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Sample records for plasma viral loads

  1. Meticulous plasma isolation is essential to avoid false low-level viraemia in Roche Cobas HIV-1 viral load assays.

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    Mortier, Virginie; Vancoillie, Leen; Dauwe, Kenny; Staelens, Delfien; Demecheleer, Els; Schauvliege, Marlies; Dinakis, Sylvie; Van Maerken, Tom; Dessilly, Géraldine; Ruelle, Jean; Verhofstede, Chris

    2017-10-24

    Pre-analytical sample processing is often overlooked as a potential cause of inaccurate assay results. Here we demonstrate how plasma, extracted from standard EDTA-containing blood collection tubes, may contain traces of blood cells consequently resulting in a false low-level HIV-1 viral load when using Roche Cobas HIV-1 assays. The presence of human DNA in Roche Cobas 4800 RNA extracts and in RNA extracts from the Abbott HIV-1 RealTime assay was assessed by quantifying the human albumin gene by means of quantitative PCR. RNA was extracted from plasma samples before and after an additional centrifugation and tested for viral load and DNA contamination. The relation between total DNA content and viral load was defined. Elevated concentrations of genomic DNA were detected in 28 out of 100 Cobas 4800 extracts and were significantly more frequent in samples processed outside of the AIDS Reference Laboratory. An association between genomic DNA presence and spurious low-level viraemia results was demonstrated. Supplementary centrifugation of plasma before RNA extraction eliminated the contamination and the false viraemia. Plasma isolated from standard EDTA-containing blood collection tubes may contain traces of HIV DNA leading to false viral load results above the clinical cutoff. Supplementary centrifugation of plasma before viral load analysis may eliminate the occurrence of this spurious low-level viraemia.

  2. ACVP-02: Plasma SIV/SHIV RNA Viral Load Measurements through the AIDS and Cancer Virus Program Quantitative Molecular Diagnostics Core | Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research

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    The SIV plasma viral load assay performed by the Quantitative Molecular Diagnostics Core (QMDC) utilizes reagents specifically designed to detect and accurately quantify the full range of SIV/SHIV viral variants and clones in common usage in the rese

  3. Undetectable plasma viral load predicts normal survival in HIV-2-infected people in a West African village

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    Ricard Dominique

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There have been no previous studies of the long-term survival and temporal changes in plasma viral load among HIV-2 infected subjects. Methods 133 HIV-2 infected and 158 HIV-uninfected subjects from a rural area in North-west Guinea-Bissau, West Africa were enrolled into a prospective cohort study in 1991 and followed-up to mid-2009. Data were collected on four occasions during that period on HIV antibodies, CD4% and HIV-2 plasma viral load. Results Median age (interquartile range [IQR] of HIV-2 infected subjects at time of enrollment was 47 (36, 60 years, similar to that of HIV-uninfected control subjects, 49 (38, 62 (p = 0.4. Median (IQR plasma viral load and CD4 percentage were 347 (50, 4,300 copies/ml and 29 (22, 35 respectively. Overall loss to follow-up to assess vital status was small, at 6.7% and 6.3% for HIV-2 infected and uninfected subjects respectively. An additional 17 (12.8% and 16 (10.1% of HIV-2 infected and uninfected subjects respectively were censored during follow-up due to infection with HIV-1. The mortality rate per 100 person-years (95% CI was 4.5 (3.6, 5.8 among HIV-2 infected subjects compared to 2.1 (1.6, 2.9 among HIV-uninfected (age-sex adjusted rate ratio 1.9 (1.3, 2.8, p Viral load measurements were available for 98%, 78%, 77% and 61% HIV-2 infected subjects who were alive and had not become super-infected with HIV-1, in 1991, 1996, 2003 and 2006 respectively. Median plasma viral load (RNA copies per ml (IQR did not change significantly over time, being 150 (50, 1,554; n = 77 in 1996, 203 (50, 2,837; n = 47 in 2003 and 171 (50, 497; n = 31 in 2006. Thirty seven percent of HIV-2 subjects had undetectable viraemia ( Conclusions A substantial proportion of HIV-2 infected subjects in this cohort have stable plasma viral load, and those with an undetectable viral load (37% at study entry had a normal survival rate. However, the sequential laboratory findings need to be interpreted with caution given

  4. Association between feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) plasma viral RNA load, concentration of acute phase proteins and disease severity.

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    Kann, Rebecca K C; Seddon, Jennifer M; Kyaw-Tanner, Myat T; Henning, Joerg; Meers, Joanne

    2014-08-01

    Veterinarians have few tools to predict the rate of disease progression in FIV-infected cats. In contrast, in HIV infection, plasma viral RNA load and acute phase protein concentrations are commonly used as predictors of disease progression. This study evaluated these predictors in cats naturally infected with FIV. In older cats (>5 years), log10 FIV RNA load was higher in the terminal stages of disease compared to the asymptomatic stage. There was a significant association between log10 FIV RNA load and both log10 serum amyloid A concentration and age in unwell FIV-infected cats. This study suggests that viral RNA load and serum amyloid A warrant further investigation as predictors of disease status and prognosis in FIV-infected cats. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. HIV Viral Load

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    ... PF4 Antibody Hepatitis A Testing Hepatitis B Testing Hepatitis C Testing HER2/neu Herpes Testing High-sensitivity C-reactive Protein (hs-CRP) Histamine Histone Antibody HIV Antibody and HIV Antigen (p24) HIV Antiretroviral Drug Resistance Testing, Genotypic HIV Viral Load HLA Testing HLA- ...

  6. Which adherence measure - self-report, clinician recorded or pharmacy refill - is best able to predict detectable viral load in a public ART programme without routine plasma viral load monitoring?

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    Mekuria, Legese A; Prins, Jan M; Yalew, Alemayehu W; Sprangers, Mirjam A G; Nieuwkerk, Pythia T

    2016-07-01

    Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) suppresses viral replication to an undetectable level if a sufficiently high level of adherence is achieved. We investigated which adherence measurement best distinguishes between patients with and without detectable viral load in a public ART programme without routine plasma viral load monitoring. We randomly selected 870 patients who started cART between May 2009 and April 2012 in 10 healthcare facilities in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Six hundred and sixty-four (76.3%) patients who were retained in HIV care and were receiving cART for at least 6 months were included and 642 had their plasma HIV-1 RNA concentration measured. Patients' adherence to cART was assessed according to self-report, clinician recorded and pharmacy refill measures. Multivariate logistic regression model was fitted to identify the predictors of detectable viremia. Model accuracy was evaluated by computing the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. A total of 9.2% and 5.5% of the 642 patients had a detectable viral load of ≥40 and ≥400 RNA copies/ml, respectively. In the multivariate analyses, younger age, lower CD4 cell count at cART initiation, being illiterate and widowed, and each of the adherence measures were significantly and independently predictive of having ≥400 RNA copies/ml. The ROC curve showed that these variables altogether had a likelihood of more than 80% to distinguish patients with a plasma viral load of ≥400 RNA copies/ml from those without. Adherence to cART was remarkably high. Self-report, clinician recorded and pharmacy refill non-adherence were all significantly predictive of detectable viremia. The choice for one of these methods to detect non-adherence and predict a detectable viral load can therefore be based on what is most practical in a particular setting. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Antiretroviral-treated HIV-1 patients can harbour resistant viruses in CSF despite an undetectable viral load in plasma.

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    Soulie, Cathia; Grudé, Maxime; Descamps, Diane; Amiel, Corinne; Morand-Joubert, Laurence; Raymond, Stéphanie; Pallier, Coralie; Bellecave, Pantxika; Reigadas, Sandrine; Trabaud, Mary-Anne; Delaugerre, Constance; Montes, Brigitte; Barin, Francis; Ferré, Virginie; Jeulin, Hélène; Alloui, Chakib; Yerly, Sabine; Signori-Schmuck, Anne; Guigon, Aurélie; Fafi-Kremer, Samira; Haïm-Boukobza, Stéphanie; Mirand, Audrey; Maillard, Anne; Vallet, Sophie; Roussel, Catherine; Assoumou, Lambert; Calvez, Vincent; Flandre, Philippe; Marcelin, Anne-Geneviève

    2017-08-01

    HIV therapy reduces the CSF HIV RNA viral load (VL) and prevents disorders related to HIV encephalitis. However, these brain disorders may persist in some cases. A large population of antiretroviral-treated patients who had a VL > 1.7 log 10 copies/mL in CSF with detectable or undetectable VL in plasma associated with cognitive impairment was studied, in order to characterize discriminatory factors of these two patient populations. Blood and CSF samples were collected at the time of neurological disorders for 227 patients in 22 centres in France and 1 centre in Switzerland. Genotypic HIV resistance tests were performed on CSF. The genotypic susceptibility score was calculated according to the last Agence Nationale de Recherche sur le Sida et les hépatites virales Action Coordonnée 11 (ANRS AC11) genotype interpretation algorithm. Among the 227 studied patients with VL > 1.7 log 10 copies/mL in CSF, 195 had VL detectable in plasma [median (IQR) HIV RNA was 3.7 (2.7-4.7) log 10 copies/mL] and 32 had discordant VL in plasma (VL plasma compared with patients with plasma VL > 1.7 log 10 copies/mL. Resistance to antiretrovirals was observed in CSF for the two groups of patients. Fourteen percent of this population of patients with cognitive impairment and detectable VL in CSF had well controlled VL in plasma. Thus, it is important to explore CSF HIV (VL and genotype) even if the HIV VL is controlled in plasma because HIV resistance may be observed. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Related factors to atazanavir plasma levels in a cohort of HIV positive individuals with undetectable viral load

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    Ana Júlia Luz

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the factors associated with plasma concentrations of atazanavir (ATV in a cohort of well-controlled HIV infected subjects (undetectable viremia. Design: Cross-sectional study where 69 subjects were consecutively enrolled between April and November, 2011. METHODS: Patients had to be on atazanavir for at least six months, undetectable viral load for a period equal to or longer than 12 months, T CD4+ lymphocyte count higher than 200 cells/mm³, and aged between 18 years and 70 years old. Exclusion criteria were pregnancy, any neurologic disease, active opportunistic disease, hepatitis or cancer. Atazanavir plasma levels were measured by ultra-performance liquid chromatography. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Overall, 54 patients (mean age of 47 years and 50% women were included in the analysis. Those without ritonavir (unboosted atazanavir had statistically lower plasma concentrations than those with ritonavir boosted atazanavir (p = 0.001 and total and indirect bilirubin were statistically associated with plasma concentration of atazanavir (r = 0.32 and r = 0.33 respectively; p < 0.05 in both cases. no statistical association was found among gender, ethnicity, age, weight, body mass index (BMI, lipid profile, and the plasma concentration of atazanavir. CONCLUSION: in summary, as expected, concomitant ritonavir use was the only factor associated with atazanavir plasma levels. prospective studies with a larger sample size might help to observe an association of atazanavir concentrations to other characteristics such as body weight, since the p-value showed to be close to significance (p = 0.068.

  9. Comparison of EBV DNA viral load in whole blood, plasma, B-cells and B-cell culture supernatant.

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    Ouedraogo, David Eric; Bollore, Karine; Viljoen, Johannes; Foulongne, Vincent; Reynes, Jacques; Cartron, Guillaume; Vendrell, Jean-Pierre; Van de Perre, Philippe; Tuaillon, Edouard

    2014-05-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genome quantitation in whole blood is used widely for therapeutic monitoring of EBV-associated disorders in immunosuppressed individuals and in patients with EBV-associated lymphoma. However, the most appropriate biological material to be used for EBV DNA quantitation remains a subject of debate. This study compare the detection rate and levels of EBV DNA from whole blood, plasma, enriched B-cells, and B-cell short-term culture supernatant using quantitative real-time PCR. Samples were collected from 33 subjects with either HIV infection or B-cell lymphoma. Overall, EBV DNA was detected in 100% of enriched B-cell samples, in 82% of B-cell culture supernatants, in 57% of plasma, and 42% of whole blood samples. A significant correlation for EBV viral load was found between enriched B-cell and B-cell culture supernatant material (ρ = 0.92; P cells (ρ = -0.02; P = 0.89), whole blood and plasma (ρ = 0.24; P = 0.24), or enriched B-cells and plasma (ρ = 0.08; P = 0.77). Testing of enriched B-cells appeared to be the most sensitive method for detection of EBV DNA as well as for exploration of the cellular reservoir. Quantitation of EBV DNA in plasma and B-cell culture supernatant may be of interest to assess EBV reactivation dynamics and response to treatment as well as to decipher EBV host-pathogen interactions in various clinical scenarios. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Predictors of undetectable plasma viral load in HIV-positive adults receiving antiretroviral therapy in Southern Brazil

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    Marysabel Pinto Telis Silveira

    Full Text Available Factors associated with undetectable viral load ( or = 95% of adherence (CI 95% 1,80-13,28; CI 95% 1,73-9,53, compared with less than 60% adherence; it was greater for less than 6 months in treatment (OR = 3.37; CI 95% 1.09-10.46; and smaller for viral load previous to adherence measurement > or = 5.2 log10 (OR = 0.19; CI95% 0.06-0.58, adjusted for these variables and sex, age, clinical status, current immune status, group of drugs and interval between the two measurements of viral load. The crude odds were lower for age 16-24 years and use of Nucleoside Analog Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors only, but these effects were not significant in the multivariate model. There was no evidence of effect of sex, clinical status, current immune status, and changes in treatment regimen. Treatment adherence gave the largest effect. Motivational interventions directed at adherence may improve treatment effectiveness.

  11. Plasma HIV-1 RNA viral load rebound among people who inject drugs receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) in a Canadian setting: an ethno-epidemiological study.

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    Small, Will; Milloy, M J; McNeil, Ryan; Maher, Lisa; Kerr, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    People who inject drugs (PWID) living with HIV often experience sub-optimal antiretroviral therapy (ART) treatment outcomes, including HIV plasma viral load (PVL) rebound. While previous studies have identified risk factors for PVL rebound among PWID, no study has examined the perspectives of PWID who have experienced PVL rebound episodes. We conducted an ethno-epidemiological study to investigate the circumstances surrounding the emergence of rebound episodes among PWID in Vancouver, BC, Canada. Comprehensive clinical records linked to a community-based prospective observational cohort of HIV-positive drug users were used to identify PWID who had recently experienced viral rebound. In-depth qualitative interviews with 16 male and 11 female participants explored participant perspectives regarding the emergence of viral rebound. A timeline depicting each participant's HIV viral load and adherence to ART was used to elicit discussion of circumstances surrounding viral rebound. Viral rebound episodes were shaped by interplay between various individual, social, and environmental factors that disrupted routines facilitating adherence. Structural-environmental influences resulting in non-adherence included housing transitions, changes in drug use patterns and intense drug scene involvement, and inadequate care for co-morbid health conditions. Social-environmental influences on ART adherence included poor interactions between care providers and patients producing non-adherence, and understandings of HIV treatment that fostered intentional treatment discontinuation. This study describes key pathways which led to rebound episodes among PWID receiving ART and illustrates how environmental forces may increase vulnerability for non-adherence leading to treatment failure. Our findings have potential to help inform interventions and supports that address social-structural forces that foster non-adherence among PWID.

  12. Complement lysis activity in autologous plasma is associated with lower viral loads during the acute phase of HIV-1 infection.

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    Michael Huber

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To explore the possibility that antibody-mediated complement lysis contributes to viremia control in HIV-1 infection, we measured the activity of patient plasma in mediating complement lysis of autologous primary virus. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Sera from two groups of patients-25 with acute HIV-1 infection and 31 with chronic infection-were used in this study. We developed a novel real-time PCR-based assay strategy that allows reliable and sensitive quantification of virus lysis by complement. Plasma derived at the time of virus isolation induced complement lysis of the autologous virus isolate in the majority of patients. Overall lysis activity against the autologous virus and the heterologous primary virus strain JR-FL was higher at chronic disease stages than during the acute phase. Most strikingly, we found that plasma virus load levels during the acute but not the chronic infection phase correlated inversely with the autologous complement lysis activity. Antibody reactivity to the envelope (Env proteins gp120 and gp41 were positively correlated with the lysis activity against JR-FL, indicating that anti-Env responses mediated complement lysis. Neutralization and complement lysis activity against autologous viruses were not associated, suggesting that complement lysis is predominantly caused by non-neutralizing antibodies. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively our data provide evidence that antibody-mediated complement virion lysis develops rapidly and is effective early in the course of infection; thus it should be considered a parameter that, in concert with other immune functions, steers viremia control in vivo.

  13. Cytomegalovirus sequence variability, amplicon length, and DNase-sensitive non-encapsidated genomes are obstacles to standardization and commutability of plasma viral load results.

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    Naegele, Klaudia; Lautenschlager, Irmeli; Gosert, Rainer; Loginov, Raisa; Bir, Katia; Helanterä, Ilkka; Schaub, Stefan; Khanna, Nina; Hirsch, Hans H

    2018-04-22

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) management post-transplantation relies on quantification in blood, but inter-laboratory and inter-assay variability impairs commutability. An international multicenter study demonstrated that variability is mitigated by standardizing plasma volumes, automating DNA extraction and amplification, and calibration to the 1st-CMV-WHO-International-Standard as in the FDA-approved Roche-CAP/CTM-CMV. However, Roche-CAP/CTM-CMV showed under-quantification and false-negative results in a quality assurance program (UK-NEQAS-2014). To evaluate factors contributing to quantification variability of CMV viral load and to develop optimized CMV-UL54-QNAT. The UL54 target of the UK-NEQAS-2014 variant was sequenced and compared to 329 available CMV GenBank sequences. Four Basel-CMV-UL54-QNAT assays of 361 bp, 254 bp, 151 bp, and 95 bp amplicons were developed that only differed in reverse primer positions. The assays were validated using plasmid dilutions, UK-NEQAS-2014 sample, as well as 107 frozen and 69 prospectively collected plasma samples from transplant patients submitted for CMV QNAT, with and without DNase-digestion prior to nucleic acid extraction. Eight of 43 mutations were identified as relevant in the UK-NEQAS-2014 target. All Basel-CMV-UL54 QNATs quantified the UK-NEQAS-2014 but revealed 10-fold increasing CMV loads as amplicon size decreased. The inverse correlation of amplicon size and viral loads was confirmed using 1st-WHO-International-Standard and patient samples. DNase pre-treatment reduced plasma CMV loads by >90% indicating the presence of unprotected CMV genomic DNA. Sequence variability, amplicon length, and non-encapsidated genomes obstruct standardization and commutability of CMV loads needed to develop thresholds for clinical research and management. Besides regular sequence surveys, matrix and extraction standardization, we propose developing reference calibrators using 100 bp amplicons. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All

  14. Adsorption of viral particles from the blood plasma of patients with viral hepatitis on nanodiamonds.

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    Baron, A V; Osipov, N V; Yashchenko, S V; Kokotukha, Yu A; Baron, I J; Puzyr, A P; Olkhovskiy, I A; Bondar, V S

    2016-07-01

    Adsorption of viral particles from the blood plasma of patients with viral hepatitis B and C on modified nanodiamonds (MNDs) was shown in the in vitro experiments. PCR method showed the treatment of plasma with MNDs leads to a decrease in the viral load by 2-3 orders of magnitude or more in both cases studied. These results make it possible to predict the applicability of MNDs for the development of new technologies of hemodialysis and plasmapheresis for binding and removal of viral particles from the blood of infected patients.

  15. HIV Viral Load: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

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    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/hivviralload.html HIV Viral Load To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is an HIV Viral Load? An HIV viral load is a ...

  16. Virological and immunological profiles among patients with undetectable viral load followed prospectively for 24 months

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katzenstein, T.; Ullum, H.; Røge, B.T.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To quantify HIV-RNA in plasma, in lymphoid tissue and proviral DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and to relate these to immunological markers among patients with plasma viral load counts of

  17. Residual viraemia in HIV-1-infected patients with plasma viral load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostrowski, S R; Katzenstein, T L; Pedersen, B K

    2008-01-01

    Despite undetectable viral load in conventional assays, probably all human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infected patients have residual viraemia (RV) detectable by ultra-sensitive assays. To study this issue, this study investigated virologic and immunologic consequences of RV in highly active......-count, CD4+HLA-DR+, CD8+HLA-DR+CD38+, CD4+CD45RA-CD45RO+, CD8+CD45RA-CD45RO+, CD4+CD45RA+CD62L+, CD8+CD45RA+CD62L+ T cells, IgG or IgM. In conclusion, RV was associated with increased blood levels of soluble immune activation markers in HAART-treated HIV-1-infected patients. The finding that RV...... antiretroviral therapy (HAART)-treated HIV-1-infected patients with plasma HIV-1 RNA or=1 episode with TMA-RV whereas 9 patients had undetectable TMA-RV throughout the study-period. Time-points with TMA-RV and PCR-RV were associated with higher circulating sTNFrII (+0.234 ng/ml, P = 0.030) and beta(2...

  18. Increased cellular immune responses and CD4+ T-cell proliferation correlate with reduced plasma viral load in SIV challenged recombinant simian varicella virus - simian immunodeficiency virus (rSVV-SIV vaccinated rhesus macaques

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    Pahar Bapi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An effective AIDS vaccine remains one of the highest priorities in HIV-research. Our recent study showed that vaccination of rhesus macaques with recombinant simian varicella virus (rSVV vector – simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV envelope and gag genes, induced neutralizing antibodies and cellular immune responses to SIV and also significantly reduced plasma viral loads following intravenous pathogenic challenge with SIVMAC251/CX1. Findings The purpose of this study was to define cellular immunological correlates of protection in rSVV-SIV vaccinated and SIV challenged animals. Immunofluorescent staining and multifunctional assessment of SIV-specific T-cell responses were evaluated in both Experimental and Control vaccinated animal groups. Significant increases in the proliferating CD4+ T-cell population and polyfunctional T-cell responses were observed in all Experimental-vaccinated animals compared with the Control-vaccinated animals. Conclusions Increased CD4+ T-cell proliferation was significantly and inversely correlated with plasma viral load. Increased SIV-specific polyfunctional cytokine responses and increased proliferation of CD4+ T-cell may be crucial to control plasma viral loads in vaccinated and SIVMAC251/CX1 challenged macaques.

  19. Evaluation of the performance of Abbott m2000 and Roche COBAS Ampliprep/COBAS Taqman assays for HIV-1 viral load determination using dried blood spots and dried plasma spots in Kenya.

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    Zeh, Clement; Ndiege, Kenneth; Inzaule, Seth; Achieng, Rebecca; Williamson, John; Chih-Wei Chang, Joy; Ellenberger, Dennis; Nkengasong, John

    2017-01-01

    Routine HIV viral load testing is not widely accessible in most resource-limited settings, including Kenya. To increase access to viral load testing, alternative sample types like dried blood spots (DBS), which overcome the logistic barriers associated with plasma separation and cold chain shipment need to be considered and evaluated. The current study evaluated matched dried blood spots (DBS) and dried plasma spots (DPS) against plasma using the Abbott M 2000 (Abbott) and Roche Cobas Ampliprep/Cobas TaqMan (CAP/CTM) quantitative viral load assays in western Kenya. Matched plasma DBS and DPS were obtained from 200 HIV-1 infected antiretroviral treatment (ART)-experienced patients attending patient support centers in Western Kenya. Standard quantitative assay performance parameters with accompanying 95% confidence intervals (CI) were assessed at the assays lower detection limit (400cps/ml for CAP/CTM and 550cps/ml for Abbott) using SAS version 9.2. Receiver operating curves (ROC) were further used to assess viral-load thresholds with best assay performance (reference assay CAP/CTM plasma). Using the Abbott test, the sensitivity and specificity, respectively, for DPS were (97.3%, [95%CI: 93.2-99.2] and 98.1% [95%CI: 89.7-100]) and those for DBS (93.9% [95%CI: 88.8-97.2] and 88.0% [95%CI: 82.2-92.4]). The correlation and agreement using paired plasma and DPS/DBS were strong, with r2 = 90.5 and rc = 68.1. The Bland-Altman relative percent change was 95.3 for DPS, (95%CI: 90.4-97.7) and 73.6 (95%CI: 51.6-86.5) for DBS. Using the CAP/CTM assay, the sensitivity for DBS was significantly higher compared to DPS (100.0% [95% CI: 97.6-100.0] vs. 94.7% [95%CI: 89.8-97.7]), while the specificity for DBS was lower: 4%, [95% CI: 0.4-13.7] compared to DPS: 94.0%, [95% CI: 83.5-98.7]. When compared under different clinical relevant thresholds, the accuracy for the Abbott assay was 95% at the 1000cps/ml cut-off with a sensitivity and specificity of 96.6% [95% CI 91.8-98.7] and 90

  20. Impact of Chloroquine on Viral Load in Breast Milk

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    Semrau, Katherine; Kuhn, Louise; Kasonde, Prisca; Sinkala, Moses; Kankasa, Chipepo; Shutes, Erin; Vwalika, Cheswa; Ghosh, Mrinal; Aldrovandi, Grace; Thea, Donald M.

    2006-01-01

    Summary The anti-malarial agent chloroquine has activity against HIV. We compared the effect of chloroquine (n = 18) to an anti-malarial agent without known anti-HIV-activity, sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (n = 12), on breast milk HIV RNA levels among HIV-infected breastfeeding women in Zambia. After adjusting for CD4 count and plasma viral load, chloroquine was associated with a trend towards lower levels of HIV RNA in breast milk compared with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (P 0.05). Higher breastmilk viral load was also observed among women receiving presumptive treatment = for symptomatic malaria compared with asymptomatic controls and among controls reporting fever in the prior week. Further research is needed to determine the potential role of chloroquine in prevention of HIV transmission through breastfeeding. Impacte de la chloroquine sur la charge virale dans le lait maternelle La chloroquine, agent antimalarique, a une activité contre le VIH. Nous avons comparé l’effet de la chloroquine à celui d’un autre agent antimalarique, la sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, dont l’activité sur le VIH n’est pas connue, en mesurant les taux d’ARN de VIH dans le lait maternel de femmes allaitantes infectées par le VIH en Zambie. Après ajustement pour les taux de CD4 et la charge virale dans le plasma, la chloroquine comparée à la sulfadoxine pyrimethamine était associée à une tendance vers des teneurs plus bas en ARN de VIH dans le lait maternel (P = 0,05). Des charges virales plus élevées dans le lait maternel étaient aussi observées chez des femmes recevant un traitement présomptif pour des symptômes de malaria par rapport aux contrôles asymptomatiques et par rapport à des contrôles rapportant de la fièvre durant la première semaine. Des études supplémentaires sont nécessaires pour déterminer le rôle potentiel de la chloroquine dans la prévention de la transmission du VIH par l’allaitement maternel. mots clésVIH, malaria, allaitement maternel

  1. Preanalytic process linked to spuriously elevated HIV viral loads: improvement on an FDA-approved process.

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    Procop, Gary W; Taege, Alan J; Starkey, Colleen; Tungsiripat, Marisa; Warner, Diane; Schold, Jesse D; Yen-Lieberman, Belinda

    2017-09-01

    The processing of specimens often occurs in a central processing area within laboratories. We demonstrated that plasma centrifuged in the central laboratory but allowed to remain within the primary tube following centrifugation was associated with spuriously elevated HIV viral loads compared with recentrifugation of the plasma just prior to testing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Short Report Challenges with targeted viral load testing for medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Challenges with targeted viral load testing 179. Malawi Medical ... targeted viral load (VL) testing for patients who have been on ART for at least .... Tuberculosis. 32. Community-acquired pneumonia. 17. Non-typhoidal Salmonella sepsis. 5. Bacterial meningitis. 5. Disseminated Kaposi sarcoma. 4. Cryptococcal meningitis. 4.

  3. Experience with Hepatitis B viral load testing in Nigeria | Okwuraiwe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Quantification of the viral burden is an important laboratory tool in the management of hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected patients. However, widespread use of assays is still hampered by the high cost. Treatment reduces viral load to undetectable levels. HBV infected patients tend to have high HBV DNA levels, ...

  4. 101 . experience with hepatitis b viral load testing in nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    ABSTRACT. Background: Quantification of the viral burden is an important laboratory tool in the management of hepatitis B virus. (HBV)-infected patients. However, widespread use of assays is still hampered by the high cost. Treatment reduces viral load to undetectable levels. HBV infected patients tend to have high HBV ...

  5. Cytomegalovirus Viral Load in Bronchoalveolar Lavage to Diagnose Lung Transplant Associated CMV Pneumonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lodding, Isabelle Paula; Schultz, Hans Henrik; Jensen, Jens-Ulrik

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The diagnostic yield for cytomegalovirus (CMV) PCR viral load in Bronchoalveolar Lavage (BAL) or in plasma to diagnose CMV pneumonia in lung transplant recipients remains uncertain, and was investigated in a large cohort of consecutive lung transplant recipients. METHODS: Bronchoscopi...

  6. Longer duration of homelessness is associated with a lower likelihood of non-detectable plasma HIV-1 RNA viral load among people who use illicit drugs in a Canadian setting.

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    Loh, Jane; Kennedy, Mary Clare; Wood, Evan; Kerr, Thomas; Marshall, Brandon; Parashar, Surita; Montaner, Julio; Milloy, M-J

    2016-11-01

    Homelessness is common among people who use drugs (PWUD) and, for those living with HIV/AIDS, an important contributor to sub-optimal HIV treatment outcomes. This study aims to investigate the relationship between the duration of homelessness and the likelihood of plasma HIV-1 RNA viral load (VL) non-detectability among a cohort of HIV-positive PWUD. We used data from the ACCESS study, a long-running prospective cohort study of HIV-positive PWUD linked to comprehensive HIV clinical records including systematic plasma HIV-1 RNA VL monitoring. We estimated the longitudinal relationship between the duration of homelessness and the likelihood of exhibiting a non-detectable VL (i.e., effects modelling. Between May 1996 and June 2014, 922 highly active antiretroviral therapy-exposed participants were recruited and contributed 8188 observations. Of these, 4800 (59%) were characterized by non-detectable VL. Participants reported they were homeless in 910 (11%) interviews (median: six months, interquartile range: 6-12 months). A longer duration of homelessness was associated with lower odds of VL non-detectability (adjusted odds ratio = 0.71 per six-month period of homelessness, 95% confidence interval: 0.60-0.83) after adjustment for age, ancestry, drug use patterns, engagement in addiction treatment, and other potential confounders. Longer durations of episodes of homelessness in this cohort of HIV-positive illicit drug users were associated with a lower likelihood of plasma VL non-detectability. Our findings suggest that interventions that seek to promptly house homeless individuals, such as Housing First approaches, might assist in maximizing the clinical and public health benefits of antiretroviral therapy among people living with HIV/AIDS.

  7. Tissue viral load variability in chronic hepatitis C.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fanning, L

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVE: Liver biopsy is regarded as the gold standard for assessing disease activity in chronic hepatitis C, but sampling error is a potential limitation. Whether sampling variability applies equally to viral load assessment as it does to histology is uncertain. To examine this, we compared viral load between right- and left-lobe biopsy specimens from patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). METHODS: Bilobe biopsies were taken from 16 patients who were serum positive for HCV RNA by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Genotype was identified by reverse line probe hybridization. There was an absence of competing risk factors for infectious and other liver diseases in this patient group. Histology and hepatic viral load were assessed blindly. None of the patients had received antiviral therapy at the time of study. RESULTS: Detection of HCV in right and left lobes was concordant with serum positivity in all cases. The viral load between lobes was highly correlated (p = 0.0003, r = 0.79). In contrast, the histological activity indices of inflammation and fibrosis\\/cirrhosis were poorly correlated between lobes (p = 0.038, r = 0.60, and p = 0.098, r = 0.50, respectively). CONCLUSION: Hepatic viral load variability does not suffer from the same degree of heterogeneity of sampling variability as does histology.

  8. Impact of collection method on assessment of semen HIV RNA viral load.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan J W Osborne

    Full Text Available The blood HIV RNA viral load is the best-defined predictor of HIV transmission, in part due to ease of measurement and the correlation of blood and genital tract (semen or cervico-vaginal viral load, although recent studies found semen HIV RNA concentration to be a stronger predictor of HIV transmission. There is currently no standardized method for semen collection when measuring HIV RNA concentration. Therefore, we compared two collection techniques in order to study of the impact of antiretroviral therapy on the semen viral load.Semen was collected by masturbation from HIV-infected, therapy-naïve men who have sex with men (MSM either undiluted (Visit 1 or directly into transport medium (Visit 2. Seminal plasma was then isolated, and the HIV RNA concentration obtained with each collection technique was measured and corrected for dilution if necessary. Collection of semen directly into transport medium resulted in a median HIV RNA viral load that was 0.4 log10 higher than undiluted samples.The method of semen collection is an important consideration when quantifying the HIV RNA viral load in this compartment.

  9. Antiretroviral treatment, viral load of mothers & perinatal HIV transmission in Mumbai, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati P Ahir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT is the most significant route of HIV transmission in children below the age of 15 yr. In India, perinatal HIV transmission, even after treatment, accounts for 5.4 per cent of HIV cases. The present study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of anti-retro viral therapy (ART or prophylactic treatment (PT to control maternal viral load in HIV positive women, and its effect on vertical HIV transmission to their infants. Methods: A total of 58 HIV positive women were enrolled at the time of delivery and their plasma samples were obtained within 24 h of delivery for estimation of viral load. Viral load analysis was completed in 38 women. Infants received single dose nevirapine within 2 h of birth and zidovudine for 6 wk. At the end of 18 month follow up, HIV positive or negative status was available in 28 infants. Results: Results revealed undetectable levels of viral load in 58.3 per cent of women with ART compared to 30.7 per cent of women with PT. No women on ART had viral load more than 10,000 copies/ml, whereas seven (26.9%, P=0.07 women receiving PT had this viral load. Median CD4 count of women on PT (483 cells/μl was high compared to the women on ART (289 cells/ μl. At the end of 18 months follow up, only two children were HIV positive, whose mothers were on PT. One had in utero transmission; infection detected within 48 h of delivery, while the other child was infected post partum as HIV was detected at six months follow up. Interpretation & conclusions: Women who received a single dose of nevirapine during delivery had higher levels of viral load than women on ART. Combination drug therapy for pregnant women is now a standard of care in most of the western countries; use of nevirapine monotherapy at the time of delivery in our settings is not effective in controlling viral load. This highlights initiation of ART in pregnant women to control their viral load and thus to inhibit

  10. Hepatitis C virus genotypes: A plausible association with viral loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma Ghulam Nabi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: The basic aim of this study was to find out the association of genotypes with host age, gender and viral load. Material and Methods: The present study was conducted at Social Security Hospital, Pakistan. This study included 320 patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection who were referred to the hospital between November 2011 and July 2012. HCV viral detection and genotyping was performed and the association was seen between genotypes and host age, gender and viral load. Results : The analysis revealed the presence of genotypes 1 and 3 with further subtypes 1a, 1b, 3a, 3b and mixed genotypes 1b + 3a, 1b + 3b and 3a + 3b. Viral load quantification was carried out in all 151 HCV ribonucleic acid (RNA positive patients. The genotype 3a was observed in 124 (82.12% patients, 3b was found in 21 (13.91%, 1a was seen in 2 (1.32%, 1b in 1 (0.66%, mixed infection with 1b + 3a in 1 (0.66%, 1b + 3b in 1 (0.66% and 3a + 3b was also found in 1 (0.66% patient. Viral load quantification was carried out in all 151 HCV RNA positive patients and was compared between the various genotypes. The mean viral load in patients infected with genotype 1a was 2.75 × 10 6 , 1b 3.9 × 10 6 , 3a 2.65 × 10 6 , 3b 2.51 × 10 6 , 1b + 3a 3.4 × 106, 1b + 3b 2.7 × 106 and 3a + 3b 3.5 × 10 6 . An association between different types of genotypes and viral load was observed. Conclusion : Further studies should be carried out to determine the association of viral load with different genotypes so that sufficient data is available and can be used to determine the type and duration of therapy needed and predict disease outcome.

  11. Prolonged elevation of viral loads in HIV-1-infected children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cqq1a

    2010-11-09

    Nov 9, 2010 ... treatment i.e. mean difference (signed-rank test) in viral load “before” and .... We used Abbott Determine and Unigold as the rapid HIV test kits. The ..... N: Number of patients, *: Wilcoxon signed ranks test for Median difference ...

  12. Pregnant and breastfeeding women: A priority population for HIV viral load monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myer, Landon; Essajee, Shaffiq; Broyles, Laura N; Watts, D Heather; Lesosky, Maia; El-Sadr, Wafaa M; Abrams, Elaine J

    2017-08-01

    Landon Myer and colleagues discuss viral load monitoring for pregnant HIV-positive women and those breastfeeding; ART treatments can suppress viral load and are key to preventing transmission to the child.

  13. The Effects of Viral Load Burden on Pregnancy Loss among HIV-Infected Women in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordan E. Cates

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To evaluate the effects of HIV viral load, measured cross-sectionally and cumulatively, on the risk of miscarriage or stillbirth (pregnancy loss among HIV-infected women enrolled in the Women’s Interagency HIV Study between 1994 and 2013. Methods. We assessed three exposures: most recent viral load measure before the pregnancy ended, log10 copy-years viremia from initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART to conception, and log10 copy-years viremia in the two years before conception. Results. The risk of pregnancy loss for those with log10 viral load >4.00 before pregnancy ended was 1.59 (95% confidence interval (CI: 0.99, 2.56 times as high as the risk for women whose log10 viral load was ≤1.60. There was not a meaningful impact of log10 copy-years viremia since ART or log10 copy-years viremia in the two years before conception on pregnancy loss (adjusted risk ratios (aRRs: 0.80 (95% CI: 0.69, 0.92 and 1.00 (95% CI: 0.90, 1.11, resp.. Conclusions. Cumulative viral load burden does not appear to be an informative measure for pregnancy loss risk, but the extent of HIV replication during pregnancy, as represented by plasma HIV RNA viral load, predicted loss versus live birth in this ethnically diverse cohort of HIV-infected US women.

  14. The Effects of Viral Load Burden on Pregnancy Loss among HIV-Infected Women in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cates, Jordan E; Westreich, Daniel; Edmonds, Andrew; Wright, Rodney L; Minkoff, Howard; Colie, Christine; Greenblatt, Ruth M; Cejtin, Helen E; Karim, Roksana; Haddad, Lisa B; Kempf, Mirjam-Colette; Golub, Elizabeth T; Adimora, Adaora A

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of HIV viral load, measured cross-sectionally and cumulatively, on the risk of miscarriage or stillbirth (pregnancy loss) among HIV-infected women enrolled in the Women's Interagency HIV Study between 1994 and 2013. We assessed three exposures: most recent viral load measure before the pregnancy ended, log10 copy-years viremia from initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) to conception, and log10 copy-years viremia in the two years before conception. The risk of pregnancy loss for those with log10 viral load >4.00 before pregnancy ended was 1.59 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.99, 2.56) times as high as the risk for women whose log10 viral load was ≤1.60. There was not a meaningful impact of log10 copy-years viremia since ART or log10 copy-years viremia in the two years before conception on pregnancy loss (adjusted risk ratios (aRRs): 0.80 (95% CI: 0.69, 0.92) and 1.00 (95% CI: 0.90, 1.11), resp.). Cumulative viral load burden does not appear to be an informative measure for pregnancy loss risk, but the extent of HIV replication during pregnancy, as represented by plasma HIV RNA viral load, predicted loss versus live birth in this ethnically diverse cohort of HIV-infected US women.

  15. HPV-16 viral load in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma using digital PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonsson, Annika; Knight, Lani; Panizza, Benedict J; Porceddu, Sandro V; Emmett, Sarah; Whiteman, David C

    2018-05-09

    We did not identify any strong associations between HPV-16 viral load and any of the clinical or lifestyle factors. The epidemiology of oropharyngeal SCC is changing, with an increasing proportion of HPV-positive cases seen in the last decade. It is known that a high viral load is linked to the development of cervical cancer, the relation between viral load and oropharyngeal SCC is less clear. We sought to determine HPV-16 viral load in HPV-positive oropharyngeal SCCs using highly sensitive digital PCR and to identify clinical and lifestyle factors associated with viral load. We analysed 45 HPV-16 positive oropharyngeal SCCs diagnosed between 2013 and 2015. All patients completed a lifestyle questionnaire and clinical data were extracted from medical charts. Viral load was determined using digital PCR assays for HPV-L1 and RNAseP. We found large variations in HPV-16 viral load from 1 to 930 copies per cell (median 34 copies per cell).

  16. Analysis of host genetic diversity and viral entry as sources of between-host variation in viral load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wargo, Andrew R.; Kell, Alison M.; Scott, Robert J.; Thorgaard, Gary H.; Kurath, Gael

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the factors that drive the high levels of between-host variation in pathogen burden that are frequently observed in viral infections. Here, two factors thought to impact viral load variability, host genetic diversity and stochastic processes linked with viral entry into the host, were examined. This work was conducted with the aquatic vertebrate virus, Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), in its natural host, rainbow trout. It was found that in controlled in vivo infections of IHNV, a suggestive trend of reduced between-fish viral load variation was observed in a clonal population of isogenic trout compared to a genetically diverse population of out-bred trout. However, this trend was not statistically significant for any of the four viral genotypes examined, and high levels of fish-to-fish variation persisted even in the isogenic trout population. A decrease in fish-to-fish viral load variation was also observed in virus injection challenges that bypassed the host entry step, compared to fish exposed to the virus through the natural water-borne immersion route of infection. This trend was significant for three of the four virus genotypes examined and suggests host entry may play a role in viral load variability. However, high levels of viral load variation also remained in the injection challenges. Together, these results indicate that although host genetic diversity and viral entry may play some role in between-fish viral load variation, they are not major factors. Other biological and non-biological parameters that may influence viral load variation are discussed.

  17. Diagnosing norovirus-associated infectious intestinal disease using viral load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tam Clarence C

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR is the main method for laboratory diagnosis of norovirus-associated infectious intestinal disease (IID. However, up to 16% of healthy individuals in the community, with no recent history of IID, may be RT-PCR positive; so it is unclear whether norovirus is actually the cause of illness in an IID case when they are RT-PCR positive. It is important to identify the pathogen causing illness in sporadic IID cases, for clinical management and for community based incidence studies. The aim of this study was to investigate how faecal viral load can be used to determine when norovirus is the most likely cause of illness in an IID case. Methods Real-time RT-PCR was used to determine the viral load in faecal specimens collected from 589 IID cases and 159 healthy controls, who were infected with genogroup II noroviruses. Cycle threshold (Ct values from the real-time RT-PCR were used as a proxy measure of viral load. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC analysis was used to identify a cut-off in viral load for attributing illness to norovirus in IID cases. Results One hundred and sixty-nine IID cases and 159 controls met the inclusion criteria for the ROC analysis. The optimal Ct value cut-off for attributing IID to norovirus was 31. The same cut-off was selected when using healthy controls, or IID cases who were positive by culture for bacterial pathogens, as the reference negative group. This alternative reference negative group can be identified amongst specimens routinely received in clinical virology laboratories. Conclusion We demonstrated that ROC analysis can be used to select a cut-off for a norovirus real time RT-PCR assay, to aid clinical interpretation and diagnose when norovirus is the cause of IID. Specimens routinely received for diagnosis in clinical virology laboratories can be used to select an appropriate cut-off. Individual laboratories can use this method to

  18. Dried blood spot HIV-1 RNA quantification: A useful tool for viral load monitoring among HIV-infected individuals in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neogi, Ujjwal; Gupta, Soham; Rodridges, Rashmi; Sahoo, Pravat Nalini; Rao, Shwetha D.; Rewari, Bharat B.; Shastri, Suresh; De Costa, Ayesha; Shet, Anita

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: Monitoring of HIV-infected individuals on antiretroviral treatment (ART) ideally requires periodic viral load measurements to ascertain adequate response to treatment. While plasma viral load monitoring is widely available in high-income settings, it is rarely used in resource-limited regions because of high cost and need for sophisticated sample transport. Dried blood spot (DBS) as source specimens for viral load measurement has shown promise as an alternative to plasma specimens and is likely to be a useful tool for Indian settings. The present study was undertaken to investigate the performance of DBS in HIV-1 RNA quantification against the standard plasma viral load assay. Methods: Between April-June 2011, 130 samples were collected from HIV-1-infected (n=125) and non-infected (n=5) individuals in two district clinics in southern India. HIV-1 RNA quantification was performed from DBS and plasma using Abbott m2000rt system after manual RNA extraction. Statistical analysis included correlation, regression and Bland-Altman analysis. Results: The sensitivity of DBS viral load was 97 per cent with viral loads >3.0 log10 copies/ml. Measurable viral load (>3.0 log 10 copies/ml) results obtained for the 74 paired plasma-DBS samples showed positive correlation between both the assays (r=0.96). For clinically acceptable viral load threshold values of >5,000 copies/ml, Bland-Altman plots showed acceptable limits of agreement (−0.21 to +0.8 log10 copies/ml). The mean difference was 0.29 log10 copies/ml. The cost of DBS was $2.67 lower compared to conventional plasma viral load measurement in the setting Interpretation & conclusions: The significant positive correlation with standard plasma-based assay and lower cost of DBS viral load monitoring suggest that DBS sampling can be a feasible and economical means of viral load monitoring in HIV-infected individual in India and in other resource-limited settings globally. PMID:23391790

  19. Dual R3R5 tropism characterizes cerebrospinal fluid HIV-1 isolates from individuals with high cerebrospinal fluid viral load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Ulf; Antonsson, Liselotte; Ljungberg, Bengt; Medstrand, Patrik; Esbjörnsson, Joakim; Jansson, Marianne; Gisslen, Magnus

    2012-09-10

    To study the use of major and alternative coreceptors by HIV-1 isolates obtained from paired plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples. Paired plasma and CSF isolates from HIV-1-infected individuals with varying clinical, virologic, and immunologic parameters were assessed for the ability to infect indicator cells expressing a panel of coreceptors with documented expression in the central nervous system (CNS). HIV-1 isolates obtained from plasma and CSF in 28 individuals with varying viral load, CD4 T-cell counts, and with or without AIDS-defining disease were analyzed for the ability to infect NP2.CD4 cells stably expressing a panel of HIV coreceptors (CCR5, CXCR4, CCR3, CXCR6, GPR1, APJ, ChemR23, RDC-1 or BLT1). All isolates from both plasma and CSF utilized CCR5 and/or CXCR4. However, the ability to use both CCR3 and CCR5 (R3R5) was more pronounced in CSF isolates and correlated with high CSF viral load and low CD4 T-cell count. Notably, four out of five CSF isolates of subtype C origin exhibited CXCR6 use, which coincided with high CSF viral load despite preserved CD4 T-cell counts. The use of other alternative coreceptors was less pronounced. Dual-tropic R3R5 HIV-1 isolates in CSF coincide with high CSF viral load and low CD4 T-cell counts. Frequent CXCR6 use by CSF-derived subtype C isolates indicates that subtype-specific differences in coreceptor use may exist that will not be acknowledged when assessing plasma virus isolates. The findings may also bare relevance for HIV-1 replication within the CNS, and consequently, for the neuropathogenesis of AIDS.

  20. Profile of HIV-1 RNA viral load among HIV-TB co-infected patients in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Profile of HIV-1 RNA viral load among HIV-TB co-infected patients in a tertiary health facility in Maiduguri, Northeastern Nigeria. ... This study aims to estimate the HIV-1 RNA viral load and impact of anti TB therapy (ATT) ... HOW TO USE AJOL.

  1. Parvovirus B19 infection in pregnancy: maternal and fetal viral load measurements related to clinical parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, Timo R.; Beersma, Matthijs F. C.; Oepkes, Dick; de Jong, Eveline P.; Kroes, Aloys C. M.; Walther, Frans J.

