

  9. Salinity effects on plasma ion levels, cortisol, and osmolality in Chinook salmon following lethal sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Heather A; Noakes, David L G; Cogliati, Karen M; Peterson, James T; Iversen, Martin H; Schreck, Carl B

    2016-02-01

    Studies on hydromineral balance in fishes frequently employ measurements of electrolytes following euthanasia. We tested the effects of fresh- or salt-water euthanasia baths of tricaine mesylate (MS-222) on plasma magnesium (Mg(2+)) and sodium (Na(+)) ions, cortisol and osmolality in fish exposed to saltwater challenges, and the ion and steroid hormone fluctuations over time following euthanasia in juvenile spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Salinity of the euthanasia bath affected plasma Mg(2+) and Na(+) concentrations as well as osmolality, with higher concentrations in fish euthanized in saltwater. Time spent in the bath positively affected plasma Mg(2+) and osmolality, negatively affected cortisol, and had no effect on Na(+) concentrations. The difference of temporal trends in plasma Mg(2+) and Na(+) suggests that Mg(2+) may be more sensitive to physiological changes and responds more rapidly than Na(+). When electrolytes and cortisol are measured as endpoints after euthanasia, care needs to be taken relative to time after death and the salinity of the euthanasia bath. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Determinination of plasma osmolality and agreement between measured and calculated values in healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acierno, Mark J; Mitchell, Mark A; Freeman, Diana M; Schuster, Patricia J; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Tully, Thomas N

    2009-09-01

    To determine plasma osmolality in healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis) and validate osmolality equations in these parrots. 20 healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. A blood sample (0.5 mL) was collected from the right jugular vein of each parrot and placed into a lithium heparin microtainer tube. Samples were centrifuged, and plasma was harvested and frozen at -30 degrees C. Samples were thawed, and plasma osmolality was measured in duplicate with a freezing-point depression osmometer. The mean value was calculated for the 2 osmolality measurements. Plasma osmolality values were normally distributed, with a mean +/- SD of 326.0 +/- 6.878 mOsm/kg. The equations (2 x [Na(+) + K(+)]) + (glucose/18), which resulted in bias of 2.3333 mOsm/kg and limits of agreement of -7.0940 to 11.7606 mOsm/kg, and (2 x [Na(+) + K(+)]) + (uric acid concentration/16.8) + (glucose concentration/18), which resulted in bias of 5.8117 mOsm/kg and limits of agreement of -14.6640 to 3.0406 mOsm/kg, yielded calculated values that were in good agreement with the measured osmolality. IV administration of large amounts of hypotonic fluids can have catastrophic consequences. Osmolality of the plasma from parrots in this study was significantly higher than that of commercially available prepackaged fluids. Therefore, such fluids should be used with caution in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots as well as other psittacines. Additional studies are needed to determine whether the estimation of osmolality has the same clinical value in psittacines as it does in other animals.

  11. Plasma osmolality and oxygen consumption of perch Perca fluviatilis in response to different salinities and temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Emil Aputsiaq Flindt; Svendsen, Morten Bo Søndergaard; Steffensen, John Fleng

    2017-01-01

    with salinity at 10 and 20° C. Maximum metabolic rate (MMR) and aerobic scope was lowest at salinity of 15 at 5° C, yet at 20° C, they were lowest at a salinity of 0. A cost of osmoregulation (SMR at a salinity of 0 and 15 compared with SMR at a salinity of 10) could only be detected at a salinity of 15 at 20...... of osmoregulation (28%) at a salinity of 15 at 20° C indicates that the cost of osmoregulation in P. fluviatilis increases with temperature under hyperosmotic conditions and a power analysis showed that the cost of osmoregulation could be lower than 12·5% under other environmental conditions. The effect of salinity......The present study determined the blood plasma osmolality and oxygen consumption of the perch Perca fluviatilis at different salinities (0, 10 and 15) and temperatures (5, 10 and 20° C). Blood plasma osmolality increased with salinity at all temperatures. Standard metabolic rate (SMR) increased...

  12. Hematocrit and plasma osmolality values of young-of-year shortnose sturgeon following acute exposures to combinations of salinity and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegeweid, J.R.; Black, M.C.

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the physiological capabilities of young-of-year (YOY) shortnose sturgeon. In this study, plasma osmolality and hematocrit values were measured for YOY shortnose sturgeon following 48-h exposures to 12 different combinations of salinity and temperature. Hematocrit levels varied significantly with temperature and age, and plasma osmolalities varied significantly with salinity and age. Plasma osmolality and hematocrit values were similar to previously published values for other sturgeons of similar age and size in similar treatment conditions. ?? 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  13. Dose related anxiolytic effects of diazepam: relation with serum electrolytes, plasma osmolality and systolic blood pressure (sbp) in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farooq, R.; Haleem, D.J.; Haleem, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Diazepam is an anxiolytic and anticonvulsant drug that also induces hypnosis. Changes in serum electrolyte balance, plasma osmolality and systolic blood pressure (SBP) are often associated with stress-induced anxiety. Administration of diazepam has been show to decrease stress-induced enhancement of hypothalamic pituitary adrenal cortical (HPA) axis. The present is designed to monitor the anxiolytic effects of different doses of diazepam (1 mg/kg, 2.5 mg/kg and 5 mg/kg) and its association with changes of serum electrolyte balance, plasma osmolality and SBP in rats. Administration of diazepam at doses of 1 mg/kg, 2.5 mg/kg and 5 mg/kg elicited anxiolytic effects monitored in light-dark transition test and increased serum concentration of electrolytes and plasma osmolality. Serum levels of magnesium as well as SBP decreased. The results are discussed in context of anxiolytic effects of diazepam to be mediated via a modulation of stress-induced increase in the activity of HPA-axis arid electrolytes balance. (author)

  14. Isosorbide-Induced Decompression Effect on the Scala Media: Participation of Plasma Osmolality and Plasma Arginine Vasopressin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Taizo; Takeda, Setsuko; Uehara, Natsumi; Yanagisawa, Shungaku; Furukawa, Tatsuya; Nibu, Ken-Ichi; Kakigi, Akinobu

    2017-04-01

    The correlation between the isosorbide-induced decompression effect on the endolymphatic space and plasma osmolality (p-OSM) or plasma arginine vasopressin (p-AVP) was investigated on comparing two different dosages of isosorbide (2.8 and 1.4 g/kg) to elucidate why the decompression effect is delayed with a large dose of isosorbide. Two experiments were performed using 80 guinea pigs. Experiment 1 was designed to morphologically investigate the sequential influence of the oral intake of 1.4- and 2.8-g/kg doses of isosorbide on the endolymphatic volume. The animals used were 50 guinea pigs (control: 10, experimental: 40). All animals underwent surgical obliteration of the endolymphatic sac of the left ear. One month after the surgery, control animals were sacrificed 3 hours after the intake of distilled water, and experimental animals were sacrificed 3 and 6 hours after the isosorbide intake. All of the left temporal bone served for the quantitative assessment of changes in the endolymphatic space, and the cross-sectional area of the scala media was measured from the mid-modiolar sections of the cochlea.Experiment 2 was designed to investigate changes in p-OSM and p-AVP levels 3 hours after the oral intake of isosorbide. Animals used were 15 guinea pigs (control: 5, experimental: 10). The control group received the oral administration of distilled water (4 ml/kg), and the experimental animals were subdivided into two groups consisting of 10 animals each by the dosage of isosorbide (1.4 or 2.8 g/kg). All animals were sacrificed for the measurement of p-OSM and p-AVP concentrations 3 hours after the intake of water or 70% isosorbide solution. Morphologically, an isosorbide-induced decompression effect was noted in animals with both 1.4- and 2.8-g/kg doses of isosorbide. According to the regression analysis, however, the volumetric decrease of the endolymphatic space was more evident in cases with the small dose (1.4 g/kg) 3 hours after the intake

  15. Changes in plasma osmolality, cortisol and amino acid levels of tongue sole ( Cynoglossus semilaevis) at different salinities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guodong; Xu, Kefeng; Tian, Xiangli; Dong, Shuanglin; Fang, Ziheng

    2015-10-01

    A serial of salinity transferring treatments were performed to investigate the osmoregulation of tongue sole ( Cynoglossus semilaevis). Juvenile tongue sole were directly transferred from a salinity of 30 to 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50. Blood sampling was performed for each treatment after 0, 1, 6 and 12 h, as well as after 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 d. The plasma osmolality, cortisol and free amino acids were assessed. Under the experimental conditions, no fish died after acute salinity transfer. The plasma cortisol level increased 1 h after the abrupt transfer from a salinity of 30 to that of 0, 40 and 50, and decreased from 6 h to 8 d after transfer. Similar trends were observed in the changes of plasma osmolality. The plasma free amino acids concentration showed a `U-shaped' relationship with salinity after being transferred to different salinities for 4 days. More obvious changes of plasma free amino acid concentration occurred under hyper-osmotic conditions than under hypo-osmotic conditions. The concentrations of valine, isoleucine, lysine, glutamic acid, glycine, proline and taurine increased with rising salinity. The plasma levels of threonine, leucine, arginine, serine, and alanine showed a `U-shaped' relationship with salinity. The results of this study suggested that free amino acids might have important effects on osmotic acclimation in tongue sole.

  16. Plasma osmolality reference values in African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus erithacus), Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis), and red-fronted macaws (Ara rubrogenys).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaufrère, Hugues; Acierno, Mark; Mitchell, Mark; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Bryant, Heather; Tully, Thomas N

    2011-06-01

    Birds are routinely presented to veterinarians for dehydration. Success with these cases ultimately depends on providing replacement fluids and re-establishing fluid homeostasis. Few studies have been done to determine reference ranges for plasma osmolality in birds. The goals of this study were to determine reference values for plasma osmolality in 3 species of parrots and to provide recommendations on fluid selection for replacement therapy in these species. Blood samples were collected from 21 adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis), 21 Congo African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus erithacus), and 9 red-fronted macaws (Ara rubrogenys), and were placed into lithium heparin containers. Plasma osmolality was measured in duplicate with a freezing point depression osmometer. Summary statistics were computed from the average values. Reference ranges, calculated by using the robust method, were 288-324, 308-345, and 223-369 mOsm/kg in African grey parrots, Hispaniolan Amazon parrots, and red-fronted macaws, respectively. The mean +/- SD values were 306 +/- 7, 327 +/- 7, and 304 +/- 18 mOsm/kg in African grey parrots, Hispaniolan Amazon parrots, and red-fronted macaws, respectively. Comparisons with osmolality values in mammals and values previously reported for psittacine bird species suggest that plasma osmolality is slightly higher in parrots than in mammals, species-specific differences exist, and differences between reported values occur. Overall, fluids with an osmolarity close to 300-320 mOsm/L, such as Normosol-R, Plasmalyte-R, Plasmalyte-A, and NaCl 0.9%, can be recommended in parrots for fluid replacement therapy when isotonic fluids are required.

  17. Plasma volume changes during hypoglycaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Christensen, N J

    1991-01-01

    -induced hypoglycaemia with total autonomic blockade (alpha-adrenoceptor blockade combined with beta-adrenoceptor blockade and atropine); and insulin-induced hypoglycaemia without any autonomic blockade. In the experiments without autonomic blockade the peripheral venous hematocrit increased, plasma volume decreased......, intravascular albumin content decreased and the transcapillary escape rate of albumin increased. In both experiments with autonomic blockade the increase in venous haematocrit was abolished, yet plasma volume decreased, intravascular albumin content decreased and the transcapillary escape rate of albumin...... increased in these experiments. Thus, the changes in plasma volume and composition in response to hypoglycaemia are due to the combined actions of adrenaline and of insulin....

  18. Plasma volume changes during hypoglycaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Bendtsen, F; Christensen, N J

    1990-01-01

    To investigate whether previously reported changes in venous blood volume and composition induced by acute hypoglycaemia in humans are representative for the entire body we measured erythrocyte 51Cr content, haematocrit, plasma volume, intravascular albumin content and transcapillary escape rate...... of albumin in arterial and venous blood in seven healthy subjects before and during insulin-induced hypoglycaemia. In both vascular sites blood 51Cr content and the haematocrit increased, plasma volume and intravascular albumin content decreased and the transcapillary escape rate of albumin increased during...

  19. Assessment of extracellular dehydration using saliva osmolality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Brett R; Cheuvront, Samuel N; Kenefick, Robert W; Spitz, Marissa G; Heavens, Kristen R; Walsh, Neil P; Sawka, Michael N

    2014-01-01

    When substantial solute losses accompany body water an isotonic hypovolemia (extracellular dehydration) results. The potential for using blood or urine to assess extracellular dehydration is generally poor, but saliva is not a simple ultra-filtrate of plasma and the autonomic regulation of salivary gland function suggests the possibility that saliva osmolality (Sosm) may afford detection of extracellular dehydration via the influence of volume-mediated factors. This study aimed to evaluate the assessment of extracellular dehydration using Sosm. In addition, two common saliva collection methods and their effects on Sosm were compared. Blood, urine, and saliva samples were collected in 24 healthy volunteers during paired euhydration and dehydration trials. Furosemide administration and 12 h fluid restriction were used to produce extracellular dehydration. Expectoration and salivette collection methods were compared in a separate group of eight euhydrated volunteers. All comparisons were made using paired t-tests. The diagnostic potential of body fluids was additionally evaluated. Dehydration (3.1 ± 0.5% loss of body mass) decreased PV (-0.49 ± 0.12 L; -15.12 ± 3.94% change), but Sosm changes were marginal ( 0.05). Extracelluar dehydration was not detectable using plasma, urine, or saliva measures. Salivette and expectoration sampling methods produced similar, consistent results for Sosm, suggesting no methodological influence on Sosm.

  20. Plasma volume in acute hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, T D; Klausen, T; Richalet, J P

    1998-01-01

    Exposure to acute hypoxia is associated with changes in body fluid homeostasis and plasma volume (PV). This study compared a dye dilution technique using Evans' blue (PV[Evans']) with a carbon monoxide (CO) rebreathing method (PV[CO]) for measurements of PV in ten normal subjects at sea level...

  1. A retrospective analysis of glycol and toxic alcohol ingestion: utility of anion and osmolal gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krasowski Matthew D

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients ingesting ethylene glycol, isopropanol, methanol, and propylene glycol ('toxic alcohols' often present with non-specific signs and symptoms. Definitive diagnosis of toxic alcohols has traditionally been by gas chromatography (GC, a technique not commonly performed on-site in hospital clinical laboratories. The objectives of this retrospective study were: 1 to assess the diagnostic accuracy of the osmolal gap in screening for toxic alcohol ingestion and 2 to determine the common reasons other than toxic alcohol ingestion for elevated osmolal gaps. Methods Electronic medical records from an academic tertiary care medical center were searched to identify all patients in the time period from January 1, 1996 to September 1, 2010 who had serum/plasma ethanol, glucose, sodium, blood urea nitrogen, and osmolality measured simultaneously, and also all patients who had GC analysis for toxic alcohols. Detailed chart review was performed on all patients with osmolal gap of 9 or greater. Results In the study period, 20,669 patients had determination of serum/plasma ethanol and osmolal gap upon presentation to the hospitals. There were 341 patients with an osmolal gap greater than 14 (including correction for estimated contribution of ethanol on initial presentation to the medical center. Seventy-seven patients tested positive by GC for one or more toxic alcohols; all had elevated anion gap or osmolal gap or both. Other than toxic alcohols, the most common causes for an elevated osmolal gap were recent heavy ethanol consumption with suspected alcoholic ketoacidosis, renal failure, shock, and recent administration of mannitol. Only 9 patients with osmolal gap greater than 50 and no patients with osmolal gap greater than 100 were found to be negative for toxic alcohols. Conclusions Our study concurs with other investigations that show that osmolal gap can be a useful diagnostic test in conjunction with clinical history and physical

  2. Microdrop preparation factors influence culture-media osmolality, which can impair mouse embryo preimplantation development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, J E; Cabrera, L; Xu, X; Smith, G D

    2012-02-01

    Because media osmolality can impact embryo development, the effect of conditions during microdrop preparation on osmolality was examined. Various sizes of microdrops were prepared under different laboratory conditions. Drops were pipetted directly onto a dish and covered by oil (standard method) or pipetted on the dish, overlaid with oil before removing the underlying media and replaced with fresh media (wash-drop method). Drops were made at 23°C or on a heated stage (37°C) and with or without airflow. Osmolality was assessed at 5 min and 24h. The biological impact of osmolality change was demonstrated by culturing 1-cell mouse embryos in media with varying osmolality. Reduced drop volume, increased temperature and standard method were associated with a significant increase in osmolality at both 5 min and 24h (P-values media with elevated osmolality (>310mOsm/kg; P<0.05). Procedures in the IVF laboratory can alter osmolality and impact embryo development. Copyright © 2011 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. blood and plasma volumes in normal west african dwarf sheep

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    volume (PCV) and haemoglobin (Hb) values were determined as descried by Benjamin (1978) using the microhaematocrit and ... Standard dye concentration of 20 mg/ml was used for determining the dye concentration in plasma. ... Haemoglobin (Hb), Plasma Volume and Blood Volume in the West African Dwarf. Sheep.

  4. [Measurement of maternal plasma volume during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzan, S; Beaufils, M; Uzan, M; Donsimoni, R; Mareck, A; Salat-Baroux, J; Sureau, C

    1988-02-01

    An increased maternal plasma volume (PV) is a characteristic phenomenon of normal pregnancy, which may be related to a physiological decrease of peripheral resistances. The authors have studied the plasma volume of 1,105 patients distributed as follows: normal (387), permanently hypertensive patients (84), hypertensive patients during pregnancy (390), patients with apparently isolated RCIU (154) or with a pathological past-history during previous pregnancies (90). It appears that the PV is a sign of a severe HBP, and presents a rather early and good predictive value regarding the weight of the fetus and some complications such as severe UCIU and fetal death in utero. In case of pathological past events or pre-existing hypertension, the PV enables to differentiate rather well patients who will be prone to a complicated pregnancy. In view of these results, utilization and interpretation criteria of this parameter during pregnancies with hypertension or pregnancies in which there is a suspicion or a risk of intra-uterine growth delay, are defined.

  5. Plasma Volume Expansion Resulting from Intravenous Glucose Tolerance Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G. Hahn

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To quantify the degree of plasma volume expansion that occurs during an intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT. Methods. Twenty healthy volunteers (mean age, 28 years underwent IVGTTs in which 0.3 g/kg of glucose 30% was injected as a bolus over 1 min. Twelve blood samples were collected over 75 min. The plasma glucose and blood hemoglobin concentrations were used to calculate the volume distribution (Vd and the clearance (CL of both the exogenous glucose and the injected fluid volume. Results. The IVGTT caused a virtually instant plasma volume expansion of 10%. The half-life of the glucose averaged 15 min and the plasma volume expansion 16 min. Correction of the fluid kinetic model for osmotic effects after injection reduced CL for the infused volume by 85%, which illustrates the strength of osmosis in allocating fluid back to the intracellular fluid space. Simulations indicated that plasma volume expansion can be reduced to 60% by increasing the injection time from 1 to 5 min and reducing the glucose load from 0.3 to 0.2 g/kg. Conclusion. A regular IVGTT induced an acute plasma volume expansion that peaked at 10% despite the fact that only 50–80 mL of fluid were administered.

  6. The effect of lactase and formula reconstitution on milk osmolality.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Malone, A J

    2012-02-03

    These experiments investigated the reaction rate of lactase on milk lactose by measuring milk osmolality; and explored the effect of formula reconstitution on milk osmolality. The investigations measured milk osmolality with the Fiske Os, freezing-point osmometer. Lactase (Lactaid) incubated with pure lactose solutions established the validity of the method. Lactase was incubated for 24 hours with four reconstituted milk formulas (Milumil, and Cow and Gate Nutrilon Plus, Farley\\'s First Milk, SMA Gold). Milk osmolality increased most rapidly in the first 4 hours after the addition of lactase. The lactase enzyme completed over 90% of the reaction within 12 hours. The milk osmolalities ranged from 487 to 591 mosm\\/kg after 24 hours with 2-4 drops of lactase in 240 ml of formula. A clinical guideline osmolality of 400 mosm\\/kg was reached in 240 ml of formula at 1 to 12 hours depending on the dose of lactase. High milk osmolalities due to prolonged enzyme incubation, or high lactase doses could be reduced to around 400 mosm\\/kg by dilution of 240 ml of formula with an extra 60 ml of water. The initial osmolality of formula after reconstitution by paediatric nurses varied widely and usually exceeded the manufacturer\\'s quoted osmolality. This initial osmolality was a further influence on the final osmolality reached after the addition of lactase. It is concluded that the recommended incubation time for Lactaid of 24 hours is unnecessary as lactase exerts the majority of its effect in less than 12 hours. Adjustment of Lactaid dose and incubation times will maintain milk formula osmolality within standard guidelines. Dilution with extra water will correct inadvertent high enzyme doses and prolonged incubation times. The normal method of reconstituting milk formulas from powder may be unreliable as the manufacturer\\'s quoted osmolality was not reproduced when milk formulas were reconstituted by paediatric nurses.

  7. Do calories or osmolality determine gastric emptying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafer, R.B.; Levine, A.S.; Marlette, J.M.; Morley, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    Recent animal studies suggest that gastric emptying is dependent on the caloric and osmotic content of the ingested food. These studies have involved intubation with infusion of liquid meals into the stomach. Scintigraphic methods, which are non-invasive and do not alter normal physiology, are now available for precise quantitation of gastric emptying. To study the role of calories and osmolality on gastric emptying, the authors employed a standardized /sup 99m/Tc-scrambled egg meal washed with 50 cc tap water in 10 normal human volunteers. A variety of simple and complex sugars, non-absorbable complex carbohydrate (polycose), medium chain fatty acid (MCFA) and gluten were dissolved in water and ingested with the test meal. Each subject acted as his own control. Coefficient of variation in control tests in each subject 12 weeks apart was 9.9%. Results showed that incremental glucose (25-66 gm) produced a linear increase in gastric emptying (T/2 control 50 +- 3, 25 gm 60 +- 3, 50 gm 79 +- 3 and 66 gm 102 +- 3 minutes). 25 gm fructose (T/2 59 +- 3 minutes) and 25 gm polycose (T/2 59 +- 3 minutes) had similar effects to glucose. 25 gm sucrose and 25 gm gluten did not significantly differ from controls. MCFA had an effect similar to 50 gm glucose - suggesting that calories are important in gastric emptying. However, 25 gm xylose markedly prolonged gastric emptying to 80 +- 5 minutes. The rank order for osmolality for substances tested MCFA = gluten < polycose < polycose < fructose < sucrose = glucose < xylose defined no relationship to gastric emptying. The authors' results suggest that neither calories nor osmolality alone determine gastric emptying. A specific food does not necessarily have the same effect on gastric emptying in different individuals

  8. Do calories or osmolality determine gastric emptying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafer, R.B.; Levine, A.S.; Marlette, J.M.; Morley, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    Recent animal studies suggest that gastric emptying is dependent on the caloric and osmotic content of the ingested food. These studies have involved intubation with infusion of liquid meals into the stomach. Scintigraphic methods, which are non-invasive and do not alter normal physiology, are now available for precise quantitation of gastric emptying. To study the role of calories and osmolality on gastric emptying, the authors employed a standardized /sup 99m/Tc-scrambled egg meal washed with 50 cc tap water in 10 normal human volunteers. A variety of simple and complex sugars, non-absorbable complex carbohydrate (polycose), medium chain fatty acid (MCFA) and gluten were dissolved in water and ingested with the test meal. Each subject acted as his own control. Coefficient of variation in control tests in each subject 12 weeks apart was 9.9%. Results showed that incremental glucose (25-66 gm) produced a linear increase in gastric emptying (T/2 control 50 +- 3, 25 gm 60 +- 3, 50 gm 79 +- 3 and 66 gm 102 +- 3 minutes). 25 gm fructose (T/2 59 +- 3 minutes) and 25 gm polycose (T/2 59 +- 3 minutes) had similar effects to glucose. 25 gm sucrose and 25 gm gluten did not significantly differ from controls. MCFA had an effect similar to 50 gm glucose - suggesting that calories are important in gastric emptying. However, 25 gm xylose markedly prolonged gastric emptying to 80 +- 5 minutes. The rank order for osmolality for substances tested MCFA = gluten < polycose < polycose < fructose < sucrose = glucose < xylose defined no relationship to gastric emptying. The authors' results suggest that neither calories nor osmolality alone determine gastric emptying. A specific food does not necessarily have the same effect on gastric emptying in different individuals.

  9. Capillary plasma jet: A low volume plasma source for life science applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Topala, I., E-mail: ionut.topala@uaic.ro, E-mail: tmnagat@ipc.shizuoka.ac.jp [Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi, Faculty of Physics, Iasi Plasma Advanced Research Center (IPARC), Bd. Carol I No. 11, Iasi 700506 (Romania); Nagatsu, M., E-mail: ionut.topala@uaic.ro, E-mail: tmnagat@ipc.shizuoka.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Shizuoka University, 3-5-1 Johoku, Naka-ku, Hamamatsu 432-8561 (Japan)

    2015-02-02

    In this letter, we present results from multispectroscopic analysis of protein films, after exposure to a peculiar plasma source, i.e., the capillary plasma jet. This plasma source is able to generate very small pulsed plasma volumes, in kilohertz range, with characteristic dimensions smaller than 1 mm. This leads to specific microscale generation and transport of all plasma species. Plasma diagnosis was realized using general electrical and optical methods. Depending on power level and exposure duration, this miniature plasma jet can induce controllable modifications to soft matter targets. Detailed discussions on protein film oxidation and chemical etching are supported by results from absorption, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and microscopy techniques. Further exploitation of principles presented here may consolidate research interests involving plasmas in biotechnologies and plasma medicine, especially in patterning technologies, modified biomolecule arrays, and local chemical functionalization.

  10. Capillary plasma jet: A low volume plasma source for life science applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topala, I.; Nagatsu, M.

    2015-02-01

    In this letter, we present results from multispectroscopic analysis of protein films, after exposure to a peculiar plasma source, i.e., the capillary plasma jet. This plasma source is able to generate very small pulsed plasma volumes, in kilohertz range, with characteristic dimensions smaller than 1 mm. This leads to specific microscale generation and transport of all plasma species. Plasma diagnosis was realized using general electrical and optical methods. Depending on power level and exposure duration, this miniature plasma jet can induce controllable modifications to soft matter targets. Detailed discussions on protein film oxidation and chemical etching are supported by results from absorption, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and microscopy techniques. Further exploitation of principles presented here may consolidate research interests involving plasmas in biotechnologies and plasma medicine, especially in patterning technologies, modified biomolecule arrays, and local chemical functionalization.

  11. Coupling of RF antennas to large volume helicon plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Chang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Large volume helicon plasma sources are of particular interest for large scale semiconductor processing, high power plasma propulsion and recently plasma-material interaction under fusion conditions. This work is devoted to studying the coupling of four typical RF antennas to helicon plasma with infinite length and diameter of 0.5 m, and exploring its frequency dependence in the range of 13.56-70 MHz for coupling optimization. It is found that loop antenna is more efficient than half helix, Boswell and Nagoya III antennas for power absorption; radially parabolic density profile overwhelms Gaussian density profile in terms of antenna coupling for low-density plasma, but the superiority reverses for high-density plasma. Increasing the driving frequency results in power absorption more near plasma edge, but the overall power absorption increases with frequency. Perpendicular stream plots of wave magnetic field, wave electric field and perturbed current are also presented. This work can serve as an important reference for the experimental design of large volume helicon plasma source with high RF power.

  12. Blood and plasma volumes in normal west African dwarf sheep ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood and plasma volumes were determined using T-1824 in 36 normal adult West African Dwarf sheep. In the rams, dry ewes, pregnant ewes and lactating ewes, the mean values for the blood volume (ml/kg body weight) were 64.08 ± 6.11, 55.74 ± 9.31, 71.46 ± 6.46 and 147.12 ± 12.79 respectively, while the mean values ...

  13. A large volume uniform plasma generator for the experiments of electromagnetic wave propagation in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Min; Li Xiaoping; Xie Kai; Liu Donglin; Liu Yanming

    2013-01-01

    A large volume uniform plasma generator is proposed for the experiments of electromagnetic (EM) wave propagation in plasma, to reproduce a “black out” phenomenon with long duration in an environment of the ordinary laboratory. The plasma generator achieves a controllable approximate uniform plasma in volume of 260 mm× 260 mm× 180 mm without the magnetic confinement. The plasma is produced by the glow discharge, and the special discharge structure is built to bring a steady approximate uniform plasma environment in the electromagnetic wave propagation path without any other barriers. In addition, the electron density and luminosity distributions of plasma under different discharge conditions were diagnosed and experimentally investigated. Both the electron density and the plasma uniformity are directly proportional to the input power and in roughly reverse proportion to the gas pressure in the chamber. Furthermore, the experiments of electromagnetic wave propagation in plasma are conducted in this plasma generator. Blackout phenomena at GPS signal are observed under this system and the measured attenuation curve is of reasonable agreement with the theoretical one, which suggests the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  14. The volume-expanding effects of autologous liquid stored plasma following hemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzer, Peter; Thomas, Owain D; Westborg, Johan

    2012-01-01

    of plasma transfusion on plasma volume. We report a prospective interventional study in which the plasma volume-expanding effect of autologous plasma was investigated after a controlled hemorrhage. Methods. Plasma obtained by plasmapheresis from nine healthy regular blood donors was stored at 2-6°C. Five...

  15. Gingivitis and salivary osmolality in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Maria Teresa Botti Rodrigues; Ferreira, Maria Cristina Duarte; Guaré, Renata Oliveira; Diniz, Michele Baffi; Rösing, Cassiano Kuchenbecker; Rodrigues, Jonas Almeida; Duarte, Danilo Antonio

    2016-11-01

    To investigate the influence of salivary osmolality on the occurrence of gingivitis in children with cerebral palsy (CP). A total of 82 children with spastic CP were included in this cross-sectional study. Oral motor performance and gingival conditions were evaluated. Unstimulated saliva was collected using cotton swabs, and salivary osmolality was measured using a freezing point depression osmometer. Spearman's coefficient, receiver operating characteristic (ROC), and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed. Strong correlation (r > 0.7) was determined among salivary osmolality, salivary flow rate, visible plaque, dental calculus, and the occurrence of gingivitis. The area under the ROC to predict the influence of salivary osmolality on the occurrence of gingivitis was 0.88 (95% CI 0.81-0.96; P gingivitis was 22.5%, whereas for the group presenting osmolality >84.5 mOsm/kgH 2 O, the proportion of children with gingivitis was 77.5%. Salivary osmolality above 84.5 increased the likelihood of gingivitis fivefold, whereas each additional 0.1 mL of salivary flow reduced the likelihood of gingivitis by 97%. Gingivitis occurs more frequently in children with CP showing increased values of salivary osmolality. © 2016 BSPD, IAPD and John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Is specific gravity a good estimate of urine osmolality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran, Sethi; Eva, Goldwater; Christopher, Shutty; Flynn, Ethan; Henner, David

    2010-01-01

    Urine specific gravity (USG) is often used by clinicians to estimate urine osmolality. USG is measured either by refractometry or by reagent strip. We studied the correlation of USG obtained by either method with a concurrently obtained osmolality. Using our laboratory's records, we retrospectively gathered data on 504 urine specimens on patients on whom a simultaneously drawn USG and an osmolality were available. Out of these, 253 USG's were measured by automated refractometry and 251 USG's were measured by reagent strip. Urinalysis data on these subjects were used to determine the correlation between USG and osmolality, adjusting for other variables that may impact the relationship. The other variables considered were pH, protein, glucose, ketones, nitrates, bilirubin, urobilinogen, hemoglobin, and leukocyte esterase. The relationships were analyzed by linear regression. This study demonstrated that USG obtained by both reagent strip and refractometry had a correlation of approximately 0.75 with urine osmolality. The variables affecting the correlation included pH, ketones, bilirubin, urobilinogen, glucose, and protein for the reagent strip and ketones, bilirubin, and hemoglobin for the refractometry method. At a pH of 7 and with an USG of 1.010 predicted osmolality is approximately 300  mosm/kg/H(2)O for either method. For an increase in SG of 0.010, predicted osmolality increases by 182  mosm/kg/H(2) O for the reagent strip and 203  mosm/kg/H(2)O for refractometry. Pathological urines had significantly poorer correlation between USG and osmolality than "clean" urines. In pathological urines, direct measurement of urine osmolality should be used. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Plasma response to electron energy filter in large volume plasma device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanyasi, A. K.; Awasthi, L. M.; Mattoo, S. K.; Srivastava, P. K.; Singh, S. K.; Singh, R.; Kaw, P. K.

    2013-01-01

    An electron energy filter (EEF) is embedded in the Large Volume Plasma Device plasma for carrying out studies on excitation of plasma turbulence by a gradient in electron temperature (ETG) described in the paper of Mattoo et al. [S. K. Mattoo et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 255007 (2012)]. In this paper, we report results on the response of the plasma to the EEF. It is shown that inhomogeneity in the magnetic field of the EEF switches on several physical phenomena resulting in plasma regions with different characteristics, including a plasma region free from energetic electrons, suitable for the study of ETG turbulence. Specifically, we report that localized structures of plasma density, potential, electron temperature, and plasma turbulence are excited in the EEF plasma. It is shown that structures of electron temperature and potential are created due to energy dependence of the electron transport in the filter region. On the other hand, although structure of plasma density has origin in the particle transport but two distinct steps of the density structure emerge from dominance of collisionality in the source-EEF region and of the Bohm diffusion in the EEF-target region. It is argued and experimental evidence is provided for existence of drift like flute Rayleigh-Taylor in the EEF plasma

  18. Observations on saliva osmolality during progressive dehydration and partial rehydration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Nigel A S; van den Heuvel, Anne M J; Kerry, Pete; McGhee, Sheena; Peoples, Gregory E; Brown, Marc A; Patterson, Mark J

    2012-09-01

    A need exists to identify dehydrated individuals under stressful settings beyond the laboratory. A predictive index based on changes in saliva osmolality has been proposed, and its efficacy and sensitivity was appraised across mass (water) losses from 1 to 7%. Twelve euhydrated males [serum osmolality: 286.1 mOsm kg(-1) H(2)O (SD 4.3)] completed three exercise- and heat-induced dehydration trials (35.6°C, 56% relative humidity): 7% dehydration (6.15 h), 3% dehydration (with 60% fluid replacement: 2.37 h), repeat 7% dehydration (5.27 h). Expectorated saliva osmolality, measured at baseline and at each 1% mass change, was used to predict instantaneous hydration state relative to mass losses of 3 and 6%. Saliva osmolality increased linearly with dehydration, although its basal osmolality and its rate of change varied among and within subjects across trials. Receiver operating characteristic curves indicated a good predictive power for saliva osmolality when used with two, single-threshold cutoffs to differentiate between hydrated and dehydrated individuals (area under curve: 3% cutoff = 0.868, 6% cutoff = 0.831). However, when analysed using a double-threshold detection technique (3 and 6%), as might be used in a field-based monitor, <50% of the osmolality data could correctly identify individuals who exceeded 3% dehydration. Indeed, within the 3-6% dehydration range, its sensitivity was 64%, while beyond 6% dehydration, this fell to 42%. Therefore, while expectorated saliva osmolality tracked mass losses within individuals, its large intra- and inter-individual variability limited its predictive power and sensitivity, rendering its utility questionable within a universal dehydration monitor.

  19. Osmolality and respiratory regulation in humans: respiratory compensation for hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis is absent after infusion of hypertonic saline in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, Vibeke; Brudin, Lars; Rundgren, Mats; Irestedt, Lars

    2014-10-01

    Several animal studies show that changes in plasma osmolality may influence ventilation. Respiratory depression caused by increased plasma osmolality is interpreted as inhibition of water-dependent thermoregulation because conservation of body fluid predominates at the cost of increased core temperature. Respiratory alkalosis, on the other hand, is associated with a decrease in plasma osmolality and strong ion difference (SID) during human pregnancy. We investigated the hypothesis that osmolality would influence ventilation, so that increased osmolality will decrease ventilation and decreased osmolality will stimulate ventilation in both men and women. Our study participants were healthy volunteers of both sexes (ASA physical status I). Ten men (mean 28 years; range 20-40) and 9 women (mean 33 years; range 22-43) were included. All women participated in both the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle. Hyperosmolality was induced by IV infusion of hypertonic saline 3%, and hypoosmolality by drinking tap water. Arterial blood samples were collected for analysis of electrolytes, osmolality, and blood gases. Sensitivity to CO2 was determined by rebreathing tests performed before and after the fluid-loading procedures. Infusion of hypertonic saline caused hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis with decreased SID in all subjects. Analysis of pooled data showed absence of respiratory compensation. Baseline arterial PCO2 (PaCO2) mean (SD) 37.8 (2.9) mm Hg remained unaltered, with lowest PaCO2 37.8 (2.9) mm Hg after 100 minutes, P = 0.70, causing a decrease in pH from mean (SD) 7.42 (0.02) to 7.38 (0.02), P acidosis was also observed during water loading. Pooled results show that PaCO2 decreased from 38.2 (3.3) mm Hg at baseline to 35.7 (2.8) mm Hg after 80 minutes of drinking water, P = 0.002, and pH remained unaltered: pH 7.43 (0.02) at baseline to pH 7.42 (0.02), P = 0.14, mean difference (confidence interval) = pH -0.007 (-0.017 to 0.003). Our results indicate

  20. Effect of large volume paracentesis on plasma volume--a cause of hypovolemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao, H.W.; Rakov, N.E.; Savage, E.; Reynolds, T.B.

    1985-01-01

    Large volume paracentesis, while effectively relieving symptoms in patients with tense ascites, has been generally avoided due to reports of complications attributed to an acute reduction in intravascular volume. Measurements of plasma volume in these subjects have been by indirect methods and have not uniformly confirmed hypovolemia. We have prospectively evaluated 18 patients (20 paracenteses) with tense ascites and peripheral edema due to chronic liver disease undergoing 5 liter paracentesis for relief of symptoms. Plasma volume pre- and postparacentesis was assessed by a 125 I-labeled human serum albumin dilution technique as well as by the change in hematocrit and postural blood pressure difference. No significant change in serum sodium, urea nitrogen, hematocrit or postural systolic blood pressure difference was noted at 24 or 48 hr after paracentesis. Serum creatinine at 24 hr after paracentesis was unchanged but a small but statistically significant increase in serum creatinine was noted at 48 hr postparacentesis. Plasma volume changed -2.7% (n = 6, not statistically significant) during the first 24 hr and -2.8% (n = 12, not statistically significant) during the 0- to 48-hr period. No complications from paracentesis were noted. These results suggest that 5 liter paracentesis for relief of symptoms is safe in patients with tense ascites and peripheral edema from chronic liver disease

  1. Reliability of a Cryoscopic Micro-Osmometer Using 15-µL Plasma Samples to Measure Hydration Status in Varied Environmental Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlan, Aaron T.; Richter-Stretton, Gina L.; Madueno, Maria C.; Borges, Nattai R.; Fenning, Andrew S.

    2017-01-01

    Measurement of plasma osmolality (P[subscript osm]) remains popular for assessing hydration status in exercise science. However, a controlled reliability assessment of micro-osmometry using small sample volumes to measure Posm remains to be performed. This study aimed to examine the reliability of a cryoscopic micro-osmometer requiring 15-µL…

  2. Hypo- and hypernatremia results in inaccurate erythrocyte mean corpuscular volume measurement in vitro, when using Sysmex XE 2100

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillipsen, Jens Peter; Madsen, Kirsten Vikkelsø

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Automated hematology analyzers dilute patient erythrocytes with an isoosmotic diluent before quantitating the erythrocyte mean cell volume (MCV). However, if patient plasma osmolality differs from the diluent, water will cross the erythrocytes membrane and establish a new equilibrium...... across the membrane. Since the new equilibrium is reached before the measurement of the MCV, the measured MCV may not reflect the true MCV in vivo. AIM: Calculation of the theoretical change in MCV at changed P-Sodium/P-Osmolality and to investigate if the automated blood cell counter Sysmex XE 2100...

  3. Changes in plasma volume and baroreflex function following resistance exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploutz, L. L.; Tatro, D. L.; Dudley, G. A.; Convertino, V. A.

    1993-01-01

    The dynamics of change in plasma volume (PV) and baroreflex responses have been reported over 24 h immediately following maximal cycle exercise. The purpose of this study was to determine if PV and baroreflex showed similar changes for 24 h after resistance exercise. Eight men were studied on 2 test days, 1 week apart. On 1 day, per cent change (% delta) in PV was estimated at 0,3, and 6 h after resistance exercise using haematocrit and haemoglobin. Baseline PV was measured 24 h after exercise using Evans blue dye. The carotid baroreceptor-cardiac reflex response was measured before, and 3, 6, 9, 12, and 24 h post-exercise. Each subject performed six sets of the bench press and leg press with 10 repetitions per set with a load that induced failure within each set. On a control day, the protocol was used without exercise. Plasma volume did not change during the control day. There was a 20% decrease in PV immediately post-exercise; the recovery of the PV was rapid and complete within 3 h. PV was 20% greater 24 h post-exercise than on the control day. There were no differences in any of the baroreflex measurements. Therefore, it is suggested that PV shifts may occur without altering baroreflex sensitivity.

  4. Plasma and blood volume in the calf from birth till 90 days of age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moellerberg, L.; Ekman, L.; Jacobsson, S.-O.

    1975-01-01

    Determinations of plasma volume were made of 9 clinically healthy Swedish Red and White calves from birth to 90 days of age by means of the isotop dilution technique. Commercially available 131 I labelled human serum albumin was used. Calculation of the total blood volume was based on the plasma volume and packed cell volume. The plasma and blood volumes increased per kg body weight in average 17 and 14 percent respectively from directly after birth to 24 hrs. old. From 1 to 90 days of age the plasma and blood volume fell steadily per kg body weight. Plasma volume expressed as a percentage of body weight was 5.3 percent at birth, 6.5 percent at 1 day old, and 4.9 percent at 90 days old. Corresponding values for blood were 8.4, 9.3 and 7.0 percent. (author)

  5. Renal function and plasma volume following ultramarathon cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumayr, G; Pfister, R; Hoertnagl, H; Mitterbauer, G; Prokop, W; Joannidis, M

    2005-01-01

    In recreational cyclists marathon cycling influences renal function only on a minimal scale. Respective information on extreme ultramarathon cycling in better trained athletes is not available. The objective was to evaluate the renal and haematological effects of ultraendurance cycling in the world's best ultramarathon cyclists. Creatinine (CR), urea, haemoglobin (Hb), haematocrit (Hct) and plasma volume (PV) were investigated in 16 male ultramarathon cyclists during the 1st Race Across the Alps in 2001 (distance: 525 km; cumulative altitude difference: 12,600 m). All renal functional parameters were normal pre-exercise. During the race serum CR, urea and uric acid rose significantly by 33, 97 % and 18 % (p training kilometers. The serum urea/CR ratio rose above 40 in 12 athletes (75 %). Mean fractional sodium excretion and fractional uric acid excretion fell below 0.5 % (p 0.40; p training.

  6. 99mTc-albumin can replace 125I-albumin to determine plasma volume repeatedly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonfils, Peter K; Damgaard, Morten; Stokholm, Knud H

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Plasma volume assessment may be of importance in several disorders. The purpose of the present study was to compare the reliability of plasma volume measurements by technetium-labeled human serum albumin ((99m)Tc-HSA) with a simultaneously performed plasma volume determination...... with iodine-labeled human serum albumin ((125)I-HSA). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 15 healthy volunteers, simultaneous plasma volume measurements with (99m)Tc-HSA and (125)I-HSA were performed after ½ hour in the supine position. Blood samples were obtained 10, 15, 20, and 30 minutes after the injection...... for accurate retropolation from the plasma counts to time zero to correct for leakage of the isotopes from the circulation. RESULTS: The mean difference (bias) between plasma volume measured with (125)I-albumin and (99m)Tc-albumin was 8 ml (0.1 ml/kg) with limits of agreement (bias ±1.96 SD) ranging from -181...

  7. Plasma diagnostics package. Volume 1: OSS-1 section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, Jolene S. (Compiler); Frank, L. A. (Compiler); Kurth, W. S. (Compiler)

    1988-01-01

    This volume (1) of the Plasma Diagnostics Package (PDP) final science report contains a summary of all of the data reduction and scientific analyses which were performed using PDP data obtained on STS-3 as a part of the Office of Space Science first payload (OSS-1). This work was performed during the period of launch, March 22, l982, through June 30, l983. During this period the primary data reduction effort consisted of processing summary plots of the data received by the 14 instruments located on the PDP and submitting these data to the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC). The scientific analyses during the performance period consisted of general studies which incorporated the results of several of the PDP's instruments, detailed studies which concentrated on data from only one or two of the instruments, and joint studies of beam-plasma interactions with the OSS-1 Fast Pulse Electron Generator (FPEG) of the Vehicle Charging and Potential Investigation (VCAP). Internal reports, published papers and oral presentations which involve PDP/OSS-1 data are listed in Sections 3 and 4. A PDP/OSS-1 scientific results meeting was held at the University of Iowa on April 19-20, 1983. This meeting was attended by most of the PDP and VCAP investigators and provided a forum for discussing and comparing the various results, particularly with regard to the shuttle orbiter environment. One of the most important functional objectives of the PDP on OSS-1 was to characterize the orbiter environment.

  8. Urine Osmolality in Treatment-naïve HIV-positive Subjects in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-03-01

    Mar 1, 2017 ... a significant association between urine osmolality and body mass index (BMI), creatinine clearance, as well as serum .... approved by the Ethics Research Committee of the hospital. With the help of a questionnaire, .... SD=standard deviation, SUOsm=spot urine osmolality,. 24UOsm=24-h urine osmolality, ...

  9. Urine osmolality in treatment-naïve HIV-positive subjects in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urine osmolality is not commonly evaluated in routine clinical practice and in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) subjects. The factors that influence urine osmolality have not been completely identified. The aim of this study was to evaluate urine osmolality in treatment‑naïve HIV subjects and to identify the factors that may ...

  10. Plasma diagnostics package. Volume 2: Spacelab 2 section, part A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, Jolene S. (Compiler); Frank, L. A. (Compiler); Kurth, W. S. (Compiler)

    1988-01-01

    This volume (2), which consists of two parts (A and B), of the Plasma Diagnostics Package (PDP) Final Science Report contains a summary of all of the data reduction and scientific analyses which were performed using PDP data obtained on STS-51F as a part of the Spacelab 2 (SL-2) payload. This work was performed during the period of launch, July 29, l985, through June 30, l988. During this period the primary data reduction effort consisted of processing summary plots of the data received by 12 of the 14 instruments located on the PDP and submitting these data to the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC). The scientific analyses during the performance period consisted of follow-up studies of shuttle orbiter environment and orbiter/ionosphere interactions and various plasma particle and wave studies which dealt with data taken when the PDP was on the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) arm and when the PDP was in free flight. Of particular interest during the RMS operations and free flight were the orbiter wake studies and joint studies of beam/plasma interactions with the SL-2 Fast Pulse Electron Generator (FPEG) of the Vehicle Charging and Potential Investigation (VCAP). Internal reports, published papers and presentations which involve PDP/SL-2 data are listed in Sections 3 and 4. A PDP/SL-2 scientific results meeting was held at the University of Iowa on June 10, l986. This meeting was attended by most of the PDP and VCAP investigators and provided a forum for discussing and comparing the various results, particularly with regard to the PDP free flight.

  11. Low Plasma Volume in Normotensive Formerly Preeclamptic Women Predisposes to Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholten, Ralph R; Lotgering, Fred K; Hopman, Maria T; Van Dijk, Arie; Van de Vlugt, Maureen; Janssen, Mirian C H; Spaanderman, Marc E A

    2015-11-01

    Formerly preeclamptic women are at risk for cardiovascular disease. Low plasma volume may reflect latent hypertension and potentially links preeclampsia with chronic cardiovascular disease. We hypothesized that low plasma volume in normotensive formerly preeclamptic women predisposes to hypertension. We longitudinally studied n=104 formerly preeclamptic women in whom plasma volume was measured 3 to 30 months after the preeclamptic pregnancy. Cardiovascular variables were assessed at 2 points in time (3-30 months postpartum and 2-5 years thereafter). Study population was divided into low plasma volume (≤1373 mL/m(2)) and normal plasma volume (>1373 mL/m(2)). Primary end point was hypertension at the second visit: defined as ≥140 mm Hg systolic or ≥90 mm Hg diastolic. Secondary outcome of this study was change in traditional cardiovascular risk profile between visits. Variables correlating univariately with change in blood pressure between visits were introduced in regression analysis. Eighteen of 104 (17%) formerly preeclamptic women who were normotensive at first visit had hypertension at second evaluation 2 to 5 years later. Hypertension developed more often in women with low plasma volume (10/35 [29%]) than in women with normal plasma volume (8/69 [12%]; odds ratio, 3.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.4-8.6). After adjustments, relationship between plasma volume status and subsequent hypertension persisted (adjusted odds ratio, 3.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-8.5). Mean arterial pressure at second visit correlated inverse linearly with plasma volume (r=-0.49; Phypertension within 5 years. Women with low plasma volume have higher chance to develop hypertension than women with normal plasma volume. Clinically, follow-up of blood pressure seems warranted in women with history of preeclampsia, even when initially normotensive. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Low plasma volume coincides with sympathetic hyperactivity and reduced baroreflex sensitivity in formerly preeclamptic patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Courtar, D.A.; Spaanderman, M.E.A.; Aardenburg, R.; Janssen, B.J.; Peeters, L.L.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Preeclampsia is associated with enhanced sympathetic activity as well as subnormal plasma volume. Meanwhile, in over 50% of these complicated pregnancies, the subnormal plasma volume has been found to persist for a prolonged period after pregnancy. The objective of this study is to test

  13. Cardiac adaptation to pregnancy in women with a history of preeclampsia and a subnormal plasma volume.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andrietti, S.; Kruse, A.J.; Bekkers, S.C.; Sep, S.; Spaanderman, M.E.A.; Peeters, L.L.

    2008-01-01

    In former preeclamptics, a subnormal plasma volume (LPV) predisposes to hemodynamic maladaptation to pregnancy. Here, we assessed the initial cardiovascular response to pregnancy in LPV (n = 20), in former preeclamptics with normal plasma volume (NPV) (n = 35) and in parous controls (CONTR) (n = 9)

  14. Prepregnancy low-plasma volume and predisposition to preeclampsia and fetal growth restriction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, R.R.; Sep, S.; Peeters, L.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Lotgering, F.K.; Spaanderman, M.E.A.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate whether recurrence risks of preeclampsia, preterm birth, and fetal growth restriction relate to prepregnancy plasma volume. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study in 580 formerly preeclamptic women and a control group. In all women we measured plasma volume

  15. The effect of chronic erythrocytic polycythemia and high altitude upon plasma and blood volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, R. R.; Smith, A. H.

    1972-01-01

    Comparison of two kinds of physiological chronic erythrocytic polycythemias in order to differentiate the specific effect of erythrocytic polycythemia from the general effects of high altitude upon the plasma volume. The two kinds were produced hormonally in female chickens, at sea level, or by protracted high-altitude exposures. It appears that the vascular system of the body may account for an increase in red blood cell mass either by reduction in plasma volume, or by no change in plasma volume, resulting in differential changes in total blood volumes.

  16. Sperm motility in fishes. (II) Effects of ions and osmolality: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Sayyed Mohammad Hadi; Cosson, Jacky

    2006-01-01

    The spermatozoa of most fish species are immotile in the testis and seminal plasma. Therefore, motility is induced after the spermatozoa are released into the aqueous environment during natural reproduction or into the diluent during artificial reproduction. There are clear relationships between seminal plasma composition and osmolality and the duration of fish sperm motility. Various parameters such as ion concentrations (K+, Na+, and Ca2+), osmotic pressure, pH, temperature and dilution rate affect motility. In the present paper, we review the roles of these ions on sperm motility in Salmonidae, Cyprinidae, Acipenseridae and marine fishes, and their relationship with seminal plasma composition. Results in the literature show that: 1. K+ is a key ion controlling sperm motility in Salmonidae and Acipenseridae in combination with osmotic pressure; this control is more simple in other fish species: sperm motility is prevented when the osmotic pressure is high (Cyprinidae) or low (marine fishes) compared to that of the seminal fluid. 2. Cations (mostly divalent, such as Ca2+) are antagonistic with the inhibitory effect of K+ on sperm motility. 3. In many species, Ca2+ influx and K+ or Na+ efflux through specific ionic channels change the membrane potential and eventually lead to an increase in cAMP concentration in the cell, which constitutes the initiation signal for sperm motility in Salmonidae. 4. Media that are hyper- and hypo-osmotic relative to seminal fluid trigger sperm motility in marine and freshwater fishes, respectively. 5. The motility of fish spermatozoa is controlled through their sensitivity to osmolality and ion concentrations. This phenomenon is related to ionic channel activities in the membrane and governs the motility mechanisms of axonemes.

  17. [Blood plasma volume dynamics in monkeys during immersion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krotov, V P; Burkovskaia, T E; Dotsenko, M A; Gordeev, Iu V; Nosovskiĭ, A M; Chel'naia, N A

    2004-01-01

    Dynamics of blood plasma volume (PV) was studied with indirect methods (hematocrit count, hemoglobin, total protein and high-molecular protein) during 9-d immersion of monkeys Macaca mulatta. The animals were donned in waterproof suits, motor restrained in space seat liners and immersed down to the xiphisternum. Two monkeys were immersed in the bath at one time. The suits were changed every day under ketamine (10 mg/kg of body mass). There were two groups with 12 animals in each. The first group was kept in the bath 3 days and the second--9 days. Prior to the experiment, the animals had been trained to stay in the seat liner put down into the dry bath. It was shown that already two days of exposure to the hydrostatic forces (approximately 15 mm Hg) and absence of negative pressure breathing reduced PV by 18-20% on the average in all animals. Subsequent PV dynamics was individual by character; however, PV deficit persisted during 4 days of immersion in the whole group. In this period, albumin filtration was increased significantly, whereas high-molecular protein filtration was increased to a less degree. During the remaining days in immersion PV regained normal values. Ten days of readaptation (reclined positioning of monkeys brought back into cage) raised VP beyond baseline values. This phenomenon can be attributed to the necessity to provide appropriate venous return and sufficient blood supply of organs and tissues following extension of blood vessels capacity.

  18. Dynamic control of osmolality and ionic composition of the xylem sap in two mangrove species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Portillo, Jorge; Ewers, Frank W; Méndez-Alonzo, Rodrigo; Paredes López, Claudia L; Angeles, Guillermo; Alarcón Jiménez, Ana Luisa; Lara-Domínguez, Ana Laura; Torres Barrera, María Del Carmen

    2014-06-01

    • Premise of the study: Xylem sap osmolality and salinity is a critical unresolved issue in plant function with impacts on transport efficiency, pressure gradients, and living cell turgor pressure, especially for halophytes such as mangrove trees.• Methods: We collected successive xylem vessel sap samples from stems and shoots of Avicennia germinans and Laguncularia racemosa using vacuum and pressure extraction and measured their osmolality. Following a series of extractions with the pressure chamber, we depressurized the shoot and pressurized again after various equilibration periods (minutes to hours) to test for dynamic control of osmolality. Transpiration and final sap osmolality were measured in shoots perfused with deionized water or different seawater dilutions.• Key results: For both species, the sap osmolality values of consecutive samples collected by vacuum extraction were stable and matched those of the initial samples extracted with the pressure chamber. Further extraction of samples with the pressure chamber decreased sap osmolality, suggesting reverse osmosis occurred. However, sap osmolalities increased when longer equilibration periods after sap extraction were allowed. Analysis of expressed sap with HPLC indicated a 1:1 relation between measured osmolality and the osmolality of the inorganic ions in the sap (mainly Na + , K + , and Cl - ), suggesting no contamination by organic compounds. In stems perfused with deionized water, the sap osmolality increased to mimic the native sap osmolality.• Conclusions: Xylem sap osmolality and ionic contents are dynamically adjusted by mangroves and may help modulate turgor pressure, hydraulic conductivity, and water potential, thus being important for mangrove physiology, survival, and distribution. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  19. Effect of catecholamines and insulin on plasma volume and intravascular mass of albumin in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Christensen, N J; Larsen, S

    1989-01-01

    1. The effect of intravenous catecholamine infusions and of intravenous insulin on plasma volume and intravascular mass of albumin was investigated in healthy males. 2. Physiological doses of adrenaline (0.5 microgram/min and 3 microgram/min) increased peripheral venous packed cell volume...... significantly; intravenous noradrenaline at 0.5 microgram/min had no effect on packed cell volume, whereas packed cell volume increased significantly at 3 micrograms of noradrenaline/min. No significant change in packed cell volume was found during saline infusion. 3. During adrenaline infusion at 6 micrograms...... in packed cell volume, plasma volume, intravascular mass of albumin and transcapillary escape rate of albumin during hypoglycaemia may be explained by the combined actions of adrenaline and insulin....

  20. Microwave Production of Steady State Large Volume Air Plasmas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brandenburg, John

    1999-01-01

    ...) and these plasmas persist for hundreds of milliseconds after power is turned off. These plasmas can be made in an inexpensive and easy to build apparatus based around a microwave oven operating at approximately 1kW and 2.45GHz...

  1. Increased concentration of vasopressin in plasma of essential fatty acid-deficient rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Harald S.; Jensen, B.; Warberg, J.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of essential fatty acid deficiency (EFA-D) on the plasma concentration of arginine-vasopressin (AVP) and the urinary AVP excretion was investigated. Weanling rats were fed a fat-free diet (FF-rats). Control rats received the same diet in which 6% by wt. of sucrose was replaced by arachis...... oil. After 4-6 weeks of feeding, urine and plasma were analysed for AVP, osmolality, sodium and potassium. When compared to control rats FF-rats had decreased urine volume (6.0 ± 1.6 ml/24 hr versus 11.7 ± 3.2 ml/24 hr), increased urine osmolality (2409 ± 691 mOsm/kg versus 1260 ± 434 m...

  2. Moderator's view: High-volume plasma exchange: pro, con and consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Andre A

    2017-09-01

    I have been asked to comment on the pro and con opinions regarding high-volume plasma exchange. The authors of both positions have provided cogent arguments and a reasonable approach to choosing the exchange volume for any given therapeutic plasma exchange. The major issue of relevance in this discussion is the nature of the toxins targeted for removal. These parameters include molecular weight, the apparent volume of distribution, the degree of protein binding, the biologic and chemical half-life, and the severity and rapidity of its toxicity. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  3. Plasma volume methodology: Evans blue, hemoglobin-hematocrit, and mass density transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Hinghofer-Szalkay, H.

