WorldWideScience

Sample records for plasma volume loss

  1. Plasma volume changes during hypoglycaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Christensen, N J

    1991-01-01

    -induced hypoglycaemia with total autonomic blockade (alpha-adrenoceptor blockade combined with beta-adrenoceptor blockade and atropine); and insulin-induced hypoglycaemia without any autonomic blockade. In the experiments without autonomic blockade the peripheral venous hematocrit increased, plasma volume decreased......, intravascular albumin content decreased and the transcapillary escape rate of albumin increased. In both experiments with autonomic blockade the increase in venous haematocrit was abolished, yet plasma volume decreased, intravascular albumin content decreased and the transcapillary escape rate of albumin...... increased in these experiments. Thus, the changes in plasma volume and composition in response to hypoglycaemia are due to the combined actions of adrenaline and of insulin....

  2. Comparative changes in plasma protein concentration, hematocrit and plasma volume during exercise, bedrest and + Gz acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Beaumont, W.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1972-01-01

    Discussion of experiments which indicate that under conditions of a constant red cell volume the proportional changes in hematocrit and plasma volume during exercise are never equal. On the basis of direct measurements and calculated changes of plasma volume it is concluded that during maximal exercise there is a small loss of protein from the plasma. It is clear that changes in content of blood constituents can only be evaluated correctly after determination of changes in plasma volume.

  3. Plasma volume changes during hypoglycaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Bendtsen, F; Christensen, N J

    1990-01-01

    To investigate whether previously reported changes in venous blood volume and composition induced by acute hypoglycaemia in humans are representative for the entire body we measured erythrocyte 51Cr content, haematocrit, plasma volume, intravascular albumin content and transcapillary escape rate...... of albumin in arterial and venous blood in seven healthy subjects before and during insulin-induced hypoglycaemia. In both vascular sites blood 51Cr content and the haematocrit increased, plasma volume and intravascular albumin content decreased and the transcapillary escape rate of albumin increased during...

  4. Plasma volume in acute hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, T D; Klausen, T; Richalet, J P

    1998-01-01

    Exposure to acute hypoxia is associated with changes in body fluid homeostasis and plasma volume (PV). This study compared a dye dilution technique using Evans' blue (PV[Evans']) with a carbon monoxide (CO) rebreathing method (PV[CO]) for measurements of PV in ten normal subjects at sea level...

  5. Disproportional changes in hematocrit, plasma volume, and proteins during exercise and bed rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Beaumont, W.; Greenleaf, J. E.; Juhos, L.

    1972-01-01

    The interrelationships between the changes in plasma volume, hematocrit, and plasma proteins during muscular exercise and bed rest were investigated. Proportionally, the changes in hematocrit are always smaller than the changes in plasma volume. For this reason changes in the concentration of blood constituents can only be quantitated on the basis of plasma volume changes. During short periods of intensive exercise, there was a small loss of plasma proteins. With prolonged submaximal exercise there was a net gain in plasma protein, which contributes to stabilization of the vascular volume. Prolonged bed rest induced hypoproteinemia; this loss of plasma protein probably plays an important role in recumbency hypovolemia.

  6. Plasma volume nomograms for use in therapeutic plasma exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffaloe, G W; Heineken, F G

    1983-01-01

    Nomograms have been developed for the convenient estimation of the plasma volumes of patients undergoing therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE), based on equations employing height, body weight, and hematocrit. These nomograms are offered as an aid to prescribing continuous-flow TPE procedure exchange volumes.

  7. Runaway losses in ergodized plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finken, K. H.; Abdullaev, S. S.; Jakubowski, M. W.; Jaspers, R.; Lehnen, M.; Schlickeiser, R.; Spatschek, K. H.; Wingen, A.; Wolf, R.; TEXTOR Team

    2007-02-01

    New results from the generation of runaways and the loss of runaway electrons in an ergodized magnetic field are presented. For the generation process, a clear difference between a 'normal' and a clean, freshly boronized wall condition has been found. Under clean wall conditions, one observes at low densities not only the runaway electrons with energies up to 30 MeV and at discharges with even lower electron density one finds more runaway electrons but at an energy in the low-MeV regime. The runaway electrons are utilized as test particles for revealing the ergodized magnetic field line structure. For the measurements the m/n = 6/2 base mode configuration of the dynamic ergodic divertor (DED), has been applied. One observes a clear modification of the radial runaway profile with preferential losses in the ergodized zone. From the loss rate of the runaway electrons due to ergodization and from the redistribution of the runaways after the DED phase, the diffusion rate is estimated to be of the order of 0.1 m2 s-1.

  8. Salt wastage, plasma volume contraction and hypokalemic paralysis in self-induced water intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanneau, R S; Pennec, Y L; Morin, J F; Codet, J P; Bourbigot, B; Garre, M; Le Menn, G

    1993-01-01

    Eleven episodes of severe hyponatremia secondary to hiccup-induced potomania were recorded in 3 years in a man who had essential hypertension, a low protein intake and a normal diluting ability. Paradoxical increase in hematocrit and plasma protein with acute extensive natriuresis was associated as well as urine potassium loss and hypokalemia producing paralysis in 1 episode. During a chronic water loading test, the defect in water excretion was related to a low urine solute delivery which was partially reverted by the natriuretic response to plasma volume expansion, promoting water diuresis. In acute water intoxication, this natriuretic response was exaggerated, producing a brisk water diuresis. Plasma volume was rapidly normalized but without any improvement in plasma sodium due to the concomitant negative sodium balance. Thus, water diuresis persisted until plasma volume was significantly contracted. Potassium loss appeared to be related to sodium excretion. Metabolic disturbances have not reoccurred despite persistent hiccup and potomania during 2 years of urea therapy.

  9. Cardiovascular regulatory response to lower body negative pressure following blood volume loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, M.; Ghista, D. N.; Sandler, H.

    1979-01-01

    An attempt is made to explain the cardiovascular regulatory responses to lower body negative pressure (LBNP) stress, both in the absence of and following blood or plasma volume loss, the latter being factors regularly observed with short- or long-term recumbency or weightlessness and associated with resulting cardiovascular deconditioning. Analytical expressions are derived for the responses of mean venous pressure and blood volume pooled in the lower body due to LBNP. An analysis is presented for determining the HR change due to LBNP stress following blood volume loss. It is concluded that the reduced orthostatic tolerance following long-term space flight or recumbency can be mainly attributed to blood volume loss, and that the associated cardiovascular responses characterizing this orthostatic intolerance is elicited by the associated central venous pressure response.

  10. Limitations on plasma acceleration due to synchrotron losses

    CERN Document Server

    Barletta, W A; Bonifacio, R; De Salvo, L

    1999-01-01

    In this letter we consider the effect of synchrotron radiation losses due to the betatron motion of the electron beam in its self-induced magnetic field in a plasma accelerator taking into account the charge neutralization factor. The most favorable case is where the plasma density is smaller than the beam density. The contrary regime is strongly disfavored by the synchrotron radiation loss for beams with characteristics for TeV energies. In both cases we find that upon increasing the plasma density the synchrotron losses kill the acceleration process, so that there are limitations on the maximum allowable plasma density.

  11. Blunted autonomic response to volume expansion in formerly preeclamptic women with low plasma volume.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krabbendam, I.; Courtar, D.A.; Janssen, B.J.; Aardenburg, R.; Peeters, L.L.; Spaanderman, M.E.A.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We hypothesize that low plasma volume in normotensive formerly preeclamptic women reflects reduced venous storage capacity. To test this hypothesis, we compared circulatory and autonomic responses to acute volume loading between women with low and those with normal plasma volume. METHODS:

  12. Volume regulatory loss of Na, Cl, and K from rat brain during acute hyponatremia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melton, J.E.; Patlak, C.S.; Pettigrew, K.D.; Cserr, H.F.

    1987-04-01

    This study quantitatively evaluates the contribution of tissue Na, Cl, and K loss to brain volume regulation during acute dilutional hyponatremia (DH) and examines the mechanism of Na loss. DH was produced in pentobarbital sodium-anesthetized rats by intraperitoneal infusion of distilled water and brain water and electrolytes analyzed 30 min, 1 h, 3 h, 4 h, or 6 h later. The rate of Na and Cl loss was greatest during the first 30 min of DH. Net loss of Na and Cl was maximal after 3 h of DH. K loss was slower, achieving significance after 3 h. Electrolyte loss was sufficient to account for observed brain volume regulation after three or more hours of DH. Measurements of /sup 22/Na influx and efflux across the blood brain barrier showed that barrier permeability to Na is unchanged during DH. Analysis of results using a two-compartment model of plasma-brain exchange suggests that loss of brain Na during DH does not result solely from a shift of electrolyte across the blood-brain barrier to plasma, and thus provides indirect evidence for an additional pathway for Na loss, presumably via cerebrospinal fluid.

  13. Effects of fresh frozen plasma, Ringer's acetate and albumin on plasma volume and on circulating glycocalyx components following haemorrhagic shock in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nelson, Axel; Statkevicius, Svajunas; Schött, Ulf;

    2016-01-01

    and syndecan-1. Hemodynamic effects of resuscitation were evaluated by measuring lactate and mean arterial pressure (MAP). RESULTS: Resuscitation with FFP or albumin resulted in plasma volume expansion equalling the blood loss (to 55 ± 5 ml/kg and 54 ± 4 ml/kg (mean ± S.D.), respectively), whereas plasma...

  14. Energy loss of a high charge bunched electron beam in plasma: Simulations, scaling, and accelerating wakefields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. B. Rosenzweig

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The energy loss and gain of a beam in the nonlinear, “blowout” regime of the plasma wakefield accelerator, which features ultrahigh accelerating fields, linear transverse focusing forces, and nonlinear plasma motion, has been asserted, through previous observations in simulations, to scale linearly with beam charge. Additionally, from a recent analysis by Barov et al., it has been concluded that for an infinitesimally short beam, the energy loss is indeed predicted to scale linearly with beam charge for arbitrarily large beam charge. This scaling is predicted to hold despite the onset of a relativistic, nonlinear response by the plasma, when the number of beam particles occupying a cubic plasma skin depth exceeds that of plasma electrons within the same volume. This paper is intended to explore the deviations from linear energy loss using 2D particle-in-cell simulations that arise in the case of experimentally relevant finite length beams. The peak accelerating field in the plasma wave excited behind the finite-length beam is also examined, with the artifact of wave spiking adding to the apparent persistence of linear scaling of the peak field amplitude into the nonlinear regime. At large enough normalized charge, the linear scaling of both decelerating and accelerating fields collapses, with serious consequences for plasma wave excitation efficiency. Using the results of parametric particle-in-cell studies, the implications of these results for observing severe deviations from linear scaling in present and planned experiments are discussed.

  15. Transport and chemical loss rates in Saturn's inner plasma disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmberg, M. K. G.; Wahlund, J.-E.; Vigren, E.; Cassidy, T. A.; Andrews, D. J.

    2016-03-01

    The Kronian moon Enceladus is constantly feeding its surrounding with new gas and dust, from cryovolcanoes located in its south polar region. Through photoionization and impact ionization of these neutrals, a plasma disk is created, which mainly contains hydrogen ions and water group ions. This paper investigates the importance of ion loss by outward radial transport and ion loss by dissociative recombination, which is the dominant chemical loss process in the inner plasma disk. We use plasma densities derived from several years of measurements by the Cassini Radio and Plasma Wave Science electric field power spectral density and Langmuir probe to calculate the total flux tube content NL2. Our calculation shows that NL2 agrees well with earlier estimates within dipole L shell 8. We also show that loss by transport dominates chemical loss between L shells 4 and 10. Using extrapolation of available measurements, we extend the study to include L shells 2.5 to 4. The results indicate that loss by transport dominates chemical loss also between L shells 2.5 and 4. The loss rate by transport is around five times larger at L shell 5, and the difference increases as L7.7 beyond L = 5, for the net ion population. Chemical loss may still be important for the structure of the plasma disk in the region closest to Enceladus (around ±0.5 RS) at 3.95 RS (1 RS = Saturn's equatorial radius = 60,268 km), since the transport and chemical loss rates only differ by a factor of ˜2 in this region. We also derive the total plasma content of the plasma disk between L shells 4 and 10 to be 1.9 × 1033 ions and the total ion source rate for the same region to be 5.8 × 1027 s-1. The estimated equatorial ion production rate P ranges from 2.6 × 10-5 cm-3 s-1 (at L = 10) to 1.1 × 10-4 cm-3 s-1 (at L = 4.8). The net mass loading rate is derived to be 123 kg/s for L shells 4 to 10.

  16. Acute plasma volume change with high-intensity sprint exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomer, Richard J; Farney, Tyler M

    2013-10-01

    When exercise is of long duration or of moderate to high intensity, a decrease in plasma volume can be observed. This has been noted for both aerobic and resistance exercise, but few data are available with regard to high-intensity sprint exercise. We measured plasma volume before and after 3 different bouts of acute exercise, of varying intensity, and/or duration. On different days, men (n = 12; 21-35 years) performed aerobic cycle exercise (60 minutes at 70% heart rate reserve) and 2 different bouts of cycle sprints (five 60-second sprints at 100% maximum wattage obtained during graded exercise testing (GXT) and ten 15-second sprints at 200% maximum wattage obtained during GXT). Blood was collected before and 0, 30, and 60 minutes postexercise and analyzed for hematocrit and hemoglobin and plasma volume was calculated. Plasma volume decreased significantly for all exercise bouts (p sprint bouts (∼19%) compared with aerobic exercise bouts (∼11%). By 30 minutes postexercise, plasma volume approached pre-exercise values. We conclude that acute bouts of exercise, in particular high-intensity sprint exercise, significantly decrease plasma volume during the immediate postexercise period. It is unknown what, if any negative implications these transient changes may have on exercise performance. Strength and conditioning professionals may aim to rehydrate athletes appropriately after high-intensity exercise bouts.

  17. Plasma volume expanders: use in medicine and detecting misuse in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoni, Ruth E; Scalco, Fernanda B; de Oliveira, Maria Lucia C; Aquino Neto, Francisco R

    2011-01-01

    Plasma volume expanders comprise a heterogeneous group of substances used in medicine that are intravenously administered in cases of great blood loss owing to surgery or medical emergency. These substances, however, can also be used to artificially enhance performance of healthy athletes in sport activities, and to mask the presence of others substances. These practices are considered doping, and are therefore prohibited by the International Olympic Committee and the World Antidoping Agency. Consequently, drug testing procedures are essential. The present work provides an overview of plasma volume expanders, assembling pertinent data such as chemical characteristics, physiological aspects, adverse effects, doping and analytical detection methods, which are currently dispersed in the literature.

  18. Modelisation of synchrotron radiation losses in realistic tokamak plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albajar, F.; Johner, J.; Granata, G

    2000-08-01

    Synchrotron radiation losses become significant in the power balance of high-temperature plasmas envisaged for next step tokamaks. Due to the complexity of the exact calculation, these losses are usually roughly estimated with expressions derived from a plasma description using simplifying assumptions on the geometry, radiation absorption, and density and temperature profiles. In the present article, the complete formulation of the transport of synchrotron radiation is performed for realistic conditions of toroidal plasma geometry with elongated cross-section, using an exact method for the calculation of the absorption coefficient, and for arbitrary shapes of density and temperature profiles. The effects of toroidicity and temperature profile on synchrotron radiation losses are analyzed in detail. In particular, when the electron temperature profile is almost flat in the plasma center, as for example in ITB confinement regimes, synchrotron losses are found to be much stronger than in the case where the profile is represented by its best generalized parabolic approximation, though both cases give approximately the same thermal energy contents. Such an effect is not included in present approximate expressions. Finally, we propose a seven-variable fit for the fast calculation of synchrotron radiation losses. This fit is derived from a large database, which has been generated using a code implementing the complete formulation and optimized for massively parallel computing. (author)

  19. Plasma cell gingivitis with severe alveolar bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vivek; Tripathi, Amitandra Kumar; Saimbi, Charanjit Singh; Sinha, Jolly

    2015-01-16

    Plasma cell gingivitis is a rare benign condition of the gingiva characterised by sharply demarcated erythaematous and oedematous gingiva often extending up to the muco gingival junction. It is considered a hypersensitive reaction. It presents clinically as a diffuse, erythaematous and papillary lesion of the gingiva, which frequently bleeds, with minimal trauma. This paper presents a case of a 42-year-old man who was diagnosed with plasma cell gingivitis, based on the presence of plasma cells in histological sections, and severe alveolar bone loss at the affected site, which was managed by surgical intervention.

  20. Accelerating Plasma Mirrors to Investigate Black Hole Information Loss Paradox

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Pisin

    2015-01-01

    The question of whether Hawking evaporation violates unitarity, and therefore results in the loss of information, has been under hot debate ever since Hawking's seminal discovery. For an issue as fundamental as this, which hints on the conflict between general relativity and quantum field theory, so far the investigations remain theoretical since it is almost impossible to settle this paradox through direct astrophysical black hole observations. It is therefore highly desirable to identify possible laboratory tests for this purpose. Accelerating mirror has been invoked and analyzed as an analog black hole since 1970s. On the technical side, there has been the idea of relativistic plasma mirrors produced by ultra-intense lasers traversing a plasma that promise to provide novel properties. Here we point out that such plasma mirrors can accelerate drastically through the strong nonlinear coupling between the laser and the impinged plasma. By tailoring the plasma target with density gradient along the direction o...

  1. The Role of Plasma in Radiation Belt Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, J. M.; Bonnell, J. W.; Kurth, W. S.; Millan, R. M.; Goldstein, J.; Jaynes, A. N.; Blake, J. B.; Denton, R. E.

    2015-12-01

    The radiation belts are zones of relativistic electrons encircling the Earth. Their radial structure is controlled by the competition between source and loss processes. Most commonly, a two-belt structure prevails, though a more complicated three-belt structure - an inner belt plus two outer electron belts - have repeatedly been observed. The plasma conditions that enable and enhance loss-facilitating wave activity in the inner magnetosphere are still under discussion. Relativistic electrons have been thought to more easily resonate with electromagnetic ion-cyclotron waves (EMIC) when the total plasma density is large (i.e., in the plasmasphere and plume). However, there is evidence that this interaction may be not as strong as thought, and that instead the field-aligned motion of lower energy ring current ions (up to a few 10's keV) may play a key role. Similarly, the exact influence of large heavy ion (O+) concentrations remains unsettled. We use 2.5+ years of Van Allen Probes observations to study the region of plasmasphere-outer belt overlap (and its vicinity). By now, the Van Allen Probes provide a complete and very dense coverage of the complete magnetosphere inside geosynchronous orbit We focus our interest on understanding the plasma conditions that can favor EMIC wave growth. We investigate the temperature anisotropy A (modified by plasma β) of the warm/hot plasma, and contrast it with the location specifics of the plasmasphere (i.e., very high total density) and the occurrence of high O+ concentrations in the overlap regions with the radiation belt(s). We present both average conditions for all parameters during a variety of geomagnetic conditions, and highlight specific loss and overlap events in an effort to establish favorable plasma conditions for relativistic electron loss during those times.

  2. Volume regulatory hormones and plasma volume in pregnant women with sickle cell disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosede B Afolabi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sickle cell disease (haemoglobin SS (HbSS mainly affects those of West African origin and is associated with hypervolaemia. Plasma volume rises by up to 50% in normal pregnancy but was previously found to be paradoxically contracted in late sickle cell pregnancy. The renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system is activated very early in human pregnancy to support the plasma volume expansion. We hypothesised that activation of the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system would be blunted in pregnant women with sickle cell disease. Materials and methods: We measured plasma volume and concentrations of plasma renin, angiotensinogen, aldosterone and other volume-related hormones in a cross-sectional study of pregnant and non-pregnant Nigerian women with HbSS or HbAA. Results: Plasma volume was higher in non-pregnant HbSS than HbAA women, but had not risen by 16 weeks, unlike plasma volume in HbAA women. The concentration of plasma renin also rose significantly less by 16 weeks in HbSS; angiotensinogen and aldosterone concentrations increased. Conclusions: The lower plasma renin concentration at 16 weeks with HbSS could be either primary or secondary to vasoconstriction related to inadequate vasodilator activity. The contracted plasma volume might then stimulate aldosterone synthesis by non-angiotensin II dependent stimulation. Studies of vasodilators such as nitric oxide, vasodilator eicosanoids or the PlGF/VEGF/sFlT-1 axis in pregnant HbSS and HbAA women will test this hypothesis.

  3. Direct measurement of the plasma loss width in an optimized, high ionization fraction, magnetic multi-dipole ring cusp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, C. M.; Weisberg, D. B.; Khalzov, I.; Milhone, J.; Flanagan, K.; Peterson, E.; Wahl, C.; Forest, C. B.

    2016-10-01

    The loss width of plasma in the WiPAL multi-dipole magnetic ring cusp [Cooper et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 13505 (2014); Forest et al., J. Plasma Phys. 81, 345810501 (2015)] has been directly measured using a novel array of probes embedded in the insulating plasma limiters. The large plasma volume ( ˜10 m3), small loss area associated with strong rare earth permanent magnets ( Bo˜2.23 kG at face), and large heating power ( ≤200 kW) produces a broad range of electron temperatures ( 2 magnetic fields, differs from previous devices: the cusp loss width is much larger than the Debye length and electron gyroradius and comparable to the collision length. Plasma parameters measured at the surface of ceramic limiter tiles covering the magnets and along radial chords in the cusp magnetic field indicate that electron density and temperature are nearly constant on magnetic field lines and that the mirror forces play little role in confining the plasma other than to constrict the loss area. Particle balance modeling is used to determine the cross field diffusion coefficient base on the measured losses to the limiters. The experimentally determined cross field diffusion coefficient (which determines the cusp loss width) is consistent with ambipolar diffusion across five orders of magnitude. The ambipolar diffusion across a given field line is set primarily by the electron-neutral collisions in the region where the magnetic field is the weakest, even though these plasmas can have ionization fractions near 1.

  4. Capillary plasma jet: A low volume plasma source for life science applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Topala, I., E-mail: ionut.topala@uaic.ro, E-mail: tmnagat@ipc.shizuoka.ac.jp [Alexandru Ioan Cuza University of Iasi, Faculty of Physics, Iasi Plasma Advanced Research Center (IPARC), Bd. Carol I No. 11, Iasi 700506 (Romania); Nagatsu, M., E-mail: ionut.topala@uaic.ro, E-mail: tmnagat@ipc.shizuoka.ac.jp [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Shizuoka University, 3-5-1 Johoku, Naka-ku, Hamamatsu 432-8561 (Japan)

    2015-02-02

    In this letter, we present results from multispectroscopic analysis of protein films, after exposure to a peculiar plasma source, i.e., the capillary plasma jet. This plasma source is able to generate very small pulsed plasma volumes, in kilohertz range, with characteristic dimensions smaller than 1 mm. This leads to specific microscale generation and transport of all plasma species. Plasma diagnosis was realized using general electrical and optical methods. Depending on power level and exposure duration, this miniature plasma jet can induce controllable modifications to soft matter targets. Detailed discussions on protein film oxidation and chemical etching are supported by results from absorption, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and microscopy techniques. Further exploitation of principles presented here may consolidate research interests involving plasmas in biotechnologies and plasma medicine, especially in patterning technologies, modified biomolecule arrays, and local chemical functionalization.

  5. Formerly preeclamptic women with a subnormal plasma volume are unable to maintain a rise in stroke volume during moderate exercise.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aardenburg, R.; Spaanderman, M.E.A.; Eijndhoven, H.W. van; Leeuw, P.W. de; Peeters, L.L.

    2005-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In formerly preeclamptic women with a low plasma volume, the recurrence rate of preeclampsia is higher than in women with a normal prepregnant plasma volume. In a recent study, we demonstrated that the low plasma volume subgroup also had a subnormal venous capacitance. In the present

  6. Formerly preeclamptic women with a subnormal plasma volume are unable to maintain a rise in stroke volume during moderate exercise.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aardenburg, R.; Spaanderman, M.E.A.; Eijndhoven, H.W. van; Leeuw, P.W. de; Peeters, L.L.

    2005-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In formerly preeclamptic women with a low plasma volume, the recurrence rate of preeclampsia is higher than in women with a normal prepregnant plasma volume. In a recent study, we demonstrated that the low plasma volume subgroup also had a subnormal venous capacitance. In the present s

  7. Relationship between Plasma Albumin Concentration and Plasma Volume in 5 Inbred Rat Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Rajiv; Klemcke, Harold G

    2015-09-01

    Using the Evans Blue procedure, we previously found strain-related differences in plasma volumes in 5 inbred rat strains. Because albumin binds strongly with Evans blue, this protein is important in the Evans blue method of plasma volume determination. Therefore, we speculated that interstrain differences in plasma albumin concentration (PAC) could distort calculated plasma volumes. To address this concern, we used ELISA techniques to measure PAC in these inbred rat strains. In study A, the blood volume was measured by using Evans blue dye, and albumin was measured at the start of hemorrhage. In study B, blood volume was not measured, and albumin was measured twice, near the start and end of hemorrhage (approximately 14 min apart). Neither study revealed any interstrain differences in PAC, which decreased after hemorrhage in all 5 strains. No correlation was found between PAC and plasma volume, survival time, blood lactate, or blood base excess. Percentage changes in PAC during hemorrhage were greater in salt-sensitive compared with Lewis rats. Moreover, these percentage changes were associated with survival time in Fawn hooded hypertensive rats. Our data show that the plasma volumes we measured previously were not misrepresented due to variations in PAC.

  8. Plasma Volume during Heat Stress and Exercise in Women,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-11-01

    subjectively determined "thermoneutral" environment. Methods Five healthy women (Table 1), who were not using oral contraceptive agents, volunteered to...with no difference between phases. Blood volume was estimated by the method of Allen et al (1) using the weight of the subject measured during the...a hemoglobinometer (Coulter Electronics). Plasma protein concentration (Pp) was measured by refractometry . Plasma sodium (Na + ) and potassium (K

  9. Prompt loss of beam ions in KSTAR plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun Young; Rhee, T.; Kim, Junghee; Yoon, S. W.; Park, B. H.; Isobe, M.; Ogawa, K.; Ko, W.-H.

    2016-10-01

    For a toroidal plasma facility to realize fusion energy, researching the transport of fast ions is important not only due to its close relation to the heating and current drive efficiencies but also to determine the heat load on the plasma-facing components. We present a theoretical analysis and orbit simulation for the origin of lost fast-ions during neutral beam injection (NBI) heating in Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) device. We adopted a two-dimensional phase diagram of the toroidal momentum and magnetic moment and describe detectable momentums at the fast-ion loss detector (FILD) position as a quadratic line. This simple method was used to model birth ions deposited by NBI and drawn as points in the momentum phase space. A Lorentz orbit code was used to calculate the fast-ion orbits and present the prompt loss characteristics of the KSTAR NBI. The scrape-off layer deposition of fast ions produces a significant prompt loss, and the model and experimental results closely agreed on the pitch-angle range of the NBI prompt loss. Our approach can provide wall load information from the fast ion loss.

  10. Prompt loss of beam ions in KSTAR plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Young Kim

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available For a toroidal plasma facility to realize fusion energy, researching the transport of fast ions is important not only due to its close relation to the heating and current drive efficiencies but also to determine the heat load on the plasma-facing components. We present a theoretical analysis and orbit simulation for the origin of lost fast-ions during neutral beam injection (NBI heating in Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR device. We adopted a two-dimensional phase diagram of the toroidal momentum and magnetic moment and describe detectable momentums at the fast-ion loss detector (FILD position as a quadratic line. This simple method was used to model birth ions deposited by NBI and drawn as points in the momentum phase space. A Lorentz orbit code was used to calculate the fast-ion orbits and present the prompt loss characteristics of the KSTAR NBI. The scrape-off layer deposition of fast ions produces a significant prompt loss, and the model and experimental results closely agreed on the pitch-angle range of the NBI prompt loss. Our approach can provide wall load information from the fast ion loss.

  11. Changes in subcutaneous fat cell volume and insulin sensitivity after weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Daniel P; Eriksson Hogling, Daniel; Thorell, Anders; Toft, Eva; Qvisth, Veronica; Näslund, Erik; Thörne, Anders; Wirén, Mikael; Löfgren, Patrik; Hoffstedt, Johan; Dahlman, Ingrid; Mejhert, Niklas; Rydén, Mikael; Arner, Erik; Arner, Peter

    2014-07-01

    Large subcutaneous fat cells associate with insulin resistance and high risk of developing type 2 diabetes. We investigated if changes in fat cell volume and fat mass correlate with improvements in the metabolic risk profile after bariatric surgery in obese patients. Fat cell volume and number were measured in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue in 62 obese women before and 2 years after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). Regional body fat mass by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; insulin sensitivity by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp; and plasma glucose, insulin, and lipid profile were assessed. RYGB decreased body weight by 33%, which was accompanied by decreased adipocyte volume but not number. Fat mass in the measured regions decreased and all metabolic parameters were improved after RYGB (P fat cell size correlated strongly with improved insulin sensitivity (P = 0.0057), regional changes in fat mass did not, except for a weak correlation between changes in visceral fat mass and insulin sensitivity and triglycerides. The curve-linear relationship between fat cell size and fat mass was altered after weight loss (P = 0.03). After bariatric surgery in obese women, a reduction in subcutaneous fat cell volume associates more strongly with improvement of insulin sensitivity than fat mass reduction per se. An altered relationship between adipocyte size and fat mass may be important for improving insulin sensitivity after weight loss. Fat cell size reduction could constitute a target to improve insulin sensitivity. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association.

  12. Synapse loss from chronically elevated glucocorticoids: relationship to neuropil volume and cell number in hippocampal area CA3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tata, Despina A; Marciano, Veronica A; Anderson, Brenda J

    2006-09-20

    Individuals with clinical disorders associated with elevated plasma glucocorticoids, such as major depressive disorder and Cushing's syndrome, are reported to have smaller hippocampal volume. To understand how the hippocampus responds at the cellular and subcellular levels to glucocorticoids and how such changes are related to volume measures, we have undertaken a comprehensive study of glucocorticoid effects on hippocampal CA3 volume and identified elements in the neuropil including astrocytic volume and cell and synapse number and size. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with corticosterone (40 mg/kg), the primary glucocorticoid in rodents, or vehicle for 60 days. The CA3 was further subdivided so that the two-thirds of CA3 (nearest the dentate gyrus) previously shown to be vulnerable to corticosterone could be analyzed as two separate subfields. Corticosterone had no effect on neuropil volume or glial volume in the proximal subfield but caused a strong tendency for astrocytic processes to make up a larger proportion of the tissue and for volume of tissue made of constituents other than glial cells (primarily neuronal processes) to be smaller in the middle subfield. Within the neuropil, there were no cellular or subcellular profiles that indicated degeneration, suggesting that corticosterone does not cause prolonged damage. Corticosterone did not reduce cell number or cell or nonperforated synapse size but did cause a pronounced loss of synapses. This loss occurred in both subfields and, therefore, was independent of volume loss. Together, the findings suggest that volume measures can underestimate corticosterone effects on neural structure.

  13. Generation of Diffuse Large Volume Plasma by an Ionization Wave from a Plasma Jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laroussi, Mounir; Razavi, Hamid

    2015-09-01

    Low temperature plasma jets emitted in ambient air are the product of fast ionization waves that are guided within a channel of a gas flow, such as helium. This guided ionization wave can be transmitted through a dielectric material and under some conditions can ignite a discharge behind the dielectric material. Here we present a novel way to produce large volume diffuse low pressure plasma inside a Pyrex chamber that does not have any electrodes or electrical energy directly applied to it. The diffuse plasma is ignited inside the chamber by a plasma jet located externally to the chamber and that is physically and electrically unconnected to the chamber. Instead, the plasma jet is just brought in close proximity to the external wall/surface of the chamber or to a dielectric tubing connected to the chamber. The plasma thus generated is diffuse, large volume and with physical and chemical characteristics that are different than the external plasma jet that ignited it. So by using a plasma jet we are able to ``remotely'' ignite volumetric plasma under controlled conditions. This novel method of ``remote'' generation of a low pressure, low temperature diffuse plasma can be useful for various applications including material processing and biomedicine.

  14. A large volume uniform plasma generator for the experiments of electromagnetic wave propagation in plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Min; Li Xiaoping; Xie Kai; Liu Donglin [School of Electronical and Mechanical Engineering, Xidian University, Xi' an Shaanxi 710071 (China); Liu Yanming [School of Telecommunications Engineering, Xidian University, Xi' an Shaanxi 710071 (China)

    2013-01-15

    A large volume uniform plasma generator is proposed for the experiments of electromagnetic (EM) wave propagation in plasma, to reproduce a 'black out' phenomenon with long duration in an environment of the ordinary laboratory. The plasma generator achieves a controllable approximate uniform plasma in volume of 260 mm Multiplication-Sign 260 mm Multiplication-Sign 180 mm without the magnetic confinement. The plasma is produced by the glow discharge, and the special discharge structure is built to bring a steady approximate uniform plasma environment in the electromagnetic wave propagation path without any other barriers. In addition, the electron density and luminosity distributions of plasma under different discharge conditions were diagnosed and experimentally investigated. Both the electron density and the plasma uniformity are directly proportional to the input power and in roughly reverse proportion to the gas pressure in the chamber. Furthermore, the experiments of electromagnetic wave propagation in plasma are conducted in this plasma generator. Blackout phenomena at GPS signal are observed under this system and the measured attenuation curve is of reasonable agreement with the theoretical one, which suggests the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  15. 99mTc-albumin can replace 125I-albumin to determine plasma volume repeatedly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonfils, Peter K; Damgaard, Morten; Stokholm, Knud H

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Plasma volume assessment may be of importance in several disorders. The purpose of the present study was to compare the reliability of plasma volume measurements by technetium-labeled human serum albumin ((99m)Tc-HSA) with a simultaneously performed plasma volume determination with iod......OBJECTIVE: Plasma volume assessment may be of importance in several disorders. The purpose of the present study was to compare the reliability of plasma volume measurements by technetium-labeled human serum albumin ((99m)Tc-HSA) with a simultaneously performed plasma volume determination...

  16. Mechanisms of plasma disruption and runaway electron losses in tokamaks

    CERN Document Server

    Abdullaev, S S; Wongrach, K; Tokar, M; Koslowski, H R; Willi, O; Zeng, L

    2015-01-01

    Based on the analysis of data from the numerous dedicated experiments on plasma disruptions in the TEXTOR tokamak mechanisms of the formation of runaway electron beams and their losses are proposed. The plasma disruption is caused by strong stochastic magnetic field formed due to nonlinearly excited low-mode number MHD modes. It is hypothesized that the runaway electron beam is formed in the central plasma region confined inside the intact magnetic surface located between $q=1$ and the closest low--order rational [$q=4/3$ or $q=3/2$] magnetic surfaces. The thermal quench time caused by the fast electron transport in a stochastic magnetic field is calculated using the collisional transport model. The current decay stage is due to the ambipolar particle transport in a stochastic magnetic field. The runaway electron beam in the confined plasma region is formed due to their acceleration the inductive toroidal electric field. The runaway electron beam current is modeled as a sum of toroidally symmetric part and a ...

  17. Pretreatment fasting plasma glucose modifies dietary weight loss maintenance success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Mads Fiil; Due, Anette; Larsen, Thomas Meinert

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Levels of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and fasting insulin (FI) were studied as diet-specific prognostic markers for successful weight loss maintenance in participants with overweight. METHODS: After losing ≥ 8% of body weight, participants received one of three ad libitum diets for 6...... regained 2.73 kg (95% CI 1.33 to 4.13; P weight regain on NNR compared to ADD (-4.21 kg [95% CI -6.83 to -1.59]; P = 0.002) and MUFA (95% CI -2.77 kg [-5.......12 to -0.43]; P = 0.020). The addition of FI strengthened these associations. CONCLUSIONS: Slightly elevated pretreatment FPG determined success in dietary weight loss maintenance among overweight patients on ad libitum diets differing in macronutrient and fiber content....

  18. Studies on plasma production in a large volume system using multiple compact ECR plasma sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarey, R. D.; Ganguli, A.; Sahu, D.; Narayanan, R.; Arora, N.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a scheme for large volume plasma production using multiple highly portable compact ECR plasma sources (CEPS) (Ganguli et al 2016 Plasma Source Sci. Technol. 25 025026). The large volume plasma system (LVPS) described in the paper is a scalable, cylindrical vessel of diameter  ≈1 m, consisting of source and spacer sections with multiple CEPS mounted symmetrically on the periphery of the source sections. Scaling is achieved by altering the number of source sections/the number of sources in a source section or changing the number of spacer sections for adjusting the spacing between the source sections. A series of plasma characterization experiments using argon gas were conducted on the LVPS under different configurations of CEPS, source and spacer sections, for an operating pressure in the range 0.5-20 mTorr, and a microwave power level in the range 400-500 W per source. Using Langmuir probes (LP), it was possible to show that the plasma density (~1  -  2  ×  1011 cm-3) remains fairly uniform inside the system and decreases marginally close to the chamber wall, and this uniformity increases with an increase in the number of sources. It was seen that a warm electron population (60-80 eV) is always present and is about 0.1% of the bulk plasma density. The mechanism of plasma production is discussed in light of the results obtained for a single CEPS (Ganguli et al 2016 Plasma Source Sci. Technol. 25 025026).

  19. A bayesian nework based risk model for volume loss in soft soils in mechanized bored tunnels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chivatá Cárdenas, Ibsen; Al-Jibouri, Saad H.S.; Halman, Johannes I.M.

    2012-01-01

    Volume loss is one of the most important risks when boring a tunnel. This is particularly true when a tunnel is being constructed in soft soils. The risk of excessive volume loss, if materialised can lead to large consequences such as damage in buildings on the surface. This paper describes the

  20. Loss of entorhinal cortex and hippocampal volumes compared to whole brain volume in normal aging: the SMART-Medea study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoops, Arnoud J G; Gerritsen, Lotte; van der Graaf, Yolanda; Mali, Willem P T M; Geerlings, Mirjam I

    2012-07-30

    In non-demented elderly age-related decline in hippocampal volume has often been observed, but it is not clear if this loss is disproportionate relative to other brain tissue. Few studies examined age-related volume loss of the entorhinal cortex. We investigated the association of age with hippocampal and entorhinal cortex (ERC) volumes in a large sample of middle-aged and older persons without dementia. Within the SMART-Medea study, cross-sectional analyses were performed in 453 non-demented subjects (mean age 62±9 years, 81% male) with a history of arterial disease. Hippocampal and ERC volumes were assessed by manual segmentation on three-dimensional fast field-echo sequence T1-weighted magnetic resonance images. Automated segmentation was used to quantify volumes of BV and ICV. Hippocampal and ERC volumes were divided by intracranial volume (ICV) as well as total brain volume (BV) to determine whether age-related differences were disproportionate relative to other brain tissue. Total crude hippocampal volume was 5.96±0.7 ml and total crude ERC volume was 0.34±0.06 ml. Linear regression analyses adjusted for sex showed that with increasing age, hippocampal volume divided by ICV decreased (B per year older=-0.01 ml; 95% CI -0.02 to -0.004). However, no age-related decline in hippocampal volume relative to BV was observed (B per year older=0.005 ml; 95% CI -0.002 to 0.01). No age-related decline in ERC volume relative to ICV or BV was observed. In this population of nondemented patients with a history of vascular disease no age-related decline in entorhinal cortex volume was observed and although hippocampal volume decreased with age, it was not disproportionate relative to total brain volume. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparative study of NO removal in surface-plasma and volume-plasma reactors based on pulsed corona discharges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Muhammad Arif; Kolb, Juergen F; Sun, Yaohong; Schoenbach, Karl H

    2011-12-15

    Nitric oxide (NO) conversion has been studied for two different types of atmospheric-pressure pulsed-corona discharges, one generates a surface-plasma and the other provides a volume-plasma. For both types of discharges the energy cost for NO removal increases with decreasing oxygen concentration and initial concentration of NO. However, the energy cost for volume plasmas for 50% NO removal, EC(50), from air was found to be 120 eV/molecule, whereas for the surface plasma, it was only 70 eV/molecule. A smaller difference in energy cost, but a higher efficiency for removal of NO was obtained in a pure nitrogen atmosphere, where NO formation is restricted due to the lack of oxygen. For the volume plasma, EC(50) in this case was measured at 50 eV/molecule, and for the surface plasma it was 40 eV/molecule. Besides the higher NO removal efficiency of surface plasmas compared to volume plasmas, the energy efficiency of surface-plasmas was found to be almost independent of the amount of electrical energy deposited in the discharge, whereas the efficiency for volume plasmas decreases considerably with increasing energy. This indicates the possibility of operating surface plasma discharges at high energy densities and in more compact reactors than conventional volume discharges.

  2. Comparative study of NO removal in surface-plasma and volume-plasma reactors based on pulsed corona discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malik, Muhammad Arif, E-mail: MArifMalik@gmail.com [Frank Reidy Research Center for Bioelectrics, Old Dominion University, 4211 Monarch Way, Suite 300, Norfolk, VA 23508 (United States); Kolb, Juergen F.; Sun, Yaohong; Schoenbach, Karl H. [Frank Reidy Research Center for Bioelectrics, Old Dominion University, 4211 Monarch Way, Suite 300, Norfolk, VA 23508 (United States)

    2011-12-15

    Nitric oxide (NO) conversion has been studied for two different types of atmospheric-pressure pulsed-corona discharges, one generates a surface-plasma and the other provides a volume-plasma. For both types of discharges the energy cost for NO removal increases with decreasing oxygen concentration and initial concentration of NO. However, the energy cost for volume plasmas for 50% NO removal, EC{sub 50}, from air was found to be 120 eV/molecule, whereas for the surface plasma, it was only 70 eV/molecule. A smaller difference in energy cost, but a higher efficiency for removal of NO was obtained in a pure nitrogen atmosphere, where NO formation is restricted due to the lack of oxygen. For the volume plasma, EC{sub 50} in this case was measured at 50 eV/molecule, and for the surface plasma it was 40 eV/molecule. Besides the higher NO removal efficiency of surface plasmas compared to volume plasmas, the energy efficiency of surface-plasmas was found to be almost independent of the amount of electrical energy deposited in the discharge, whereas the efficiency for volume plasmas decreases considerably with increasing energy. This indicates the possibility of operating surface plasma discharges at high energy densities and in more compact reactors than conventional volume discharges.

  3. Changes in plasma volume and baroreflex function following resistance exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploutz, L. L.; Tatro, D. L.; Dudley, G. A.; Convertino, V. A.

    1993-01-01

    The dynamics of change in plasma volume (PV) and baroreflex responses have been reported over 24 h immediately following maximal cycle exercise. The purpose of this study was to determine if PV and baroreflex showed similar changes for 24 h after resistance exercise. Eight men were studied on 2 test days, 1 week apart. On 1 day, per cent change (% delta) in PV was estimated at 0,3, and 6 h after resistance exercise using haematocrit and haemoglobin. Baseline PV was measured 24 h after exercise using Evans blue dye. The carotid baroreceptor-cardiac reflex response was measured before, and 3, 6, 9, 12, and 24 h post-exercise. Each subject performed six sets of the bench press and leg press with 10 repetitions per set with a load that induced failure within each set. On a control day, the protocol was used without exercise. Plasma volume did not change during the control day. There was a 20% decrease in PV immediately post-exercise; the recovery of the PV was rapid and complete within 3 h. PV was 20% greater 24 h post-exercise than on the control day. There were no differences in any of the baroreflex measurements. Therefore, it is suggested that PV shifts may occur without altering baroreflex sensitivity.

  4. Portable Low-Volume Therapy for Severe Blood Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    be reflected in Htc as well. Classic changes in plasma electrolyte concentration during hemorrhagic shock include hyperkalemia [17, 18] and...comparison with treatment no. 1 (pɘ.05), treatment no. 2 (pɘ.05), and treatment no. 3 (pɘ.05). Because the hyperkalemia and hyponatremia in

  5. Proteomics reveals the effects of sustained weight loss on the human plasma proteome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geyer, Philipp E; Wewer Albrechtsen, Nicolai J; Tyanova, Stefka;

    2016-01-01

    Sustained weight loss is a preferred intervention in a wide range of metabolic conditions, but the effects on an individual's health state remain ill-defined. Here, we investigate the plasma proteomes of a cohort of 43 obese individuals that had undergone 8 weeks of 12% body weight loss followed ...... evaluates and monitors intervention in metabolic diseases....... in the plasma proteome, and eight plasma proteins correlated better with insulin resistance than the known marker adiponectin. Nearly all study participants benefited from weight loss regarding a ten-protein inflammation panel defined from the proteomics data. We conclude that plasma proteome profiling broadly...

  6. The normal increase in insulin after a meal may be required to prevent postprandial renal sodium and volume losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irsik, Debra L; Blazer-Yost, Bonnie L; Staruschenko, Alexander; Brands, Michael W

    2017-06-01

    Despite the effects of insulinopenia in type 1 diabetes and evidence that insulin stimulates multiple renal sodium transporters, it is not known whether normal variation in plasma insulin regulates sodium homeostasis physiologically. This study tested whether the normal postprandial increase in plasma insulin significantly attenuates renal sodium and volume losses. Rats were instrumented with chronic artery and vein catheters, housed in metabolic cages, and connected to hydraulic swivels. Measurements of urine volume and sodium excretion (UNaV) over 24 h and the 4-h postprandial period were made in control (C) rats and insulin-clamped (IC) rats in which the postprandial increase in insulin was prevented. Twenty-four-hour urine volume (36 ± 3 vs. 15 ± 2 ml/day) and UNaV (3.0 ± 0.2 vs. 2.5 ± 0.2 mmol/day) were greater in the IC compared with C rats, respectively. Four hours after rats were given a gel meal, blood glucose and urine volume were greater in IC rats, but UNaV decreased. To simulate a meal while controlling blood glucose, C and IC rats received a glucose bolus that yielded peak increases in blood glucose that were not different between groups. Urine volume (9.7 ± 0.7 vs. 6.0 ± 0.8 ml/4 h) and UNaV (0.50 ± 0.08 vs. 0.20 ± 0.06 mmol/4 h) were greater in the IC vs. C rats, respectively, over the 4-h test. These data demonstrate that the normal increase in circulating insulin in response to hyperglycemia may be required to prevent excessive renal sodium and volume losses and suggest that insulin may be a physiological regulator of sodium balance. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Volume loss as a tool to assess kiln drying of eucalyptus wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djeison Cesar Batista

    Full Text Available In this study, we aimed to analyze the kiln drying quality of Eucalyptus grandis, Eucalyptus saligna and Eucalyptus dunnii woods with respect to volume loss. Wood from the three species was kiln dried together with the same drying schedule and conditions in a conventional-temperature pilot kiln. Three kinds of volume loss were evaluated: total - from saturated (initial to machined (final condition; shrinkage - from saturated to 10% moisture content; and machining - from 10% moisture content to machined condition. Eucalyptus grandis wood was the most dimensionally stable and presented the smallest volume loss due to shrinkage. Although they had different shrinkage behaviors, Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus saligna woods presented the same drying quality regarding machining and total volume losses. These species can be considered the same for kiln drying. Eucalyptus dunnii wood presented the worst quality in drying, and should not be kiln dried in the same batch with the other species.

  8. Low Plasma Volume in Normotensive Formerly Preeclamptic Women Predisposes to Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholten, Ralph R; Lotgering, Fred K; Hopman, Maria T; Van Dijk, Arie; Van de Vlugt, Maureen; Janssen, Mirian C H; Spaanderman, Marc E A

    2015-11-01

    Formerly preeclamptic women are at risk for cardiovascular disease. Low plasma volume may reflect latent hypertension and potentially links preeclampsia with chronic cardiovascular disease. We hypothesized that low plasma volume in normotensive formerly preeclamptic women predisposes to hypertension. We longitudinally studied n=104 formerly preeclamptic women in whom plasma volume was measured 3 to 30 months after the preeclamptic pregnancy. Cardiovascular variables were assessed at 2 points in time (3-30 months postpartum and 2-5 years thereafter). Study population was divided into low plasma volume (≤1373 mL/m(2)) and normal plasma volume (>1373 mL/m(2)). Primary end point was hypertension at the second visit: defined as ≥140 mm Hg systolic or ≥90 mm Hg diastolic. Secondary outcome of this study was change in traditional cardiovascular risk profile between visits. Variables correlating univariately with change in blood pressure between visits were introduced in regression analysis. Eighteen of 104 (17%) formerly preeclamptic women who were normotensive at first visit had hypertension at second evaluation 2 to 5 years later. Hypertension developed more often in women with low plasma volume (10/35 [29%]) than in women with normal plasma volume (8/69 [12%]; odds ratio, 3.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.4-8.6). After adjustments, relationship between plasma volume status and subsequent hypertension persisted (adjusted odds ratio, 3.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.1-8.5). Mean arterial pressure at second visit correlated inverse linearly with plasma volume (r=-0.49; Phypertension within 5 years. Women with low plasma volume have higher chance to develop hypertension than women with normal plasma volume. Clinically, follow-up of blood pressure seems warranted in women with history of preeclampsia, even when initially normotensive.

  9. Mesotherapy and platelet-rich plasma for the treatment of hair loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonca Gökdemir

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hair loss often significant impact on quality of life, including loss of self-confidence and self-esteem. However, treatment of hair loss is frustrating for both patients and doctors. Mesotherapy and platelet-rich plasma have recently become advertised method for the treatment of different types of alopecia. The efficacy of these methods in hair loss is controversial in view of lack of documented evidence. It was reviewed the data about the efficacy, safety and treatment protocols of mesotherapy and platelet-rich plasma in patients with hair loss.

  10. Calculations of the Ion Orbit Loss Region at the Plasma Edge of EAST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴国将; 张晓东

    2012-01-01

    In divertor tokamak plasma, the energetic ion losses of edge plasma are considered to be responsible for the negative radial electric field. In the present paper, a guiding center approximation orbit equation is found by assuming the conservation of three integrals of motion, i.e. the total ion energy E, the magnetic moment # and toroidal angular momentum Pc, and it is used to calculate expediently the ion orbit loss region. The direct ion orbit losses in the initial velocity space near the plasma edge of EAST with SN (single null) divertor configuration are analyzed systematically. The ion loss regions are obtained by solving the guiding center approximation orbit equation of critical ions with the effect of the radial electric field taken into account. Under the influence of plasma current Ip, the type of ions, the toroidal field Bt and the changes of the loss regions are analyzed and calculated accordingly.

  11. Processing speed in normal aging: effects of white matter hyperintensities and hippocampal volume loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Kathryn V; Kaplan, Richard F; Springate, Beth; Moscufo, Nicola; Wakefield, Dorothy B; Guttmann, Charles R G; Wolfson, Leslie

    2014-01-01

    Changes in cognitive functioning are said to be part of normal aging. Quantitative MRI has made it possible to measure structural brain changes during aging which may underlie these decrements which include slowed information processing and memory loss. Much has been written on white matter hyperintensities (WMH), which are associated with cognitive deficits on tasks requiring processing speed and executive functioning, and hippocampal volume loss, which is associated with memory decline. Here we examine volumetric MRI measures of WMH and hippocampal volume loss together in relation to neuropsychological tests considered to be measures of executive functioning and processing speed in 81 non-demented elderly individuals, aged 75-90. Correlational analysis showed that when controlling for age, both greater WMH volume and smaller hippocampal volume were correlated with slower performances on most tests with the exception of a battery of continuous performance tests in which only WMH was correlated with slower reaction time (RT). We then performed a series of hierarchical multiple regression analyses to examine the independent contributions of greater WMH volume and reduced hippocampal volume to executive functioning and processing speed. The results showed that for the four measures requiring executive functioning and speed of processing, WMH volume and hippocampal volume combined predicted between 21.4% and 37% of the explained variance. These results suggest that WM integrity and hippocampal volume influence cognitive decline independently on tasks involving processing speed and executive function independent of age.

  12. Proteomics reveals the effects of sustained weight loss on the human plasma proteome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geyer, Philipp E; Wewer Albrechtsen, Nicolai J; Tyanova, Stefka

    2016-01-01

    Sustained weight loss is a preferred intervention in a wide range of metabolic conditions, but the effects on an individual's health state remain ill-defined. Here, we investigate the plasma proteomes of a cohort of 43 obese individuals that had undergone 8 weeks of 12% body weight loss followed...... by a year of weight maintenance. Using mass spectrometry-based plasma proteome profiling, we measured 1,294 plasma proteomes. Longitudinal monitoring of the cohort revealed individual-specific protein levels with wide-ranging effects of losing weight on the plasma proteome reflected in 93 significantly...... evaluates and monitors intervention in metabolic diseases....

  13. Alternations in plasma volume and protein during and after a continuous 110-kilometer march with 20-kilogram backpack load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashkenazi, I; Epshtein, Y

    1998-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a continuous 110-km march with a 20-kg backpack load on plasma volume and intravascular protein content. Twenty-two healthy male volunteers, aged 19 to 20 years (mean, 19.4 years), physically conditioned for continuous strenuous exercise, with a mean (+/- SD) maximal oxygen consumption of 59.1 (+/- 7.9) ml/kg/min, participated in the study. The march was performed under ambient conditions of 17 to 32 degrees C dry temperature and 45 to 85% relative humidity. Venous blood samples were obtained before, during, and after the march. The average calculated oxygen consumption during the march was about 30% of maximal oxygen consumption. Mean body weight loss was 3.4% of the premarch weight, mean water ingestion was 14,250 ml, and mean urine volume was 2,687 ml. Relative changes of plasma volume and total content of plasma protein were calculated from hematocrit ratio and hemoglobin concentration. A significant reduction (-6.1 +/- 1.7%, mean +/- SE) in plasma volume and a minimal elevation in intravascular protein content (1.6 +/- 2.5%) were observed during the march. During the first 24 hours of recovery, plasma volume was further reduced (-8.4 +/- 1.8%), with a significant reduction in protein content (-6.6 +/- 1.8%), mainly albumin (-9.3 +/- 1.7%). During the second day of recovery, peak elevations in plasma volume (3.7 +/- 1.4%) and protein content (6.0 +/- 1.6%) were observed. The changes in protein content were related to elevations in albumin (3.7 +/- 1.3%) and globulin (10.7 +/- 3.2%) content. The elevated plasma volume and protein content were also maintained 96 hours after the end of the march. Although the changes in plasma volume during the march were associated with changes in serum albumin and globulin content, during the recovery period there was association only with the changes in serum globulin content. The possible mechanism of these findings is discussed.

  14. PLASMA VOLUME EXPANSION 24-HOURS POST-EXERCISE: EFFECT OF DOUBLING THE VOLUME OF REPLACEMENT FLUID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartholomew Kay

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of two volumes (1.5 L or 3.0 L of commercially available electrolyte beverage (1.44 mM·L-1 Na+ taken during a 24-hour recovery period post-exercise, on plasma volume (PV expansion 24-hours post-exercise were assessed. A simple random-order crossover research design was used. Subjects (n = 9 males: age 21 ± 4 years, body mass 80.0 ± 9.0 kg, peak incremental 60-second cycling power output 297 ± 45 W [means ± SD] completed an identical exercise protocol conducted in hot ambient conditions (35oC, 50% relative humidity on two occasions; separated by 7-days. On each occasion, subjects received a different volume of 24-hour fluid intake (commercial beverage in random order. In each case, the fluid was taken in five equal aliquots over 24-hours. PV expansions 24-hours post-exercise were estimated from changes in haemoglobin and haematocrit. Dependent t-testing revealed no significant differences in PV expansions between trials, however a significant expansion with respect to zero was identified in the 3.0 L trial only. Specifically, PV expansions (% were; 1.5 L trial: (mean ± SE 2.3 ± 2.0 (not significant with respect to zero, 3.0 L trial: 5.0 ± 2.0 (p < 0.05, with respect to zero. Under the conditions imposed in the current study, ingesting the greater volume of the beverage lead to larger mean PV expansion

  15. Dynamics of the formation and loss of boron atoms in a H2/B2H6 microwave plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duluard, C. Y.; Aubert, X.; Sadeghi, N.; Gicquel, A.

    2016-09-01

    For further improvements in doped-diamond deposition technology, an understanding of the complex chemistry in H2/CH4/B2H6 plasmas is of general importance. In this context, a H2/B2H6 plasma ignited by microwave power in a near resonant cavity at high pressure (100-200 mbar) is studied to measure the B-atom density in the ground state. The discharge is ignited in the gas mixture (0-135 ppm B2H6 in H2) by a 2.45 GHz microwave generator, leading to the formation of a hemispheric plasma core, surrounded by a faint discharge halo filling the remaining reactor volume. Measurements with both laser induced fluorescence and resonant absoption with a boron hollow cathode lamp indicate that the B-atom density is higher in the halo than in the plasma core. When the absorption line-of-sight is positioned in the halo, the absorption is so strong that the upper detection limit is reached. To understand the mechanisms of creation and loss of boron atoms, time-resolved absorption measurements have been carried out in a pulsed plasma regime (10 Hz, duty cycle 50%). The study focuses on the influence of the total pressure, the partial pressure of B2H6, as well as the source power, on the growth and decay rates of boron atoms when the plasma is turned off.

  16. A High-Order Finite-Volume Algorithm for Fokker-Planck Collisions in Magnetized Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Z; Cohen, R H; Rognlien, T D; Xu, X Q

    2007-04-18

    A high-order finite volume algorithm is developed for the Fokker-Planck Operator (FPO) describing Coulomb collisions in strongly magnetized plasmas. The algorithm is based on a general fourth-order reconstruction scheme for an unstructured grid in the velocity space spanned by parallel velocity and magnetic moment. The method provides density conservation and high-order-accurate evaluation of the FPO independent of the choice of the velocity coordinates. As an example, a linearized FPO in constant-of-motion coordinates, i.e. the total energy and the magnetic moment, is developed using the present algorithm combined with a cut-cell merging procedure. Numerical tests include the Spitzer thermalization problem and the return to isotropy for distributions initialized with velocity space loss cones. Utilization of the method for a nonlinear FPO is straightforward but requires evaluation of the Rosenbluth potentials.

  17. Investigation of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and mean platelet volume in sudden hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kum, Rauf Oğuzhan; Ozcan, Muge; Baklaci, Deniz; Yurtsever Kum, Nurcan; Yilmaz, Yavuz Fuat; Unal, Adnan; Avci, Yonca

    2015-01-01

    Several theories attempt to explain the pathophysiology of sudden hearing loss. The objective of this study was to investigate the possible role of inflammation and atherothrombosis in sudden hearing loss patients through the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and mean platelet volume. Study design - retrospective cross-sectional historical cohort. This study was conducted on two groups: one with 59 individuals diagnosed with sudden hearing loss, and other with 59 healthy individuals with the same characteristics of gender and age distribution, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and mean platelet volume levels were measured in patients diagnosed with sudden hearing loss as well as in the control group, and it was verified whether these results interfered for a better or worse prognosis with treatment of sudden deafness. Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio levels are much higher in patients diagnosed with sudden hearing loss compared to the control group. Similarly, mean levels of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio are higher in non-recovered versus recovered patients (p=0.001). However, we could not find a correlation with mean platelet volume levels (p>0.05). Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio is a quick and reliable indicator regarding diagnosis and prognosis of sudden hearing loss; on the other hand, mean platelet volume may be considered a less important indicator in this aspect. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  18. Investigation of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and mean platelet volume in sudden hearing loss,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rauf Oguzhan Kum

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Several theories attempt to explain the pathophysiology of sudden hearing loss. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to investigate the possible role of inflammation and atherothrombosis in sudden hearing loss patients through the neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and mean platelet volume. METHODS: Study design - retrospective cross-sectional historical cohort. This study was conducted on two groups: one with 59 individuals diagnosed with sudden hearing loss, and other with 59 healthy individuals with the same characteristics of gender and age distribution, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and mean platelet volume levels were measured in patients diagnosed with sudden hearing loss as well as in the control group, and it was verified whether these results interfered for a better or worse prognosis with treatment of sudden deafness. RESULTS: Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio levels are much higher in patients diagnosed with sudden hearing loss compared to the control group. Similarly, mean levels of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio are higher in non-recovered versus recovered patients (p = 0.001. However, we could not find a correlation with mean platelet volume levels (p > 0.05. CONCLUSION: Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio is a quick and reliable indicator regarding diagnosis and prognosis of sudden hearing loss; on the other hand, mean platelet volume may be considered a less important indicator in this aspect.

  19. Power loss of an oscillating electric dipole in a quantum plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghaderipoor, L. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Qom, 3716146611 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mehramiz, A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Imam Khomeini Int' l University, Qazvin 34149-16818 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    A system of linearized quantum plasma equations (quantum hydrodynamic model) has been used for investigating the dispersion equation for electrostatic waves in the plasma. Furthermore, dispersion relations and their modifications due to quantum effects are used for calculating the power loss of an oscillating electric dipole. Finally, the results are compared in quantum and classical regimes.

  20. The importance of plasma volume expansion and nutrition in twin pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, D M; MacGillivray, I

    1984-01-01

    Physiological adaptation including expansion in plasma volume is exaggerated in women with twin pregnancies. In singleton pregnancy and multiparous twin pregnancies there is an association between plasma volume expansion and birth weight, but this is not so in primigravid twin pregnancies. Women with twin pregnancies have a similar dietary intake to singleton pregnancies, but it is not known whether there are differences with parity or zygosity. Absorption and utilisation of nutrients may be increased to meet demands for extra fetal growth. Nutrient supply and plasma volume expansion will be further discussed and their association with birth weight presented.

  1. Effect of hydration on plasma volume and endocrine responses to water immersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, M. H.; Keil, L. C.; Wade, C. A.; Silver, J. E.; Geelen, G.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of hydration status on early endocrine responses and on osmotic and intravascular volume changes during immersion was determined in humans undergoing successive periods of dehydration, immersion, rehydration, and immersion. Immersion caused an isotonic expansion of plasma volume, as well as suppression of plasma renin activity and aldosterone, which all occurred independently of hydration status. On the other hand, the concentration of plasma vasopressin (PVP) was found to decrease during dehydrated immersion, but not during rehydrated immersion. It is concluded that plasma tonicity is not a factor influencing PVP suppression during water immersion.

  2. Calculated plasma medial effective concentration of propofol with and without magnesium sulfate at loss of consciousness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Hong-liang; YE Tie-hu; SUN Li

    2011-01-01

    Background Perioperative disorder of magnesium,an important cation in the human body,may affect clinical anesthesia. The pharmacological data of propofol use,which is popularly used in the anesthesiology department and intensive care unit,is incomplete in Chinese patients. This study aimed to assess the effect of magnesium sulfate on the calculated plasma medial effective concentration (Cp50cal) of propofol at loss of response to command in Chinese females.Methods Fifty patients undergoing gynecological laparoscopic surgery were randomly divided into the control group and the magnesium group. Before induction,magnesium sulfate (30 mg/kg) or placebo (equal volume of 0.9% saline)was given to patients in the magnesium group or the control group,respectively. Propofol was infused using a target-controlled infusion system,with a target concentration for each patient decided by up-and-down sequential allocation. After the equilibration between target plasma concentration and effective-site concentration,the state of consciousness was assessed. For determination of serum magnesium and calcium concentration,blood samples were taken before induction,after induction and at the end of surgery.Results The Cp50cal was 2.52 μg/ml (2.47-2.57 μg/ml) for patients in the control group,and 2.46 μg/ml (2.41-2.51μg/ml) for those in the magnesium group. A significant reduction of Cp50cal was observed (P=0.021). There was a significant difference between the serum magnesium concentrations after induction and at the end of the surgery (P <0.05). In the magnesium group,there was a trend toward decreasing after surgery,while in the control group,Cp50cal decreased significantly (P <0.01).Conclusions Cp50cal of propofol at loss of response to command was 2.52 μg/ml (2.47-2.57 μg/ml) for Chinese female adults in this study. Infusion of 30 mg/kg magnesium sulfate may reduce the Cp50cal of propofol at loss of consciousness,which implies that magnesium may enhance the pharmacological

  3. Interleukin-18 in plasma and adipose tissue: effects of obesity, insulin resistance, and weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Jens M; Stallknecht, Bente; Helge, Jørn W

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Interleukin (IL)-18 is associated with obesity, insulin resistance, and cardiovascular disease. The present study compared 1) IL-18 in adipocytes versus stromal vascular (SV) cells, 2) IL-18 in plasma and adipose tissue (AT) in obese versus lean subjects, and 3) IL-18 in plasma, AT......, and skeletal muscle (SM) in obese subjects after weight loss. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: At baseline, plasma and AT IL-18 in 23 obese subjects were compared with that in 12 lean subjects. The obese subjects were submitted to a 15-week life-style intervention (hypocaloric diet and daily exercise) after which plasma...

  4. LH transition characteristics due to bipolar losses in tokamak plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toda, Shinichiro [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu Univ., Kasuga, Fukuoka (Japan); Yagi, Masatoshi; Itoh, Sanae-I.