    2007-01-01

    To correlate quantitative maternal and fetal parvovirus B19 (B19V) viral loads and antibody levels at intrauterine transfusion (IUT) as a predictor of fetal morbidity. Prospectively collected clinical data and quantitative B19V viral load and specific IgM and IgG values in fetal and maternal blood

  2. Plasma Viral miRNAs Indicate a High Prevalence of Occult Viral Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Fuentes-Mattei

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV/HHV-8 varies greatly in different populations. We hypothesized that the actual prevalence of KSHV/HHV8 infection in humans is underestimated by the currently available serological tests. We analyzed four independent patient cohorts with post-surgical or post-chemotherapy sepsis, chronic lymphocytic leukemia and post-surgical patients with abdominal surgical interventions. Levels of specific KSHV-encoded miRNAs were measured by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR, and KSHV/HHV-8 IgG were measured by immunoassay. We also measured specific miRNAs from Epstein Barr Virus (EBV, a virus closely related to KSHV/HHV-8, and determined the EBV serological status by ELISA for Epstein-Barr nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA-1 IgG. Finally, we identified the viral miRNAs by in situ hybridization (ISH in bone marrow cells. In training/validation settings using independent multi-institutional cohorts of 300 plasma samples, we identified in 78.50% of the samples detectable expression of at least one of the three tested KSHV-miRNAs by RT-qPCR, while only 27.57% of samples were found to be seropositive for KSHV/HHV-8 IgG (P < 0.001. The prevalence of KSHV infection based on miRNAs qPCR is significantly higher than the prevalence determined by seropositivity, and this is more obvious for immuno-depressed patients. Plasma viral miRNAs quantification proved that EBV infection is ubiquitous. Measurement of viral miRNAs by qPCR has the potential to become the “gold” standard method to detect certain viral infections in clinical practice.

  3. Community-driven demand creation for the use of routine viral load testing: a model to scale up routine viral load testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killingo, Bactrin M; Taro, Trisa B; Mosime, Wame N

    2017-11-01

    HIV treatment outcomes are dependent on the use of viral load measurement. Despite global and national guidelines recommending the use of routine viral load testing, these policies alone have not translated into widespread implementation or sufficiently increased access for people living with HIV (PLHIV). Civil society and communities of PLHIV recognize the need to close this gap and to enable the scale up of routine viral load testing. The International Treatment Preparedness Coalition (ITPC) developed an approach to community-led demand creation for the use of routine viral load testing. Using this Community Demand Creation Model, implementers follow a step-wise process to capacitate and empower communities to address their most pressing needs. This includes utlizing a specific toolkit that includes conducting a baseline assessment, developing a treatment education toolkit, organizing mobilization workshops for knowledge building, provision of small grants to support advocacy work and conducting benchmark evaluations. The Community Demand Creation Model to increase demand for routine viral load testing services by PLHIV has been delivered in diverse contexts including in the sub-Saharan African, Asian, Latin American and the Caribbean regions. Between December 2015 and December 2016, ITPC trained more than 240 PLHIV activists, and disbursed US$90,000 to network partners in support of their national advocacy work. The latter efforts informed a regional, community-driven campaign calling for domestic investment in the expeditious implementation of national viral load testing guidelines. HIV treatment education and community mobilization are critical components of demand creation for access to optimal HIV treatment, especially for the use of routine viral load testing. ITPC's Community Demand Creation Model offers a novel approach to achieving this goal. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of the International AIDS Society published by John Wiley & sons Ltd on behalf of

  4. HIV-1 transmitting couples have similar viral load set-points in Rakai, Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Déirdre Hollingsworth

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available It has been hypothesized that HIV-1 viral load set-point is a surrogate measure of HIV-1 viral virulence, and that it may be subject to natural selection in the human host population. A key test of this hypothesis is whether viral load set-points are correlated between transmitting individuals and those acquiring infection. We retrospectively identified 112 heterosexual HIV-discordant couples enrolled in a cohort in Rakai, Uganda, in which HIV transmission was suspected and viral load set-point was established. In addition, sequence data was available to establish transmission by genetic linkage for 57 of these couples. Sex, age, viral subtype, index partner, and self-reported genital ulcer disease status (GUD were known. Using ANOVA, we estimated the proportion of variance in viral load set-points which was explained by the similarity within couples (the 'couple effect'. Individuals with suspected intra-couple transmission (97 couples had similar viral load set-points (p = 0.054 single factor model, p = 0.0057 adjusted and the couple effect explained 16% of variance in viral loads (23% adjusted. The analysis was repeated for a subset of 29 couples with strong genetic support for transmission. The couple effect was the major determinant of viral load set-point (p = 0.067 single factor, and p = 0.036 adjusted and the size of the effect was 27% (37% adjusted. Individuals within epidemiologically linked couples with genetic support for transmission had similar viral load set-points. The most parsimonious explanation is that this is due to shared characteristics of the transmitted virus, a finding which sheds light on both the role of viral factors in HIV-1 pathogenesis and on the evolution of the virus.

  5. Improving laboratory efficiencies to scale-up HIV viral load testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemnji, George; Onyebujoh, Philip; Nkengasong, John N

    2017-03-01

    Viral load measurement is a key indicator that determines patients' response to treatment and risk for disease progression. Efforts are ongoing in different countries to scale-up access to viral load testing to meet the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV and AIDS target of achieving 90% viral suppression among HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy. However, the impact of these initiatives may be challenged by increased inefficiencies along the viral load testing spectrum. This will translate to increased costs and ineffectiveness of scale-up approaches. This review describes different parameters that could be addressed across the viral load testing spectrum aimed at improving efficiencies and utilizing test results for patient management. Though progress is being made in some countries to scale-up viral load, many others still face numerous challenges that may affect scale-up efficiencies: weak demand creation, ineffective supply chain management systems; poor specimen referral systems; inadequate data and quality management systems; and weak laboratory-clinical interface leading to diminished uptake of test results. In scaling up access to viral load testing, there should be a renewed focus to address efficiencies across the entire spectrum, including factors related to access, uptake, and impact of test results.

  6. Epitope specificity is critical for high and moderate avidity cytotoxic T lymphocytes associated with control of viral load and clinical disease in horses with equine infectious anemia virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mealey, Robert H.; Zhang Baoshan; Leib, Steven R.; Littke, Matt H.; McGuire, Travis C.

    2003-01-01

    Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) is a lentivirus that causes persistent infections in horses. We hypothesized that high-avidity CTL specific for nonvariable epitopes might be associated with low viral load and minimal disease in EIAV-infected horses. To test this hypothesis, memory CTL (CTLm) responses were analyzed in two infected horses with high plasma viral loads and recurrent disease (progressors), and in two infected horses with low-to-undetectable viral loads and mild disease (nonprogressors). High-avidity CTLm in one progressor recognized an envelope gp90 epitope, and the data documented for the first time in EIAV that viral variation led to CTL escape. Each of the nonprogressors had high-to-moderate avidity CTLm directed against epitopes within Rev, including the nuclear export and nuclear localization domains. These results suggested that the epitope specificity of high- and moderate-avidity CTLm was an important determinant for disease outcome in the EIAV-infected horses examined

  7. THE ROLE OF INTERFERON ALPHA-2b IN REDUCING OF VIRAL LOAD IN HPV INFECTED WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Кристина Владимировна Марочко

    2017-05-01

    Conclusion. Mono-infection was prevalent among HPV infected women HPV 16 is the most frequently detected hrHPV. The use of the drug interferon alfa-2b in the study group, contributed to viral load reduction.

  8. Spectroscopic Investigation of Nitrogen Loaded ECR Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Ullmann, F; Zschornack, G; Küchler, D; Ovsyannikov, V P

    1999-01-01

    Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy on ions in the plasma and magnetic q/A-analysis of the extracted ions were used to determine the plasmaproperties of nitrogen loaded ECR plasmas.As the beam expands from a limited plasma region and the ion extraction process alters the plasma properties in the extraction meniscus thebeam composition does not correspond to the bulk plasma composition. The analysis of measured spectra of characteristic X-rays delivers a method to determine the ion charge state distribution and the electron energy distribution inside the plasma and does not alter the plasma anddoes not depend on the extraction and transmission properties of the ion extraction and transport system. Hence this method seems to be moreaccurate than the traditional magnetic analysis and allows to analyse different plasma regions.A comparison between ion charge state distributions determined from X-ray spectra and such from q/A-analysis shows significant differencesfor the mean ion charge states in the source plasm...

  9. Sequence elements correlating with circulating viral load in genotype 1b hepatitis C virus infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Hideki; Nagayama, Kazuyoshi; Enomoto, Nobuyuki; Itakura, Jun; Tanabe, Yoko; Hamano, Kosei; Izumi, Namiki; Sato, Chifumi; Watanabe, Mamoru

    2003-01-01

    The correlation between hepatitis C virus (HCV) genomic sequences and circulating HCV RNA levels was assessed to investigate the genetic elements affecting viral load. The interferon sensitivity-determining region (ISDR) sequence and the serum viral load were strongly correlated in 226 patients examined. Analysis of the entire HCV genome from six patients (three with a high and the others with a low viral load) with similar ISDR sequences identified several candidate residues associated with viral load. The amino acid (aa) sequences of these candidate residues and flanking regions in 67 additional patients revealed that only the residue at aa 962 varied significantly between the HCV patients with low and high serum loads (P 0.042). At this position, alanine was observed more frequently in the patients with a high viral load. In conclusion, our results strongly suggest that serum HCV RNA loads are inversely correlated with amino acid substitutions in the ISDR, and aa 962 was identified as a possible second determinant of serum HCV RNA load

  10. Epstein-Barr viral load before a liver transplant in children with chronic liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakibazad, Nader; Honar, Naser; Dehghani, Seyed Mohsen; Alborzi, Abdolvahab

    2014-12-01

    Many children with chronic liver disease require a liver transplant. These patients are prone to various infections, including Epstein-Barr virus infection. This study sought to measure the Epstein-Barr viral load by polymerase chain reaction before a liver transplant. This cross-sectional study was done at the Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran, in 2011. All patients were aged younger than 18 years with chronic liver disease and were candidates for a liver transplant at the Shiraz Nemazee Hospital Organ Transplant Center. They had been investigated regarding their demographic characteristics, underlying disease, laboratory findings, and Epstein-Barr viral load by real-time TaqMan polymerase chain reaction. Ninety-eight patients were studied and the mean age was 6.5 ± 5.9 years. Cryptogenic cirrhosis was the most-prevalent reason for liver transplant, and the death rate before a transplant was 15%. Among the study subjects, 6 had measurable Epstein-Barr viral load by polymerase chain reaction before the transplant, and 4 of them had considerably higher Epstein-Barr viral loads (more than 1000 copies/mL). With respect to the close prevalence of posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease (6%) and the high Epstein-Barr viral load in the patients before a transplant (4%), high pretransplant Epstein-Barr viral load can be considered a risk factor for posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder.

  11. Dynamics of HPV viral loads reflect the treatment effect of photodynamic therapy in genital warts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhili; Liu, Lishi; Zhang, Wenjing; Liu, Hui; Li, Junpeng; Jiang, Lifen; Zeng, Kang

    2018-03-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has demonstrated good clinical cure rates and low recurrence rates in the treatment of genital warts. Human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes and viral load assays can reflect the status of persistent or latent infection and serve as a predictor of infection clearance. Specimens from 41 patients with HPV infection were obtained, and the HPV genotypes and viral load were analyzed using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. Traditional treatment, such as radiofrequency, microwave, or surgical therapy, was used to remove the visible lesions, and then PDT treatment was performed every week. HPV DNA testing was performed at every patient visit and the frequency of PDT treatment was determined by changes in HPV viral loads. HPV viral loads decreased significantly after PDT treatment. There were significant differences in HPV viral loads between pretherapy and three or six rounds of PDT treatment. Significant differences were also observed between single and multiple type HPV infection after six rounds of PDT treatment. Patients with single type HPV infection had significantly higher rates of negative HPV DNA test results, as compared with patients with multiple infections after six rounds of PDT treatment; however, there was no difference in recurrence rates between the two groups. Dynamic monitoring of HPV genotypes and viral loads can be used to guide PDT treatment and indicate PDT treatment efficacy in eliminating HPV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Options to Expand HIV Viral Load Testing in South Africa: Evaluation of the GeneXpert® HIV-1 Viral Load Assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Gous

    Full Text Available Expansion of HIV viral load (VL testing services are required to meet increased targets for monitoring patients on antiretroviral treatment. South Africa currently tests >4million VLs per annum in 16 highly centralised, automated high-throughput laboratories. The Xpert HIV-1 VL assay (Cepheid was evaluated against in-country predicates, the Roche Cobas Taqmanv2 and Abbott HIV-1RT, to investigate options for expanding VL testing using GeneXpert's random access, polyvalent capabilities and already established footprint in South Africa with the Xpert MTB/RIF assay (207 sites. Additionally, the performance of Xpert HIV-1VL on alternative, off-label specimen types, Dried Blood Spots (DBS and whole blood, was investigated.Precision, accuracy (agreement and clinical misclassification (1000cp/ml of Xpert HIV-1VL plasma was compared to Taqmanv2 (n = 155 and Abbott HIV-1 RT (n = 145. Misclassification of Xpert HIV-1VL was further tested on DBS (n = 145 and whole blood (n = 147.Xpert HIV-1VL demonstrated 100% concordance with predicate platforms on a standardised frozen, plasma panel (n = 42 and low overall percentage similarity CV of 1.5% and 0.9% compared to Taqmanv2 and Abbott HIV-1 RT, respectively. On paired plasma clinical specimens, Xpert HIV-1VL had low bias (SD 0.32-0.37logcp/ml and 3% misclassification at the 1000cp/ml threshold compared to Taqmanv2 (fresh and Abbott HIV-1 RT (frozen, respectively. Xpert HIV-1VL on whole blood and DBS increased misclassification (upward by up to 14% with increased invalid rate. All specimen testing was easy to perform and compatible with concurrent Xpert MTB/RIF Tuberculosis testing on the same instrument.The Xpert HIV-1VL on plasma can be used interchangeably with existing predicate platforms in South Africa. Whole blood and DBS testing requires further investigation, but polyvalency of the GeneXpert offers a solution to extending VL testing services.

  13. Plasma HIV Viral Rebound following Protocol-Indicated Cessation of ART Commenced in Primary and Chronic HIV Infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamlyn, Elizabeth; Ewings, Fiona M; Porter, Kholoud

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The magnitude of HIV viral rebound following ART cessation has consequences for clinical outcome and onward transmission. We compared plasma viral load (pVL) rebound after stopping ART initiated in primary (PHI) and chronic HIV infection (CHI). DESIGN: Two populations with protocol......VL levels, at a median of 50 (95% CI 48-51) weeks after stopping ART. Four weeks after stopping treatment, although the proportion with pVL≥400 copies/ml was similar (78% PHI versus 79% CHI), levels were 0.45 (95% CI 0.26-0.64) log(10) copies/ml lower for PHI versus CHI, and remained lower up to 48 weeks...

  14. Viral Load Pattern Among Hepatitis B Surface Antigen‑positive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-03-13

    Mar 13, 2015 ... Abstract. Background: Hepatitis B viral infection is an old medical problem with worldwide distribution. It is usually diagnosed using serologic methods. However, the decision as to which patient to treat or not remains challenging due to the poor sensitivity of serologic markers as prognostic or severity ...

  15. Sensitivity and specificity of dried blood spots for HIV-1 viral load quantification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannus, Pieter; Claus, Maarten; Gonzalez, Maria Mercedes Perez; Ford, Nathan; Fransen, Katrien

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The use of dried blood spots (DBS) instead of plasma as a specimen type for HIV-1 viral load (VL) testing facilitates the decentralization of specimen collection and can increase access to VL testing in resource-limited settings. The performance of DBS for VL testing is lower, however, when compared to the gold standard sample type plasma. In this diagnostic accuracy study, we evaluated 3 VL assays with DBS. Participants were recruited between August 2012 and April 2015. Both plasma and DBS specimens were prepared and tested for HIV-1 VL with the Roche CAP/CTM HIV-1 test v2.0, the Abbott RealTime HIV-1, and the bioMérieux NucliSENS EasyQ HIV-1 v2.0. Sensitivity and specificity to detect treatment failure at a threshold of 1000 cps/mL with DBS were determined. A total of 272 HIV-positive patients and 51 HIV-negative people were recruited in the study. The mean difference or bias between plasma and DBS VL was 25% of the specimens differed by >0.5 log cps/mL. All 3 assays had comparable sensitivities around 80% and specificities around 90%. Upward misclassification rates were around 10%, but downward misclassification rates ranged from 20.3% to 23.6%. Differences in between assays were not statistically significant (P > 0.1). The 3 VL assays evaluated had suboptimal performance with DBS but still performed better than immunological or clinical monitoring. Even after the introduction of the much-anticipated point-of-care VL devices, it is expected that DBS will remain important as a complementary option for supporting access to VL monitoring, particularly in rural, resource-limited settings. Manufacturers should accelerate efforts to develop more reliable, sensitive and specific methods to test VL on DBS specimens. PMID:27902602

  16. Probing the impact of loading rate on the mechanical properties of viral nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijder, J.; Ivanovska, I.L.; Baclayon, M.; Roos, W.H.; Wuite, G.J.L.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of changes in the loading rate during the forced dissociation of single bonds have been studied for a wide variety of interactions. Less is known on the loading rate dependent behaviour of more complex systems that consist of multiple bonds. Here we focus on viral nanoparticles, in

  17. Plasma protein haptoglobin modulates renal iron loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagoonee, Sharmila; Gburek, Jakub; Hirsch, Emilio

    2005-01-01

    Haptoglobin is the plasma protein with the highest binding affinity for hemoglobin. The strength of hemoglobin binding and the existence of a specific receptor for the haptoglobin-hemoglobin complex in the monocyte/macrophage system clearly suggest that haptoglobin may have a crucial role in heme...... distribution of hemoglobin in haptoglobin-deficient mice resulted in abnormal iron deposits in proximal tubules during aging. Moreover, iron also accumulated in proximal tubules after renal ischemia-reperfusion injury or after an acute plasma heme-protein overload caused by muscle injury, without affecting...... morphological and functional parameters of renal damage. These data demonstrate that haptoglobin crucially prevents glomerular filtration of hemoglobin and, consequently, renal iron loading during aging and following acute plasma heme-protein overload....

  18. Effects of Interferon-α/β on HBV Replication Determined by Viral Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yongjun; Chen, Wen-ling; Ou, Jing-hsiung James

    2011-01-01

    Interferons α and β (IFN-α/β) are type I interferons produced by the host to control microbial infections. However, the use of IFN-α to treat hepatitis B virus (HBV) patients generated sustained response to only a minority of patients. By using HBV transgenic mice as a model and by using hydrodynamic injection to introduce HBV DNA into the mouse liver, we studied the effect of IFN-α/β on HBV in vivo. Interestingly, our results indicated that IFN-α/β could have opposite effects on HBV: they suppressed HBV replication when viral load was high and enhanced HBV replication when viral load was low. IFN-α/β apparently suppressed HBV replication via transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulations. In contrast, IFN-α/β enhanced viral replication by inducing the transcription factor HNF3γ and activating STAT3, which together stimulated HBV gene expression and replication. Further studies revealed an important role of IFN-α/β in stimulating viral growth and prolonging viremia when viral load is low. This use of an innate immune response to enhance its replication and persistence may represent a novel strategy that HBV uses to enhance its growth and spread in the early stage of viral infection when the viral level is low. PMID:21829354

  19. Load Designs For MJ Dense Plasma Foci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, A.; Povlius, A.; Anaya, R.; Anderson, M. G.; Angus, J. R.; Cooper, C. M.; Falabella, S.; Goerz, D.; Higginson, D.; Holod, I.; McMahon, M.; Mitrani, J.; Koh, E. S.; Pearson, A.; Podpaly, Y. A.; Prasad, R.; van Lue, D.; Watson, J.; Schmidt, A. E.

    2017-10-01

    Dense plasma focus (DPF) Z-pinches are compact pulse power driven devices with coaxial electrodes. The discharge of DPF consists of three distinct phases: first generation of a plasma sheath, plasma rail gun phase where the sheath is accelerated down the electrodes and finally an implosion phase where the plasma stagnates into a z-pinch geometry. During the z-pinch phase, DPFs can produce MeV ion beams, x-rays and neutrons. Megaampere class DPFs with deuterium fills have demonstrated neutron yields in the 1012 neutrons/shot range with pulse durations of 10-100 ns. Kinetic simulations using the code Chicago are being used to evaluate various load configurations from initial sheath formation to the final z-pinch phase for DPFs with up to 5 MA and 1 MJ coupled to the load. Results will be presented from the preliminary design simulations. LLNL-ABS-734785 This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 and with support from the Computing Grand Challenge program at LLNL.

  20. Physical status and viral load in women with positive human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in uterine cervix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byoung Gie; Lee, Eui Don; Zin, Yong Jae

    1998-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the frequency of viral integration and viral load in women with positive HPV type 16 infection, and showing normal findings, CIN, and cervical cancer. Total 75 (normal, 15; CIN I, 20; CIN III, 20; cervical cancer, 20) cervical swab specimens were used. HPV detection, typing, and viral load was determined by PCR method. Seventy of 75 (93.3%) of cervical swab specimens showed same results with hybrid capture assay and PCR method for detecting HPV DNA. HPV type 16 DNA was identified more frequently with progression from normal to cervical cancer (normal, 13 %; CIN I, 15%; CIN III, 40 %; cervical cancer, 55 %). The frequency of HPV type 16 DNA integration also increased with grade of the lesion (normal, 0 %; CIN I, 33 %; CIN III, 87 %; cervical cancer, 91 %) suggesting most of HPV type 16 present as integration forms in the cells. In addition, high-level of HPV 16 viral load also was found more frequently in CIN III and cervical cancer (normal, 0 %; CIN I, 0 %; CIN III, 87 %; cervical cancer, 100 %). These results suggest that viral integration and high-level of viral load may play an important role in cervical carcinogenesis. (author). 13 refs., 5 figs

  1. Dry Blood Spots a Reliable Method for Measurement of Hepatitis B Viral Load in Resource-Limited Settings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathrine Stene-Johansen

    Full Text Available Hepatitis B virus (HBV quantification is essential in the management of chronic hepatitis B, both to determine treatment eligibility and in the monitoring of treatment effect. This test, however, is rarely available in resource-limited settings due to high costs and stringent requirements for shipment and storage of plasma. Dried Blood Spots (DBS can be a convenient alternative to plasma, but its use for HBV monitoring has not been investigated under real-life conditions in Africa.The performance of DBS in HBV quantification was investigated using a modified commercial test (Abbott RealTime HBV assay. Paired DBS and plasma samples were collected from an HBV positive cohort in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. DBS were stored at ambient temperature for 4-39 days before shipment to the laboratory.Twenty-six paired samples were selected covering the total range of quantification, from 2.14 log IU/ml to >7 log IU/ml. HBV was detected in 21 of 21 (100% DBS from patients with a corresponding plasma viral load above 2.70 log IU/ml. The mean difference between plasma and DBS was 0.59 log IU/ml, and the correlation was strong (R2 = 0.92. In stability studies there was no significant change in DBS viral load after storage at room temperature for up to 12 weeks.This study suggests that DBS can be a feasible and reliable alternative to plasma for quantification of HBV in resource-limited settings. DBS can expand access to antiviral treatment for patients in low- and middle-income countries.

  2. Human Papillomavirus prevalence, viral load and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV-infected women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José E. Levi

    Full Text Available HIV-infected women from São Paulo city were enrolled in a cross-sectional study on Human Papillomavirus (HPV and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN prevalence and their association with laboratory markers of AIDS, namely HIV viral load and CD4+ cell counts. A cervical specimen was collected and submitted to Hybrid Capture, a test for HPV viral load determination. HPV-DNA was detected in 173 of 265 women (64.5%. Twenty (7.5% women were infected by one or more low-risk viruses, 89 (33% by one or more high-risk viruses, and 64 (24% harbored at least one HPV type from each risk group. Abnormal smears were observed in 19% of the patients, though there were no invasive carcinomas. Severely immunosuppressed patients (CD4/µL <100 were at the greatest risk of having a cytological abnormality and a high high-risk HPV viral load.

  3. Human Papillomavirus prevalence, viral load and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in HIV-infected women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levi José E.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available HIV-infected women from São Paulo city were enrolled in a cross-sectional study on Human Papillomavirus (HPV and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN prevalence and their association with laboratory markers of AIDS, namely HIV viral load and CD4+ cell counts. A cervical specimen was collected and submitted to Hybrid Capture, a test for HPV viral load determination. HPV-DNA was detected in 173 of 265 women (64.5%. Twenty (7.5% women were infected by one or more low-risk viruses, 89 (33% by one or more high-risk viruses, and 64 (24% harbored at least one HPV type from each risk group. Abnormal smears were observed in 19% of the patients, though there were no invasive carcinomas. Severely immunosuppressed patients (CD4/µL <100 were at the greatest risk of having a cytological abnormality and a high high-risk HPV viral load.

  4. HBsAg level and hepatitis B viral load correlation with focus on pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belopolskaya, Maria; Avrutin, Viktor; Firsov, Sergey; Yakovlev, Alexey

    2015-01-01

    Background Viral load measurement is necessary to estimate mother-to-child transmission risk for women with chronic hepatitis B (CHB), however, it is expensive. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between HBsAg and hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA levels, and to determine potential applications of HBsAg level monitoring for estimating viral load. Methods 85 patients with CHB (31 pregnant women, 26 non-pregnant women, 28 men) were included in the study. HBV DNA level was measured by real-time PCR, and HBsAg level by chemiluminescent immunoassay method. Dependency between viral load and HBsAg level was determined by Spearman correlation coefficient ρ. Results The correlation between HBsAg and HBV DNA levels was significant for all patients [ρ=0.3762 (P<0.0005; n=85)]. In the group of pregnant women, a low (unmeasurable) HBV DNA level led to a decrease in the Spearman coefficient ρ. In almost all cases a low level of the HBsAg corresponded to a low HBV DNA level. Only 2 patients had a low level of HBsAg and a relatively high viral load. By contrast, a high HBsAg level was observed in patients both with high and low viral load. Conclusions Correlation between HBsAg and HBV DNA levels is significant. In most cases, a low level of HBsAg indicates a low HBV DNA level, whereas a high HBsAg level does not always correspond to a high viral load. The measurement of HBV DNA level is necessary for pregnant women with a high HBsAg level. PMID:26127004

  5. A Simple Phosphate-Buffered-Saline-Based Extraction Method Improves Specificity of HIV Viral Load Monitoring Using Dried Blood Spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makadzange, A Tariro; Boyd, F Kathryn; Chimukangara, Benjamin; Masimirembwa, Collen; Katzenstein, David; Ndhlovu, Chiratidzo E

    2017-07-01

    Although Roche COBAS Ampliprep/COBAS TaqMan (CAP/CTM) systems are widely used in sub-Saharan Africa for early infant diagnosis of HIV from dried blood spots (DBS), viral load monitoring with this system is not practical due to nonspecific extraction of both cell-free and cell-associated viral nucleic acids. A simplified DBS extraction technique for cell-free virus elution using phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) may provide an alternative analyte for lower-cost quantitative HIV virus load (VL) testing to monitor antiretroviral therapy (ART). We evaluated the CAP/CTM v2.0 assay in 272 paired plasma and DBS specimens using the cell-free virus elution method and determined the level of agreement, sensitivity, and specificity at thresholds of target not detected (TND), target below the limit of quantification (BLQ) (1,000 copies/ml, the sensitivities, specificities, positive predictive values (PPV), and negative predictive values (NPV) were 92.7%, 100%, 100%, and 94.3%, respectively. PBS elution of DBS offers a sensitive and specific method for monitoring plasma viremia among adults and children on ART at the WHO-recommended threshold of >1,000 copies/ml on the Roche CAP/CTM system. Copyright © 2017 Makadzange et al.

  6. Fluorescence in situ hybridization is superior for monitoring Epstein Barr viral load in infectious mononucleosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Pengfei; Zhang, Meili; Wang, Wei; Dai, Yafei; Sai, Buqing; Sun, Jun; Wang, Lujuan; Wang, Fan; Li, Guiyuan; Xiang, Juanjuan

    2017-05-03

    DNA detected using real-time PCR was observed in 89.5% of these IM patients. The EBV genome was detected by the FISH assay in 97.4% of the IM patients. The EB viral loads detected by FISH and real-time PCR increased with the severity of IM. The EBV genome was detected in almost all the PBMC of IM with haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis and chronic active EBV infection patients. Molecular tests, including FISH and EBV real-time PCR, are more sensitive than serological assays for the detection of EBV infection. The FISH assay detecting EBV copies in unfractionated whole blood is preferable and superior to plasma real-time PCR in its reflection of the absolute viral burden circulating in the patients.

  7. Viral load, CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts and antibody titres in HIV-1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Viral load, CD4+ T-lymphocyte counts and antibody titres in HIV-1 infected untreated children in Kenya; implication for immunodeficiency and AIDS progression. Washingtone Ochieng, Dorington Ogoyi, Francis J Mulaa, Simon Ogola, Rachel Musoke, Moses G Otsyula ...

  8. Epstein-Barr viral load assessment in immunocompetent patients with fulminant infectious mononucleosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laar, J.A. van; Buysse, C.M.; Vossen, A.C.; Hjalmarsson, B.; Berg, B. van de; Lom, K. van; Deinum, J.

    2002-01-01

    We describe 2 immunocompetent adolescents with fulminant infectious mononucleosis and virus-associated hemophagocytosis. A new quantitative polymerase chain reaction revealed high serum Epstein-Barr virus DNA levels in these patients. One patient died with an increasing viral load not responding to

  9. Suppression of HIV-1 viral load after multiple changes in high active ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1-infected patients. However, the virus persists ... chronological changes in HIV viral load and CD4+ T-cell count, and treatment outcomes of multiple combinations of .... Lewin SR, Rouzioux C. HIV cure and eradication: how will we get from the ...

  10. Quantitative molecular viral loads in 7 horses with naturally occurring equine herpesvirus-1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estell, K E; Dawson, D R; Magdesian, K G; Swain, E; Laing, S T; Siso, S; Mapes, S; Pusterla, N

    2015-11-01

    Data associating quantitative viral load with severity, clinical signs and survival in equine herpesvirus-1 myeloencephalopathy (EHM) have not been reported. To report the clinical signs, treatment, and temporal progression of viral loads in 7 horses with naturally occurring EHM and to examine the association of these factors with survival. Retrospective case series. The population included 7 horses with EHM presented to the University of California, Davis William R. Pritchard Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital from May to September 2011. Horses were graded using a neurological grading scale. Daily quantitative PCR was performed on nasal secretions and whole blood. Treatment, survival, outcome and histopathology were reported. At presentation, one horse was neurological grade 5/5, 3 were grade 4/5 and 3 were grade 3/5. All were treated with anti-inflammatory drugs, valacyclovir and management in a sling if necessary. All were infected with equine herpesvirus-1 of DNA polymerase D752 genotype. Peak viral load in nasal secretions and blood of 5 survivors ranged from 6.9 × 10(3) to 2.81 × 10(5) (median 5.11 × 10(4) ) and from 143 to 4340 gB gene copies/million eukaryotic cells (median 3146), respectively. The 2 nonsurvivors presented with grade 3/5 neurological signs and progressed to encephalopathy. Peak viral load was higher in nonsurvivors, with levels in nasal secretions of 1.9 × 10(9) and 2.2 × 10(9) and in blood of 2.05 × 10(4) and 1.02 × 10(5) gB gene copies/million eukaryotic cells. Case fatality was 2/7. Nonsurvivors had viral loads 1000-fold higher in nasal secretions and 10-fold higher in blood than survivors. There was no relationship between severity of clinical signs at presentation and survival. Thus, encephalopathy and high viral load were negatively associated with survival in this population. Further research should be performed to determine whether high viral loads are associated with encephalopathy and poor prognosis. The Summary is

  11. Diagnostic values for the viral load in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with chronic active Epstein-Barr virus disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yoshinori; Suzuki, Michio; Kawada, Jun-ichi; Kimura, Hiroshi

    2016-04-01

    Chronic active Epstein-Barr virus disease (CAEBV) is a distinct EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disease with a poor prognosis. Although the viral load in blood samples has been widely used for diagnosing CAEBV, well-defined viral load thresholds to guide clinicians are currently lacking. The aim of the present study was to determine standardized diagnostic values for EBV load in blood samples of CAEBV patients using the World Health Organization international standard for reporting. Levels of EBV DNA in 103 peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and 95 plasma/serum samples from 107 cases with CAEBV were quantified and expressed in international units. Receiver operating characteristic curves were analyzed to assess the most appropriate cut-off values for levels of EBV DNA to distinguish CAEBV from EBV-associated infectious mononucleosis (IM) and controls with past EBV infection. Levels of EBV DNA in PBMCs were significantly higher in the CAEBV group (median, 10(4.2) IU/μgDNA) compared to the IM (median, 10(2.1) IU/μgDNA) and control groups. An inconsistent qualitative result was seen in 13 of 86 CAEBV patients; in these, EBV-DNA was positive in PBMCs, but negative in plasma. Diagnostic cut-off values for viral load in PBMCs from CAEBV patients, as compared to those of healthy controls and IM patients, were 10(2.0) IU/μgDNA and 10(3.2) IU/μgDNA, respectively. For diagnostic purposes, the viral load of PBMCs was better than of plasma/serum. A diagnostic cut-off EBV load for CAEBV may be useful for the management of CAEBV patients. Copyright © 2015 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. HIV-1 viral load measurement in venous blood and fingerprick blood using Abbott RealTime HIV-1 DBS assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ning; Pahalawatta, Vihanga; Frank, Andrea; Bagley, Zowie; Viana, Raquel; Lampinen, John; Leckie, Gregor; Huang, Shihai; Abravaya, Klara; Wallis, Carole L

    2017-07-01

    HIV RNA suppression is a key indicator for monitoring success of antiretroviral therapy. From a logistical perspective, viral load (VL) testing using Dried Blood Spots (DBS) is a promising alternative to plasma based VL testing in resource-limited settings. To evaluate the analytical and clinical performance of the Abbott RealTime HIV-1 assay using a fully automated one-spot DBS sample protocol. Limit of detection (LOD), linearity, lower limit of quantitation (LLQ), upper limit of quantitation (ULQ), and precision were determined using serial dilutions of HIV-1 Virology Quality Assurance stock (VQA Rush University), or HIV-1-containing armored RNA, made in venous blood. To evaluate correlation, bias, and agreement, 497 HIV-1 positive adult clinical samples were collected from Ivory Coast, Uganda and South Africa. For each HIV-1 participant, DBS-fingerprick, DBS-venous and plasma sample results were compared. Correlation and bias values were obtained. The sensitivity and specificity were analyzed at a threshold of 1000 HIV-1 copies/mL generated using the standard plasma protocol. The Abbott HIV-1 DBS protocol had an LOD of 839 copies/mL, a linear range from 500 to 1×10 7 copies/mL, an LLQ of 839 copies/mL, a ULQ of 1×10 7 copies/mL, and an inter-assay SD of ≤0.30 log copies/mL for all tested levels within this range. With clinical samples, the correlation coefficient (r value) was 0.896 between DBS-fingerprick and plasma and 0.901 between DBS-venous and plasma, and the bias was -0.07 log copies/mL between DBS-fingerprick and plasma and -0.02 log copies/mL between DBS-venous and plasma. The sensitivity of DBS-fingerprick and DBS-venous was 93%, while the specificity of both DBS methods was 95%. The results demonstrated that the Abbott RealTime HIV-1 assay with DBS sample protocol is highly sensitive, specific and precise across a wide dynamic range and correlates well with plasma values. The Abbott RealTime HIV-1 assay with DBS sample protocol provides an

  13. The effect of antioxidant supplementation on hepatitis C viral load, transaminases and oxidative status: a randomized trial among chronic hepatitis C virus-infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groenbaek, K.; Friis, H.; Hansen, Max

    2006-01-01

    Objective To assess the effect of antioxidant supplementation on hepatitis C viral load, transaminases and oxidative status. Methods We performed a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial to assess the effect of antioxidant supplementation on serum alanine aminotransferase, plasma...... hepatitis C viral load as well as oxidative and antioxidant markers in patients with hepatitis C virus infection. The participants received a daily dose of ascorbic acid (500 mg), D-alpha-tocopherol (9451 U) and selenium (200 mu g) or placebo tablets for 6 months. Results Twenty-three patients were included...... aminotransferase and logo-transformed plasma hepatitis C virus-RNA between the groups or changes from the baseline at any time. No consistent differences between groups or changes from the baseline with respect to erythrocyte activities of antioxidative enzymes (glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase...

  14. Association between nasopharyngeal load of Streptococcus pneumoniae, viral coinfection, and radiologically confirmed pneumonia in Vietnamese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Huong Thi Thu; Yoshida, Lay Myint; Suzuki, Motoi; Nguyen, Hien Anh Thi; Nguyen, Cat Dinh Lien; Nguyen, Ai Thi Thuy; Oishi, Kengo; Yamamoto, Takeshi; Watanabe, Kiwao; Vu, Thiem Dinh

    2011-01-01

    The interplay between nasopharyngeal bacterial carriage, viral coinfection, and lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) is poorly understood. We explored this association in Vietnamese children aged less than 5 years. A hospital-based case-control study of pediatric LRTIs was conducted in Nha Trang, Vietnam. A total of 550 hospitalized children (274 radiologically confirmed pneumonia [RCP] and 276 other LRTIs) were enrolled and 350 healthy controls were randomly selected from the community. Polymerase chain reaction-based methods were used to measure bacterial loads of Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP), Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis and to detect 13 respiratory viruses and bacterial serotypes in nasopharyngeal samples of study participants. The median nasopharyngeal bacterial load of SP was substantially higher in children with RCP compared with healthy controls or children with other LRTIs (P RCP or other LRTIs groups. An increased load of SP in the nasopharynx was associated with RCP, viral coinfection, and presence of pneumococcal capsule.

  15. Gastrointestinal viral load and enteroendocrine cell number are associated with altered survival in HIV-1 infected individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido van Marle

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 infects and destroys cells of the immune system leading to an overt immune deficiency known as HIV acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS. The gut associated lymphoid tissue is one of the major lymphoid tissues targeted by HIV-1, and is considered a reservoir for HIV-1 replication and of major importance in CD4+ T-cell depletion. In addition to immunodeficiency, HIV-1 infection also directly causes gastrointestinal (GI dysfunction, also known as HIV enteropathy. This enteropathy can manifest itself as many pathological changes in the GI tract. The objective of this study was to determine the association of gut HIV-1 infection markers with long-term survival in a cohort of men who have sex with men (MSM enrolled pre-HAART (Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy. We examined survival over 15-years in a cohort of 42 HIV-infected cases: In addition to CD4+ T cell counts and HIV-1 plasma viral load, multiple gut compartment (duodenum and colon biopsies were taken by endoscopy every 6 months during the initial 3-year period. HIV-1 was cultured from tissues and phenotyped and viral loads in the gut tissues were determined. Moreover, the tissues were subjected to an extensive assessment of enteroendocrine cell distribution and pathology. The collected data was used for survival analyses, which showed that patients with higher gut tissue viral load levels had a significantly worse survival prognosis. Moreover, lower numbers of serotonin (duodenum and somatostatin (duodenum and colon immunoreactive cell counts in the gut tissues of patients was associated with significant lower survival prognosis. Our study, suggested that HIV-1 pathogenesis and survival prognosis is associated with altered enteroendocrine cell numbers, which could point to a potential role for enteroendocrine function in HIV infection and pathogenesis.

  16. Hepatitis A viral load in relation to severity of the infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Keiichi; Kojima, Hiroshige; Yasui, Shin; Okitsu, Koichiro; Yonemitsu, Yutaka; Omata, Masao; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2011-02-01

    A correlation between hepatitis A virus (HAV) genomes and the clinical severity of hepatitis A has not been established. The viral load in sera of hepatitis A patients was examined to determine the possible association between hepatitis A severity and HAV replication. One hundred sixty-four serum samples from 91 Japanese patients with sporadic hepatitis A, comprising 11 patients with fulminant hepatitis, 10 with severe acute hepatitis, and 70 with self-limited acute hepatitis, were tested for HAV RNA. The sera included 83 serial samples from 20 patients. Viral load was measured by real-time RT-PCR. The detection rates of HAV RNA from fulminant, severe acute, and acute hepatitis were 10/11 (91%), 10/10 (100%), and 55/70 (79%), respectively. Mean values of HAV RNA at admission were 3.48 ± 1.30 logcopies/ml in fulminant, 4.19 ± 1.03 in severe acute, and 2.65 ± 1.64 in acute hepatitis. Patients with severe infection such as fulminant hepatitis and severe acute hepatitis had higher initial viral load than patients with less severe infection (P hepatitis after clinical onset (P = 0.19). HAV RNA was detectable quantitatively in the majority of the sera of hepatitis A cases during the early convalescent phase by real-time PCR. Higher initial viral replication was found in severely infected patients. An excessive host immune response might follow, reducing the viral load rapidly as a result of the destruction of large numbers of HAV-infected hepatocytes, and in turn severe disease might be induced. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Viral protein Nef is detected in plasma of half of HIV-infected adults with undetectable plasma HIV RNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Ferdin

    Full Text Available To address the role of translationally active HIV reservoir in chronic inflammation and non-AIDS related disorders, we first need a simple and accurate assay to evaluate viral protein expression in virally suppressed subjects.We optimized an HIV Nef enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and used it to quantify plasma Nef levels as an indicator of the leaky HIV reservoir in an HIV-infected cohort.This study accessed 134 plasma samples from a well-characterized cohort study of HIV-infected and uninfected adults in San Francisco (the SCOPE cohort. We optimized an ELISA for detection of plasma Nef in HIV-negative subjects and HIV-infected non-controllers, and evaluated its utility to quantify plasma Nef levels in a cross-sectional study of ART-suppressed and elite controller HIV-infected subjects.Here, we describe the performance of an optimized HIV Nef ELISA. When we applied this assay to the study cohort we found that plasma Nef levels were correlated with plasma HIV RNA levels in untreated disease. However, we were able to detect Nef in plasma of approximately half of subjects on ART or with elite control, despite the lack of detectable plasma HIV RNA levels using standard assays. Plasma Nef levels were not consistently associated with CD4+ T-cell count, CD8+ T-cell count, self-reported nadir CD4+ T-cell count or the CD4+/CD8+ T-cell ratio in HIV-infected subjects.Since plasma HIV RNA levels are undetectable in virally suppressed subjects, it is reasonable to assume that viral protein expression in leaky reservoir, and not plasma virions, is the source of Nef accumulating in plasma. To examine this further, improvements of the assay sensitivity, by lowering the background through improvements in the quality of Nef antibodies, and detailed characterization of the HIV reservoirs are needed.

  18. Validation of Performance of the Gen-Probe Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Viral Load Assay with Genital Swabs and Breast Milk Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVange Panteleeff, Dana; Emery, Sandra; Richardson, Barbra A.; Rousseau, Christine; Benki, Sarah; Bodrug, Sharon; Kreiss, Joan K.; Overbaugh, Julie

    2002-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency type 1 (HIV-1) continues to spread at an alarming rate. The virus may be transmitted through blood, genital secretions, and breast milk, and higher levels of systemic virus in the index case, as measured by plasma RNA viral load, have been shown to correlate with increased risk of transmitting HIV-1 both vertically and sexually. Less is known about the correlation between transmission and HIV-1 levels in breast milk or genital secretions, in part because reliable quantitative assays to detect HIV-1 in these fluids are not available. Here we show that the Gen-Probe HIV-1 viral load assay can be used to accurately quantify viral load in expressed breast milk and in cervical and vaginal samples collected on swabs. Virus could be quantified from breast milk and swab samples spiked with known amounts of virus, including HIV-1 subtypes A, C, and D. As few as 10 copies of HIV-1 RNA could be detected above background threshold levels in ≥77% of assays performed with spiked breast milk supernatants and mock swabs. In genital swab samples from HIV-1-infected women, similar levels of HIV-1 RNA were consistently detected in duplicate swabs taken from the same woman on the same clinic visit, suggesting that the RNA values from a single swab sample can be used to measure genital viral load. PMID:12409354

  19. Large Variations in HIV-1 Viral Load Explained by Shifting-Mosaic Metapopulation Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lythgoe, Katrina A.; Blanquart, François

    2016-01-01

    The viral population of HIV-1, like many pathogens that cause systemic infection, is structured and differentiated within the body. The dynamics of cellular immune trafficking through the blood and within compartments of the body has also received wide attention. Despite these advances, mathematical models, which are widely used to interpret and predict viral and immune dynamics in infection, typically treat the infected host as a well-mixed homogeneous environment. Here, we present mathematical, analytical, and computational results that demonstrate that consideration of the spatial structure of the viral population within the host radically alters predictions of previous models. We study the dynamics of virus replication and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) within a metapopulation of spatially segregated patches, representing T cell areas connected by circulating blood and lymph. The dynamics of the system depend critically on the interaction between CTLs and infected cells at the within-patch level. We show that for a wide range of parameters, the system admits an unexpected outcome called the shifting-mosaic steady state. In this state, the whole body’s viral population is stable over time, but the equilibrium results from an underlying, highly dynamic process of local infection and clearance within T-cell centers. Notably, and in contrast to previous models, this new model can explain the large differences in set-point viral load (SPVL) observed between patients and their distribution, as well as the relatively low proportion of cells infected at any one time, and alters the predicted determinants of viral load variation. PMID:27706164

  20. Factors associated with mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 despite a maternal viral load EPF-ANRS CO1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubiana, Roland; Le Chenadec, Jerome; Rouzioux, Christine; Mandelbrot, Laurent; Hamrene, Karima; Dollfus, Catherine; Faye, Albert; Delaugerre, Constance; Blanche, Stephane; Warszawski, Josiane

    2010-02-15

    The rate of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 is as low as 0.5% in non-breast-feeding mothers who delivered at term while receiving antiretroviral therapy with a plasma viral load <500 copies/mL. This situation accounted for 20% of the infected children born during the period 1997-2006 in the French Perinatal Cohort. We aimed to identify factors associated with such residual transmission risk. We performed a case-control study nested in the aforementioned subpopulation of the French Perinatal Cohort. Nineteen case patients (transmitters) and 60 control subjects (nontransmitters) were included. Case patients and control subjects did not differ by geographical origin, gestational age at HIV diagnosis, type of antiretroviral therapy received, or elective Cesarean delivery. Case patients were less often receiving treatment at the time that they conceived pregnancy than control subjects (16% vs 45%; P=.017). A lower proportion of case patients had a viral load <500 copies/mL, compared with control subjects, at 14 weeks (0% vs 38.1%; P=.02), 28 weeks (7.7% vs 62.1%; P=.005), and 32 weeks: (21.4% vs 71.1%; P=.004). The difference remained significant when we restricted analysis to the 10 of 16 intrapartum transmission cases. In a multivariate analysis at 30+/-4 weeks adjusted for viral load, CD4(+) T cell count, and time at antiretroviral therapy initiation, viral load was the only factor independently associated with MTCT of HIV (adjusted odds ratio, 23.2; 95% confidence interval, 3.5-553; P<.001). Early and sustained control of viral load is associated with a decreasing residual risk of MTCT of HIV-1. Guidelines should take into account not only CD4(+) T cell count and risk of preterm delivery, but also baseline HIV-1 load for deciding when to start antiretroviral therapy during pregnancy.

  1. The effect of churn on "community viral load" in a well-defined regional population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krentz, Hartmut B; Gill, M John

    2013-10-01

    The concept of community viral load (CVL) was introduced to quantify the pool of transmissible HIV within a community and to monitor the potential impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on reducing new infections. The implications of churn (patient movement in/out of care in a community) on CVL have not been studied. The annual CVL was determined in the entire geographic HIV population receiving care in southern Alberta from 2001 to 2010; the CVL for specific subpopulations was analyzed for 2009. CVL was determined for patients under continuous care, newly diagnosed, new to the region, moved away, returned, and lost to follow-up (LTFU). Viral loads (VLs) churn significantly limited CVL use as a measure for evaluating the impact of HAART in reducing HIV transmissions in our population.