    1985-01-01

    Methods for measuring absolute levels and changes in plasma volume are presented along with derivations of pertinent equations. Reduction in variability of the Evans blue dye dilution technique using chromatographic column purification suggests that the day-to-day variability in the plasma volume in humans is less than + or - 20 m1. Mass density determination using the mechanical-oscillator technique provides a method for measuring vascular fluid shifts continuously for assessing the density of the filtrate, and for quantifying movements of protein across microvascular walls. Equations for the calculation of volume and density of shifted fluid are presented.

  4. Dual effect of insulin on plasma volume and transcapillary albumin transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Christensen, N J

    1992-01-01

    vascular dilatation and increased muscle sympathetic nerve activity during a euglycaemic glucose clamp. During similar conditions insulin increased the transcapillary escape rate of albumin and reduced plasma volume. Insulin has also an indirect effect on vascular permeability during hypoglycaemia, which...... is mediated by the increase in plasma adrenaline. Adrenaline infusion increased haematocrit and decreased plasma volume and intravascular albumin mass. In contrast to insulin adrenaline did not increase the transcapillary escape rate of albumin. Total autonomic blockade during insulin-induced hypoglycaemia...... abolished the increase in haematocrit, but did not influence the decrease in plasma volume and the increase in the transcapillary escape rate of albumin. Insulin administration may also increase urinary albumin excretion, and this effect was observed during a euglycaemic clamp. The mechanism of the increase...

  5. Comparison of osmolality and refractometric readings of Hispaniolan Amazon parrot (Amazona ventralis) urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock, A Paige; Grunkemeyer, Vanessa L; Fry, Michael M; Hall, James S; Bartges, Joseph W

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate the relationship between osmolality and specific gravity of urine samples from clinically normal adult parrots and to determine a formula to convert urine specific gravity (USG) measured on a reference scale to a more accurate USG value for an avian species, urine samples were collected opportunistically from a colony of Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). Samples were analyzed by using a veterinary refractometer, and specific gravity was measured on both canine and feline scales. Osmolality was measured by vapor pressure osmometry. Specific gravity and osmolality measurements were highly correlated (r = 0.96). The linear relationship between refractivity measurements on a reference scale and osmolality was determined. An equation was calculated to allow specific gravity results from a medical refractometer to be converted to specific gravity values of Hispaniolan Amazon parrots: USGHAp = 0.201 +0.798(USGref). Use of the reference-canine scale to approximate the osmolality of parrot urine leads to an overestimation of the true osmolality of the sample. In addition, this error increases as the concentration of urine increases. Compared with the human-canine scale, the feline scale provides a closer approximation to urine osmolality of Hispaniolan Amazon parrots but still results in overestimation of osmolality.

  6. Urine Osmolality in Treatment-naïve HIV-positive Subjects in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-03-01

    Mar 1, 2017 ... commonly evaluated in routine clinical practice and in human ... the variables and urine osmolality and the strength of variables to ... function, and weight were common in treatment-naïve HIV subjects who had ... Nigeria, underweight and obesity, urine osmolality ..... associated with a salt-losing syndrome.

  7. Role of cardiac volume receptors in the control of ADH release during acute simulated weightlessness in man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convertino, V. A.; Benjamin, B. A.; Keil, L. C.; Sandler, H.

    1984-01-01

    Hemodynamic responses and antidiuretic hormone (ADH) were measured during body position changes, designed to induce central blood volume shifts in ten cardiac and one heart-lung transplant recipients, to assess the contribution of cardiac volume receptors in the control of ADH release during the initial acute phase of exposure to weightlessness. Each subject underwent 15 min of a sitting-control period (C) followed by 30 min of 6 deg headdown tilt (T) and 30 min of resumed sitting (S). Venous blood samples and cardiac dimensions were taken at 0 and 15 min of C; 5, 15, and 30 min of T; and 5, 15, and 30 min of S. Blood samples were analyzed for hematocrit, plasma osmolality, plasma renin activity (PRA), and ADH. Heart rate and blood pressure were recorded every two min. Plasma osmolality was not altered by posture changes. Mean left ventricular end-diastolic volume increased (P less than 0.05) from 90 ml in C to 106 ml in T and returned to 87 ml in S. Plasma ADH was reduced by 20 percent (P less than 0.05) with T, and returned to control levels with S. These responses were similar in six normal cardiac-innervated control subjects. These data may suggest that cardiac volume receptors are not the primary mechanism for the control of ADH release during acute central volume shifts in man.

  8. Plasma volume changes during hypoglycaemia: the effect of arterial blood sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Bendtsen, Flemming; Christensen, N J

    1990-01-01

    To investigate whether previously reported changes in venous blood volume and composition induced by acute hypoglycaemia in humans are representative for the entire body we measured erythrocyte 51Cr content, haematocrit, plasma volume, intravascular albumin content and transcapillary escape rate...... hypoglycaemia. The magnitude of the changes in arterial and venous blood were not significantly different. These results indicate that the above changes in blood volume and composition are whole-body phenomena: furthermore, the major part of the changes are likely to occur in tissues other than upper extremity...... of albumin in arterial and venous blood in seven healthy subjects before and during insulin-induced hypoglycaemia. In both vascular sites blood 51Cr content and the haematocrit increased, plasma volume and intravascular albumin content decreased and the transcapillary escape rate of albumin increased during...

  9. Predicted Hematologic and Plasma Volume Responses Following Rapid Ascent to Progressive Altitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Detection of unethical and illegal manipulation of erythrocyte volume by following changes in hemoglobin concentration ([Hb]) in elite athletes is a...tolerance to environmental extremes [2,3] and such manipulation often results in acute plasma volume (PV) loss and elevated hemoglobin concentrations [3...bodies to detect "unfair practices" in athletes seeking to gain an edge in their performance through illegal manipulation of their erythrocyte

  10. Osmolality of Cerebrospinal Fluid from Patients with Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension (IIH.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth A Wibroe

    Full Text Available Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH is a disorder of increased intracranial fluid pressure (ICP of unknown etiology. This study aims to investigate osmolality of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF from patients with IIH.We prospectively collected CSF from individuals referred on suspicion of IIH from 2011-2013. Subjects included as patients fulfilled Friedman and Jacobson's diagnostic criteria for IIH. Individuals in whom intracranial hypertension was refuted were included as controls. Lumbar puncture with ICP measurement was performed at inclusion and repeated for patients after three months of treatment. Osmolality was measured with a Vapor Pressure Osmometer.We collected 90 CSF samples from 38 newly diagnosed patients and 28 controls. At baseline 27 IIH-samples and at 3 months follow-up 35 IIH-samples were collected from patients. We found no significant differences in osmolality between 1 patients at baseline and controls (p = 0. 86, 2 patients at baseline and after 3 months treatment (p = 0.97, and 3 patients with normalized pressure after 3 months and their baseline values (p = 0.79. Osmolality in individuals with normal ICP from 6-25 cmH2O (n = 41 did not differ significantly from patients with moderately elevated ICP from 26-45 cmH2O (n = 21 (p = 0.86 and patients with high ICP from 46-70 cmH2O (n = 4 (p = 0.32, respectively. There was no correlation between osmolality and ICP, BMI, age and body height, respectively. Mean CSF osmolality was 270 mmol/kg (± 1 SE, 95% confidence interval 267-272 for both patients and controls.CSF osmolality was normal in patients with IIH, and there was no relation to treatment, ICP, BMI, age and body height. Mean CSF osmolality was 270 mmol/kg and constitutes a reference for future studies. Changes in CSF osmolality are not responsible for development of IIH. Other underlying pathophysiological mechanisms must be searched.

  11. Osmolality of Cerebrospinal Fluid from Patients with Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension (IIH)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wibroe, Elisabeth A; Yri, Hanne M; Jensen, Rigmor H

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a disorder of increased intracranial fluid pressure (ICP) of unknown etiology. This study aims to investigate osmolality of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients with IIH. METHODS: We prospectively collected CSF from individuals referred...... significantly from patients with moderately elevated ICP from 26-45 cmH2O (n = 21) (p = 0.86) and patients with high ICP from 46-70 cmH2O (n = 4) (p = 0.32), respectively. There was no correlation between osmolality and ICP, BMI, age and body height, respectively. Mean CSF osmolality was 270 mmol/kg (± 1 SE, 95...

  12. Study of scattering cross section of a plasma column using Green's function volume integral equation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltanmoradi, Elmira; Shokri, Babak

    2017-05-01

    In this article, the electromagnetic wave scattering from plasma columns with inhomogeneous electron density distribution is studied by the Green's function volume integral equation method. Due to the ready production of such plasmas in the laboratories and their practical application in various technological fields, this study tries to find the effects of plasma parameters such as the electron density, radius, and pressure on the scattering cross-section of a plasma column. Moreover, the incident wave frequency influence of the scattering pattern is demonstrated. Furthermore, the scattering cross-section of a plasma column with an inhomogeneous collision frequency profile is calculated and the effect of this inhomogeneity is discussed first in this article. These results are especially used to determine the appropriate conditions for radar cross-section reduction purposes. It is shown that the radar cross-section of a plasma column reduces more for a larger collision frequency, for a relatively lower plasma frequency, and also for a smaller radius. Furthermore, it is found that the effect of the electron density on the scattering cross-section is more obvious in comparison with the effect of other plasma parameters. Also, the plasma column with homogenous collision frequency can be used as a better shielding in contrast to its inhomogeneous counterpart.

  13. Immunoglobulin G levels during collection of large volume plasma for fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, Thomas; Rothe, Remo; Moog, Rainer

    2017-06-01

    There is a need of comprehensive work dealing with the quality of plasma for fractionation with respect to the IgG content as today most plasma derivates are used to treat patients with immunodeficiencies and autoimmune disorders. Therefore, a prospective study was carried out to analyse IgG levels before plasmapheresis and every 200ml collected plasma. Fifty-four experienced plasmapheresis donors were recruited for subsequent 850ml plasmapheresis using the Aurora Plasmapheresis System. Donorś peripheral blood counts were analysed before and after plasmapheresis using an electronic counter. Total protein, IgG and citrate were measured turbidometrically before, during and after apheresis as well as in the plasma product. Furthermore, platelets, red and white blood cells were analysed as parameters of product quality. An average of 2751±247ml blood was processed in 47±6min. The collected plasma volume was 850±1mL and citrate consumption was 177±15mL. A continuous drop of donors' IgG level was observed during plasmapheresis. The drop was 13% of the IgG baseline value at 800mL collected plasma. Total protein, IgG and cell counts of the plasma product met current guidelines of plasma for fractionation. Donors' IgG levels during apheresis showed a steady decrease without compromising the quality of plasma product. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A model for steady-state large-volume plasma generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhm, H.S.; Miller, J.D.; Schneider, R.F.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, a simple, new scheme to generate a uniform, steady-state, large-volume plasma is presented. The weakly magnetized plasma is created by direct ionization of the background gas by low-energy electrons generated from thermionic filaments. An annular arrangement of the filaments ensures a uniform plasma density in the radial direction as predicted by theory. Experiments have been performed to characterize the plasma generated in such a configuration. In order to explain the experimental observation, we develop a bulk plasma theory based on plasma transport via cross-field diffusion. As assumed in the theoretical model, the experimental measurements indicate a uniform plasma density along the axis. Both the theory and experiment indicate that the plasma density is a function of the square of the external magnetic field. The theory also predicts the plasma density to be proportional to the neutral density to the two-thirds power in agreement with the experimental data. We also observe the experimental data to agree remarkably well with theoretical prediction for a broad range of system parameters

  15. Plasma volume changes during hypoglycaemia: the effect of arterial blood sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Bendtsen, F; Christensen, N J

    1990-01-01

    To investigate whether previously reported changes in venous blood volume and composition induced by acute hypoglycaemia in humans are representative for the entire body we measured erythrocyte 51Cr content, haematocrit, plasma volume, intravascular albumin content and transcapillary escape rate...... hypoglycaemia. The magnitude of the changes in arterial and venous blood were not significantly different. These results indicate that the above changes in blood volume and composition are whole-body phenomena: furthermore, the major part of the changes are likely to occur in tissues other than upper extremity...

  16. Finite-volume cumulant expansion in QCD-colorless plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ladrem, M. [Taibah University, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Madinah, Al-Munawwarah (Saudi Arabia); Physics Department, Algiers (Algeria); ENS-Vieux Kouba (Bachir El-Ibrahimi), Laboratoire de Physique et de Mathematiques Appliquees (LPMA), Algiers (Algeria); Ahmed, M.A.A. [Taibah University, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Madinah, Al-Munawwarah (Saudi Arabia); ENS-Vieux Kouba (Bachir El-Ibrahimi), Laboratoire de Physique et de Mathematiques Appliquees (LPMA), Algiers (Algeria); Taiz University in Turba, Physics Department, Taiz (Yemen); Alfull, Z.Z. [Taibah University, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Madinah, Al-Munawwarah (Saudi Arabia); Cherif, S. [ENS-Vieux Kouba (Bachir El-Ibrahimi), Laboratoire de Physique et de Mathematiques Appliquees (LPMA), Algiers (Algeria); Ghardaia University, Sciences and Technologies Department, Ghardaia (Algeria)

    2015-09-15

    Due to the finite-size effects, the localization of the phase transition in finite systems and the determination of its order, become an extremely difficult task, even in the simplest known cases. In order to identify and locate the finite-volume transition point T{sub 0}(V) of the QCD deconfinement phase transition to a colorless QGP, we have developed a new approach using the finite-size cumulant expansion of the order parameter and the L{sub mn}-method. The first six cumulants C{sub 1,2,3,4,5,6} with the corresponding under-normalized ratios (skewness Σ, kurtosis κ, pentosis Π{sub ±}, and hexosis H{sub 1,2,3}) and three unnormalized combinations of them, (O = σ{sup 2}κΣ{sup -1},U = σ{sup -2}Σ{sup -1},N = σ{sup 2}κ) are calculated and studied as functions of (T, V). A new approach, unifying in a clear and consistent way the definitions of cumulant ratios, is proposed.Anumerical FSS analysis of the obtained results has allowed us to locate accurately the finite-volume transition point. The extracted transition temperature value T{sub 0}(V) agrees with that expected T{sub 0}{sup N}(V) from the order parameter and the thermal susceptibility χ{sub T} (T, V), according to the standard procedure of localization to within about 2%. In addition to this, a very good correlation factor is obtained proving the validity of our cumulants method. The agreement of our results with those obtained by means of other models is remarkable. (orig.)

  17. Inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy. Part II: applications and fundamentals. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boumans, P.W.J.M.

    1987-01-01

    This is the second part of the two-volume treatise by this well-known and respected author. This volume reviews applications of inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), summarizes fundamental studies, and compares ICP-AES methods with other methods of analysis. The first six chapters are devoted to specific fields of application, including the following: metals and other industrial materials, geology, the environment, agriculture and food, biology and clinical analysis, and organic materials. The chapter on the analysis of organic materials also covers the special instrumental considerations required when organic solvents are introduced into an inductively coupled plasma. A chapter on the direct analysis of solids completes the first part of this volume. Each of the applications chapters begins with a summary of the types of samples that are encountered in that field, and the kinds of problems that an elemental analysis can help to solve. This is followed by a tutorial approach covering applicability, advantages, and limitations of the methods. The coverage is thorough, including sample handling, storage, and preparation, acid, and fusion dissolution, avoiding contamination, methods of preconcentration, the types of interferences that can be expected and ways to reduce them, and the types of ICP plasmas that are used. The second half of the volume covers fundamental studies of ICP-AES: basic processes of aerosol generation, plasma modeling and computer simulation, spectroscopic diagnostics, excitation mechanisms, and discharge characteristics. This section introduces the experimental and modeling methods that have been used to obtain fundamental information about ICPs

  18. Physiological adaptation of maternal plasma volume during pregnancy: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haas, S.; Ghossein-Doha, C.; Kuijk, S.M. van; Drongelen, J. van; Spaanderman, M.E.A.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the physiological pattern of gestational plasma volume adjustments in normal singleton pregnancy and compare this with the pattern in pregnancies complicated by pregnancy-induced hypertension, pre-eclampsia or fetal growth restriction. METHODS: We performed a meta-analysis of

  19. Impact of the time window on plasma volume measurement with indocyanine green

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, M; Chappell, D; Conzen, P; Finsterer, U; Rehm, M; Krafft, A; Becker, B F

    2008-01-01

    Recent reports have questioned the accuracy of the indocyanine green dilution technique for measuring plasma volume. Our objective was to evaluate the impact of different time windows for monoexponential extrapolation. We retrospectively analysed 31 indocyanine green decay curves to investigate the problem in principle (group 1) and prospectively performed another 21 plasma volume measurements to estimate its practical impact (group 2). To monoexponentially extrapolate back to the specific extinction at the time of dye injection, two different time windows were applied to each decay curve, comparing the plasma volumes resulting from sampling within a short (≤5 min) versus a longer (>5 min) period of time. Extrapolating back from the longer period led to a higher apparent plasma volume relative to the shorter period in both groups, the difference being 348 ± 171 ml (group 1) and 384 ± 131 ml (group 2; mean ± SD; p < 0.05 each). This result was due to a reliable monoexponentiality of decay only up to the 5th min after dye injection. Thus, to estimate the initial distribution space of indocyanine green via monoexponential extrapolation, the first linear kinetic of indocyanine green decay should be taken

  20. Proceedings of the international symposium on environmental technologies: Plasma systems and applications. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayne, P.W.; Mulholland, J.A.

    1995-01-01

    Plasma technology is an extremely versatile and powerful means of obtaining very high temperatures that can be used in a variety of environmental situations. Since most types of waste products and contaminants can be treated effectively and efficiently, plasma systems have been developed to address the disposal and annihilation domestic of medical, hazardous, radioactive, military, and miscellaneous wastes. Plasma technologies can also be implemented to recycle and recover usable materials from metallic wastes. The International Symposium on Environmental Technologies: Plasma Systems and Applications was held at the Omni Hotel in Atlanta, Georgia on October 8--12, 1995 to bring together a large group of technical experts working on the use of plasma for solving environmental problems. The Symposium is a sequel to the 1994 Metatechnies Conference on Stabilization and Volarization of Ultimate Waste by Plasma Processes that was held in September of 1994 at Bordeaux Lac, France. The proceedings to this second international conference contain the written contributions from eleven sessions and are published in two volumes. A total of 65 papers address the use of plasma systems for environmental applications and include topics concerning the development and use of innovative technologies for waste treatment, environmental remediation, recycling, characterization of the plasma and solid residue, off-gas analyses, as well as case studies and regulatory policies

  1. Development of volume-reduction system for ion exchange resin using inductively coupled plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujisawa, Morio; Katagiri, Genichi

    2002-01-01

    The spent ion exchange resin generated as radioactive waste in water purifying system at nuclear power stations or related facilities of nuclear power has been stored in the site, and its volume has been increasing year by year. We had developed a full-scale system of IC plasma volume-reduction system for the spent resin, and have performed basic performance test using some samples imitating the spent resin. As the results, the imitation of the resin can be reduced in volume by more than 90% so that the processing performance in actual scale was proved to be effective. In addition, it was clarified that the residuum after volume-reduction process is easy to mix with cement, and solidity containing 30wt% residuum provides high strength of 68 MPa. Therefore, we evaluate the application of this process to stabilization of the disposal to be very effective. (author)

  2. Severe Leptospirosis with Multiple Organ Failure Successfully Treated by Plasma Exchange and High-Volume Hemofiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Bourquin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Leptospirosis is a spirochetal zoonosis with complex clinical features including renal and liver failure. Case report. We report the case of a Swiss fisherman presenting with leptospirosis. After initial improvement, refractory septic shock and severe liver and kidney failure developed. The expected mortality was estimated at 90% with clinical scores. The patient underwent plasma exchanges and high-volume hemofiltration (HVHF with complete recovery of hepatic and kidney functions. Discussion. Plasma exchanges and HVHF may confer survival benefit on patients with severe leptospirosis, refractory septic shock, and multiple-organ failure.

  3. Electrical method for the measurements of volume averaged electron density and effective coupled power to the plasma bulk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henault, M.; Wattieaux, G.; Lecas, T.; Renouard, J. P.; Boufendi, L.

    2016-02-01

    Nanoparticles growing or injected in a low pressure cold plasma generated by a radiofrequency capacitively coupled capacitive discharge induce strong modifications in the electrical parameters of both plasma and discharge. In this paper, a non-intrusive method, based on the measurement of the plasma impedance, is used to determine the volume averaged electron density and effective coupled power to the plasma bulk. Good agreements are found when the results are compared to those given by other well-known and established methods.

  4. Performance of large electron energy filter in large volume plasma device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, S. K.; Srivastava, P. K.; Awasthi, L. M.; Mattoo, S. K.; Sanyasi, A. K.; Kaw, P. K.; Singh, R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes an in-house designed large Electron Energy Filter (EEF) utilized in the Large Volume Plasma Device (LVPD) [S. K. Mattoo, V. P. Anita, L. M. Awasthi, and G. Ravi, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72, 3864 (2001)] to secure objectives of (a) removing the presence of remnant primary ionizing energetic electrons and the non-thermal electrons, (b) introducing a radial gradient in plasma electron temperature without greatly affecting the radial profile of plasma density, and (c) providing a control on the scale length of gradient in electron temperature. A set of 19 independent coils of EEF make a variable aspect ratio, rectangular solenoid producing a magnetic field (B x ) of 100 G along its axis and transverse to the ambient axial field (B z ∼ 6.2 G) of LVPD, when all its coils are used. Outside the EEF, magnetic field reduces rapidly to 1 G at a distance of 20 cm from the center of the solenoid on either side of target and source plasma. The EEF divides LVPD plasma into three distinct regions of source, EEF and target plasma. We report that the target plasma (n e ∼ 2 × 10 11  cm −3 and T e ∼ 2 eV) has no detectable energetic electrons and the radial gradients in its electron temperature can be established with scale length between 50 and 600 cm by controlling EEF magnetic field. Our observations reveal that the role of the EEF magnetic field is manifested by the energy dependence of transverse electron transport and enhanced transport caused by the plasma turbulence in the EEF plasma

  5. Modification of the Steel Surface Treated by a Volume Discharge Plasma in Nitrogen at Atmospheric Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erofeev, M. V.; Shulepov, M. A.; Ivanov, Yu. F.; Oskomov, K. V.; Tarasenko, V. F.

    2016-03-01

    Effect of volume discharge plasma initiated by an avalanche electron beam on the composition, structure, and properties of the surface steel layer is investigated. Voltage pulses with incident wave amplitude up to 30 kV, full width at half maximum of about 4 ns, and wave front of about 2.5 ns were applied to the gap with an inhomogeneous electric field. Changes indicating the hardening effect of the volume discharge initiated by an avalanche electron beam are revealed in St3-grade steel specimens treated by the discharge of this type.

  6. Global (volume-averaged) model of inductively coupled chlorine plasma : influence of Cl wall recombination and external heating on continuous and pulse-modulated plasmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemaneci, E.H.; Carbone, E.A.D.; Booth, J.P.; Graef, W.A.A.D.; Dijk, van J.; Kroesen, G.M.W.

    An inductively coupled radio-frequency plasma in chlorine is investigated via a global (volume-averaged) model, both in continuous and square wave modulated power input modes. After the power is switched off (in a pulsed mode) an ion–ion plasma appears. In order to model this phenomenon, a novel

  7. Plasma volume, intravascular albumin and its transcapillary escape rate in patients with extensive skin disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parving, H H; Worm, A M; Rossing, N

    1976-01-01

    Plasma volume and plasma concentration and transcapillary escape rate of albumin (TER alb), i.e. the fraction of intravascular mass of albumin that passes to the extravascular space per unit time, were determined using 125I-labelled human albumin in eight patients with extensive skin disease....... Plasma volume and plasma albumin concentration were reduced (P less than 0-05). Thus the intravascular albumin mass was moderately decreased to an average of 0-55 +/- 0-06 (s.d.) g/cm height compared with a normal mean value of 0-77 +/- 0-07 (s.d.) g/cm. This 29% decrease is statistically significant (P...... less than 0-001). The transcapillary escape rate of albumin (TER alb) was significantly elevated, mean 8-6 +/- 1-1 (s.d.) % X h-1, as compared to normal subjects, mean 5-6 +/- 1-1 (s.d.) % X h-1, (+54%, P less than 0-001). The same patients were studied again after a 1-week treatment with prednisone...

  8. Blood Volume, Plasma Volume and Circulation Time in a High-Energy-Demand Teleost, the Yellowfin Tuna (Thunnus Albacares)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brill, R.W.; Cousins, K.L.; Jones, D.R.

    1998-01-01

    We measured red cell space with 51Cr-labeled red blood cells, and dextran space with 500 kDa fluorescein-isothiocyanate-labeled dextran (FITC-dextran), in two groups of yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares). Red cell space was 13.8+/-0.7 ml kg-1 (mean +/- s.e.m.) Assuming a whole- body hematocrit...... for albacore (Thunnus alalunga, 82-197 ml kg-1). Plasma volume within the primary circulatory system (calculated from the 51Cr-labeled red blood cell data) was 32.9+/-2.3 ml kg-1. Dextran space was 37.0+/-3.7 ml kg-1. Because 500 kDa FITC-dextran appeared to remain within the vascular space, these data imply...

  9. Changes in Peak Oxygen Uptake and Plasma Volume in Fit and Unfit Subjects Following Exposure to a Simulation of Microgravity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Convertino, Victor

    1997-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that the magnitude of reduction in plasma volume and work capacity following exposure to simulated microgravity is dependent on the initial level of aerobic fitness, peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak...

  10. Plasma uric acid and tumor volume are highly predictive of outcome in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients receiving intensity modulated radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Hui; Lin, Huan-Xin; Ge, Nan; Wang, Hong-Zhi; Sun, Rui; Hu, Wei-Han

    2013-01-01

    The combined predictive value of plasma uric acid and primary tumor volume in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients receiving intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has not yet been determined. In this retrospective study, plasma uric acid level was measured after treatment in 130 histologically-proven NPC patients treated with IMRT. Tumor volume was calculated from treatment planning CT scans. Overall (OS), progression-free (PFS) and distant metastasis-free (DMFS) survival were compared using Kaplan-Meier analysis and the log rank test, and Cox multivariate and univariate regression models were created. Patients with a small tumor volume (<27 mL) had a significantly better DMFS, PFS and OS than patients with a large tumor volume. Patients with a high post-treatment plasma uric acid level (>301 μmol/L) had a better DMFS, PFS and OS than patients with a low post-treatment plasma uric acid level. Patients with a small tumor volume and high post-treatment plasma uric acid level had a favorable prognosis compared to patients with a large tumor volume and low post-treatment plasma uric acid level (7-year overall OS, 100% vs. 48.7%, P <0.001 and PFS, 100% vs. 69.5%, P <0.001). Post-treatment plasma uric acid level and pre-treatment tumor volume have predictive value for outcome in NPC patients receiving IMRT. NPC patients with a large tumor volume and low post-treatment plasma uric acid level may benefit from additional aggressive treatment after IMRT

  11. A 5 kA pulsed power supply for inductive and plasma loads in large volume plasma device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, P. K., E-mail: pkumar@ipr.res.in; Singh, S. K.; Sanyasi, A. K.; Awasthi, L. M., E-mail: kushagra.lalit@gmail.com; Mattoo, S. K. [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar (India)

    2016-07-15

    This paper describes 5 kA, 12 ms pulsed power supply for inductive load of Electron Energy Filter (EEF) in large volume plasma device. The power supply is based upon the principle of rapid sourcing of energy from the capacitor bank (2.8 F/200 V) by using a static switch, comprising of ten Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBTs). A suitable mechanism is developed to ensure equal sharing of current and uniform power distribution during the operation of these IGBTs. Safe commutation of power to the EEF is ensured by the proper optimization of its components and by the introduction of over voltage protection (>6 kV) using an indigenously designed snubber circuit. Various time sequences relevant to different actions of power supply, viz., pulse width control and repetition rate, are realized through optically isolated computer controlled interface.

  12. A plasma melting technology for volume reduction of noncombustible radioactive waste in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Myung Jae; Moon, Young Pyo

    1998-01-01

    In Korea, there is a strong need for the development of radioactive waste volume reduction technology. Korea Electric Power Research Institute (KEPRI) has been searching for ways to reduce the radioactive volume significantly and to produce stable waste forms. In particular, plasma treatment technology has caught KEPR's attention for treating noncombustible radwaste because this technology may far surpass conventional methods. The potential for greater control of temperature, faster reaction times, better control of processing, lower capital costs, greater throughput and more efficient use of energy is there. For the plasma melting study of noncombustible waste, KEPRI has leased a lab scale multipurpose plasma furnace system and performed preliminary tests. Using simulated noncombustible waste based on field survey data from nuclear power plants, lab scale melting experiments have been carried out. The properties of molten slag vary with additives and noncombustible waste materials. KEPRI's current study is focused on finding an optimum composition ratio of various noncombustible wastes for melting, investigating physical properties of molten slag, and obtaining operating parameters for continuous operation. (author)

  13. Broadband frequency ECR ion source concepts with large resonant plasma volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alton, G.D.

    1995-01-01

    New techniques are proposed for enhancing the performances of ECR ion sources. The techniques are based on the use of high-power, variable-frequency, multiple-discrete-frequency, or broadband microwave radiation, derived from standard TWT technology, to effect large resonant ''volume'' ECR sources. The creation of a large ECR plasma ''volume'' permits coupling of more power into the plasma, resulting in the heating of a much larger electron population to higher energies, the effect of which is to produce higher charge state distributions and much higher intensities within a particular charge state than possible in present forms of the ECR ion source. If successful, these developments could significantly impact future accelerator designs and accelerator-based, heavy-ion-research programs by providing multiply-charged ion beams with the energies and intensities required for nuclear physics research from existing ECR ion sources. The methods described in this article can be used to retrofit any ECR ion source predicated on B-minimum plasma confinement techniques

  14. Electro-mechanical probe positioning system for large volume plasma device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanyasi, A. K.; Sugandhi, R.; Srivastava, P. K.; Srivastav, Prabhakar; Awasthi, L. M.

    2018-05-01

    An automated electro-mechanical system for the positioning of plasma diagnostics has been designed and implemented in a Large Volume Plasma Device (LVPD). The system consists of 12 electro-mechanical assemblies, which are orchestrated using the Modbus communication protocol on 4-wire RS485 communications to meet the experimental requirements. Each assembly has a lead screw-based mechanical structure, Wilson feed-through-based vacuum interface, bipolar stepper motor, micro-controller-based stepper drive, and optical encoder for online positioning correction of probes. The novelty of the system lies in the orchestration of multiple drives on a single interface, fabrication and installation of the system for a large experimental device like the LVPD, in-house developed software, and adopted architectural practices. The paper discusses the design, description of hardware and software interfaces, and performance results in LVPD.

  15. Production and loss of H- and D- in the volume of a plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, G.W.; Bacal, M.

    1981-01-01

    The study of the production and loss of negative ions, H - and D - , in the volume of a plasma has received considerable attention since the measurement of anomalously high densities of H - in 1977. The most probable mechanism for production is dissociative attachment (DA) to vibrationally highly-excited hydrogen molecules. New diagnostics developed for this purpose are photodetachment and the extension of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) systems to the sensitivity required for low-pressure gases. Measurements and calculations indicate that the important loss mechanisms are diffusion to the walls at low densities and collisional destruction of several types at plasma densities above 10 10 cm -3 . Production mechanisms must be highly efficient to compete with the losses. It appears to be straightforward to extrapolate measurements and theory to the densities above 10 12 cm -3 that are required for an intense source of D - for neutral beam injection into magnetically-confined fusion devices

  16. Noninvasive in vivo plasma volume and hematocrit in humans: observing long-term baseline behavior to establish homeostasis for intravascular volume and composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dent, Paul; Deng, Bin; Goodisman, Jerry; Peterson, Charles M.; Narsipur, Sriram; Chaiken, J.

    2016-04-01

    A new device incorporating a new algorithm and measurement process allows simultaneous noninvasive in vivo monitoring of intravascular plasma volume and red blood cell volume. The purely optical technique involves probing fingertip skin with near infrared laser light and collecting the wavelength shifted light, that is, the inelastic emission (IE) which includes the unresolved Raman and fluorescence, and the un-shifted emission, that is, the elastic emission (EE) which includes both the Rayleigh and Mie scattered light. Our excitation and detection geometry is designed so that from these two simultaneous measurements we can calculate two parameters within the single scattering regime using radiation transfer theory, the intravascular plasma volume fraction and the red blood cell volume fraction. Previously calibrated against a gold standard FDA approved device, 2 hour monitoring sessions on three separate occasions over a three week span for a specific, motionless, and mostly sleeping individual produced 3 records containing a total of 5706 paired measurements of hematocrit and plasma volume. The average over the three runs, relative to the initial plasma volume taken as 100%, of the plasma volume±1σ was 97.56+/-0.55 or 0.56%.For the same three runs, the average relative hematocrit (Hct), referenced to an assumed initial value of 28.35 was 29.37+/-0.12 or stable to +/-0.4%.We observe local deterministic circulation effects apparently associated with the pressure applied by the finger probe as well as longer timescale behavior due to normal ebb and flow of internal fluids due to posture changes and tilt table induced gravity gradients.

  17. Osmolality and non-structural carbohydrate composition in the secondary phloem of trees across a latitudinal gradient in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lintunen, Anna; Paljakka, Teemu; Jyske, Tuula; Peltoniemi, Mikko; Sterck, Frank; Arx, Von Georg; Cochard, Hervé; Copini, Paul; Caldeira, Maria C.; Delzon, Sylvain; Gebauer, Roman; Grönlund, Leila; Kiorapostolou, Natasa; Lechthaler, Silvia; Lobo-Do-Vale, Raquel; Peters, Richard L.; Petit, Giai; Prendin, Angela L.; Salmon, Yann; Steppe, Kathy; Urban, Josef; Juan, Sílvia Roig; Robert, Elisabeth M.R.; Hölttä, Teemu

    2016-01-01

    Phloem osmolality and its components are involved in basic cell metabolism, cell growth, and in various physiological processes including the ability of living cells to withstand drought and frost. Osmolality and sugar composition responses to environmental stresses have been extensively studied

  18. Physiological adaptation of maternal plasma volume during pregnancy: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haas, S; Ghossein-Doha, C; van Kuijk, S M J; van Drongelen, J; Spaanderman, M E A

    2017-02-01

    To describe the physiological pattern of gestational plasma volume adjustments in normal singleton pregnancy and compare this with the pattern in pregnancies complicated by pregnancy-induced hypertension, pre-eclampsia or fetal growth restriction. We performed a meta-analysis of the current literature on plasma volume adjustments during physiological and complicated pregnancies. Literature was retrieved from PubMed (NCBI) and EMBASE (Ovid) databases. Included studies reported both reference plasma volume measurements (non-pregnant, prepregnancy or postpartum) and measurements obtained during predetermined gestational ages. Mean differences bet ween the reference and pregnancy plasma volume measurements were calculated for predefined intervals of gestational age using a random-effects model described by DerSimonian and Laird. Thirty studies were included in the meta-analysis with publication dates ranging from 1934 to 2007. Plasma volume increased in the first weeks of pregnancy, with the steepest increase occurring during the second trimester. Plasma volume continued to increase in the third trimester with a pooled maximum increase of 1.13 L (95% CI, 1.07-1.19 L), an increase of 45.6% (95% CI, 43.0-48.1%) in physiological pregnancies compared with the reference value. The plasma volume expansion in gestational hypertensive and growth-restricted pregnancies was 0.80 L (95% CI, 0.59-1.02 L), an increase of 32.3% (95% CI, 23.6-41.1%) in the third trimester, a smaller increase than in physiological pregnancies (P embarazo: una revisi\\xF3n sistemática y metaanálisis RESUMEN OBJETIVO: Describir el patrón fisiológico de los cambios en el volumen del plasma gestacional en embarazos normales con feto único y compararlo con el patrón en los embarazos complicados por hipertensión gestacional, preeclampsia o restricción del crecimiento fetal. MÉTODOS: Se realizó un metaanálisis de la literatura actual sobre los cambios en el volumen de plasma durante

  19. Open loop control of filament heating power supply for large volume plasma device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugandhi, R., E-mail: ritesh@ipr.res.in [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382428 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Mumbai 400094 (India); Srivastava, P.K.; Sanyasi, A.K. [Homi Bhabha National Institute, Mumbai 400094 (India); Srivastav, Prabhakar [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382428 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Mumbai 400094 (India); Awasthi, L.M., E-mail: kushagra.lalit@gmail.com [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382428 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Mumbai 400094 (India); Mattoo, S.K. [Homi Bhabha National Institute, Mumbai 400094 (India)

    2017-02-15

    A power supply (20 V, 10 kA) for powering the filamentary cathode has been procured, interfaced and integrated with the centralized control system of Large Volume Plasma Device (LVPD). Software interface has been developed on the standard Modbus RTU communication protocol. It facilitates the dashboard for configuration, on line status monitoring, alarm management, data acquisition, synchronization and controls. It has been tested for stable operation of the power supply for the operational capabilities. The paper highlights the motivation, interface description, implementation and results obtained.

  20. Open loop control of filament heating power supply for large volume plasma device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugandhi, R.; Srivastava, P.K.; Sanyasi, A.K.; Srivastav, Prabhakar; Awasthi, L.M.; Mattoo, S.K.

    2017-01-01

    A power supply (20 V, 10 kA) for powering the filamentary cathode has been procured, interfaced and integrated with the centralized control system of Large Volume Plasma Device (LVPD). Software interface has been developed on the standard Modbus RTU communication protocol. It facilitates the dashboard for configuration, on line status monitoring, alarm management, data acquisition, synchronization and controls. It has been tested for stable operation of the power supply for the operational capabilities. The paper highlights the motivation, interface description, implementation and results obtained.

  1. Plasma diagnostics package. Volume 2: Spacelab 2 section. Part B: Thesis projects. Final science report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickett, J.S.; Frank, L.A.; Kurth, W.S.

    1988-06-01

    This volume (2), which consists of two parts (A and B), of the Plasma Diagnostics Package (PDP) Final Science Report contains a summary of all of the data reduction and scientific analyses which were performed using PDP data obtained on STS-51F as a part of the Spacelab 2 (SL-2) payload. This work was performed during the period of launch, July 29, 1985, through June 30, 1988. During this period the primary data reduction effort consisted of processing summary plots of the data received by 12 of the 14 instruments located on the PDP and submitting these data to the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC). Three Master's and three Ph.D. theses were written using PDP instrumentation data. These theses are listed in Volume 2, Part B

  2. Plasma diagnostics package. Volume 2: Spacelab 2 section. Part B: Thesis projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickett, Jolene S. (Compiler); Frank, L. A. (Compiler); Kurth, W. S. (Compiler)

    1988-01-01

    This volume (2), which consists of two parts (A and B), of the Plasma Diagnostics Package (PDP) Final Science Report contains a summary of all of the data reduction and scientific analyses which were performed using PDP data obtained on STS-51F as a part of the Spacelab 2 (SL-2) payload. This work was performed during the period of launch, July 29, 1985, through June 30, 1988. During this period the primary data reduction effort consisted of processing summary plots of the data received by 12 of the 14 instruments located on the PDP and submitting these data to the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC). Three Master's and three Ph.D. theses were written using PDP instrumentation data. These theses are listed in Volume 2, Part B.

  3. The Blood Volume of the Guinea Pig: Effects of Epinephrine and Isoproterenol upon the Red Cell and Plasma Volumes, Heart Rate, and Mean Arterial Pressure,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    capillaries (4), blood volumes calculated from plasma volume measures must correct for label that has left the system between the time of the injected dose...Splenic sequestration and contraction are mediated by the autonomic nervous system and blood-borne agents (10). Sympathetic nerve fibers from the truncus...sympathlcus and parasympathetic neurons of the nervus vagus (cranial nerve X) innervate the celiac plexus (8, 11). A subdivision of the celiac plexus

  4. Hemolymph metabolites and osmolality are tightly linked to cold tolerance of Drosophila species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, Trine; MacMillan, Heath A.; Nyberg, Nils

    2016-01-01

    osmolality was similar among all species despite chill-tolerant species having lower hemolymph [Na(+)]. Using NMR spectroscopy, we found that chill-tolerant species instead have higher levels of sugars and free amino acids in their hemolymph, including classical 'cryoprotectants' such as trehalose...

  5. The role of osmolality in saline fluid nebulization after tracheostomy: time for changing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zunjia; Wu, Chao; Cui, Feifei; Zhang, Haiying; Mei, Binbin; Shen, Meifen

    2016-12-09

    Saline fluid nebulization is highly recommend to combat the complications following tracheostomy, yet the understandings on the role of osmolality in saline solution for nebulization remain unclear. To investigate the biological changes in the early stage after tracheostomy, to verify the efficacy of saline fluid nebulization and explore the potential role of osmolality of saline nebulization after tracheostomy. Sprague-Dawley rats undergone tracheostomy were taken for study model, the sputum viscosity was detected by rotational viscometer, the expressions of TNF-α, AQP4 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were assessed by western blot analysis, and the histological changes in endothelium were evaluated by HE staining and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Study results revealed that tracheostomy gave rise to the increase of sputum viscosity, TNF-α and AQP4 expression, mucosa and cilia damage, yet the saline fluid nebulization could significantly decrease the changes of those indicators, besides, the hypertonic, isotonic and hypertonic saline nebulization produced different efficacy. Osmolality plays an important role in the saline fluid nebulization after tracheostomy, and 3% saline fluid nebulization seems to be more beneficial, further studies on the role of osmolality in saline fluid nebulization are warranted.

  6. Compatibility and osmolality of inhaled N-acetylcysteine nebulizing solution with fenoterol and ipratropium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tzung-Yi; Chen, Chi-Ming; Lee, Chun-Nin; Chiang, Yi-Chun; Chen, Hsiang-Yin

    2005-04-15

    The compatibility, pH, and osmolality of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) nebulizing solution in the presence of ipratropium bromide or fenoterol hydrobromide were studied. Portions (400 microL) of each mixture were sampled immediately upon mixing and one, two, three, four, five, six, and seven hours after mixing and assayed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Osmolality was measured by sampling 100 microL from the filling cup at a five-minute interval during nebulization and by the freezing-point-depression method. Adding NAC solution to fenoterol solution raised the pH from 3.20 to 7.90 and the osmolality to a mean +/- S.D. of 1400.67 +/- 4.51 mOsm/kg. Fenoterol concentrations decreased to 93.71% and NAC concentrations to 92.54% of initial concentrations after seven hours. Mixing ipratropium with NAC solution raised the pH from 3.74 to 7.95 and the osmolality to a mean +/- S.D. of 1413 +/- 11.79 mOsm/kg. The initial ipratropium concentration declined 7.39% and 10.91% one and two hours after mixing with NAC solution, respectively. NAC and ipratropium were stable in nebulizing solution within one hour of mixing. NAC and fenoterol were compatible for at least seven hours.

  7. Osmolality and composition of the extender during the cold storage of Prochilodus lineatus (Characiformes: Prochilodontidae sperm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana T. M. Viveiros

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the effects of extender osmolality and composition on the cooling of Prochilodus lineatussperm. Sperm was diluted in six extenders: two compositions (powdered coconut water(tm = ACP; Beltsville Thawing Solution(tm = BTS x three osmolalities (285, 325, and 365 mOsm/kg plus an undiluted control, and stored at 6-8°C. Motility rate and velocities (curvilinear, straight line, and average path were determined every other day. Osmolality did not affect the quality of cooled sperm, thus data were pooled. Motility was higher on d 0 compared to the other days and diluted samples (85-90% yielded higher motility than control (75%. On d 2, motility was higher in BTS-diluted samples and control, but on d 4 and 6, control yielded the highest motility. Velocities decreased from d 0 to 6 in diluted samples, but not in control. On d 0, velocities were higher in BTS-diluted sperm, but, on d 2, 4, and 6, control yielded higher velocities despite of the large variation among males. Thus P. lineatussperm should be stored in BTS or without dilution, for a maximum of two days at 6-8°C. Extender osmolality between 285 and 365 mOsm/kg does not affect sperm quality during cold storage.

  8. Osmolality and pH in handmade enteral diets used in domiciliary enteral nutritional therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Simeone HENRIQUES

    Full Text Available Abstract Patients who need prolonged domiciliary enteral nutritional therapy may benefit from handmade diets. However, the preparation of such diets might cause insecurity with regard to their nutritional composition and physical-chemical properties. Current study analyzes the osmolality and Hydrogen-Ion concentration (pH on handmade enteral diets. To this purpose, six formulas and two juices, prescribed on discharge from hospital, were analyzed physically and chemically. Osmolality and pH were respectively determined by cryoscopy and potentiometry. Most formulations were classified as isosmolar (with less than 400 mOsm/kg solvent, and only one was classified as slightly hyperosmolar, with rates ranging from 356.7 to 403.5 mOsm/kg solvent. On average, the standard formula presented higher osmolality than similar ones prepared for hyperglycemia. Among the juices, only one registered hyperosmolar concentration of 595.54 mOsm/kg solvent. All formulas presented pH rates classified as low acidity, ranging between 6.1 and 6.6, while the two juices had the lowest results, 4.73 and 4.66 each. The blend of ingredients used in handmade formulas and juices studied presented acceptable osmolality and pH rates for a safe administration and absence of gastrointestinal complications. Data showed here are consistent with an appropriate and healthy diet and contributed towards success in domiciliary enteral nutritional therapy.

  9. Enhancement of H{sup -}/D{sup -} volume production in a double plasma type negative ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukumasa, Osamu; Nishimura, Hideki; Sakiyama, Satoshi [Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-02-01

    H{sup -}/D{sup -} production in a pure volume source has been studied. In our double plasma type negative ion source, both energy and density of fast electrons are well controlled. With the use of this source, the enhancement of H{sup -}/D{sup -} production has been observed. Namely, under the same discharge power, the extracted H{sup -}/D{sup -} current in the double plasma operation is higher than that in the single plasma operation. At the same time, measurements of plasma parameters have been made in the source and the extractor regions for these two cases. (author)

  10. Analysis of red cell mass and plasma volume in patients with polycythemia vera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolova, K.; Vassileva, D.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Polycythemia vera (PV) was first described in 1892. The primary objective during the evaluation of erythrocytosis is to ascertain the presence or absence of PV. Because of prognostic and treatment differences, PV must be distinguished from relative polycythemia and secondary erythrocytosis. A retrospective analysis of RCM and plasma volume data are presented with special attention to different methods of RCM interpretation. A total 104 patients was studied (26 women and 78 men). Measurements of RCM and plasma volume were performed using chromium-51 labeled red cells. Results were expressed in millilitres by using the actual patient weight and using body surface area. There was a high prevalence of overweight or obesity in our population. However adipose tissue is relatively avascular, can lack precision of measurement of RCM in obese individuals. Pearson et al. showed that the results from 98% of males and 99% of females fall between ± 25% of the mean value at any given surface area. Using these limits as the reference range, we accepted the diagnosis of absolute erythrocytosis when an individual measured RCM is more than 25% above their predicted value

  11. 'Memory' and sustention of microdischarges in a steady-state DBD: volume plasma or surface charge?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akishev, Yuri; Aponin, Gregory; Balakirev, Anton; Grushin, Mikhail; Karalnik, Vladimir; Petryakov, Alexander; Trushkin, Nikolay

    2011-01-01

    The results of a numerical study on the spatio-temporal behavior of transient microdischarges (MDs) in a steady-state dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) excited by a sinusoidal voltage are presented. MDs have a spatial 'memory'-every subsequent MD appears at exactly the same location occupied by the MD at the preceding half-period (HP). In the majority of cases each MD appears at its location only once during every HP. For such a case, the memory effect is not attributed to the residual surface charge deposited by the preceding MD but determined by the residual MD plasma column shunting the gap right up to the beginning of the next HP. In contrast to good memory in space, each individual MD has a large scatter with time in its appearance within every HP, i.e. there is no 'memory' concerning the phase of an applied voltage. This MD jittering within the period is attributed to the stochastic nature of partial surface breakdowns around the bases of the MD plasma column. Numerical calculations show that surface breakdown provides an MD current splash at every HP. Hence, in the steady-state DBD, the volume plasma is responsible for the existence of MD spatial 'memory' (i.e. where the MD appears), and the deposited surface charge is responsible for MD jittering in time (i.e. when the MD appears).

  12. A uniform laminar air plasma plume with large volume excited by an alternating current voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuechen; Bao, Wenting; Chu, Jingdi; Zhang, Panpan; Jia, Pengying

    2015-12-01

    Using a plasma jet composed of two needle electrodes, a laminar plasma plume with large volume is generated in air through an alternating current voltage excitation. Based on high-speed photography, a train of filaments is observed to propagate periodically away from their birth place along the gas flow. The laminar plume is in fact a temporal superposition of the arched filament train. The filament consists of a negative glow near the real time cathode, a positive column near the real time anode, and a Faraday dark space between them. It has been found that the propagation velocity of the filament increases with increasing the gas flow rate. Furthermore, the filament lifetime tends to follow a normal distribution (Gaussian distribution). The most probable lifetime decreases with increasing the gas flow rate or decreasing the averaged peak voltage. Results also indicate that the real time peak current decreases and the real time peak voltage increases with the propagation of the filament along the gas flow. The voltage-current curve indicates that, in every discharge cycle, the filament evolves from a Townsend discharge to a glow one and then the discharge quenches. Characteristic regions including a negative glow, a Faraday dark space, and a positive column can be discerned from the discharge filament. Furthermore, the plasma parameters such as the electron density, the vibrational temperature and the gas temperature are investigated based on the optical spectrum emitted from the laminar plume.

  13. Process automation system for integration and operation of Large Volume Plasma Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugandhi, R.; Srivastava, P.K.; Sanyasi, A.K.; Srivastav, Prabhakar; Awasthi, L.M.; Mattoo, S.K.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Analysis and design of process automation system for Large Volume Plasma Device (LVPD). • Data flow modeling for process model development. • Modbus based data communication and interfacing. • Interface software development for subsystem control in LabVIEW. - Abstract: Large Volume Plasma Device (LVPD) has been successfully contributing towards understanding of the plasma turbulence driven by Electron Temperature Gradient (ETG), considered as a major contributor for the plasma loss in the fusion devices. Large size of the device imposes certain difficulties in the operation, such as access of the diagnostics, manual control of subsystems and large number of signals monitoring etc. To achieve integrated operation of the machine, automation is essential for the enhanced performance and operational efficiency. Recently, the machine is undergoing major upgradation for the new physics experiments. The new operation and control system consists of following: (1) PXIe based fast data acquisition system for the equipped diagnostics; (2) Modbus based Process Automation System (PAS) for the subsystem controls and (3) Data Utilization System (DUS) for efficient storage, processing and retrieval of the acquired data. In the ongoing development, data flow model of the machine’s operation has been developed. As a proof of concept, following two subsystems have been successfully integrated: (1) Filament Power Supply (FPS) for the heating of W- filaments based plasma source and (2) Probe Positioning System (PPS) for control of 12 number of linear probe drives for a travel length of 100 cm. The process model of the vacuum production system has been prepared and validated against acquired pressure data. In the next upgrade, all the subsystems of the machine will be integrated in a systematic manner. The automation backbone is based on 4-wire multi-drop serial interface (RS485) using Modbus communication protocol. Software is developed on LabVIEW platform using

  14. Process automation system for integration and operation of Large Volume Plasma Device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugandhi, R., E-mail: ritesh@ipr.res.in; Srivastava, P.K.; Sanyasi, A.K.; Srivastav, Prabhakar; Awasthi, L.M.; Mattoo, S.K.

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Analysis and design of process automation system for Large Volume Plasma Device (LVPD). • Data flow modeling for process model development. • Modbus based data communication and interfacing. • Interface software development for subsystem control in LabVIEW. - Abstract: Large Volume Plasma Device (LVPD) has been successfully contributing towards understanding of the plasma turbulence driven by Electron Temperature Gradient (ETG), considered as a major contributor for the plasma loss in the fusion devices. Large size of the device imposes certain difficulties in the operation, such as access of the diagnostics, manual control of subsystems and large number of signals monitoring etc. To achieve integrated operation of the machine, automation is essential for the enhanced performance and operational efficiency. Recently, the machine is undergoing major upgradation for the new physics experiments. The new operation and control system consists of following: (1) PXIe based fast data acquisition system for the equipped diagnostics; (2) Modbus based Process Automation System (PAS) for the subsystem controls and (3) Data Utilization System (DUS) for efficient storage, processing and retrieval of the acquired data. In the ongoing development, data flow model of the machine’s operation has been developed. As a proof of concept, following two subsystems have been successfully integrated: (1) Filament Power Supply (FPS) for the heating of W- filaments based plasma source and (2) Probe Positioning System (PPS) for control of 12 number of linear probe drives for a travel length of 100 cm. The process model of the vacuum production system has been prepared and validated against acquired pressure data. In the next upgrade, all the subsystems of the machine will be integrated in a systematic manner. The automation backbone is based on 4-wire multi-drop serial interface (RS485) using Modbus communication protocol. Software is developed on LabVIEW platform using

  15. Lack of an association of BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and plasma BDNF with hippocampal volume and memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ana; Fagan, Anne M; Goate, Alison M; Benzinger, Tammie LS; Morris, John C; Head, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been shown to be important for neuronal survival and synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus in non-human animals. The Val66Met polymorphism in the BDNF gene, involving a valine (Val) to methionine (Met) substitution at codon 66, has been associated with lower BDNF secretion in vitro. However, there have been mixed results regarding associations between either circulating BDNF or the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism with hippocampal volume and memory in humans. The current study examined the association of BDNF genotype and plasma BDNF with hippocampal volume and memory in two large independent cohorts of middle-aged and older adults (both cognitively normal and early-stage dementia). Sample sizes ranged from 123 to 649. Measures of the BDNF genotype, plasma BDNF, MRI-based hippocampal volume and memory performance were obtained from the Knight Alzheimer Disease Research Center (ADRC) and the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). There were no significant differences between BDNF Met+ and Met- groups on either hippocampal volume or memory in either cohort. In addition, plasma BDNF was not significantly associated with either hippocampal volume or memory in either cohort. Neither age, cognitive status nor gender moderated any of the relationships. Overall, current findings suggest that BDNF genotype and plasma BDNF may not be robust predictors for variance in hippocampal volume and memory in middle age and older adult cohorts. PMID:25784293

  16. Improved the accuracy of 99mTc-MAG3 plasma clearance method. The problem of the calculated plasma volume and its modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Nami; Komatani, Akio; Yamaguchi, Koichi; Takahashi, Kazuei

    1998-01-01

    The 99m Tc-MAG 3 plasma clearance method (MPC method), reported by Oriuchi et al., is a simple and useful count-based gamma camera method for calculating the 99m Tc-MAG 3 plasma clearance (CL MAG ). However, a discrepancy of CL MAG calculated by MPC method (MPC-CL MAG ) from the tubular extraction rate (TER) calculated by Russell's single-sample clearance determination (Russell-TER) was noted. The calculated plasma volume is assumed to be the cause. Since the plasma volume is reported to have a linear correlation with body surface area, Dissmann's formula was applied to calculate the plasma volume. Then Dissmann's formula was replaced by Ogawa's formula in the MPC method, and the procedure was then called the modified MPC method. The CL MAG were obtained using MPC method, modified MPC method and the TER was obtained Russell's method in 95 patients with urological disorders. Then the MPC-CL MAG and modified MPC-CL MAG were compared with Russell-TER. Comparison of the MPC-CL MAG with the Russell-TER demonstrated a coefficient of correlation of 0.82, but dissociation of the slope of regression lines was found between males and females. The modified MPC-CL MAG improved the coefficient of correlation to 0.92, and diminished the dissociation of the slope of regression lines between males and females. We verified that the dissociation was due to the plasma volume calculated by Ogawa's formula. Ogawa's formula included hematocrit, body weight, body height and different coefficients for gender. The plasma volume calculated by Ogawa's formula were lower in males and higher in females than that calculated by Dissmann's formula. And marked discrepancy in the plasma volume in patients with a body surface area below 0.5 m 2 was observed. So the MPC method might become more accurate by substituting Dissmann's formula for Ogawa's formula resoluting in a method that is applicable to both males and females, children and adults in clinical use. (author)

  17. Abstracts of 13th International Congress on Plasma Physics (ICPP 2006). Published in 2 volumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2006-01-01

    This report contains the presentation on the 13-th International Congress on Plasma Physics (ICPP 2006). Five main topics are covered: fundamental problems of plasma physics; fusion plasmas; plasmas in astrophysics and space physics; plasmas in applications and technologies; complex plasmas

  18. Abstracts of 13th International Congress on Plasma Physics (ICPP 2006). Published in 2 volumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon,

    2006-07-01

    This report contains the presentation on the 13-th International Congress on Plasma Physics (ICPP 2006). Five main topics are covered: fundamental problems of plasma physics; fusion plasmas; plasmas in astrophysics and space physics; plasmas in applications and technologies; complex plasmas.

  19. Large volume serial section tomography by Xe Plasma FIB dual beam microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnett, T.L. [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); FEI Company, Achtseweg Noord 5, Bldg, 5651 GG, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Kelley, R. [FEI Company, 5350 NE Dawson Creek Drive, Hillsboro, OR 97124 (United States); Winiarski, B. [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); FEI Company, Achtseweg Noord 5, Bldg, 5651 GG, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Contreras, L. [FEI Company, 5350 NE Dawson Creek Drive, Hillsboro, OR 97124 (United States); Daly, M.; Gholinia, A.; Burke, M.G. [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Withers, P.J., E-mail: P.J.Withers@manchester.ac.uk [School of Materials, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); BP International Centre for Advanced Materials, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2016-02-15

    Ga{sup +} Focused Ion Beam-Scanning Electron Microscopes (FIB-SEM) have revolutionised the level of microstructural information that can be recovered in 3D by block face serial section tomography (SST), as well as enabling the site-specific removal of smaller regions for subsequent transmission electron microscope (TEM) examination. However, Ga{sup +} FIB material removal rates limit the volumes and depths that can be probed to dimensions in the tens of microns range. Emerging Xe{sup +} Plasma Focused Ion Beam-Scanning Electron Microscope (PFIB-SEM) systems promise faster removal rates. Here we examine the potential of the method for large volume serial section tomography as applied to bainitic steel and WC–Co hard metals. Our studies demonstrate that with careful control of milling parameters precise automated serial sectioning can be achieved with low levels of milling artefacts at removal rates some 60× faster. Volumes that are hundreds of microns in dimension have been collected using fully automated SST routines in feasible timescales (<24 h) showing good grain orientation contrast and capturing microstructural features at the tens of nanometres to the tens of microns scale. Accompanying electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD) maps show high indexing rates suggesting low levels of surface damage. Further, under high current Ga{sup +} FIB milling WC–Co is prone to amorphisation of WC surface layers and phase transformation of the Co phase, neither of which have been observed at PFIB currents as high as 60 nA at 30 kV. Xe{sup +} PFIB dual beam microscopes promise to radically extend our capability for 3D tomography, 3D EDX, 3D EBSD as well as correlative tomography. - Highlights: • The uptake of dual beam FIBs has been rapid but long milling times have limited imaged volumes to tens of micron dimensions. • Emerging plasma Xe{sup +} PFIB-SEM technology offers materials removal rates at least 60× greater than conventional Ga{sup +} FIB systems with

  20. Large volume serial section tomography by Xe Plasma FIB dual beam microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnett, T.L.; Kelley, R.; Winiarski, B.; Contreras, L.; Daly, M.; Gholinia, A.; Burke, M.G.; Withers, P.J.