    1998-10-01

    The L/H transition theory is extended based on the electrostatic bifurcation. We study the bipolar losses which have not been examined as the transition mechanisms yet and investigate the L/H transition characteristics. The comparison study with the experimental results is also done. It is found that the equation of motions has the solutions with various hysteresis types of electrostatic bifurcation phenomena when the mechanisms of bipolar losses are considered. The dependences of the particle flux and the diffusivity on the thermodynamic force in the presence of the electric field are examined. ELMs (Edge Localizes Modes) phenomena which are typical in the H-mode are studied. The model equation is newly extended to include the effect of the electric field shear in addition to the electric field shear. This model is also extended to the dynamic model which includes the temporal evolution of the density from the static model with the hysteresis characteristics. (author)

  5. Effect of catecholamines and insulin on plasma volume and intravascular mass of albumin in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Christensen, N J; Larsen, S

    1989-01-01

    1. The effect of intravenous catecholamine infusions and of intravenous insulin on plasma volume and intravascular mass of albumin was investigated in healthy males. 2. Physiological doses of adrenaline (0.5 microgram/min and 3 microgram/min) increased peripheral venous packed cell volume...... significantly; intravenous noradrenaline at 0.5 microgram/min had no effect on packed cell volume, whereas packed cell volume increased significantly at 3 micrograms of noradrenaline/min. No significant change in packed cell volume was found during saline infusion. 3. During adrenaline infusion at 6 micrograms...... in packed cell volume, plasma volume, intravascular mass of albumin and transcapillary escape rate of albumin during hypoglycaemia may be explained by the combined actions of adrenaline and insulin....

  6. Low-loss polysilicon waveguides fabricated in an emulated high-volume electronics process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orcutt, Jason S; Tang, Sanh D; Kramer, Steve; Mehta, Karan; Li, Hanqing; Stojanović, Vladimir; Ram, Rajeev J

    2012-03-26

    We measure end-of-line polysilicon waveguide propagation losses of ~6-15 dB/cm across the telecommunication O-, E-, S-, C- and L-bands in a process representative of high-volume product integration. The lowest loss of 6.2 dB/cm is measured at 1550 nm in a polysilicon waveguide with a 120 nm x 350 nm core geometry. The reported waveguide characteristics are measured after the thermal cycling of the full CMOS electronics process that results in a 32% increase in the extracted material loss relative to the as-crystallized waveguide samples. The measured loss spectra are fit to an absorption model using defect state parameters to identify the dominant loss mechanism in the end-of-line and as-crystallized polysilicon waveguides.

  7. Collisional Energy Loss of a Heavy Quark in an Anisotropic Quark-Gluon Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Romatschke, P; Romatschke, Paul; Strickland, Michael

    2004-01-01

    We compute the leading-order collisional energy loss of a heavy quark propagating through a quark-gluon plasma in which the quark and gluon distributions are anisotropic in momentum space. Following the calculation outlined for QED in an earlier work we indicate the differences encountered in QCD and their effect on the collisional energy loss results. For a 20 GeV bottom quark we show that momentum space anisotropies can result in the collisional heavy quark energy loss varying with the angle of propagation by up to 50%. For low velocity quarks we show that anisotropies result in energy gain instead of energy loss with the energy gain focused in such a way as to accelerate particles along the anisotropy direction thereby reducing the momentum-space anisotropy. The origin of this negative energy loss is explicitly identified as being related to the presence of plasma instabilities in the system.

  8. Proteomics reveals the effects of sustained weight loss on the human plasma proteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geyer, Philipp E; Wewer Albrechtsen, Nicolai J; Tyanova, Stefka; Grassl, Niklas; Iepsen, Eva W; Lundgren, Julie; Madsbad, Sten; Holst, Jens J; Torekov, Signe S; Mann, Matthias

    2016-12-22

    Sustained weight loss is a preferred intervention in a wide range of metabolic conditions, but the effects on an individual's health state remain ill-defined. Here, we investigate the plasma proteomes of a cohort of 43 obese individuals that had undergone 8 weeks of 12% body weight loss followed by a year of weight maintenance. Using mass spectrometry-based plasma proteome profiling, we measured 1,294 plasma proteomes. Longitudinal monitoring of the cohort revealed individual-specific protein levels with wide-ranging effects of losing weight on the plasma proteome reflected in 93 significantly affected proteins. The adipocyte-secreted SERPINF1 and apolipoprotein APOF1 were most significantly regulated with fold changes of -16% and +37%, respectively (P plasma proteome, and eight plasma proteins correlated better with insulin resistance than the known marker adiponectin. Nearly all study participants benefited from weight loss regarding a ten-protein inflammation panel defined from the proteomics data. We conclude that plasma proteome profiling broadly evaluates and monitors intervention in metabolic diseases. © 2016 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  9. Age-associated losses of brain volume predict longitudinal cognitive declines over 8 to 20 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbitt, Patrick; Ibrahim, Said; Lunn, Mary; Scott, Marietta; Thacker, Neil; Hutchinson, Charles; Horan, Michael; Pendleton, Neil; Jackson, Alan

    2008-01-01

    Absolute differences in global brain volume predict differences in cognitive ability among healthy older adults. However, absolute differences confound lifelong differences in brain size with amounts of age-related shrinkage. Measurements of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volume were made to estimate age-related shrinkage in 93 healthy volunteers aged 63 to 86 years. Their current levels of brain shrinkage predicted their amounts of decline over the previous 8 to 20 years on repeated assessments during a longitudinal study on the Cattell "Culture Fair" Intelligence Test, on two tests of information processing speed, and marginally on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (D. Wechsler, 1981), but not on three memory tests. Loss of brain volume is an effective marker both for current cognitive status and for amounts and rates of previous age-related cognitive losses.

  10. Changes in plasma volume during bed rest - Effects of menstrual cycle and estrogen administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortney, S. M.; Beckett, W. S.; Carpenter, A. J.; Davis, J.; Drew, H.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of increased blood estrogen concentration, caused either during normal menstrual cycles or by exogenous administration of premarin, on the bed-rest (BR) induced decrease in plasma volume (PV) was investigated. In women who underwent duplicate 11-day BR without estrogen supplementation, the PV was found to decrease significantly, during the first 5 days of BR, to a lower level at which it remained for the rest of the BR period. In women who began BR in the periovulatory stage of the menstrual cycle, the loss of PV was delayed, while women who began BR during other stages of the cycle exhibited the usual trend of the PV decrease during the BR. In women who underwent a single 12-day BR period while taking premarin (1.25 mg/day), PV was found to decrease during the first 4-5 days of BR, but then returned toward the pre-BR level during the remainder of the BR, indicating that estrogens have a role in stabilizing body fluid volume.

  11. Clinical aspects of the control of plasma volume at microgravity and during return to one gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convertino, V. A.

    1996-01-01

    Plasma volume is reduced by 10-20% within 24-48 h of exposure to simulated or actual microgravity. The clinical importance of microgravity induced hypovolemia is manifested by its relationship with orthostatic intolerance and reduced maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) after return to one gravity (1G). Since there is no evidence to suggest that plasma volume reduction during microgravity is associated with thirst or renal dysfunctions, a diuresis induced by an immediate blood volume shift to the central circulation appears responsible for microgravity-induced hypovolemia. Since most astronauts choose to restrict their fluid intake before a space mission, absence of increased urine output during actual space flight may be explained by low central venous pressure (CVP) which accompanies dehydration. Compelling evidence suggests that prolonged reduction in CVP during exposure to microgravity reflects a "resetting" to a lower operating point, which acts to limit plasma volume expansion during attempts to increase fluid intake. In ground based and space flight experiments, successful restoration and maintenance of plasma volume prior to returning to an upright posture may depend upon development of treatments that can return CVP to its baseline IG operating point. Fluid-loading and lower body negative pressure (LBNP) have not proved completely effective in restoring plasma volume, suggesting that they may not provide the stimulus to elevate the CVP operating point. On the other hand, exercise, which can chronically increase CVP, has been effective in expanding plasma volume when combined with adequate dietary intake of fluid and electrolytes. The success of designing experiments to understand the physiological mechanisms of and development of effective counter measures for the control of plasma volume in microgravity and during return to IG will depend upon testing that can be conducted under standardized controlled baseline conditions during both ground-based and space

  12. TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT: RETECH'S PLASMA CENTRIFUGAL FURNACE - VOLUME I

    Science.gov (United States)

    A demonstration of the Retech, Inc. Plasma Centrifugal Furnace (PCF) was conducted under the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program at the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Component Development and Integration Facility in Butte, Montana. The furnace uses heat gen...

  13. Collaborative Research: Understanding Ion Losses to Plasma Boundaries Sheaths and Presheaths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hershkowitz, Noah [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Sheaths are common to all bounded steady-state plasmas. This includes laboratory, industrial, fusion, and in some cases even space plasmas. They form in general to balance particle loss and maintain quasi-neutrality in plasmas. Electrons are lighter than the ions by 2000 times or more (depending on the gas), and in most plasmas ion temperatures are rarely higher than the electron temperature and generally much lower. Thus in most cases, negative potential sheaths occur to confine electrons and allow ions to be freely lost. We have investigated how a plasma locally response to a positive bias on a small electrode, and have established area criteria which plasma reacts differently to the positive bias – first a pure electron sheath, and a global non-ambipolar regime where all electrons are lost to the electrode, and a double layer structure identified as a virtual cathode forms to limiting electron loss and maintain quasi-neutrality, and finally a anode spot regime where a secondary discharge occurs in front of the electrode, turning it into the major loss area of the entire plasma. Electrode area and plasma parameters criteria for these regimes were established, and the effect of the virtual cathode on the electrode’s I-V characteristics was investigated. We have also developed a global non-ambipolar electron source to replace hollow cathodes in a number of plasma applications. This eliminates the lifetime limitation and maintenance cost of hollow cathodes as they easily wear out easily and cannot be replaced in space applications.

  14. Red cell volume with changes in plasma osmolarity during maximal exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Beaumont, W.

    1973-01-01

    The volume of the red cell in vivo was measured during acute changes in plasma osmolarity evoked through short (6 to 8 min) maximal exercise in six male volunteer subjects. Simultaneous measurements of mean corpuscular red cell volume (MCV), hematocrit, blood hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), and plasma osmolarity showed that there was no change in the MCV or MCHC with a concomitant rise of nearly 6% in plasma osmolarity. Apparently, in vivo, the volume of the red cell in exercising healthy human subjects does not change measurably, in spite of significant changes in osmotic pressure of the surrounding medium. Consequently, it is not justified to correct postexercise hematocrit measurements for changes in plasma osmolarity.

  15. Red cell volume with changes in plasma osmolarity during maximal exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Beaumont, W.

    1973-01-01

    The volume of the red cell in vivo was measured during acute changes in plasma osmolarity evoked through short (6 to 8 min) maximal exercise in six male volunteer subjects. Simultaneous measurements of mean corpuscular red cell volume (MCV), hematocrit, blood hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), and plasma osmolarity showed that there was no change in the MCV or MCHC with a concomitant rise of nearly 6% in plasma osmolarity. Apparently, in vivo, the volume of the red cell in exercising healthy human subjects does not change measurably, in spite of significant changes in osmotic pressure of the surrounding medium. Consequently, it is not justified to correct postexercise hematocrit measurements for changes in plasma osmolarity.

  16. Transient loss of plasma from a theta pinch having an initially reversed magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heidrich, J. E.

    1981-01-01

    The results of an experimental study of the transient loss of plasma from a 25-cm-long theta pinch initially containing a reversed trapped magnetic field are presented. The plasma, amenable to MHD analyses, was a doubly ionized helium plasma characterized by an ion density N/sub i/ = 2 x 10/sup 16/ cm/sup -3/ and an ion temperature T/sub i/ = 15 eV at midcoil and by N/sub i/ = 0.5 x 10/sup 16/ cm/sup -3/ and T/sub i/ = 6 eV at a position 2.5 cm beyond the end of the theta coil.

  17. Instantaneous charge state of Uranium projectiles in fully ionized plasmas from energy loss experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Morales, Roberto; Casas, David

    2016-01-01

    The instantaneous charge state of uranium ions traveling through a fully ionized hydrogen plasma has been theoretically studied and compared with one of the first energy loss experiments in plasmas, carried out at GSI-Darmstadt by Hoffmann \\textit{et al.} in the 90's. For this purpose, two different methods to estimate the instantaneous charge state of the projectile have been employed: (1) rate equations using ionization and recombination cross sections, and (2) equilibrium charge state formulas for plasmas. Also, the equilibrium charge state has been obtained using these ionization and recombination cross sections, and compared with the former equilibrium formulas. The equilibrium charge state of projectiles in plasmas is not always reached, it depends mainly on the projectile velocity and the plasma density. Therefore, a non-equilibrium or an instantaneous description of the projectile charge is necessary. The charge state of projectile ions cannot be measured, except after exiting the target, and experime...

  18. Plasma physics and environmental perturbation laboratory. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    Space physics and plasma physics experiments that can be performed from the space shuttle were identified. Potential experiment concepts were analyzed to derive requirements for a spaceborne experiment facility. The laboratory, known as the Plasma Physics and Environmental Perturbation Laboratory consists of a 33-foot pallet of instruments connected to a 25-foot pressurized control module. Two 50-meter booms, two subsatellites, a high power transmitter, a multipurpose accelerator array, a set of deployable canisters, and a gimbaled instrument platform are the primary systems deployed from the pallet. The pressurized module contains all the control and display equipment required to conduct the experiments, and life support and power subsystems.

  19. Detection of Low-volume Blood Loss: Compensatory Reserve Versus Traditional Vital Signs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Detection of low-volume blood loss: Compensatory reserve versus traditional vital signs Camille L. Stewart, MD, Jane Mulligan , PhD, Greg Z. Grudic... Mulligan J., Grudic G. Z., Convertino V. A., Moulton S. L., 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S...Jane Mulligan (own ership), Greg Z. Grudic (ownership), and Steven L. Moulton (owner ship). This work is supported by the US Army Medical Research and

  20. Plasma Volume Expansion in Rats: Effects on Thermoregulation and Exercise,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-02-01

    15,18), and especially during the euhydrated and hyperhydrated condition. Methods Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (Charles River Breeding Laboratories...microcentrifugation. The plasma fraction from the microhematocrit tube was immediately analyzed for protein content by refractometry . The ~ ~ * ~ V...automated spectrophotometer (Stasar IV) and Gilford Diagnostic reagent kits according to methods outlined in the respective technical bulletins. Sodium

  1. Accuracy and convergence of coupled finite-volume/Monte Carlo codes for plasma edge simulations of nuclear fusion reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghoos, K., E-mail: kristel.ghoos@kuleuven.be [KU Leuven, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Celestijnenlaan 300A, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Dekeyser, W. [KU Leuven, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Celestijnenlaan 300A, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Samaey, G. [KU Leuven, Department of Computer Science, Celestijnenlaan 200A, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Börner, P. [Institute of Energy and Climate Research (IEK-4), FZ Jülich GmbH, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Baelmans, M. [KU Leuven, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Celestijnenlaan 300A, 3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2016-10-01

    The plasma and neutral transport in the plasma edge of a nuclear fusion reactor is usually simulated using coupled finite volume (FV)/Monte Carlo (MC) codes. However, under conditions of future reactors like ITER and DEMO, convergence issues become apparent. This paper examines the convergence behaviour and the numerical error contributions with a simplified FV/MC model for three coupling techniques: Correlated Sampling, Random Noise and Robbins Monro. Also, practical procedures to estimate the errors in complex codes are proposed. Moreover, first results with more complex models show that an order of magnitude speedup can be achieved without any loss in accuracy by making use of averaging in the Random Noise coupling technique.

  2. Plasma volume, osmolality, vasopressin, and renin activity during graded exercise in man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convertino, V. A.; Keil, L. C.; Bernauer, E. M.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1981-01-01

    The influence of work intensity on plasma volume, osmolality, vasopressin and renin activity and the interrelationships between these responses are investigated. Plasma volume, renin activity and osmotic, sodium and arginine vasopressin concentrations were measured in venous blood samples taken from 15 healthy male subjects before and after six minutes of bicycle ergometer exercise at 100, 175 and 225 W. Plasma volume is found to decrease significantly with increasing work intensity, while increases in Na(+) concentration, osmolality and vasopressin are only observed to be significant when the work intensity exceeds 40% maximal aerobic capacity and plasma resin activity increased linearly at all work levels. In addition, significant correlations are observed between plasma volume and osmolality and sodium changes, and between vasopressin and osmolality and sodium content changes. Data thus support the hypotheses that (1) vasopressin may be the primary controlling endocrine for fluid and electrolyte levels following exercise; (2) an exercise intensity greater than 40% maximal aerobic capacity is required to stimulate vasopressin release through changes in plasma osmolality; and (3) the stimulation of the renin-angiotensin system is a more general stress response.

  3. Measurement of the energy loss of heavy ions in laser-produced plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knobloch-Maas, Renate

    2009-11-25

    The interaction of ions with plasma is not yet fully understood today, although it is important for inertial fusion technology. During recent years, the energy loss of heavy ions in plasma has therefore been a subject of research in the Laser and Plasma Physics group of Darmstadt University of Technology. Several experiments were carried out at the Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI) in Darmstadt using laser-created plasma, thereby taking advantage of the unique combination of GSI's accelerator facility and the laser system nhelix, which is also described in this work. The experiments focus on the measurement of the energy loss of medium heavy ions in a plasma created by directly heating a thin carbon foil with the nhelix laser, at an energy of about 50 J. In order to measure the energy loss using a time-of-flight method, a stop detector is used to register the arrival of the ion pulses after passing the plasma and a 12 m drift space. At the beginning of the work on this thesis, the ion detector types formerly used were found to be inadequately suited to the difficult task; this was changed during this thesis. The ion detector has to be able to temporarily resolve ion pulses with a frequency of 108 MHz and a width (FWHM) of 3 ns at a very low current. It also has to withstand the X-ray burst from the plasma with a dead time shorter than the difference between the X-ray and the ion time of flight between the plasma and the detector. In order to satisfy these and other demands, a new diamond detector was designed and has now been used for several measurements. In addition to the new detector, other improvements were made concerning the diagnostics and the laser. The laser-created plasma now reaches a maximum temperature exceeding 200 eV and a free electron density of up to 10{sup 22} cm{sup -3}. With this greatly improved setup, energy loss data could be obtained with a temporal resolution several times better than before, using an ion beam with a

  4. Low-loss, submicron chalcogenide integrated photonics with chlorine plasma etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiles, Jeff; Malinowski, Marcin; Rao, Ashutosh [CREOL, The College of Optics and Photonics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816 (United States); Novak, Spencer; Richardson, Kathleen [CREOL, The College of Optics and Photonics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, COMSET, Clemson University, Clemson, South Carolina 29634 (United States); Fathpour, Sasan, E-mail: fathpour@creol.ucf.edu [CREOL, The College of Optics and Photonics, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816 (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816 (United States)

    2015-03-16

    A chlorine plasma etching-based method for the fabrication of high-performance chalcogenide-based integrated photonics on silicon substrates is presented. By optimizing the etching conditions, chlorine plasma is employed to produce extremely low-roughness etched sidewalls on waveguides with minimal penalty to propagation loss. Using this fabrication method, microring resonators with record-high intrinsic Q-factors as high as 450 000 and a corresponding propagation loss as low as 0.42 dB/cm are demonstrated in submicron chalcogenide waveguides. Furthermore, the developed chlorine plasma etching process is utilized to demonstrate fiber-to-waveguide grating couplers in chalcogenide photonics with high power coupling efficiency of 37% for transverse-electric polarized modes.

  5. Association of ideomotor apraxia with frontal gray matter volume loss in corticobasal syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huey, Edward D; Pardini, Matteo; Cavanagh, Alyson; Wassermann, Eric M; Kapogiannis, Dimitrios; Spina, Salvatore; Ghetti, Bernardino; Grafman, Jordan

    2009-10-01

    To determine the brain areas associated with specific components of ideomotor apraxia (IMA) in corticobasal syndrome (CBS). Case-control and cross-sectional study. Forty-eight patients with CBS and 14 control subjects. Intervention Administration of the Test of Oral and Limb Apraxia. Differences between patients with CBS and healthy controls and associations between areas of gray matter volume and IMA determined by voxel-based morphometry in patients with CBS. Overall, IMA was associated with decreased gray matter volume in the left supplemental motor area, premotor cortex, and caudate nucleus of patients with CBS. The overall degree of apraxia was independent of the side of motor impairment. Praxis to imitation (vs command) was particularly impaired in the patients with CBS. Patients demonstrated equal impairment in transitive and intransitive praxis. In patients with CBS, IMA is associated with left posterior frontal cortical and subcortical volume loss. Despite showing left frontal volume loss associated with IMA, patients with CBS have particularly impaired imitation of gestures. These findings suggest either that the IMA of CBS affects a route of praxis that bypasses motor engrams or that motor engrams are affected but that they exist in areas other than the inferior parietal cortex.

  6. Resistance exercise-induced fluid shifts: change in active muscle size and plasma volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.; Convertino, V. A.; Dudley, G. A.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that the reduction in plasma volume (PV) induced by resistance exercise reflects fluid loss to the extravascular space and subsequently selective increase in cross-sectional area (CSA) of active but not inactive skeletal muscle. We compared changes in active and inactive muscle CSA and PV after barbell squat exercise. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to quantify muscle involvement in exercise and to determine CSA of muscle groups or individual muscles [vasti (VS), adductor (Add), hamstring (Ham), and rectus femoris (RF)]. Muscle involvement in exercise was determined using exercise-induced contrast shift in spin-spin relaxation time (T2)-weighted MR images immediately postexercise. Alterations in muscle size were based on the mean CSA of individual slices. Hematocrit, hemoglobin, and Evans blue dye were used to estimate changes in PV. Muscle CSA and PV data were obtained preexercise and immediately postexercise and 15 and 45 min thereafter. A hierarchy of muscle involvement in exercise was found such that VS > Add > Ham > RF, with the Ham and RF showing essentially no involvement. CSA of the VS and Add muscle groups were increased 10 and 5%, respectively, immediately after exercise in each thigh with no changes in Ham and RF CSA. PV was decreased 22% immediately following exercise. The absolute loss of PV was correlated (r2 = 0.75) with absolute increase in muscle CSA immediately postexercise, supporting the notion that increased muscle size after resistance exercise reflects primarily fluid movement from the vascular space into active but not inactive muscle.

  7. Plasma volume and electrolyte shifts with heavy exercise in sitting and supine positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Van Beaumont, W.; Brock, P. J.; Morse, J. T.; Mangseth, G. R.

    1979-01-01

    An experimental study was carried out to compare fluid and electrolyte shifts after heavy exercise performed by four voluntary male subjects (26-45 yr) in sitting and supine positions. Plasma volume and electrolyte shifts were measured during the 6-min control period and for 60 min after a continuous peak oxygen uptake test. The results indicate that the most likely driving force for the restitution of plasma volume after peak exercise is provided by a change in hydrostatic and/or systemic blood pressures when exercise ceases.

  8. Plasma Efficiency and Losses for pulsed Xe Excimer DBDs at high Power Densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paravia, Mark; Meisser, Michael; Heering, Wolfgang

    2009-10-01

    The UV water disinfection for example needs efficient lamps with high power densities. Xe2^* dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) with phosphor coating can be used due to plasma efficiencies up to 60 % at pulsed electrical power densities of 0.04 W/cm^2 [1]. The power density can be increased by pressure or (operation) frequency. However, the plasma efficiency declines with frequency. We present measurements of the radiant flux for pulsed DBDs made of fused silica as function of pressure and frequency. By calculation of optical losses the plasma efficiency is estimated to be 52 % at 0.07 W/cm^2 but decreases to 34 % at 0.8 W/cm^2. The maximum frequency is pressure dependent and limited due to change-over from homogeneous into filamented mode. In comparison we measured the gas gap voltage and internal plasma current of a pulsed planar DBD for general lighting [2]. This comparison makes it possible to explain the frequency dependence of plasma efficiency and radiant flux. Due to the high frequency the remaining charge density is increased and the discharge becomes a glow discharge. For that reason the typical peak current during ignition drops and explains the declined efficiency by glow phase losses. [4pt] [1] Beleznai, S., et al., JPhysD, 41 (2008) [0pt] [2] Paravia, M., et al., GEC, Dallas, 2008

  9. Plasma volume substitution does not inhibit plasma noradrenaline and muscle nerve sympathetic responses to insulin-induced hypoglycaemia in healthy humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Berne, C; Fagius, J;

    1989-01-01

    underly the sympathetic activation. To study the effect of prevention of plasma volume reduction during hypoglycaemia, saline containing albumin was infused intravenously in healthy adult volunteers during hypoglycaemia. Hypoglycaemia was induced by an intravenous injection of soluble insulin in a dose...... of 0.15 IU/kg body weight. Peripheral venous plasma noradrenaline concentrations were identical in experiments without and with plasma volume substitution. Muscle nerve sympathetic activity increased to the same extent during hypoglycaemia with and without plasma volume substitution. It is concluded...

  10. Paradoxical relationship between atriopeptin plasma levels and diuresis-natriuresis induced by acute volume expansion.

    OpenAIRE

    Sakata, M.; Greenwald, J E; Needleman, P

    1988-01-01

    Surgical removal of one or both atrial appendages was employed in rats to reduce the intrinsic stores of atriopeptin (AP). In conscious rats (with intact baroreceptor reflexes), bilateral or unilateral atrial appendectomy suppressed the diuresis and natriuresis produced by acute volume expansion. Surprisingly, volume expansion (with 4% bovine serum albumin in saline at 1.5 ml/kg per min for 15 min) did not result in an increase in plasma AP immunoreactivity (APir) in control or atrial-appende...

  11. Energy loss of a fast-electron beam due to the excitation of collective oscillation in hot plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Jin-Yi; Qiu Xi-Jun; Zhu Zhi-Yuan

    2004-01-01

    Energy loss due to a fast-electron beam interacting with the hot plasma at a high density is analysed theoretically.By splitting the particle density fluctuations into the individual part due to the random thermal motion of the individual electrons and the collective part due to plasma-wave excitation, we are concerned with the collective interaction of the relativistic plasma electrons resulting from the Coulomb interactions. Consequently, we derive the frequency of the hot plasma and the "Debye length" with the modification of the relativistic effect. And finally we calculate the energy loss of a fast-electron beam due to the excitation of collective oscillation in the hot plasma.

  12. Energy Loss of a Heavy Fermion in an Anisotropic QED Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Romatschke, P; Romatschke, Paul; Strickland, Michael

    2004-01-01

    We compute the leading-order collisional energy loss of a heavy fermion propagating in a QED plasma with an electron distribution function which is anisotropic in momentum space. We show that in the presence of such anisotropies there can be a significant directional dependence of the heavy fermion energy loss with the effect being quite large for highly-relativistic velocities. We also repeat the analysis of the isotropic case more carefully and show that the final result depends on the intermediate scale used to separate hard and soft contributions to the energy loss. We then show that the canonical isotropic result is obtained in the weak-coupling limit. For intermediate-coupling we use the residual scale dependence as a measure of our theoretical uncertainty. We also discuss complications which could arise due to the presence of unstable soft photonic modes and demonstrate that the calculation of the energy loss is safe.

  13. Study of scattering cross section of a plasma column using Green's function volume integral equation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltanmoradi, Elmira; Shokri, Babak

    2017-05-01

    In this article, the electromagnetic wave scattering from plasma columns with inhomogeneous electron density distribution is studied by the Green's function volume integral equation method. Due to the ready production of such plasmas in the laboratories and their practical application in various technological fields, this study tries to find the effects of plasma parameters such as the electron density, radius, and pressure on the scattering cross-section of a plasma column. Moreover, the incident wave frequency influence of the scattering pattern is demonstrated. Furthermore, the scattering cross-section of a plasma column with an inhomogeneous collision frequency profile is calculated and the effect of this inhomogeneity is discussed first in this article. These results are especially used to determine the appropriate conditions for radar cross-section reduction purposes. It is shown that the radar cross-section of a plasma column reduces more for a larger collision frequency, for a relatively lower plasma frequency, and also for a smaller radius. Furthermore, it is found that the effect of the electron density on the scattering cross-section is more obvious in comparison with the effect of other plasma parameters. Also, the plasma column with homogenous collision frequency can be used as a better shielding in contrast to its inhomogeneous counterpart.

  14. Energy loss of ions by electric-field fluctuations in a magnetized plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nersisyan, Hrachya B; Deutsch, Claude

    2011-06-01

    The results of a theoretical investigation of the energy loss of charged particles in a magnetized classical plasma due to the electric-field fluctuations are reported. The energy loss for a test particle is calculated through the linear-response theory. At vanishing magnetic field, the electric-field fluctuations lead to an energy gain of the charged particle for all velocities. It has been shown that in the presence of strong magnetic field, this effect occurs only at low velocities. In the case of high velocities, the test particle systematically loses its energy due to the interaction with a stochastic electric field. The net effect of the fluctuations is the systematic reduction of the total energy loss (i.e., the sum of the polarization and stochastic energy losses) at vanishing magnetic field and reduction or enhancement at strong field, depending on the velocity of the particle. It is found that the energy loss of the slow heavy ion contains an anomalous term that depends logarithmically on the projectile mass. The physical origin of this anomalous term is the coupling between the cyclotron motion of the plasma electrons and the long-wavelength, low-frequency fluctuations produced by the projectile ion. This effect may strongly enhance the stochastic energy gain of the particle.

  15. Measurements of Erosion Wear Volume Loss on Bare and Coated Polymer Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa; Sutter, James K.; Mondry, Richard J.; Bowman, Cheryl; Ma, Kong; Horan, Richard A.; Naik, Subhash K.; Cupp, Randall J.

    2003-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to examine the erosion behavior of uncoated and coated polymer matrix composite (PMC) specimens subjected to solid particle impingement using air jets. The PMCs were carbon-Kevlar (DuPont, Wilmington, DE) fiber-epoxy resin composites with a temperature capability up to 393 K (248 F). Tungsten carbide-cobalt (WC-Co) was the primary topcoat constituent. Bondcoats were applied to the PMC substrates to improve coating adhesion; then, erosion testing was performed at the University of Cincinnati. All erosion tests were conducted with Arizona road-dust (ARD), impinging at angles of 20 and 90 on both uncoated and two-layer coated PMCs at a velocity of 229 m/s and at a temperature of 366 K (200 F). ARD contains primarily 10-m aluminum oxide powders. Vertically scanning interference microscopy (noncontact, optical profilometry) was used to evaluate surface characteristics, such as erosion wear volume loss and depth, surface topography, and surface roughness. The results indicate that noncontact, optical interferometry can be used to make an accurate determination of the erosion wear volume loss of PMCs with multilayered structures while preserving the specimens. The two-layered (WC-Co topcoat and metal bondcoat) coatings on PMCs remarkably reduced the erosion volume loss by a factor of approximately 10. The tenfold increase in erosion resistance will contribute to longer PMC component lives, lower air friction, reduced related breakdowns, decreased maintenance costs, and increased PMC reliability. The decrease in the surface roughness of the coated vanes will lead to lower air friction and will subsequently reduce energy consumption. Eventually, the coatings could lead to overall economic savings.

  16. The role of plasma/neutral source and loss processes in shaping the giant planet magnetospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delamere, P. A.

    2014-12-01

    The giant planet magnetospheres are filled with neutral and ionized gases originating from satellites orbiting deep within the magnetosphere. The complex chemical and physical pathways for the flow of mass and energy in this partially ionized plasma environment is critical for understanding magnetospheric dynamics. The flow of mass at Jupiter and Saturn begins, primarily, with neutral gases emanating from Io (~1000 kg/s) and Enceladus (~200 kg/s). In addition to ionization losses, the neutral gases are absorbed by the planet, its rings, or escape at high speeds from the magnetosphere via charge exchange reactions. The net result is a centrifugally confined torus of plasma that is transported radially outward, distorting the magnetic field into a magnetodisc configuration. Ultimately the plasma is lost to the solar wind. A critical parameter for shaping the magnetodisc and determining its dynamics is the radial plasma mass transport rate (~500 kg/s and ~50 kg/s for Jupiter and Saturn respectively). Given the plasma transport rates, several simple properties of the giant magnetodiscs can be estimated including the physical scale of the magnetosphere, the magnetic flux transport, and the magnitude of azimuthal magnetic field bendback. We will discuss transport-related magnetic flux conservation and the mystery of plasma heating—two critical issues for shaping the giant planet magnetospheres.

  17. Effect of two days treatment with orlistat on plasma leptin in obese patients without weight loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rodríguez-Valle

    Full Text Available Objective: Little is known about the impact of orlistat on the leptin system. We studied the plasma leptin and satiety sensation response for two days of orlistat treatment without hypocaloric diet and weight loss. Material and methods: Twenty obese female subjects were recruited from our medical outpatient clinics. All of these subjects had previously received advice on dietary restriction and lifestyle modification, but remained obese with a stable body weight for at least six months before recruitment for the study. Results: Subjects were given 120 mg orlistat 3 times daily and were asked to maintain their usual diet. At baseline and two days after the treatment with orlistat, physical examination, hunger and blood analysis were repeated. There were no significant differences observed regarding energy dietary intake, body weight and waist-hip ratio, or in plasma glucose, insulin c-peptide concentrations. Only plasma leptin and triglycerides concentrations decreased (p: 0.0001 and 0.01 respectively. Decrease in plasma leptin concentration was positively correlated with changes observed in plasma triglycerides concentration (p: 0.01, r2: 0.45. Pre-dinner hunger increased and was negatively correlated with decrease in leptin (p: 0.0001, r2: 0.74 and triglycerides (p: 0.02, r2: 0.59. Conclusion: These data suggest that the partial fat malabsorption induced by the treatment with orlistat quickly reduces plasma triglycerides and leptin. This decrease is associated with increased appetite before intake following the main meal of the day.

  18. Finite-volume cumulant expansion in QCD-colorless plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ladrem, M. [Taibah University, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Madinah, Al-Munawwarah (Saudi Arabia); Physics Department, Algiers (Algeria); ENS-Vieux Kouba (Bachir El-Ibrahimi), Laboratoire de Physique et de Mathematiques Appliquees (LPMA), Algiers (Algeria); Ahmed, M.A.A. [Taibah University, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Madinah, Al-Munawwarah (Saudi Arabia); ENS-Vieux Kouba (Bachir El-Ibrahimi), Laboratoire de Physique et de Mathematiques Appliquees (LPMA), Algiers (Algeria); Taiz University in Turba, Physics Department, Taiz (Yemen); Alfull, Z.Z. [Taibah University, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Al-Madinah, Al-Munawwarah (Saudi Arabia); Cherif, S. [ENS-Vieux Kouba (Bachir El-Ibrahimi), Laboratoire de Physique et de Mathematiques Appliquees (LPMA), Algiers (Algeria); Ghardaia University, Sciences and Technologies Department, Ghardaia (Algeria)

    2015-09-15

    Due to the finite-size effects, the localization of the phase transition in finite systems and the determination of its order, become an extremely difficult task, even in the simplest known cases. In order to identify and locate the finite-volume transition point T{sub 0}(V) of the QCD deconfinement phase transition to a colorless QGP, we have developed a new approach using the finite-size cumulant expansion of the order parameter and the L{sub mn}-method. The first six cumulants C{sub 1,2,3,4,5,6} with the corresponding under-normalized ratios (skewness Σ, kurtosis κ, pentosis Π{sub ±}, and hexosis H{sub 1,2,3}) and three unnormalized combinations of them, (O = σ{sup 2}κΣ{sup -1},U = σ{sup -2}Σ{sup -1},N = σ{sup 2}κ) are calculated and studied as functions of (T, V). A new approach, unifying in a clear and consistent way the definitions of cumulant ratios, is proposed.Anumerical FSS analysis of the obtained results has allowed us to locate accurately the finite-volume transition point. The extracted transition temperature value T{sub 0}(V) agrees with that expected T{sub 0}{sup N}(V) from the order parameter and the thermal susceptibility χ{sub T} (T, V), according to the standard procedure of localization to within about 2%. In addition to this, a very good correlation factor is obtained proving the validity of our cumulants method. The agreement of our results with those obtained by means of other models is remarkable. (orig.)

  19. End loss analyzer system for measurements of plasma flux at the C-2U divertor electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griswold, M. E.; Korepanov, S.; Thompson, M. C.

    2016-11-01

    An end loss analyzer system consisting of electrostatic, gridded retarding-potential analyzers and pyroelectric crystal bolometers was developed to characterize the plasma loss along open field lines to the divertors of C-2U. The system measures the current and energy distribution of escaping ions as well as the total power flux to enable calculation of the energy lost per escaping electron/ion pair. Special care was taken in the construction of the analyzer elements so that they can be directly mounted to the divertor electrode. An attenuation plate at the entrance to the gridded retarding-potential analyzer reduces plasma density by a factor of 60 to prevent space charge limitations inside the device, without sacrificing its angular acceptance of ions. In addition, all of the electronics for the measurement are isolated from ground so that they can float to the bias potential of the electrode, 2 kV below ground.

  20. High-volume plasma exchange in patients with acute liver failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Fin Stolze; Schmidt, Lars Ebbe; Bernsmeier, Christine

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Acute liver failure (ALF) often results in cardiovascular instability, renal failure, brain oedema and death either due to irreversible shock, cerebral herniation or development of multiple organ failure. High-volume plasma exchange (HVP), defined as exchange of 8-12 or 15...

  1. Physiological adaptation of maternal plasma volume during pregnancy: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haas, S.; Ghossein-Doha, C.; Kuijk, S.M. van; Drongelen, J. van; Spaanderman, M.E.A.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the physiological pattern of gestational plasma volume adjustments in normal singleton pregnancy and compare this with the pattern in pregnancies complicated by pregnancy-induced hypertension, pre-eclampsia or fetal growth restriction. METHODS: We performed a meta-analysis of

  2. Surface loss rate of H and N radicals in H2/N2 plasma etching process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Chang Sung; Takeda, Keigo; Hayashi, Toshio; Takashima, Seigo; Sekine, Makoto; Setsuhara, Yuichi; Shiratani, Masaharu; Hori, Masaru

    2008-10-01

    As ULSI devices are down to nano-scale size, there have been many efforts to develop low dielectric constant (low-k) materials and establish the plasma etching technology. Especially, the interaction between the plasma and the surface has an enormous influence on characterizing the etching process. However, the reactions in contact with solid surface such as substrate and wall are very complicated and moreover, at present, there are many interactions unknown and they are not fully understood yet. In this study, surface loss probabilities of H, N radicals on stainless steel and organic low-k film surfaces are investigated by vacuum ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy (VUVAS) technique. The changes of H, N radical densities are quantitatively measured in H2/N2 plasma afterglow and the loss rates on each surface are evaluated. It is expected that the development of plasma etching process can be advanced by understanding the reaction of radicals with the surface during organic low-k etching process.

  3. Finite Volume Cumulant Expansion in QCD-Colorless Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Ladrem, M; Al-Full, Z; Cherif, S

    2015-01-01

    Due to the finite size effects, the localisation of the phase transition in finite systems and the determination of its order, become an extremely difficult task, even in the simplest known cases. In order to identify and locate the finite volume transition point $T_{0}(V)$ of the QCD deconfinement phase transition to a Colorless QGP, we have developed a new approach using the finite size cumulant expansion of the order parameter and the $L_{mn}$-method. The first six cumulants $C_{1,2,3,4,5,6}$ with the corresponding under-normalized ratios(skewness $\\Sigma$, kurtosis $\\kappa$ ,pentosis $\\Pi_{\\pm}$ and hexosis $\\mathcal{H}_{1,2,3}$) and three unnormalized combinations of them ($\\mathcal{O}={\\mathcal{\\sigma }^{2} \\mathcal{\\kappa } }{\\mathbf{\\Sigma }^{-1} }$, $\\mathcal{U} ={\\mathcal{\\sigma }^{-2} \\mathbf{\\Sigma }^{-1} }$, $\\mathcal{N} = \\mathcal{\\sigma }^{2} \\mathcal{\\kappa }$) are calculated and studied as functions of $(T,V)$. A new approach, unifying in a clear and consistent way the definitions of cumulant...

  4. Is resected stomach volume related to weight loss after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jagat Pal; Tantia, Om; Chaudhuri, Tamonas; Khanna, Shashi; Patil, Prateek H

    2014-10-01

    Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) was initially performed as the first stage of biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch for the treatment of super-obese or high-risk obese patients but is now most commonly performed as a standalone operation. The aim of this prospective study was to investigate outcomes after LSG according to resected stomach volume. Between May 2011 and April 2013, LSG was performed in 102 consecutive patients undergoing bariatric surgery. Two patients were excluded, and data from the remaining 100 patients were analyzed in this study. Patients were divided into three groups according to the following resected stomach volume: 700-1,200 mL (group A, n = 21), 1,200-1,700 mL (group B, n = 62), and >1,700 mL (group C, n = 17). Mean values were compared among the groups by analysis of variance. The mean percentage excess body weight loss (%EBWL) at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after surgery was 37.68 ± 10.97, 50.97 ± 13.59, 62.35 ± 11.31, and 67.59 ± 9.02 %, respectively. There were no significant differences in mean %EBWL among the three groups. Resected stomach volume was greater in patients with higher preoperative body mass index and was positively associated with resected stomach weight. Mean %EBWL after LSG was not significantly different among three groups of patients divided according to resected stomach volume. Resected stomach volume was significantly greater in patients with higher preoperative body mass index.

  5. Emission characteristics and electron kinetic coefficients of the plasma of a transverse volume discharge initiated in a mixture of heavy inert gases with chlorine molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuaibov, A. K.; Chygin, V. I.; Shimon, L. L.; Shevera, I. V.; Gorun, P. P.; Obukhovskii, R. O.

    2010-05-01

    The results of studying the radiation due to argon, krypton, and xenon monochloride bands, as well as to the bands of chlorine molecules, from the plasma of a transverse Ar-Kr-Xe-Cl2 volume discharge are reported. The working mixture of a pulse radiation source is optimized with regard to its pressure and elemental composition and parameters of an excitation system. By numerically solving the Boltzmann kinetic equation for the electron energy distribution function, the transport characteristics of plasma electrons and discharge power specific losses are found for different values of the reduced electric field strength. The plasma parameters are simulated for the quaternary mixture, which is most appropriate for a multiwave UV-VUV source. Qualitative analysis is conducted for the most important electron processes in the multicomponent plasma that govern the joint formation of argon, krypton, and xenon monochlorides in the transverse discharge.

  6. Accelerated Age-Dependent Hippocampal Volume Loss in Parkinson Disease With Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Christine B; Donix, Markus; Linse, Katharina; Werner, Annett; Fauser, Mareike; Klingelhoefer, Lisa; Löhle, Matthias; von Kummer, Rüdiger; Reichmann, Heinz; Storch, Alexander

    2017-09-01

    Patients with Parkinson disease are at high risk of developing dementia. During the course of the disease, a substantial number of patients will experience a cognitive decline, indicating the dynamics of the underlying neuropathology. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become increasingly useful for identifying structural characteristics in radiological brain anatomy existing prior to clinical symptoms. Whether these changes reflect pathology, whether they are aging related, or both often remains unclear. We hypothesized that aging-associated brain structural changes would be more pronounced in the hippocampal region among patients with Parkinson disease having mild cognitive deficits relative to cognitively unimpaired patients. Using MRI, we investigated 30 cognitively healthy patients with Parkinson disease and 33 patients with nondemented Parkinson disease having mild cognitive impairment. All participants underwent structural MRI scanning and extensive clinical and neuropsychological assessments. Irrespective of the study participants' cognitive status, older age was associated with reduced cortical thickness in various neocortical regions. Having mild cognitive impairment was not associated with an increased rate of cortical thinning or volume loss in these regions, except in the hippocampus bilaterally. Patients with Parkinson disease having mild cognitive impairment show an accelerated age-dependent hippocampal volume loss when compared with cognitively healthy patients with Parkinson disease. This may indicate pathological processes in a key region for memory functioning in patients with Parkinson disease at risk of developing dementia. Structural MRI of the hippocampal region could potentially contribute to identifying patients who should receive early treatment aimed at delaying the clinical onset of dementia.

  7. Compatibility of advanced tokamak plasma with high density and high radiation loss operation in JT-60U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takenaga, H.; Asakura, N.; Kubo, H.; Higashijima, S.; Konoshima, S.; Nakano, T.; Oyama, N.; Porter, G. D.; Rognlien, T. D.; Rensink, M. E.; Ide, S.; Fujita, T.; Takizuka, T.; Kamada, Y.; Miura, Y.; JT-60 Team

    2005-12-01

    Compatibility of advanced tokamak plasmas with high density and high radiation loss has been investigated in both reversed shear (RS) plasmas and high βp H-mode plasmas with a weak positive shear on JT-60U. In the RS plasmas, the operating regime is extended to high density above the Greenwald density (nGW) with high confinement (HHy2 > 1) and high radiation loss fraction (frad > 0.9) by tailoring the internal transport barriers (ITBs). With a small plasma-wall gap, the radiation loss in the main plasma (inside the magnetic separatrix) reaches 80% of the heating power due to metal impurity accumulation. However, high confinement of HHy2 = 1.2 is sustained even with such a large radiation loss in the main plasma. By neon seeding, the divertor radiation loss is enhanced from 20% to 40% of the total radiation loss. In the high βp H-mode plasmas, high confinement (HHy2 = 0.96) is maintained at high density ( \\bar{n}_{\\rme}/n_GW=0.92 ) with high radiation loss fraction (frad ~ 1) by utilizing high-field-side pellets and argon (Ar) injection. The high \\bar{n}_{\\rme}/n_GW is attributed to the formation of strong density ITB. Strong core-edge parameter linkage for confinement improvement is observed, where the pedestal pressure and the core plasma confinement increase together. The measured radiation profile including contributions from all impurities in the main plasma is peaked, and the central radiation is ascribed to the contribution from Ar accumulated inside the ITB. Impurity transport analyses indicate that the Ar density profile, twice as peaked as the electron density profile, which is the same level as that observed in the high βp H-mode plasma, can yield an acceptable radiation profile even with a peaked density profile in a fusion reactor.

  8. Pretreatment fasting plasma glucose and insulin modify dietary weight loss success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Mads Fiil; Ritz, Christian; Blaak, Ellen

    2017-01-01

    Background: Which diet is optimal for weight loss and maintenance remains controversial and implies that no diet fits all patients.Objective: We studied concentrations of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and fasting insulin (FI) as prognostic markers for successful weight loss and maintenance through...... diets with different glycemic loads or different fiber and whole-grain content, assessed in 3 randomized trials of overweight participants.Design: After an 8-wk weight loss, participants in the DiOGenes (Diet, Obesity, and Genes) trial consumed ad libitum for 26 wk a diet with either a high or a low...... in the NUGENOB (Nutrient-Gene Interactions in Human Obesity) trial consumed a hypocaloric low-fat and high-carbohydrate or a high-fat and low-carbohydrate diet for 10 wk. On the basis of FPG before treatment, participants were categorized as normoglycemic (FPG

  9. Loss of alveolar membrane diffusing capacity and pulmonary capillary blood volume in pulmonary arterial hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Reduced gas transfer in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is traditionally attributed to remodeling and progressive loss of pulmonary arterial vasculature that results in decreased capillary blood volume available for gas exchange. Methods We tested this hypothesis by determination of lung diffusing capacity (DL) and its components, the alveolar capillary membrane diffusing capacity (Dm) and lung capillary blood volume (Vc) in 28 individuals with PAH in comparison to 41 healthy individuals, and in 19 PAH patients over time. Using single breath simultaneous measure of diffusion of carbon monoxide (DLCO) and nitric oxide (DLNO), DL and Dm were respectively determined, and Vc calculated. Dm and Vc were evaluated over time in relation to standard clinical indicators of disease severity, including brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), 6-minute walk distance (6MWD) and right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) by echocardiography. Results Both DLCO and DLNO were reduced in PAH as compared to controls and the lower DL in PAH was due to loss of both Dm and Vc (all p DLNO decreased by 24 ml/min/mmHg/year (p = 0.01). Consequently, Dm decreased and Vc tended to increase over time, which led to deterioration of the Dm/Vc ratio, a measure of alveolar-capillary membrane functional efficiency without changes in clinical markers. Conclusions The findings indicate that lower than normal gas transfer in PAH is due to loss of both Dm and Vc, but that deterioration of Dm/Vc over time is related to worsening membrane diffusion. PMID:23339456

  10. Quantifying volume loss from ice cliffs on debris-covered glaciers using high-resolution terrestrial and aerial photogrammetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brun, Fanny; Buri, Pascal; Miles, Evan S.; Wagnon, Patrick; Steiner, J.F.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/119338653; Berthier, Etienne; Ragettli, S.; Kraaijenbrink, P.D.A.; Immerzeel, W.W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/290472113; Pellicciotti, Francesca

    Mass losses originating from supraglacial ice cliffs at the lower tongues of debris-covered glaciers are a potentially large component of the mass balance, but have rarely been quantified. In this study, we develop a method to estimate ice cliff volume losses based on high-resolution topographic

  11. Severe Leptospirosis with Multiple Organ Failure Successfully Treated by Plasma Exchange and High-Volume Hemofiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Bourquin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Leptospirosis is a spirochetal zoonosis with complex clinical features including renal and liver failure. Case report. We report the case of a Swiss fisherman presenting with leptospirosis. After initial improvement, refractory septic shock and severe liver and kidney failure developed. The expected mortality was estimated at 90% with clinical scores. The patient underwent plasma exchanges and high-volume hemofiltration (HVHF with complete recovery of hepatic and kidney functions. Discussion. Plasma exchanges and HVHF may confer survival benefit on patients with severe leptospirosis, refractory septic shock, and multiple-organ failure.

  12. Predictions for the energy loss of light ions in laser-generated plasmas at low and medium velocities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayzac, W; Bagnoud, V; Basko, M M; Blažević, A; Frank, A; Gericke, D O; Hallo, L; Malka, G; Ortner, A; Tauschwitz, An; Vorberger, J; Roth, M

    2015-11-01

    The energy loss of light ions in dense plasmas is investigated with special focus on low to medium projectile energies, i.e., at velocities where the maximum of the stopping power occurs. In this region, exceptionally large theoretical uncertainties remain and no conclusive experimental data are available. We perform simulations of beam-plasma configurations well suited for an experimental test of ion energy loss in highly ionized, laser-generated carbon plasmas. The plasma parameters are extracted from two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations, and a Monte Carlo calculation of the charge-state distribution of the projectile ion beam determines the dynamics of the ion charge state over the whole plasma profile. We show that the discrepancies in the energy loss predicted by different theoretical models are as high as 20-30%, making these theories well distinguishable in suitable experiments.

  13. Modification of the Steel Surface Treated by a Volume Discharge Plasma in Nitrogen at Atmospheric Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erofeev, M. V.; Shulepov, M. A.; Ivanov, Yu. F.; Oskomov, K. V.; Tarasenko, V. F.

    2016-03-01

    Effect of volume discharge plasma initiated by an avalanche electron beam on the composition, structure, and properties of the surface steel layer is investigated. Voltage pulses with incident wave amplitude up to 30 kV, full width at half maximum of about 4 ns, and wave front of about 2.5 ns were applied to the gap with an inhomogeneous electric field. Changes indicating the hardening effect of the volume discharge initiated by an avalanche electron beam are revealed in St3-grade steel specimens treated by the discharge of this type.

  14. Accelerating Plasma Mirrors to Investigate the Black Hole Information Loss Paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pisin; Mourou, Gerard

    2017-01-27

    The question of whether Hawking evaporation violates unitarity, and therefore results in the loss of information, has remained unresolved since Hawking's seminal discovery. To date, the investigations have remained mostly theoretical since it is almost impossible to settle this paradox through direct astrophysical black hole observations. Here, we point out that relativistic plasma mirrors can be accelerated drastically and stopped abruptly by impinging intense x-ray pulses on solid plasma targets with a density gradient. This is analogous to the late time evolution of black hole Hawking evaporation. A conception of such an experiment is proposed and a self-consistent set of physical parameters is presented. Critical issues, such as how the black hole unitarity may be preserved, can be addressed through the entanglement between the analog Hawking radiation photons and their partner modes.

  15. Accelerating Plasma Mirrors to Investigate the Black Hole Information Loss Paradox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pisin; Mourou, Gerard

    2017-01-01

    The question of whether Hawking evaporation violates unitarity, and therefore results in the loss of information, has remained unresolved since Hawking's seminal discovery. To date, the investigations have remained mostly theoretical since it is almost impossible to settle this paradox through direct astrophysical black hole observations. Here, we point out that relativistic plasma mirrors can be accelerated drastically and stopped abruptly by impinging intense x-ray pulses on solid plasma targets with a density gradient. This is analogous to the late time evolution of black hole Hawking evaporation. A conception of such an experiment is proposed and a self-consistent set of physical parameters is presented. Critical issues, such as how the black hole unitarity may be preserved, can be addressed through the entanglement between the analog Hawking radiation photons and their partner modes.

  16. Parton energy loss and momentum broadening at NLO in high temperature QCD plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Ghiglieri, Jacopo

    2015-01-01

    We present an overview of a perturbative-kinetic approach to jet propagation, energy loss, and momentum broadening in a high temperature quark-gluon plasma. The leading-order kinetic equations describe the interactions between energetic jet-particles and a non-abelian plasma, consisting of on-shell thermal excitations and soft gluonic fields. These interactions include 22 scatterings, collinear bremsstrahlung, and drag and momentum diffusion. We show how the contribution from the soft gluonic fields can be factorized into a set of Wilson line correlators on the light cone. We review recent field-theoretical developments, rooted in the causal properties of these correlators, which simplify the calculation of the appropriate Wilson lines in thermal field theory. With these simplifications lattice measurements of transverse momentum broadening have become possible, and the kinetic equations describing parton transport have been extended to next-to-leading order in the coupling g.

  17. Relationship between Prolactin Plasma Levels and White Matter Volume in Women with Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. De Giglio

    2015-01-01

    two months. There was no difference in PRL plasma levels between patients with and without gadolinium enhancement on MRI. PRL plasma levels correlated with white matter volume (WMV (rho = 0.284, p=0.014 but not with grey matter volume (GMV. Moreover, PRL levels predicted changes in WMV (Beta: 984, p=0.034. Conclusions. Our data of a positive association between PRL serum levels and WMV support the role of PRL in promoting myelin repair as documented in animal models of demyelination. The lack of an increase of PRL in the presence of gadolinium enhancement, contrasts with the view considering this hormone as an immune-stimulating and detrimental factor in the inflammatory process associated with MS.

  18. Magnetic flux and heat losses by diffusive, advective, and Nernst effects in magnetized liner inertial fusion-like plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velikovich, A. L.; Giuliani, J. L. [Plasma Physics Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Zalesak, S. T. [Berkeley Research Associates, Beltsville, Maryland 20705 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    The magnetized liner inertial fusion (MagLIF) approach to inertial confinement fusion [Slutz et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 056303 (2010); Cuneo et al., IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 40, 3222 (2012)] involves subsonic/isobaric compression and heating of a deuterium-tritium plasma with frozen-in magnetic flux by a heavy cylindrical liner. The losses of heat and magnetic flux from the plasma to the liner are thereby determined by plasma advection and gradient-driven transport processes, such as thermal conductivity, magnetic field diffusion, and thermomagnetic effects. Theoretical analysis based on obtaining exact self-similar solutions of the classical collisional Braginskii's plasma transport equations in one dimension demonstrates that the heat loss from the hot compressed magnetized plasma to the cold liner is dominated by transverse heat conduction and advection, and the corresponding loss of magnetic flux is dominated by advection and the Nernst effect. For a large electron Hall parameter (ω{sub e}τ{sub e}≫1), the effective diffusion coefficients determining the losses of heat and magnetic flux to the liner wall are both shown to decrease with ω{sub e}τ{sub e} as does the Bohm diffusion coefficient cT/(16eB), which is commonly associated with low collisionality and two-dimensional transport. We demonstrate how this family of exact solutions can be used for verification of codes that model the MagLIF plasma dynamics.

  19. Magnetic flux and heat losses by diffusive, advective, and Nernst effects in magnetized liner inertial fusion-like plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velikovich, A. L.; Giuliani, J. L.; Zalesak, S. T.

    2015-04-01

    The magnetized liner inertial fusion (MagLIF) approach to inertial confinement fusion [Slutz et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 056303 (2010); Cuneo et al., IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 40, 3222 (2012)] involves subsonic/isobaric compression and heating of a deuterium-tritium plasma with frozen-in magnetic flux by a heavy cylindrical liner. The losses of heat and magnetic flux from the plasma to the liner are thereby determined by plasma advection and gradient-driven transport processes, such as thermal conductivity, magnetic field diffusion, and thermomagnetic effects. Theoretical analysis based on obtaining exact self-similar solutions of the classical collisional Braginskii's plasma transport equations in one dimension demonstrates that the heat loss from the hot compressed magnetized plasma to the cold liner is dominated by transverse heat conduction and advection, and the corresponding loss of magnetic flux is dominated by advection and the Nernst effect. For a large electron Hall parameter ( ωeτe≫1 ), the effective diffusion coefficients determining the losses of heat and magnetic flux to the liner wall are both shown to decrease with ωeτe as does the Bohm diffusion coefficient c T /(16 e B ) , which is commonly associated with low collisionality and two-dimensional transport. We demonstrate how this family of exact solutions can be used for verification of codes that model the MagLIF plasma dynamics.

  20. Magnetic resonance morphometry of the loss of gray matter volume in Parkinson’s disease patients****

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianguo Xia; Lemin Tang; Juan Wang; Weizhong Tian; Hongbin Ding; Qilin Wei; Huanxin Huang; Jun Wang; Jinli Zhao; Hongmei Gu

    2013-01-01

    Voxel-based morphometry can be used to quantitatively compare structural differences and func-tional changes of gray matter in subjects. In the present study, we compared gray matter images of 32 patients with Parkinson’s disease and 25 healthy controls using voxel-based morphometry based on 3.0 T high-field magnetic resonance T1-weighted imaging and clinical neurological scale scores. Results showed that the scores in Mini-Mental State Examination and Montreal Cognitive Assessment were lower in patients compared with controls. In particular, the scores of visuospatial/executive function items in Montreal Cognitive Assessment were significantly reduced, but mean scores of non-motor symptoms significantly increased, in patients with Parkinson’s dis-ease. In addition, gray matter volume was significantly diminished in Parkinson’s disease patients compared with normal controls, including bilateral temporal lobe, bilateral occipital lobe, bilateral parietal lobe, bilateral frontal lobe, bilateral insular lobe, bilateral parahippocampal gyrus, bilateral amygdale, right uncus, and right posterior lobe of the cerebel um. These findings indicate that voxel-based morphometry can accurately and quantitatively assess the loss of gray matter volume in patients with Parkinson's disease, and provide essential neuroimaging evidence for multisystem pathological mechanisms involved in Parkinson’s disease.

  1. Curling probe measurement of large-volume pulsed plasma confined by surface magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Anil; Sakakibara, Wataru; Matsuoka, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Keiji; Sugai, Hideo; Chubu University Team; DOWA Thermotech Collaboration

    2015-09-01

    Curling probe (CP) has recently been developed which enables the local electron density measurement even in plasma for non-conducting film CVD. The electron density is obtained from a shift of resonance frequency of spiral antenna in discharge ON and OFF monitored by a network analyzer (NWA). In case of a pulsed glow discharge, synchronization of discharge pulse with frequency sweep of NWA must be established. In this paper, we report time and space-resolved CP measurement of electron density in a large volume plasma (80 cm diameter, 110 cm length) confined by surface magnetic field (multipole cusp field ~0.03 T). For plasma-aided modification of metal surface, the plasma is produced by 1 kV glow discharge at pulse frequency of 0.3 - 25 kHz with various duty ratio in gas (Ar, N2, C2H2) at pressure ~ 1 Pa. A radially movable CP revealed a remarkable effect of surface magnetic confinement: detach of plasma from the vessel wall and a fairly uniform plasma in the central region. In afterglow phase, the electron density was observed to decrease much faster in C2H2 discharge than in Ar discharge.

  2. Plasma catecholamines and blood volume in native Andeans during hypoxia and normoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamboa, Alfredo; Gamboa, Jorge L; Holmes, Courtney; Sharabi, Yehonatan; Leon-Velarde, Fabiola; Fischman, Gary J; Appenzeller, Otto; Goldstein, David S

    2006-02-01

    Plasma catechols and blood volume were measured in 20 male, native high-altitude residents of Cerro de Pasco, Peru (4338 m), while hypoxic and subsequently while normoxic at sea level. Ten subjects were healthy controls,with hematocrits lower than 61%, and ten had chronic mountain sickness (CMS), a syndrome of maladaptation to altitude, characterized by polycythemia (hematocrit > 61%), profound hypoxemia, and neurologic symptoms. The main aim of the study was to evaluate the chronic effects of hypoxia on plasma catechols and on blood volume, by studying these parameters during hypoxia at high altitude (HA) and shortly after exposure to normoxia at sea level (SL). Subjects were first studied at HA in their habitual hypoxic environment, and measurements were repeated within 4 hours of arrival at SL (Lima, Peru, 150 m). All subjects had higher plasma norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), and dihydroxyphenylglycol (DHPG) levels in HA (NE in controls and CMS: 414+/-47 and 514+/-35 pg/mL; DA: 9+/-1 and 13+/-1 pg/mL, DHPG: 817+/-48 and 972+/-77 pg/mL) than at SL (NE: 164+/-9 and 243+/-28 pg/mL; DA: 4+/-0.5 and 5+/-1 pg/mL DHPG: 502+/-23 and 649+/-39 pg/mL). Group differences were statistically significant only for NE in the CMS group. Plasma volume was higher in HA in both groups (p<0.05); red cell volume was higher in HA only in the CMS group. The results indicate sympathetic nervous stimulation by chronic ambient hypoxia at altitude in Andean natives, independent of maladaptation to their native environment.

  3. Cardiac natriuretic peptides in plasma increase after dietary induced weight loss in obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kistorp, Caroline Michaela Nervil; Bliddal, Henning; Gøtze, Jens P.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cardiac natriuretic peptides are established biomarkers in heart disease, but are also affected by body mass index (BMI). The purpose of the present study was to examine the impact of weight loss and changes in body composition following dietary intervention on plasma concentrations...... of the prohormones to A- and B-type natriuretic peptides (proANP and proBNP) and adrenomedullin (proADM). RESULTS: A total of 52 healthy obese subjects, 47 women and 5 men (BMI 36.5 ± 5.6 kg/m(2)) were randomised to either an intensive weight reduction programme using a combination of very low calorie diet (810 kcal...... pmol/L; P weight loss of 6% (P

  4. Volume Diffuse Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma Produced by Nanosecond High Voltage Pulse in Airflow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Haicheng; GAO Wei; FAN Zhihui; LIU Yidi; REN Chunsheng

    2016-01-01

    Volume diffuse dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma is produced in subsonic airflow by nanosecond high-voltage pulse power supply with a plate-to-plate discharge cell at 6 mm air gap length.The discharge images,optical emission spectra (OES),the applied voltage and current waveforms of the discharge at the changed airflow rates are obtained.When airflow rate is increased,the transition of the discharge mode and the variations of discharge intensity,breakdown characteristics and the temperature of the discharge plasma are investigated.The results show that the discharge becomes more diffuse,discharge intensity is decreased accompanied by the increased breakdown voltage and time lag,and the temperature of the discharge plasma reduces when airflow of small vclocity is introduced into the discharge gap.These phenomena are because that the airflow changes the spatial distribution of the heat and the space charge in the discharge gap.

  5. Volume Diffuse Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma Produced by Nanosecond High Voltage Pulse in Airflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Haicheng; Gao, Wei; Fan, Zhihui; Liu, Yidi; Ren, Chunsheng

    2016-05-01

    Volume diffuse dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma is produced in subsonic airflow by nanosecond high-voltage pulse power supply with a plate-to-plate discharge cell at 6 mm air gap length. The discharge images, optical emission spectra (OES), the applied voltage and current waveforms of the discharge at the changed airflow rates are obtained. When airflow rate is increased, the transition of the discharge mode and the variations of discharge intensity, breakdown characteristics and the temperature of the discharge plasma are investigated. The results show that the discharge becomes more diffuse, discharge intensity is decreased accompanied by the increased breakdown voltage and time lag, and the temperature of the discharge plasma reduces when airflow of small velocity is introduced into the discharge gap. These phenomena are because that the airflow changes the spatial distribution of the heat and the space charge in the discharge gap. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51437002)

  6. Plasma very long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and age-related hearing loss in older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dullemeijer, C.; Verhoef, P.; Brouwer, I.A.; Kok, F.J.; Brummer, R.J.; Durga, J.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Age-related hearing loss is a common social and health problem in the older adult population. Up until now, very little scientific attention has been given to the potential role of fatty acids in agerelated hearing loss. In this study we investigated whether plasma very long-chain n-3 po

  7. Plasma very long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and age-related hearing loss in older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dullemeijer, C.; Verhoef, P.; Brouwer, I.A.; Kok, F.J.; Brummer, R.J.; Durga, J.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Age-related hearing loss is a common social and health problem in the older adult population. Up until now, very little scientific attention has been given to the potential role of fatty acids in agerelated hearing loss. In this study we investigated whether plasma very long-chain n-3

  8. Weight loss predictability by plasma metabolic signatures in adults with obesity and morbid obesity of the DiOGenes study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroeve, Johanna H M; Saccenti, Edoardo; Bouwman, Jildau

    2016-01-01

    kcal) for 8 weeks. Men (N = 236) and women (N = 431) as well as groups with overweight/obesity and morbid obesity were studied separately. The relation between the metabolic status before weight loss and weight loss was assessed by stepwise regression on multiple data sets, including anthropometric...... parameters, NMR-based plasma metabolites, and LC-MS-based plasma lipid species. RESULTS: Maximally, 57% of the variation in weight loss success can be predicted by baseline parameters. The most powerful predictive models were obtained in subjects with morbid obesity. In these models, the metabolites most......OBJECTIVE: Aim is to predict successful weight loss by metabolic signatures at baseline and to identify which differences in metabolic status may underlie variations in weight loss success. METHODS: In DiOGenes, a randomized, controlled trial, weight loss was induced using a low-calorie diet (800...