  2. Behavioral and Other Characteristics Associated with HIV Viral Load in an Outpatient Clinic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul L Sacamano

    Full Text Available Persons living with HIV (PLWH who are engaged in care, yet not virally suppressed, represent a risk for transmission and opportunity for risk reduction interventions. This study describes characteristics of an outpatient clinic cohort of PLWH by laboratory confirmed viral suppression status and examines associations with demographics and sexual and drug use behaviors gathered through questionnaire. From a sample of 500 clinic patients, 438 were prescribed antiretroviral treatment (ART and 62 were not. Among the 438 on ART, 72 (16.4% were not virally suppressed at the most recent lab draw. Compared to individuals with a suppressed viral load, those that were unsuppressed were more likely to: be black (79.2% vs. 64.2%; p = 0.014; earn below $25,000/year (88.9% vs. 65.0%; p < 0.001; be of a younger age (47.8 vs. 50.0 mean years; p = 0.009; be on opiate substitution (14.1% vs. 6.3%; p = 0.023; and acknowledge poly-substance (38.9% vs. 24.4%; p = 0.012 and excessive alcohol use (13.9% vs. 6.0%; p = 0.019. Conversely, a smaller proportion of those with an unsuppressed viral load had multiple sex partners in the previous 30 days (39.8% vs. 58.5%; p = 0.003. In multivariable regression of those on ART, the prevalence of an unsuppressed viral load was 3% lower with each increasing year of age (aPR: 0.97; 95% CI: 0.95, 0.99 and 47% lower with income over $25,000/year (aPR: 0.33; 95% CI: 0.16, 0.70. In a separate analysis of all 500 subjects, ART was less frequently prescribed to blacks compared to whites, heterosexuals, those with lower education and income, and persons with active substance use. Findings confirm that a large proportion of PLWH and engaged in care were not virally suppressed and continued behaviors that risk transmission, indicating the need for screening, prevention counseling and access to ancillary services to lower the incidence of HIV infections.

  3. Pooled HIV-1 viral load testing using dried blood spots to reduce the cost of monitoring antiretroviral treatment in a resource-limited setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannus, Pieter; Fajardo, Emmanuel; Metcalf, Carol; Coulborn, Rebecca M; Durán, Laura T; Bygrave, Helen; Ellman, Tom; Garone, Daniela; Murowa, Michael; Mwenda, Reuben; Reid, Tony; Preiser, Wolfgang

    2013-10-01

    Rollout of routine HIV-1 viral load monitoring is hampered by high costs and logistical difficulties associated with sample collection and transport. New strategies are needed to overcome these constraints. Dried blood spots from finger pricks have been shown to be more practical than the use of plasma specimens, and pooling strategies using plasma specimens have been demonstrated to be an efficient method to reduce costs. This study found that combination of finger-prick dried blood spots and a pooling strategy is a feasible and efficient option to reduce costs, while maintaining accuracy in the context of a district hospital in Malawi.

  4. Diagnosing acute HIV infection: The performance of quantitative HIV-1 RNA testing (viral load) in the 2014 laboratory testing algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hsiu; Cohen, Stephanie E; Westheimer, Emily; Gay, Cynthia L; Hall, Laura; Rose, Charles; Hightow-Weidman, Lisa B; Gose, Severin; Fu, Jie; Peters, Philip J

    2017-08-01

    New recommendations for laboratory diagnosis of HIV infection in the United States were published in 2014. The updated testing algorithm includes a qualitative HIV-1 RNA assay to resolve discordant immunoassay results and to identify acute HIV-1 infection (AHI). The qualitative HIV-1 RNA assay is not widely available; therefore, we evaluated the performance of a more widely available quantitative HIV-1 RNA assay, viral load, for diagnosing AHI. We determined that quantitative viral loads consistently distinguished AHI from a false-positive immunoassay result. Among 100 study participants with AHI and a viral load result, the estimated geometric mean viral load was 1,377,793copies/mL. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Herpesviruses viral loads and levels of proinflammatory cytokines in apical periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovljevic, A; Knezevic, A; Nikolic, N; Soldatovic, I; Jovanovic, T; Milasin, J; Andric, M

    2018-07-01

    This study aimed to analyse Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) viral loads in symptomatic and asymptomatic apical periodontitis lesions, to determine levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 in these lesions and to investigate a possible correlation between herpesviral copy numbers and levels of proinflammatory cytokines. A total of 100 samples of apical periodontitis were subjected to HCMV and EBV copy numbers analysis by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and TaqMan real-time PCR. The concentrations of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 were determined by ELISA method. SPSS software was used for statistical analysis. There were no significant differences in the occurrence of EBV and HCMV between symptomatic and asymptomatic periapical lesions (p = .686, p = .879, respectively). Only 12 of 74 EBV (16.2%) and four of 54 HCMV (13.5%) nested PCR-positive samples showed increased viral copy numbers above the limit of 125 copies/ml. There was no significant correlation between the levels of analysed proinflammatory cytokines and herpesviral copy numbers in our sample. The observed low viral loads point to a relatively rare occurrence of active EBV and HCMV infection in our sample. Latent herpesviral infection does not enhance the production of investigated proinflammatory cytokines. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. HBeAg and not genotypes predicts viral load in patients with hepatitis B in Denmark: A nationwide cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Henrik; Andersen, Stig; Madsen, Poul Henning

    2011-01-01

    To explore the influence of HBV genotype on viral load in patients with HBV infection, and to investigate the relation to gender, age and country of origin or antibodies against hepatitis Be antigen (anti-HBe).......To explore the influence of HBV genotype on viral load in patients with HBV infection, and to investigate the relation to gender, age and country of origin or antibodies against hepatitis Be antigen (anti-HBe)....

  7. HBeAg and not genotypes predicts viral load in patients with hepatitis B in Denmark: a nationwide cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Henrik Bygum; Andersen, Stig; Madsen, Poul Henning

    2011-01-01

    To explore the influence of HBV genotype on viral load in patients with HBV infection, and to investigate the relation to gender, age and country of origin or antibodies against hepatitis Be antigen (anti-HBe).......To explore the influence of HBV genotype on viral load in patients with HBV infection, and to investigate the relation to gender, age and country of origin or antibodies against hepatitis Be antigen (anti-HBe)....

  8. Someone to count on: social support as an effect modifier of viral load suppression in a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, M Reuel; Coulter, Robert W S; Silvestre, Anthony J; Stall, Ron; Teplin, Linda; Shoptaw, Steve; Surkan, Pamela J; Plankey, Michael W

    2017-04-01

    Though functional social support has been shown to serve as a protective factor for HIV viral load suppression in other populations, scant research has examined this relationship among men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States. We assessed characteristics of social support, effects of social support on HIV viral load, and moderation by social support of the relationship between psychosocial indicators of a synergistic epidemic (syndemic) and HIV viral load. We analyzed longitudinal data from HIV-positive MSM using antiretroviral therapy who were enrolled in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study between 2002 and 2009 (n = 712). First, we conducted reliability assessments of a one-item social support measure. Then, we conducted a series of generalized longitudinal mixed models to assess our research questions. Moderation was assessed using an interaction term. A three-level (low/medium/high) social support variable demonstrated high reliability (intraclass correlation coefficients  = 0.72; 95% CI: 0.70, 0.75). Black and Hispanic MSM reported lower social support than their White counterparts (p social support (p social support (p social support levels were associated with greater viral load suppression and lower viral load means (p Social support moderated the relationships between syndemic and HIV viral load (p social support. Creating strengths-based interventions may also have particularly high impact among HIV-positive MSM with the highest psychosocial burdens.

  9. Self-Perceived Viral Load and Sexual Risk Behavior Among Known HIV-Positive MSM in San Francisco, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guigayoma, John; Chen, Yea-Hung; Snowden, Jonathan M; Santos, Glenn-Milo; Hecht, Jennifer; Raymond, H Fisher

    2017-07-01

    Self-perceived viral suppression status among men who have sex with men (MSM) may impact HIV risk transmission behaviors. We conducted a 2014 cross-sectional survey of MSM in San Francisco and assessed differences in sexual risk behavior among known HIV-positive MSM based on viral suppression of HIV. We collected demographics, self-perceived viral load status, and sexual risk behavior and tested for viral load levels through laboratory assays. Men were categorized in a hierarchical schema of sexual risk behavior categories based on responses to questions regarding recent partners' HIV status, condom use, and sexual positioning. We used Fisher exact tests to assess for differences based on self-perceived viral load status. Out of a sample of 96 known HIV-positive men, 59 men self-reported an undetectable HIV viral load and 9 men self-reported a detectable viral load consented to confirmatory laboratory testing. The sample of self-reported undetectable men had gradually larger proportions of higher-risk sexual practices, whereas the sample of detectable men was evenly distributed across sexual practices. This association was not statistically significant (P = 0.91). Self-perceived viral suppression may influence sexual practices of known HIV-positive MSM, but small sample size, especially within the detectable category, hinders our ability to determine statistical significance. More research is necessary to assess how HIV-positive men account for viral load in sexual decision-making practices, and this research may inform resource allocation and clinical recommendations to maintain the health of MSM populations.

  10. Comparación de los métodos de cuantificación de carga viral de VIH: COBAS® AmpliPrep/COBAS® TaqMan HIV-1 test, v 2.0, y VERSANT HIV-1 RNA 1.0 Assay (kPCR Comparison of COBAS® AmpliPrep/COBAS® TaqMan HIV-1 test, v 2.0 and VERSANT HIV-1 RNA 1.0 (kPCR assays for HIV-1 plasma viral load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Isabel Múnera-Jaramillo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. El propósito del estudio fue evaluar el desempeño del método VERSANTHIV-1RNA 1.0 Assay® (kPCR (Siemens, para la cuantificación de la carga viral en pacientes con VIH-1, en comparación con el método COBAS® AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan HIV-1 test®, v2.0 (Roche Diagnostics (CAP/CTM. Métodos. Las muestras fueron tomadas en dos tubos con EDTA, de 60 pacientes remitidos por el médico tratante para pruebas de carga viral como parte de su control de rutina de VIH/sida, y fueron procesadas para la cuantificación del ARN del VIH-1 por ambas técnicas. Se hizo análisis de regresión y se calcularon los coeficientes de correlación de Pearson, y los de correlación y concordancia de Lin. Se evalúo la concordancia entre las dos técnicas mediante el método de Bland-Altman. Resultados. El promedio de la carga viral por el método CAP/CTM fue 3,2±1,4 long10 copias/ml y, por el método kPCR, 3,0±1,3 long10 copias/ml. El 86,7 % de muestras presentó diferencias entre los dos métodos, menores de 0,5 long10 copias/ml, y el 13,3 % presentó diferencias mayores. El coeficiente de correlación de Pearson entre los dos métodos fue de 0,97 (IC95% 0,95-0,99 y el índice kappa ponderado entre los dos métodos en diferentes rangos de concentración, fue de 0,91 (IC95% 0,87-0,96. El promedio de las diferencias entre las mediciones fue 0,22 long10 copias/ml (IC95% -0,45 a 0,89. Conclusión. Las dos técnicas evaluadas fueron comparables, con el método kPCR se observaron resultados más bajos.Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of the kPCR VERSANT (™ 440 HIV-1RNA 3.0 Assay® (Siemens method for the quantification of viral load in HIV-1 patients, compared to the COBAS AmpliPrep/COBASTaqMan HIV-1 test®, v. 2.0 (Roche Diagnostics (CAP/CTM. Methods: Samples were taken in 2 tubes with EDTA, in 60 patients referred by the attending physician for viral load tests as part of their routine control of HIV/AIDS, and were

  11. Sensitivity and specificity of dried blood spots for HIV-1 viral load quantification: A laboratory assessment of 3 commercial assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pannus, Pieter; Claus, Maarten; Gonzalez, Maria Mercedes Perez; Ford, Nathan; Fransen, Katrien

    2016-11-01

    The use of dried blood spots (DBS) instead of plasma as a specimen type for HIV-1 viral load (VL) testing facilitates the decentralization of specimen collection and can increase access to VL testing in resource-limited settings. The performance of DBS for VL testing is lower, however, when compared to the gold standard sample type plasma. In this diagnostic accuracy study, we evaluated 3 VL assays with DBS.Participants were recruited between August 2012 and April 2015. Both plasma and DBS specimens were prepared and tested for HIV-1 VL with the Roche CAP/CTM HIV-1 test v2.0, the Abbott RealTime HIV-1, and the bioMérieux NucliSENS EasyQ HIV-1 v2.0. Sensitivity and specificity to detect treatment failure at a threshold of 1000 cps/mL with DBS were determined.A total of 272 HIV-positive patients and 51 HIV-negative people were recruited in the study. The mean difference or bias between plasma and DBS VL was 25% of the specimens differed by >0.5 log cps/mL.All 3 assays had comparable sensitivities around 80% and specificities around 90%. Upward misclassification rates were around 10%, but downward misclassification rates ranged from 20.3% to 23.6%. Differences in between assays were not statistically significant (P > 0.1).The 3 VL assays evaluated had suboptimal performance with DBS but still performed better than immunological or clinical monitoring. Even after the introduction of the much-anticipated point-of-care VL devices, it is expected that DBS will remain important as a complementary option for supporting access to VL monitoring, particularly in rural, resource-limited settings. Manufacturers should accelerate efforts to develop more reliable, sensitive and specific methods to test VL on DBS specimens.

  12. A pilot evaluation of whole blood finger-prick sampling for point-of-care HIV viral load measurement: the UNICORN study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidler, Sarah; Lewis, Heather; Meyerowitz, Jodi; Kuldanek, Kristin; Thornhill, John; Muir, David; Bonnissent, Alice; Timson, Georgina; Frater, John

    2017-10-20

    There is a global need for HIV viral load point-of-care (PoC) assays to monitor patients receiving antiretroviral therapy. UNICORN was the first study of an off-label protocol using whole blood finger-prick samples tested with and without a simple three minute spin using a clinic-room microcentrifuge. Two PoC assays were evaluated in 40 HIV-positive participants, 20 with detectable and 20 with undetectable plasma viral load (pVL) (<20 copies/ml). Using 100 µl finger-prick blood samples, the Cepheid Xpert HIV-1 Viral Load and HIV-1 Qual cartridges were compared with laboratory pVL assessment (TaqMan, Roche). For participants with undetectable viraemia by TaqMan, there was poor concordance without centrifugation with the TaqMan platform with only 40% 'undetectable' using Xpert VL and 25% 'not detected' using the Qual assay. After a 3 minute spin, 100% of samples were undetectable using either assay, showing full concordance with the TaqMan assay. Defining a lower limit of detection of 1000 copies/ml when including a spin, there was 100% concordance with the TaqMan platform with strong correlation (rho 0.95 and 0.94; p < 0.0001 for both assays). When including a simple microcentrifugation step, finger-prick PoC testing was a quick and accurate approach for assessing HIV viraemia, with excellent concordance with validated laboratory approaches.

  13. GeneXpert HIV-1 quant assay, a new tool for scale up of viral load monitoring in the success of ART programme in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Smita; Jadhav, Sushama; Khopkar, Priyanka; Sane, Suvarna; Londhe, Rajkumar; Chimanpure, Vaishali; Dhilpe, Veronica; Ghate, Manisha; Yelagate, Rajendra; Panchal, Narayan; Rahane, Girish; Kadam, Dilip; Gaikwad, Nitin; Rewari, Bharat; Gangakhedkar, Raman

    2017-07-21

    Recent WHO guidelines identify virologic monitoring for diagnosing and confirming ART failure. In view of this, validation and scale up of point of care viral load technologies is essential in resource limited settings. A systematic validation of the GeneXpert® HIV-1 Quant assay (a point-of-care technology) in view of scaling up HIV-1 viral load in India to monitor the success of national ART programme was carried out. Two hundred nineteen plasma specimens falling in nine viral load ranges (5 L copies/ml) were tested by the Abbott m2000rt Real Time and GeneXpert HIV-1 Quant assays. Additionally, 20 seronegative; 16 stored specimens and 10 spiked controls were also tested. Statistical analysis was done using Stata/IC and sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and %misclassification rates were calculated as per DHSs/AISs, WHO, NACO cut-offs for virological failure. The GeneXpert assay compared well with the Abbott assay with a higher sensitivity (97%), specificity (97-100%) and concordance (91.32%). The correlation between two assays (r = 0.886) was statistically significant (p performance and rapidity will aid in timely diagnosis of ART failures, integrated HIV-TB management and will facilitate the UNAIDS 90-90-90 target.

  14. Influence of maintained hemodialysis on viral load in patients with end-stage renal disease with HBV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Huifang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In the patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD with hepatitis B virus (HBV infection who underwent hemodialysis, the viral load of HBV DNA is relatively low and stable. For this phenomenon, some studies suggest that hemodialysis can reduce the HBV DNA load. The mechanism, which remains unclear, may be as follows: when HBV DNA enters the dialysate through the dialysis membrane, it was adsorbed onto the dialysis membrane; some virus particles were destroyed, and antiviral substances were produced in the course of hemodialysis. At present, there is no consensus on the mechanism responsible for the influence of maintained hemodialysis on the viral load of HBV DNA. This article reviews the factors involved in the influence of maintained hemodialysis on the viral load in ESRD patients with HBV infection and the recent progress.

  15. Performance of Llampuedken with short circuit and plasma loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chuaqui, Hernan; Mitchell, Ian H.; Aliaga-Rossel, Raul; Favre, Mario; Wyndham, Edmund S.

    2002-01-01

    Llampuedken is a pulsed power generator designed to deliver a 1 MA, 250 ns risetime current pulse into a dense plasma load. The main novel feature of this generator is the two auxiliary transmission lines which transmit the energy not absorbed by the load, reflect it at the open end of the line and deliver it to the load when the energy from the main lines is decreasing. With the auxiliary lines an increase of 30% on the current as well as a decrease of the voltage at the load is obtained. To date Llampuedken has been operated up to the 400 kA level, into both short circuit and plasma loads. Details of actual performance of the pulse power generator are presented and compared with simulations

  16. The Semen Microbiome and Its Relationship with Local Immunology and Viral Load in HIV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cindy M.; Osborne, Brendan J. W.; Hungate, Bruce A.; Shahabi, Kamnoosh; Huibner, Sanja; Lester, Richard; Dwan, Michael G.; Kovacs, Colin; Contente-Cuomo, Tania L.; Benko, Erika; Aziz, Maliha

    2014-01-01

    Semen is a major vector for HIV transmission, but the semen HIV RNA viral load (VL) only correlates moderately with the blood VL. Viral shedding can be enhanced by genital infections and associated inflammation, but it can also occur in the absence of classical pathogens. Thus, we hypothesized that a dysregulated semen microbiome correlates with local HIV shedding. We analyzed semen samples from 49 men who have sex with men (MSM), including 22 HIV-uninfected and 27 HIV-infected men, at baseline and after starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) using 16S rRNA gene-based pyrosequencing and quantitative PCR. We studied the relationship of semen bacteria with HIV infection, semen cytokine levels, and semen VL by linear regression, non-metric multidimensional scaling, and goodness-of-fit test. Streptococcus, Corynebacterium, and Staphylococcus were common semen bacteria, irrespective of HIV status. While Ureaplasma was the more abundant Mollicutes in HIV-uninfected men, Mycoplasma dominated after HIV infection. HIV infection was associated with decreased semen microbiome diversity and richness, which were restored after six months of ART. In HIV-infected men, semen bacterial load correlated with seven pro-inflammatory semen cytokines, including IL-6 (p = 0.024), TNF-α (p = 0.009), and IL-1b (p = 0.002). IL-1b in particular was associated with semen VL (r2 = 0.18, p = 0.02). Semen bacterial load was also directly linked to the semen HIV VL (r2 = 0.15, p = 0.02). HIV infection reshapes the relationship between semen bacteria and pro-inflammatory cytokines, and both are linked to semen VL, which supports a role of the semen microbiome in HIV sexual transmission. PMID:25058515

  17. The semen microbiome and its relationship with local immunology and viral load in HIV infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy M Liu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Semen is a major vector for HIV transmission, but the semen HIV RNA viral load (VL only correlates moderately with the blood VL. Viral shedding can be enhanced by genital infections and associated inflammation, but it can also occur in the absence of classical pathogens. Thus, we hypothesized that a dysregulated semen microbiome correlates with local HIV shedding. We analyzed semen samples from 49 men who have sex with men (MSM, including 22 HIV-uninfected and 27 HIV-infected men, at baseline and after starting antiretroviral therapy (ART using 16S rRNA gene-based pyrosequencing and quantitative PCR. We studied the relationship of semen bacteria with HIV infection, semen cytokine levels, and semen VL by linear regression, non-metric multidimensional scaling, and goodness-of-fit test. Streptococcus, Corynebacterium, and Staphylococcus were common semen bacteria, irrespective of HIV status. While Ureaplasma was the more abundant Mollicutes in HIV-uninfected men, Mycoplasma dominated after HIV infection. HIV infection was associated with decreased semen microbiome diversity and richness, which were restored after six months of ART. In HIV-infected men, semen bacterial load correlated with seven pro-inflammatory semen cytokines, including IL-6 (p = 0.024, TNF-α (p = 0.009, and IL-1b (p = 0.002. IL-1b in particular was associated with semen VL (r(2  = 0.18, p = 0.02. Semen bacterial load was also directly linked to the semen HIV VL (r(2 = 0.15, p = 0.02. HIV infection reshapes the relationship between semen bacteria and pro-inflammatory cytokines, and both are linked to semen VL, which supports a role of the semen microbiome in HIV sexual transmission.

  18. Plasma Waves Associated with Mass-Loaded Comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsurutani, Bruce; Glassmeier, Karl-Heinz

    2015-01-01

    Plasma waves and instabilities are integrally involved with the plasma "pickup" process and the mass loading of the solar wind (thus the formation of ion tails and the magnetic tails). Anisotropic plasmas generated by solar wind-comet interactions (the bow shock, magnetic field pileup) cause the generation of plasma waves which in turn "smooth out" these discontinuities. The plasma waves evolve and form plasma turbulence. Comets are perhaps the best "laboratories" to study waves and turbulence because over time (and distance) one can identify the waves and their evolution. We will argue that comets in some ways are better laboratories than magnetospheres, interplanetary space and fusion devices to study nonlinear waves and their evolution.

  19. CD4 count-based failure criteria combined with viral load monitoring may trigger worse switch decisions than viral load monitoring alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Christopher J; Maritz, Jean; van Zyl, Gert U

    2016-02-01

    CD4 count decline often triggers antiretroviral regimen switches in resource-limited settings, even when viral load testing is available. We therefore compared CD4 failure and CD4 trends in patients with viraemia with or without antiretroviral resistance. Retrospective cohort study investigating the association of HIV drug resistance with CD4 failure or CD4 trends in patients on first-line antiretroviral regimens during viraemia. Patients with viraemia (HIV RNA >1000 copies/ml) from two HIV treatment programmes in South Africa (n = 350) were included. We investigated the association of M184V and NNRTI resistance with WHO immunological failure criteria and CD4 count trends, using chi-square tests and linear mixed models. Fewer patients with the M184V mutation reached immunologic failure criteria than those without: 51 of 151(34%) vs. 90 of 199 (45%) (P = 0.03). Similarly, 79 of 220 (36%) patients, who had major NNRTI resistance, had immunological failure, whereas 62 of 130 (48%) without (chi-square P = 0.03) did. The CD4 count decline among patients with the M184V mutation was 2.5 cells/mm(3) /year, whereas in those without M184V it was 14 cells/mm(3) /year (P = 0.1), but the difference in CD4 count decline with and without NNRTI resistance was marginal. Our data suggest that CD4 count monitoring may lead to inappropriate delayed therapy switches for patients with HIV drug resistance. Conversely, patients with viraemia but no drug resistance are more likely to have a CD4 count decline and thus may be more likely to be switched to a second-line regimen. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. TyG index, HOMA score and viral load in patients with chronic hepatitis C due to genotype 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petta, S; Di Marco, V; Di Stefano, R; Cabibi, D; Cammà, C; Marchesini, G; Craxì, A

    2011-07-01

    The triglycerides × glucose (TyG) index is a recently proposed surrogate marker of insulin resistance (IR), calculated from fasting plasma triglyceride and glucose concentrations. We tested the host and viral factors associated with Tyg and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) scores, comparing their associations with histological features and with sustained virological response (SVR) in patients with genotype 1 chronic hepatitis C(G1CHC). Three hundred and forty consecutive patients with G1CHC were considered. All had a liver biopsy scored by one pathologist for staging and grading (Scheuer), and graded for steatosis, which was considered moderate-severe if ≥30%. Anthropometric and metabolic measurements, including IR measured by both HOMA and TyG, were registered. By linear regression analysis, TyG was independently associated with waist circumference (WC), total cholesterol, presence of arterial hypertension, Log10 HCV-RNA and steatosis. Similarly, WC and steatosis were significantly associated with HOMA. Older age (OR, 1.036; 95%CI, 1.004-1.070, P = 0.02), higher WC (1.031; 1.004-1.060; P = 0.02) and higher TyG (11.496; 3.163-41.784; P HOMA-IR in the model, the latter remained significantly associated with steatosis ≥30% (1.237; 1.058-1.448; P = 0.008). Receiver operating characteristic curves showed a similar performance of TyG (AUC 0.682) and HOMA-IR (AUC 0.699) in predicting moderate-severe steatosis. No independent associations were found between both TyG and HOMA and fibrosis or SVR. In patients with G1CHC , TyG, an easy-to-calculate and low-cost surrogate marker of IR, is linked to liver steatosis and shows an independent association with viral load. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Chicken parvovirus viral loads in cloacal swabs from malabsorption syndrome-affected and healthy broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkler, Fabrine; de Lima, Diane Alves; Cerva, Cristine; Cibulski, Samuel Paulo; Teixeira, Thais Fumaco; Dos Santos, Helton Fernandes; de Almeida, Laura Lopes; Roehe, Paulo Michel; Franco, Ana Cláudia

    2016-12-01

    Chicken parvovirus (ChPV) has been associated with malabsorption syndrome (MAS) in broilers. However, the participation of this virus in such syndrome is unclear, since it may be detected in diseased and healthy chickens. In the course of these studies, it was argued whether ChPV genome loads might be correlated to the occurrence of MAS. To check such a hypothesis, a SYBR green-based quantitative polymerase chain reaction was developed to detect and quantify ChPV genomes. Cloacal swabs from 68 broilers with MAS and 59 from healthy animals were collected from different poultry farms. Genomes of ChPV were detected in all samples, regardless of their health status. However, viral genome loads in MAS-affected broilers were significantly higher (1 × 10 5 genome copies per 100 ng DNA) than in healthy animals (1.3 × 10 3 GC/100 ng DNA). These findings indicate that there is an association between high ChPV genome loads and the occurrence of MAS in broilers.

  2. Variations in cerebrospinal fluid viral loads among enterovirus genotypes in patients hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed meningitis due to enterovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volle, Romain; Bailly, Jean-Luc; Mirand, Audrey; Pereira, Bruno; Marque-Juillet, Stéphanie; Chambon, Martine; Regagnon, Christel; Brebion, Amélie; Henquell, Cécile; Peigue-Lafeuille, Hélène; Archimbaud, Christine

    2014-08-15

    Acute enterovirus (EV) meningitis is a major cause of hospitalization among adults and children. It is caused by multiple EV genotypes assigned to 4 species (EV-A, EV-B, EV-C, and EV-D). We determined viral loads in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 156 patients of all ages with EV meningitis during a 5-year observational prospective study. The virus strains were genotyped, and their time origin was determined with Bayesian phylogenetic methods. The CSF viral loads ranged between 3.4 and 7.5 log10 copies/mL (median, 4.9 log10 copies/mL). They were higher in neonates than in infants and children (P = .02) but were comparable in adults. Viral loads were associated with EV genotypes (P < .001). The EV strains were identified in 152 of 156 patients and assigned to 23 genotypes within the EV-A and EV-B species. The most frequent genotypes, echoviruses 6 and 30, were associated with different viral loads (P < .001). The highest viral loads were in meningitis cases caused by coxsackievirus A9, B4, and B5 genotypes. Most patients infected by a same genotype were infected by a major virus variant of recent emergence. The variations in CSF viral loads in patients at the onset of EV meningitis are related to genotypic differences in the virus strains involved. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. [Relationship between viral load of human bocavirus and clinical characteristics in children with acute lower respiratory tract infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiao-Fang; Zhang, Bing; Zhong, Li-Li; Xie, Le-Yun; Xiao, Ni-Guang

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the prevalence of human bocavirus (HBoV) in children with acute lower respiratory tract infection and to explore the relationship between the viral load of HBoV and the clinical characteristics of acute lower respiratory tract infection in children. A total of 1 554 nasopharyngeal aspirates from children who were hospitalized due to acute lower respiratory tract infection between March 2011 and March 2014 were collected. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to detect 12 RNA and 2 DNA viruses, adenovirus (ADV) and HBoV, and to measure the viral load of HBoV in HBoV-positive children. A comprehensive analysis was performed with reference to clinical symptoms and indicators. In the 1 554 specimens, 1 212 (77.99%) were positive for viruses, and 275 (17.70%) were HBoV-positive. In HBoV-positive cases, 94.9% were aged infection, and 230 (83.64%) had mixed infection. There was no significant difference in viral load between children with single infection and mixed infection (P>0.05). The patients with fever had a significantly higher viral load than those without fever (Pacute lower respiratory tract infection (P>0.05). HBoV is one of the important pathogens of acute lower respiratory tract infection in children. Children with a higher viral load of HBoV are more likely to experience symptoms such as fever and wheezing. However, the severity of disease and mixed infection are not significantly related to viral load.

  4. Impact of two different commercial DNA extraction methods on BK virus viral load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Bergallo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim: BK virus, a member of human polyomavirus family, is a worldwide distributed virus characterized by a seroprevalence rate of 70-90% in adult population. Monitoring of viral replication is made by evaluation of BK DNA by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Many different methods can be applied for extraction of nucleic acid from several specimens. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of two different DNA extraction procedure on BK viral load. Materials and methods: DNA extraction procedure including the Nuclisens easyMAG platform (bioMerieux, Marcy l’Etoile, France and manual QIAGEN extraction (QIAGEN Hilden, Germany. BK DNA quantification was performed by Real Time TaqMan PCR using a commercial kit. Result and discussion: The samples capacity, cost and time spent were compared for both systems. In conclusion our results demonstrate that automated nucleic acid extraction method using Nuclisense easyMAG was superior to manual protocol (QIAGEN Blood Mini kit, for the extraction of BK virus from serum and urine specimens.

  5. Expansion of Viral Load Testing and the Potential Impact on HIV Drug Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raizes, Elliot; Hader, Shannon; Birx, Deborah

    2017-12-01

    The US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) supports aggressive scale-up of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in high-burden countries and across all genders and populations at risk toward global human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic control. PEPFAR recognizes the risk of HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) as a consequence of aggressive ART scale-up and is actively promoting 3 key steps to mitigate the impact of HIVDR: (1) routine access to routine viral load monitoring in all settings; (2) optimization of ART regimens; and (3) routine collection and analysis of HIVDR data to monitor the success of mitigation strategies. The transition to dolutegravir-based regimens in PEPFAR-supported countries and the continuous evolution of HIVDR surveillance strategies are essential elements of PEPFAR implementation. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  6. Effect of mild-to-moderate smoking on viral load, cytokines, oxidative stress, and cytochrome P450 enzymes in HIV-infected individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anusha Ande

    Full Text Available Mild-to-moderate tobacco smoking is highly prevalent in HIV-infected individuals, and is known to exacerbate HIV pathogenesis. The objective of this study was to determine the specific effects of mild-to-moderate smoking on viral load, cytokine production, and oxidative stress and cytochrome P450 (CYP pathways in HIV-infected individuals who have not yet received antiretroviral therapy (ART. Thirty-two human subjects were recruited and assigned to four different cohorts as follows: a HIV negative non-smokers, b HIV positive non-smokers, c HIV negative mild-to-moderate smokers, and d HIV positive mild-to-moderate smokers. Patients were recruited in Cameroon, Africa using strict selection criteria to exclude patients not yet eligible for ART and not receiving conventional or traditional medications. Those with active tuberculosis, hepatitis B or with a history of substance abuse were also excluded. Our results showed an increase in the viral load in the plasma of HIV positive patients who were mild-to-moderate smokers compared to individuals who did not smoke. Furthermore, although we did not observe significant changes in the levels of most pro-inflammatory cytokines, the cytokine IL-8 and MCP-1 showed a significant decrease in the plasma of HIV-infected patients and smokers compared with HIV negative non-smokers. Importantly, HIV-infected individuals and smokers showed a significant increase in oxidative stress compared with HIV negative non-smoker subjects in both plasma and monocytes. To examine the possible pathways involved in increased oxidative stress and viral load, we determined the mRNA levels of several antioxidant and cytochrome P450 enzymes in monocytes. The results showed that the levels of most antioxidants are unaltered, suggesting their inability to counter oxidative stress. While CYP2A6 was induced in smokers, CYP3A4 was induced in HIV and HIV positive smokers compared with HIV negative non-smokers. Overall, the findings suggest

  7. Disseminated HIV-Associated Kaposi’s Sarcoma With High CD4 Cell Count And Low Viral Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Pereira Anjos

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Kaposi’s sarcoma is considered an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-defining illness and is caused by human herpesvirus 8. It has been associated with patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV who have CD4 T lymphocytes <200 cells/uL and high viral loads. We report a case of a 23-year old woman infected with HIV-1 and receiving antiretroviral treatment since diagnosis, with high CD4 cell count and low viral load that presented with disseminated Kaposi’s sarcoma. Clinicians should be aware of the occurrence of Kaposi’s sarcoma despite robust CD4 cell counts.

  8. Heat Loads On Tore Supra ICRF Launchers Plasma Facing Components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bremond, S.; Colas, L.; Chantant, M.; Beaumont, B.; Ekedahl, A.; Goniche, M.; Moreau, P.; Mitteau, R.

    2005-01-01

    Understanding the heat loads on Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequency launchers plasma facing components is a crucial task both for operating present tokamaks and for designing ITER ICRF launchers as these loads may limit the RF power coupling capability. Tore Supra facility is particularly well suited to take this issue. Parametric studies have been performed which enables to get an overall detailed picture of the different heat loads on several areas, pointing to different mechanisms at the origin of the heat power fluxes. Lessons are drawned both with regards to Tore Supra possible operational limits and to ITER ICRF launcher design

  9. Clinical value of determination HIV viral load in the cerebrospinal fluid of HIV-infected patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Musatov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To analyze the concentration of HIV RNA in the cerebrospinal fluid and to evaluate its significance in the pathology of the central nervous system among HIV infected persons.Materials: We examined 36 patients with HIV infection with signs of pathology of the central nervous system. All patients was done completed a standard investigation of cerebrospinal fluid, cytological examination and detection viral load of HIV in the cerebrospinal fluid and serum.Results. A different of opportunistic and HIV-related disease was diagnosed in 29 patients. The most frequent pathology of the nervous system (12 cases is a diffuse HIV-associated brain damage occurring in 7 patients in the form of aseptic non purulent meningitis and in 5 patients in the form of encephalitis. The average value of the absolute and relative count of CD4-lymphocytes in patients amounted 147,0 cells/μl (40,0; 408,75 and 10.0% (4,00; 18,50. Pathological changes in cellular composition and protein concentration of cerebrospinal fluid detected in 19 cases. Replication of HIV in the cerebrospinal fluid are detected in 31 of 32 patients not receiving antiretroviral therapy, including 17 patients with normal values of cerebrospinal fluid. The average HIV viral load in the cerebrospinal fluid was 15 133,0 copies/ml (2501,0; 30624,0 or 4,18 (3,35; 4,48 lg HIV RNA, average HIV viral load in serum – 62 784,0 copies/ml (6027,5; 173869,0 or 4,80 4,80 (3,7; 5,2 lg HIV RNA. The concentration of HIV in the cerebrospinal fluid was significantly lower than in serum (4,18 and 4,80 lg HIV RNA, p=0.027. 4 patients with severe, multietiology damage of the central nervous system viral, microbial and fungal etiology, there was an inverse relationship between the concentration of HIV in the cerebrospinal fluid and in serum, the concentrations of HIV was higher in the cerebrospinal fluid.Conclusion: Among the majority of HIV-infected patients with signs of the central

  10. [Analysis of the results of the HIV-1, HCV and HBV viral load of SEIMC External Quality Control Program. Year 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina González, Rafael; Orta Mira, Nieves; Guna Serrano, María Del Remedio; Latorre Martínez, José-Carlos; Gopegui, Enrique Ruiz de; Rosario Ovies, María; Poveda, Marta; Gimeno Cardona, Concepción

    2016-07-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) viral load determinations are among the most relevant markers for the follow up of patients infected with these viruses. External quality control tools are crucial to ensure the accuracy of results obtained by microbiology laboratories. This article summarizes the results obtained from the 2014 SEIMC (Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology) External Quality Control Programme for HIV-1, HCV, and HBV viral loads. In the HIV-1 program, a total of 5 standards were sent. One standard consisted in seronegative human plasma, while the remaining 4 contained plasma from 3 different viremic patients, in the range of 2-5 log10 copies/mL; 2 of these standards were identical aiming to determine repeatability. A significant proportion of the laboratories (30.8% on average) obtained values out of the accepted range (mean ± 0.25 log10 copies/mL), depending on the standard and on the method used for quantification. Repeatability was excellent, with up to 95.8% of laboratories reporting results within the limits (Δ quality of the results obtained by a particular laboratory, as well as the importance of the post-analytical phase on the overall quality. Due to the remarkable interlaboratory variability, it is advisable to use the same method and the same laboratory for patient follow up. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Differences in viral load among human respiratory syncytial virus genotypes in hospitalized children with severe acute respiratory infections in the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadji, Francois Marie Ngako; Okamoto, Michiko; Furuse, Yuki; Tamaki, Raita; Suzuki, Akira; Lirio, Irene; Dapat, Clyde; Malasao, Rungnapa; Saito, Mariko; Pedrera-Rico, Gay Anne Granada; Tallo, Veronica; Lupisan, Socorro; Saito, Mayuko; Oshitani, Hitoshi

    2016-06-27

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV) is a leading viral etiologic agent of pediatric lower respiratory infections, including bronchiolitis and pneumonia. Two antigenic subgroups, HRSV-A and B, each contain several genotypes. While viral load may vary among HRSV genotypes and affect the clinical course of disease, data are scarce regarding the actual differences among genotypes. Therefore, this study estimated and compared viral load among NA1 and ON1 genotypes of HRSV-A and BA9 of HRSV-B. ON1 is a newly emerged genotype with a 72-nucleotide duplication in the G gene as observed previously with BA genotypes in HRSV-B. Children <5 years of age with an initial diagnosis of severe or very severe pneumonia at a hospital in the Philippines from September 2012 to December 2013 were enrolled. HRSV genotypes were determined and the viral load measured from nasopharyngeal swabs (NPS). The viral load of HRSV genotype NA1 were significantly higher than those of ON1 and BA9. Regression analysis showed that both genotype NA1 and younger age were significantly associated with high HRSV viral load. The viral load of NA1 was higher than that of ON1 and BA9 in NPS samples. HRSV genotypes may be associated with HRSV viral load. The reasons and clinical impacts of these differences in viral load among HRSV genotypes require further evaluation.

  12. HIV Viral Load Trends in Six Eastern Caribbean Countries Utilizing a Regional Laboratory Referral Service: Implications for Treatment as Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, R Clive; Carmichael-Simmons, Kelly; Hambleton, Ian R; Best, Anton

    2015-01-01

    Since 2009, seven countries in the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS), Antigua & Barbuda, Dominica, Grenada, Montserrat, St. Kitts & Nevis, Saint Lucia, and St. Vincent & the Grenadines, have been utilizing a laboratory referral service for HIV-1 viral load (VL) offered by The Ladymeade Reference Unit (LRU) Laboratory, Barbados. The objective of this study was to evaluate 5 year VL trends in the six larger OECS countries participating in this regional referral service. Blood samples were collected in source countries and transported to Barbados as frozen plasma according to a standardized protocol. Plasma specimens were amplified by RT PCR on a Roche TaqMan 48 analyser (Roche Diagnostics, Panama City, Panama). VL was considered optimally suppressed below a threshold level of < 200 HIV-1 copies/mL of blood. The same threshold was used as a binary indicator in an analysis of the secular change in VL suppression. Montserrat was excluded due to insufficient number of samples. A steady rise in VL referrals from OECS countries was recorded, rising from 312 samples in 2009 to 1,060 samples in 2013. A total of 3,543 samples were tested, with a sample rejection rate (9.2%) mostly due to breaks in the cold chain. Aggregate VL data showed the odds of VL suppression in the Eastern Caribbean improved by 66% for each additional year after 2009 (Odds Ratio 1.66 [95% CI 1.46 to 1.88]; p<0.001). We demonstrate the feasibility of establishing a regional laboratory referral service for HIV VL monitoring in the Eastern Caribbean. Aggregate VL trends showed a significant year-on-year improvement in VL suppression, implying public health benefits through treatment as prevention in the OECS. VL provides a powerful monitoring & evaluation tool for strengthening HIV programs at country level among the small island states participating in this regional referral network.

  13. HIV Viral Load Trends in Six Eastern Caribbean Countries Utilizing a Regional Laboratory Referral Service: Implications for Treatment as Prevention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Clive Landis

    Full Text Available Since 2009, seven countries in the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS, Antigua & Barbuda, Dominica, Grenada, Montserrat, St. Kitts & Nevis, Saint Lucia, and St. Vincent & the Grenadines, have been utilizing a laboratory referral service for HIV-1 viral load (VL offered by The Ladymeade Reference Unit (LRU Laboratory, Barbados. The objective of this study was to evaluate 5 year VL trends in the six larger OECS countries participating in this regional referral service.Blood samples were collected in source countries and transported to Barbados as frozen plasma according to a standardized protocol. Plasma specimens were amplified by RT PCR on a Roche TaqMan 48 analyser (Roche Diagnostics, Panama City, Panama. VL was considered optimally suppressed below a threshold level of < 200 HIV-1 copies/mL of blood. The same threshold was used as a binary indicator in an analysis of the secular change in VL suppression. Montserrat was excluded due to insufficient number of samples.A steady rise in VL referrals from OECS countries was recorded, rising from 312 samples in 2009 to 1,060 samples in 2013. A total of 3,543 samples were tested, with a sample rejection rate (9.2% mostly due to breaks in the cold chain. Aggregate VL data showed the odds of VL suppression in the Eastern Caribbean improved by 66% for each additional year after 2009 (Odds Ratio 1.66 [95% CI 1.46 to 1.88]; p<0.001.We demonstrate the feasibility of establishing a regional laboratory referral service for HIV VL monitoring in the Eastern Caribbean. Aggregate VL trends showed a significant year-on-year improvement in VL suppression, implying public health benefits through treatment as prevention in the OECS. VL provides a powerful monitoring & evaluation tool for strengthening HIV programs at country level among the small island states participating in this regional referral network.

  14. Dissecting HIV Virulence: Heritability of Setpoint Viral Load, CD4+ T-Cell Decline, and Per-Parasite Pathogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertels, Frederic; Marzel, Alex; Leventhal, Gabriel; Mitov, Venelin; Fellay, Jacques; Günthard, Huldrych F; Böni, Jürg; Yerly, Sabine; Klimkait, Thomas; Aubert, Vincent; Battegay, Manuel; Rauch, Andri; Cavassini, Matthias; Calmy, Alexandra; Bernasconi, Enos; Schmid, Patrick; Scherrer, Alexandra U; Müller, Viktor; Bonhoeffer, Sebastian; Kouyos, Roger; Regoes, Roland R

    2018-01-01

    Pathogen strains may differ in virulence because they attain different loads in their hosts, or because they induce different disease-causing mechanisms independent of their load. In evolutionary ecology, the latter is referred to as "per-parasite pathogenicity". Using viral load and CD4+ T-cell measures from 2014 HIV-1 subtype B-infected individuals enrolled in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study, we investigated if virulence-measured as the rate of decline of CD4+ T cells-and per-parasite pathogenicity are heritable from donor to recipient. We estimated heritability by donor-recipient regressions applied to 196 previously identified transmission pairs, and by phylogenetic mixed models applied to a phylogenetic tree inferred from HIV pol sequences. Regressing the CD4+ T-cell declines and per-parasite pathogenicities of the transmission pairs did not yield heritability estimates significantly different from zero. With the phylogenetic mixed model, however, our best estimate for the heritability of the CD4+ T-cell decline is 17% (5-30%), and that of the per-parasite pathogenicity is 17% (4-29%). Further, we confirm that the set-point viral load is heritable, and estimate a heritability of 29% (12-46%). Interestingly, the pattern of evolution of all these traits differs significantly from neutrality, and is most consistent with stabilizing selection for the set-point viral load, and with directional selection for the CD4+ T-cell decline and the per-parasite pathogenicity. Our analysis shows that the viral genotype affects virulence mainly by modulating the per-parasite pathogenicity, while the indirect effect via the set-point viral load is minor. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  15. End-of-Treatment-Response in Patients Treated for Hepatitis C Virus with Standard Interferon and Ribavirin Based on Viral Load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rathore, M. A.; Hussain, A. B.; Ghani, E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the End-of-Treatment-Response (ETR) to standard interferon and ribavirin based regimen in patients of chronic hepatitis C and to compare the ETR response in low and high viral load groups. Study Design: Descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Virology Department, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP), Rawalpindi, from March 2012 to May 2013. Methodology: Patients with chronic hepatitis C virus infection were included in the study. Pre-treatment viral load was determined by RoboGene Quantification kit. Based on viral load, the 400 patients were divided into two equal groups of low viral load (< 800,000 IU/ml) and high viral load (> 800,000 IU/ml). The patients were treated with standard interferon alpha (3 million units subcutaneously thrice weekly) and ribavirin (10.6 mg/kg body weight) for 6 months. ETR was measured using Sacace Biotechnologies Qualitative kit. Chi-square test was used to compare the ETR in the two viral load groups. P-value < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: Out of 400 patients, 206 (51.5%) were males and 194 (48.5%) were females. Two hundred seventy (67.5%) patients achieved ETR and 130 (35.5%) failed to do so. In low viral load group, 145 (72.5%) patients achieved and 55 (27.5%) patients did not achieve ETR. In high viral load group, 123 (61.5%) patients achieved and 77 (38.5%) did not achieve ETR. The difference in ETR between low and high viral load groups was statistically significant (p=0.019). Conclusion: End-of-treatment-response in patients treated for hepatitis C virus with standard interferon and ribavirin was greater in patients with low viral load as compared to patients with high viral load. (author)

  16. Design and implementation of an external quality assessment program for HIV viral load measurements using dried blood spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prach, Lisa M; Puren, Adrian; Lippman, Sheri A; Carmona, Sergio; Stephenson, Sophie; Cutler, Ewalde; Barnhart, Scott; Liegler, Teri

    2015-03-01

    An external quality assurance program was developed for HIV-1 RNA viral load measurements taken from dried blood spots using a reference panel and field-collected specimens. The program demonstrated that accurate and reproducible quantitation can be obtained from field-collected specimens. Residual proviral DNA may confound interpretation in virologically suppressed subjects. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Impact of polymorphisms in the HCP5 and HLA-C, and ZNRD1 genes on HIV viral load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thørner, Lise Wegner; Erikstrup, Christian; Harritshøj, Lene Holm

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the human leucocyte antigen (HLA) complex P5 (HCP5), HLA-C, and near the zinc ribbon domain containing 1 (ZNRD1) have been shown to influence viral load (VL) set point in HIV-infected individuals with a known seroconversion onset. We aimed to determ...

  18. Continued indinavir versus switching to indinavir/ritonavir in HIV-infected patients with suppressed viral load.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnaiz, J.A.; Mallolas, J.; Podzamczer, D.; Gerstoft, J.; Lundgren, J.D.; Cahn, P.; Fatkenheuer, G.; D'Arminio-Monforte, A.; Casiro, A.; Reiss, P.; Burger, D.M.; Stek Jr, M.; Gatell, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare continued indinavir (IDV) 8-hourly (q8h) with switching to indinavir/ritonavir (IDV/RTV) 12-hourly (q12h) in HIV-positive patients having suppressed viral load with IDV q8h plus two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI). DESIGN: Multicentre, international,

  19. Continued indinavir versus switching to indinavir/ritonavir in HIV-infected patients with suppressed viral load

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnaiz, Juan A.; Mallolas, Josep; Podzamczer, Daniel; Gerstoft, Jan; Lundgren, Jens D.; Cahn, Pedro; Fätkenheuer, Gerd; D'Arminio-Monforte, Antonella; Casiró, Arnaldo; Reiss, Peter; Burger, David M.; Stek, Michael; Gatell, José M.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To compare continued indinavir (IDV) 8-hourly (q8h) with switching to indinavir/ritonavir (IDV/RTV) 12-hourly (q12h) in HIV-positive patients having suppressed viral load with IDV q8h plus two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI). Design: Multicentre, international,

  20. Plasma-particle interaction effects in induction plasma modelling under dense loading conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proulx, P.; Mostaghimi, J.; Boulos, M.