    2016-01-01

    Ga + Focused Ion Beam-Scanning Electron Microscopes (FIB-SEM) have revolutionised the level of microstructural information that can be recovered in 3D by block face serial section tomography (SST), as well as enabling the site-specific removal of smaller regions for subsequent transmission electron microscope (TEM) examination. However, Ga + FIB material removal rates limit the volumes and depths that can be probed to dimensions in the tens of microns range. Emerging Xe + Plasma Focused Ion Beam-Scanning Electron Microscope (PFIB-SEM) systems promise faster removal rates. Here we examine the potential of the method for large volume serial section tomography as applied to bainitic steel and WC–Co hard metals. Our studies demonstrate that with careful control of milling parameters precise automated serial sectioning can be achieved with low levels of milling artefacts at removal rates some 60× faster. Volumes that are hundreds of microns in dimension have been collected using fully automated SST routines in feasible timescales (<24 h) showing good grain orientation contrast and capturing microstructural features at the tens of nanometres to the tens of microns scale. Accompanying electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD) maps show high indexing rates suggesting low levels of surface damage. Further, under high current Ga + FIB milling WC–Co is prone to amorphisation of WC surface layers and phase transformation of the Co phase, neither of which have been observed at PFIB currents as high as 60 nA at 30 kV. Xe + PFIB dual beam microscopes promise to radically extend our capability for 3D tomography, 3D EDX, 3D EBSD as well as correlative tomography. - Highlights: • The uptake of dual beam FIBs has been rapid but long milling times have limited imaged volumes to tens of micron dimensions. • Emerging plasma Xe + PFIB-SEM technology offers materials removal rates at least 60× greater than conventional Ga + FIB systems with comparable or less damage. • The

  1. Particle melting and particle/plasma interactions in DC and RF plasmas: a modeling study. (Volumes I and II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, D.Y.C.

    1987-01-01

    Integral process models were developed to predict particle melting in both DC and RF plasmas. Specifically, a numerical model has been developed to predict the temperature history of particles injected in a low pressure DC plasma jet. The temperature and velocity fields of the plasma jet are predicted as a free jet by solving the parabolized Navier-Stokes equations using a spatial marching scheme. Correction factors were introduced to take into account non continuum effects encountered in the low pressure environment. The plasma jet profiles as well as the particle/plasma interactions under different jet pressure ratios (from underexpanded to overexpanded) were investigated. The flow and temperature fields in the RF plasma torch are calculated using the axisymmetric Navier-Stokes equations based on the primitive variables, along with pseudo two-dimensional electromagnetic field equations. Particle trajectories and heat transfer characteristics in both DC and RF plasmas are calculated using predicted plasma jet profiles. Particle melting efficiencies in both DC and RF plasmas are evaluated and compared using model alloy systems. Based on the theoretical considerations, an alternative route of plasma spraying process (hybrid plasma spraying process) is proposed. An evaluation of particle melting in hybrid plasma jets had indicated that further improvement in deposit properties could be made

  2. Recovery of plasma volume after 1 week of exposure at 4,350 m

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robach, Paul; Lafforgue, Eric; Olsen, Niels Vidiendal

    2002-01-01

    Plasma volume (PV) decreases at high altitude, but is rapidly restored upon return to sea-level (RSL). The aim of this study was (1) to describe PV recovery upon RSL with concomitant changes in major fluid regulating hormones, and (2) to test the hypothesis that PV recovery is promoted...... natriuretic factor (ANF) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) were measured at rest and during exercise. The subjects were divided into two groups 1 h before RSL, one group receiving PV expansion (475+/-219 ml) to ensure normovolemia (PVX, n=6), the others serving as controls (Control, n=4). PV decreased by 13...... groups, whereas water output dropped in RSL. PVX increased urine flow rate in RSL1 compared with subjects not given PVX. The present results suggest that PV recovery during early RSL is mainly due to a decreased diuresis, promoted at least in part by changes in fluid regulating hormones. However, neither...

  3. Pulmonary Edema and Plasma Volume Changes in Dysbarism. M.S. Thesis - Texas Univ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joki, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    Two groups of anesthetized, fasted pigs were utilized. One group of 13 animals (8.5 to 16.6 kilograms) was exposed to a high-pressure environment, and the other group of eight animals (6.9 to 20.0 kilograms) constituted the control group. The experimental group was subjected to an atmosphere of 90 percent nitrogen and 10 percent oxygen at a pressure of 50 psig for 30 minutes and then decompressed at a rate 10 psi/min. Plasma volumes, using both iodine-125-tagged-albumin and chromium-51-tagged-cell dilution techniques, were measured before, immediately after, and at 30 and 60 minutes after decompression. Aortic and right-ventricular systolic pressures were also recorded. At 60 minutes after decompression, blood samples were taken, the animals were sacrificed, and the water content of the lungs, kidneys, livers, and spleens was estimated by measuring tissue wet weight and dry weight. Protein extravasation and tissue blood volumes were determined by measuring the iodine-125-tagged-albumin and chromium-51-tagged-cell spaces in homo-genates of the organs under investigation.

  4. Gastric emptying of hexose sugars: role of osmolality, molecular structure and the CCK₁ receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, T J; Gopinath, A; Patel, E; McGlone, A; Lassman, D J; D'Amato, M; McLaughlin, J T; Thompson, D G

    2010-11-01

    It is widely reported that hexose sugars slow gastric emptying (GE) via osmoreceptor stimulation but this remains uncertain. We evaluated the effects of a panel of hexoses of differing molecular structure, assessing the effects of osmolality, intra-individual reproducibility and the role of the CCK(1) receptor, in the regulation of GE by hexoses. Thirty one healthy non-obese male and female subjects were studied in a series of protocols, using a (13) C-acetate breath test to evaluate GE of varying concentrations of glucose, galactose, fructose and tagatose, with water, NaCl and lactulose as controls. GE was further evaluated following the administration of a CCK(1) receptor antagonist. Three subjects underwent repeated studies to evaluate intra-individual reproducibility. At 250 mOsmol, a hexose-specific effect was apparent: tagatose slowed GE more potently than water, glucose and fructose (P effects of hexose sugars on GE appear related to their molecular structure rather than osmolality per se, and are, at least in part, CCK(1) receptor-dependent. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Effect of storage in media with different ion strengths and osmolalities on human periodontal ligament cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomloef, L.; Otteskog, P.; Hammarstroem, L.

    1981-01-01

    The viability of the periodontal ligament (PDL) cells is critical for a successful healing of replanted exarticulated teeth. It is mainly dependent on the duration of the extra-alveolar time and the storage medium. Saliva has usually been recommended as the most suitable storage medium, but recent experimental studies indicate that milk is preferable. In the present study the effect on cultured PDL cells of saliva and milk has been compared with some reference media such as tap water or saline by means of a 3 H-uridine leakage test. Storage in milk or saline was found to cause much less 3 H-uridine leakage than storage in saliva or tap water. Cells stored in milk for 60-180 min showed about the same leakage as cells stored in saline or Hanks' balanced salt solution. Osmolality measurements showed that saliva was hypotonic, while the osmolality of milk ranged within physiological limits. When the osmolality of saliva was increased by addition of NaCl the leakage of the stored cells decreased to the level of cells stored in 0.9% NaCl or milk. (author)

  6. Large volume serial section tomography by Xe Plasma FIB dual beam microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, T L; Kelley, R; Winiarski, B; Contreras, L; Daly, M; Gholinia, A; Burke, M G; Withers, P J

    2016-02-01

    Ga(+) Focused Ion Beam-Scanning Electron Microscopes (FIB-SEM) have revolutionised the level of microstructural information that can be recovered in 3D by block face serial section tomography (SST), as well as enabling the site-specific removal of smaller regions for subsequent transmission electron microscope (TEM) examination. However, Ga(+) FIB material removal rates limit the volumes and depths that can be probed to dimensions in the tens of microns range. Emerging Xe(+) Plasma Focused Ion Beam-Scanning Electron Microscope (PFIB-SEM) systems promise faster removal rates. Here we examine the potential of the method for large volume serial section tomography as applied to bainitic steel and WC-Co hard metals. Our studies demonstrate that with careful control of milling parameters precise automated serial sectioning can be achieved with low levels of milling artefacts at removal rates some 60× faster. Volumes that are hundreds of microns in dimension have been collected using fully automated SST routines in feasible timescales (<24h) showing good grain orientation contrast and capturing microstructural features at the tens of nanometres to the tens of microns scale. Accompanying electron back scattered diffraction (EBSD) maps show high indexing rates suggesting low levels of surface damage. Further, under high current Ga(+) FIB milling WC-Co is prone to amorphisation of WC surface layers and phase transformation of the Co phase, neither of which have been observed at PFIB currents as high as 60nA at 30kV. Xe(+) PFIB dual beam microscopes promise to radically extend our capability for 3D tomography, 3D EDX, 3D EBSD as well as correlative tomography. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. State of art data acquisition system for large volume plasma device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugandhi, Ritesh; Srivastava, Pankaj; Sanyasi, Amulya Kumar; Srivastav, Prabhakar; Awasthi, Lalit Mohan; Mattoo, Shiban Krishna; Parmar, Vijay; Makadia, Keyur; Patel, Ishan; Shah, Sandeep

    2015-01-01

    The Large volume plasma device (LVPD) is a cylindrical device (ϕ = 2m, L = 3m) dedicated for carrying out investigations on plasma physics problems ranging from excitation of whistler structures to plasma turbulence especially, exploring the linear and nonlinear aspects of electron temperature gradient(ETG) driven turbulence, plasma transport over the entire cross section of LVPD. The machine operates in a pulsed mode with repetition cycle of 1 Hz and acquisition pulse length of duration of 15 ms, presently, LVPD has VXI data acquisition system but this is now in phasing out mode because of non-functioning of its various amplifier stages, expandability and unavailability of service support. The VXI system has limited capabilities to meet new experimental requirements in terms of numbers of channel (16), bit resolutions (8 bit), record length (30K points) and calibration support. Recently, integration of new acquisition system for simultaneous sampling of 40 channels of data, collected over multiple time scales with high speed is successfully demonstrated, by configuring latest available hardware and in-house developed software solutions. The operational feasibility provided by LabVIEW platform is not only for operating DAQ system but also for providing controls to various subsystems associated with the device. The new system is based on PXI express instrumentation bus and supersedes the existing VXI based data acquisition system in terms of instrumentation capabilities. This system has capability to measure 32 signals at 60 MHz sampling frequency and 8 signals with 1.25 GHz with 10 bit and 12 bit resolution capability for amplitude measurements. The PXI based system successfully addresses and demonstrate the issues concerning high channel count, high speed data streaming and multiple I/O modules synchronization. The system consists of chassis (NI 1085), 4 high sampling digitizers (NI 5105), 2 very high sampling digitizers (NI 5162), data streaming RAID drive (NI

  8. Potential formation in a collisionless plasma produced in an open magnetic field in presence of volume negative ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phukan, Ananya; Goswami, K. S.; Bhuyan, P. J.

    2014-01-01

    The electric potential near a wall for a multi-species plasma with volume produced negative ions in presence of axially varying magnetic field is studied following an analytical-numerical approach. A constant negative ion source is assumed throughout the plasma volume, along with finite temperature positive ions and Boltzmann electrons. The particles are assumed to be guided by an open magnetic field that has its maximum at the centre, and field strength decreasing towards the walls. The one dimensional (1D) Poisson equation is derived using an analytical approach, and then solved numerically to study the potential profiles. Effect of (a) negative ion production rate, (b) magnetic field profile, and (c) negative ion temperature on the potential profile has been investigated. A potential peak appears near the wall when the negative ion temperature and density are sufficiently high. Also, the presence of negative ions further decreases the potential in the plasma region for a finite Debye Length (λ D )

  9. Plasma properties in a large-volume, cylindrical and asymmetric radio-frequency capacitively coupled industrial-prototype reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazović, Saša; Puač, Nevena; Spasić, Kosta; Malović, Gordana; Petrović, Zoran Lj; Cvelbar, Uroš; Mozetič, Miran; Radetić, Maja

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a large-volume low-pressure cylindrical plasma reactor with a size that matches industrial reactors for treatment of textiles. It was shown that it efficiently produces plasmas with only a small increase in power as compared with a similar reactor with 50 times smaller volume. Plasma generated at 13.56 MHz was stable from transition to streamers and capable of long-term continuous operation. An industrial-scale asymmetric cylindrical reactor of simple design and construction enabled good control over a wide range of active plasma species and ion concentrations. Detailed characterization of the discharge was performed using derivative, Langmuir and catalytic probes which enabled determination of the optimal sets of plasma parameters necessary for successful industry implementation and process control. Since neutral atomic oxygen plays a major role in many of the material processing applications, its spatial profile was measured using nickel catalytic probe over a wide range of plasma parameters. The spatial profiles show diffusion profiles with particle production close to the powered electrode and significant wall losses due to surface recombination. Oxygen atom densities range from 10 19 m −3 near the powered electrode to 10 17 m −3 near the wall. The concentrations of ions at the same time are changing from 10 16 to the 10 15 m −3 at the grounded chamber wall. (paper)

  10. High-volume plasma exchange in patients with acute liver failure: An open randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Fin Stolze; Schmidt, Lars Ebbe; Bernsmeier, Christine; Rasmussen, Allan; Isoniemi, Helena; Patel, Vishal C; Triantafyllou, Evangelos; Bernal, William; Auzinger, Georg; Shawcross, Debbie; Eefsen, Martin; Bjerring, Peter Nissen; Clemmesen, Jens Otto; Hockerstedt, Krister; Frederiksen, Hans-Jørgen; Hansen, Bent Adel; Antoniades, Charalambos G; Wendon, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Acute liver failure (ALF) often results in cardiovascular instability, renal failure, brain oedema and death either due to irreversible shock, cerebral herniation or development of multiple organ failure. High-volume plasma exchange (HVP), defined as exchange of 8-12 or 15% of ideal body weight with fresh frozen plasma in case series improves systemic, cerebral and splanchnic parameters. In this prospective, randomised, controlled, multicentre trial we randomly assigned 182 patients with ALF to receive either standard medical therapy (SMT; 90 patients) or SMT plus HVP for three days (92 patients). The baseline characteristics of the groups were similar. The primary endpoint was liver transplantation-free survival during hospital stay. Secondary-endpoints included survival after liver transplantation with or without HVP with intention-to-treat analysis. A proof-of-principle study evaluating the effect of HVP on the immune cell function was also undertaken. For the entire patient population, overall hospital survival was 58.7% for patients treated with HVP vs. 47.8% for the control group (hazard ratio (HR), with stratification for liver transplantation: 0.56; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.36-0.86; p=0.0083). HVP prior to transplantation did not improve survival compared with patients who received SMT alone (CI 0.37 to 3.98; p=0.75). The incidence of severe adverse events was similar in the two groups. Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) scores fell in the treated group compared to control group, over the study period (pHVP improves outcome in patients with ALF by increasing liver transplant-free survival. This is attributable to attenuation of innate immune activation and amelioration of multi-organ dysfunction. Copyright © 2015 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Altitude Acclimatization and Blood Volume: Effects of Exogenous Erythrocyte Volume Expansion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sawka, M

    1996-01-01

    ...: (a) altitude acclimatization effects on erythrocyte volume and plasma volume; (b) if exogenous erythrocyte volume expansion alters subsequent erythrocyte volume and plasma volume adaptations; (c...

  12. Osmolality - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... water loss Poisoning from harmful substances such as ethanol , methanol , or ethylene glycol Problems producing urine In ... may be due to: Diabetes insipidus High blood sugar level ( hyperglycemia ) High level of nitrogen waste products ...

  13. Osmolality Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Marker Bicarbonate (Total CO2) Bilirubin Blood Culture Blood Gases Blood Ketones Blood Smear Blood Typing Blood Urea ... have an osmotically active substance, such as a commercial laxative, that is inhibiting the reabsorption of water ...

  14. The component content of active particles in a plasma-chemical reactor based on volume barrier discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloshenko, I. A.; Tsiolko, V. V.; Pogulay, S. S.; Terent'yeva, A. G.; Bazhenov, V. Yu; Shchedrin, A. I.; Ryabtsev, A. V.; Kuzmichev, A. I.

    2007-02-01

    In this paper the results of theoretical and experimental studies of the component content of active particles formed in a plasma-chemical reactor composed of a multiple-cell generator of active particles, based on volume barrier discharge, and a working chamber are presented. For calculation of the content of uncharged plasma components an approach is proposed which is based on averaging of the power introduced over the entire volume. Advantages of such an approach lie in an absence of fitting parameters, such as the dimensions of microdischarges, their surface density and rate of breakdown. The calculation and the experiment were accomplished with the use of dry air (20% relative humidity) as the plasma generating medium. Concentrations of O3, HNO3, HNO2, N2 O5 and NO3 were measured experimentally in the discharge volume and working chamber for the residence time of particles on a discharge of 0.3 s and more and discharge specific power of 1.5 W cm-3. It has been determined that the best agreement between the calculation and the experiment occurs at calculated gas medium temperatures in the discharge plasma of about 400-425 K, which correspond to the experimentally measured rotational temperature of nitrogen. In most cases the calculated concentrations of O3, HNO3, HNO2, N2O5 and NO3 for the barrier discharge and the working chamber are in fairly good agreement with the respective measured values.

  15. Impact of Plasma Epstein-Barr Virus-DNA and Tumor Volume on Prognosis of Locally Advanced Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This retrospective study aims to examine the association of plasma Epstein-Barr virus- (EBV- DNA levels with the tumor volume and prognosis in patients with locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC. A total of 165 patients with newly diagnosed locally advanced NPC were identified from September 2011 to July 2012. EBV-DNA was detected using fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR amplification. The tumor volume was calculated by the systematic summation method of computer software. The median copy number of plasma EBV-DNA before treatment was 3790 copies/mL. The median gross tumor volume of the primary nasopharyngeal tumor (GTVnx, the lymph node lesions (GTVnd, and the total GTV before treatment were 72.46, 23.26, and 106.25 cm3, respectively; the EBV-DNA levels were significantly correlated with the GTVnd and the total GTV (P<0.01. The 2-year overall survival (OS rates in patients with positive and negative pretreatment plasma EBV-DNA were 100% and 98.4% (P=1.000, and the disease-free survival (DFS rates were 94.4% and 80.8% (P=0.044, respectively. These results indicate that high pretreatment plasma EBV-DNA levels in patients with locally advanced NPC are associated with the degree of lymph node metastasis, tumor burden, and poor prognosis.

  16. The component content of active particles in a plasma-chemical reactor based on volume barrier discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soloshenko, I A; Tsiolko, V V; Pogulay, S S; Terent'yeva, A G; Bazhenov, V Yu; Shchedrin, A I; Ryabtsev, A V; Kuzmichev, A I

    2007-01-01

    In this paper the results of theoretical and experimental studies of the component content of active particles formed in a plasma-chemical reactor composed of a multiple-cell generator of active particles, based on volume barrier discharge, and a working chamber are presented. For calculation of the content of uncharged plasma components an approach is proposed which is based on averaging of the power introduced over the entire volume. Advantages of such an approach lie in an absence of fitting parameters, such as the dimensions of microdischarges, their surface density and rate of breakdown. The calculation and the experiment were accomplished with the use of dry air (20% relative humidity) as the plasma generating medium. Concentrations of O 3 , HNO 3 , HNO 2 , N 2 O 5 and NO 3 were measured experimentally in the discharge volume and working chamber for the residence time of particles on a discharge of 0.3 s and more and discharge specific power of 1.5 W cm -3 . It has been determined that the best agreement between the calculation and the experiment occurs at calculated gas medium temperatures in the discharge plasma of about 400-425 K, which correspond to the experimentally measured rotational temperature of nitrogen. In most cases the calculated concentrations of O 3 , HNO 3 , HNO 2 , N 2 O 5 and NO 3 for the barrier discharge and the working chamber are in fairly good agreement with the respective measured values

  17. Impact of diuretic treatment and sodium intake on plasma volume in patients with compensated systolic heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonfils, Peter K; Damgaard, Morten; Taskiran, Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    AIMS: In patients with heart failure (HF), the use of diuretics may be a double-edged sword that can alleviate symptoms of congestion, but also result in over-diuresis and intravascular volume depletion. The purpose of the present study was to examine plasma volume (PV) in HF patients receiving...... difference in PV between patients with HF and control subjects (37.3 +/- 6.0 and 40.2 +/- 5.8 mL/kg, respectively, P = 0.092) with a significant tendency towards a contraction of PV with increasing use of diuretics (P = 0.031). There was no difference in extracellular volume between patients with HF...... and control subjects (P = 0.844). NT-proBNP plasma concentrations had no correlation to either sodium excretion (P = 0.193) or PV (P = 0.471) in patients with HF. CONCLUSION: Plasma volume in patients with HF was within normal limits, but patients treated with high doses of loop-diuretics tended to have...

  18. Effect of ionic and non-ionic contrast media on whole blood viscosity, plasma viscosity and hematocrit in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspelin, P.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of the ionic contrast media diatrizoate, iocarmate and metrizoate and the non-ionic metrizamide on whole blood viscosity, plasma viscosity and hematocrit was investigated. All the contrast media increased whole blood and plasma viscosity and reduced the hematocrit. The whole blood viscosity increased with increasing osmolality of the contrast medium solutions, whereas the plasma viscosity increased with increasing viscosity of the contrast medium solutions. The higher the osmolality of the contrast media, the lower the hematocrit became. The normal shear-thinning (decreasing viscosity with increasing shear rate) property of blood was reduced when contrast medium was added to the blood. At 50 per cent volume ratio (contrast medium to blood), the ionic contrast media converted the blood into a shear-thickening (increasing viscosity with increasing shear rate) suspension, indicating a marked rigidification of the single red cell, while the non-ionic contrast medium still produced shear-thinning, indicating less rigidification of the red cell (p<0.01). (Auth.)

  19. [Extracellular fluid, plasma and interstitial volume in cirrhotic patients without clinical edema or ascites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguera Viñas, E C; Hames, W; Mothe, G; Barrionuevo, M P

    1989-01-01

    Extracellular fluid volume (E.C.F.) and plasma volume (P.V.), were measured with sodium sulfate labeled with 35I and 131I human serum albumin, respectively, by the dilution technique in control subjects and in cirrhotic patients without clinical ascites or edema, renal or hepatic failure, gastrointestinal bleeding or diuretics. Results are expressed as mean +/- DS in both ml/m2 and ml/kg. In normal subjects E.C.F. (n = 8) was 7,533 +/- 817 ml/m2 (201.3 +/- 182 ml/kg), P.V. (n = 11) 1,767 +/- 337 ml/m2 (47.2 +/- 9.3 ml/kg), and interstitial fluid (I.S.F.) (n = 7) 5,758 +/- 851 ml/m2 (Table 2). In cirrhotic patients E.C.F. (n = 11) was 10,318 +/- 2,980 ml/m2 (261.7 +/- 76.8 ml/kg), P.V. (n = 12) 2,649 +/- 558 ml/m2 (67.7 +/- 15.6 ml/kg) and I.S.F. (n = 11) 7,866 +/- 2,987 ml/m2 (Table 3). Cirrhotic patients compared with normal subjects have hypervolemia due to a significant E.C.F. and P.V. expansion (p less than 0.02 and less than 0.001 respectively) (Fig. 1). Reasons for E.C.F. and P.V. abnormalities in cirrhotic patients may reflect urinary sodium retention related to portal hipertension which stimulates aldosterone release or enhanced renal tubular sensitivity to the hormone. However, it is also possible that these patients, in the presence of hypoalbuminemia (Table 1), have no clinical edema or ascites due to increased glomerular filtration, suppressed release of vasopressin, increased natriuretic factor, and urinary prostaglandin excretion, in response to the intravascular expansion, all of which increased solute and water delivery to the distal nephron and improved renal water excretion. We conclude that in our clinical experience cirrhotic patients without ascites or edema have hypervolemia because of a disturbance in E.C.F.

  20. Hemodynamic and ADH responses to central blood volume shifts in cardiac-denervated humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convertino, V. A.; Thompson, C. A.; Benjamin, B. A.; Keil, L. C.; Savin, W. M.; Gordon, E. P.; Haskell, W. L.; Schroeder, J. S.; Sandler, H.

    1990-01-01

    Hemodynamic responses and antidiuretic hormone (ADH) were measured during body position changes designed to induce blood volume shifts in ten cardiac transplant recipients to assess the contribution of cardiac and vascular volume receptors in the control of ADH secretion. Each subject underwent 15 min of a control period in the seated posture, then assumed a lying posture for 30 min at 6 deg head down tilt (HDT) followed by 20 min of seated recovery. Venous blood samples and cardiac dimensions (echocardiography) were taken at 0 and 15 min before HDT, 5, 15, and 30 min of HDT, and 5, 15, and 30 min of seated recovery. Blood samples were analyzed for hematocrit, plasma osmolality, plasma renin activity (PRA), and ADH. Resting plasma volume (PV) was measured by Evans blue dye and percent changes in PV during posture changes were calculated from changes in hematocrit. Heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) were recorded every 2 min. Results indicate that cardiac volume receptors are not the only mechanism for the control of ADH release during acute blood volume shifts in man.

  1. Characterization of the island divertor plasma of W7-AS stellarator in the deeply detached state with volume recombination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramasubramanian, N.; Koenig, R.; Feng, Y.; Giannone, L.; Grigull, P.; Klinger, T.; McCormick, K.; Thomsen, H.; Wenzel, U.

    2004-01-01

    In the high-density H-mode of the Stellarator Wendelstein 7-AS, the plasma detaches from the island divertor targets when the line-averaged density exceeds a critical value. This quasi-stationary detachment is found to be partial and shows edge-localized, poloidally asymmetric radiation. The spectroscopic characteristics of the deeply detached plasma are reported, including evidence for volume recombination. The detached plasma radiates up to 90% of the absorbed power with larger contributions from the locations close to magnetic X-points outside the divertor region. The spectral analysis of the Balmer series indicate very high densities and low temperatures at the detached regions. The results of the spectral analysis underline the importance of three-dimensional modelling. An initial comparison is made with the latest results from EMC3-EIRENE modelling. (author)

  2. Plasma volume shifts with immersion at rest and two exercise intensities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertl, A C; Bernauer, E M; Hom, C A

    1991-04-01

    Eight men were studied to determine the effect of cycling exercise on plasma volume (PV) during water immersion to the xiphoid process (WIX). In all protocols the subjects were seated upright. After 30 min of rest, subjects were immersed in 34.5 degrees C water and seated on a cycling ergometer. During three 1 h WIX protocols, subjects either remained at rest (No Ex) or pedaled from minutes 20 to 30 at 38% (Ex1) or 62% (Ex2) of peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak). Hematocrit (Hct) and hemoglobin concentration [( Hb]) from venous blood samples were compared pre-WIX and at minutes 20, 30, 40, and 60. Percent change in PV (delta PV) was calculated from pre-WIX Hct and [Hb] within each protocol. Hct and [Hb] decreased after 20 min of resting WIX (P less than 0.017). In the No Ex protocol, there were no further significant changes in these variables, with delta PV values of +10.4% at minute 20 and at a peak of +13.5% at minute 40. In Ex1 and Ex2, cycling increased Hct and [Hb] (P less than 0.01, minute 30 vs No Ex), with delta PV values at minute 30 of +3.7% and -0.9%, respectively, vs +12.8% in No Ex. Minute 60 values between protocols were not significantly different (mean delta PV of +10.8 +/- 0.6% SD). The hemodilution associated with WIX was either partially or completely attenuated by cycling exercise; the degree of hemoconcentration was related to exercise intensity. The exercise-induced hemoconcentration was reversed by 30 min of resting WIX. Exercise during WIX appears to cause similar decreases in PV, as does exercise in air provided that postural hemoconcentration prior to exercise is not already maximal.

  3. Resistance exercise-induced fluid shifts: change in active muscle size and plasma volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.; Convertino, V. A.; Dudley, G. A.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that the reduction in plasma volume (PV) induced by resistance exercise reflects fluid loss to the extravascular space and subsequently selective increase in cross-sectional area (CSA) of active but not inactive skeletal muscle. We compared changes in active and inactive muscle CSA and PV after barbell squat exercise. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to quantify muscle involvement in exercise and to determine CSA of muscle groups or individual muscles [vasti (VS), adductor (Add), hamstring (Ham), and rectus femoris (RF)]. Muscle involvement in exercise was determined using exercise-induced contrast shift in spin-spin relaxation time (T2)-weighted MR images immediately postexercise. Alterations in muscle size were based on the mean CSA of individual slices. Hematocrit, hemoglobin, and Evans blue dye were used to estimate changes in PV. Muscle CSA and PV data were obtained preexercise and immediately postexercise and 15 and 45 min thereafter. A hierarchy of muscle involvement in exercise was found such that VS > Add > Ham > RF, with the Ham and RF showing essentially no involvement. CSA of the VS and Add muscle groups were increased 10 and 5%, respectively, immediately after exercise in each thigh with no changes in Ham and RF CSA. PV was decreased 22% immediately following exercise. The absolute loss of PV was correlated (r2 = 0.75) with absolute increase in muscle CSA immediately postexercise, supporting the notion that increased muscle size after resistance exercise reflects primarily fluid movement from the vascular space into active but not inactive muscle.

  4. Contrast Media Viscosity versus Osmolality in Kidney Injury: Lessons from Animal Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeliger, Erdmann; Lenhard, Diana C.; Persson, Pontus B.

    2014-01-01

    Iodinated contrast media (CM) can induce acute kidney injury (AKI). CM share common iodine-related cytotoxic features but differ considerably with regard to osmolality and viscosity. Meta-analyses of clinical trials generally failed to reveal renal safety differences of modern CM with regard to these physicochemical properties. While most trials' reliance on serum creatinine as outcome measure contributes to this lack of clinical evidence, it largely relies on the nature of prospective clinical trials: effective prophylaxis by ample hydration must be employed. In everyday life, patients are often not well hydrated; here we lack clinical data. However, preclinical studies that directly measured glomerular filtration rate, intrarenal perfusion and oxygenation, and various markers of AKI have shown that the viscosity of CM is of vast importance. In the renal tubules, CM become enriched, as water is reabsorbed, but CM are not. In consequence, tubular fluid viscosity increases exponentially. This hinders glomerular filtration and tubular flow and, thereby, prolongs intrarenal retention of cytotoxic CM. Renal cells become injured, which triggers hypoperfusion and hypoxia, finally leading to AKI. Comparisons between modern CM reveal that moderately elevated osmolality has a renoprotective effect, in particular, in the dehydrated state, because it prevents excessive tubular fluid viscosity. PMID:24707482

  5. Poloidal asymmetries in the limiter shadow plasma of the Alcator C tokamak. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaBombard, B.

    1986-05-01

    This thesis investigates conditions which exist in the limiter shadow plasma of the Alcator C tokamak. The understanding of this edge plasma region is approached from both experimental and theoretical points of view. First, a general overview of edge plasma physical processes is presented. Simple edge plasma models and conditions which can theoretically result in a poloidally asymmetric edge plasma are discussed. A review of data obtained from previous diagnostics in the Alcator C edge plasma is then used to motivate the development of a new edge plasma diagnostic system (DENSEPACK) to experimentally investigate poloidal asymmetries in this region. The bulk of this thesis focuses on the marked poloidal asymmetries detected by this poloidal probe array and possible mechanisms which might support such asymmetries on a magnetic flux surface. In processing the probe data, some important considerations on fitting Langmuir probe characteristics are identified. The remainder of this thesis catalogues edge versus central plasma parameter dependences. Regression analysis techniques are applied to characterize edge density for various central plasma parameters. Edge plasma conditions during lower hybrid radio frequency heating and pellet injection are also discussed

  6. Optimized conditions for primary culture of pituitary cells from the Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). The importance of osmolality, pCO₂, and pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodne, Kjetil; von Krogh, Kristine; Weltzien, Finn-Arne; Sand, Olav; Haug, Trude M

    2012-09-01

    Protocols for primary cultures of teleost cells are commonly only moderately adjusted from similar protocols for mammalian cells, the main adjustment often being of temperature. Because aquatic habitats are in general colder than mammalian body temperatures and teleosts have gills in direct contact with water, pH and buffer capacity of blood and extracellular fluid are different in fish and mammals. Plasma osmolality is generally higher in marine teleosts than in mammals. Using Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) as a model, we have optimized these physiological parameters to maintain primary pituitary cells in culture for an extended period without loosing key properties. L-15 medium with adjusted osmolality, adapted to low pCO(2) (3.8mm Hg) and temperature (12°C), and with pH 7.85, maintained the cells in a physiologically sounder state than traditional culture medium, significantly improving cell viability compared to the initial protocol. In the optimized culture medium, resting membrane potential and response to releasing hormone were stable for at least two weeks, and the proportion of cells firing action potentials during spawning season was about seven times higher than in the original culture medium. The cells were moderately more viable when the modified medium was supplemented with newborn calf serum or artificial serum substitute. Compared to serum-free L-15 medium, expression of key genes (lhb, fshb, and gnrhr2a) was better maintained in medium containing SSR, whereas NCS tended to decrease the expression level. Although serum-free medium is adequate for many applications, serum supplement may be preferable for experiments dependent on membrane integrity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The use of the osmole gap as a screening test for the presence of exogenous substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purssell, Roy A; Lynd, Larry D; Koga, Yoshikata

    2004-01-01

    The rapid and accurate diagnosis of toxic alcohol poisoning due to methanol (methyl alcohol) [MeOH] and ethylene glycol (EG), is paramount in preventing serious adverse outcomes. The quantitative measurement of specific serum levels of these substances using gas chromatography is expensive, time consuming and generally only available at major tertiary-care facilities. Therefore, because these toxic substances are osmotically active and the measurement of serum osmolality is easily performed and more readily available, the presence of an osmole gap (OG) has been adopted as an alternative screening test. By definition, the OG is the difference between the measured serum osmolality determined using the freezing point depression (Osm(m)) and the calculated serum molarity (Mc), which is estimated from the known and readily measurable osmotically active substances in the serum, in particular sodium, urea, glucose, and potassium and ethanol (alcohol). Thus, the OG=Osm(m)-Mc, and an OG above a specific threshold (the threshold of positivity) suggests the presence of unmeasured osmotically active substances, which could be indicative of a toxic exposure. The objectives of this study were to review the principles of evaluating screening tests, the theory behind the OG as a screening test and the literature upon which the adoption of the OG as a screening test has been based. This review revealed that there have been numerous equations derived and proposed for the estimation of the Mc, with the objective of developing empirical evidence of the best equation for the determination of the OG and ultimately the utility of OG as a screening test. However, the methods and statistical analysis employed have generally been inconsistent with recommended guidelines for screening test evaluation and although many equations have been derived, they have not been appropriately validated. Specific evidence of the clinical utility of the OG requires that a threshold of positivity be

  8. A Seemingly Simple Task: Filling a Solenoid Volume in Vacuum with Dense Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anders, Andre; Kauffeldt, Marina; Roy, Prabir; Oks, Efim

    2010-01-01

    Space-charge neutralization of a pulsed, high-current ion beam is required to compress and focus the beam on a target for warm dense matter physics or heavy ion fusion experiments. We described attempts to produce dense plasma in and near the final focusing solenoid through which the ion beam travels, thereby providing an opportunity for the beam to acquire the necessary charge-compensating electrons. Among the options are plasma injection from four pulsed vacuum arc sources located outside the solenoid, and using a high current (> 4 kA) pulsed vacuum arc plasma from a ring cathode near the edge of the solenoid. The plasma distribution is characterized by photographic means and by an array of movable Langmuir probes. The plasma is produced at several cathode spots distributed azimuthally on the ring cathode. Beam neutralization and compression are accomplished, though issues of density, uniformity, and pulse-to-pulse reproducibly remain to be solved.

  9. Periodic long-range transport in a large volume dc glow discharge dusty plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, Edward Jr.; Amatucci, William E.; Compton, Christopher; Christy, Brian; Jackson, Jon David

    2003-01-01

    In an earlier paper, the authors reported on observations of a variety of particle transport phenomena observed in DUPLEX--the DUsty PLasma EXperiment at the Naval Research Laboratory [E. Thomas, Jr., W. E. Amatucci, C. Compton, and B. Christy, Phys. Plasmas 9, 3154 (2002)]. DUPLEX is a large, transparent polycarbonate cylinder that is 40 cm in radius and 80 cm in height. dc glow discharge argon plasmas are generated in DUPLEX. In this paper, the authors expand upon one particular feature of particle transport in DUPLEX, the long-range (i.e., greater than 15 cm), periodic (T∼2.5 min) transport of suspended alumina particles through the plasma. A detailed description of this particle motion through the plasma is presented. Finally, a qualitative model describing the phenomena that lead to this transport is also given

  10. Low density lipoprotein for oxidation and metabolic studies. Isolation from small volumes of plasma using a tabletop ultracentrifuge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himber, J; Bühler, E; Moll, D; Moser, U K

    1995-01-01

    A rapid method is described for the isolation of small volumes of plasma low density lipoprotein (LDL) free of plasma protein contaminants using the TL-100 Tabletop Ultracentrifuge (Beckman). The isolation of LDL was achieved by a 25 min discontinuous gradient density centrifugation between the density range of 1.006 and 1.21 g/ml, recovery of LDL by tube slicing followed by a 90 min flotation step (d = 1.12 g/ml). The purity of LDL and apolipoprotein B100 (apo B100) were monitored by agarose electrophoresis, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), radial immunodiffusion and micropreparative fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC). The ability of LDL oxidation was assessed by following absorbance at 234 nm after addition of copper ions. The functional integrity of the isolated LDL was checked by clearance kinetics after injection of [125I]-labelled LDL in estrogen-treated rats. The additional purification step led to LDL fractions free of protein contamination and left apo B100, alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene intact. The LDL prepared in this way was free of albumin, as evident from analytic tests and from its enhanced oxidative modification by copper ions. Used for analytical purposes, this method allows LDL preparations from plasma volumes up to 570 microliters. This method is also convenient for metabolic studies in small animals, especially those relating to the determination of kinetic parameters of LDL in which LDL-apo B100 has to be specifically radiolabelled.

  11. Dehydration and fluid volume kinetics before major open abdominal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, R G; Bahlmann, H; Nilsson, L

    2014-11-01

    Assessment of dehydration in the preoperative setting is of potential clinical value. The present study uses urine analysis and plasma volume kinetics, which have both been validated against induced changes in body water in volunteers, to study the incidence and severity of dehydration before open abdominal surgery begins. Thirty patients (mean age 64 years) had their urine analysed before major elective open abdominal surgery for colour, specific weight, osmolality and creatinine. The results were scored and the mean taken to represent a 'dehydration index'. Thereafter, the patients received an infusion of 5 ml/kg of Ringer's acetate intravenously for over 15 min. Blood was sampled for 70 min and the blood haemoglobin concentration used to estimate the plasma volume kinetics. Distribution of fluid occurred more slowly (P dehydrated as compared with euhydrated patients. The dehydration index indicated that the fluid deficit in these patients corresponded to 2.5% of the body weight, whereas the deficit in the others was 1%. In contrast, the 11 patients who later developed postoperative nausea and vomiting had a very short elimination half-life, only 9 min (median, P dehydration before major surgery was modest as evidenced both by urine sampling and volume kinetic analysis. © 2014 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Analytical validation and reference intervals for freezing point depression osmometer measurements of urine osmolality in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Samantha; Pastor, Josep; Tvarijonaviciute, Asta; Cerón, José Joaquín; Balestra, Graziano; Caldin, Marco

    2017-11-01

    Urine osmolality (UOsm) is considered the most accurate measure of urine concentration and is used to assess body fluid homeostasis and renal function. We performed analytical validation of freezing point depression measurement of canine UOsm, to establish reference intervals (RIs) and to determine the effect of age, sex, and reproductive status on UOsm in dogs. Clinically healthy dogs ( n = 1,991) were retrospectively selected and stratified in groups by age (young [0-12 mo], adults [13-84 mo], and seniors [>84 mo]), sex (females and males), and reproductive status (intact and neutered). RIs were calculated for each age group. Intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation were dogs, and 366-2,178 mOsm/kg in seniors. Senior dogs had a significantly lower UOsm than young and adult dogs ( p dogs ( p dogs.

  13. Hexabrix (ioxaglate), a new low osmolality contrast agent for lumbar epidural double-catheter venography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meijenhorst, G.C.H.; Bruin, J.N.T. de

    1980-01-01

    Hexabrix (ioxaglate), a new low osmolality contrast agent, has been compared with Telebrix (ioxitalamate) in a series of 50 lumbar epidural venograms. The intensity of the pain and heat sensation experienced by the patient was significantly lower following the injection of Hexabrix. For this reason Hexabrix may be considered the contrast medium of choice for epidural venography. In 15 additional cases Hexabrix was compared with Amipaque (metrizamide) in the same iodine concentration (320 mg/ml). In these patients hardly any difference in pain and heat sensation was observed after the injection of both contrast agents. Frequently only a slight feeling of warmth was noticed. A minimal sensation of pain was occasionally observed to the same degree with both contrast agents. (orig.)

  14. Osmolality and non-structural carbohydrate composition in the secondary phloem of trees across a latitudinal gradient in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eLintunen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Phloem osmolality and its components are involved in basic cell metabolism, cell growth, and in various physiological processes including the ability of living cells to withstand drought and frost. Osmolality and sugar composition responses to environmental stresses have been extensively studied for leaves, but less for the secondary phloem of plant stems and branches. Leaf osmotic concentration and the share of pinitol and raffinose among soluble sugars increase with increasing drought or cold stress, and osmotic concentration is adjusted with osmoregulation. We hypothesize that similar responses occur in the secondary phloem of branches. We collected living bark samples from branches of adult Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies, Betula pendula and Populus tremula trees across Europe, from boreal Northern Finland to Mediterranean Portugal. In all studied species, the observed variation in phloem osmolality was mainly driven by variation in phloem water content, while tissue solute content was rather constant across regions. Osmoregulation, in which osmolality is controlled by variable tissue solute content, was stronger for Betula and Populus in comparison to the evergreen conifers. Osmolality was lowest in mid-latitude region, and from there increased by 37% towards northern Europe and 38% towards southern Europe due to low phloem water content in these regions. The ratio of raffinose to all soluble sugars was negligible at mid-latitudes and increased towards north and south, reflecting its role in cold and drought tolerance. For pinitol, another sugar known for contributing to stress tolerance, no such latitudinal pattern was observed. The proportion of sucrose was remarkably low and that of hexoses (i.e. glucose and fructose high at mid-latitudes. The ratio of starch to all non-structural carbohydrates increased towards the northern latitudes in agreement with the build-up of osmotically inactive C reservoir that can be converted into soluble

  15. Study of emission of a volume nanosecond discharge plasma in xenon, krypton and argon at high pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baksht, E Kh; Lomaev, Mikhail I; Rybka, D V; Tarasenko, Viktor F

    2006-01-01

    The emission properties of a volume nanosecond discharge plasma produced in xenon, krypton and argon at high pressures in a discharge gap with a cathode having a small radius of curvature are studied. Spectra in the range 120-850 nm and amplitude-time characteristics of xenon emission at different regimes and excitation techniques are recorded and analysed. It is shown that upon excitation of the volume discharge initiated by a beam of avalanche electrons, at least 90% of the energy in the spectral range 120-850 nm is emitted by xenon dimers. For xenon at a pressure of 1.2 atm, ∼45 mJ of the spontaneous emission energy was obtained in the full solid angle in a pulse with the full width at half-maximum ∼130 ns. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  16. Plasma volume expansion does not increase maximal cardiac output or VO2 max in lowlanders acclimatized to altitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calbet, José A L; Rådegran, Göran; Boushel, Robert Christopher

    2004-01-01

    liter of 6% dextran 70 (BV = 6.32 +/- 0.34 liters). PV expansion had no effect on Qmax, maximal O2 consumption (VO2), and exercise capacity. Despite maximal systemic O2 transport being reduced 19% due to hemodilution after PV expansion, whole body VO2 was maintained by greater systemic O2 extraction (P...... VO2 during exercise regardless of PV. Pulmonary ventilation, gas exchange, and acid-base balance were essentially unaffected by PV expansion. Sea......With altitude acclimatization, blood hemoglobin concentration increases while plasma volume (PV) and maximal cardiac output (Qmax) decrease. This investigation aimed to determine whether reduction of Qmax at altitude is due to low circulating blood volume (BV). Eight Danish lowlanders (3 females, 5...

  17. LERFCM: a computer code for spatial reconstruction of volume emission from chord measurements in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro, A.P.; Pare, V.K.; Dunlap, J.L.

    1981-01-01

    Local Emissivity Reconstruction from Chord Measurements (LERFCM) is a package of computer programs used to determine the two-dimensional spatial distribution of the emission intensity of radiation in a plasma from line integral data, which represents signals from arrays of collimated detectors looking through the plasma along different chords in a plane. The method requires data from only a few detector arrays and assumes that the emission distribution in the plane of observation has a smooth angular dependence that can be represented by a few low-order harmonics. The intended application is a reconstruction of plasma shape and MHD instabilities, using data from arrays of soft x-ray detectors on Impurity Study Experiment Tokamak

  18. Plasma Interactions with Spacecraft. Volume 2, NASCAP-2K Scientific Documentation for Version 4.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-15

    surface is taken as the equipotential surface at  = ±ln2. This choice is made because the attracted species is absorbed by the sheath, so we have only...spacecraft-generated plasma environments on spacecraft systems. This document describes the physics and numeric models used in the surface charging...2 2.1 Surface Charging from Orbit Limited Currents

  19. Taking alcohol with a (large pinch of salt: Understanding the osmoles in "beer potomania" and "starvation potomania"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T H Imam

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcoholism is a major problem globally and beer drinking is on the rise. Many of the alcoholics sustain only on beer for days and do not get adequate solutes in the form of food. Similar situation can arise in cases of decreased food intake due to severe deliberate restriction or other factors like decreased appetite from cocaine. In these cases, salt free liquid intake may still be adequate. Such situations are conducive to the development of hyponatremia. Some of the solutes in diet, such as salt and protein, act as osmoles in urine. In these conditions, understanding the role played by solutes in diet and osmoles in urine is of vital importance for appropriate treatment of hyponatremia.

  20. The impact of maternal plasma volume expansion and antihypertensive treatment with intravenous dihydralazine on fetal and maternal hemodynamics during pre-eclampsia: a clinical, echo-Doppler and viscometric study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boito, S.M.; Struijk, P.C.; Pop, G.A.M.; Visser, W. de; Steegers, E.A.P.; Wladimiroff, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To establish the effects of plasma volume expansion (PVE) followed by intravenous dihydralazine (DH) administration on maternal whole blood viscosity (WBV) and hematocrit, uteroplacental and fetoplacental downstream impedance and umbilical venous (UV) volume flow in pre-eclampsia.

  1. Two different serum-free media and osmolality effect upon human 293 cell growth and adenovirus production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Tiago B; Ferreira, Ana L; Carrondo, Manuel J T; Alves, Paula M

    2005-11-01

    Adenoviruses are promising vectors for gene therapy and vaccination protocols. Consequently, the market demands for adenovirus are increasing, driving the search for new methodologies for large-scale production of concentrated vectors with warranted purity and efficacy, in a cost-effective way. Nevertheless, the production of adenovirus is currently limited by the so-called 'cell density effect', i.e. a drop in cell specific productivity concomitant with increased cell concentration at infection. Of two different serum-free culture media (CD293 and EX-Cell), evaluated for their effect on human 293 cells growth and adenovirus production at cell densities higher than 1x10(6) cells/ml, EX-Cell proved the better medium for cell growth. Although adenovirus production was equivalent in both media when the infection was performed at 1x10(6) cells/ml, at 3x10(6) cells/ml CD293 was the better. This result related to the high ammonia content in EX-Cell medium at the highest cell concentration at infection. Besides this, the large-scale production of these vectors at high cell densities often requires re-feed strategies, which increase medium osmolality. While a negative effect on cell growth was observed with increasing osmolalities, adenovirus productivity was only affected for osmolalities higher than 430 mOsm.

  2. Renal streaky artifact during contrast-enhanced abdominal and pelvic CT: Comparison of high versus low osmolality contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dae Hong; Kim, Jong Chul; Lee, Chung Keun; Shin, Kyoung Suk

    1994-01-01

    Introduction of low osmolality contrast agent(LOCA) has allowed safer, more comfortable contrast-enhanced CT examination, but there has been significant increase in image degradation when evaluating the kidneys due to streaky artifact. The authors reviewed findings of contrast- enhanced abdominal and pelvic computed tomography(CT) to know the difference of renal streaky artifact between a high osmolality contrast agent (HOCA) and LOCA. This study included two hundred contrast-enhanced CT in 200 patients, 100 performed with HOCA(meglumine ioglicate, 150 ml) and 100 performed with LOCA (iopromide,150 ml). The severity of renal streaky artifact was compared between HOCA and LOCA groups. Of the scans performed with HOCA, 40 had no artifact, 52 had grade I artifact, 6 had grade II artifact, and 2 had grade III artifact. Of the scans preformed with LOCA, 23 had no artifact, 44 had grade I artifact, 29 had grade II artifact, and 4 had grade III artifact. There was significant difference in the degree of the streaky artifact depending upon the osmolality of the contrast media used(by χ 2 -test, P=.0001). The results of this study revealed a statistically significant increased incidence of artifacts and distortions of renal image with LOCA when compared with HOCA

  3. Effect of High-Volume Injection, Platelet-Rich Plasma, and Sham Treatment in Chronic Midportion Achilles Tendinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, Anders Ploug; Hansen, Rudi; Boesen, Morten Ilum

    2017-01-01

    with eccentric training in chronic AT seems more effective in reducing pain, improving activity level, and reducing tendon thickness and intratendinous vascularity than eccentric training alone. HVI may be more effective in improving outcomes of chronic AT than PRP in the short term. Registration: NCT02417987......BACKGROUND: Injection therapies are often considered alongside exercise for chronic midportion Achilles tendinopathy (AT), although evidence of their efficacy is sparse. PURPOSE: To determine whether eccentric training in combination with high-volume injection (HVI) or platelet-rich plasma (PRP......) injections improves outcomes in AT. STUDY DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1. METHODS: A total of 60 men (age, 18-59 years) with chronic (>3 months) AT were included and followed for 6 months (n = 57). All participants performed eccentric training combined with either (1) one HVI...

  4. Do intravenous N-acetylcysteine and sodium bicarbonate prevent high osmolal contrast-induced acute kidney injury? A randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Jose Inda-Filho

    Full Text Available N-acetylcysteine (NAC or sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3, singly or combined, inconsistently prevent patients exposed to radiographic contrast media from developing contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI.We asked whether intravenous isotonic saline and either NaHCO3 in 5% dextrose or else a high dose of NAC in 5% dextrose prevent CI-AKI in outpatients exposed to high-osmolal iodinated contrast medium more than does saline alone.This completed prospective, parallel, superiority, open-label, controlled, computer-randomized, single-center, Brazilian trial (NCT01612013 hydrated 500 adult outpatients (214 at high risk of developing CI-AKI exposed to ioxitalamate during elective coronary angiography and ventriculography. From 1 hour before through 6 hours after exposure, 126 patients (group 1 received a high dose of NAC and saline, 125 (group 2 received NaHCO3 and saline, 124 (group 3 received both treatments, and 125 (group 4 received only saline.Groups were similar with respect to age, gender, weight, pre-existing renal dysfunction, hypertension, medication, and baseline serum creatinine and serum cystatin C, but diabetes mellitus was significantly less prevalent in group 1. CI-AKI incidence 72 hours after exposure to contrast medium was 51.4% (257/500, measured as serum creatinine > (baseline+0.3 mg/dL and/or serum cystatin C > (1.1 · baseline, and 7.6% (38/500, measured as both serum creatinine and serum cystatin C > (baseline+0.3 mg/dL or > (1.25 · baseline. CI-AKI incidence measured less sensitively was similar among groups. Measured more sensitively, incidence in group 1 was significantly (p<0.05 lower than in groups 2 and 3 but not group 4; adjustment for confounding by infused volume equalized incidence in groups 1 and 3.We found no evidence that intravenous isotonic saline and either NaHCO3 or else a high dose of NAC prevent CI-AKI in outpatients exposed to high osmolal iodinated contrast medium more than does saline alone

  5. Evaluation of plasma eosinophil count and mean platelet volume in patients with coronary slow flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Demir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The pathophysiology of coronary slow flow has not been clearly defined, although multiple abnormalities including arteritis, endothelial dysfunction, and atherothrombosis, have been reported. It is known that eosinophils play an important role in inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, and thrombosis. We aimed to compare the eosinophil counts of coronary slow flow patients versus healthy controls. METHODS: This study included 50 coronary slow flow patients (19 males, mean age 65.6±13.7 years and 30 healthy controls (10 males, mean age 57.86±11.6 years. These participants were evaluated using concurrent routine biochemical tests as well as neutrophil, lymphocyte, and eosinophil counts and mean platelet volume (MPV, which were obtained from the whole blood count. These parameters were compared between groups. RESULTS: The baseline characteristics of the study groups were comparable. The coronary slow flow patients had a higher mean platelet volume and eosinophil count than the control group (8.38±0.86 vs 6.28±1.6 fL and 0.31±0.42 vs 0.09±0.05; p<0.001 and 0.008, respectively. CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrated a relationship between eosinophil count and MPV in patients with coronary slow flow.

  6. Extraction of volume produced H- or D- ions from a sheet plasma, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uramoto, Joshin.

    1984-02-01

    A development to large area H - or D - ion source is tried by using three extraction electrodes: The first electrode bias voltage is set near the wall potential (floating), the second electrode is set near 13 % of main extraction voltage and the third electrode is the main acceleration electrode. An ion current of 13 mA (3.3 mA/cm 2 ) for H - or 11 mA (2.8 mA/ cm 2 ) for D - at 3 KeV is extracted from 9 apertures of 6 mm phi in 4 cm 2 outside of the sheet plasma (14 cm wide and 1.0 cm thick) under a pressure of 7.7 x 10 -4 H2 or D2 gas and a weak magnetic field 50 gauss. Then, it is noted that the corresponding electron current is suppressed below 1/10 of the H - or D - ion current. (author)

  7. Predicting volume of distribution with decision tree-based regression methods using predicted tissue:plasma partition coefficients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Alex A; Limbu, Kriti; Ghafourian, Taravat

    2015-01-01

    Volume of distribution is an important pharmacokinetic property that indicates the extent of a drug's distribution in the body tissues. This paper addresses the problem of how to estimate the apparent volume of distribution at steady state (Vss) of chemical compounds in the human body using decision tree-based regression methods from the area of data mining (or machine learning). Hence, the pros and cons of several different types of decision tree-based regression methods have been discussed. The regression methods predict Vss using, as predictive features, both the compounds' molecular descriptors and the compounds' tissue:plasma partition coefficients (Kt:p) - often used in physiologically-based pharmacokinetics. Therefore, this work has assessed whether the data mining-based prediction of Vss can be made more accurate by using as input not only the compounds' molecular descriptors but also (a subset of) their predicted Kt:p values. Comparison of the models that used only molecular descriptors, in particular, the Bagging decision tree (mean fold error of 2.33), with those employing predicted Kt:p values in addition to the molecular descriptors, such as the Bagging decision tree using adipose Kt:p (mean fold error of 2.29), indicated that the use of predicted Kt:p values as descriptors may be beneficial for accurate prediction of Vss using decision trees if prior feature selection is applied. Decision tree based models presented in this work have an accuracy that is reasonable and similar to the accuracy of reported Vss inter-species extrapolations in the literature. The estimation of Vss for new compounds in drug discovery will benefit from methods that are able to integrate large and varied sources of data and flexible non-linear data mining methods such as decision trees, which can produce interpretable models. Graphical AbstractDecision trees for the prediction of tissue partition coefficient and volume of distribution of drugs.

  8. Effects of intravenous administration of two volumes of calcium solution on plasma ionized calcium concentration and recovery from naturally occurring hypocalcemia in lactating dairy cows.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doze, J.G.; Donders, R.; Kolk, J.H. van der

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of administration of 2 volumes of a calcium solution (calcium oxide and calcium gluconate) on plasma ionized calcium concentration (PICaC) and clinical recovery from naturally occurring hypocalcemia (NOHC; milk fever) in lactating dairy cows. ANIMALS: 123 cows with

  9. Applications of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry to radionuclide determinations: Second volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrow, R.W.; Crain, J.S.

    1998-01-01

    Even from its early conception, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was thought to be well-suited to the unique measurement problems facing the nuclear industry. These thoughts were well-founded; indeed, one might consider it unusual if a modern nuclear research center did not have access to one or more ICP mass spectrometers (quadrupole or otherwise). However, as ICP-MS has matured, improvements in sensitivity and precision have made possible measurements that were inconceivable to the founding fathers of the technology. Therefore, there is a periodic need to gather information and obtain a snapshot in time of the technology and its applications in nuclear energy. This second symposium was an international event in which speakers from the US, Europe, and the Middle East described new developments in ICP-MS relevant to the nuclear energy community. The papers presented at the 1998 symposium are published herein. Several papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base

  10. Beta-Adrenergic Blockade Does not Prevent Polycythemia or Decrease in Plasma Volume in Men at 4300 m Altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grover, R. F.; Selland, M. A.; McCullough, R. G.; Dahms, T. E.; Wolfel, E. E.; Butterfield, G. E.; Reeves, J. T.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1998-01-01

    When humans ascend to high altitude (ALT) their plasma volume (PV) and total blood volume (BV) decrease during the first few days. With continued residence over several weeks, the hypoxia-induced stimulation of erythropoietin increases red cell production which tends to restore BV. Because hypoxia also activates the beta-adrenergic system, which stimulates red blood cell production, we investigated the effect of adrenergic beta-receptor inhibition with propranolol on fluid volumes and the polycythemic response in 11 healthy unacclimatized men (21-33 years old exposed to an ALT of 4300 m (barometric pressure 460 Torr) for 3 weeks on Pikes Peak, Colorado. PV was determined by the Evans blue dye method (PV(sub EB)), BV by the carbon monoxide method (BV(sub CO)), red cell volume (RCV)was calculated from hematocrit (Hct) and BV(sub CO), and serum erythropoietin concentration ([EPO]) and reticulocyte count, were also determined. All determinations were made at sea level and after 9-11 (ALT-10) and 9-20 (ALT-20) days at ALT. At sea level and ALT, six men received propranolol (pro, 240 mg/day), and five received a placebo (pla). Effective beta-blockade did not modify the mean (SE) maximal values of [EPO] [pla: 24.9 (3.5) vs pro: 24.5 (1.5) mU/ml] or reticulocyte count [pla: 2.7 (0.7) vs pro: 2.2 (0.5)%]; nor changes in PV(sub EB)[pla: -15.8 (3.8) vs pro: -19.9 (2.8)%], RCV(sub CO) [pla: +7.0 (6.7) vs pro: +10.1 (6.1)%], or BV(sub CO) [pla: -7.3 (2.3) vs pro: -7.1 (3.9)%]. In the absence of weight loss, a redistribution of body water with no net loss is implied. Hence, activation of the beta-adrenergic system did not appear to affect the hypovolemic or polycythemic responses that occurred during 3 weeks at 4300 m ALT in these subjects.