  9. Supplemental dietary protein for grazing dairy cows: reproduction, condition loss, plasma metabolites, and insulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapa, A M; McCormick, M E; Fernandez, J M; French, D D; Ward, J D; Beatty, J F

    2001-04-01

    An experiment was conducted over a 2-yr period to investigate the influence of grain crude protein (CP) and rumen undegradable protein (RUP) concentration on reproduction and energy status of dairy cows grazing annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) and oats (Avena sativa). Holstein cows (n = 122) were blocked by calving group [partum (0 d postpartum) vs. postpartum (41 +/- 19 d postpartum at study initiation)] and assigned to grain supplements containing high CP [22.8% of dry matter (DM)], moderate CP (16.6%), or moderate CP (16.2%)] supplemented with RUP from blood meal and corn gluten meal. Postpartum condition loss was greater and first-service pregnancy rate was lower for partum-group cows receiving high CP grain supplements compared with control cows receiving moderate CP supplements. The RUP supplements reduced grain consumption, increased days to first estrus, and reduced first-service pregnancy rate of partum-group cows. The reproduction of postpartum group cows was unaffected by protein supplements. Plasma urea nitrogen was higher for cows fed high CP diets, but plasma ammonia nitrogen, glycated hemoglobin, nonesterified fatty acids, beta-hydoxybutyrate, glucose, and insulin concentrations were similar to cows fed moderate CP. Excess postpartum condition loss, coupled with inconsistent protein supplement effects on days to first service and first-service pregnancy rate, suggest that energy deprivation may have contributed to the low fertility experienced by grazing cows in this study.

  10. Energy loss, equilibration, and thermodynamics of a baryon rich strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Rougemont, Romulo; Finazzo, Stefano; Noronha, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Lattice data for the QCD equation of state and the baryon susceptibility near the crossover phase transition (at zero baryon density) are used to determine the input parameters of a 5-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton holographic model that provides a consistent holographic framework to study both equilibrium and out-of-equilibrium properties of a hot and {\\it baryon rich} strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma (QGP). We compare our holographic equation of state computed at nonzero baryon chemical potential, $\\mu_B$, with recent lattice calculations and find quantitative agreement for the pressure and the speed of sound for $\\mu_B \\leq 400$ MeV. This holographic model is used to obtain holographic predictions for the temperature and $\\mu_B$ dependence of the drag force and the Langevin diffusion coefficients associated with heavy quark jet propagation as well as the jet quenching parameter $\\hat{q}$ and the shooting string energy loss of light quarks in the dense plasma. We find that the energy loss of heavy ...

  11. Diffusive, convective and Nernst-effect losses of magnetic flux and heat from a wall-confined magnetized plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velikovich, A. L.; Giuliani, J. L.; Zalesak, S. T.

    2013-10-01

    The recently proposed MAGLIF approach to inertial fusion ignition involves compression and heating of plasma with frozen-in magnetic flux by a heavy cylindrical liner. To reach fusion conditions, the compressed plasma should retain a large fraction of the magnetic flux and thermal energy enclosed by the liner. Magnetic flux and heat losses from strongly magnetized plasma to a cold liner wall are significantly influenced by the Nernst and Ettingshausen thermomagnetic effects. We present exact analytical solutions of 1D MHD equations with Ohmic heating, heat conductivity and thermomagnetic terms included and discuss relative roles of diffusive, conductive and Nernst-effect-related losses of magnetic flux and heat from the magnetized plasma to the wall. These solutions are compared to our 1D simulation results. They can serve for verification of plasma transport modeling by MHD codes. Work supported by DOE/NNSA.

  12. Volume effect of laser produced plasma on X-ray emissions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V K Senecha; Y B S R Prasad; M P Kamath; A S Joshi; G S Solanki; A P Kulkarni; S Gupta; R Pareek; H C Pant

    2000-11-01

    An investigation of x-ray emission from Cu plasma produced by 1.054 m Nd:glass laser pulses of 5 ns duration, at 2 × 1012-2 × 1013 W cm-2 is reported. The x-ray emission has been studied as a function of target position with respect to the laser beam focus position. It has been observed that x-ray emissions from ns duration plasma show a volume effect similar to subnanosecond plasmas. Due to this effect the x-ray yield increases when target is moved away relative to the best focal plane of the laser beam. This result supports the theoretical model of Tallents and has also been testified independently using suitably modified theoretical model for our experimental conditions. While above result is in good agreement with similar experimental results obtained for sub-nanosecond laser produced plasmas, it differs from result claiming filamentation rather than pure geometrical effect leading to x-ray enhancement for ns plasmas.

  13. Quantum size effects in the volume plasmon excitation of bismuth nanoparticles investigated by electron energy loss spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y. W.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, G. H.; Kim, Kwang S.

    2006-04-01

    Quantum size effects in volume plasmon excitation of bismuth nanoparticles with diameters ranging from 5to500nm have been studied by electron energy loss spectroscopy. The Bi nanoparticles were prepared by reducing Bi3+ with sodium borohydride in the presence of poly(vinylpyrroldone). The volume plasmon energy and its peak width increase with decreasing nanoparticle diameter, due to the quantum size effect. For the particles with diameter less than 40nm, the increase of the volume plasmon energy is proportional to the inverse square of the nanoparticle diameter, confirming the semimetal to semiconductor transition in Bi nanoparticles.

  14. Comparative study between cold plasma and hot plasma with ion beam and loss-cone distribution function by particle aspect approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Soniya; Varma, P.; Tiwari, M. S.

    2011-03-01

    The electromagnetic ion-cyclotron (EMIC) instabilities with isotropic ion beam and general loss-cone distribution of cold and hot core plasmas are discussed. The growth rate, parallel and perpendicular resonance energies of the electromagnetic ion-cyclotron waves in a low β (ratio of plasma pressure to magnetic pressure), homogeneous plasma have been obtained using the dispersion relation for cold and hot plasmas. The wave is assumed to propagate parallel to the static magnetic field. The whole plasma is considered to consist of resonant and non-resonant particles permeated by isotropic ion beam. It is assumed that resonant particles and ion beam participate in energy exchange with the wave whereas non-resonant particles support the oscillatory motion of the wave. We determined the variation in energies and growth rate in cold and hot plasmas by the energy conservation method with a general loss-cone distribution function. The thermal anisotropy of the core plasma acts as a source of free energy for EMIC wave and enhances the growth rate. It is noted that the EMIC wave emissions occur by extracting energy of perpendicularly heated ions in the presence of up flowing ion beam and steep loss-cone distribution in the anisotropic magnetosphere. The effect of the steep loss-cone distribution is to enhance the growth rate of the EMIC wave. The heating of ions perpendicular and parallel to the magnetic field is discussed along with EMIC wave emission in the auroral acceleration region. The results are interpreted for the space plasma parameters appropriate to the auroral acceleration region of the earth's magnetoplasma.

  15. A 5 kA pulsed power supply for inductive and plasma loads in large volume plasma device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, P. K., E-mail: pkumar@ipr.res.in; Singh, S. K.; Sanyasi, A. K.; Awasthi, L. M., E-mail: kushagra.lalit@gmail.com; Mattoo, S. K. [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar (India)

    2016-07-15

    This paper describes 5 kA, 12 ms pulsed power supply for inductive load of Electron Energy Filter (EEF) in large volume plasma device. The power supply is based upon the principle of rapid sourcing of energy from the capacitor bank (2.8 F/200 V) by using a static switch, comprising of ten Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBTs). A suitable mechanism is developed to ensure equal sharing of current and uniform power distribution during the operation of these IGBTs. Safe commutation of power to the EEF is ensured by the proper optimization of its components and by the introduction of over voltage protection (>6 kV) using an indigenously designed snubber circuit. Various time sequences relevant to different actions of power supply, viz., pulse width control and repetition rate, are realized through optically isolated computer controlled interface.

  16. A 5 kA pulsed power supply for inductive and plasma loads in large volume plasma device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, P. K.; Singh, S. K.; Sanyasi, A. K.; Awasthi, L. M.; Mattoo, S. K.

    2016-07-01

    This paper describes 5 kA, 12 ms pulsed power supply for inductive load of Electron Energy Filter (EEF) in large volume plasma device. The power supply is based upon the principle of rapid sourcing of energy from the capacitor bank (2.8 F/200 V) by using a static switch, comprising of ten Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBTs). A suitable mechanism is developed to ensure equal sharing of current and uniform power distribution during the operation of these IGBTs. Safe commutation of power to the EEF is ensured by the proper optimization of its components and by the introduction of over voltage protection (>6 kV) using an indigenously designed snubber circuit. Various time sequences relevant to different actions of power supply, viz., pulse width control and repetition rate, are realized through optically isolated computer controlled interface.

  17. Magnetic flux and heat losses by diffusive, advective, and Nernst effects in MagLIF-like plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velikovich, A. L., E-mail: sasha.velikovich@nrl.navy.mil; Giuliani, J. L., E-mail: sasha.velikovich@nrl.navy.mil [Plasma Physics Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Zalesak, S. T. [Berkeley Research Associates, Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    The MagLIF approach to inertial confinement fusion involves subsonic/isobaric compression and heating of a DT plasma with frozen-in magnetic flux by a heavy cylindrical liner. The losses of heat and magnetic flux from the plasma to the liner are thereby determined by plasma advection and gradient-driven transport processes, such as thermal conductivity, magnetic field diffusion and thermomagnetic effects. Theoretical analysis based on obtaining exact self-similar solutions of the classical collisional Braginskii's plasma transport equations in one dimension demonstrates that the heat loss from the hot plasma to the cold liner is dominated by the transverse heat conduction and advection, and the corresponding loss of magnetic flux is dominated by advection and the Nernst effect. For a large electron Hall parameter ω{sub e}τ{sub e} effective diffusion coefficients determining the losses of heat and magnetic flux are both shown to decrease with ω{sub e}τ{sub e} as does the Bohm diffusion coefficient, which is commonly associated with low collisionality and two-dimensional transport. This family of exact solutions can be used for verification of codes that model the MagLIF plasma dynamics.

  18. Magnetic flux and heat losses by diffusive, advective, and Nernst effects in MagLIF-like plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velikovich, A. L.; Giuliani, J. L.; Zalesak, S. T.

    2014-12-01

    The MagLIF approach to inertial confinement fusion involves subsonic/isobaric compression and heating of a DT plasma with frozen-in magnetic flux by a heavy cylindrical liner. The losses of heat and magnetic flux from the plasma to the liner are thereby determined by plasma advection and gradient-driven transport processes, such as thermal conductivity, magnetic field diffusion and thermomagnetic effects. Theoretical analysis based on obtaining exact self-similar solutions of the classical collisional Braginskii's plasma transport equations in one dimension demonstrates that the heat loss from the hot plasma to the cold liner is dominated by the transverse heat conduction and advection, and the corresponding loss of magnetic flux is dominated by advection and the Nernst effect. For a large electron Hall parameter ωeτe effective diffusion coefficients determining the losses of heat and magnetic flux are both shown to decrease with ωeτe as does the Bohm diffusion coefficient, which is commonly associated with low collisionality and two-dimensional transport. This family of exact solutions can be used for verification of codes that model the MagLIF plasma dynamics.

  19. Volume Attenuation and High Frequency Loss as Auditory Depth Cues in Stereoscopic 3D Cinema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manolas, Christos; Pauletto, Sandra

    2014-09-01

    Assisted by the technological advances of the past decades, stereoscopic 3D (S3D) cinema is currently in the process of being established as a mainstream form of entertainment. The main focus of this collaborative effort is placed on the creation of immersive S3D visuals. However, with few exceptions, little attention has been given so far to the potential effect of the soundtrack on such environments. The potential of sound both as a means to enhance the impact of the S3D visual information and to expand the S3D cinematic world beyond the boundaries of the visuals is large. This article reports on our research into the possibilities of using auditory depth cues within the soundtrack as a means of affecting the perception of depth within cinematic S3D scenes. We study two main distance-related auditory cues: high-end frequency loss and overall volume attenuation. A series of experiments explored the effectiveness of these auditory cues. Results, although not conclusive, indicate that the studied auditory cues can influence the audience judgement of depth in cinematic 3D scenes, sometimes in unexpected ways. We conclude that 3D filmmaking can benefit from further studies on the effectiveness of specific sound design techniques to enhance S3D cinema.

  20. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric determination of rufinamide in low volume plasma samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gáll, Zsolt; Vancea, Szende; Dogaru, Maria T; Szilágyi, Tibor

    2013-12-01

    Quantification of rufinamide in plasma was achieved using a selective and sensitive liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method. The chromatographic separation was achieved on a reversed phase column (Zorbax SB-C18 100mm×3mm, 3.5μm) under isocratic conditions. The mobile phase consisted of a mixture of water containing 0.1% formic acid and methanol (50:50, v/v). The mass spectrometric detection of the analyte was in multiple reaction monitoring mode (MRM) using an electrospray positive ionization (ESI positive). The monitored ions were 127m/z derived from 239m/z rufinamide and 108m/z derived from 251m/z the internal standard (lacosamide). Protein precipitation with methanol was applied for sample preparation using only 50μl aliquots. The concentration range was 40-2000ng/ml for rufinamide in plasma. The limit of detection was 1.25ng/ml and the lower limit of quantification was established at 5ng/ml rufinamide concentration. Selectivity and matrix effect was verified using individual human, rat and rabbit plasma samples. Short-term, post-preparative and freeze-thaw stability was also investigated. The proposed method provides accuracy, precision and high-throughput (short runtime 4.5min) for quantitative determination of rufinamide in plasma. This is the first reported liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method for analysis of rufinamide from low volume plasma samples. The LC-MS/MS method was validated according to the current official guidelines and can be applied to accurately measure rufinamide level of large number of plasma samples from clinical studies or therapeutic drug monitoring.

  1. Noninvasive in vivo plasma volume and hematocrit in humans: observing long-term baseline behavior to establish homeostasis for intravascular volume and composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dent, Paul; Deng, Bin; Goodisman, Jerry; Peterson, Charles M.; Narsipur, Sriram; Chaiken, J.

    2016-04-01

    A new device incorporating a new algorithm and measurement process allows simultaneous noninvasive in vivo monitoring of intravascular plasma volume and red blood cell volume. The purely optical technique involves probing fingertip skin with near infrared laser light and collecting the wavelength shifted light, that is, the inelastic emission (IE) which includes the unresolved Raman and fluorescence, and the un-shifted emission, that is, the elastic emission (EE) which includes both the Rayleigh and Mie scattered light. Our excitation and detection geometry is designed so that from these two simultaneous measurements we can calculate two parameters within the single scattering regime using radiation transfer theory, the intravascular plasma volume fraction and the red blood cell volume fraction. Previously calibrated against a gold standard FDA approved device, 2 hour monitoring sessions on three separate occasions over a three week span for a specific, motionless, and mostly sleeping individual produced 3 records containing a total of 5706 paired measurements of hematocrit and plasma volume. The average over the three runs, relative to the initial plasma volume taken as 100%, of the plasma volume±1σ was 97.56+/-0.55 or 0.56%.For the same three runs, the average relative hematocrit (Hct), referenced to an assumed initial value of 28.35 was 29.37+/-0.12 or stable to +/-0.4%.We observe local deterministic circulation effects apparently associated with the pressure applied by the finger probe as well as longer timescale behavior due to normal ebb and flow of internal fluids due to posture changes and tilt table induced gravity gradients.

  2. Complex suppression patterns distinguish between major energy loss effects in Quark-Gluon Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Djordjevic, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Interactions of high momentum partons with Quark-Gluon Plasma created in relativistic heavy-ion collisions provide an excellent tomography tool for this new form of matter. Recent measurements for charged hadrons and unidentified jets at the LHC show an unexpected flattening of the suppression curves at high momentum, exhibited when either momentum or the collision centrality is changed. Furthermore, a limited data available for B probes indicate a qualitatively different pattern, as nearly the same flattening is exhibited for the curves corresponding to two opposite momentum ranges. We here show that the experimentally measured suppression curves are well reproduced by our theoretical predictions, and that the complex suppression patterns are due to an interplay of collisional, radiative energy loss and the dead-cone effect. Furthermore, for B mesons, we predict that the uniform flattening of the suppression indicated by the limited dataset is in fact valid across the entire span of the momentum ranges, whic...

  3. Determination of the steam volume fraction in the event of loss of cooling of the spent fuel storage pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sledkov, R. M.; Galkin, I. Yu.; Stepanov, O. E.; Strebnev, N. A.

    2017-01-01

    When one solves engineering problems related to the cooling of fuel assemblies (FAs) in a spent fuel storage pool (SFSP) and the assessment of nuclear safety of FA storage in an SFSP in the initial event of loss of SFSP cooling, it is essential to determine the coolant density and, consequently, steam volume fractions φ in bundles of fuel elements at a pressure of 0.1-0.5 MPa. Such formulas for calculating φ that remain valid in a wide range of operating parameters and geometric shapes of channels and take the conditions of loss of SFSP cooling into account are currently almost lacking. The results of systematization and analysis of the available formulas for φ are reported in the present study. The calculated values were compared with the experimental data obtained in the process of simulating the conditions of FA cooling in an SFSP in the event of loss of its cooling. Six formulas for calculating the steam volume fraction, which were used in this comparison, were chosen from a total of 11 considered relations. As a result, the formulas producing the most accurate values of φ in the conditions of loss of SFSP cooling were selected. In addition, a relation that allows one to perform more accurate calculations of steam volume fractions in the conditions of loss of SFSP cooling was derived based on the Fedorov formula in the two-group approximation.

  4. Neocortical and hippocampal volume loss in a human ciliopathy: A quantitative MRI study in Bardet-Biedl syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Kate; Northam, Gemma B; Chong, W K; Banks, Tina; Beales, Philip; Baldeweg, Torsten

    2011-01-01

    Cilia are ubiquitous cell surface organelles with diverse roles from embryogenesis to adult life. The neurodevelopmental functions of the cilium are currently under investigation in animal systems, but relevance to human brain development remains uncertain. We present the first systematic investigation of structural neuroanatomy in a ciliopathy-Bardet-Biedl syndrome (BBS). Qualitative and quantitative aspects of brain structure were evaluated via magnetic resonance imaging in 10 patients with BBS (ages 14-28 years). In comparison to age and gender-matched healthy controls, BBS patients had significantly reduced total gray matter (GM) volume but no total white matter (WM) or cerebrospinal fluid volume changes. Voxel-based morphometric analysis indicated regional GM volume loss bilaterally in the anterior temporal lobes and in the medial orbitofrontal cortex, and WM volume loss in the right inferior longitudinal fasciculus. Region-of-interest measurements revealed reduced volume of the hippocampus. Two patients were found to have ventriculomegaly. Global GM reduction and regional volume reductions in the temporal lobe may underlie the learning disabilities and behavioral problems experienced by some patients with BBS. These findings are consistent with previous observations in mouse models of BBS, and further implicate the cilium in neurodevelopmental processes relevant to human cognitive function.

  5. Complex suppression patterns distinguish between major energy loss effects in Quark–Gluon Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Djordjevic

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Interactions of high momentum partons with Quark–Gluon Plasma created in relativistic heavy-ion collisions provide an excellent tomography tool for this new form of matter. Recent measurements for charged hadrons and unidentified jets at the LHC show an unexpected flattening of the suppression curves at high momentum, exhibited when either momentum or the collision centrality is changed. Furthermore, a limited data available for B probes indicate a qualitatively different pattern, as nearly the same flattening is exhibited for the curves corresponding to two opposite momentum ranges. We here show that the experimentally measured suppression curves are well reproduced by our theoretical predictions, and that the complex suppression patterns are due to an interplay of collisional, radiative energy loss and the dead-cone effect. Furthermore, for B mesons, we predict that the uniform flattening of the suppression indicated by the limited dataset is in fact valid across the entire span of the momentum ranges, which will be tested by the upcoming experiments. Overall, the study presented here, provides a rare opportunity for pQCD theory to qualitatively distinguish between the major energy loss mechanisms at the same (nonintuitive dataset.

  6. Complex suppression patterns distinguish between major energy loss effects in Quark-Gluon Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjevic, Magdalena

    2016-12-01

    Interactions of high momentum partons with Quark-Gluon Plasma created in relativistic heavy-ion collisions provide an excellent tomography tool for this new form of matter. Recent measurements for charged hadrons and unidentified jets at the LHC show an unexpected flattening of the suppression curves at high momentum, exhibited when either momentum or the collision centrality is changed. Furthermore, a limited data available for B probes indicate a qualitatively different pattern, as nearly the same flattening is exhibited for the curves corresponding to two opposite momentum ranges. We here show that the experimentally measured suppression curves are well reproduced by our theoretical predictions, and that the complex suppression patterns are due to an interplay of collisional, radiative energy loss and the dead-cone effect. Furthermore, for B mesons, we predict that the uniform flattening of the suppression indicated by the limited dataset is in fact valid across the entire span of the momentum ranges, which will be tested by the upcoming experiments. Overall, the study presented here, provides a rare opportunity for pQCD theory to qualitatively distinguish between the major energy loss mechanisms at the same (nonintuitive) dataset.

  7. Impact of diuretic treatment and sodium intake on plasma volume in patients with compensated systolic heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonfils, Peter K; Damgaard, Morten; Taskiran, Mustafa

    2010-01-01

    AIMS: In patients with heart failure (HF), the use of diuretics may be a double-edged sword that can alleviate symptoms of congestion, but also result in over-diuresis and intravascular volume depletion. The purpose of the present study was to examine plasma volume (PV) in HF patients receiving...... from 0 to 160 mg of furosemide and to investigate whether determination of plasma N-terminal fragment of pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) concentrations can predict PV-status. METHODS AND RESULTS: Plasma volume, extracellular volume, glomerular filtration rate, NT-proBNP, and daily renal...... sodium excretion were measured in 18 patients with medically treated, compensated HF and in 27 healthy volunteers. Cardiac function was examined by non-invasive cardiac output determination and echocardiography. Exercise capacity was evaluated by 6 min walk test. There was a borderline significant...

  8. Physiological adaptation of maternal plasma volume during pregnancy: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haas, S; Ghossein-Doha, C; van Kuijk, S M J; van Drongelen, J; Spaanderman, M E A

    2017-02-01

    To describe the physiological pattern of gestational plasma volume adjustments in normal singleton pregnancy and compare this with the pattern in pregnancies complicated by pregnancy-induced hypertension, pre-eclampsia or fetal growth restriction. We performed a meta-analysis of the current literature on plasma volume adjustments during physiological and complicated pregnancies. Literature was retrieved from PubMed (NCBI) and EMBASE (Ovid) databases. Included studies reported both reference plasma volume measurements (non-pregnant, prepregnancy or postpartum) and measurements obtained during predetermined gestational ages. Mean differences bet ween the reference and pregnancy plasma volume measurements were calculated for predefined intervals of gestational age using a random-effects model described by DerSimonian and Laird. Thirty studies were included in the meta-analysis with publication dates ranging from 1934 to 2007. Plasma volume increased in the first weeks of pregnancy, with the steepest increase occurring during the second trimester. Plasma volume continued to increase in the third trimester with a pooled maximum increase of 1.13 L (95% CI, 1.07-1.19 L), an increase of 45.6% (95% CI, 43.0-48.1%) in physiological pregnancies compared with the reference value. The plasma volume expansion in gestational hypertensive and growth-restricted pregnancies was 0.80 L (95% CI, 0.59-1.02 L), an increase of 32.3% (95% CI, 23.6-41.1%) in the third trimester, a smaller increase than in physiological pregnancies (P literatura actual sobre los cambios en el volumen de plasma durante embarazos complicados y fisiológicos. La literatura se obtuvo de las bases de datos PubMed (NCBI) y EMBASE (Ovid). Los estudios incluidos mencionaban tanto mediciones de referencia del volumen plasmático (no embarazada, antes del embarazo o después del parto) como mediciones tomadas a edades gestacionales predeterminadas. Se calcularon las medias de las diferencias entre las

  9. Performance of water and hybrid stabilized electric arcs: the impact of dependence of radiation losses and plasma density on pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeništa, J.; Bartlová, M.; Aubrecht, V.

    2006-10-01

    Processes in the worldwide unique type of thermal plasma generator with water vortex stabilization and combined stabilization of arc by argon flow and water vortex have been numerically studied. Two-dimensional axisymmetric numerical model assumes laminar and compressible plasma flow in the state of local thermodynamic equilibrium. The calculation domain includes the arc discharge area between the near-cathode region and the outlet nozzle of the plasma torch. Radiation losses from the arc are calculated by the partial characteristics method for atmospheric pressure water and argon-water discharges. Thermal, electrical and fluid-dynamic characteristics of such arcs have been studied for the range of currents 150÷600 A under the assumption that radiation losses and plasma density depend linearly on pressure. It was proved that, taking this dependence into account, plasma velocity decrease while power losses from the arc by radiation and radial conduction increase with current. Outlet plasma temperature as well as electric potential drop remain practically unchanged.

  10. Enhancement of H{sup -}/D{sup -} volume production in a double plasma type negative ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukumasa, Osamu; Nishimura, Hideki; Sakiyama, Satoshi [Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-02-01

    H{sup -}/D{sup -} production in a pure volume source has been studied. In our double plasma type negative ion source, both energy and density of fast electrons are well controlled. With the use of this source, the enhancement of H{sup -}/D{sup -} production has been observed. Namely, under the same discharge power, the extracted H{sup -}/D{sup -} current in the double plasma operation is higher than that in the single plasma operation. At the same time, measurements of plasma parameters have been made in the source and the extractor regions for these two cases. (author)

  11. Venous and fingertip blood to calculate plasma volume shift following exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlton, R G; Brown, D D; Hetzler, R K; Sikora, L M

    1990-12-01

    This study determined whether fingertip blood samples used to calculate percentage change in calculated plasma volume following exercise were in agreement with values obtained from venous blood samples. Twenty-five subjects engaged in two cycle ergometer exercises at 100 and 200 W, with percentage plasma volume shift (% PVS) determined after each from venous (VB) and fingertip (FT) blood. Values for % PVS were FT -6.25% compared with VB -8.04% (P less than 0.05), with the correlation between the two methods at r = 0.88. The following equation was established: corrected FT % PVS = (0.8662 * FT) - 2.625; SEE = 2.60%. In order to cross-validate this equation, fifteen additional subjects submitted to VB and FT. Corrected FT % PVS using the established equation resulted in a mean value of 9.53 compared with 10.53% for actual VB % PVS. Although these means were not significantly different, there was approximately a 25% chance that the corrected FT % PVS would be more than one standard error of estimate from the regression line. It was concluded that FT underestimates VB % PVS. However, when limited to group data, FT can be corrected to favorably represent VB % PVS following moderate to heavy cycle ergometer exercise.

  12. Effect of weight loss on magnetic resonance imaging estimation of liver fat and volume in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Niraj S; Doycheva, Iliana; Peterson, Michael R; Hooker, Jonathan; Kisselva, Tatiana; Schnabl, Bernd; Seki, Ekihiro; Sirlin, Claude B; Loomba, Rohit

    2015-03-01

    Little is known about how weight loss affects magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of liver fat and volume or liver histology in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). We measured changes in liver fat and liver volume associated with weight loss by using an advanced MRI method. We analyzed data collected from a previous randomized controlled trial in which 43 adult patients with biopsy-proven NASH underwent clinical evaluation, biochemical tests, and MRI and liver biopsy analyses at the start of the study and after 24 weeks. We compared data between patients who did and did not have at least 5% decrease in body mass index (BMI) during the study period. Ten of 43 patients had at least a 5% decrease in BMI during the study period. These patients had a significant decrease in liver fat, which was based on MRI proton density fat fraction estimates (18.3% ± 7.6% to 13.6% ± 13.6%, P = .03), a relative 25.5% reduction. They also had a significant decrease in liver volume (5.3%). However, no significant changes in levels of alanine aminotransferase or aspartate aminotransferase were observed with weight loss. Thirty-three patients without at least 5% decrease in BMI had insignificant increases in estimated liver fat fraction and liver volume. A reduction in BMI of at least 5% is associated with significant decrease in liver fat and volume in patients with biopsy-proven NASH. These data should be considered in assessing effect size in studies of patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease or obesity that use MRI-estimated liver fat and volume as end points. Copyright © 2015 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Caffeine ingestion after rapid weight loss in judo athletes reduces perceived effort and increases plasma lactate concentration without improving performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes-Silva, Joao P; Felippe, Leandro J C; Silva-Cavalcante, Marcos D; Bertuzzi, Romulo; Lima-Silva, Adriano E

    2014-07-22

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of caffeine on judo performance, perceived exertion, and plasma lactate response when ingested during recovery from a 5-day weight loss period. Six judokas performed two cycles of a 5-day rapid weight loss procedure to reduce their body weight by ~5%. After weigh-in, subjects re-fed and rehydrated over a 4-h recovery period. In the third hour of this "loading period", subjects ingested a capsule containing either caffeine (6 mg·kg-1) or placebo. One hour later, participants performed three bouts of a judo fitness test with 5-min recovery periods. Perceived exertion and plasma lactate were measured before and immediately after each test bout. Body weight was reduced in both caffeine and placebo conditions after the weight loss period (-3.9% ± 1.6% and -4.0% ± 2.3% from control, respectively, p caffeine or placebo groups. However, plasma lactate was systemically higher and perceived exertion lower in the subjects who ingested caffeine compared to either the control or placebo subjects (p caffeine did not improve performance during the judo fitness test after a 5-day weight loss period, but reduced perceived exertion and increased plasma lactate.

  14. Plasma B vitamins, homocysteine and their relation with bone loss and hip fracture in elderly men and women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elevated homocysteine is a strong risk factor for osteoporotic fractures among elders, yet it may be a marker for low B vitamin status. Objective: To examine the associations of plasma concentrations of folate, vitamin B12, vitamin B6 and homocysteine with bone loss and hip fracture risk in elderly...

  15. Habitual physical activity and plasma metabolomic patterns distinguish individuals with low vs. high weight loss during controlled energy restriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weight loss (WL) induced by energy restriction is highly variable even in controlled clinical trials. An integrative analysis of the plasma metabolome coupled to traditional clinical variables may reveal a WL “responder” phenotype. Therfore, we predicted WL in overweight and obese individuals on a...

  16. The effect of amyloid pathology and glucose metabolism on cortical volume loss over time in Alzheimer's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adriaanse, Sofie M. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam (Netherlands); VU University Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Alzheimer Center, Neuroscience Campus Amsterdam, P.O. Box 7057, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Van Dijk, Koene R.A. [Harvard University, Department of Psychology, Center for Brain Science, Cambridge, MA (United States); Massachusetts General Hospital, Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Charlestown, MA (United States); Ossenkoppele, Rik; Tolboom, Nelleke; Zwan, Marissa D.; Barkhof, Frederik; Berckel, Bart N.M. van [VU University Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Alzheimer Center, Neuroscience Campus Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Reuter, Martin [Massachusetts General Hospital, Athinoula A. Martinos Center for Biomedical Imaging, Charlestown, MA (United States); Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, Division of Health Sciences and Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Yaqub, Maqsood; Boellaard, Ronald; Windhorst, Albert D.; Lammertsma, Adriaan A. [VU University Medical Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Neuroscience Campus Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Flier, Wiesje M. van der; Scheltens, Philip [VU University Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Alzheimer Center, Neuroscience Campus Amsterdam, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2014-06-15

    The present multimodal neuroimaging study examined whether amyloid pathology and glucose metabolism are related to cortical volume loss over time in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and healthy elderly controls. Structural MRI scans of eleven AD patients and ten controls were available at baseline and follow-up (mean interval 2.5 years). Change in brain structure over time was defined as percent change of cortical volume within seven a-priori defined regions that typically show the strongest structural loss in AD. In addition, two PET scans were performed at baseline: [{sup 11}C]PIB to assess amyloid-β plaque load and [{sup 18}F]FDG to assess glucose metabolism. [{sup 11}C]PIB binding and [{sup 18}F]FDG uptake were measured in the precuneus, a region in which both amyloid deposition and glucose hypometabolism occur early in the course of AD. While amyloid-β plaque load at baseline was not related to cortical volume loss over time in either group, glucose metabolism within the group of AD patients was significantly related to volume loss over time (rho = 0.56, p < 0.05). The present study shows that in a group of AD patients amyloid-β plaque load as measured by [{sup 11}C]PIB behaves as a trait marker (i.e., all AD patients showed elevated levels of amyloid, not related to subsequent disease course), whilst hypometabolism as measured by [{sup 18}F]FDG changed over time indicating that it could serve as a state marker that is predictive of neurodegeneration. (orig.)

  17. Energy loss of ions in a magnetized plasma: conformity between linear response and binary collision treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nersisyan, H B; Zwicknagel, G; Toepffer, C

    2003-02-01

    The energy loss of a heavy ion moving in a magnetized electron plasma is considered within the linear response (LR) and binary collision (BC) treatments with the purpose to look for a connection between these two models. These two complementary approaches yield close results if no magnetic field is present, but there develop discrepancies with growing magnetic field at ion velocities that are lower than, or comparable with, the thermal velocity of the electrons. We show that this is a peculiarity of the Coulomb interaction which requires cutoff procedures to account for its singularity at the origin and its infinite range. The cutoff procedures in the LR and BC treatments are different as the order of integrations in velocity and in ordinary (Fourier) spaces is reversed in both treatments. While BC involves a velocity average of Coulomb logarithms, there appear in LR Coulomb logarithms of velocity averaged cutoffs. The discrepancies between LR and BC vanish, except for small contributions of collective modes, for smoothened potentials that require no cutoffs. This is shown explicitly with the help of an improved BC in which the velocity transfer is treated up to second order in the interaction in Fourier space.

  18. Resonant scattering of central plasma sheet protons by multiband EMIC waves and resultant proton loss timescales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xing; Ni, Binbin; Liang, Jun; Xiang, Zheng; Wang, Qi; Shi, Run; Gu, Xudong; Zhou, Chen; Zhao, Zhengyu; Fu, Song; Liu, Jiang

    2016-02-01

    This is a companion study to Liang et al. (2014) which reported a "reversed" energy-latitude dispersion pattern of ion precipitation in that the lower energy ion precipitation extends to lower latitudes than the higher-energy ion precipitation. Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves in the central plasma sheet (CPS) have been suggested to account for this reversed-type ion precipitation. To further investigate the association, we perform a comprehensive study of pitch angle diffusion rates induced by EMIC wave and the resultant proton loss timescales at L = 8-12 around the midnight. Comparing the proton scattering rates in the Earth's dipole field and a more realistic quiet time geomagnetic field constructed from the Tsyganenko 2001 (T01) model, we find that use of a realistic, nondipolar magnetic field model not only decreases the minimum resonant energies of CPS protons but also considerably decreases the limit of strong diffusion and changes the proton pitch angle diffusion rates. Adoption of the T01 model increases EMIC wave diffusion rates at > ~ 60° equatorial pitch angles but decreases them at small equatorial pitch angles. Pitch angle scattering coefficients of 1-10 keV protons due to H+ band EMIC waves can exceed the strong diffusion rate for both geomagnetic field models. While He+ and O+ band EMIC waves can only scatter tens of keV protons efficiently to cause a fully filled loss cone at L > 10, in the T01 magnetic field they can also cause efficient scattering of ~ keV protons in the strong diffusion limit at L > 10. The resultant proton loss timescales by EMIC waves with a nominal amplitude of 0.2 nT vary from a few hours to several days, depending on the wave band and L shell. Overall, the results demonstrate that H+ band EMIC waves, once present, can act as a major contributor to the scattering loss of a few keV protons at lower L shells in the CPS, accounting for the reversed energy-latitude dispersion pattern of proton precipitation at low

  19. The influence of the local volume fluctuations on the equation-of-state of hot and dense plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzmann, David; Fisher, Dima; Barshalom, Avraham; Oreg, Joseph

    2008-04-01

    Generally, equation-of-state (EOS) of hot and dense plasmas is computed under the assumption that there is a constant volume available to every ion/atom in the plasma. In the present paper we combined two recently developed models to evaluate the influence of local density fluctuations around the ions on the corresponding EOS. The first of these is the so-called Ion Ellipsoid Model (IEM). IEM assumes that the local volume of the ion is a 3-dimensional ellipsoidal enclosure. Full description of the model is given in Ref. [1]. From IEM semi-empirical formulas were derived for the ions volume distribution function [1] for 0INFERNO models to calculate opacities and EOS on the same footing. We will describe the model and present preliminary results indicating the effect of the volume fluctuations around the ions on EOS results.

  20. A Volume-Weighting Cloud-in-Cell Model for Particle Simulation of Axially Symmetric Plasmas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李永东; 何锋; 刘纯亮

    2005-01-01

    A volume-weighting cloud-in-cell (VW-CIC) model is developed to implement the particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation in axially symmetric systems. This model gives a first-order accuracy in the cylindrical system, and it is incorporated into a PIC code. A planar diode with a finite-radius circular emitter is simulated with the code. The simulation results show that the VW-CIC model has a better accuracy and a lower noise than the conventional area-weighting cloud-in-cell (AW-CIC) model, especially on those points near the axis. The two-dimensional (2-D) space-charge-limited current density obtained from VW-CIC model is in better agreement with Lau's analytical result. This model is more suitable for 2.5-D PIC simulation of axially symmetric plasmas.

  1. Plasma waves excited at interface by femtosecond laser irradiation enabling formation of volume nanograting in glass

    CERN Document Server

    Liao, Yang; Qiao, Lingling; Huang, Min; Bellouard, Yves; Sugioka, Koji; Cheng, Ya

    2014-01-01

    Irradiation of intense ultrafast laser pulses in glasses can lead to formation of nanogratings whose periods are significantly smaller than the incident irradiation wavelength. The mechanism of the exotic phenomenon is still under debate. Here, we access the snapshots of morphologies in the laser affected regions in a porous glass which reveal the evolution of the formation of nanogratings with increasing number of laser pulses. Combined with further theoretical analyses, our observation provides important clues which suggest that excitation of standing plasma waves at the interfaces between areas modified and unmodified by the femtosecond laser irradiation plays a crucial role for promoting the growth of periodic nanogratings. The finding indicates that the formation of volume nanogratings induced by irradiation of femtosecond laser pulses is initiated with a mechanism similar to the formation of surface nanoripples.

  2. Relationship between plasma metalloproteinase-9 levels and volume and severity of infarct in patients with acute ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Recep; Ulvi, Hızır; Özel, Lütfi; Özdemir, Gökhan; Güzelcik, Metin; Aygül, Recep

    2012-12-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) constitute an endopeptidase family involved in various physiological and pathological processes. It was demonstrated that plasma MMP-9 level was increased in patients with acute ischemic stroke. In this study, it was investigated whether there was a relationship between the levels of plasma MMP-9 and the severity of stroke and infarct volume in patients with acute ischemic stroke. A total of 32 patients with acute ischemic stroke, (16 males and 16 females) and 30 healthy controls were included in the study. Plasma MMP-9 levels were measured using ELISA method. Computed tomography was performed at 48th hour and infarct volume was calculated using the Cavalieri method. The National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) was checked at baseline, 12, 24, and 48th hour. Plasma MMP-9 levels of the patient group at baseline, 12, 24, and 48th hour were found significantly higher compared to the control group (p acute period of ischemic cerebrovascular disease and correlated with the severity of the disease and infarct volume. The definition of the exact role of plasma MMP-9 after ischemic stroke will have important diagnostic implications for stroke and for the development of therapeutic strategies aimed at modulating plasma MMP-9.

  3. Curling probe measurement of a large-volume pulsed plasma with surface magnetic confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, A.; Tashiro, H.; Sakakibara, W.; Nakamura, K.; Sugai, H.

    2016-12-01

    A curling probe (CP) based on microwave resonance is applied to the measurement of electron density in a pulsed DC glow discharge under surface magnetic confinement (SMC) provided by a number of permanent magnets on a chamber wall. Owing to the SMC effects, a 1 m scale large-volume plasma is generated by a relatively low voltage (~1 kV) at low pressure (~1 Pa) in various gases (Ar, CH4, and C2H2). Temporal variation of the electron density is measured for pulse frequency f  =  0.5-25 kHz for various discharge-on times (T ON) with a high resolution time (~0.2 µs), using the on-point mode. In general, the electron density starts to increase at time t  =  0 after turn-on of the discharge voltage, reaches peak density at t  =  T ON, and then decreases after turn-off. The peak electron density is observed to increase with the pulse frequency f for constant T ON owing to the residual plasma. This dependence is successfully formulated using a semi-empirical model. The spatio-temporal evolution of the cathode sheath in the pulsed discharge is revealed by a 1 m long movable CP. The measured thickness of the high-voltage cathode fall in a steady state coincides with the value of the so-called Child-Langmuir sheath.

  4. Effect of Rehydration Fluid Osmolality on Plasma Volume and Vasopressin in Resting Dehydrated Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geelen, Ghislaine; Greenleaf, J. E.; Keil, L. C.; Wade, Charles E. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Elevated plasma vasopressin concentration [PVP], which may act as a dipsogen, decreases promptly following the ingestion of fluids in many mammals including humans. The purpose for this study was to determine whether fluids of varied electrolyte and carbohydrate composition and osmolality (Osm] would modify post-drinking decreases in [PVP] which could be attributed to interaction with plasma volume (PV)- or fluid-electrolyte interactive hormones. Five men (23-41 yr, 78.0 +/- SD 8.2 kg), water deprived for 24 h, drank six fluids (12 ml/kg, at 16.5C in 4.0-6.2 min): water (30 m0sm/kg), NaCl (70 mOsm/kg), NaCl + NaCitrate (270 mOsm/kg), NaCl + 9.7% glucose (650 mOsm/kg), and two commercial drinks containing various ionic and carbohydrate contents (380 and 390 mOsm/kg). Blood (20 ml/sample) was drawn at -5 min before and at +3, +9, +15, +30, and +70 min after drinking. Heart rate, blood pressures, and plasma renin activity, {Na+], [K+], [Osm], aldosterone, atrial natriuretic peptide, and epinephrine concentrations were unchanged after drinking. Post-drinking [PVP] decreased from 1.7 - 3.7 pg/ml within 3 min with all fluids independently of their composition, [Osm], or delta PV; with maximal depression to 0.1-0.7 pg/ml (pplasma (Osm] but 1.8-7.6% increases (pplasma norepinephrine concentrations [PNE] at 15 min correlated -0.70 (P<0.10) suggesting that about half the variability in [PVP I I depression was associated with [PNE]. Thus, part of the mechanism for post-drinking [PVP] depression may involve a drinking stimulated norepinephrine (neural) factor.

  5. Pulmonary Edema and Plasma Volume Changes in Dysbarism. M.S. Thesis - Texas Univ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joki, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    Two groups of anesthetized, fasted pigs were utilized. One group of 13 animals (8.5 to 16.6 kilograms) was exposed to a high-pressure environment, and the other group of eight animals (6.9 to 20.0 kilograms) constituted the control group. The experimental group was subjected to an atmosphere of 90 percent nitrogen and 10 percent oxygen at a pressure of 50 psig for 30 minutes and then decompressed at a rate 10 psi/min. Plasma volumes, using both iodine-125-tagged-albumin and chromium-51-tagged-cell dilution techniques, were measured before, immediately after, and at 30 and 60 minutes after decompression. Aortic and right-ventricular systolic pressures were also recorded. At 60 minutes after decompression, blood samples were taken, the animals were sacrificed, and the water content of the lungs, kidneys, livers, and spleens was estimated by measuring tissue wet weight and dry weight. Protein extravasation and tissue blood volumes were determined by measuring the iodine-125-tagged-albumin and chromium-51-tagged-cell spaces in homo-genates of the organs under investigation.

  6. Energy loss for grassy ELMs and effects of plasma rotation on the ELM characteristics in JT-60U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, N.; Sakamoto, Y.; Isayama, A.; Takechi, M.; Gohil, P.; Lao, L. L.; Snyder, P. B.; Fujita, T.; Ide, S.; Kamada, Y.; Miura, Y.; Oikawa, T.; Suzuki, T.; Takenaga, H.; Toi, K.; JT-60 Team

    2005-08-01

    The energy loss for grassy edge localized modes (ELMs) has been studied to investigate the applicability of the grassy ELM regime to ITER. The grassy ELM regime is characterized by high frequency periodic collapses of 800-1500 Hz, which is ~15 times faster than that for type I ELMs. The divertor peak heat flux due to grassy ELMs is less than 10% of that for type I ELMs. This smaller heat flux is caused by a narrower radial extent of the collapse of the temperature pedestal. The different radial extent between type I ELMs and grassy ELMs agrees qualitatively with the different radial distribution of the eigenfunctions as determined from ideal MHD stability analysis. The dominant ELM energy loss for grassy ELMs appears to be caused by temperature reduction, and its ratio to the pedestal stored energy was 0.4-1%. This ratio is lower by a factor of about 10 than that for type I ELMs, which typically have between 2-10% fractional loss of the pedestal energy. A systematic study of the effects of counter (CTR) plasma rotation on the ELM characteristics has been performed using a combination of tangential and perpendicular neutral beam injections (NBIs) in JT-60U. In the high plasma triangularity (δ) regime, ELM characteristics (e.g. amplitude, frequency and type) can be changed from type I ELMs to high frequency grassy ELMs as the CTR plasma rotation is increased. On the other hand, in the low δ regime, complete ELM suppression (QH-mode) can be sustained for long periods up to 3.4 s (~18τE or energy confinement times), when the plasma position in terms of the clearance between the first wall and the plasma separatrix is optimized during the application of CTR-NBIs. In JT-60U, a transient QH phase was also observed during the CO-NBI phase with almost no net toroidal rotation at the plasma edge.

  7. Caffeine Ingestion after Rapid Weight Loss in Judo Athletes Reduces Perceived Effort and Increases Plasma Lactate Concentration without Improving Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes-Silva, Joao P.; Felippe, Leandro J. C.; Silva-Cavalcante, Marcos D.; Bertuzzi, Romulo; Lima-Silva, Adriano E.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of caffeine on judo performance, perceived exertion, and plasma lactate response when ingested during recovery from a 5-day weight loss period. Six judokas performed two cycles of a 5-day rapid weight loss procedure to reduce their body weight by ~5%. After weigh-in, subjects re-fed and rehydrated over a 4-h recovery period. In the third hour of this “loading period”, subjects ingested a capsule containing either caffeine (6 mg·kg−1) or placebo. One hour later, participants performed three bouts of a judo fitness test with 5-min recovery periods. Perceived exertion and plasma lactate were measured before and immediately after each test bout. Body weight was reduced in both caffeine and placebo conditions after the weight loss period (−3.9% ± 1.6% and −4.0% ± 2.3% from control, respectively, p judo fitness test after a 5-day weight loss period, but reduced perceived exertion and increased plasma lactate. PMID:25054553

  8. The effect of blood volume loss on cardiovascular response to lower body negative pressure using a mathematical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, E. H.; Srinivasan, R. S.; Charles, J. B.; Fortney, S. M.

    1994-01-01

    Different mathematical models of varying complexity have been proposed in recent years to study the cardiovascular (CV) system. However, only a few of them specifically address the response to lower body negative pressure (LBNP), a stress that can be applied in weightlessness to predict changes in orthostatic tolerance. Also, the simulated results produced by these models agree only partially with experimental observations. In contrast, the model proposed by Melchior et al., and modified by Karam et al. is a simple representation of the CV system capable of accurately reproducing observed LBNP responses up to presyncopal levels. There are significant changes in LBNP response due to a loss of blood volume and other alterations that occur in weightlessness and related one-g conditions such as bedrest. A few days of bedrest can cause up to 15% blood volume loss (BVL), with consequent decreases in both stroke volume and cardiac output, and increases in heart rate, mean arterial pressure, and total peripheral resistance. These changes are more pronounced at higher levels of LBNP. This paper presents the results of a simulation study using our CV model to examine the effect of BVL on LBNP response.

  9. The effect of blood volume loss on cardiovascular response to lower body negative pressure using a mathematical model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, E. H.; Srinivasan, R. S.; Charles, J. B.; Fortney, S. M.

    1994-01-01

    Different mathematical models of varying complexity have been proposed in recent years to study the cardiovascular (CV) system. However, only a few of them specifically address the response to lower body negative pressure (LBNP), a stress that can be applied in weightlessness to predict changes in orthostatic tolerance. Also, the simulated results produced by these models agree only partially with experimental observations. In contrast, the model proposed by Melchior et al., and modified by Karam et al. is a simple representation of the CV system capable of accurately reproducing observed LBNP responses up to presyncopal levels. There are significant changes in LBNP response due to a loss of blood volume and other alterations that occur in weightlessness and related one-g conditions such as bedrest. A few days of bedrest can cause up to 15% blood volume loss (BVL), with consequent decreases in both stroke volume and cardiac output, and increases in heart rate, mean arterial pressure, and total peripheral resistance. These changes are more pronounced at higher levels of LBNP. This paper presents the results of a simulation study using our CV model to examine the effect of BVL on LBNP response.

  10. Energy loss and charge state distribution of calcium ions in dense moderately coupled carbon plasma; Energieverlust und Ladungsverteilung von Calciumionen in dichtem, schwach gekoppeltem Kohlenstoffplasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortner, Alex

    2015-07-15

    In this thesis the interaction of swift calcium ions (Energy: 3.5 MeV/u) with a dense and moderately coupled carbon plasma (Coupling parameter: Γ=0.1-0.5) is investigated. The plasma state is generated by heating a thin carbon foil volumetrically by thermal X-ray radiation. The thermal X-ray radiation itself is generated by the conversion of a high energy laser beam in a hohlraum cavity. Compared to earlier ion stopping experiments the electron density and the plasma coupling parameter could be increased by an order of magnitude. This work provides the first time experimental energy loss and charge state distribution data in this moderately coupled interaction regime. The thesis consists of a theoretical part where the ion beam plasma interaction is studied for a broad range of plasma parameters and an experimental part where the ion beam interaction with the hohlraum plasma target is measured. All the described experiments were carried out at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt. This facility offers the unique possibility to combine a heavy ion beam from an accelerator with a high energy laser beam in one interaction chamber. An intense laser pulse (150 J of laser energy in 1 ns at λ{sub L}=527 nm) is focused inside a 600 μm diameter spherical cavity and generates a hot gold plasma that emits X-rays. The absorbed and reemitted radiation establishes a spatially uniform temperature distribution in the cavity and serves as an intense, isotropic X-ray source with a quasi-thermal spectral distribution. These thermal X-rays with a radiation temperature of T{sub r}=98±6 eV then propagate into a secondary cylindrical hohlraum (diameter: 1000 μm, length: 950 μm) where they volumetrically heat two thin carbon foils to the plasma state. The radiation temperature in the secondary hohlraum is T{sub r}=33±5 eV. This indirect laser heating scheme has the advantage that the whole sample volume is instantaneously heated and that the plasma is

  11. Energy loss and charge state distribution of calcium ions in dense moderately coupled carbon plasma; Energieverlust und Ladungsverteilung von Calciumionen in dichtem, schwach gekoppeltem Kohlenstoffplasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortner, Alex

    2015-07-15

    In this thesis the interaction of swift calcium ions (Energy: 3.5 MeV/u) with a dense and moderately coupled carbon plasma (Coupling parameter: Γ=0.1-0.5) is investigated. The plasma state is generated by heating a thin carbon foil volumetrically by thermal X-ray radiation. The thermal X-ray radiation itself is generated by the conversion of a high energy laser beam in a hohlraum cavity. Compared to earlier ion stopping experiments the electron density and the plasma coupling parameter could be increased by an order of magnitude. This work provides the first time experimental energy loss and charge state distribution data in this moderately coupled interaction regime. The thesis consists of a theoretical part where the ion beam plasma interaction is studied for a broad range of plasma parameters and an experimental part where the ion beam interaction with the hohlraum plasma target is measured. All the described experiments were carried out at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt. This facility offers the unique possibility to combine a heavy ion beam from an accelerator with a high energy laser beam in one interaction chamber. An intense laser pulse (150 J of laser energy in 1 ns at λ{sub L}=527 nm) is focused inside a 600 μm diameter spherical cavity and generates a hot gold plasma that emits X-rays. The absorbed and reemitted radiation establishes a spatially uniform temperature distribution in the cavity and serves as an intense, isotropic X-ray source with a quasi-thermal spectral distribution. These thermal X-rays with a radiation temperature of T{sub r}=98±6 eV then propagate into a secondary cylindrical hohlraum (diameter: 1000 μm, length: 950 μm) where they volumetrically heat two thin carbon foils to the plasma state. The radiation temperature in the secondary hohlraum is T{sub r}=33±5 eV. This indirect laser heating scheme has the advantage that the whole sample volume is instantaneously heated and that the plasma is

  12. NT pro BNP plasma level and atrial volume are linked to the severity of liver cirrhosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Licata

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Plasma levels of NT-pro-BNP, a natriuretic peptide precursor, are raised in the presence of fluid retention of cardiac origin and can be used as markers of cardiac dysfunction. Recent studies showed high levels of NT pro BNP in patients with cirrhosis. We assessed NT pro-BNP and other parameters of cardiac dysfunction in patients with cirrhosis, with or without ascites, in order to determine whether the behaviour of NT pro BNP is linked to the stage of liver disease or to secondary cardiac dysfunction. METHODS: Fifty eight consecutive hospitalized patients mostly with viral or NAFLD-related cirrhosis were studied. All underwent abdominal ultrasound and upper GI endoscopy. Cardiac morpho-functional changes were evaluated by echocardiography and NT-pro-BNP plasma levels determined upon admission. Twenty-eight hypertensive patients, without evidence of liver disease served as controls. RESULTS: Fifty eight cirrhotic patients (72% men with a median age of 62 years (11% with mild arterial hypertension and 31% with type 2 diabetes had a normal renal function (mean creatinine 0.9 mg/dl, range 0.7-1.06. As compared to controls, cirrhotic patients had higher NT pro-BNP plasma levels (365.2±365.2 vs 70.8±70.6 pg/ml; p<0.001. Left atrial volume (LAV (61.8±26.3 vs 43.5±14.1 ml; p = 0.001, and left ventricular ejection fraction (62.7±6.9 vs. 65.5±4%,; p = 0.05 were also altered in cirrhotic patients that in controls. Patients with F2-F3 oesophageal varices as compared to F0/F1, showed higher e' velocity (0.91±0.23 vs 0.66±0.19 m/s, p<0.001, and accordingly a higher E/A ratio (1.21±0.46 vs 0.89±0.33 m/s., p = 0.006. CONCLUSION: NT-pro-BNP plasma levels are increased proportionally to the stage of chronic liver disease. Advanced cirrhosis and high NT-pro-BNP levels are significantly associated to increased LAV and to signs of cardiac diastolic dysfunction. NT pro-BNP levels could hence be an useful prognostic

  13. Recurrent pre-eclampsia in women with metabolic syndrome and low plasma volume: a retrospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stekkinger, E.; Scholten, R.R.; Heidema, W.M.; Spaanderman, M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of recurrent pre-eclampsia in women with a history of pre-eclampsia with both metabolic syndrome and low plasma volume postpartum, as compared with women without either entity. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Three tertiary referral hospitals in th

  14. Caffeine Ingestion after Rapid Weight Loss in Judo Athletes Reduces Perceived Effort and Increases Plasma Lactate Concentration without Improving Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joao P. Lopes-Silva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the effect of caffeine on judo performance, perceived exertion, and plasma lactate response when ingested during recovery from a 5-day weight loss period. Six judokas performed two cycles of a 5-day rapid weight loss procedure to reduce their body weight by ~5%. After weigh-in, subjects re-fed and rehydrated over a 4-h recovery period. In the third hour of this “loading period”, subjects ingested a capsule containing either caffeine (6 mg·kg−1 or placebo. One hour later, participants performed three bouts of a judo fitness test with 5-min recovery periods. Perceived exertion and plasma lactate were measured before and immediately after each test bout. Body weight was reduced in both caffeine and placebo conditions after the weight loss period (−3.9% ± 1.6% and −4.0% ± 2.3% from control, respectively, p < 0.05. At three hours after weigh-in, body weight had increased with both treatments but remained below the control (−3.0% ± 1.3% and −2.7% ± 2.2%. There were no significant differences in the number of throws between the control, caffeine or placebo groups. However, plasma lactate was systemically higher and perceived exertion lower in the subjects who ingested caffeine compared to either the control or placebo subjects (p < 0.05. In conclusion, caffeine did not improve performance during the judo fitness test after a 5-day weight loss period, but reduced perceived exertion and increased plasma lactate.

  15. Role of Uterine Shape and Volume Abnormalities in Recurrent Pregnancy Loss (RPL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satyanarayana A Kongathi

    2013-06-01

    Conclusion: It is concluded that 10 percent of our cases of recurrent pregnancy loss are due to uterine malformations. HSG and 2D TVS has equal sensitivity in detecting uterine malformations. [Natl J Med Res 2013; 3(3.000: 277-279

  16. Effect of diet-induced weight loss on plasma apelin and cytokine levels in individuals with the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinonen, M V; Laaksonen, D E; Karhu, T; Karhunen, L; Laitinen, T; Kainulainen, S; Rissanen, A; Niskanen, L; Herzig, K H

    2009-11-01

    Adipose tissue is an active endocrine organ that secretes signaling molecules involved in the regulation of insulin sensitivity, food intake and inflammation. Apelin is a peptide secreted by adipose tissue that has been shown to modulate cardiovascular tone in animals. The aim of this study was to measure abdominal fat, blood pressure and circulating apelin, adiponectin, leptin, ghrelin, TNF-alpha and IL-6 levels in patients with the metabolic syndrome after a diet-induced weight loss. 35 obese individuals with the metabolic syndrome underwent an 8-week very-low-calorie diet (VLCD) and a 6-month weight maintenance period (WM) with 120mg orlistat or placebo administered 3 times daily. VLCD and WM (-15.1+/-1.0kg) decreased mean arterial pressure (MAP), insulin, leptin, triglycerides and visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue. Moreover, adiponectin increased in response to the weight loss. However, the overall changes in plasma apelin, TNF-alpha and IL-6 were non-significant. A correlation between plasma apelin and TNF-alpha was observed at baseline (0.41, pmetabolism and adiponectin in response to weight loss, no significant changes in plasma apelin, TNF-alpha and IL-6 were observed. However, apelin significantly correlated with TNF-alpha and MAP. These results suggest that apelin may not be that strongly correlated with the fat mass as an adipokine like the more abundant adipokines adiponectin or leptin and it might be involved in the regulation of inflammation and cardiovascular tone.

  17. Effect of Magnetohydrodynamic Perturbations on the Orbit Loss of Alpha Particles in Tokamak Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邬良能; 俞国扬

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the orbit loss of alpha particles under helical magnetic perturbation in a tokamak. The results show that low-frequency andlow-mode number magnetic perturbation can cause stochastic loss ofalpha particles.This effect is significant for those particles close to the boundary between the transit zone and the trapped zone.The particle loss is sensitive to the phase of the magnetic perturbation, indicating the modulation of the particle loss with respect to magnetic perturbation. It is also found that the precession of the particle banana orbit can even further enhance the particle loss.

  18. Plasma volume expansion by albumin in cirrhosis. Relation to blood volume distribution, arterial compliance and severity of disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinch, Kim; Bendtsen, Flemming; Becker, Povl Ulrik;

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of a standard albumin load on blood volume distribution, arterial compliance, and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in patients with different degrees of cirrhosis. METHODS: 31 patients with cirrhosis (Child classes A/B/C=...... effective arterial blood volume of such patients, which may be important in the prevention of circulatory dysfunction....

  19. The role of plasma volume, plasma renin and the sympathetic nervous system in the posture-induced decline in renal lithium clearance in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D F; Shimizu, M

    1978-01-01

    Excretion of lithium in urine was studied in 2 healthy males while recumbent and while upright, either walking or standing quietly. An oral dose of 24.3 mmol of Lit was taken as three lithium carbonate tablets 13 h before clearance tests. Renal lithium clearance decreased and lithium fractional reabsorption increased while upright. Standing immersed to the neck in water, which prevents the fall in plasma volume upon changing posture from recumbent to upright, prevented the fall in renal lithium clearance as well as the rise in lithium fractional reabsorption while upright. Oral doses of guanethidine (total dose of 200 mg) or oxprenolol (total dose of 140 mg) taken to prevent high levels of sympathetic nervous system activity and plasma renin, respectively, failed to prevent the fall in renal lithium clearance or the rise in lithium fractional reabsorption upon changing posture from recumbent to upright. The findings indicate that the fall in renal lithium clearance and the rise in lithium fractional reabsorption upon changing posture from recumbent to upright is related to the fall in plasma volume but not to high levels of sympathetic nervous system activity or plasma renin activity.

  20. Impact of Plasma Epstein-Barr Virus-DNA and Tumor Volume on Prognosis of Locally Advanced Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This retrospective study aims to examine the association of plasma Epstein-Barr virus- (EBV- DNA levels with the tumor volume and prognosis in patients with locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC. A total of 165 patients with newly diagnosed locally advanced NPC were identified from September 2011 to July 2012. EBV-DNA was detected using fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR amplification. The tumor volume was calculated by the systematic summation method of computer software. The median copy number of plasma EBV-DNA before treatment was 3790 copies/mL. The median gross tumor volume of the primary nasopharyngeal tumor (GTVnx, the lymph node lesions (GTVnd, and the total GTV before treatment were 72.46, 23.26, and 106.25 cm3, respectively; the EBV-DNA levels were significantly correlated with the GTVnd and the total GTV (P<0.01. The 2-year overall survival (OS rates in patients with positive and negative pretreatment plasma EBV-DNA were 100% and 98.4% (P=1.000, and the disease-free survival (DFS rates were 94.4% and 80.8% (P=0.044, respectively. These results indicate that high pretreatment plasma EBV-DNA levels in patients with locally advanced NPC are associated with the degree of lymph node metastasis, tumor burden, and poor prognosis.

  1. The component content of active particles in a plasma-chemical reactor based on volume barrier discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloshenko, I. A.; Tsiolko, V. V.; Pogulay, S. S.; Terent'yeva, A. G.; Bazhenov, V. Yu; Shchedrin, A. I.; Ryabtsev, A. V.; Kuzmichev, A. I.

    2007-02-01

    In this paper the results of theoretical and experimental studies of the component content of active particles formed in a plasma-chemical reactor composed of a multiple-cell generator of active particles, based on volume barrier discharge, and a working chamber are presented. For calculation of the content of uncharged plasma components an approach is proposed which is based on averaging of the power introduced over the entire volume. Advantages of such an approach lie in an absence of fitting parameters, such as the dimensions of microdischarges, their surface density and rate of breakdown. The calculation and the experiment were accomplished with the use of dry air (20% relative humidity) as the plasma generating medium. Concentrations of O3, HNO3, HNO2, N2 O5 and NO3 were measured experimentally in the discharge volume and working chamber for the residence time of particles on a discharge of 0.3 s and more and discharge specific power of 1.5 W cm-3. It has been determined that the best agreement between the calculation and the experiment occurs at calculated gas medium temperatures in the discharge plasma of about 400-425 K, which correspond to the experimentally measured rotational temperature of nitrogen. In most cases the calculated concentrations of O3, HNO3, HNO2, N2O5 and NO3 for the barrier discharge and the working chamber are in fairly good agreement with the respective measured values.

  2. Improving volume loss estimates of the northwestern Greenland Ice Sheet 2002-2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Niels Jákup; Khan, Shfaqat Abbas; Kjeldsen, Kristian Kjellerup

    Studies have been carried out using various methods to estimate the Greenland ice sheet mass balance. Remote sensing techniques used to determine the ice sheet volume includes airborne and satellite radar and laser methods and measurements of ice flow of outlet glaciers use InSAR satellite radar......) does not work on sloping surfaces and is affected by radar penetration into the snow. InSAR estimates require knowledge of outlet glacier thickness. GRACE has limited spatial resolution and is affected by mass variations not just from ice changes, but also from hydrologic and ocean mass variability...

  3. Separate and combined influence of posture and sprint running on plasma volume changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsampoukos, Antonios; Stokes, Keith; Nevill, Mary

    2014-01-01

    It is currently unknown whether any changes in plasma volume (PV) after sprint running are inherent to sprint running per se or are due to other confounding factors such as changes in posture. The purpose of the present study was to examine the independent effects of sprint running on PV changes. Eight females completed two trials on separate days: (1) a 30-s sprint on a non-motorised treadmill and (2) a control trial where no exercise was undertaken but blood samples were taken at identical time points as in the exercise trial. Changes in PV were calculated using haematocrit and haemoglobin. Post-sprint PV reductions were greater in the sprint than the control trial (mean: -17.7, SD=3.1% vs. mean: -7.5, s = 4.9, Psprint than the control trial in most sampling points. These data show that sprint running of only 30 s induces transient reductions in PV independently of posture change. The present findings suggest that PV changes due to sprint running should be routinely reported as well as the posture and the exact time in this posture.