    1983-07-01

    The injection of solid particles or aerosol droplets in the fire-ball of an inductively coupled plasma can substantially perturb the plasma and even quench it under high loading conditions. This can be mainly attributed to the local cooling of the plasma by the particles or their vapour cloud, combined with the possible change of the thermodynamic and transport properties of the plasma in the presence of the particle vapour. This paper reports the state-of-the-art in the mathematical modelling of the induction plasma. A particle-in-cell model is used in order to combine the continuum approach for the calculation of the flow, temperature and concentration fields in the plasma, with the stochastic single particle approach, for the calculation of the particle trajectories and temperature histories. Results are given for an argon induction plasma under atmospheric pressure in which fine copper particles are centrally injected in the coil region of the discharge

  1. A Pilot Study to Increase the Efficiency of HIV Outreach Testing Through the Use of Timely and Geolocated HIV Viral Load Surveillance Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Jacky M.; Schumacher, Christina; Perin, Jamie; Myers, Tanya; Fields, Nathan; Greiner Safi, Amelia; Chaulk, Patrick

    2018-01-01

    Background Eliminating HIV transmission in a population necessitates identifying population reservoirs of HIV infection and subgroups most likely to transmit. HIV viral load is the single most important predictor of HIV transmission. The objective of this analysis was to evaluate whether a public health practice pilot project based on community viral load resulted in increases in the proportion of time spent testing in high viral load areas (process measure) and 3 outcome measures—the number and percent of overall HIV diagnoses, new diagnoses, and high viral load positives—in one mid-Atlantic US city with a severe HIV epidemic. Methods The evaluation was conducted during three, 3-month periods for 3 years and included the use of community viral load, global positioning system tracking data, and statistical testing to evaluate the effectiveness of the pilot project. Results The proportion of time spent outreach testing in high viral load areas (69%–84%, P the overall number and percent of HIV positives ((60 (3%) to 127 (6%), P The number and percent of new diagnoses (3 (0.1%) to 6 (0.2%)) and high viral load positives (5 (0.2%) to 9 (0.4%)) increased, but the numbers were too small for statistical testing. Discussion These results suggest that using community viral load to increase the efficiency of HIV outreach testing is feasible and may be effective in identifying more HIV positives. The pilot project provides a model for other public health practice demonstration projects. PMID:29420450

  2. Heat loads on Tore Supra ICRF Launchers Plasma Facing Components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bremond, S.; Colas, L.; Beaumont, B.; Chantant, M.; Goniche, M.; Mitteau, R.

    2005-01-01

    Understanding the heat loads on Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequency (ICRF) launchers plasma-facing components is a crucial task both for operating present tokamaks and for designing ITER ICRF launchers as these loads may limit the RF power coupling capability. Tore Supra facility is particularly well suited to take this issue. Parametric studies have been performed which enables to get an overall detailed picture of the different heat loads on several areas, pointing to different mechanisms at the origin of the heat power fluxes. It is found that the most critical items for Tore-Supra operation are localized heat loads on the Faraday screen top left corner and vertical edges. Warming up close to maximum temperature limit originally set for protection of the plasma-facing components is found of high power pulses, but no erosion was observed after detailed inspection of the launcher in Tore-Supra vessel. Yet, the associated heat loads could be limiting for Tore-Supra operation in the future, and some dedicated work is under progress to improve the understanding of these power fluxes, pointing out the importance of getting a better knowledge of particle flows in the scrape of layer

  3. Chitosan nanoparticles as non-viral gene delivery systems: determination of loading efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, Carolina; Suñé, Josep Maria; Pérez-Lozano, Pilar; García-Montoya, Encarna; Sarrate, Rocío; Fàbregas, Anna; Miñarro, Montserrat; Ticó, Josep Ramon

    2014-07-01

    Chitosan has been studied for use in particle delivery systems for therapeutic purposes, since one of its most important applications is as a non-viral vector in gene therapy. Due to its positive charge, it is capable of forming DNA complexes (polyplexes) obtained through several methods and with the property of protecting nucleic acids. Two methods for obtaining the nanoparticles of chitosan-nucleic acids are reported in this study: simple complexation (of depolymerized chitosan or of different chitosan salts with plasmid) and ionic gelation (by adsorption of plasmid in the nanoparticles or by encapsulation of plasmid into nanoparticles). The determination of the loading efficiency of chitosan nanoparticles with the plasmid is carried out by electrophoretic mobility of the samples on agarose gel. Furthermore, the nanoparticles have been characterized according to their morphology, size and surface charge using AFM, TEM, laser diffraction and dynamic light scattering techniques. The polyplexes obtained have been found to be spherical and nanometric in size (between 100-230nm) with a zeta potential between 37 and 48mV. Positive results have been obtained by agarose gel electrophoresis for all studied cases: a concentration of between 20 and 30μg/mL of chitosan salts is required while for the remaining chitosan samples studied, 100% loading efficiency does not occur until a concentration equal to 100μg/mL (regardless of previous depolymerisation and the method performed). Chitosan-plasmid nanocapsules have been obtained at the polymer concentrations worked with (between 0.025 and 0.2%). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Honey Bee Viruses in Wild Bees: Viral Prevalence, Loads, and Experimental Inoculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolezal, Adam G.; Hendrix, Stephen D.; Scavo, Nicole A.; Carrillo-Tripp, Jimena; Harris, Mary A.; Wheelock, M. Joseph; O’Neal, Matthew E.; Toth, Amy L.

    2016-01-01

    Evidence of inter-species pathogen transmission from managed to wild bees has sparked concern that emerging diseases could be causing or exacerbating wild bee declines. While some pathogens, like RNA viruses, have been found in pollen and wild bees, the threat these viruses pose to wild bees is largely unknown. Here, we tested 169 bees, representing 4 families and 8 genera, for five common honey bee (Apis mellifera) viruses, finding that more than 80% of wild bees harbored at least one virus. We also quantified virus titers in these bees, providing, for the first time, an assessment of viral load in a broad spectrum of wild bees. Although virus detection was very common, virus levels in the wild bees were minimal—similar to or lower than foraging honey bees and substantially lower than honey bees collected from hives. Furthermore, when we experimentally inoculated adults of two different bee species (Megachile rotundata and Colletes inaequalis) with a mixture of common viruses that is lethal to honey bees, we saw no effect on short term survival. Overall, we found that honey bee RNA viruses can be commonly detected at low levels in many wild bee species, but we found no evidence that these pathogens cause elevated short-term mortality effects. However, more work on these viruses is greatly needed to assess effects on additional bee species and life stages. PMID:27832169

  5. Clinical Factors and Viral Load Influencing Severity of Acute Hepatitis A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Woong; Chang, Dong-Yeop; Moon, Hong Ju; Chang, Hye Young; Shin, Eui-Cheol; Lee, June Sung; Kim, Kyung-Ah; Kim, Hyung Joon

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Clinical manifestations of hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection vary from mild to fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) in adults. We investigated the relationship between laboratory findings, including viral load, and clinical outcomes in patients with acute hepatitis A (AHA) and evaluated predictive factors for severe acute hepatitis (s-AH). Methods We analyzed the clinical manifestations of AHA in 770 patients. Patients with a prothrombin time (PT) of less than 40% of normal were classified as s-AH and included 4 patients with FHF, 11 patients with acute renal failure, and 3 patients with prolonged jaundice (n = 128). Other patients were defined as mild acute hepatitis (m-AH) (n = 642). Serum samples were obtained from 48 patients with acute hepatitis A. Among them, 20 with s-AH, and 28 with m-AH, were tested for HAV RNA titer. Results In a multivariate analysis, age (HR = 1.042, P = 0.041), peak creatinine (HR = 4.014, P = 0.001), bilirubin (HR = 1.153, P = 0.003), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (HR = 1.001, Phepatitis A. PMID:26090677

  6. Clinical Factors and Viral Load Influencing Severity of Acute Hepatitis A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Woong; Chang, Dong-Yeop; Moon, Hong Ju; Chang, Hye Young; Shin, Eui-Cheol; Lee, June Sung; Kim, Kyung-Ah; Kim, Hyung Joon

    2015-01-01

    Clinical manifestations of hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection vary from mild to fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) in adults. We investigated the relationship between laboratory findings, including viral load, and clinical outcomes in patients with acute hepatitis A (AHA) and evaluated predictive factors for severe acute hepatitis (s-AH). We analyzed the clinical manifestations of AHA in 770 patients. Patients with a prothrombin time (PT) of less than 40% of normal were classified as s-AH and included 4 patients with FHF, 11 patients with acute renal failure, and 3 patients with prolonged jaundice (n = 128). Other patients were defined as mild acute hepatitis (m-AH) (n = 642). Serum samples were obtained from 48 patients with acute hepatitis A. Among them, 20 with s-AH, and 28 with m-AH, were tested for HAV RNA titer. In a multivariate analysis, age (HR = 1.042, P = 0.041), peak creatinine (HR = 4.014, P = 0.001), bilirubin (HR = 1.153, P = 0.003), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (HR = 1.001, P hepatitis A.

  7. Performance of the Xpert HIV-1 Viral Load Assay: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Madlen; Huddart, Sophie; Badar, Sayema; Baliga, Shrikala; Saravu, Kavitha; Pai, Madhukar

    2018-04-01

    Viral load (VL) is the preferred treatment-monitoring approach for HIV-positive patients. However, more rapid, near-patient, and low-complexity assays are needed to scale up VL testing. The Xpert HIV-1 VL assay (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA) is a new, automated molecular test, and it can leverage the GeneXpert systems that are being used widely for tuberculosis diagnosis. We systematically reviewed the evidence on the performance of this new tool in comparison to established reference standards. A total of 12 articles (13 studies) in which HIV patient VLs were compared between Xpert HIV VL assay and a reference standard VL assay were identified. Study quality was generally high, but substantial variability was observed in the number and type of agreement measures reported. Correlation coefficients between Xpert and reference assays were high, with a pooled Pearson correlation ( n = 8) of 0.94 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.89, 0.97) and Spearman correlation ( n = 3) of 0.96 (95% CI, 0.86, 0.99). Bland-Altman metrics ( n = 11) all were within 0.35 log copies/ml of perfect agreement. Overall, Xpert HIV-1 VL performed well compared to current reference tests. The minimal training and infrastructure requirements for the Xpert HIV-1 VL assay make it attractive for use in resource-constrained settings, where point-of-care VL testing is most needed. Copyright © 2018 Nash et al.

  8. Anthropogenic Viral Load on the Sources of Water in Kryvyi Rig

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.S. Prus

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the hepatropic viruses load on the natural sources of wastewater use of the industrial region. Methods. We investigated open water samples from places of water intake, which is later purified and used in consumer’s drinking purposes; river water samples in resting places and samples of sewage from discharge to the environment places. We used EUSA method using sets of reagents for the detection of antigen of hepatitis A virus (HAV HAV-antigen ELISA-Best (Russia, devices for the automatic washing of microplates and automatic record of the results using the immunoassay analyzer StatFax303 (Awareness Technology Inc., USA. Results. During 2000–2015 three peaks of the indication of HAV antigens’ rise in river water and sewage samples were noted. In 2002–2003 in average 34.4 and 32.3 % of the sewage and river water samples were positive, in 2008 26.7 and 27.1 %, respectively. The third peak of HAV antigen detection in open water was observed in 2012, only 17.8 %. Wastewater has been losing viral antigens since 2008, in fact to 0 % in 2013–2014. Conclusions. Aquatic ecosystem pollution by biological components occurs despite of primary treatment of wastewater. Drinking water contamination, which is used in everyday life, probably can be linked to an unsatisfactory condition of pipelines and laying of sewage supply.

  9. Honey Bee Viruses in Wild Bees: Viral Prevalence, Loads, and Experimental Inoculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolezal, Adam G; Hendrix, Stephen D; Scavo, Nicole A; Carrillo-Tripp, Jimena; Harris, Mary A; Wheelock, M Joseph; O'Neal, Matthew E; Toth, Amy L

    2016-01-01

    Evidence of inter-species pathogen transmission from managed to wild bees has sparked concern that emerging diseases could be causing or exacerbating wild bee declines. While some pathogens, like RNA viruses, have been found in pollen and wild bees, the threat these viruses pose to wild bees is largely unknown. Here, we tested 169 bees, representing 4 families and 8 genera, for five common honey bee (Apis mellifera) viruses, finding that more than 80% of wild bees harbored at least one virus. We also quantified virus titers in these bees, providing, for the first time, an assessment of viral load in a broad spectrum of wild bees. Although virus detection was very common, virus levels in the wild bees were minimal-similar to or lower than foraging honey bees and substantially lower than honey bees collected from hives. Furthermore, when we experimentally inoculated adults of two different bee species (Megachile rotundata and Colletes inaequalis) with a mixture of common viruses that is lethal to honey bees, we saw no effect on short term survival. Overall, we found that honey bee RNA viruses can be commonly detected at low levels in many wild bee species, but we found no evidence that these pathogens cause elevated short-term mortality effects. However, more work on these viruses is greatly needed to assess effects on additional bee species and life stages.

  10. Antiretroviral treatment adherence as a mediating factor between psychosocial variables and HIV viral load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attonito, Jennifer; Dévieux, Jessy G; Lerner, Brenda D G; Hospital, Michelle M; Rosenberg, Rhonda

    2014-01-01

    Psychosocial factors may directly impact HIV health measures such as viral load (VL) whether or not patients are taking antiretroviral treatment (ART) consistently. Structural equation modeling plus Baron and Kenny's (1986) four-step approach were used to test a mediated model predicting VL among 246 HIV-infected adults who were on ART. Exogenous variables were social support, barriers to adherence, and stress. Moderators were alcohol use, marijuana use, and neurocognitive impairment. A small positive association between marijuana use and ART adherence approached significance. Only barriers to adherence predicted a decrease in adherence rates and an increase in VL. No other factors were significantly associated with either VL or adherence, and no interaction effects between exogenous variables and moderators were identified. The association between barriers to adherence and VL was partially mediated by ART adherence. Findings provide modest support for a direct link between psychosocial variables and a virologic response to ART. Copyright © 2014 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Diagnosis, gB genotype distribution and viral load of symptomatic congenitally infected CMV patients in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, C; Kourí, V; Pérez, L; Soto, Y; Limia, C

    2016-10-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the leading cause of viral congenital infection. Some viral factors have been proposed to be CMV pathogenicity markers. The objective of this study was to investigate the frequency of congenital CMV infection in symptomatic patients and the possible association with the CMV glycoprotein B (gB) genotype and viral load. A total of 361 newborns (NB) and 158 pregnant women (PW) with clinically suspected CMV infection were enrolled. Studied samples included urine, saliva, serum, vaginal swabs and amniotic fluid. CMV infection was diagnosed by multiplex nested PCR. CMV gB genotyping was performed on infected samples, followed by viral load determination. Overall, 18.7% of the tested patients were positive for CMV infection, 19.7% of NB were congenitally infected and 16.5% of PW showed active CMV infection. gB-2 was the most prevalent genotype detected (39/97 patients). gB CMV mixed infections were detected in 12 patients. gB-2 was associated with mono-infections (PCMV load was statistically significant among patients presenting different clinical signs (P=0.04). This study showed that CMV is a frequent cause of congenital infection in symptomatic Cuban patients. Despite gB2 being the most frequently detected, gB-4 was the only genotype associated with clinical features (sepsis-like syndrome in NB). No other associations among specific genotypes and clinical characteristics were found. Further studies are needed to clarify the role that viral load and genotype play in the outcome of congenital infection.

  12. Erosion of beryllium under ITER – Relevant transient plasma loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kupriyanov, I.B.; Nikolaev, G.N.; Kurbatova, L.A.; Porezanov, N.P.; Podkovyrov, V.L.; Muzichenko, A.D.; Zhitlukhin, A.M.; Gervash, A.A.; Safronov, V.M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We study the erosion, mass loss/gain and surface structure evolution of Be/CuCrZr mock-ups, armored with beryllium of TGP-56FW grade after irradiation by deuterium plasma heat load of 0.5 MJ/m 2 at 250 °C and 500 °C. • Beryllium mass loss/erosion under plasma heat load at 250 °C is rather small (no more than 0.2 g/m 2 shot and 0.11 μm/shot, correspondingly, after 40 shots) and tends to decrease with increasing number of shots. • Beryllium mass loss/erosion under plasma heat load at 500 °C is much higher (∼2.3 g/m 2 shot and 1.2 μm/shot, correspondingly, after 10 shot) and tends to decrease with increasing the number of shots (∼0.26 g/m 2 pulse and 0.14 μm/shot, correspondingly, after 100 shot). • Beryllium erosion value derived from the measurements of profile of irradiated surface is much higher than erosion value derived from mass loss data. - Abstract: Beryllium will be used as a armor material for the ITER first wall. It is expected that erosion of beryllium under transient plasma loads such as the edge-localized modes (ELMs) and disruptions will mainly determine a lifetime of the ITER first wall. This paper presents the results of recent experiments with the Russian beryllium of TGP-56FW ITER grade on QSPA-Be plasma gun facility. The Be/CuCrZr mock-ups were exposed to up to 100 shots by deuterium plasma streams (5 cm in diameter) with pulse duration of 0.5 ms and heat loads range of 0.2–0.5 MJ/m 2 at different temperature of beryllium tiles. The temperature of Be tiles has been maintained about 250 and 500 °C during the experiments. After 10, 40 and 100 shots, the beryllium mass loss/gain under erosion process were investigated as well as evolution of surface microstructure and cracks morphology

  13. Erosion of beryllium under ITER – Relevant transient plasma loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupriyanov, I.B., E-mail: igkupr@gmail.com [A.A. Bochvar High Technology Research Institute of Inorganic Materials, Rogova St. 5a, 123060 Moscow (Russian Federation); Nikolaev, G.N.; Kurbatova, L.A.; Porezanov, N.P. [A.A. Bochvar High Technology Research Institute of Inorganic Materials, Rogova St. 5a, 123060 Moscow (Russian Federation); Podkovyrov, V.L.; Muzichenko, A.D.; Zhitlukhin, A.M. [TRINITI, Troitsk, Moscow reg. (Russian Federation); Gervash, A.A. [Efremov Research Institute, S-Peterburg (Russian Federation); Safronov, V.M. [Project Center of ITER, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • We study the erosion, mass loss/gain and surface structure evolution of Be/CuCrZr mock-ups, armored with beryllium of TGP-56FW grade after irradiation by deuterium plasma heat load of 0.5 MJ/m{sup 2} at 250 °C and 500 °C. • Beryllium mass loss/erosion under plasma heat load at 250 °C is rather small (no more than 0.2 g/m{sup 2} shot and 0.11 μm/shot, correspondingly, after 40 shots) and tends to decrease with increasing number of shots. • Beryllium mass loss/erosion under plasma heat load at 500 °C is much higher (∼2.3 g/m{sup 2} shot and 1.2 μm/shot, correspondingly, after 10 shot) and tends to decrease with increasing the number of shots (∼0.26 g/m{sup 2} pulse and 0.14 μm/shot, correspondingly, after 100 shot). • Beryllium erosion value derived from the measurements of profile of irradiated surface is much higher than erosion value derived from mass loss data. - Abstract: Beryllium will be used as a armor material for the ITER first wall. It is expected that erosion of beryllium under transient plasma loads such as the edge-localized modes (ELMs) and disruptions will mainly determine a lifetime of the ITER first wall. This paper presents the results of recent experiments with the Russian beryllium of TGP-56FW ITER grade on QSPA-Be plasma gun facility. The Be/CuCrZr mock-ups were exposed to up to 100 shots by deuterium plasma streams (5 cm in diameter) with pulse duration of 0.5 ms and heat loads range of 0.2–0.5 MJ/m{sup 2} at different temperature of beryllium tiles. The temperature of Be tiles has been maintained about 250 and 500 °C during the experiments. After 10, 40 and 100 shots, the beryllium mass loss/gain under erosion process were investigated as well as evolution of surface microstructure and cracks morphology.

  14. Simulation of plasma loading of high-pressure RF cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, K.; Samulyak, R.; Yonehara, K.; Freemire, B.

    2018-01-01

    Muon beam-induced plasma loading of radio-frequency (RF) cavities filled with high pressure hydrogen gas with 1% dry air dopant has been studied via numerical simulations. The electromagnetic code SPACE, that resolves relevant atomic physics processes, including ionization by the muon beam, electron attachment to dopant molecules, and electron-ion and ion-ion recombination, has been used. Simulations studies have been performed in the range of parameters typical for practical muon cooling channels.

  15. Simulation of plasma loading of high-pressure RF cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Computational Science Initiative; Samulyak, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Computational Science Initiative; Stony Brook Univ., NY (United States). Dept. of Applied Mathematics and Statistics; Yonehara, K. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Freemire, B. [Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States)

    2018-01-11

    Muon beam-induced plasma loading of radio-frequency (RF) cavities filled with high pressure hydrogen gas with 1% dry air dopant has been studied via numerical simulations. The electromagnetic code SPACE, that resolves relevant atomic physics processes, including ionization by the muon beam, electron attachment to dopant molecules, and electron-ion and ion-ion recombination, has been used. Simulations studies have also been performed in the range of parameters typical for practical muon cooling channels.

  16. Heat loads on plasma facing components during disruptions on JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnoux, G.; Riccardo, V.; Fundamenski, W.; Loarte, A.; Huber, A.

    2009-01-01

    For the first time, fast measurements of heat loads on the main chamber plasma facing components (about 1 ms time resolution) during disruptions are taken on JET. The timescale of energy deposition during the thermal quench is estimated and compared with the timescale of the core plasma collapse measured with soft x-ray diagnostic. The energy deposition time is 3-8 times longer than the plasma energy collapse during density limit disruptions or radiative limit disruptions. This factor is rather in the range 1.5-4 for vertical displacement events. The heat load profiles measured during the thermal quench show substantial broadening of the power footprint on the upper dump plate. The scrape-off layer power width is increased by a factor of 3 for the density limit disruptions. The far scrape-off layer is characterized by a steeper gradient which could be explained by shadowing of the dump plate by other main chamber plasma facing components such as the outer limiter.

  17. Detection of Viral RNA in Tissues following Plasma Clearance from an Ebola Virus Infected Patient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirella Biava

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An unprecedented Ebola virus (EBOV epidemic occurred in 2013-2016 in West Africa. Over this time the epidemic exponentially grew and moved to Europe and North America, with several imported cases and many Health Care Workers (HCW infected. Better understanding of EBOV infection patterns in different body compartments is mandatory to develop new countermeasures, as well as to fully comprehend the pathways of human-to-human transmission. We have longitudinally explored the persistence of EBOV-specific negative sense genomic RNA (neg-RNA and the presence of positive sense RNA (pos-RNA, including both replication intermediate (antigenomic-RNA and messenger RNA (mRNA molecules, in the upper and lower respiratory tract, as compared to plasma, in a HCW infected with EBOV in Sierra Leone, who was hospitalized in the high isolation facility of the National Institute for Infectious Diseases "Lazzaro Spallanzani" (INMI, Rome, Italy. We observed persistence of pos-RNA and neg-RNAs in longitudinally collected specimens of the lower respiratory tract, even after viral clearance from plasma, suggesting possible local replication. The purpose of the present study is to enhance the knowledge on the biological features of EBOV that can contribute to the human-to-human transmissibility and to develop effective intervention strategies. However, further investigation is needed in order to better understand the clinical meaning of viral replication and shedding in the respiratory tract.

  18. Avaliação de ensaio molecular para determinação de carga viral em indivíduos sorologicamente negativos para o HIV-1 Evaluation of a molecular assay for determining viral load on HIV-1 antibody negative patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Moreira Pereira

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O teste de carga viral foi concebido para acompanhar a evolução e o tratamento do paciente com diagnóstico confirmado de HIV-1. Contudo, sua especificidade diagnóstica não foi ainda avaliada em pessoas que apresentam um teste sorológico negativo. Mesmo assim, ele tem sido erroneamente utilizado para o diagnóstico da infecção primária pelo HIV-1. Este trabalho relata quatro pacientes em que a carga viral plasmática NucliSens (Organon Teknika foi repetidamente positiva na ausência de anticorpos para HIV e chama atenção para o fato de que a carga viral abaixo de 10 mil cópias/ml é de difícil interpretação, como tem sido assinalado em numerosos artigos, em que foram utilizadas outras metodologias.The plasma viral load test for HIV-1,a exquisitely high sensitive assay, were neither developed nor evaluated for the diagnosis of primary HIV infection; therefore, their diagnostic specificity is not well delineated when applied to persons who are negative for HIV antibody. This article reported four cases of false positive results obtained by using NucliSens viral load assay (Organon Teknika and emphasize the importance that low positive plasma viral load (< 10 000 copies/ml may be difficult to interpret how has been assinalated in numerous articles in the medical literature, using other methodologies.

  19. Human Papillomavirus 16, 18, 31 and 45 viral load, integration and methylation status stratified by cervical disease stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marongiu, Luigi; Godi, Anna; Parry, John V; Beddows, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Persistent infection with oncogenic Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is associated with the development of cervical cancer with each genotype differing in their relative contribution to the prevalence of cervical disease. HPV DNA testing offers improved sensitivity over cytology testing alone but is accompanied by a generally low specificity. Potential molecular markers of cervical disease include type-specific viral load (VL), integration of HPV DNA into the host genome and methylation of the HPV genome. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between HPV type-specific viral load, integration and methylation status and cervical disease stage in samples harboring HPV16, HPV18, HPV31 or HPV45. Samples singly infected with HPV16 (n = 226), HPV18 (n = 32), HPV31 (n = 75) or HPV45 (n = 29) were selected from a cohort of 4,719 women attending cervical screening in England. Viral load and integration status were determined by real-time PCR while 3’L1-URR methylation status was determined by pyrosequencing or sequencing of multiple clones derived from each sample. Viral load could differentiate between normal and abnormal cytology with a sensitivity of 75% and a specificity of 80% (odds ratio [OR] 12.4, 95% CI 6.2–26.1; p < 0.001) with some variation between genotypes. Viral integration was poorly associated with cervical disease. Few samples had fully integrated genomes and these could be found throughout the course of disease. Overall, integration status could distinguish between normal and abnormal cytology with a sensitivity of 72% and a specificity of 50% (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.0–6.8; p = 0.054). Methylation levels were able to differentiate normal and low grade cytology from high grade cytology with a sensitivity of 64% and a specificity of 82% (OR 8.2, 95% CI 3.8–18.0; p < 0.001). However, methylation varied widely between genotypes with HPV18 and HPV45 exhibiting a broader degree and higher magnitude of methylated CpG sites than HPV16 and HPV31. This

  20. Epstein-Barr virus: general factors, virus-related diseases and measurement of viral load after transplant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Cristina Fagundes Gequelin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The Epstein-Barr virus is responsible for infectious mononucleosis syndrome and is also closely associated to several types of cancer. The main complication involving Epstein-Barr virus infection, both in recipients of hematopoietic stem cells and solid organs, is post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease. The importance of this disease has increased interest in the development of laboratory tools to improve post-transplant monitoring and to detect the disease before clinical evolution. Viral load analysis for Epstein-Barr virus through real-time polymerase chain reaction is, at present, the best tool to measure viral load. However, there is not a consensus on which sample type is the best for the test and what is its predictive value for therapeutic interventions.

  1. Prevalence of Oral Manifestations and Their Association with CD4/CD8 Ratio and HIV Viral Load in South India

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    Sharma Gaurav

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present research was to determine the prevalence of oral manifestations in an HIV infected population from south India and evaluate their association with HIV viral load and CD4/CD8 ratio. Intraoral examination of 103 patients, whose CD4/CD8 ratio was available, were conducted. HIV viral loads were available for thirty patients only. The prevalence of oral manifestations was 80.6% (83/103. The most common oromucosal lesion was erythematous candidiasis (EC (38.8% followed by melanotic hyperpigmentation (35.9%. Patients having any oral manifestation had a mean CD4/CD8 ratio of 0.24. EC had positive predictive value of 85.0% for CD4/CD8 ratio 20,000 copies/mL (20,000 copies/mL.

  2. Membrane Bioreactor-Based Wastewater Treatment Plant in Saudi Arabia: Reduction of Viral Diversity, Load, and Infectious Capacity

    KAUST Repository

    Jumat, Muhammad

    2017-07-18

    A membrane bioreactor (MBR)-based wastewater treatment plant in Saudi Arabia was assessed over a nine-month period for virus removal efficiency. Viral diversity was detected using omics-based approaches. Log reduction values (LRV) of Adenoviruses (AdV) and Enteroviruses (EV) were enumerated using digital polymerase chain reaction (dPCR) and assessed for infectivity using fluorescence-based infection assays. MBR treatment was successful in reducing viral diversity. Plant viruses remained abundant in the treated effluent. Human enteric viruses were present in lower abundance than plant viruses, and were reduced by MBR at varying LRV. AdV copy numbers were reduced by 3.7-log. Infectious AdV was not detected in the effluent. EV copy numbers were reduced by 1.7-log post MBR and infectious EV decreased by an average of 2.0-log. Infectious EV was detected in the chlorinated effluent, occasionally in concentrations that approximate to its 50% infectious dose. Overall, results indicated that a MBR-based wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effectively reduces viral diversity, viral load, and infectious capacity by up to 4-logs. These findings suggest potential concerns associated with plant and human enteric viruses for reuse events in this country. Local guidelines for assessment of treated water quality should take into consideration both infectious viral concentration and LRV.

  3. [Clinical use of virally inactived plasma. The experience of Blood Transfusion Unit in Mantova, Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepri, Debora; Capuzzo, Enrico; Mattioli, Anna Vittoria; Dall'Oglio, Daniela; Sgarioto, Vincenzo; Terenziani, Isabella; Caramaschi, Giacomo; Manzato, Franco; Franchini, Massimo

    2013-03-01

    Fresh Frozen Plasma (FFP) is a blood component whose clinical use is widespread worldwide. Transfusion safety of this product is ensured by legally obligatory tests. Although these tests are carried out on each plasma donation, safety levels can be further improved by using some technical procedures, such as, among others, methylene blue (MB) and solvent-detergent (SD) viral inactivation methods. The DMTE (Blood Transfusion Unit) in Mantova has used the pharmaceutical-like SD virally inactivated plasma since 2007 (Plasmasafe, Kedrion) as replacement of the PFC by each single donor. Guidelines for the usage of both products are the same. With the main aim of assessing the therapeutic effectiveness and safety of Plasmasafe, we decided to clinically monitor transfusions performed with this product on patients of the Intensive Care Unit at the city hospital in Mantova. In addition, we controlled some coagulation parameters (PT, aPTT, ATIII, Fibrinogen, PC, PS, FV, FVII, FVIII) before and 24 hours after the Plasmasafe infusion. From a clinical point of view, the use of Plasmasafe always led to a significant reduction, or complete stop, of the bleeding. No transfusion-related adverse events were recorded. As regards, the most relevant laboratory results, a marked increase in the above mentioned hemostatic parameters was detected. Furthermore, patients transfused with this product received a mean volume significantly lower than an historical cohort of patients treated with FFP (503 mL with Plasmasafe versus 1549 mL with FFP, Pcost-effective treatment, able to rapidly correct hemostatic abnormalities, for critical patients.

  4. Dried blood spots for viral load monitoring in Malawi: feasible and effective.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E Rutstein

    Full Text Available To evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of dried blood spots (DBS use for viral load (VL monitoring, describing patient outcomes and programmatic challenges that are relevant for DBS implementation in sub-Saharan Africa.We recruited adult antiretroviral therapy (ART patients from five district hospitals in Malawi. Eligibility reflected anticipated Ministry of Health VL monitoring criteria. Testing was conducted at a central laboratory. Virological failure was defined as >5000 copies/ml. Primary outcomes were program feasibility (timely result availability and patient receipt and effectiveness (second-line therapy initiation.We enrolled 1,498 participants; 5.9% were failing at baseline. Median time from enrollment to receipt of results was 42 days; 79.6% of participants received results within 3 months. Among participants with confirmed elevated VL, 92.6% initiated second-line therapy; 90.7% were switched within 365 days of VL testing. Nearly one-third (30.8% of participants with elevated baseline VL had suppressed (4 years were more likely to be failing than participants on therapy 1-4 years (RR 1.7, 95% CI 1.0-2.8; older participants were less likely to be failing (RR 0.95, 95% CI 0.92-0.98. There was no difference in likelihood of failure based on clinical symptoms (RR 1.17, 95% CI 0.65-2.11.DBS for VL monitoring is feasible and effective in real-world clinical settings. Centralized DBS testing may increase access to VL monitoring in remote settings. Programmatic outcomes are encouraging, especially proportion of eligible participants switched to second-line therapy.

  5. KINETICS OF VIRAL LOADS AND GENOTYPIC ANALYSIS OF ELEPHANT ENDOTHELIOTROPIC HERPESVIRUS-1 INFECTION IN CAPTIVE ASIAN ELEPHANTS (ELEPHAS MAXIMUS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Jeffrey J.; Zong, Jian-Chao; Eng, Crystal; Howard, Lauren; Flanagan, Joe; Stevens, Martina; Schmitt, Dennis; Wiedner, Ellen; Graham, Danielle; Junge, Randall E.; Weber, Martha A.; Fischer, Martha; Mejia, Alicia; Tan, Jie; Latimer, Erin; Herron, Alan; Hayward, Gary S.; Ling, Paul D.

    2013-01-01

    Elephant endotheliotropic herpesviruses (EEHVs) can cause fatal hemorrhagic disease in juvenile Asian elephants (Elephas maximus); however, sporadic shedding of virus in trunk washes collected from healthy elephants also has been detected. Data regarding the relationship of viral loads in blood compared with trunk washes are lacking, and questions about whether elephants can undergo multiple infections with EEHVs have not been addressed previously. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to determine the kinetics of EEHV1 loads, and genotypic analysis was performed on EEHV1 DNA detected in various fluid samples obtained from five Asian elephants that survived detectable EEHV1 DNAemia on at least two separate occasions. In three elephants displaying clinical signs of illness, preclinical EEHV1 DNAemia was detectable, and peak whole-blood viral loads occurred 3–8 days after the onset of clinical signs. In two elephants with EEHV1 DNAemia that persisted for 7–21 days, no clinical signs of illness were observed. Detection of EEHV1 DNA in trunk washes peaked approximately 21 days after DNAemia, and viral genotypes detected during DNAemia matched those detected in subsequent trunk washes from the same elephant. In each of the five elephants, two distinct EEHV1 genotypes were identified in whole blood and trunk washes at different time points. In each case, these genotypes represented both an EEHV1A and an EEHV1B subtype. These data suggest that knowledge of viral loads could be useful for the management of elephants before or during clinical illness. Furthermore, sequential infection with both EEHV1 subtypes occurs in Asian elephants, suggesting that they do not elicit cross-protective sterilizing immunity. These data will be useful to individuals involved in the husbandry and clinical care of Asian elephants. PMID:23505702

  6. Clinical value of indicators of cationic proteins, leukocytes myeloperoxidase and fibronectin blood plasma in viral meningitis in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. G. Kimirilova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: was to establish clinical and diagnostic value of cytochemical indices of peripheral blood leukocytes (cationic protein and myeloperoxidase, fibronectin blood plasma to assess the severity, predict the course and outcome of viral meningitis in children.Subjects and methods. In 450 patients with viral meningitis (enterovirus, arbovirus, parotitic, herpesviral, adenovirus etiology at the age of 14 years, the parameters of the microbicidal system of leukocytes (cation proteins, myeloperoxidase and fibronectin blood plasma were determined. Etiological diagnosis of meningitis was confirmed by release of viral RNA from blood and cerebrospinal fluid by the polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA.The results and conclusion. Found that severe, prolonged duration, lethal outcome of viral meningitis in children are accompanied by sugnificant suppression of cationic proteins, myeloperoxidase, fibronectin blood plasma, maximally expressed in lethal outcomes, compared with the severe form, but with a favorable outcome and control. Settings imbalance cationic proteins, myeloperoxidase, fibronectin blood plasma are objective criteria of the adaptation syndrome that reflects the state of the phagocytosis system in viral meningitis in children and can be considered as additional criteria for predicting the course and outcome of disease.

  7. Erosion of beryllium under ITER - Relevant transient plasma loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupriyanov, I. B.; Nikolaev, G. N.; Kurbatova, L. A.; Porezanov, N. P.; Podkovyrov, V. L.; Muzichenko, A. D.; Zhitlukhin, A. M.; Gervash, A. A.; Safronov, V. M.

    2015-08-01

    Beryllium will be used as a armor material for the ITER first wall. It is expected that erosion of beryllium under transient plasma loads such as the edge-localized modes (ELMs) and disruptions will mainly determine a lifetime of the ITER first wall. This paper presents the results of recent experiments with the Russian beryllium of TGP-56FW ITER grade on QSPA-Be plasma gun facility. The Be/CuCrZr mock-ups were exposed to up to 100 shots by deuterium plasma streams (5 cm in diameter) with pulse duration of 0.5 ms and heat loads range of 0.2-0.5 MJ/m2 at different temperature of beryllium tiles. The temperature of Be tiles has been maintained about 250 and 500 °C during the experiments. After 10, 40 and 100 shots, the beryllium mass loss/gain under erosion process were investigated as well as evolution of surface microstructure and cracks morphology.

  8. Time to viral load suppression in antiretroviral-naive and -experienced HIV-infected pregnant women on highly active antiretroviral therapy: implications for pregnant women presenting late in gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, N; Sokoloff, A; Kornak, J; Leva, N V; Mendiola, M L; Levison, J; Feakins, C; Shannon, M; Cohan, D

    2013-11-01

    To compare time to achieve viral load HIV-infected antiretroviral (ARV) -naive versus ARV-experienced pregnant women on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Retrospective cohort study. Three university medical centers, USA. HIV-infected pregnant women initiated or restarted on HAART during pregnancy. We calculated time to viral load HIV-infected pregnant women on HAART who reported at least 50% adherence, stratifying based on previous ARV exposure history. Time to HIV viral load HIV-infected pregnant women, comprising 76 ARV-naive and 62 ARV-experienced. Ninety-three percent of ARV-naive women achieved a viral load HIV log10 viral load was associated with a later time of achieving viral load HIV log10 viral load was associated with a longer time of achieving viral load Pregnant women with ≥50% adherence, whether ARV-naive or ARV-experienced, on average achieve a viral load HIV log10 viral load were all statistically significant predictors of earlier time to achieve viral load <400 copies/ml and <1000 copies/ml. Increased CD4 count was statistically significant as a predictor of earlier time to achieve viral load <1000 copies/ml. © 2013 The Authors BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2013 RCOG.

  9. Merkel cell carcinoma: histopathologic and prognostic features according to the immunohistochemical expression of Merkel cell polyomavirus large T antigen correlated with viral load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroux-Kozal, Valérie; Lévêque, Nicolas; Brodard, Véronique; Lesage, Candice; Dudez, Oriane; Makeieff, Marc; Kanagaratnam, Lukshe; Diebold, Marie-Danièle

    2015-03-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a neuroendocrine skin malignancy frequently associated with Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV), which is suspected to be oncogenic. In a series of MCC patients, we compared clinical, histopathologic, and prognostic features according to the expression of viral large T antigen (LTA) correlated with viral load. We evaluated the LTA expression by immunohistochemistry using CM2B4 antibody and quantified viral load by real-time polymerase chain reaction. We analyzed formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples (n = 36) and corresponding fresh-frozen biopsies when available (n = 12), of the primary tumor and/or metastasis from 24 patients. MCPyV was detected in 88% and 58% of MCC patients by real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry, respectively. The relevance of viral load measurements was demonstrated by the strong consistency of viral load level between FFPE and corresponding frozen tissues as well as between primary tumor and metastases. From FFPE samples, 2 MCC subgroups were distinguished based on a viral load threshold defined by the positivity of CM2B4 immunostaining. In the LTA-negative subgroup with no or low viral load (nonsignificant), tumor cells showed more anisokaryosis (P = .01), and a solar elastosis around the tumor was more frequently observed (P = .03). LTA-positive MCCs with significant viral load had a lower proliferation index (P = .03) and a longer survival of corresponding patients (P = .008). Depending on MCPyV involvement, 2 MCC subgroups can be distinguished on histopathologic criteria, and the CM2B4 antibody is able to differentiate them reliably. Furthermore, the presence of a significant viral load in tumors is predictive of better prognosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Integrase inhibitors in late pregnancy and rapid HIV viral load reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahangdale, Lisa; Cates, Jordan; Potter, JoNell; Badell, Martina L; Seidman, Dominika; Miller, Emilly S; Coleman, Jenell S; Lazenby, Gweneth B; Levison, Judy; Short, William R; Yawetz, Sigal; Ciaranello, Andrea; Livingston, Elizabeth; Duthely, Lunthita; Rimawi, Bassam H; Anderson, Jean R; Stringer, Elizabeth M

    2016-03-01

    Minimizing time to HIV viral suppression is critical in pregnancy. Integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs), like raltegravir, are known to rapidly suppress plasma HIV RNA in nonpregnant adults. There are limited data in pregnant women. We describe time to clinically relevant reduction in HIV RNA in pregnant women using INSTI-containing and non-INSTI-containing antiretroviral therapy (ART) options. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of pregnant HIV-infected women in the United States from 2009 through 2015. We included women who initiated ART, intensified their regimen, or switched to a new regimen due to detectable viremia (HIV RNA >40 copies/mL) at ≥20 weeks gestation. Among women with a baseline HIV RNA permitting 1-log reduction, we estimated time to 1-log RNA reduction using the Kaplan-Meier estimator comparing women starting/adding an INSTI in their regimen vs other ART. To compare groups with similar follow-up time, we also conducted a subgroup analysis limited to women with ≤14 days between baseline and follow-up RNA data. This study describes 101 HIV-infected pregnant women from 11 US clinics. In all, 75% (76/101) of women were not taking ART at baseline; 24 were taking non-INSTI containing ART, and 1 received zidovudine monotherapy. In all, 39% (39/101) of women started an INSTI-containing regimen or added an INSTI to their ART regimen. Among 90 women with a baseline HIV RNA permitting 1-log reduction, the median time to 1-log RNA reduction was 8 days (interquartile range [IQR], 7-14) in the INSTI group vs 35 days (IQR, 20-53) in the non-INSTI ART group (P pregnancy. Inclusion of an INSTI may play a role in optimal reduction of HIV RNA for HIV-infected pregnant women presenting late to care or failing initial therapy. Larger studies are urgently needed to assess the safety and effectiveness of this approach. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Randomized Controlled Trials to Define Viral Load Thresholds for Cytomegalovirus Pre-Emptive Therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul D Griffiths

    Full Text Available To help decide when to start and when to stop pre-emptive therapy for cytomegalovirus infection, we conducted two open-label randomized controlled trials in renal, liver and bone marrow transplant recipients in a single centre where pre-emptive therapy is indicated if viraemia exceeds 3000 genomes/ml (2520 IU/ml of whole blood.Patients with two consecutive viraemia episodes each below 3000 genomes/ml were randomized to continue monitoring or to immediate treatment (Part A. A separate group of patients with viral load greater than 3000 genomes/ml was randomized to stop pre-emptive therapy when two consecutive levels less than 200 genomes/ml (168 IU/ml or less than 3000 genomes/ml were obtained (Part B. For both parts, the primary endpoint was the occurrence of a separate episode of viraemia requiring treatment because it was greater than 3000 genomes/ml.In Part A, the primary endpoint was not significantly different between the two arms; 18/32 (56% in the monitor arm had viraemia greater than 3000 genomes/ml compared to 10/27 (37% in the immediate treatment arm (p = 0.193. However, the time to developing an episode of viraemia greater than 3000 genomes/ml was significantly delayed among those randomized to immediate treatment (p = 0.022. In Part B, the primary endpoint was not significantly different between the two arms; 19/55 (35% in the less than 200 genomes/ml arm subsequently had viraemia greater than 3000 genomes/ml compared to 23/51 (45% among those randomized to stop treatment in the less than 3000 genomes/ml arm (p = 0.322. However, the duration of antiviral treatment was significantly shorter (p = 0.0012 in those randomized to stop treatment when viraemia was less than 3000 genomes/ml.The results illustrate that patients have continuing risks for CMV infection with limited time available for intervention. We see no need to alter current rules for stopping or starting pre-emptive therapy.

  12. Latent viral reactivation is associated with changes in plasma antimicrobial protein concentrations during long-duration spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielmann, G.; Laughlin, M. S.; Kunz, H.; Crucian, B. E.; Quiriarte, H. D.; Mehta, S. K.; Pierson, D. L.; Simpson, R. J.

    2018-05-01

    Long duration spaceflights are associated with profound dysregulation of the immune system and latent viral reactivations. However, little is known on the impact of long duration spaceflight on innate immunity which raises concerns on crewmembers' ability to fight infections during a mission. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of spaceflight on plasma antimicrobial proteins (AMPs) and how these changes impact latent herpesvirus reactivations. Plasma, saliva and urine samples were obtained from 23 crewmembers before, during and after a 6-month mission on the International Space Station (ISS). Plasma AMP concentrations were determined by ELISA, and saliva Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and varicella zoster virus (VZV) and urine cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA levels were quantified by Real-Time PCR. There was a non-significant increase in plasma HNP1-3 and LL-37 during the early and middle stages of the missions, which was significantly associated with changes in viral DNA during and after spaceflight. Plasma HNP1-3 and Lysozyme increased at the late mission stages in astronauts who had exhibited EBV and VZV reactivations during the early flight stages. Following return to Earth and during recovery, HNP1-3 and lysozyme concentrations were associated with EBV and VZV viral DNA levels, reducing the magnitude of viral reactivation. Reductions in plasma LL-37 upon return were associated with greater CMV reactivation. This study shows that biomarkers of innate immunity appeared to be partially restored after 6-months in space and suggests that following adaptation to the space environment, plasma HNP1-3 and lysozyme facilitate the control of EBV and VZV reactivation rate and magnitude in space and upon return on earth. However, the landing-associated decline in plasma LL-37 may enhance the rate of CMV reactivation in astronauts following spaceflight, potentially compromising crewmember health after landing.

  13. Characterizing Class-Specific Exposure-Viral Load Suppression Response of HIV Antiretrovirals Using A Model-Based Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y; Li, Y F; Zhang, D; Dockendorf, M; Tetteh, E; Rizk, M L; Grobler, J A; Lai, M-T; Gobburu, J; Ankrom, W

    2016-08-01

    We applied model-based meta-analysis of viral suppression as a function of drug exposure and in vitro potency for short-term monotherapy in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected treatment-naïve patients to set pharmacokinetic targets for development of nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) and integrase strand transfer inhibitors (InSTIs). We developed class-specific models relating viral load kinetics from monotherapy studies to potency normalized steady-state trough plasma concentrations. These models were integrated with a literature assessment of doses which demonstrated to have long-term efficacy in combination therapy, in order to set steady-state trough concentration targets of 6.17- and 2.15-fold above potency for NNRTIs and InSTIs, respectively. Both the models developed and the pharmacokinetic targets derived can be used to guide compound selection during preclinical development and to predict the dose-response of new antiretrovirals to inform early clinical trial design. © 2016 The Authors. Clinical and Translational Science published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  14. Characterizing Class‐Specific Exposure‐Viral Load Suppression Response of HIV Antiretrovirals Using A Model‐Based Meta‐Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y; Li, YF; Zhang, D; Dockendorf, M; Tetteh, E; Rizk, ML; Grobler, JA; Lai, M‐T; Gobburu, J

    2016-01-01

    We applied model‐based meta‐analysis of viral suppression as a function of drug exposure and in vitro potency for short‐term monotherapy in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV‐1)‐infected treatment‐naïve patients to set pharmacokinetic targets for development of nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) and integrase strand transfer inhibitors (InSTIs). We developed class‐specific models relating viral load kinetics from monotherapy studies to potency normalized steady‐state trough plasma concentrations. These models were integrated with a literature assessment of doses which demonstrated to have long‐term efficacy in combination therapy, in order to set steady‐state trough concentration targets of 6.17‐ and 2.15‐fold above potency for NNRTIs and InSTIs, respectively. Both the models developed and the pharmacokinetic targets derived can be used to guide compound selection during preclinical development and to predict the dose–response of new antiretrovirals to inform early clinical trial design. PMID:27171172

  15. Contribution of different antiretroviral regimens containing zidovudine, lamivudine and ritonavir-boosted lopinavir on HIV viral load reduction during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sripan, Patumrat; Le Coeur, Sophie; Ingsrisawang, Lily; Cressey, Tim R; Bouazza, Naïm; Foissac, Frantz; Ngo-Giang-Huong, Nicole; Traisathit, Patrinee; Srirompotong, Ussanee; Ayudhaya, Orada Patamasingh Na; Puangsombat, Achara; Jungpipun, Jantana; Jittayanun, Kanokwan; Tréluyer, Jean-Marc; Jourdain, Gonzague; Lallemant, Marc; Urien, Saïk

    2016-01-01

    Antiretroviral (ARV) regimens used for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV have evolved over time. We evaluated the contribution of different ARV regimens on the reduction of the plasma HIV RNA viral load (VL) during pregnancy. A total of 1,833 VL measurements from ARV-naive pregnant women participating in perinatal prevention trials in Thailand were included. Women received either zidovudine (ZDV) monotherapy, ZDV plus lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r), or ZDV plus lamivudine (3TC) plus LPV/r. VL time-course during pregnancy was described as a function of pretreatment VL and treatment duration using an Emax non-linear mixed-effect model. VL reduction and median time to achieve a VL<50 copies/ml were estimated for each regimen. Among 745 women, 279 (37%), 145 (20%) and 321 (43%) received ZDV monotherapy, ZDV+LPV/r and ZDV+3TC+LPV/r, respectively. The predicted VL reduction from baseline to delivery after a median of 10 weeks of treatment were 0.5, 2.7 and 2.9 log10 copies/ml with ZDV monotherapy, ZDV+LPV/r and ZDV+3TC+LPV/r, respectively. At delivery, 1%, 57% and 63% of women receiving ZDV monotherapy, ZDV+LPV/r or ZDV+3TC+LPV/r had a VL<50 copies/ml. The addition of 3TC to ZDV+LPV/r reduced the time to achieve a VL<50 copies/ml and the higher the pretreatment VL, the larger the effect 3TC had on reducing the time to VL<50 copies/ml. The addition of 3TC to ZDV+LPV/r was associated with a slight further VL reduction but the time to reach a VL<50 copies/ml was shorter. This beneficial effect of 3TC is crucial for prevention of mother-to-child transmission in women who receive ARVs late and with high pretreatment VL.