  11. Modelling of an intermediate pressure microwave oxygen discharge reactor: from stationary two-dimensional to time-dependent global (volume-averaged) plasma models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemaneci, Efe; Graef, Wouter; Rahimi, Sara; Van Dijk, Jan; Kroesen, Gerrit; Carbone, Emile; Jimenez-Diaz, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    A microwave-induced oxygen plasma is simulated using both stationary and time-resolved modelling strategies. The stationary model is spatially resolved and it is self-consistently coupled to the microwaves (Jimenez-Diaz et al 2012 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 45 335204), whereas the time-resolved description is based on a global (volume-averaged) model (Kemaneci et al 2014 Plasma Sources Sci. Technol. 23 045002). We observe agreement of the global model data with several published measurements of microwave-induced oxygen plasmas in both continuous and modulated power inputs. Properties of the microwave plasma reactor are investigated and corresponding simulation data based on two distinct models shows agreement on the common parameters. The role of the square wave modulated power input is also investigated within the time-resolved description. (paper)

  12. Placental Underperfusion in a Rat Model of Intrauterine Growth Restriction Induced by a Reduced Plasma Volume Expansion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Bibeau

    Full Text Available Lower maternal plasma volume expansion was found in idiopathic intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR but the link remains to be elucidated. An animal model of IUGR was developed by giving a low-sodium diet to rats over the last week of gestation. This treatment prevents full expansion of maternal circulating volume and the increase in uterine artery diameter, leading to reduced placental weight compared to normal gestation. We aimed to verify whether this is associated with reduced remodeling of uteroplacental circulation and placental hypoxia. Dams were divided into two groups: IUGR group and normal-fed controls. Blood velocity waveforms in the main uterine artery were obtained by Doppler sonography on days 14, 18 and 21 of pregnancy. On day 22 (term = 23 days, rats were sacrificed and placentas and uterine radial arteries were collected. Diameter and myogenic response of uterine arteries supplying placentas were determined while expression of hypoxia-modulated genes (HIF-1α, VEGFA and VEGFR2, apoptotic enzyme (Caspase -3 and -9 and glycogen cells clusters were measured in control and IUGR term-placentas. In the IUGR group, impaired blood velocity in the main uterine artery along with increased resistance index was observed without alteration in umbilical artery blood velocity. Radial uterine artery diameter was reduced while myogenic response was increased. IUGR placentas displayed increased expression of hypoxia markers without change in the caspases and increased glycogen cells in the junctional zone. The present data suggest that reduced placental and fetal growth in our IUGR model may be mediated, in part, through reduced maternal uteroplacental blood flow and increased placental hypoxia.

  13. Relationship between Plasma D-Dimer Concentration and Three-Dimensional Ultrasound Placental Volume in Women at Risk for Placental Vascular Diseases: A Monocentric Prospective Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cécile Fanget

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to correlate placental volumes deduced from three-dimensional ultrasound and virtual organ computer-aided analysis (VOCAL software with systemic concentrations of D-dimer and soluble endothelial protein C receptor (sEPCR.This was a monocentric experimental prospective study conducted from October 2008 to July 2009. Forty consecutive patients at risk of placental vascular pathology (PVP recurrence or occurrence were included. Placental volumes were systematically measured three times (11-14, 16-18 and 20-22 weeks of gestation (WG by two independent sonographers. D-dimers and sEPCR plasma concentrations were measured using ELISA kits (Enzyme Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay.Eleven patients had a PVP. The plasma D-dimer level was positively correlated with placental volume (r = 0.45, p < 0.001. A smaller placental volume and placental quotient was evidenced in women who developed a PVP at the three gestational ages, and the difference was more pronounced during the third exam (20 WG. No obvious correlation could be demonstrated between the development of a PVP and the levels of D-dimer and sEPCR. There was no significant difference in the values of placental volumes measured by the two sonographers.The placenta growth could be a major determinant of the elevation of D-dimer during pregnancy. Consideration of placental volume could allow for modulation of the D-dimer concentrations for restoring their clinical interest.

  14. Increased volume of distribution for recombinant activated factor VII and longer plasma-derived factor VII half-life may explain their long lasting prophylactic effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathijssen, Natascha C J; Masereeuw, Rosalinde; Holme, Pal Andre; van Kraaij, Marian G J; Laros-van Gorkom, Britta A P; Peyvandi, Flora; van Heerde, Waander L

    2013-08-01

    Prophylaxis with plasma-derived or recombinant activated factor VII is beneficial in severe factor VII deficiency. To understand why prophylactic treatment with both products is efficacious, we conducted a pharmacokinetic study. Ten factor VII deficient patients were treated with either recombinant activated (20 μg/kg) or plasma-derived (25 IU/kg) factor VII in a cross-over design. Pharmacokinetic parameters were analyzed through activated factor VII activity, factor VII clotting activity, and factor VII antigen levels on depicted time points. Factor VII activity half-lifes, determined by non-compartmental and one-compartmental analysis (results in brackets), were shorter for recombinant activated (1.4h; 0.7h) than for plasma-derived factor VII (6.8h; 3.2h); both recombinant activated (5.1h; 2.1h and plasma-derived factor VII (5.8h; 3.2h) resulted in longer half-lives of factor VII antigen. Activated factor VII half-lives (based on activated factor VII activity levels) were significantly higher compared to factor VII clotting activity (1.6h; 0.9h). Volumes of distribution were significantly higher for activated factor VII (236 ml/kg; 175 ml/kg, measured by activated factor VII) as compared to plasma-derived factor VII (206 ml/kg; 64 ml/kg, measured by factor FVII activity), suggesting a plasma- and extracellular fluid distribution for recombinant activated factor VII. Recombinant activated factor VII showed significantly shorter half-lifes than plasma-derived factor VII. Volumes of distribution were significantly higher for treatment with recombinant activated factor VII. The longer half-life for plasma-derived factor VII, compared to recombinant activated factor VII, and the increased volume of distribution for recombinant activated factor VII, compared to plasma-derived factor VII may further elucidate the beneficial effect of prophylactic treatment of both products. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Isolated effects of external bath osmolality, solute concentration, and electrical charge on solute transport across articular cartilage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouran, Behdad; Arbabi, Vahid; Zadpoor, Amir A; Weinans, Harrie

    2016-12-01

    The metabolic function of cartilage primarily depends on transport of solutes through diffusion mechanism. In the current study, we use contrast enhanced micro-computed tomography to determine equilibrium concentration of solutes through different cartilage zones and solute flux in the cartilage, using osteochondral plugs from equine femoral condyles. Diffusion experiments were performed with two solutes of different charge and approximately equal molecular weight, namely iodixanol (neutral) and ioxaglate (charge=-1) in order to isolate the effects of solute's charge on diffusion. Furthermore, solute concentrations as well as bath osmolality were changed to isolate the effects of steric hindrance on diffusion. Bath concentration and bath osmolality only had minor effects on the diffusion of the neutral solute through cartilage at the surface, middle and deep zones, indicating that the diffusion of the neutral solute was mainly Fickian. The negatively charged solute diffused considerably slower through cartilage than the neutral solute, indicating a large non-Fickian contribution in the diffusion of charged molecules. The numerical models determined maximum solute flux in the superficial zone up to a factor of 2.5 lower for the negatively charged solutes (charge=-1) as compared to the neutral solutes confirming the importance of charge-matrix interaction in diffusion of molecules across cartilage. Copyright © 2016 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Changes in the electro-physical properties of MCT epitaxial films affected by a plasma volume discharge induced by an avalanche beam in atmospheric-pressure air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoryev, D. V.; Voitsekhovskii, A. V.; Lozovoy, K. A.; Tarasenko, V. F.; Shulepov, M. A.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper the influence of the plasma volume discharge of nanosecond duration formed in a non-uniform electric field at atmospheric pressure on samples of epitaxial films HgCdTe (MCT) films are discussed. The experimental data show that the action of pulses of nanosecond volume discharge in air at atmospheric pressure leads to changes in the electrophysical properties of MCT epitaxial films due to formation of a near-surface high- conductivity layer of the n-type conduction. The preliminary results show that it is possible to use such actions in the development of technologies for the controlled change of the properties of MCT.

  17. Retrospective study of renal distribution volume with DTPA-99mTc: performance of single plasma method for glomerular filtration rate estimation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legendre, J.M.; Cledes, J.; Morin, J.F.; Morin, P.P.

    1997-01-01

    169 glomerular filtration rate (GFR) measurements, performed in clinical practice, were analysed for estimation of GFR by several common methods. In one half of patients, we observed that early (2-3-4 hours) and tardive (3-4-5 hours three point plasma methods were highly correlated, r = 0,998 (n = 82). Even if regression line significantly differed from identify, differences between methods were low (-6, 1 to + 4,4 mL/min/1,73 m 2 ). Method with urinary collection was also correlated to plasma methods (r = 0,920 in both cases). Plasma based mean values were higher than that for urinary by 3,6 mL/min/1,73 m 2 (2-3-4 hours) and 3, 1 (3-4-5 hours). Using plasma GFR values and distribution volume, linear and quadratic regressions were tested for GFR = f (V) and GFR = f (In (V). The lowest observed standard deviation (3,6 mL/min; n = 82) was for GFR 234 = f (V 4h ) using a quadratic equation. This was applied to the second patient group for GFR estimation with 4 hours single point plasma method. Estimations were compared to GFR plasma values. For comparison, GFR estimations were also obtained using the Christensen's equation. (authors)

  18. Expansion of the cathode spot and generation of shock waves in the plasma of a volume discharge in atmospheric-pressure helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omarov, O. A.; Kurbanismailov, V. S.; Arslanbekov, M. A.; Gadzhiev, M. Kh.; Ragimkhanov, G. B.; Al-Shatravi, Ali J. G.

    2012-01-01

    The expansion of the cathode spot and the generation of shock waves during the formation and development of a pulsed volume discharge in atmospheric-pressure helium were studied by analyzing the emission spectra of the cathode plasma and the spatiotemporal behavior of the plasma glow. The transition of a diffuse volume discharge in a centimeter-long gap into a high-current diffuse mode when the gas pressure increased from 1 to 5 atm and the applied voltage rose from the statistical breakdown voltage to a 100% overvoltage was investigated. Analytical expressions for the radius of the cathode spot and its expansion velocity obtained in the framework of a spherically symmetric model agree satisfactorily with the experimental data.

  19. Changes in Plasma Copeptin Levels during Hemodialysis: Are the Physiological Stimuli Active in Hemodialysis Patients?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmée M Ettema

    Full Text Available Plasma levels of copeptin, a surrogate marker for the vasoconstrictor hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP, are increased in hemodialysis patients. Presently, it is unknown what drives copeptin levels in hemodialysis patients. We investigated whether the established physiological stimuli for copeptin release, i.e. plasma osmolality, blood volume and mean arterial pressure (MAP, are operational in hemodialysis patients.One hundred and eight prevalent, stable hemodialysis patients on a thrice-weekly dialysis schedule were studied during hemodialysis with constant ultrafiltration rate and dialysate conductivity in this observational study. Plasma levels of copeptin, sodium, MAP, and blood volume were measured before, during and after hemodialysis. Multivariate analysis was used to determine the association between copeptin (dependent variable and the physiological stimuli plasma sodium, MAP, excess weight as well as NT-pro-BNP immediately prior to dialysis and between copeptin and changes of plasma sodium, MAP and blood volume with correction for age, sex and diabetes during dialysis treatment.Patients were 63 ± 15.6 years old and 65% were male. Median dialysis vintage was 1.6 years (IQR 0.7-4.0. Twenty-three percent of the patients had diabetes and 82% had hypertension. Median predialysis copeptin levels were 141.5 pmol/L (IQR 91.0-244.8 pmol/L. Neither predialysis plasma sodium levels, nor NT-proBNP levels, nor MAP were associated with predialysis copeptin levels. During hemodialysis, copeptin levels rose significantly (p<0.01 to 163.0 pmol/L (96.0-296.0 pmol/L. Decreases in blood volume and MAP were associated with increases in copeptin levels during dialysis, whereas there was no significant association between the change in plasma sodium levels and the change in copeptin levels.Plasma copeptin levels are elevated predialysis and increase further during hemodialysis. Volume stimuli, i.e. decreases in MAP and blood volume, rather than osmotic

  20. The Effect of Ramadan Fasting and Weight-Lifting Training on Plasma Volume, Glucose and Lipids Profile of Male Weight-Lifters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Morteza Tayebi

    Full Text Available Objective(sThe purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Ramadan fasting and weight-lifting training on plasma volume, glucose, and lipids profile of male weight-lifter.Materials and MethodsForty male weight-lifters were recruited and divided into 4 groups (n=10 each and as the following groups: control (C, fasting (F, training (T and fasting-training (F-T. The T and F-T groups performed weight-lifting technique trainings and hypertrophy body building (3 sessions/week, 90 min/session. All subjects were asked to complete a medical examination as well as a medical questionnaire to ensure that they were not taking any medication, were free of cardiac, respiratory, renal, and metabolic diseases, and were not using steroids. Blood samples were taken at 24 hr before and 24 hr after one month of fasting and weight-lifting exercise. The plasma volume, fasting blood sugar (FBS, lipid profiles, and lipoproteins were analyzed in blood samples. ResultsBody weight and plasma volume showed significant (P< 0.05 decrease and increase in the F group (P< 0.05 respectively. Also, a significant reduction was observed in F-T group body weight (P< 0.01. A significant increase was found in FBS level of F group (P< 0.05. The lipid profiles and lipoproteins didn’t change significantly in C, F, T and the F-T groups.ConclusionThe effect of Ramadan fasting on body weight and plasma volumes may be closely related to the nutritional diet or biochemical response to fasting.

  1. Outcome Differences between Intra-Arterial Iso- and Low-Osmolality Iodinated Radiographic Contrast Media in the Interventional Management of Stroke III Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomsick, T A; Foster, L D; Liebeskind, D S; Hill, M D; Carrozella, J; Goyal, M; von Kummer, R; Demchuk, A M; Dzialowski, I; Puetz, V; Jovin, T; Morales, H; Palesch, Y Y; Broderick, J; Khatri, P; Yeatts, S D

    2015-11-01

    Intracarotid arterial infusion of nonionic, low-osmolal iohexol contrast medium has been associated with increased intracranial hemorrhage in a rat middle cerebral artery occlusion model compared with saline infusion. Iso-osmolal iodixanol (290 mOsm/kg H2O) infusion demonstrated smaller infarcts and less intracranial hemorrhage compared with low-osmolal iopamidol and saline. No studies comparing iodinated radiographic contrast media in human stroke have been performed, to our knowledge. We hypothesized that low-osmolal contrast media may be associated with worse outcomes compared with iodixanol in the Interventional Management of Stroke III Trial (IMS III). We reviewed prospective iodinated radiographic contrast media data for 133 M1 occlusions treated with endovascular therapy. We compared 5 prespecified efficacy and safety end points (mRS 0-2 outcome, modified TICI 2b-3 reperfusion, asymptomatic and symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage, and mortality) between those receiving iodixanol (n = 31) or low-osmolal contrast media (n = 102). Variables imbalanced between iodinated radiographic contrast media types or associated with outcome were considered potential covariates for the adjusted models. In addition to the iodinated radiographic contrast media type, final covariates were those selected by using the stepwise method in a logistic regression model. Adjusted relative risks were then estimated by using a log-link regression model. Of baseline or endovascular therapy variables potentially linked to outcome, prior antiplatelet agent use was more common and microcatheter iodinated radiographic contrast media injections were fewer with iodixanol. Relative risk point estimates are in favor of iodixanol for the 5 prespecified end points with M1 occlusion. The percentage of risk differences are numerically greater for microcatheter injections with iodixanol. While data favoring the use of iso-osmolal iodixanol for reperfusion of M1 occlusion following IV rtPA are

  2. Carbogen Breathing Differentially Enhances Blood Plasma Volume and 5-Fluorouracil Uptake in Two Murine Colon Tumor Models with a Distinct Vascular Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanneke W.M. van Laarhoven

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available For the systemic treatment of colorectal cancer, 5-fluorouracil (FU-based chemotherapy is the standard. However, only a subset of patients responds to chemotherapy. Breathing of carbogen (95% O2 and 5% CO2 may increase the uptake of FU through changes in tumor physiology. This study aims to monitor in animal models in vivo the effects of carbogen breathing on tumor blood plasma volume, pH, and energy status, and on FU uptake and metabolism in two colon tumor models C38 and C26a, which differ in their vascular structure and hypoxic status. Phosphorus-31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS was used to assess tumor pH and energy status, and fluorine-19 MRS was used to follow FU uptake and metabolism. Advanced magnetic resonance imaging methods using ultrasmall particles of iron oxide were performed to assess blood plasma volume. The results showed that carbogen breathing significantly decreased extracellular pH and increased tumor blood plasma volume and FU uptake in tumors. These effects were most significant in the C38 tumor line, which has the largest relative vascular area. In the C26a tumor line, carbogen breathing increased tumor growth delay by FU. In this study, carbogen breathing also enhanced systemic toxicity by FU.

  3. Maternal nutritional status in early pregnancy is associated with body water and plasma volume changes in a pregnancy cohort in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gernand, Alison D; Christian, Parul; Schulze, Kerry J; Shaikh, Saijuddin; Labrique, Alain B; Shamim, Abu Ahmed; West, Keith P

    2012-06-01

    Plasma volume expansion has been associated with fetal growth. Our objective was to examine the associations between maternal nutritional status in early pregnancy and extracellular water (ECW), total body water (TBW), and percentage plasma volume change across pregnancy. In a subsample of 377 pregnant women participating in a cluster-randomized trial of micronutrient supplementation, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance were measured at ~10, 20, and 32 wk of gestation. In early pregnancy, women were short (mean ± SD, 148.9 ± 5.3 cm) and thin (19.5 ± 2.5 kg/m(2)). In mixed-effects multiple regression models, a 1-unit higher BMI at ~10 wk was associated with higher ECW and TBW (0.27 and 0.66 kg per kg/m(2), respectively; P pregnancy BMI was negatively associated with gains in ECW and TBW (-0.06 and -0.14 kg per kg/m(2), respectively; P pregnancy have lower ECW and TBW in early, mid, and late pregnancy and lower late pregnancy plasma volume expansion, potentially increasing risk of fetal growth restriction.

  4. Effects of Hypertonic Saline Solution on Clinical Parameters, Serum Electrolytes and Plasma Volume in the Treatment of Haemorrhagic Septicaemia in Buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Arif Zafar*, G. Muhammad, Zafar Iqbal1 and M. Riaz2

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the efficacy of hypertonic saline solution (HSS along with antibiotic (ceftiofur HCl and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (ketoprofen in the treatment of haemorrhagic septicaemia in buffaloes. For this purpose, 50 buffaloes suffering from haemorrhagic septicaemia were randomly divided in two equal groups A and B. Group A served as control and was treated with ceftiofur HCl (IM and ketoprofen (IV @ 6 and 2 mg/Kg BW, respectively, for five days. Buffaloes of group B were administered with rapid intravenous infusion of hypertonic saline solution (7.5% NaCl @ 4 ml/Kg BW once in combination with ceftiofur HCl and ketoprofen. Animals were monitored for 24 hours after initiation of treatment. Clinical parameters, serum electrolytes, plasma volume and survival index were recorded at different intervals after treatment. Survival rate (80% in group B was significantly higher (P<0.05 than 48% in group A. The heart rate and respiration rate recovered more effectively in the buffaloes administered with treatment protocol B. Plasma volume was 98% which was almost normal within 24 hours after the infusion of hypertonic saline solution to the animals of group B. It was concluded from the study that hypertonic saline solution as an adjunct to antibiotic and a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug more efficiently improved respiration and heart rates and effectively restored plasma volume in resuscitating the buffaloes from haemorrhagic septicaemia than the conventional treatment.

  5. Identification of lysophosphatidylcholine, γ-stearoyl (LPCD) as an endogenous Na+, K+-ATPase inhibitor in volume-expanded hog plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, M.; Inagami, T.

    1986-01-01

    We have shown that the Na + , K + -ATPase inhibitory activities in the plasma of volume-expanded hog consist of multiple components. One group of the major inhibitory activities induced by intravascular saline infusion was identified as unsaturated free fatty acids. The present study was undertaken to determine the identity of the remaining Na + , K + -ATPase inhibitory activity in the plasma of volume-expanded hogs. Three peaks with ouabain displacing activity (ODA) were separated by HPLC on a reversed phase octadecyl column. The slowest eluting material which showed good solubility in water and recognizable optical absorbance at 214 nm was purified further by three additional steps of reverse phase HPLC. FAB mass spectrometry and 1 H NMR spectroscopy identified this substance as lysophosphatidylcholine, γ-stearoyl. Both purified and synthetic LPCS showed dose-dependent inhibition of Na + , K + -ATPase and displacement of [ 3 H] ouabain from the ATPase. Lysophosphatidylcholines containing either palmitoyl or myristoyl groups also exhibited the Na + , K + -ATPase inhibitory activity and the ODA. The ODA in the LPCS containing fraction increased during the saline infusion. These results indicate that LPCS is an endogenous Na + , K + -ATPase inhibitor which is induced by the expansion of plasma volume

  6. Prostate cancer volume associates with preoperative plasma levels of testosterone that independently predicts high grade tumours which show low densities (quotient testosterone/tumour volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio B. Porcaro

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: The investigation shows that TT relates to volume and grade of PCa; moreover, the density of TT relative to TV inversely associates with rate of increase of cancer that depends on the grade of the tumour.

  7. GLUT4 expression at the plasma membrane is related to fibre volume in human skeletal muscle fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaster, M; Vach, W; Beck-Nielsen, H

    2002-01-01

    In this study we examined the relationship between GLUT4 expression at the plasma membrane and muscle fibre size in fibre-typed human muscle fibres by immunocytochemistry and morphometry in order to gain further insight into the regulation of GLUT4 expression. At the site of the plasma membrane...

  8. Magnetic fusion energy plasma interactive and high heat flux components. Volume I. Technical assessment of the critical issues and problem areas in the plasma materials interaction field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conn, R.W.; Gauster, W.B.; Heifetz, D.; Marmar, E.; Wilson, K.L.

    1984-01-01

    A technical assessment of the critical issues and problem areas in the field of plasma materials interactions (PMI) in magnetic fusion devices shows these problems to be central for near-term experiments, for intermediate-range reactor devices including D-T burning physics experiments, and for long-term reactor machines. Critical technical issues are ones central to understanding and successful operation of existing and near-term experiments/reactors or devices of great importance for the long run, i.e., ones which will require an extensive, long-term development effort and thus should receive attention now. Four subgroups were formed to assess the critical PMI issues along four major lines: (1) PMI and plasma confinement physics experiments; (2) plasma-edge modelling and theory; (3) surface physics; and (4) materials technology for in-vessel components and the first wall. The report which follows is divided into four major sections, one for each of these topics

  9. Analysis of serum anion gap and osmolal gap in diagnosis and prognosis of acute methanol poisoning: clinical study in 86 patients

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zakharov, S.; Navrátil, Tomáš; Pelclová, D.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 146, č. 5 (2015), s. 787-794 ISSN 0026-9247 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP208/12/1645 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : serum anion gap * osmolal gap * acute methanol poisoning Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 1.131, year: 2015

  10. Serum osmolality and ions, and gill Na+/K+-ATPase of spottedtail goby Synechogobius ommaturus (R. in response to acute salinity changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Shui

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the effects of abrupt salinity change on osmoregulatory ability of the spottedtail goby Synechogobius ommaturus. 720 juvenile fish (65.3 ± 11.8 g were transferred to 200 L tanks (with 40 juveniles in each tank, in which salinities were abruptly changed from 10 to 20, 30, 40, 50 and freshwater. Survival rate, serum osmolality, electrolytes (Na+, Cl−, and K+ and gill Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA activity were assessed successively in 528 h. Results showed serum osmolality, ion concentrations and gill Na+/K+-ATPase activity increased significantly when fish were transferred to salinity 40 and 50 and all fish in these groups died by the end of the experiment. Serum osmolality, Na+, Cl− and K+ in fish transferred to a salinity of 20, 30 and freshwater were not affected and no mortality was detected. Compared with the control group, a significantly decrease of NKA activity happened in the freshwater group, but the activity in 20 and 30 groups was not affected significantly. The results indicated that S. ommaturus could adapt rapidly and maintain homeostasis in a wide range of salinities (from freshwater to salinity 30 and this species may be suitable for aquaculture in estuarine and coastal areas where rapid salinity fluctuations commonly occur. Keywords: Osmolality, Gill, Na+/K+-ATPase, Synechogobius ommaturus

  11. Efectos de la ingesta ad libitum de bebidas hidratantes sobre el peso corporal, la frecuencia cardíaca y el volumen plasmático durante una actividad física de alta intensidad y larga duración -Informe preliminar- Body weight, the heart rate, and the plasma volume during a high-intesity, long-duration run

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubiela Flórez Manrique

    2004-02-01

    , no ingieren la cantidad adecuada de líquidos para obtener los beneficios atribuidos a la hidratación. Objetive: to determine the amount of ad libitum intake of three rehydrating beverages of different osmolalities, and to establish their effects on the percentage of body weight loss, the increase of heart rate and the reduction of plasma volume, in nine subjects with aerobic training, during a highintensity,long-duration run. Methodology : the experiment was carried out on a treadmill with 1% of inclination that was kept constant throughout the procedure; it started with 9 minutes of warm-up at a speed equivalent to 59% of the reserve heart rate; then, 88 minutes of running divided in three intervals (29, 29, and 30 minutes at 80% of the reserve heart rate; finally, 90 minutes of recovery in three intervals of 30 minutes each. During the “dehydrated treatment” no fluid replacement was done; during the “Hydrating treatments” (H-I, H-II, H-III equivalent volumes were drunk of the aforementioned rehydrating beverages. Results: during the exercise period the fluid loss was 1.440 ml/h. In each one of the treatments there was a loss of body weight (p<0.001, an increase of heart rate (<0.05 and, except for HII and H-III, a reduction of plasma volume (p<0.05. There were no differences between the treatments in these three parameters. Conclusions: ad libitum intake was less than the amount internationally recommended; probably that explains that the effects of osmolality of the rehydrating beverages on the analyzed parameters could not be determined. These findings ought to motivate a review of the hydrating practices of our athletes because, seemingly, they are not ingesting an adequate amount of fluids to obtain the benefits attributed to hydration.

  12. Production of large volume, strongly magnetized laser-produced plasmas by use of pulsed external magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albertazzi, B. [LULI, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, CEA, UPMC, 91128 Palaiseau (France); INRS-EMT, Varennes, Quebec J3X 1S2 (Canada); Beard, J.; Billette, J.; Portugall, O. [LNCMI, UPR 3228, CNRS-UFJ-UPS-INSA, 31400 Toulouse (France); Ciardi, A. [LERMA, Observatoire de Paris, Ecole Normale Superieure, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, CNRS UMR 8112, Paris (France); Vinci, T.; Albrecht, J.; Chen, S. N.; Da Silva, D.; Hirardin, B.; Nakatsutsumi, M.; Romagnagni, L.; Simond, S.; Veuillot, E.; Fuchs, J. [LULI, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, CEA, UPMC, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Burris-Mog, T.; Dittrich, S.; Herrmannsdoerfer, T.; Kroll, F.; Nitsche, S. [Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, P.O. Box 510119, 01314 Dresden (Germany); and others

    2013-04-15

    The production of strongly magnetized laser plasmas, of interest for laboratory astrophysics and inertial confinement fusion studies, is presented. This is achieved by coupling a 16 kV pulse-power system. This is achieved by coupling a 16 kV pulse-power system, which generates a magnetic field by means of a split coil, with the ELFIE laser facility at Ecole Polytechnique. In order to influence the plasma dynamics in a significant manner, the system can generate, repetitively and without debris, high amplitude magnetic fields (40 T) in a manner compatible with a high-energy laser environment. A description of the system and preliminary results demonstrating the possibility to magnetically collimate plasma jets are given.

  13. Volume cross section of auroral radar backscatter and RMS plasma fluctuations inferred from coherent and incoherent scatter data: a response on backscatter volume parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Uspensky

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Norway and Finland STARE radar measurements in the eastward auroral electrojet are combined with EISCAT CP-1 measurements of the electron density and electric field vector in the common scattering volume to investigate the variation of the auroral radar volume cross section (VCS with the flow angle of observations (radar look direction with respect to the E×B electron drift. The data set available consists of ~6000 points for flow angles of 40–85° and electron drifts between 500 and 2000 m s−1. The EISCAT electron density N(h-profile data are used to estimate the effective electron density, aspect angle and thickness of the backscattering layer. It is shown that the flow angle variation of the VCS is rather weak, only ~5 dB within the range of the considered flow angles. The VCS values themselves respond almost linearly to the square of both the electron drift velocity magnitude and the effective electron density. By adopting the inferred shape of the VCS variation with the flow angle and the VCS dependence upon wavelength, the relative amplitude of electrostatic electron density fluctuations over all scales is estimated. Inferred values of 2–4 percent react nearly linearly to the electron drift velocity in the range of 500–1000 m s−1 but the rate of increase slows down at electron drifts >1000 m s−1 and density fluctuations of ~5.5 percent due to, perhaps, progressively growing nonlinear wave losses.

  14. A prospective randomized trial of two solutions for intrapartum amnioinfusion: effects on fetal electrolytes, osmolality, and acid-base status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pressman, E K; Blakemore, K J

    1996-10-01

    Our purpose was to compare the effects of intrapartum amnioinfusion with normal saline solution versus lactated Ringer's solution plus physiologic glucose on neonatal electrolytes and acid-base balance. Patients undergoing amnioinfusion for obstetric indications were randomized to receive normal saline solution or lactated Ringer's solution plus physiologic glucose at standardized amnioinfusion rates. Data were collected prospectively on maternal demographics, course of labor, and maternal and neonatal outcome. Arterial cord blood was obtained for analysis of electrolytes, glucose, osmolality, lactic acid, and blood gases. Control subjects with normal fetal heart rate patterns, and clear amniotic fluid not receiving amnioinfusion were studied concurrently. Data were collected on 59 patients (21 normal saline solution, 18 lactated Ringer's solution plus physiologic glucose, and 20 controls). Maternal demographics, course of labor, and neonatal outcome were similar in all three groups. Cesarean sections were performed more often in the amnioinfusion groups (33.3% for normal saline solution, 38.9% for lactated Ringer's solution plus physiologic glucose) than in the control group (5.0%), p amnioinfusion with either solution. Intrapartum amnioinfusion with normal saline solution or lactated Ringer's solution plus physiologic glucose has no effect on neonatal electrolytes or acid-base balance.

  15. Sensitive radioimmunoassay for plasma arginine vasopressin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thibonnier, M.; Soto, M.E.; Corvol, P.; Milliez, P.; Marchetti, J.; Menard, J.

    1980-01-01

    Using an ion exchange resin, a sensitive radioimmunoassay for plasma arginine vasopressin (AVP) was developed. This assay was characterized by the absence of blank values, an excellent recovery rate, great sensitivity (0.1 pg of AVP was significantly detected) and reproducibility. In 8 normal men, plasma AVP after overnight dehydration was 1.57+-0.17 pg/ml, and dropped to 0.58+-0.11 pg/ml after 20 ml/kg oral water loading. Significant correlations between plasma AVP levels and plasma or urinary osmolality confirm the validity of this assay. In complete pituitary diabetes insipidus (n=4) plasma AVP was undetectable whereas it was frankly increased in Schwartz-Bartter syndrome (3 to 33 pg/ml, n=8) [fr

  16. Prolactin 177, prolactin 188, and extracellular osmolality independently regulate the gene expression of ion transport effectors in gill of Mozambique tilapia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inokuchi, Mayu; Breves, Jason P; Moriyama, Shunsuke; Watanabe, Soichi; Kaneko, Toyoji; Lerner, Darren T; Grau, E Gordon; Seale, Andre P

    2015-11-15

    This study characterized the local effects of extracellular osmolality and prolactin (PRL) on branchial ionoregulatory function of a euryhaline teleost, Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus). First, gill filaments were dissected from freshwater (FW)-acclimated tilapia and incubated in four different osmolalities, 280, 330, 380, and 450 mosmol/kg H2O. The mRNA expression of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase α1a (NKA α1a) and Na(+)/Cl(-) cotransporter (NCC) showed higher expression with decreasing media osmolalities, while Na(+)/K(+)/2Cl(-) cotransporter 1a (NKCC1a) and PRL receptor 2 (PRLR2) mRNA levels were upregulated by increases in media osmolality. We then incubated gill filaments in media containing ovine PRL (oPRL) and native tilapia PRLs (tPRL177 and tPRL188). oPRL and the two native tPRLs showed concentration-dependent effects on NCC, NKAα1a, and PRLR1 expression; Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 3 (NHE3) expression was increased by 24 h of incubation with tPRLs. Immunohistochemical observation showed that oPRL and both tPRLs maintained a high density of NCC- and NKA-immunoreactive ionocytes in cultured filaments. Furthermore, we found that tPRL177 and tPRL188 differentially induce expression of these ion transporters, according to incubation time. Together, these results provide evidence that ionocytes of Mozambique tilapia may function as osmoreceptors, as well as directly respond to PRL to modulate branchial ionoregulatory functions. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Solar High-energy Astrophysical Plasmas Explorer (SHAPE). Volume 1: Proposed concept, statement of work and cost plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Brian R.; Martin, Franklin D.; Prince, T.; Lin, R.; Bruner, M.; Culhane, L.; Ramaty, R.; Doschek, G.; Emslie, G.; Lingenfelter, R.

    1986-01-01

    The concept of the Solar High-Energy Astrophysical Plasmas Explorer (SHAPE) is studied. The primary goal is to understand the impulsive release of energy, efficient acceleration of particles to high energies, and rapid transport of energy. Solar flare studies are the centerpieces of the investigation because in flares these high energy processes can be studied in unmatched detail at most wavelenth regions of the electromagnetic spectrum as well as in energetic charged particles and neutrons.

  18. Plasma physics

    CERN Document Server

    Drummond, James E

    1961-01-01

    A historic snapshot of the field of plasma physics, this fifty-year-old volume offers an edited collection of papers by pioneering experts in the field. In addition to assisting students in their understanding of the foundations of classical plasma physics, it provides a source of historic context for modern physicists. Highly successful upon its initial publication, this book was the standard text on plasma physics throughout the 1960s and 70s.Hailed by Science magazine as a ""well executed venture,"" the three-part treatment ranges from basic plasma theory to magnetohydrodynamics and microwa

  19. Novel system using microliter order sample volume for measuring arterial radioactivity concentrations in whole blood and plasma for mouse PET dynamic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yuichi; Seki, Chie; Hashizume, Nobuya; Yamada, Takashi; Wakizaka, Hidekatsu; Nishimoto, Takahiro; Hatano, Kentaro; Kitamura, Keishi; Toyama, Hiroshi; Kanno, Iwao

    2013-11-21

    This study aimed to develop a new system, named CD-Well, for mouse PET dynamic study. CD-Well allows the determination of time-activity curves (TACs) for arterial whole blood and plasma using 2-3 µL of blood per sample; the minute sample size is ideal for studies in small animals. The system has the following merits: (1) measures volume and radioactivity of whole blood and plasma separately; (2) allows measurements at 10 s intervals to capture initial rapid changes in the TAC; and (3) is compact and easy to handle, minimizes blood loss from sampling, and delay and dispersion of the TAC. CD-Well has 36 U-shaped channels. A drop of blood is sampled into the opening of the channel and stored there. After serial sampling is completed, CD-Well is centrifuged and scanned using a flatbed scanner to define the regions of plasma and blood cells. The length measured is converted to volume because the channels have a precise and uniform cross section. Then, CD-Well is exposed to an imaging plate to measure radioactivity. Finally, radioactivity concentrations are computed. We evaluated the performance of CD-Well in in vitro measurement and in vivo (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose and [(11)C]2-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-fluorophenyl) tropane studies. In in vitro evaluation, per cent differences (mean±SE) from manual measurement were 4.4±3.6% for whole blood and 4.0±3.5% for plasma across the typical range of radioactivity measured in mouse dynamic study. In in vivo studies, reasonable TACs were obtained. The peaks were captured well, and the time courses coincided well with the TAC derived from PET imaging of the heart chamber. The total blood loss was less than 200 µL, which had no physiological effect on the mice. CD-Well demonstrates satisfactory performance, and is useful for mouse PET dynamic study.

  20. (99m) Tc-labelled human serum albumin cannot replace (125) I-labelled human serum albumin to determine plasma volume in patients with liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Ulrik Lütken; Henriksen, Jens H; Bendtsen, Flemming

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background and aims Determination of plasma volume (PV) is important in several clinical situations. Thus, patients with liver disease often have augmented PV as part of their sodium–water retention. This study was undertaken to compare PV determination by two indicators: technetium......-labelled human serum albumin (99mTc-HSA) and iodine-labelled human serum albumin (125I-HSA), as the former may have advantages at repeated measurements and the latter is the classical gold standard. Study population and methods In 88 patients, (64 with liver disease, mainly cirrhosis, and 24 patients without...... In all patients, a close correlation was present between PV determined by the two indicators (r = 0·89, Pdetermined with 99mTc-HSA exceeded PV determined with 125I-HSA by 367 ml (5·2 ml kg...

  1. Blood parasites, total plasma protein and packed cell volume of small wild mammals trapped in three mountain ranges of the Atlantic Forest in Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAML. Silva

    Full Text Available A study of blood parasites in small wild non-flying mammals was undertaken in three areas of the Atlantic Forest in Southeastern Brazil: Serra de Itatiaia, RJ, Serra da Bocaina, SP and Serra da Fartura, SP, from June 1999 to May 2001. A total of 450 animals (15 species were captured in traps and it was observed in 15.5% of the blood smears the presence of Haemobartonella sp. and Babesia sp. in red blood cells. There was no statistically significant difference between parasited and non-parasited specimens regarding total plasma protein, packed cell volume and body weight, which strongly suggests that these specimens might be parasite reservoirs.

  2. Prediction of clearance, volume of distribution and half-life by allometric scaling and by use of plasma concentrations predicted from pharmacokinetic constants: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, I

    1999-08-01

    Pharmacokinetic parameters (clearance, CL, volume of distribution in the central compartment, VdC, and elimination half-life, t1/2beta) predicted by an empirical allometric approach have been compared with parameters predicted from plasma concentrations calculated by use of the pharmacokinetic constants A, B, alpha and beta, where A and B are the intercepts on the Y axis of the plot of plasma concentration against time and alpha and beta are the rate constants, both pairs of constants being for the distribution and elimination phases, respectively. The pharmacokinetic parameters of cefpiramide, actisomide, troglitazone, procaterol, moxalactam and ciprofloxacin were scaled from animal data obtained from the literature. Three methods were used to generate plots for the prediction of clearance in man: dependence of clearance on body weight (simple allometric equation); dependence of the product of clearance and maximum life-span potential (MLP) on body weight; and dependence of the product of clearance and brain weight on body weight. Plasma concentrations of the drugs were predicted in man by use of A, B, alpha and beta obtained from animal data. The predicted plasma concentrations were then used to calculate CL, VdC and t1/2beta. The pharmacokinetic parameters predicted by use of both approaches were compared with measured values. The results indicate that simple allometry did not predict clearance satisfactorily for actisomide, troglitazone, procaterol and ciprofloxacin. Use of MLP or the product of clearance and brain weight improved the prediction of clearance for these four drugs. Except for troglitazone, VdC and t1/2beta predicted for man by use of the allometric approach were comparable with measured values for the drugs studied. CL, VdC and t1/2beta predicted by use of pharmacokinetic constants were comparable with values predicted by simple allometry. Thus, if simple allometry failed to predict clearance of a drug, so did the pharmacokinetic constant

  3. Quantification of low levels of organochlorine pesticides using small volumes (≤100 μl) of plasma of wild birds through gas chromatography negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera-Rodriguez, Laura B.; Rodriguez-Estrella, Ricardo; Ellington, James Jackson; Evans, John J.

    2007-01-01

    A solid phase extraction and gas chromatography with negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry in scan mode (GC-NCI-MS) method was developed to identify and quantify for the first time low levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCs) in plasma samples of less than 100 μl from wild birds. The method detection limits ranged from 0.012 to 0.102 pg/μl and the method reporting limit from 0.036 to 0.307 pg/μl for α, γ, β and δ-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), heptachlor, aldrin, heptachlor epoxide, endosulfan I, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p'-DDE), dieldrin, endrin, endosulfan-II, endrin-aldehyde and endosulfan-sulfate. Pesticide levels in small serum samples from individual Falco sparverius, Sturnella neglecta, Mimus polyglottos and Columbina passerina were quantified. Concentrations ranged from not detected (n/d) to 204.9 pg/μl for some OC pesticides. All levels in the food web in and around cultivated areas showed the presence of pesticides notwithstanding the small areas for agriculture existing in the desert of Baja California peninsula. - This technique allows small birds to be used as indicators of chemical contamination in habitats because pesticides can be quantified in very small volumes of plasma

  4. Quantification of low levels of organochlorine pesticides using small volumes ({<=}100 {mu}l) of plasma of wild birds through gas chromatography negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera-Rodriguez, Laura B. [Centro de Investigaciones Biologicas del Noroeste, S.C., Environmental Planning and Conservation Program, Mar Bermejo No. 195, Col. Playa Palo de Santa Rita, Ado. Postal 128, La Paz, BCS. 23090 (Mexico)]. E-mail: lrivera04@cibnor.mx; Rodriguez-Estrella, Ricardo [Centro de Investigaciones Biologicas del Noroeste, S.C., Environmental Planning and Conservation Program, Mar Bermejo No. 195, Col. Playa Palo de Santa Rita, Ado. Postal 128, La Paz, BCS. 23090 (Mexico); Ellington, James Jackson [National Exposure Research Laboratory, US Environmental Protection Agency, 960 College Station Road, Athens, GA 30605 (United States); Evans, John J. [National Exposure Research Laboratory, US Environmental Protection Agency, 960 College Station Road, Athens, GA 30605 (United States); Senior Service America Inc. (United States)

    2007-07-15

    A solid phase extraction and gas chromatography with negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry in scan mode (GC-NCI-MS) method was developed to identify and quantify for the first time low levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCs) in plasma samples of less than 100 {mu}l from wild birds. The method detection limits ranged from 0.012 to 0.102 pg/{mu}l and the method reporting limit from 0.036 to 0.307 pg/{mu}l for {alpha}, {gamma}, {beta} and {delta}-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), heptachlor, aldrin, heptachlor epoxide, endosulfan I, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p'-DDE), dieldrin, endrin, endosulfan-II, endrin-aldehyde and endosulfan-sulfate. Pesticide levels in small serum samples from individual Falco sparverius, Sturnella neglecta, Mimus polyglottos and Columbina passerina were quantified. Concentrations ranged from not detected (n/d) to 204.9 pg/{mu}l for some OC pesticides. All levels in the food web in and around cultivated areas showed the presence of pesticides notwithstanding the small areas for agriculture existing in the desert of Baja California peninsula. - This technique allows small birds to be used as indicators of chemical contamination in habitats because pesticides can be quantified in very small volumes of plasma.

  5. Vol. 6: Plasma Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitenko, A.

    1993-01-01

    Problems of modern physics and the situation with physical research in Ukraine are considered. Programme of the conference includes scientific and general problems. Its proceeding are published in 6 volumes. The papers presented in this volume refer to plasma physics

  6. Plasma confinement

    CERN Document Server

    Hazeltine, R D

    2003-01-01

    Detailed and authoritative, this volume examines the essential physics underlying international research in magnetic confinement fusion. It offers readable, thorough accounts of the fundamental concepts behind methods of confining plasma at or near thermonuclear conditions. Designed for a one- or two-semester graduate-level course in plasma physics, it also represents a valuable reference for professional physicists in controlled fusion and related disciplines.

  7. Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol.3). Proceedings of academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society in 2013, No.7--nuclear fusion and plasma physics sub-volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-05-01

    Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol. 3) includes 22 articles which are communicated on the third national academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society. There are 10 books totally. This is the seventh one, the content is about nuclear fusion and plasma physics sub-volume

  8. Polysorbate 80 and low-osmolality water-soluble contrast medium enema in diagnosis and treatment of faecal obstruction in malignant phaeochromocytoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratcliffe, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    Stercoral obstruction in a young woman with disseminated phaeochromocytoma was diagnosed and treated successfully using an enema of isosmolar iohexol (Omnipaque) and 1% polysorbate 80 (Tween 80) without complication. Surgical intervention was thus avoided. A low osmolality water-soluble contrast medium (iohexol 150 mg I/ml) with a wetting agent (1% Tween 80) was used because a barium suspension would have inspissated, exacerbating the constipation and a hyperosmolar contrast medium might have precipitated a hypertensive crisis and destablished her critical salt and water balance. (orig.)

  9. Effect of Intravenous Small-Volume Hypertonic Sodium Bicarbonate, Sodium Chloride, and Glucose Solutions in Decreasing Plasma Potassium Concentration in Hyperkalemic Neonatal Calves with Diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trefz, F M; Constable, P D; Lorenz, I

    2017-05-01

    Hyperkalemia is a frequently observed electrolyte imbalance in dehydrated neonatal diarrheic calves that can result in skeletal muscle weakness and life-threatening cardiac conduction abnormalities and arrhythmias. Intravenous administration of a small-volume hypertonic NaHCO 3 solution is clinically more effective in decreasing the plasma potassium concentration (cK) in hyperkalemic diarrheic calves than hypertonic NaCl or glucose solutions. Twenty-two neonatal diarrheic calves with cK >5.8 mmol/L. Prospective randomized clinical trial. Calves randomly received either 8.4% NaHCO 3 (6.4 mL/kg BW; n = 7), 7.5% NaCl (5 mL/kg BW; n = 8), or 46.2% glucose (5 mL/kg BW; n = 7) IV over 5 minutes and were subsequently allowed to suckle 2 L of an electrolyte solution. Infusions with NaHCO 3 and NaCl provided an identical sodium load of 6.4 mmol/kg BW. Hypertonic NaHCO 3 infusions produced an immediate and sustained decrease in plasma cK. Hypertonic glucose infusions resulted in marked hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia, but cK remained unchanged for 20 minutes. Between 30 and 120 minutes after initiation of treatment, the most marked decrements in cK from baseline occurred in group NaHCO 3 , which were significantly (P < .05) larger during this period of time than in calves in group NaCl, but not group glucose. After 120 minutes, the mean decrease in cK from baseline was -26 ± 10%, -9 ± 8%, and -22 ± 6% in groups NaHCO 3 , NaCl, and glucose, respectively. Small-volume hypertonic NaHCO 3 infusions appear to have clinical advantages for the rapid resuscitation of hyperkalemic diarrheic calves, compared to hypertonic NaCl or glucose solutions. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  10. Quiescent plasma machine for plasma investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    A large volume quiescent plasma device is being developed at INPE to study Langmuir waves and turbulence generated by electron beams (E b ≤ 500 e V) interacting with plasma. This new quiescent plasma machine was designed to allow the performance of several experiments specially those related with laboratory space plasma simulation experiments. Current-driven instabilities and related phenomena such as double-layers along magnetic field lines are some of the many experiments planned for this machine. (author)

  11. The effect of sintering conditions and ZrN volume fraction on the mechanical properties of spark plasma sintered W/ZrN composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dongju; Umer, Malik Adeel; Shin, Yoochul; Jeon, Seokwoo; Hong, Soonhyung

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Effect of sintering conditions on properties of W composites was investigated. ► Effect of ZrN volume fraction on properties of W composites was investigated. ► The grain size and relative density increased with increasing sintering temperature. ► ZrN particles led to an increase in strength of W and a decrease in grain size. ► Highest flexural strength was obtained for 10 vol.% W/ZrN with lowest agglomeration. - Abstract: In an effort to improve the room temperature mechanical properties of tungsten, W/ZrN composites were fabricated by high energy ball milling followed by spark plasma sintering at temperatures in a range of 1200–1700 °C under a pressure of 50 MPa. The effects of sintering conditions and ZrN volume fraction on the mechanical properties of the W/ZrN composites were studied and the results were compared to the properties of monolithic tungsten. The grain size of monolith tungsten and W/ZrN composites was found to increase with an increase in sintering temperature and time. In the case of the W/ZrN composites, ZrN particles led to an increase in the compressive strength of tungsten and a decrease in grain size. The increase in compressive strength of the composites was attributed to a reinforcement effect of ZrN particles as well as grain size refinement according to the Hall–Petch relation. Compressive strength of the composites increased with increasing ZrN content while the flexural strength decreased for samples with ZrN content exceeding 10 vol.%. This was attributed to the effects of ZrN agglomeration within the tungsten matrix.

  12. Simultaneous measurement of arginine vasopressin and oxytocin in plasma and neurohypophysis by radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landgraf, R [Deutsche Hochschule fuer Koerperkultur, Leipzig (German Democratic Republic). Forschungsinstitut Koerperkultur und Sport

    1981-12-01

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OXT) were measured simultaneously in the same sample by specific and sensitive radioimmunoassays (RIAs). The antibodies used did not cross-react to a variety of analogs and related peptides. The extraction procedure using Vycor glass powder resulted in mean recoveries of 84.4% (AVP) and 64.6% (OXT). In both assays, the sensitivity was 1 to 2 pg/ml plasma. A preincubation procedure that depresses plasma levels of both AVP and OXT selectively, provided specific blank values for a given plasma sample. To confirm the validity of the RIAs, dehydration experiments were performed. In rats, the basal levels of plasma AVP and OXT (means: 2,63 pg/ml and 6.80 pg/ml, respectively) are increased significantly after 24 h, 48 h and 72 h of water deprivation. Relationships are presented between both neurohormones in the plasma and neurohypophyses of control and dehydrated animals. As shown in cows, a significant correlation exists between plasma AVP and plasma osmolality but not between plasma OXT and osmolality or plasma AVP and OXT. Basal levels as well as physiological changes in plasma and neurohypophyseal AVP and OXT can be measured by the RIAs described.

  13. Blood volume studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, S.M.; Yin, J.A.L.

    1986-01-01

    The use of dilution analysis with such radioisotopes as 51 Cr, 32 P, sup(99m)Tc and sup(113m)In for measuring red cell volume is reviewed briefly. The use of 125 I and 131 I for plasma volume studies is also considered and the subsequent determination of total blood volume discussed, together with the role of the splenic red cell volume. Substantial bibliography. (UK)

  14. Validation of a blood marker for plasma volume in endurance athletes during a live-high train-low altitude training camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobigs, Louisa M; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A; Vuong, Victor L; Tee, Nicolin; Gore, Christopher J; Peeling, Peter; Dawson, Brian; Schumacher, Yorck O

    2018-02-19

    Altitude is a confounding factor within the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) due, in part, to the plasma volume (PV) response to hypoxia. Here, a newly developed PV blood test is applied to assess the possible efficacy of reducing the influence of PV on the volumetric ABP markers; haemoglobin concentration ([Hb]) and the OFF-score. Endurance athletes (n=34) completed a 21-night simulated live-high train-low (LHTL) protocol (14 h.d -1 at 3000 m). Bloods were collected twice pre-altitude; at days 3, 8, and 15 at altitude; and 1, 7, 21, and 42 days post-altitude. A full blood count was performed on the whole blood sample. Serum was analysed for transferrin, albumin, calcium, creatinine, total protein, and low-density lipoprotein. The PV blood test (consisting of the serum markers, [Hb] and platelets) was applied to the ABP adaptive model and new reference predictions were calculated for [Hb] and the OFF-score, thereby reducing the PV variance component. The PV correction refined the ABP reference predictions. The number of atypical passport findings (ATPFs) for [Hb] was reduced from 7 of 5 subjects to 6 of 3 subjects. The OFF-score ATPFs increased with the PV correction (from 9 to 13, 99% specificity); most likely the result of more specific reference limit predictions combined with the altitude-induced increase in red cell production. Importantly, all abnormal biomarker values were identified by a low confidence value. Although the multifaceted, individual physiological response to altitude confounded some results, the PV model appears capable of reducing the impact of PV fluctuations on [Hb]. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Effect of High-Volume Injection, Platelet-Rich Plasma, and Sham Treatment in Chronic Midportion Achilles Tendinopathy: A Randomized Double-Blinded Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesen, Anders Ploug; Hansen, Rudi; Boesen, Morten Ilum; Malliaras, Peter; Langberg, Henning

    2017-07-01

    Injection therapies are often considered alongside exercise for chronic midportion Achilles tendinopathy (AT), although evidence of their efficacy is sparse. To determine whether eccentric training in combination with high-volume injection (HVI) or platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injections improves outcomes in AT. Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1. A total of 60 men (age, 18-59 years) with chronic (>3 months) AT were included and followed for 6 months (n = 57). All participants performed eccentric training combined with either (1) one HVI (steroid, saline, and local anesthetic), (2) four PRP injections each 14 days apart, or (3) placebo (a few drops of saline under the skin). Randomization was stratified for age, function, and symptom severity (Victorian Institute of Sports Assessment-Achilles [VISA-A]). Outcomes included function and symptoms (VISA-A), self-reported tendon pain during activity (visual analog pain scale [VAS]), tendon thickness and intratendinous vascularity (ultrasonographic imaging and Doppler signal), and muscle function (heel-rise test). Outcomes were assessed at baseline and at 6, 12, and 24 weeks of follow-up. VISA-A scores improved in all groups at all time points ( P Tendon thickness showed a significant decrease only in HVI and PRP groups during the intervention, and this was greater in the HVI versus PRP and placebo groups at 6 and 12 weeks ( P eccentric training in chronic AT seems more effective in reducing pain, improving activity level, and reducing tendon thickness and intratendinous vascularity than eccentric training alone. HVI may be more effective in improving outcomes of chronic AT than PRP in the short term. Registration: NCT02417987 ( ClinicalTrials.gov identifier).

  16. Hemograma, sódio, potássio, cálcio, osmolalidade e viscosidade durante angiocardiografia pediátrica com ioxaglato Blood cell count, sodium, potassium, calcium, osmolality and viscosity, during pediatric angiocardiography with ioxaglate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Regis Silva Moura

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Os meios de contraste (MC introduzem alterações em alguns parâmetros sangüíneos, adquirindo, assim, mais importância na angiocardiografia pediátrica. MÉTODOS: Estudamos a presença e a severidade das mudanças no hematócrito, hemoglobina, leucócitos, sódio, potássio, cálcio, osmolalidade e viscosidade, em 35 crianças submetidas a angiocardiografia com ioxaglato, identificando, também, as variáveis independentes responsáveis por essas alterações. As amostras sangüíneas foram colhidas no início do procedimento (S1, no fim (S2 e 2h após (S3. RESULTADOS: Hematócrito: S1= 47,3±6,9%; S2= 40,7±7,4% (pPURPOSE: Children's blood changes during angiocardiography may not be only due to the contrast media (CM. METHODS: We studied the presence and severity of changes in those parameters in 35 pediatric patients undergoing angiocardiography with ioxaglate aiming to identify independent variables responsible for those changes. Blood samples were taken at the beginning of the procedure (S1, at the end (S2 and two hours later (S3. RESULTS: Hematocrit: S1= 47.3±6.9%; S2= 40.7± 7.4% (p<0.001, (related to the CM volume r=0.37, p<0.05. Hemoglobin: S1= 15±2.1g%; S2= 13.2±2.4g% (p<0.001, and S3= 12.7±2.5g% (NS. White blood cell count: S1= 7940±3040 leukocytes/mm³; S2= 6950± 2700/mm³ (NS; S3= 10830±4690 leukocytes/mm³, (p<0.001. Procedure duration (r=0.38, p<0.05 and 5% glucose fluid given between S2 and S3 (r=0.49, p<0.05 were isolated. Sodium: S1= 134.5±0.4mEq/L; S2= 130.7±0.4mEq/L (p<0.001 (due to 5% glucose fluid injected, r=0.61, p<0.01. Potassium: S1= 4.22±0.45mEq/L, S2= 3.83±0.4mEq/L (p<0.001. Calcium: S1= 9.13± 1.03mg%; S2= 8.4±0.91mg/dL. (related to the CM, r=0.43, p<0.01. Osmolality: S1= 293.3±12.5mOsm/kg; S2= 300.6±13.3mOsm/kg (p<0.001. Viscosity: S1= 3.36±0.81; S2= 3.09±0.74 (p<0.01; S3= 3.87±0.89, p<0.001. There was an indirect linear regression with the CM. CONCLUSION: There were profound

  17. Retrospective study of renal distribution volume with DTPA-{sup 99m}Tc: performance of single plasma method for glomerular filtration rate estimation; Etude retrospective du volume de distribution du traceur renal DTPA-{sup 99m}Tc: performance d`une methode a un prelevement sanguin pour l`estimation du debit de filtration glomerulaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legendre, J.M.; Cledes, J.; Morin, J.F.; Morin, P.P. [Centre Hospitalier Regional Augustin-Morvan, 29 - Brest (France)

    1997-08-01

    169 glomerular filtration rate (GFR) measurements, performed in clinical practice, were analysed for estimation of GFR by several common methods. In one half of patients, we observed that early (2-3-4 hours) and tardive (3-4-5 hours) three point plasma methods were highly correlated, r = 0,998 (n = 82). Even if regression line significantly differed from identify, differences between methods were low (-6, 1 to + 4,4 mL/min/1,73 m{sup 2}). Method with urinary collection was also correlated to plasma methods (r = 0,920 in both cases). Plasma based mean values were higher than that for urinary by 3,6 mL/min/1,73 m{sup 2} (2-3-4 hours) and 3, 1 (3-4-5 hours). Using plasma GFR values and distribution volume, linear and quadratic regressions were tested for GFR = f (V) and GFR = f (In (V)). The lowest observed standard deviation (3,6 mL/min; n = 82) was for GFR{sub 234} = f (V{sub 4h}) using a quadratic equation. This was applied to the second patient group for GFR estimation with 4 hours single point plasma method. Estimations were compared to GFR plasma values. For comparison, GFR estimations were also obtained using the Christensen`s equation. (authors). 17 refs.