  4. Second harmonic wave generation from a nonlinear combination of volume wave and overdense plasma in negative permeability space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwai, Akinori; Nakamura, Yoshihiro; Sakai, Osamu

    2016-09-01

    We clarify the relation between second harmonic wave (SH wave) and plasma generation in various experimental conditions by detecting properties of propagating electromagnetic waves (EM waves). Plasma has a nonlinear reaction against EM wave, generating harmonic waves which depends on electron density ne. In the case with increased ne, EM wave comes to be prevented from going into plasma with negative permittivity ɛp. Double-split-ring resonators (DSRRs), one of metamaterials, make permeability μD negative. We have shown that EM wave being volume wave can propagate into the combination of overdense plasma and DSRRs because of real negative value refractive index N. In our previous paper, we have confirmed enhanced SH wave (4.9 GHz) generation in the composite with 2.45-GHz input. In this report, we show the dependence of the SH wave emission with plasma generation on plasma parameters and gas conditions of plasma. Furthermore, we show the phase change with N variation of the composite space in the case with various input power as the proof of the negative index state.

  5. High-volume FES-cycling partially reverses bone loss in people with chronic spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frotzler, Angela; Coupaud, Sylvie; Perret, Claudio; Kakebeeke, Tanja H; Hunt, Kenneth J; Donaldson, Nick de N; Eser, Prisca

    2008-07-01

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) leads to severe bone loss in the paralysed limbs and to a resulting increased fracture risk thereof. Since long bone fractures can lead to comorbidities and a reduction in quality of life, it is important to improve bone strength in people with chronic SCI. In this prospective longitudinal cohort study, we investigated whether functional electrical stimulation (FES) induced high-volume cycle training can partially reverse the loss of bone substance in the legs after chronic complete SCI. Eleven participants with motor-sensory complete SCI (mean age 41.9+/-7.5 years; 11.0+/-7.1 years post injury) were recruited. After an initial phase of 14+/-7 weeks of FES muscle conditioning, participants performed on average 3.7+/-0.6 FES-cycling sessions per week, of 58+/-5 min each, over 12 months at each individual's highest power output. Bone and muscle parameters were investigated in the legs by means of peripheral quantitative computed tomography before the muscle conditioning (t1), and after six (t2) and 12 months (t3) of high-volume FES-cycle training. After 12 months of FES-cycling, trabecular and total bone mineral density (BMD) as well as total cross-sectional area in the distal femoral epiphysis increased significantly by 14.4+/-21.1%, 7.0+/-10.8% and 1.2+/-1.5%, respectively. Bone parameters in the femoral shaft showed small but significant decreases, with a reduction of 0.4+/-0.4% in cortical BMD, 1.8+/-3.0% in bone mineral content, and 1.5+/-2.1% in cortical thickness. These decreases mainly occurred between t1 and t2. No significant changes were found in any of the measured bone parameters in the tibia. Muscle CSA at the thigh increased significantly by 35.5+/-18.3%, while fat CSA at the shank decreased by 16.7+/-12.3%. Our results indicate that high-volume FES-cycle training leads to site-specific skeletal changes in the paralysed limbs, with an increase in bone parameters at the actively loaded distal femur but not the passively loaded

  6. Partial volume effect-corrected FDG PET and grey matter volume loss in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuraki, Miharu; Yanase, Daisuke; Yamada, Masahito [Kanazawa University Graduate School of Medical Science, Department of Neurology and Neurobiology of Aging, Kanazawa (Japan); Matsunari, Ichiro; Chen, Wei-Ping; Yajima, Kazuyoshi; Fujikawa, Akihiko; Takeda, Nozomi; Nishimura, Shintaro [The Medical and Pharmacological Research Center Foundation, Hakui-City, Ishikawa (Japan); Matsuda, Hiroshi [Saitama Medical School Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Saitama (Japan)

    2007-10-15

    Although{sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET is an established imaging technique to assess brain glucose utilisation, accurate measurement of tracer concentration is confounded by the presence of partial volume effect (PVE) due to the limited spatial resolution of PET, which is particularly true in atrophic brains such as those encountered in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Our aim was to investigate the effects of PVE correction on FDG PET in conjunction with voxel-based morphometry (VBM) in patients with mild AD. Thirty-nine AD patients and 73 controls underwent FDG PET and MRI. The PVE-corrected grey matter PET images were obtained using an MRI-based three-compartment method. Additionally, the results of PET were compared with grey matter loss detected by VBM. Before PVE correction, reduced FDG uptake was observed in posterior cingulate gyri (PCG) and parieto-temporal lobes (PTL) in AD patients, which persisted after PVE correction. Notably, PVE correction revealed relatively preserved FDG uptake in hippocampal areas, despite the grey matter loss in medial temporal lobe (MTL) revealed by VBM. FDG uptake in PCG and PTL is reduced in AD regardless of whether or not PVE correction is applied, supporting the notion that the reduced FDG uptake in these areas is not the result of atrophy. Furthermore, FDG uptake by grey matter tissue in the MTL, including hippocampal areas, is relatively preserved, suggesting that compensatory mechanisms may play a role in patients with mild AD. (orig.)

  7. Alfven eigenmode stability and fast ion loss in DIII-D and ITER reversed magnetic shear plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Zeeland, Michael [General Atomics; Gorelenkov, Nikolai [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Heidbrink, W. [University of California, Irvine; Kramer, G. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Spong, Donald A [ORNL; Austin, M. E. [University of Texas, Austin; Fisher, R K [General Atomics, San Diego; Munoz, M G [Max-Planck-Institut fur Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Garching, Germany; Gorelenkova, M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Luhmann, N.C. [University of California, Davis; Murakami, Masanori [ORNL; Nazikian, Raffi [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Park, J. M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Tobias, Ben [University of California, Davis; White, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL)

    2012-01-01

    Neutral beam injection into reversed-magnetic shear DIII-D plasmas produces a variety of Alfvenic activity including toroidicity-induced Alfven eigenmodes (TAEs) and reversed shear Alfven eigenmodes (RSAEs). With measured equilibrium profiles as inputs, the ideal MHD code NOVA is used to calculate eigenmodes of these plasmas. The postprocessor code NOVA-K is then used to perturbatively calculate the actual stability of the modes, including finite orbit width and finite Larmor radius effects, and reasonable agreement with the spectrum of observed modes is found. Using experimentally measured mode amplitudes, fast ion orbit following simulations have been carried out in the presence of the NOVA calculated eigenmodes and are found to reproduce the dominant energy, pitch and temporal evolution of the losses measured using a large bandwidth scintillator diagnostic. The same analysis techniques applied to a DT 8 MA ITER steady-state plasma scenario with reversed-magnetic shear and both beam ion and alpha populations show Alfven eigenmode instability. Both RSAEs and TAEs are found to be unstable with maximum growth rates occurring for toroidal mode number n = 6 and the majority of the drive coming from fast ions injected by the 1MeV negative ion beams. AE instability due to beam ion drive is confirmed by the non-perturbative code TAEFL. Initial fast ion orbit following simulations using the unstable modes with a range of amplitudes (delta B/B = 10(-5)-10(-3)) have been carried out and show negligible fast ion loss. The lack of fast ion loss is a result of loss boundaries being limited to large radii and significantly removed from the actual modes themselves.

  8. Blade loss transient dynamics analysis, volume 1. Task 1: Survey and perspective. [aircraft gas turbine engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, V. C.; Gaffney, E. F.; Bach, L. J.; Stallone, M. J.

    1981-01-01

    An analytical technique was developed to predict the behavior of a rotor system subjected to sudden unbalance. The technique is implemented in the Turbine Engine Transient Rotor Analysis (TETRA) computer program using the component element method. The analysis was particularly aimed toward blade-loss phenomena in gas turbine engines. A dual-rotor, casing, and pylon structure can be modeled by the computer program. Blade tip rubs, Coriolis forces, and mechanical clearances are included. The analytical system was verified by modeling and simulating actual test conditions for a rig test as well as a full-engine, blade-release demonstration.

  9. Delay time embedding of mass loss avalanches in a fusion plasma-oriented sandpile model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowie, C. A.; Dendy, R. O.; Hole, M. J.

    2016-10-01

    The sandpile paradigm is widely used to model aspects of the phenomenology of magnetically confined fusion (MCF) plasmas, including enhanced confinement, edge pedestals and, potentially, the impulsive energy and particle release process known as ELMing. Here we identify new points of contact between ELMing and the systemwide avalanches in a sandpile. We compare the quantified response [Calderon et al., Phys. Plasmas 20, 042306 (2014)] to increased fuelling of the time sequence of edge localised mode events in a series of similar Joint European Torus plasmas with the response to increased fuelling of the time sequence of systemwide avalanches in a sandpile model [Chapman et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 2814 (2001)] that has well established links to MCF plasma phenomenology. Both the probability density functions of inter-event time intervals, and delay time embeddings of event time sequences, at different fuelling rates, show common features and point to shared underlying physics.

  10. GLUT4 expression at the plasma membrane is related to fibre volume in human skeletal muscle fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaster, M; Vach, W; Beck-Nielsen, H

    2002-01-01

    In this study we examined the relationship between GLUT4 expression at the plasma membrane and muscle fibre size in fibre-typed human muscle fibres by immunocytochemistry and morphometry in order to gain further insight into the regulation of GLUT4 expression. At the site of the plasma membrane......, GLUT4 was more abundantly expressed in slow as compared to fast fibres at the same fibre diameter (p diabetic and obese was reduced...... compared to control subjects at the same diameter (p diabetic subjects expressed a fibre-volume-dependent GLUT4 expression (p diabetic p = 0.06). Our results show that increasing...

  11. Reduced cortical distribution volume of iodine-123 iomazenil in Alzheimer`s disease as a measure of loss of synapses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soricelli, A. [Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Univ. of Naples Federico II, Nuclear Medicine Center of the National Research Council (Italy); Postiglione, A. [Dept. of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Univ. of Naples Federico II (Italy); Grivet-Fojaja, M.R. [Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Univ. of Naples Federico II, Nuclear Medicine Center of the National Research Council (Italy); Mainenti, P.P. [Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Univ. of Naples Federico II, Nuclear Medicine Center of the National Research Council (Italy); Discepolo, A. [Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Univ. of Naples Federico II, Nuclear Medicine Center of the National Research Council (Italy); Varrone, A. [Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Univ. of Naples Federico II, Nuclear Medicine Center of the National Research Council (Italy); Salvatore, M. [Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging, Univ. of Naples Federico II, Nuclear Medicine Center of the National Research Council (Italy); Lassen, N.A. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine/Clinical Physiology, Bispebjerg Hospital, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    1996-10-01

    Iodine-123 labelled iomazenil (IMZ) is a specific tracer for the GABA{sub A} receptor, the dominant inhibitory synapse of the brain. The cerebral distribution volume (V{sub d}) of IMZ may be taken as a quantitative measure of these synapses in Alzheimer`s disease (AD), where synaptic loss tends indiscriminately to affect all cortical neurons, albeit more so in some areas than in others. In this pilot study we measured V{sub d} in six patients with probable AD and in five age-matched controls using a brain-dedicated single-photon emission tomography scanner allowing all cortical levels to be sampled simultaneously. Reduced values were found in all regions except in the occipital (visual) cortex. In particular, temporal and parietal cortex V{sub d} was significantly (P<0.02) reduced: Temporal V{sub d} averaged 69 ml/ml in normals and 51 ml/ml in AD, and parietal V{sub d} averaged 71 ml/ml in normals and 48 ml/ml in AD. These results accord well with emission tomographic studies of blood flow or labelled glucose. This supports the idea that while only measuring a subpopulation of synapses, the IMZ method reflects synaptic loss and hence functional loss in AD. The method constitutes an in vivo version of synaptic quantitation that in histopathological studies has been shown to correlated closely with the mental deterioration in AD. (orig.)

  12. Blade loss transient dynamics analysis, volume 2. Task 2: TETRA 2 user's manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Gerald; Gallardo, Vincente C.

    1986-01-01

    This is the user's manual for the TETRA 2 Computer Code, a program developed in the NASA-Lewis Blade Loss Program. TETRA 2 calculates a turbine engine's dynamic structural response from applied stimuli. The calculation options are: (1) transient response; and (2) steady state forced response. Based on the method of modal syntheses, the program allows the use of linear, as well as nonlinear connecting elements. Both transient and steady state options can include: flexible Bladed Disk Module, and Nonlinear Connecting Elements (including deadband, hardening/softening spring). The transient option has the additional capability to calculate response with a squeeze film bearing module. TETRA 2 output is summarized in a plotfile which permits post processing such as FFT or graphical animation with the proper software and computer equipment.

  13. The differential plasma proteome of obese and overweight individuals undergoing a nutritional weight loss and maintenance intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oller Moreno, Sergio; Cominetti, Ornella; Núñez Galindo, Antonio

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: The nutritional intervention program "DiOGenes" focuses on how obesity can be prevented and treated from a dietary perspective. We generated differential plasma proteome profiles in the DiOGenes cohort to identify proteins associated with weight loss and maintenance and explore their rel......PURPOSE: The nutritional intervention program "DiOGenes" focuses on how obesity can be prevented and treated from a dietary perspective. We generated differential plasma proteome profiles in the DiOGenes cohort to identify proteins associated with weight loss and maintenance and explore...... intervention. Protein relationships with clinical variables were explored using univariate linear models, considering collection center, gender and age as confounding factors. RESULTS: 473 subjects were measured at baseline and end of the intervention; 39 proteins were longitudinally differential. Proteins......-rich acidic protein 1 (PRAP1) variation and Matsuda insulin sensitivity increment was showed. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: MS-based proteomic analysis of a large cohort of non-diabetic overweight and obese individuals concomitantly identified known and novel proteins associated with weight loss...

  14. Impact of the pedestal plasma density on dynamics of edge localized mode crashes and energy loss scaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, X. Q., E-mail: xxu@llnl.gov [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Ma, J. F. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Institute for Fusion Studies, University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Li, G. Q. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China)

    2014-12-15

    The latest BOUT++ studies show an emerging understanding of dynamics of edge localized mode (ELM) crashes and the consistent collisionality scaling of ELM energy losses with the world multi-tokamak database. A series of BOUT++ simulations are conducted to investigate the scaling characteristics of the ELM energy losses vs collisionality via a density scan. Linear results demonstrate that as the pedestal collisionality decreases, the growth rate of the peeling-ballooning modes decreases for high n but increases for low n (1 < n < 5), therefore the width of the growth rate spectrum γ(n) becomes narrower and the peak growth shifts to lower n. Nonlinear BOUT++ simulations show a two-stage process of ELM crash evolution of (i) initial bursts of pressure blob and void creation and (ii) inward void propagation. The inward void propagation stirs the top of pedestal plasma and yields an increasing ELM size with decreasing collisionality after a series of micro-bursts. The pedestal plasma density plays a major role in determining the ELM energy loss through its effect on the edge bootstrap current and ion diamagnetic stabilization. The critical trend emerges as a transition (1) linearly from ballooning-dominated states at high collisionality to peeling-dominated states at low collisionality with decreasing density and (2) nonlinearly from turbulence spreading dynamics at high collisionality into avalanche-like dynamics at low collisionality.

  15. Novel system using microliter order sample volume for measuring arterial radioactivity concentrations in whole blood and plasma for mouse PET dynamic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yuichi; Seki, Chie; Hashizume, Nobuya; Yamada, Takashi; Wakizaka, Hidekatsu; Nishimoto, Takahiro; Hatano, Kentaro; Kitamura, Keishi; Toyama, Hiroshi; Kanno, Iwao

    2013-11-21

    This study aimed to develop a new system, named CD-Well, for mouse PET dynamic study. CD-Well allows the determination of time-activity curves (TACs) for arterial whole blood and plasma using 2-3 µL of blood per sample; the minute sample size is ideal for studies in small animals. The system has the following merits: (1) measures volume and radioactivity of whole blood and plasma separately; (2) allows measurements at 10 s intervals to capture initial rapid changes in the TAC; and (3) is compact and easy to handle, minimizes blood loss from sampling, and delay and dispersion of the TAC. CD-Well has 36 U-shaped channels. A drop of blood is sampled into the opening of the channel and stored there. After serial sampling is completed, CD-Well is centrifuged and scanned using a flatbed scanner to define the regions of plasma and blood cells. The length measured is converted to volume because the channels have a precise and uniform cross section. Then, CD-Well is exposed to an imaging plate to measure radioactivity. Finally, radioactivity concentrations are computed. We evaluated the performance of CD-Well in in vitro measurement and in vivo (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose and [(11)C]2-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-fluorophenyl) tropane studies. In in vitro evaluation, per cent differences (mean±SE) from manual measurement were 4.4±3.6% for whole blood and 4.0±3.5% for plasma across the typical range of radioactivity measured in mouse dynamic study. In in vivo studies, reasonable TACs were obtained. The peaks were captured well, and the time courses coincided well with the TAC derived from PET imaging of the heart chamber. The total blood loss was less than 200 µL, which had no physiological effect on the mice. CD-Well demonstrates satisfactory performance, and is useful for mouse PET dynamic study.

  16. [Extracellular fluid, plasma and interstitial volume in cirrhotic patients without clinical edema or ascites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguera Viñas, E C; Hames, W; Mothe, G; Barrionuevo, M P

    1989-01-01

    Extracellular fluid volume (E.C.F.) and plasma volume (P.V.), were measured with sodium sulfate labeled with 35I and 131I human serum albumin, respectively, by the dilution technique in control subjects and in cirrhotic patients without clinical ascites or edema, renal or hepatic failure, gastrointestinal bleeding or diuretics. Results are expressed as mean +/- DS in both ml/m2 and ml/kg. In normal subjects E.C.F. (n = 8) was 7,533 +/- 817 ml/m2 (201.3 +/- 182 ml/kg), P.V. (n = 11) 1,767 +/- 337 ml/m2 (47.2 +/- 9.3 ml/kg), and interstitial fluid (I.S.F.) (n = 7) 5,758 +/- 851 ml/m2 (Table 2). In cirrhotic patients E.C.F. (n = 11) was 10,318 +/- 2,980 ml/m2 (261.7 +/- 76.8 ml/kg), P.V. (n = 12) 2,649 +/- 558 ml/m2 (67.7 +/- 15.6 ml/kg) and I.S.F. (n = 11) 7,866 +/- 2,987 ml/m2 (Table 3). Cirrhotic patients compared with normal subjects have hypervolemia due to a significant E.C.F. and P.V. expansion (p less than 0.02 and less than 0.001 respectively) (Fig. 1). Reasons for E.C.F. and P.V. abnormalities in cirrhotic patients may reflect urinary sodium retention related to portal hipertension which stimulates aldosterone release or enhanced renal tubular sensitivity to the hormone. However, it is also possible that these patients, in the presence of hypoalbuminemia (Table 1), have no clinical edema or ascites due to increased glomerular filtration, suppressed release of vasopressin, increased natriuretic factor, and urinary prostaglandin excretion, in response to the intravascular expansion, all of which increased solute and water delivery to the distal nephron and improved renal water excretion. We conclude that in our clinical experience cirrhotic patients without ascites or edema have hypervolemia because of a disturbance in E.C.F.

  17. Investigation of the initial and volume recombination losses in gamma versatile cylindrical ionization chamber VGIC developed for gamma ray dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fares, M.; Mameri, S.; Abdlani, I.; Negara, K. [COMENA, Laboratoire Detection et Mesures, CRNB, BP no. 180 Ain-Oussera 17200 W. de Djelfa (Algeria)

    2015-07-01

    A versatile Gamma ionization chambers are used for flow control in systems with gamma nuclear reactors and reprocessing plants in and monitoring atmosphere around these facilities, this in order to protect staff. In the Laboratory Detection and Measures (LDM) Division for Study and Development of Nuclear Instrumentation (DSDNI) of CRNB, we designed, developed and characterized a versatile gamma ionization chamber (VGIC) to study experimentally its characteristics according to the geometry of the electrodes, the volume and pressure of the filler gas for the design of a gamma sealed chamber. The tests were conducted under the IEC (International Electro-technical Commission). In this paper, we present the results obtained in the various nuclear tests for characterization and calibration that we have made on the ionization chamber gamma VGIC prototype developed at our Department. To do this, three irradiators were operated at the Laboratory Calibration (SSDL) of the Department of Medical Physics Nuclear Research Center of Algiers (CRNA). Irradiator intensive gamma ({sup 60}Co: 1.25 MeV), one medium intensity gamma ({sup 137}Cs: 0.662 MeV) and 3rd low intensity ({sup 60}Co). Saturation curves and linearity were identified and the operating range and the sensitivity of the chamber have been deducted. The (I,V) characteristics of the chamber filled, with argon gas at 3 bar (0.3 M pa) pressure, for gamma ray irradiator sources were studied. To do so, the chamber was irradiated with gamma rays using different numbers of gamma sources (i.e. Up to 5). The plateau region is reached above 200 V and the detector operating voltage is found to be 600 V. It is observed that in the plateau region the slope is constant with an increase in the exposure rate. The (1/I, 1/V) and (I, l/V{sup 2}) characteristic curves reveal the presence of the initial and volume recombination losses. The volume recombination losses are found to be smaller than the initial recombination losses. Finally

  18. Plasma volume and water/sodium balance differences due to sex and menstrual phase after 4 hours of head-down bed rest (HDBR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgell, Heather; Grinberg, Anna; Beavers, Keith; Gagne, Nathalie; Totosy de Zepetnek, Julia; Greaves, Danielle; Hughson, Richard L.

    In both sexes, orthostatic responses are impaired by spaceflight or head-down bed-rest (HDBR), with a greater impact in women. Decreased plasma volume (PV) could contribute to reductions in cardiac output and blood pressure upon an orthostatic challenge. We hypothesized that a greater decrease in PV in women might lead to poorer orthostatic responses. We further hypothesized that the responses in women would differ throughout the menstrual cycle. We studied the responses of men (n=6) and women (n= 6) to 4-hr HDBR and 4-hr seated control (SEAT). Furthermore, we studied women in both the follicular (Day 8-11) and luteal (Day 18-24) phases of menstruation in a repeated measures design. After 4-hr HDBR, PV decreased in men (-175.1 ± 56.8 mL; vs. SEAT: P=0.076) and in the follicular phase, but did not change in the luteal phase (Luteal: -55.0 ± 54.6 mL; Follicular: -226.4 ± 88.2 mL (Interaction effect: P=0.01)). After 4-hr HDBR, only men appear to exhibit increased urine volume (Men, difference from SEAT: +298.3 ± 105.5 mL; Luteal, difference from SEAT: +59.4 ± 34.3 mL; Follicular, difference from SEAT: +43.7 ± 190.0 mL; P=0.16). No changes in urinary sodium after 4-hr HDBR were observed in any group (Men, difference from SEAT: -16.5 ± 13.5 µmol; Luteal, difference from SEAT: -8.0 ± 8.8 µmol; Follicular, difference from SEAT: +28.2 ± 29.5 µmol; P=0.264). No changes in urinary osmolarity were observed after 4-hr HDBR in any group (Men, difference from SEAT: -38.8 ± 126.2 mmol/kg; Luteal, difference from SEAT: -85.1 ± 66.9 mmol/kg; Follicular, difference from SEAT: -99.1 ± 98.5 mmol/kg; P=0.906). The changes in plasma volume do not appear to be a result of urinary water and sodium loss. Perhaps actions of atrial natriuretic peptide, urodilatin, the RAAS pathway, and/or capillary filtration are involved. From these observed changes in plasma volume, we surmise that women in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle may exhibit lower cardiac output and thus

  19. Reduced cortical distribution volume of iodine-123 iomazenil in Alzheimer's disease as a measure of loss of synapses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soricelli, A; Postiglione, A; Grivet-Fojaja, M R

    1996-01-01

    Iodine-123 labelled iomazenil (IMZ) is a specific tracer for the GABAA receptor, the dominant inhibitory synapse of the brain. The cerebral distribution volume (Vd) of IMZ may be taken as a quantitative measure of these synapses in Alzheimer's disease (AD), where synaptic loss tends...... indiscriminately to affect all cortical neurons, albeit more so in some areas than in others. In this pilot study we measured Vd in six patients with probable AD and in five age-matched controls using a brain-dedicated single-photon emission tomography scanner allowing all cortical levels to be sampled...... simultaneously. Reduced values were found in all regions except in the occipital (visual) cortex. In particular, temporal and parietal cortex Vd was significantly (P...

  20. Numerical investigation of the joint impact of thermophoresis and radiative losses in induction plasma synthesis of copper nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianconi, S.; Boselli, M.; Gherardi, M.; Colombo, V.

    2017-04-01

    A numerical model for the simulation of the copper nanoparticles synthesis process by an induction thermal plasma system has been developed, taking into account the joint effects of radiative losses from the metallic vapour and thermophoretic transport of the synthetized nanoparticles on the process performance; the final aim of the work is that of setting up an accurate modelling tool for design-oriented simulation and optimization of the synthesis process. Radiative losses from copper vapour and thermophoresis have been taken into account for different reaction chamber geometries (a cylindrical one and one with a conical top section) combined with different quench gas injection strategies and different power levels, in order to evaluate the impact of these phenomena in process design strategies. The numerical results show that both these phenomena have a relevant impact on the process parameters for all the investigated cases, and that they should be taken into account in order to develop increasingly accurate models for process design and optimization.

  1. Coulomb Explosion and Energy Loss of Energetic C_(20) Clusters in Dense Plasmas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Gui-Qiu; LI Wen-Kun; WANG You-Nian

    2009-01-01

    The molecular dynamics(MD)method is used to simulate the interactions of energetic C_(20) clusters with the dense plasma targets within the framework of the linear Vlasov-Poisson theory.The influences of various clusters(H_2,N_2,C_(20) and C_(60) respectively)on stopping power are discussed.The simulation results show that the vicinage effects in the Coulomb explosion dynamics and the stopping power are strongly affected by the variations in the cluster speed and the plasma parameters.Coulomb explosions axe found to proceed faster for higher speeds,lower plasma densities and higher electron temperatures.In addition,the cluster stopping power is strongly enhanced in the early stages of Coulomb explosions due to the vicinage effect,but this enhancement eventually diminishes,after the cluster constituent ions are sufficiently separated.For the large and heavy clusters,the stopping power ratio reaches much higher values in the early stage of Coulomb explosion owing to the constructive interferences in the vicinage effect.

  2. A rotating directional probe for the measurements of fast ion losses and plasma rotation at Tokamak Experiment for Technology Oriented Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rack, M; Liang, Y; Jaegers, H; Assmann, J; Satheeswaran, G; Xu, Y; Pearson, J; Yang, Y; Denner, P; Zeng, L

    2013-08-01

    This work discusses a new directional probe designed for measurements of fast ion losses and the plasma rotation with a high angular resolution in magnetically confined plasmas. Directional and especially Mach probes are commonly used diagnostics for plasma flow measurements, and their applicability for the fast ion losses detection has been demonstrated. A limitation of static Mach probes is their low angular resolution. At the Tokamak Experiment for Technology Oriented Research, the angular resolution is strongly restricted by the finite number of available measurement channels. In a dynamic plasma, where instabilities can lead to local changes of the field line pitch-angle, plasma flow, or fast ion losses, a low angular resolution makes a precise data analysis difficult and reduces the quality of the measured data. The new probe design, the rotating directional probe, combines the features of early directional probes and Mach probes. It consists of two radially aligned arrays of nine Langmuir probe pins with each array facing opposite directions. During the measurement the probe head rotates along its axis to measure the ion saturation current from all directions. As a result, the rotating directional probe simultaneously provides an angular dependent plasma flow and fast ion losses measurement at different radial positions. Based on the angular dependent data, a precise determination of the current density is made. In addition, the simultaneous measurement of the ion saturation current at different radial positions allows for resolving radially varying field line pitch-angles and identifying the radial dynamic of processes like fast ion losses.

  3. Relationship between Visceral Adiposity and Plasma Adiponectin Concentration: Effect of Weight Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Nasseri

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adiponectin is an anti-inflammatory and antiatherogenic protein that has a protective effect against athero­sclero­sis and diabetes. It is exclusively secreted by adipose tissue. Serum adiponectin levels are inversely associated with pa­rame­ters of overall adiposity including body mass index (BMI, fat mass, and percentage of body fat. Methods: In a cross-sectional study of 76 women we sought to evaluate if adiponectin is associated primarily with central adi­pos­ity rather than overall adiposity. We also assessed adiponectin changes after weight loss in a subgroup of 42 obese sub­jects.Results: Waist to hip ratio (WHR, an index of central obesity, was the only variable independently associated to adi­ponectin (Beta= 0.25, P< 0.05. A mean increase of 8.2±24.2% in adiponectin concentration was observed in response to the dietary restriction and weight loss (P= 0.03. Our findings provide evidence for association of serum adiponectin level with visceral fat, represented by waist to hip ratio index.Conclusion: Moderate weight loss result in significant improvements in adiponectin concentration and provide another bio­logi­cal explanation for the beneficial effect of body weight loss on reducing cardiovascular and diabetes risks in obese pa­tients.

  4. The volume-expanding effects of autologous liquid stored plasma following hemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzer, Peter; Thomas, Owain D; Westborg, Johan;

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background. Plasma use has increased since studies have suggested that early treatment with blood components in trauma with severe hemorrhage may improve outcome. Plasma is also commonly used to correct coagulation disturbances in non-bleeding patients. Little is known about the effects...

  5. The influence of laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding and laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy on weight loss, plasma ghrelin, insulin, glucose and lipids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hady Razak Hady

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the impact of laparoscopic gastric banding and laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy on the concentration of ghrelin, insulin, glucose, triglycerides, total and HDL-cholesterol, as well as AST and ALT levels in plasma in patients with obesity. The research includes 200 patients operated using LAGB (34 men average age 37.0 ± 12.6 years and 66 women average age 39.18 ± 12.17 years and LSG (48 men average age 47.93 ± 9.24 years and 52 women, 19 ± 9.33 years. The percentage of effective weight loss, effective BMI loss, concentration of ghrelin, insulin, glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, ALT, AST and HOMA IR values was taken preoperatively and at 7th day, 1 month, 3 and 6 months after surgery. Both after LSG and after LAGB, statistically significant reduction in BMI, serum insulin, glucose and HOMA IR was noticed in comparison to the preoperative values. Post LAGB, patients showed an increase of ghrelin, while LSG proved ghrelin decreased. Correlations between glucose and BMI loss, and between insulin and BMI loss in both cases are more favorable in the LSG group. Lipid parameters, AST and ALT have undergone declines or  increases in the particular time points. Both techniques cause weight loss and this way lead to changes in the concentration of ghrelin, as well as to the improvement of insulin, glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides metabolism. They reduce metabolic syndrome and multiple comorbidities of obesity.

  6. Progressive striatal and hippocampal volume loss in initially antipsychotic-naive, first-episode schizophrenia patients treated with quetiapine: relationship to dose and symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ebdrup, Bjørn H; Skimminge, Arnold; Rasmussen, Hans;

    2011-01-01

    -weighted images (3 T) from 22 patients and 28 matched healthy controls were analysed using tensor-based morphometry. Non-parametric voxel-wise group comparisons were performed. Small volume correction was employed for striatum, hippocampus and ventricles. Dose-dependent medication effects and associations...... scarcely been investigated. Here we investigated structural brain changes in antipsychotic-naive, first-episode schizophrenia patients after 6 months treatment with the SGA, quetiapine. We have recently reported on baseline volume reductions in the caudate nucleus and hippocampus. Baseline and follow-up T1...... with psychopathology were assessed. Patients had significant bilateral striatal and hippocampal loss over the 6-month treatment period. When compared to controls the striatal volume loss was most pronounced with low quetiapine doses and less apparent with high doses. Post-hoc analyses revealed that the striatal volume...

  7. Low density lipoprotein for oxidation and metabolic studies. Isolation from small volumes of plasma using a tabletop ultracentrifuge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himber, J; Bühler, E; Moll, D; Moser, U K

    1995-01-01

    A rapid method is described for the isolation of small volumes of plasma low density lipoprotein (LDL) free of plasma protein contaminants using the TL-100 Tabletop Ultracentrifuge (Beckman). The isolation of LDL was achieved by a 25 min discontinuous gradient density centrifugation between the density range of 1.006 and 1.21 g/ml, recovery of LDL by tube slicing followed by a 90 min flotation step (d = 1.12 g/ml). The purity of LDL and apolipoprotein B100 (apo B100) were monitored by agarose electrophoresis, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), radial immunodiffusion and micropreparative fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC). The ability of LDL oxidation was assessed by following absorbance at 234 nm after addition of copper ions. The functional integrity of the isolated LDL was checked by clearance kinetics after injection of [125I]-labelled LDL in estrogen-treated rats. The additional purification step led to LDL fractions free of protein contamination and left apo B100, alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene intact. The LDL prepared in this way was free of albumin, as evident from analytic tests and from its enhanced oxidative modification by copper ions. Used for analytical purposes, this method allows LDL preparations from plasma volumes up to 570 microliters. This method is also convenient for metabolic studies in small animals, especially those relating to the determination of kinetic parameters of LDL in which LDL-apo B100 has to be specifically radiolabelled.

  8. Dynamical energy loss as a novel Quark-Gluon Plasma tomographic tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjevic, Magdalena

    2016-12-01

    High momentum suppression of light and heavy flavor observables is considered to be an excellent probe of jet-medium interactions in QCD matter created at RHIC and LHC. Utilizing this tool requires accurate suppression predictions for different experiments, probes and experimental conditions, and their unbiased comparison with experimental data. With this goal, we developed the dynamical energy loss formalism towards generating predictions for non-central collisions; the formalism takes into account both radiative and collisional energy loss computed within the same theoretical framework, dynamical (as opposed to static) scattering centers, finite magnetic mass, running coupling and uses no free parameters in comparison with experimental data. Within this formalism, we provided predictions, and a systematic comparison with experimental data, for a diverse set of suppression data: all available light and heavy flavor probes, lower and high momentum ranges, various centrality ranges and various collision energies at RHIC and LHC. We here also provide clear qualitative and quantitative predictions for soon to become available LHC experimental data. Comprehensive agreement between our predictions and experimental results provides a good deal of confidence that our dynamical energy loss formalism can well explain the jet-medium interactions in QGP, which will be further tested by the obtained predictions for the upcoming data. Application of this model, as a novel high-precision tomographic tool of QGP medium, are also discussed.

  9. Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of low- loss as-grown germanosilicate layers for optical waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ay, Feridun; Agan, Sedat; Aydinli, Atilla

    2004-08-01

    We report on systematic growth and characterization of low-loss germanosilicate layers for use in optical waveguides. Plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) technique was used to grow the films using silane, germane and nitrous oxide as precursor gases. Chemical composition was monitored by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. N-H bond concentration of the films decreased from 0.43x1022 cm-3 down to below 0.06x1022 cm-3, by a factor of seven as the GeH4 flow rate increased from 0 to 70 sccm. A simultaneous decrease of O-H related bonds was also observed by a factor of 10 in the same germane flow range. The measured TE rate increased from 5 to 50 sccm, respectively. In contrast, the propagation loss values for TE polarization at λ=632.8 nm were found to increase from are 0.20 +/- 0.02 to 6.46 +/- 0.04 dB/cm as the germane flow rate increased from 5 to 50 sccm, respectively. In contrast, the propagation loss values for TE polarization at λ=1550 nm were found to decrease from 0.32 +/- 0.03 down to 0.14 +/- 0.06 dB/cm for the same samples leading to the lowest values reported so far in the literature, eliminating the need for high temperature annealing as is usually done for these materials to be used in waveguide devices.

  10. von Willebrand Factor and Prekallikrein in Plasma Are Associated With Thrombus Volume in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghulam, Qasam M; Bredahl, Kim K; Gram, Jørgen B;

    2016-01-01

    anticoagulant therapy, renal impairment, or nonappearance, thus leaving 30 patients for further analysis. All patients had computed tomography angiography, and intraluminal volume was quantified off-line by OsiriX 6.5. RESULTS: Median intraluminal thrombus volume was 42.7 mL. Spearman correlation analysis...

  11. How Would Rural Hospitals Be Affected by Loss of the Affordable Care Act's Medicare Low-Volume Hospital Adjustment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Rebecca Garr; Holmes, G Mark; Pink, George H

    2017-04-01

    The low-volume hospital (LVH) payment adjustment established in the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) of 2010 is scheduled to sunset on October 1, 2017. The purpose of this analysis was: (1) to estimate the effect of the ACA LVH adjustment on qualifying hospitals' profitability margins; and (2) to examine hospital and market characteristics of the hospitals that would be most adversely affected by the loss of the ACA LVH adjustment. 2004-2015 data from the Hospital Cost Report Information System, Hospital Market Service Area File and Nielsen-Claritas Pop-Facts file were used to estimate difference-in-difference regression models with hospital-level random effects in order to determine whether the ACA LVH adjustment improved qualifying rural hospitals' profitability margins. Recycled predictions estimated the effect of losing the ACA LVH adjustment on profitability margins. Bivariate analyses explored associations between the predicted profitability margins and hospital and market characteristics. The ACA LVH adjustment significantly improved Sole Community Hospitals' Medicare inpatient margins in the year they received the adjustment, and it had a large but statistically insignificant effect on the profitability margins of other rural hospitals. Hospitals that would be the most adversely affected by loss of the ACA LVH adjustment were more likely to be small, located in the South, and in high-poverty markets with higher proportions of black and uninsured individuals. Elimination of the ACA LVH adjustment would have differential effects on subgroups of hospitals, and those located in markets serving historically underserved populations would be the most adversely affected. © 2016 National Rural Health Association.

  12. Whole-volume integrated gyrokinetic simulation of plasma turbulence in realistic diverted-tokamak geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, C S; Ku, S; Greengard, L; Park, G [Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, NY 10012 (United States); Diamond, P; Dif-Pradalier, G [University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093 (United States); Adams, M; Keyes, D [Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Barreto, R; D' Azevedo, E; Klasky, S; Podhorszki, N [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Chen, Y; Parker, S [University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Cummings, J [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Ethier, S; Hahm, T S [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Hinton, F [Hinton Associates, Escondido, CA 92029 (United States); Lin, Z [University of California at Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697 (United States); Lofstead, J, E-mail: cschang@cims.nyu.ed [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Performance prediction for ITER is based upon the ubiquitous experimental observation that the plasma energy confinement in the device core is strongly coupled to the edge confinement for an unknown reason. The coupling time-scale is much shorter than the plasma transport time-scale. In order to understand this critical observation, a multi-scale turbulence-neoclassical simulation of integrated edge-core plasma in a realistic diverted geometry is a necessity, but has been a formidable task. Thanks to the recent development in high performance computing, we have succeeded in the integrated multiscale gyrokinetic simulation of the ion-temperature-gradient driven turbulence in realistic diverted tokamak geometry for the first time. It is found that modification of the self-organized criticality in the core plasma by nonlocal core-edge coupling of ITG turbulence can be responsible for the core-edge confinement coupling.

  13. Whole-volume integrated gyrokinetc simulation of plasma turbulence in realistic diverted-tokamak geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, C S [New York University; Ku, Seung-Hoe [New York University; Diamond, Patrick [Columbia University; Adams, Mark [Columbia University; Tchoua, Roselyne B [ORNL; Chen, Yang [University of Colorado, Boulder; Cummings, Julian [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena; D' Azevedo, Eduardo [ORNL; Dif-Pradalier, Guilhem [University of California, San Diego; Ethier, Stephane [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Greengard, Leslie [New York University; Hahm, Taik Soo [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Hinton, Fred [University of California, San Diego; Keyes, David E [Columbia University; Klasky, Scott A [ORNL; Lin, Zhihong [University of California, Irvine; Lofstead, J. [Georgia Institute of Technology; Park, G. [New York University; Parker, Scott [University of Colorado, Boulder; Podhorszki, Norbert [ORNL; Schwan, Karsten [Georgia Institute of Technology; Shoshani, A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Silver, D. [Rutgers University; Weitzner, Harold [New York University; Wolf, M. [Georgia Institute of Technology; Worley, Patrick H [ORNL; Yoon, E. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Zorin, Denis [New York University

    2009-01-01

    Performance prediction for ITER is based upon the ubiquitous experimental observation that the plasma energy confinement in the device core is strongly coupled to the edge confinement for an unknown reason. The coupling time-scale is much shorter than the plasma transport time-scale. In order to understand this critical observation, a multi-scale turbulence-neoclassical simulation of integrated edge-core plasma in a realistic diverted geometry is a necessity, but has been a formidable task. Thanks to the recent development in high performance computing, we have succeeded in the integrated multiscale gyrokinetic simulation of the ion-temperature-gradient driven turbulence in realistic diverted tokamak geometry for the first time. It is found that modification of the self-organized criticality in the core plasma by nonlocal core-edge coupling of ITG turbulence can be responsible for the core-edge confinement coupling.

  14. Whole-volume integrated gyrokinetic simulation of plasma turbulence in realistic diverted-tokamak geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C. S.; Ku, S.; Diamond, P.; Adams, M.; Barreto, R.; Chen, Y.; Cummings, J.; D'Azevedo, E.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Ethier, S.; Greengard, L.; Hahm, T. S.; Hinton, F.; Keyes, D.; Klasky, S.; Lin, Z.; Lofstead, J.; Park, G.; Parker, S.; Podhorszki, N.; Schwan, K.; Shoshani, A.; Silver, D.; Wolf, M.; Worley, P.; Weitzner, H.; Yoon, E.; Zorin, D.

    2009-07-01

    Performance prediction for ITER is based upon the ubiquitous experimental observation that the plasma energy confinement in the device core is strongly coupled to the edge confinement for an unknown reason. The coupling time-scale is much shorter than the plasma transport time-scale. In order to understand this critical observation, a multi-scale turbulence-neoclassical simulation of integrated edge-core plasma in a realistic diverted geometry is a necessity, but has been a formidable task. Thanks to the recent development in high performance computing, we have succeeded in the integrated multiscale gyrokinetic simulation of the ion-temperature-gradient driven turbulence in realistic diverted tokamak geometry for the first time. It is found that modification of the self-organized criticality in the core plasma by nonlocal core-edge coupling of ITG turbulence can be responsible for the core-edge confinement coupling.

  15. Whole-volume integrated gyrokinetic simulation of plasma turbulence in realistic diverted-tokamak geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, C S [New York University; Ku, Seung-Hoe [New York University; Diamond, P. H. [University of California, San Diego; Adams, Mark [Columbia University; Tchoua, Roselyne B [ORNL; Chen, Yang [University of Colorado, Boulder; Cummings, J. [California Institute of Technology, University of California, Davis; D' Azevedo, Ed F [ORNL; Dif-Pradalier, Guilhem [University of California, San Diego; Ethier, Stephane [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Greengard, Leslie [New York University; Hahm, Taik Soo [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Hinton, Fred [University of California, San Diego; Keyes, David E [Columbia University; Klasky, Scott A [ORNL; Lin, Z. [University of California, Irvine; Lofstead, J. [Georgia Institute of Technology; Park, G. [New York University; Podhorszki, Norbert [ORNL; Schwan, Karsten [Georgia Institute of Technology; Shoshani, A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Silver, D. [Rutgers University; Wolf, M. [Georgia Institute of Technology; Worley, Patrick H [ORNL; Zorin, Denis [New York University

    2009-01-01

    Performance prediction for ITER is based upon the ubiquitous experimental observation that the plasma energy confinement in the device core is strongly coupled to the edge confinement for an unknown reason. The coupling time-scale is much shorter than the plasma transport time-scale. In order to understand this critical observation, a multi-scale turbulence-neoclassical simulation of integrated edge-core plasma in a realistic diverted geometry is a necessity, but has been a formidable task. Thanks to the recent development in high performance computing, we have succeeded in the integrated multiscale gyrokinetic simulation of the ion-temperature-gradient driven turbulence in realistic diverted tokamak geometry for the first time. It is found that modification of the self-organized criticality in the core plasma by nonlocal core-edge coupling of ITG turbulence can be responsible for the core-edge confinement coupling.

  16. Effects of Diet Composition and Insulin Resistance Status on Plasma Lipid Levels in a Weight Loss Intervention in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Tran; Flatt, Shirley W; Natarajan, Loki; Pakiz, Bilge; Quintana, Elizabeth L; Heath, Dennis D; Rana, Brinda K; Rock, Cheryl L

    2016-01-25

    Optimal macronutrient distribution of weight loss diets has not been established. The distribution of energy from carbohydrate and fat has been observed to promote differential plasma lipid responses in previous weight loss studies, and insulin resistance status may interact with diet composition and affect weight loss and lipid responses. Overweight and obese women (n=245) were enrolled in a 1-year behavioral weight loss intervention and randomly assigned to 1 of 3 study groups: a lower fat (20% energy), higher carbohydrate (65% energy) diet; a lower carbohydrate (45% energy), higher fat (35% energy) diet; or a walnut-rich, higher fat (35% energy), lower carbohydrate (45% energy) diet. Blood samples and data available from 213 women at baseline and at 6 months were the focus of this analysis. Triglycerides, total cholesterol, and high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol were quantified and compared between and within groups. Triglycerides decreased in all study arms at 6 months (Pdiet increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol more than either the lower fat or lower carbohydrate diet (Pdiet also reduced low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in insulin-sensitive women, whereas the lower fat diet reduced both total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in insulin-sensitive women (Pdiet groups, although insulin-sensitive women lost more weight with a lower fat, higher carbohydrate diet versus a higher fat, lower carbohydrate diet. The walnut-rich, higher fat diet resulted in the most favorable changes in lipid levels. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01424007. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  17. Plasma volume expansion does not increase maximal cardiac output or VO2 max in lowlanders acclimatized to altitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calbet, José A L; Rådegran, Göran; Boushel, Robert Christopher

    2004-01-01

    With altitude acclimatization, blood hemoglobin concentration increases while plasma volume (PV) and maximal cardiac output (Qmax) decrease. This investigation aimed to determine whether reduction of Qmax at altitude is due to low circulating blood volume (BV). Eight Danish lowlanders (3 females, 5...... males: age 24.0 +/- 0.6 yr; mean +/- SE) performed submaximal and maximal exercise on a cycle ergometer after 9 wk at 5,260 m altitude (Mt. Chacaltaya, Bolivia). This was done first with BV resulting from acclimatization (BV = 5.40 +/- 0.39 liters) and again 2-4 days later, 1 h after PV expansion with 1...... level Qmax and exercise capacity were restored with hyperoxia at altitude independently of BV. Low BV is not a primary cause for reduction of Qmax at altitude when acclimatized. Furthermore, hemodilution caused by PV expansion at altitude is compensated for by increased systemic O2 extraction...

  18. Short path length pQCD corrections to energy loss in the quark gluon plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Kolbe, Isobel

    2015-01-01

    Recent surprising discoveries of collective behaviour of low-$p_T$ particles in $pA$ collisions at LHC hint at the creation of a hot, fluid-like QGP medium. The seemingly conflicting measurements of non-zero particle correlations and $R_{pA}$ that appears to be consistent with unity demand a more careful analysis of the mechanisms at work in such ostensibly minuscule systems. We study the way in which energy is dissipated in the QGP created in $pA$ collisions by calculating, in pQCD, the short separation distance corrections to the well-known DGLV energy loss formulae that have produced excellent predictions for $AA$ collisions. We find that, shockingly, due to the large formation time (compared to the $1/\\mu$ Debye screening length) assumption that was used in the original DGLV calculation, a highly non-trivial cancellation of correction terms results in a null short path length correction to the DGLV energy loss formula. We investigate the effect of relaxing the large formation time assumption in the final ...

  19. Observations of Recent Arctic Sea Ice Volume Loss and Its Impact on Ocean-Atmosphere Energy Exchange and Ice Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, N. T.; Markus, T.; Farrell, S. L.; Worthen, D. L.; Boisvert, L. N.

    2011-01-01

    Using recently developed techniques we estimate snow and sea ice thickness distributions for the Arctic basin through the combination of freeboard data from the Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) and a snow depth model. These data are used with meteorological data and a thermodynamic sea ice model to calculate ocean-atmosphere heat exchange and ice volume production during the 2003-2008 fall and winter seasons. The calculated heat fluxes and ice growth rates are in agreement with previous observations over multiyear ice. In this study, we calculate heat fluxes and ice growth rates for the full distribution of ice thicknesses covering the Arctic basin and determine the impact of ice thickness change on the calculated values. Thinning of the sea ice is observed which greatly increases the 2005-2007 fall period ocean-atmosphere heat fluxes compared to those observed in 2003. Although there was also a decline in sea ice thickness for the winter periods, the winter time heat flux was found to be less impacted by the observed changes in ice thickness. A large increase in the net Arctic ocean-atmosphere heat output is also observed in the fall periods due to changes in the areal coverage of sea ice. The anomalously low sea ice coverage in 2007 led to a net ocean-atmosphere heat output approximately 3 times greater than was observed in previous years and suggests that sea ice losses are now playing a role in increasing surface air temperatures in the Arctic.

  20. Irvalec inserts into the plasma membrane causing rapid loss of integrity and necrotic cell death in tumor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M Molina-Guijarro

    Full Text Available Irvalec is a marine-derived antitumor agent currently undergoing phase II clinical trials. In vitro, Irvalec induces a rapid loss of membrane integrity in tumor cells, accompanied of a significant Ca(2+ influx, perturbations of membrane conductivity, severe swelling and the formation of giant membranous vesicles. All these effects are not observed in Irvalec-resistant cells, or are significantly delayed by pretreating the cells with Zn(2+. Using fluorescent derivatives of Irvalec it was demonstrated that the compound rapidly interacts with the plasma membrane of tumor cells promoting lipid bilayer restructuration. Also, FRET experiments demonstrated that Irvalec molecules localize in the cell membrane close enough to each other as to suggest that the compound could self-organize, forming supramolecular structures that likely trigger cell death by necrosis through the disruption of membrane integrity.

  1. The Sensitivity of Arctic Ozone Loss to Polar Stratospheric Cloud Volume and Chlorine and Bromine Loading in a Chemistry and Transport Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass, A. R.; Stolarski, R. S.; Strahan, S. E.; Polansky, B. C.

    2006-01-01

    The sensitivity of Arctic ozone loss to polar stratospheric cloud volume (V(sub PSC)) and chlorine and bromine loading is explored using chemistry and transport models (CTMs). A simulation using multi-decadal output from a general circulation model (GCM) in the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) CTM complements one recycling a single year s GCM output in the Global Modeling Initiative (GMI) CTM. Winter polar ozone loss in the GSFC CTM depends on equivalent effective stratospheric chlorine (EESC) and polar vortex characteristics (temperatures, descent, isolation, polar stratospheric cloud amount). Polar ozone loss in the GMI CTM depends only on changes in EESC as the dynamics repeat annually. The GSFC CTM simulation reproduces a linear relationship between ozone loss and Vpsc derived from observations for 1992 - 2003 which holds for EESC within approx.85% of its maximum (approx.1990 - 2020). The GMI simulation shows that ozone loss varies linearly with EESC for constant, high V(sub PSC).

  2. Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition of low-loss SiON optical waveguides at 15-microm wavelength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, F; Guidice, M D; Recca, R; Testa, F

    1991-11-01

    Good optical-quality SiON layers deposited upon a SiO(2) buffer layer placed upon silicon wafers have been obtained by using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition from SiH(4), NH(3), and N(2)O. Optical planar waveguides with a thickness of 5 microm and a refractive index of 1.470 have been deposited and investigated in the wavelength region of 1.3-1.6 microm. Three absorption bands at 1.40, 1.48, and 1.54 microm have been detected and interpreted as Si-OH, N-H, and Si-H vibrational modes, respectively. Absorption losses of 3.8 dB/cm at 1.4 microm and 3.2 dB/cm at 1.51 microm have been measured. A mild annealing at approximately 800 degrees C completely removes the band at 1.40 microm, whereas strong reduction of absorption at 1.51 microm requires 3 h of annealing at 1100 degrees C. As a result, propagation losses of 0.36 to 0.54 dB/cm have been measured at 1.54-microm wavelength.

  3. Mechanisms of plasma disruption and runaway electron losses in the TEXTOR tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullaev, S. S.; Finken, K. H.; Wongrach, K.; Tokar, M.; Koslowski, H. R.; Willi, O.; Zeng, L.; Zeng

    2015-10-01

    > . The thermal quench (TQ) time caused by the fast electron transport in a stochastic magnetic field is calculated using the collisional transport model. The current quench (CQ) stage is due to the particle transport in a stochastic magnetic field. The RE beam current is modelled as a sum of a toroidally symmetric part and a small-amplitude helical current with a predominant component. The REs are lost due to two effects: (i) by outward drift of electrons in a toroidal electric field until they touch the wall and (ii) by the formation of a stochastic layer of REs at the beam edge. Such a stochastic layer for high-energy REs is formed in the presence of the MHD mode. It has a mixed topological structure with a stochastic region open to the wall. The effect of external resonant magnetic perturbations on RE loss is discussed. A possible cause of the sudden MHD signals accompanied by RE bursts is explained by the redistribution of runaway current during the resonant interaction of high-energetic electron orbits with the MHD mode.

  4. Plasma Taurine, Diabetes Genetic Predisposition, and Changes of Insulin Sensitivity in Response to Weight-Loss Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yan; Ceglarek, Uta; Huang, Tao; Wang, Tiange; Heianza, Yoriko; Ma, Wenjie; Bray, George A; Thiery, Joachim; Sacks, Frank M; Qi, Lu

    2016-10-01

    Taurine metabolism disturbance is closely linked to obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes. Previous evidence suggested that the preventative effects of taurine on diabetes might be through regulating the expression levels of diabetes-related genes. We estimated whether blood taurine levels modified the overall genetic susceptibility to diabetes on improvement of insulin sensitivity in a randomized dietary trial. We genotyped 31 diabetes-associated variants to calculate a genetic risk score (GRS) and measured plasma taurine levels and glycemic traits among participants from the Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies (POUNDS Lost) trial. Seven-hundred eleven overweight or obese participants (age 30-70 y; 60% females) had genetic variants genotyped and blood taurine levels measured. Participants went on 2-year weight-loss diets, which were different in macronutrient composition. Improvements in glycemic traits were measured. We found that baseline taurine levels significantly modified the effects of diabetes GRS on changes in fasting glucose, insulin, and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) during the 2-year diet intervention (P-interaction = .04, .01, .002, respectively), regardless of weight loss. High baseline taurine levels were associated with a less reduction in both glucose and HOMA-IR among the participants with the lowest tertile of diabetes GRS (both P = .02), and with a greater reduction in both insulin and HOMA-IR among those with the highest tertile of diabetes GRS (both P = .04). Our data suggest that blood taurine levels might differentially modulate the effects of diabetes-related genes on improvement of insulin sensitivity among overweight/obese patients on weight-loss diets.

  5. Fatigue testing of plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coatings, volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruse, T. A.; Nagy, A.; Popelar, C. F.

    1990-01-01

    A plasma sprayed thermal barrier coating for diesel engines were fatigue tested. Candidate thermal barrier coating materials were fatigue screened and a data base was generated for the selected candidate material. Specimen configurations are given for the bend fatigue tests, along with test setup, specimen preparation, test matrix and procedure, and data analysis.

  6. Fatigue testing of plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coatings, Volume 2. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruse, T.A.; Nagy, A.; Popelar, C.F.

    1990-07-01

    A plasma sprayed thermal barrier coating for diesel engines were fatigue tested. Candidate thermal barrier coating materials were fatigue screened and a data base was generated for the selected candidate material. Specimen configurations are given for the bend fatigue tests, along with test setup, specimen preparation, test matrix and procedure, and data analysis.

  7. Riluzole protects Huntington disease patients from brain glucose hypometabolism and grey matter volume loss and increases production of neurotrophins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Squitieri, Ferdinando; Orobello, Sara; Cannella, Milena; Martino, Tiziana [IRCCS Neuromed, Neurogenetics Unit and Centre for Rare Disease, Pozzilli (Italy); Romanelli, Pantaleo [IRCCS Neuromed, Department of Neurosurgery, Pozzilli (Italy); Giovacchini, Giampiero; Ciarmiello, Andrea [S. Andrea Hospital, Unit of Nuclear Medicine, La Spezia (Italy); Frati, Luigi [University ' ' Sapienza' ' , Department of Experimental Medicine, Rome (Italy); Mansi, Luigi [Second University of Naples, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Naples (Italy)

    2009-07-15

    Huntington disease (HD) mutation increases gain-of-toxic functions contributing to glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity. Riluzole interferes with glutamatergic neurotransmission, thereby reducing excitotoxicity, enhancing neurite formation in damaged motoneurons and increasing serum concentrations of BDNF, a brain cortex neurotrophin protecting striatal neurons from degeneration. We investigated metabolic and volumetric differences in distinct brain areas between 11 riluzole-treated and 12 placebo-treated patients by MRI and {sup 18}F-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) PET scanning, according to fully automated protocols. We also investigated the influence of riluzole on peripheral growth factor blood levels. Placebo-treated patients showed significantly greater proportional volume loss of grey matter and decrease in metabolic FDG uptake than patients treated with riluzole in all cortical areas (p<0.05). The decreased rate of metabolic FDG uptake correlated with worsening clinical scores in placebo-treated patients, compared to those who were treated with riluzole. The progressive decrease in metabolic FDG uptake observed in the frontal, parietal and occipital cortex correlated linearly with the severity of motor scores calculated by Unified Huntington Disease Rating Scale (UHDRS-I) in placebo-treated patients. Similarly, the rate of metabolic changes in the frontal and temporal areas of the brain cortex correlated linearly with worsening behavioural scores calculated by UHDRS-III in the placebo-treated patients. Finally, BDNF and transforming growth factor beta-1 serum levels were significantly higher in patients treated with riluzole. The linear correlation between decreased metabolic FDG uptake and worsening clinical scores in the placebo-treated patients suggests that FDG-PET may be a valuable procedure to assess brain markers of HD. (orig.)

  8. Progressive volume loss and white matter degeneration in cstb-deficient mice: a diffusion tensor and longitudinal volumetry MRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto Manninen

    Full Text Available Unverricht-Lundborg type progressive myoclonus epilepsy (EPM1, OMIM 254800 is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by onset at the age of 6 to 16 years, incapacitating stimulus-sensitive myoclonus and tonic-clonic epileptic seizures. It is caused by mutations in the gene encoding cystatin B. Previously, widespread white matter changes and atrophy has been detected both in adult EPM1 patients and in 6-month-old cystatin B-deficient mice, a mouse model for the EPM1 disease. In order to elucidate the spatiotemporal dynamics of the brain atrophy and white matter changes in EPM1, we conducted longitudinal in vivo magnetic resonance imaging and ex vivo diffusion tensor imaging accompanied with tract-based spatial statistics analysis to compare volumetric changes and fractional anisotropy in the brains of 1 to 6 months of age cystatin B-deficient and control mice. The results reveal progressive but non-uniform volume loss of the cystatin B-deficient mouse brains, indicating that different neuronal populations possess distinct sensitivity to the damage caused by cystatin B deficiency. The diffusion tensor imaging data reveal early and progressive white matter alterations in cystatin B-deficient mice affecting all major tracts. The results also indicate that the white matter damage in the cystatin B-deficient brain is most likely secondary to glial activation and neurodegenerative events rather than a primary result of CSTB deficiency. The data also show that diffusion tensor imaging combined with TBSS analysis provides a feasible approach not only to follow white matter damage in neurodegenerative mouse models but also to detect fractional anisotropy changes related to normal white matter maturation and reorganisation.

  9. Detection of volume loss in hippocampal layers in Alzheimer's disease using 7 T MRI: A feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Boutet

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In Alzheimer's disease (AD, the hippocampus is an early site of tau pathology and neurodegeneration. Histological studies have shown that lesions are not uniformly distributed within the hippocampus. Moreover, alterations of different hippocampal layers may reflect distinct pathological processes. 7 T MRI dramatically improves the visualization of hippocampal subregions and layers. In this study, we aimed to assess whether 7 T MRI can detect volumetric changes in hippocampal layers in vivo in patients with AD. We studied four AD patients and seven control subjects. MR images were acquired using a whole-body 7 T scanner with an eight channel transmit–receive coil. Hippocampal subregions were manually segmented from coronal T2*-weighted gradient echo images with 0.3 × 0.3 × 1.2 mm3 resolution using a protocol that distinguishes between layers richer or poorer in neuronal bodies. Five subregions were segmented in the region of the hippocampal body: alveus, strata radiatum, lacunosum and moleculare (SRLM of the cornu Ammonis (CA, hilum, stratum pyramidale of CA and stratum pyramidale of the subiculum. We found strong bilateral reductions in the SRLM of the cornu Ammonis and in the stratum pyramidale of the subiculum (p < 0.05, with average cross-sectional area reductions ranging from −29% to −49%. These results show that it is possible to detect volume loss in distinct hippocampal layers using segmentation of 7 T MRI. 7 T MRI-based segmentation is a promising tool for AD research.

  10. Detection of volume loss in hippocampal layers in Alzheimer's disease using 7 T MRI: A feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutet, Claire; Chupin, Marie; Lehéricy, Stéphane; Marrakchi-Kacem, Linda; Epelbaum, Stéphane; Poupon, Cyril; Wiggins, Christopher; Vignaud, Alexandre; Hasboun, Dominique; Defontaines, Bénédicte; Hanon, Olivier; Dubois, Bruno; Sarazin, Marie; Hertz-Pannier, Lucie; Colliot, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    In Alzheimer's disease (AD), the hippocampus is an early site of tau pathology and neurodegeneration. Histological studies have shown that lesions are not uniformly distributed within the hippocampus. Moreover, alterations of different hippocampal layers may reflect distinct pathological processes. 7 T MRI dramatically improves the visualization of hippocampal subregions and layers. In this study, we aimed to assess whether 7 T MRI can detect volumetric changes in hippocampal layers in vivo in patients with AD. We studied four AD patients and seven control subjects. MR images were acquired using a whole-body 7 T scanner with an eight channel transmit–receive coil. Hippocampal subregions were manually segmented from coronal T2*-weighted gradient echo images with 0.3 × 0.3 × 1.2 mm3 resolution using a protocol that distinguishes between layers richer or poorer in neuronal bodies. Five subregions were segmented in the region of the hippocampal body: alveus, strata radiatum, lacunosum and moleculare (SRLM) of the cornu Ammonis (CA), hilum, stratum pyramidale of CA and stratum pyramidale of the subiculum. We found strong bilateral reductions in the SRLM of the cornu Ammonis and in the stratum pyramidale of the subiculum (p < 0.05), with average cross-sectional area reductions ranging from −29% to −49%. These results show that it is possible to detect volume loss in distinct hippocampal layers using segmentation of 7 T MRI. 7 T MRI-based segmentation is a promising tool for AD research. PMID:25161900

  11. Volume de enxurrada e perda de solo em estradas florestais em condições de chuva natural Runoff volume and soil loss from forest roads under normal rainfall conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Reis Garcia

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram determinados o volume total de água escoada e a perda de solo através da produção de sedimentos provenientes de segmentos de estradas florestais em condições de chuva natural, com diferentes valores de precipitações. As inclinações dos segmentos de 1 e 7% foram analisadas, enquanto os comprimentos variaram de 20 e 40 m, com 4 m de largura. Os segmentos de estrada foram delimitados com tábuas de 0,30 m de largura, envolvidas em lona plástica, para sua impermeabilização. Os dados de volume e intensidade de precipitação diária foram obtidos com a instalação de pluviômetro e pluviógrafo no local. O período de coleta de dados foi de um ano, concentrando-se na época das chuvas. O volume de enxurrada foi mais afetado pelo comprimento do segmento, ao passo que a massa de solo sofreu maior influência da declividade. A massa de solo erosinado cresceu exponencialmente em função do incremento do volume de enxurrada.The total runoff volume and soil loss caused by the production of sediments derived from forest road segments under normal rainfall conditions were determined. Segment slopes from 1 and 7% were analyzed, with segment lengths ranging from 20 and 40 m and width of 4 m. The road segments were marked with 0.30 m wide boards, protected with a plastic, waterproof film. Rainfall volume and intensity data were daily obtained by means of pluviometers and pluviographs. Data collection period was one year, concentrated in the rainy season. Runoff volume was most affected by segment length while soil loss was most affected by steepness. Soil sediment mass increased exponentially in function of the increased runoff volume.

  12. Security Studies for ITER: The effect of two simultaneous shocks for a Transient Loss of Control of Plasma; Estudios de Seguridad para ITER: El efecto de dos perturbaciones simultaneas durante un Transitorio de Perdida de Control del Plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivas, J. C.; Dies, J.

    2013-07-01

    Presents the latest advances in the study of the transient of loss of control of the plasma in ITER, whose results are used in studies of safety of ITER. Among them, the AINA 3.0 code, used in simulation of transient plasma-pared, a method to minimize the computational power required, and the use of the window of plasma operation to render the results. In addition, develop new case studies based on the simultaneous occurrence two perturbations, and shown that its effect on the integrity of the wall is potentially greater than in cases studied previously.