  16. Computerized counseling reduces HIV-1 viral load and sexual transmission risk: findings from a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurth, Ann E; Spielberg, Freya; Cleland, Charles M; Lambdin, Barrot; Bangsberg, David R; Frick, Pamela A; Severynen, Anneleen O; Clausen, Marc; Norman, Robert G; Lockhart, David; Simoni, Jane M; Holmes, King K

    2014-04-15

    Evaluate a computerized intervention supporting antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence and HIV transmission prevention. Longitudinal randomized controlled trial. An academic HIV clinic and a community-based organization in Seattle. In a total of 240 HIV-positive adults on ART, 209 completed 9-month follow-up (87% retention). Randomization to computerized counseling or assessment only, 4 sessions over 9 months. HIV-1 viral suppression, and self-reported ART adherence and transmission risks, compared using generalized estimating equations. Overall, intervention participants had reduced viral load: mean 0.17 log10 decline, versus 0.13 increase in controls, P = 0.053, and significant difference in ART adherence baseline to 9 months (P = 0.046). Their sexual transmission risk behaviors decreased (odds ratio = 0.55, P = 0.020), a reduction not seen among controls (odds ratio = 1.1, P = 0.664), and a significant difference in change (P = 0.040). Intervention effect was driven by those most in need; among those with detectable virus at baseline (>30 copies/mL, n = 89), intervention effect was mean 0.60 log10 viral load decline versus 0.15 increase in controls, P = 0.034. ART adherence at the final follow-up was 13 points higher among intervention participants versus controls, P = 0.038. Computerized counseling is promising for integrated ART adherence and safer sex, especially for individuals with problems in these areas. This is the first intervention to report improved ART adherence, viral suppression, and reduced secondary sexual transmission risk behavior.

  17. Neisseria gonorrhoeae co-infection exacerbates vaginal HIV shedding without affecting systemic viral loads in human CD34+ engrafted mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacey X Xu

    Full Text Available HIV synergy with sexually transmitted co-infections is well-documented in the clinic. Co-infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae in particular, increases genital HIV shedding and mucosal transmission. However, no animal model of co-infection currently exists to directly explore this relationship or to bridge the gap in understanding between clinical and in vitro studies of this interaction. This study aims to test the feasibility of using a humanized mouse model to overcome this barrier. Combining recent in vivo modelling advancements in both HIV and gonococcal research, we developed a co-infection model by engrafting immunodeficient NSG mice with human CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells to generate humanized mice that permit both systemic HIV infection and genital N. gonorrhoeae infection. Systemic plasma and vaginal lavage titres of HIV were measured in order to assess the impact of gonococcal challenge on viral plasma titres and genital shedding. Engrafted mice showed human CD45+ leukocyte repopulation in blood and mucosal tissues. Systemic HIV challenge resulted in 104-105 copies/mL of viral RNA in blood by week 4 post-infection, as well as vaginal shedding of virus. Subsequent gonococcal challenge resulted in unchanged plasma HIV levels but higher viral shedding in the genital tract, which reflects published clinical observations. Thus, human CD34+ stem cell-transplanted NSG mice represent an experimentally tractable animal model in which to study HIV shedding during gonococcal co-infection, allowing dissection of molecular and immunological interactions between these pathogens, and providing a platform to assess future therapeutics aimed at reducing HIV transmission.

  18. Neisseria gonorrhoeae co-infection exacerbates vaginal HIV shedding without affecting systemic viral loads in human CD34+ engrafted mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Stacey X; Leontyev, Danila; Kaul, Rupert; Gray-Owen, Scott D

    2018-01-01

    HIV synergy with sexually transmitted co-infections is well-documented in the clinic. Co-infection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae in particular, increases genital HIV shedding and mucosal transmission. However, no animal model of co-infection currently exists to directly explore this relationship or to bridge the gap in understanding between clinical and in vitro studies of this interaction. This study aims to test the feasibility of using a humanized mouse model to overcome this barrier. Combining recent in vivo modelling advancements in both HIV and gonococcal research, we developed a co-infection model by engrafting immunodeficient NSG mice with human CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells to generate humanized mice that permit both systemic HIV infection and genital N. gonorrhoeae infection. Systemic plasma and vaginal lavage titres of HIV were measured in order to assess the impact of gonococcal challenge on viral plasma titres and genital shedding. Engrafted mice showed human CD45+ leukocyte repopulation in blood and mucosal tissues. Systemic HIV challenge resulted in 104-105 copies/mL of viral RNA in blood by week 4 post-infection, as well as vaginal shedding of virus. Subsequent gonococcal challenge resulted in unchanged plasma HIV levels but higher viral shedding in the genital tract, which reflects published clinical observations. Thus, human CD34+ stem cell-transplanted NSG mice represent an experimentally tractable animal model in which to study HIV shedding during gonococcal co-infection, allowing dissection of molecular and immunological interactions between these pathogens, and providing a platform to assess future therapeutics aimed at reducing HIV transmission.

  19. Unnecessary antiretroviral treatment switches and accumulation of HIV resistance mutations; two arguments for viral load monitoring in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigaloff, Kim C E; Hamers, Raph L; Wallis, Carole L; Kityo, Cissy; Siwale, Margaret; Ive, Prudence; Botes, Mariette E; Mandaliya, Kishor; Wellington, Maureen; Osibogun, Akin; Stevens, Wendy S; van Vugt, Michèle; de Wit, Tobias F Rinke

    2011-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate the consequences of using clinicoimmunological criteria to detect antiretroviral treatment (ART) failure and guide regimen switches in HIV-infected adults in sub-Saharan Africa. Frequencies of unnecessary switches, patterns of HIV drug resistance, and risk factors for the accumulation of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI)-associated mutations were evaluated. Cross-sectional analysis of adults switching ART regimens at 13 clinical sites in 6 African countries was performed. Two types of failure identification were compared: diagnosis of clinicoimmunological failure without viral load testing (CIF only) or CIF with local targeted viral load testing (targeted VL). After study enrollment, reference HIV RNA and genotype were determined retrospectively. Logistic regression assessed factors associated with multiple thymidine analogue mutations (TAMs) and NRTI cross-resistance (≥2 TAMs or Q151M or K65R/K70E). Of 250 patients with CIF switching to second-line ART, targeted VL was performed in 186. Unnecessary switch at reference HIV RNA <1000 copies per milliliter occurred in 46.9% of CIF only patients versus 12.4% of patients with targeted VL (P < 0.001). NRTI cross-resistance was observed in 48.0% of 183 specimens available for genotypic analysis, comprising ≥2 TAMs (37.7%), K65R (7.1%), K70E (3.3%), or Q151M (3.3%). The presence of NRTI cross-resistance was associated with the duration of ART exposure and zidovudine use. Clinicoimmunological monitoring without viral load testing resulted in frequent unnecessary regimen switches. Prolonged treatment failure was indicated by extensive NRTI cross-resistance. Access to virological monitoring should be expanded to prevent inappropriate switches, enable early failure detection and preserve second-line treatment options in Africa.

  20. Hybrid capture 2 viral load and the 2-year cumulative risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castle, Philip E; Schiffman, Mark; Wheeler, Cosette M

    2004-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the clinical value of a semiquantitative measure of human papillomavirus viral load by the hybrid capture 2 assay for stratification of the risk of histologic cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or carcinoma. The Atypical Cells of Unknown Significance and Low-Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions Triage Study was a randomized clinical trial of 5060 women with 2 years of follow-up to evaluate treatment strategies for women with equivocal or mildly abnormal cervical cytologic condition. The usefulness of the continuous hybrid capture 2 output relative light units/positive controls that were above the positive threshold (1.0 relative light units/positive controls), which was a surrogate for human papillomavirus viral load, for distinguishing between hybrid capture 2 positive women who were diagnosed with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or carcinoma during the study from those who were not diagnosed with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or carcinoma was examined with the use of receiver-operator characteristic analyses. Relative light units/positive controls values did not further discriminate between hybrid capture 2 positive women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or carcinoma from those with less than cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or carcinoma. The use of a cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 or more severe or carcinoma case definition did not alter our findings. Among women with atypical cells of unknown significance or low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion cervical cytologic findings, the hybrid capture 2 viral load measurement did not improve the detection of 2-year cumulative cases of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or carcinoma significantly.

  1. High Maternal HIV-1 Viral Load During Pregnancy Is Associated With Reduced Placental Transfer of Measles IgG Antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farquhar, Carey; Nduati, Ruth; Haigwood, Nancy; Sutton, William; Mbori-Ngacha, Dorothy; Richardson, Barbra; John-Stewart, Grace

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies among HIV-1–infected women have demonstrated reduced placental transfer of IgG antibodies against measles and other pathogens. As a result, infants born to women with HIV-1 infection may not acquire adequate passive immunity in utero and this could contribute to high infant morbidity and mortality in this vulnerable population. Methods To determine factors associated with decreased placental transfer of measles IgG, 55 HIV-1–infected pregnant women who were enrolled in a Nairobi perinatal HIV-1 transmission study were followed. Maternal CD4 count, HIV-1 viral load, and HIV-1–specific gp41 antibody concentrations were measured antenatally and at delivery. Measles IgG concentrations were assayed in maternal blood and infant cord blood obtained during delivery to calculate placental antibody transfer. Results Among 40 women (73%) with positive measles titers, 30 (75%) were found to have abnormally low levels of maternofetal IgG transfer (<95%). High maternal HIV-1 viral load at 32 weeks’ gestation and at delivery was associated with reductions in placental transfer (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.0056, respectively) and infant measles IgG concentrations in cord blood (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.0073, respectively). High maternal HIV-1–specific gp41 antibody titer was also highly correlated with both decreased placental transfer (P = 0.0080) and decreased infant IgG (P < 0.0001). Conclusions This is the first study to evaluate the relationship between maternal HIV-1 viremia, maternal HIV-1 antibody concentrations, and passive immunity among HIV-1–exposed infants. These data support the hypothesis that high HIV-1 viral load during the last trimester may impair maternofetal transfer of IgG and increases risk of measles and other serious infections among HIV-1–exposed infants. PMID:16280707

  2. Modeling Zika plasma viral dynamics in non-human primates: insights into viral pathogenesis and antiviral strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Best, Katharine [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Guedj, Jeremie [Univ. of Paris (France). IAME; Madelain, Vincent [Univ. of Paris (France); de Lamballerie, Xavier [Aix-Marseille Univ. (France); L, So-Yonim [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States). Center for Virology and Vaccine Research; Osuna, Christa E [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States). Center for Virology and Vaccine Research; Whitney, James [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States). Center for Virology and Vaccine Research; Perelson, Alan S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-10-24

    The recent outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV) has been associated with fetal abnormalities and neurological complications, prompting global concern. Here we present the first mathematical analysis of the within-host dynamics of plasma ZiKV burden in a non-human primate model, allowing for characterization of the growth and clearance of ZIKV within an individual macaque.

  3. Antibacterial Properties of Silver-Loaded Plasma Polymer Coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ploux, L.; Mateescu, M.; Anselme, K.; Vasilev, K.

    2012-01-01

    In a previous paper, we proposed new silver nanoparticles (SNPs) based antibacterial coatings able to protect eukaryotic cells from SNPs related toxic effects, while preserving antibacterial efficiency. A SNPs containing n-heptylamine (HA) polymer matrix was deposited by plasma polymerization and coated by a second HA layer. In this paper, we elucidate the antibacterial action of these new coatings. We demonstrated that SNPs-loaded material can be covered by thin HA polymer layer without losing the antibacterial activity to planktonic bacteria living in the near surroundings of the material. SNPs-containing materials also revealed antibacterial effect on adhered bacteria. Adhered bacteria number was significantly reduced compared to pure HA plasma polymer and the physiology of the bacteria was affected. The number of adhered bacteria directly decreased with thickness of the second HA layer. Surprisingly, the quantity of cultivable bacteria harvested by transfer to nutritive agar decreased not only with the presence of SNPs, but also in relation to the covering HA layer thickness, that is, oppositely to the increase in adhered bacteria number. Two hypotheses are proposed for this surprising result (stronger attachment or weaker vitality), which raises the question of the diverse potential ways of action of SNPs entrapped in a polymer matrix.

  4. Plasma arginine vasopressin response to water load during labour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singhi, Sunit; Parshad, Omkar

    1985-01-01

    To find out whether plasma vasopressin (Psub(AVP)) response to a water load during pregnancy is inappropriately high, as had been speculated, we measured Psub(AVP)by radioimmunoassay in 30 women at the time of delivery. Ten women had received infusion of aqueous glucose solution during labour for hydration (GW group); another ten received infusion of glucose solution as a vehicle for oxytocin (IOT group), and ten women did not receive any intrapartum intravenous fluid therapy (controls). Serum sodium and osmolality were also determined in all the subjects. Psub(AVP) levels were significantly lower in GW (0.70 +- 0.4 pg/ml) and OT groups (0.7 +- 0.6 pg/ml) (P<0.05). Significant negative correlation was seen between the amount of glucose solution infused and levels of Psub(AVP) (r = -0.66; P<0.01), while a significant positive correlation was seen between Psub(AVP) and serum sodium (r = 0.61; P<0.01). These findings suggest that during labour, the physiological relationship between serum osmolality and Psub(AVP) in intact, and the infusion of a water load in the form of aqueous glucose solution is attended by an expected lowering of Psub(AVP). We infer that inappropriate ADH response is not the cause of water retention and hyponatremia often seen in women receiving aqueous glucose solution during labor. (author)

  5. Plasma arginine vasopressin response to water load during labour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singhi, S. (West Indies Univ., Mona (Jamaica). Dept. of Child Health); Parshad, O. (West Indies Univ., Mona (Jamaica). Dept. of Physiology)

    1985-02-01

    To find out whether plasma vasopressin (Psub(AVP)) response to a water load during pregnancy is inappropriately high, as had been speculated, we measured Psub(AVP)by radioimmunoassay in 30 women at the time of delivery. Ten women had received infusion of aqueous glucose solution during labour for hydration (GW group); another ten received infusion of glucose solution as a vehicle for oxytocin (IOT group), and ten women did not receive any intrapartum intravenous fluid therapy (controls). Serum sodium and osmolality were also determined in all the subjects. Psub(AVP) levels were significantly lower in GW (0.70 +- 0.4 pg/ml) and OT groups (0.7 +- 0.6 pg/ml) (P < 0.05). Significant negative correlation was seen between the amount of glucose solution infused and levels of Psub(AVP) (r = -0.66; P < 0.01), while a significant positive correlation was seen between Psub(AVP) and serum sodium (r = 0.61; P < 0.01). These findings suggest that during labour, the physiological relationship between serum osmolality and Psub(AVP) in intact, and the infusion of a water load in the form of aqueous glucose solution is attended by an expected lowering of Psub(AVP). We infer that inappropriate ADH response is not the cause of water retention and hyponatremia often seen in women receiving aqueous glucose solution during labor.

  6. Human cytomegalovirus and Epstein-Barr virus infection in inflammatory bowel disease: need for mucosal viral load measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccocioppo, Rachele; Racca, Francesca; Paolucci, Stefania; Campanini, Giulia; Pozzi, Lodovica; Betti, Elena; Riboni, Roberta; Vanoli, Alessandro; Baldanti, Fausto; Corazza, Gino Roberto

    2015-02-14

    To evaluate the best diagnostic technique and risk factors of the human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). A cohort of 40 IBD patients (17 refractory) and 40 controls underwent peripheral blood and endoscopic colonic mucosal sample harvest. Viral infection was assessed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry, and correlations with clinical and endoscopic indexes of activity, and risk factors were investigated. All refractory patients carried detectable levels of HCMV and/or EBV mucosal load as compared to 13/23 (56.5%) non-refractory and 13/40 (32.5%) controls. The median DNA value was significantly higher in refractory (HCMV 286 and EBV 5.440 copies/10(5) cells) than in non-refractory (HCMV 0 and EBV 6 copies/10(5) cells; P diseased mucosa in comparison to non-diseased mucosa (P < 0.0121 for HCMV and < 0.0004 for EBV), while non-refractory patients and controls invariably displayed levels below this threshold, thus allowing us to differentiate viral colitis from mucosal infection. Moreover, the mucosal load positively correlated with the values found in the peripheral blood, whilst no correlation with the number of positive cells at immunohistochemistry was found. Steroid use was identified as a significant risk factor for both HCMV (P = 0.018) and EBV (P = 0.002) colitis. Finally, a course of specific antiviral therapy with ganciclovir was successful in all refractory patients with HCMV colitis, whilst refractory patients with EBV colitis did not show any improvement despite steroid tapering and discontinuation of the other medications. Viral colitis appeared to contribute to mucosal lesions in refractory IBD, and its correct diagnosis and management require quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay of mucosal specimens.

  7. Kinetics of viral load and erythrocytic inclusion body formation in pacific herring artificially infected with erythrocytic necrosis virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Jolene A.; Emmenegger, Eveline J.; Grady, Courtney A.; Roon, Sean R.; Gregg, Jacob L.; Conway, Carla M.; Winton, James R.; Hershberger, Paul K.

    2012-01-01

    Viral erythrocytic necrosis (VEN) is a condition that affects marine and anadromous fish species, including herrings and salmonids, in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. Infection is frequently associated with severe anemia and causes episodic mortality among wild and hatchery fish when accompanied by additional stressors; VEN can be presumptively diagnosed by (1) light microscopic identification of a single characteristic—a round, magenta-colored, 0.8-μm-diameter inclusion body (IB) within the cytoplasm of erythrocytes and their precursors on Giemsa-stained blood films; or (2) observation (via transmission electron microscopy [TEM]) of the causative iridovirus, erythrocytic necrosis virus (ENV), within erythrocytes or their precursors. To better understand the kinetics of VEN, specific-pathogen-free Pacific herring Clupea pallasii were infected with ENV by intraperitoneal injection. At 1, 4, 7, 10, 14, 21, and 28 d postexposure, samples of blood, spleen, and kidney were collected and assessed (1) via light microscopy for the number of intracytoplasmic IBs in blood smears and (2) via TEM for the number of virions within erythrocytes. The mean prevalence of intracytoplasmic IBs in the blood cells increased from 0% at 0–4 d postexposure to 94% at 28 d postexposure. Viral load within circulating red blood cells peaked at 7 d postexposure, fell slightly, and then reached a plateau. However, blood cells observed within the kidney and spleen tissues demonstrated high levels of ENV between 14 and 28 d postexposure. The results indicate that the viral load within erythrocytes does not correlate well with IB prevalence and that the virus can persist in infected fish for more than 28 d.

  8. Interleukin-27 is differentially associated with HIV viral load and CD4+ T cell counts in therapy-naive HIV-mono-infected and HIV/HCV-co-infected Chinese.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai He

    Full Text Available Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV infection and the resultant Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS epidemic are major global health challenges; hepatitis C virus (HCV co-infection has made the HIV/AIDS epidemic even worse. Interleukin-27 (IL-27, a cytokine which inhibits HIV and HCV replication in vitro, associates with HIV infection and HIV/HCV co-infection in clinical settings. However, the impact of HIV and HCV viral loads on plasma IL-27 expression levels has not been well characterized. In this study, 155 antiretroviral therapy-naïve Chinese were recruited. Among them 80 were HIV- and HCV-negative healthy controls, 45 were HIV-mono-infected and 30 were HIV/HCV-co-infected. Plasma level HIV, HCV, IL-27 and CD4+ number were counted and their correlation, regression relationships were explored. We show that: plasma IL-27 level was significantly upregulated in HIV-mono-infected and HIV/HCV-co-infected Chinese; HIV viral load was negatively correlated with IL-27 titer in HIV-mono-infected subjects whereas the relationship was opposite in HIV/HCV-co-infected subjects; and the relationships between HIV viral loads, IL-27 titers and CD4+ T cell counts in the HIV mono-infection and HIV/HCV co-infection groups were dramatically different. Overall, our results suggest that IL-27 differs in treatment-naïve groups with HIV mono-infections and HIV/HCV co-infections, thereby providing critical information to be considered when caring and treating those with HIV mono-infection and HIV/HCV co-infection.

  9. Comparison of the Roche COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan HIV-1 test v1.0 with v2.0 in HIV-1 viral load quantification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ching Tung

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Roche modified the COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 test version 1.0 (CAP/CTM v1.0, resulting in the COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan HIV-1 test version 2.0 (CAP/CTM v2.0. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of the CAP/CTM v2.0 and to compare this performance with that of the CAP/CTM v1.0. The study was conducted in a small local study group in Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. A total of 86 plasma samples from HIV-1-seropositive patients were tested using the two assays. The correlation and concordance of results between the two assays were calculated. The CAP/CTM v2.0 generated higher values than did the CAP/CTM v1.0, and five samples (5.8% yielded a difference of > 1 log10 copies/mL. In addition, our data show that CAP/CTM v1.0 and CAP/CTM v2.0 yielded relatively consistent values for 23 samples with low viral loads (< 200 copies/mL. Furthermore, when viral loads were in a medium range (2–5 log10 copies/mL, the results of the two assays were more compatible. This study shows a good correlation between CAP/CTM v1.0 and v2.0 in HIV-1 viral load measurement. Further attention must be paid to those cases in which measured viral loads present larger differences between the two assays.

  10. Clinical characteristics and viral load of respiratory syncytial virus and human metapneumovirus in children hospitaled for acute lower respiratory tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiao-Li; Li, Yu-Ning; Tang, Yi-Jie; Xie, Zhi-Ping; Gao, Han-Chun; Yang, Xue-Mei; Li, Yu-Mei; Liu, Li-Jun; Duan, Zhao-Jun

    2017-04-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human metapneumovirus (HMPV) are two common viral pathogens in acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRTI). However, the association of viral load with clinical characteristics is not well-defined in ALRTI. To explore the correlation between viral load and clinical characteristics of RSV and HMPV in children hospitalized for ALRTI in Lanzhou, China. Three hundred and eighty-seven children hospitalized for ALRTI were enrolled. Nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPAs) were sampled from each children. Real-time PCR was used to screen RSV, HMPV, and twelve additional respiratory viruses. Bronchiolitis was the leading diagnoses both in RSV and HMPV positive patients. A significantly greater frequency of wheezing (52% vs. 33.52%, P = 0.000) was noted in RSV positive and negative patients. The RSV viral load was significant higher in children aged infections (P = 0.000). No difference was found in the clinical features of HMPV positive and negative patients. The HMPV viral load had no correlation with any clinical characteristics. The incidences of severe disease were similar between single infection and coinfection for the two viruses (RSV, P = 0.221; HMPV, P = 0.764) and there has no statistical significance between severity and viral load (P = 0.166 and P = 0.721). Bronchiolitis is the most common disease caused by RSV and HMPV. High viral load or co-infection may be associated with some symptoms but neither has a significant impact on disease severity for the two viruses. J. Med. Virol. 89:589-597, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Correlation between viral loads of cytomegalovirus in blood and bronchoalveolar lavage specimens from lung transplant recipients determined by histology and immunohistochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemaly, Roy F; Yen-Lieberman, Belinda; Castilla, Elias A; Reilly, Amy; Arrigain, Susana; Farver, Carol; Avery, Robin K; Gordon, Steven M; Procop, Gary W

    2004-05-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is an important pathogen in lung transplant recipients. Early detection of CMV end-organ disease should help with treatment management. We determined the CMV viral load by hybrid capture in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid samples from patients who had undergone lung transplantation. For 39 of these samples (from 25 patients), corresponding transbronchial biopsy samples were available for CMV immunohistochemistry (IHC). The CMV IHC results were interpreted and categorized as positive or negative, and the positive results were subcategorized as typical if cells with both significant nuclear enlargement or Cowdry A-type inclusions and positive staining were present or as atypical if definitive nuclear staining was seen but significant nuclear enlargement was not. Diagnostic CMV viral inclusions were reported in the anatomic diagnosis, based on hematoxylin-eosin staining alone, for three (8%) of the biopsy samples. CMV was detected by IHC in 13 (33%) samples (5 typical, 8 atypical). The median CMV viral load in BAL samples was 0 copies/ml for BAL samples from patients with IHC-negative biopsy samples; 47,678 copies/ml for BAL samples from patients with biopsy samples with positive, atypical staining; and 1,548,827 copies/ml for BAL samples from patients with biopsy samples with positive, typical staining (P < 0.001). Compared to routine pathology of biopsy samples, the use of IHC increased the diagnostic yield of CMV. Also, the CMV viral load in BAL fluid samples increased along with immunoreactivity from negative to positive, atypical staining to positive, typical staining. The CMV viral load determined with the end-organ sample, the BAL fluid sample, was higher than the corresponding viral load determined with blood. Both IHC and determination of the CMV viral load in BAL samples may be useful for the detection of individuals at risk for the development of fulminant invasive CMV disease.

  12. Application of quasi-steady-state plasma streams for simulation of ITER transient heat loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandura, A.N.; Chebotarev, V.V.; Garkusha, I.E.; Makhlaj, V.A.; Marchenko, A.K.; Solyakov, D.G.; Tereshin, V.I.; Trubchaninov, S.A.; Tsarenko, A.V.; Landman, I.

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents experimental investigations of energy characteristics of the plasma streams generated with quasi-steady-state plasma accelerator QSPA Kh-50 and adjustment of plasma parameters from the point of view its applicability for simulation of transient plasma heat loads expected for ITER disruptions and type I ELMs. Possibility of generation of high-power magnetized plasma streams with ion impact energy up to 0.6 keV, pulse length of 0.25 ms and heat loads varied in wide range from 0.5 to 30 MJ/m 2 has been demonstrated and some features of plasma interaction with tungsten targets in dependence on plasma heat loads are discussed. (author)

  13. “Computerized Counseling Reduces HIV-1 Viral Load and Sexual Transmission Risk: Findings from a Randomized Controlled Trial”

    Science.gov (United States)

    KURTH, Ann E.; SPIELBERG, Freya; CLELAND, Charles M.; LAMBDIN, Barrot; BANGSBERG, David R.; FRICK, Pamela A.; SEVERYNEN, Anneleen O.; CLAUSEN, Marc; NORMAN, Robert G.; LOCKHART, David; SIMONI, Jane M.; HOLMES, King K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Evaluate a computerized intervention supporting antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence and HIV transmission prevention. Design Longitudinal RCT. Settings An academic HIV clinic and a community-based organization in Seattle. Subjects 240 HIV-positive adults on ART; 209 completed nine-month follow-up (87% retention). Intervention Randomization to computerized counseling or assessment-only, 4 sessions over 9 months. Main Outcome Measures HIV-1 viral suppression, and self-reported ART adherence, and transmission risks, compared using generalized estimating equations. Results Overall, intervention participants had reduced viral load (VL): mean 0.17 log10 decline, versus 0.13 increase in controls, p = 0.053, and significant difference in ART adherence baseline to 9 months (p = 0.046). Their sexual transmission risk behaviors decreased (OR = 0.55, p = 0.020), a reduction not seen among controls (OR = 1.1, p = 0.664), and a significant difference in change (p = 0.040). Intervention effect was driven by those most in need: among those with detectable virus at baseline (>30 copies/milliliter, n=89), intervention effect was mean 0.60 log10 VL decline versus 0.15 increase in controls, p=0.034. ART adherence at the final follow-up was 13 points higher among intervention participants versus controls, p = 0.038. Conclusions Computerized counseling is promising for integrated ART adherence and safer sex, especially for individuals with problems in these areas. This is the first intervention to report improved ART adherence, viral suppression, and reduced secondary sexual transmission risk behavior. PMID:24384803

  14. Viral load and genomic integration of HPV 16 in cervical samples from HIV-1-infected and uninfected women in Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, Marie-Noelle Didelot; Costes, Valérie; Konate, Issouf; Nagot, Nicolas; Foulongne, Vincent; Ouedraogo, Abdoulaye; Van de Perre, Philippe; Mayaud, Philippe; Segondy, Michel

    2007-06-01

    The relationships between human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV 16) viral load, HPV 16 integration status, human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) status, and cervical cytology were studied among women enrolled in a cohort of female sex workers in Burkina Faso. The study focused on 24 HPV 16-infected women. The HPV 16 viral load in cervical samples was determined by real-time PCR. Integration ratio was estimated as the ratio between E2 and E6 genes DNA copy numbers. Integrated HPV16 viral load was defined as the product of HPV 16 viral load by the integration ratio. High HPV 16 viral load and high integration ratio were more frequent among women with squamous intraepithelial lesions compared with women with normal cytology (33% vs. 11%, and 33% vs. 0%, respectively), and among women with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions compared with women without high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (50% vs. 17%, and 50% vs. 11%, respectively). High HPV 16 DNA load, but not high integration ratio, was also more frequent among HIV-1-positive women (39% vs. 9%; and 23% vs. 18%, respectively). The absence of statistical significance of these differences might be explained by the small study sample size. High-integrated HPV 16 DNA load was significantly associated with the presence of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (50% vs. 5%, P = 0.03) in univariate and multivariate analysis (adjusted odds-ratio: 19.05; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11-328.3, P = 0.03), but not with HIV-1 or other high-risk HPV types (HR-HPV). Integrated HPV 16 DNA load may be considered as a useful marker of high-grade cervical lesions in HPV 16-infected women. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Short communication: identification of a novel HIV type 1 subtype H/J recombinant in Canada with discordant HIV viral load (RNA) values in three different commercial assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, John E; Beckthold, Brenda; Chen, Zhaoxia; Mihowich, Jennifer; Malloch, Laurie; Gill, Michael John

    2007-11-01

    The presence of HIV-1 non-B subtypes is increasing worldwide. This poses challenges to commercial diagnostic and viral load (RNA) monitoring tests that are predominantly based on HIV-1 subtype B strains. Based on phylogenetic analysis of the gag, pol, and env gene regions, we describe the first HIV-1 H/J recombinant in Canada that presented divergent viral load values. DNA sequence analysis of the gag gene region further revealed that genetic diversity between this H/J recombinant and the primers and probes used in the bio-Merieux Nuclisens HIV-1 QT (Nuclisens) and Roche Amplicor Monitor HIV-1, v1.5 (Monitor) viral RNA assays can erroneously lead to undetectable viral load values. This observation appears to be more problematic in the Nuclisens assay. In light of increasing genetic diversity in HIV worldwide we recommend that DNA sequencing of HIV, especially in the gag gene region targeted by primers and probes used in molecular diagnostic and viral load tests, be incorporated into clinical monitoring practices.

  16. Co-financing for viral load monitoring during the course of antiretroviral therapy among patients with HIV/AIDS in Vietnam: A contingent valuation survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Quyen Le Thi; Nguyen, Long Hoang; Tran, Bach Xuan; Phan, Huong Thi Thu; Le, Huong Thi; Nguyen, Hinh Duc; Tran, Tho Dinh; Do, Cuong Duy; Nguyen, Cuong Manh; Thuc, Vu Thi Minh; Latkin, Carl; Zhang, Melvyn W B; Ho, Roger C M

    2017-01-01

    Viral load testing is considered the gold standard for monitoring HIV treatment; however, given its high cost, some patients cannot afford viral load testing if this testing is not subsidized. Since foreign aid for HIV/AIDS in Vietnam is rapidly decreasing, we sought to assess willingness to pay (WTP) for viral load and CD4 cell count tests among HIV-positive patients, and identified factors that might inform future co-payment schemes. A multi-site cross-sectional survey was conducted with 1133 HIV-positive patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Hanoi and Nam Dinh. Patients' health insurance coverage, quality of life, and history of illicit drug use were assessed. A contingent valuation approach was employed to measure patients' WTP for CD4 cell count and viral load testing. HIV-positive patients receiving ART at provincial sites reported more difficulty obtaining health insurance (HI) and had the overall the poorest quality of life. Most patients (90.9%) were willing to pay for CD4 cell count testing; here, the mean WTP was valued at US$8.2 (95%CI = 7.6-8.8 US$) per test. Most patients (87.3%) were also willing to pay for viral load testing; here, mean WTP was valued at US$18.6 (95%CI = 16.3-20.9 US$) per test. High income, high education level, and hospitalization were positively associated with WTP, while co-morbidity with psychiatric symptoms and trouble paying for health insurance were both negatively related to WTP. These findings raise concerns that HIV-positive patients in Vietnam might have low WTP for CD4 cell count and viral load testing. This means that without foreign financial subsidies, many of these patients would likely go without these important tests. Treating psychiatric co-morbidities, promoting healthcare services utilization, and removing barriers to accessing health insurance may increase WTP for monitoring of HIV/AIDS treatment among HIV+-positive Vietnamese patients.

  17. The diagnosis of symptomatic acute antiretroviral syndrome during the window period with antigen/antibody testing and HIV viral load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel O. Griffin

    Full Text Available Despite much focus on moving toward a cure to end the epidemic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV epidemic there are still thousands of new infections occurring every year in the United States. Although there is ongoing transmission of HIV in the United States and a growing population of people living with HIV, the acute presentation of HIV infection can be challenging to diagnose and is often not considered when patients present to healthcare providers. Although in certain states there are HIV testing laws that require that all persons between the ages of 13 and 64 be offered HIV testing in an opt-out approach, many patient presenting with an acute illness, that would warrant diagnostic testing for HIV, leave without having an HIV test performed for either diagnostic or screening purposes.We describe the case of a woman who presented to medical attention with symptoms later confirmed to be due to acute HIV infection. She was initially discharged from the hospital and only underwent HIV testing with confirmation of her diagnosis after readmission. We describe the algorithm where fourth generation testing combined with HIV viral load testing allowed for the diagnosis of acute HIV prior to the development of a specific immunoglobulin response. Consideration of this diagnosis, improved HIV screening, and understanding of the use of antigen/antibody screening tests, combined with Multispot and HIV viral RNA detection, when appropriate, can allow for early diagnosis of HIV before progression of disease and before undiagnosed patient spread the infection to new contacts.

  18. Dynamics of CD4 Lymphocytes and Viral Load at the Natural History of Perinatal HIV-infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Daminov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the analysis of indicators of CD4 lymphocyte count and viral load in the natural history (in the absence of ART in perinatally HIV-infected children. It was revealed that perinatal way of transmission is characterized by a higher rate of immunodeficiency progression. It may be associated with intrauterine infection, as well as an early defeat HIV immature immune system of the child. The concentration of virus in perinatally infected children since the beginning of the observation and in 30 months after infection is more than in parenterally infected children in 5 and 2 times, respectively, which determines a infavourable version of the disease in perinatally infected children.

  19. Dataset of longitudinal analysis of tear cytokine levels, CD4, CD8 counts and HIV viral load in dry eye patients with HIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Kumar Balne

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article shows the longitudinal analysis of tear fluid cytokine profiles, blood CD4 and CD8 counts and HIV viral load in 34 dry eye patients with HIV infection during the HAART therapy. Clinical samples were collected from HIV patients with dry eye disease at the time of presentation to the clinic (visit 1, three months (visit 2 and 6 months (visit 3 after the presentation. At each time point tear samples were evaluated for 41 cytokines using Luminex bead based multiplex assay and blood samples were tested for HIV viral load and CD4 and CD8 counts.

  20. Mutagenesis-mediated virus extinction: virus-dependent effect of viral load on sensitivity to lethal defection.

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    Héctor Moreno

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lethal mutagenesis is a transition towards virus extinction mediated by enhanced mutation rates during viral genome replication, and it is currently under investigation as a potential new antiviral strategy. Viral load and virus fitness are known to influence virus extinction. Here we examine the effect or the multiplicity of infection (MOI on progeny production of several RNA viruses under enhanced mutagenesis. RESULTS: The effect of the mutagenic base analogue 5-fluorouracil (FU on the replication of the arenavirus lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV can result either in inhibition of progeny production and virus extinction in infections carried out at low multiplicity of infection (MOI, or in a moderate titer decrease without extinction at high MOI. The effect of the MOI is similar for LCMV and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV, but minimal or absent for the picornaviruses foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV and encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV. The increase in mutation frequency and Shannon entropy (mutant spectrum complexity as a result of virus passage in the presence of FU was more accentuated at low MOI for LCMV and VSV, and at high MOI for FMDV and EMCV. We present an extension of the lethal defection model that agrees with the experimental results. CONCLUSIONS: (i Low infecting load favoured the extinction of negative strand viruses, LCMV or VSV, with an increase of mutant spectrum complexity. (ii This behaviour is not observed in RNA positive strand viruses, FMDV or EMCV. (iii The accumulation of defector genomes may underlie the MOI-dependent behaviour. (iv LCMV coinfections are allowed but superinfection is strongly restricted in BHK-21 cells. (v The dissimilar effects of the MOI on the efficiency of mutagenic-based extinction of different RNA viruses can have implications for the design of antiviral protocols based on lethal mutagenesis, presently under development.

  1. High levels of T lymphocyte activation in Leishmania-HIV-1 co-infected individuals despite low HIV viral load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grinsztejn Beatriz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Concomitant infections may influence HIV progression by causing chronic activation leading to decline in T-cell function. In the Americas, visceral (AVL and tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL have emerged as important opportunistic infections in HIV-AIDS patients and both of those diseases have been implicated as potentially important co-factors in disease progression. We investigated whether leishmaniasis increases lymphocyte activation in HIV-1 co-infected patients. This might contribute to impaired cellular immune function. Methods To address this issue we analyzed CD4+ T absolute counts and the proportion of CD8+ T cells expressing CD38 in Leishmania/HIV co-infected patients that recovered after anti-leishmanial therapy. Results We found that, despite clinical remission of leishmaniasis, AVL co-infected patients presented a more severe immunossupression as suggested by CD4+ T cell counts under 200 cells/mm3, differing from ATL/HIV-AIDS cases that tends to show higher lymphocytes levels (over 350 cells/mm3. Furthermore, five out of nine, AVL/HIV-AIDS presented low CD4+ T cell counts in spite of low or undetectable viral load. Expression of CD38 on CD8+ T lymphocytes was significantly higher in AVL or ATL/HIV-AIDS cases compared to HIV/AIDS patients without leishmaniasis or healthy subjects. Conclusions Leishmania infection can increase the degree of immune system activation in individuals concomitantly infected with HIV. In addition, AVL/HIV-AIDS patients can present low CD4+ T cell counts and higher proportion of activated T lymphocytes even when HIV viral load is suppressed under HAART. This fact can cause a misinterpretation of these laboratorial markers in co-infected patients.

  2. Experimental control of the solvent load of inductively coupled argon plasmas and effects of the chloroform plasma load on their analytical performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maessen, F. J. M. J.; Kreuning, G.; Balke, J.

    The solvent plasma load ( QSPL) of water, methanol and chloroform was established as a function of the liquid uptake rate ( QL) by using a continuous weighing method for recording the rate differences between the relevant liquid streams. The shape of the QL vs QSPL curves revealed that the liquid uptake rate is a parameter much too insensitive to serve as a criterion for assessing the stability of "organic" plasmas. The quantity "maximum tolerable solvent plasma load" is suggested as a more useful criterion. Effects of rf power, observation height and solvent plasma load on the properties of chloroform inductively coupled plasmas (ICPs) are reported. The measurement of the axial distribution of net line intensities of representative spectral lines showed that the behaviour of emission lines as to their "hardness" is essentially the same in ICPs loaded with chloroform or water. The chloroform plasma load was regulated by the use of a condenser of which the temperature was varied in a range between -50°C and +20°C. Analytical performance characteristics such as net line and background intensities, signal-to-background ratios, and relative standard deviations of the background signal are presented for ICPs with various chloroform loads. Two sets of experimental conditions were finally selected for simultaneous multielement analysis of chloroform solvent solutions, one with and one without aerosol cooling. In the case that aerosol cooling was applied, the detection limits were similar to those for aqueous plasmas. Without aerosol cooling the detection limits were up to an order of magnitude poorer. An attempt has been made to catagorize organic solvents on the basis of both volatility and their behaviour in ICP systems. For a better understanding of the consequences of solvent volatility in ICP-AES it is of importance to consider separately the properties that determine the volatility of liquids, viz. the evaporation rate and the saturation vapour pressure.

  3. Viral load in children with congenital cytomegalovirus infection identified on newborn hearing screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawada, Jun-ichi; Torii, Yuka; Kawano, Yoshihiko; Suzuki, Michio; Kamiya, Yasuko; Kotani, Tomomi; Kikkawa, Fumitaka; Kimura, Hiroshi; Ito, Yoshinori

    2015-04-01

    Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is the most common non-genetic cause of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) in children. However, congenital SNHL without other clinical abnormalities is rarely diagnosed as CMV-related in early infancy. The aim of this study was to identify and treat patients with congenital CMV-related SNHL or CMV-related clinical abnormalities other than SNHL. The association between CMV load and SNHL was also evaluated. Newborns who had abnormal hearing screening results or other clinical abnormalities were screened for congenital CMV infection by PCR of saliva or urine specimens, and identified infected patients were treated with valganciclovir (VGCV) for 6 weeks. The CMV load of patients with or without SNHL was compared at regular intervals during as well as after VGCV treatment. Of 127 infants with abnormal hearing screening results, and 31 infants with other clinical abnormalities, CMV infection was identified in 6 and 3 infants, respectively. After VGCV treatment, 1 case had improved hearing but the other 5 SNHL cases had little or no improvement. Among these 9 patients with or without SNHL at 1 year of age, there was no significant difference in CMV blood or urine load at diagnosis, but both were significantly higher in patients with SNHL during VGCV treatment. Selective CMV screening of newborns having an abnormal hearing screening result would be a reasonable strategy for identification of symptomatic congenital CMV infection. Prolonged detection of CMV in blood could be a risk factor for SNHL. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Chronic high Epstein-Barr viral load state and risk for late-onset posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease/lymphoma in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingler, M A; Feingold, B; Miller, S A; Quivers, E; Michaels, M G; Green, M; Wadowsky, R M; Rowe, D T; Webber, S A

    2008-02-01

    Increased use of serial EBV-PCR monitoring after pediatric transplantation has led to the identification of asymptomatic patients who carry very high viral loads over prolonged periods. The significance of this high-load state is unknown. We speculated that this state may identify patients at high risk for development of late PTLD/lymphoma. We reviewed data on 71 pediatric heart recipients who had serial viral load monitoring since 1997. Chronic high-load state was defined as the presence of >16,000 genome copies/mL whole blood on > or =50% of samples over at least 6 months. Among 20 high-load carriers (eight following prior PTLD, seven with prior symptomatic EBV infection, five without previous EBV disease), 9 (45%) developed late-onset PTLD 2.5-8.4 years posttransplant (including with four Burkitt's lymphoma). Among 51 controls with low (n = 39) or absent (n = 12) loads, only 2 (4%; p < 0.001 absent/low vs. high load) developed late PTLD/lymphoma. By multivariable analysis, high-load carrier state (OR = 12.4, 95% CI 2.1-74.4) and prior history of PTLD (OR = 10.7, 95% CI 1.9-60.6) independently predicted late PTLD. A chronic high EBV-load state is not benign and is a predictor of de novo or recurrent PTLD.

  5. HIV DNA Is Frequently Present within Pathologic Tissues Evaluated at Autopsy from Combined Antiretroviral Therapy-Treated Patients with Undetectable Viral Loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamers, Susanna L; Rose, Rebecca; Maidji, Ekaterina; Agsalda-Garcia, Melissa; Nolan, David J; Fogel, Gary B; Salemi, Marco; Garcia, Debra L; Bracci, Paige; Yong, William; Commins, Deborah; Said, Jonathan; Khanlou, Negar; Hinkin, Charles H; Sueiras, Miguel Valdes; Mathisen, Glenn; Donovan, Suzanne; Shiramizu, Bruce; Stoddart, Cheryl A; McGrath, Michael S; Singer, Elyse J

    2016-10-15

    HIV infection treatment strategies have historically defined effectiveness through measuring patient plasma HIV RNA. While combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) can reduce plasma viral load (pVL) to undetectable levels, the degree that HIV is eliminated from other anatomical sites remains unclear. We investigated the HIV DNA levels in 229 varied autopsy tissues from 20 HIV-positive (HIV(+)) cART-treated study participants with low or undetectable plasma VL and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) VL prior to death who were enrolled in the National Neurological AIDS Bank (NNAB) longitudinal study and autopsy cohort. Extensive medical histories were obtained for each participant. Autopsy specimens, including at least six brain and nonbrain tissues per participant, were reviewed by study pathologists. HIV DNA, measured in tissues by quantitative and droplet digital PCR, was identified in 48/87 brain tissues and 82/142 nonbrain tissues at levels >200 HIV copies/million cell equivalents. No participant was found to be completely free of tissue HIV. Parallel sequencing studies from some tissues recovered intact HIV DNA and RNA. Abnormal histological findings were identified in all participants, especially in brain, spleen, lung, lymph node, liver, aorta, and kidney. All brain tissues demonstrated some degree of pathology. Ninety-five percent of participants had some degree of atherosclerosis, and 75% of participants died with cancer. This study assists in characterizing the anatomical locations of HIV, in particular, macrophage-rich tissues, such as the central nervous system (CNS) and testis. Additional studies are needed to determine if the HIV recovered from tissues promotes the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases, such as HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders, cancer, and atherosclerosis. It is well-known that combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) can reduce plasma HIV to undetectable levels; however, cART cannot completely clear HIV infection. An ongoing question is

  6. Peg-interferon plus nucleotide analogue treatment versus no treatment in patients with chronic hepatitis B with a low viral load: a randomised controlled, open-label trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Niet, Annikki; Jansen, Louis; Stelma, Femke; Willemse, Sophie B.; Kuiken, Sjoerd D.; Weijer, Sebastiaan; van Nieuwkerk, Carin M. J.; Zaaijer, Hans L.; Molenkamp, Richard; Takkenberg, R. Bart; Koot, Maarten; Verheij, Joanne; Beuers, Ulrich; Reesink, Hendrik W.

    2017-01-01

    Antiviral treatment is currently not recommended for patients with chronic hepatitis B with a low viral load. However, they might benefit from acquiring a functional cure (hepatitis B surface antigen [HBsAg] loss with or without formation of antibodies against hepatitis B surface antigen

  7. Outcomes from monitoring of patients on antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited settings with viral load, CD4 cell count, or clinical observation alone: a computer simulation model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillips, Andrew N; Pillay, Deenan; Miners, Alec H

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In lower-income countries, WHO recommends a population-based approach to antiretroviral treatment with standardised regimens and clinical decision making based on clinical status and, where available CD4 cell count, rather than viral load. Our aim was to study the potential consequenc...... laboratory monitoring-is currently the highest priority....