  18. Plasma processing for VLSI

    CERN Document Server

    Einspruch, Norman G

    1984-01-01

    VLSI Electronics: Microstructure Science, Volume 8: Plasma Processing for VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration) discusses the utilization of plasmas for general semiconductor processing. It also includes expositions on advanced deposition of materials for metallization, lithographic methods that use plasmas as exposure sources and for multiple resist patterning, and device structures made possible by anisotropic etching.This volume is divided into four sections. It begins with the history of plasma processing, a discussion of some of the early developments and trends for VLSI. The second section

  19. Osmolality, temperature, and membrane lipid composition modulate the activity of betaine transporter BetP in Corynebacterium glutamicum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ozcan, Nuran; Ejsing, Christer S.; Shevchenko, Andrej

    2007-01-01

    The gram-positive soil bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum, a major amino acid-producing microorganism in biotechnology, is equipped with several osmoregulated uptake systems for compatible solutes, which is relevant for the physiological response to osmotic stress. The most significant carrier......P activity. We further correlated the change in BetP regulation properties in cells grown at different temperatures to changes in the lipid composition of the plasma membrane. For this purpose, the glycerophospholipidome of C. glutamicum grown at different temperatures was analyzed by mass spectrometry using...... quantitative multiple precursor ion scanning. The molecular composition of glycerophospholipids was strongly affected by the growth temperature. The modulating influence of membrane lipid composition on BetP function was further corroborated by studying the influence of artificial modulation of membrane...

  20. Radioimmunoassay of arginine-vasopressin in human plasma: Development and clinical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hummerich, W.; Konrads, A.; Roesch, R.; Sofroniew, M.

    1983-01-01

    A sensitive and specific radioimmunoassay for the measurement of arg-vasopressin (AVP) in human plasma is described. Recovery of added AVP from plasma was about 65-70%. An acetone extraction step was necessary to prevent unspecific blank effects. Sensitivity of the assay in 0.5 pg AVP/ml plasma. In normally hydrated subjects AVP-concentration ranged from 0.7 pg/ml to 5.8 pg/ml and showed a good correlation with plasma osmolality. In patients with complete diabetes insipidus (D.i.) AVP-values were below the sensitivity limit of the method and they were subnormal when D.i. was incomplete. There was no increase of AVP-concentration during fluid restriction in patients with complete or incomplete D.i. In subjects with psychogenic polydipsia AVP-values were normal and dehydration produced adequate rises of plasma AVP. In patients with SIADH (Schwartz-Bartter-syndrome) AVP-values were greatly enhanced (> 10 pg/ml) when correlated to plasma osmolality ( 2 O). (orig.)

  1. Radioimmunoassay of arginine-vasopressin in human plasma: Development and clinical application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hummerich, W.; Konrads, A.; Roesch, R.; Sofroniew, M.

    1983-02-15

    A sensitive and specific radioimmunoassay for the measurement of arg-vasopressin (AVP) in human plasma is described. Recovery of added AVP from plasma was about 65-70%. An acetone extraction step was necessary to prevent unspecific blank effects. Sensitivity of the assay in 0.5 pg AVP/ml plasma. In normally hydrated subjects AVP-concentration ranged from 0.7 pg/ml to 5.8 pg/ml and showed a good correlation with plasma osmolality. In patients with complete diabetes insipidus (D.i.) AVP-values were below the sensitivity limit of the method and they were subnormal when D.i. was incomplete. There was no increase of AVP-concentration during fluid restriction in patients with complete or incomplete D.i. In subjects with psychogenic polydipsia AVP-values were normal and dehydration produced adequate rises of plasma AVP. In patients with SIADH (Schwartz-Bartter-syndrome) AVP-values were greatly enhanced (> 10 pg/ml) when correlated to plasma osmolality (< 170 mosmol/kg H/sub 2/O).

  2. Elevated Serum Osmolality and Total Water Deficit Indicate Impaired Hydration Status in Residents of Long-Term Care Facilities Regardless of Low or High Body Mass Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Melissa Ventura; Simmons, Sandra F; Shotwell, Matthew S; Hudson, Abbie; Hollingsworth, Emily K; Long, Emily; Kuertz, Brittany; Silver, Heidi J

    2016-05-01

    Dehydration is typically associated with underweight and malnutrition in long-term care (LTC) settings. Evidence is lacking regarding the influence of the rising prevalence of overweight and obesity on risk factors, prevalence, and presentation of dehydration. The aim of this study was to objectively assess hydration status and the adequacy of total water intake, and determine relationships between hydration status, total water intake, and body mass index (BMI) in LTC residents. A cross-sectional analysis of baseline data was performed. Baseline data from 247 subjects recruited from eight community-based LTC facilities participating in two randomized trials comparing nutrient and cost-efficacy of between-meal snacks vs oral nutrition supplements (ONS). Hydration status was assessed by serum osmolality concentration and total water intakes were quantified by weighed food, beverage, water, and ONS intake. Simple and multiple linear regression methods were applied. Forty-nine (38.3%) subjects were dehydrated (>300 mOsm/kg) and another 39 (30.5%) had impending dehydration (295 to 300 mOsm/kg). The variance in serum osmolality was significantly accounted for by blood urea nitrogen level, mental status score, and having diabetes (R(2)=0.46; PTotal water intake averaged 1,147.2±433.1 mL/day. Thus, 96% to 100% of subjects did not meet estimated requirements, with a deficit range of 700 to 1,800 mL/day. The variance in total water intake was significantly accounted for by type of liquid beverages (thin vs thick), type of ONS, total energy intake, total activities of daily living dependence, sex, and BMI (R(2)=0.56; Ptotal water intake is prevalent in LTC residents across all BMI categories. Type of liquid beverages, type of ONS, and type of between-meal snacks are factors that could be targeted for nutrition interventions designed to prevent or reverse dehydration. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Plasma diagnostics discharge parameters and chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Auciello, Orlando

    1989-01-01

    Plasma Diagnostics, Volume 1: Discharge Parameters and Chemistry covers seven chapters on the important diagnostic techniques for plasmas and details their use in particular applications. The book discusses optical diagnostic techniques for low pressure plasmas and plasma processing; plasma diagnostics for electrical discharge light sources; as well as Langmuir probes. The text also describes the mass spectroscopy of plasmas, microwave diagnostics, paramagnetic resonance diagnostics, and diagnostics in thermal plasma processing. Electrical engineers, nuclear engineers, microwave engineers, che

  4. Sensitive LC-MS/MS Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Bendamustine and its Active Metabolite, γ-Hydroxybendamustine in Small Volume Mice and Dog Plasma and its Application to a Pharmacokinetic Study in Mice and Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrashekar, Devaraj V; Suresh, Ponnayyan S; Kumar, Rajnish; Bhamidipati, Ravi Kanth; Mullangi, Ramesh; Richter, Wolfgang; Srinivas, Nuggehally R

    2017-09-01

    A highly sensitive, specific and rapid LC-ESI-MS/MS method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification of bendamustine (BM) and γ-hydroxybendamustine (HBM) in small volume (20 µL) mice and dog plasma using phenacetin as an internal standard (IS) as per regulatory guidelines. Both the analytes and IS were extracted from mice and dog plasma using a liquid-liquid extraction method. Chromatography was achieved on Atlantis dC 18 column using an isocratic mobile phase (0.2% formic acid:acetonitrile, 25:75) at a flow rate of 0.40 mL/min. The total chromatographic run time was 3.0 min and the elution of BM, HBM and IS occurred at ~1.2, 1.2 and 2.0 min, respectively. A linear response function was established 0.11-518 ng/mL for both the analytes in mice and dog plasma. The intra- and inter-day accuracy and precisions were in the range of 3.46-12.9 and 3.63-8.23%; 1.15-9.00 and 7.86-9.49% for BM and HBM, respectively in mice plasma and 2.15-6.49 and 1.73-13.1%; 4.35-13.9 and 4.33-10.5% for BM and HBM, respectively in dog plasma. This novel method has been applied to a pharmacokinetic study in mice and dogs. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. The Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN properties of 2-methyltetrols and C3-C6 polyols from osmolality and surface tension measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ekström

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A significant fraction of the organic material in aerosols is made of highly soluble compounds such as sugars (mono- and polysaccharides and polyols such as the 2-methyltetrols, methylerythritol and methyltreitol. Because of their high solubility these compounds are considered as potentially efficient CCN material. For the 2-methyltetrols, this would have important implications for cloud formation at global scale because they are thought to be produced by the atmospheric oxidation of isoprene. To investigate this question, the complete Köhler curves for C3-C6 polyols and the 2-methyltetrols have been determined experimentally from osmolality and surface tension measurements. Contrary to what was expected, none of these compounds displayed a higher CCN efficiency than organic acids. Their Raoult terms show that this limited CCN efficiency is due to their absence of dissociation in water, this in spite of slight surface-tension effects for the 2-methyltetrols. Thus, compounds such as saccharides and polyols would not contribute more to cloud formation than other organic compounds studied so far. In particular, the presence of 2-methyltetrols in aerosols would not particularly enhance cloud formation in the atmosphere, in contrary to recently suggested.

  6. Fast, multiphase volume adaptation to hyperosmotic shock by Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teuta Pilizota

    Full Text Available All living cells employ an array of different mechanisms to help them survive changes in extra cellular osmotic pressure. The difference in the concentration of chemicals in a bacterium's cytoplasm and the external environment generates an osmotic pressure that inflates the cell. It is thought that the bacterium Escherichia coli use a number of interconnected systems to adapt to changes in external pressure, allowing them to maintain turgor and live in surroundings that range more than two-hundred-fold in external osmolality. Here, we use fluorescence imaging to make the first measurements of cell volume changes over time during hyperosmotic shock and subsequent adaptation on a single cell level in vivo with a time resolution on the order of seconds. We directly observe two previously unseen phases of the cytoplasmic water efflux upon hyperosmotic shock. Furthermore, we monitor cell volume changes during the post-shock recovery and observe a two-phase response that depends on the shock magnitude. The initial phase of recovery is fast, on the order of 15-20 min and shows little cell-to-cell variation. For large sucrose shocks, a secondary phase that lasts several hours adds to the recovery. We find that cells are able to recover fully from shocks as high as 1 Osmol/kg using existing systems, but that for larger shocks, protein synthesis is required for full recovery.

  7. Increased volume of distribution for recombinant activated factor VII and longer plasma-derived factor VII half-life may explain their long lasting prophylactic effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathijssen, N.C.J.; Masereeuw, R.; Holme, P.A.; Kraaij, M.G.J. van; Laros, B.A.P.; Peyvandi, F.; Heerde, W.L. van

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Prophylaxis with plasma-derived or recombinant activated factor VII is beneficial in severe factor VII deficiency. To understand why prophylactic treatment with both products is efficacious, we conducted a pharmacokinetic study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten factor VII deficient patients

  8. The impact of maternal plasma volume expansion and antihypertensive treatment with intravenous dihydralazine on fetal and maternal hemodynamics during pre-eclampsia: a clinical, echo-Doppler and viscometric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boito, S M E; Struijk, P C; Pop, G A M; Visser, W; Steegers, E A P; Wladimiroff, J W

    2004-04-01

    To establish the effects of plasma volume expansion (PVE) followed by intravenous dihydralazine (DH) administration on maternal whole blood viscosity (WBV) and hematocrit, uteroplacental and fetoplacental downstream impedance and umbilical venous (UV) volume flow in pre-eclampsia. In 13 pre-eclamptic women maternal and fetal hemodynamics were established by means of combined measurement of maternal arterial blood pressure (BP), WBV, hematocrit and uterine artery (UtA) resistance index (RI) in addition to umbilical artery (UA) pulsatility index (PI) and UV volume flow obtained from UV vessel area and UV time-averaged flow velocity. In each woman all parameters were measured four times at baseline, after PVE, after DH and 24 h after the start of treatment. Maternal diastolic BP, hematocrit and WBV display a significant reduction after PVE. In the fetus UA PI decreases significantly whereas a significant increase in UV cross-sectional area was detected. After maternal DH administration, arterial systolic and diastolic BP and UA PI show a significant decrease compared with the measurements following PVE. At 24 h, only maternal systolic and diastolic BP display a significant further decrease. No significant changes were established for the UtA RI, UV time-averaged velocity and UV volume flow during the entire study period. During pre-eclampsia, maternal PVE followed by DH administration results in a significant reduction in maternal diastolic BP, maternal hematocrit and WBV. Maternal PVE is associated with a significant increase in UV cross-sectional area and a non-significant rise of 11% in UV volume flow. Maternal DH administration does not result in any change in UV cross-sectional area. However, UA PI decreases significantly after both PVE and DH treatment. Copyright 2004 ISUOG.

  9. Magnetic fusion energy plasma interactive and high heat flux components. Volume III. Strategy for international collaborations in the areas of plasma materials interactions and high heat flux materials and components development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauster, W.B.; Bauer, W.; Roberto, J.B.; Post, D.E.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this summary is to assess opportunities for such collaborations in the specific areas of Plasma Materials Interaction and High Heat Flux Materials and Components Development, and to aid in developing a strategy to take advantage of them. After some general discussion of international collaborations, we summarize key technical issues and the US programs to address them. Then follows a summary of present collaborations and potential opportunities in foreign laboratories

  10. Magnetic Fusion Energy Plasma Interactive and High Heat Flux Components: Volume 5, Technical assessment of critical issues in the steady state operation of fusion confinement devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    Critical issues for the steady state operation of plasma confinement devices exist in both the physics and technology fields of fusion research. Due to the wide range and number of these issues, this technical assessment has focused on the crucial issues associated with the plasma physics and the plasma interactive components. The document provides information on the problem areas that affect the design and operation of a steady state ETR or ITER type confinement device. It discusses both tokamaks and alternative concepts, and provides a survey of existing and planned confinement machines and laboratory facilities that can address the identified issues. A universal definition of steady state operation is difficult to obtain. From a physics point of view, steady state is generally achieved when the time derivatives approach zero and the operation time greatly exceeds the characteristic time constants of the device. Steady state operation for materials depends on whether thermal stress, creep, fatigue, radiation damage, or power removal are being discussed. For erosion issues, the fluence and availability of the machine for continuous operation are important, assuming that transient events such as disruptions do not limit the component lifetimes. The panel suggests, in general terms, that steady state requires plasma operation from 100 to 1000 seconds and an availability of more than a few percent, which is similar to the expectations for an ETR type device. The assessment of critical issues for steady state operation is divided into four sections: physics issues; technology issues; issues in alternative concepts; and devices and laboratory facilities that can address these problems.

  11. Magnetic Fusion Energy Plasma Interactive and High Heat Flux Components: Volume 5, Technical assessment of critical issues in the steady state operation of fusion confinement devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Critical issues for the steady state operation of plasma confinement devices exist in both the physics and technology fields of fusion research. Due to the wide range and number of these issues, this technical assessment has focused on the crucial issues associated with the plasma physics and the plasma interactive components. The document provides information on the problem areas that affect the design and operation of a steady state ETR or ITER type confinement device. It discusses both tokamaks and alternative concepts, and provides a survey of existing and planned confinement machines and laboratory facilities that can address the identified issues. A universal definition of steady state operation is difficult to obtain. From a physics point of view, steady state is generally achieved when the time derivatives approach zero and the operation time greatly exceeds the characteristic time constants of the device. Steady state operation for materials depends on whether thermal stress, creep, fatigue, radiation damage, or power removal are being discussed. For erosion issues, the fluence and availability of the machine for continuous operation are important, assuming that transient events such as disruptions do not limit the component lifetimes. The panel suggests, in general terms, that steady state requires plasma operation from 100 to 1000 seconds and an availability of more than a few percent, which is similar to the expectations for an ETR type device. The assessment of critical issues for steady state operation is divided into four sections: physics issues; technology issues; issues in alternative concepts; and devices and laboratory facilities that can address these problems

  12. Thermal plasma waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heberlein, Joachim; Murphy, Anthony B

    2008-01-01

    Plasma waste treatment has over the past decade become a more prominent technology because of the increasing problems with waste disposal and because of the realization of opportunities to generate valuable co-products. Plasma vitrification of hazardous slags has been a commercial technology for several years, and volume reduction of hazardous wastes using plasma processes is increasingly being used. Plasma gasification of wastes with low negative values has attracted interest as a source of energy and spawned process developments for treatment of even municipal solid wastes. Numerous technologies and approaches exist for plasma treatment of wastes. This review summarizes the approaches that have been developed, presents some of the basic physical principles, provides details of some specific processes and considers the advantages and disadvantages of thermal plasmas in waste treatment applications. (topical review)

  13. The Effect of Inhalation Volume and Breath-Hold Duration on the Retention of Nicotine and Solanesol in the Human Respiratory Tract and on Subsequent Plasma Nicotine Concentrations During Cigarette Smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armitage AK

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of inhalation depth and breath-hold duration on the retention of nicotine and solanesol in the human respiratory tract and on nicotine uptake was studied in ten cigarette smokers. In a first series of experiments, the subjects took seven puffs from a 10 mg ‘tar’ yield, test cigarette and a fixed volume of air (0, 75, 250, 500 or 1000 mL, as required by the protocol was inhaled after each puff in order to give a controlled ‘depth’ of inhalation. The inhalation was drawn from a bag containing the required volume of air. Following a 2 s breath-hold, subjects exhaled normally, with the first exhalation after each puff passing through a single acidified filter pad for collection of the non-retained nicotine and solanesol. Blood samples were taken before and at intervals during and after smoking for the sessions with 0, 75 and 500 mL inhalation volumes for determination of plasma nicotine and carboxyhaemoglobin levels. Another series of experiments was conducted with a fixed inhalation volume (500 mL and two further breath-hold durations (0 and 10 s in addition to 2 s from above. Nicotine and solanesol retentions were measured for each breath-hold condition. The amounts of nicotine retained within the respiratory system, expressed as a percentage of the amount taken into the mouth, were consistently higher than the corresponding values for solanesol in all five inhalation conditions (0-1000 mL, 2 s breath-hold. Nicotine retention increased from 46.5% at zero inhalation to 99.5% at 1000 mL inhalation (2 s breath-hold and from 98.0% at zero breath-hold to 99.9% at 10 s breath-hold (500 mL inhalation. Solanesol retention increased from 34.2% at zero inhalation volume to 71.9% at 1000 mL inhalation (2 s breath-hold and from 51.8% at zero breath-hold to 87.6% at 10 s breath-hold (500 mL inhalation. Plasma nicotine decreased from pre-smoking levels after zero inhalation indicating that the nicotine retained within the mouth was poorly

  14. A method for the direct injection and analysis of small volume human blood spots and plasma extracts containing high concentrations of organic solvents using revered-phase 2D UPLC/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainville, Paul D; Simeone, Jennifer L; Root, Dan S; Mallet, Claude R; Wilson, Ian D; Plumb, Robert S

    2015-03-21

    The emergence of micro sampling techniques holds great potential to improve pharmacokinetic data quality, reduce animal usage, and save costs in safety assessment studies. The analysis of these samples presents new challenges for bioanalytical scientists, both in terms of sample processing and analytical sensitivity. The use of two dimensional LC/MS with, at-column-dilution for the direct analysis of highly organic extracts prepared from biological fluids such as dried blood spots and plasma is demonstrated. This technique negated the need to dry down and reconstitute, or dilute samples with water/aqueous buffer solutions, prior to injection onto a reversed-phase LC system. A mixture of model drugs, including bromhexine, triprolidine, enrofloxacin, and procaine were used to test the feasibility of the method. Finally an LC/MS assay for the probe pharmaceutical rosuvastatin was developed from dried blood spots and protein-precipitated plasma. The assays showed acceptable recovery, accuracy and precision according to US FDA guidelines. The resulting analytical method showed an increase in assay sensitivity of up to forty fold as compared to conventional methods by maximizing the amount loaded onto the system and the MS response for the probe pharmaceutical rosuvastatin from small volume samples.

  15. Micro- and nano-volume samples by electrothermal, near-torch vaporization sample introduction using removable, interchangeable and portable rhenium coiled-filament assemblies and axially-viewed inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badiei, Hamid R.; Lai, Bryant; Karanassios, Vassili

    2012-11-15

    An electrothermal, near-torch vaporization (NTV) sample introduction for micro- or nano-volume samples is described. Samples were pipetted onto coiled-filament assemblies that were purposely developed to be removable and interchangeable and were dried and vaporized into a small-volume vaporization chamber that clips onto any ICP torch with a ball joint. Interchangeable assemblies were also constructed to be small-size (e.g., less than 3 cm long with max diameter of 0.65 cm) and light-weight (1.4 g) so that they can be portable. Interchangeable assemblies with volume-capacities in three ranges (i.e., < 1 {mu}L, 1-10 {mu}L and 10-100 {mu}L) were fabricated and used. The horizontally-operated NTV sample introduction was interfaced to an axially-viewed ICP-AES (inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry) system and NTV was optimized using ICP-AES and 8 elements (Pb, Cd, Zn, V, Ba, Mg, Be and Ca). Precision was 1.0-2.3% (peak height) and 1.1-2.4% (peak area). Detection limits (obtained using 5 {mu}L volumes) expressed in absolute-amounts ranged between 4 pg for Pb to 0.3 fg ({approx} 5 million atoms) for Ca. Detection limits expressed in concentration units (obtained using 100 {mu}L volumes of diluted, single-element standard solutions) were: 50 pg/mL for Pb; 10 pg/mL for Cd; 9 pg/mL for Zn; 1 pg/mL for V; 0.9 pg/mL for Ba; 0.5 pg/mL for Mg; 50 fg/mL for Be; and 3 fg/mL for Ca. Analytical capability and utility was demonstrated using the determination of Pb in pg/mL levels of diluted natural water Certified Reference Material (CRM) and the determination of Zn in 80 nL volumes of the liquid extracted from an individual vesicle. It is shown that portable and interchangeable assemblies with dried sample residues on them can be transported without analyte loss (for the concentrations tested), thus opening up the possibility for 'taking part of the lab to the sample' applications, such as testing for Cu concentration-compliance with the lead

  16. Plasma arginine vasopressin response to water load during labour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singhi, Sunit; Parshad, Omkar

    1985-01-01

    To find out whether plasma vasopressin (Psub(AVP)) response to a water load during pregnancy is inappropriately high, as had been speculated, we measured Psub(AVP)by radioimmunoassay in 30 women at the time of delivery. Ten women had received infusion of aqueous glucose solution during labour for hydration (GW group); another ten received infusion of glucose solution as a vehicle for oxytocin (IOT group), and ten women did not receive any intrapartum intravenous fluid therapy (controls). Serum sodium and osmolality were also determined in all the subjects. Psub(AVP) levels were significantly lower in GW (0.70 +- 0.4 pg/ml) and OT groups (0.7 +- 0.6 pg/ml) (P<0.05). Significant negative correlation was seen between the amount of glucose solution infused and levels of Psub(AVP) (r = -0.66; P<0.01), while a significant positive correlation was seen between Psub(AVP) and serum sodium (r = 0.61; P<0.01). These findings suggest that during labour, the physiological relationship between serum osmolality and Psub(AVP) in intact, and the infusion of a water load in the form of aqueous glucose solution is attended by an expected lowering of Psub(AVP). We infer that inappropriate ADH response is not the cause of water retention and hyponatremia often seen in women receiving aqueous glucose solution during labor. (author)

  17. Plasma arginine vasopressin response to water load during labour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singhi, S. (West Indies Univ., Mona (Jamaica). Dept. of Child Health); Parshad, O. (West Indies Univ., Mona (Jamaica). Dept. of Physiology)

    1985-02-01

    To find out whether plasma vasopressin (Psub(AVP)) response to a water load during pregnancy is inappropriately high, as had been speculated, we measured Psub(AVP)by radioimmunoassay in 30 women at the time of delivery. Ten women had received infusion of aqueous glucose solution during labour for hydration (GW group); another ten received infusion of glucose solution as a vehicle for oxytocin (IOT group), and ten women did not receive any intrapartum intravenous fluid therapy (controls). Serum sodium and osmolality were also determined in all the subjects. Psub(AVP) levels were significantly lower in GW (0.70 +- 0.4 pg/ml) and OT groups (0.7 +- 0.6 pg/ml) (P < 0.05). Significant negative correlation was seen between the amount of glucose solution infused and levels of Psub(AVP) (r = -0.66; P < 0.01), while a significant positive correlation was seen between Psub(AVP) and serum sodium (r = 0.61; P < 0.01). These findings suggest that during labour, the physiological relationship between serum osmolality and Psub(AVP) in intact, and the infusion of a water load in the form of aqueous glucose solution is attended by an expected lowering of Psub(AVP). We infer that inappropriate ADH response is not the cause of water retention and hyponatremia often seen in women receiving aqueous glucose solution during labor.

  18. Ultra-trace plutonium determination in small volume seawater by sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with application to Fukushima seawater samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Wenting; Zheng, Jian; Guo, Qiuju; Aono, Tatsuo; Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo; Tazoe, Hirofumi; Yamada, Masatoshi

    2014-04-11

    Long-term monitoring of Pu isotopes in seawater is required for assessing Pu contamination in the marine environment from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. In this study, we established an accurate and precise analytical method based on anion-exchange chromatography and SF-ICP-MS. This method was able to determine Pu isotopes in seawater samples with small volumes (20-60L). The U decontamination factor was 3×10(7)-1×10(8), which provided sufficient removal of interfering U from the seawater samples. The estimated limits of detection for (239)Pu and (240)Pu were 0.11fgmL(-1) and 0.08fgmL(-1), respectively, which corresponded to 0.01mBqm(-3) for (239)Pu and 0.03mBqm(-3) for (240)Pu when a 20L volume of seawater was measured. We achieved good precision (2.9%) and accuracy (0.8%) for measurement of the (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratio in the standard Pu solution with a (239)Pu concentration of 11fgmL(-1) and (240)Pu concentration of 2.7fgmL(-1). Seawater reference materials were used for the method validation and both the (239+240)Pu activities and (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios agreed well with the expected values. Surface and bottom seawater samples collected off Fukushima in the western North Pacific since March 2011 were analyzed. Our results suggested that there was no significant variation of the Pu distribution in seawater in the investigated areas compared to the distribution before the accident. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Radiofrequency power in plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    This document includes the various communications that were presented at the 11th topical conference on radio frequency power in plasmas which took place in Palm Springs in May 1995. It includes current diffusion studies to assess the non-inductive current deposition profiles, experiments for plasma to reach quickly an equilibrium state, and modelling of electrons in plasma. Some comparison studies also reveal the efficiency of the Quasi-Optical Grill antenna for reactor applications. Finally, a scenario for efficient mode conversion heating in the ion cyclotron range of frequency is presented. Separate abstracts were prepared for the 6 papers in this volume. (TEC).

  20. Development and validation of a rapid and high-sensitivity liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay for the determination of neostigmine in small-volume beagle dog plasma and its application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Di; Li, Wenxue; Zhao, Xin; Ye, Xiaolan; Sun, Fanlu; Li, Jinying; Song, Fenyun; Fan, Guorong

    2014-03-01

    A simple, rapid and high sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the determination of neostigmine in small-volume beagle dog plasma was developed to assess the plasma pharmacokinetics of neostigmine. After protein precipitation in a Sirocco 96-well filtration plate, the filtrate was directly injected into the LC-MS/MS system. The analytes were separated on a Hanbon Hedera CN column (100 × 4.6 mm, 5 µm) with a mobile phase composed of methanol-water (60:40, v/v) and the water containing 0.01% formic acid at a flow rate of 0.6mL/min, with a split ratio of 1:1 flowing 300 μL into the mass spectrometer. The run time was 3 min. Detection was accomplished by electrospray ionization source in multiple reactions monitoring mode with the precursor-to-product ion transitions m/z 223.0 → 72.0 and 306.0 → 140.0 for neostigmine and anisodamine (internal standard), respectively. The method was sensitive with a lower limit of quantitation of 0.1 ng/mL, and good linearity in the range 0.1-100ng/mL for neostigmine (r ≥ 0.998). All the validation data, such as accuracy, intra-run and inter-run precision, were within the required limits. The method was successfully applied to pharmacokinetic study of neostigmine methylsulfate injection in beagle dogs. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Plasma turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, W.

    1998-07-01

    The origin of plasma turbulence from currents and spatial gradients in plasmas is described and shown to lead to the dominant transport mechanism in many plasma regimes. A wide variety of turbulent transport mechanism exists in plasmas. In this survey the authors summarize some of the universally observed plasma transport rates

  2. A randomized, controlled, double-blind crossover study on the effects of 1-L infusions of 6% hydroxyethyl starch suspended in 0.9% saline (voluven) and a balanced solution (Plasma Volume Redibag) on blood volume, renal blood flow velocity, and renal cortical tissue perfusion in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Abeed H; Cox, Eleanor F; Francis, Susan T; Lobo, Dileep N

    2014-05-01

    We compared the effects of intravenous administration of 6% hydroxyethyl starch (maize-derived) in 0.9% saline (Voluven; Fresenius Kabi, Runcorn, United Kingdom) and a "balanced" preparation of 6% hydroxyethyl starch (potato-derived) [Plasma Volume Redibag (PVR); Baxter Healthcare, Thetford, United Kingdom] on renal blood flow velocity and renal cortical tissue perfusion in humans using magnetic resonance imaging. Hyperchloremia resulting from 0.9% saline infusion may adversely affect renal hemodynamics when compared with balanced crystalloids. This phenomenon has not been studied with colloids. Twelve healthy adult male subjects received 1-L intravenous infusions of Voluven or PVR over 30 minutes in a randomized, double-blind manner, with crossover studies 7 to 10 days later. Magnetic resonance imaging proceeded for 60 minutes after commencement of infusion to measure renal artery blood flow velocity and renal cortical perfusion. Blood was sampled, and weight was recorded at 0, 30, 60, 120, 180, and 240 minutes. Mean peak serum chloride concentrations were 108 and 106 mmol/L, respectively, after Voluven and PVR infusion (P = 0.032). Changes in blood volume (P = 0.867), strong ion difference (P = 0.219), and mean renal artery flow velocity (P = 0.319) were similar. However, there was a significant increase in mean renal cortical tissue perfusion after PVR when compared with Voluven (P = 0.033). There was no difference in urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated liopcalin to creatinine ratios after the infusion (P = 0.164). There was no difference in the blood volume-expanding properties of the 2 preparations of 6% hydroxyethyl starch. The balanced starch produced an increase in renal cortical tissue perfusion, a phenomenon not seen with starch in 0.9% saline.

  3. Plasma properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weitzner, H.

    1990-06-01

    This paper discusses the following topics: MHD plasma activity: equilibrium, stability and transport; statistical analysis; transport studies; edge physics studies; wave propagation analysis; basic plasma physics and fluid dynamics; space plasma; and numerical methods

  4. Plasma accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bingham, R.; Angelis, U. de; Johnston, T.W.

    1991-01-01

    Recently attention has focused on charged particle acceleration in a plasma by a fast, large amplitude, longitudinal electron plasma wave. The plasma beat wave and plasma wakefield accelerators are two efficient ways of producing ultra-high accelerating gradients. Starting with the plasma beat wave accelerator (PBWA) and laser wakefield accelerator (LWFA) schemes and the plasma wakefield accelerator (PWFA) steady progress has been made in theory, simulations and experiments. Computations are presented for the study of LWFA. (author)

  5. Atmospheric pressure microwave plasma system with ring waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Liang; Zhang Guixin; Zhu Zhijie; Luo Chengmu

    2007-01-01

    Some scientists used waveguide as the cavity to produce a plasma jet, while large volume microwave plasma was relatively hard to get in atmospheric pressure. However, a few research institutes have already developed devices to generate large volume of atmospheric pressure microwave plasma, such as CYRANNUS and SLAN series, which can be widely applied. In this paper, present a microwave plasma system with ring waveguide to excite large volume of atmospheric pressure microwave plasma, plot curves on theoretical disruption electric field of some working gases, emulate the cavity through software, measure the power density to validate and show the appearance of microwave plasma. At present, large volume of argon and helium plasma have already been generated steadily by atmospheric pressure microwave plasma system. This research can build a theoretical basis of microwave plasma excitation under atmospheric pressure and will be useful in study of the device. (authors)

  6. The 26th IEEE international conference on plasma science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Some of the sessions covered by this conference are: Basic Processes in Fully and Partially Ionized Plasmas; Slow Wave Devices; Laser-Produced Plasma; Non-Equilibrium Plasma Processing; Space Plasmas and Partially Ionized Gases; Microwave Plasmas; Inertial Confinement Fusion; Plasma Diagnostics; Computational Plasma Physics; Microwave Systems; Laser Produced Plasmas and Dense Plasma Focus; Intense Electron and Ion Beams; Fast Wave Devices; Spherical Configurations and Ball Lightning; Thermal Plasma Chemistry and Processing and Environmental Issues in Plasma Science; Plasma, Ion, and Electron Sources; Fast Wave Devices and Intense Beams; Fast Z-pinches and X-ray Lasers; Plasma Opening Switches; Plasma for Lighting; Intense Beams; Vacuum Microwaves; Magnetic Fusion Energy; and Plasma Thrusters and Arcs. Separate abstracts were prepared for some of the papers in this volume

  7. Plasma device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thode, L.E.

    1981-01-01

    A method is described for electron beam heating of a high-density plasma to drive a fast liner. An annular or solid relativistic electron beam is used to heat a plasma to kilovolt temperatures through streaming instabilities in the plasma. Energy deposited in the plasma then converges on a fast liner to explosively or ablatively drive the liner to implosion. (U.K.)

  8. Plasma Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubin, D. H. E.

    This chapter explores several aspects of the linear electrostatic normal modes of oscillation for a single-species non-neutral plasma in a Penning trap. Linearized fluid equations of motion are developed, assuming the plasma is cold but collisionless, which allow derivation of the cold plasma dielectric tensor and the electrostatic wave equation. Upper hybrid and magnetized plasma waves in an infinite uniform plasma are described. The effect of the plasma surface in a bounded plasma system is considered, and the properties of surface plasma waves are characterized. The normal modes of a cylindrical plasma column are discussed, and finally, modes of spheroidal plasmas, and finite temperature effects on the modes, are briefly described.

  9. Fuel gas production by microwave plasma in liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nomura, Shinfuku; Toyota, Hiromichi; Tawara, Michinaga; Yamashita, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Kenya

    2006-01-01

    We propose to apply plasma in liquid to replace gas-phase plasma because we expect much higher reaction rates for the chemical deposition of plasma in liquid than for chemical vapor deposition. A reactor for producing microwave plasma in a liquid could produce plasma in hydrocarbon liquids and waste oils. Generated gases consist of up to 81% hydrogen by volume. We confirmed that fuel gases such as methane and ethylene can be produced by microwave plasma in liquid

  10. Molecular Diagnostics of Fusion and Laboratory Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantz, U.

    2005-05-01

    The presence of molecules in the cold scrape-off layer of fusion experiments and industrial plasmas requires an understanding of the molecular dynamics in these low temperature plasmas. Suitable diagnostic methods can provide an insight in molecular processes in the plasma volume as well as for plasma surface interactions. A very simple but powerful technique is the molecular emission spectroscopy. Spectra are obtained easily, whereas interpretation might be very complex and relies on the availability of atomic and molecular data. Examples are given for hydrogen plasmas and plasmas with hydrocarbons which both are of importance in industrial applications as well as in fusion experiments.

  11. Molecular Diagnostics of Fusion and Laboratory Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fantz, U.

    2005-01-01

    The presence of molecules in the cold scrape-off layer of fusion experiments and industrial plasmas requires an understanding of the molecular dynamics in these low temperature plasmas. Suitable diagnostic methods can provide an insight in molecular processes in the plasma volume as well as for plasma surface interactions. A very simple but powerful technique is the molecular emission spectroscopy. Spectra are obtained easily, whereas interpretation might be very complex and relies on the availability of atomic and molecular data. Examples are given for hydrogen plasmas and plasmas with hydrocarbons which both are of importance in industrial applications as well as in fusion experiments

  12. Selective response of human airway epithelia to luminal but not serosal solution hypertonicity. Possible role for proximal airway epithelia as an osmolality transducer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willumsen, Niels J.; Davis, C.W.; Boucher, R.C.

    1994-01-01

    exposure (10 min) to 430 mosM luminal solution elicited no regulation of any parameter. Optical measurements revealed a reduction in the thickness of preparations only in response to luminal hypertonic solutions. We conclude that (a) airway epithelial cells exhibit asymmetric water transport properties......- secretion; and (d) cell volume loss increases the resistance of the paracellular path. We speculate that these properties configure human nasal epithelium to behave as an osmotic sensor, transducing information about luminal solutions to the airway wall....

  13. Plasma centrifuges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karchevskij, A.I.; Potanin, E.P.

    2000-01-01

    The review of the most important studies on the isotope separation processes in the rotating plasma is presented. The device is described and the characteristics of operation of the pulse plasma centrifuges with weakly and strongly ionized plasma as well as the stationary plasma centrifuges with the medium weak ionization and devices, applying the stationary vacuum arc with the high ionization rate and the stationary beam-plasma discharge with complete ionization, are presented. The possible mechanisms of the isotope separation in plasma centrifuges are considered. The specific energy consumption for isotope separation in these devices is discussed [ru

  14. Plasma astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Kaplan, S A; ter Haar, D

    2013-01-01

    Plasma Astrophysics is a translation from the Russian language; the topics discussed are based on lectures given by V.N. Tsytovich at several universities. The book describes the physics of the various phenomena and their mathematical formulation connected with plasma astrophysics. This book also explains the theory of the interaction of fast particles plasma, their radiation activities, as well as the plasma behavior when exposed to a very strong magnetic field. The text describes the nature of collective plasma processes and of plasma turbulence. One author explains the method of elementary

  15. Plasma waves

    CERN Document Server

    Swanson, DG

    1989-01-01

    Plasma Waves discusses the basic development and equations for the many aspects of plasma waves. The book is organized into two major parts, examining both linear and nonlinear plasma waves in the eight chapters it encompasses. After briefly discussing the properties and applications of plasma wave, the book goes on examining the wave types in a cold, magnetized plasma and the general forms of the dispersion relation that characterize the waves and label the various types of solutions. Chapters 3 and 4 analyze the acoustic phenomena through the fluid model of plasma and the kinetic effects. Th

  16. Atmospheric pressure plasma processing of polymeric materials utilizing close proximity indirect exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulauskas, Felix L.; Bonds, Truman

    2016-09-20

    A plasma treatment method that includes providing treatment chamber including an intermediate heating volume and an interior treatment volume. The interior treatment volume contains an electrode assembly for generating a plasma and the intermediate heating volume heats the interior treatment volume. A work piece is traversed through the treatment chamber. A process gas is introduced to the interior treatment volume of the treatment chamber. A plasma is formed with the electrode assembly from the process gas, wherein a reactive species of the plasma is accelerated towards the fiber tow by flow vortices produced in the interior treatment volume by the electrode assembly.

  17. Plasma device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thode, L.E.

    1981-01-01

    A method is described of providing electron beam heating of a high-density plasma to drive a fast liner to implode a structured microsphere. An annular relativistic electron beam is used to heat an annular plasma to kilovolt temperatures through streaming instabilities in the plasma. Energy deposited in the annular plasma then converges on a fast liner to explosively or ablatively drive the liner to convergence to implode the structured microsphere. (U.K.)

  18. Quark-Gluon Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    1990-01-01

    This volume contains 14 review articles on the theory and phenomenology of the creation and diagnosis of quark-gluon plasma. They are written by active investigators of in the various research topics, which range from the QCD foundation through transport theory and thermalization models to the examination of possible signatures. The monograph should be useful not only to the experienced researchers in the subject but also to newcomers.

  19. EDITORIAL: Plasma jets and plasma bullets Plasma jets and plasma bullets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, M. G.; Ganguly, B. N.; Hicks, R. F.

    2012-06-01

    technological solution in the early to late 1990s of confining atmospheric plasmas in a small volume of plasma generation (i.e. with a small volume-to-surface ratio) and then extending it towards a downstream sample [7]-[9]. These are among the first low-temperature atmospheric plasmas aimed particularly at the exploitation of their ability to invoke the active and rich reactive chemistry close to ambient temperature. The main applications of these early devices are precision surface modification of low-temperature dielectric materials, for example thin film deposition and etching [7]-[9]. Variations of the early plasma jets include atmospheric plasma sheet jets [10] for the treatment of largely planar objects (e.g. polymeric sheets) as well as large arrays of many plasma jets for the treatment of complex-structured objects (e.g. surgical tools and open human wounds) [11]. As a material processing technology, the sub-100oC atmospheric-pressure plasma jet has benefited over the years from many innovations. Whilst a detailed account and analysis of these is clearly outside the scope of this Editorial, it is worth stating that there are different avenues with which to maintain a moderate electron density at the plasma core so as to keep the gas temperature at the sample point below a ceiling level. Most of the early studies employed excitation at radio frequencies above 10 MHz, at which electrons are largely confined in the plasma generation region, and this limits the current flow to and gas heating in the plume region of the plasma jet. Other techniques of current limitation have since been shown to be effective, including the use of dielectric barriers across a very large frequency range of 1 kHz--50 MHz, sub-microsecond pulses sustained at kHz frequencies, pulse-modulated radio frequencies and dual-frequency excitation [12]-[15]. These and other techniques have considerably advanced the atmospheric-pressure plasma jet technology. The period of some 15 years since the above

  20. Effects of multiple collections on spermatozoa quality of Persian sturgeon, Acipenser persicus: motility, density and seminal plasma composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aramli, M S; Kalbassi, M R; Gharibi, M R

    2015-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of multiple collections of sperm on the endangered Persian sturgeon, Acipenser persicus, in terms of a number of sperm functional parameters (percentage of motile spermatozoa, total time period of motility and sperm concentration) as well as on the ionic composition, protein concentration and osmolality of seminal plasma. Semen samples were collected from 12 induced male fish in three experimental groups that had been injected intramuscularly with LHRH-A2, at dosages of 5 μg/kg body weight, at a number of time regimes: at 12 h, 17 h and 24 h after spawning induction (1); at 24, 29 and 34 h after spawning induction (2); and at 36, 41 and 46 h after spawning induction (3). The percentage of motile spermatozoa and the period of sperm motility decreased significantly (p collections. The concentration of spermatozoa decreased after the third collection, but this decline was not significant. No significant effect of multiple collections on protein concentration and ionic content (with exception of the Cl(-) ion) of seminal plasma was observed. In all experimental groups, a moderate impact of sequential collection on the osmolality (p collections on spermatological characteristics in the Persian sturgeon. Our results confirm that sequential stripping after the third collections has a negative effect on a number of functional parameters associated with sperm. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation of young post-pubertal dairy bulls alters the fatty acid composition of seminal plasma and spermatozoa but has no effect on semen volume or sperm quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, C J; Fair, S; English, A M; Holden, S A; Dick, J R; Lonergan, P; Kenny, D A

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of dietary supplementation with rumen protected n-6 or n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on the quantity and quality of semen from young post-pubertal dairy bulls. Pubertal Holstein-Friesian (n = 43) and Jersey (n = 7) bulls with a mean ± s.e.m. age and bodyweight of 420.1 ± 5.86 days and 382 ± 8.94 kg, respectively, were blocked on breed, weight, age and semen quality (based on the outcomes of two pre-trial ejaculates) and randomly assigned to one of three treatments: (i) a non-supplemented control (CTL, n = 15), (ii) rumen-protected safflower (SO, n = 15), (iii) rumen-protected n-3 PUFA-enriched fish oil (FO, n = 20). Bulls were fed their respective diets, ad libitum for 12 weeks; individual intakes were recorded using an electronic feeding system for the initial 6 weeks of the feeding period. Semen was collected via electro-ejaculation at weeks -2, -1, 0, 7, 10, 11 and 12 relative to the beginning of the trial period (week 0). On collection, semen volume, sperm concentration and progressive linear motility (PLM) were assessed. On weeks -2, -1, 0, 10, 11, 12, semen was packaged into 0.25 mL straws and frozen using a programmable freezer. On weeks -1, 7 and 11; a sub-sample of semen was separated into sperm and seminal plasma, by centrifugation and stored at - 20 °C until analysis of lipid composition. Semen from 10 bulls per treatment were used for post-thaw analysis at weeks 10, 11 and 12 (3 straws per ejaculate). Sperm motility was analysed by computer assisted semen analysis (CASA). In addition, membrane fluidity, acrosome reaction and oxidative stress were assessed using flow cytometry. Sperm from bulls fed SO had a 1.2 fold higher total n-6 PUFA content at week 11 compared to week -1 (P semen volume, concentration or PLM of sperm when assessed either immediately following collection or post-thawing. Membrane fluidity and oxidative stress of sperm were also not affected by

  2. Dusty plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, M.E.; Winske, D.; Keinigs, R.; Lemons, D.

    1996-01-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this project has been to develop a fundamental understanding of dusty plasmas at the Laboratory. While dusty plasmas are found in space in galactic clouds, planetary rings, and cometary tails, and as contaminants in plasma enhanced fabrication of microelectronics, many of their properties are only partially understood. Our work has involved both theoretical analysis and self-consistent plasma simulations to understand basic properties of dusty plasmas related to equilibrium, stability, and transport. Such an understanding can improve the control and elimination of plasma dust in industrial applications and may be important in the study of planetary rings and comet dust tails. We have applied our techniques to the study of charging, dynamics, and coagulation of contaminants in plasma processing reactors for industrial etching and deposition processes and to instabilities in planetary rings and other space plasma environments. The work performed in this project has application to plasma kinetics, transport, and other classical elementary processes in plasmas as well as to plasma waves, oscillations, and instabilities

  3. Plasma chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    This book examines the fundamental theory and various applications of ion mobility spectroscopy. Plasma chromatography developed from research on the diffusion and mobility of ions. Topics considered include instrument design and description (e.g., performance, spectral interpretation, sample handling, mass spectrometry), the role of ion mobility in plasma chromatography (e.g., kinetic theory of ion transport), atmospheric pressure ionization (e.g., rate equations), the characterization of isomers by plasma chromatography (e.g., molecular ion characteristics, polynuclear aromatics), plasma chromatography as a gas chromatographic detection method (e.g., qualitative analysis, continuous mobility monitoring, quantitative analysis), the analysis of toxic vapors by plasma chromatography (e.g., plasma chromatograph calibration, instrument control and data processing), the analysis of semiconductor devices and microelectronic packages by plasma chromatography/mass spectroscopy (e.g., analysis of organic surface contaminants, analysis of water in sealed electronic packages), and instrument design and automation (hardware, software)

  4. Semiconductor applications of plasma immersion ion implantation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science; Volume 25; Issue 6. Semiconductor applications of plasma immersion ion implantation technology ... Department of Electronic Science, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra 136 119, India ...

  5. Controlled fusion and plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This document presents the several speeches that took place during the 22nd European Physical Society conference on Controlled Fusion and Plasma Physics in Bournemouth, UK, between the 2nd and 7th July 1995. The talks deal with new experiments carried out on several tokamaks, particularly Tore Supra, concerning plasma confinement and fusion. Some information on specific fusion devices or tokamak devices is provided, as well as results of experiments concerning plasma instability. Separate abstracts were prepared for all the 31 papers in this volume. (TEC)

  6. Controlled fusion and plasma physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    This document presents the several speeches that took place during the 22nd European Physical Society conference on Controlled Fusion and Plasma Physics in Bournemouth, UK, between the 2nd and 7th July 1995. The talks deal with new experiments carried out on several tokamaks, particularly Tore Supra, concerning plasma confinement and fusion. Some information on specific fusion devices or tokamak devices is provided, as well as results of experiments concerning plasma instability. Separate abstracts were prepared for all the 31 papers in this volume. (TEC).

  7. Controlled fusion and plasma physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    This document presents the several speeches that took place during the 22nd European Physical Society conference on Controlled Fusion and Plasma Physics in Bournemouth, UK, between the 2nd and 7th July 1995. The talks deal with new experiments carried out on several tokamaks, particularly Tore Supra, concerning plasma confinement and fusion. Some information on specific fusion devices or tokamak devices is provided, as well as results of experiments concerning plasma instability. Separate abstracts were prepared for all the 31 papers in this volume. (TEC).

  8. The physics of non-ideal plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Fortov, Vladimir E

    2000-01-01

    This book is devoted to the physical properties of nonideal plasma which is compressed so strongly that the effects of interparticle interactions govern the plasma behavior. The interest in this plasma was generated by the development of modern technologies and facilities whose operations were based on high densities of energy. In this volume, the methods of nonideal plasma generation and diagnostics are considered. The experimental results are given and the main theoretical models of nonideal plasma state are discussed. The problems of thermodynamics, electro-physics, optics and dynamic stabi

  9. Plasma generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omichi, Takeo; Yamanaka, Toshiyuki.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To recycle a coolant in a sealed hollow portion formed interiorly of a plasma limiter itself to thereby to cause direct contact between the coolant and the plasma limiter and increase of contact area therebetween to cool the plasma limiter. Structure: The heat resulting from plasma generated during operation and applied to the body of the plasma limiter is transmitted to the coolant, which recycles through an inlet and outlet pipe, an inlet and outlet nozzle and a hollow portion to hold the plasma limiter at a level less than a predetermined temperature. On the other hand, the heater wire is, at the time of emergency operation, energized to heat the plasma limiter, but this heat is transmitted to the limiter body to increase the temperature thereof. However, the coolant recycling the hollow portion comes into direct contact with the limiter body, and since the plasma limiter surround the hollow portion, the heat amount transmitted from the limiter body to the coolant increases to sufficiently cool the plasma limiter. (Yoshihara, H.)

  10. Bridge between fusion plasma and plasma processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Noriyasu; Takamura, Shuichi

    2008-01-01

    In the present review, relationship between fusion plasma and processing plasma is discussed. From boundary-plasma studies in fusion devices new applications such as high-density plasma sources, erosion of graphite in a hydrogen plasma, formation of helium bubbles in high-melting-point metals and the use of toroidal plasmas for plasma processing are emerging. The authors would like to discuss a possibility of knowledge transfer from fusion plasmas to processing plasmas. (T. Ikehata)

  11. Quark-gluon plasma 2

    CERN Document Server

    1995-01-01

    This is a sequel to the review volume Quark-Gluon Plasma. There are 13 articles contributed by leading investigators in the field, covering a wide range of topics about the theoretical approach to the subject. These contributions are timely reviews of nearly all the actively pursued problems, written in a pedagogical style suitable for beginners as well as experienced researchers.

  12. Plasma waves

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Swanson, D. G

    1989-01-01

    ... Swanson, D.G. (Donald Gary), D a t e - Plasma waves. Bibliography: p. Includes index. 1. Plasma waves. QC718.5.W3S43 1989 ISBN 0-12-678955-X I. Title. 530.4'4 88-34388 Printed in the United Sta...

  13. Plasma properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weitzner, H.

    1991-06-01

    The Magneto-Fluid Dynamics Division continues to study a broad range of problems originating in plasma physics. Its principal focus is fusion plasma physics, and most particularly topics of particular significance for the world magnetic fusion program. During the calendar year 1990 we explored a wide range of topics including RF-induced transport as a plasma control mechanism, edge plasma modelling, further statistical analysis of L and H mode tokamak plasmas, antenna design, simulation of the edge of a tokamak plasma and the L-H transition, interpretation of the CCT experimental results at UCLA, turbulent transport, studies in chaos, the validity of moment approximations to kinetic equations and improved neoclassical modelling. In more basic studies we examined the statistical mechanisms of Coulomb systems and applied plasma ballooning mode theory to conventional fluids in order to obtain novel fluid dynamics stability results. In space plasma physics we examined the problem of reconnection, the effect of Alfven waves in space environments, and correct formulation of boundary conditions of the Earth for waves in the ionosphere

  14. Plasma container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebisawa, Katsuyuki.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To enable to easily detect that the thickness of material to be abraded is reduced to an allowable limit from the outerside of the plasma container even during usual operation in a plasma vessel for a thermonuclear device. Constitution: A labelled material is disposed to the inside or rear face of constituent members of a plasma container undergoing the irradiation of plasma particles. A limiter plate to be abraded in the plasma container is composed of an armour member and heat removing plate, in which the armour member is made of graphite and heat-removing plate is made of copper. If the armour member is continuously abraded under the effect of sputtering due to plasma particles, silicon nitride embedded so far in the graphite at last appears on the surface of the limiter plate to undergo the impact shocks of the plasma particles. Accordingly, abrasion of the limiter material can be detected by a detector comprising gas chromatography and it can easily be detected from the outside of the plasma content even during normal operation. (Horiuchi, T.)

  15. Cosmic plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfven, H [California Univ., San Diego, La Jolla (USA)

    1981-01-01

    The properties of space plasmas are analyzed, based on laboratory results and data obtained by in situ measurements in the magnetosphere (including the heliosphere). Attention is given to the question of how much knowledge can be gained by a systematic comparison of different regions of plasma, and plasmas are considered with linear dimensions varying from laboratory size up to the Hubble distance. The traditional magnetic field description of plasmas is supplemented by an electric current description and it is demonstrated that many problems are easier to understand with a dualistic approach. Using the general plasma properties obtained, the origin and evolution of the solar system is summarized and the evolution and present structure of the universe (cosmology) is discussed.

  16. Plasma device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thode, L.E.

    1981-01-01

    A relativistic electron beam generator or accelerator produces a high-voltage electron beam which is modulated to initiate electron bunching within the beam which is then applied to a high-density target plasma which typically comprises DT, DD, or similar thermonuclear gas at a density of 10 17 to 10 20 electrons per cubic centimeter. As a result, relativistic streaming instabilities are initiated within the high-density target plasma causing the relativistic electron beam to efficiently deposit its energy into a small localized region of the high-density plasma target. The high-temperature plasma can be used to heat a high Z material to generate radiation. Alternatively, a tunable radiation source is produced by using a moderate Z gas or a mixture of high Z and low Z gas as the target plasma. (author)

  17. Blood volume studies in chronic renal failure using radioactive 51Cr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chadda, V.S.; Mehta, S.R.; Mathur, D.

    1975-01-01

    Estimation of blood volume was carried out in 20 healthy subjects and in 25 patients suffering from chronic renal failure using radioactive 51 Cr. A detailed history, physical examination and investigations were also undertaken. On statistical evaluation, the red cell volume was diminished significantly in males and females but rise in blood volume was insignificant. Plasma volume was raised significantly in females but was insignificant in males. The reduction in red cell volume is due to reduced red cell mass because of chronic renal disease. Plasma volume may be elevated in order to compensate for decreased red cell volume. The variability in these two parameters results in variable blood volume. (author)

  18. Superconducting plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnuma, Toshiro; Ohno, J.

    1994-01-01

    Superconducting (SC) plasmas are proposed and investigated. The SC plasmas are not yet familiar and have not yet been studied. However, the existence and the importance of SC plasmas are stressed in this report. The existence of SC plasmas are found as follows. There is a fundamental property of Meissner effect in superconductors, which shows a repulsive effect of magnetic fields. Even in that case, in a microscopic view, there is a region of magnetic penetration. The penetration length λ is well-known as London's penetration depth, which is expressed as δ = (m s /μ 0 n s q s 2 ) 1/2 where m s , n s , q s and μ o show the mass, the density, the charge of SC electron and the permeability in free space, respectively. Because this expression is very simple, no one had tried it into more simple and meaningful form. Recently, one of the authors (T.O.) has found that the length can be expressed into more simple and understandable fundamental form as λ = c/ω ps where c = (ε 0 μ 0 ) -1/2 and ω ps = (n s q s 2 /m s ε 0 ) 1/2 are the light velocity and the superconducting plasma frequency. From this simple expression, the penetration depth of the magnetic field to SC is found as a SC plasma skin depth, that is, the fundamental property of SC can be expressed by the SC plasmas. This discovery indicates an importance of the studies of superconducting plasmas. From these points, several properties (propagating modes et al) of SC plasmas, which consist of SC electrons, normal electrons and lattice ions, are investigated in this report. Observations of SC plasma frequency is also reported with a use of Terahertz electromagnet-optical waves

  19. Paper-based plasma sanitizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jingjin; Chen, Qiang; Suresh, Poornima; Roy, Subrata; White, James F; Mazzeo, Aaron D

    2017-05-16

    This work describes disposable plasma generators made from metallized paper. The fabricated plasma generators with layered and patterned sheets of paper provide a simple and flexible format for dielectric barrier discharge to create atmospheric plasma without an applied vacuum. The porosity of paper allows gas to permeate its bulk volume and fuel plasma, while plasma-induced forced convection cools the substrate. When electrically driven with oscillating peak-to-peak potentials of ±1 to ±10 kV, the paper-based devices produced both volume and surface plasmas capable of killing microbes. The plasma sanitizers deactivated greater than 99% of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and greater than 99.9% of Escherichia coli cells with 30 s of noncontact treatment. Characterization of plasma generated from the sanitizers revealed a detectable level of UV-C (1.9 nW⋅cm -2 ⋅nm -1 ), modest surface temperature (60 °C with 60 s of activation), and a high level of ozone (13 ppm with 60 s of activation). These results deliver insights into the mechanisms and suitability of paper-based substrates for active antimicrobial sanitization with scalable, flexible sheets. In addition, this work shows how paper-based generators are conformable to curved surfaces, appropriate for kirigami-like "stretchy" structures, compatible with user interfaces, and suitable for sanitization of microbes aerosolized onto a surface. In general, these disposable plasma generators represent progress toward biodegradable devices based on flexible renewable materials, which may impact the future design of protective garments, skin-like sensors for robots or prosthetics, and user interfaces in contaminated environments.