  13. Gene variants of the renin-angiotensin system are associated with accelerated hippocampal volume loss and cognitive decline in old age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zannas, Anthony S.; McQuoid, Douglas R.; Payne, Martha E; MacFall, James R.; Ashley-Koch, Allison; Steffens, David C.; Potter, Guy G.; Taylor, Warren D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Genetic factors confer risk for neuropsychiatric phenotypes, but the polygenic etiology of these phenotypes makes identification of genetic culprits challenging. An approach to this challenge is to examine the effects of genetic variation on relevant endophenotypes, such as hippocampal volume loss. Smaller hippocampus is associated with gene variants of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), a system implicated in vascular disease. However, no studies have investigated longitudinally the effects of genetic variation of RAS on the hippocampus. Method We examined the effects of polymorphisms of AGTR1, the gene encoding angiotensin-II type 1 receptor of RAS, on longitudinal hippocampal volumes of older adults. 138 older adults (age ≥ 60 years) were followed for an average of about four years. Subjects underwent repeated structural MRI and comprehensive neurocognitive testing, and were genotyped for four AGTR1 SNPs with low pairwise linkage disequilibrium values and apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype. Results Genetic variants at three AGTR1 SNPs (rs2638363, rs1492103, rs2675511) were independently associated with accelerated hippocampal volume loss over the four-year follow-up in the right but not left hemisphere. Intriguingly, these AGTR1 risk alleles also predicted worse episodic memory performance but were not related to other cognitive measures. Two risk variants (rs2638363 and rs12721331) interacted with the APOE4 allele to accelerate right hippocampal volume loss. Conclusions Risk genetic variants of RAS may accelerate memory decline in older adults, an effect that may be conferred by accelerated hippocampal volume loss. Molecules involved in this system may hold promise as early therapeutic targets for late-life neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:25124854

  14. Association of gene variants of the renin-angiotensin system with accelerated hippocampal volume loss and cognitive decline in old age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zannas, Anthony S; McQuoid, Douglas R; Payne, Martha E; MacFall, James R; Ashley-Koch, Allison; Steffens, David C; Potter, Guy G; Taylor, Warren D

    2014-11-01

    Genetic factors confer risk for neuropsychiatric phenotypes, but the polygenic etiology of these phenotypes makes identification of genetic culprits challenging. An approach to this challenge is to examine the effects of genetic variation on relevant endophenotypes, such as hippocampal volume loss. A smaller hippocampus is associated with gene variants of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), a system implicated in vascular disease. However, no studies to date have investigated longitudinally the effects of genetic variation of RAS on the hippocampus. The authors examined the effects of polymorphisms of AGTR1, the gene encoding angiotensin-II type 1 receptor of RAS, on longitudinal hippocampal volumes of older adults. In all, 138 older adults (age ≥60 years) were followed for an average of about 4 years. The participants underwent repeated structural MRI and comprehensive neurocognitive testing, and they were genotyped for four AGTR1 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with low pairwise linkage disequilibrium values and apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype. Genetic variants at three AGTR1 SNPs (rs2638363, rs1492103, and rs2675511) were independently associated with accelerated hippocampal volume loss over the 4-year follow-up period in the right but not left hemisphere. Intriguingly, these AGTR1 risk alleles also predicted worse episodic memory performance but were not related to other cognitive measures. Two risk variants (rs2638363 and rs12721331) interacted with the APOE4 allele to accelerate right hippocampal volume loss. Risk genetic variants of the RAS may accelerate memory decline in older adults, an effect that may be conferred by accelerated hippocampal volume loss. Molecules involved in this system may hold promise as early therapeutic targets for late-life neuropsychiatric disorders.

  15. Dual effect of insulin on plasma volume and transcapillary albumin transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Christensen, N J

    1992-01-01

    During the past decade it has been demonstrated that insulin, apart from its effects on metabolism and ion fluxes, has acute effects on the cardiovascular system and capillary permeability. Intravenous infusion of insulin in doses which increase plasma insulin to physiological levels, induced vas...... in a normal transfer of macromolecules from the blood to the extracellular space after food intake. This process may be greatly disturbed in insulin-dependent diabetic patients....

  16. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI assessment of hyperemic fractional microvascular blood plasma volume in peripheral arterial disease: initial findings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bas Versluis

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of the current study was to describe a method that assesses the hyperemic microvascular blood plasma volume of the calf musculature. The reversibly albumin binding contrast agent gadofosveset was used in dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE MRI to assess the microvascular status in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD and healthy controls. In addition, the reproducibility of this method in healthy controls was determined. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten PAD patients with intermittent claudication and 10 healthy control subjects were included. Patients underwent contrast-enhanced MR angiography of the peripheral arteries, followed by one DCE MRI examination of the musculature of the calf. Healthy control subjects were examined twice on different days to determine normative values and the interreader and interscan reproducibility of the technique. The MRI protocol comprised dynamic imaging of contrast agent wash-in under reactive hyperemia conditions of the calf musculature. Using pharmacokinetic modeling the hyperemic fractional microvascular blood plasma volume (V(p, unit: % of the anterior tibial, gastrocnemius and soleus muscles was calculated. RESULTS: V(p was significantly lower for all muscle groups in PAD patients (4.3±1.6%, 5.0±3.3% and 6.1±3.6% for anterior tibial, gastrocnemius and soleus muscles, respectively compared to healthy control subjects (9.1±2.0%, 8.9±1.9% and 9.3±2.1%. Differences in V(p between muscle groups were not significant. The coefficient of variation of V(p varied from 10-14% and 11-16% at interscan and interreader level, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Using DCE MRI after contrast-enhanced MR angiography with gadofosveset enables reproducible assessment of hyperemic fractional microvascular blood plasma volume of the calf musculature. V(p was lower in PAD patients than in healthy controls, which reflects a promising functional (hemodynamic biomarker for the

  17. Quantitative analysis of plasma proteins in whole blood-derived fresh frozen plasma prepared with three pathogen reduction technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrea, Luis; Ortiz-de-Salazar, María-Isabel; Martínez, Patricia; Roig, Roberto

    2015-06-01

    Several plasma pathogen reduction technologies (PRT) are currently available. We evaluated three plasma PRT processes: Cerus Amotosalen (AM), Terumo BCT riboflavin (RB) and Macopharma methylene blue (MB). RB treatment resulted in the shortest overall processing time and in the smallest volume loss (1%) and MB treatment in the largest volume loss (8%). MB treatment retained the highest concentrations of factors II, VII, X, IX, Protein C, and Antithrombin and the AM products of factor V and XI. Each PRT process evaluated offered distinct advantages such as procedural simplicity and volume retention (RB) and overall plasma protein retention (MB).

  18. An initial abstraction and constant loss model, and methods for estimating unit hydrographs, peak streamflows, and flood volumes for urban basins in Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizinga, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Streamflow data, basin characteristics, and rainfall data from 39 streamflow-gaging stations for urban areas in and adjacent to Missouri were used by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Metropolitan Sewer District of St. Louis to develop an initial abstraction and constant loss model (a time-distributed basin-loss model) and a gamma unit hydrograph (GUH) for urban areas in Missouri. Study-specific methods to determine peak streamflow and flood volume for a given rainfall event also were developed.

  19. The impact of maternal plasma volume expansion and antihypertensive treatment with intravenous dihydralazine on fetal and maternal hemodynamics during pre-eclampsia: a clinical, echo-Doppler and viscometric study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boito, S.M.; Struijk, P.C.; Pop, G.A.M.; Visser, W. de; Steegers, E.A.P.; Wladimiroff, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To establish the effects of plasma volume expansion (PVE) followed by intravenous dihydralazine (DH) administration on maternal whole blood viscosity (WBV) and hematocrit, uteroplacental and fetoplacental downstream impedance and umbilical venous (UV) volume flow in pre-eclampsia. METHOD

  20. Short-term weight loss in overweight/obese low-income women improves plasma zinc and metabolic syndrome risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voruganti, Venkata Saroja; Cai, Guowen; Klohe, Deborah M; Jordan, Kristine C; Lane, Michelle A; Freeland-Graves, Jeanne H

    2010-10-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a group of disorders involving obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and hypertension. Obesity is the most crucial risk factor of metabolic syndrome, because it is known to precede other risk factors. Obesity is also associated with disturbances in the metabolism of the trace mineral, zinc. The overall purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of short-term weight loss on plasma zinc and metabolic syndrome risk factors. An 8-week weight loss intervention study was conducted with 90 low-income overweight/obese mothers, whose youngest child was 1-3 years old. Plasma levels of zinc, glucose, insulin, leptin, triglycerides, total, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol were measured and compared at weeks 0 and 8 of the weight loss program. At pre-study, plasma zinc was low in 39% and, within normal values in 46%, of obese/overweight mothers. By the end of intervention, plasma zinc rose by 22% and only 5% of the mothers continued to exhibit low plasma zinc. At post-study, the metabolic syndrome risk factors of waist circumference, HDL cholesterol, and diastolic blood pressure (pzinc increased by a greater margin (67%) in women with low zinc, as compared to those with normal zinc (18%); weight reduction was similar in both the groups. Finally, changes in % body fat were related negatively with changes in plasma zinc (r=- 0.28, pzinc, as well as the metabolic syndrome components, showed significant improvements in overweight/obese low-income women after weight loss.

  1. Effect of High-Volume Injection, Platelet-Rich Plasma, and Sham Treatment in Chronic Midportion Achilles Tendinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesen, Anders Ploug; Hansen, Rudi; Boesen, Morten Ilum

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Injection therapies are often considered alongside exercise for chronic midportion Achilles tendinopathy (AT), although evidence of their efficacy is sparse. PURPOSE: To determine whether eccentric training in combination with high-volume injection (HVI) or platelet-rich plasma (PRP...... with eccentric training in chronic AT seems more effective in reducing pain, improving activity level, and reducing tendon thickness and intratendinous vascularity than eccentric training alone. HVI may be more effective in improving outcomes of chronic AT than PRP in the short term. Registration: NCT02417987......) injections improves outcomes in AT. STUDY DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1. METHODS: A total of 60 men (age, 18-59 years) with chronic (>3 months) AT were included and followed for 6 months (n = 57). All participants performed eccentric training combined with either (1) one HVI...

  2. Finite Volume schemes on unstructured grids for non-local models: Application to the simulation of heat transport in plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goudon, Thierry, E-mail: thierry.goudon@inria.fr [Team COFFEE, INRIA Sophia Antipolis Mediterranee (France); Labo. J.A. Dieudonne CNRS and Univ. Nice-Sophia Antipolis (UMR 7351), Parc Valrose, 06108 Nice cedex 02 (France); Parisot, Martin, E-mail: martin.parisot@gmail.com [Project-Team SIMPAF, INRIA Lille Nord Europe, Park Plazza, 40 avenue Halley, F-59650 Villeneuve d' Ascq cedex (France)

    2012-10-15

    In the so-called Spitzer-Haerm regime, equations of plasma physics reduce to a nonlinear parabolic equation for the electronic temperature. Coming back to the derivation of this limiting equation through hydrodynamic regime arguments, one is led to construct a hierarchy of models where the heat fluxes are defined through a non-local relation which can be reinterpreted as well by introducing coupled diffusion equations. We address the question of designing numerical methods to simulate these equations. The basic requirement for the scheme is to be asymptotically consistent with the Spitzer-Haerm regime. Furthermore, the constraints of physically realistic simulations make the use of unstructured meshes unavoidable. We develop a Finite Volume scheme, based on Vertex-Based discretization, which reaches these objectives. We discuss on numerical grounds the efficiency of the method, and the ability of the generalized models in capturing relevant phenomena missed by the asymptotic problem.

  3. Renal responses to plasma volume expansion and hyperosmolality in fasting seal pups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Rudy M.; Wade, Charles E.; Costa, Daniel P.; Ortiz, C. Leo

    2002-01-01

    Renal responses were quantified in northern elephant seal (Mirounga angustirostris) pups during their postweaning fast to examine their excretory capabilities. Pups were infused with either isotonic (0.9%; n = 8; Iso) or hypertonic (16.7%; n = 7; Hyper) saline via an indwelling catheter such that each pup received 3 mmol NaCl/kg. Diuresis after the infusions was similar in magnitude between the two treatments. Osmotic clearance increased by 37% in Iso and 252% in Hyper. Free water clearance was reduced 3.4-fold in Hyper but was not significantly altered in Iso. Glomerular filtration rate increased 71% in the 24-h period after Hyper, but no net change occurred during the same time after Iso. Natriuresis increased 3.6-fold in Iso and 5.3-fold in Hyper. Iso decreased plasma arginine vasopressin (AVP) and cortisol acutely, whereas Hyper increased plasma and excreted AVP and cortisol. Iso was accompanied by the retention of water and electrolytes, whereas the Hyper load was excreted within 24 h. Natriuresis is attributed to increased filtration and is independent of an increase in atrial natriuretic peptide and decreases in ANG II and aldosterone. Fasting pups appear to have well-developed kidneys capable of both extreme conservation and excretion of Na(+).

  4. Altitude acclimatization and blood volume: effects of exogenous erythrocyte volume expansion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sawka, M N; Young, Jette Feveile; Rock, P B;

    1996-01-01

    We studied sea-level residents during 13 days of altitude acclimatization to determine 1) altitude acclimatization effects on erythrocyte volume and plasma volume, 2) if exogenous erythrocyte volume expansion alters subsequent erythrocyte volume and plasma volume adaptations, 3) if an increased...... blood oxygen content alters erythropoietin responses during altitude acclimatization, and 4) mechanisms responsible for plasma loss at altitude. Sixteen healthy men had a series of hematologic measurements made at sea level, on the first and ninth days of altitude (4,300 m) residence, and after...... had no effect; in addition, initially at altitude, blood oxygen content was 8% higher in erythrocyte-infused than in saline-infused subjects. The new findings regarding altitude acclimatization are summarized as follows: 1) erythrocyte volume does not change during the first 13 days...

  5. Plasma volume expansion does not increase maximal cardiac output or VO2 max in lowlanders acclimatized to altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calbet, José A L; Rådegran, Göran; Boushel, Robert; Søndergaard, Hans; Saltin, Bengt; Wagner, Peter D

    2004-09-01

    With altitude acclimatization, blood hemoglobin concentration increases while plasma volume (PV) and maximal cardiac output (Qmax) decrease. This investigation aimed to determine whether reduction of Qmax at altitude is due to low circulating blood volume (BV). Eight Danish lowlanders (3 females, 5 males: age 24.0 +/- 0.6 yr; mean +/- SE) performed submaximal and maximal exercise on a cycle ergometer after 9 wk at 5,260 m altitude (Mt. Chacaltaya, Bolivia). This was done first with BV resulting from acclimatization (BV = 5.40 +/- 0.39 liters) and again 2-4 days later, 1 h after PV expansion with 1 liter of 6% dextran 70 (BV = 6.32 +/- 0.34 liters). PV expansion had no effect on Qmax, maximal O2 consumption (VO2), and exercise capacity. Despite maximal systemic O2 transport being reduced 19% due to hemodilution after PV expansion, whole body VO2 was maintained by greater systemic O2 extraction (P VO2 during exercise regardless of PV. Pulmonary ventilation, gas exchange, and acid-base balance were essentially unaffected by PV expansion. Sea level Qmax and exercise capacity were restored with hyperoxia at altitude independently of BV. Low BV is not a primary cause for reduction of Qmax at altitude when acclimatized. Furthermore, hemodilution caused by PV expansion at altitude is compensated for by increased systemic O2 extraction with similar peak muscular O2 delivery, such that maximal exercise capacity is unaffected.

  6. Design aspects of a compact, single-frequency, permanent magnet ECR ion source with a large uniformly distributed resonant plasma volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Y.; Alton, G.D.; Mills, G.D.; Reed, C.A.; Haynes, D.L.

    1997-09-01

    A compact, all-permanent-magnet single-frequency ECR ion source with a large uniformly distributed ECR plasma volume has been designed and is presently under construction at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The central region of the field is designed to achieve a flat-field (constant mod-B) which extends over the length of the central field region along the axis of symmetry and radially outward to form a uniformly distributed ECR plasma volume. The magnetic field design strongly contrasts with those used in conventional ECR ion sources where the central field regions are approximately parabolic and the consequent ECR zones are surfaces. The plasma confinement magnetic field mirror has a mirror ratio B{sub max}/B{sub ECR} of slightly greater than two. The source is designed to operate at a nominal RF frequency of 6 GHz. The central flat magnetic field region can be easily adjusted by mechanical means to tune the source to the resonant conditions within the limits of 5.5 to 6.8 GHz. The RF injection system is broadband to ensure excitation of transverse electric (TE) modes so that the RF power is largely concentrated in the resonant plasma volume which lies along and surrounds the axis of symmetry of the source. Because of the much larger ECR zone, the probability for absorption of microwave power is dramatically increased thereby increasing the probability for acceleration of electrons, the electron temperature of the plasma and, consequently, the hot electron population within the plasma volume of the source. The creation of an ECR volume rather than a surface is commensurate with higher charge states and higher beam intensities within a particular charge state.

  7. Does Glycine max leaves or Garcinia Cambogia promote weight-loss or lower plasma cholesterol in overweight individuals: a randomized control trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Tae-Sook

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Natural food supplements with high flavonoid content are often claimed to promote weight-loss and lower plasma cholesterol in animal studies, but human studies have been more equivocal. The aim of this study was firstly to determine the effectiveness of natural food supplements containing Glycine max leaves extract (EGML or Garcinia cambogia extract (GCE to promote weight-loss and lower plasma cholesterol. Secondly to examine whether these supplements have any beneficial effect on lipid, adipocytokine or antioxidant profiles. Methods Eighty-six overweight subjects (Male:Female = 46:40, age: 20~50 yr, BMI > 23 Results EGML and GCE supplementation failed to promote weight-loss or any clinically significant change in %body fat. The EGML group had lower total cholesterol after 10 weeks compared to the placebo group (p Conclusions Ten weeks of EGML or GCE supplementation did not promote weight-loss or lower total cholesterol in overweight individuals consuming their habitual diet. Although, EGML did increase plasma HDL-C levels which is associated with a lower risk of atherosclerosis.

  8. Loss rates of Europa's tenuous atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchetti, Alice; Plainaki, Christina; Cremonese, Gabriele; Milillo, Anna; Cassidy, Timothy; Jia, Xianzhe; Shematovich, Valery

    2016-10-01

    Loss processes in Europa's tenuous atmosphere are dominated by plasma-neutral interactions. Based on the updated data of the plasma conditions in the vicinity of Europa (Bagenal et al. 2015), we provide estimations of the atmosphere loss rates for the H2O, O2 and H2 populations. Due to the high variability of the plasma proprieties, we perform our investigation for three sample plasma environment cases identified by Bagenal et al. as hot/low density, cold/high density, and an intermediate case. The role of charge-exchange interactions between atmospheric neutrals and three different plasma populations, i.e. magnetospheric, pickup, and ionospheric ions, is examined in detail. Our assumptions related to the pickup and to the ionospheric populations are based on the model by Sittler et al. (2013). We find that O2-O2+ charge-exchange is the fastest loss process for the most abundant atmospheric species O2, though this loss process has been neglected in previous atmospheric models. Using both the revised O2 column density obtained from the EGEON model (Plainaki et al., 2013) and the current loss rate estimates, we find that the upper limit for the volume integrated loss rate due to O2-O2+ charge exchange is in the range (13-51)×1026 s-1, depending on the moon's orbital phase and illumination conditions. The results of the current study are relevant to the investigation of Europa's interaction with Jupiter's magnetospheric plasma.

  9. Effects of Vegetation Cover and Rainfall Intensity on Sediment-Bound Nutrient Loss, Size Composition and Volume Fractal Dimension of Sediment Particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Guan-Hua; LIU Guo-Bin; WANG Guo-Liang; WANG Yu-Xia

    2011-01-01

    Vegetation and rainfall are two important factors affecting soil erosion and thus resulting in nutrient loss in the Chinese Loess Plateau.A field experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of rainfall intensities (60,100 and 140 mm h-1) and vegetation (Caragana korshinskii) coverages (0%,30% and 80%) on soil loss,nutrient loss,and the composition and volume fractal dimension of eroded sediment particles under simulated rainfall conditions.The results showed that vegetation cover,rainfall intensity and their interaction all had significant effects on sediment transport and the sedimentbound nutrient loss.Higher rainfall intensity and lower coverage led to higher sediment and nutrient losses.Positive linear relationships were observed between soil loss and nutrient loss.The treatments showed more significant effects on the enrichment ratio (ER) of nitrogen (ERN) than organic matter (EROM) and phosphorus (ERP).Compared with the original surface soil,the eroded sediment contained more fine particles.Under the same coverage,the clay content significantly decreased with increasing rainfall intensity.The ER of sediment-bound nutrients was positively correlated with that of clay,suggesting that the clay fraction was preferentially eroded and soil nutrients were mainly adsorbed onto or contained within this fraction.There were increments in the fractal dimension of the sediment particles compared to that of the original surface soil.Moreover,the fractal dimension was positively correlated with clay,silt,and sediment-bound OM,N,and P contents,whereas it was negatively correlated with sand content.This study demonstrated that fractal dimension analysis can be used to characterize differences in particle-size distribution and nutrient loss associated with soil erosion.

  10. Measurement of the ratio of glomerular filtration rate to plasma volume from the technetium-99m diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid renogram: comparison with glomerular filtration rate in relation to extracellular fluid volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, A.M. (Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Hammersmith Hospital, London (United Kingdom)); Allison, H. (Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Hammersmith Hospital, London (United Kingdom)); Ussov, W.Yu. (Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Hammersmith Hospital, London (United Kingdom))

    1994-04-01

    We describe a technique which does not require a blood sample, is already normalised for plasma volume and uses the robust Patlak plot for measuring renal uptake. The rate of kidney uptake, dR(t)/dt, at time = 0, as a fraction of the injected dose, is equal to the fraction of the plasma volume (PV) filtered per minute, i.e. IKGFR/PV. The gradient dR(0)/dt cannot be accurately measured directly but is equal to [[alpha] . LV(0)], where [alpha] is the renal uptake constant (proportional to IKGFR) and LV is the count rate over a left ventricular ROI. LV(0) was obtained by extrapolation of LV(t), while [alpha] is the slope of the Patlak plot up to 3 min. GFR/PV (i.e. right plus left kidneys) in patients with normal renal function was about 0.04 min[sup -1], as would be expected from normal values of GFR (120 ml/min) and plasma volume (3 l). GFR/PV correlated significantly with the ratio of GFR to extracellular fluid volume (ECV), measured from the terminal exponential of the plasma clearance curve (GFR/PV = 3.2.GFR/ECV + 5.3 ml/min/l [r = 0.82, n = 82]). GFR/PV (r = 0.74) and GFR/ECV (r = 0.82) both correlated inversely and non-linearly with plasma creatinine in 43 studies where the measurement was made within 1 week of the [sup 99m]Tc-DTPA study. They also correlated significantly with the plasma cyclosporin trough level in 14 patients with dermatomyositis on the 30 occasions when this measurement was made within 1 week of the renogram (r = -0.38, P < 0.05 for GFR/PV and r = -0.77, P < 0.001 for GFR/ECV). The ratio of GFR/PV to GFR/ECV is the ratio of extracellular fluid volume to plasma volume, and this was 4.0 (SD 0.99). We conclude that both GFR/PV and GFR/ECV can be easily measured with [sup 99m]Tc-DTPA and are physiologically valid expressions of GFR. (orig./MG)

  11. Effects of oral powder electrolyte administration on packed cell volume, plasma chemistry parameters, and incidence of colic in horses participating in a 6-day 162-km trail ride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Wade T; Callan, Robert J; Hill, Ashley E; Tisher, Kelly B

    2014-08-01

    This study evaluated the effects of administering oral powder electrolytes on packed cell volume (PCV), plasma chemistry parameters, and incidence of colic in horses participating on a 6-day 162-km trail ride in which water was not offered ad libitum. Twenty-three horses received grain with powder electrolytes daily while 19 control horses received grain only. Horses were ridden approximately 32 km a day at a walk or trot. Packed cell volume and plasma chemistry parameters were analyzed daily. Episodes of colic were diagnosed and treated by a veterinarian unaware of treatment group allocation. Blood parameters and incidence of colic were compared between treatment groups. Electrolyte administration did not alter PCV or plasma chemistry parameters compared to controls. The incidence of colic was significantly higher in treated horses (P = 0.05). Oral powder electrolytes did not enhance hydration status or electrolyte homeostasis and may be associated with colic in horses participating on long distance trail rides similar to this model.

  12. Observation of alpha particle loss from JET plasmas during ion cyclotron resonance frequency heating using a thin foil Faraday cup detector array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darrow, D. S. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Cecil, F. E. [Physics Department, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States); Kiptily, V.; Fullard, K.; Horton, A. [Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, Euratom/CCFE Fusion Assoc., Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Murari, A. [Consorzio RFX-Associazione EURATOM ENEA per la Fusione, I-35127 Padova (Italy); Collaboration: JET EFDA Contributors

    2010-10-15

    The loss of MeV alpha particles from JET plasmas has been measured with a set of thin foil Faraday cup detectors during third harmonic heating of helium neutral beam ions. Tail temperatures of {approx}2 MeV have been observed, with radial scrape off lengths of a few centimeters. Operational experience from this system indicates that such detectors are potentially feasible for future large tokamaks, but careful attention to screening rf and MHD induced noise is essential.

  13. The competition of neutrino energy loss due to the pair,photo-,plasma process at the late stages of stellar evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jing-Jing

    2009-01-01

    Based on the Weinberg-Salam theory,the competition of the Neutrino Energy Loss (NEL) rates due to the pair,photo- and plasma process are canvassed.The ratio factor C1,C2 and C3 which correspond the different contributions of the pair,photo- and plasma neutrino process to those of the total NEL rates are accurately taken into account.The ratio factors are very sensitive to the temperature and density.The ratio factor C2 always is lower than the ratio factor C1 and C3.The pair NEL process is the dominant contribution before the crossed point O(C1=C3=0.45) and the plasma NEL process will be the main dominant contribution after the crossed point O.With increasing temperature,the crossed point O will move to the direction of higher density.

  14. Increased plasma levels of zinc in obese adult females on a weight-loss program based on a hypocaloric balanced diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Yuko; Kudo, Hideki; Kagawa, Yasuo; Sakamoto, Shinobu

    2005-01-01

    Zinc is required for many biological functions including DNA synthesis, cell division, gene expression and the activity of various enzymes in humans and animals. Zinc concentrations in the plasma and erythrocytes are lower and urinary zinc excretion and serum insulin levels are higher in subjects with obesity. The effects of a weight-loss program based on a hypocaloric balanced diet were investigated on 23 obese females, who had a body mass index of more than 25.0 and had dieted for 6 months at the Nutrition Clinic, Institute of Nutrition Sciences, Kagawa Nutrition University, Tokyo, Japan. The subjects ranged in age from 29 to 76 (54.3 +/- 13.0) years old. The hypocaloric balanced diet significantly reduced the body weight, body mass index, body fat percentage and amount of body fat with a slight lowering of blood pressure and plasma levels of triglyceride. Interestingly, the plasma concentrations of zinc were markedly enhanced at the end of the program.

  15. Placental Underperfusion in a Rat Model of Intrauterine Growth Restriction Induced by a Reduced Plasma Volume Expansion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Bibeau

    Full Text Available Lower maternal plasma volume expansion was found in idiopathic intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR but the link remains to be elucidated. An animal model of IUGR was developed by giving a low-sodium diet to rats over the last week of gestation. This treatment prevents full expansion of maternal circulating volume and the increase in uterine artery diameter, leading to reduced placental weight compared to normal gestation. We aimed to verify whether this is associated with reduced remodeling of uteroplacental circulation and placental hypoxia. Dams were divided into two groups: IUGR group and normal-fed controls. Blood velocity waveforms in the main uterine artery were obtained by Doppler sonography on days 14, 18 and 21 of pregnancy. On day 22 (term = 23 days, rats were sacrificed and placentas and uterine radial arteries were collected. Diameter and myogenic response of uterine arteries supplying placentas were determined while expression of hypoxia-modulated genes (HIF-1α, VEGFA and VEGFR2, apoptotic enzyme (Caspase -3 and -9 and glycogen cells clusters were measured in control and IUGR term-placentas. In the IUGR group, impaired blood velocity in the main uterine artery along with increased resistance index was observed without alteration in umbilical artery blood velocity. Radial uterine artery diameter was reduced while myogenic response was increased. IUGR placentas displayed increased expression of hypoxia markers without change in the caspases and increased glycogen cells in the junctional zone. The present data suggest that reduced placental and fetal growth in our IUGR model may be mediated, in part, through reduced maternal uteroplacental blood flow and increased placental hypoxia.

  16. Weight loss predictability by plasma metabolic signatures in adults with obesity and morbid obesity of the DiOGenes study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stroeve, J.H.M.; Saccenti, E.; Bouwman, J.; Dane, A.; Strassburg, K.; Vervoort, J.; Hankemeier, T.; Astrup, A.; Smilde, A.K.; Ommen, B. van; Saris, W.H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Aim is to predict successful weight loss by metabolic signatures at baseline and to identify which differences in metabolic status may underlie variations in weight loss success. Methods: In DiOGenes, a randomized, controlled trial, weight loss was induced using a low calorie diet (800 kc

  17. Weight loss predictability by plasma metabolic signatures in adults with obesity and morbid obesity of the DiOGenes study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stroeve, J.H.M.; Saccenti, E.; Bouwman, J.; Dane, A.; Strassburg, K.; Vervoort, J.; Hankemeier, T.; Astrup, A.; Smilde, A.K.; van Ommen, B.; Saris, W.H.M.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Aim is to predict successful weight loss by metabolic signatures at baseline and to identify which differences in metabolic status may underlie variations in weight loss success. METHODS: In DiOGenes, a randomized, controlled trial, weight loss was induced using a low-calorie diet (800 kc

  18. Weight loss predictability by plasma metabolic signatures in adults with obesity and morbid obesity of the DiOGenes study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stroeve, Johanna H.M.; Saccenti, Edoardo; Bouwman, Jildau; Dane, Adrie; Strassburg, Katrin; Vervoort, Jacques; Hankemeier, Thomas; Astrup, Arne; Smilde, Age K.; Ommen, Van Ben; Saris, Wim H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Aim is to predict successful weight loss by metabolic signatures at baseline and to identify which differences in metabolic status may underlie variations in weight loss success. Methods In DiOGenes, a randomized, controlled trial, weight loss was induced using a low-calorie diet (800 k

  19. Weight loss predictability by plasma metabolic signatures in adults with obesity and morbid obesity of the DiOGenes study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stroeve, J.H.M.; Saccenti, E.; Bouwman, J.; Dane, A.; Strassburg, K.; Vervoort, J.; Hankemeier, T.; Astrup, A.; Smilde, A.K.; van Ommen, B.; Saris, W.H.M.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Aim is to predict successful weight loss by metabolic signatures at baseline and to identify which differences in metabolic status may underlie variations in weight loss success. METHODS: In DiOGenes, a randomized, controlled trial, weight loss was induced using a low-calorie diet (800

  20. Lanreotide Reduces Liver Volume, But Might Not Improve Muscle Wasting or Weight Loss, in Patients With Symptomatic Polycystic Liver Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temmerman, Frederik; Ho, Thien Ahn; Vanslembrouck, Ragna; Coudyzer, Walter; Billen, Jaak; Dobbels, Fabienne; van Pelt, Jos; Bammens, Bert; Pirson, Yves; Nevens, Frederik

    2015-12-01

    Polycystic liver disease (PCLD) can induce malnutrition owing to extensive hepatomegaly and patients might require liver transplantation. Six months of treatment with the somatostatin analogue lanreotide (120 mg) reduces liver volume. We investigated the efficacy of a lower dose of lanreotide and its effects on nutritional status. We performed an 18-month prospective study at 2 tertiary medical centers in Belgium from January 2011 through August 2012. Fifty-nine patients with symptomatic PCLD were given lanreotide (90 mg, every 4 weeks) for 6 months. Patients with reductions in liver volume of more than 100 mL (responders, primary end point) continued to receive lanreotide (90 mg) for an additional year (18 months total). Nonresponders were offered increased doses, up to 120 mg lanreotide, until 18 months. Liver volume and body composition were measured by computed tomography at baseline and at months 6 and 18. Patients also were assessed by the PCLD-specific complaint assessment at these time points. Fifty-three patients completed the study; 21 patients (40%) were responders. Nineteen of the responders (90%) continued as responders until 18 months. At this time point, they had a mean reduction in absolute liver volume of 430 ± 92 mL. In nonresponders (n = 32), liver volume increased by a mean volume of 120 ± 42 mL at 6 months. However, no further increase was observed after dose escalation in the 24 patients who continued to the 18-month end point. All subjects had decreased scores on all subscales of the PCLD-specific complaint assessment, including better food intake (P = .04). Subjects did not have a mean change in subcutaneous or visceral fat mass, but did have decreases in mean body weight (2 kg) and total muscle mass (1.06 cm(2)/h(2)). Subjects also had a significant mean reduction in their level of insulin-like growth factor 1, from 19% below the age-adjusted normal range level at baseline to 50% at 18 months (P = .002). In a prospective study, we

  1. Influence of Weight Loss, Body Composition, and Lifestyle Behaviors on Plasma Adipokines: A Randomized Weight Loss Trial in Older Men and Women with Symptomatic Knee Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary D. Miller

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate effects of weight loss on adipokines and health measures in obese older adults with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis. Methods. Participants were randomly assigned to either weight loss (WL (men: 12, women: 14 or weight stable (WS group (men: 12, women: 13. WL intervention included meal replacements and structured exercise training. Measurements of leptin, adiponectin, soluble leptin receptor, lifestyle behaviors, and body composition were collected at baseline and 6 months. Univariate analysis of covariance was performed on 6 month variables, and Spearman and partial correlations were made between variables. Results. Weight loss was 13.0% and 6.7% in WL for men and women, respectively. Women in WL had lower whole body and trunk fat than WS. The leptin : adiponectin ratio was lower for women in WL than WS at 6 months, with no group differences in adipokines for men. Leptin and free leptin index correlated with body fat in both genders at baseline. Interestingly, only women showed reductions in leptin (P<0.100 and correlations between the percentage change leptin and trunk fat and the percentage changes in free leptin index with total fat and trunk fat. Partial correlations between 6 month adipokines after adjustments for covariates and group/time period show potential multivariate influences. Conclusions. In the presence of an effective weight loss intervention in older obese adults, there are significant relationships between weight and fat loss and leptin in women, but not men, suggesting gender-specific features of adipokine metabolism in this age group.

  2. Wildlife Loss Estimates and Summary of Previous Mitigation Related to Hydroelectric Projects in Montana, Volume Three, Hungry Horse Project.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casey, Daniel

    1984-10-01

    This assessment addresses the impacts to the wildlife populations and wildlife habitats due to the Hungry Horse Dam project on the South Fork of the Flathead River and previous mitigation of theses losses. In order to develop and focus mitigation efforts, it was first necessary to estimate wildlife and wildlife hatitat losses attributable to the construction and operation of the project. The purpose of this report was to document the best available information concerning the degree of impacts to target wildlife species. Indirect benefits to wildlife species not listed will be identified during the development of alternative mitigation measures. Wildlife species incurring positive impacts attributable to the project were identified.

  3. Prefrontal cortical volume loss is associated with stress-related deficits in verbal learning and memory in HIV-infected women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Leah H; Meyer, Vanessa J; J Conant, Rhoda; Sundermann, Erin E; Wu, Minjie; Weber, Kathleen M; Cohen, Mardge H; Little, Deborah M; Maki, Pauline M

    2016-08-01

    Deficits in verbal learning and memory are a prominent feature of neurocognitive function in HIV-infected women, and are associated with high levels of perceived stress. To understand the neurobiological factors contributing to this stress-related memory impairment, we examined the association between stress, verbal memory, and brain volumes in HIV-infected women. Participants included 38 HIV-infected women (Mean age=43.9years) from the Chicago Consortium of the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). Participants underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and completed standardized measures of verbal learning and memory and stress (Perceived Stress Scale-10; PSS-10). Brain volumes were evaluated in a priori regions of interest, including the medial temporal lobe (MTL) and prefrontal cortex (PFC). Compared to HIV-infected women with lower stress (PSS-10 scores in lower two tertiles), HIV-infected women with higher stress (scores in the top tertile), performed worse on measures of verbal learning and memory and showed smaller volumes bilaterally in the parahippocampal gyrus, superior frontal gyrus, middle frontal gyrus, and inferior frontal gyrus (p'slearning and memory performance. Prefrontal cortical atrophy is associated with stress-related deficits in verbal learning and memory in HIV-infected women. The time course of these volume losses in relation to memory deficits has yet to be elucidated, but the magnitude of the volumetric differences between women with higher versus lower stress suggests a prolonged vulnerability due to chronic stress and/or early life trauma.

  4. Emission characteristics of plasma of a transverse volume discharge in mixtures of helium, argon, and krypton with sulfur hexafluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuaibov, A. K.; Shevera, I. V.; Sabov, I. I.; Gomoki, Z. T.

    2007-03-01

    The emission characteristics of the plasma of repetitively pulsed spontaneous UV-VUV radiation sources on the basis of ArF* (193 nm) and KrF* (249 nm) molecules, and the products of decomposition of sulfur hexafluoride molecules pumped by a transverse volume discharge in a mixture of inert gases with sulfur hexafluoride molecules have been investigated. The discharge emission spectra in the range of 190 780 nm at the low-current and high-current stages of the transverse discharge, the time characteristics of the voltage across the electrodes, the pump current, and the emission of excimer molecules and the products of decomposition of sulfur hexafluoride have been studied. It is shown that, in the gas-static operation mode of the radiator at the number of discharge pulses smaller than 103, the 193-nm ArF* and 249-nm KrF* bands are main in the emission spectrum. Upon further operation of the radiator, a spectral continuum is formed on the basis of sulfur molecular bands in the range 260 550 nm.

  5. The Effect of Radioactive Lantern Mantle Powder and Bentonite-Zeoloite Minerals on the Volume of Blood Loss, Bleeding and Clotting Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Atefi

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction & Objective: Over the past decade the US army has widely studied new technologies for stopping sever hemorrhages and has introduced an effective Zeolite based hemostatic agent. On the other hand, Mortazavi and his colleagues previously reported the bio-stimulatory effects of the topical application of radioactive lantern mantle powder on wound healing. Their subsequent studies showed significant changes in some histological parameters concerning healing. In this light, here the bio-stimulatory effect of burned radioactive lantern mantles powder as well as two minerals bentonite and zeolite are presented. Materials & Methods: This experimental study was conducted in the center for radiological studies, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences in 2008. Fifty male Wistar rats were divided randomly into 5 groups of 10 animals each. Following anesthesia, animals’ tails were cut at a thickness of 5 mm by using a surgical scissor. No intervention was made on the animals of the 1st group. The 2nd to 4th group received topical non-radioactive lantern mantle powder, radioactive lantern mantle powder, Bentonite mineral or a mixture of Bentonite-Zeoliteat minerals respectively. After treatment with above mentioned agents, the volume of blood loss was measured using a scaled test-tube. The bleeding time and clotting time were also measured using a chronometer. SPSS software was used for statistical analysis. ANOVA was used for comparing the means of each parameter in the 5 groups. Results: The the volume of blood loss, bleeding and clotting times in control animals were 4.39±1.92 cc, 112.10±39.60 sec and 94.9±54.26 sec, respectively. In the 5th group in which the animals were treated with a mixture of Bentonite-Zeoliteat minerals, the volume of blood loss, bleeding and clotting times were 1.31±0.60 cc, 34.50±4.65 sec and 24.2±4.61 sec, respectively. Conclusion: This is the 1st investigation that studied the alterations of bleeding

  6. Effect of the sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor canagliflozin on plasma volume in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, S; Polidori, D; Heise, T; Natarajan, J; Farrell, K; Wang, S-S; Sica, D; Rothenberg, P; Plum-Mörschel, L

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate the effects of canagliflozin on plasma volume, urinary glucose excretion (UGE), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and additional measures of fluid/electrolyte balance in patients with type 2 diabetes on background therapy with metformin and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers. Patients (N = 36) were randomized (1:1) to receive canagliflozin 300 mg or placebo for 12 weeks. Pharmacodynamic parameters were assessed at baseline and at weeks 1 and 12. Increased 24-h UGE was seen in the canagliflozin group compared with a reduction in the placebo group at both week 1 (91.8 vs. -2.4 g) and week 12 (82.6 vs. -0.4 g). Canagliflozin also reduced both FPG and HbA1c. Reductions in body weight and blood pressure were observed at weeks 1 and 12. Canagliflozin decreased plasma volume compared with an increase with placebo at week 1 (-5.4 vs. 4.3%; p = 0.02), but this was largely attenuated at week 12 (4.6 vs. 5.8%; p = 0.76). A modest numerical increase in urine volume was observed with canagliflozin at week 1 that was attenuated at week 12; other measures of volume status (i.e. blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine and haematocrit) remained modestly increased with canagliflozin at week 12. Canagliflozin provided sustained effects on UGE and FPG over 12 weeks and a transient reduction in plasma volume that was largely attenuated by week 12. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging signal reduction may precede volume loss in the pituitary gland of transfusion-dependent beta-thalassemic patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hekmatnia, Ali; Rahmani, Ali Asghar; Adibi, Atoosa (Image Processing and Signal Research Center, Dept. of Radiology, Isfahan Univ. of Medical Sciences, Isfahan (Iran)); Radmard, Amir Reza (Dept. of Radiology, Shariati Hospital, Tehran Univ. of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran)); Khademi, Hooman (Shariati Hospital, Tehran Univ. of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran)), e-mail: radmard@ams.ac.ir

    2010-01-15

    Background: Pituitary iron overload in patients with transfusion-dependent beta-thalassemia may lead to delayed puberty. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has the potential to estimate tissue iron concentration by detecting its paramagnetic effect and hypophyseal damage by measuring its dimensions indirectly. Purpose: To investigate the association of pituitary MRI findings and pubertal status in thalassemic patients as well as to demonstrate any priority in appearance of them. Material and Methods: Twenty-seven beta-thalassemic patients, aged 15-25 years, were divided into 13 with (group A) and 14 without hypogonadism (group B), matched by age, gender, duration of transfusion, and chelation therapy. Thirty-eight age- and sex-adjusted healthy control individuals were also included (group C). All participants underwent pituitary MRI using a 1.5T unit. Pituitary-to-fat signal intensity ratios (SIR) were calculated from coronal T2-weighted images. Estimated pituitary volumes were measured using pituitary height, width, and length on T1-weighted images. Results: The mean values of pituitary-to-fat SIRs were significantly lower in group A as compared with group B (P <0.001), and likewise group B had statistically lower values than group C (P=0.03). The pituitary height and volume were significantly decreased in group A compared to group B (P = 0.006 and P = 0.002, respectively), while these differences did not demonstrate statistically significance between groups B and C. Conclusion: Pituitary MRI findings such as signal intensity reduction and decrease in volume can be useful markers in estimating pituitary dysfunction in beta-thalassemic patients. Compared to healthy controls, lower values of pituitary-to-fat SIRs in thalassemic patients experiencing normal puberty, without marked decrease in volume, indicate that signal reduction may precede volume loss and could be expected first on MRI

  8. Changes in the electro-physical properties of MCT epitaxial films affected by a plasma volume discharge induced by an avalanche beam in atmospheric-pressure air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoryev, D. V.; Voitsekhovskii, A. V.; Lozovoy, K. A.; Tarasenko, V. F.; Shulepov, M. A.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper the influence of the plasma volume discharge of nanosecond duration formed in a non-uniform electric field at atmospheric pressure on samples of epitaxial films HgCdTe (MCT) films are discussed. The experimental data show that the action of pulses of nanosecond volume discharge in air at atmospheric pressure leads to changes in the electrophysical properties of MCT epitaxial films due to formation of a near-surface high- conductivity layer of the n-type conduction. The preliminary results show that it is possible to use such actions in the development of technologies for the controlled change of the properties of MCT.

  9. The Effect of Ramadan Fasting and Weight-Lifting Training on Plasma Volume, Glucose and Lipids Profile of Male Weight-Lifters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Morteza Tayebi

    Full Text Available Objective(sThe purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of Ramadan fasting and weight-lifting training on plasma volume, glucose, and lipids profile of male weight-lifter.Materials and MethodsForty male weight-lifters were recruited and divided into 4 groups (n=10 each and as the following groups: control (C, fasting (F, training (T and fasting-training (F-T. The T and F-T groups performed weight-lifting technique trainings and hypertrophy body building (3 sessions/week, 90 min/session. All subjects were asked to complete a medical examination as well as a medical questionnaire to ensure that they were not taking any medication, were free of cardiac, respiratory, renal, and metabolic diseases, and were not using steroids. Blood samples were taken at 24 hr before and 24 hr after one month of fasting and weight-lifting exercise. The plasma volume, fasting blood sugar (FBS, lipid profiles, and lipoproteins were analyzed in blood samples. ResultsBody weight and plasma volume showed significant (P< 0.05 decrease and increase in the F group (P< 0.05 respectively. Also, a significant reduction was observed in F-T group body weight (P< 0.01. A significant increase was found in FBS level of F group (P< 0.05. The lipid profiles and lipoproteins didn’t change significantly in C, F, T and the F-T groups.ConclusionThe effect of Ramadan fasting on body weight and plasma volumes may be closely related to the nutritional diet or biochemical response to fasting.

  10. Effect of self-gravitation and dust-charge fluctuations on the shielding and energy loss of N×M projectiles in a collisional dusty plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwar, M. Adnan; Mirza, Arshad M.

    2007-03-01

    A simple derivation of the electrostatic potential and energy loss of N×M test charge projectiles traveling through dusty plasma has been presented. The effect of dust-charge fluctuations, dust neutral collisions, and self-gravitation on the shielded potential and energy loss of charge projectiles has been investigated both analytically as well as numerically. An interference contribution of these projectiles to the shielded potential and energy loss has been observed, which depends upon their relative orientation and separation distance. A comparison has been made for correlated and uncorrelated motion of the two projectiles. The amplitude of the shielded potential is enhanced with the increase of dust Jeans frequency for separation less than the effective Debye length. The dust-charge fluctuations produce a potential well for a slow charge relaxation rate and energy is gained, not lost, by the test charge projectiles. However, a fast charge relaxation rate with a fixed value of Jeans frequency enhances the energy loss. The dust neutral collisions are also found to enhance the energy loss for the test charge velocities greater than the dust acoustic speeds. The present investigation might be useful to explain the coagulation of dust particles such as those in molecular clouds, the interstellar medium, comet tails, planetary rings, etc.

  11. Carriers of loss-of-function mutations in EXT display impaired pancreatic beta-cell reserve due to smaller pancreas volume.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie J Bernelot Moens

    Full Text Available Exotosin (EXT proteins are involved in the chain elongation step of heparan sulfate (HS biosynthesis, which is intricately involved in organ development. Loss of function mutations (LOF in EXT1 and EXT2 result in hereditary exostoses (HME. Interestingly, HS plays a role in pancreas development and beta-cell function, and genetic variations in EXT2 are associated with an increased risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus. We hypothesized that loss of function of EXT1 or EXT2 in subjects with hereditary multiple exostoses (HME affects pancreatic insulin secretion capacity and development. We performed an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT followed by hyperglycemic clamps to investigate first-phase glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS in HME patients and age and gender matched non-affected relatives. Pancreas volume was assessed with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. OGTT did not reveal significant differences in glucose disposal, but there was a markedly lower GSIS in HME subjects during hyperglycemic clamp (iAUC HME: 0.72 [0.46-1.16] vs. controls 1.53 [0.69-3.36] nmol·l-1·min-1, p<0.05. Maximal insulin response following arginine challenge was also significantly attenuated (iAUC HME: 7.14 [4.22-10.5] vs. controls 10.2 [7.91-12.70] nmol·l-1·min-1 p<0.05, indicative of an impaired beta-cell reserve. MRI revealed a significantly smaller pancreatic volume in HME subjects (HME: 72.0±15.8 vs. controls 96.5±26.0 cm3 p = 0.04. In conclusion, loss of function of EXT proteins may affect beta-cell mass and insulin secretion capacity in humans, and render subjects at a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes when exposed to environmental risk factors.

  12. Colorimetric determinations of lithium levels in drop-volumes of human plasma for monitoring patients with bipolar mood disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qassem, M; Hickey, M; Kyriacou, P A

    2016-08-01

    Lithium preparations are considered the most reliable form of mood stabilizing medication for patients with Bipolar disorder. Nevertheless, lithium is a toxic element and its therapeutic range is extremely narrow, with levels of 0.61.0 mEq considered normal, whereas levels above 1.5 mEq are toxic. Thus unfortunately, many patients reach toxic levels that lead to unnecessary complications. It is believed that personal monitoring of blood lithium levels would benefit patients taking lithium medication. Therefore, our aim is to develop a personal lithium blood level analyzer for patients with bipolar mood disorder, and we report here our initial results of a colorimetric-based method used to test drop-volumes of human plasma that had been spiked with lithium. It was possible to validate results with standard flame photometry readings. Applying the Partial Least Squares (PLS) method on preprocessed spectra, therapeutic concentrations of lithium in a single drop can be predicted in a rapid manner, and furthermore, the calibration results were used to select effective wavelengths which were employed as inputs in Multiple Linear Regression (MLR). The simplified algorithms of this would prove useful when developing a personal lithium analyzer. Overall, both calibration methods gave high correlation and small error outputs with a R2= 0.99036 and RMSEC = 0.03778, and R2= 0.994148 and RMSEC= 0.0294404, for PLS and MLR methods, respectively. The results show that the spectrophotometric determination of blood lithium levels can be extended beyond laboratory applications and indicate the capability of this testing principle to be employed in a personal monitoring device. Future work will now focus on the technical development of a miniaturized system for measurement of lithium levels in blood with an acceptable level of accuracy and sensitivity.

  13. Subacute normobaric oxygen and hyperbaric oxygen therapy in drowning, reversal of brain volume loss: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul G Harch

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A 2-year-old girl experienced cardiac arrest after cold water drowning. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed deep gray matter injury on day 4 and cerebral atrophy with gray and white matter loss on day 32. Patient had no speech, gait, or responsiveness to commands on day 48 at hospital discharge. She received normobaric 100% oxygen treatment (2 L/minute for 45 minutes by nasal cannula, twice/day since day 56 and then hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT at 1.3 atmosphere absolute (131.7 kPa air/45 minutes, 5 days/week for 40 sessions since day 79; visually apparent and/or physical examination-documented neurological improvement occurred upon initiating each therapy. After HBOT, the patient had normal speech and cognition, assisted gait, residual fine motor and temperament deficits. MRI at 5 months after injury and 27 days after HBOT showed near-normalization of ventricles and reversal of atrophy. Subacute normobaric oxygen and HBOT were able to restore drowning-induced cortical gray matter and white matter loss, as documented by sequential MRI, and simultaneous neurological function, as documented by video and physical examinations.

  14. Maternal nutritional status in early pregnancy is associated with body water and plasma volume changes in a pregnancy cohort in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gernand, Alison D; Christian, Parul; Schulze, Kerry J; Shaikh, Saijuddin; Labrique, Alain B; Shamim, Abu Ahmed; West, Keith P

    2012-06-01

    Plasma volume expansion has been associated with fetal growth. Our objective was to examine the associations between maternal nutritional status in early pregnancy and extracellular water (ECW), total body water (TBW), and percentage plasma volume change across pregnancy. In a subsample of 377 pregnant women participating in a cluster-randomized trial of micronutrient supplementation, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and multi-frequency bioelectrical impedance were measured at ~10, 20, and 32 wk of gestation. In early pregnancy, women were short (mean ± SD, 148.9 ± 5.3 cm) and thin (19.5 ± 2.5 kg/m(2)). In mixed-effects multiple regression models, a 1-unit higher BMI at ~10 wk was associated with higher ECW and TBW (0.27 and 0.66 kg per kg/m(2), respectively; P pregnancy BMI was negatively associated with gains in ECW and TBW (-0.06 and -0.14 kg per kg/m(2), respectively; P pregnancy have lower ECW and TBW in early, mid, and late pregnancy and lower late pregnancy plasma volume expansion, potentially increasing risk of fetal growth restriction.

  15. Effects of Hypertonic Saline Solution on Clinical Parameters, Serum Electrolytes and Plasma Volume in the Treatment of Haemorrhagic Septicaemia in Buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Arif Zafar*, G. Muhammad, Zafar Iqbal1 and M. Riaz2

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the efficacy of hypertonic saline solution (HSS along with antibiotic (ceftiofur HCl and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (ketoprofen in the treatment of haemorrhagic septicaemia in buffaloes. For this purpose, 50 buffaloes suffering from haemorrhagic septicaemia were randomly divided in two equal groups A and B. Group A served as control and was treated with ceftiofur HCl (IM and ketoprofen (IV @ 6 and 2 mg/Kg BW, respectively, for five days. Buffaloes of group B were administered with rapid intravenous infusion of hypertonic saline solution (7.5% NaCl @ 4 ml/Kg BW once in combination with ceftiofur HCl and ketoprofen. Animals were monitored for 24 hours after initiation of treatment. Clinical parameters, serum electrolytes, plasma volume and survival index were recorded at different intervals after treatment. Survival rate (80% in group B was significantly higher (P<0.05 than 48% in group A. The heart rate and respiration rate recovered more effectively in the buffaloes administered with treatment protocol B. Plasma volume was 98% which was almost normal within 24 hours after the infusion of hypertonic saline solution to the animals of group B. It was concluded from the study that hypertonic saline solution as an adjunct to antibiotic and a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug more efficiently improved respiration and heart rates and effectively restored plasma volume in resuscitating the buffaloes from haemorrhagic septicaemia than the conventional treatment.

  16. Prostate cancer volume associates with preoperative plasma levels of testosterone that independently predicts high grade tumours which show low densities (quotient testosterone/tumour volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio B. Porcaro

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: The investigation shows that TT relates to volume and grade of PCa; moreover, the density of TT relative to TV inversely associates with rate of increase of cancer that depends on the grade of the tumour.

  17. Disrupted plasma membrane localization and loss of function reveal regions of human equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 involved in structural integrity and activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nivillac, Nicole M I; Wasal, Karanvir; Villani, Daniela F; Naydenova, Zlatina; Hanna, W J Brad; Coe, Imogen R

    2009-10-01

    Human Equilibrative Nucleoside Transporter 1 (hENT1) is an integral membrane protein that transports nucleosides and analog drugs across cellular membranes. Very little is known about intracellular processing and localization of hENT1. Here we show that disruption of a highly conserved triplet (PWN) near the N-terminus, or the last eight C-terminal residues (two hydrophobic triplets separated by a positive arginine) result in loss of plasma membrane localization and/or transport function. To understand the role of specific residues within these regions, we studied the localization patterns of N- or C-terminal deletion and/or substitution mutants of GFP-hENT1 using confocal microscopy. Quantification of GFP-hENT1 (mutant and wildtype) protein at the plasma membrane was conducted using nitrobenzylthioinosine (NBTI) binding. Functionality of the GFP-hENT1 mutants was determined by heterologous expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes followed by measurement of uridine uptake. Mutation of the proline within the PWN motif disrupts plasma membrane localization. C-terminal mutations (primarily within the hydrophobic triplets) lead to hENT1 retention within the cell (e.g. in the ER). Some mutants still localize to the plasma membrane but show reduced transport activity. These data suggest that these two regions contribute to the structural integrity and thus correct processing and function of hENT1.

  18. Treatment with a GLP-1 receptor agonist diminishes the decrease in free plasma leptin during maintenance of weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iepsen, E W; Lundgren, J; Dirksen, C

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent studies indicate that glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 inhibits appetite in part through regulation of soluble leptin receptors. Thus, during weight loss maintenance, GLP-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1RA) administration may inhibit weight loss-induced increases in soluble leptin...... receptors thereby preserving free leptin levels and preventing weight regain. METHODS: In a randomized controlled trial, 52 healthy obese individuals were, after a diet-induced 12% body weight loss, randomized to treatment with or without administration of the GLP-1RA liraglutide (1.2 mg per day). In case...... of weight gain, low-calorie diet products were allowed to replace up to two meals per day to achieve equal weight maintenance. Glucose tolerance and hormone responses were investigated before and after weight loss and after 52 weeks weight maintenance. Primary end points: increase in soluble leptin receptor...

  19. Changes in Hippocampal Volume are Correlated with Cell Loss but Not with Seizure Frequency in Two Chronic Models of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polli, Roberson S; Malheiros, Jackeline M; Dos Santos, Renan; Hamani, Clement; Longo, Beatriz M; Tannús, Alberto; Mello, Luiz E; Covolan, Luciene

    2014-01-01

    Kainic acid (KA) or pilocarpine (PILO) have been used in rats to model human temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) but the distribution and severity of structural lesions between these two models may differ. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have used quantitative measurements of hippocampal T2 (T2HP) relaxation time and volume, but simultaneous comparative results have not been reported yet. The aim of this study was to compare the MRI T2HP and volume with histological data and frequency of seizures in both models. KA- and PILO-treated rats were imaged with a 2 T MRI scanner. T2HP and volume values were correlated with the number of cells, mossy fiber sprouting, and spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS) frequency over the 9 months following status epilepticus (SE). Compared to controls, KA-treated rats had unaltered T2HP, pronounced reduction in hippocampal volume and concomitant cell reduction in granule cell layer, CA1 and CA3 at 3 months post SE. In contrast, hippocampal volume was unchanged in PILO-treated animals despite detectable increased T2HP and cell loss in granule cell layer, CA1 and CA3. In the following 6 months, MRI hippocampal volume remained stable with increase of T2HP signal in the KA-treated group. The number of CA1 and CA3 cells was smaller than age-matched CTL group. In contrast, PILO group had MRI volumetric reduction accompanied by reduction in the number of CA1 and CA3 cells. In this group, T2HP signal was unaltered at 6 or 9 months after status. Reductions in the number of cells were not progressive in both models. Notably, the SRS frequency was higher in PILO than in the KA model. The volumetry data correlated well with tissue damage in the epileptic brain, suggesting that MRI may be useful for tracking longitudinal hippocampal changes, allowing the assessment of individual variability and disease progression. Our results indicate that the temporal changes in hippocampal morphology are distinct for both models of TLE and that

  20. Changes in Hippocampal Volume are Correlated with Cell Loss but Not with Seizure Frequency in Two Chronic Models of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polli, Roberson S.; Malheiros, Jackeline M.; dos Santos, Renan; Hamani, Clement; Longo, Beatriz M.; Tannús, Alberto; Mello, Luiz E.; Covolan, Luciene

    2014-01-01

    Kainic acid (KA) or pilocarpine (PILO) have been used in rats to model human temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) but the distribution and severity of structural lesions between these two models may differ. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have used quantitative measurements of hippocampal T2 (T2HP) relaxation time and volume, but simultaneous comparative results have not been reported yet. The aim of this study was to compare the MRI T2HP and volume with histological data and frequency of seizures in both models. KA- and PILO-treated rats were imaged with a 2 T MRI scanner. T2HP and volume values were correlated with the number of cells, mossy fiber sprouting, and spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS) frequency over the 9 months following status epilepticus (SE). Compared to controls, KA-treated rats had unaltered T2HP, pronounced reduction in hippocampal volume and concomitant cell reduction in granule cell layer, CA1 and CA3 at 3 months post SE. In contrast, hippocampal volume was unchanged in PILO-treated animals despite detectable increased T2HP and cell loss in granule cell layer, CA1 and CA3. In the following 6 months, MRI hippocampal volume remained stable with increase of T2HP signal in the KA-treated group. The number of CA1 and CA3 cells was smaller than age-matched CTL group. In contrast, PILO group had MRI volumetric reduction accompanied by reduction in the number of CA1 and CA3 cells. In this group, T2HP signal was unaltered at 6 or 9 months after status. Reductions in the number of cells were not progressive in both models. Notably, the SRS frequency was higher in PILO than in the KA model. The volumetry data correlated well with tissue damage in the epileptic brain, suggesting that MRI may be useful for tracking longitudinal hippocampal changes, allowing the assessment of individual variability and disease progression. Our results indicate that the temporal changes in hippocampal morphology are distinct for both models of TLE and that

  1. Electron energy-loss spectroscopy analysis of low-temperature plasma-enhanced chemically vapor deposited a-C:H films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, A.J.; Benson, D.K.; Tracy, C.E.; Kazmerski, L.L.; Wager, J.F.

    1989-05-01

    Electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) has been applied to the analysis of a-C:H films grown on various substrates by a unique low-temperature (<100 /sup 0/C) plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) process using ethylene and hydrogen gases. EELS data are used to characterize the relative amounts of fourfold coordinated sp/sup 3/ carbon bonding to threefold coordinated sp/sup 2/ carbon bonding as well as the relative order/disorder due to substrate effects. Ellipsometric and transmission measurements provide optical constants for the PECVD a-C:H films.

  2. Evaluation of observable phase space by fast ion loss detector by calculating particle orbits in consideration of plasma facing components and three dimensional magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, Kouji; Kim, Junghee; Kim, Jun Young; Rhee, Tongnyeol

    2016-11-01

    The orbits of lost ions can be calculated from the information obtained by a fast ion loss detector (FILD). The orbits suggest a source of the lost fast ions in a phase space. However, it is not obvious whether an observable set of orbits, or phase space, of a FILD appropriately covers the region of interest to be investigated since the observable phase space can be affected by plasma facing components (PFCs) and a magnetic configuration. A tool has been developed to evaluate the observable phase space of FILD diagnostic by calculating particle orbits by taking the PFCs and 3D magnetic field into account.

  3. Effects of total and regional fat loss on plasma CRP and IL-6 in overweight and obese, older adults with knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beavers, K M; Beavers, D P; Newman, J J; Anderson, A M; Loeser, R F; Nicklas, B J; Lyles, M F; Miller, G D; Mihalko, S L; Messier, S P

    2015-02-01

    To describe associations between total and regional body fat mass loss and reduction of systemic levels of inflammation (C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6)) in obese, older adults with osteoarthritis (OA), undergoing intentional weight loss. Data come from a single-blind, 18-month, randomized controlled trial in adults (age: 65.6 ± 6.2; Body mass index (BMI): 33.6 ± 3.7) with knee OA. Participants were randomized to diet-induced weight loss plus exercise (D + E; n = 150), diet-induced weight loss-only (D; n = 149), or exercise-only (E; n = 151). Total body and region-specific (abdomen and thigh) fat mass were measured at baseline and 18 months. High-sensitivity CRP and IL-6 were measured at baseline, six and 18 months. Intervention effects were assessed using mixed models and associations between inflammation and adiposity were compared using logistic and mixed linear regression models. Intentional total body fat mass reduction was associated with significant reductions in log-adjusted CRP (β = 0.06 (95% CI = 0.04, 0.08) mg/L) and IL-6 (β = 0.02 (95% CI = 0.01, 0.04) pg/mL). Loss of abdominal fat volume was also associated with reduced inflammation, independent of total body fat mass; although models containing measures of total adiposity yielded the best fit. The odds of achieving clinically desirable levels of CRP (fat mass loss. Achievement of clinically desirable levels of CRP and IL-6 more than double with intentional 5% loss of total body weight and fat mass. Global, rather than regional, measures of adiposity are better predictors of change in inflammatory burden. NCT00381290. Copyright © 2014 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Differential effects of endurance training and weight loss on plasma adiponectin multimers and adipose tissue macrophages in younger, moderately overweight men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Auerbach, Pernille; Nordby, Pernille; Bendtsen, Line Quist

    2013-01-01

    Obese individuals are characterized by low circulating adiponectin concentrations and an increased number of macrophages in adipose tissue, which is believed to be causally associated with chronic low-grade inflammation and insulin resistance. Regular physical exercise decreases overall morbidity...... composition (Western blotting) and adipose tissue macrophage content (immunohistochemistry) in young, moderately overweight men. Weight loss and endurance training per se decreased whole body fat percentage in an additive manner. No intervention-induced changes were observed for plasma total adiponectin...... tissue. Thus, regular physical exercise influences systemic and adipose tissue inflammatory pathways differently than diet-induced weight loss in younger, moderately overweight men. Our data suggest that some of the health benefits of a physically active lifestyle may occur through modulations of anti...

  5. Electric disruption in a hydrogen toroidal plasma; Ruptura eletrica em um plasma toroidal em hidrogenio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberto, M. [UNESP, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia. Dept. de Fisica; Silva, C.A.B. [Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial (CTA-IEAv), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Estudos Avancados; Goes, L.C.S.; Sudano, J.P. [Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Inst. Tecnologico de Aeronautica

    1990-12-31

    By using a zero-dimensional model the ionizing initial phase of a toroidal plasma produced in hydrogen was investigated. The model consists on describing the plasma time evolution through the density and particle temperature space averaged on the plasma volume. The involved equations are energy and particles balance equations (electrons and ions). The electron loss is due to ambipolar diffusion in the presence of magnetic field. The electron energy loss is due to ionizing, processes of Coulomb interaction and diffusion. The ohmic heating transformer gives a initial voltage necessary to the breaking 11 refs., 2 figs.

  6. Preliminary feasibility study of pallet-only mode for magnetospheric and plasmas in space payloads, volume 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Results of studies performed on the magnetospheric and plasma portion of the AMPS are presented. Magnetospheric and plasma in space experiments and instruments are described along with packaging (palletization) concepts. The described magnetospheric and plasma experiments were considered as separate entities. Instrumentation ospheric and plasma experiments were considered as separate entities. Instrumentation requirements and operations were formulated to provide sufficient data for unambiguous interpretation of results without relying upon other experiments of the series. Where ground observations are specified, an assumption was made that large-scale additions or modifications to existing facilities were not required.