  8. CD4 cell count and viral load-specific rates of AIDS, non-AIDS and deaths according to current antiretroviral use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mocroft, Amanda; Phillips, Andrew N; Gatell, Jose

    2013-01-01

    CD4 cell count and viral loads are used in clinical trials as surrogate endpoints for assessing efficacy of newly available antiretrovirals. If antiretrovirals act through other pathways or increase the risk of disease this would not be identified prior to licensing. The aim of this study...

  9. Comparative study of cytomegalovirus antibody and viral load in schizophrenia and bipolar patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Suleimani Mohammadi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Schizophrenia (SC and bipolar disorder (BD are two chronic psychiatric illnesses with worldwide distribution. People could be involved at any age, particularly in early adolescence. Main symptoms of SC are non- affective symptoms such as auditory hallucination and illogical thinking. In contrast, BD represents affective symptoms such as depression and mania. Although the main cause of these mood disorders has been remained elusive, there are some potential contributing factors that could be considered in the pathogenesis of mentioned illnesses including, genetic and environmental factors. Cytomegalovirus (CMV is one of the probable contributing factors in SC and BD. CMV is a prototype of herpesviridae family which may infect different cell types such as endothelial and differentiated hematopoietic cells. CMV infections in immunocompromised patients as well as congenitally infected children represent CNS complication such as microcephaly and hearing loss. This virus has capability to impair the limbic structures in brain. Methods: This descriptive study was designed to evaluate the role of CMV in these illnesses. We investigated the level of serum IgG antibody and the presence of CMV DNA in serum and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs samples of 46 SC and BD patients admitted to Iran Psychiatry Hospital Tehran, Iran from 2014 to 2015 as well as 46 healthy control groups at Tehran University of Medical Sciences.  First, the level of CMV IgG antibody was evaluated in serum samples, by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Then, DNA extraction conducted by using the high pure viral nucleic acid kit (Roche, Germany. Serologically positive sera along with PBMC samples were tested by Real-time PCR, to investigate the presence of CMV DNA. Results: Results indicated higher levels of CMV IgG antibody in psychiatric patients, compared with a healthy control group. Afterward, we did not observe the presence of CMV DNA in either case

  10. Relationship between viral load and behavioral measures of adherence to antiretroviral therapy in children living with human immunodeficiency virus in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horacio A. Duarte

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have examined antiretroviral therapy adherence in Latin American children. Standardized behavioral measures were applied to a large cohort of human immunodeficiency virus-infected children in Brazil, Mexico, and Peru to assess adherence to prescribed antiretroviral therapy doses during the three days prior to study visits, assess timing of last missed dose, and evaluate the ability of the adherence measures to predict viral suppression. Time trends in adherence were modeled using a generalized estimating equations approach to account for possible correlations in outcomes measured repeatedly in the same participants. Associations of adherence with human immunodeficiency virus viral load were examined using linear regression. Mean enrollment age of the 380 participants was 5 years; 57.6% had undetectable’ viral load ( 0.3. Last time missed any antiretroviral therapy dose was reported as “never” for 52.0% at enrollment, increasing to 60.7% and 65.9% at the 6- and 12-month visits, respectively (p < 0.001 for test of trend. The proportion with undetectable viral load was higher among those who never missed a dose at enrollment and the 12-month visit (p ≤ 0.005, but not at the 6-month visit (p = 0.2. While antiretroviral therapy adherence measures utilized in this study showed some association with viral load for these Latin American children, they may not be adequate for reliably identifying non-adherence and consequently children at risk for viral resistance. Other strategies are needed to improve the evaluation of adherence in this population.

  11. An accurate definition of the status of inactive hepatitis B virus carrier by a combination of biomarkers (FibroTest-ActiTest and viral load.

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    Yen Ngo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The combination of transaminases (ALT, biopsy, HBeAg and viral load have classically defined the inactive status of carriers of chronic hepatitis B. The use of FibroTest (FT and ActiTest (AT, biomarkers of fibrosis and necroinflammatory activity, has been previously validated as alternatives to biopsy. We compared the 4-year prognostic value of combining FT-AT and viral load for a better definition of the inactive carrier status. METHODS AND FINDINGS: 1,300 consecutive CHB patients who had been prospectively followed since 2001 were pre-included. The main endpoint was the absence of liver-related complications, transplantation or death. We used the manufacturers' definitions of normal FT (< = 0.27, normal AT (< = 0.29 and 3 standard classes for viral load. The adjustment factors were age, sex, HBeAg, ethnic origin, alcohol consumption, HIV-Delta-HCV co-infections and treatment. RESULTS: 1,074 patients with baseline FT-AT and viral load were included: 41 years old, 47% African, 27% Asian, 26% Caucasian. At 4 years follow-up, 50 complications occurred (survival without complications 93.4%, 36 deaths occurred (survival 95.0%, including 27 related to HBV (survival 96.1%. The prognostic value of FT was higher than those of viral load or ALT when compared using area under the ROC curves [0.89 (95%CI 0.84-0.93 vs 0.64 (0.55-0.71 vs 0.53 (0.46-0.60 all P<0.001], survival curves and multivariate Cox model [regression coefficient 5.2 (3.5-6.9; P<0.001 vs 0.53 (0.15-0.92; P = 0.007 vs -0.001 (-0.003-0.000;P = 0.052] respectively. A new definition of inactive carriers was proposed with an algorithm combining "zero" scores for FT-AT (F0 and A0 and viral load classes. This new algorithm provides a 100% negative predictive value for the prediction of liver related complications or death. Among the 275 patients with the classic definition of inactive carrier, 62 (23% had fibrosis presumed with FT, and 3 died or had complications at 4 year

  12. Clinical significance of measurement of changes of serum NSE and plasma NPY levels after treatment in pediatric patients with viral encephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Bo; Zheng Guo

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To explore the significance ef changes of serum NSE and plasma NPY levels after treatment in pediatric patients with viral encephalitis. Methods: Serum NSE and plasma NPY levels were measured with RIA in 32 pediatric patients with viral encephalitis both before and after treatment as well as in 30 controls. Results: Before treatment, in the patients, the serum NSE and plasma NPY levels were significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.01). After 1 month's treatment the levels dropped markedly but still remained significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.05). Conclusion: Serum NSE and plasma NPY levels changes were closely related to the progress of viral encephalitis. (authors)

  13. The value of point-of-care CD4+ and laboratory viral load in tailoring antiretroviral therapy monitoring strategies to resource limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyle, Emily P; Jani, Ilesh V; Rosettie, Katherine L; Wood, Robin; Osher, Benjamin; Resch, Stephen; Pei, Pamela P; Maggiore, Paolo; Freedberg, Kenneth A; Peter, Trevor; Parker, Robert A; Walensky, Rochelle P

    2017-09-24

    To examine the clinical and economic value of point-of-care CD4 (POC-CD4) or viral load monitoring compared with current practices in Mozambique, a country representative of the diverse resource limitations encountered by HIV treatment programs in sub-Saharan Africa. We use the Cost-Effectiveness of Preventing AIDS Complications-International model to examine the clinical impact, cost (2014 US$), and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio [$/year of life saved (YLS)] of ART monitoring strategies in Mozambique. We compare: monitoring for clinical disease progression [clinical ART monitoring strategy (CLIN)] vs. annual POC-CD4 in rural settings without laboratory services and biannual laboratory CD4 (LAB-CD4), biannual POC-CD4, and annual viral load in urban settings with laboratory services. We examine the impact of a range of values in sensitivity analyses, using Mozambique's 2014 per capita gross domestic product ($620) as a benchmark cost-effectiveness threshold. In rural settings, annual POC-CD4 compared to CLIN improves life expectancy by 2.8 years, reduces time on failed ART by 0.6 years, and yields an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $480/YLS. In urban settings, biannual POC-CD4 is more expensive and less effective than viral load. Compared to biannual LAB-CD4, viral load improves life expectancy by 0.6 years, reduces time on failed ART by 1.0 year, and is cost-effective ($440/YLS). In rural settings, annual POC-CD4 improves clinical outcomes and is cost-effective compared to CLIN. In urban settings, viral load has the greatest clinical benefit and is cost-effective compared to biannual POC-CD4 or LAB-CD4. Tailoring ART monitoring strategies to specific settings with different available resources can improve clinical outcomes while remaining economically efficient.

  14. Long-term follow up of feline leukemia virus infection and characterization of viral RNA loads using molecular methods in tissues of cats with different infection outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfer-Hungerbuehler, A Katrin; Widmer, Stefan; Kessler, Yvonne; Riond, Barbara; Boretti, Felicitas S; Grest, Paula; Lutz, Hans; Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina

    2015-02-02

    It is a remarkable feature for a retrovirus that an infection with feline leukemia virus (FeLV) can result in various outcomes. Whereas some cats contain the infection and show a regressive course, others stay viremic and succumb to the infection within a few years. We hypothesized, that differences in the infection outcome might be causally linked to the viral RNA and provirus loads within the host and these loads therefore may give additional insight into the pathogenesis of the virus. Thus, the goals of the present study were to follow-up on experimentally infected cats and investigate tissues from cats with different infection outcomes using sensitive, specific TaqMan real-time PCR and reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR. Nineteen experimentally FeLV-A/Glasgow-1-infected cats were categorized into having regressive, progressive or reactivated FeLV infection according to follow-up of FeLV p27 antigen detection in the blood. Remarkably, regressively infected cats showed detectable provirus and viral RNA loads in almost all of the 27 tested tissues, even many years after virus exposure. Moreover, some regressively infected cats reactivated the infection, and these cats had intermediate to high viral RNA and provirus tissue loads. The highest loads were found in viremic cats, independent of their health status. Tissues that represented sites of virus replication and shedding revealed the highest viral RNA and provirus loads, while the lowest loads were present in muscle and nerve tissues. A supplementary analysis of 20 experimentally infected cats with progressive infection revealed a median survival time of 3.1 years (range from 0.6 to 6.5 years); ∼70% (n=14) of these cats developed lymphoma, while leukemia and non-regenerative anemia were observed less frequently. Our results demonstrate that the different infection outcomes are associated with differences in viral RNA and provirus tissue loads. Remarkably, no complete clearance of FeLV viral RNA or provirus was

  15. Hepatitis C viral load, genotype 3 and interleukin-28B CC genotype predict mortality in HIV and hepatitis C-coinfected individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Louise Nygaard; Astvad, Karen; Ladelund, Steen

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that hepatitis C virus (HCV) load and genotype may influence all-cause mortality in HIV-HCV-coinfected individuals. DESIGN AND METHODS: Observational prospective cohort study. Mortality rates were compared in a time-updated multivariate Poisson regression analysis....... RESULTS: We included 264 consecutive HIV-HCV-coinfected individuals. During 1143 person years at risk (PYR) 118 individuals died [overall mortality rate 10 (95% confidence interval; 8, 12)/100 PYR]. In multivariate analysis, a 1 log increase in HCV viral load was associated with a 30% higher mortality......) CC genotype was associated with 54% higher mortality risk [aMRR: 1.54 (0.89, 3.82] compared to TT genotype. CONCLUSION: High-HCV viral load, HCV genotype 3 and IL28B genotype CC had a significant influence on the risk of all-cause mortality among individuals coinfected with HIV-1. This may have...

  16. Identification of SIV Nef CD8(+) T cell epitopes restricted by a MHC class I haplotype associated with lower viral loads in a macaque AIDS model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Takushi; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Naofumi; Naruse, Taeko K; Kimura, Akinori; Matano, Tetsuro

    2014-07-25

    Virus-specific CD8(+) T-cell responses are crucial for the control of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) replication. Multiple studies on HIV-infected individuals and SIV-infected macaques have indicated association of several major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) genotypes with lower viral loads and delayed AIDS progression. Understanding of the viral control mechanism associated with these MHC-I genotypes would contribute to the development of intervention strategy for HIV control. We have previously reported a rhesus MHC-I haplotype, 90-120-Ia, associated with lower viral loads after SIVmac239 infection. Gag206-216 and Gag241-249 epitope-specific CD8(+) T-cell responses have been shown to play a central role in the reduction of viral loads, whereas the effect of Nef-specific CD8(+) T-cell responses induced in all the 90-120-Ia(+) macaques on SIV replication remains unknown. Here, we identified three CD8(+) T-cell epitopes, Nef9-19, Nef89-97, and Nef193-203, associated with 90-120-Ia. Nef9-19 and Nef193-203 epitope-specific CD8(+) T-cell responses frequently selected for mutations resulting in viral escape from recognition by these CD8(+) T cells, indicating that these CD8(+) T cells exert strong suppressive pressure on SIV replication. Results would be useful for elucidation of the viral control mechanism associated with 90-120-Ia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Combined administration of oseltamivir and hochu-ekki-to (TJ-41) dramatically decreases the viral load in lungs of senescence-accelerated mice during influenza virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohgitani, Eriko; Kita, Masakazu; Mazda, Osam; Imanishi, Jiro

    2014-02-01

    To enhance the effect of anti-influenza-virus agent treatment, the effect of combined administration of oseltamivir phosphate and hochu-ekki-to (Japanese traditional herbal medicine, HET) on early viral clearance was examined. Senescence-accelerated mice were given HET in drinking water for 2 weeks, followed by intranasal infection with influenza A virus strain PR8. After 4 hours of infection, oseltamivir was administered orally for 5 days. The viral loads in the lungs of the group receiving combined treatment were dramatically lower when compared with the viral loads in the lungs of the group receiving oseltamivir alone. HET significantly increased the induction of IL-1β and TNF-α in the lungs of PR8-infected mice and stimulated alveolar macrophage phagocytosis. From these results, we conclude that these functions may be responsible the increased effect on viral load reduction. Here, we show that the combined administration of oseltamivir and HET is very useful for influenza treatment in senescence-accelerated mice.

  18. Characterization of Viral Load, Viability and Persistence of Influenza A Virus in Air and on Surfaces of Swine Production Facilities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Neira

    Full Text Available Indirect transmission of influenza A virus (IAV in swine is poorly understood and information is lacking on levels of environmental exposure encountered by swine and people during outbreaks of IAV in swine barns. We characterized viral load, viability and persistence of IAV in air and on surfaces during outbreaks in swine barns. IAV was detected in pigs, air and surfaces from five confirmed outbreaks with 48% (47/98 of oral fluid, 38% (32/84 of pen railing and 43% (35/82 of indoor air samples testing positive by IAV RT-PCR. IAV was isolated from air and oral fluids yielding a mixture of subtypes (H1N1, H1N2 and H3N2. Detection of IAV RNA from air was sustained during the outbreaks with maximum levels estimated between 7 and 11 days from reported onset. Our results indicate that during outbreaks of IAV in swine, aerosols and surfaces in barns contain significant levels of IAV potentially representing an exposure hazard to both swine and people.

  19. Viral hijacking of a replicative helicase loader and its implications for helicase loading control and phage replication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hood, Iris V.; Berger, James M.

    2016-05-31

    Replisome assembly requires the loading of replicative hexameric helicases onto origins by AAA+ ATPases. How loader activity is appropriately controlled remains unclear. Here, we use structural and biochemical analyses to establish how an antimicrobial phage protein interferes with the function of theStaphylococcus aureusreplicative helicase loader, DnaI. The viral protein binds to the loader’s AAA+ ATPase domain, allowing binding of the host replicative helicase but impeding loader self-assembly and ATPase activity. Close inspection of the complex highlights an unexpected locus for the binding of an interdomain linker element in DnaI/DnaC-family proteins. We find that the inhibitor protein is genetically coupled to a phage-encoded homolog of the bacterial helicase loader, which we show binds to the host helicase but not to the inhibitor itself. These findings establish a new approach by which viruses can hijack host replication processes and explain how loader activity is internally regulated to prevent aberrant auto-association.

  20. CD4 cell count and the risk of AIDS or death in HIV-Infected adults on combination antiretroviral therapy with a suppressed viral load: a longitudinal cohort study from COHERE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Young

    Full Text Available Most adults infected with HIV achieve viral suppression within a year of starting combination antiretroviral therapy (cART. It is important to understand the risk of AIDS events or death for patients with a suppressed viral load.Using data from the Collaboration of Observational HIV Epidemiological Research Europe (2010 merger, we assessed the risk of a new AIDS-defining event or death in successfully treated patients. We accumulated episodes of viral suppression for each patient while on cART, each episode beginning with the second of two consecutive plasma viral load measurements 500 copies/µl, the first of two consecutive measurements between 50-500 copies/µl, cART interruption or administrative censoring. We used stratified multivariate Cox models to estimate the association between time updated CD4 cell count and a new AIDS event or death or death alone. 75,336 patients contributed 104,265 suppression episodes and were suppressed while on cART for a median 2.7 years. The mortality rate was 4.8 per 1,000 years of viral suppression. A higher CD4 cell count was always associated with a reduced risk of a new AIDS event or death; with a hazard ratio per 100 cells/µl (95% CI of: 0.35 (0.30-0.40 for counts <200 cells/µl, 0.81 (0.71-0.92 for counts 200 to <350 cells/µl, 0.74 (0.66-0.83 for counts 350 to <500 cells/µl, and 0.96 (0.92-0.99 for counts ≥500 cells/µl. A higher CD4 cell count became even more beneficial over time for patients with CD4 cell counts <200 cells/µl.Despite the low mortality rate, the risk of a new AIDS event or death follows a CD4 cell count gradient in patients with viral suppression. A higher CD4 cell count was associated with the greatest benefit for patients with a CD4 cell count <200 cells/µl but still some slight benefit for those with a CD4 cell count ≥500 cells/µl.

  1. Experimental study of plasma energy transfer and material erosion under ELM-like heat loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garkusha, I.E., E-mail: garkusha@ipp.kharkov.u [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, Akademicheskaya 1, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Makhlaj, V.A.; Chebotarev, V.V. [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, Akademicheskaya 1, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Landman, I. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, IHM, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Tereshin, V.I.; Aksenov, N.N.; Bandura, A.N. [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, Akademicheskaya 1, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-06-15

    Main features of plasma-surface interaction and energy transfer to tokamak plasma facing components are studied at different heat loads in ELM simulation experiments with the plasma gun QSPA Kh-50. Repetitive plasma exposures of tungsten, graphite and different combined W-C targets were performed at the pulse duration of 0.25 ms and the heat loads varied in the range 0.2-2.5 MJ/m{sup 2}. The onset of vapor shield in front of the surface was investigated. The evaporation is immediately followed by a saturation of surface heat load if further increasing the impact energy. The presence of graphite essentially decreases the heat flux to the nearby tungsten surface, which is due to the carbon vapor shield. Droplet splashing at the tungsten surface and formation of hot spots on the graphite surface are discussed.

  2. Experimental study of plasma energy transfer and material erosion under ELM-like heat loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garkusha, I.E.; Makhlaj, V.A.; Chebotarev, V.V.; Landman, I.; Tereshin, V.I.; Aksenov, N.N.; Bandura, A.N.

    2009-01-01

    Main features of plasma-surface interaction and energy transfer to tokamak plasma facing components are studied at different heat loads in ELM simulation experiments with the plasma gun QSPA Kh-50. Repetitive plasma exposures of tungsten, graphite and different combined W-C targets were performed at the pulse duration of 0.25 ms and the heat loads varied in the range 0.2-2.5 MJ/m 2 . The onset of vapor shield in front of the surface was investigated. The evaporation is immediately followed by a saturation of surface heat load if further increasing the impact energy. The presence of graphite essentially decreases the heat flux to the nearby tungsten surface, which is due to the carbon vapor shield. Droplet splashing at the tungsten surface and formation of hot spots on the graphite surface are discussed.

  3. Repetitive plasma loads typical for ITER Type-I ELMS; simulation in QSPA Kh-50

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tereshin, V.I.; Bandura, A.N.; Byrka, O.V.; Chebotarev, V.V.; Garkusha, I.E.; Makhlaj, V.A.; Solyakov, D.G.; Tsarenko, A.V.; Landman, I.

    2005-01-01

    The power loads on current tokamaks associated with the Type I ELMs generally do not affect the lifetime of divertor elements. However, the ITER ELMs may lead to unacceptable lifetime; their loads are estimated as QELM(1-3) MJ/m 2 at t = 0.1-1 ms and the repetition frequency of an order of 1 Hz (∼ 400 ELMs during each ITER pulse). Such plasma energy loads expected for ITER ELMs are not achieved in existing tokamaks. Therefore powerful plasma accelerators are used at present for study of plasma-target interaction and for numerical models validation. Quasi-steady-state plasma accelerators (QSPA), which characterized by essentially longer duration of plasma stream generation in comparison with pulsed plasma guns, became especially attractive facilities for investigations of plasma-surface interaction in conditions of high heat loads simulating the ITER disruptions and ELMs. The paper presents experimental study of energy characteristics of the plasma streams generated with quasi-steady-state plasma accelerator QSPA Kh-50 and the main features of plasma interaction with material surfaces in dependence on plasma heat loads. The samples of pure sintered tungsten of EU trademark have been exposed to hydrogen plasma streams produced by the accelerator. To estimate the range of tolerable loads the effects of ELMs on the lifetime of plasma facing components have been experimentally simulated for large numbers of impacts with varying energy density. The experiments were performed with up to 450 pulses of the duration of 0.25 ms and the heat loads in the range of 0.5 - 1.2 MJ/m 2 . At this calorimetry (both at plasma stream and at the target surface), piezo-detectors as well as spectroscopy and interferometry measurements were applied to determine the impacting plasma parameters in different regimes of operation. A threshold character of morphological changes on the tungsten surface under the melting in respect to the pulses number is demonstrated. The number of initial

  4. Prevalence of HIV-1 drug resistance in treated patients with viral load >50 copies/mL: a 2014 French nationwide study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assoumou, L; Charpentier, C; Recordon-Pinson, P; Grudé, M; Pallier, C; Morand-Joubert, L; Fafi-Kremer, S; Krivine, A; Montes, B; Ferré, V; Bouvier-Alias, M; Plantier, J-C; Izopet, J; Trabaud, M-A; Yerly, S; Dufayard, J; Alloui, C; Courdavault, L; Le Guillou-Guillemette, H; Maillard, A; Amiel, C; Vabret, A; Roussel, C; Vallet, S; Guinard, J; Mirand, A; Beby-Defaux, A; Barin, F; Allardet-Servent, A; Ait-Namane, R; Wirden, M; Delaugerre, C; Calvez, V; Chaix, M-L; Descamps, D; Reigadas, S

    2017-06-01

    Surveillance of HIV-1 resistance in treated patients with a detectable viral load (VL) is important to monitor, in order to assess the risk of spread of resistant viruses and to determine the proportion of patients who need new antiretroviral drugs with minimal cross-resistance. The HIV-1 protease and reverse transcriptase (RT) and integrase genes were sequenced in plasma samples from 782 consecutive patients on failing antiretroviral regimens, seen in 37 specialized centres in 2014. The genotyping results were interpreted using the ANRS v24 algorithm. Prevalence rates were compared with those obtained during a similar survey conducted in 2009. The protease and RT sequences were obtained in 566 patients, and the integrase sequence in 382 patients. Sequencing was successful in 60%, 78%, 78% and 87% of patients with VLs of 51-200, 201-500, 501-1000 and >1000 copies/mL, respectively. Resistance to at least one antiretroviral drug was detected in 56.3% of samples. Respectively, 3.9%, 8.7%, 1.5% and 3.4% of patients harboured viruses that were resistant to any NRTI, NNRTI, PI and integrase inhibitor (INI). Resistance rates were lower in 2014 than in 2009. Resistance was detected in 48.5% of samples from patients with a VL between 51 and 200 copies/mL. In France in 2014, 90.0% of patients in AIDS care centres were receiving antiretroviral drugs and 12.0% of them had VLs >50 copies/mL. Therefore, this study suggests that 6.7% of treated patients in France might transmit resistant strains. Resistance testing may be warranted in all treated patients with VL > 50 copies/mL. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Select neurocognitive impairment in HIV-infected women: associations with HIV viral load, hepatitis C virus, and depression, but not leukocyte telomere length.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantelle J Giesbrecht

    Full Text Available Through implementation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART remarkable gains have been achieved in the management of HIV infection; nonetheless, the neurocognitive consequences of infection remain a pivotal concern in the cART era. Research has often employed norm-referenced neuropsychological scores, derived from healthy populations (excluding many seronegative individuals at high risk for HIV infection, to characterize impairments in predominately male HIV-infected populations.Using matched-group methodology, we assessed 81 HIV-seropositive (HIV+ women with established neuropsychological measures validated for detection of HIV-related impairments, as well as additional detailed tests of executive function and decision-making from the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB.On validated tests, the HIV+ women exhibited impairments that were limited to significantly slower information processing speed when compared with 45 HIV-seronegative (HIV- women with very similar demographic backgrounds and illness comorbidities. Additionally, select executive impairments in shifting attention (i.e., reversal learning and in decision-making quality were revealed in HIV+ participants. Modifiers of neurocognition in HIV-infected women included detectable HIV plasma viral load, active hepatitis C virus co-infection, and self-reported depression symptoms. In contrast, leukocyte telomere length (LTL, a marker of cellular aging, did not significantly differ between HIV+ and HIV- women, nor was LTL associated with overall neurocognition in the HIV+ group.The findings suggest that well-managed HIV infection may entail a more circumscribed neurocognitive deficit pattern than that reported in many norm-referenced studies, and that common comorbidities make a secondary contribution to HIV-related neurocognitive impairments.

  6. Initial particle loadings for a nonuniform simulation plasma in a magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naitou, Hiroshi; Kamimura, Tetsuo; Tokuda, Sinji.

    1978-09-01

    Improved methods for initially loading particles in a magnetized simulation plasma with nonuniform density and temperature distributions are proposed. In the usual guiding center loading (GCL), a charge separation coming from finite Larmor radius effects remains due to the difference between the guiding center density and the actual density. The modified guiding center loading (MGCL) presented here eliminates the electric field so generated and can be used for arbitrary density and temperature profiles. Some applications of these methods to actual simulations are given for comparison. The significance of these methods of initial particle loadings is also discussed. (author)

  7. Experimental Simulation of Beryllium Armour Damage Under ITER-like Intense Transient Plasma Loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupriyanov, I.; Basaleev, E.; Nikolaev, G.; Kurbatova, L., E-mail: igkupr@gmail.com [A.A. Bochvar High Technology Research Institute of Inorganic Material, Moscow (Russian Federation); Podkovyrov, V.; Zhitlukhin, A. [SRC RF TRINITI, Troitsk (Russian Federation); Khimchenko, L. L. [Project Centre of ITER, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2012-09-15

    Full text: Beryllium will be used as a plasma facing material in the next generation of tokamaks such as ITER. During plasma operation in ITER, the plasma facing materials and components will be suffered by different kinds of loading which may affect their surface or their joint to the heat sink. In addition to quasi-stationary loadings which are caused by the normal cycling operation, the plasma facing components and materials may also be exposed to the intense short transient loads like disruptions, ELMs. All these events may lead to beryllium surface melting, cracking, evaporation and erosion. It is expected that the erosion of beryllium under transient plasma loads such as ELMs and disruptions will mainly determine a lifetime of ITER first wall. To obtain the experimental data for the evaluation of the beryllium armor lifetime and dust production under ITER-relevant transient loads, the advanced plasma gun QSPA-Be facility has been constructed in Bochvar Institute. This paper presents recent results of the experiments with Russian beryllium of TGP-56FW ITER grade. The mock-ups of a special design armored with two beryllium targets (80 x 80 x 10 mm{sup 3}) were tested by hydrogen plasma streams (5 cm in diameter) with pulse duration of 0.5 ms and heat load of 0.5 and 1.0 MJ/m{sup 2}. Experiments were performed at RT temperature. The evolution of surface microstructure and profile, cracks morphology and mass loss/gain under erosion process on the beryllium surface exposed to up to 250 shots will be presented and discussed. (author)

  8. Mucosal immunization with recombinant adenoviral vectors expressing murine gammaherpesvirus-68 genes M2 and M3 can reduce latent viral load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoegh-Petersen, Mette; Thomsen, Allan R; Christensen, Jan P

    2009-01-01

    -68 (MHV-68) is a member of the Gammaherpesvirinae subfamily and represents a useful murine model for this category of infections, in which new vaccination strategies may initially be evaluated. Two attenuated variants of MHV-68 have successfully been used as vaccines, but the oncogenic potential...... of the gammaherpesvirinae speaks against using a similar approach in humans. DNA immunization with plasmids encoding the MHV-68 genes M2 or M3 caused a reduction in either acute or early latent viral load, respectively, but neither immunization had an effect at times later than 14 days post-infection. Adenovirus......-based vaccines are substantially more immunogenic than DNA vaccines and can be applied to induce mucosal immunity. Here we show that a significant reduction of the late viral load in the spleens, at 60 days post-infection, was achieved when immunizing mice both intranasally and subcutaneously with adenoviral...

  9. Prevalence of drug resistance and importance of viral load measurements in Honduran HIV-infected patients failing antiretroviral treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo, Wendy; de Rivera, I L; Parham, L; Jovel, E; Palou, E; Karlsson, A C; Albert, J

    2010-02-01

    The Honduran HIV/AIDS Program began to scale up access to HIV therapy in 2002. Up to May 2008, more than 6000 patients received combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). As HIV drug resistance is the major obstacle for effective treatment, the purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of antiretroviral drug resistance in Honduran HIV-1-infected individuals. We collected samples from 138 individuals (97 adults and 41 children) on cART with virological, immunological or clinical signs of treatment failure. HIV-1 pol sequences were obtained using an in-house method. Resistance mutations were identified according to the 2007 International AIDS Society (IAS)-USA list and predicted susceptibility to cART was scored using the ANRS algorithm. Resistance mutations were detected in 112 patients (81%), 74% in adults and 98% in children. Triple-, dual- and single-class drug resistance was documented in 27%, 43% and 11% of the study subjects, respectively. Multiple logistic regression showed that resistance was independently associated with type of treatment failure [virological failure (odds ratio (OR) = 1) vs. immunological failure (OR = 0.11; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.030-0.43) vs. clinical failure (OR = 0.037; 95% CI 0.0063-0.22)], route of transmission (OR = 42.8; 95% CI 3.73-491), and years on therapy (OR = 1.81; 95% CI 1.11-2.93). The prevalence of antiretroviral resistance was high in Honduran HIV-infected patients with signs of treatment failure. A majority of study subjects showed dual- or triple-class resistance to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and protease inhibitors. Virologically defined treatment failure was a strong predictor of resistance, indicating that viral load testing is needed to correctly identify patients with treatment failure attributable to resistance.

  10. Protocol for a randomised controlled implementation trial of point-of-care viral load testing and task shifting: the Simplifying HIV TREAtment and Monitoring (STREAM) study

    OpenAIRE

    Dorward, Jienchi; Garrett, Nigel; Quame-Amaglo, Justice; Samsunder, Natasha; Ngobese, Hope; Ngomane, Noluthando; Moodley, Pravikrishnen; Mlisana, Koleka; Schaafsma, Torin; Donnell, Deborah; Barnabas, Ruanne; Naidoo, Kogieleum; Abdool Karim, Salim; Celum, Connie; Drain, Paul K

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Achieving the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV and AIDS 90-90-90 targets requires models of HIV care that expand antiretroviral therapy (ART) coverage without overburdening health systems. Point-of-care (POC) viral load (VL) testing has the potential to efficiently monitor ART treatment, while enrolled nurses may be able to provide safe and cost-effective chronic care for stable patients with HIV. This study aims to demonstrate whether POC VL testing combined with task shift...

  11. Ultra Structural Characterisation of Tetherin - a Protein Capable of Preventing Viral Release from the Plasma Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravindra K. Gupta

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Tetherin is an antiviral restriction factor made by mammalian cells to protect them from viral infection. It prevents newly formed virus particles from leaving infected cells. Its antiviral mechanism appears to be remarkably uncomplicated. In 2 studies published in PLoS Pathogens electron microscopy is used to support the hypothesis that the tethers that link HIV-1 virions to tetherin expressing cells contain tetherin and are likely to contain tetherin alone. They also show that the HIV-1 encoded tetherin antagonist that is known to cause tetherin degradation, Vpu, serves to reduce the amount of tetherin in the particles thereby allowing their release.

  12. Hepatitis C seroprevalence and correlation between viral load and viral genotype among primary care clients in Mexico Seroprevalencia de hepatitis C y correlación entre la carga viral y el genotipo viral en asistentes al nivel primario de atención enMéxico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana I Burguete-Garcia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To measure hepatitis C virus (HCV sero-prevalence, prevalence, hepatitis risk characteristics frequency, and genotype correlation with viral load among clients attending health care clinics. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Venous blood samples from l12 226 consecutive consenting adults were collected from January 2006 through December 2009. HCV antibodies were detected by immunoassay. HCV RNA was detected by qRT-PCR and viral genotype was performed by PCR and LIPA test. RESULTS: The HCV seroprevalence observed was l.5 % (C.I. 95% l.3-l.7, from seropositive individuals 60.9 % reported previous blood transfusion, 28.3% declared to have relatives with cirrhosis, 25.2% had tattoos or piercings, and 6.9% referred to have used drugs. Male gender and transfusion (pOBJETIVO: Medir la seroprevalencia y prevalencia del virus de hepatitis C (VHC, la frecuencia de caracteristicas de riesgo y la correlacion genotipica con la carga viral en sujetos asistentes a clinicas de medicina familiar. MATERIAL Y METODOS: muestras de sangre venosa se colectaron de l12 226 adultos, previo consentimiento informado, de enero 2006 hasta diciembre 2009, para la deteccion de anticuerpos contra VHC por ELISA. La deteccion de RNA-VHC y el genotipo viral se realizo mediante qRT-PCR. RESULTADOS: La seroprevalencia de VHC fue l.5 % (C.I. 95% l.3-l.7, 60.9% reportaron transfusion sanguinea previa, 28.3% dijo tener familiares cercanos con cirrosis, 25.2% tenian tatuajes o piercing y 6.9% refirio ser usuario de drogas intravenosas. El ser hombre, el antecedente de transfusiones y el uso de drogas (p<0.00l, fueron los factores con mayor frecuencia en el grupo VHC seropositivo. La prevalencia del RNA-VHC en seropositivos fue de 48.3%. El genotipo mas frecuente en todas las areas geograficas de Mexico fue el l (subtipo lA, 33%; subtipo lB, 21.4% seguido por el genotipo 2 (subtipo 2A, 8.50%. Se observó una correlación positiva de 51% con la carga viral más alta y el genotipo viral 1A

  13. Multiplex real-time PCR for the detection and quantification of latent and persistent viral genomes in cellular or plasma blood fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compston, Lara Isobel; Sarkobie, Francis; Li, Chengyao; Candotti, Daniel; Opare-Sem, Ohene; Allain, Jean-Pierre

    2008-07-01

    In common with latent viruses such as herpesviruses, parvovirus B19, HBV and GBV-C are contained successfully by the immune response and persist in the host. When immune control breaks down, reactivation of both latent and persistent viruses occurs. Two multiplex assays were developed (B19, HBV, HHV-8), (EBV, CMV, VZV) for blood screening, and tested on blood donor samples from Ghana to determine baseline prevalence of viraemia in immunocompetent persons. Single-virus real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays were optimised for viral load determination of positive initial screening. The qPCR method utilised was absolute quantification with external standards. Multiplex and single-virus qPCR assays had similar sensitivity, except for the B19 assay in which sensitivity was 100-fold lower. Assays were optimised for reproducibility and repeatability, with R(2) of 0.9 being obtained for most assays. With the exception of B19 and CMV, assays had 100% detection limit ranging between 10(1) and 10(2) copies, IU or arbitrary units under single-virus and multiplex assay conditions. The prevalence of viraemia was 1.6% HBV (0.8% DNA+/HBsAg-, 0.8% DNA+/HBsAg+), 0.8% parvovirus B19, and 3.3% GBV-C viraemia in the plasma fraction. The prevalence of four herpesviruses was 1.0% HHV-8, 0.85% CMV, and 8.3% EBV, and no detectable VZV viraemia.

  14. Stochastic clustering of material surface under high-heat plasma load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budaev, Viacheslav P.

    2017-11-01

    The results of a study of a surface formed by high-temperature plasma loads on various materials such as tungsten, carbon and stainless steel are presented. High-temperature plasma irradiation leads to an inhomogeneous stochastic clustering of the surface with self-similar granularity - fractality on the scale from nanoscale to macroscales. Cauliflower-like structure of tungsten and carbon materials are formed under high heat plasma load in fusion devices. The statistical characteristics of hierarchical granularity and scale invariance are estimated. They differ qualitatively from the roughness of the ordinary Brownian surface, which is possibly due to the universal mechanisms of stochastic clustering of material surface under the influence of high-temperature plasma.

  15. Heat load and deuterium plasma effects on SPS and WSP tungsten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilémová Monika

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Tungsten is a prime choice for armor material in future nuclear fusion devices. For the realization of fusion, it is necessary to address issues related to the plasma–armor interactions. In this work, several types of tungsten material were studied, i.e. tungsten prepared by spark plasma sintering (SPS and by water stabilized plasma spraying (WSP technique. An intended surface porosity was created in the samples to model hydrogen/helium bubbles. The samples were subjected to a laser heat loading and a radiation loading of deuterium plasma to simulate edge plasma conditions of a nuclear fusion device (power density of 108 W/cm2 and 107 W/cm2, respectively, in the pulse intervals up to 200 ns. Thermally induced changes in the morphology and the damage to the studied surfaces are described. Possible consequences for the fusion device operation are pointed out.

  16. GIT 16: megajoule pulsed generator with plasma opening switch for Z-pinch loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugaev, S.P.; Volkov, A.M.; Kim, A.A.

    1997-01-01

    Megajoule complex GIT 16 reserved for perfecting technology of forming powerful impulse with the help of intermediate inductive storage and break contact in the form of plasma opening switches and for investigating of irradiating loading of Z-pinch type is presented. The characteristics of isolated complex elements are given and basic results characterizing microsecond plasma opening switches at the current level of same M A are described

  17. [Analysis of the results of the 2010 External Quality Control Program of the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology for HIV-1, HCV, and HBV viral loads].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orta Mira, Nieves; Serrano, María del Remedio Guna; Martínez, José-Carlos Latorre; Ovies, María Rosario; Poveda, Marta; de Gopegui, Enrique Ruiz; Cardona, Concepción Gimeno

    2011-12-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and hepatitis B (HBV) and C virus (HCV) viral load determinations are among the most important markers for the follow-up of patients infected with these viruses. External quality control tools are crucial to ensure the accuracy of the results obtained by microbiology laboratories. This article summarized the results obtained in the 2010 External Quality Control Program of the Spanish Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology for HIV-1, HCV, and HBV viral loads and HCV genotyping. In the HIV-1 program, a total of five standards were sent. One standard consisted of seronegative human plasma, while the remaining four contained plasma from three different viremic patients, in the range of 3-5 log(10) copies/mL; two of these standards were identical, with the aim of determining repeatability. A significant proportion of the laboratories (22.6% on average) obtained values out of the accepted range (mean ± 0.2 log(10)copies/mL), depending on the standard and on the method used for quantification. Repeatability was very good, with up to 95% of laboratories reporting results within the limits (Δ<0.5 log(10)copies/mL). The HBV and HCV program consisted of two standards with different viral load contents. Most of the participants, 86.1% in the case of HCV and 87.1% in HBV, obtained all the results within the accepted range (mean ± 1.96 SD log(10)UI/mL). Post-analytical errors due to mistranscription of the results were detected in these controls. Data from this analysis reinforce the utility of proficiency programs to ensure the quality of the results obtained by a particular laboratory, as well as the importance of the post-analytical phase in overall quality. Due to interlaboratory variability, use of the same method and the same laboratory for patient follow-up is advisable. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España S.L. All rights reserved.

  18. PD-1 expression on peripheral CD8+ TEM/TEMRA subsets closely correlated with HCV viral load in chronic hepatitis C patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Weidong

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tight correlation between host circulating CD8+ T cell-mediated immune response and control of viral replication is classical characteristic of long-term HCV infection. CD8+ T cell maturation/activation markers are expected to be associated with viral replication and disease progression in chronic HCV infection. The aim of the present study was to explore novel markers on CD8+ T cells with ability to evaluate HCV viral replication and disease progression. Methods PBMCs were isolated from 37 chronic HCV-infected patients and 17 healthy controls. Distributed pattern of CD8+ T cells subsets and expression of PD-1, CD38, HLA-DR and CD127 were analyzed by flow cytometry. The correlation between expression of surface markers and HCV viral load or ALT was studied. Results Declined naïve and increased TEMRA CD8+ T subsets were found in HCV-infected individuals compared with healthy controls. Percentage and MFI of PD-1, CD38 and HLA-DR on all CD8+ T cell subsets were higher in HCV-infected patients than healthy controls. In contrast, CD127 expression on CD8+ TCM showed an opposite trend as PD-1, CD38 and HLA-DR did. In chronic HCV infection, MFI of PD-1 on CD8+ TEM (p Conclusion PD-1 level on peripheral CD8+ TEM/TEMRA was highly correlated with HCV viral load in chronic HCV-infected patients, which made PD-1 a novel indicator to evaluate HCV replication and disease progression in chronic hepatitis C patients.

  19. Mucosal immunization with recombinant adenoviral vectors expressing murine gammaherpesvirus-68 genes M2 and M3 can reduce latent viral load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoegh-Petersen, Mette; Thomsen, Allan R; Christensen, Jan P; Holst, Peter J

    2009-11-12

    Gammaherpesviruses establish life-long latent infections in their hosts. If the host becomes immunosuppressed, these viruses may reactivate and cause severe disease, and even in immunocompetent individuals the gammaherpesviruses are presumed to have an oncogenic potential. Murine gammaherpesvirus-68 (MHV-68) is a member of the Gammaherpesvirinae subfamily and represents a useful murine model for this category of infections, in which new vaccination strategies may initially be evaluated. Two attenuated variants of MHV-68 have successfully been used as vaccines, but the oncogenic potential of the gammaherpesvirinae speaks against using a similar approach in humans. DNA immunization with plasmids encoding the MHV-68 genes M2 or M3 caused a reduction in either acute or early latent viral load, respectively, but neither immunization had an effect at times later than 14 days post-infection. Adenovirus-based vaccines are substantially more immunogenic than DNA vaccines and can be applied to induce mucosal immunity. Here we show that a significant reduction of the late viral load in the spleens, at 60 days post-infection, was achieved when immunizing mice both intranasally and subcutaneously with adenoviral vectors encoding both M2 and M3. Additionally we show that M3 immunization prevented the usual development of virus-induced splenomegaly at 2-3 weeks post-infection. This is the first time that immunization with a non-replicating vaccine has lead to a significantly reduced viral load at time points beyond 14 days post-infection, and thus demonstrates that a non-replicating vaccine may successfully be employed to reduce the viral burden during chronic gammaherpesvirus infection.

  20. Membrane Bioreactor-Based Wastewater Treatment Plant in Saudi Arabia: Reduction of Viral Diversity, Load, and Infectious Capacity

    KAUST Repository

    Jumat, Muhammad; Hasan, Nur; Subramanian, Poorani; Heberling, Colin; Colwell, Rita; Hong, Pei-Ying

    2017-01-01

    (AdV) and Enteroviruses (EV) were enumerated using digital polymerase chain reaction (dPCR) and assessed for infectivity using fluorescence-based infection assays. MBR treatment was successful in reducing viral diversity. Plant viruses remained

  1. Edge loading of plasma facing components in fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohanti, R.; Deksnis, E.; Lomas, P.; Pick, M.

    1993-03-01

    The new poloidal and the inner wall guard limiter tiles of the Joint European Torus Experiment (JET) have been shaped to maximise power handling capability. The existing design of the divertor tiles of JET have been modified to reduce edge exposure. All of these components consist of discrete tiles with finite gaps. Under the assumption that the particle power flow is along field lines, the leading edges of the tiles are exposed due to field line penetration between gaps. The peak loading of these tiles to be at the edges. The report presents a generalised solution to the edge problem which indicates the steps required to shape the tiles for maximum power handling capability. (Author)

  2. Association of Post-Saline Load Plasma Aldosterone Levels With Left Ventricular Hypertrophy in Primary Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catena, Cristiana; Verheyen, Nicolas D; Url-Michitsch, Marion; Kraigher-Krainer, Elisabeth; Colussi, GianLuca; Pilz, Stefan; Tomaschitz, Andreas; Pieske, Burkert; Sechi, Leonardo A

    2016-03-01

    Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity in hypertension. Current evidence suggests a contribution to LVH of plasma aldosterone levels that are inappropriately elevated for the salt status. The aim of this study was to investigate whether inappropriate modulation of aldosterone production by a saline load is associated with left ventricular (LV) mass in hypertensive patients. In 90 hypertensive patients free of clinically relevant cardiovascular complications in whom secondary forms of hypertension were ruled out, we performed a standard intravenous saline load (0.9% NaCl, 2 l in 4 hours) with measurement of plasma aldosterone and active renin at baseline and end of infusion. Bi-dimensional echocardiography was performed for the assessment of cardiac morphology and function. LVH was present in 19% of patients who had significantly worse renal function and higher body mass, blood pressure, and plasma aldosterone levels measured both at baseline and after the saline load than patients without LVH. LV mass was directly related to age, body mass, systolic blood pressure, duration of hypertension, baseline, and post-saline load plasma aldosterone levels and inversely to glomerular filtration. Multivariate regression analysis showed independent correlation of LV mass with body mass, systolic blood pressure, and plasma aldosterone levels measured after intravenous saline load, but not at baseline. In patients with hypertension, aldosterone levels measured after intravenous saline load are related to LV mass independent of age, body mass, and blood pressure, suggesting that limited ability of salt to modulate aldosterone production could contribute to LVH. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2015. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Superior virologic and treatment outcomes when viral load is measured at 3 months compared to 6 months on antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerschberger, Bernhard; Boulle, Andrew M; Kranzer, Katharina; Hilderbrand, Katherine; Schomaker, Michael; Coetzee, David; Goemaere, Eric; Van Cutsem, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    Routine viral load (VL) monitoring is utilized to assess antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence and virologic failure, and it is currently scaled-up in many resource-constrained settings. The first routine VL is recommended as late as six months after ART initiation for early detection of sub-optimal adherence. We aimed to assess the optimal timing of first VL measurement after initiation of ART. This was a retrospective, cohort analysis of routine monitoring data of adults enrolled at three primary care clinics in Khayelitsha, Cape Town, between January 2002 and March 2009. Primary outcomes were virologic failure and switch to second-line ART comparing patients in whom first VL done was at three months (VL3M) and six months (VL6M) after ART initiation. Adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) were estimated using Cox proportional hazard models. In total, 6264 patients were included for the time to virologic failure and 6269 for the time to switch to second-line ART analysis. Patients in the VL3M group had a 22% risk reduction of virologic failure (aHR 0.78, 95% CI 0.64-0.95; p=0.016) and a 27% risk reduction of switch to second-line ART (aHR 0.73, 95% CI 0.58-0.92; p=0.008) when compared to patients in the VL6M group. For each additional month of delay of the first VL measurement (up to nine months), the risk of virologic failure increased by 9% (aHR 1.09, 95% CI 1.02-1.15; p=0.008) and switch to second-line ART by 13% (aHR 1.13, 95% CI 1.05-1.21; p<0.001). A first VL at three months rather than six months with targeted adherence interventions for patients with high VL may improve long-term virologic suppression and reduce switches to costly second-line ART. ART programmes should consider the first VL measurement at three months after ART initiation.