  20. Plasma universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfven, H.

    1986-04-01

    Traditionally the views in our cosmic environment have been based on observations in the visual octave of the electromagnetic spectrum, during the last half-century supplemented by infrared and radio observations. Space research has opened the full spectrum. Of special importance are the X-ray-gamma-ray regions, in which a number of unexpected phenomena have been discovered. Radiations in these regions are likely to originate mainly from magnetised cosmic plasma. Such a medium may also emit synchrotron radiation which is observable in the radio region. If we try to base a model of the universe on the plasma phenomena mentioned we find that the plasma universe is drastically different from the traditional visual universe. Information about the plasma universe can also be obtained by extrapolation of laboratory experiments and magnetospheric in situ measurements of plasma. This approach is possible because it is likely that the basic properties of plasma are the same everywhere. In order to test the usefulness of the plasma universe model we apply it to cosmogony. Such an approach seems to be rather successful. For example, the complicated structure of the Saturnian C ring can be accounted for. It is possible to reconstruct certain phenomena 4-5 bilions years ago with an accuracy of better than 1 percent

  1. Plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This report contains the papers delivered at the AEB - Natal University summer school on plasma physics held in Durban during January 1979. The following topics were discussed: Tokamak devices; MHD stability; trapped particles in tori; Tokamak results and experiments; operating regime of the AEB Tokamak; Tokamak equilibrium; high beta Tokamak equilibria; ideal Tokamak stability; resistive MHD instabilities; Tokamak diagnostics; Tokamak control and data acquisition; feedback control of Tokamaks; heating and refuelling; neutral beam injection; radio frequency heating; nonlinear drift wave induced plasma transport; toroidal plasma boundary layers; microinstabilities and injected beams and quasilinear theory of the ion acoustic instability

  2. Plasma centrifuge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikehata, Takashi; Mase, Hiroshi

    1998-01-01

    The plasma centrifuge is one of statistical isotope separation processes which uses the centrifugal force of a J x B driven rotating plasma in a magnetic field to give rise to the mass-dependent radial transport of isotopic ions. The system has been developed as an alternative to the gas centrifuge because a much higher rotational velocity and separation factor have been achieved. In this review, the physical aspects of the plasma centrifuge followed by the recent experimental achievements are described, especially in comparison with the gas centrifuge. (author)

  3. TMX-U [Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade]: Final report, Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, G.D.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses the plasma control and the physics accomplishments of the Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade. This particular volume discusses fueling, ion heating, Fokker-Planck modeling, plasma stability and technical development. 270 refs

  4. TMX-U [Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade]: Final report, Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, G.D.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses the plasma control and the physics accomplishments of the Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade. This particular volume discusses potential measurements, plasma confinement, and hot electron and ion physics. 230 refs

  5. Plasma Cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintze, Paul E.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Kennedy Space Center has developed two solvent-free precision cleaning techniques: plasma cleaning and supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2), that has equal performance, cost parity, and no environmental liability, as compared to existing solvent cleaning methods.

  6. Laser Plasmas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    -focusing in a plasma ... Center for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi 110 016, India; Tata Consultancy Services, Gurgaon, India; Ideal Institute of Technology, Ghaziabad, India; Center for Research in Cognitive, ...

  7. Plasma will…

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lunov, Oleg

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 174, č. 3 (2016), s. 486-487 ISSN 0007-0963 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : plasma * ionized gas Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics OBOR OECD: Biophysics Impact factor: 4.706, year: 2016

  8. Plasma technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drouet, M.G.

    1984-03-01

    IREQ was contracted by the Canadian Electrical Association to review plasma technology and assess the potential for application of this technology in Canada. A team of experts in the various aspects of this technology was assembled and each team member was asked to contribute to this report on the applications of plasma pertinent to his or her particular field of expertise. The following areas were examined in detail: iron, steel and strategic-metals production; surface treatment by spraying; welding and cutting; chemical processing; drying; and low-temperature treatment. A large market for the penetration of electricity has been identified. To build up confidence in the technology, support should be provided for selected R and D projects, plasma torch demonstrations at full power, and large-scale plasma process testing

  9. Plasma metallization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowther, J.M.

    1997-09-01

    Many methods are currently used for the production of thin metal films. However, all of these have drawbacks associated with them, for example the need for UHV conditions, high temperatures, exotic metal precursors, or the inability to coat complex shaped objects. Reduction of supported metal salts by non-isothermal plasma treatment does not suffer from these drawbacks. In order to produce and analyse metal films before they become contaminated, a plasma chamber which could be attached directly to a UHV chamber with XPS capability was designed and built. This allowed plasma treatment of supported metal salts and surface analysis by XPS to be performed without exposure of the metal film to the atmosphere. Non-equilibrium plasma treatment of Nylon 66 supported gold(lll) chloride using hydrogen as the feed gas resulted in a 95% pure gold film, the remaining 5% of the film being carbon. If argon or helium were used as the feed gases during plasma treatment the resultant gold films were 100% pure. Some degree of surface contamination of the films due to plasma treatment was observed but was easily removed by argon ion cleaning. Hydrogen plasma reduction of glass supported silver(l) nitrate and palladium(ll) acetate films reveals that this metallization technique is applicable to a wide variety of metal salts and supports, and has also shown the ability of plasma reduction to retain the complex 'fern-like' structures seen for spin coated silver(l) nitrate layers. Some metal salts are susceptible to decomposition by X-rays. The reduction of Nylon 66 supported gold(lll) chloride films by soft X-rays to produce nanoscopic gold particles has been studied. The spontaneous reduction of these X-ray irradiated support gold(lll) chloride films on exposure to the atmosphere to produce gold rich metallic films has also been reported. (author)

  10. Plasma Diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaveryaev, V [Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); others, and

    2012-09-15

    The success in achieving peaceful fusion power depends on the ability to control a high temperature plasma, which is an object with unique properties, possibly the most complicated object created by humans. Over years of fusion research a new branch of science has been created, namely plasma diagnostics, which involves knowledge of almost all fields of physics, from electromagnetism to nuclear physics, and up-to-date progress in engineering and technology (materials, electronics, mathematical methods of data treatment). Historically, work on controlled fusion started with pulsed systems and accordingly the methods of plasma parameter measurement were first developed for short lived and dense plasmas. Magnetically confined hot plasmas require the creation of special experimental techniques for diagnostics. The diagnostic set is the most scientifically intensive part of a plasma device. During many years of research operation some scientific tasks have been solved while new ones arose. New tasks often require significant changes in the diagnostic system, which is thus a very flexible part of plasma machines. Diagnostic systems are designed to solve several tasks. As an example here are the diagnostic tasks for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor - ITER: (1) Measurements for machine protection and basic control; (2) Measurements for advanced control; (3) Additional measurements for performance evaluation and physics. Every new plasma machine is a further step along the path to the main goal - controlled fusion - and nobody knows in advance what new phenomena will be met on the way. So in the planning of diagnostic construction we should keep in mind further system upgrading to meet possible new scientific and technical challenges. (author)

  11. Plasma opening switch experiments on supermite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendel, C.W.; Quintenz, J.P.; Rosenthal, S.E.; Savage, M.E.

    1988-01-01

    Experiments using plasma opening switches with fast field coils and plasmas injected on slow magnetic fields are described. Data showing the measurement of the field penetration into the volume that initially held the plasma fill will be shown. Assuming the plasma is mostly pushed back from the coil, rather than being penetrated by the magnetic field allows the density to be calculated, and gives densities of a few times 10 13 cm -3 for our usual operating range. The data makes it clear that the switch is open well before the initial plasma volume is completely penetrated by the magnetic fields. Additional measurements relating to the magnetic field penetration distance and physical penetration mechanism are presented. Other data presented show a magnetic insulation problem which must be solved before very large voltage multiplication can be accomplished with sufficient switch efficiency

  12. Production of a rapidly rotating plasma by cross-field injection of gun-produced plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohzu, Akira; Ikehata, Takashi; Tanabe, Toshio; Mase, Hiroshi

    1984-01-01

    Cross-field plasma injection with use of a JxB plasma gun is described as a method to produce rapidly rotating plasma in a crossed electric and magnetic field system. The rotational velocity of the plasma is seriously limited by neutrals surrounding the plasma through strong interactions at the boundary layer. The concentration of neutrals can be reduced by the injection of fully or partially ionized plasma into the discharge volume instead of filling the volume with an operating gas. With use of this method, it is observed that the rotational velocity increases by a factor of 2 to 3 when compared with the conventional method of stationary gas-filling. (author)

  13. Radiology today. Volume 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuck, F.H.W.; Donner, M.W.

    1987-01-01

    The book discusses the following contents: Advances in Cardiovascular Imaging: Digital Arteriography: Ongoing Developments. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Cardiovascular System. Comparison of Vascular CT and MRI. Characterization of Vascular Lesions by Ultrasound - Progress in Vascular Interventions: Laser Angioplasty: A Review. Fibrinolytic Therapy Combined with Clot Extraction. Drugs Useful in Angioplasty. Developments in Cardiovascular Imaging: Blood Flow Measurements with Digital Arteriography. Selection of Imaging Techniques for Venous Thromboembolic Disease. Clinical Usefulness of High-Verus Low-Osmolality Contrast Agents. Developments in Angiographic and Interventional Instrumentation. Progress in Cardiovascular Interventions. Inferior Vena Cava Filters: Types, Placement, and Efficiency. Transluminal Vascular Stenting and Grafting. Venography and Sclerotherapy of Varioceles in Children and Adolescents. A New Catheter System - Important Hip Problems: Radiologic and Pathologic Correlation and Hip Disease. Comparison of Imaging Modalities in Femoral Head Necrosis. Osteoartrosis and Arthritis (Synovitis) of the Hip. Hip Anthrography

  14. Transport of high fluxes of hydrogen plasma in a linear plasma generator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vijvers, W.A.J.; Al, R.S.; Lopes Cardozo, N.J.; Goedheer, W.J.; Groot, de B.; Kleyn, A.W.; Meiden, van der H.J.; Peppel, van de R.J.E.; Schram, D.C.; Shumack, A.E.; Westerhout, J.; Rooij, van G.J.; Schmidt, J.; Simek, M.; Pekarek, S.; Prukner, V.

    2007-01-01

    A study was made to quantify the losses during the convective hydrogen plasma transport in the linear plasma generator Pilot-PSI due to volume recombination. A transport efficiency of 35% was achieved at neutral background pressures below ~7 Pa in a magnetic field of 1.2 T. This efficiency decreased

  15. Radioimmunoassay of sodium cromoglycate in human plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, K; Gardner, J J; Lockley, W J.S.; Preston, J R; Wilkinson, D J [Fisons plc, Loughborough (UK). Pharmaceutical Div.

    1983-01-01

    A sensitive radioimmunoassay method for sodium cromoglycate in human plasma is described. The lowest quantifiable concentration of sodium cromoglycate is 0.93 nmol/l when 0.1 ml plasma samples are analysed. The range of the method is limited; both 0.01 and 0.1 ml volumes of plasma must be analysed to encompass the concentration range 0.93-139 nmol/l which may be encountered in plasma samples from patients and human volunteers. The method is specific for sodium cromoglycate as indicated by a low cross-reactivity of the anti-cromoglycate antiserum with a number of drugs.

  16. Plasmas applied atomic collision physics, v.2

    CERN Document Server

    Barnett, C F

    1984-01-01

    Applied Atomic Collision Physics, Volume 2: Plasmas covers topics on magnetically confined plasmas. The book starts by providing the history of fusion research and describing the various approaches in both magnetically and inertially confined plasmas. The text then gives a general discussion of the basic concepts and properties in confinement and heating of a plasma. The theory of atomic collisions that result in excited quantum states, particularly highly ionized impurity atoms; and diverse diagnostic topics such as emission spectra, laser scattering, electron cyclotron emission, particle bea

  17. Metrics for comparing plasma mass filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fetterman, Abraham J.; Fisch, Nathaniel J. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    High-throughput mass separation of nuclear waste may be useful for optimal storage, disposal, or environmental remediation. The most dangerous part of nuclear waste is the fission product, which produces most of the heat and medium-term radiation. Plasmas are well-suited to separating nuclear waste because they can separate many different species in a single step. A number of plasma devices have been designed for such mass separation, but there has been no standardized comparison between these devices. We define a standard metric, the separative power per unit volume, and derive it for three different plasma mass filters: the plasma centrifuge, Ohkawa filter, and the magnetic centrifugal mass filter.

  18. Metrics for comparing plasma mass filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fetterman, Abraham J.; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2011-01-01

    High-throughput mass separation of nuclear waste may be useful for optimal storage, disposal, or environmental remediation. The most dangerous part of nuclear waste is the fission product, which produces most of the heat and medium-term radiation. Plasmas are well-suited to separating nuclear waste because they can separate many different species in a single step. A number of plasma devices have been designed for such mass separation, but there has been no standardized comparison between these devices. We define a standard metric, the separative power per unit volume, and derive it for three different plasma mass filters: the plasma centrifuge, Ohkawa filter, and the magnetic centrifugal mass filter.

  19. BNL volume H- source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prelec, K.; Alessi, J.G.

    1991-01-01

    The volume H minus ion source under development at Brookhaven is unique in that it has a toroidal plasma region, which feeds ions into the central extraction region through a conically shaped filter field. In pulsed operation, it produced 25 mA of H minus in a 1 cm 2 aperture, with an electron-to-H minus ratio of ∼ 3. At 19 mA, a normalized, 90% emittance of 0.44 π mm-mrad has been measured. Up to 50 mA has been extracted through a 1.87 cm 2 aperture. Although not designed for steady state operation, up to 6 mA has been extracted d.c. The addition of xenon to the discharge was found to improve the source output by 20--70%. The circular magnetic cusp field geometry was found to be more favorable than radial cusp fields. 4 refs., 5 figs

  20. Cold plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franz, G.

    1990-01-01

    This textbook discusses the following topics: Phenomenological description of a direct current glow discharge; the plasma (temperature distribution and measurement, potential variation, electron energy distribution function, charge neutralization, wall potentials, plasma oscillations); Production of charge carriers (ions, electrons, ionization in the cathode zone, negative glowing zone, Faraday dark space, positive column, anode zone, hollow cathode discharges); RF-discharges (charge carrier production, RF-Shields, scattering mechanisms); Sputtering (ion-surface interaction, kinetics, sputtering yield and energy distribution, systems and conditions, film formation and stresses, contamination, bias techniques, multicomponent film deposition, cohesion, magnetrons, triode systems, plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition); Dry etching (sputter etching, reactive etching, topography, process control, quantitative investigations); Etching mechanisms (etching of Si and SiO 2 with CF 4 , of III/V-compound-semiconductors, combination of isotrope and anisotrope etching methods, surface cleaning); ion beam systems (applications, etching); Dyclotron-resonance-systems (electron cyclotron resonance systems, whistler-sources and 'resonant inductive plasma etching'); Appendix (electron energy distribution functions, Bohm's transition zone, plasma oscillations, scattering cross sections and mean free path, metastable states, Child-Langmuir-Schottky equation, loss mechanisms, charge carrier distribution in the positive column, breakdown at high frequencies, motion in a magnetic field, skin depth of an electric field for a HF-discharge, whistler waves, dispersion relations for plane wave propagation). (orig.) With 138 figs

  1. Plasma heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelm, R.

    1989-01-01

    Successful plasma heating is essential in present fusion experiments, for the demonstration of DpT burn in future devices and finally for the fusion reactor itself. This paper discusses the common heating systems with respect to their present performance and their applicability to future fusion devices. The comparative discussion is oriented to the various function of heating, which are: - plasma heating to fusion-relevant parameters and to ignition in future machines, -non-inductive, steady-pstate current drive, - plasma profile control, -neutral gas breakdown and plasma build-up. In view of these different functions, the potential of neutral beam injection (NBI) and the various schemes of wave heating (ECRH, LH, ICRH and Alven wave heating) is analyzed in more detail. The analysis includes assessments of the present physical and technical state of these heating methods, and makes suggestions for future developments and about outstanding problems. Specific attention is given to the still critical problem of efficient current drive, especially with respect to further extrapolation towards an economically operating tokamak reactor. Remarks on issues such as reliability, maintenance and economy conclude this comparative overview on plasma heating systems. (author). 43 refs.; 13 figs.; 3 tabs

  2. A semi-automated multiplex high-throughput assay for measuring IgG antibodies against Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) domains in small volumes of plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cham, Gerald K K; Kurtis, Jonathan; Lusingu, John

    2008-01-01

    -based assay was sensitive, accurate and reproducible. Four recombinant PfEMP1 proteins C17, D5, D9 and D12, selected on the basis that they showed a spread of median fluorescent intensity (MFI) values from low to high when analysed by the bead-based assay were analysed by ELISA and the results from both...... reactivity levels to twenty eight different recombinant PfEMP1 proteins were simultaneously measured using a single microliter of plasma. Thus, the assay reported here provides a useful tool for rapid and efficient quantification of antibody reactivity against PfEMP1 variants in human plasma....... of twenty nine PfEMP1 domains were PCR amplified from 3D7 genomic DNA, expressed in the Baculovirus system and purified by metal-affinity chromatography. The antibody reactivity level to the recombinant PfEMP1 proteins in human hyper-immune plasma was measured by ELISA. In parallel, these recombinant PfEMP1...

  3. Quark gluon plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Nayak, Tapan; Sarkar, Sourav

    2014-01-01

    At extremely high temperatures and densities, protons and neutrons may dissolve into a "soup" of quarks and gluons, called the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP). For a few microseconds, shortly after the Big Bang, the Universe was filled with the QGP matter. The search and study of Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) is one of the most fundamental research topics of our times. The QGP matter has been probed by colliding heavy ions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory, New York and the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, Geneva. By colliding heavy-ions at a speed close to that of light, scientists aim to obtain - albeit over a tiny volume of the size of a nucleus and for an infinitesimally short instant - a QGP state. This QGP state can be observed by dedicated experiments, as it reverts to hadronic matter through expansion and cooling. This volume presents some of the current theoretical and experimental understandings in the field of QGP.

  4. PLASMA DEVICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gow, J.D.; Wilcox, J.M.

    1961-12-26

    A device is designed for producing and confining highenergy plasma from which neutrons are generated in copious quantities. A rotating sheath of electrons is established in a radial electric field and axial magnetic field produced within the device. The electron sheath serves as a strong ionizing medium to gas introdueed thereto and also functions as an extremely effective heating mechanism to the resulting plasma. In addition, improved confinement of the plasma is obtained by ring magnetic mirror fields produced at the ends of the device. Such ring mirror fields are defined by the magnetic field lines at the ends of the device diverging radially outward from the axis of the device and thereafter converging at spatial annular surfaces disposed concentrically thereabout. (AFC)

  5. Atmospheric Gaseous Plasma with Large Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenev, Sergey

    2012-10-01

    The forming of atmospheric plasma with large dimensions using electrical discharge typically uses the Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD). The study of atmospheric DBD was shown some problems related to homogeneous volume plasma. The volume of this plasma determines by cross section and gas gap between electrode and dielectric. The using of electron beam for volume ionization of air molecules by CW relativistic electron beams was shown the high efficiency of this process [1, 2]. The main advantage of this approach consists in the ionization of gas molecules by electrons in longitudinal direction determines by their kinetic energy. A novel method for forming of atmospheric homogeneous plasma with large volume dimensions using ionization of gas molecules by pulsed non-relativistic electron beams is presented in the paper. The results of computer modeling for delivered doses of electron beams in gases and ionization are discussed. The structure of experimental bench with plasma diagnostics is considered. The preliminary results of forming atmospheric plasma with ionization gas molecules by pulsed nanosecond non-relativistic electron beam are given. The analysis of potential applications for atmospheric volume plasma is presented. Reference: [1] S. Korenev. ``The ionization of air by scanning relativistic high power CW electron beam,'' 2002 IEEE International Conference on Plasma Science. May 2002, Alberta, Canada. [2] S. Korenev, I. Korenev. ``The propagation of high power CW scanning electron beam in air.'' BEAMS 2002: 14th International Conference on High-Power Particle Beams, Albuquerque, New Mexico (USA), June 2002, AIP Conference Proceedings Vol. 650(1), pp. 373-376. December 17.

  6. Plasma properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weitzner, H.

    1989-08-01

    A cursory examination of the research activities of the Magneto-Fluid Dynamics Division for the calendar year 1988 shows the effects of the gradual transformation of the group. Although our principal activity, fusion plasma physics research, is unchanged, the work shows closer ties to problems relevant to present experiments than previously. Most notable is the concentrated effort on tokamak equilibrium and transport. We are exploring the implication of turbulence induced transport, resistive MHD effects, neoclassical transport, and possible interpretations of transport based on classical phenomena. In addition, one of our members has chosen to focus on problems of enhanced statistical methods for interpretation of experiments. All of this activity preceded the Tokamak Transport Initiative and reflects our active involvement and concern with the world-wide tokamak program. Since equilibrium and transport are by no means the only theoretical plasma physics problems affecting fusion devices we continue substantial efforts in wave propagation and heating, particle simulation of plasmas, stability theory, enhancement of numerical algorithms, and general plasma physics. We are attempting to develop effective numerical schemes for the Boltzmann equation, adaptive grid methods for MHD, and particle simulation of boundary and antenna effects. Many of these topics reflect our continuing concern to maintain a modest effort in the development of theoretical models and tools for problems of real significance to fusion, but not necessarily of immediate highest priority. We select problems which we expect to become extremely important in the future. Our space plasma physics activities, funded by agencies other than DOE, transfers knowledge learned in fusion plasma physics to another area and conversely stimulates work also relevant to fusion problems

  7. Electron plasma waves and plasma resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franklin, R N; Braithwaite, N St J

    2009-01-01

    In 1929 Tonks and Langmuir predicted of the existence of electron plasma waves in an infinite, uniform plasma. The more realistic laboratory environment of non-uniform and bounded plasmas frustrated early experiments. Meanwhile Landau predicted that electron plasma waves in a uniform collisionless plasma would appear to be damped. Subsequent experimental work verified this and revealed the curious phenomenon of plasma wave echoes. Electron plasma wave theory, extended to finite plasmas, has been confirmed by various experiments. Nonlinear phenomena, such as particle trapping, emerge at large amplitude. The use of electron plasma waves to determine electron density and electron temperature has not proved as convenient as other methods.

  8. ''Dusty plasmas''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsytovich, V.N.; Bingham, R.; Angelis, U. de

    1989-09-01

    The field of ''dusty plasmas'' promises to be a very rewarding topic of research for the next decade or so, not only from the academic point of view where the emphasis is on developing the theory of the often complex collective and non-linear processes, but also from the point of view of applications in astrophysics, space physics, environmental and energy research. In this ''comment'' we should like to sketch the current development of this fast growing and potentially very important research area. We will discuss the new features of ''dusty'' plasmas in the most general terms and then briefly mention some successful applications and effects which have already been examined. (author)

  9. BOOK REVIEW: Kinetic theory of plasma waves, homogeneous plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porkolab, Miklos

    1998-11-01

    The linear theory of plasma waves in homogeneous plasma is arguably the most mature and best understood branch of plasma physics. Given the recently revised version of Stix's excellent Waves in Plasmas (1992), one might ask whether another book on this subject is necessary only a few years later. The answer lies in the scope of this volume; it is somewhat more detailed in certain topics than, and complementary in many fusion research relevant areas to, Stix's book. (I am restricting these comments to the homogeneous plasma theory only, since the author promises a second volume on wave propagation in inhomogeneous plasmas.) This book is also much more of a theorist's approach to waves in plasmas, with the aim of developing the subject within the logical framework of kinetic theory. This may indeed be pleasing to the expert and to the specialist, but may be too difficult to the graduate student as an `introduction' to the subject (which the author explicitly states in the Preface). On the other hand, it may be entirely appropriate for a second course on plasma waves, after the student has mastered fluid theory and an introductory kinetic treatment of waves in a hot magnetized `Vlasov' plasma. For teaching purposes, my personal preference is to review the cold plasma wave treatment using the unified Stix formalism and notation (which the author wisely adopts in the present book, but only in Chapter 5). Such an approach allows one to deal with CMA diagrams early on, as well as to provide a framework to discuss electromagnetic wave propagation and accessibility in inhomogeneous plasmas (for which the cold plasma wave treatment is perfectly adequate). Such an approach does lack some of the rigour, however, that the author achieves with the present approach. As the author correctly shows, the fluid theory treatment of waves follows logically from kinetic theory in the cold plasma limit. I only question the pedagogical value of this approach. Otherwise, I welcome this

  10. Plasma physics and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Fridman, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Part I: Fundamentals of Plasma Physics and Plasma ChemistryPlasma in Nature, in the Laboratory, and in IndustryOccurrence of Plasma: Natural and Man MadeGas DischargesPlasma Applications, Plasmas in IndustryPlasma Applications for Environmental ControlPlasma Applications in Energy ConversionPlasma Application for Material ProcessingBreakthrough Plasma Applications in Modern TechnologyElementary Processes of Charged Species in PlasmaElementary Charged Particles in Plasma and Their Elastic and Inelastic CollisionsIonization ProcessesMechanisms of Electron Losses: The Electron-Ion RecombinationEl

  11. Fibrinogen Reduction During Selective Plasma Exchange due to Membrane Fouling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkubo, Atsushi; Okado, Tomokazu; Miyamoto, Satoko; Hashimoto, Yurie; Komori, Shigeto; Yamamoto, Motoki; Maeda, Takuma; Itagaki, Ayako; Yamamoto, Hiroko; Seshima, Hiroshi; Kurashima, Naoki; Iimori, Soichiro; Naito, Shotaro; Sohara, Eisei; Uchida, Shinichi; Rai, Tatemitsu

    2017-06-01

    Fibrinogen is substantially reduced by most plasmapheresis modalities but retained in selective plasma exchange using Evacure EC-4A10 (EC-4A). Although EC-4A's fibrinogen sieving coefficient is 0, a session of selective plasma exchange reduced fibrinogen by approximately 19%. Here, we investigated sieving coefficient in five patients. When the mean processed plasma volume was 1.15 × plasma volume, the mean reduction of fibrinogen during selective plasma exchange was approximately 15%. Fibrinogen sieving coefficient was 0 when the processed plasma volume was 1.0 L, increasing to 0.07 when the processed plasma volume was 3.0 L, with a mean of 0.03 during selective plasma exchange. When fibrinogen sieving coefficient was 0, selective plasma exchange reduced fibrinogen by approximately 10%. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed internal fouling of EC-4A's hollow fiber membrane by substances such as fibrinogen fibrils. Thus, fibrinogen reduction by selective plasma exchange may be predominantly caused by membrane fouling rather than filtration. © 2017 International Society for Apheresis, Japanese Society for Apheresis, and Japanese Society for Dialysis Therapy.

  12. Propagation of high frequency electrostatic surface waves along the planar interface between plasma and dusty plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Rinku; Dey, M.

    2018-04-01

    An analytical model is developed that explains the propagation of a high frequency electrostatic surface wave along the interface of a plasma system where semi-infinite electron-ion plasma is interfaced with semi-infinite dusty plasma. The model emphasizes that the source of such high frequency waves is inherent in the presence of ion acoustic and dust ion acoustic/dust acoustic volume waves in electron-ion plasma and dusty plasma region. Wave dispersion relation is obtained for two distinct cases and the role of plasma parameters on wave dispersion is analyzed in short and long wavelength limits. The normalized surface wave frequency is seen to grow linearly for lower wave number but becomes constant for higher wave numbers in both the cases. It is observed that the normalized frequency depends on ion plasma frequencies when dust oscillation frequency is neglected.

  13. Plasma chromograninx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goetze, Jens P; Hilsted, Linda M; Rehfeld, Jens F

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular risk assessment remains difficult in elderly patients. We examined whether chromogranin A (CgA) measurement in plasma may be valuable in assessing risk of death in elderly patients with symptoms of heart failure in a primary care setting. A total of 470 patients (mean age 73 years...

  14. Burning plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furth, H.P.; Goldston, R.J.; Zweben, S.J.

    1990-10-01

    The fraction of fusion-reaction energy that is released in energetic charged ions, such as the alpha particles of the D-T reaction, can be thermalized within the reacting plasma and used to maintain its temperature. This mechanism facilitates the achievement of very high energy-multiplication factors Q, but also raises a number of new issues of confinement physics. To ensure satisfactory reaction operation, three areas of energetic-ion interaction need to be addressed: single-ion transport in imperfectly symmetric magnetic fields or turbulent background plasmas; energetic-ion-driven (or stabilized) collective phenomena; and fusion-heat-driven collective phenomena. The first of these topics is already being explored in a number of tokamak experiments, and the second will begin to be addressed in the D-T-burning phase of TFTR and JET. Exploration of the third topic calls for high-Q operation, which is a goal of proposed next-generation plasma-burning projects. Planning for future experiments must take into consideration the full range of plasma-physics and engineering R ampersand D areas that need to be addressed on the way to a fusion power demonstration

  15. A periodic plasma waveguide accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, F.T.

    1985-01-01

    The increasing cost of synchrotrons and storage rings has given new interest in the search for new methods of acceleration. The primary goal of this search is very large accelerating fields, because the cost of an accelerator to reach TeV energies is dominated by costs that scale with length. Very large electric fields are possible in plasmas and in lasers and many geometries are being studied that make use of plasmas, lasers, or combinations of them. In a plasma accelerator, the plasma can have several different functions. It may act as a medium for the propagation of accelerating electric-field waves. In addition, these waves may also act as a source of the energy needed to accelerate particles. Accelerators using various waves in plasmas have been built and studied in many laboratories. The device proposed here is an attempt to separate the two functions of providing a medium and providing an energy source. A relatively low-energy electron beam is used as a non-neutral plasma only to make a slow-wave medium for the propagation of an externally generated wave. The wave is a TM electromagnetic wave and the device may be thought of as a conventional electron linear accelerator with the evacuated volume and metallic envelope replaced by the electron beam. A separate second beam, which may be electrons or heavier particles, is accelerated. The application in mind here is a single-pass collider

  16. High Throughput Plasma Water Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujovic, Selman; Foster, John

    2016-10-01

    The troublesome emergence of new classes of micro-pollutants, such as pharmaceuticals and endocrine disruptors, poses challenges for conventional water treatment systems. In an effort to address these contaminants and to support water reuse in drought stricken regions, new technologies must be introduced. The interaction of water with plasma rapidly mineralizes organics by inducing advanced oxidation in addition to other chemical, physical and radiative processes. The primary barrier to the implementation of plasma-based water treatment is process volume scale up. In this work, we investigate a potentially scalable, high throughput plasma water reactor that utilizes a packed bed dielectric barrier-like geometry to maximize the plasma-water interface. Here, the water serves as the dielectric medium. High-speed imaging and emission spectroscopy are used to characterize the reactor discharges. Changes in methylene blue concentration and basic water parameters are mapped as a function of plasma treatment time. Experimental results are compared to electrostatic and plasma chemistry computations, which will provide insight into the reactor's operation so that efficiency can be assessed. Supported by NSF (CBET 1336375).

  17. Finite-volume scheme for anisotropic diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Es, Bram van, E-mail: bramiozo@gmail.com [Centrum Wiskunde & Informatica, P.O. Box 94079, 1090GB Amsterdam (Netherlands); FOM Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, The Netherlands" 1 (Netherlands); Koren, Barry [Eindhoven University of Technology (Netherlands); Blank, Hugo J. de [FOM Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, The Netherlands" 1 (Netherlands)

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we apply a special finite-volume scheme, limited to smooth temperature distributions and Cartesian grids, to test the importance of connectivity of the finite volumes. The area of application is nuclear fusion plasma with field line aligned temperature gradients and extreme anisotropy. We apply the scheme to the anisotropic heat-conduction equation, and compare its results with those of existing finite-volume schemes for anisotropic diffusion. Also, we introduce a general model adaptation of the steady diffusion equation for extremely anisotropic diffusion problems with closed field lines.

  18. Electromagnetic interactions in an electron-hole plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Certain problems electromagnetic interactions both of external SHF radiation with an electron-hole (eh) plasma and in the plasma itself are considered. The production and properties of a non-equilibrium eh plasma in semiconductors, pinch effect in a plasma of solids, strong electric fields in a plasma of inhomogeneous semiconductors and heat effects in a semiconductor plasma are discussed. The influence of a surface, kinetics of recombination processes in the semiconductor volume and the plasma statistics the spatial distribution of carriers, current characteristics and plasma recombination radiation under the conditions of pinch effect is described. The diagnostics methods of the phenomena are presented. The behaviour of diode structures with pn transitions in strong SHF fields is discussed. Special attention is paid to collective phenomena in the plasma of semiconductor devices and the variation of carrier density in strong fields. The appearance of electromotive force in inhomogeneous diode structures placed in strong SHF fields is considered

  19. Tokamak experimental power reactor conceptual design. Volume II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-08-01

    Volume II contains the following appendices: (1) summary of EPR design parameters, (2) impurity control, (3) plasma computational models, (4) structural support system, (5) materials considerations for the primary energy conversion system, (6) magnetics, (7) neutronics penetration analysis, (8) first wall stress analysis, (9) enrichment of isotopes of hydrogen by cryogenic distillation, and (10) noncircular plasma considerations

  20. Magnetoresistive waves in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felber, F.S.; Hunter, R.O. Jr.; Pereira, N.R.; Tajima, T.

    1982-01-01

    The self-generated magnetic field of a current diffusing into a plasma between conductors can magnetically insulate the plasma. Propagation of magnetoresistive waves in plasmas is analyzed. Applications to plasma opening switches are discussed

  1. Fusion Plasma Theory project summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This Project Summary book is a published compilation consisting of short descriptions of each project supported by the Fusion Plasma Theory and Computing Group of the Advanced Physics and Technology Division of the Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy. The summaries contained in this volume were written by the individual contractors with minimal editing by the Office of Fusion Energy. Previous summaries were published in February of 1982 and December of 1987. The Plasma Theory program is responsible for the development of concepts and models that describe and predict the behavior of a magnetically confined plasma. Emphasis is given to the modelling and understanding of the processes controlling transport of energy and particles in a toroidal plasma and supporting the design of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). A tokamak transport initiative was begun in 1989 to improve understanding of how energy and particles are lost from the plasma by mechanisms that transport them across field lines. The Plasma Theory program has actively-participated in this initiative. Recently, increased attention has been given to issues of importance to the proposed Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX). Particular attention has been paid to containment and thermalization of fast alpha particles produced in a burning fusion plasma as well as control of sawteeth, current drive, impurity control, and design of improved auxiliary heating. In addition, general models of plasma behavior are developed from physics features common to different confinement geometries. This work uses both analytical and numerical techniques. The Fusion Theory program supports research projects at US government laboratories, universities and industrial contractors. Its support of theoretical work at universities contributes to the office of Fusion Energy mission of training scientific manpower for the US Fusion Energy Program.

  2. Fusion Plasma Theory project summaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-10-01

    This Project Summary book is a published compilation consisting of short descriptions of each project supported by the Fusion Plasma Theory and Computing Group of the Advanced Physics and Technology Division of the Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy. The summaries contained in this volume were written by the individual contractors with minimal editing by the Office of Fusion Energy. Previous summaries were published in February of 1982 and December of 1987. The Plasma Theory program is responsible for the development of concepts and models that describe and predict the behavior of a magnetically confined plasma. Emphasis is given to the modelling and understanding of the processes controlling transport of energy and particles in a toroidal plasma and supporting the design of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). A tokamak transport initiative was begun in 1989 to improve understanding of how energy and particles are lost from the plasma by mechanisms that transport them across field lines. The Plasma Theory program has actively-participated in this initiative. Recently, increased attention has been given to issues of importance to the proposed Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX). Particular attention has been paid to containment and thermalization of fast alpha particles produced in a burning fusion plasma as well as control of sawteeth, current drive, impurity control, and design of improved auxiliary heating. In addition, general models of plasma behavior are developed from physics features common to different confinement geometries. This work uses both analytical and numerical techniques. The Fusion Theory program supports research projects at US government laboratories, universities and industrial contractors. Its support of theoretical work at universities contributes to the office of Fusion Energy mission of training scientific manpower for the US Fusion Energy Program

  3. Fusion plasma theory project summaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-01

    This Project Summary book is a published compilation consisting of short descriptions of each project supported by the Fusion Plasma Theory and Computing Group of the Advanced Physics and Technology Division of the Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy. The summaries contained in this volume were written by the individual contractors with minimal editing by the Office of Fusion Energy. Previous summaries were published in February of 1982 and December of 1987. The Plasma Theory program is responsible for the development of concepts and models that describe and predict the behavior of a magnetically confined plasma. Emphasis is given to the modelling and understanding of the processes controlling transport of energy and particles in a toroidal plasma and supporting the design of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). A tokamak transport initiative was begun in 1989 to improve understanding of how energy and particles are lost from the plasma by mechanisms that transport them across field lines. The Plasma Theory program has actively participated in this initiative. Recently, increased attention has been given to issues of importance to the proposed Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX). Particular attention has been paid to containment and thermalization of fast alpha particles produced in a burning fusion plasma as well as control of sawteeth, current drive, impurity control, and design of improved auxiliary heating. In addition, general models of plasma behavior are developed from physics features common to different confinement geometries. This work uses both analytical and numerical techniques. The Fusion Theory program supports research projects at U.S. government laboratories, universities and industrial contractors. Its support of theoretical work at universities contributes to the office of Fusion Energy mission of training scientific manpower for the U.S. Fusion Energy Program.

  4. Plasma physics

    CERN Document Server

    Cairns, R A

    1985-01-01

    This book is intended as an introduction to plasma physics at a level suitable for advanced undergraduates or beginning postgraduate students in physics, applied mathematics or astrophysics. The main prerequisite is a knowledge of electromagnetism and of the associated mathematics of vector calculus. SI units are used throughout. There is still a tendency amongst some plasma physics researchers to· cling to C.g.S. units, but it is the author's view that universal adoption of SI units, which have been the internationally agreed standard since 1960, is to be encouraged. After a short introductory chapter, the basic properties of a plasma con­ cerning particle orbits, fluid theory, Coulomb collisions and waves are set out in Chapters 2-5, with illustrations drawn from problems in nuclear fusion research and space physics. The emphasis is on the essential physics involved and (he theoretical and mathematical approach has been kept as simple and intuitive as possible. An attempt has been made to draw attention t...

  5. Plasma shutdown device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosogane, Nobuyuki; Nakayama, Takahide.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent concentration of plasma currents to the plasma center upon plasma shutdown in a torus type thermonuclear device by the injection of fuels to the plasma center thereby prevent plasma disruption at the plasma center. Constitution: The plasma shutdown device comprises a plasma current measuring device that measures the current distribution of plasmas confined within a vacuum vessel and outputs a control signal for cooling the plasma center when the plasma currents concentrate to the plasma center and a fuel supply device that supplies fuels to the plasma center for cooling the center. The fuels are injected in the form of pellets into the plasmas. The direction and the velocity of the injection are set such that the pellets are ionized at the center of the plasmas. (Horiuchi, T.)

  6. Intravascular volume in cirrhosis. Reassessment using improved methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rector, W.G. Jr.; Ibarra, F.

    1988-01-01

    Previous studies of blood volume (BV) in cirrhosis have either not adjusted BV properly for body size; determined plasma volume from the dilution of labeled albumin 10-20 min postinjection, when some extravascular redistribution has already occurred; and/or not used the correct whole body-peripheral hematocrit ratio (0.82) in calculating whole BV from plasma volume and the peripheral hematocrit. We measured BV with attention to these considerations in 19 patients with cirrhosis and reexamined the determinants of vascular volume and the relationship between vascular volume and sodium retention. BV was calculated as plasma volume (determined from extrapolated plasma activity of intravenously injected [ 131 I]+albumin at time 0) divided by (peripheral hematocrit X 0.82). The result was expressed per kilogram dry body weight, determined by subtracting the mass of ascites (measured by isotope dilution; 1 liter = 1 kg) from the actual body weight of nonedematous patients. Measured and expressed in this way, BV correlated strongly with esophageal variceal size (r = 0.87, P less than 0.05), although not with net portal, right atrial, inferior vena caval, or arterial pressure, and was significantly greater in patients with sodium retention as compared to patients without sodium retention. The principal modifier of vascular volume in cirrhosis is vascular capacity, which is probably mainly determined by the extent of the portasystemic collateral circulation. Increased vascular volume in patients with sodium retention as compared to patients without sodium retention supports the overflow theory of ascites formation

  7. Interaction of EM Waves with Atmospheric Pressure Plasmas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Laroussi, Mounir

    2000-01-01

    .... The focus of the main activities is the generation of large volume, non-thermal, atmospheric pressure plasmas, their diagnostics, and their interactions with EM waves and with the cells of microorganism...

  8. Electrical disruption in toroidal plasma of hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberto, M.; Silva, C.A.B.; Goes, L.C.S.; Sudano, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    The initial phase of ionization of a toroidal plasma produced in hydrogen was investigated using zero-dimensional model. The model describes the temporal evolution of plasma by spatial medium of particle density and temperature, on whole plasma volume. The energy and particle (electrons and ions) balance equations are considered. The electron loss is due to ambipolar diffusion in the presence of magnetic field. The electron energy loss involves ionization, Coulomb interaction and diffusion. The ohmic heating converter gives the initial voltage necessary to disruption. (M.C.K.)

  9. Noninductively Driven Tokamak Plasmas at Near-Unity Toroidal Beta

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlossberg, David J.; Bodner, Grant M.; Bongard, Michael W.; Burke, Marcus G.; Fonck, Raymond J.

    2017-01-01

    Access to and characterization of sustained, toroidally confined plasmas with a very high plasma-to-magnetic pressure ratio (β t ), low internal inductance, high elongation, and nonsolenoidal current drive is a central goal of present tokamak plasma research. Stable access to this desirable parameter space is demonstrated in plasmas with ultralow aspect ratio and high elongation. Local helicity injection provides nonsolenoidal sustainment, low internal inductance, and ion heating. Equilibrium analyses indicate β t up to ~100% with a minimum |B| well spanning up to ~50% of the plasma volume.

  10. Theoretical investigations on plasma centrifuges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, S.H.

    1978-01-01

    The theoretical analysis of the steady-state dynamics of plasma centrifuges is dealt with to understand the physics of rotating plasmas and their feasibility for isotope separation. The centrifuge systems under consideration employ cylindrical gas discharge chambers with externally-applied axial magnetic fields. The cathode and anode are symmetric about the cylinder axis and arranged in such a way for each system, i.e., (1) two ring electrodes of different radii in the chamber end plates or (2) two ring electrodes embedded in the mantle of the cylinder. They produce converging and/or diverging current density field lines, which intersect the external magnetic field under a nonvanishing angle. The associated Lorentz forces set the plasma, which is produced through an electrical discharge, into rotation around the cylinder axis. Three boundary-value problems for the coupled partial differential equations of the centrifuge fields are formulated, respectively, on the basis of the magnetogasdynamic equations. The electric field, electrostatic potential, current density, induced magnetic field, and velocity distributions are discussed in terms of the Hartmann number, the Hall coefficient, and the magnetic Reynolds number. The plasma centrifuge analyses presented show that the speeds of plasma rotation up to the order of 10 4 m/sec are achievable at typical conditions. The associated centrifugal forces produce a significant spatial isotope separation, which is somewhat reduced in the viscous boundary layers at the centrifuge walls. The speeds of plasma rotation increase with increasing Hartmann number and Hall coefficient. For small Hall coefficient, the induced azimuthal magnetic field does not affect the plasma rotation. For large volumes of rotating isotope mixtures, a multidischarge centrifuge can be constructed by setting up a large number of centrifuge systems in series

  11. Plasma-parameter measurements using neutral-particle-beam attenuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foote, J.H.; Molvik, A.W.; Turner, W.C.

    1982-01-01

    Intense and energetic neutral-particle-beam injection used for fueling or heating magnetically confined, controlled-fusion experimental plasmas can also provide diagnostic measurements of the plasmas. The attenuation of an atomic beam (mainly from charge-exchange and ionization interactions) when passing through a plasma gives the plasma line density. Orthogonal arrays of highly collimated detectors of the secondary-electron-emission type have been used in magnetic-mirror experiments to measure neutral-beam attenuation along chords through the plasma volume at different radial and axial positions. The radial array is used to infer the radial plasma-density profile; the axial array, to infer the axial plasma-density profile and the ion angular distribution at the plasma midplane

  12. Epidural anesthesia, hypotension, and changes in intravascular volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holte, Kathrine; Foss, Nicolai B; Svensén, Christer

    2004-01-01

    receiving hydroxyethyl starch. RESULTS: Plasma volume did not change per se after thoracic epidural anesthesia despite a decrease in blood pressure. Plasma volume increased with fluid administration but remained unchanged with vasopressors despite that both treatments had similar hemodynamic effects...... constant was 56 ml/min. CONCLUSIONS: Thoracic epidural anesthesia per se does not lead to changes in blood volumes despite a reduction in blood pressure. When fluid is infused, there is a dilution, and the fluid initially seems to be located centrally. Because administration of hydroxyethyl starch......BACKGROUND: The most common side effect of epidural or spinal anesthesia is hypotension with functional hypovolemia prompting fluid infusions or administration of vasopressors. Short-term studies (20 min) in patients undergoing lumbar epidural anesthesia suggest that plasma volume may increase when...

  13. Effect of melatonin supplementation on plasma vasopressin response to different conditions in rats with hyperthyroidism induced by L-thyroxine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogulkoc, Rasim; Baltaci, Abdulkerim Kasim

    2010-04-09

    The present study was performed to determine how basal, isotonic, hypertonic and hypovolemic conditions affect fluid-electrolyte balance and plasma arginine vasopressin (AVP) levels in rats with experimental hyperthyroidism supplemented with melatonin. The rats were divided into four groups of twenty-four subjects each kept under the following treatments during one month: (1) Controls; (2) treated with L-thyroxine; (3) treated with L-thyroxine and sham melatonin and (4) treated with L-thyroxine and melatonin. After this each group was further subdivided into subgroups that were subject to normal, isotonic, hypertonic and hypovolemic conditions. The plasma AVP, total triiodothyronine (TT(3)), total thyroxine (TT(4)) and melatonin levels were measured in plasma by means of a Phoenix Pharmaceutical RIA test kit. Hematocrit and osmolality levels were also determined. There were significant increases of total T3 and T4 levels in the L-thyroxine treated groups, p<0.001. The AVP levels were also increased in groups 2 and 3, but not so in the rats treated with melatonin (p<0.001), which also showed increased plasma melatonin levels (p<0.001). These results indicate that treatment with L-thyroxine increases stimulated and non-stimulated AVP release that are inhibited by melatonin supplementation. It was also shown that AVP response to hypertonic and hypovolemic conditions was not affected by L-thyroxine treatment and/or L-thyroxine+melatonin treatment. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Plasma physics and controlled nuclear fusion research 1988. V.3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Volume 3 of the proceedings of the twelfth international conference on plasma physics and controlled nuclear fusion, held in Nice, France, 12-19 October, 1988, contains papers presented on inertial fusion. Direct and indirect laser implosion experiments, programs of laser construction, computer modelling of implosions and resulting plasmas, and light ion beam fusion experiments are discussed. Refs, figs and tabs

  15. Magnetohydrodynamic simulation study of plasma jets and plasma-surface contact in coaxial plasma accelerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Vivek; Raja, Laxminarayan L.

    2017-06-01

    Recent experiments by Loebner et al. [IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 44, 1534 (2016)] studied the effect of a hypervelocity jet emanating from a coaxial plasma accelerator incident on target surfaces in an effort to mimic the transient loading created during edge localized mode disruption events in fusion plasmas. In this paper, we present a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) numerical model to simulate plasma jet formation and plasma-surface contact in this coaxial plasma accelerator experiment. The MHD system of equations is spatially discretized using a cell-centered finite volume formulation. The temporal discretization is performed using a fully implicit backward Euler scheme and the resultant stiff system of nonlinear equations is solved using the Newton method. The numerical model is employed to obtain some key insights into the physical processes responsible for the generation of extreme stagnation conditions on the target surfaces. Simulations of the plume (without the target plate) are performed to isolate and study phenomena such as the magnetic pinch effect that is responsible for launching pressure pulses into the jet free stream. The simulations also yield insights into the incipient conditions responsible for producing the pinch, such as the formation of conductive channels. The jet-target impact studies indicate the existence of two distinct stages involved in the plasma-surface interaction. A fast transient stage characterized by a thin normal shock transitions into a pseudo-steady stage that exhibits an extended oblique shock structure. A quadratic scaling of the pinch and stagnation conditions with the total current discharged between the electrodes is in qualitative agreement with the results obtained in the experiments. This also illustrates the dominant contribution of the magnetic pressure term in determining the magnitude of the quantities of interest.

  16. Plasma focus breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikuta, Kazunari.

    1981-09-01

    Instead of using linear accelerators, it is possible to breed fissile fuels with the help of high current plasma focus device. A mechanism of accelerating proton beam in plasma focus device to high energy would be a change of inductance in plasma column because of rapid growth of plasma instability. A possible scheme of plasma focus breeder is also proposed. (author)

  17. First plasmas in the TJ-II flexible Heliac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alejaldre, C.; Alonso, J.; Almoguera, L.

    1999-01-01

    First plasmas have been successfully achieved in the TJ-II stellarator using electron cyclotron resonance heating (f = 53.2 GHz, P ECRH = 250 kW). Initial experiments have explored the TJ-II flexibility in a wide range of plasma volumes, different rotational transform and magnetic well values. In this paper, the main results of this campaign are presented and, in particular, the influence of plasma wall interaction phenomena on TJ-II operation is discussed briefly. (author)

  18. Fourth Latin-American workshop on plasma physics. Contributed papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The main goal of this series of Workshops is to provide a periodic meeting place for Latin-American researchers in plasma physics together with colleagues from other countries around the world. This volume includes the contributed papers presented at the Workshop on Plasma Physics held in Buenos Aires in 1990. The scope of the Workshop can be synthesized in the following main subjects: Tokamak experiments and theory; alternative confinement systems and basic experiments; technology and applications; general theory; astrophysical and space plasmas

  19. Relative blood volume changes underestimate total blood volume changes during hemodialysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dasselaar, Judith J.; Lub-de Hooge, Marjolijn N.; Pruim, Jan; Nijnuis, Hugo; Wiersum, Anneke; de Jong, Paul E.; Huisman, Roel M.; Franssen, Casper F. M.

    Background: Measurements of relative blood volume changes (ARBV) during hemodialysis (HD) are based on hemoconcentration and assume uniform mixing of erythrocytes and plasma throughout the circulation. However, whole-body hematocrit (Ht) is lower than systemic Ht. During HD, a change in the ratio

  20. The plasma-wall interaction region: a key low temperature plasma for controlled fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Counsell, G F

    2002-01-01

    The plasma-wall interaction region of a fusion device provides the interface between the hot core plasma and the material surfaces. To obtain acceptably low levels of erosion from these surfaces requires most of the power leaving the core to be radiated. This is accomplished in existing devices by encouraging plasma detachment, in which the hot plasma arriving in the region is cooled by volume recombination and ion-neutral momentum transfer with a dense population of neutrals recycled from the surface. The result is a low temperature (1 eV e e >10 19 m -3 ) but weakly ionized (n 0 >10 20 m -3 , n e /n 0 <0.1) plasma found nowhere else in the fusion environment. This plasma provides many of the conditions found in industrial plasmas exploiting plasma chemistry and the presence of carbon in the region (in the form of carbon-fibre composite used in the plasma facing materials) can result in the formation of deposited hydrocarbon films. The plasma-wall interaction region is therefore among the most difficult in fusion to model, requiring an understanding of atomic, molecular and surface physics issues

  1. Plasma Reforming of Liquid Hydrocarbon Fuels in Non-Thermal Plasma-Liquid Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-30

    channel with liquid wall in the microporous media under the ultrasound cavitations has shown the following: · The action of the ultrasound field in the...microporous liquid which has a very large ratio of the plasma-liquid contact surface to the plasma volume. As is known the ultrasonic (US) cavitation is a very...2) and it ran over a flat dielectric surface of the magnetostrictive transmitter (5) which produced ultrasonic (US) cavitations , so the discharge

  2. Acute effects of cadmium on osmoregulation of the freshwater teleost Prochilodus lineatus: Enzymes activity and plasma ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Alexandre O.F. da [Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, Laboratório de Ecofisiologia Animal, UEL, Londrina (Brazil); Programa Multicêntrico de Pós-graduação em Ciências Fisiológicas, UEL, Londrina (Brazil); Centro de Ciências Humanas e da Educação, UENP, Jacarezinho (Brazil); Martinez, Cláudia B.R., E-mail: cbueno@uel.br [Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, Laboratório de Ecofisiologia Animal, UEL, Londrina (Brazil); Programa Multicêntrico de Pós-graduação em Ciências Fisiológicas, UEL, Londrina (Brazil)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Cd effects were evaluated on plasma ions and ATPases of Prochilodus lineatus. • Fish were exposed to 1 and 10 μg Cd L{sup −1} for 24 and 96 h. • Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase and carbonic anhydrase decreased in gills and kidney after Cd exposure. • Gill Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase and plasma Ca{sup 2+} decreased after Cd exposure. • Cd concentrations set by Brazilian guidelines affect Ca{sup 2+} regulation of P. lineatus. - Abstract: Cadmium (Cd) is a trace element that is very toxic to fish. It is commonly found in surface waters contaminated with industrial effluents. When dissolved in water, Cd can rapidly cause physiological changes in the gills and kidneys of freshwater fish. The objective of this study was to evaluate the acute effects of Cd on the osmoregulation of the Neotropical fish Prochilodus lineatus. Juvenile fish were exposed to Cd at two concentrations [1 (Cd1) and 10 (Cd10) μg L{sup −1}] for 24 and 96 h. The effects of Cd were evaluated through the analysis of ions (Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Ca{sup 2+}, and Cl{sup −}) and plasma osmolality, and by measuring the activities of enzymes involved in osmoregulation obtained from the gills and kidney. Fish exposed to Cd for 24 and 96 h showed a decrease in Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase activity in the gills and kidney. The activity of carbonic anhydrase decreased in the gills after 24 h and in both tissues after 96 h of Cd exposure. The gill Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase activity also decreased with Cd exposure, with a concomitant drop in the plasma concentration of Ca{sup 2+}. Despite the hypocalcemia, there were no changes in the concentration of the ions Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, and Cl{sup −} or in plasma osmolality. Among the enzymes involved in ion transport, H{sup +}-ATPase was the only enzyme that showed increased activity in gills, whereas its activity in kidney remained unchanged. The results of this study demonstrate that waterborne Cd at the maximum concentrations set by Brazilian guidelines for

  3. Acute effects of cadmium on osmoregulation of the freshwater teleost Prochilodus lineatus: Enzymes activity and plasma ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Alexandre O.F. da; Martinez, Cláudia B.R.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Cd effects were evaluated on plasma ions and ATPases of Prochilodus lineatus. • Fish were exposed to 1 and 10 μg Cd L −1 for 24 and 96 h. • Na + /K + -ATPase and carbonic anhydrase decreased in gills and kidney after Cd exposure. • Gill Ca 2+ -ATPase and plasma Ca 2+ decreased after Cd exposure. • Cd concentrations set by Brazilian guidelines affect Ca 2+ regulation of P. lineatus. - Abstract: Cadmium (Cd) is a trace element that is very toxic to fish. It is commonly found in surface waters contaminated with industrial effluents. When dissolved in water, Cd can rapidly cause physiological changes in the gills and kidneys of freshwater fish. The objective of this study was to evaluate the acute effects of Cd on the osmoregulation of the Neotropical fish Prochilodus lineatus. Juvenile fish were exposed to Cd at two concentrations [1 (Cd1) and 10 (Cd10) μg L −1 ] for 24 and 96 h. The effects of Cd were evaluated through the analysis of ions (Na + , K + , Ca 2+ , and Cl − ) and plasma osmolality, and by measuring the activities of enzymes involved in osmoregulation obtained from the gills and kidney. Fish exposed to Cd for 24 and 96 h showed a decrease in Na + /K + -ATPase activity in the gills and kidney. The activity of carbonic anhydrase decreased in the gills after 24 h and in both tissues after 96 h of Cd exposure. The gill Ca 2+ -ATPase activity also decreased with Cd exposure, with a concomitant drop in the plasma concentration of Ca 2+ . Despite the hypocalcemia, there were no changes in the concentration of the ions Na + , K + , and Cl − or in plasma osmolality. Among the enzymes involved in ion transport, H + -ATPase was the only enzyme that showed increased activity in gills, whereas its activity in kidney remained unchanged. The results of this study demonstrate that waterborne Cd at the maximum concentrations set by Brazilian guidelines for freshwater affects the gills and kidney functions of P. lineatus. Acute exposure to

  4. Whole body and tissue blood volumes of two strains of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingerich, W.H.; Pityer, R.A.; Rach, J.J.

    1990-01-01

    1. Estimates of apparent packed cell, plasma and total blood volumes for the whole body and for 13 selected tissues were compared between Kamloops and Wytheville strains of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) by the simultaneous injection of two vascular tracers, radiolabeled trout erythrocytes (51Cr-RBC) and radioiodated bovine serum albumin (125I-BSA).2. Whole body total blood volume, plasma volume and packed cell volume were slightly, but not significantly greater in the Wytheville trout, whereas, the apparent plasma volumes and total blood volumes in 4 of 13 tissues were significantly greater in the Kamloops strain.3. Differences were most pronounced in highly perfused organs, such as the liver and kidney and in organs of digestion such as the stomach and intestines.4. Differences in blood volumes between the two strains may be related to the greater permeability of the vascular membranes in the Kamloops strain fish.

  5. Plasma Free Metanephrines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Links Patient Resources For Health Professionals Subscribe Search Plasma Free Metanephrines Send Us Your Feedback Choose Topic ... Images View Sources Ask Us Also Known As Plasma Metanephrines Formal Name Fractionated Plasma Free Metanephrines (Metanephrine ...

  6. Improved plasma accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, D. Y.

    1971-01-01

    Converging, coaxial accelerator electrode configuration operates in vacuum as plasma gun. Plasma forms by periodic injections of high pressure gas that is ionized by electrical discharges. Deflagration mode of discharge provides acceleration, and converging contours of plasma gun provide focusing.