  7. Medium-chain plasma acylcarnitines, ketone levels, cognition, and gray matter volumes in healthy elderly, mildly cognitively impaired, or Alzheimer's disease subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciavardelli, Domenico; Piras, Fabrizio; Consalvo, Ada; Rossi, Claudia; Zucchelli, Mirco; Di Ilio, Carmine; Frazzini, Valerio; Caltagirone, Carlo; Spalletta, Gianfranco; Sensi, Stefano L

    2016-07-01

    Aging, amyloid deposition, and tau-related pathology are key contributors to the onset and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, AD is also associated with brain hypometabolism and deficits of mitochondrial bioenergetics. Plasma acylcarnitines (ACCs) are indirect indices of altered fatty acid beta-oxidation, and ketogenesis has been found to be decreased on aging. Furthermore, in elderly subjects, alterations in plasma levels of specific ACCs have been suggested to predict conversion to mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or AD. In this study, we assayed plasma profiles of ACCs in a cohort of healthy elderly control, MCI subjects, and AD patients. Compared with healthy controls or MCI subjects, AD patients showed significant lower plasma levels of several medium-chain ACCs. Furthermore, in AD patients, these lower concentrations were associated with lower prefrontal gray matter volumes and the presence of cognitive impairment. Interestingly, lower levels of medium-chain ACCs were also found to be associated with lower plasma levels of 2-hydroxybutyric acid. Overall, these findings suggest that altered metabolism of medium-chain ACCs and impaired ketogenesis can be metabolic features of AD.

  8. Effect of neutral collision and radiative heat-loss function on self-gravitational instability of viscous thermally conducting partially-ionized plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin Kaothekar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The problem of thermal instability and gravitational instability is investigated for a partially ionized self-gravitating plasma which has connection in astrophysical condensations. We use normal mode analysis method in this problem. The general dispersion relation is derived using linearized perturbation equations of the problem. Effects of collisions with neutrals, radiative heat-loss function, viscosity, thermal conductivity and magnetic field strength, on the instability of the system are discussed. The conditions of instability are derived for a temperature-dependent and density-dependent heat-loss function with thermal conductivity. Numerical calculations have been performed to discuss the effect of various physical parameters on the growth rate of the gravitational instability. The temperature-dependent heat-loss function, thermal conductivity, viscosity, magnetic field and neutral collision have stabilizing effect, while density-dependent heat-loss function has a destabilizing effect on the growth rate of the gravitational instability. With the help of Routh-Hurwitz's criterion, the stability of the system is discussed.

  9. Changes in total plasma content of electrolytes and proteins with maximal exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Beaumont, W.; Strand, J. C.; Petrofsky, J. S.; Hipskind, S. G.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    To determine to what extent the increases in concentration of plasma proteins and electrolytes with short maximal work were a result of hemoconcentration, the changes in plasma volume and total content of the plasma constituents were simultaneously evaluated. The results obtained from six human subjects indicated that in comparison to preexercise values there was a net decrease in total content of plasma protein, sodium, and chloride in the first 2 min of the postexercise period, due primarily to a significant loss (13-15%) of plasma fluid. The total plasma potassium content was increased immediately after exercise but was significantly below the preexercise plasma content after 2 min of recovery.

  10. Plasma luteinizing hormone and the development of ovarian follicles after loss of clutch in female mallards (Anas platyrhynchos)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donham, R.S.; Dane, C.W.; Farner, D.S.

    1976-01-01

    The plasma level of LH and the extent of development of ovarian follicles were analyzed in incubating female Mallards. In both wild and game-farm stock, incubation was associated with a significant decline in plasma levels of LH from those of laying females. Within 1 day after removal of eggs, LH levels had increased to levels indistinguishable from those of laying females. The mean diameter of the largest follicle in wild females on the tenth day of incubation was 5.3 mm; it was 5.2 mm in game-farm stock at the same stage. Three days following removal of eggs, the mean of the largest follicles of wild-stock hens had increased to 14.0 mm and those of game-farm stock to 12.7 mm.

  11. Voxel-based morphometry of the marmoset brain: In vivo detection of volume loss in the substantia nigra of the MPTP-treated Parkinson's disease model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikishima, K; Ando, K; Komaki, Y; Kawai, K; Yano, R; Inoue, T; Itoh, T; Yamada, M; Momoshima, S; Okano, H J; Okano, H

    2015-08-06

    Movement dysfunction in Parkinson's disease (PD) is caused by the degeneration of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra (SN). Here, we established a method for voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and automatic tissue segmentation of the marmoset monkey brain using a 7-T animal scanner and applied the method to assess DA degeneration in a PD model, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-treated animals, with tyrosine-hydroxylase staining. The most significant decreases of local tissue volume were detected in the bilateral SN of MPTP-treated marmoset brains (-53.0% in right and -46.5% in left) and corresponded with the location of DA neurodegeneration found in histology (-65.4% in right). In addition to the SN, the decreases were also confirmed in the locus coeruleus, and lateral hypothalamus. VBM using 7-T MRI was effective in detecting volume loss in the SN of the PD-model marmoset. This study provides a potential basis for the application of VBM with ultra-high field MRI in the clinical diagnosis of PD. The developed method may also offer value in automatic whole-brain evaluation of structural changes for the marmoset monkey.

  12. Dynamic properties of the energy loss of multi-MeV charged particles traveling in two-component warm dense plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zhen-Guo; Wang, Zhigang; Li, Meng-Lei; Li, Da-Fang; Kang, Wei; Zhang, Ping

    2016-12-01

    The energy loss of multi-MeV charged particles moving in two-component warm dense plasmas (WDPs) is studied theoretically beyond the random-phase approximation. The short-range correlations between particles are taken into account via dynamic local field corrections (DLFC) in a Mermin dielectric function for two-component plasmas. The mean ionization states are obtained by employing the detailed configuration accounting model. The Yukawa-type effective potential is used to derive the DLFC. Numerically, the DLFC are obtained via self-consistent iterative operations. We find that the DLFC are significant around the maximum of the stopping power. Furthermore, by using the two-component extended Mermin dielectric function model including the DLFC, the energy loss of a proton with an initial energy of ˜15 MeV passing through a WDP of beryllium with an electronic density around the solid value ne≈3 ×1023cm-3 and with temperature around ˜40 eV is estimated numerically. The numerical result is reasonably consistent with the experimental observations [A. B. Zylsta et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 215002 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.215002]. Our results show that the partial ionization and the dynamic properties should be of importance for the stopping of charged particles moving in the WDP.

  13. Carbide Dissolution/Carbon Loss as a Function of Spray Distance in Unshrouded/Shrouded Plasma Sprayed Cr3C2-NiCr Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, S.

    2015-02-01

    Thermal spraying of Cr3C2-NiCr composites generates varying degrees of carbide dissolution into the Ni binder. During high-temperature exposure, the carbide dissolution zones precipitate high concentrations of small carbides which develop into finely structured networks. This raises the possibility of producing unique tailored carbide composite structures through the generation of controlled carbide dissolution and appropriate heat treatment. The first step in this process is to produce a supersaturated Ni-Cr-C solid solution from which the carbide phase could be precipitated. In a previous work, a broad range of plasma parameters were trialed to assess their effect on the degree of carbide dissolution at a fixed spray distance of 100 mm. The current two-part work builds on the most promising plasma parameters from those trials. In Part 1 of this two-part article series, the effect of spray distance on the extent of carbide dissolution and carbon loss during high energy plasma spraying was investigated. The effectiveness of solid shield and gas shrouding is contrasted, and the mechanisms by which they influence the degree of decarburization discussed.

  14. Longitudinal relationships between fluid status, inflammation, urine volume and plasma metabolites of icodextrin in patients randomized to glucose or icodextrin for the long exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Simon J; Garcia Lopez, Elvia; Woodrow, Graham; Donovan, Kieron; Plum, Jorg; Williams, Paul; Johansson, Ann Catherine; Bosselmann, Hans-Peter; Heimburger, Olof; Simonsen, Ole; Davenport, Andrew; Lindholm, Bengt; Tranaeus, Anders; Divino Filho, Jose C

    2008-09-01

    Randomized trials have shown that icodextrin reduces the volume of extra-cellular fluid (ECFv) with variable effects on residual renal function. To explore this fluid shift and its possible mechanisms in more detail, prospectively collected data from one such trial, including measures of inflammation (C-reactive protein, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, albumin and low and high molecular weight hyaluronan) ANP (atrial naturetic peptide), an indirect marker of intra-vascular volume, plasma concentrations of icodextrin metabolites and alpha-amylase activity were analysed. 50 patients were randomized to either 2.27% glucose or icodextrin (n = 28) for a long exchange following a month run in. Blood samples were obtained at -1, 0, 3 and 6 months, coincident with measurements of urine volume and fluid status. In both randomized groups, a significant correlation between the fall in ECFv and the decline in urine volume was observed (P = 0.001), although the relative drop in urine volume for patients randomized to icodextrin tended to be less. At baseline, ANP was higher in patients with proportionately more ECFv for a given body water or height. Icodextrin patients had non-significantly higher ANP levels at baseline, whereas by 3 (P = 0.026) and 6 months (P = 0.016) these differed between groups due to divergence. There was a correlation between increasing ANP and reduced ECF at 3 months, r = -0.46, P = 0.007, in patients randomized to icodextrin, but not glucose. There were no relationships between fluid status and any inflammatory markers at any point of the study, with the exception of albumin at baseline, r = -0.39, P = 0.007. Amylase activities at -1 month and baseline were highly correlated, r = 0.89, P volume, fluid or inflammatory status. This analysis supports observational data that changes in fluid status are associated with changes in urine volume. Icodextrin was not associated with a greater fall in urine output despite its larger effect on ECFv. Changes in fluid

  15. Blood parasites, total plasma protein and packed cell volume of small wild mammals trapped in three mountain ranges of the Atlantic Forest in Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, M A M L; Ronconi, A; Cordeiro, N; Bossi, D E P; Bergallo, H G; Costa, M C C; Balieiro, J C C; Varzim, F L S B

    2007-08-01

    A study of blood parasites in small wild non-flying mammals was undertaken in three areas of the Atlantic Forest in Southeastern Brazil: Serra de Itatiaia, RJ, Serra da Bocaina, SP and Serra da Fartura, SP, from June 1999 to May 2001. A total of 450 animals (15 species) were captured in traps and it was observed in 15.5% of the blood smears the presence of Haemobartonella sp. and Babesia sp. in red blood cells. There was no statistically significant difference between parasited and non-parasited specimens regarding total plasma protein, packed cell volume and body weight, which strongly suggests that these specimens might be parasite reservoirs.

  16. Acute severe organophosphate poisoning in a child who was successfully treated with therapeutic plasma exchange, high-volume hemodiafiltration, and lipid infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesilbas, Osman; Kihtir, Hasan S; Altiti, Mohammad; Petmezci, Mey Talip; Balkaya, Seda; Bursal Duramaz, Burcu; Ersoy, Melike; Sevketoglu, Esra

    2016-10-01

    Acute severe organophosphate poisoning is a serious complication seen in developing and agricultural countries. Pralidoxime and high dose atropine are the standard treatments. There is no consensus about acute severe organophosphate poisonings that are unresponsive to pralidoxime, atropine, and supportive therapies. We report a case of acute severe organophosphate poisoning that was unresponsive to standard treatments and successfully treated with high-volume continuous venovenous hemodiafiltration and therapeutic plasma exchange combined with lipid infusion. J. Clin. Apheresis 31:467-469, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Plasma physics and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Fridman, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Part I: Fundamentals of Plasma Physics and Plasma ChemistryPlasma in Nature, in the Laboratory, and in IndustryOccurrence of Plasma: Natural and Man MadeGas DischargesPlasma Applications, Plasmas in IndustryPlasma Applications for Environmental ControlPlasma Applications in Energy ConversionPlasma Application for Material ProcessingBreakthrough Plasma Applications in Modern TechnologyElementary Processes of Charged Species in PlasmaElementary Charged Particles in Plasma and Their Elastic and Inelastic CollisionsIonization ProcessesMechanisms of Electron Losses: The Electron-Ion RecombinationEl

  18. The Mars Crustal Magnetic Field Control of Plasma Boundary Locations and Atmospheric Loss: MHD Prediction and Comparison with MAVEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiaohua; Ma, Yingjuan; Masunaga, Kei; Dong, Chuanfei; Brain, David; Halekas, Jasper; Lillis, Robert; Jakosky, Bruce M.; Connerney, Jack; Grebowsky, Joseph; hide

    2017-01-01

    We present results from a global Mars time-dependent MHD simulation under constant solar wind and solar radiation impact considering inherent magnetic field variations due to continuous planetary rotation. We calculate the 3-D shapes and locations of the bow shock (BS) and the induced magnetospheric boundary (IMB) and then examine their dynamic changes with time. We develop a physics-based, empirical algorithm to effectively summarize the multidimensional crustal field distribution. It is found that by organizing the model results using this new approach, the Mars crustal field shows a clear, significant influence on both the IMB and the BS. Specifically, quantitative relationships have been established between the field distribution and the mean boundary distances and the cross-section areas in the terminator plane for both of the boundaries. The model-predicted relationships are further verified by the observations from the NASA Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) mission. Our analysis shows that the boundaries are collectively affected by the global crustal field distribution, which, however, cannot be simply parameterized by a local parameter like the widely used subsolar longitude. Our calculations show that the variability of the intrinsic crustal field distribution in Mars-centered Solar Orbital itself may account for approx.60% of the variation in total atmospheric loss, when external drivers are static. It is found that the crustal field has not only a shielding effect for atmospheric loss but also an escape-fostering effect by positively affecting the transterminator ion flow cross-section area.

  19. Physics of Plasmas in Thermonuclear Regimes. Proceedings of the 1979 Workshop, International School of Plasma Physics, Varenna, Italy, 27 August - 8 September 1979. Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coppi, B.; Sadowski, W. [eds.

    1979-08-27

    The workshop was run concurrently with the International School of Plasma Physics and was organized as a sequence of afternoon meetings concerning a set of topics that correspond to the individual chapters of these proceedings. The workshop consisted of both individual presentations and moderated discussions among the participants. A selected group of topics that were found to deserve a more in-depth analysis, such as the question of anomalous particle transport and the theory of collective modes induced by alpha-particles were discussed in separate Working Groups.

  20. Visualization of inner ear dysplasias in patients with sensorineural hearing loss. High-resolution MR imaging and volume-rendered reconstructions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klingebiel, R.; Bockmuehl, U. [Charite CM, Humboldt Univ., Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Werbs, M. [Charite CM, Humboldt Univ., Berlin (Germany). ENT Dept.; Freigang, B. [O. von Guericke Univ., Magdeburg (Germany). ENT Dept.; Vorwerk, W. [St. Salvator Krankenhaus, Halberstadt (Germany). ENT Dept.; Thieme, N.; Lehmann, R. [Charite CM, Humboldt Univ., Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Radiology

    2001-11-01

    Purpose: We evaluated a data acquisition and post-processing protocol for inner ear (IE) assessment by MR imaging in patients, suffering from various labyrinth malformations. Material and Methods: MR IE studies of 158 consecutive patients (316 IEs) suffering from sensorineural hearing loss without evidence of an acoustic neurinoma were reviewed for pathologies of the IE and internal acoustic meatus. High-resolution MR data of all abnormal IE studies (n=45) were post-processed to previously standardized 3D volume rendered (VR) reconstructions. Results: In 9 patients (5.7%) the following IE dysplasias were detected: malformation of the cochlea (6 IEs), vestibulum (4 IEs), semicircular canals (12 IEs) and vestibular aqueduct/endolymphatic sac (10 IEs). One patient showed evidence of an aplasia of the vestibulocochlear nerve. In 4 patients multiple IE dysplasias were encountered. Comprehensive 3D visualization of all labyrinthine dysplasias was achieved by the use of two VR reconstructions. The overall time for bilateral IE assessment amounted to 30-35 min. Conclusion: The imaging protocol allows for rapid and comprehensive visualization of various IE dysplasias, based on a limited number of VR reconstructions.

  1. Blood Volume: Importance and Adaptations to Exercise Training, Environmental Stresses and Trauma Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-02-01

    the elevation of Hb concentration (from plasma loss) is the most important factor contributing to the performance improve- ment by facilitating O2...A., P. J. BROCK, L. C. KEIL, E. M. BERNAUER, and J. E. GREENLEAF. Exercise training-induced hypervolemia: role of plasma albumin, renin , and...mechanism of hypervol- emia. J. Appl. Physiol. 48:657–664, 1980. 27. CONVERTINO, V. A., L. C. KEIL, and J. E. GREENLEAF. Plasma volume, renin , and

  2. Energy Loss of a Non-Accelerating Quark Moving in a Strongly Coupled $\\mathcal{N}=4$ SYM Vacuum or Quark-Gluon Plasma in Strong Magnetic Field

    CERN Document Server

    Mamo, Kiminad A

    2016-01-01

    We show that a massless quark moving at the speed of light $v=1$, in arbitrary direction, in a strongly coupled $\\mathcal{N}=4$ super Yang-Mills (SYM) vacuum in the presence of strong magnetic field $\\mathcal{B}$, losses its energy at a rate linearly dependent on $\\mathcal{B}$, i.e., $\\frac{dE}{dt}=-\\frac{\\sqrt{\\lambda}}{6\\pi}\\mathcal{B}$. In addition, we show that a heavy quark of mass $M$ moving at near the speed of light $v^2=v_{*}^2=1-\\frac{4\\pi^2 T^2}{\\mathcal{B}}\\simeq1$, in arbitrary direction, in a strongly coupled $\\mathcal{N}=4$ SYM quark-gluon plasma at finite temperature $T$, in the presence of strong magnetic field $\\mathcal{B}\\gg T^2$, losses its energy at a rate linearly dependent on $\\mathcal{B}$, i.e., $\\frac{dE}{dt}=-\\frac{\\sqrt{\\lambda}}{6\\pi}\\mathcal{B}v_{*}^2\\simeq-\\frac{\\sqrt{\\lambda}}{6\\pi}\\mathcal{B}$.

  3. Evidence for functional interaction of plasma membrane electron transport, voltage-dependent anion channel and volume-regulated anion channel in frog aorta

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rashmi P Rao; J Prakasa Rao

    2010-12-01

    Frog aortic tissue exhibits plasma membrane electron transport (PMET) owing to its ability to reduce ferricyanide even in the presence of mitochondrial poisons, such as cyanide and azide. Exposure to hypotonic solution (108 mOsmol/kg H2O) enhanced the reduction of ferricyanide in excised aortic tissue of frog. Increment in ferricyanide reductase activity was also brought about by the presence of homocysteine (100 M dissolved in isotonic frog Ringer solution), a redox active compound and a potent modulator of PMET. Two plasma-membrane-bound channels, the volume regulated anion channel (VRAC) and the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), are involved in the response to hypotonic stress. The presence of VRAC and VDAC antagonists–tamoxifen, glibenclamide, fluoxetine and verapamil, and 4,4′-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2′-disulphonic acid (DIDS), respectively–inhibited this enhanced activity brought about by either hypotonic stress or homocysteine. The blockers do not affect the ferricyanide reductase activity under isotonic conditions. Taken together, these findings indicate a functional interaction of the three plasma membrane proteins, namely, ferricyanide reductase (PMET), VDAC and VRAC.

  4. Salt and fluid loading: effects on blood volume and exercise performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo; Hamouti, Nassim

    2012-01-01

    During prolonged exercise, fluid and salt losses through sweating reduce plasma volume which leads to heart rate drift in association with hyperthermia and reductions in performance. Oral rehydration with water reduces the loss of plasma volume and lessens heart rate drift and hyperthermia. Moreover, the inclusion of sodium in the rehydration solution to levels that double those in sweat (i.e., around 90 mmol/l Na(+)) restores plasma volume when ingested during exercise, and expands plasma volume if ingested pre-exercise. Pre-exercise salt and fluid ingestion with the intention of expanding plasma volume has received an increasing amount of attention in the literature in recent years. In four studies, pre-exercise salt and fluid ingestion improved performance, measured as time to exhaustion, either during exercise in a thermoneutral or in a hot environment. While in a hot environment, the performance improvements were linked to lowering of core temperatures and heart rate, the reasons for the improved performance in a thermoneutral environment remain unclear. However, when ingesting pre-exercise saline solutions above 0.9% (i.e., > 164 mmol/l Na(+)), osmolality and plasma sodium increase and core temperature remain at dehydration levels. Thus, too much salt counteracts the beneficial effects of plasma volume expansion on heat dissipation and hence in performance. In summary, the available literature suggests that pre-exercise saline ingestion with concentrations not over 164 mmol/l Na(+) is an ergogenic aid for subsequent prolonged exercise in a warm or thermoneutral environment.

  5. Hearing loss and music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noise induced hearing loss - music; Sensory hearing loss - music ... turn up the volume to block out other noise. If you wear headphones, the volume is too loud if a person standing near you can hear the music through your headphones. Other tips about headphones are: ...

  6. Report of the Plasma Physics and Environmental Perturbation Laboratory (PPEPL) working groups. Volume 1: Plasma probes, wakes, and sheaths working group

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    It is shown in this report that comprehensive in-situ study of all aspects of the entire zone disturbance caused by a body in a flowing plasma resulted in a large number if requirements on the shuttle-PPEPL facility. A large amount of necessary in-situ observation can be obtained by adopting appropriate modes of performing the experiments. Requirements are indicated for worthwhile studies, of some aspects of the problems, which can be carried out effectively while imposing relatively few constraints on the early missions. Considerations for the desired growth and improvement of the PPEPL to facilitate more complete studies in later missions are also discussed. For Vol. 2, see N74-28170; for Vol# 3, see N74-28171.

  7. Solar High-energy Astrophysical Plasmas Explorer (SHAPE). Volume 1: Proposed concept, statement of work and cost plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Brian R.; Martin, Franklin D.; Prince, T.; Lin, R.; Bruner, M.; Culhane, L.; Ramaty, R.; Doschek, G.; Emslie, G.; Lingenfelter, R.

    1986-01-01

    The concept of the Solar High-Energy Astrophysical Plasmas Explorer (SHAPE) is studied. The primary goal is to understand the impulsive release of energy, efficient acceleration of particles to high energies, and rapid transport of energy. Solar flare studies are the centerpieces of the investigation because in flares these high energy processes can be studied in unmatched detail at most wavelenth regions of the electromagnetic spectrum as well as in energetic charged particles and neutrons.

  8. The Efficacy of Massage in Reducing Nodule Formation After Poly-L-Lactic Acid Administration for Facial Volume Loss: A Randomized, Evaluator-Blinded Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Douglas C; Goldman, Mitchel P

    2016-11-01

    The risk of nodule formation following poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) injections for facial volume loss is well known. Traditionally, post-treatment massage according to the 5-5-5 rule (5 times per day for 5 minutes for 5 days) has been applied to mitigate this risk. However, such a regimen may be onerous for patient compliance. Using currently accepted injection technique and product dilution, the efficacy of massage for nodule prevention has never been formally evaluated. To evaluate the efficacy of massage in reducing the incidence of nodule formation post-PLLA injection. After obtaining informed consent, 20 subjects with facial lipoatrophy were enrolled in this randomized, evaluator-blinded clinical trial. Each subject was treated with 1 vial of PLLA each month for 3 months. Vials were diluted with 1 mL of 1% lidocaine and 7 ml of bacteriostatic water, shaken with a vortex and refrigerated for 24 to 48 hours before injection. Ten subjects were instructed to massage the treated areas according to the 5-5-5 rule and 10 subjects did not perform any massage post-treatment. Six-month follow-up data were collected for treatment efficacy and adverse events. No nodules were reported by subjects or detected by the blinded evaluator regardless of massage status. Significant improvements in facial lipoatrophy were detected 1, 3, and 6 months after the final treatment session and were not statistically different between the 2 groups. Using currently recommended guidelines for product preparation and injection, the application of massage post-PLLA facial treatment does not have a significant impact on nodule formation or treatment efficacy.

  9. Blood parasites, total plasma protein and packed cell volume of small wild mammals trapped in three mountain ranges of the Atlantic Forest in Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAML. Silva

    Full Text Available A study of blood parasites in small wild non-flying mammals was undertaken in three areas of the Atlantic Forest in Southeastern Brazil: Serra de Itatiaia, RJ, Serra da Bocaina, SP and Serra da Fartura, SP, from June 1999 to May 2001. A total of 450 animals (15 species were captured in traps and it was observed in 15.5% of the blood smears the presence of Haemobartonella sp. and Babesia sp. in red blood cells. There was no statistically significant difference between parasited and non-parasited specimens regarding total plasma protein, packed cell volume and body weight, which strongly suggests that these specimens might be parasite reservoirs.

  10. (99m) Tc-labelled human serum albumin cannot replace (125) I-labelled human serum albumin to determine plasma volume in patients with liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Ulrik Lütken; Henriksen, Jens H; Bendtsen, Flemming

    2013-01-01

    -labelled human serum albumin (99mTc-HSA) and iodine-labelled human serum albumin (125I-HSA), as the former may have advantages at repeated measurements and the latter is the classical gold standard. Study population and methods In 88 patients, (64 with liver disease, mainly cirrhosis, and 24 patients without......Summary Background and aims Determination of plasma volume (PV) is important in several clinical situations. Thus, patients with liver disease often have augmented PV as part of their sodium–water retention. This study was undertaken to compare PV determination by two indicators: technetium...... liver disease), simultaneous measurements of PV were taken with 99mTc-HSA and 125I-HSA after 1 h in the supine position. Blood samples were obtained before and 10 min after quantitative injection of the two indicators. In a subset of patients (n = 32), the measurements were repeated within 1 h. Results...

  11. High-volume plasma exchange in a patient with acute liver failure due to non-exertional heat stroke in a sauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuan-Jung; Chen, Tso-Hsiao; Sue, Yuh-Mou; Chen, Tzay-Jinn; Cheng, Chung-Yi

    2014-10-01

    Heat stroke is a life-threatening condition characterized by an increased core body temperature (over 40°C) and a systemic inflammatory response, which may lead to a syndrome of multiple organ dysfunction. Heat stroke may be due to either strenuous exercise or non-exercise-induced exposure to a high environmental temperature. Current management of heat stroke is mostly supportive, with an emphasis on cooling the core body temperature and preventing the development of multiple organ dysfunction. Prognosis of heat stroke depends on the severity of organ involvement. Here, we report a rare case of non-exercise-induced heat stroke in a 73-year-old male patient who was suffering from acute liver failure after prolonged exposure in a hot sauna room. We successfully managed this patient by administering high-volume plasma exchange, and the patient recovered completely after treatment.

  12. HPLC analysis of asymmetric dimethylarginine, symmetric dimethylarginine, homoarginine and arginine in small plasma volumes using a Gemini-NX column at high pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Catherine E; Darcy, Christabelle J; Woodberry, Tonia; Anstey, Nicholas M; McNeil, Yvette R

    2010-01-01

    There is increasing recognition of the clinical importance of endogenous nitric oxide synthase inhibitors in critical illness. This has highlighted the need for an accurate high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for detection of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) in small volumes of blood. Here, the validation of an accurate, precise HPLC method for the determination of ADMA, SDMA, homoarginine and arginine concentrations in plasma is described. Solid phase extraction is followed by derivatisation with AccQ-Fluor and reversed phase separation on a Gemini-NX column at pH 9. Simultaneous detection by both UV-vis and fluorescence detectors affords extra validation. This solid phase extraction method gives absolute recoveries of more than 85% for ADMA and SDMA and relative recoveries of 102% for ADMA and 101% for SDMA. The intra-assay relative standard deviations are 2.1% and 2.3% for ADMA and SDMA, respectively, with inter-assay relative standard deviations of 2.7% and 3.1%, respectively. Advantages of this method include improved recovery of all analytes using isopropanol in the solid phase extraction; sharp, well-resolved chromatographic peaks using a high pH mobile phase; a non-endogenous internal standard, n-propyl L-arginine; and accurate and precise determination of methylated arginine concentrations from only 100microL of plasma.

  13. Quantification of low levels of organochlorine pesticides using small volumes ({<=}100 {mu}l) of plasma of wild birds through gas chromatography negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera-Rodriguez, Laura B. [Centro de Investigaciones Biologicas del Noroeste, S.C., Environmental Planning and Conservation Program, Mar Bermejo No. 195, Col. Playa Palo de Santa Rita, Ado. Postal 128, La Paz, BCS. 23090 (Mexico)]. E-mail: lrivera04@cibnor.mx; Rodriguez-Estrella, Ricardo [Centro de Investigaciones Biologicas del Noroeste, S.C., Environmental Planning and Conservation Program, Mar Bermejo No. 195, Col. Playa Palo de Santa Rita, Ado. Postal 128, La Paz, BCS. 23090 (Mexico); Ellington, James Jackson [National Exposure Research Laboratory, US Environmental Protection Agency, 960 College Station Road, Athens, GA 30605 (United States); Evans, John J. [National Exposure Research Laboratory, US Environmental Protection Agency, 960 College Station Road, Athens, GA 30605 (United States); Senior Service America Inc. (United States)

    2007-07-15

    A solid phase extraction and gas chromatography with negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry in scan mode (GC-NCI-MS) method was developed to identify and quantify for the first time low levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCs) in plasma samples of less than 100 {mu}l from wild birds. The method detection limits ranged from 0.012 to 0.102 pg/{mu}l and the method reporting limit from 0.036 to 0.307 pg/{mu}l for {alpha}, {gamma}, {beta} and {delta}-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), heptachlor, aldrin, heptachlor epoxide, endosulfan I, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p'-DDE), dieldrin, endrin, endosulfan-II, endrin-aldehyde and endosulfan-sulfate. Pesticide levels in small serum samples from individual Falco sparverius, Sturnella neglecta, Mimus polyglottos and Columbina passerina were quantified. Concentrations ranged from not detected (n/d) to 204.9 pg/{mu}l for some OC pesticides. All levels in the food web in and around cultivated areas showed the presence of pesticides notwithstanding the small areas for agriculture existing in the desert of Baja California peninsula. - This technique allows small birds to be used as indicators of chemical contamination in habitats because pesticides can be quantified in very small volumes of plasma.

  14. Plasma physics

    CERN Document Server

    Drummond, James E

    2013-01-01

    A historic snapshot of the field of plasma physics, this fifty-year-old volume offers an edited collection of papers by pioneering experts in the field. In addition to assisting students in their understanding of the foundations of classical plasma physics, it provides a source of historic context for modern physicists. Highly successful upon its initial publication, this book was the standard text on plasma physics throughout the 1960s and 70s.Hailed by Science magazine as a ""well executed venture,"" the three-part treatment ranges from basic plasma theory to magnetohydrodynamics and microwa

  15. Volume nanograting formation in laser-silica interaction as a result of the 1D plasma-resonance ionization instability

    CERN Document Server

    Gildenburg, V B

    2016-01-01

    The initial stage of the small-scale ionization-induced instability developing inside the fused silica volume exposed to the femtosecond laser pulse is studied as a possible initial cause of the self-organized nanograting formation. We have calculated the spatial spectra of the instability with the electron-hole diffusion taken into account for the first time and have found that it results in the formation of some hybrid (diffusion-wave) 1D structure with the spatial period determined as geometrical mean of the laser wavelength and characteristic diffusion length of the process considered. Near the threshold of the instability this period occurs to be approximately equal to the laser half-wavelength in the silica, close to the one experimentally observed.

  16. Volume nanograting formation in laser-silica interaction as a result of the 1D plasma-resonance ionization instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gildenburg, V. B.; Pavlichenko, I. A.

    2016-08-01

    The initial stage of the small-scale ionization-induced instability developing inside the fused silica volume exposed to the femtosecond laser pulse is studied as a possible initial cause of the self-organized nanograting formation. We have calculated the spatial spectra of the instability with the electron-hole diffusion taken into account for the first time and have found that it results in the formation of some hybrid (diffusion-wave) 1D structure with the spatial period determined as the geometrical mean of the laser wavelength and characteristic diffusion length of the process considered. Near the threshold of the instability, this period occurs to be approximately equal to the laser half-wavelength in the silica, close to the one experimentally observed.

  17. Rapamycin reduces kidney volume and delays the loss of renal function in a patient with autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peces, Ramón; Peces, Carlos; Pérez-Dueñas, Virginia; Cuesta-López, Emilio; Azorín, Sebastián; Selgas, Rafael

    2009-04-01

    This is the first report of a case of a reduction in kidney volume and preservation of renal function in a patient with autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) receiving rapamycin. A 42-year-old man with ADPKD and a severe persistent bleeding from his solitary left kidney was successfully treated with tranexamic acid (TXA). He also received low-dose rapamycin for 8 months, and this was associated with a 23.5% reduction in kidney volume, improvement and stabilization of renal function, and normalization of haemoglobin levels. When treatment with rapamycin was interrupted, renal function deteriorated within an 8-month period and haemodialysis (HD) became necessary. Kidney volume increased at once, and life-threatening bleeding prompted a nephrectomy 4 months after the onset of HD. These data suggest that the reduction in kidney volume and preservation of renal function with rapamycin could be the result of the antiangiogenic, antiproliferative effects of rapamycin.

  18. Plasma confinement

    CERN Document Server

    Hazeltine, R D

    2003-01-01

    Detailed and authoritative, this volume examines the essential physics underlying international research in magnetic confinement fusion. It offers readable, thorough accounts of the fundamental concepts behind methods of confining plasma at or near thermonuclear conditions. Designed for a one- or two-semester graduate-level course in plasma physics, it also represents a valuable reference for professional physicists in controlled fusion and related disciplines.

  19. Research opportunities in loss of red blood cell mass in space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, J. M.; Fisher, K. D.

    1985-01-01

    Decreases of red blood cell mass and plasma volume have been observed consistently following manned space flights. Losses of red cell mass by United States astronauts have averaged 10 to 15% (range: 2 to 21%). Based on postflight estimates of total hemoglobin, Soviet cosmonauts engaged in space missions lasting from 1 to 7 months have exhibited somewhat greater losses. Restoration of red cell mass requires from 4 to 6 weeks following return to Earth, regardless of the duration of space flight.

  20. Peak plasma interleukin-6 and other peripheral markers of inflammation in the first week of ischaemic stroke correlate with brain infarct volume, stroke severity and long-term outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    del Zoppo Gregory J

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cerebral ischaemia initiates an inflammatory response in the brain and periphery. We assessed the relationship between peak values of plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6 in the first week after ischaemic stroke, with measures of stroke severity and outcome. Methods Thirty-seven patients with ischaemic stroke were prospectively recruited. Plasma IL-6, and other markers of peripheral inflammation, were measured at pre-determined timepoints in the first week after stroke onset. Primary analyses were the association between peak plasma IL-6 concentration with both modified Rankin score (mRS at 3 months and computed tomography (CT brain infarct volume. Results Peak plasma IL-6 concentration correlated significantly (p Conclusions These data provide evidence that the magnitude of the peripheral inflammatory response is related to the severity of acute ischaemic stroke, and clinical outcome.

  1. The Acoustic Model Evaluation Committee (AMEC) Reports. Volume 2. The Evaluation of the FACT PL9D Transmission Loss Model. Book 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    angle sector. Other deficiencios are lack of eigenray information, dependence of initial ranse and range increment for propagation loss calculations...and the r. lack of vertical beampatterns and external bottom loss capabilitLes. This evaluation was completed in September 1980. Accession For NTIS...SIMPLIFIED MOODL FCR SHALLOW WATER, CALLED INSTEAD OF FACTTL BY AUTOTL UNDER CERTAIN CONDITIONS. SUSROUTIME HFCHTL--A SI"PLIED HALF-CHANNEL MOOEL, USED if

  2. Fluid and sodium loss in whole-body-irradiated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geraci, J.P.; Jackson, K.L.; Mariano, M.S.

    1987-09-01

    Whole-body and organ fluid compartment sizes and plasma sodium concentrations were measured in conventional, GI decontaminated, bile duct ligated, and choledochostomized rats at different times after various doses of gamma radiation. In addition, sodium excretion was measured in rats receiving lethal intestinal radiation injury. After doses which were sublethal for 3-5 day intestinal death, transient decreases occurred in all the fluid compartments measured (i.e., total body water, extracellular fluid space, plasma volume). No recovery of these fluid compartments was observed in rats destined to die from intestinal radiation injury. The magnitude of the decreases in fluid compartment sizes was dose dependent and correlated temporally with the breakdown and recovery of the intestinal mucosa but was independent of the presence or absence of enteric bacteria or bile acids. Associated with the loss of fluid was an excess excretion of 0.83 meq of sodium between 48 and 84 h postirradiation. This represents approximately 60% of the sodium lost from the extracellular fluid space in these animals during this time. The remaining extracellular sodium loss was due to redistribution of sodium to other spaces. It is concluded that radiation-induced breakdown of the intestinal mucosa results in lethal losses of fluid and sodium as evidenced by significant decreases in total body water, extracellular fluid space, plasma volume, and plasma sodium concentration, with hemoconcentration. These changes are sufficient to reduce tissue perfusion leading to irreversible hypovolemic shock and death.

  3. Accurate monitoring of intravascular fluid volume: A novel application of intrathoracic impedance measures for the guidance of volume reduction therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara A. Lara

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: Impedance vectors derived from a multivector monitoring system reflect changes in intravascular plasma volume. Two of these vectors most closely track changes in plasma volume and may be used to more accurately guide and optimize volume reduction therapy.

  4. Probabilistic risk assessment of the Space Shuttle. Phase 3: A study of the potential of losing the vehicle during nominal operation. Volume 2: Integrated loss of vehicle model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragola, Joseph R.; Maggio, Gaspare; Frank, Michael V.; Gerez, Luis; Mcfadden, Richard H.; Collins, Erin P.; Ballesio, Jorge; Appignani, Peter L.; Karns, James J.

    1995-01-01

    The application of the probabilistic risk assessment methodology to a Space Shuttle environment, particularly to the potential of losing the Shuttle during nominal operation is addressed. The different related concerns are identified and combined to determine overall program risks. A fault tree model is used to allocate system probabilities to the subsystem level. The loss of the vehicle due to failure to contain energetic gas and debris, to maintain proper propulsion and configuration is analyzed, along with the loss due to Orbiter, external tank failure, and landing failure or error.

  5. Carriers of Loss-of-Function Mutations in EXT Display Impaired Pancreatic Beta-Cell Reserve Due to Smaller Pancreas Volume

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moens, Sophie J. Bernelot; Mooij, Hans L.; Hassing, H. Carlijne; Kruit, Janine K.; Witjes, Julia J.; de Sande, Michiel A. J. van; Nederveen, Aart J.; Xu, Ding; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M.; Esko, Jeffrey D.; Stroes, Erik S. G.; Nieuwdorp, Max

    2014-01-01

    Exotosin (EXT) proteins are involved in the chain elongation step of heparan sulfate (HS) biosynthesis, which is intricately involved in organ development. Loss of function mutations (LOF) in EXT1 and EXT2 result in hereditary exostoses (HME). Interestingly, HS plays a role in pancreas development a

  6. Plasma detachment in linear devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, N.

    2017-03-01

    Plasma detachment research in linear devices, sometimes called divertor plasma simulators, is reviewed. Pioneering works exploring the concept of plasma detachment were conducted in linear devices. Linear devices have contributed greatly to the basic understanding of plasma detachment such as volume plasma recombination processes, detached plasma structure associated with particle and energy transport, and other related issues including enhancement of convective plasma transport, dynamic response of plasma detachment, plasma flow reversal, and magnetic field effect. The importance of plasma detachment research using linear devices will be highlighted aimed at the design of future DEMO.

  7. Stability of polyphenols in chokeberry juice treated with gas phase plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursać Kovačević, Danijela; Gajdoš Kljusurić, Jasenka; Putnik, Predrag; Vukušić, Tomislava; Herceg, Zoran; Dragović-Uzelac, Verica

    2016-12-01

    Chokeberry juice was subjected to cold atmospheric gas phase plasma and changes in hydroxycinnamic acids, flavonols and anthocyanins were monitored. Plasma treatments were carried out under different treatment times and juice volumes under constant gas flow (0.75dm(3)min(-1)). The results were compared against control (untreated) and pasteurized chokeberry juice (80°C/2min). During pasteurization, the most unstable were hydroxycinnamic acids with losses of up to 59%, while flavonols and anthocyanins increased by 5% and 9%, respectively. On the contrary, plasma treated chokeberry juice showed higher concentrations of hydroxycinnamic acids and 23% loss of anthocyanins in comparison to untreated juice. In order to obtain the optimal cold plasma treatment parameters principal component and sensitivity analysis were used. Such parameters can be potentially used for pasteurization in terms of phenolic stability of chokeberry juice. Optimal treatment was at 4.1min and sample volume of 3cm(3). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Hearing loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decreased hearing; Deafness; Loss of hearing; Conductive hearing loss; Sensorineural hearing loss; Presbycusis ... Symptoms of hearing loss may include: Certain sounds seeming too ... conversations when two or more people are talking Difficulty ...

  9. Low-dose rapamycin reduces kidney volume angiomyolipomas and prevents the loss of renal function in a patient with tuberous sclerosis complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peces, Ramón; Peces, Carlos; Cuesta-López, Emilio; Pérez-Dueñas, Virginia; Vega-Cabrera, Cristina; Azorín, Sebastián; Selgas, Rafael

    2010-11-01

    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is caused by constitutively activated mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) resulting in non-malignant tumours of several organs including renal angiomyolipomas (AMLs). AMLs may originate renal failure, hypertension and spontaneous life-threatening bleeding. Recent reports suggest a possible beneficial role of the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin for TSC. However, safety and efficiency of rapamycin in TSC patients as an anti-proliferative agent are still undefined. A 40-year-old man with sporadic TSC and a history of spontaneous bleeding from his left kidney AMLs received low-dose rapamycin for 12 months, and this was associated with a reduction in bilateral kidney AML volume, stabilization and even improvement of renal function. There was also a reduction of facial angiofibromas, improvement of blood pressure control and absence of AML bleeding over this time period. Brain lesion images remained stable, and no significant rapamycin-associated side effects were noted. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a case of reduction in renal AML volume together with preservation of renal function in a patient with TSC receiving low-dose rapamycin. These data suggest that it could be the result of the anti-angiogenic, anti-fibrotic and anti-proliferative effects of rapamycin.

  10. Future detection and monitoring of diabetes may entail analysis of both β-cell function and volume: How markers of β-cell loss may assist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neutzsky-Wulff Anita V

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Disease heterogeneity is as major issue in Type II Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM, and this patient inter-variability might not be sufficiently reflected by measurements of glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c. Β-cell dysfunction and β-cell death are initiating factors in development of T2DM. In fact, β-cells are known vanish prior to the development of T2DM, and autopsy of overt T2DM patients have shown a 60% reduction in β-cell mass. As the decline in β-cell function and mass have been proven to be pathological traits in T2DM, methods for evaluating β-cell loss is becoming of more interest. However, evaluation of β-cell death or loss is currently invasive and unattainable for the vast majority of diabetes patients. Serological markers, reflecting β-cell loss would be advantageous to detect and monitor progression of T2DM. Biomarkers with such capacities could be neo-epitopes of proteins with high β-cell specificity containing post translational modifications. Such tools may segregate T2DM patients into more appropriate treatment groups, based on their β-cell status, which is currently not possible. Presently individuals presenting with adequately elevated levels of both insulin and glucose are classified as T2DM patients, while an important subdivision of those is pending, namely those patients with sufficient β-cell capacity and those without. This may warrant two very different treatment options and patient care paths. Serological biomarkers reflecting β-cell health status may also assist development of new drugs for T2DM and aid physicians in better characterization of individual patients and tailor individual treatments and patient care protocols.

  11. Deterioration of abstract reasoning ability in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease: correlation with regional grey matter volume loss revealed by diffeomorphic anatomical registration through exponentiated lie algebra analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshiura, Takashi; Hiwatashi, Akio; Yamashita, Koji; Takayama, Yukihisa; Kamano, Norihiro; Honda, Hiroshi [Kyushu University, Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka (Japan); Ohyagi, Yasumasa; Kira, Jun-ichi [Kyushu University, Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka (Japan); Monji, Akira; Kawashima, Toshiro [Kyushu University, Department of Neuropsychiatry, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2011-02-15

    To determine which brain regions are relevant to deterioration in abstract reasoning as measured by Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices (CPM) in the context of dementia. MR images of 37 consecutive patients including 19 with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 18 with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) were retrospectively analyzed. All patients were administered the CPM. Regional grey matter (GM) volume was evaluated according to the regimens of voxel-based morphometry, during which a non-linear registration algorithm called Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration Through Exponentiated Lie algebra was employed. Multiple regression analyses were used to map the regions where GM volumes were correlated with CPM scores. The strongest correlation with CPM scores was seen in the left middle frontal gyrus while a region with the largest volume was identified in the left superior temporal gyrus. Significant correlations were seen in 14 additional regions in the bilateral cerebral hemispheres and right cerebellum. Deterioration of abstract reasoning ability in AD and aMCI measured by CPM is related to GM loss in multiple regions, which is in close agreement with the results of previous activation studies. (orig.)

  12. Deterioration of abstract reasoning ability in mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease: correlation with regional grey matter volume loss revealed by diffeomorphic anatomical registration through exponentiated lie algebra analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshiura, Takashi; Hiwatashi, Akio; Yamashita, Koji; Ohyagi, Yasumasa; Monji, Akira; Takayama, Yukihisa; Kamano, Norihiro; Kawashima, Toshiro; Kira, Jun-Ichi; Honda, Hiroshi

    2011-02-01

    To determine which brain regions are relevant to deterioration in abstract reasoning as measured by Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices (CPM) in the context of dementia. MR images of 37 consecutive patients including 19 with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and 18 with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) were retrospectively analyzed. All patients were administered the CPM. Regional grey matter (GM) volume was evaluated according to the regimens of voxel-based morphometry, during which a non-linear registration algorithm called Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration Through Exponentiated Lie algebra was employed. Multiple regression analyses were used to map the regions where GM volumes were correlated with CPM scores. The strongest correlation with CPM scores was seen in the left middle frontal gyrus while a region with the largest volume was identified in the left superior temporal gyrus. Significant correlations were seen in 14 additional regions in the bilateral cerebral hemispheres and right cerebellum. Deterioration of abstract reasoning ability in AD and aMCI measured by CPM is related to GM loss in multiple regions, which is in close agreement with the results of previous activation studies.

  13. Sequential exercise in triathletes: variations in GH and water loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Galy

    Full Text Available Growth hormone (GH may stimulate water loss during exercise by activating sweating. This study investigated GH secretion and water loss during sequential cycling and running, taking postural changes into account. The two exercise segments had similar durations and were performed at the same relative intensity to determine their respective contributions to water loss and the plasma volume variation noted in such trials. Eight elite triathletes first performed an incremental cycle test to assess maximal oxygen consumption. Then, the triathletes performed one of two trials in randomized order: constant submaximal cycling followed by treadmill running (C1-R2 or an inversed succession of running followed by cycling (R1-C2. Each segment of both trials was performed for 20 minutes at ∼75% of maximal oxygen consumption. The second trial, reversing the segment order of the first trial, took place two weeks later. During cycling, the triathletes used their own bicycles equipped with a profiled handlebar. Blood sampling (for GH concentrations, plasma viscosity and plasma volume variation was conducted at rest and after each segment while water loss was estimated from the post- and pre-measures. GH increases were significantly lower in R2 than C2 (72.2±50.1 vs. 164.0±157 ng x ml(-1 x min(-1, respectively; P<0.05. Water loss was significantly lower after C1-R2 than R1-C2 (1105±163 and 1235±153 ml, respectively; P<0.05. Plasma volume variation was significantly negative in C1 and R1 (-6.15±2.0 and -3.16±5.0%, respectively; P<0.05, not significant in C2, and significantly positive for seven subjects in R2 (4.05±3.1%. We concluded that the lower GH increases in R2 may have contributed to the smaller reduction in plasma volume by reducing sweating. Moreover, this lower GH response could be explained by the postural change during the transition from cycling to running. We recommend to pay particular attention to their hydration status during R1 which

  14. Young child with severe brain volume loss easily passes the word memory test and medical symptom validity test: implications for mild TBI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carone, Dominic A

    2014-01-01

    The Word Memory Test (WMT) and Medical Symptom Validity Test (MSVT) are two commonly used free-standing measures of test-taking effort. The use of any test as a measure of effort is enhanced when evidence shows that it can be easily passed by patients with severe neurological conditions. The opportunity arose to administer the WMT and MSVT to a 9-year-old girl (referred to as CJ) with severe congenital bilateral brain tissue loss (shown via a compelling brain MRI image), chronic epilepsy, an extremely low Full Scale IQ, extremely low adaptive functioning, developmental delays, numerous severe cognitive impairments, and treatment with multiple high-dose benzodiazepines. She received extensive early intervention services and numerous academic accommodations. Despite this set of problems, CJ passed the WMT and MSVT at perfect to near perfect levels. Implications for failure on these tests among patients with known or alleged mild traumatic brain injury are discussed.

  15. Assessing the long-term weathering of petroleum on shorelines : uses of conserved components for calibrating loss and bioremediation potential, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atlas, R. [Louisville Univ., Louisville, KY (United States); Bragg, J. [Creative Petroleum Solutions, Houston, TX (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Shoreline samples from the Exxon Valdez oil spill were used to study the limitations and strengths of different conserved components as markers based on a 17-year field monitoring program. Approximately 100 oil samples collected from the shoreline in Prince William Sound, Alaska from 1999-2006 had been analyzed for internal markers such as chrysenes, terpanes, steranes and triaromatic steroids and then used to assess the biodegradation of the spilled petroleum. The specific biomarkers used in this study were selected to exclude those that might be generated via biodegradation and were chosen from those having the most significant concentrations in the extracts. Concentrations of the recovered weathered oil compounds were quantified and the concentrations of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) components were measured in the aromatic fractions. The extent of PAH weathering was subsequently calculated as a percentage loss of total PAH in order to calculate a bioremediation index to evaluate if an oil at a given shoreline may be amenable to bioremediation (or nutrient addition) to accelerate removal of remaining PAH. In order to compare the extent of weathering over the 17 years since the spill, chemical analyses were performed for samples from 1989-1991 for which no biomarkers were measured. The weathering of the oil has progressed in such a way that most of the remaining oil is now highly weathered. The trend of increasing biodegradation with time indicates that given sufficient time, the oil will continue to degrade naturally until all of the PAH components are consumed. The most stable biomarker compounds to quantify the loss of PAH or other oil components was shown to be C{sub 29}R-stigmastane. 35 refs., 4 tabs., 7 figs.

  16. Effect of High-Volume Injection, Platelet-Rich Plasma, and Sham Treatment in Chronic Midportion Achilles Tendinopathy: A Randomized Double-Blinded Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesen, Anders Ploug; Hansen, Rudi; Boesen, Morten Ilum; Malliaras, Peter; Langberg, Henning

    2017-07-01

    Injection therapies are often considered alongside exercise for chronic midportion Achilles tendinopathy (AT), although evidence of their efficacy is sparse. To determine whether eccentric training in combination with high-volume injection (HVI) or platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injections improves outcomes in AT. Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1. A total of 60 men (age, 18-59 years) with chronic (>3 months) AT were included and followed for 6 months (n = 57). All participants performed eccentric training combined with either (1) one HVI (steroid, saline, and local anesthetic), (2) four PRP injections each 14 days apart, or (3) placebo (a few drops of saline under the skin). Randomization was stratified for age, function, and symptom severity (Victorian Institute of Sports Assessment-Achilles [VISA-A]). Outcomes included function and symptoms (VISA-A), self-reported tendon pain during activity (visual analog pain scale [VAS]), tendon thickness and intratendinous vascularity (ultrasonographic imaging and Doppler signal), and muscle function (heel-rise test). Outcomes were assessed at baseline and at 6, 12, and 24 weeks of follow-up. VISA-A scores improved in all groups at all time points ( P PRP (6 weeks = 14 ± 4; 12 weeks = 15 ± 3) and placebo (6 weeks = 10 ± 3; 12 weeks = 11 ± 3) at 6 and 12 weeks ( P PRP (20 ± 5) groups versus placebo (9 ± 3) at 24 weeks ( P PRP (6 weeks = 37 ± 7 mm; 12 weeks = 41 ± 7 mm; 24 weeks = 37 ± 6 mm) versus placebo (6 weeks = 23 ± 6 mm; 12 weeks = 30 ± 5 mm; 24 weeks = 18 ± 6 mm) at all time points ( P PRP at 6 weeks ( P PRP groups during the intervention, and this was greater in the HVI versus PRP and placebo groups at 6 and 12 weeks ( P PRP groups versus the placebo group at 24 weeks ( P PRP in combination with eccentric training in chronic AT seems more effective in reducing pain, improving activity level, and reducing tendon thickness and intratendinous vascularity than eccentric training alone. HVI may be

  17. Reviews of plasma physics

    CERN Document Server

    2008-01-01

    "Reviews of Plasma Physics Volume 24," edited by V.D. Shafranov, presents two reviews from the cutting-edge of Russian plasma physics research. The first review by V.A. Rozhansky devoted to the mechanisms of transverse conductivity and generation of self-consistent electric fields in strongly ionized magnetized plasma. The second review by O.G. Bakunin considers numerous aspects of turbulent transport in plasma and fluids. This review is focused on scaling arguments for describing anomalous diffusion in the presence of complex structures. These topics are especially important for fusion plasma research, plasma astrophysics, discharge physics, and turbulence

  18. Reviews of plasma physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafranov, Vitalii Dmitrievich (ed.); Bakunin, Oleg G. (comps.) [Rossijskij Nauchnyj Tsentr ' ' Kurchatovskij Inst.' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation). Nuclear Fusion Inst.; Rozhansky, V. [St. Petersburg State Polytechnical Univ. (Russian Federation)

    2008-07-01

    Reviews of Plasma Physics Volume 24, edited by V.D. Shafranov, presents two reviews from the cutting-edge of Russian plasma physics research. The first review by V.A. Rozhansky devoted to the mechanisms of transverse conductivity and generation of self-consistent electric fields in strongly ionized magnetized plasma. The second review by O.G. Bakunin considers numerous aspects of turbulent transport in plasma and fluids. This review is focused on scaling arguments for describing anomalous diffusion in the presence of complex structures. These topics are especially important for fusion plasma research, plasma astrophysics, discharge physics, and turbulence (orig.)

  19. Sarcopenia Impairs Prognosis of Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma: The Role of Liver Functional Reserve and Tumor-Related Factors in Loss of Skeletal Muscle Volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Imai

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Sarcopenia impairs survival in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. This study aimed to clarify the factors that contribute to decreased skeletal muscle volume in patients with HCC. The third lumbar vertebra skeletal muscle index (L3 SMI in 351 consecutive patients with HCC was calculated to identify sarcopenia. Sarcopenia was defined as an L3 SMI value ≤ 29.0 cm2/m2 for women and ≤ 36.0 cm2/m2 for men. The factors affecting L3 SMI were analyzed by multiple linear regression analysis and tree-based models. Of the 351 HCC patients, 33 were diagnosed as having sarcopenia and showed poor prognosis compared with non-sarcopenia patients (p = 0.007. However, this significant difference disappeared after the adjustments for age, sex, Child–Pugh score, maximum tumor size, tumor number, and the degree of portal vein invasion by propensity score matching analysis. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that age (p = 0.015 and sex (p < 0.0001 were significantly correlated with a decrease in L3 SMI. Tree-based models revealed that sex (female is the most significant factor that affects L3 SMI. In male patients, L3 SMI was decreased by aging, increased Child–Pugh score (≥56 years, and enlarged tumor size (<56 years. Maintaining liver functional reserve and early diagnosis and therapy for HCC are vital to prevent skeletal muscle depletion and improve the prognosis of patients with HCC.

  20. Whole-body volume regulation and escape from antidiuresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbalis, Joseph G

    2006-07-01

    Both individual cells and organs regulate their volume in response to sustained hypo-osmolality via solute and water losses. Similar processes occur in the whole body to regulate the volumes of extracellular fluid (ECF) and intravascular spaces toward normal levels. Body water losses occur via the phenomena "escape from antidiuresis"; solute losses occur through the secondary natriuresis induced by water retention. As a result of resistance to arginine vasopressin (AVP) signaling, escape from antidiuresis is caused by downregulation of kidney aquaporin-2 expression despite high AVP plasma levels. Recent data have implicated downregulation of vasopressin V2R as a potential mechanism of resistance, and suggest that this may be a result of decreased intrarenal angiotensin II signaling in combination with increased intrarenal nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 signaling. The natriuresis that results in volume regulation of the ECF and vascular spaces is the result of intrarenal hemodynamic changes produced by volume expansion, but the degree to which these effects are modulated by aldosterone secretion and the activity of distal sodium cotransporters and channels remains to be elucidated. The clinical implication of these volume-regulatory processes is that the chronic hyponatremic state is one of water retention and solute losses from intracellular fluid and ECF compartments. The degree to which solute losses versus water retention contribute to hyponatremia will vary in association with many factors, including the etiology of the hyponatremia, the rapidity of development of the hyponatremia, the chronicity of the hyponatremia, the volume of daily water loading, and individual variability. Understanding these volume-regulatory processes allows a better understanding of many aspects of the conundrum of patients with "clinical euvolemia" and dilutional hyponatremia from AVP-induced water retention.

  1. Influence of prior activity on residual limb volume and shape measured using plaster casting: Results from individuals with transtibial limb loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan E. Sanders, PhD

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to determine whether prior activity affected the shape of a plaster cast taken of a transtibial residual limb. Plaster casts were taken twice on one day in 24 participants with transtibial limb loss, with 5 s between doffing and casting in one trial (PDI-5s and 20 min in the other trial (PDI-20m. The ordering of the trials was randomized. The mean +/- standard deviation radial difference between PDI-20m and PDI-5s was 0.34 +/- 0.21 mm when PDI-5s was conducted first and -0.02 +/- 0.20 mm when PDI-20m was conducted first. Ordering of the trials had a statistically significant influence on the mean radial difference between the two shapes (p = 0.008. The result shows that prior activity influenced the residual limb cast shape. Practitioners should be mindful of prior activity and doffing history when casting an individual's limb for socket design and prosthetic fitting.

  2. Plasma processing for VLSI

    CERN Document Server

    Einspruch, Norman G

    1984-01-01

    VLSI Electronics: Microstructure Science, Volume 8: Plasma Processing for VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration) discusses the utilization of plasmas for general semiconductor processing. It also includes expositions on advanced deposition of materials for metallization, lithographic methods that use plasmas as exposure sources and for multiple resist patterning, and device structures made possible by anisotropic etching.This volume is divided into four sections. It begins with the history of plasma processing, a discussion of some of the early developments and trends for VLSI. The second section

  3. Plasma volume expansion for treatment of preeclampsia: a Meta analysis%先兆子痫扩容治疗的Meta分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李琳; 田庚; 崔满华

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate effect of plasma volume expansion treatment for preeclampsia by Meta analysis. Methods A comprehensive literature search was performed at PubMed, Medline, Ovid, Embase, CNKI in English language for randomized controlled trials, hand search was also made to retrieve the current reference and research reports. Strict inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied to choose original research, and for quality assessment and data extraction, the software Revman 5. 0 was used for the Meta analysis. Results A total of 5 reports met the inclusion criteria of, including a total of 297 patients. Meta analysis results suggest that the volume - expansion group, compared with non - expansion groups: ① had no statistically significant difference in cesarean section rate, RR = 1.08, 95% CI; 0. 96 ~ 1.22, P = 0.19, ②the difference in the rate of premature delivery was not statistically significant between two groups, RR = 0.91, 95%C7;0.26 ~3.22, P = 0.89. ③perinatal mortality rate had no significant difference between the two groups, RR = 1. 65 , 95% C/;0. 77 ~ 3. 54, P = 0. 20.④the proportion of Apgar score < 7 had no significant difference between the two groups, RR = 1. 11, 95% C/:0. 54 ~ 2. 28 , P = 0. 77. ⑤the ratio of an additional drugs had no significant difference, RR = 1. 91, 95% C/:0. 90 ~ 4. 05, P = 0. 09. Conclusion The volume expansion does not improve the treatment of preeclampsia maternal cesarean section rate, perinatal mortality, Apgar score < 7 and the application of an additional drug ( magnesium sulfate and antihypertensive drugs ) ratio.%目的 通过Meta分析的方法评价先兆子痫扩容治疗的临床疗效.方法 检索1979 ~2010年中外文数据库收录的公开发表与研究目的相关的随机对照试验的文献,手工检索当前能够检索到的参考资料及研究报告.制定严格的纳入与排除标准,选择原始研究并对其进行质量评价和数据提取,利用Revman5.0版软件对所纳

  4. 低能质子束在氢等离子体中的能损研究∗%Investigation on the energy loss in low energy protons interacting with hydrogen plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓佳川; 任洁茹; 肖家浩; 麻礼东; 肖国青; R. Gavrilin; S. Savin; A. Golubev; D. H. H. Hoffmann; 赵永涛; 程锐; 周贤明; 彭海波; 王瑜玉; 雷瑜; 刘世东; 孙渊博

    2015-01-01

    实验测量了100 keV的质子束穿过部分电离氢等离子体靶后的能量损失.等离子体靶由气体放电方式产生,其自由电子密度在1016 cm−3量级,电子温度约1—2 eV,维持时间在微秒量级.研究结果表明:质子束在等离子体靶中的能量损失与自由电子密度密切相关且明显大于在同密度条件下中性气体靶中的能量损失;在自由电子密度达到峰值处,通过实验结果计算得到此时的自由电子库仑对数约为10.8,与理论计算结果符合较好,该值比Bethe公式给出的中性气体靶中束缚电子库仑对数高4.3倍,相应的能损增强因子为2.9.%Energy loss of protons with energy 100 keV penetrating the partially ionized hydrogen plasma target was measured. The plasma target was created by electric discharge in the hydrogen gas, the state of the plasma target was diagnosed by using the laser interferometry method: the free electron density is up to 1016 cm−3, temperature is about 1–2 eV, and the plasma target may exist at the microsecond level. It is found that the energy loss of protons is closely related to the free electron density, and the energy loss data enable us to infer the value of the Coulomb logarithm (10.8) for the stopping power of the free electrons. This agrees well with the theoretical prediction which is 4.3 times higher than that given by the Bethe formula for neutral hydrogen, which is a little bigger than Hoffmann’s result but much smaller than Jacoby’s result. Comparing our result with Hoffmann’s, the energy we used is only 100 keV, much lower than 1.4 MeV/u, and the low-energy regime we applied could be the cause of the increase in the enhancement factor. However, in the comparison between our result and the Jacoby’s, the effective charge for protons is almost constant, unlike the Kr+ impact in wihch the enhanced ion charge state induces the giant enhancement factor. Compared to the gas target, the energy loss enhancement

  5. Calculation of prompt loss and toroidal field ripple loss under neutral beam injection on EAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bin; Hao, Baolong; White, Roscoe; Wang, Jinfang; Zang, Qing; Han, Xiaofeng; Hu, Chundong

    2017-02-01

    Neutral beam injection is a major auxiliary heating method in the EAST experimental campaign. This paper gives detailed calculations of beam loss with different plasma equilibria using the guiding center code ORBIT and NUBEAM/TRANSP. Increasing plasma current can dramatically lower the beam ion prompt loss and ripple loss. Countercurrent beam injection gives a much larger prompt loss fraction than co-injection, and ripple-induced collisionless stochastic diffusion is the dominant loss channel.

  6. Effective Extraction Mechanism of Volume-Produced Ions in the NIPPER I Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Ramos

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available A mass spectrometer system is developed to extract and analyze hydrogen ions from a volume plasma hydrogen ion source. A 180° magnetic deflection-type mass analyzer is coupled to NIPPER I (National Institute of Physics Plasma Experimental Rig I, a negative ion source. Hydrogen plasma is produced from a low pressure gas (10-2 Torr with a transition of the glow discharge (254 volts, 75 mA to an arc plasma (78 volts, 14 amperes in a few seconds. The usually cylindrical plasma is converted into a sheet configuration using a pair of Sm-Co magnets. This optimizes ion current extraction by reducing (a the ion loss to the discharge anode and (b the decay of the ion current produced in the plasma. Negative hydrogen ions (H- are volume-produced by dissociative attachment of low energy electrons to highly vibrational excited hydrogen molecules.The extraction of H- ions from this volume source is optimized by the proper choice of apertures of the limiting electrodes and of the applied bias potential. A proper combination of extraction electrodes gives an optimum H- current extracted without the electrons. When one of the extraction electrodes is biased negatively near the value of the plasma floating potential, a maximum H- current is also obtained. The methods of effective extraction of H- are discussed.