  4. Divertor power load studies for attached L-mode single-null plasmas in TCV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maurizio, R.; Elmore, S.; Fedorczak, N.; Gallo, A.; Reimerdes, H.; Labit, B.; Theiler, C.; Tsui, C. K.; Vijvers, W. A. J.; TCV team,; MST1 Team,

    2018-01-01

    This paper investigates the power loads at the inner and outer divertor targets of attached, Ohmic L-mode, deuterium plasmas in the TCV tokamak, in various experimental situations using an Infrared thermography system. The study comprises variations of the outer divertor leg length and target flux

  5. Combined impact of transient heat loads and steady-state plasma exposure on tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, Alexander, E-mail: A.Huber@fz-juelich.de [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Institut für Energie- und Klimaforschung, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Wirtz, Marius; Sergienko, Gennady; Steudel, Isabel [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Institut für Energie- und Klimaforschung, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Arakcheev, Aleksey; Burdakov, Aleksander [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (BINP), Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Esser, Hans Guenter; Freisinger, Michaele; Kreter, Arkadi; Linke, Jochen; Linsmeier, Christian; Mertens, Philippe; Möller, Sören; Philipps, Volker; Pintsuk, Gerald; Reinhart, Michael; Schweer, Bernd [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Institut für Energie- und Klimaforschung, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Shoshin, Andrey [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (BINP), Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation); Terra, Alexis; Unterberg, Bernhard [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Institut für Energie- und Klimaforschung, 52425 Jülich (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • W-samples under combined loading conditions show a lower damage threshold. • The pre-loaded W-samples show a lower damage threshold due to the D- embrittlement. • Pronounced increase of the D retention has been observed during the combined loads. • Enhanced blister formation has been observed under combined loading conditions. - Abstract: Cracking thresholds and crack patterns in tungsten targets have been studied in recent experiments after repetitive ITER-like ELM heat pulses in combination with plasma exposure in PSI-2 (Γ{sub target} = 2.5–4.0 × 10{sup 21} m{sup −2} s{sup −1}, ion energy on surface E{sub ion} = 60 eV, T{sub e} ≈ 10 eV). The heat pulses were simulated by laser irradiation. A Nd:YAG laser with energy per pulse of up to 32 J and a duration of 1 ms at the fundamental wavelength (λ = 1064 nm, repetition rate 0.5 Hz) was used to irradiate ITER-grade W samples with repetitive heat loads. In contrast to pure thermal exposure with a laser beam where the damage threshold under pure heat loads for ITER-grade W lies between 0.38 and 0.76 GW/m{sup 2}, the experiments with pre-loaded W-samples as well as under combined loading conditions show a lower damage threshold of 0.3 GW/m{sup 2}. This is probably due to deuterium embrittlement and/or a higher defect concentration in a region close to the surface due to supersaturation with deuterium. A pronounced increase in the D retention (more than a factor of five) has been observed during the combined transient heat loads and plasma exposure. Enhanced blister formation has been observed under these combined loading conditions.

  6. Combined impact of transient heat loads and steady-state plasma exposure on tungsten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, Alexander; Wirtz, Marius; Sergienko, Gennady; Steudel, Isabel; Arakcheev, Aleksey; Burdakov, Aleksander; Esser, Hans Guenter; Freisinger, Michaele; Kreter, Arkadi; Linke, Jochen; Linsmeier, Christian; Mertens, Philippe; Möller, Sören; Philipps, Volker; Pintsuk, Gerald; Reinhart, Michael; Schweer, Bernd; Shoshin, Andrey; Terra, Alexis; Unterberg, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • W-samples under combined loading conditions show a lower damage threshold. • The pre-loaded W-samples show a lower damage threshold due to the D- embrittlement. • Pronounced increase of the D retention has been observed during the combined loads. • Enhanced blister formation has been observed under combined loading conditions. - Abstract: Cracking thresholds and crack patterns in tungsten targets have been studied in recent experiments after repetitive ITER-like ELM heat pulses in combination with plasma exposure in PSI-2 (Γ_t_a_r_g_e_t = 2.5–4.0 × 10"2"1 m"−"2 s"−"1, ion energy on surface E_i_o_n = 60 eV, T_e ≈ 10 eV). The heat pulses were simulated by laser irradiation. A Nd:YAG laser with energy per pulse of up to 32 J and a duration of 1 ms at the fundamental wavelength (λ = 1064 nm, repetition rate 0.5 Hz) was used to irradiate ITER-grade W samples with repetitive heat loads. In contrast to pure thermal exposure with a laser beam where the damage threshold under pure heat loads for ITER-grade W lies between 0.38 and 0.76 GW/m"2, the experiments with pre-loaded W-samples as well as under combined loading conditions show a lower damage threshold of 0.3 GW/m"2. This is probably due to deuterium embrittlement and/or a higher defect concentration in a region close to the surface due to supersaturation with deuterium. A pronounced increase in the D retention (more than a factor of five) has been observed during the combined transient heat loads and plasma exposure. Enhanced blister formation has been observed under these combined loading conditions.

  7. Calorimetric measurement of heat load in full non-inductive LHCD plasmas on TRIAM-1M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanada, K.; Shinoda, N.; Sugata, T.; Sasaki, K.; Zushi, H.; Nakamura, K.; Sato, K.N.; Sakamoto, M.; Idei, H.; Hasegawa, M.; Kawasaki, S.; Nakashima, H.; Higashijima, A.

    2007-01-01

    Calorimetric measurements using the temperature increment of cooling-water were carried out to estimate the heat load distribution on the plasma facing components (PFCs) in the limiter discharges on TRIAM-1M. Line averaged electron density, n e , and LH power, P LH , dependences of the heat load on PFCs were measured. The heat load on the limiters was proportional to n e 1.5 in the range of n e =0.2-1.0x10 19 m -3 and P LH 1 in the range of P LH =0.005-0.09MW. For P LH >0.1MW, the plasma transition to an enhanced current drive (ECD) mode appeared and the n e dependences on the heat load on the limiter moderated. This indicates that the heat flux to scrape-off layer (SOL) region was reduced due to the improvement of the plasma confinement. The up-down asymmetry of the heat load on the vacuum vessel was enhanced in the ECD mode, which may be caused by the increasing of the direct loss of energetic electrons

  8. The Fracture of Plasma-Treated Polyurethane Surface under Fatigue Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilya A. Morozov

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Plasma treatment of soft polymers is a promising technique to improve biomedical properties of the materials. The response to the deformation of such materials is not yet clear. Soft elastic polyurethane treated with plasma immersion ion implantation is subjected to fatigue uniaxial loading. The influence of the strain amplitude and the plasma treatment regime on damage character is discussed. Surface defects are studied in unloaded and stretched states of the material. As a result of fatigue loading, transverse cracks (with closed overlapping edges as well as with open edges deeply propagating into the polymer and longitudinal folds which are break and bend inward, appear on the surface. Hard edges of cracks cut the soft polymer which is squeezed from the bulk to the surface. The observed damages are related to the high stiffness of the modified surface and its transition to the polymer substrate.

  9. The contribution of Ebola viral load at admission and other patient characteristics to mortality in a Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) Ebola Case Management Centre (CMC), Kailahun, Sierra Leone, June -October, 2014.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzpatrick, Gabriel

    2015-05-22

    This paper describes patient characteristics, including Ebola viral load, associated with mortality in an MSF Ebola case management centre. Out of 780 admissions between June and October 2014, 525 (67%) were positive for Ebola with a known outcome. The crude mortality rate was 51% (270\\/525). Ebola viral load (whole blood sample) data was available on 76% (397\\/525) of patients. Univariate analysis indicated viral load at admission, age, symptom duration prior to admission and distance travelled to the CMC were associated with mortality (p value<0.05). The multivariable model predicted mortality in those with a viral load at admission greater than 10 million copies per millilitre (p value<0.05, Odds Ratio>10), aged 50 years or more (p value=0.08, Odds Ratio=2) and symptom duration prior to admission less than 5 days (p value=0.14). The presence of confusion, diarrhoea and conjunctivitis were significantly higher (p value<0.05) in Ebola patients who died. These findings highlight the importance viral load at admission has on mortality outcomes and could be used to cohort cases with viral loads greater than 10 million copies into dedicated wards with more intensive medical support to further reduce mortality.

  10. Transmitted drug resistance in the CFAR network of integrated clinical systems cohort: prevalence and effects on pre-therapy CD4 and viral load.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Art F Y Poon

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 genomes often carry one or more mutations associated with drug resistance upon transmission into a therapy-naïve individual. We assessed the prevalence and clinical significance of transmitted drug resistance (TDR in chronically-infected therapy-naïve patients enrolled in a multi-center cohort in North America. Pre-therapy clinical significance was quantified by plasma viral load (pVL and CD4+ cell count (CD4 at baseline. Naïve bulk sequences of HIV-1 protease and reverse transcriptase (RT were screened for resistance mutations as defined by the World Health Organization surveillance list. The overall prevalence of TDR was 14.2%. We used a Bayesian network to identify co-transmission of TDR mutations in clusters associated with specific drugs or drug classes. Aggregate effects of mutations by drug class were estimated by fitting linear models of pVL and CD4 on weighted sums over TDR mutations according to the Stanford HIV Database algorithm. Transmitted resistance to both classes of reverse transcriptase inhibitors was significantly associated with lower CD4, but had opposing effects on pVL. In contrast, position-specific analyses of TDR mutations revealed substantial effects on CD4 and pVL at several residue positions that were being masked in the aggregate analyses, and significant interaction effects as well. Residue positions in RT with predominant effects on CD4 or pVL (D67 and M184 were re-evaluated in causal models using an inverse probability-weighting scheme to address the problem of confounding by other mutations and demographic or risk factors. We found that causal effect estimates of mutations M184V/I (-1.7 log₁₀pVL and D67N/G (-2.1[³√CD4] and 0.4 log₁₀pVL were compensated by K103N/S and K219Q/E/N/R. As TDR becomes an increasing dilemma in this modern era of highly-active antiretroviral therapy, these results have immediate significance for the clinical management of HIV-1

  11. Optimization of laser-plasma injector via beam loading effects using ionization-induced injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, P.; Maynard, G.; Audet, T. L.; Cros, B.; Lehe, R.; Vay, J.-L.

    2018-05-01

    Simulations of ionization-induced injection in a laser driven plasma wakefield show that high-quality electron injectors in the 50-200 MeV range can be achieved in a gas cell with a tailored density profile. Using the PIC code Warp with parameters close to existing experimental conditions, we show that the concentration of N2 in a hydrogen plasma with a tailored density profile is an efficient parameter to tune electron beam properties through the control of the interplay between beam loading effects and varying accelerating field in the density profile. For a given laser plasma configuration, with moderate normalized laser amplitude, a0=1.6 and maximum electron plasma density, ne 0=4 ×1018 cm-3 , the optimum concentration results in a robust configuration to generate electrons at 150 MeV with a rms energy spread of 4% and a spectral charge density of 1.8 pC /MeV .

  12. Electromagnetic loads and structural response of the CIT [Compact Ignition Tokamak] vacuum vessel to plasma disruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salem, S.L.; Listvinsky, G.; Lee, M.Y.; Bailey, C.

    1987-01-01

    Studies of the electromagnetic loads produced by a variety of plasma disruptions, and the resulting structural effects on the compact Ignition Tokamak (CIT) vacuum vessel (VV), have been performed to help optimize the VV design. A series of stationary and moving plasmas, with disruption rates from 0.7--10.0 MA/ms, have been analyzed using the EMPRES code to compute eddy currents and electromagnetic pressures, and the NASTRAN code to evaluate the structural response of the vacuum vessel. Key factors contributing to the magnitude of EM forces and resulting stresses on the vessel have been found to include disruption rate, and direction and synchronization of plasma motion with the onset of plasma current decay. As a result of these analyses, a number of design changes have been made, and design margins for the present 1.75 meter design have been improved over the original CIT configuration. 1 ref., 10 figs., 4 tabs

  13. Persistent Epstein-Barr viral load in Epstein-Barr viral naïve pediatric heart transplant recipients: Risk of late-onset post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Bibhuti; Morrow, Robert; Huang, Rong; Fixler, David

    2016-12-24

    To examine the risk of late-onset post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) in the presence of persisting high Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in EBV naïve pediatric heart transplant (HT) recipients. A retrospective review of the medical records of the 145 pediatric HT recipients who had serial EBV viral load monitoring at our center was performed. We defined EBV naive patients whose EBV serology either IgM or IgG in the blood were negative at the time of HT and excluded passive transmission from mother to child in subjects less than 6 mo of age. PTLD was diagnosed in 8 out of 145 patients (5.5%); 6/91 (6.5%) in those who were EBV seropositive and 2/54 (3.7%) in the EBV naïve group at the time of HT ( P = 0.71). We found 32/145 (22%) patients with persistently high EBV load during continuing follow-up; 20/91 (22%) in EBV seropositive group vs 12/54 (22%) in EBV naïve group ( P = 0.97). There was no significant association between pre-HT serostatus and EBV load after transplant ( P > 0.05). In the EBV seropositive group, PTLD was diagnosed in 15% (3/20) of patients with high EBV vs 4.2% (3/71) of patients with low or undetectable EBV load ( P = 0.14) whereas in EBV naïve patients 8.3% (1/12) of those with high EBV load and 2.3% (1/42) with low or undetectable EBV load ( P = 0.41). There was a highly significant association between occurrence of PTLD in those with high EBV load and duration of follow up (4.3 ± 3.9 years) after HT by Cochran-Armitage test for the entire cohort ( P = 0.005). At least one episode of acute rejection occurred in 72% (23/32) of patients with high EBV vs 36% (41/113) patients with low or undetectable EBV after HT ( P < 0.05). There is an association between persistently high EBV load during post-HT follow up and the occurrence of late-onset PTLD in pediatric HT recipients irrespective of serostatus at the time of transplant. The occurrence of allograft rejection increased in patients with high EBV load presumably due to reduction in

  14. Epstein-Barr virus viral load and serology in childhood non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and chronic inflammatory conditions in Uganda: implications for disease risk and characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orem, Jackson; Sandin, Sven; Mbidde, Edward; Mangen, Fred Wabwire; Middeldorp, Jaap; Weiderpass, Elisabete

    2014-10-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has been linked to malignancies and chronic inflammatory conditions. In this study, EBV detection was compared in children with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and children with chronic inflammatory conditions, using samples and data from a case-control study carried out at the Mulago National Referral Hospital between 2004 and 2008. EBV viral load was measured in saliva, whole blood and white blood cells by real-time PCR. Serological values for IgG-VCA, EBNA1, and EAd-IgG were compared in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and chronic inflammatory conditions; and in Burkitt's lymphoma and other subtypes of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Of the 127 children included (87 males and 40 females; median age 7 years, range 2-17), 96 had non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (46 Burkitt's lymphoma and 50 other non-Hodgkin's lymphoma), 31 had chronic inflammatory conditions, and only 10% were HIV-positive. The most common clinical presentations for all disease categories considered were fever, night sweats, and weight loss. EBV viral load in whole blood was elevated in Burkitt's lymphoma compared to other non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (OR 6.67, 95% CI 1.32, 33.69; P-value = 0.04), but EBV viral loads in saliva and white blood cells were not different in any of the disease categories considered. A significant difference in EAd-IgG was observed when non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was compared with chronic inflammatory conditions (OR 0.19, 95% CI 0.07, 0.51; P-value = 0.001). When compared to chronic inflammatory conditions, EBV viral load was elevated in Burkitt's lymphoma, and EA IgG was higher in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. This study supports an association between virological and serological markers of EBV and childhood non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, irrespective of subtype, in Uganda. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Reflecting the real value of health care resources in modelling and cost-effectiveness studies-The example of viral load informed differentiated care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revill, Paul; Walker, Simon; Cambiano, Valentina; Phillips, Andrew; Sculpher, Mark J

    2018-01-01

    The WHO HIV Treatment Guidelines suggest routine viral-load monitoring can be used to differentiate antiretroviral therapy (ART) delivery and reduce the frequency of clinic visits for patients stable on ART. This recommendation was informed by economic analysis that showed the approach is very likely to be cost-effective, even in the most resource constrained of settings. The health benefits were shown to be modest but the costs of introducing and scaling up viral load monitoring can be offset by anticipated reductions in the costs of clinic visits, due to these being less frequent for many patients. The cost-effectiveness of introducing viral-load informed differentiated care depends upon whether cost reductions are possible if the number of clinic visits is reduced and/or how freed clinic capacity is used for alternative priorities. Where freed resources, either physical or financial, generate large health gains (e.g. if committed to patients failing ART or to other high value health care interventions), the benefits of differentiated care are expected to be high; if however these freed physical resources are already under-utilized or financial resources are used less efficiently and would not be put to as beneficial an alternative use, the policy may not be cost-effective. The implication is that the use of conventional unit costs to value resources may not well reflect the latter's value in contributing to health improvement. Analyses intended to inform resource allocated decisions in a number of settings may therefore have to be interpreted with due consideration to local context. In this paper we present methods of how economic analyses can reflect the real value of health care resources rather than simply applying their unit costs. The analyses informing the WHO Guidelines are re-estimated by implementing scenarios using this framework, informing how differentiated care can be prioritized to generate greatest gains in population health. The findings have

  16. Reflecting the real value of health care resources in modelling and cost-effectiveness studies—The example of viral load informed differentiated care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Simon; Cambiano, Valentina; Phillips, Andrew; Sculpher, Mark J.

    2018-01-01

    Background The WHO HIV Treatment Guidelines suggest routine viral-load monitoring can be used to differentiate antiretroviral therapy (ART) delivery and reduce the frequency of clinic visits for patients stable on ART. This recommendation was informed by economic analysis that showed the approach is very likely to be cost-effective, even in the most resource constrained of settings. The health benefits were shown to be modest but the costs of introducing and scaling up viral load monitoring can be offset by anticipated reductions in the costs of clinic visits, due to these being less frequent for many patients. Key issues for economic evaluation The cost-effectiveness of introducing viral-load informed differentiated care depends upon whether cost reductions are possible if the number of clinic visits is reduced and/or how freed clinic capacity is used for alternative priorities. Where freed resources, either physical or financial, generate large health gains (e.g. if committed to patients failing ART or to other high value health care interventions), the benefits of differentiated care are expected to be high; if however these freed physical resources are already under-utilized or financial resources are used less efficiently and would not be put to as beneficial an alternative use, the policy may not be cost-effective. The implication is that the use of conventional unit costs to value resources may not well reflect the latter’s value in contributing to health improvement. Analyses intended to inform resource allocated decisions in a number of settings may therefore have to be interpreted with due consideration to local context. In this paper we present methods of how economic analyses can reflect the real value of health care resources rather than simply applying their unit costs. The analyses informing the WHO Guidelines are re-estimated by implementing scenarios using this framework, informing how differentiated care can be prioritized to generate greatest

  17. Relationship between changes of blood HBV-DNA viral load and serum liver fibrosis markers (HA, LN, IV-C, PCIII) levels in patients with chronic hepatitis B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuanchi; Huang Jinwei

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the relationship between changes of blood HBV DNA viral load and serum liver fibrosis markers levels in patients with chronic hepatitis B. Methods: In 2002, 20 patients with hepatitis B were divided into two groups: Group A treated with antiviral ageat (n=10), Group B not treated.Five years later (2007) the blood viral load (with FQ-PCR) and serum levels of hepatic fibrosis markers (with RIA) were determined in these patients. Results: The average log viral load in serum in the tow groups were 3.56 ± 1.12 (treated group) and 7.76 ± 1.23 respectively with significant difference (P<0.05). In 2002, serum liver fibrosis markers (HA, LN, IV-C, PCIII) levels were about the same in the two groups were (82.72 ± 30.62μg/ml, 71.18 ± 26.71μg/ml, 93.77 ± 69.87μg/ml, 91.4 ± 18.64μg/ml and 79.32 ± 31.34μg/ml, 70.25 ± 28.23)μg/ml, 90.35 ± 67.81μg/ml, 85.77 ± 20.56μg/ml respectively). In 2007, in the treated patients, serum liver fibrosis markers HA, LN, IV-C, PCIII levels were 85.72 ± 29.52μg/ml, 70.18 ± 25.4μg/ml, 94.2 ± 70.92μg/ml, 93.4 ± 19.32μg/ml respectively However, in the non-treated groups, the serum HA, LN, IV-C, PCIII levels were105.67 ± 28.54μg/ml, 97.75 ± 26.25μg/ml, 132 ± 72.13μg/ml, 120.72 ± 19.87μg/ml, being significantly higher than those in the treated group (P<0.05). Conclusion: Effective decrease of the viral load might control the progress of hepatic fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B. (authors)

  18. Independent predictive factors for significant liver histological changes in patients with HBeAg-positive high-viral-load chronic HBV infection and a normal alanine aminotransferase level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Qiang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the independent predictive factors for significant liver histological changes (SLHCs in patients with HBeAg-positive high-viral-load chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV infection and a normal alanine aminotransferase (ALT level. MethodsA retrospective analysis was performed on the clinical data of 116 previously untreated patients with HBeAg-positive high-viral-load (HBV DNA≥105 copies/ml chronic HBV infection and a normal ALT level (<50 U/L who were hospitalized in Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center Affiliated to Fudan University from June 2013 to August 2015. The definition of SLHCs was inflammation ≥G2 and/or fibrosis≥S2. The t-test or Mann-Whitney U rank sum test was used for comparison of continuous data between groups, and the chi-square test was used for comparison of categorical data between groups. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were used to determine independent predictive factors for SLHCs. ResultsOf all the 116 patients, 47(40.5% had SLHCs. The multivariate analysis showed that age (OR=2.828, P<0.05, ALT (OR=1.011, P<0.05, and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT (OR=1.089, P<0.05 were independent predictors for SLHCs in patients with HBeAg-positive high-viral-load chronic HBV infection and a normal ALT level. The patients aged ≤30 years had a significantly lower incidence rate of SLHCs than those aged>30 years (21.6% vs 49.4%, χ2=6.42, P=0.015, the patients with ALT ≤30 U/L had a significantly lower incidence rate of SLHCs than those with 30 U/L<ALT≤50 U/L (17.6% vs 50.0%, χ2=19.86, P<0.001, and the patients with GGT≤40 U/L had a significantly lower incidence rate of SLHCs than those with GGT>40 U/L (28.8% vs 66.7%, χ2=28.63, P<0.001. ConclusionIn patients with HBeAg-positive high-viral-load chronic HBV infection and a normal ALT level, those with an age of>30 years, ALT>30 U/L, and GGT>40 U/L tend to develop SLHCs and need liver biopsy.

  19. Circular viral DNA detection and junction sequence analysis from PBMC of SHIV-infected cynomolgus monkeys with undetectable virus plasma RNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cara, Andrea; Maggiorella, Maria Teresa; Bona, Roberta; Sernicola, Leonardo; Baroncelli, Silvia; Negri, Donatella R.M.; Leone, Pasqualina; Fagrouch, Zahra; Heeney, Jonathan; Titti, Fausto; Cafaro, Aurelio; Ensoli, Barbara

    2004-01-01

    Extrachromosomal forms of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 can be detected in peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) from HIV-infected patients in the absence of detectable viral replication and are thought to be a sign of active but cryptic virus replication. No information, however, are available on whether these forms are also present in animal models for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and on their relation with other methods of detection of virus replication. To this aim, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) approach was used to detect and analyze unintegrated circular 2-LTR-containing forms in PBMC of simian human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV)89.6P infected cynomolgus monkeys with RNA levels ranging between 1.8x10 6 and less than 50 copies/ml of plasma. 2-LTR forms were detected in 96.5% of monkeys' samples above 50 copies/ml of plasma, whereas they were present in 75.8% of monkeys' samples below 50 copies/ml of plasma. Persistence of unintegrated viral DNA in monkeys with undetectable plasma RNA could indicate either stability in non-dividing cells or ongoing low levels of viral replication in dividing cells

  20. A European multicientre study on the comparison of HBV viral loads between VERIS HBV assay and Roche COBAS® TAQMAN® HBV test, Abbott RealTime HBV assay, Siemens VERSANT HBV assay, and Qiagen artus HBV RG kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Patrick; Delgado, Rafael; Drago, Monica; Fanti, Diana; Fleury, Hervé; Izopet, Jacques; Lombardi, Alessandra; Marcos, MaAngeles; Sauné, Karine; O'Shea, Siobhan; Pérez-Rivilla, Alfredo; Ramble, John; Trimoulet, Pascale; Vila, Jordi; Whittaker, Duncan; Artus, Alain; Rhodes, Daniel

    2017-10-01

    Hepatitis B viral load testing is essential to treatment and monitoring decisions in patients with chronic Hepatitis B. Beckman Coulter has developed the VERIS HBV Assay (Veris) for use on the fully automated DxN VERIS Molecular Diagnostics System. 1 OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the clinical performance of the Veris HBV Assay at multiple EU laboratories STUDY DESIGN: Method comparison was performed with a total of 344 plasma specimens from HBV infected patients tested with Veris and COBAS ® TaqMan ® HBV Test (Cobas), 207 specimens tested with Veris and RealTime HBV Assay (RealTime), 86 specimens tested with Veris and VERSANT ® HBV Assay (Versant), and 74 specimens tested with Veris and artus ® HBV RG PCR kit (artus). Bland-Altman analysis showed average bias of -0.46 log 10 IU/mL between Veris and Cobas, -0.46 log 10 IU/mL between Veris and RealTime, -0.36 log 10 IU/mL between Veris and Versant, and -0.12 log 10 IU/mL between Veris and artus. Bias was consistent across the assay range. Patient monitoring results using Veris demonstrated similar viral load trends over time to Cobas, RealTime, and artus. The VERIS HBV Assay demonstrated comparable clinical performance, with varying degrees of negative bias, compared to other currently marketed assays for HBV DNA monitoring. This negative bias should be taken into consideration if switching monitoring methods to Veris. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The Prognostic Value of Plasma Epstein-Barr Viral DNA and Tumor Response to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Advanced-Stage Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Li-Ting; Tang, Lin-Quan; Chen, Qiu-Yan; Zhang, Lu; Guo, Shan-Shan; Guo, Ling; Mo, Hao-Yuan; Zhao, Chong; Guo, Xiang; Cao, Ka-Jia; Qian, Chao-Nan; Zeng, Mu-Sheng; Bei, Jin-Xin; Hong, Ming-Huang; Shao, Jian-Yong; Sun, Ying; Ma, Jun; Mai, Hai-Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the prognostic value of the plasma load of Epstein-Barr viral (EBV) DNA and the tumor response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) in advanced-stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Patients and Methods: In all, 185 consecutive patients with stage III to IVb NPC treated with NACT followed by concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CCRT) were prospectively enrolled. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS), and the secondary endpoints included locoregional relapse–free survival (LRFS) and distant metastasis–free survival (DMFS). Results: EBV DNA was detected in 165 (89%) patients before treatment but was undetectable in 127 (69%) patients after NACT. Detectable EBV DNA levels after NACT were correlated with poor prognosis (3-year PFS 71.8% vs 85.2%, P=.008 and 3-year DMFS 82.5% vs 92.3%, P=.013). An unsatisfactory tumor response (stable disease or disease progression) after NACT was also correlated with poor clinical outcome (3-year PFS 71.1% vs 85.9%, P=.005 and 3-year LRFS 82.7% vs 93.5%, P=.012). Multivariate analysis showed that the EBV DNA level after NACT (hazard ratio [HR] 2.31, 95% CI 1.18-4.54, P=.015) and the tumor response to NACT (HR 2.84, 95% CI 1.42-5.67, P=.003) were both significant prognostic factors for PFS. Multivariate analysis also showed that EBV DNA after NACT was the only significant predictor of DMFS (HR 2.99, 95% CI 1.25-7.15, P=.014) and that tumor response to NACT was the only significant predictor of LRFS (HR 3.31, 95% CI 1.21-9.07, P=.020). Conclusion: Detectable EBV DNA levels and an unsatisfactory tumor response (stable disease or disease progression) after NACT serve as predictors of poor prognosis for patients with advanced-stage NPC. These findings will facilitate further risk stratification, early treatment modification, or both before CCRT.

  2. The Prognostic Value of Plasma Epstein-Barr Viral DNA and Tumor Response to Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Advanced-Stage Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Li-Ting; Tang, Lin-Quan; Chen, Qiu-Yan; Zhang, Lu; Guo, Shan-Shan; Guo, Ling; Mo, Hao-Yuan; Zhao, Chong; Guo, Xiang; Cao, Ka-Jia; Qian, Chao-Nan [Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou (China); Department of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou (China); Zeng, Mu-Sheng; Bei, Jin-Xin [Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou (China); Hong, Ming-Huang [Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou (China); Good Clinical Practice Center, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou (China); Shao, Jian-Yong [Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou (China); Department of Molecular Diagnostics, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou (China); Sun, Ying; Ma, Jun [Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou (China); Department of Radiation Oncology, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou (China); Mai, Hai-Qiang, E-mail: maihq@sysucc.org.cn [Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China (China); Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, Guangzhou (China); Department of Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou (China)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: To explore the prognostic value of the plasma load of Epstein-Barr viral (EBV) DNA and the tumor response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) in advanced-stage nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Patients and Methods: In all, 185 consecutive patients with stage III to IVb NPC treated with NACT followed by concurrent chemoradiation therapy (CCRT) were prospectively enrolled. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS), and the secondary endpoints included locoregional relapse–free survival (LRFS) and distant metastasis–free survival (DMFS). Results: EBV DNA was detected in 165 (89%) patients before treatment but was undetectable in 127 (69%) patients after NACT. Detectable EBV DNA levels after NACT were correlated with poor prognosis (3-year PFS 71.8% vs 85.2%, P=.008 and 3-year DMFS 82.5% vs 92.3%, P=.013). An unsatisfactory tumor response (stable disease or disease progression) after NACT was also correlated with poor clinical outcome (3-year PFS 71.1% vs 85.9%, P=.005 and 3-year LRFS 82.7% vs 93.5%, P=.012). Multivariate analysis showed that the EBV DNA level after NACT (hazard ratio [HR] 2.31, 95% CI 1.18-4.54, P=.015) and the tumor response to NACT (HR 2.84, 95% CI 1.42-5.67, P=.003) were both significant prognostic factors for PFS. Multivariate analysis also showed that EBV DNA after NACT was the only significant predictor of DMFS (HR 2.99, 95% CI 1.25-7.15, P=.014) and that tumor response to NACT was the only significant predictor of LRFS (HR 3.31, 95% CI 1.21-9.07, P=.020). Conclusion: Detectable EBV DNA levels and an unsatisfactory tumor response (stable disease or disease progression) after NACT serve as predictors of poor prognosis for patients with advanced-stage NPC. These findings will facilitate further risk stratification, early treatment modification, or both before CCRT.

  3. Tungsten erosion under plasma heat loads typical for ITER type I Elms and disruptions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garkusha, I.E. [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine)]. E-mail: garkusha@ipp.kharkov.ua; Bandura, A.N. [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Byrka, O.V. [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Chebotarev, V.V. [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Landman, I.S. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, IHM, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Makhlaj, V.A. [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Marchenko, A.K. [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Solyakov, D.G. [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Tereshin, V.I. [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Trubchaninov, S.A. [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Tsarenko, A.V. [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2005-03-01

    The behavior of pure sintered tungsten under repetitive plasma heat loads of {approx}1 MJ/m{sup 2} (which is relevant to ITER ELMs) and 25 MJ/m{sup 2} (ITER disruptions) is studied with the quasi-steady-state plasma accelerator QSPA Kh-50. The ELM relevant heat loads have resulted in formation of two kinds of crack networks, with typical sizes of 10-20 {mu}m and {approx}1 mm, at the surface. Tungsten preheating to 600 deg. C indicates that fine intergranular cracks are probably caused by thermal stresses during fast resolidification of the melt, whereas large cracks are the result of ductile-to-brittle transition. For several hundreds of ELM-like exposures, causing surface melting, the melt motion does not dominate the profile of the melt spot. The disruption relevant experiments demonstrated that melt motion became the main factor of tungsten damage.

  4. Thermal loads on tokamak plasma-facing components during normal operation and disruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGrath, R.T.

    1990-01-01

    Power loadings experienced by tokamak plasma-facing components during normal operation and during off-normal events are discussed. A model for power and particle flow in the tokamak boundary layer is presented and model predictions are compared to infrared measurements of component heating. The inclusion of the full three-dimensional geometry of the components and of the magnetic flux surface is very important in the modeling. Experimental measurements show that misalignment of component armour tile surfaces by only a millimeter can lead to significant localized heating. An application to the design of plasma-facing components for future machines is presented. Finally, thermal loads expected during tokamak disruptions are discussed. The primary problems are surface melting and vaporization due to localized intense heating during the disruption thermal quench and volumetric heating of the component armour and structure due to localised impact of runaway electrons. (author)

  5. Serum hepatitis B surface antigen and hepatitis B e antigen titers: disease phase influences correlation with viral load and intrahepatic hepatitis B virus markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Alexander J V; Nguyen, Tin; Iser, David; Ayres, Anna; Jackson, Kathy; Littlejohn, Margaret; Slavin, John; Bowden, Scott; Gane, Edward J; Abbott, William; Lau, George K K; Lewin, Sharon R; Visvanathan, Kumar; Desmond, Paul V; Locarnini, Stephen A

    2010-06-01

    Although threshold levels for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) titers have recently been proposed to guide therapy for chronic hepatitis B (CHB), their relationship to circulating hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA and intrahepatic HBV replicative intermediates, and the significance of emerging viral variants, remains unclear. We therefore tested the hypothesis that HBsAg and HBeAg titers may vary independently of viral replication in vivo. In all, 149 treatment-naïve CHB patients were recruited (HBeAg-positive, n = 71; HBeAg-negative, n = 78). Quantification of HBeAg and HBsAg was performed by enzyme immunoassay. Virological characterization included serum HBV DNA load, HBV genotype, basal core promoter (BCP)/precore (PC) sequence, and, in a subset (n = 44), measurement of intrahepatic covalently closed circular DNA (cccDNA) and total HBV DNA, as well as quantitative immunohistochemical (IHC) staining for HBsAg. In HBeAg-positive CHB, HBsAg was positively correlated with serum HBV DNA and intrahepatic cccDNA and total HBV DNA (r = 0.69, 0.71, 0.76, P < 0.01). HBeAg correlated with serum HBV DNA (r = 0.60, P < 0.0001), although emerging BCP/PC variants reduced HBeAg titer independent of viral replication. In HBeAg-negative CHB, HBsAg correlated poorly with serum HBV DNA (r = 0.28, P = 0.01) and did not correlate with intrahepatic cccDNA nor total HBV DNA. Quantitative IHC for hepatocyte HBsAg confirmed a relationship with viral replication only in HBeAg-positive patients. The correlation between quantitative HBsAg titer and serum and intrahepatic markers of HBV replication differs between patients with HBeAg-positive and HBeAg-negative CHB. HBeAg titers may fall independent of viral replication as HBeAg-defective variants emerge prior to HBeAg seroconversion. These findings provide new insights into viral pathogenesis and have practical implications for the use of quantitative serology as a clinical biomarker.

  6. Soluble rhesus lymphocryptovirus gp350 protects against infection and reduces viral loads in animals that become infected with virus after challenge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junji Sashihara

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Epstein-Barr virus (EBV is a human lymphocryptovirus that is associated with several malignancies. Elevated EBV DNA in the blood is observed in transplant recipients prior to, and at the time of post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease; thus, a vaccine that either prevents EBV infection or lowers the viral load might reduce certain EBV malignancies. Two major approaches have been suggested for an EBV vaccine- immunization with either EBV glycoprotein 350 (gp350 or EBV latency proteins (e.g. EBV nuclear antigens [EBNAs]. No comparative trials, however, have been performed. Rhesus lymphocryptovirus (LCV encodes a homolog for each gene in EBV and infection of monkeys reproduces the clinical, immunologic, and virologic features of both acute and latent EBV infection. We vaccinated rhesus monkeys at 0, 4 and 12 weeks with (a soluble rhesus LCV gp350, (b virus-like replicon particles (VRPs expressing rhesus LCV gp350, (c VRPs expressing rhesus LCV gp350, EBNA-3A, and EBNA-3B, or (d PBS. Animals vaccinated with soluble gp350 produced higher levels of antibody to the glycoprotein than those vaccinated with VRPs expressing gp350. Animals vaccinated with VRPs expressing EBNA-3A and EBNA-3B developed LCV-specific CD4 and CD8 T cell immunity to these proteins, while VRPs expressing gp350 did not induce detectable T cell immunity to gp350. After challenge with rhesus LCV, animals vaccinated with soluble rhesus LCV gp350 had the best level of protection against infection based on seroconversion, viral DNA, and viral RNA in the blood after challenge. Surprisingly, animals vaccinated with gp350 that became infected had the lowest LCV DNA loads in the blood at 23 months after challenge. These studies indicate that gp350 is critical for both protection against infection with rhesus LCV and for reducing the viral load in animals that become infected after challenge. Our results suggest that additional trials with soluble EBV gp350 alone, or in combination with

  7. Optimal timing of viral load monitoring during pregnancy to predict viraemia at delivery in HIV-infected women initiating ART in South Africa: a simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesosky, Maia; Glass, Tracy; Mukonda, Elton; Hsiao, Nei-Yuan; Abrams, Elaine J; Myer, Landon

    2017-11-01

    HIV viral load (VL) monitoring is a central tool to evaluate ART effectiveness and transmission risk. There is a global movement to expand VL monitoring following recent recommendations from the World Health Organization (WHO), but there has been little research into VL monitoring in pregnant women. We investigated one important question in this area: when and how frequently VL should be monitored in women initiating ART during pregnancy to predict VL at the time of delivery in a simulated South African population. We developed a mathematical model simulating VL from conception through delivery using VL data from the Maternal and Child Health - Antiretroviral Therapy (MCH-ART) cohort. VL was modelled based on three major compartments: pre-ART VL, viral decay immediately after ART initiation and viral maintenance (including viral suppression and viraemic episodes). Using this simulation, we examined the performance of various VL monitoring schema in predicting elevated VL at delivery. If WHO guidelines for non-pregnant adults were used, the majority of HIV-infected pregnant women (69%) would not receive a VL test during pregnancy. Most models that based VL monitoring in pregnancy on the time elapsed since ART initiation (regardless of gestation) performed poorly (sensitivity pregnancy on the woman's gestation (regardless of time on ART) appeared to perform better overall (sensitivity >60%). Across all permutations, inclusion of pre-ART VL values had a negligible impact on predictive performance (improving test sensitivity and specificity pregnancy, supporting better integration of maternal and HIV health services. Testing turnaround times require careful consideration, and point-of-care VL testing may be the best approach for measuring VL at delivery. Broadening the scope of this simulation model in the light of current scale up of VL monitoring in high burden countries is important. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of the International AIDS Society published by John

  8. CD4+ T cell count, HIV-1 viral loads and demographic variables of newly identified patients with HIV infection in Wuhan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Man-Qing; Tang, Li; Kong, Wen-Hua; Zhu, Ze-Rong; Peng, Jin-Song; Wang, Xia; Yao, Zhong-Zhao; Schilling, Robert; Zhou, Wang

    2013-10-01

    In China, the rate of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing is increasing among men who have sex with men. The purpose of the present study was to describe HIV-related biomarkers and selected demographic variables of persons with newly diagnosed HIV/AIDS, among men who have sex with men in particular, in Wuhan China. Demographic indicators, and CD4+ T cell counts and HIV-1 viral load were collected from individuals newly identified as HIV-1 antibody positive during 2011. Of 176 enrolled patients, 132 (75.0%) were men who have sex with men. This group was significantly younger and had higher CD4+ T cell counts than patients who were likely infected through heterosexual contact. Most men who have sex with men (56.6%) were discovered by initiative investigation. Among heterosexual patients CD4+ T cell counts and HIV-1 viral load were significantly correlated; among the group of men who have sex with men, no such association was found. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Comparison of prevalence, viral load, physical status and expression of human papillomavirus-16, -18 and -58 in esophageal and cervical cancer: a case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Donghong; Zhang, Qingying; Zhou, Li; Huo, Leijun; Zhang, Yi; Shen, Zhongying; Zhu, Yi

    2010-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a major risk factor for the development of nearly all cases of cervical cancer worldwide. The presence of HPV DNA in cases of esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma (ESCC) has been reported repeatedly from Shantou, China, and other regions with a high incidence of esophageal carcinoma (EC). However, unlike in cervical squamous-cell carcinoma (CSCC), in ESCC, the characteristics of HPV are unclear. Thus, the role of high-risk HPV types in the carcinogenesis of ESCC remains uncertain. Seventy cases of ESCC with 60 controls and 39 cases of CSCC with 54 controls collected from patients in Shantou region in China were compared for the distributions of HPV-16, -18 and -58; viral load; and viral integration using real-time PCR assay and HPV-16 expression using immunostaining. The detection rates and viral loads of HR-HPV infection were significantly lower in ESCC than in CSCC (50.0% vs. 79.48%, P = 0.005; 2.55 ± 3.19 vs. 361.29 ± 441.75, P = 0.002, respectively). The combined integration level of HPV-16, -18 and -58 was slightly lower in ESCC than in CSCC (P = 0.022). HPV-16 expression was detected in 59.26% of ESCC tissue and significantly associated with tumour grade (P = 0.027). High levels of HR-HPV expression and integration may be an indicator of the risk of ESCC, at least for patients in the Shantou region of China. However, a relatively low HPV copy number and infection rate in ESCC is unlikely to play an essential a role in the carcinogenesis of ESCC as in cervical cancer. Factors other than HR-HPV infection may contribute to the carcinogenesis of ESCC

  10. Full Viral Suppression, Low-Level Viremia, and Quantifiable Plasma HIV-RNA at the End of Pregnancy in HIV-Infected Women on Antiretroviral Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Baroncelli, Silvia; Pirillo, Maria F.; Tamburrini, Enrica; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Pinnetti, Carmela; Antoni, Anna Degli; Galluzzo, Clementina M.; Stentarelli, Chiara; Amici, Roberta; Floridia, Marco

    2015-01-01

    There is limited information on full viral suppression and low-level HIV-RNA viremia in HIV-infected women at the end of pregnancy. We investigated HIV-RNA levels close to delivery in women on antiretroviral treatment in order to define rates of complete suppression, low-level viremia, and quantifiable HIV-RNA, exploring as potential determinants some clinical and viroimmunological variables. Plasma samples from a national study in Italy, collected between 2003 and 2012, were used. According ...

  11. Modulation of release kinetics by plasma polymerization of ampicillin-loaded β -TCP ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labay, C; Buxadera-Palomero, J; Avilés, M; Canal, C; Ginebra, M P

    2016-01-01

    Beta-tricalcium phosphate ( β -TCP) bioceramics are employed in bone repair surgery. Their local implantation in bone defects puts them in the limelight as potential materials for local drug delivery. However, obtaining suitable release patterns fitting the required therapeutics is a challenge. Here, plasma polymerization of ampicillin-loaded β -TCP is studied for the design of a novel antibiotic delivery system. Polyethylene glycol-like (PEG-like) coating of β -TCP by low pressure plasma polymerization was performed using diglyme as precursor, and nanometric PEG-like layers were obtained by simple and double plasma polymerization processes. A significant increase in hydrophobicity, and the presence of plasma polymer was visible on the surface by SEM and quantified by XPS. As a main consequence of the plasma polymerisation, the release kinetics were successfully modified, avoiding burst release, and slowing down the initial rate of release leading to a 4.5 h delay in reaching the same antibiotic release percentage, whilst conservation of the activity of the antibiotic was simultaneously maintained. Thus, plasma polymerisation on the surface of bioceramics may be a good strategy to design controlled drug delivery matrices for local bone therapies. (paper)

  12. Differences in HIV Type 1 RNA Plasma Load Profile of Closely Related Cocirculating Ethiopian Subtype C Strains: C and C '

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayele, Workenesh; Mekonnen, Yared; Messele, Tsehaynesh; Mengistu, Yohannes; Tsegaye, Aster; Bakker, Margreet; Berkhout, Ben; Dorigo-Zetsma, Wendelien; Wolday, Dawit; Goudsmit, Jaap; Coutinho, Roel; de Baar, Michel; Paxton, William A.; Pollakis, Georgios

    2010-01-01

    Two HIV-1 subtype C subclusters have been identified in Ethiopia (C and C') with little knowledge regarding their biological or clinical differences. We longitudinally monitored HIV-1 viral loads and CD4(+) T cell counts for 130 subtype C-infected individuals from Ethiopia over 5 years. The genetic

  13. Remodeling of the Host Cell Plasma Membrane by HIV-1 Nef and Vpu: A Strategy to Ensure Viral Fitness and Persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugden, Scott M; Bego, Mariana G; Pham, Tram N Q; Cohen, Éric A

    2016-03-03

    The plasma membrane protects the cell from its surroundings and regulates cellular communication, homing, and metabolism. Not surprisingly, the composition of this membrane is highly controlled through the vesicular trafficking of proteins to and from the cell surface. As intracellular pathogens, most viruses exploit the host plasma membrane to promote viral replication while avoiding immune detection. This is particularly true for the enveloped human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which assembles and obtains its lipid shell directly at the plasma membrane. HIV-1 encodes two proteins, negative factor (Nef) and viral protein U (Vpu), which function primarily by altering the quantity and localization of cell surface molecules to increase virus fitness despite host antiviral immune responses. These proteins are expressed at different stages in the HIV-1 life cycle and employ a variety of mechanisms to target both unique and redundant surface proteins, including the viral receptor CD4, host restriction factors, immunoreceptors, homing molecules, tetraspanins and membrane transporters. In this review, we discuss recent progress in the study of the Nef and Vpu targeting of host membrane proteins with an emphasis on how remodeling of the cell membrane allows HIV-1 to avoid host antiviral immune responses leading to the establishment of systemic and persistent infection.

  14. Guanidinoacetic acid loading affects plasma γ-aminobutyric acid in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostojic, Sergej M; Stojanovic, Marko

    2015-08-01

    Guanidinoacetic acid (GAA), a precursor of creatine and an innovative dietary agent, activates γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) receptors yet clinical effects of dietary GAA on GABA metabolism are currently unknown. The main aim of this pilot research was to investigate whether GAA loading affected peripheral GABA homeostasis in healthy humans. Eight healthy male volunteers aged 22-25 years were randomized in a double-blind design to receive either GAA (three grams daily) or placebo by oral administration for 3 weeks. At baseline and after 3 weeks participants provided fasting blood samples for free plasma levels of GABA, GAA, creatine and glutamine. Following 3 weeks of intervention, plasma GABA level dropped significantly in participants receiving 3 g of GAA per day as compared to the placebo (P = 0.03). GAA loading significantly decreased plasma GABA by 88.8 nmol/L (95% confidence interval; 5.4-172.1) after 3 weeks of intervention as compared to the baseline (P = 0.03). GAA intervention positively affected both plasma GAA and creatine (P GABA metabolism, and potentially down-regulates GABA synthesis in peripheral tissues. Possible GABAergic action of dietary GAA adds to the safety profile of this novel dietary supplement.

  15. Experiences with tungsten coatings in high heat flux tests and under plasma load in ASDEX Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, A; Greuner, H; Fuchs, J C; Marne, P de; Neu, R

    2009-01-01

    ASDEX Upgrade was operated with about 6400 s plasma discharge during the scientific program in 2007/2008 exploring tungsten as a first wall material in tokamaks. In the first phase, the heating power was restricted to 10 MW. It was increased to 15 MW in the second phase. During this operational period, a delamination of the 200 μm W-VPS coating happened at 2 out of 128 tiles of the outer divertor and an unscheduled opening was required. In the third phase, ASDEX Upgrade was operated with partly predamaged tiles and up to 15 MW heating power. The target load was actively controlled by N 2 -seeding. This paper presents the screening test of target tiles in the high heat flux test facility GLADIS, experiences with operation and detected damages of the outer divertor as well as the heat load to the outer divertor and the reasons for the toroidal asymmetry of the divertor load.

  16. Occurrence and location of concentrated load and generator regions observed by Cluster in the plasma sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hamrin

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Here, and in a companion paper by Hamrin et al. (2009 [Scale size and life time of energy conversion regions observed by Cluster in the plasma sheet], we investigate localized energy conversion regions (ECRs in the Earth's plasma sheet. In total we have studied 151 ECRs within 660 h of plasma sheet data from the summer and fall of 2001 when Cluster was close to apogee at an altitude of about 15–20 RE. Cluster offers appropriate conditions for the investigation of energy conversion by the evaluation of the power density, E·J, where E is the electric field and J the current density. From the sign of the power density, we have identified more than three times as many Concentrated Load Regions (CLRs as Concentrated Generator Regions (CGRs. We also note that the CLRs appear to be stronger. To our knowledge, these are the first in situ observations confirming the general notion of the plasma sheet, on the average, behaving as a load. At the same time the plasma sheet appears to be highly structured, with energy conversion occurring in both directions between the fields and the particles. From our data we also find that the CLRs appear to be located closer to the neutral sheet, while CGRs prefer locations towards the plasma sheet boundary layer (PSBL. For both CLRs and CGRs, E and J in the GSM y (cross-tail direction dominate the total power density, even though the z contribution occasionally can be significant. The prevalence of the y-direction seems to be weaker for the CGRs, possibly related to a higher fluctuation level near the PSBL.