  7. Effect of cesium seeding on hydrogen negative ion volume production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacal, M.; Balghiti-Sube, F. El; Elizarov, L. I.; Tontegode, A. J.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of cesium vapor partial pressure on the plasma parameters has been studied in the dc hybrid negative ion source ''CAMEMBERT III.'' The cesium vapor pressure was varied up to 10 -5 Torr and was determined by a surface ionization gauge in the absence of the discharge. The negative ion relative density measured by laser photodetachment in the center of the plasma extraction region increases by a factor of four when the plasma is seeded with cesium. However the plasma density and the electron temperature (determined using a cylindrical electrostatic probe) are reduced by the cesium seeding. As a result, the negative ion density goes up by a factor of two at the lowest hydrogen pressure studied. The velocity of the directed negative ion flow to the plasma electrode, determined from two-laser beam photodetachment experiments, appears to be affected by the cesium seeding. The variation of the extracted negative ion and electron currents versus the plasma electrode bias will also be reported for pure hydrogen and cesium seeded plasmas. The cesium seeding leads to a dramatic reduction of the electron component, which is consistent with the reduced electron density and temperature. The negative ion current is enhanced and a goes through a maximum at plasma electrode bias lower than 1 V. These observations lead to the conclusion that the enhancement of pure volume production occurs in this type of plasma. Possible mechanisms for this type of volume process will be discussed

  8. A microwave-augmented plasma torch module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuo, S P; Bivolaru, Daniel; Williams, Skip; Carter, Campbell D

    2006-01-01

    A new plasma torch device which combines arc and microwave discharges to enhance the size and enthalpy of the plasma torch is described. A cylindrical-shaped plasma torch module is integrated into a tapered rectangular cavity to form a microwave adaptor at one end, which couples the microwave power injected into the cavity from the other end to the arc plasma generated by the torch module. A theoretical study of the microwave coupling from the cavity to the plasma torch, as the load, is presented. The numerical results indicate that the microwave power coupling efficiency exceeds 80%. Operational tests of the device indicate that the microwave power is coupled to the plasma torch and that the arc discharge power is increased. The addition of microwave energy enhances the height, volume and enthalpy of the plasma torch when the torch operates at a low airflow rate, and even when the flow speed is supersonic, a noticeable microwave effect on the plasma torch is observed. In addition, the present design allows the torch to be operated as both a fuel injector and igniter. Ignition of ethylene fuel injected through the centre of a tungsten carbide tube acting as the central electrode is demonstrated

  9. Laboratory simulation of space plasma phenomena*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amatucci, B.; Tejero, E. M.; Ganguli, G.; Blackwell, D.; Enloe, C. L.; Gillman, E.; Walker, D.; Gatling, G.

    2017-12-01

    Laboratory devices, such as the Naval Research Laboratory's Space Physics Simulation Chamber, are large-scale experiments dedicated to the creation of large-volume plasmas with parameters realistically scaled to those found in various regions of the near-Earth space plasma environment. Such devices make valuable contributions to the understanding of space plasmas by investigating phenomena under carefully controlled, reproducible conditions, allowing for the validation of theoretical models being applied to space data. By working in collaboration with in situ experimentalists to create realistic conditions scaled to those found during the observations of interest, the microphysics responsible for the observed events can be investigated in detail not possible in space. To date, numerous investigations of phenomena such as plasma waves, wave-particle interactions, and particle energization have been successfully performed in the laboratory. In addition to investigations such as plasma wave and instability studies, the laboratory devices can also make valuable contributions to the development and testing of space plasma diagnostics. One example is the plasma impedance probe developed at NRL. Originally developed as a laboratory diagnostic, the sensor has now been flown on a sounding rocket, is included on a CubeSat experiment, and will be included on the DoD Space Test Program's STP-H6 experiment on the International Space Station. In this presentation, we will describe several examples of the laboratory investigation of space plasma waves and instabilities and diagnostic development. *This work supported by the NRL Base Program.

  10. ECR plasma photographs as a plasma diagnostic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Racz, R; Biri, S; Palinkas, J [Institute of Nuclear Research (ATOMKI), H-4026 Debrecen, Bem ter 18/c (Hungary)

    2011-04-15

    Low, medium or highly charged ions delivered by electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources all are produced in the ECR plasma. In order to study such plasmas, high-resolution visible light plasma photographs were taken at the ATOMKI ECR ion source. An 8 megapixel digital camera was used to photograph plasmas made from He, methane, N, O, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe gases and from their mixtures. The analysis of the photo series gave many qualitative and some valuable physical information on the nature of ECR plasmas. A comparison was made between the plasma photos and computer simulations, and conclusions were drawn regarding the cold electron component of the plasma. The warm electron component of similar simulation was compared with x-ray photos emitted by plasma ions. While the simulations are in good agreement with the photos, a significant difference was found between the spatial distribution of the cold and warm electrons.

  11. Plasma physics and fusion plasma electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Bers, Abraham

    2016-01-01

    Plasma is a ubiquitous state of matter at high temperatures. The electrodynamics of plasmas encompasses a large number of applications, from understanding plasmas in space and the stars, to their use in processing semiconductors, and their role in controlled energy generation by nuclear fusion. This book covers collective and single particle dynamics of plasmas for fully ionized as well as partially ionized plasmas. Many aspects of plasma physics in current fusion energy generation research are addressed both in magnetic and inertial confinement plasmas. Linear and nonlinear dynamics in hydrodynamic and kinetic descriptions are offered, making both simple and complex aspects of the subject available in nearly every chapter. The approach of dividing the basic aspects of plasma physics as "linear, hydrodynamic descriptions" to be covered first because they are "easier", and postponing the "nonlinear and kinetic descriptions" for later because they are "difficult" is abandoned in this book. For teaching purpose...

  12. Plasma waves in an inhomogeneous cylindrical plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesic, S.S.

    1976-01-01

    The complete dispersion equation governing small amplitude plasma waves propagating in an inhomogeneous cylindrical plasma confined by a helical magnetic field is solved numerically. The efficiency of the wave energy thermalization in the lower hybrid frequency range is studied

  13. Interaction of nanosecond ultraviolet laser pulses with reactive dusty plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetering, F. M. J. H. van de; Oosterbeek, W.; Beckers, J.; Nijdam, S.; Gibert, T.; Mikikian, M.; Rabat, H.; Kovačević, E.; Berndt, J.

    2016-01-01

    Even though UV laser pulses that irradiate a gas discharge are small compared to the plasma volume (≲3%) and plasma-on time (≲6 × 10 −6 %), they are found to dramatically change the discharge characteristics on a global scale. The reactive argon–acetylene plasma allows the growth of nanoparticles with diameters up to 1 μm, which are formed inside the discharge volume due to spontaneous polymerization reactions. It is found that the laser pulses predominantly accelerate and enhance the coagulation phase and are able to suppress the formation of a dust void.

  14. Plasma basic concepts and nitrogen containing plasmas

    OpenAIRE

    Sanz Lluch, M. del Mar; Tanarro, Isabel

    2007-01-01

    Basic concepts related to plasmas are described as well as the typical characterization methods currently available. A brief overview about some plasma applications is given, but focusing on plasma used in material processing mainly devoted to the microelectronics industry. Finally, specific applications related to plasma-assisted MBE for nitrides and dilute nitrides are given, showing some interesting research works performed to that purpose, and giving the usual characterization techniques ...

  15. Lectures in plasma diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchinson, I.H.

    1990-06-01

    This paper discusses the following topics on plasma diagnostics: Electric probes in flowing and magnetized plasmas; Electron cyclotron emission absorption; Magnetic diagnostics; Spectroscopy; and Thomson Scattering

  16. Plasma electron losses in a multidipole plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haworth, M.D.

    1983-01-01

    The magnitude of the plasma electron cusp losses in a multidipole plasma device is determined by using a plasma electron heating technique. This method consists of suddenly generating approximately monoenergetic test electrons inside the multidipole plasma, which is in a steady-state equilibrium prior to the introduction of the test electrons. The Coulomb collisions between the test electrons and the plasma electrons result in heating the plasma electrons. The experimentally measured time evolution of the plasma electron temperature is compared with that predicted by a kinetic-theory model which calculates the time evolution of the test electron and the plasma electron distribution functions. The analytical solution of the plasma electron heating rate when the test electrons are first introduced into the plasma predicts that there is no dependence on ion mass. Experimental results in helium, neon, argon, and krypton multidipole plasmas confirm this prediction. The time-evolved solution of the kinetic equations must be solved numerically, and these results (when coupled with the experimental heating results) show that the plasma electron cusp-loss width is on the order of an electron Larmor radius

  17. Physics of plasma etching and plasma deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schram, D.C.; Hoog, de F.J.; Bisschops, T.J.; Kroesen, G.M.W.; Howorka, F.; Lindinger, W.; Maerk, T.D.

    1986-01-01

    The kinetics and mechanism of the title processes are discussed on the basis of a model in which the plasma-surface system is subdivided into 5 regions: (I) plasma prodn., (II) plasma flow plus radicals, (III) gas adsorbed layer, (IV) modified surface, and (V) undisturbed solid (or liq.) state.

  18. Atomic and plasma-material interaction data for fusion. V. 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    Volume 6 of the supplement ''atomic and plasma-material interaction data for fusion'' to the journal ''Nuclear Fusion'' includes critical assessments and results of original experimental and theoretical studies on inelastic collision processes among the basic and dominant impurity constituents of fusion plasmas. Processes considered in the 15 papers constituting this volume are: electron impact excitation of excited Helium atoms, electron impact excitation and ionization of plasma impurity ions and atoms, electron-impurity-ion recombination and excitation, ionization and electron capture in collisions of plasma protons and impurity ions with the main fusion plasma neutral components helium and atomic and molecular hydrogen. Refs, figs, tabs

  19. Plasma hearth process demonstration project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geimer, R.M.; Gillins, R.L.

    1995-01-01

    The Plasma Hearth Process (PHP) demonstration project is one of the key technology projects in the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development Mixed Waste Focus Area. The PHP is a high temperature thermal treatment process using a plasma arc torch in a stationary, refractory lined chamber that destroys organics and stabilizes the residuals in a nonleaching, vitrified waste form, greatly improving the disposability of the waste. This paper describes the PHP system and summarizes test results to date, including volume reduction, destruction and removal efficiencies for organic wastes, and emission characteristics. Tests performed so far demonstrate that the PHP adresses DOE mixed waste final waste form requirements and US Environmental Protection Agency Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure requirements

  20. Hydrogen production using plasma processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, D.; Whidden, T.K.

    2006-01-01

    Plasma processing is a promising method of extracting hydrogen from natural gas while avoiding the greenhouse gas (GHG) production typical of other methods such as steam methane reforming. This presentation describes a plasma discharge process based that, in a single reactor pass, can yield hydrogen concentrations of up to 50 % by volume in the product gas mixture. The process is free of GHG's, does not require catalysts and is easily scalable. Chemical and morphological analyses of the gaseous and solid products of the process by gas-chromatography/mass-spectrometry, microscopic Raman analyses and electron microscopy respectively are reviewed. The direct production of hydrogen-enriched natural gas (HENG) as a fuel for low pollution internal combustion engines and its purification to high-purity hydrogen (99.99%) from the product gas by pressure swing adsorption (PSA) purifier beds are reviewed. The presentation reviews potential commercial applications for the technology

  1. Resuscitation with Pooled and Pathogen-Reduced Plasma Attenuates the Increase in Brain Water Content following Traumatic Brain Injury and Hemorrhagic Shock in Rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Genét, Gustav Folmer; Bentzer, Peter; Ostrowski, Sisse Rye

    2017-01-01

    brain injury, hemorrhage (20 mL/kg), and 90-min shock, 48 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to resuscitation with OCTA, FFP, or NS (n = 16/group). Brain water content (wet/dry weight) and BBB permeability (transfer constant for51Cr-EDTA) were measured at 24 h. Plasma osmolality, oncotic pressure......, and biomarkers of systemic glycocalyx shedding (syndecan-1) and cell damage (histone-complexed DNA) were measured at 0 and 23 h. At 24 h, brain water content was 80.44 ± 0.39%, 80.82 ± 0.82%, and 81.15 ± 0.86% in the OCTA, FFP, and NS groups (lower in OCTA vs. NS; p = 0.026), with no difference in BBB...

  2. Fusion plasma physics

    CERN Document Server

    Stacey, Weston M

    2012-01-01

    This revised and enlarged second edition of the popular textbook and reference contains comprehensive treatments of both the established foundations of magnetic fusion plasma physics and of the newly developing areas of active research. It concludes with a look ahead to fusion power reactors of the future. The well-established topics of fusion plasma physics -- basic plasma phenomena, Coulomb scattering, drifts of charged particles in magnetic and electric fields, plasma confinement by magnetic fields, kinetic and fluid collective plasma theories, plasma equilibria and flux surface geometry, plasma waves and instabilities, classical and neoclassical transport, plasma-materials interactions, radiation, etc. -- are fully developed from first principles through to the computational models employed in modern plasma physics. The new and emerging topics of fusion plasma physics research -- fluctuation-driven plasma transport and gyrokinetic/gyrofluid computational methodology, the physics of the divertor, neutral ...

  3. Oscillatory processes in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallin, E.

    1980-01-01

    The oscillatory process play an important part in plasma evolution, In hot plasma in particular, the interactions between the oscillation modes are preponderant in relation to the binary collisions between particles. The nonlineary interactions between collective plasma oscillations can generate, in this case, a non-balanced steady state of plasma (steady turbulence). The paper elucidates some aspects of the oscillatory phenomena which contribute to the plasma state evolution, especially of hot plasma. A major part of the paper is devoted to the study of parametric instabilities in plasma and their role in increasing the temperature of plasma components (electrons, ions). Both parametric instabilities in plasma in the vicinity of thermodynamic balance and parametric processes is steady turbulent plasma are analysed - in relation to additional heating of hot plasma. An important result of the thesis refers to the drowing-up of a non-lineary interaction model between the oscillation modes in turbulent plasma, being responsible for the electromagnetic radiation in hot plasma. On the basis of the model suggested in the paper the existence of a low frequency radiative mode in hot plasma in a turbulent state, can be demonstrated. Its frequency could be even lower than plasma frequency in the field of long waves be even lower than plasma frequency in the field of long waves. Such a radiative mode was detected experimentally in focussed plasma installations. (author)

  4. High-beta plasma effects in a low-pressure helicon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corr, C. S.; Boswell, R. W.

    2007-01-01

    In this work, high-beta plasma effects are investigated in a low-pressure helicon plasma source attached to a large volume diffusion chamber. When operating above an input power of 900 W and a magnetic field of 30 G a narrow column of bright blue light (due to Ar II radiation) is observed along the axis of the diffusion chamber. With this blue mode, the plasma density is axially very uniform in the diffusion chamber; however, the radial profiles are not, suggesting that a large diamagnetic current might be induced. The diamagnetic behavior of the plasma has been investigated by measuring the temporal evolution of the magnetic field (B z ) and the plasma kinetic pressure when operating in a pulsed discharge mode. It is found that although the electron pressure can exceed the magnetic field pressure by a factor of 2, a complete expulsion of the magnetic field from the plasma interior is not observed. In fact, under our operating conditions with magnetized ions, the maximum diamagnetism observed is ∼2%. It is observed that the magnetic field displays the strongest change at the plasma centre, which corresponds to the maximum in the plasma kinetic pressure. These results suggest that the magnetic field diffuses into the plasma sufficiently quickly that on a long time scale only a slight perturbation of the magnetic field is ever observed

  5. Development of very large helicon plasma source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinohara, Shunjiro; Tanikawa, Takao

    2004-01-01

    We have developed a very large volume, high-density helicon plasma source, 75 cm in diameter and 486 cm in axial length; full width at half maximum of the plasma density is up to ∼42 cm with good plasma uniformity along the z axis. By the use of a spiral antenna located just outside the end of the vacuum chamber through a quartz-glass window, plasma can be initiated with a very low value of radio frequency (rf) power ( 12 cm -3 is successfully produced with less than several hundred Watt; achieving excellent discharge efficiency. It is possible to control the radial density profile in this device by changing the magnetic field configurations near the antenna and/or the antenna radiation-field patterns

  6. Magnetic stresses in ideal MHD plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, V.O.

    1995-01-01

    The concept of magnetic stresses in ideal MHD plasma theory is reviewed and revisited with the aim of demonstrating its advantages as a basis for calculating and understanding plasma equilibria. Expressions are derived for the various stresses that transmit forces in a magnetized plasma...... and it is shown that the resulting magnetic forces on a finite volume element can be obtained by integrating the magnetic stresses over the surface of the element. The concept is used to rederive and discuss the equilibrium conditions for axisymmetric toroidal plasmas, including the virial theorem...... and the Shafranov shift. The method had pedagogical merits as it simplifies the calculations, improves the physical understanding and facilitates an assessment of the approximations made in the calculations....

  7. A variational principle for the plasma centrifuge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, G.O.

    1986-09-01

    A variational principle is derived which describes the stationary state of the plasma column in a plasma centrifuge. Starting with the fluid equations in a rotating frame the theory is developed using the method of irreversible thermodynamics. This formulation easily leads to an expression for the density distribution of the l-species at sedimentation equilibrium, taking into account the effect of the electric and magnetic forces. Assuming stationary boundary conditions and rigid rotation nonequilibrium states the condition for thermodynamic stability integrated over the volume of the system reduces, under certain restrictions, to the principle of minimum entropy production in the stationary state. This principle yields a variational problem which is equivalent to the original problem posed by the stationary fluid equations. The variational method is useful in achieving approximate solutions that give the electric potential and current distributions in the rotating plasma column consistent with an assumed plasma density profile. (Author) [pt

  8. Development and Use of the Dual-Mode Plasma Torch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Womack, R.; Shuey, M.

    2002-01-01

    After several years of development, a commercially available high-temperature treatment system has been developed and installed that treats heterogeneous low-level radioactive waste. High temperature plasma processing, unique torch design and operating features make it feasible to achieve a volume reduced, permanent, high integrity waste form while eliminating the personnel exposure and costs associated with conventional sorting, characterizing and handling. Plasma technology can also be used to treat previous conditioned waste packages that no longer meet the current acceptance criteria for final disposal. Plasma treatment can result, in many cases, in a substantial volume reduction, which lowers the final disposal costs. This paper covers the recently patented dual mode plasma torch design(1), the lessons learned that fostered its development and the advantages it brings to radioactive waste processing. This paper also provides current full scale Plasma Arc Centrifugal Treatment (PACT) project status and how the dual mode torch is being used in the PACT system

  9. Dust-Plasma Interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, Marelene

    2005-01-01

    Our theoretical research on dust-plasma interactions has concentrated on three main areas: (a)studies of grain charging and applications; (b) waves and instabilities in weakly correlated dusty plasma with applications to space and laboratory plasmas; (c) waves in strongly coupled dusty plasmas.

  10. Communication through plasma sheaths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korotkevich, A. O.; Newell, A. C.; Zakharov, V. E.

    2007-01-01

    We wish to transmit messages to and from a hypersonic vehicle around which a plasma sheath has formed. For long distance transmission, the signal carrying these messages must be necessarily low frequency, typically 2 GHz, to which the plasma sheath is opaque. The idea is to use the plasma properties to make the plasma sheath appear transparent

  11. Properties of plasma flames sustained by microwaves and burning hydrocarbon fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Yong Cheol; Uhm, Han Sup

    2006-01-01

    Plasma flames made of atmospheric microwave plasma and a fuel-burning flame were presented and their properties were investigated experimentally. The plasma flame generator consists of a fuel injector and a plasma flame exit connected in series to a microwave plasma torch. The plasma flames are sustained by injecting hydrocarbon fuels into a microwave plasma torch in air discharge. The microwave plasma torch in the plasma flame system can burn a hydrocarbon fuel by high-temperature plasma and high atomic oxygen density, decomposing the hydrogen and carbon containing fuel. We present the visual observations of the sustained plasma flames and measure the gas temperature using a thermocouple device in terms of the gas-fuel mixture and flow rate. The plasma flame volume of the hydrocarbon fuel burners was more than approximately 30-50 times that of the torch plasma. While the temperature of the torch plasma flame was only 868 K at a measurement point, that of the diesel microwave plasma flame with the addition of 0.019 lpm diesel and 30 lpm oxygen increased drastically to about 2280 K. Preliminary experiments for methane plasma flame were also carried out, measuring the temperature profiles of flames along the radial and axial directions. Finally, we investigated the influence of the microwave plasma on combustion flame by observing and comparing OH molecular spectra for the methane plasma flame and methane flame only

  12. Heliophysics 3 Volume Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrijver, Carolus J.; Siscoe, George L.

    2010-11-01

    Volume 1: Preface; 1. Prologue Carolus J. Schrijver and George L. Siscoe; 2. Introduction to heliophysics Thomas J. Bogdan; 3. Creation and destruction of magnetic field Matthias Rempel; 4. Magnetic field topology Dana W. Longcope; 5. Magnetic reconnection Terry G. Forbes; 6. Structures of the magnetic field Mark B. Moldwin, George L. Siscoe and Carolus J. Schrijver; 7. Turbulence in space plasmas Charles W. Smith; 8. The solar atmosphere Viggo H. Hansteen; 9. Stellar winds and magnetic fields Viggo H. Hansteen; 10. Fundamentals of planetary magnetospheres Vytenis M. Vasyliūnas; 11. Solar-wind magnetosphere coupling: an MHD perspective Frank R. Toffoletto and George L. Siscoe; 12. On the ionosphere and chromosphere Tim Fuller-Rowell and Carolus J. Schrijver; 13. Comparative planetary environments Frances Bagenal; Bibliography; Index. Volume 2: Preface; 1. Perspective on heliophysics George L. Siscoe and Carolus J. Schrijver; 2. Introduction to space storms and radiation Sten Odenwald; 3. In-situ detection of energetic particles George Gloeckler; 4. Radiative signatures of energetic particles Tim Bastian; 5. Observations of solar and stellar eruptions, flares, and jets Hugh Hudson; 6. Models of coronal mass ejections and flares Terry Forbes; 7. Shocks in heliophysics Merav Opher; 8. Particle acceleration in shocks Dietmar Krauss-Varban; 9. Energetic particle transport Joe Giacalone; 10. Energy conversion in planetary magnetospheres Vytenis Vasyliūnas; 11. Energization of trapped particles Janet Green; 12. Flares, CMEs, and atmospheric responses Tim Fuller-Rowell and Stanley C. Solomon; 13. Energetic particles and manned spaceflight 358 Stephen Guetersloh and Neal Zapp; 14. Energetic particles and technology Alan Tribble; Appendix I. Authors and editors; List of illustrations; List of tables; Bibliography; Index. Volume 3: Preface; 1. Interconnectedness in heliophysics Carolus J. Schrijver and George L. Siscoe; 2. Long-term evolution of magnetic activity of Sun

  13. Plasma Turbulence General Topics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadomtsev, B. B. [Nuclear Energy Institute, Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Moscow, USSR (Russian Federation)

    1965-06-15

    It is known that under experimental conditions plasma often shows chaotic motion. Such motion, when many degrees of freedom are excited to levels considerably above the thermal level, will be called turbulent. The properties of turbulent plasma in many respects differ from the properties of laminar plasma. It can be said that the appearance of various anomalies in plasma behaviour indicates the presence of turbulence in plasma. In order to verify directly the presence of turbulent motion in plasma we must, however, measure the fluctuation of some microscopic parameters in plasma.

  14. Introduction to plasma dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Morozov, A I

    2013-01-01

    As the twenty-first century progresses, plasma technology will play an increasing role in our lives, providing new sources of energy, ion-plasma processing of materials, wave electromagnetic radiation sources, space plasma thrusters, and more. Studies of the plasma state of matter not only accelerate technological developments but also improve the understanding of natural phenomena. Beginning with an introduction to the characteristics and types of plasmas, Introduction to Plasma Dynamics covers the basic models of classical diffuse plasmas used to describe such phenomena as linear and shock w

  15. PULSION registered HP: Tunable, High Productivity Plasma Doping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felch, S. B.; Torregrosa, F.; Etienne, H.; Spiegel, Y.; Roux, L.; Turnbaugh, D.

    2011-01-01

    Plasma doping has been explored for many implant applications for over two decades and is now being used in semiconductor manufacturing for two applications: DRAM polysilicon counter-doping and contact doping. The PULSION HP is a new plasma doping tool developed by Ion Beam Services for high-volume production that enables customer control of the dominant mechanism--deposition, implant, or etch. The key features of this tool are a proprietary, remote RF plasma source that enables a high density plasma with low chamber pressure, resulting in a wide process space, and special chamber and wafer electrode designs that optimize doping uniformity.

  16. THERMODYNAMIC REASONS OF AGGLOMERATION OF DUST PARTICLES IN THE THERMAL DUSTY PLASMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.I.Vishnyakov

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermodynamic equilibrium of thermal dusty plasmas consisting of ionized gas (plasma and solid particles (dust grains, which interact with each other, is studied. The tendency of grains in dusty plasmas to agglomerate corresponds to the tendency of dusty plasmas to balanced states. When grains agglomerate, electrical perturbations generated by each grain concentrate inside the agglomerate. The plasma is perturbed only by the agglomerate's exterior surface. The greater number of possible states for electrons and ions in plasma depends on the volume of perturbation of grains. The fewer are the perturbations the greater is the amount of possible states for electrons and ions in plasma. If the grains collected from a distance smaller than 8 Debye lengths, the total volume of perturbations is minimized; the free energy of the plasma is also minimized.

  17. Mean nuclear volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, O.; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt; Bichel, P.

    1999-01-01

    We evaluated the following nine parameters with respect to their prognostic value in females with endometrial cancer: four stereologic parameters [mean nuclear volume (MNV), nuclear volume fraction, nuclear index and mitotic index], the immunohistochemical expression of cancer antigen (CA125...

  18. Large area atmospheric-pressure plasma jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selwyn, Gary S.; Henins, Ivars; Babayan, Steve E.; Hicks, Robert F.

    2001-01-01

    Large area atmospheric-pressure plasma jet. A plasma discharge that can be operated at atmospheric pressure and near room temperature using 13.56 MHz rf power is described. Unlike plasma torches, the discharge produces a gas-phase effluent no hotter than 250.degree. C. at an applied power of about 300 W, and shows distinct non-thermal characteristics. In the simplest design, two planar, parallel electrodes are employed to generate a plasma in the volume therebetween. A "jet" of long-lived metastable and reactive species that are capable of rapidly cleaning or etching metals and other materials is generated which extends up to 8 in. beyond the open end of the electrodes. Films and coatings may also be removed by these species. Arcing is prevented in the apparatus by using gas mixtures containing He, which limits ionization, by using high flow velocities, and by properly spacing the rf-powered electrode. Because of the atmospheric pressure operation, there is a negligible density of ions surviving for a sufficiently long distance beyond the active plasma discharge to bombard a workpiece, unlike the situation for low-pressure plasma sources and conventional plasma processing methods.

  19. Electromagnetic induction phenomena in plasma systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karlovitz, B.

    1982-01-01

    The phenomenon of electromagnetic induction is considered in complex high temperature plasma systems. Thermal energy of such fully ionized plasma is really energy of the magnetic vortex fields surrounding the randomly moving ions and electrons. In an expanding plasma stream, moving across the containing magnetic field, random thermal motion of the ions and electrons is converted into ordered motion and thereby random magnetic energy of the plasma into magnetic energy of an ordered field. Consequently, in contrast to simple systems consisting of coils and magnets only, an expanding plasma stream can maintain net outflow of ordered magnetic energy from a closed volume for an indefinite length of time. Conversion of thermal energy of plasma into ordered magnetic energy by the thermodynamic expansion process leads to the expectation of a new induction phenomenon: the generation of a unidirectional induced electromotive force of unlimited duration, measured in a closed loop at rest relative to the magnetic field, by the expansion work of the plasma stream. No change is required in the differential form of Maxwell's equations for the existence of this induction phenomenon, only the definition of the concept of rate of change of magnetic flux needs to be modified in the macroscopic equations to correspond to the rate of flow of magnetic energy across a closed surface. An experimental test of the predicted induction phenomenon is proposed

  20. Collisionless plasmas in astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Belmont, Gerard; Mottez, Fabrice; Pantellini, Filippo; Pelletier, Guy

    2013-01-01

    Collisionless Plasmas in Astrophysics examines the unique properties of media without collisions in plasma physics. Experts in this field, the authors present the first book to concentrate on collisionless conditions in plasmas, whether close or not to thermal equilibrium. Filling a void in scientific literature, Collisionless Plasmas in Astrophysics explains the possibilities of modeling such plasmas, using a fluid or a kinetic framework. It also addresses common misconceptions that even professionals may possess, on phenomena such as "collisionless (Landau) damping". Abundant illustrations

  1. Experimental plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreicer, H.; Banton, M.E.; Ingraham, J.C.; Wittman, F.; Wright, B.L.

    1976-01-01

    The Experimental Plasma Physics group's main efforts continue to be directed toward the understanding of the mechanisms of electromagnetic energy absorption in a plasma, and the resultant plasma heating and energy transport. The high-frequency spectrum of plasma waves parametrically excited by the microwave signal at high powers has been measured. The absorption of a small test microwave signal in a plasma made parametrically unstable by a separate high-power driver microwave signal was also studied

  2. Examples of plasma horizons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanni, R.S.

    1975-01-01

    The concept of the plasma horizon, defined as the boundary of the region in which an infinitely thin plasma can be supported against Coulomb attraction by a magnetic field, shows that the argument of selective accretion does not rule out the existence of charged black holes embedded in a conducting plasma. A detailed account of the covariant definition of plasma horizon is given and some examples of plasma horizons are presented. 7 references

  3. Experiments on screw-pinch plasmas with elongated cross section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lassing, H.W.

    1989-01-01

    In this thesis experiments are described carried out with SPICA II, a toroidal screw-pinch plasma device. this device is the last one in a series of plasma machines of the toroidal screw-pinch differing from its predecessor in its race-track shaped section. In devices of the type toroidal screw-pinch stable confinement is possible of plasmas with larger β values than in a tokamak discharge. In a pinch the plasma is screwed up, during the formation, in such a way that in a relatively small volume a plasma is formated with a high pressure. During the screwing up the plasma is heated by shock heating as well as adiabatic compression. With the modified snowplow model the density and temperature after the formation can be calculated, starting from the initial conditions. When all ions arrive into the plasma column, the density in the column is determined by the volume compression. First purpose of the experiments was to find a stable discharge. Subsequently discharges have been made with a high as possible β in order to investigate at which maximum β it is possible to confine screw-pinch plasmas stably. When these had been found, the nature and importance could be investigated of the processes following which the screw-pinch plasma looses its energy. (author), 75 res.; 95 figs.; 8 tabs

  4. Fusion Technology 1996. Proceedings. Volume 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varandas, C.; Serra, F.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of these proceedings was to provide a platform for the exchange of information on the design, construction and operation of fusion experiments. The technology which is being developed for the next step devices and fusion reactors was also covered. Sections in volume 1 concern (A) first wall, divertors and vacuum systems; (B) plasma heating and control; (C) plasma engineering and control; and (D) experimental systems. The sections in volume 2 deal with (E) magnet and related power supplies; (F) fuel cycle and tritium processing systems; (G) blanket technology/materials; (H) assembly, remote handling and waste management and storage; and (I) safety and environment, and reactor studies

  5. Elements of plasma technology

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, Chiow San

    2016-01-01

    This book presents some fundamental aspects of plasma technology that are important for beginners interested to start research in the area of plasma technology . These include the properties of plasma, methods of plasma generation and basic plasma diagnostic techniques. It also discusses several low cost plasma devices, including pulsed plasma sources such as plasma focus, pulsed capillary discharge, vacuum spark and exploding wire; as well as low temperature plasmas such as glow discharge and dielectric barrier discharge which the authors believe may have potential applications in industry. The treatments are experimental rather than theoretical, although some theoretical background is provided where appropriate. The principles of operation of these devices are also reviewed and discussed.

  6. TFTR plasma feedback systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efthimion, P.; Hawryluk, R.J.; Hojsak, W.; Marsala, R.J.; Mueller, D.; Rauch, W.; Tait, G.D.; Taylor, G.; Thompson, M.

    1985-01-01

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor employs feedback control systems for four plasma parameters, i.e. for plasma current, for plasma major radius, for plasma vertical position, and for plasma density. The plasma current is controlled by adjusting the rate of change of current in the Ohmic Heating (OH) coil system. Plasma current is continuously sensed by a Rogowski coil and its associated electronics; the error between it and a preprogrammed reference plasma current history is operated upon by a ''proportional-plusintegral-plus-derivative'' (PID) control algorithm and combined with various feedforward terms, to generate compensating commands to the phase-controlled thyristor rectifiers which drive current through the OH coils. The plasma position is controlled by adjusting the currents in Equilibrium Field and Horizontal Field coil systems, which respectively determine the vertical and radial external magnetic fields producing J X B forces on the plasma current. The plasma major radius position and vertical position, sensed by ''B /sub theta/ '' and ''B /sub rho/ '' magnetic flux pickup coils with their associated electronics, are controlled toward preprogrammed reference histories by allowing PID and feedforward control algorithms to generate commands to the EF and HF coil power supplies. Plasma density is controlled by adjusting the amount of gas injected into the vacuum vessel. Time-varying gains are used to combine lineaveraged plasma density measurements from a microwave interferometer plasma diagnostic system with vacuum vessel pressure measurements from ion gauges, with various other measurements, and with preprogrammed reference histories, to determine commands to piezoelectric gas injection valves

  7. International conference on plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silin, V.P.; Sitenko, A.G.

    1985-01-01

    A brief report on the 6th International conference on plasma physics and on the 6th International Congress on plasma waves and plasma instabilities, which have taken place in summer 1984 in Losanne, is presented. Main items of the conference are enlightened, such as the general theory of a plasma, laboratory plasma, thermonuclear plasma, cosmic plasma and astrophysics

  8. EDITORIAL: 80 Years of Plasma 80 Years of Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, R. N.; Braithwaite, N. St J.

    2009-02-01

    to admission to Columbia University where he studied metallurgical engineering. After graduation, as was common at that time for able students, he was encouraged to go abroad for his doctoral work. He went to Göttingen, which was then one of the leading European universities in science, and studied under Nernst. Returning to the United States he obtained a post as a teaching assistant at the Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, but the atmosphere proved too hierarchical and uncongenial for a scientist who was wanting to spread his wings. Fortunately the General Electric Company (GEC) recognized his potential; he was recruited in 1909, and remained associated with the GEC for the next 48 years. He quickly established his credentials as a research scientist and was soon given the freedom to pursue his interests wherever they took him, consistent with the overall strategy of the company. His appointment as an Associate Director at the GEC came in the same year that he introduced the term 'plasma'. Interestingly, while the term gained rapid acceptance in Europe, the associated word 'sheath', which Langmuir had already been using for several years, was translated into French, German and Russian and suffered from confusion. That confusion was there in Langmuir's writings because this ion-rich region sometimes was a region with barely any electrons and sometimes it contained a significant quantity of negative charge. The structure of the plasma-sheath and its elucidation had to await new mathematical techniques and the impact of computers as evidenced by papers in this volume and those quoted therein. It is clear that Langmuir inspired and benefited from collaboration with co-workers at the GEC, notably Kingdon, Taylor, Mott-Smith, Compton, Jones, Found, Tonks and Blodgett. In several ways he was ahead of his time in his understanding of gas discharges, and a particular example is what has since come to be known as the Bohm criterion. More than once in his plasma

  9. Plasmas and fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    Plasma and fluid physics includes the fields of fusion research and space investigation. This book discusses the most important advances in these areas over the past decade and recommends a stronger commitment to basic research in plasma and fluid physics. The book recommends that plasma and fluid physics be included in physics curriculums because of their increasing importance in energy and defense. The book also lists recent accomplishments in the fields of general plasma physics, fusion plasma confinement and heating, space and astrophysical plasmas, and fluid physics and lists research opportunities in these areas. A funding summary explains how research monies are allocated and suggests ways to improve their effectiveness

  10. Stability in high gain plasmas in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarus, E.A.; Houlberg, W.A.; Murakami, M.; Wade, M.R.

    1996-10-01

    Fusion power gain has been increased by a factor of 3 in DIII-D plasmas through the use of strong discharge shaping and tailoring of the pressure and current density profiles. H-mode plasmas with weak or negative central magnetic shear are found to have neoclassical ion confinement throughout most of the plasma volume. Improved MHD stability is achieved by controlling the plasma pressure profile width. The highest fusion power gain Q (ratio of fusion power to input power) in deuterium plasmas was 0.0015, which extrapolates to an equivalent Q of 0.32 in a deuterium-tritium plasma and is similar to values achieved in tokamaks of larger size and magnetic fields

  11. ECR plasma diagnostics with Langmuir probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenez, L.; Biri, S.; Valek, A.

    2000-01-01

    the ATOMKI. The specialty of this power supply is that we will continuously control the bias voltage of the probe from -500 V tp +500 V with 0.1 V accuracy. Also we can simultaneously measure the electron and ion currents with 0.01 mA accuracy. We designed a new mechanism which will enable us to scan the whole volume of the plasma chamber. One of our plans for the future is to apply this probe to explain the effect of external electron injection into the plasma. (author)

  12. Plasma extraction rate and collection efficiency during therapeutic plasma exchange with Spectra Optia in comparison with Haemonetics MCS+.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Catherine; Gericke, Marion; Smith, Richard; Hermans, Cedric

    2011-01-01

    For therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE), continuous and intermittent flow separators are known to be efficient. This study was undertaken to compare the performances of the Spectra Optia, a continuous flow centrifugal apheresis system recently developed by CaridianBCT, with the Haemonetics Multicomponents System (MCS)+ apheresis system based on intermittent flow centrifugation. The primary objective of the study was to compare the time required to exchange one total plasma volume with both separators. The secondary objectives were to determine the plasma exchange efficiency, the plasma extraction rate, the percentage of target exchange volume achieved, and the loss of cellular components. The study involved prospectively paired comparison of 16 TPE on each device performed in patients with chronic diseases treated with TPE. The time required to exchange 1 total plasma volume was 182 ± 36 minutes for MCS+ procedures and 100 ± 20 minutes for the Spectra Optia procedures (P higher plasma extraction rate was achieved (30.2 ± 4.3 vs 16.8 ± 3.4 mL/min, respectively, P exchange efficiency was slightly better with the Spectra Optia compared with the MCS+ procedures (83.4 ± 7.0 vs 80.0 ± 8.5%, P higher extraction rate and exchange efficiency than the MCS+ allowing to remove the same amount of plasma in less time, by processing less blood. It also removes significantly less platelets than the MCS+ separator. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Slow convection of a magnetized plasma and the earth plasma sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hruska, A.

    1980-01-01

    Stationary convection of an isotropic, infinitely conducting plasma in a magnetic field with non-trivial geometry is discussed under the assumption that the inertial term in the equation of motion may be ignored. The energy gained or lost by a volume element of plasma per unit time does not vary along the field-lines. Simple relations between the components of the current density, depending on the field-line geometry, exist. Similar relations hold for the components of the plasma velocity. The theoretical analysis is applied to the geomagnetically-quiet plasma sheet and a qualitative physical picture of the sheet is suggested. The observed structure of the sheet is compatible with Axford-Hines type of convection perhaps combined with a low-speed flow from a distant neutral point. The magnetic-field-aligned currents are driven by the deformations of the closed field-lines which are enforced by the solar wind. (orig.)

  14. Special issue: Plasma Conversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nozaki, T.; Bogaerts, A.; Tu, X.; van de Sanden, M. C. M.

    2017-01-01

    With growing concern of energy and environmental issues, the combination of plasma and heterogeneous catalysts receives special attention in greenhouse gas conversion, nitrogen fixation and hydrocarbon chemistry. Plasma gas conversion driven by renewable electricity is particularly important for the

  15. Neutrino beam plasma instability

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    positron or electron–proton plasma in the context of early universe, stars and supernova ... proper. Of course, in their later work on kinetic theory (KT) [5] of neutrino plasma inter- .... for electron also with additional electric potential term.

  16. Plasma kinetic theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    Plasma kinetic theory is discussed and a comparison made with the kinetic theory of gases. The plasma is described by a modified set of fluid equations and it is shown how these fluid equations can be derived. (UK)

  17. Physics of laser plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubenchik, A.; Witkowski, S.

    1991-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive review of laser fusion plasma physics and contains the most up-to-date information on high density plasma physics and radiation transport, useful for astrophysicists and high density physicists

  18. Plasma heating in collisionless plasma at low plasma density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wulf, H.O.

    1977-01-01

    The high frequency heating of a collisionless, fully ionized low density plasma is investigated in the range: 2ωc 2 2 under pumping frequencies. A pulsed 1 MHz transmitter excites a fast standing, magneto-acoustical wave in the plasma, via the high frequency magnetic field of a Stix solenoid. The available modulation degrees are between 0.7 and 7.0%. As power consumption measurements show, there appears at all investigated pumping frequencies an effective energy transfer to the plasma that cannot be explained with the classical MHD models. Measurements with electrostatic probes and further with a miniature counter-field spectrometer yield an electron and ion temperature gain of two to three factors and 15-18, compared to the corresponding values in the initial plasma. (orig./HT) [de

  19. Physics through the 1990s: Plasmas and fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This survey of plasma physics and fluid physics briefly describes present activities and recent major accomplishments. It also identifies research areas that are likely to lead to advances during the next decade. Plasma physics is divided into three major areas: general plasma physics, fusion plasma confinement and heating, and space and astrophysical plasmas. Fluid physics is treated as one topic, although it is an extremely diverse research field ranging from biological fluid dynamics to ship and aircraft performance to geological fluid dynamics. Subpanels, chosen for their technical expertise and scientific breadth, reviewed each of the four areas. The entire survey was coordinated and supervised by an Executive Committee, which is also responsible for the Executive Summary of this volume. Wherever possible, input from recent Advisory Committees was used, e.g., from the Magnetic Fusion Advisory Committee, the Space Science Board, and the Astronomy Survey Committee. This volume is organized as follows: An Introduction and Executive Summary that outlines (1) major findings and recommendations; (2) significant research accomplishments during the past decade and likely areas of future research emphasis; and (3) a brief summary of present funding levels, manpower resources, and institutional involvement; and the subpanel reports constitute Fluid Physics, General Plasma Physics, Fusion Plasma Confinement and Heating, and Space and Astrophysical Plasmas. An important conclusion of this survey is that both plasma physics and fluid physics are scientifically and intellectually well developed, and both ares are broad subdisciplines of physics. We therefore recommend that future physics surveys have separate volumes on the physics of plasmas and the physics of fluids

  20. Volume regulation in epithelia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Hoffmann, Else Kay

    2016-01-01

    to amphibian skin and mammalian cortical collecting tubule of low and intermediate osmotic permeability. Crosstalk between entrance and exit mechanisms interferes with volume regulation both at aniso-osmotic and iso-osmotic volume perturbations. It has been proposed that cell volume regulation is an intrinsic...... regulation are cloned. The volume-regulated anion channel (VRAC) exhibiting specific electrophysiological characteristics seems exclusive to serve cell volume regulation. This is contrary to K+ channels as well as cotransporters and exchange mechanisms that may serve both transepithelial transport and cell...... volume regulation. In the same cell, these functions may be maintained by different ion pathways that are separately regulated. RVD is often preceded by increase in cytosolic free Ca2+, probably via influx through TRP channels, but Ca2+ release from intracellular stores has also been observed. Cell...

  1. Introduction to Plasma Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurnett, Donald A.; Bhattacharjee, Amitava

    2017-03-01

    Preface; 1. Introduction; 2. Characteristic parameters of a plasma; 3. Single particle motions; 4. Waves in a cold plasma; 5. Kinetic theory and the moment equations; 6. Magnetohydrodynamics; 7. MHD equilibria and stability; 8. Discontinuities and shock waves; 9. Electrostatic waves in a hot unmagnetized plasma; 10. Waves in a hot magnetized plasma; 11. Nonlinear effects; 12. Collisional processes; Appendix A. Symbols; Appendix B. Useful trigonometric identities; Appendix C. Vector differential operators; Appendix D. Vector calculus identities; Index.

  2. Plasma-wall interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichle, R.

    2004-01-01

    This document gathers the 43 slides presented in the framework of the week long lecture 'hot plasmas 2004' and dedicated to plasma-wall interaction in a tokamak. This document is divided into 4 parts: 1) thermal load on the wall, power extraction and particle recovery, 2) basic edge plasma physics, 3) processes that drive the plasma-solid interaction, and 4) material conditioning (surface treatment...) for ITER

  3. Plasma physics an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzpatrick, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Plasma Physics: An Introduction is based on a series of university course lectures by a leading name in the field, and thoroughly covers the physics of the fourth state of matter. This book looks at non-relativistic, fully ionized, nondegenerate, quasi-neutral, and weakly coupled plasma. Intended for the student market, the text provides a concise and cohesive introduction to plasma physics theory, and offers a solid foundation for students wishing to take higher level courses in plasma physics.

  4. Application of plasma focus device to compression of toroidal plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikuta, Kazunari

    1980-01-01

    A new concept of compressing a toroidal plasma using a plasma focus device is considered. Maximum compression ratio of toroidal plasma is determined merely by the initial density ratio of the toroidal plasma to a sheet plasma in a focus device because of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. An initiation senario of plasma-linear is also proposed with a possible application of this concepts to the creation of a burning plasma in reversed field configurations, i.e., burning plasma vortex. (author)

  5. Visualization of plasma collision phenomenon by particle based rendering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Takeshi; Takagishi, Hironori; Hasegawa, Kyoko; Nakata, Susumu; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we visualize plasma collision phenomenon based on XYT-space (space and time) volume data for supporting research in plasma physics. We create 3D volume data in the XYT-space by piling up a time series of XY-plane photo images taken in experiment. As a result, we can visualize as one still image all the time behavior of the plasma plume. Besides, we adopt 'fused' visualization based on particle based rendering technique. Using that technique, we can easily fuse volume rendering different materials, and compare physics of different elements in flexible ways. In addition, we propose the method to generate pseudo-3D images from pictures shoot by ICCD of two perspectives on the upper and side. (author)

  6. Carbohydrate plasma expanders for passive tumor targeting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Stefan; Caysa, Henrike; Kuntsche, Judith

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the suitability of carbohydrate plasma volume expanders as a novel polymer platform for tumor targeting. Many synthetic polymers have already been synthesized for targeted tumor therapy, but potential advantages of these carbohydrates include inexpen...... was characterized in human colon carcinoma xenograft bearing nude mice. A tumor specific accumulation of HES 450 was observed, which proves it’s potential as carrier for passive tumor targeting....

  7. Plasma membrane ATPases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmgren, Michael Broberg; Bækgaard, Lone; Lopez Marques, Rosa Laura

    2011-01-01

    The plasma membrane separates the cellular contents from the surrounding environment. Nutrients must enter through the plasma membrane in order to reach the cell interior, and toxic metabolites and several ions leave the cell by traveling across the same barrier. Biological pumps in the plasma me...

  8. Plasma in wound healing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tipa, R.S.

    2012-01-01

    Plasmas, due to their electrical and chemical properties, release in the invironment a unique cocktail of charged species, energetic photons and active radicals. Plasmas have a miriad of applications. To mention just a few, plasmas are being used in the semiconductors industry, atomic layer

  9. Plasma in astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulsrud, R.M.

    1982-10-01

    Two examples of plasma phenomena of importance to astrophysics are reviewed. These are examples where astrophysical understanding hinges on further progress in plasma physics understanding. The two examples are magnetic reconnection and the collisionless interaction between a population of energetic particles and a cooler gas or plasma, in particular the interaction between galactic cosmic rays and the interstellar medium

  10. Plasma processing and chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schram, D.C.; Mullen, van der J.J.A.M.; Sanden, van de M.C.M.

    1994-01-01

    The growing field of applications of plasma as deposition, etching, surface modification and chemical conversion has stimulated a renewed interest in plasma science in the atomic physical chemistry regime. The necessity to optimize the various plasma processing techniques in terms of rates, and

  11. Flow morphing by coaxial type plasma actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoizumi, S.; Aono, H.; Ishikawa, H.

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of study is to achieve the fluid drag reduction of a circular disk by Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma Actuator (DBD-PA). We here introduced “Flow Morphing” concept that flow around the body was changed by DBD-PA jet, such as the body shape morphing. Coaxial type DBD-PA injected axisymmetric jet, generating the vortex region on the pressure side of the circular disk. The vortex generated by axisymmetric plasma jet and flow around circular disk were visualized by tracer particles method. The fluid drag was measured by compression type load cell. In addition streamwise velocity was measured by an X-type hot wire probe. The extent of fluid drag reduction by coaxial type DBD-PA jet was influenced by the volume of vortex region and the diameter of plasma electrode.

  12. Some aspects of plasma thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorgoraki, V.I.

    1986-01-01

    The objective reasons which have inhibited the development of a plasma-thermodynamics theory are discussed and the authors formulate the fundamental principles which can be the basis of a common plasma-thermodynamics theory. Two kinds of thermodynamic equilibrium plasmas are discussed, an isothermal plasma and a nonisothermal plasma. An isothermal plasma is a high-temperature plasma; the Saha-Eggert equation describes its behavior. A nonisothermal plasma is a low-temperature plasma, and the reactions taking place therein are purely plasma-chemical. The ionization equilibrium and the composition of such a plasma can be found with the aid of the equations presented in this paper

  13. Effect of single aerosol droplets on plasma impedance in the inductively coupled plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, George C.-Y., E-mail: gcchan@indiana.edu; Zhu, Zhenli; Hieftje, Gary M.

    2012-10-15

    The impedance of an inductively coupled plasma was indirectly monitored by two different means-through a RF-probe coil placed inside the torch housing and from tapping the phase-detector signal of the impedance-matching network. During single-droplet introduction, temporal spikes in both the RF-probe coil and the phase-detector signals were readily observed, indicating a momentary change in plasma impedance. The changes in plasma impedance were found to be due solely to plasma perturbation by droplet introduction, and not to an artifact caused by imperfect automatic impedance matching. The temporal changes in plasma impedance were found to be directly proportional to the temporally integrated atomic emission of hydrogen, which is assumed in turn to be directly proportional to the volume of the introduced droplet. A small satellite droplet, with an estimated diameter of 27 {mu}m (i.e., {approx} 10 pL in volume), caused a readily measurable change in plasma impedance. By assuming that the change in RF-probe voltage is directly proportional to the variation in RF power delivered by the load coil, the instantaneous power change coupled to the plasma during single-droplet introduction was estimated. Typical increases in peak RF power and total energy coupled to the plasma, for a single 50-{mu}m droplet introduction, were thereby estimated to be around 8 to 11 W and 0.03 to 0.04 J, respectively. This impedance change was also exploited as a trigger to signal the droplet-introduction event into the plasma. This trigger signal was obtained through a combination of the RF-probe and the phase-detector signals and offered typical jitter from 1 to 2 ms. With the proper choice of a trigger threshold, no trigger misfire resulted and the achievable efficiencies of the trigger signal were 99.95, 97.18 and 74.33% for plasma forward power levels of 900, 1200, and 1500 W, respectively. The baseline noise on the RF-probe coil and the phase-detector signals, which increase with plasma

  14. Divertor plasma studies on DIII-D: Experiment and modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, W.P.; Brooks, N.H.; Allen, S.L.

    1996-09-01

    In a magnetically diverted tokamak, the scrape-off layer (SOL) and divertor plasma provides separation between the first wall and the core plasma, intercepting impurities generated at the wall before they reach the core plasma. The divertor plasma can also serve to spread the heat and particle flux over a large area of divertor structure wall using impurity radiation and neutral charge exchange, thus reducing peak heat and particle fluxes at the divertor strike plate. Such a reduction will be required in the next generation of tokamaks, for without it, the divertor engineering requirements are very demanding. To successfully demonstrate a radiative divertor, a highly radiative condition with significant volume recombination must be achieved in the divertor, while maintaining a low impurity content in the core plasma. Divertor plasma properties are determined by a complex interaction of classical parallel transport, anomalous perpendicular transport, impurity transport and radiation, and plasma wall interaction. In this paper the authors describe a set of experiments on DIII-D designed to provide detailed two dimensional documentation of the divertor and SOL plasma. Measurements have been made in operating modes where the plasma is attached to the divertor strike plate and in highly radiating cases where the plasma is detached from the divertor strike plate. They also discuss the results of experiments designed to influence the distribution of impurities in the plasma using enhanced SOL plasma flow. Extensive modeling efforts will be described which are successfully reproducing attached plasma conditions and are helping to elucidate the important plasma and atomic physics involved in the detachment process

  15. Intense ion beam neutralization using underdense background plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berdanier, William [Department of Physics, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Roy, Prabir K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Kaganovich, Igor [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2015-01-15

    Producing an overdense background plasma for neutralization purposes with a density that is high compared to the beam density is not always experimentally possible. We show that even an underdense background plasma with a small relative density can achieve high neutralization of intense ion beam pulses. Using particle-in-cell simulations, we show that if the total plasma electron charge is not sufficient to neutralize the beam charge, electron emitters are necessary for effective neutralization but are not needed if the plasma volume is so large that the total available charge in the electrons exceeds that of the ion beam. Several regimes of possible underdense/tenuous neutralization plasma densities are investigated with and without electron emitters or dense plasma at periphery regions, including the case of electron emitters without plasma, which does not effectively neutralize the beam. Over 95% neutralization is achieved for even very underdense background plasma with plasma density 1/15th the beam density. We compare results of particle-in-cell simulations with an analytic model of neutralization and find close agreement with the particle-in-cell simulations. Further, we show experimental data from the National Drift Compression experiment-II group that verifies the result that underdense plasma can neutralize intense heavy ion beams effectively.

  16. Confinement of laser plasma expansion with strong external magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Hui-bo; Hu, Guang-yue; Liang, Yi-han; Tao, Tao; Wang, Yu-lin; Hu, Peng; Zhao, Bin; Zheng, Jian

    2018-05-01

    The evolutions of laser ablation plasma, expanding in strong (∼10 T) transverse external magnetic field, were investigated in experiments and simulations. The experimental results show that the magnetic field pressure causes the plasma decelerate and accumulate at the plasma-field interface, and then form a low-density plasma bubble. The saturation size of the plasma bubble has a scaling law on laser energy and magnetic field intensity. Magnetohydrodynamic simulation results support the observation and find that the scaling law (V max ∝ E p /B 2, where V max is the maximum volume of the plasma bubble, E p is the absorbed laser energy, and B is the magnetic field intensity) is effective in a broad laser energy range from several joules to kilo-joules, since the plasma is always in the state of magnetic field frozen while expanding. About 15% absorbed laser energy converts into magnetic field energy stored in compressed and curved magnetic field lines. The duration that the plasma bubble comes to maximum size has another scaling law t max ∝ E p 1/2/B 2. The plasma expanding dynamics in external magnetic field have a similar character with that in underdense gas, which indicates that the external magnetic field may be a feasible approach to replace the gas filled in hohlraum to suppress the wall plasma expansion and mitigate the stimulated scattering process in indirect drive ignition.

  17. Determination of hematology and plasma chemistry reference intervals for 3 populations of captive Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsche, Mark A; Arnold, Jill; Jenkins, Erin; Townsend, Howard; Rosemary, Kevin

    2014-09-01

    The imperiled status of Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus), a large, long-lived, anadromous fish found along the Atlantic coast of North America, has prompted efforts at captive propagation for research and stock enhancement. The purpose of this study was to establish hematology and plasma chemistry reference intervals of captive Atlantic sturgeon maintained under different culture conditions. Blood specimens were collected from a total of 119 fish at 3 hatcheries: Lamar, PA (n = 36, ages 10-14 years); Chalk Point, MD (n = 40, siblings of Lamar); and Horn Point, Cambridge, MD (n = 43, mixed population from Chesapeake Bay). Reference intervals (using robust techniques), median, mean, and standard deviations were determined for WBC, RBC, thrombocytes, PCV, HGB, MCV, MCH, MCHC, and absolute counts for lymphocytes (L), neutrophils (N), monocytes, and eosinophils. Chemistry analytes included concentrations of total proteins, albumin, glucose, urea, calcium, phosphate, sodium, potassium, chloride, and globulins, AST, CK, and LDH activities, and osmolality. Mean concentrations of total proteins, albumin, and glucose were at or below the analytic range. Statistical comparisons showed significant differences among hatcheries for each remaining plasma chemistry analyte and for PCV, RBC, MCHC, MCH, eosinophil and monocyte counts, and N:L ratio throughout all 3 groups. Therefore, reference intervals were calculated separately for each population. Reference intervals for fish maintained under differing conditions should be established per population. © 2014 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology and European Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  18. Volumetric plasma source development and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crain, Marlon D.; Maron, Yitzhak; Oliver, Bryan Velten; Starbird, Robert L.; Johnston, Mark D.; Hahn, Kelly Denise; Mehlhorn, Thomas Alan; Droemer, Darryl W.

    2008-01-01

    The development of plasma sources with densities and temperatures in the 10 15 -10 17 cm -3 and 1-10eV ranges which are slowly varying over several hundreds of nanoseconds within several cubic centimeter volumes is of interest for applications such as intense electron beam focusing as part of the x-ray radiography program. In particular, theoretical work (1,2) suggests that replacing neutral gas in electron beam focusing cells with highly conductive, pre-ionized plasma increases the time-averaged e-beam intensity on target, resulting in brighter x-ray sources. This LDRD project was an attempt to generate such a plasma source from fine metal wires. A high voltage (20-60kV), high current (12-45kA) capacitive discharge was sent through a 100 (micro)m diameter aluminum wire forming a plasma. The plasma's expansion was measured in time and space using spectroscopic techniques. Lineshapes and intensities from various plasma species were used to determine electron and ion densities and temperatures. Electron densities from the mid-10 15 to mid-10 16 cm -3 were generated with corresponding electron temperatures of between 1 and 10eV. These parameters were measured at distances of up to 1.85 cm from the wire surface at times in excess of 1 (micro)s from the initial wire breakdown event. In addition, a hydrocarbon plasma from surface contaminants on the wire was also measured. Control of these contaminants by judicious choice of wire material, size, and/or surface coating allows for the ability to generate plasmas with similar density and temperature to those given above, but with lower atomic masses

  19. Plasma physics and controlled nuclear fusion research 1990. V. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    Volume 1 of the Proceedings of the Thirteenth International Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research contains papers given in two of the sessions: A and E. Session A contains the Artsimovich Memorial Lecture and papers on tokamaks; session E papers on plasma heating and current drive. The titles and authors of each paper are listed in the Contents. Abstracts accompany each paper. Refs, figs and tabs

  20. Comprehensive Study of Plasma-Wall Sheath Transport Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-26

    the floating potential of wall material samples immersed in a low-temperature plasma were studied. Hysteresis is found to be due to secondary electron...continued research into plasma sheath physics. Hysteresis effects observed in the floating potential of wall material samples immersed in a low... Journal of Applied Physics, Volume 119, March 2016, pp. 113305 1-5. DISTRIBUTION A: Distribution approved for public release. 8 Figure 2

  1. Space plasma simulation chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    Scientific results of experiments and tests of instruments performed with the Space Plasma Simulation Chamber and its facility are reviewed in the following six categories. 1. Tests of instruments on board rockets, satellites and balloons. 2. Plasma wave experiments. 3. Measurements of plasma particles. 4. Optical measurements. 5. Plasma production. 6. Space plasms simulations. This facility has been managed under Laboratory Space Plasma Comittee since 1969 and used by scientists in cooperative programs with universities and institutes all over country. A list of publications is attached. (author)

  2. Computations in plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, B.I.; Killeen, J.

    1984-01-01

    A review of computer application in plasma physics is presented. Computer contribution to the investigation of magnetic and inertial confinement of a plasma and charged particle beam propagation is described. Typical utilization of computer for simulation and control of laboratory and cosmic experiments with a plasma and for data accumulation in these experiments is considered. Basic computational methods applied in plasma physics are discussed. Future trends of computer utilization in plasma reseaches are considered in terms of an increasing role of microprocessors and high-speed data plotters and the necessity of more powerful computer application

  3. Model of detached plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, S.; Chance, M.

    1986-07-01

    Recently a tokamak plasma was observed in TFTR that was not limited by a limiter or a divertor. A model is proposed to explain this equilibrium, which is called a detached plasma. The model consists of (1) the core plasma where ohmic heating power is lost by anomalous heat conduction and (2) the shell plasma where the heat from the core plasma is radiated away by the atomic processes of impurity ions. A simple scaling law is proposed to test the validity of this model

  4. Mirror plasma apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    A mirror plasma apparatus which utilizes shielding by arc discharge to form a blanket plasma and lithium walls to reduce neutron damage to the wall of the apparatus. An embodiment involves a rotating liquid lithium blanket for a tandem mirror plasma apparatus wherein the first wall of the central mirror cell is made of liquid lithium which is spun with angular velocity great enough to keep the liquid lithium against the first material wall, a blanket plasma preventing the lithium vapor from contaminating the plasma

  5. Contemporary plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodha, M.S.; Tewari, D.P.; Subbarao, D.

    1983-01-01

    The book consists of review articles on some selected contemporary aspects of plasma physics. The selected topics present a panoramic view of contemporary plasma physics and applications to fusion, space and MHD power generation. Basic non-linear plasma theory is also covered. The book is supposed to be useful for M.S./M.Sc. students specialising in plasma physics and for those beginning research work in plasma physics. It will also serve as a valuable reference book for more advanced research workers. (M.G.B.)