  7. Multicomponent Consideration of Electron Fraction of ECR Source Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Shirkov, G D

    1999-01-01

    The development of physical model and mathematical simulation methods of electron and ion accumulation and production in the ECR ion source is presented. New equations represent electrons in the ECR plasma as a multicomponent media. In the result any kind of experimental or analytical electron distribution function can be approximated with a series of Maxwellian distributions with different temperatures and partial weights. Main positive plasma potential is introduced into consideration in addition to the negative potential dip for highly charged ion confinement. This potential regulates the loss rate of primary cold electrons from the plasma volume and completes the total picture of ECR plasma behavior. The first test of new model and code with recent experimental data of RIKEN 18 GHz ECR source has shown some new opportunities for investigators to study the ECR ion sources.

  8. Parton energy loss in glasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aurenche, P. [LAPTH, Universite de Savoie, CNRS, BP 110, F-74941, Annecy-le-Vieux Cedex (France); Zakharov, B.G. [L.D. Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, GSP-1, 117940, Kosygina Str. 2, 117334 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2013-01-08

    We study the synchrotron-like gluon emission in AA-collisions from fast partons due to interaction with the coherent glasma color fields. Our results show that for RHIC and LHC conditions the contribution of this mechanism to parton energy loss is much smaller than the radiative energy loss in the plasma phase.

  9. Plasma etching an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Manos, Dennis M

    1989-01-01

    Plasma etching plays an essential role in microelectronic circuit manufacturing. Suitable for researchers, process engineers, and graduate students, this book introduces the basic physics and chemistry of electrical discharges and relates them to plasma etching mechanisms. Throughout the volume the authors offer practical examples of process chemistry, equipment design, and production methods.

  10. Plasma diagnostics discharge parameters and chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Auciello, Orlando

    1989-01-01

    Plasma Diagnostics, Volume 1: Discharge Parameters and Chemistry covers seven chapters on the important diagnostic techniques for plasmas and details their use in particular applications. The book discusses optical diagnostic techniques for low pressure plasmas and plasma processing; plasma diagnostics for electrical discharge light sources; as well as Langmuir probes. The text also describes the mass spectroscopy of plasmas, microwave diagnostics, paramagnetic resonance diagnostics, and diagnostics in thermal plasma processing. Electrical engineers, nuclear engineers, microwave engineers, che

  11. Loss of the Arabidopsis thaliana P4-ATPases ALA6 and ALA7 Impairs Pollen Fitness and Alters the Pollen Tube Plasma Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen C McDowell

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Members of the P4 subfamily of P-type ATPases are thought to create and maintain lipid asymmetry in biological membranes by flipping specific lipids between membrane leaflets. In Arabidopsis, 7 of the 12 Aminophospholipid ATPase (ALA family members are expressed in pollen. Here we show that double knockout of ALA6 and ALA7 (ala6/7 results in siliques with a ~2-fold reduction in seed set with a high frequency of empty seed positions near the bottom. Seed set was reduced to near zero when plants were grown under a hot/cold temperature stress. Reciprocal crosses indicate that the ala6/7 reproductive deficiencies are due to a defect related to pollen transmission. In-vitro growth assays provide evidence that that ala6/7 pollen tubes are short and slow, with ~2-fold reductions in both maximal growth rate and overall length relative to wild-type. Outcrosses show that when ala6/7 pollen are in competition with wild-type pollen, they have a near 0% success rate in fertilizing ovules near the bottom of the pistil, consistent with ala6/7 pollen having short and slow growth defects. The ala6/7 phenotypes were rescued by the expression of either an ALA6-YFP or GFP-ALA6 fusion protein, which showed localization to both the plasma membrane and highly-mobile endomembrane structures. A mass spectrometry analysis of mature pollen grains revealed significant differences between ala6/7 and wild-type, both in the relative abundance of lipid classes and in the average number of double bonds present in acyl side chains. A change in the properties of the ala6/7 plasma membrane was also indicated by a ~10-fold reduction of labeling by lipophilic FM-dyes relative to wild-type. Together, these results indicate that ALA6 and ALA7 provide redundant activities that function to directly or indirectly change the distribution and abundance lipids in pollen, and support a model in which ALA6 and ALA7 are critical for pollen fitness under normal and temperature-stress conditions.

  12. Hair Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... loss at the scarred areas. These conditions include lichen planus, some types of lupus and sarcoidosis. Hair- ... increase your risk of hair loss, including: Family history Age Poor nutrition Certain medical conditions, such as ...

  13. Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... effects on your hearing — ringing in the ear (tinnitus) or hearing loss — can occur if you take ... adults with hearing loss, commonly reported problems include: Depression Anxiety An often false sense that others are ...

  14. Effects of a high-protein, low-carbohydrate v. high-protein, moderate-carbohydrate weight-loss diet on antioxidant status, endothelial markers and plasma indices of the cardiometabolic profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, Alexandra M; Lobley, Gerald E; Horgan, Graham W; Bremner, David M; Fyfe, Claire L; Morrice, Philip C; Duthie, Garry G

    2011-07-01

    There are concerns that weight-loss (WL) diets based on very low carbohydrate (LC) intake have a negative impact on antioxidant status and biomarkers of cardiovascular and metabolic health. Obese men (n 16) participated in a randomised, cross-over design diet trial, with food provided daily, at approximately 8.3 MJ/d (approximately 70 % of energy maintenance requirements). They were provided with two high-protein diets (30 % of energy), each for a 4-week period, involving a LC (4 % carbohydrate) and a moderate carbohydrate (MC, 35 % carbohydrate) content. Body weight was measured daily, and weekly blood samples were collected. On average, subjects lost 6.75 and 4.32 kg of weight on the LC and MC diets, respectively (P diets were associated with a small reduction in plasma concentrations of retinol, vitamin E (α-tocopherol) and β-cryptoxanthin (P diet (P diets. There was no change in other cardiovascular markers with WL. The present data suggest that a LC WL diet does not impair plasma indices of cardiometabolic health, at least within 4 weeks, in otherwise healthy obese subjects. In general, improvements in metabolic health associated with WL were similar between the LC and MC diets. Antioxidant supplements may be warranted if LC WL diets are consumed for a prolonged period.

  15. The loss of plasma membrane lysopip and an increase of PIP sub 2 result from treatment of carrot cells with fungal enzymes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Q.; Boss, W.F. (North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh (USA))

    1989-04-01

    The plasma membranes of carrot cells grown in suspension culture are enriched with PIP, lysoPIP, and PIP{sub 2}. To determine whether or not these lipids are involved in signal transduction, we have challenged the cells with a mixture of fungal cellulases, Driselase, and monitored the changes in the phosphoinositides and in the phosphoinositide kinase activity. With cell prelabeled with ({sup 3}H)inositol, two major changes are observed: (1) lysoPIP decreases 30% compared to the sorbitol control and (2) PIP{sub 2} doubles. There is no increase in IP, IP{sub 2}, or IP{sub 3}. In vitro phosphorylation studies using ({gamma}-{sup 32}P)ATP indicate that the increase in PIP{sub 2} is due in part to activation of the PIP kinase. These data suggest that the role of the polyphosphoinositides in signal transduction in plants may involve activation of the PIP kinase and/or activation of A type phospholipases rather than C type phospholipases.

  16. Energy losses in switches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, T.H.; Seamen, J.F.; Jobe, D.O.

    1993-07-01

    The authors experiments show energy losses between 2 and 10 times that of the resistive time predictions. The experiments used hydrogen, helium, air, nitrogen, SF{sub 6} polyethylene, and water for the switching dielectric. Previously underestimated switch losses have caused over predicting the accelerator outputs. Accurate estimation of these losses is now necessary for new high-efficiency pulsed power devices where the switching losses constitute the major portion of the total energy loss. They found that the switch energy losses scale as (V{sub peak}I{sub peak}){sup 1.1846}. When using this scaling, the energy losses in any of the tested dielectrics are almost the same. This relationship is valid for several orders of magnitude and suggested a theoretical basis for these results. Currents up to .65 MA, with voltages to 3 MV were applied to various gaps during these experiments. The authors data and the developed theory indicates that the switch power loss continues for a much longer time than the resistive time, with peak power loss generally occurring at peak current in a ranging discharge instead of the early current time. All of the experiments were circuit code modeled after developing a new switch loss version based on the theory. The circuit code predicts switch energy loss and peak currents as a function of time. During analysis of the data they noticed slight constant offsets between the theory and data that depended on the dielectric. They modified the plasma conductivity for each tested dielectric to lessen this offset.

  17. Improvement of magnetic hysteresis loss, corrosion resistance and compressive strength through spark plasma sintering magnetocaloric LaFe11.65Si1.35/Cu core-shell powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caiyin You

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available LaFe11.65Si1.35/Cu core-shell powders were achieved by self-designed magnetron sputtering system, which presents a better solidification during spark plasma sintering in comparison to the naked LaFe11.65Si1.35 powders. Much higher compressive strength, lower corrosion current density and magnetic hysteresis losses are achieved for the sintered sample of LaFe11.65Si1.35/Cu core-shell powders without significant decrease of the magnetic entropy change. The compressive strength, corrosion current density and maximum magnetic hysteresis losses are 105.6 MPa/16.8 MPa, 1.08 × 10−3A/cm2/3.03 × 10−3 A/cm2 and 1.33 J/kg/2.71 J/kg, respectively for the sintered samples of core-shell structured/naked powders. The technique of fabricating the core-shell structured powders demonstrated here is also applicable for other types of functional powders.

  18. Low-loss interference filter arrays made by plasma-assisted reactive magnetron sputtering (PARMS) for high-performance multispectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broßmann, Jan; Best, Thorsten; Bauer, Thomas; Jakobs, Stefan; Eisenhammer, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    Optical remote sensing of the earth from air and space typically utilizes several channels in the visible and near infrared spectrum. Thin-film optical interference filters, mostly of narrow bandpass type, are applied to select these channels. The filters are arranged in filter wheels, arrays of discrete stripe filters mounted in frames, or patterned arrays on a monolithic substrate. Such multi-channel filter assemblies can be mounted close to the detector, which allows a compact and lightweight camera design. Recent progress in image resolution and sensor sensitivity requires improvements of the optical filter performance. Higher demands placed on blocking in the UV and NIR and in between the spectral channels, in-band transmission and filter edge steepness as well as scattering lead to more complex filter coatings with thicknesses in the range of 10 - 25μm. Technological limits of the conventionally used ion-assisted evaporation process (IAD) can be overcome only by more precise and higher-energetic coating technologies like plasma-assisted reactive magnetron sputtering (PARMS) in combination with optical broadband monitoring. Optics Balzers has developed a photolithographic patterning process for coating thicknesses up to 15μm that is fully compatible with the advanced PARMS coating technology. This provides the possibility of depositing multiple complex high-performance filters on a monolithic substrate. We present an overview of the performance of recently developed filters with improved spectral performance designed for both monolithic filter-arrays and stripe filters mounted in frames. The pros and cons as well as the resulting limits of the filter designs for both configurations are discussed.

  19. Recurrent Pregnancy Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Véronique Piroux

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Antiphospholipid antibodies (APA are associated with thrombosis, thrombocytopenia and fetal loss but they occur in a variety of diseases. Despite many efforts, a correlation between the specificity of particular subgroups of APA and particular clinical situations remains to be established. The antigens at the origin of APA remain to be identified. We discuss here the possible links between cell apoptosis or necrosis, leading to plasma membrane alterations, and the occurrence of APA in response to sustained stimulation. The pathogenic potential of APA is also considered with respect to recurrent pregnancy loss.

  20. Dynamical collisional energy loss and transport properties of on- and off-shell heavy quarks in vacuum and in the Quark Gluon Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Berrehrah, Hamza; Aichelin, Jörg; Cassing, Wolfgang; Bratkovskaya, Elena

    2014-01-01

    In this study we evaluate the dynamical collisional energy loss of heavy quarks, their interaction rate as well as the different transport coefficients (drag and diffusion coefficients, $\\hat{q}$, etc). We calculate these different quantities for i) perturbative partons (on-shell particles in the vacuum with fixed and running coupling) and ii) for dynamical quasi-particles (off-shell particles in the QGP medium at finite temperature $T$ with a running coupling in temperature as described by the dynamical quasi-particles model). We use the perturbative elastic $(q(g) Q \\rightarrow q (g) Q)$ cross section for the first case, and the Infrared Enhanced Hard Thermal Loop cross sections for the second. The results obtained in this work demonstrate the effects of a finite parton mass and width on the heavy quark transport properties and provide the basic ingredients for an explicit study of the microscopic dynamics of heavy flavors in the QGP - as formed in relativistic heavy-ion collisions - within transport approa...

  1. Magnetic Fusion Energy Plasma Interactive and High Heat Flux Components: Volume 5, Technical assessment of critical issues in the steady state operation of fusion confinement devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    Critical issues for the steady state operation of plasma confinement devices exist in both the physics and technology fields of fusion research. Due to the wide range and number of these issues, this technical assessment has focused on the crucial issues associated with the plasma physics and the plasma interactive components. The document provides information on the problem areas that affect the design and operation of a steady state ETR or ITER type confinement device. It discusses both tokamaks and alternative concepts, and provides a survey of existing and planned confinement machines and laboratory facilities that can address the identified issues. A universal definition of steady state operation is difficult to obtain. From a physics point of view, steady state is generally achieved when the time derivatives approach zero and the operation time greatly exceeds the characteristic time constants of the device. Steady state operation for materials depends on whether thermal stress, creep, fatigue, radiation damage, or power removal are being discussed. For erosion issues, the fluence and availability of the machine for continuous operation are important, assuming that transient events such as disruptions do not limit the component lifetimes. The panel suggests, in general terms, that steady state requires plasma operation from 100 to 1000 seconds and an availability of more than a few percent, which is similar to the expectations for an ETR type device. The assessment of critical issues for steady state operation is divided into four sections: physics issues; technology issues; issues in alternative concepts; and devices and laboratory facilities that can address these problems.

  2. Comparison of fluid neutral models for one-dimensional plasma edge modeling with a finite volume solution of the Boltzmann equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horsten, N., E-mail: niels.horsten@kuleuven.be; Baelmans, M. [KU Leuven, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Celestijnenlaan 300A, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Dekeyser, W. [ITER Organization, route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, 13067 St. Paul lez Durance Cedex (France); Samaey, G. [KU Leuven, Department of Computer Science, Celestijnenlaan 200A, 3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2016-01-15

    We derive fluid neutral approximations for a simplified 1D edge plasma model, suitable to study the neutral behavior close to the target of a nuclear fusion divertor, and compare its solutions to the solution of the corresponding kinetic Boltzmann equation. The plasma is considered as a fixed background extracted from a detached 2D simulation. We show that the Maxwellian equilibrium distribution is already obtained very close to the target, justifying the use of a fluid approximation. We compare three fluid neutral models: (i) a diffusion model; (ii) a pressure-diffusion model (i.e., a combination of a continuity and momentum equation) assuming equal neutral and ion temperatures; and (iii) the pressure-diffusion model coupled to a neutral energy equation taking into account temperature differences between neutrals and ions. Partial reflection of neutrals reaching the boundaries is included in both the kinetic and fluid models. We propose two methods to obtain an incident neutral flux boundary condition for the fluid models: one based on a diffusion approximation and the other assuming a truncated Chapman-Enskog distribution. The pressure-diffusion model predicts the plasma sources very well. The diffusion boundary condition gives slightly better results overall. Although including an energy equation still improves the results, the assumption of equal ion and neutral temperature already gives a very good approximation.

  3. Lithium loss in the solid electrolyte interphase: Lithium quantification of aged lithium ion battery graphite electrodes by means of laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwieters, Timo; Evertz, Marco; Mense, Maximilian; Winter, Martin; Nowak, Sascha

    2017-07-01

    In this work we present a new method using LA-ICP-MS to quantitatively determine the lithium content in aged graphite electrodes of a lithium ion battery (LIB) by performing total depth profiling. Matrix matched solid external standards are prepared using a solid doping approach to avoid elemental fractionation effects during the measurement. The results are compared and matched to the established ICP-OES technique for bulk quantification after performing a microwave assisted acid digestion. The method is applied to aged graphite electrodes in order to determine the lithium immobilization (= ;Li loss;) in the solid electrolyte interphase after the first cycle of formation. For this, different samples including a reference sample are created to obtain varying thicknesses of the SEI covering the electrode particles. By applying defined charging voltages, an initial lithiation process is performed to obtain specific graphite intercalation compounds (GICs, with target stoichiometries of LiC30, LiC18, LiC12 and LiC6). Afterwards, the graphite electrode is completely discharged to obtain samples without mobile, thus active lithium in its lattice. Taking the amount of lithium into account which originates from the residues of the LiPF6 (dissolved in the carbon components containing electrolyte), it is possible to subtract the amount of lithium in the SEI.

  4. The Effect of Inhalation Volume and Breath-Hold Duration on the Retention of Nicotine and Solanesol in the Human Respiratory Tract and on Subsequent Plasma Nicotine Concentrations During Cigarette Smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armitage AK

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of inhalation depth and breath-hold duration on the retention of nicotine and solanesol in the human respiratory tract and on nicotine uptake was studied in ten cigarette smokers. In a first series of experiments, the subjects took seven puffs from a 10 mg ‘tar’ yield, test cigarette and a fixed volume of air (0, 75, 250, 500 or 1000 mL, as required by the protocol was inhaled after each puff in order to give a controlled ‘depth’ of inhalation. The inhalation was drawn from a bag containing the required volume of air. Following a 2 s breath-hold, subjects exhaled normally, with the first exhalation after each puff passing through a single acidified filter pad for collection of the non-retained nicotine and solanesol. Blood samples were taken before and at intervals during and after smoking for the sessions with 0, 75 and 500 mL inhalation volumes for determination of plasma nicotine and carboxyhaemoglobin levels. Another series of experiments was conducted with a fixed inhalation volume (500 mL and two further breath-hold durations (0 and 10 s in addition to 2 s from above. Nicotine and solanesol retentions were measured for each breath-hold condition. The amounts of nicotine retained within the respiratory system, expressed as a percentage of the amount taken into the mouth, were consistently higher than the corresponding values for solanesol in all five inhalation conditions (0-1000 mL, 2 s breath-hold. Nicotine retention increased from 46.5% at zero inhalation to 99.5% at 1000 mL inhalation (2 s breath-hold and from 98.0% at zero breath-hold to 99.9% at 10 s breath-hold (500 mL inhalation. Solanesol retention increased from 34.2% at zero inhalation volume to 71.9% at 1000 mL inhalation (2 s breath-hold and from 51.8% at zero breath-hold to 87.6% at 10 s breath-hold (500 mL inhalation. Plasma nicotine decreased from pre-smoking levels after zero inhalation indicating that the nicotine retained within the mouth was poorly

  5. Determination of cilostazol and its active metabolite 3,4-dehydro cilostazol from small plasma volume by UPLC-MS/MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nejal M. Bhatt; Vijay D. Chavada; Daxesh P. Patel; Primal Sharma; Mallika Sanyal; Pranav S. Shrivastav

    2015-01-01

    A simple, rapid and sensitive ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass cilostazol and its pharmacologically active metabolite 3,4-dehydro cilostazol in human plasma using deuterated analogs as internal standards (ISs). Plasma samples were prepared using solid phase extraction 18 (50 mm ? 2.1 mm, 1.7 mm) column. The method was established over a concentration range of 0.5–1000 ng/mL for cilostazol and 0.5–mL for 3,4-dehydro cilostazol. Intra-and inter-batch precision (%CV) and accuracy for the analytes were found within 0.93–1.88 and 98.8–101.7% for cilostazol and 0.91–2.79 and 98.0–102.7% for the metabolite respectively. The assay recovery was within 95–97% for both the analytes and internal standards. The method was successfully applied to support a bioequivalence study of 100 mg cilostazol in 30 healthy subjects.

  6. Determination of cilostazol and its active metabolite 3,4-dehydro cilostazol from small plasma volume by UPLC−MS/MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nejal M. Bhatt

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A simple, rapid and sensitive ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC−MS/MS method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of cilostazol and its pharmacologically active metabolite 3,4-dehydro cilostazol in human plasma using deuterated analogs as internal standards (ISs. Plasma samples were prepared using solid phase extraction and chromatographic separation was performed on UPLC BEH C18 (50 mm×2.1 mm, 1.7 µm column. The method was established over a concentration range of 0.5–1000 ng/mL for cilostazol and 0.5–500 ng/mL for 3,4-dehydro cilostazol. Intra- and inter-batch precision (% CV and accuracy for the analytes were found within 0.93–1.88 and 98.8–101.7% for cilostazol and 0.91–2.79 and 98.0–102.7% for the metabolite respectively. The assay recovery was within 95–97% for both the analytes and internal standards. The method was successfully applied to support a bioequivalence study of 100 mg cilostazol in 30 healthy subjects.

  7. A semi-automated multiplex high-throughput assay for measuring IgG antibodies against Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) domains in small volumes of plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cham, Gerald K K; Kurtis, Jonathan; Lusingu, John;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The level of antibodies against PfEMP1 is routinely quantified by the conventional microtitre enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). However, ELISA only measures one analyte at a time and requires a relatively large plasma volume if the complete antibody profile of the sample...... of twenty nine PfEMP1 domains were PCR amplified from 3D7 genomic DNA, expressed in the Baculovirus system and purified by metal-affinity chromatography. The antibody reactivity level to the recombinant PfEMP1 proteins in human hyper-immune plasma was measured by ELISA. In parallel, these recombinant PfEMP1......-based assay was sensitive, accurate and reproducible. Four recombinant PfEMP1 proteins C17, D5, D9 and D12, selected on the basis that they showed a spread of median fluorescent intensity (MFI) values from low to high when analysed by the bead-based assay were analysed by ELISA and the results from both...

  8. A validated LC-MS/MS method for the determination of canagliflozin, a sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT-2) inhibitor, in a lower volume of rat plasma: application to pharmacokinetic studies in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobuchi, Shinji; Yano, Kyoka; Ito, Yukako; Sakaeda, Toshiyuki

    2016-10-01

    Canagliflozin is a novel, orally selective inhibitor of sodium-dependent glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) for the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this study, a validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the quantitative analysis of canagliflozin in a lower volume of rat plasma (0.1 mL) was established and applied to a pharmacokinetic study in rats. Following liquid-liquid extraction by tert-butyl methyl ether, chromatographic separation of canagliflozin was performed on a Quicksorb ODS (2.1 mm i.d. × 150 mm, 5 µm size) using acetonitrile-0.1% formic acid (90:10, v/v) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 0.2 mL/min. The detection was carried out using an API 3200 triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer operating in the positive electrospray ionization mode. Selected ion monitoring transitions of m/z = 462.0 [M + NH4 ](+)  → 191.0 for canagliflozin and m/z = 451.2 [M + H](+)  → 71.0 for empagliflozin (internal standard) were obtained. The validation of the method was investigated, and it was found to be of sufficient specificity, accuracy and precision. Canagliflozin in rat plasma was stable under the analytical conditions used. This validated method was successfully applied to assess the pharmacokinetics of canagliflozin in rats using 0.1 mL rat plasma. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Ultra-trace plutonium determination in small volume seawater by sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with application to Fukushima seawater samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Wenting; Zheng, Jian; Guo, Qiuju; Aono, Tatsuo; Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo; Tazoe, Hirofumi; Yamada, Masatoshi

    2014-04-11

    Long-term monitoring of Pu isotopes in seawater is required for assessing Pu contamination in the marine environment from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. In this study, we established an accurate and precise analytical method based on anion-exchange chromatography and SF-ICP-MS. This method was able to determine Pu isotopes in seawater samples with small volumes (20-60L). The U decontamination factor was 3×10(7)-1×10(8), which provided sufficient removal of interfering U from the seawater samples. The estimated limits of detection for (239)Pu and (240)Pu were 0.11fgmL(-1) and 0.08fgmL(-1), respectively, which corresponded to 0.01mBqm(-3) for (239)Pu and 0.03mBqm(-3) for (240)Pu when a 20L volume of seawater was measured. We achieved good precision (2.9%) and accuracy (0.8%) for measurement of the (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratio in the standard Pu solution with a (239)Pu concentration of 11fgmL(-1) and (240)Pu concentration of 2.7fgmL(-1). Seawater reference materials were used for the method validation and both the (239+240)Pu activities and (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios agreed well with the expected values. Surface and bottom seawater samples collected off Fukushima in the western North Pacific since March 2011 were analyzed. Our results suggested that there was no significant variation of the Pu distribution in seawater in the investigated areas compared to the distribution before the accident.

  10. Hair Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of hair loss have found patients’ self-esteem, body image and self-confidence to be negatively affected. 1-2 Known psychosocial complications include depression, low self-esteem, altered self-image, and less frequent and enjoyable ...

  11. Experiencing Loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Maria; Younis, Tarek; Hassani, Amani

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we explore how Islam, minority status and refugee experiencesintersect in shaping meaning-making processes following bereavement. We do this througha phenomenological analysis of a biographical account of personal loss told by Aisha, a Muslim Palestinian refugee living in Denmark......, thus highlightingthe complex way in which religious beliefs, minority status and migration historycome together in shaping meaning-making processes, and the importance of reciprocity innarrative studies......., who narrates her experience of losing herhusband to lung cancer. By drawing on a religious framework, Aisha creates meaning fromher loss, which enables her to incorporate this loss into her life history and sustain agency.Her narrative invites wider audiences to witness her tale of overcoming loss...

  12. Hair Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Situations Pets and Animals myhealthfinder Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Weight Loss and Diet Plans Nutrients and Nutritional Info Sugar and Sugar Substitutes Exercise and Fitness Exercise Basics Sports Safety Injury Rehabilitation Emotional Well- ...

  13. Memory loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    A person with memory loss needs a lot of support. It helps to show the person familiar objects, music, or and photos or play familiar music. Write down when the person should take any medicine or do other ...

  14. Volume Entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Astuti, Valerio; Rovelli, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    Building on a technical result by Brunnemann and Rideout on the spectrum of the Volume operator in Loop Quantum Gravity, we show that the dimension of the space of the quadrivalent states --with finite-volume individual nodes-- describing a region with total volume smaller than $V$, has \\emph{finite} dimension, bounded by $V \\log V$. This allows us to introduce the notion of "volume entropy": the von Neumann entropy associated to the measurement of volume.

  15. Quantification of low levels of organochlorine pesticides using small volumes (plasma of wild birds through gas chromatography negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Rodríguez, Laura B; Rodríguez-Estrella, Ricardo; Ellington, James Jackson; Evans, John J

    2007-07-01

    A solid phase extraction and gas chromatography with negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry in scan mode (GC-NCI-MS) method was developed to identify and quantify for the first time low levels of organochlorine pesticides (OCs) in plasma samples of less than 100 microl from wild birds. The method detection limits ranged from 0.012 to 0.102 pg/microl and the method reporting limit from 0.036 to 0.307 pg/microl for alpha, gamma, beta and delta-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), heptachlor, aldrin, heptachlor epoxide, endosulfan I, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p'-DDE), dieldrin, endrin, endosulfan-II, endrin-aldehyde and endosulfan-sulfate. Pesticide levels in small serum samples from individual Falco sparverius, Sturnella neglecta, Mimus polyglottos and Columbina passerina were quantified. Concentrations ranged from not detected (n/d) to 204.9 pg/microl for some OC pesticides. All levels in the food web in and around cultivated areas showed the presence of pesticides notwithstanding the small areas for agriculture existing in the desert of Baja California peninsula.

  16. Radiative Loss For Carbon Plasma Impurity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    3.27RadiativeLossForCarbonPlasmaImpurityYaoJinzhangWehavecalculatedtheradiativelossforcarbonintheimpurityplasmabyamodifiedcor...

  17. Study on the effects of physical plasma on in-vitro cultivates cells; Untersuchungen zum Einfluss von physikalischem Plasma auf in vitro kultivierte Zellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strassenburg, Susanne

    2014-03-15

    This study focused on the interactions of non thermal atmospheric pressure plasma on in vitro cultured keratinocytes (HaCaT keratinocytes) and melanoma cells (MV3). Three different plasma sources were used: a plasma jet (kINPen 09), a surface DBD (dielectric barrier discharge) and a volume DBD. For analyzing basic effects of plasma on cells, influence of physical plasma on viability, on DNA and on induction of ROS were investigated. Following assays were used: -- Viability: - neutral red uptake assay, cell counting (number of viable cells, cell integrity) - BrdU assay (proliferation) - Annexin V and propidium iodide staining, flow cytometry (induction of apoptosis), -- DNA: - alkaline comet assay (detection of DNA damage) - staining of DNA with propidium iodide, flow cytometry (cell cycle analysis), -- ROS: - H2DCFDA assay, flow cytometry (detection of ROS-positive cells). In addition to the effects which where induced by the plasma sources, the influence of the plasma treatment regime (direct, indirect and direct with medium exchange), the working gas (argon, air) and the surrounding liquids (cell culture medium: RPMI, IMDM; buffer solutions: HBSS, PBS) on the extent of the plasma cell effects were investigated. All plasma sources induced treatment time-dependent effects in HaCaT keratinocytes and melanoma cells (MV3): - loss of viable cells and reduced proliferation - induction of apoptosis after the longest treatment times - DNA damage 1 h after plasma treatment, 24 h after plasma treatment DNA damage was present only after the longest treatment times, evidence for DNA damage repair - due to accumulation of cells in G2/M phase, cell count in G1 phase (24 h) is lower - increase of ROS-positive cells 1 h and 24 h after plasma treatment. It was shown that cells which were cultured in RPMI showed stronger effects (stronger loss of viability and more DNA damage) than cells which were cultured in IMDM. Also plasma-treated buffer solutions (HBSS, PBS) induced DNA

  18. NJP VOLUME 41 NO 2

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. EZECHUKWU

    2013-11-24

    Nov 24, 2013 ... sleep. There was also increase in both frequency of uri- nation and volume of urine voided; from1- 2 times to ... phagia, fever, head trauma, chronic cough, weight loss, ... water deprivation at 15Kg. Total volume of urine voided.

  19. Development and validation of a rapid and high-sensitivity liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay for the determination of neostigmine in small-volume beagle dog plasma and its application to a pharmacokinetic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Di; Li, Wenxue; Zhao, Xin; Ye, Xiaolan; Sun, Fanlu; Li, Jinying; Song, Fenyun; Fan, Guorong

    2014-03-01

    A simple, rapid and high sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the determination of neostigmine in small-volume beagle dog plasma was developed to assess the plasma pharmacokinetics of neostigmine. After protein precipitation in a Sirocco 96-well filtration plate, the filtrate was directly injected into the LC-MS/MS system. The analytes were separated on a Hanbon Hedera CN column (100 × 4.6 mm, 5 µm) with a mobile phase composed of methanol-water (60:40, v/v) and the water containing 0.01% formic acid at a flow rate of 0.6mL/min, with a split ratio of 1:1 flowing 300 μL into the mass spectrometer. The run time was 3 min. Detection was accomplished by electrospray ionization source in multiple reactions monitoring mode with the precursor-to-product ion transitions m/z 223.0 → 72.0 and 306.0 → 140.0 for neostigmine and anisodamine (internal standard), respectively. The method was sensitive with a lower limit of quantitation of 0.1 ng/mL, and good linearity in the range 0.1-100ng/mL for neostigmine (r ≥ 0.998). All the validation data, such as accuracy, intra-run and inter-run precision, were within the required limits. The method was successfully applied to pharmacokinetic study of neostigmine methylsulfate injection in beagle dogs.

  20. Plasma extraction rate and collection efficiency during therapeutic plasma exchange with Spectra Optia in comparison with Haemonetics MCS+.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Catherine; Gericke, Marion; Smith, Richard; Hermans, Cedric

    2011-01-01

    For therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE), continuous and intermittent flow separators are known to be efficient. This study was undertaken to compare the performances of the Spectra Optia, a continuous flow centrifugal apheresis system recently developed by CaridianBCT, with the Haemonetics Multicomponents System (MCS)+ apheresis system based on intermittent flow centrifugation. The primary objective of the study was to compare the time required to exchange one total plasma volume with both separators. The secondary objectives were to determine the plasma exchange efficiency, the plasma extraction rate, the percentage of target exchange volume achieved, and the loss of cellular components. The study involved prospectively paired comparison of 16 TPE on each device performed in patients with chronic diseases treated with TPE. The time required to exchange 1 total plasma volume was 182 ± 36 minutes for MCS+ procedures and 100 ± 20 minutes for the Spectra Optia procedures (P rate was achieved (30.2 ± 4.3 vs 16.8 ± 3.4 mL/min, respectively, P exchange efficiency was slightly better with the Spectra Optia compared with the MCS+ procedures (83.4 ± 7.0 vs 80.0 ± 8.5%, P compared with the MCS+ procedures (1.6 ± 2.3 vs 7.5 ± 4.2%, respectively, P comparable. In conclusion, the Spectra Optia has significantly higher extraction rate and exchange efficiency than the MCS+ allowing to remove the same amount of plasma in less time, by processing less blood. It also removes significantly less platelets than the MCS+ separator.

  1. The effects of ulinastatin on the plasma volume and organ vasopermeability in dogs with severe burn during early stage%乌司他丁对严重烧伤犬早期血浆容量及脏器血管通透性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈小鹏; 胡森; 柴家科; 盛志勇

    2011-01-01

    rose in both groups, while in UG the rising extent was less than that in CG.There was statistic difference between the two groups( P < 0.01 or P < 0.05 ).From 2h after burn, plasma volume in UG sustained much higher than that in CG, which decreased in both groups similarly( P < 0.01 or P <0.05 ) ( plasma volume at 4h and 8h PB in UG was 515 ± 25ml and 491 ± 29ml respectively, while it in CG was 432 ± 18ml and 366 ± 37ml).Both EB content and water content of liver, spleen, kidney and jejunum in UG were much lower than that in CG at 8h PB ( P < 0.01 or P < 0.05 ).Conclusion Ulinastatin used in early shock stage after burn can attenuate the rapid loss of circulation volume, decrease distant organ vasopermeability and alleviate organ damage and tissue edema.

  2. Radiofrequency power in plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    This document includes the various communications that were presented at the 11th topical conference on radio frequency power in plasmas which took place in Palm Springs in May 1995. It includes current diffusion studies to assess the non-inductive current deposition profiles, experiments for plasma to reach quickly an equilibrium state, and modelling of electrons in plasma. Some comparison studies also reveal the efficiency of the Quasi-Optical Grill antenna for reactor applications. Finally, a scenario for efficient mode conversion heating in the ion cyclotron range of frequency is presented. Separate abstracts were prepared for the 6 papers in this volume. (TEC).

  3. Hair Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to support hair growth. Some teens who are vegetarians also lose their hair if they don't get enough protein from non-meat sources. And some athletes are at higher risk for hair loss because they may be more likely to develop iron-deficiency anemia. Disruption of the hair growth cycle. Some ...

  4. Microphysics of cosmic plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Bykov, Andrei; Cargill, Peter; Dendy, Richard; Wit, Thierry; Raymond, John

    2014-01-01

    This title presents a review of the detailed aspects of the physical processes that underlie the observed properties, structures and dynamics of cosmic plasmas. An assessment of the status of understanding of microscale processes in all astrophysical collisionless plasmas is provided. The topics discussed include  turbulence in astrophysical and solar system plasmas as a phenomenological description of their dynamic properties on all scales; observational, theoretical and modelling aspects of collisionless magnetic reconnection; the formation and dynamics of shock waves; and a review and assessment of microprocesses, such as the hierarchy of plasma instabilities, non-local and non-diffusive transport processes and ionisation and radiation processes.  In addition, some of the lessons that have been learned from the extensive existing knowledge of laboratory plasmas as applied to astrophysical problems are also covered.   This volume is aimed at graduate students and researchers active in the areas of cosmi...

  5. Polar Mohr diagram method and its application in calculating the shear displacements of general shear zones with volume loss--With the Sangshuyuanzi ductile shear zone as an example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The main problem,in determining the shear displacement of a general shear zone with volume change using the available formula,is that it is hard to know the initial angle between the planes (or lines) in the plane of shear.A planar deformation analysis of this kind of ductile shear zone is carried out with the polar Mohr diagram.If the volume change is induced by homogeneous contraction in the Z direction of the shear zone,there are sufficient conditions for constructing a polar Mohr diagram regardless of sequence of the simple shear and volume change.Therefore,the angle between a line and the shear direction before and after the deformation can be measured.Making use of these lines the shear strain and the volume change can be calculated and the shear displacement can be determined.

  6. Exaggerated natriuretic response to isotonic volume expansion in hypertensive renal transplant recipients: evaluation of proximal and distal tubular reabsorption by simultaneous determination of renal plasma clearance of lithium and 51Cr-EDTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, A H; Knudsen, F; Danielsen, H; Pedersen, E B; Fjeldborg, P; Madsen, M; Brøchner-Mortensen, J; Kornerup, H J

    1987-02-01

    In fourteen hypertensive and fourteen normotensive renal transplant recipients, and in a group of thirteen healthy controls, changes in natriuresis, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and tubular reabsorption of sodium were determined in relation to intravenous infusion of 2 mmol isotonic sodium chloride per kg body weight. An exaggerated natriuresis was demonstrated in the hypertensive renal transplant recipients. This new finding indicates that the augmented natriuresis following plasma volume expansion, which is a characteristic finding in subjects with arterial hypertension, is not mediated by the renal nerves. Investigation of the tubular reabsorption rates of sodium by simultaneous determination of the renal clearance of 51Cr-EDTA and lithium showed that in the hypertensives the changes in tubular handling of sodium were different from those registered in the normotensive subjects. The increased sodium excretion in the hypertensive renal transplant recipients was caused by an increased output of sodium from the proximal tubules which was not fully compensated for by an increased distal reabsorption. Whether this increased delivery of sodium to the distal segments was caused by changes in GFR or in the proximal tubular reabsorption of sodium could not be clarified in the present study and warrants further investigations.

  7. 维持性血液透析患者血浆容量与血压关系的研究%Clinical study on relationship between plasma volume and blood pressure in patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方燕; 张伟明; 严玉澄; 陆任华; 王咏梅; 朱铭力; 倪兆慧; 钱家麒

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨维持性血液透析患者透析过程中血浆容量变化与血压的关系.方法 36例维持性血液透析患者根据透析前血压水平分为正常血压组(n=16)和高血压组(n=20).记录透析前后患者的血压和体质量,检测血清总蛋白水平并计算血浆容量变化值(△Pv).所有数据采用SPSS 13.0软件进行统计学分析.结果 在正常血压组,透析前后收缩压分别为(123.3±19.9) mmHg(1 mmHg=0.133 kPa)和(122.3±27.0) mmHg,舒张压分别为(69.6+9.2) mmHg和(70.9+17.0) mmHg,透析前后收缩压和舒张压比较差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05);透析过程中,体质量变化值为(2.7±1.4)kg,△PV为(14.7±10.8)%.在高血压组,透析前后收缩压分别为(162.6±16.2) mmHg和(148.2±31.1) mmHg,透析前后舒张压分别为(86.6±9.6) mmHg和(82.1±14.4) mmHg,透析后收缩压较透析前显著下降(P<0.05),而透析前后舒张压比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);透析过程中,体质量变化值为(3.2±1.3)kg,△PV为(20.4±14.4)%.相关性分析结果显示:正常血压组和高血压组患者透析前后血压与透析过程中的△PV和体质量变化均无显著相关性(P>0.05).结论 透析过程中,血浆容量改变未对患者透析前后血压变化产生显著影响;体质量下降尚不足以确切反映患者血浆容量状态,且用于预示透析前后血压变化的作用有限.%Objective To explore the association between plasma volume and blood pressure during hemodialysis in patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis. Methods Thirty-six patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis were divided into normotensive group (n = 16) and hypertensive group (n = 20) according to blood pressure before hemodialysis. The blood pressure and body weight before hemodialysis and after hemodialysis were recorded, and serum total protein concentrations were measured to determine the changes of plasma volumes ( APV). Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS 13. 0

  8. Hidden loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kieffer-Kristensen, Rikke; Johansen, Karen Lise Gaardsvig

    2013-01-01

    to participate. RESULTS: All children were affected by their parents' ABI and the altered family situation. The children's expressions led the authors to identify six themes, including fear of losing the parent, distress and estrangement, chores and responsibilities, hidden loss, coping and support. The main...... the ill parent. These findings contribute to a deeper understanding of the traumatic process of parental ABI that some children experience and emphasize the importance of family-centred interventions that include the children....

  9. Mass Hierarchy of Collisional Energy Loss

    CERN Document Server

    Kolevatov, Rodion

    2008-01-01

    Collisional parton energy loss is revisited within a simple model assuming incoherent elastic scattering of on-shell projectile partons on partonic constituents of the QGP with HTL screening. The thermal motion of plasma particles is carefully taken into account. Results on $dE/dx$ are found to be consistent with other authors. There is a significant discrepancy in the energy loss pattern for the cases with thermal motion on and off, which illustrates the importance of taking the kinematics into account exactly. The dependence on the mass of the partons forming the plasma is included in the calculations and its influence on the collisional energy loss is studied. The mass hierarchy of collisional energy loss is found to have a strong dependence on the mass introduced for plasma particles. Due to difference in the mass hierarchy with radiative energy loss, the collisional one when included increases the relative suppression of heavy quarks compared to light quarks.

  10. Helicon plasma thruster discharge model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lafleur, T., E-mail: trevor.lafleur@lpp.polytechnique.fr [Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas, CNRS, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, Univ Paris-Sud, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau, France and ONERA - The French Aerospace Lab, 91120 Palaiseau (France)

    2014-04-15

    By considering particle, momentum, and energy balance equations, we develop a semi-empirical quasi one-dimensional analytical discharge model of radio-frequency and helicon plasma thrusters. The model, which includes both the upstream plasma source region as well as the downstream diverging magnetic nozzle region, is compared with experimental measurements and confirms current performance levels. Analysis of the discharge model identifies plasma power losses on the radial and back wall of the thruster as the major performance reduction factors. These losses serve as sinks for the input power which do not contribute to the thrust, and which reduce the maximum plasma density and hence propellant utilization. With significant radial plasma losses eliminated, the discharge model (with argon) predicts specific impulses in excess of 3000 s, propellant utilizations above 90%, and thruster efficiencies of about 30%.

  11. Plasma turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horton, W. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Inst. for Fusion Studies; Hu, G. [Globalstar LP, San Jose, CA (United States)

    1998-07-01

    The origin of plasma turbulence from currents and spatial gradients in plasmas is described and shown to lead to the dominant transport mechanism in many plasma regimes. A wide variety of turbulent transport mechanism exists in plasmas. In this survey the authors summarize some of the universally observed plasma transport rates.

  12. Pineal gland volume in primary insomnia and healthy controls: a magnetic resonance imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumb, Jan M; Schilling, Claudia; Enning, Frank; Haddad, Leila; Paul, Franc; Lederbogen, Florian; Deuschle, Michael; Schredl, Michael; Nolte, Ingo

    2014-06-01

    Little is known about the relation between pineal volume and insomnia. Melatonin promotes sleep processes and, administered as a drug, it is suitable to improve primary and secondary sleep disorders in humans. Recent magnetic resonance imaging studies suggest that human plasma and saliva melatonin levels are partially determined by the pineal gland volume. This study compares the pineal volume in a group of patients with primary insomnia to a group of healthy people without sleep disturbance. Pineal gland volume (PGV) was measured on the basis of high-resolution 3 Tesla MRI (T1-magnetization prepared rapid gradient echo) in 23 patients and 27 controls, matched for age, gender and educational status. Volume measurements were performed conventionally by manual delineation of the pineal borders in multi-planar reconstructed images. Pineal gland volume was significantly smaller (P insomnia compared to healthy controls. Further studies are needed to clarify whether low pineal volume is the basis or the consequence of functional sleep changes to elucidate the molecular pathology for the pineal volume loss in primary insomnia.

  13. Magnetic helicity balance in the Sustained Spheromak Plasma Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stallard, B. W.; Hooper, E. B.; Woodruff, S.; Bulmer, R. H.; Hill, D. N.; McLean, H. S.; Wood, R. D.

    2003-07-01

    The magnetic helicity balance between the helicity input injected by a magnetized coaxial gun, the rate-of-change in plasma helicity content, and helicity dissipation in electrode sheaths and Ohmic losses have been examined in the Sustained Spheromak Plasma Experiment (SSPX) [E. B. Hooper, L. D. Pearlstein, and R. H. Bulmer, Nucl. Fusion 39, 863 (1999)]. Helicity is treated as a flux function in the mean-field approximation, allowing separation of helicity drive and losses between closed and open field volumes. For nearly sustained spheromak plasmas with low fluctuations, helicity balance analysis implies a decreasing transport of helicity from the gun input into the spheromak core at higher spheromak electron temperature. Long pulse discharges with continuously increasing helicity and larger fluctuations show higher helicity coupling from the edge to the spheromak core. The magnitude of the sheath voltage drop, inferred from cathode heating and a current threshold dependence of the gun voltage, shows that sheath losses are important and reduce the helicity injection efficiency in SSPX.

  14. Cosmological Measures without Volume Weighting

    CERN Document Server

    Page, Don N

    2008-01-01

    Many cosmologists (myself included) have advocated volume weighting for the cosmological measure problem, weighting spatial hypersurfaces by their volume. However, this often leads to the Boltzmann brain problem, that almost all observations would be by momentary Boltzmann brains that arise very briefly as quantum fluctuations in the late universe when it has expanded to a huge size, so that our observations (too ordered for Boltzmann brains) would be highly atypical and unlikely. Here it is suggested that volume weighting may be a mistake. Volume averaging is advocated as an alternative. One consequence would be a loss of the argument for eternal inflation.

  15. Loss of ions in cavity ionization chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takata, N. [Ionizing Radiation Section, NMIJ/AIST, Tsukuba 305-8568 (Japan)]. E-mail: n.takata@aist.go.jp; Tran, N.T. [Institute for Nuclear Science and Technique, VAEC, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Kim, E. [Radiation Safety Section, NIRS, Inageku, Chiba-city 263-8555 (Japan); Marsoem, P. [P3KRBiN-BATAN, JL Cinere-Pasar Jum' at, Jakarta 12070 (Indonesia); Kurosawa, T. [Ionizing Radiation Section, NMIJ/AIST, Tsukuba 305-8568 (Japan); Koyama, Y. [Ionizing Radiation Section, NMIJ/AIST, Tsukuba 305-8568 (Japan)

    2005-12-01

    Ion losses due to initial recombination, volume recombination, and back diffusion were each determined by measurements and calculations for different size cylindrical ionization chambers and spherical ionization chambers. By measuring signal currents from these ionization chambers irradiated with {sup 60}Co gamma rays, two groups of ion losses were obtained. (Group 1) Ion loss due to initial recombination and diffusion, which changes proportionally to the inverse of the voltage applied to the ionization chambers; (and group 2) ion loss due to volume recombination, which changes proportionally to the inverse of the square of the applied voltage. The diffusion loss was obtained separately by computing electric field distributions in the ionization chambers. It was found that diffusion loss is larger than initial recombination loss for the cylindrical ionization chambers and vise versa for the spherical ionization chambers.

  16. Stochastic orbit loss of neutral beam ions from NSTX due to toroidal Alfvén eigenmode avalanches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darrow, D. S. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Crocker, N. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Fredrickson, E. D. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Gorelenkov, N. N. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Gorelenkova, M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Kubota, S. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Medley, S. S. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Podestà, M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Shi, L. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); White, R. B. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2012-12-17

    Short toroidal Alfvén eigenmode (TAE) avalanche bursts in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) cause a drop in the neutron rate and could also cause a loss of neutral beam ions at or near the full injection energy over an extended range of pitch angles. The simultaneous loss of wide ranges of pitch angle suggests stochastic transport of the beam ions takes place. When beam ion orbits are followed with a guiding centre code that incorporates the plasma's magnetic equilibrium plus the measured modes, the predicted ranges of lost pitch angle are like those seen in the experiment, with distinct populations of trapped and passing orbits lost. These correspond to domains where the stochasticity extends in the orbit phase space from the region of beam ion deposition to the loss boundary and the trajectories along which modes may transport particles extend from the deposition volume to the loss boundary.

  17. Plasma-heating by induction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, K.; Thorpe, M. L.

    1969-01-01

    Induction-heated plasma torch operates with an input of 1 Mw of direct current of which 71 percent is transferred to the plasma and the remainder is consumed by electrical losses in the system. Continuous operation of the torch should be possible for as long as 5,000 hours.

  18. Plasma harmonics

    CERN Document Server

    Ganeev, Rashid A

    2014-01-01

    Preface; Why plasma harmonics? A very brief introduction Early stage of plasma harmonic studies - hopes and frustrations New developments in plasma harmonics studies: first successes Improvements of plasma harmonics; Theoretical basics of plasma harmonics; Basics of HHG Harmonic generation in fullerenes using few-cycle pulsesVarious approaches for description of observed peculiarities of resonant enhancement of a single harmonic in laser plasmaTwo-colour pump resonance-induced enhancement of odd and even harmonics from a tin plasmaCalculations of single harmonic generation from Mn plasma;Low-o

  19. Efectos de la ingesta ad libitum de bebidas hidratantes sobre el peso corporal, la frecuencia cardíaca y el volumen plasmático durante una actividad física de alta intensidad y larga duración -Informe preliminar- Body weight, the heart rate, and the plasma volume during a high-intesity, long-duration run

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubiela Flórez Manrique

    2004-02-01

    , no ingieren la cantidad adecuada de líquidos para obtener los beneficios atribuidos a la hidratación. Objetive: to determine the amount of ad libitum intake of three rehydrating beverages of different osmolalities, and to establish their effects on the percentage of body weight loss, the increase of heart rate and the reduction of plasma volume, in nine subjects with aerobic training, during a highintensity,long-duration run. Methodology : the experiment was carried out on a treadmill with 1% of inclination that was kept constant throughout the procedure; it started with 9 minutes of warm-up at a speed equivalent to 59% of the reserve heart rate; then, 88 minutes of running divided in three intervals (29, 29, and 30 minutes at 80% of the reserve heart rate; finally, 90 minutes of recovery in three intervals of 30 minutes each. During the “dehydrated treatment” no fluid replacement was done; during the “Hydrating treatments” (H-I, H-II, H-III equivalent volumes were drunk of the aforementioned rehydrating beverages. Results: during the exercise period the fluid loss was 1.440 ml/h. In each one of the treatments there was a loss of body weight (p<0.001, an increase of heart rate (<0.05 and, except for HII and H-III, a reduction of plasma volume (p<0.05. There were no differences between the treatments in these three parameters. Conclusions: ad libitum intake was less than the amount internationally recommended; probably that explains that the effects of osmolality of the rehydrating beverages on the analyzed parameters could not be determined. These findings ought to motivate a review of the hydrating practices of our athletes because, seemingly, they are not ingesting an adequate amount of fluids to obtain the benefits attributed to hydration.

  20. Losses of runaway electrons during ergodization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finken, K. H.; Abdullaev, S. S.; Jakubowski, M.; Jaspers, R.; Lehnen, M.; Zimmermann, O.

    2006-04-01

    The dynamic ergodic divertor (DED) of TEXTOR has been applied to runaway discharges. The runaway electrons (ɛ < 30 MeV) are developed as probes for investigating the internal magnetic field line structure in the plasma. Complementary diagnostics are used, namely neutron measurements for the loss of the runaways and synchrotron radiation for the detection inside the plasma. During the DED phase, three features of the runaway electrons are found: a sudden loss from the just formed ergodic layer, an enhanced diffusive transport and very sudden loss events which may be related to field line reconnection processes.

  1. Post-renal-transplant hypertension. Urine volume, free water clearance and plasma concentrations of arginine vasopressin, angiotensin II and aldosterone before and after oral water loading in hypertensive and normotensive renal transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, E B; Danielsen, H; Knudsen, F; Nielsen, A H; Jensen, T; Kornerup, H J; Madsen, M

    1986-09-01

    Urine volume (V), free water clearance (CH2O) and plasma concentrations of arginine vasopressin (AVP), angiotensin II (A II) and aldosterone (Aldo) were determined before and three times during the first 5 h after an oral water load of 20 ml/kg body wt in 19 patients with post-renal-transplant hypertension (group I), in 13 normotensive renal transplant recipients (group II) and in 20 control subjects (group III). Both V and CH2O increased significantly in all groups, but considerably less in groups I and II than in group III. When CH2O was related to glomerular filtration rate no differences existed between patients and control subjects. Basal AVP was the same in groups I (3.3 pmol/l, median) and II (3.0 pmol/l), but significantly (p less than 0.01) higher than in group III (1.9 pmol/l). Basal A II was significantly (p less than 0.01) elevated in group I (18 pmol/l) when compared to both groups II (10 pmol/l) and III (11 pmol/l), and the level was independent of the presence of native kidneys. Basal Aldo was the same in all groups. During loading, AVP was reduced in all groups, A II was almost unchanged, and Aldo was increased in groups I and II and reduced in group III depending on alterations in serum potassium. Thus urinary diluting ability is reduced in renal transplant recipients due to a reduced glomerular filtration rate. The enhanced A II in hypertensive renal transplant recipients gives further evidence for the point of view that hypertension is angiotensin-dependent in most of these patients.

  2. Characterisation of plasma in a rail gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, P. K.

    1986-01-01

    The mechanism of plasma and projectile acceleration in a DC rail gun is described from a microscopic point of view through the establishment of the Hall field. The plasma conductivity is shown to be a tensor, indicating that there is a small component of current parallel to the direction of acceleration. The plasma characteristics are evaluated in the experiment of Bauer et. al., as a function of plasma mass through a simple fluid mechanical analysis of the plasma. By equating the energy dissipatated in the plasma with the radiation heat loss, the properties of the plasma are determined.

  3. A Thermodynamic Model for Argon Plasma Kernel Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Keck

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Plasma kernel formation of argon is studied experimentally and theoretically. The experiments have been performed in a constant volume cylindrical vessel located in a shadowgraph system. The experiments have been done in constant pressure. The energy of plasma is supplied by an ignition system through two electrodes located in the vessel. The experiments have been done with two different spark energies to study the effect of input energy on kernel growth and its properties. A thermodynamic model employing mass and energy balance was developed to predict the experimental data. The agreement between experiments and model prediction is very good. The effect of various parameters such as initial temperature, initial radius of the kernel, and the radiation energy loss have been investigated and it has been concluded that initial condition is very important on formation and expansion of the kernel.

  4. On the Utility of Nonthermal Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Michael J.

    Nonthermal plasmas have properties which can differ substantially even from thermal plasmas of the same density and energy. In practical applications, many of these differences have utility that can be exploited, often with waves. The goal of this thesis is to explore three such applications of nonthermal plasma for the purposes of wave amplification and, ultimately, controlled nuclear fusion. First, we discuss the outstanding potential for a shaped plasma technology that relies on ionizing a beam of aerosol particles. This ionization results in a Coulomb explosion, yielding a highly nonthermal distribution for the plasma in the target volume. Homogeneous, high aspect ratio plasma couplers such as these could be used in a Raman amplification scheme to attain the next generation of laser intensities. Such a powerful laser could be used to study radiation reaction and vacuum pair production, among many other applications. We describe the conditions under which sufficiently dense aerosol beams can be prepared and provide some experimental validation of these claims. Second, we survey the prospects for controlled p- 11B fusion in both magnetic and inertial confinement schemes. Whereas most studies have focused on mitigating the bremsstrahlung loss channel, we focus on nonthermal manipulations of the bulk plasma which could improve the reactivity. In particular, we present upper bounds on the p-11B reactivity using alpha channeling to efficiently heat the proton distribution in both schemes. Finally, we place a sharp limit on the energy that can be extracted from a non-thermal particle distribution using waves. In the quasilinear regime of wave-particle interaction, waves rearrange the densities of states in phase space in a diffusive fashion. A salient consequence is that only certain, generally nonthermal, plasma states can be reached. We characterize this restricted state space and thereby reduce the problem of maximizing energy extraction to linear programming

  5. Dusty plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortov, Vladimir E; Khrapak, Aleksei G; Molotkov, Vladimir I; Petrov, Oleg F [Institute for High Energy Densities, Associated Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Khrapak, Sergei A [Max-Planck-Institut fur Extraterrestrische Physik, Garching (Germany)

    2004-05-31

    The properties of dusty plasmas - low-temperature plasmas containing charged macroparticles - are considered. The most important elementary processes in dusty plasmas and the forces acting on dust particles are investigated. The results of experimental and theoretical investigations of different states of strongly nonideal dusty plasmas - crystal-like, liquid-like, gas-like - are summarized. Waves and oscillations in dusty plasmas, as well as their damping and instability mechanisms, are studied. Some results on dusty plasma investigated under microgravity conditions are presented. New directions of experimental research and potential applications of dusty plasmas are discussed. (reviews of topical problems)

  6. Pulse volume discharges in high pressure gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamshchikov, V. A.

    2015-11-01

    New approach for suppression of plasma inhomogeneities and instabilities in the volume self-sustained discharge is offered. The physical model is offered and conditions of obtaining extremely homogeneous self-sustained discharge are defined (with full suppression of plasma inhomogeneity and instability). Results of calculations agree with experiments.

  7. Economic Loan Loss Provision and Expected Loss

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hlawatsch, Stefan; Ostrowski, Sebastian

    2010-01-01

    ... adjusted. This however assumes that the loan loss provision and the expected loss are based on a similar economic rationale, which is only valid conditionally in current loan loss provisioning methods according to IFRS...

  8. Characterization of magnetically confined low-pressure plasmas produced by an electromagnetic field in argon-acetylene mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makdessi, G. Al; Margot, J.; Clergereaux, R.

    2016-10-01

    Dust particles formation was investigated in magnetically confined low-pressure plasma produced in argon-acetylene mixtures. The plasma characteristics were measured in order to identify the species involved in the dust particles formation. Their dependence on the operating conditions including magnetic field intensity, acetylene fraction in the gas mixture and operating pressure was examined. In contrast with noble gases, in the presence of acetylene, the electron temperature increases with the magnetic field intensity, indicating additional charged particles losses in the plasma. Indeed, in these conditions, larger hydrocarbon ions are produced leading to the formation of dust particles in the plasma volume. The observed dependence of positive ion mass distribution and density and relative negative ion density on the operating parameters suggests that the dust particles are formed through different pathways, where negative and positive ions are both involved in the nucleation.

  9. Atmospheric pressure plasma processing of polymeric materials utilizing close proximity indirect exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulauskas, Felix L.; Bonds, Truman

    2016-09-20

    A plasma treatment method that includes providing treatment chamber including an intermediate heating volume and an interior treatment volume. The interior treatment volume contains an electrode assembly for generating a plasma and the intermediate heating volume heats the interior treatment volume. A work piece is traversed through the treatment chamber. A process gas is introduced to the interior treatment volume of the treatment chamber. A plasma is formed with the electrode assembly from the process gas, wherein a reactive species of the plasma is accelerated towards the fiber tow by flow vortices produced in the interior treatment volume by the electrode assembly.

  10. Transition Region Emission and the Energy Input to Thermal Plasma in Solar Flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Gordon D.; Holman, Gordon D.; Dennis, Brian R.; Haga, Leah; Raymond, John C.; Panasyuk, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    Understanding the energetics of solar flares depends on obtaining reliable determinations of the energy input to flare plasma. X-ray observations of the thermal bremsstrahlung from hot flare plasma provide temperatures and emission measures which, along with estimates of the plasma volume, allow the energy content of this hot plasma to be computed. However, if thermal energy losses are significant or if significant energy goes directly into cooler plasma, this is only a lower limit on the total energy injected into thermal plasma during the flare. We use SOHO UVCS observations of O VI flare emission scattered by coronal O VI ions to deduce the flare emission at transition region temperatures between 100,000 K and 1 MK for the 2002 July 23 and other flares. We find that the radiated energy at these temperatures significantly increases the deduced energy input to the thermal plasma, but by an amount that is less than the uncertainty in the computed energies. Comparisons of computed thermal and nonthermal electron energies deduced from RHESSI, GOES, and UVCS are shown.

  11. Plasma is a strategic resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strengers, Paul F W; Klein, Harvey G

    2016-12-01

    Plasma-derived medicinal products (PDMPs) such as immunoglobulins and clotting factors are listed by the World Health Organization as essential medicines. These and other PDMPs are crucial for the prophylaxis and treatment of patients with bleeding disorders, immune deficiencies, autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, and a variety of congenital deficiency disorders. While changes in clinical practice in developed countries have reduced the need for red blood cell transfusions thereby significantly reducing the collection volumes of whole blood and recovered plasma suitable for fractionation, the need for PDMPs worldwide continues to increase. The majority of plasma supplies for the manufacture of PDMPs is met by the US commercial plasma industry. However, geographic imbalance in the collection of plasma raises concerns that local disruptions of plasma supplies could result in regional and global shortages of essential PDMPs. Plasma, which fits the definition of a strategic resource, that is, "an economically important raw material which is subject to a higher risk of supply interruption," should be considered a strategic resource comparable to energy and drinking water. Plasma collections should be increased outside the United States, including in low- and middle-income countries. The need for capacity building in these countries is an essential part to strengthen quality plasma collection. This will require changes in national and regional policies. We advocate the need for the restoration of an equitable balance of the international plasma supply to reduce the risk of supply shortages worldwide. Strategic independence of plasma should be endorsed on a global level. © 2016 AABB.

  12. Divertor plasma physics experiments on the DIII-D tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahdavi, M.A.; Allen, S.L.; Evans, T.E. [and others

    1996-10-01

    In this paper we present an overview of the results and conclusions of our most recent divertor physics and development work. Using an array of new divertor diagnostics we have measured the plasma parameters over the entire divertor volume and gained new insights into several divertor physics issues. We present direct experimental evidence for momentum loss along the field lines, large heat convection, and copious volume recombination during detachment. These observations are supported by improved UEDGE modeling incorporating impurity radiation. We have demonstrated divertor exhaust enrichment of neon and argon by action of a forced scrape off layer (SOL) flow and demonstrated divertor pumping as a substitute for conventional wall conditioning. We have observed a divertor radiation zone with a parallel extent that is an order of magnitude larger than that estimated from a 1-D conduction limited model of plasma at coronal equilibrium. Using density profile control by divertor pumping and pellet injection we have attained H-mode confinement at densities above the Greenwald limit. Erosion rates of several candidate ITER plasma facing materials are measured and compared with predictions of a numerical model.

  13. 液相色谱-串联质谱法测定微量人血浆中伏立康唑%LC-MS/MS determination of voriconazole in low-volume human plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晓华; 钟大放; 沈晓红; 陈笑艳

    2009-01-01

    AIM To develop and validate a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/ MS) method for quantification of voriconazole (VRC) only using 25 μL human plasma. METHODS Voriconazole and the internal standard, fluconazol, were isolated from 25 μL volume of plasma by liquid-liquid extraction with ether-dichloromethane (3 : 2, V : V), then chromatographed on a Zorbax Extend C_(18) column (150 mm × 4.6 mm I.D., 5 μm, USA) using a mobile phase of acetonitrile-water-formic acid (80 : 20 : 0.15, V : V : V) at a flow rate of 0.50 mL·min~(-1). A tandem mass spectrometer equipped with electrospray ionization source was used as detector and operated in positive ion mode. Quantification was performed using selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode of the transition of m/z 350→m/z (127 + 281) for VRC and m/z 307→m/z (220 + 238) for fluconazol (IS), respectively. RESULTS The complete elution was obtained in less than 4.5 min. The linear concentration ranges of the calibration curves for VRC was 5.00 - 5 000 μg · L~(-1). The lower limit of quantitation of VRC was 5.00 μg·L~(-1). The average extraction recovery was about 90% (RSD < 6.2%). The intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviations were less than 6.6%. CONCLUTION The method is accurate, sensitive, and simple for the pharmacokinetic or bioequivalence study of VRC. The accuracy was within (-1.1 - 1.8)%.%目的 建立一种快速、灵敏的液相色谱-串联质谱法(LC-MS/MS)测定微量人血浆中伏立康唑.方法 氟康唑为内标(IS),25μL血浆样品经乙醚-二氯甲烷(3:2,V:V)萃取,在Zorbax SB-C_(18)色谱柱(150 mm×4.6 mm LD.,5μm,USA)上分离,以乙腈-水-甲酸(80:20:0.15,V:V:V)为流动相.采用电喷雾电离源(ESI源),在正离子检测方式下,以选择反应监测模式进行定量分析,监测的离子反应分别为m/z 350→m/z(127+281)(伏立康唑)和m/z 307→m/z(220+238)(氟康唑).结果 本法伏立康唑的线性范围为5.00~5 000μg·L~(-1),定量下限为5

  14. Plasma waves

    CERN Document Server

    Swanson, DG

    1989-01-01

    Plasma Waves discusses the basic development and equations for the many aspects of plasma waves. The book is organized into two major parts, examining both linear and nonlinear plasma waves in the eight chapters it encompasses. After briefly discussing the properties and applications of plasma wave, the book goes on examining the wave types in a cold, magnetized plasma and the general forms of the dispersion relation that characterize the waves and label the various types of solutions. Chapters 3 and 4 analyze the acoustic phenomena through the fluid model of plasma and the kinetic effects. Th

  15. Plasma astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Kaplan, S A; ter Haar, D

    2013-01-01

    Plasma Astrophysics is a translation from the Russian language; the topics discussed are based on lectures given by V.N. Tsytovich at several universities. The book describes the physics of the various phenomena and their mathematical formulation connected with plasma astrophysics. This book also explains the theory of the interaction of fast particles plasma, their radiation activities, as well as the plasma behavior when exposed to a very strong magnetic field. The text describes the nature of collective plasma processes and of plasma turbulence. One author explains the method of elementary

  16. Blood Volume: Importance and Adaptations to Exercise Training, Environmental Stresses and Trauma/Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawka, Michael N.; Convertino, Victor A.; Eichner, E. Randy; Schnieder, Suzanne M.; Young, Andrew J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper reviews the influence of several perturbations (physical exercise, heat stress, terrestrial altitude, microgravity, and trauma/sickness) on adaptations of blood volume (BV), erythrocyte volume (EV), and plasma volume (PV). Exercise training can induced BV expansion; PV expansion usually occurs immediately, but EV expansion takes weeks. EV and PV expansion contribute to aerobic power improvements associated with exercise training. Repeated heat exposure induces PV expansion but does not alter EV. PV expansion does not improve thermoregulation, but EV expansion improves thermoregulation during exercise in the heat. Dehydration decreases PV (and increases plasma tonicity) which elevates heat strain and reduces exercise performance. High altitude exposure causes rapid (hours) plasma loss. During initial weeks at altitude, EV is unaffected, but a gradual expansion occurs with extended acclimatization. BV adjustments contribute, but are not key, to altitude acclimatization. Microgravity decreases PV and EV which contribute to orthostatic intolerance and decreased exercise capacity in astronauts. PV decreases may result from lower set points for total body water and central venous pressure, which EV decrease bay result form increased erythrocyte destruction. Trauma, renal disease, and chronic diseases cause anemia from hemorrhage and immune activation, which suppressions erythropoiesis. The re-establishment of EV is associated with healing, improved life quality, and exercise capabilities for these injured/sick persons.

  17. Collapse of nonlinear electron plasma waves in a plasma layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimalsky, V.; Koshevaya, S.; Rapoport, Yu; Kotsarenko, A.

    2016-10-01

    The excitation of nonlinear electron plasma waves in the plasma layer is investigated theoretically. This excitation is realized by means of initial oscillatory perturbations of the volume electron concentration or by initial oscillatory distributions of the longitudinal electron velocity. The amplitudes of the initial perturbations are small and the manifestation of the volume nonlinearity is absent. When the amplitudes of the initial perturbations exceed some thresholds, the values of the electron concentration near the plasma boundary increase catastrophically. The maxima of the electron concentration reach extremely high magnitudes, and sharp peaks in the electron concentration occur, which are localized both in the longitudinal and transverse directions. This effect is interpreted as wave collapse near the plasma boundary.

  18. Atomic and molecular processes in fusion plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janev, R.K. [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria)

    1997-01-01

    The role of atomic and molecular processes in achieving and maintaining the conditions for thermonuclear burn in a magnetically confined fusion plasma is described. Emphasis is given to the energy balance and power and particle exhaust issues. The most important atomic and molecular processes which affect the radiation losses and impurity transport in the core plasma, the neutral particle transport in the plasma edge and the radiative cooling of divertor plasmas are discussed in greater detail. (author)

  19. Measurements of Beam Ion Loss from the Compact Helical System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. S. Darrow, M. Isobe, Takashi Kondo, M. Sasao, and the CHS Group National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu, Japan

    2010-02-03

    Beam ion loss from the Compact Helical System (CHS) has been measured with a scintillator-type probe. The total loss to the probe, and the pitch angle and gyroradius distributions of that loss, have been measured as various plasma parameters were scanned. Three classes of beam ion loss were observed at the probe position: passing ions with pitch angles within 10o of those of transition orbits, ions on transition orbits, and ions on trapped orbits, typically 15o or more from transition orbits. Some orbit calculations in this geometry have been performed in order to understand the characteristics of the loss. Simulation of the detector signal based upon the following of orbits from realistic beam deposition profiles is not able to reproduce the pitch angle distribution of the losses measured. Consequently it is inferred that internal plasma processes, whether magnetohydrodynamic modes, radial electric fields, or plasma turbulence, move previously confined beam ions to transition orbits, resulting in their loss.

  20. Vision Loss, Sudden

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of age-related macular degeneration. Spotlight on Aging: Vision Loss in Older People Most commonly, vision loss ... Some Causes and Features of Sudden Loss of Vision Cause Common Features* Tests Sudden loss of vision ...

  1. EDITORIAL: Plasma jets and plasma bullets Plasma jets and plasma bullets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, M. G.; Ganguly, B. N.; Hicks, R. F.

    2012-06-01

    technological solution in the early to late 1990s of confining atmospheric plasmas in a small volume of plasma generation (i.e. with a small volume-to-surface ratio) and then extending it towards a downstream sample [7]-[9]. These are among the first low-temperature atmospheric plasmas aimed particularly at the exploitation of their ability to invoke the active and rich reactive chemistry close to ambient temperature. The main applications of these early devices are precision surface modification of low-temperature dielectric materials, for example thin film deposition and etching [7]-[9]. Variations of the early plasma jets include atmospheric plasma sheet jets [10] for the treatment of largely planar objects (e.g. polymeric sheets) as well as large arrays of many plasma jets for the treatment of complex-structured objects (e.g. surgical tools and open human wounds) [11]. As a material processing technology, the sub-100oC atmospheric-pressure plasma jet has benefited over the years from many innovations. Whilst a detailed account and analysis of these is clearly outside the scope of this Editorial, it is worth stating that there are different avenues with which to maintain a moderate electron density at the plasma core so as to keep the gas temperature at the sample point below a ceiling level. Most of the early studies employed excitation at radio frequencies above 10 MHz, at which electrons are largely confined in the plasma generation region, and this limits the current flow to and gas heating in the plume region of the plasma jet. Other techniques of current limitation have since been shown to be effective, including the use of dielectric barriers across a very large frequency range of 1 kHz--50 MHz, sub-microsecond pulses sustained at kHz frequencies, pulse-modulated radio frequencies and dual-frequency excitation [12]-[15]. These and other techniques have considerably advanced the atmospheric-pressure plasma jet technology. The period of some 15 years since the above

  2. Rail gun performance and plasma characteristics due to wall ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, P. K.

    1986-01-01

    The experiment of Bauer, et al. (1982) is analyzed by considering wall ablation and viscous drag in the plasma. Plasma characteristics are evaluated through a simple fluid-mechanical analysis considering only wall ablation. By equating the energy dissipated in the plasma with the radiation heat loss, the average properties of the plasma are determined as a function of time.

  3. Electronegative Plasma Instabilities in Industrial Pulsed Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pribyl, Patrick; Hansen, Anders; Gekelman, Walter

    2016-10-01

    Electronegative gases that are important for industrial etch processes have a series of instabilities that occur at process relevant conditions. These have been studied since the 1990s, but are becoming a much more important today as plasma reactors are being pushed to produce ever finer features, and tight control of the etch process is becoming crucial. The experiments are being done in a plasma etch tool that closely simulates a working industrial device. ICP coils in different configurations are driven by a pulsed RF generators operating at 2-5 MHz. A computer controlled automated probe drive can access a volume above the substrate. The probe can be a Langmuir probe, a ``Bdot'' probe, or an emissive probe the latter used for more accurate determination of plasma potential. A microwave interferometer is available to measure line-averaged electron density. The negative ion instability is triggered depending upon the gas mix (Ar,SF6) , pressure and RF power. The instability can be ``burned through'' by rapidly pulsing the RF power. In this study we present measurements of plasma current and density distribution over the wafer before, after and during the rapid onset of the instability. Work suported by NSF-GOALI Award and done at the BAPSF.

  4. Renormalized Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gover, A. Rod; Waldron, Andrew

    2017-09-01

    We develop a universal distributional calculus for regulated volumes of metrics that are suitably singular along hypersurfaces. When the hypersurface is a conformal infinity we give simple integrated distribution expressions for the divergences and anomaly of the regulated volume functional valid for any choice of regulator. For closed hypersurfaces or conformally compact geometries, methods from a previously developed boundary calculus for conformally compact manifolds can be applied to give explicit holographic formulæ for the divergences and anomaly expressed as hypersurface integrals over local quantities (the method also extends to non-closed hypersurfaces). The resulting anomaly does not depend on any particular choice of regulator, while the regulator dependence of the divergences is precisely captured by these formulæ. Conformal hypersurface invariants can be studied by demanding that the singular metric obey, smoothly and formally to a suitable order, a Yamabe type problem with boundary data along the conformal infinity. We prove that the volume anomaly for these singular Yamabe solutions is a conformally invariant integral of a local Q-curvature that generalizes the Branson Q-curvature by including data of the embedding. In each dimension this canonically defines a higher dimensional generalization of the Willmore energy/rigid string action. Recently, Graham proved that the first variation of the volume anomaly recovers the density obstructing smooth solutions to this singular Yamabe problem; we give a new proof of this result employing our boundary calculus. Physical applications of our results include studies of quantum corrections to entanglement entropies.

  5. Recombination processes in a flowing magnetized plasma: Application to ionization energy recovery in the variable specific impulse magnetoplasma rocket (VASIMR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavers, Donald Gregory

    Electric propulsion involves the acceleration of charged particles (ions and electrons) through electric and magnetic body forces. The collection of these charged particles, or plasma, cannot be stored but must be created in-situ. Therefore, energy must be supplied to a neutral gas to create the plasma that is accelerated by the body forces. The energy that is used to create the plasma, i.e., ionization energy, is typically lost, "frozen" in the exhaust of the thruster. When the kinetic energy in the plasma flow is much larger than the energy used to create the plasma, this frozen-flow loss is negligible. Conversely, if the frozen-flow loss is a major fraction of the total plasma energy, its recovery, even in a partial way, may improve the energy efficiency of the thruster while also providing a potential means for thrust augmentation. This dissertation investigates the underlying physics, which could enable the practical recovery of frozen-flow losses by processes such as surface and volume recombination. For surface recombination, the ions approach the surface of the metal and are neutralized by electrons from the metal via the Auger neutralization process. For volume recombination, the ions and electrons recombine, with energy released via line radiation or by transferring energy to a third body such as another electron. Since the total energy of the neutralized ion, an atom, is less than the total energy of the ion and electron pair before recombination, conservation of energy requires the release of energy as the ion and electron recombine. The measurements described in this dissertation were performed on the VX-10 experiment, a plasma device supporting the development of the Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket (VASIMR) concept and located at the Advanced Space Propulsion Laboratory of the Johnson Space Center. Results suggest that the recombination energy can be recovered. The available energy and power recovered depends on the local plasma

  6. Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Surgery, but Not Calorie Restriction, Reduces Plasma Branched-Chain Amino Acids in Obese Women Independent of Weight Loss or the Presence of Type 2 Diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lips, M.A.; Klinken, J.B. van; Harmelen, V. van; Dharuri, H.K.; Hoen, P.A.C. 't; Laros, J.F.; Ommen, G.J.B. van; Janssen, I.M; Ramshorst, B. van; Wagensveld, B.A. van; Swank, D.J.; Dielen, F. Van; Dane, A.; Harms, A.; Vreeken, R.; Hankemeier, T.; Smit, J.W.A.; Pijl, H.; Dijk, K van

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have been associated with increased levels of circulating branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) that may be involved in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. However, weight loss has not been consistently associated with the reduction of BCAA

  7. Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass Surgery, but Not Calorie Restriction, Reduces Plasma Branched-Chain Amino Acids in Obese Women Independent of Weight Loss or the Presence of Type 2 Diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lips, M.A.; Klinken, J.B. van; Harmelen, V. van; Dharuri, H.K.; Hoen, P.A.C. 't; Laros, J.F.; Ommen, G.J.B. van; Janssen, I.M; Ramshorst, B. van; Wagensveld, B.A. van; Swank, D.J.; Dielen, F. Van; Dane, A.; Harms, A.; Vreeken, R.; Hankemeier, T.; Smit, J.W.A.; Pijl, H.; Dijk, K van

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have been associated with increased levels of circulating branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) that may be involved in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. However, weight loss has not been consistently associated with the reduction of BCAA lev

  8. Controlled fusion and plasma physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    This document presents the several speeches that took place during the 22nd European Physical Society conference on Controlled Fusion and Plasma Physics in Bournemouth, UK, between the 2nd and 7th July 1995. The talks deal with new experiments carried out on several tokamaks, particularly Tore Supra, concerning plasma confinement and fusion. Some information on specific fusion devices or tokamak devices is provided, as well as results of experiments concerning plasma instability. Separate abstracts were prepared for all the 31 papers in this volume. (TEC).

  9. Collective oscillations in a plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Akhiezer, A I; Polovin, R V; ter Haar, D

    2013-01-01

    International Series of Monographs in Natural Philosophy: Collective Oscillations in a Plasma, Volume 7 presents specific topics within the general field of radio waves propagation. This book contains five chapters that address the theory of linear oscillations in a plasma, the spectra of the eigen oscillations, and the mechanism of high-frequency heating. The opening chapters deal with the self-consistent fields; development of initial perturbation; dispersion permittivity tensor of a plasma in a magnetic field; effect of thermal motion of particles on low-frequency resonances; excitation of

  10. Effect of Desmopressin on Platelet Aggregation and Blood Loss in Patients Undergoing Valvular Heart Surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Jin; Hong-Wen Ji

    2015-01-01

    Background:Blood loss after cardiac surgery can be caused by impaired platelet (PLT) function after cardiopulmonary bypass.Desmopressin or 1-deamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin (DDAVP) is a synthetic analog of vasopressin.DDAVP can increase the level of von Willebrand factor and coagulation factor Ⅷ,thus it may enhance PLT function and improve coagulation.In this study,we assessed the effects of DDAVP on PLT aggregation and blood loss in patients undergoing cardiac surgery.Methods:A total of 102 patients undergoing valvular heart surgery (from October 2010 to June 2011) were divided into DDAVP group (n =52) and control group (n =50).A dose of DDAVP (0.3 μtg/kg) was administered to the patients intravenously when they were being re-warmed.At the same time,an equal volume of saline was given to the patients in the control group.PLT aggregation rate was measured with the AggRAM four-way PLT aggregation measurement instrument.The blood loss and transfusion,hemoglobin levels,PLT counts,and urine outputs at different time were recorded and compared.Results:The postoperative blood loss in the first 6 h was significantly reduced in DDAVP group (202 ± 119 ml vs.258 ± 143 ml,P =0.023).The incidence of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) transfusion was decreased postoperatively in DDAVP group (3.8% vs.12%,P =0.015).There was no significant difference in the PLT aggregation,urine volumes,red blood cell transfusions and blood loss after 24 h between two groups.Conclusions:A single dose of DDAVP can reduce the first 6 h blood loss and FFP transfusion postoperatively in patients undergoing valvular heart surgery,but has no effect on PLT aggregation.

  11. Measurements of the transverse resistance and eddy current losses in a cable-in-conduit conductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keilin, V. E.; Kovalev, I. A.; Kruglov, S. L.; Lelekhov, S. A.; Il'in, A. A.; Naumov, A. V.; Shcherbakov, V. I.; Shutov, K. A.

    2015-11-01

    In the case of plasma current interruption in tokamaks, the conductor of toroidial field (TF) coils experiences the action of a pulsed decreasing magnetic field (PDMF) parallel to the conductor's axis. To estimate the stability of a cable-in-conduit conductor against the PDMF, a new experimental method to study different types of losses is applied. This method exploits a high sensitivity of temperature and gas pressure to input energy in a closed volume. It allows one to measure hysteresis losses with a rather high accuracy (provided that the rate of change of the PDMF is low) and a sum of hysteresis losses and eddy current losses (when the rate of change of the PDMF is high). An experimental setup to measure the transverse (circumferential) resistance and losses has been developed at the National Research Centre Kurchatov Institute. A Russianmade Nb3Sn conductor intended for the TF coils of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor is subjected to a PDMF with different amplitudes and characteristic times. The electromagnetic time constant and the transverse resistivity of the conductor are experimentally determined. The maximum temperature of strands under the action of the PDMF is calculated.

  12. Plasma neurofilament light chain predicts progression in progressive supranuclear palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Julio C; Karydas, Anna; Bang, Jee; Tsai, Richard M; Blennow, Kaj; Liman, Victor; Kramer, Joel H; Rosen, Howard; Miller, Bruce L; Zetterberg, Henrik; Boxer, Adam L

    2016-03-01

    Blood-based biomarkers for neurodegenerative conditions could improve diagnosis and treatment development. Neurofilament light chain (NfL), a marker of axonal injury, is elevated in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). The goal of this study was to determine the diagnostic and prognostic value of plasma NfL in patients with PSP. Plasma NfL was measured with ultrasensitive digital immunoassay-based technology at baseline and 1-year follow-up in a pilot cohort of 15 PSP patients and 12 healthy controls, and a validation cohort of 147 PSP patients. Mixed linear models tested the ability of plasma NfL to predict neurological, cognitive and functional decline, and brain atrophy. Baseline mean plasma NfL levels were elevated in PSP patients (31 ± 4 pg/mL, vs. control, 17.5 ± 1 pg/mL, P NfL levels had more severe neurological (PSPRS, -36.9% vs. -28.9%, P = 0.04), functional (SEADL, -38.2% vs. -20%, P = 0.03), and neuropsychological (RBANS, -23.9% vs. -12.3%, P = 001) deterioration over 1 year. Higher baseline NfL predicted greater whole-brain and superior cerebellar peduncle volume loss. Plasma and CSF NfL were significantly correlated (r = 0.74, P = 0.002). Plasma NfL is elevated in PSP and could be of value as a biomarker both to assist clinical diagnosis and to monitor pharmacodynamic effects on the neurodegenerative process in clinical trials.

  13. Ion confinement and transport in a toroidal plasma with externally imposed radial electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, J. R.; Krawczonek, W. M.; Powers, E. J.; Kim, Y. C.; Hong, H. Y.

    1979-01-01

    Strong electric fields were imposed along the minor radius of the toroidal plasma by biasing it with electrodes maintained at kilovolt potentials. Coherent, low-frequency disturbances characteristic of various magnetohydrodynamic instabilities were absent in the high-density, well-confined regime. High, direct-current radial electric fields with magnitudes up to 135 volts per centimeter penetrated inward to at least one-half the plasma radius. When the electric field pointed radially toward, the ion transport was inward against a strong local density gradient; and the plasma density and confinement time were significantly enhanced. The radial transport along the electric field appeared to be consistent with fluctuation-induced transport. With negative electrode polarity the particle confinement was consistent with a balance of two processes: a radial infusion of ions, in those sectors of the plasma not containing electrodes, that resulted from the radially inward fields; and ion losses to the electrodes, each of the which acted as a sink and drew ions out of the plasma. A simple model of particle confinement was proposed in which the particle confinement time is proportional to the plasma volume. The scaling predicted by this model was consistent with experimental measurements.

  14. Alfven Wave Tomography for Cold MHD Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    I.Y. Dodin; N.J. Fisch

    2001-09-07

    Alfven waves propagation in slightly nonuniform cold plasmas is studied by means of ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) nonlinear equations. The evolution of the MHD spectrum is shown to be governed by a matrix linear differential equation with constant coefficients determined by the spectrum of quasi-static plasma density perturbations. The Alfven waves are shown not to affect the plasma density inhomogeneities, as they scatter off of them. The application of the MHD spectrum evolution equation to the inverse scattering problem allows tomographic measurements of the plasma density profile by scanning the plasma volume with Alfven radiation.

  15. The physics of non-ideal plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Fortov, Vladimir E

    2000-01-01

    This book is devoted to the physical properties of nonideal plasma which is compressed so strongly that the effects of interparticle interactions govern the plasma behavior. The interest in this plasma was generated by the development of modern technologies and facilities whose operations were based on high densities of energy. In this volume, the methods of nonideal plasma generation and diagnostics are considered. The experimental results are given and the main theoretical models of nonideal plasma state are discussed. The problems of thermodynamics, electro-physics, optics and dynamic stabi

  16. Citrulina plasmática como marcador de pérdida de masa enterocitaria en la enfermedad celíaca en la infancia Plasma citrulline as a marker of loss of enterocitary mass in coeliac disease in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Blasco Alonso

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: La citrulina plasmática no está incorporada a las proteínas endógenas ni exógenas y constituye un teórico marcador de la atrofia vellositaria. El objetivo del estudio es relacionar los niveles plasmáticos de citrulina y arginina con la severidad de la afectación de la mucosa intestinal en pacientes celiacos. Material y métodos: Estudio transversal de cohortes en niños entre 16 meses y 14 años: 46 con enfermedad celíaca al diagnóstico; 9 celíacos siguiendo dieta sin gluten y 42 controles. Se determina concentración plasmática de aminoácidos, en mmol/L, y variables clínicas y analíticas asociadas. Resultados: No diferencias estadísticamente significativas en IMC, edad o función renal, con ligero incremento de esteatorrea en celíacos. Citrulina, arginina y glutamina plasmáticas significativamente más bajas en los casos (17,7 μmol/l, 38,7 μmol/l, 479,6 μmol/l respectivamente que en controles (28,9 μmol/l, 56,2 μmol/l, 563,7 μmol/l. Citrulina plasmática significativamente más baja en grados avanzados de atrofia (13,8 μmol/l vs 19,7 μmol/l, p Introduction: Plasma citrulline is not incorporated in endogenous or exogenous proteins so it is a theoretical marker of villous atrophy. Our aim was to correlate plasma citrulline levels with severity of villous atrophy in celiac patients. Methods: Observational case-control study longitudinal in children 16 month-old to 14 year-old: 48 with untreated celiac disease, 9 celiac children under gluten free diet and 35 non-celiac healthy children. Plasma amino acids concentration is determined, expressed in μmol/L, and so are other clinical and analytical data. Results: No statistically significative difference found in the referring to BMI, age or renal function. Small increase in fecal fat in celiac children. Citrulline, arginine and glutamine are significantly lower in cases (17.7 μmol/l, 38.7 μmol/l, 479.6 μmol/l respectively than in controls (28.9 μmol/l, 56

  17. Epidural anesthesia, hypotension, and changes in intravascular volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holte, Kathrine; Foss, Nicolai B; Svensén, Christer

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The most common side effect of epidural or spinal anesthesia is hypotension with functional hypovolemia prompting fluid infusions or administration of vasopressors. Short-term studies (20 min) in patients undergoing lumbar epidural anesthesia suggest that plasma volume may increase when...... hypotension is present, which may have implications for the choice of treatment of hypotension. However, no long-term information or measurements of plasma volumes with or without hypotension after epidural anesthesia are available. METHODS: In 12 healthy volunteers, the authors assessed plasma (125I...... receiving hydroxyethyl starch. RESULTS: Plasma volume did not change per se after thoracic epidural anesthesia despite a decrease in blood pressure. Plasma volume increased with fluid administration but remained unchanged with vasopressors despite that both treatments had similar hemodynamic effects...

  18. Ponderomotive manipulation of cold subwavelength plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Smorenburg, P W; Luiten, O J

    2012-01-01

    Ponderomotive forces (PFs) induced in cold subwavelength plasmas by an externally applied electromagnetic wave are studied analytically. To this end, the plasma is modeled as a sphere with a radially varying permittivity, and the internal electric fields are calculated by solving the macroscopic Maxwell equations using an expansion in Debye potentials. It is found that the PF is directed opposite to the plasma density gradient, similarly to large-scale plasmas. In case of a uniform density profile, a residual spherically symmetric compressive PF is found, suggesting possibilities for contactless ponderomotive manipulation of homogeneous subwavelength objects. The presence of a surface PF on discontinuous plasma boundaries is derived. This force is essential for a microscopic description of the radiation-plasma interaction consistent with momentum conservation. It is shown that the PF integrated over the plasma volume is equivalent to the radiation pressure exerted on the plasma by the incident wave. The conce...

  19. Plasma Antenna

    OpenAIRE

    N M Vijay

    2014-01-01

    The fundamental base of plasma antenna is the use of an ionized medium as a conductor. The plasma antenna is a radiofrequency antenna formed by a plasma columns, Filaments or sheets, which are excited by a surface wave. The relevance of this device is how rapidly it can be turned on and off, only applying an electrical pulse. Besides its wide carrier frequency, the great directivity and controllable antenna shape. Otherwise a disadvantage is that it needs energy to be ionized....

  20. What's Hearing Loss?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A Real Lifesaver Kids Talk About: Coaches What's Hearing Loss? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's Hearing Loss? Print A ... brain, allowing you to hear. continue Types of Hearing Loss There are a few different types of hearing ...

  1. Genes and Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find an ENT Doctor Near You Genes and Hearing Loss Genes and Hearing Loss Patient Health Information News media interested in covering ... One of the most common birth defects is hearing loss or deafness (congenital), which can affect as many ...

  2. Living with vision loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetes - vision loss; Retinopathy - vision loss; Low vision; Blindness - vision loss ... Low vision is a visual disability. Wearing regular glasses or contacts does not help. People with low vision have ...

  3. Incidence, influencing factors, and prognostic impact of intraoperative massive blood loss in adolescents with neuromuscular scoliosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Rui; Li, Na; Xu, Bi-Yun; Zhang, Wei; Gu, Xiao-ping; Ma, Zheng-Liang

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Factors influencing massive blood loss for neuromuscular scoliosis (NMS) patients. Despite advances in surgical and anesthetic techniques, scoliosis surgery is still associated with intraoperative massive blood loss, which can result in postoperative mortality and morbidity. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence, influencing factors, and prognostic impact of intraoperative massive blood loss in adolescents with NMS. A retrospective review of adolescents who underwent posterior spinal instrumentation and fusion for NMS was performed. Perioperative variables and data were recorded. Massive blood loss was defined as an estimated blood loss that exceeds 30% of total blood volume. We obtained data for 114 patients, of whom 63 (55%) had intraoperative massive blood loss. Compared with those without, patients with massive blood loss were more likely to be older, have lower body mass indexes (BMIs), larger Cobb angles, more fused levels, more osteotomy procedures, and prolonged duration of operation. Logistic regression analysis identified the number of fused levels to be more than 12 (P = 0.003, odds ratio = 6.614, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.891–23.131), BMI lower than 16.8 kg/m2 (P = 0.025, odds ratio = 3.293, 95% CI: 1.159–9.357), age greater than 15 years (P = 0.014, odds ratio = 3.505, 95% CI: 1.259–9.761), and duration of operation longer than 4.4 hours (P = 0.016, odds ratio = 3.746, 95% CI: 1.428–9.822) as influencing factors. Patients with massive blood loss are associated with more intraoperative colloids infusion and blood transfusions (red blood cell and fresh frozen plasma), as well as postoperative drainage volume. In adolescents with NMS who underwent posterior spinal instrumentation and fusion operations, intraoperative massive blood loss is common. The number of fused levels, BMI, age, and duration of operation are factors influencing intraoperative massive blood loss. PMID:28296737

  4. Economic Loan Loss Provision and Expected Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Hlawatsch

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The intention of a loan loss provision is the anticipation of the loan's expected losses by adjusting the book value of the loan. Furthermore, this loan loss provision has to be compared to the expected loss according to Basel II and, in the case of a difference, liable equity has to be adjusted. This however assumes that the loan loss provision and the expected loss are based on a similar economic rationale, which is only valid conditionally in current loan loss provisioning methods according to IFRS. Therefore, differences between loan loss provisions and expected losses should only result from different approaches regarding the parameter estimation within each model and not due to different assumptions regarding the outcome of the model. The provisioning and accounting model developed in this paper overcomes the before-mentioned shortcomings and is consistent with an economic rationale of expected losses. Additionally, this model is based on a close-to-market valuation of the loan that is in favor of the basic idea of IFRS. Suggestions for changes in current accounting and capital requirement rules are provided.

  5. Synthesis of Diamond Films with Pulsed Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-01

    Diamond and Diamond-Like Films, The Electrochemical Society , Los Angeles, California, Volume 89-12, 114, May 1989. M. Aklufi and D. Brock, "Synthesis Of...Diamond Films By Microwave Generated Pulsed Plasmas," Proceedings of The Second International Symposium On Diamond Materials, The Electrochemical Society , Washington, DC, Volume 91-8, ’ 39, May 1991.

  6. The application of autologous platelet-rich plasma for hair loss%自体富血小板血浆在脱发治疗中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王羿婷; 毕志刚

    2014-01-01

    自体富血小板血浆(autologous platelet-rich plasma, PRP)包含高度浓缩的血小板,其中富含多种生长因子,它可以促进细胞增生和分化。根据其促进伤口修复的特性,已被广泛应用于临床,包括整形科、口腔外科及皮肤科。近期文献显示, PRP在毛发移植术后的使用能减轻血肿及疼痛,并能帮助增加毛发密度。

  7. Paper-based plasma sanitizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jingjin; Chen, Qiang; Suresh, Poornima; Roy, Subrata; White, James F.; Mazzeo, Aaron D.

    2017-05-01

    This work describes disposable plasma generators made from metallized paper. The fabricated plasma generators with layered and patterned sheets of paper provide a simple and flexible format for dielectric barrier discharge to create atmospheric plasma without an applied vacuum. The porosity of paper allows gas to permeate its bulk volume and fuel plasma, while plasma-induced forced convection cools the substrate. When electrically driven with oscillating peak-to-peak potentials of ±1 to ±10 kV, the paper-based devices produced both volume and surface plasmas capable of killing microbes. The plasma sanitizers deactivated greater than 99% of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and greater than 99.9% of Escherichia coli cells with 30 s of noncontact treatment. Characterization of plasma generated from the sanitizers revealed a detectable level of UV-C (1.9 nWṡcm-2ṡnm-1), modest surface temperature (60 °C with 60 s of activation), and a high level of ozone (13 ppm with 60 s of activation). These results deliver insights into the mechanisms and suitability of paper-based substrates for active antimicrobial sanitization with scalable, flexible sheets. In addition, this work shows how paper-based generators are conformable to curved surfaces, appropriate for kirigami-like “stretchy” structures, compatible with user interfaces, and suitable for sanitization of microbes aerosolized onto a surface. In general, these disposable plasma generators represent progress toward biodegradable devices based on flexible renewable materials, which may impact the future design of protective garments, skin-like sensors for robots or prosthetics, and user interfaces in contaminated environments.

  8. Renormalized Volume

    CERN Document Server

    Gover, A Rod

    2016-01-01

    For any conformally compact manifold with hypersurface boundary we define a canonical renormalized volume functional and compute an explicit, holographic formula for the corresponding anomaly. For the special case of asymptotically Einstein manifolds, our method recovers the known results. The anomaly does not depend on any particular choice of regulator, but the coefficients of divergences do. We give explicit formulae for these divergences valid for any choice of regulating hypersurface; these should be relevant to recent studies of quantum corrections to entanglement entropies. The anomaly is expressed as a conformally invariant integral of a local Q-curvature that generalizes the Branson Q-curvature by including data of the embedding. In each dimension this canonically defines a higher dimensional generalization of the Willmore energy/rigid string action. We show that the variation of these energy functionals is exactly the obstruction to solving a singular Yamabe type problem with boundary data along the...

  9. Memory loss in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, Holger

    2013-12-01

    Loss of memory is among the first symptoms reported by patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease (AD) and by their caretakers. Working memory and long-term declarative memory are affected early during the course of the disease. The individual pattern of impaired memory functions correlates with parameters of structural or functional brain integrity. AD pathology interferes with the formation of memories from the molecular level to the framework of neural networks. The investigation of AD memory loss helps to identify the involved neural structures, such as the default mode network, the influence of epigenetic and genetic factors, such as ApoE4 status, and evolutionary aspects of human cognition. Clinically, the analysis of memory assists the definition of AD subtypes, disease grading, and prognostic predictions. Despite new AD criteria that allow the earlier diagnosis of the disease by inclusion of biomarkers derived from cerebrospinal fluid or hippocampal volume analysis, neuropsychological testing remains at the core of AD diagnosis.

  10. Complex and Dusty Plasmas From Laboratory to Space

    CERN Document Server

    Fortov, Vladimir E

    2009-01-01

    Dusty or complex plasmas are plasmas containing solid or liquid charged particles referred to as dust. Naturally occurring in space, on earth dust plays a key role in plasma applications associated with etching technologies in microelectronics. International in scope, this volume covers theoretical and application research.

  11. Evolution of Excited Convective Cells in Plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pécseli, Hans; Juul Rasmussen, Jens; Sugai, H.

    1984-01-01

    Convective cells are excited externally in a fully ionized magnetized plasma and their space-time evolution is investigated by two-dimensional potential measurements. A positive cell is excited externally by control of the end losses in the 'scrape off' layer of a plasma column produced by surface...

  12. Increased plasma fibronectin concentrations in obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, T; Dejgaard, A; Astrup, A

    1987-01-01

    In 23 morbidly obese patients we investigated the influence of a large weight loss (30.6 kg, range 17.5-90.8) on the plasma fibronectin concentrations. Further, changes in plasma fibronectin were related to serum insulin levels and to liver biochemistry. Between the measurements patients had been...

  13. Comparing gains and losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, A Peter; Larsen, Jeff T; Kahneman, Daniel; Schkade, David

    2010-10-01

    Loss aversion in choice is commonly assumed to arise from the anticipation that losses have a greater effect on feelings than gains, but evidence for this assumption in research on judged feelings is mixed. We argue that loss aversion is present in judged feelings when people compare gains and losses and assess them on a common scale. But many situations in which people judge and express their feelings lack these features. When judging their feelings about an outcome, people naturally consider a context of similar outcomes for comparison (e.g., they consider losses against other losses). This process permits gains and losses to be normed separately and produces psychological scale units that may not be the same in size or meaning for gains and losses. Our experiments show loss aversion in judged feelings for tasks that encourage gain-loss comparisons, but not tasks that discourage them, particularly those using bipolar scales.

  14. Arterial hypertension in cirrhosis: arterial compliance, volume distribution, and central haemodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Fuglsang, S; Bendtsen, F;

    2006-01-01

    were 130 normotensive cirrhotic patients, 19 controls with normal arterial blood pressure and without liver disease, and 16 patients with essential arterial hypertension. All groups underwent haemodynamic investigation with determination of cardiac output (CO), plasma volume (PV), central blood volume...

  15. Electron transport in the plasma edge with rotating resonant magnetic perturbations at the TEXTOR tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoschus, Henning

    2011-10-13

    Small three-dimensional (3D) magnetic perturbations can be used as a tool to control the edge plasma parameters in magnetically confined plasmas in high confinement mode (''H-mode'') to suppress edge instabilities inherent to this regime, the Edge Localized Modes (ELMs). In this work, the impact of rotating 3D resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) fields on the edge plasma structure characterized by electron density and temperature fields is investigated. We study a low confinement (L-mode) edge plasma (r/a>0.9) with high resistivity (edge electron collisionality {nu}{sup *}{sub e}>4) at the TEXTOR tokamak. The plasma structure in the plasma edge is measured by a set of high resolution diagnostics: a fast CCD camera ({delta}t=20 {mu}s) is set up in order to visualize the plasma structure in terms of electron density variations. A supersonic helium beam diagnostic is established as standard diagnostic at TEXTOR to measure electron density n{sub e} and temperature T{sub e} with high spatial ({delta}r=2 mm) and temporal resolution ({delta}t=20 {mu}s). The measured plasma structure is compared to modeling results from the fluid plasma and kinetic neutral transport code EMC3-EIRENE. A sequence of five new observations is discussed: (1) Imaging of electron density variations in the plasma edge shows that a fast rotating RMP field imposes an edge plasma structure, which rotates with the external RMP rotation frequency of vertical stroke {nu}{sub RMP} vertical stroke =1 kHz. (2) Measurements of the electron density and temperature provide strong experimental evidence that in the far edge a rotating 3D scrape-off layer (SOL) exists with helical exhaust channels to the plasma wall components. (3) Radially inward, the plasma structure at the next rational flux surface is found to depend on the relative rotation between external RMP field and intrinsic plasma rotation. For low relative rotation the plasma structure is dominated by a particle and energy loss

  16. Plasma chromograninx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goetze, Jens P; Hilsted, Linda M; Rehfeld, Jens F

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular risk assessment remains difficult in elderly patients. We examined whether chromogranin A (CgA) measurement in plasma may be valuable in assessing risk of death in elderly patients with symptoms of heart failure in a primary care setting. A total of 470 patients (mean age 73 years......) were followed for 10 years. For CgA plasma measurement, we used a two-step method including a screening test and a confirmative test with plasma pre-treatment with trypsin. Cox multivariable proportional regression and receiver-operating curve (ROC) analyses were used to assess mortality risk...... of follow-up showed significant additive value of CgA confirm measurements compared with NT-proBNP and clinical variables. CgA measurement in the plasma of elderly patients with symptoms of heart failure can identify those at increased risk of short- and long-term mortality....

  17. Plasma Cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintze, Paul E.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Kennedy Space Center has developed two solvent-free precision cleaning techniques: plasma cleaning and supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2), that has equal performance, cost parity, and no environmental liability, as compared to existing solvent cleaning methods.

  18. The long way to steady state fusion plasmas - the superconducting stellarator device Wendelstein 7-X

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    The stable generation of high temperature Hydrogen plasmas (ion and electron temperature in the range 10-20 keV) is the basis for the use of nuclear fusion to generate heat and thereby electric power. The most promising path is to use strong, toroidal, twisted magnetic fields to confine the electrically charged plasma particles in order to avoid heat losses to the cold, solid wall elements. Two magnetic confinement concepts have been proven to be most suitable: (a) the tokamak and (b) the stellarator. The stellarator creates the magnetic field by external coils only, the tokamak by combining the externally created field with the magnetic field generated by a strong current in the plasma. “Wendelstein 7-X” is the name of a large superconducting stellarator that went successfully into operation after 15 years of construction. With 30 m3 plasma volume, 3 T magnetic field on axis, and 10 MW micro wave heating power, Hydrogen plasmas are generated that allow one to establish a scientific basis for the extrapol...

  19. Cosmic Plasma Wakefield Acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, P

    2004-04-26

    Recently we proposed a new cosmic acceleration mechanism which was based on the wakefields excited by the Alfven shocks in a relativistically owing plasma. In this paper we include some omitted details, and show that there exists a threshold condition for transparency below which the accelerating particle is collision-free and suffers little energy loss in the plasma medium. The stochastic encounters of the random accelerating-decelerating phases results in a power-law energy spectrum: f({epsilon}) {proportional_to} 1/{epsilon}{sup 2}. As an example, we discuss the possible production of super-GZK ultra high energy cosmic rays (UHECR) in the atmosphere of gamma ray bursts. The estimated event rate in our model agrees with that from UHECR observations.

  20. Magnetic stresses in ideal MHD plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, V.O.

    1995-01-01

    and it is shown that the resulting magnetic forces on a finite volume element can be obtained by integrating the magnetic stresses over the surface of the element. The concept is used to rederive and discuss the equilibrium conditions for axisymmetric toroidal plasmas, including the virial theorem......The concept of magnetic stresses in ideal MHD plasma theory is reviewed and revisited with the aim of demonstrating its advantages as a basis for calculating and understanding plasma equilibria. Expressions are derived for the various stresses that transmit forces in a magnetized plasma...

  1. Radioimmunoassay of sodium cromoglycate in human plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, K.; Gardner, J.J.; Lockley, W.J.S.; Preston, J.R.; Wilkinson, D.J. (Fisons plc, Loughborough (UK). Pharmaceutical Div.)

    1983-01-01

    A sensitive radioimmunoassay method for sodium cromoglycate in human plasma is described. The lowest quantifiable concentration of sodium cromoglycate is 0.93 nmol/l when 0.1 ml plasma samples are analysed. The range of the method is limited; both 0.01 and 0.1 ml volumes of plasma must be analysed to encompass the concentration range 0.93-139 nmol/l which may be encountered in plasma samples from patients and human volunteers. The method is specific for sodium cromoglycate as indicated by a low cross-reactivity of the anti-cromoglycate antiserum with a number of drugs.

  2. Plasmas applied atomic collision physics, v.2

    CERN Document Server

    Barnett, C F

    1984-01-01

    Applied Atomic Collision Physics, Volume 2: Plasmas covers topics on magnetically confined plasmas. The book starts by providing the history of fusion research and describing the various approaches in both magnetically and inertially confined plasmas. The text then gives a general discussion of the basic concepts and properties in confinement and heating of a plasma. The theory of atomic collisions that result in excited quantum states, particularly highly ionized impurity atoms; and diverse diagnostic topics such as emission spectra, laser scattering, electron cyclotron emission, particle bea

  3. Monocyte chemotactic protein-1 deficiency attenuates and high-fat diet exacerbates bone loss in mice with Lewis lung carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Lin; Nielsen, Forrest H; Sundaram, Sneha; Cao, Jay

    2017-04-04

    Bone loss occurs in obesity and cancer-associated complications including wasting. This study determined whether a high-fat diet and a deficiency in monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) altered bone structural defects in male C57BL/6 mice with Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) metastases in lungs. Compared to non-tumor-bearing mice, LLC reduced bone volume fraction, connectivity density, trabecular number, trabecular thickness and bone mineral density and increased trabecular separation in femurs. Similar changes occurred in vertebrae. The high-fat diet compared to the AIN93G diet exacerbated LLC-induced detrimental structural changes; the exacerbation was greater in femurs than in vertebrae. Mice deficient in MCP-1 compared to wild-type mice exhibited increases in bone volume fraction, connectivity density, trabecular number and decreases in trabecular separation in both femurs and vertebrae, and increases in trabecular thickness and bone mineral density and a decrease in structure model index in vertebrae. Lewis lung carcinoma significantly decreased osteocalcin but increased tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRAP 5b) in plasma. In LLC-bearing mice, the high-fat diet increased and MCP-1 deficiency decreased plasma TRAP 5b; neither the high-fat diet nor MCP-1 deficiency resulted in significant changes in plasma concentration of osteocalcin. In conclusion, pulmonary metastasis of LLC is accompanied by detrimental bone structural changes; MCP-1 deficiency attenuates and high-fat diet exacerbates the metastasis-associated bone wasting.

  4. Corona helps curb losses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laasonen, M.; Lahtinen, M.; Lustre, L.

    1996-11-01

    The greatest power losses in electricity transmission arise through a phenomenon called load losses. Corona losses caused by the surface discharge of electricity also constitute a considerable cost item. IVS, the nationwide network company, is investigating corona- induced losses, and has also commissioned similar research from IVO International, the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) and from Tampere University of Technology. The research work strives to gain more in-depth knowledge on the phenomenon of frosting and its impact on corona losses. The correct prediction of frost helps reduce corona losses, while also cutting costs considerably. (orig.)

  5. Corona helps curb losses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laasonen, M.; Lahtinen, M.; Lustre, L.

    1996-11-01

    The greatest power losses in electricity transmission arise through a phenomenon called load losses. Corona losses caused by the surface discharge of electricity also constitute a considerable cost item. IVS, the nationwide network company, is investigating corona- induced losses, and has also commissioned similar research from IVO International, the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) and from Tampere University of Technology. The research work strives to gain more in-depth knowledge on the phenomenon of frosting and its impact on corona losses. The correct prediction of frost helps reduce corona losses, while also cutting costs considerably. (orig.)

  6. Finite-volume scheme for anisotropic diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Es, Bram van, E-mail: bramiozo@gmail.com [Centrum Wiskunde & Informatica, P.O. Box 94079, 1090GB Amsterdam (Netherlands); FOM Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, The Netherlands" 1 (Netherlands); Koren, Barry [Eindhoven University of Technology (Netherlands); Blank, Hugo J. de [FOM Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, The Netherlands" 1 (Netherlands)

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we apply a special finite-volume scheme, limited to smooth temperature distributions and Cartesian grids, to test the importance of connectivity of the finite volumes. The area of application is nuclear fusion plasma with field line aligned temperature gradients and extreme anisotropy. We apply the scheme to the anisotropic heat-conduction equation, and compare its results with those of existing finite-volume schemes for anisotropic diffusion. Also, we introduce a general model adaptation of the steady diffusion equation for extremely anisotropic diffusion problems with closed field lines.

  7. Portable Low-Volume Therapy for Severe Blood Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Mel=melatonin. 23 Tables Table 1. Histopathological scoring system. Lung Intestine Brain 0 No Evidence 1 Mild Alveolitis (2-3X...Perivascular edema Development of subepithelial Gruenhagen’s space, vacuolization at the villus tip Focal pyknosis 2 Moderate Alveolitis (3-4X...3 Severe Alveolitis (>5X), Alveolar edema, Inflammatory infiltrate, Hemorrhage Epithelial lifting and vacuolization from the tip to lower portion

  8. Portable Low Volume Therapy for Severe Blood Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Furthermore, the products of its reaction with free radicals , N1-acetyl-N2- formyl -5-methoxykynuramine (AFMK) and N1-acetyl-5-methoxykynuramine (AMK...low blood flow when BHB levels are elevated and glucose levels are depressed (22). Second, melatonin is a powerful antioxidant and free radical ...tolerate oxidative stress during hibernation by eliminating free radicals generated during repeated cycles of torpor and arousal. Specifically, both

  9. Portable Low-Volume Therapy for Severe Blood Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    reaction with free radicals , N1-acetyl-N2- formyl -5-methoxykynuramine (AFMK) and N1-acetyl-5-methoxykynuramine (AMK), also possess antioxidant properties...are elevated and glucose levels are depressed (22). Second, melatonin is a powerful antioxidant and free radical scavenger. Reperfusion of an...C, et al. Anti- inflammatory actions of melatonin and its metabolites, N1-acetyl-N2- formyl -5- methoxykynuramine (AFMK) and N1-acetyl-5

  10. Ultra Low Loss Optical Fiber Cable Assemblies. Volume 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-07

    attenuation of each cabled fiber is calculated per paragraph 3.1.4. 4.4.5 TESi RESULTS REPORTING The pre test and post test attenuation of each cabled fiber...lg oss of a za:ad pAi: of~~~~~~~~~~~~ coe~r o ±s ;o asma -c~Ln: f cable anda)1khaa :ocaptacla -!5 . imUvab1. gtbers seda.4 crod n .2..) ~"be deaa= on

  11. Alterations in gray matter volume due to unilateral hearing loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Xingchao; Xu, Pengfei; Li, Peng; Wang, Zhenmin; Zhao, Fu; Gao, Zhixian; Xu, Lei; Luo, Yue-jia; Fan, Jin; Liu, Pinan

    2016-01-01

    Although extensive research on neural plasticity resulting from hearing deprivation has been conducted, the direct influence of compromised audition on the auditory cortex and the potential impact of long durations of incomplete sensory stimulation on the adult cortex are still not fully understood.

  12. Multi-mode Alfv\\'enic Fast Particle Transport and Losses: Numerical vs. Experimental Observation

    CERN Document Server

    Schneller, Mirjam; Bilato, Roberto; García-Muñoz, Manuel; Brüdgam, Michael; Günter, Sibylle

    2013-01-01

    In many discharges at ASDEX Upgrade fast particle losses can be observed due to Alfv\\'enic gap modes, Reversed Shear Alfv\\'en Eigenmodes or core-localized Beta Alfv\\'en Eigenmodes. For the first time, simulations of experimental conditions in the ASDEX Upgrade fusion device are performed for different plasma equilibria (particularly for different, also non-monotonic q profiles). The numerical tool is the extended version of the HAGIS code [Pinches'98, Br\\"udgam PhD Thesis, 2010], which also computes the particle motion in the vacuum region between vessel wall in addition to the internal plasma volume. For this work, a consistent fast particle distribution function was implemented to represent the strongly anisotropic fast particle population as generated by ICRH minority heating. Furthermore, HAGIS was extended to use more realistic eigenfunctions, calculated by the gyrokinetic eigenvalue solver LIGKA [Lauber'07]. The main aim of these simulations is to allow fast ion loss measurements to be interpreted with ...

  13. OI Issues: Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearing Loss and Osteogenesis Imperfecta Introduction Significant hearing loss has been reported in approximately 50% of people with osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) beginning any time from childhood into middle age. While not everyone ...

  14. Devices for hearing loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000359.htm Devices for hearing loss To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. If you are living with hearing loss , you know that it takes extra effort to ...

  15. Living with hearing loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000360.htm Living with hearing loss To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. If you are living with hearing loss, you know that it takes extra effort to ...

  16. Hearing Loss: Screening Newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Hearing Loss Screening Newborns Past Issues / Spring 2015 Table of ... of newborns in the U.S. are screened for hearing loss before they leave the hospital. Research improves the ...

  17. Female Pattern Hair Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are signs of hormone imbalance, such as excess facial or body hair, a hormone evaluation should be done. Hormonal changes are a common cause of female hair loss. Many women do not realize that hair loss can occur ...

  18. Genetics of Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in Latin America Information For... Media Policy Makers Genetics of Hearing Loss Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... of hearing loss in babies is due to genetic causes. There are also a number of things ...

  19. Coping with Memory Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Coping With Memory Loss Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... a health professional. back to top What Causes Memory Loss? Anything that affects cognition—the process of ...

  20. Recurrent pregnancy loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egerup, P; Kolte, A M; Larsen, E C

    2016-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Is there a different prognostic impact for consecutive and non-consecutive early pregnancy losses in women with secondary recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL)? SUMMARY ANSWER: Only consecutive early pregnancy losses after the last birth have a statistically significant negative prognostic...... impact in women with secondary RPL. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The risk of a new pregnancy loss increases with the number of previous pregnancy losses in patients with RPL. Second trimester losses seem to exhibit a stronger negative impact than early losses. It is unknown whether the sequence of pregnancy...... losses plays a role for the prognosis in patients with a prior birth. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: This retrospective cohort study of pregnancy outcome in patients with unexplained secondary RPL included in three previously published, Danish double-blinded placebo-controlled trials of intravenous...

  1. Weight Loss Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weight loss surgery helps people with extreme obesity to lose weight. It may be an option if you ... caused by obesity. There are different types of weight loss surgery. They often limit the amount of food ...

  2. Weight-loss medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000346.htm Weight-loss medicines To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Several weight-loss medicines are available. Ask your health care provider ...

  3. Photovoltaic array loss mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Charles

    1986-10-01

    Loss mechanisms which come into play when solar cell modules are mounted in arrays are identified. Losses can occur either from a reduction in the array electrical performance or with nonoptimal extraction of power from the array. Electrical performance degradation is caused by electrical mismatch, transmission losses from cell surface soiling and steep angle of reflectance, and electrical losses from field wiring resistance and the voltage drop across blocking diodes. The second type of loss, concerned with the operating points of the array, can involve nonoptimal load impedance and limiting the operating envelope of the array to specific ranges of voltage and current. Each of the loss mechanisms are discussed and average energy losses expected from soiling, steep reflectance angles and circuit losses are calculated.

  4. Injection losses and protection

    CERN Document Server

    Bartmann, W; Baudrenghien, P; Bracco, C; Dehning, B; Di Mauro, A; Drosdal, L; Emery, J; Goddard, B; Holzer, E B; Höfle, W; Kain, V; Meddahi, M; Radaelli, S; Shaposhnilova, E; Uythoven, J; Valuch, D; Wenninger, J; Zamantzas, C; Gianfelice-Wendt, E

    2012-01-01

    Injection losses are compared for 2010 and 2011 operation. Mitigation techniques which were put in place in 2010 to reduce losses at injection are described. Issues in 2011 operation, their potential improvements and the performance reach for 2012 are shown.

  5. Menopause and Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact Sheet & Menopause Bone Loss How are bone loss and menopause related? Throughout life your body keeps a balance between the ... lose bone faster than it can be replaced. Menopause—the time when menstrual periods end, which usually ...

  6. [Plasma exchange in nephrology: Indications and technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridel, Christophe; Kissling, Sébastien; Mesnard, Laurent; Hertig, Alexandre; Rondeau, Éric

    2017-02-01

    Plasma exchange is a non-selective apheresis technique that can be performed by filtration or centrifugation allowing rapid purification of high molecular weight pathogens. An immunosuppressive treatment is generally associated to reduce the rebound effect of the purified substance. Substitution solutes such as human albumin and macromolecules are needed to compensate for plasma extraction. Compensation by viro-attenuated plasma is reserved solely for the treatment of thrombotic microangiopathies or when there is a risk of bleeding, because this product is very allergenic and expensive. The treatment goal for a plasma exchange session should be between one and one and one-half times the patient's plasma volume estimated at 40 mL/kg body weight. The anticoagulation is best ensured by the citrate. Complications of plasma exchange are quite rare according to the French hemapheresis registry. The level of evidence of efficacy of plasma exchange in nephrology varies from one pathology to another. Main indications of plasma exchange in nephrology are Goodpasture syndrome, antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody vasculitis when plasma creatinine is greater than 500 μmol/L, and thrombotic microangiopathies. During renal transplantation, plasma exchange may be proposed in the context of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) desensitization protocols or ABO-incompatible graft. After renal transplantation, plasma exchange is indicated as part of the treatment of acute humoral rejection or recurrent focal segmental glomerulosclerosis on the graft. Plasma exchanges are also proposed in the management of cryoglobulinemia or polyarteritis nodosa. Hemodialysis with membranes of very high permeability tends to replace plasma exchange for myeloma nephropathy. The benefit from plasma exchange has not been formally demonstrated for the treatment of severe lupus or antiphospholipid antibody syndrome. There is no indication of plasma exchange in the treatment of scleroderma or nephrogenic

  7. Quark gluon plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Nayak, Tapan; Sarkar, Sourav

    2014-01-01

    At extremely high temperatures and densities, protons and neutrons may dissolve into a "soup" of quarks and gluons, called the Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP). For a few microseconds, shortly after the Big Bang, the Universe was filled with the QGP matter. The search and study of Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP) is one of the most fundamental research topics of our times. The QGP matter has been probed by colliding heavy ions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory, New York and the Large Hadron Collider at CERN, Geneva. By colliding heavy-ions at a speed close to that of light, scientists aim to obtain - albeit over a tiny volume of the size of a nucleus and for an infinitesimally short instant - a QGP state. This QGP state can be observed by dedicated experiments, as it reverts to hadronic matter through expansion and cooling. This volume presents some of the current theoretical and experimental understandings in the field of QGP.

  8. Use of unbound volumes of drug distribution in pharmacokinetic calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepensky, David

    2011-01-18

    Volume of drug distribution is a primary pharmacokinetic parameter. This study assessed effects of drugs' plasma protein binding and tissue distribution on volume of drug distribution and identified the most appropriate ways for its calculation. Effects of the distribution factors on the unbound and total drug plasma concentrations and on the corresponding volumes of distribution were studied using pharmacokinetic modeling and simulation approach based on in vitro and in vivo concentration vs. time data of diazepam, a model drug with extensive plasma protein binding and tissue distribution. Pharmacokinetics of diazepam were appropriately described by three-compartment pharmacokinetic model that incorporated the processes of plasma protein binding and tissue permeation. According to this model, displacement of the drug from plasma proteins increases the unbound (but not the total) plasma concentrations and induces faster drug elimination from the body. The distribution pattern of the drug in the body and the time course of unbound (pharmacologically active) drug concentrations correlated with the unbound volumes of distribution, but not with the total volumes of distribution. In conclusion, unbound volumes of distribution appropriately describe the drug distribution pattern and the time course of unbound drug concentrations and are recommended for use as primary pharmacokinetic parameters in pharmaceutical research. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A high-efficiency superhydrophobic plasma separator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changchun; Liao, Shih-Chuan; Song, Jinzhao; Mauk, Michael G; Li, Xuanwen; Wu, Gaoxiang; Ge, Dengteng; Greenberg, Robert M; Yang, Shu; Bau, Haim H

    2016-02-01

    To meet stringent limit-of-detection specifications for low abundance target molecules, a relatively large volume of plasma is needed for many blood-based clinical diagnostics. Conventional centrifugation methods for plasma separation are not suitable for on-site testing or bedside diagnostics. Here, we report a simple, yet high-efficiency, clamshell-style, superhydrophobic plasma separator that is capable of separating a relatively large volume of plasma from several hundred microliters of whole blood (finger-prick blood volume). The plasma separator consists of a superhydrophobic top cover with a separation membrane and a superhydrophobic bottom substrate. Unlike previously reported membrane-based plasma separators, the separation membrane in our device is positioned at the top of the sandwiched whole blood film to increase the membrane separation capacity and plasma yield. In addition, the device's superhydrophobic characteristics (i) facilitates the formation of well-defined, contracted, thin blood film with a high contact angle; (ii) minimizes biomolecular adhesion to surfaces; (iii) increases blood clotting time; and (iv) reduces blood cell hemolysis. The device demonstrated a "blood in-plasma out" capability, consistently extracting 65 ± 21.5 μL of plasma from 200 μL of whole blood in less than 10 min without electrical power. The device was used to separate plasma from Schistosoma mansoni genomic DNA-spiked whole blood with a recovery efficiency of >84.5 ± 25.8%. The S. mansoni genomic DNA in the separated plasma was successfully tested on our custom-made microfluidic chip by using loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method.

  10. Quark-gluon plasma 5

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This is the fifth volume in the series on the subject of quark-gluon plasma, a unique phase created in heavy-ion collisions at high energy. It contains review articles by the world experts on various aspects of quark-gluon plasma taking into account the advances driven by the latest experimental data collected at both the Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The articles are pedagogical and comprehensive which can be helpful for both new researchers entering the field as well as the experienced physicists working on the subject.

  11. plasma treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puač Nevena

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we will present results for plasma sterilization of planktonic samples of two reference strains of bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212. We have used a plasma needle as a source of non-equilibrium atmospheric plasma in all treatments. This device is already well characterized by OES, derivative probes and mass spectrometry. It was shown that power delivered to the plasma is bellow 2 W and that it produces the main radical oxygen and nitrogen species believed to be responsible for the sterilization process. Here we will only present results obtained by electron paramagnetic resonance which was used to detect the OH, H and NO species. Treatment time and power delivered to the plasma were found to have the strongest influence on sterilization. In all cases we have observed a reduction of several orders of magnitude in the concentration of bacteria and for the longest treatment time complete eradication. A more efficient sterilization was achieved in the case of gram negative bacteria.

  12. Plasma metallization

    CERN Document Server

    Crowther, J M

    1997-01-01

    Many methods are currently used for the production of thin metal films. However, all of these have drawbacks associated with them, for example the need for UHV conditions, high temperatures, exotic metal precursors, or the inability to coat complex shaped objects. Reduction of supported metal salts by non-isothermal plasma treatment does not suffer from these drawbacks. In order to produce and analyse metal films before they become contaminated, a plasma chamber which could be attached directly to a UHV chamber with XPS capability was designed and built. This allowed plasma treatment of supported metal salts and surface analysis by XPS to be performed without exposure of the metal film to the atmosphere. Non-equilibrium plasma treatment of Nylon 66 supported gold(lll) chloride using hydrogen as the feed gas resulted in a 95% pure gold film, the remaining 5% of the film being carbon. If argon or helium were used as the feed gases during plasma treatment the resultant gold films were 100% pure. Some degree of s...

  13. Explanation of Delayed Fusion Product Loss in TFTR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweben, S. J.; Yavorski, V.; Andrushchenko, Zh. N.; Goloborod'Ko, V. Ya.; Reznik, S. N.; Edenstrasser, J. W.

    1998-11-01

    Observations of partially thermalized, (i.e. "delayed") fusion product loss have been made at the bottom of TFTR in both DD(S.J. Zweben et al, Phys. Plasmas 1, 1469 (1994)) and DT(H. Herrmann et al, Nuclear Fusion 37, 293 (1997)) plasmas, but the cause of these losses was not understood. An explanation is proposed in terms of collisional TF ripple loss(V. Yavorski et al, submitted to Nuclear Fusion 1998), in which the influence of the vacuum region between the plasma edge and the outer wall allows the ripple loss orbits to reach the vessel bottom. The inclusion of the inward shifts of the vacuum flux surfaces causes the angle of intersection of the marginally confined trapped orbits to move from the outer midplane toward the vessel bottom, particularly for high plasma currents, low particle energies, and small plasma radii. Calculations are presented using 3-D Fokker-Planck modeling of ripple loss in TFTR. These results are at least qualitatively and semi-quantitatively consistent with the previous observations of delayed loss.

  14. Blindness and vision loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... means you cannot see anything and DO NOT see light. (Most people who use the term "blindness" mean ... the vision loss. For long-term vision loss, see a low-vision specialist, who can help you learn to care for yourself and ... of vision; No light perception (NLP); Low vision; Vision loss and blindness ...

  15. Proven Weight Loss Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact Sheet Proven Weight Loss Methods What can weight loss do for you? Losing weight can improve your health in a number of ways. ... limiting calories) usually isn’t enough to cause weight loss. But exercise plays an important part in helping ...

  16. Modeling the Europa plasma torus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreier, Ron; Eviatar, Aharon; Vasyliunas, Vytenis M.; Richardson, John D.

    1993-12-01

    The existence of a torus of plasma generated by sputtering from Jupiter's satellite Europa has long been suspected but never yet convincingly demonstrated. Temperature profiles from Voyager plasma observations indicate the presence of hot, possibly freshly picked-up ions in the general vicinity of the orbit of Europa, which may be interpreted as evidence for a local plasma torus. Studies of ion partitioning in the outer regions of the Io torus reveal that the oxygen to sulfur mixing ratio varies with radial distance; this may indicates that oxygen-rich matter is injected from a non-Io source, most probably Europa. We have constructed a quantitative model of a plasma torus near the orbit of Europa which takes into account plasma input from the Io torus, sputtering from the surface of Europa, a great number of ionization and charge exchange processes, and plasma loss by diffusive transport. When the transport time is chosen so that the model's total number density in consistent with the observed total plasma density, the contribution from Europa is found to be significant although not dominant. The model predicts in detail the ion composition, charge states, and the relative fractions of hot Europa-generated and (presumed) cold Io-generated ions. The results are generally consistent with observations from Voyager and can in principle (subject to limitations of data coverage) be confirmed in more detail by Ulysses.

  17. Electron recirculation in electrostatic multicusp systems: 1. Confinement and losses in simple power law wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bussard, R.W.; King, K.E.

    1991-04-19

    A large body of work over the past 35 years has been devoted to the study of cusp confinement of electrons, ions, and plasmas. Nearly all of this has examined single particle electron (or ion) motion or the motion of particles in neutral plasmas within cusped magnetic systems, generally without internal electric potential fields. In this note the problem of electron motion, confinement and losses is analyzed in the non-LTE, electron-rich plasma system with anisotropic radial energy in both species, in multicusp Polywell geometry. The bulk problem is treated as one-dimensional, with arbitrary spatial indices of radial B and E field variation. Bulk diamagnetic collective effects are modelled as they influence this 1-D spatial variation of B field, but electron entry into single cusp volumes includes elements of the geometric effects of the real 3-D configuration. Electron motions in mirror reflection regions are analyzed on the usual basis of conservation of magnetic moment of the electron at entry into the confining cusp. However, turning points of this motion are modified to account for the effects of diamagnetic currents on this process. Comparison with non-Polywell models is made where useful and appropriate. Further details are given in the following sections.

  18. Atmospheric Gaseous Plasma with Large Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenev, Sergey

    2012-10-01

    The forming of atmospheric plasma with large dimensions using electrical discharge typically uses the Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD). The study of atmospheric DBD was shown some problems related to homogeneous volume plasma. The volume of this plasma determines by cross section and gas gap between electrode and dielectric. The using of electron beam for volume ionization of air molecules by CW relativistic electron beams was shown the high efficiency of this process [1, 2]. The main advantage of this approach consists in the ionization of gas molecules by electrons in longitudinal direction determines by their kinetic energy. A novel method for forming of atmospheric homogeneous plasma with large volume dimensions using ionization of gas molecules by pulsed non-relativistic electron beams is presented in the paper. The results of computer modeling for delivered doses of electron beams in gases and ionization are discussed. The structure of experimental bench with plasma diagnostics is considered. The preliminary results of forming atmospheric plasma with ionization gas molecules by pulsed nanosecond non-relativistic electron beam are given. The analysis of potential applications for atmospheric volume plasma is presented. Reference: [1] S. Korenev. ``The ionization of air by scanning relativistic high power CW electron beam,'' 2002 IEEE International Conference on Plasma Science. May 2002, Alberta, Canada. [2] S. Korenev, I. Korenev. ``The propagation of high power CW scanning electron beam in air.'' BEAMS 2002: 14th International Conference on High-Power Particle Beams, Albuquerque, New Mexico (USA), June 2002, AIP Conference Proceedings Vol. 650(1), pp. 373-376. December 17.

  19. Tokamak experimental power reactor conceptual design. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-08-01

    Volume II contains the following appendices: (1) summary of EPR design parameters, (2) impurity control, (3) plasma computational models, (4) structural support system, (5) materials considerations for the primary energy conversion system, (6) magnetics, (7) neutronics penetration analysis, (8) first wall stress analysis, (9) enrichment of isotopes of hydrogen by cryogenic distillation, and (10) noncircular plasma considerations. (MOW)

  20. A New Atmospheric Pressure Microwave Plasma Source (APMPS)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Liang; ZHANG Guixin; LI Yinan; ZHU Zhijie; WANG Xinxin; LUO Chengmu

    2008-01-01

    An atmospheric pressure microwave plasma source (APMPS) that can generate a large volume of plasma at an atmospheric pressure has been developed at Tsinghua University. This paper presents the design of this APMPS, the theoretical consideration of microwave plasma ignition and the simulation results, including the distributions of the electric field and power density inside the cavity as well as the accuracy of the simulation results. In addition, a method of producing an atmospheric pressure microwave plasma and some relevant observations of the plasma are also provided. It. is expected that this research would be useful for further developing atmospheric pressure microwave plasma sources and expanding the scope of their applications.