  6. ECR Plasma Photos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racz, R.; Biri, S.; Palinkas, J.

    2009-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. In order to observe and study systematically the plasma of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources (ECRIS) we made a high number of high-resolution visible light plasma photos and movies in the ATOMKI ECRIS Laboratory. This required building the ECR ion source into an open plasma device, temporarily. An 8MP digital camera was used to record photos of plasmas made from He, methane, N, O, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe gases and from their mixtures. The effects of the main external setting parameters (gas pressure, gas composition, magnetic field, microwave power, microwave frequency) were studied to the shape, color and structure of the plasma. The double frequency mode (9+14 GHz) was also realized and photos of this special 'star-in-star' shape plasma were recorded. A study was performed to analyze and understand the color of the ECR plasmas. The analysis of the photo series gave us many qualitative and numerous valuable physical information on the nature of ECR plasmas. To our best knowledge our work is the first systematic study of ECR plasmas in the visible light region. When looking in the plasma chamber of an ECRIS we can see an axial image of the plasma (figure 1) in conformity with experimental setup. Most of the quantitative information was obtained through the summarised values of the Analogue Digital Unit (ADU) of pixels. By decreasing the strength of the magnetic trap we clearly observed that the brightness of the central part of the plasma gradually decreases, i.e. the plasma becomes more and more 'empty'. Figure 2 shows a photo series of ECR plasma at decreasing axial magnetic field. The radial size of the plasma increased because of the ascendant resonant zone. By increasing the power of the injected microwave an optimum (or at least saturation) was found in the brightness of the plasma. We found correlation between the gas dosing rates and plasma intensities. When sweeping the frequency of the microwave in a wide region

  7. Cyclotron waves in plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Lominadze, D G

    2013-01-01

    Cyclotron Waves in Plasma is a four-chapter text that covers the basic physical concepts of the theory of cyclotron waves and cyclotron instabilities, brought about by the existence of steady or alternating plasma currents flowing perpendicular to the magnetic field.This book considers first a wide range of questions associated with the linear theory of cyclotron oscillations in equilibrium plasmas and in electron plasmas in metals and semiconductors. The next chapter deals with the parametric excitation of electron cyclotron oscillations in plasma in an alternating electric field. A chapter f

  8. Introduction to plasma engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    The author has begun writing a textbook entitled Introduction to Plasma Engineering, which is intended for upper division undergraduates or professionals who are entering the field. This paper features a detailed topical outline of all 20 chapters of the book. The text is organized so that the first five chapters cover plasma physics and basic principles; the next 13 chapters cover the most important engineering applications of plasmas, in order of increasing plasma energy/number density; and two final chapters cover plasma diagnostics and magnetic coil design

  9. Study on a volume-production H- ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takama, S.

    1988-01-01

    H - ions formed by volume-production are extracted from a multicuspion source. By applying a large positive bias to the plasma electrode, the ratio I - /I e becomes 1/20. H - ion current of 0.4mA is extracted from a 0.3cm 2 circular aperture at an arc current of 10A. (author)

  10. Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS). Final report. Volume 1-A. Commercial fusion electric plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donohue, M.L.; Price, M.E.

    1984-07-01

    Volume 1-A contains the following chapters: (1) plasma engineering, (2) magnets, (3) ecr heating systems, (4) anchor ion-cyclotron resonance heating system, (5) sloshing ion neutral beam, (6) end cell structure, (7) end plasma technology, (8) fueling, (9) startup ion cyclotron resonant heating systems, and (10) end cell radiation analysis

  11. Mirror Advanced Reactor Study (MARS). Final report. Volume 1-A. Commercial fusion electric plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donohue, M.L.; Price, M.E. (eds.)

    1984-07-01

    Volume 1-A contains the following chapters: (1) plasma engineering, (2) magnets, (3) ecr heating systems, (4) anchor ion-cyclotron resonance heating system, (5) sloshing ion neutral beam, (6) end cell structure, (7) end plasma technology, (8) fueling, (9) startup ion cyclotron resonant heating systems, and (10) end cell radiation analysis. (MOW)

  12. High plasma exposure to pemetrexed leads to severe hyponatremia in patients with advanced non small cell lung cancer receiving pemetrexed-platinum doublet chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gota, Vikram; Kavathiya, Krunal; Doshi, Kartik; Gurjar, Murari; Damodaran, Solai E; Noronha, Vanita; Joshi, Amit; Prabhash, Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Pemetrexed-platinum doublet therapy is a standard treatment for stage IIIb/IV nonsquamous non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). While the regimen is associated with several grade ≥3 toxicities, hyponatremia is not a commonly reported adverse effect. Here we report an unusually high incidence of grade ≥3 hyponatremia in Indian patients receiving pemetrexed-platinum doublet, and the pharmacological basis for this phenomenon. Forty-six patients with advanced NSCLC were enrolled for a bioequivalence study of two pemetrexed formulations. All patients received the pemetrexed-platinum doublet for six cycles followed by single-agent pemetrexed maintenance until progression. Pharmacokinetic blood samples were collected at predefined time points during the first cycle and the concentration-time profile of pemetrexed was investigated by noncompartmental analysis. Hyponatremic episodes were investigated with serum electrolytes, serum osmolality, urinary sodium, and urine osmolality. Sixteen of 46 patients (35%) had at least one episode of grade ≥3 hyponatremia. Twenty-four episodes of grade ≥3 hyponatremia were observed in 200 cycles of doublet chemotherapy. Plasma exposure to pemetrexed was significantly higher in patients with high-grade hyponatremia than in those with low-grade or no hyponatremia (P=0.063 and P=0.001, respectively). Pemetrexed clearance in high-grade hyponatremia was quite low compared with normal and low-grade hyponatremia (P=0.001 and P=0.055, respectively). Median pemetrexed exposure in this cohort was much higher than that reported in the literature from Western studies. Higher exposure to pemetrexed is associated with grade ≥3 hyponatremia. The pharmacogenetic basis for higher exposure to pemetrexed in Indian patients needs further investigation

  13. Variable volume combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostebee, Heath Michael; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Keener, Christopher Paul

    2017-01-17

    The present application provides a variable volume combustor for use with a gas turbine engine. The variable volume combustor may include a liner, a number of micro-mixer fuel nozzles positioned within the liner, and a linear actuator so as to maneuver the micro-mixer fuel nozzles axially along the liner.

  14. Postoperative volume balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, H; Mortensen, C.R.; Secher, Niels H.

    2017-01-01

    In healthy humans, stroke volume (SV) and cardiac output (CO) do not increase with expansion of the central blood volume by head-down tilt or administration of fluid. Here, we exposed 85 patients to Trendelenburg's position about one hour after surgery while cardiovascular variables were determin...

  15. Applied plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Applied Plasma Physics is a major sub-organizational unit of the Magnetic Fusion Energy (MFE) Program. It includes Fusion Plasma Theory and Experimental Plasma Research. The Fusion Plasma Theory group has the responsibility for developing theoretical-computational models in the general areas of plasma properties, equilibrium, stability, transport, and atomic physics. This group has responsibility for giving guidance to the mirror experimental program. There is a formal division of the group into theory and computational; however, in this report the efforts of the two areas are not separated since many projects have contributions from members of both. Under the Experimental Plasma Research Program we are developing a neutral-beam source, the intense, pulsed ion-neutral source (IPINS), for the generation of a reversed-field configuration on 2XIIB. We are also studying the feasibility of using certain neutron-detection techniques as plasma diagnostics in the next generation of thermonuclear experiments

  16. Plasma polymerization by Softplasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, J.; Wu, Zhenning; Benter, Maike

    2008-01-01

    , external electrode, and electrodeless microwave or high frequency reactors. [3] Softplasma™ is an internal electrode plasma setup powered by low frequenc~ gower supply. It was developed in late 90s for surface treatment of silicone rubber. [ ]- 5] It is a low pressure, low electron density, 3D homogenous......In the late 19th century, the first depositions - known today as plasma polymers, were reported. In the last century, more and more research has been put into plasma polymers. Many different deposition systems have been developed. [1, 2] Shi F. F. broadly classified them into internal electrode...... plasma. In this study, we are presenting the surface modification"pf polymers by plasma polymerization using Softplasma™. Softplasma™ can be used for two major types of polymerization: polymerization of vinyl monomers, where plasma acts as initiator; chemical vapour deposition, where plasma acts...

  17. Plasma engineering: a perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gralnick, S.L.

    1978-01-01

    This review paper will present the authors perspective of the field of Plasma Engineering as it has evolved over the preceding five years. This embrionic discipline has grown in that period of time to the point where it is sufficiently mature to become part of the curriculum, and a speciality within, the discipline of Nuclear Engineering. Plasma Engineering can be distinguished from the underlying science of plasma physics in that in the pursuit of the latter, our goal is the understanding of the fundamental processes governing the behavior of plasmas while the former discipline seeks the embodiment of these concepts in useful devices. Consequent to this goal, the plasma engineer, of necessity, is concerned with the interfaces between a plasma configuration and the device by which it is produced and maintained. These interface problems, often referred to as kitchen physics are multidisciplinary in nature, and their solution requires careful attention to both plasma physics and machine engineering detail

  18. Applied plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    Applied Plasma Physics is a major sub-organizational unit of the MFE Program. It includes Fusion Plasma Theory and Experimental Plasma Research. The Fusion Plasma Theory group has the responsibility for developing theoretical-computational models in the general areas of plasma properties, equilibrium, stability, transport, and atomic physics. This group has responsibility for giving guidance to the mirror experimental program. There is a formal division of the group into theory and computational; however, in this report the efforts of the two areas are not separated since many projects have contributions from members of both. Under the Experimental Plasma Research Program, we are developing the intense, pulsed neutral-beam source (IPINS) for the generation of a reversed-field configuration on 2XIIB. We are also studying the feasibility of utilizing certain neutron-detection techniques as plasma diagnostics in the next generation of thermonuclear experiments

  19. Metallurgical plasma torches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapovalov, V.A.; Latash, Yu.V.

    2000-01-01

    The technological equipment for the plasma heating of metals, plasma melting and plasma treatment of the surface is usually developed on the basis of are plasma torches using direct or alternating current. The reasons which partly restrict the industrial application of the plasma torches are the relatively short service life of the electrode (cathode) on which the arc is supported, and the contamination of the treated metal with the products of failure of the electrode. The aim of this work was to determine the reasons for the occurrence of negative phenomena observed in the process of service of plasma torches, and propose suitable approaches to the design of metallurgical plasma torches characterised by a long service life

  20. Volume Regulated Channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Thomas Kjær

    of volume perturbations evolution have developed system of channels and transporters to tightly control volume homeostasis. In the past decades evidence has been mounting, that the importance of these volume regulated channels and transporters are not restricted to the defense of cellular volume...... but are also essential for a number of physiological processes such as proliferation, controlled cell death, migration and endocrinology. The thesis have been focusing on two Channels, namely the swelling activated Cl- channel (ICl, swell) and the transient receptor potential Vanilloid (TRPV4) channel. I: Cl......- serves a multitude of functions in the mammalian cell, regulating the membrane potential (Em), cell volume, protein activity and the driving force for facilitated transporters giving Cl- and Cl- channels a major potential of regulating cellular function. These functions include control of the cell cycle...

  1. INTRODUCTION: Nonequilibrium Processes in Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrović, Zoran; Marić, Dragana; Malović, Gordana

    2009-07-01

    This book aims to give a cross section from a wide range of phenomena that, to different degrees, fall under the heading of non-equilibrium phenomenology. The selection is, of course, biased by the interests of the members of the scientific committee and of the FP6 Project 026328 IPB-CNP Reinforcing Experimental Centre for Non-equilibrium Studies with Application in Nano-technologies, Etching of Integrated Circuits and Environmental Research. Some of the papers included here are texts based on selected lectures presented at the Second International Workshop on Non-equilibrium Processes in Plasmas and Environmental Science. However, this volume is not just the proceedings of that conference as it contains a number of papers from authors that did not attend the conference. The goal was to put together a volume that would cover the interests of the project and support further work. It is published in the Institute of Physics journal Journal of Physics: Conference Series to ensure a wide accessibility of the articles. The texts presented here range from in-depth reviews of the current status and past achievements to progress reports of currently developed experimental devices and recently obtained still unpublished results. All papers have been refereed twice, first when speakers were selected based on their reputation and recently published results, and second after the paper was submitted both by the editorial board and individual assigned referees according to the standards of the conference and of the journal. Nevertheless, we still leave the responsibility (and honours) for the contents of the papers to the authors. The papers in this book are review articles that give a summary of the already published work or present the work in progress that will be published in full at a later date (or both). In the introduction to the first volume, in order to show how far reaching, ubiquitous and important non-equilibrium phenomena are, we claimed that ever since the early

  2. Plasmas for medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Woedtke, Th.; Reuter, S.; Masur, K.; Weltmann, K.-D.

    2013-09-01

    Plasma medicine is an innovative and emerging field combining plasma physics, life science and clinical medicine. In a more general perspective, medical application of physical plasma can be subdivided into two principal approaches. (i) “Indirect” use of plasma-based or plasma-supplemented techniques to treat surfaces, materials or devices to realize specific qualities for subsequent special medical applications, and (ii) application of physical plasma on or in the human (or animal) body to realize therapeutic effects based on direct interaction of plasma with living tissue. The field of plasma applications for the treatment of medical materials or devices is intensively researched and partially well established for several years. However, plasma medicine in the sense of its actual definition as a new field of research focuses on the use of plasma technology in the treatment of living cells, tissues, and organs. Therefore, the aim of the new research field of plasma medicine is the exploitation of a much more differentiated interaction of specific plasma components with specific structural as well as functional elements or functionalities of living cells. This interaction can possibly lead either to stimulation or inhibition of cellular function and be finally used for therapeutic purposes. During recent years a broad spectrum of different plasma sources with various names dedicated for biomedical applications has been reported. So far, research activities were mainly focused on barrier discharges and plasma jets working at atmospheric pressure. Most efforts to realize plasma application directly on or in the human (or animal) body for medical purposes is concentrated on the broad field of dermatology including wound healing, but also includes cancer treatment, endoscopy, or dentistry. Despite the fact that the field of plasma medicine is very young and until now mostly in an empirical stage of development yet, there are first indicators of its enormous

  3. A reference frame for blood volume in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donckerwolcke Raymond

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our primary purpose was to determine the normal range and variability of blood volume (BV in healthy children, in order to provide reference values during childhood and adolescence. Our secondary aim was to correlate these vascular volumes to body size parameters and pubertal stages, in order to determine the best normalisation parameter. Methods Plasma volume (PV and red cell volume (RCV were measured and F-cell ratio was calculated in 77 children with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome in drug-free remission (mean age, 9.8 ± 4.6 y. BV was calculated as the sum of PV and RCV. Due to the dependence of these values on age, size and sex, all data were normalised for body size parameters. Results BV normalised for lean body mass (LBM did not differ significantly by sex (p Conclusion LBM was the anthropometric index most closely correlated to vascular fluid volumes, independent of age, gender and pubertal stage.

  4. Plasma sheath in non-Maxwellian plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Takuo; Horigome, Takashi

    1992-01-01

    Reviewing many theoretical and experimental works on the electron-energy distributions (EEDF) of various plasmas, we point out that many plasmas have EEDF of non-Maxwellian in shape. Therefore, the recent treatment of plasma sheath using the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution approximation should be improved. To do this, we have adopted Rutcher's standard distribution as a generalized form in place of the traditional Maxwellian, and found that the minimum energy of ions entering the sheath edge (Bohm's criterion) varies largely, and have also shown the variation of Debye length with the shape of EEDF. The length is the most important parameter to proceed with more detailed analysis on plasma-sheaths, and also to control them in the future. (author)

  5. Simple, miniaturized blood plasma extraction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Hee; Woenker, Timothy; Adamec, Jiri; Regnier, Fred E

    2013-12-03

    A rapid plasma extraction technology that collects a 2.5 μL aliquot of plasma within three minutes from a finger-stick derived drop of blood was evaluated. The utility of the plasma extraction cards used was that a paper collection disc bearing plasma was produced that could be air-dried in fifteen minutes and placed in a mailing envelop for transport to an analytical laboratory. This circumvents the need for venipuncture and blood collection in specialized vials by a phlebotomist along with centrifugation and refrigerated storage. Plasma extraction was achieved by applying a blood drop to a membrane stack through which plasma was drawn by capillary action. During the course of plasma migration to a collection disc at the bottom of the membrane stack blood cells were removed by a combination of adsorption and filtration. After the collection disc filled with an aliquot of plasma the upper membranes were stripped from the collection card and the collection disc was air-dried. Intercard differences in the volume of plasma collected varied approximately 1% while volume variations of less than 2% were seen with hematocrit levels ranging from 20% to 71%. Dried samples bearing metabolites and proteins were then extracted from the disc and analyzed. 25-Hydroxy vitamin D was quantified by LC-MS/MS analysis following derivatization with a secosteroid signal enhancing tag that imparted a permanent positive charge to the vitamin and reduced the limit of quantification (LOQ) to 1 pg of collected vitamin on the disc; comparable to values observed with liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) of a venipuncture sample. A similar study using conventional proteomics methods and spectral counting for quantification was conducted with yeast enolase added to serum as an internal standard. The LOQ with extracted serum samples for enolase was 1 μM, linear from 1 to 40 μM, the highest concentration examined. In all respects protein quantification with extracted serum samples was comparable to

  6. Particle modeling of plasmas computational plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    Recently, through the development of supercomputers, a powerful new method for exploring plasmas has emerged; it is computer modeling of plasmas. Such modeling can duplicate many of the complex processes that go on in a plasma and allow scientists to understand what the important processes are. It helps scientists gain an intuition about this complex state of matter. It allows scientists and engineers to explore new ideas on how to use plasma before building costly experiments; it allows them to determine if they are on the right track. It can duplicate the operation of devices and thus reduce the need to build complex and expensive devices for research and development. This is an exciting new endeavor that is in its infancy, but which can play an important role in the scientific and technological competitiveness of the US. There are a wide range of plasma models that are in use. There are particle models, fluid models, hybrid particle fluid models. These can come in many forms, such as explicit models, implicit models, reduced dimensional models, electrostatic models, magnetostatic models, electromagnetic models, and almost an endless variety of other models. Here the author will only discuss particle models. He will give a few examples of the use of such models; these will be taken from work done by the Plasma Modeling Group at UCLA because he is most familiar with work. However, it only gives a small view of the wide range of work being done around the US, or for that matter around the world

  7. Magnetospheric plasma waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shawhan, S.D.

    1977-01-01

    A brief history of plasma wave observations in the Earth's magnetosphere is recounted and a classification of the identified plasma wave phenomena is presented. The existence of plasma waves is discussed in terms of the characteristic frequencies of the plasma, the energetic particle populations and the proposed generation mechanisms. Examples are given for which plasmas waves have provided information about the plasma parameters and particle characteristics once a reasonable theory has been developed. Observational evidence and arguments by analogy to the observed Earth plasma wave processes are used to identify plasma waves that may be significant in other planetary magnetospheres. The similarities between the observed characteristics of the terrestrial kilometric radiation and radio bursts from Jupiter, Saturn and possibly Uranus are stressed. Important scientific problems concerning plasma wave processes in the solar system and beyond are identified and discussed. Models for solar flares, flare star radio outbursts and pulsars include elements which are also common to the models for magnetospheric radio bursts. Finally, a listing of the research and development in terms of instruments, missions, laboratory experiments, theory and computer simulations needed to make meaningful progress on the outstanding scientific problems of plasma wave research is given. (Auth.)

  8. Particle beams and plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, A.; Messerschmid, E.; Lawson, J.D.

    1976-01-01

    These lectures present a survey of some of the concepts of plasma physics and look at some situations familiar to particle-accelerator physicists from the point of view of a plasma physicist, with the intention of helping to link together the two fields. At the outset, basic plasma concepts are presented, including definitions of a plasma, characteristic parameters, magnetic pressure and confinement. This is followed by a brief discussion on plasma kinetic theory, non-equilibrium plasma, and the temperature of moving plasmas. Examples deal with beams in the CERN Intersecting Storage Rings as well as with non-steady beams in cyclic accelerators and microwave tubes. In the final chapters, time-varying systems are considered: waves in free space and the effect of cylinder bounds, wave motion in cold stationary plasmas, and waves in plasmas with well-defined streams. The treatment throughout is informal, with emphasis on the essential physical properties of continuous beams in accelerators and storage rings in relation to the corresponding problems in plasma physics and microwave tubes. (Author)

  9. Measuring the equations of state in a relaxed magnetohydrodynamic plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, M.; Barbano, L. J.; Suen-Lewis, E. M.; Shrock, J. E.; Light, A. D.; Brown, M. R.; Schaffner, D. A.

    2018-01-01

    We report measurements of the equations of state of a fully relaxed magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) laboratory plasma. Parcels of magnetized plasma, called Taylor states, are formed in a coaxial magnetized plasma gun, and are allowed to relax and drift into a closed flux conserving volume. Density, ion temperature, and magnetic field are measured as a function of time as the Taylor states compress and heat. The theoretically predicted MHD and double adiabatic equations of state are compared to experimental measurements. We find that the MHD equation of state is inconsistent with our data.

  10. Electrostatic plasma lens for focusing negatively charged particle beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncharov, A A; Dobrovolskiy, A M; Dunets, S M; Litovko, I V; Gushenets, V I; Oks, E M

    2012-02-01

    We describe the current status of ongoing research and development of the electrostatic plasma lens for focusing and manipulating intense negatively charged particle beams, electrons, and negative ions. The physical principle of this kind of plasma lens is based on magnetic isolation electrons providing creation of a dynamical positive space charge cloud in shortly restricted volume propagating beam. Here, the new results of experimental investigations and computer simulations of wide-aperture, intense electron beam focusing by plasma lens with positive space charge cloud produced due to the cylindrical anode layer accelerator creating a positive ion stream towards an axis system is presented.

  11. Hydration and blood volume effects on human thermoregulation in the heat: Space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawka, Michael N.; Gonzalez, Richard R.; Pandolf, Kent B.

    1994-01-01

    Astronauts exposed to prolonged weightlessness will experience deconditioning, dehydration, and hypovolemia which all adversely affect thermoregulation. These thermoregulatory problems can be minimized by several countermeasures that manipulate body water and vascular volumes. USARIEM scientists have extensively studied dehydration effects and several possible countermeasures including hyperhydration, plasma and erythrocyte volume expansion. This paper reviews USARIEM research into these areas.

  12. Fusion Engineering Device. Volume II. Design description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-10-01

    This volume summarizes the design of the FED. It includes a description of the major systems and subsystems, the supporting plasma design analysis, a projected device cost and associated construction schedule, and a description of the facilities to house and support the device. This effort represents the culmination of the FY81 studies conducted at the Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC). Unique in these design activities has been the collaborative involvement of the Design Center personnel and numerous resource physicists from the fusion community who have made significant contributions in the physics design analysis as well as the physics support of the engineering design of the major FED systems and components

  13. ZAPP: The Z Astrophysical Plasma Properties collaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rochau, G. A.; Bailey, J. E.; Falcon, R. E.; Loisel, G. P.; Nagayama, T.; Mancini, R. C.; Hall, I.; Winget, D. E.; Montgomery, M. H.; Liedahl, D. A.

    2014-01-01

    The Z Facility at Sandia National Laboratories [Matzen et al., Phys. Plasmas 12, 055503 (2005)] provides MJ-class x-ray sources that can emit powers >0.3 PW. This capability enables benchmark experiments of fundamental material properties in radiation-heated matter at conditions previously unattainable in the laboratory. Experiments on Z can produce uniform, long-lived, and large plasmas with volumes up to 20 cc, temperatures from 1–200 eV, and electron densities from 10 17–23  cc −1 . These unique characteristics and the ability to radiatively heat multiple experiments in a single shot have led to a new effort called the Z Astrophysical Plasma Properties (ZAPP) collaboration. The focus of the ZAPP collaboration is to reproduce the radiation and material characteristics of astrophysical plasmas as closely as possible in the laboratory and use detailed spectral measurements to strengthen models for atoms in plasmas. Specific issues under investigation include the LTE opacity of iron at stellar-interior conditions, photoionization around active galactic nuclei, the efficiency of resonant Auger destruction in black-hole accretion disks, and H-Balmer line shapes in white dwarf photospheres

  14. Plasma drift towards a plane equipotential surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlqvist, P.

    1984-03-01

    Recently Alfven has qualitatively described how a collisionless plasma drifts in crossed electric and magnetic fields towards an infinite conducting plate of constant potential. In the present note we quantitatively study three models which are closely related to Alfven's model. It is found that when the plasma comes sufficiently close to a plane equipotential surface (conducting plate) it is deflected approximately along the surface. The deflection is not caused by pressure effects but rather by the electric and magnetic fields. Small fluxes of ions and electrons also cross the plane equipotential surface. These fluxes account for an electric current in the plasma which induces a magnetic field in the same direction as the total magnetic field assumed to be homogeneous. It is shown that if the Alfven number, M(sub)A, is much smaller than unity in the volume considered the magnetic field induced by plasma currents is small compared to the total magnetic field. However, if M(sub)A is of the order of unity or larger the total magnetic field is to a substantial degree generated by plasma currents. (Author)

  15. Parametric studies in ohmically heated plasmas in Heliotron E

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutoh, T.; Besshou, S.; Ijiri, Y.

    1983-01-01

    Parametric studies of volume averaged electron temperature and global electron energy confinement time /tau/epsilon /SUB e/ of ohmically heated Heliotron E plasmas have been performed using a data acquisition computer system. The scaling laws α (I /SUB OH/ x B/n /SUB e/) /SUP 1/2/ and /tau/epsilon /SUB e/ α n /SUP -1/2/ /SUB e/ x B/I /SUP 3/2/ /SUB OH/ are obtained directly by a code which fits the exponents of the plasma parameters ponents of the plasma parameters to the electron temperature and confinement time. The ohmically heated plasma confinement time /tau/epsilon /SUB e/ is shown to be related to the drift parameters xi (= V /SUB De/ /V /SUB Te/). The dependences of the energy confinement time on other plasma parameters is also presented. An investigation is made of the correlation between MHD activity and the confinement

  16. Laser optically pumped by laser-produced plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silfvast, W.T.; Wood, O.R. II.

    1975-01-01

    Laser solids, liquids and gases are pumped by a new technique in which the output from an efficient molecular laser, such as a CO 2 laser, ionizes a medium, such as xenon, into a generally cylindrical plasma volume, in proximity to the pumped laser body. Breakdown yields a visible and ultraviolet-radiation-emitting plasma in that volume to pump the laser body. The spectral radiance of the plasma is significantly higher than that produced by a dc-discharge-heated plasma at nearly all wavelengths in the plasma spectrum. The risetime of radiation from the laser-produced plasma can also be significantly shorter than that of a dc heated plasma. A further advantage resides in the fact that in some applications the attenuating walls needed by flashlamps may be eliminated with the result that laser threshold is more readily reached. Traveling wave excitation may be provided by oblique incidence of the pumping laser beam through the ionizable medium to create sequential ionization of portions of that medium along the length of the pumped laser body. (auth)

  17. Sparse PDF Volumes for Consistent Multi-Resolution Volume Rendering

    KAUST Repository

    Sicat, Ronell Barrera; Kruger, Jens; Moller, Torsten; Hadwiger, Markus

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a new multi-resolution volume representation called sparse pdf volumes, which enables consistent multi-resolution volume rendering based on probability density functions (pdfs) of voxel neighborhoods. These pdfs are defined

  18. Study of Multi-Function Micro-Plasma Spraying Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Liuying; Wang Hangong; Hua Shaochun; Cao Xiaoping

    2007-01-01

    A multi-functional micro-arc plasma spraying system was developed according to aerodynamics and plasma spray theory. The soft switch IGBT (Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor) invert technique, micro-computer control technique, convergent-divergent nozzle structure and axial powder feeding techniques have been adopted in the design of the micro-arc plasma spraying system. It is not only characterized by a small volume, a light weight, highly accurate control, high deposition efficiency and high reliability, but also has multi-functions in plasma spraying, welding and quenching. The experimental results showed that the system can produce a supersonic flame at a low power, spray Al 2 O 3 particles at an average speed up to 430 m/s, and make nanostructured AT13 coatings with an average bonding strength of 42.7 MPa. Compared to conventional 9M plasma spraying with a higher power, the coatings with almost the same properties as those by conventional plasma spray can be deposited by multi-functional micro-arc plasma spraying with a lower power plasma arc due to an improved power supply design, spray gun structure and powder feeding method. Moreover, this system is suitable for working with thin parts and undertaking on site repairs, and as a result, the application of plasma spraying will be greatly extended

  19. Electromagnetic-wave absorption by inhomogeneous, collisional plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregoire, D.J.; Santoru, J.; Schumacher, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    Unmagnetized, collisional plasmas can be used as broadband EM-wave absorbers or refractors. In the absorption process, plasma electrons are first accelerated by the EM-wave fields and then collide with background-gas molecules, thereby transferring energy from the EM waves to the gas. A plasma absorber has several advantages compared to conventional materials. A plasma can be turned on and off very rapidly, thereby switching between absorbing and transparent conditions. Calculations indicate that plasma absorbers can also be tailored to provide broadband absorption (>40 dB) over multiple octaves. The authors have developed a one-dimensional model and a computer code to calculate the net power reflected from a plasma-enclosed EM-wave-reflecting target. They included three contributions to the reflected EM-wave power: reflections from the vacuum-plasma interface; reflections from the bulk plasma volume; and reflection of the attenuated EM wave that is transmitted through the plasma and reflected by the target

  20. Introduction to complex plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonitz, Michael; Ludwig, Patrick; Horing, Norman

    2010-01-01

    Complex plasmas differ from traditional plasmas in many ways: these are low-temperature high pressure systems containing nanometer to micrometer size particles which may be highly charged and strongly interacting. The particles may be chemically reacting or be in contact with solid surfaces, and the electrons may show quantum behaviour. These interesting properties have led to many applications of complex plasmas in technology, medicine and science. Yet complex plasmas are extremely complicated, both experimentally and theoretically, and require a variety of new approaches which go beyond standard plasma physics courses. This book fills this gap presenting an introduction to theory, experiment and computer simulation in this field. Based on tutorial lectures at a very successful recent Summer Institute, the presentation is ideally suited for graduate students, plasma physicists and experienced undergraduates. (orig.)

  1. Introduction to Complex Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Bonitz, Michael; Ludwig, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Complex plasmas differ from traditional plasmas in many ways: these are low-temperature high pressure systems containing nanometer to micrometer size particles which may be highly charged and strongly interacting. The particles may be chemically reacting or be in contact with solid surfaces, and the electrons may show quantum behaviour. These interesting properties have led to many applications of complex plasmas in technology, medicine and science. Yet complex plasmas are extremely complicated, both experimentally and theoretically, and require a variety of new approaches which go beyond standard plasma physics courses. This book fills this gap presenting an introduction to theory, experiment and computer simulation in this field. Based on tutorial lectures at a very successful recent Summer Institute, the presentation is ideally suited for graduate students, plasma physicists and experienced undergraduates.

  2. Nonideal plasmas - experimental research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenther, K.; Hess, H.; Radtke, R.

    1986-01-01

    The investigation of nonideal, strongly coupled, or non-Debye plasmas is a new field of the well-known arc plasma physics. The increased pressure and density cause different behaviour of the dense plasma. The paper surveys the main differences between the nonideal and the usual arc plasmas. The electrical conductivity, continuum radiation absorption coefficient, shift and broadening of spectral lines, and plasma phase transition are discussed. The problems of generation and diagnostics of nonideal plasmas are also described. Finally, the importance of the topic is underlined: possible applications in astrophysics and in different fields of technology: light sources, MHD generators, circuit breakers, laser mirrors and shutters, high temperature gas-phase fission reactors, material treatment and laser fusion are mentioned. (D.Gy.)

  3. Compression of toroidal plasma by imploding plasma-liner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikuta, Kazunari.

    1979-07-01

    A new concept of compressing a plasma in a closed magnetic configuration by a version of liner implosion flux compression technique is considered. The liner consists of a dense plasma cylinder, i.e. the plasma-liner. Maximum compression ratio of toroidal plasma is determined just by the initial density ratio of the toroidal plasma to the liner plasma because of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. A start-up senario of plasma-liner is also proposed with a possible application of this concept to the creation of a burning plasma in reversed field configurations, i.e. burning plasma vortex. (author)

  4. Space plasmas 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankel, N.E.; Hines, K.C.; Kowalenko, V.

    1981-01-01

    The longitudinal dielectric response of an ultra-degenerate relativistic plasma composed of electrons and positrons is considered. The relativistic Hartree self-consistent field method is used to investigate the dispersion relations and damping parameters of such a plasma in the presence of a magnetic field. These properties must be studied in the various regimes appropriate for a relativistic plasma as detailed by Tsytovich and Jancovici

  5. Plasma polarization spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamae, Atsushi; Horimoto, Yasuhiro; Fujimoto, Takashi; Hasegawa, Noboru; Sukegawa, Kouta; Kawachi, Tetsuya

    2005-01-01

    The electron velocity distribution function (EVDF) in plasma can be anisotropic in laser-produced plasmas. We have developed a new technique to evaluate the polarization degree of the emission lines in the extreme vacuum ultra violet wavelength region. The polarization of the emission lines and the continuums from the lithium-like nitrogen and from helium- and hydrogen-like carbon in recombining plasma is evaluated. Particle simulation in the velocity space gives the time scale for relaxation of anisotropic EVDFs. (author)

  6. Plasma nitriding of steels

    CERN Document Server

    Aghajani, Hossein

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on the effect of plasma nitriding on the properties of steels. Parameters of different grades of steels are considered, such as structural and constructional steels, stainless steels and tools steels. The reader will find within the text an introduction to nitriding treatment, the basis of plasma and its roll in nitriding. The authors also address the advantages and disadvantages of plasma nitriding in comparison with other nitriding methods. .

  7. An overview of plasma-in-liquid experimental studies at the University of Michigan's Plasma Science and Technology Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, John; Howard, Cameron; Sommers, Bradley

    2010-11-01

    Plasma production or plasma injection in liquid water affords one the opportunity to nonthermally inject advanced oxidation processes into water for the purpose of sterilization or chemical processing. Limitations of current injection approaches include limited throughput capacity, electrode erosion, and reduced process volume. Currently we are investigating two potential approaches to circumventing these issues. These include direct plasma injection using an underwater DBD plasma jet and the direct excitation of underwater isolated bubbles via a pulsed electric field. Presented here are results from these ongoing tests, which include a comparative study of the effectiveness of microdischarge, and plasma jet direct injection approaches on the decomposition of Methylene Blue dye. Additionally, an approach to excitation of isolated bubbles using pulsed electric fields is also discussed. Streamer propagation dynamics such as surface propagation and the observed excitation of surface waves on electrode-attached and free bubbles are also discussed.

  8. Plasma confinement in a magnetic field of the internal ring current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafranov, Vitaly; Popovich, Paul; Samitov, Marat

    2000-01-01

    Plasma confinement in compact region surrounding an internal ring current is considered. As the limiting case of large aspect ratio system the cylindrical plasma is considered initially. Analysis of the cylindrical tubular plasma equilibrium and stability against the most dangerous flute (m=0) and kink (m=1) modes revealed the possibility of the MHD stable plasma confined by magnetic field of the internal rod current, with rather peaked plasma pressure and maximal local beta β(γ)=0.4. In case of the toroidal internal ring system an additional external magnetic field creates the boundary separatrix witch limits the plasma volume. The dependence of the plasma pressure profiles, marginally stable with respect to the flute modes, from the shape of the external plasma boundary (separatrix) in such kind closed toroidal systems is investigated. The internal ring system with circular poloidal magnetic mirror, where the ring supports could be placed, is proposed. (author)

  9. Integers annual volume 2013

    CERN Document Server

    Landman, Bruce

    2014-01-01

    ""Integers"" is a refereed online journal devoted to research in the area of combinatorial number theory. It publishes original research articles in combinatorics and number theory. This work presents all papers of the 2013 volume in book form.

  10. Volume 9 Number 1

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OLUWOLE

    Agro-Science Journal of Tropical Agriculture, Food, Environment and Extension. Volume 9 Number 1 ... of persistent dumping of cheap subsidized food imports from developed ... independence of the inefficiency effects in the two estimation ...

  11. Cyclotron waves in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lominadse, D.G.

    1975-01-01

    The book deals with fundamental physical concepts of the theory of cyclotron waves and cyclotron instabilities conditioned by the presence in plasma of direct or alternating electric currents passing in it perpendicularily to a magnetic field. A great variety of problems is considered connected with the linear theory of cyclotron oscillations in equilibrium and electron plasma of metals and semiconductors. Parametric excitations of electron cyclotron oscillations of plasma in an alternating electric field are studied. Particular attention is paid to the investigation of plasma turbulence arising as a result of development of cyclotron instabilities. Experimental data are discussed and compared with theoretical results

  12. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: principal parameters achieved in experimental devices fiscal year 1990; tokamak fusion test reactor; compact ignition tokamak; Princeton beta experiment- modification; current drive experiment-upgrade; international collaboration; x-ray laser studies; spacecraft glow experiment; plasma processing: deposition and etching of thin films; theoretical studies; tokamak modeling; international thermonuclear experimental reactor; engineering department; project planning and safety office; quality assurance and reliability; technology transfer; administrative operations; PPPL patent invention disclosures for fiscal year 1990; graduate education; plasma physics; graduate education: plasma science and technology; science education program; and Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory reports fiscal year 1990.

  13. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: principal parameters achieved in experimental devices fiscal year 1990; tokamak fusion test reactor; compact ignition tokamak; Princeton beta experiment- modification; current drive experiment-upgrade; international collaboration; x-ray laser studies; spacecraft glow experiment; plasma processing: deposition and etching of thin films; theoretical studies; tokamak modeling; international thermonuclear experimental reactor; engineering department; project planning and safety office; quality assurance and reliability; technology transfer; administrative operations; PPPL patent invention disclosures for fiscal year 1990; graduate education; plasma physics; graduate education: plasma science and technology; science education program; and Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory reports fiscal year 1990

  14. Nonlinear Physics of Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Kono, Mitsuo

    2010-01-01

    A nonlinearity is one of the most important notions in modern physics. A plasma is rich in nonlinearities and provides a variety of behaviors inherent to instabilities, coherent wave structures and turbulence. The book covers the basic concepts and mathematical methods, necessary to comprehend nonlinear problems widely encountered in contemporary plasmas, but also in other fields of physics and current research on self-organized structures and magnetized plasma turbulence. The analyses make use of strongly nonlinear models solved by analytical techniques backed by extensive simulations and available experiments. The text is written for senior undergraduates, graduate students, lecturers and researchers in laboratory, space and fusion plasmas.

  15. The plasma universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faelthammar, C.G.

    1989-12-01

    The term 'Plasma Universe', coined by Hannes Alfven, emphasices the fact that plasma phenomena discovered in the laboratory and in accessible regions of space. must be important also in the rest of the universe, which consists almost entirely of matter in the plasma state. Relevant aspect of this concept will be discussed. They include the response of the plasma to electric currents, the support of magnetic-field aligned electric fields, violation of the frozen-field condition, rapid release of magnetically stored energy, acceleration of charged particles, chemical separation, and filamentary and cellular structures. (authors)

  16. BP volume reduction equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitamura, Yoshinori; Muroo, Yoji; Hamanaka, Isao

    2003-01-01

    A new type of burnable poison (BP) volume reduction system is currently being developed. Many BP rods, a subcomponent of spent fuel assemblies are discharged from nuclear power reactors. This new system reduces the overall volume of BP rods. The main system consists of BP rod cutting equipment, equipment for the recovery of BP cut pieces, and special transport equipment for the cut rods. The equipment is all operated by hydraulic press cylinders in water to reduce operator exposure to radioactivity. (author)

  17. Electroanalytical chemistry. Volume 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bard, A.J.

    1986-01-01

    This volume is part of a series aimed at authoritative reviews of electroanalytical techniques and related areas of investigation. Volume 14 clearly maintains the high standards and proven usefulness of the series. Topics covered include conformation change and isomerization associated with electrode reactions, infrared vibrational spectroscopy of the electrode-solution interface, and precision in linear sweep and cyclic voltametry. A short history of electrochemical techniques which include the term square wave is provided

  18. Plasma flame for mass purification of contaminated air with chemical and biological warfare agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhm, Han S.; Shin, Dong H.; Hong, Yong C.

    2006-01-01

    An elimination of airborne simulated chemical and biological warfare agents was carried out by making use of a plasma flame made of atmospheric plasma and a fuel-burning flame, which can purify the interior air of a large volume in isolated spaces such as buildings, public transportation systems, and military vehicles. The plasma flame generator consists of a microwave plasma torch connected in series to a fuel injector and a reaction chamber. For example, a reaction chamber, with the dimensions of a 22 cm diameter and 30 cm length, purifies an airflow rate of 5000 lpm contaminated with toluene (the simulated chemical agent) and soot from a diesel engine (the simulated aerosol for biological agents). Large volumes of purification by the plasma flame will free mankind from the threat of airborne warfare agents. The plasma flame may also effectively purify air that is contaminated with volatile organic compounds, in addition to eliminating soot from diesel engines as an environmental application

  19. Sheath and bulk expansion induced by RF bias in atmospheric pressure microwave plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jimo; Nam, Woojin; Lee, Jae Koo; Yun, Gunsu

    2017-10-01

    A large axial volume expansion of microwave-driven plasma at atmospheric pressure is achieved by applying a low power radio frequency (RF) bias at an axial location well isolated from the original plasma bulk. The evolution of the plasma plume visualized by high speed ICCD imaging suggest that the free electrons drifting toward the bias electrode cause the prodigious expansion of the sheath, creating a stable plasma stream channel between the microwave and the RF electrodes. For argon plasma in ambient air, enhanced emissions of OH and N2 spectral lines are measured in the extended plume region, supporting the acceleration of electrons and subsequent generation of radical species. The coupling of RF bias with microwave provides an efficient way of enlarging the plasma volume and enhancing the production of radicals. Work supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea under BK21+ program and Grant No. 2015R1D1A1A01061556 (Ministry of Education).

  20. Plasma Structure and Behavior of Miniature Ring-Cusp Discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Hann-Shin

    Miniature ring-cusp ion thrusters provide a unique blend of high efficiencies and millinewton level thrust for future spacecraft. These thrusters are attractive as a primary propulsion for small satellites that require a high delta V, and as a secondary propulsion for larger spacecraft that require precision formation flying, disturbance rejection, or attitude control. To ensure desirable performance throughout the life of such missions, an advancement in the understanding of the plasma structure and behavior of miniature ring-cusp discharges is required. A research model was fabricated to provide a simplified experimental test bed for the analysis of the plasma discharge chamber of a miniature ion thruster. The plasma source allowed for spatially resolved measurements with a Langmuir probe along a meridian plane. Probe measurements yielded plasma density, electron temperature, and plasma potential data. The magnetic field strength was varied along with the discharge current to determine the plasma behavior under various conditions. The structure of the plasma properties were found to be independent of the discharge power under the proper scaling. It was concluded that weaker magnetic fields can improve the overall performance for ion thruster operation. To further analyze the experimental measurements, a framework was developed based on the magnetic field. A flux aligned coordinate system was developed to decouple the perpendicular and parallel plasma motion with respect to the magnetic field. This was done using the stream function and magnetic scalar potential. Magnetic formulae provided intuition on the field profiles dependence on magnet dimensions. The flux aligned coordinate system showed that the plasma was isopycnic along constant stream function values. This was used to develop an empirical relation suitable for estimating the spatial behavior and to determine the plasma volume and loss areas. The plasma geometry estimates were applied to a control volume

  1. Reachable volume RRT

    KAUST Repository

    McMahon, Troy

    2015-05-01

    © 2015 IEEE. Reachable volumes are a new technique that allows one to efficiently restrict sampling to feasible/reachable regions of the planning space even for high degree of freedom and highly constrained problems. However, they have so far only been applied to graph-based sampling-based planners. In this paper we develop the methodology to apply reachable volumes to tree-based planners such as Rapidly-Exploring Random Trees (RRTs). In particular, we propose a reachable volume RRT called RVRRT that can solve high degree of freedom problems and problems with constraints. To do so, we develop a reachable volume stepping function, a reachable volume expand function, and a distance metric based on these operations. We also present a reachable volume local planner to ensure that local paths satisfy constraints for methods such as PRMs. We show experimentally that RVRRTs can solve constrained problems with as many as 64 degrees of freedom and unconstrained problems with as many as 134 degrees of freedom. RVRRTs can solve problems more efficiently than existing methods, requiring fewer nodes and collision detection calls. We also show that it is capable of solving difficult problems that existing methods cannot.

  2. Ovarian volume throughout life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelsey, Thomas W; Dodwell, Sarah K; Wilkinson, A Graham

    2013-01-01

    conception to 82 years of age. This model shows that 69% of the variation in ovarian volume is due to age alone. We have shown that in the average case ovarian volume rises from 0.7 mL (95% CI 0.4-1.1 mL) at 2 years of age to a peak of 7.7 mL (95% CI 6.5-9.2 mL) at 20 years of age with a subsequent decline...... to about 2.8 mL (95% CI 2.7-2.9 mL) at the menopause and smaller volumes thereafter. Our model allows us to generate normal values and ranges for ovarian volume throughout life. This is the first validated normative model of ovarian volume from conception to old age; it will be of use in the diagnosis......The measurement of ovarian volume has been shown to be a useful indirect indicator of the ovarian reserve in women of reproductive age, in the diagnosis and management of a number of disorders of puberty and adult reproductive function, and is under investigation as a screening tool for ovarian...

  3. Reachable volume RRT

    KAUST Repository

    McMahon, Troy; Thomas, Shawna; Amato, Nancy M.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 IEEE. Reachable volumes are a new technique that allows one to efficiently restrict sampling to feasible/reachable regions of the planning space even for high degree of freedom and highly constrained problems. However, they have so far only been applied to graph-based sampling-based planners. In this paper we develop the methodology to apply reachable volumes to tree-based planners such as Rapidly-Exploring Random Trees (RRTs). In particular, we propose a reachable volume RRT called RVRRT that can solve high degree of freedom problems and problems with constraints. To do so, we develop a reachable volume stepping function, a reachable volume expand function, and a distance metric based on these operations. We also present a reachable volume local planner to ensure that local paths satisfy constraints for methods such as PRMs. We show experimentally that RVRRTs can solve constrained problems with as many as 64 degrees of freedom and unconstrained problems with as many as 134 degrees of freedom. RVRRTs can solve problems more efficiently than existing methods, requiring fewer nodes and collision detection calls. We also show that it is capable of solving difficult problems that existing methods cannot.

  4. AC/DC/pulsed-power modulator for corona-plasma generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ariaans, T.H.P.; Pemen, A.J.M.; Winands, G.J.J.; Heesch, van E.J.M.; Liu, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Gas-cleaning techniques using nonthermal plasma are slowly introduced into industry nowadays. In this paper, we present a novel power modulator for the efficient generation of large-volume corona plasma. No expensive high-voltage components are required. Switching is done at an intermediate voltage

  5. Vibrational excitation in a hydrogen volume source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eenshuistra, P.J.

    1989-01-01

    In this thesis the complex of processes which determines the D - or H - density in a volume source, a hydrogen discharge, is studied. D - beams are of interest for driving the current of a fusion plasma in a TOKAMAK. Densities of vibrationally excited molecules, of H atoms, and of metastable hydrogen molecules were determined using Resonance-Enhanced MultiPhoton Ionization (REMPI). An experiment in which vibrationally highly excited molecules are formed by recombination of atoms in a cold metal surface, is described. The production and destruction of vibrationally excited molecules and atoms in the discharge is discussed. The vibrational distribution for 3≤ν≤5 (ν = vibrational quantumnumber) is strongly super-thermal. This effect is more apparent at higher discharge current and lower gas pressure. The analysis with a model based on rate equations, which molecules are predominantly produced by primary electron excitation of hydrogen molecules and deexcited upon one wall collision. The atom production is compatible with dissociation of molecules by primary electrons, dissociation of molecules on the filaments, and collisions between positive ions and electrons. The electrons are predominantly destroyed by recombination on the walls. Finally the production and destruction of H - in the discharge are discussed. The density of H - in the plasma, the electron density and temperature were determined. H - extraction was measured. The ratio of the extracted H - current and the H - density in the plasma gives an indication of the drift velocity of H - in the plasma. This velocity determines the emittance of the extracted beam. It was found that the H - velocity scales with the square root of the electron temperature. The measured H - densities are compatible with a qualitative model in which dissociative attachment of plasma electrons to vibrationally excited molecules is the most important process. (author). 136 refs.; 39 figs.; 10 tabs

  6. The plasma physics of plasma processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shohet, L.

    1991-01-01

    Plasma processing is used for producing new materials with unusual and superior properties, for developing new chemical compounds and processes, for machining, and for altering and refining materials and surfaces. It has direct applications to semiconductor fabrication, materials synthesis, welding, lighting, polymers, anti-corrosion coatings, machine tools, metallurgy, electrical and electronics devices, hazardous waste removal, high performance ceramics, and many other items in both high-technology and the more traditional industries. Plasma processing takes on a wide variety of apparently different forms in industry, but the techniques share many common characteristics and problems. Control of the generation and flux of ions, electrons and free radicals in the plasma and their incidence on a surface is vital. Diagnostics, sensors, modeling techniques, and associated statistical methods are needed. However, without an in-depth understanding of the variety of phenomena taking place and their application to the industrial environment, advances in this technology, and its efficient use, will occur at a diminishing rate

  7. Characterization of the plasma in magnetic multidipole discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, J.G.

    1988-09-01

    In this work, a caracterization of the discharge of the quiescent plasma machine of INPE, and an identification of the most relevant processes in the definition of its plasma properties, were achieved. Measurements of plasma potential, the floating potential, the temperature of the electrons, and the density of the plasma, for pressures ranging from 10 -3 to 10 -1 Pa and for discharge potentials for 45V to 120V were acomplished. These measurements were made with a Langmuir spherical probe with 1mm in diameter. In the whole range of operation the presence of two populations of electrons with distinct temperatures in the energy range from 1 to 10eV was observed, although for pressures approaching 10 -1 Pa the plasma tended to a single population of electrons with temperature of 1eV. The difference between plasma and floating potentials was observed to become smaller as the pressure raised, and the potential difference between plasma and anode reached a value around 2V when pressure raised above 10 -2 Pa. The plasma density increases approximately linearly with pressure, for values below 10 -2 Paa, but above 10 -1 Pa its increase with pressure is quite reduced. A study on the collision processes in the plasma volume and on loss processes to surfaces allowed to interpret qualitatively the observed plasma behavior and to estimate, by means of simple expressions, some of the plasma parameters. The loss areas for ions and primary electrons were estimated from experimental results. A simple quantitative model which allows the calculation of plasma density in the whole range of operation, reproduced the correct order of magnitude of experimental values. However, an additional work, both theoretical and experimental, is required to obtain better agreement between experimental and theoretical values. (author) [pt

  8. Plasma rico em plaquetas (PRP) por meio de centrífuga de bancada

    OpenAIRE

    Calixto, Carlos Alberto [UNIFESP

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Platelet-rich plasma is an autologous concentration of autologous platelets in a small volume of plasma, obtained by centrifugation of the whole blood, and have been considered to be a rich source of growth factors. OBJECTIVE: Establish a method to prepare a platelet-rich plasma by centrifugation. METHODS: In this study 40 ml from the whole blood was obtained from eight volunteers, and seventy-two tests were performed in three groups (control, one spin, and two spins), changing th...

  9. Plasma Physics An Introduction to Laboratory, Space, and Fusion Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Piel, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Plasma Physics gives a comprehensive introduction to the basic processes in plasmas and demonstrates that the same fundamental concepts describe cold gas-discharge plasmas, space plasmas, and hot fusion plasmas. Starting from particle drifts in magnetic fields, the principles of magnetic confinement fusion are explained and compared with laser fusion. Collective processes are discussed in terms of plasma waves and instabilities. The concepts of plasma description by magnetohydrodynamics, kinetic theory, and particle simulation are stepwise introduced. Space charge effects in sheath regions, double layers and plasma diodes are given the necessary attention. The new fundamental mechanisms of dusty plasmas are explored and integrated into the framework of conventional plasmas. The book concludes with a brief introduction to plasma discharges. Written by an internationally renowned researcher in experimental plasma physics, the text keeps the mathematical apparatus simple and emphasizes the underlying concepts. T...

  10. Antenna coupling study for ICWC plasma characterization in TEXTOR

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-11-27

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 80; Issue 1. Antenna coupling study for ICWC plasma characterization in ... Proceedings of the International Workshop/Conference on Computational Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science (IWCCMP-2015). Posted on November 27, 2015. Guest Editors: ...

  11. Perspective: The physics, diagnostics, and applications of atmospheric pressure low temperature plasma sources used in plasma medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laroussi, M.; Lu, X.; Keidar, M.

    2017-07-01

    Low temperature plasmas have been used in various plasma processing applications for several decades. But it is only in the last thirty years or so that sources generating such plasmas at atmospheric pressure in reliable and stable ways have become more prevalent. First, in the late 1980s, the dielectric barrier discharge was used to generate relatively large volume diffuse plasmas at atmospheric pressure. Then, in the early 2000s, plasma jets that can launch cold plasma plumes in ambient air were developed. Extensive experimental and modeling work was carried out on both methods and much of the physics governing such sources was elucidated. Starting in the mid-1990s, low temperature plasma discharges have been used as sources of chemically reactive species that can be transported to interact with biological media, cells, and tissues and induce impactful biological effects. However, many of the biochemical pathways whereby plasma affects cells remain not well understood. This situation is changing rather quickly because the field, known today as "plasma medicine," has experienced exponential growth in the last few years thanks to a global research community that engaged in fundamental and applied research involving the use of cold plasma for the inactivation of bacteria, dental applications, wound healing, and the destruction of cancer cells/tumors. In this perspective, the authors first review the physics as well as the diagnostics of the principal plasma sources used in plasma medicine. Then, brief descriptions of their biomedical applications are presented. To conclude, the authors' personal assessment of the present status and future outlook of the field is given.

  12. Geospace Plasma Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-22

    perturbations. High-speed solar wind streams cause recurrent geomagnetic activity and ionospheric disturbances. In [5], we analyze the equatorial...over eight successive orbits (~12 hours). A clear pre- reversal enhancement of upward plasma drift occurred between 18:00 and 19:00 LT when plasma

  13. Introduction to Plasma Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Kunze, H-J

    2009-01-01

    Based on lectures given at the Ruhr-University of Bochum for graduate students and postgraduates starting in plasma physics as well as from low- to high-density hot plasmas, this book introduces basic ideas and fundamental concepts and typical instrumentation from the X-ray to the infrared spectral regions

  14. General Relativistic Plasma Dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moortgat, J.B.

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis I discuss the importance of general relativity on plasma physics in several astrophysical and cosmological contexts. The first chapters show how gravitational waves can excite all three fundamental low frequency magnetohydrodynamic plasma modes, the Alfven, slow and fast

  15. Atoms in dense plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    Recent experiments with high-power pulsed lasers have strongly encouraged the development of improved theoretical understanding of highly charged ions in a dense plasma environment. This work examines the theory of dense plasmas with emphasis on general rules which govern matter at extreme high temperature and density. 106 refs., 23 figs

  16. Waves in unmagnetized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambert, A.J.D.

    1979-01-01

    A review of linear and weakly non-linear theory of electron waves, ion waves and electromagnetic waves in plasmas is presented. The author restricts the discussion to an infinitely extended, homogeneous and isotropic plasma, not affected by external fields and described by Vlasov's and Maxwell's equations. (Auth.)

  17. Plasma processing and chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schram, D.C.

    2002-01-01

    A review. Plasma deposition and plasma conversion can be characterized by five steps: prodn. by ionization, transfer of chem. to precursors, transport of radicals to the surface, surface interactions with deposition, recirculation and generation of new monomers. For very fast deposition, large flows

  18. Plasma technology directory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, P.P.; Dybwad, G.L.

    1995-01-01

    The Plasma Technology Directory has two main goals: (1) promote, coordinate, and share plasma technology experience and equipment within the Department of Energy; and (2) facilitate technology transfer to the commercial sector where appropriate. Personnel are averaged first by Laboratory and next by technology area. The technology areas are accelerators, cleaning and etching deposition, diagnostics, and modeling

  19. Atoms in dense plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    More, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    Recent experiments with high-power pulsed lasers have strongly encouraged the development of improved theoretical understanding of highly charged ions in a dense plasma environment. This work examines the theory of dense plasmas with emphasis on general rules which govern matter at extreme high temperature and density. 106 refs., 23 figs.

  20. Microwave plasma mode conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torres, H.S.; Sakanaka, P.H.; Villarroel, C.H.

    1985-01-01

    The behavior of hot electrons during the process of laser-produced plasma is studied. The basic equations of mode conversion from electromagnetic waves to electrostatic waves are presented. It is shown by mode conversion, that, the resonant absorption and parametric instabilities appear simultaneously, but in different plasma regions. (M.C.K.) [pt