  17. Performance of plasma facing materials under intense thermal loads in tokamaks and stellarators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linke, J.; Hirai, T.; Roedig, M.; Singheiser, L. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, EURATOM Association, Juelich (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    Beside quasi-stationary plasma operation, short transient thermal pulses with deposited energy densities in the order of several ten MJm{sup -2} are a serious concern for next step devices, in particular for tokamak devices such as ITER. The most serious of these transient events are plasma disruptions. Here a considerable fraction of the plasma energy is deposited on a localized surface area in the divertor strike zone region; the time scale of these events is typically in the order of 1 ms. In spite of the fact that a dense cloud of ablation vapour will form above the strike zone, only partial shielding of the divertor armour from incident plasma particles will occur. As a consequence, thermal shock induced crack formation, vaporization, surface melting, melt layer ejection, and particle emission induced by brittle destruction processes will limit the lifetime of the components. In addition, dust particles (neutron activated metals or tritium enriched carbon) are a serious concern form a safety point of view. Other transient heat loads which occasionally occur in magnetic confinement experiments such as instabilities in the plasma positioning (vertical displacement events) also may cause irreversible damage to plasma facing components (PFC), particularly to metals such as beryllium and tungsten. Another serious damage to PFCs is due to intense fluxes of 14 MeV neutrons in D-T-burning plasma devices. Integrated neutron fluence of several ten dpa in future thermonuclear fusion reactors will degrade essential physical properties of the components (e.g. thermal conductivity); another serious concern is the embrittlement of the heat sink and the plasma facing materials (PFM). (orig.)

  18. The impact of transient thermal loads on beryllium as plasma facing material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spilker, Benjamin Christof

    2017-01-24

    The rising global energy consumption requires a broad research and development approach in the field of energy technology. Besides renewables, nuclear fusion promises an efficient, CO{sub 2} free, no long-term radioactive waste producing, and safe energy source using only deuterium and lithium as primary resources, which are widely abundant. However, several technical challenges have to be overcome before a nuclear fusion power plant can be built. For this purpose, the experimental reactor ITER is currently under construction in France. ITER is intended to demonstrate the scientific and technological feasibility of net energy generation via nuclear fusion. The most heavily loaded components inside a fusion reactor, which are directly facing the fusion plasma, have to be armoured with well suited materials, which need to be able to withstand the high thermal and particle loads for an economically reasonable lifetime. For ITER, beryllium is chosen as plasma facing material for the largest fraction of the inner vacuum vessel, the so called first wall. Tungsten will be applied in the bottom region of the vacuum vessel, the so called divertor, which acts as the exhaust system of the machine. The choice of beryllium as plasma facing material was driven by its outstanding advantages, e.g. the low atomic number assures that eroded wall material does not strongly decrease the fusion plasma performance, while it combines a high thermal conductivity with low chemical sputtering characteristics. However, the relatively low melting temperature of beryllium of 1287 C comprises the risk of amour damage by melting during transient plasma events, such as edge localized modes or plasma disruptions. Even when mitigated, these events put tremendous power densities in the GW m{sup -2} range with durations in the ms scale onto the plasma facing materials. Hence, the performance of the ITER reference beryllium grade S-65 under transient thermal loads was studied within this work. Thereby

  19. The impact of transient thermal loads on beryllium as plasma facing material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spilker, Benjamin Christof

    2017-01-01

    The rising global energy consumption requires a broad research and development approach in the field of energy technology. Besides renewables, nuclear fusion promises an efficient, CO_2 free, no long-term radioactive waste producing, and safe energy source using only deuterium and lithium as primary resources, which are widely abundant. However, several technical challenges have to be overcome before a nuclear fusion power plant can be built. For this purpose, the experimental reactor ITER is currently under construction in France. ITER is intended to demonstrate the scientific and technological feasibility of net energy generation via nuclear fusion. The most heavily loaded components inside a fusion reactor, which are directly facing the fusion plasma, have to be armoured with well suited materials, which need to be able to withstand the high thermal and particle loads for an economically reasonable lifetime. For ITER, beryllium is chosen as plasma facing material for the largest fraction of the inner vacuum vessel, the so called first wall. Tungsten will be applied in the bottom region of the vacuum vessel, the so called divertor, which acts as the exhaust system of the machine. The choice of beryllium as plasma facing material was driven by its outstanding advantages, e.g. the low atomic number assures that eroded wall material does not strongly decrease the fusion plasma performance, while it combines a high thermal conductivity with low chemical sputtering characteristics. However, the relatively low melting temperature of beryllium of 1287 C comprises the risk of amour damage by melting during transient plasma events, such as edge localized modes or plasma disruptions. Even when mitigated, these events put tremendous power densities in the GW m"-"2 range with durations in the ms scale onto the plasma facing materials. Hence, the performance of the ITER reference beryllium grade S-65 under transient thermal loads was studied within this work. Thereby, the

  20. Free-cholesterol loading does not trigger phase separation of the fluorescent sterol dehydroergosterol in the plasma membrane of macrophages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wüstner, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    membrane distribution of the fluorescent cholesterol-mimicking sterol dehydroergosterol (DHE) was investigated in FC-loaded J774 macrophages. Wide field fluorescence and deconvolution microscopy were combined with quantitative assessment of sterol distribution in straightened plasma membrane image segments...

  1. Dynamics of the Energy Transfer to the Load During the Operation of a Plasma Opening Switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolinsky, Yu.; Krasik, Ya.E.; Felsteiner, J.

    1999-01-01

    The main efforts of the theoretical and experimental studies related to the Plasma Opening Switch (POS) have been devoted to the understanding of an anomalous fast magnetic field penetration through the plasma. At present this phenomenon can be explained based on the electron magnetohydrodynamic theory.l The second important phenomenon is related with POS opening. Existing models explain POS opening as a result of cut-off of the electron current component in the double layer2 by self-magnetic field of the POS current or by the increase of the Hall potential in the current layer due to ion erosion.3 Nevertheless both models consider POS opening in the region which was preliminary occupied by the plasma. In a recent experiment4 it was shown that the POS opening is related with a fast charged particle flow in the downstream region, namely at the load. In this work we present results of theoretical studies of the phase of the POS operation when the self-magnetic field of the POS current appears at the downstream side of the plasma. Our study has been done within the framework of two-fluid magnetohydrodynamic theory. Taking into account the Hall electric field which is responsible for a strong ion acceleration in the axial direction, we found the velocity of the ions. In addition we show, that due to the inductive electric field caused by the motion of the axial current carrying plasma, the velocity of the magnetic field penetration is equal to the Alfven velocity

  2. Full Viral Suppression, Low-Level Viremia, and Quantifiable Plasma HIV-RNA at the End of Pregnancy in HIV-Infected Women on Antiretroviral Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroncelli, Silvia; Pirillo, Maria F; Tamburrini, Enrica; Guaraldi, Giovanni; Pinnetti, Carmela; Degli Antoni, Anna; Galluzzo, Clementina M; Stentarelli, Chiara; Amici, Roberta; Floridia, Marco

    2015-07-01

    There is limited information on full viral suppression and low-level HIV-RNA viremia in HIV-infected women at the end of pregnancy. We investigated HIV-RNA levels close to delivery in women on antiretroviral treatment in order to define rates of complete suppression, low-level viremia, and quantifiable HIV-RNA, exploring as potential determinants some clinical and viroimmunological variables. Plasma samples from a national study in Italy, collected between 2003 and 2012, were used. According to plasma HIV-RNA levels, three groups were defined: full suppression (target not detected), low-level viremia (target detected but HIV-RNA (≥37 copies/ml). Multivariable logistic regression was used to define determinants of full viral suppression and of quantifiable HIV-RNA. Among 107 women evaluated at a median gestational age of 35 weeks, 90 (84.1%) had HIV-RNA HIV-RNA was 109 copies/ml (IQR 46-251), with only one case showing resistance (mutation M184V; rate: 9.1%). In multivariable analyses, women with higher baseline HIV-RNA levels and with hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection were significantly more likely to have quantifiable HIV-RNA in late pregnancy. Full viral suppression was significantly more likely with nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based regimens and significantly less likely with higher HIV-RNA in early pregnancy. No cases of HIV transmission occurred. In conclusion, HIV-infected pregnant women showed a high rate of viral suppression and a low resistance rate before delivery. In most cases no target HIV-RNA was detected in plasma, suggesting a low risk of subsequent virological rebound and development of resistance. Women with high levels of HIV-RNA in early pregnancy and those who have concomitant HCV infection should be considered at higher risk of having quantifiable HIV-RNA at the end of pregnancy.

  3. Multi-gigaelectronvolt acceleration of positrons in a self-loaded plasma wakefield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corde, Sebastien [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Adli, E. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Univ. of Oslo, Oslo (Norway); Allen, J. M. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); An, W. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Clarke, C. I. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Delahaye, J. P. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Frederico, J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Gessner, S. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Green, S. Z. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Hogan, M. J. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Joshi, C. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Lipkowitz, N. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Litos, M. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Lu, W. [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China); Marsh, K. A. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Mori, W. B. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Schmeltz, M. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Vafaei-Najafabadi, N. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Walz, D. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Yakimenko, V. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Yocky, G. [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Clayton, C. E. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2015-08-26

    New accelerator concepts must be developed to make future particle colliders more compact and affordable. The Plasma Wakefield Accelerator (PWFA) is one such concept, where the electric field of a plasma wake excited by a charged-particle bunch is used to accelerate a trailing bunch of particles. To apply plasma acceleration to particle colliders, it is imperative that both the electrons and their antimatter counterpart, the positrons, are efficiently accelerated at high fields using plasmas1. While substantial progress has recently been reported on high-field, high-efficiency acceleration of electrons in a PWFA powered by an electron bunch 2, such an electron-driven wake is unsuitable for the acceleration and focusing of a positron bunch. Here we demonstrate a new regime of PWFA where particles in the front of a single positron bunch transfer their energy to a substantial number of those in the rear of the same bunch by exciting a wakefield in the plasma. In the process, the accelerating field is altered – self-loaded – so that about a billion positrons gain five gigaelectronvolts (GeV) of energy with a narrow energy spread in a distance of just 1.3 meters. They extract about 30% of the wake’s energy and form a spectrally distinct bunch with as low as a 1.8% r.m.s. energy spread. This demonstrated ability of positron-driven plasma wakes to efficiently accelerate a significant number of positrons with a small energy spread may overcome the long-standing challenge of positron acceleration in plasma-based accelerators.

  4. Asociación de LT-CD4 y carga viral con candidiasis bucal en pacientes VIH/SIDA en Talca, Chile Association between LT-CD4 and the viral load with oral candidiasis in HIV/AIDS patients in Talca, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Brevis Azocar

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available La candidiasis bucal aparece con frecuencia en las personas infectadas por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH y puede causar diversas manifestaciones clínicas y complicaciones. En los pacientes VIH la carga viral es considerada uno de los principales predictores en la progresión de la enfermedad. Se realizó un estudio en 29 pacientes adultos VIH-positivos para evaluar los niveles de linfocitos T-CD4 y carga viral; se estableció una relación con las manifestaciones de la candidiasis bucal. El análisis estadístico mostró que hubo relación entre la manifestación de la candidiasis bucal y la carga viral, pues en pacientes con cargas virales superiores a 10 000 copias/mL, las lesiones fueron más frecuentes.Oral candidiasis is frequently appearing in persons infected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV and may to cause many clinical and complications manifestations. In HIV patients the viral load is considered one of the main predictors in disease progression. A study was conducted in 29 HIV-positive adult patients to assess the T-CD4 lymphocyte levels and the viral load establishing a relationship with oral candidiasis manifestations. The statistical analysis showed that there was a relationship between the oral candidiasis manifestation and the viral load since in patients with viral load higher than 10 000 copies/mL, lesions were more frequent.

  5. Discordance of Self-report and Laboratory Measures of HIV Viral Load Among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men and Transgender Women in Chicago: Implications for Epidemiology, Care, and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustanski, Brian; Ryan, Daniel T; Remble, Thomas A; D'Aquila, Richard T; Newcomb, Michael E; Morgan, Ethan

    2018-04-10

    Suppressing HIV viral load through daily antiretroviral therapy (ART) substantially reduces the risk of HIV transmission, however, the potential population impact of treatment as prevention (TasP) is mitigated due to challenges with sustained care engagement and ART adherence. For an undetectable viral load (VL) to inform decision making about transmission risk, individuals must be able to accurately classify their VL as detectable or undetectable. Participants were 205 HIV-infected young men who have sex with men (YMSM) and transgender women (TGW) from a large cohort study in the Chicago area. Analyses examined correspondence among self-reported undetectable VL, study-specific VL, and most recent medical record VL. Among HIV-positive YMSM/TGW, 54% had an undetectable VL (suppression between medical visits may represent a particular risk for the TasP strategy among YMSM/TGW. Strategies for frequent viral load monitoring, that are not burdensome to patients, may be necessary to optimize TasP.

  6. Comparison between Roche and Xpert in HIV-1 RNA quantitation: A high concordance between the two techniques except for a CRF02_AG subtype variant with high viral load titters detected by Roche but undetected by Xpert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avidor, Boaz; Matus, Natalia; Girshengorn, Shirley; Achsanov, Svetlana; Gielman, Simona; Zeldis, Irene; Schweitzer, Inbal; Adler, Amos; Turner, Dan

    2017-08-01

    HIV-1 viral load (VL) testing is important to predict viral progression and to monitor the response to antiretroviral therapy. New HIV-1 VL tests are continuously introduced to the market. Their performance is usually compared to Abbott and/or Roche HIV-1 VL assays, as reference. The Xpert HIV-1 VL test was recently introduced, but its performance compared to Roche has not been sufficiently studied. To compare the Xpert assay with Roche and to assess its use in the HIV clinical laboratory. A total of 383 plasma samples of HIV-1 infected patients previously tested by Roche, were retrospectively tested by Xpert to determine concordance between the two assays. Samples included a diversity of HIV-1 subtypes and a wide range of VLs. There was a high concordance between the two assays, except for a CRF02_AG subtype variant with high VL titters, that was detected by Roche but undetected by Xpert. The 5' long terminal repeat gene region of this virus, targeted by the Xpert assay, was amplified and sequenced. A 25 nucleotide insert was identified, but was unmatched to any known sequences of HIV-1. This particular insert, however could not explain the false-negativity by the Xpert assay. This study underlines the challenge to routine VL testing due to the high genetic diversity of HIV-1. Clinicians should, therefore be advised that a negative VL in cases where the clinical picture does not match the laboratory report, might in fact be, a false-negative result of the VL assay. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Plasma loading and wave generation for ICRH in the ST Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, J.; Getty, W.D.; Hooke, W.M.; Hosea, J.C.; Sinclair, R.M.

    1974-01-01

    Plasma loading and wave generation for two half-turn loops operating at 25 MHz are being investigated on the ST Tokamak at power levels up to 1 MW. The equivalent series resistance R/sub s/ = P/sub rf//I 2 /sub rf/, measured as a function of Ω = ω/ω/sub ci/(r = 0) and plasma density, is found to be in good agreement with the predictions of the cylindrical theory. R/sub s/ values as high as several ohms are obtained at high densities giving wave generation efficiencies well above 90 percent. Loading near Ω = 1 and 2 is apparently independent of power level. Measurements of B/sub zrf/ at 20 locations about the torus reveal the predicted wave generation; m = 0, +1 slow waves in the vicinity of Ω = 1, m = -1 fast waves after the expected onset (usually Ω greater than or equal to 1), and m = 0, +1 fast waves for higher Ω. Toroidal eigenmodes accompanied by large loading are detected for the fast waves when the damping lengths are long

  8. Interleukin-28B polymorphisms are associated with hepatitis C virus clearance and viral load in a HIV-1-infected cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, L N; Weis, N; Astvad, K

    2011-01-01

    Summary. Twenty-five per cent of individuals infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) are able to clear HCV spontaneously. Differences in host genetics are believed to affect the outcome of HCV infection. We analysed an exonic, a promoter and an intronic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the i......Summary. Twenty-five per cent of individuals infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) are able to clear HCV spontaneously. Differences in host genetics are believed to affect the outcome of HCV infection. We analysed an exonic, a promoter and an intronic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP...... higher median HCV RNA levels than individuals with unfavourable haplotype blocks (P = 0.05). Our findings suggest that IL28B may account for some differences in HCV outcome but that other factors including the viral genotype, host genetics and the host-virus interaction are likely to influence...

  9. Electronic load as part of the test complex of the power processing unit of electric and plasma propulsion

    OpenAIRE

    Chubov, S. V.; Soldatov, Aleksey Ivanovich

    2017-01-01

    This article provides the advantages and technical solutions for the use of electronic loads as part of a testing complex of power and management systems of electric and plasma propulsion of three types. The paper shows the parameters that were applied to select the electronic loads and describes their functionality.

  10. Quantification of Epstein-Barr virus DNA load, interleukin-6, interleukin-10, transforming growth factor-β1 and stem cell factor in plasma of patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Eng-lai; Selvaratnam, G; Kananathan, R; Sam, Choon-kook

    2006-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a common epithelial neoplasm among the Chinese populations in Southern China and South East Asia. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is known to be an important etiologic agent of NPC and the viral gene products are frequently detected in NPC tissues along with elevated antibody titres to the viral proteins (VCA and EA) in a majority of patients. Elevated plasma EBV DNA load is regarded as an important marker for the presence of the disease and for the monitoring of disease progression. However, other serum/plasma parameters such as the levels of certain interleukins and growth factors have also been implicated in NPC. The objectives of the present study are, 1) to investigate the correlations between plasma EBV DNA load and the levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, TGF-β1 and SCF (steel factor) and 2) to relate these parameters to the stages of NPC and the effect of treatment. A total of 78 untreated NPC patients were enrolled in this study. Of these, 51 were followed-up after treatment. The remaining patients had irregular or were lost to follow-up. Plasma EBV DNA was quantified using real-time quantitative PCR. The levels of plasma interleukins and growth factors were quantified using ELISA. A significant decrease in EBV DNA load was detected in plasma of untreated NPC patients (1669 ± 637 copies/mL; n = 51) following treatment (57 ± 37 copies/mL, p < 0.05); n = 51). Plasma EBV DNA load was shown to be a good prognosticator for disease progression and clinical outcome in five of the follow-up patients. A significant difference in IL-6 levels was noted between the untreated patients (164 ± 37 pg/mL; n = 51) and following treatment (58 ± 16 pg/mL, p < 0.05; n = 51). Positive correlations between EBV DNA load and IL-10 (r(49) = 0.535, p < 0.01), between IL6 and IL-10 (r(49) = 0.474, p < 0.01) and between TGF and SCF (r(49) = 0.464, p < 0.01) were observed in patients following treatment. None of the parameters tested including Ig

  11. A 5 kA pulsed power supply for inductive and plasma loads in large volume plasma device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, P. K., E-mail: pkumar@ipr.res.in; Singh, S. K.; Sanyasi, A. K.; Awasthi, L. M., E-mail: kushagra.lalit@gmail.com; Mattoo, S. K. [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar (India)

    2016-07-15

    This paper describes 5 kA, 12 ms pulsed power supply for inductive load of Electron Energy Filter (EEF) in large volume plasma device. The power supply is based upon the principle of rapid sourcing of energy from the capacitor bank (2.8 F/200 V) by using a static switch, comprising of ten Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBTs). A suitable mechanism is developed to ensure equal sharing of current and uniform power distribution during the operation of these IGBTs. Safe commutation of power to the EEF is ensured by the proper optimization of its components and by the introduction of over voltage protection (>6 kV) using an indigenously designed snubber circuit. Various time sequences relevant to different actions of power supply, viz., pulse width control and repetition rate, are realized through optically isolated computer controlled interface.

  12. EBV AND HHV-6 CIRCULATING SUBTYPES IN PEOPLE LIVING WITH HIV IN BURKINA FASO, IMPACT ON CD4 T CELL COUNT AND HIV VIRAL LOAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lassina TRAORE

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Epstein Barr Virus (EBV and Human Herpes Virus 6 (HHV-6 are responsible for severe diseases, particularly in immunocompromised persons. There are poor data on the infection with these opportunistic viruses in Burkina Faso. The purpose of this study is to characterize EBV and HHV-6 subtypes and to assess their impact on CD4 T cell count, HIV-1 viral load and antiretroviral treatment in people living with HIV-1. The study population consisted of 238 HIV-positive patients with information on CD4 count, HIV-1 viral load and HAART. Venous blood samples collected on EDTA tubes were used for EBV and HHV-6 Real Time PCR subtyping. An infection rate of 6.7% (16/238 and 7.1% (17/238 were found respectively for EBV and HHV-6 in the present study. Among EBV infections, similar prevalences were noted for both subtypes (3.9% [9/238] for EBV-1 vs 4.6% [11/238] for EBV-2 with 2.1% (5/238 of co-infection. HHV-6A infection represented 6.3% (15/238 of the study population against 5.0% (12/238 for HHV-6B. . EBV-2 infection was significantly higher in patients with CD4 count ≥ 500 compared to those with CD4 count less than 500 cells (1.65% vs 8.56%, p = 0,011. The prevalence of EBV and HHV-6 infections were almost similar in HAART-naive and HAART-experienced patients. The present study provides information on the prevalence of EBV and HHV-6 subtypes in people living with HIV-1 in Burkina Faso. The study also suggests that HAART treatment has no effect on infection with these opportunistic viruses in people living with HIV-1.

  13. Randomized clinical trial comparing high versus standard dose of ribavirin plus peginterferon alfa-2a in hepatitis C genotype 3 and high viral load. Dargen-3 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Rodríguez, Conrado M; Morillas, Rosa María; Masnou, Helena; Navarro, José María; Bárcena, Rafael; González, José Manuel; Martín-Martín, Leticia; Poyato, Antonio; Miquel-Planas, Mireia; Jorquera, Francisco; Casanovas, Teresa; Salmerón, Javier; Calleja, José Luis; Solà, Ricard; Alonso, Sonia; Planas, Ramón; Romero-Gomez, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Less than half of patients with chronic hepatitis C genotype 3 (G3) and high viral load (HVL) without a rapid virological response (RVR) achieve a sustained virological response (SVR) when treated with peginterferon plus ribavirin (RBV). To assess the impact of high doses of RBV on SVR in patients with G3 and HVL. Ninety-seven patients were randomized to receive peginterferon α-2a+RBV 800 mg/day (A; n=42) or peginterferon α-2a+RBV 1600 mg/day+epoetin β 400 IU/kg/week SC (B; n=55). Patients allocated to group B who achieved RVR continued on RBV (800mg/day) for a further 20 weeks (B1; n=42) while non-RVR patients received a higher dose of RBV (1600 mg/day)+epoetin β (B2; n=13). RVR was observed in 64.3% of patients in A and in 76.4% in B (p=0.259). Intention-to-treat (ITT) analysis showed SVR rates of 64.3% (A) and 61.8% (B), with a reduction of -2.5% (-21.8% to 16.9%) (p=0.835). The SVR rate was 61.9% in arm B1 and 61.5% in arm B2. No serious adverse events were reported, and the rate of moderate adverse events was < 5%. G3 patients with high viral load without RVR did not obtain a benefit from a higher dose of RBV. Higher doses of RBV plus epoetin β were safe and well tolerated (Clin Trials Gov NCT00830609). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  14. Individual co-variation between viral RNA load and gene expression reveals novel host factors during early dengue virus infection of the Aedes aegypti midgut.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Raquin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Dengue virus (DENV causes more human infections than any other mosquito-borne virus. The current lack of antiviral strategies has prompted genome-wide screens for host genes that are required for DENV infectivity. Earlier transcriptomic studies that identified DENV host factors in the primary vector Aedes aegypti used inbred laboratory colonies and/or pools of mosquitoes that erase individual variation. Here, we performed transcriptome sequencing on individual midguts in a field-derived Ae. aegypti population to identify new candidate host factors modulating DENV replication. We analyzed the transcriptomic data using an approach that accounts for individual co-variation between viral RNA load and gene expression. This approach generates a prediction about the agonist or antagonist effect of candidate genes on DENV replication based on the sign of the correlation between gene expression and viral RNA load. Using this method, we identified 39 candidate genes that went undetected by conventional pairwise comparison of gene expression levels between DENV-infected midguts and uninfected controls. Only four candidate genes were detected by both methods, emphasizing their complementarity. We demonstrated the value of our approach by functional validation of a candidate agonist gene encoding a sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP, which was identified by correlation analysis but not by pairwise comparison. We confirmed that SREBP promotes DENV infection in the midgut by RNAi-mediated gene knockdown in vivo. We suggest that our approach for transcriptomic analysis can empower genome-wide screens for potential agonist or antagonist factors by leveraging inter-individual variation in gene expression. More generally, this method is applicable to a wide range of phenotypic traits displaying inter-individual variation.

  15. [Data distribution and transformation in population based sampling survey of viral load in HIV positive men who have sex with men in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Z; Chen, J; Jiang, Z; Song, W L; Xu, J; Wu, Z Y

    2017-11-10

    Objective: To understand the distribution of population viral load (PVL) data in HIV infected men who have sex with men (MSM), fit distribution function and explore the appropriate estimating parameter of PVL. Methods: The detection limit of viral load (VL) was ≤ 50 copies/ml. Box-Cox transformation and normal distribution tests were used to describe the general distribution characteristics of the original and transformed data of PVL, then the stable distribution function was fitted with test of goodness of fit. Results: The original PVL data fitted a skewed distribution with the variation coefficient of 622.24%, and had a multimodal distribution after Box-Cox transformation with optimal parameter ( λ ) of-0.11. The distribution of PVL data over the detection limit was skewed and heavy tailed when transformed by Box-Cox with optimal λ =0. By fitting the distribution function of the transformed data over the detection limit, it matched the stable distribution (SD) function ( α =1.70, β =-1.00, γ =0.78, δ =4.03). Conclusions: The original PVL data had some censored data below the detection limit, and the data over the detection limit had abnormal distribution with large degree of variation. When proportion of the censored data was large, it was inappropriate to use half-value of detection limit to replace the censored ones. The log-transformed data over the detection limit fitted the SD. The median ( M ) and inter-quartile ranger ( IQR ) of log-transformed data can be used to describe the centralized tendency and dispersion tendency of the data over the detection limit.

  16. Novel use of surveillance data to detect HIV-infected persons with sustained high viral load and durable virologic suppression in New York City.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpi S Terzian

    Full Text Available Monitoring of the uptake and efficacy of ART in a population often relies on cross-sectional data, providing limited information that could be used to design specific targeted intervention programs. Using repeated measures of viral load (VL surveillance data, we aimed to estimate and characterize the proportion of persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA in New York City (NYC with sustained high VL (SHVL and durably suppressed VL (DSVL.Retrospective cohort study of all persons reported to the NYC HIV Surveillance Registry who were alive and ≥12 years old by the end of 2005 and who had ≥2 VL tests in 2006 and 2007. SHVL and DSVL were defined as PLWHA with 2 consecutive VLs ≥100,000 copies/mL and PLWHA with all VLs ≤400 copies/mL, respectively. Logistic regression models using generalized estimating equations were used to model the association between SHVL and covariates. There were 56,836 PLWHA, of whom 7% had SHVL and 38% had DSVL. Compared to those without SHVL, persons with SHVL were more likely to be younger, black and have injection drug use (IDU risk. PLWHA with SHVL were more likely to die by 2007 and be younger by nearly ten years, on average.Nearly 60% of PLWHA in 2005 had multiple VLs, of whom almost 40% had DSVL, suggesting successful ART uptake. A small proportion had SHVL, representing groups known to have suboptimal engagement in care. This group should be targeted for additional outreach to reduce morbidity and secondary transmission. Measures based on longitudinal analyses of surveillance data in conjunction with cross-sectional measures such as community viral load represent more precise and powerful tools for monitoring ART effectiveness and potential impact on disease transmission than cross-sectional measures alone.

  17. Thermal shock fracture of graphite armor plate under the heat load of plasma disruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horie, Tomoyoshi; Seki, Masahiro; Ohmori, Junji

    1989-01-01

    Experiments on the thermal shock brittle fracture of graphite plates were performed. Thermal loading which simulated a plasma disruption was produced by an electron beam facility. Pre-cracks produced on the surface propagated to the inside of the specimen even if the thermal stress on the surface was compressive. Two mechanisms are possible to produce tensile stress around the crack tip under thermal shock conditions. Temperature, thermal stress, and the stress intensity factor for the specimen were analyzed based on the finite element method for various heating conditions. The trend of experimental results under the asymmetric heating agrees qualitatively with the analytical results. This phenomenon is important for the design of plasma facing components made of graphite. Establishment of a lifetime prediction procedure including fatigue, fatigue crack growth, and brittle fracture is needed for graphite armors. (orig.)

  18. Evolution of transiently melt damaged tungsten under ITER-relevant divertor plasma heat loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardin, S., E-mail: s.bardin@differ.nl [FOM Institute DIFFER – Dutch Institute For Fundamental Energy Research, Ass EURATOM-FOM, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Morgan, T.W. [FOM Institute DIFFER – Dutch Institute For Fundamental Energy Research, Ass EURATOM-FOM, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Glad, X. [Université de Lorraine, Institut Jean Lamour, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Pitts, R.A. [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); De Temmerman, G. [FOM Institute DIFFER – Dutch Institute For Fundamental Energy Research, Ass EURATOM-FOM, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France)

    2015-08-15

    A high-repetition-rate ELM simulation system was used at both the Pilot-PSI and Magnum-PSI linear plasma devices to investigate the nature of W damage under multiple shallow melt events and the subsequent surface evolution under ITER relevant plasma fluence and high ELM number. First, repetitive shallow melting of two W monoblocks separated by a 0.5 mm gap was obtained by combined pulsed/steady-state hydrogen plasma loading at normal incidence in the Pilot-PSI device. Surface modifications including melting, cracking and strong net-reshaping of the surface are obtained. During the second step, the pre-damaged W sample was exposed to a high flux plasma regime in the Magnum-PSI device with a grazing angle of 35°. SEM analysis indicates no measurable change to the surface state after the exposure in Magnum-PSI. An increase in transient-induced temperature rise of 40% is however observed, indicating a degradation of thermal properties over time.

  19. Increased Plasma Cell-Free DNA Level during HTNV Infection: Correlation with Disease Severity and Virus Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Yi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Cell-free DNA (cf-DNA in blood represents a promising DNA damage response triggered by virus infection or trauma, tumor, etc. Hantavirus primarily causes two diseases: haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS and Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS, depending on different Hantavirus species. The aim of this study was to evaluate plasma cf-DNA levels in acute phase of HFRS, and to correlate plasma cf-DNA with disease severity and plasma Hanttan virus (HTNV load. We observed the appearance of cf-DNA in 166 plasma samples from 76 HFRS patients: the plasma cf-DNA levels peaked at the hypotensive stage of HFRS, and then decreased gradually. Until the diuretic stage, there was no significant difference in plasma cf-DNA level between patients and the healthy control. Exclusively in the febrile/hypotensive stage, the plasma cf-DNA levels of severe/critical patients were higher than those of the mild/moderate group. Moreover, the plasma cf-DNA value in the early stage of HFRS was correlated with HTNV load and disease severity. In most of the patients, plasma cf-DNA displayed a low-molecular weight appearance, corresponding to the size of apoptotic DNA. In conclusion, the plasma cf-DNA levels were dynamically elevated during HFRS, and correlated with disease severity, which suggests that plasma cf-DNA may be a potential biomarker for the pathogenesis and prognosis of HFRS.

  20. Viral Hepatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home A-Z Health Topics Viral hepatitis Viral hepatitis > A-Z Health Topics Viral hepatitis (PDF, 90 ... liver. Source: National Cancer Institute Learn more about hepatitis Watch a video. Learn who is at risk ...

  1. Oligonol supplementation modulates plasma volume and osmolality and sweating after heat load in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, JeongBeom; Shin, YoungOh; Murota, Hiroyuki

    2015-05-01

    Oligonol is a low-molecular-weight polyphenol that possesses antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. This study investigated the effects of Oligonol supplementation on sweating response, plasma volume (PV), and osmolality (Osm) after heat load in human volunteers. We conducted a placebo-controlled crossover trial. Participants took a daily dose of 200 mg Oligonol or placebo for 1 week. After a 2-week washout period, the subjects were switched to the other study arm. As a heat load, half-body immersion into hot water (42°C±0.5°C for 30 min) was performed in an automated climate chamber. Tympanic and mean body temperature (Tty, mTb) and whole-body sweat loss volume (WBSLV) were measured. Changes in PV, Osm, and serum levels of aldosterone and sodium were analyzed. Oligonol intake attenuated increases in Tty, mTb, and WBSLV after heat load compared with the placebo (Pbody temperature and excessive sweating under heat load in healthy humans, but interpretation of the results requires caution due to the potent diuretic effect of Oligonol.

  2. Decreased insulin clearance in individuals with elevated 1-h post-load plasma glucose levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Adelaide Marini

    Full Text Available Reduced insulin clearance has been shown to predict the development of type 2 diabetes. Recently, it has been suggested that plasma glucose concentrations ≥ 8.6 mmol/l (155 mg/dl at 1 h during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT can identify individuals at high risk for type 2 diabetes among those who have normal glucose tolerance (NGT 1 h-high. The aim of this study was to examine whether NGT 1 h-high have a decrease in insulin clearance, as compared with NGT individuals with 1-h post-load glucose <8.6 mmol/l (l (155 mg/dl, NGT 1 h-low. To this end, 438 non-diabetic White individuals were subjected to OGTT and euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp to evaluate insulin clearance and insulin sensitivity. As compared with NGT 1 h-low individuals, NGT 1 h-high had significantly higher 1-h and 2-h post-load plasma glucose and 2-h insulin levels as well as higher fasting glucose and insulin levels. NGT 1 h-high exhibited also a significant decrease in both insulin sensitivity (P<0.0001 and insulin clearance (P = 0.006 after adjusting for age, gender, adiposity measures, and insulin sensitivity. The differences in insulin clearance remained significant after adjustment for fasting glucose (P = 0.02 in addition to gender, age, and BMI. In univariate analyses adjusted for gender and age, insulin clearance was inversely correlated with body weight, body mass index, waist, fat mass, 1-h and 2-h post-load glucose levels, fasting, 1-h and 2-h post-load insulin levels, and insulin-stimulated glucose disposal. In conclusion, our data show that NGT 1 h-high have a reduction in insulin clearance as compared with NGT 1 h-low individuals; this suggests that impaired insulin clearance may contribute to sustained fasting and post-meal hyperinsulinemia.

  3. Field evaluation of an open and polyvalent universal HIV-1/SIVcpz/SIVgor quantitative RT-PCR assay for HIV-1 viral load monitoring in comparison to Abbott RealTime HIV-1 in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guichet, Emilande; Aghokeng, Avelin; Eymard-Duvernay, Sabrina; Vidal, Nicole; Ayouba, Ahidjo; Mpoudi Ngole, Eitel; Delaporte, Eric; Ciaffi, Laura; Peeters, Martine

    2016-11-01

    With the increasing demand of HIV viral load (VL) tests in resource-limited countries (RLCs) there is a need for assays at affordable cost and able to quantify all known HIV-1 variants. VLs obtained with a recently developed open and polyvalent universal HIV-1/SIVcpz/SIVgor RT-qPCR were compared to Abbott RealTime HIV-1 assay in Cameroon. On 474 plasma samples, characterized by a wide range of VLs and a broad HIV-1 group M genetic diversity, 97.5% concordance was observed when using the lower detection limit of each assay. When using the threshold of 3.00 log 10 copies/mL, according to WHO guidelines to define virological failure (VF) in RLCs, the concordance was 94.7%, 360/474 versus 339/474 patients were identified with VF with the new assay and Abbott RealTime HIV-1, respectively. Higher VLs were measured with the new assay, +0.47 log 10 copies/mL (95% CI; 0.42-0.52) as shown with Bland-Altman analysis. Eleven samples from patients on VF with drug resistance were not detected by Abbott RealTime HIV-1 versus two only with the new assay. Overall, our study showed that the new assay can be easily implemented in a laboratory in RLCs with VL experience and showed good performance on a wide diversity of HIV-1 group M variants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Bacterial–viral load and the immune response in stable and exacerbated COPD: significance and therapeutic prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D’Anna SE

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Silvestro Ennio D’Anna,1 Bruno Balbi,2 Francesco Cappello,3,4 Mauro Carone,2 Antonino Di Stefano21Department of Rehabilitation, Cardiorespiratory Unit, Fondazione Istituto G. Giglio di Cefalù, 2Pneumology Unit and Laboratory of Cytoimmunopathology of Heart and Lung, Fondazione Salvatore Maugeri, IRCCS, Veruno (NO and Cassano delle Murge (BA, 3Human Anatomy Section, Department of Experimental Biomedicine and Clinical Neuroscience, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy; 4Euro-Mediterranean Institute of Science and Technology, Palermo, ItalyAbstract: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is characterized by persistent airflow limitation and an abnormal inflammatory response of the lung. Bacteria and viruses are a major cause of COPD exacerbations and may contribute to COPD progression by perpetuating the inflammatory response in the airways. Bacterial variety diminishes with increasing COPD severity. Respiratory viruses can colonize the lower respiratory tract in stable COPD, altering the respiratory microbiome and facilitating secondary bacterial infections. In this review, we present the most updated information about the role of bacteria and viruses in stable and exacerbated COPD. In our opinion, to optimize therapeutic strategies, the dynamic events involving bacterial–viral infections and related immune response in COPD phenotypes need to be better clarified. Our paper would address these points that we consider of great importance for the clinical management of COPD.Keywords: COPD phenotype, biomarkers, exacerbations, severity of COPD, microbiome

  5. Vitamin A levels and human immunodeficiency virus load in injection drug users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semba, R D; Farzadegan, H; Vlahov, D

    1997-01-01

    Although low plasma vitamin A levels are associated with increased mortality and higher vertical transmission during human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, it is unknown whether plasma low vitamin A levels are a marker for circulating HIV load. We conducted a cross-sectional study within a prospective cohort study of injection drug users in order to evaluate the relationship between plasma vitamin A levels and HIV viral load. Plasma vitamin A level was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Infectious viral load was measured by quantitative microculture of serial fivefold dilutions of 10(6) peripheral blood mononuclear cells. A total of 284 HIV-infected adults (79 women, 205 men) were studied. Plasma vitamin A levels consistent with deficiency were found in 28.9% of adults. A total of 38.0% of women and 25.3% of men had vitamin A deficiency (P < 0.04). The median infectious viral load for the entire study population was 8 infectious units per million cells. No significant relationship between plasma vitamin A levels and infectious viral load was observed in these injection drug users. This study suggests that there is no correlation between HIV viral load and plasma vitamin A levels in injection drug users, and these variables may represent independent risk factors during HIV infection. HIV-infected adult women appear to be at higher risk of developing vitamin A deficiency. PMID:9008289

  6. Application of powerful quasi-steady-state plasma accelerators for simulation of ITER transient heat loads on divertor surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tereshin, V I [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, Kharkov 61108 (Ukraine); Bandura, A N [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, Kharkov 61108 (Ukraine); Byrka, O V [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, Kharkov 61108 (Ukraine); Chebotarev, V V [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, Kharkov 61108 (Ukraine); Garkusha, I E [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, Kharkov 61108 (Ukraine); Landman, I [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, IHM, Karlsruhe 76021 (Germany); Makhlaj, V A [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, Kharkov 61108 (Ukraine); Neklyudov, I M [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, Kharkov 61108 (Ukraine); Solyakov, D G [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, Kharkov 61108 (Ukraine); Tsarenko, A V [Institute of Plasma Physics of the NSC KIPT, Kharkov 61108 (Ukraine)

    2007-05-15

    The paper presents the investigations of high power plasma interaction with material surfaces under conditions simulating the ITER disruptions and type I ELMs. Different materials were exposed to plasma with repetitive pulses of 250 {mu}s duration, the ion energy of up to 0.6 keV, and the heat loads varying in the 0.5-25 MJ m{sup -2} range. The plasma energy transfer to the material surface versus impact load has been analysed. The fraction of plasma energy that is absorbed by the target surface is rapidly decreased with the achievement of the evaporation onset for exposed targets. The distributions of evaporated material in front of the target surface and the thickness of the shielding layer are found to be strongly dependent on the target atomic mass. The surface analysis of tungsten targets exposed to quasi-steady-state plasma accelerators plasma streams is presented together with measurements of the melting onset load and evaporation threshold, and also of erosion patterns with increasing heat load and the number of plasma pulses.

  7. Numerical study of plasma generation process and internal antenna heat loadings in J-PARC RF negative ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibata, T., E-mail: shibat@post.j-parc.jp; Ueno, A.; Oguri, H.; Ohkoshi, K.; Ikegami, K.; Takagi, A.; Asano, H.; Naito, F. [J-PARC Center, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken 319-1195 (Japan); Nishida, K.; Mochizuki, S.; Hatayama, A. [Keio University, Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama-shi, Kanagawa-ken 223-8522 (Japan); Mattei, S.; Lettry, J. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2016-02-15

    A numerical model of plasma transport and electromagnetic field in the J-PARC (Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex) radio frequency ion source has been developed to understand the relation between antenna coil heat loadings and plasma production/transport processes. From the calculation, the local plasma density increase is observed in the region close to the antenna coil. Electrons are magnetized by the magnetic field line with absolute magnetic flux density 30–120 Gauss which leads to high local ionization rate. The results suggest that modification of magnetic configuration can be made to reduce plasma heat flux onto the antenna.

  8. Enhancement of glomerular filtration rate and renal plasma flow by oral glucose load in well controlled insulin-dependent diabetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandahl Christiansen, J; Christensen, C K; Hermansen, K

    1986-01-01

    Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and renal plasma flow (RPF) were measured in 27 patients with uncomplicated insulin-dependent diabetes (IDDM) before and after an oral glucose load of 1.1 g glucose/kg body wt. In the 18 patients showing near-normoglycaemia (blood glucose less than or equal to 8....... No changes in blood pressure or urinary albumin excretion rates took place in either group. The reduction in plasma protein and in plasma growth hormone concentration were similar in the two groups. No change was seen in plasma arginine vasopressin concentration. There was no difference in the qualitative...

  9. Design study of a plasma-loaded CRM using TPD-II machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minami, Kazuo

    2007-08-01

    Design study of an experiment for plasma-loaded cyclotron resonance maser (CRM) utilizing TPD-II Machine at NIFS, Japan is described in some detail. The principle of gyrotrons has been believed the CRM instability. However, all the existing linear theories of CRM instability include unphysical modes unstable at infinite values of axial wavenumber that can never be observed experimentally. To overcome the difficulty, we derive and analyze numerically an exact linear dispersion relation of a large orbit electron beam for CRM, and removed the unphysical modes. However, the relation is found to include two principles of cyclotron emission with oscillation frequencies above and below the branch of fast electron cyclotron wave. The former is CRM instability, and the latter is named Chrenkov instability in the azimuthal direction (CIAD). It is noted that the CIAD we found remains only a proposal of a new mechanism for cyclotron emission until the physical existence is verified experimentally. To verify the CIAD, the design study of a plasma-loaded CRM has been carried out. The apparatus consists of two portions installed in the TPD-II: A pair of helical wiggler windings to create a mono-energetic beam with 15 keV and pitch factor V θ /V z ≥1, and microwave circuits including a cylindrical TE 011 mode cavity with resonant frequency 3.45 GHz. For high plasma density n≥1.5x10 11 cm -3 from TPD-II, the CRM instability may be suppressed and the CIAD will take turn. The present experimental study contributes to a deeper understanding and a widened future prospect in gyrotron physics. (author)

  10. Antibacterial performance on plasma polymerized heptylamine films loaded with silver nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Chun; Lin, Chia-Chun; Lin, Chih-Hao; Wang, Meng-Jiy

    2017-01-01

    The antibacterial performance of the plasma-polymerized (pp) heptylamine thin films loaded with silver nanoparticles was evaluated against the colonization of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The properties including the thickness and chemical composition of the as deposited HApp films were modulated by adjusting plasma parameters. The acquired results showed that the film thickness was controlled in the range of 20 to 400 nm by adjusting deposition time. The subsequent immersion of the HApp thin films in silver nitrate solutions result in the formation of amine-metal complexes, in which the silver nanoparticles were reduced directly on the matrices to form Ag@HApp. The reduction reaction of silver was facilitated by applying NaBH4 as a reducing agent. The results of physicochemical analyses including morphological analysis and ellipsometry revealed that the silver nanoparticles were successfully reduced on the HApp films, and the amount of reduced silver was closely associated which the thickness of the plasma-polymerized films, the concentration of applied metal ions solutions, and the time of immobilization. Regarding the antibacterial performance, the Ag@HApp films reduced by NaBH4 showed antibacterial abilities of 70.1 and 68.2% against E. coli and S. aureus, respectively.

  11. Variability of plasma and urine betaine in diabetes mellitus and its relationship to methionine load test responses: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lever Michael

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since betaine is an osmolyte and methyl donor, and abnormal betaine loss is common in diabetes mellitus (>20% patients, we investigated the relationship between betaine and the post-methionine load rise in homocysteine, in diabetes and control subjects. The post-methionine load test is reported to be both an independent vascular risk factor and a measure of betaine sufficiency. Methods Patients with type 2 diabetes (n = 34 and control subjects (n = 17 were recruited. We measured baseline fasting plasma and 4-hour post-methionine load (L-methionine, 0.1 mg/kg body weight concentrations of homocysteine, betaine, and the betaine metabolite N,N-dimethylglycine. Baseline urine excretions of betaine, dimethylglycine and glucose were measured on morning urine samples as the ratio to urine creatinine. Statistical determinants of the post-methionine load increase in homocysteine were identified in multiple linear regression models. Results Plasma betaine concentrations and urinary betaine excretions were significantly (p p = 0.00014 and plasma dimethylglycine concentrations (p = 0.039 were also more variable. In diabetes, plasma betaine was a significant negative determinant (p  Conclusions Both high and low plasma betaine concentrations, and high and low urinary betaine excretions, are more prevalent in diabetes. The availability of betaine affects the response in the methionine load test. The benefits of increasing betaine intake should be investigated.

  12. Haploid genetic screens identify an essential role for PLP2 in the downregulation of novel plasma membrane targets by viral E3 ubiquitin ligases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard T Timms

    Full Text Available The Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus gene products K3 and K5 are viral ubiquitin E3 ligases which downregulate MHC-I and additional cell surface immunoreceptors. To identify novel cellular genes required for K5 function we performed a forward genetic screen in near-haploid human KBM7 cells. The screen identified proteolipid protein 2 (PLP2, a MARVEL domain protein of unknown function, as essential for K5 activity. Genetic loss of PLP2 traps the viral ligase in the endoplasmic reticulum, where it is unable to ubiquitinate and degrade its substrates. Subsequent analysis of the plasma membrane proteome of K5-expressing KBM7 cells in the presence and absence of PLP2 revealed a wide range of novel K5 targets, all of which required PLP2 for their K5-mediated downregulation. This work ascribes a critical function to PLP2 for viral ligase activity and underlines the power of non-lethal haploid genetic screens in human cells to identify the genes involved in pathogen manipulation of the host immune system.

  13. Routine viral load monitoring in HIV-infected infants and children in low- and middle-income countries: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpadi, Stephen M; Shiau, Stephanie; De Gusmao, Eduarda Pimentel; Violari, Avy

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this commentary is to review considerations for implementing routine viral load (VL) monitoring programmes for HIV-infected infants and children living in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Since 2013, the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines recommend VL testing as the preferred monitoring approach for all individuals treated with ART in order to assess treatment response, detect treatment failure and determine the need to switch to a second-line regimen in a timely manner. More recently, WHO guidelines from 2016 identify HIV-infected infants and children as a priority group for routine VL monitoring. There are a number of reasons why HIV-infected infants and children should be prioritized for routine VL monitoring. Data from national VL monitoring programmes as well as systematic reviews and meta-analyses from LMIC indicate rates of viral suppression are lower for infants and children compared to adults. The number of antiretroviral drugs and palatable formulations suitable for young children are limited. In addition, emotional and developmental issues particular to children can make daily medication administration difficult and pose a challenge to adherence and achievement of sustained viral suppression. VL monitoring can be instrumental for identifying those in need of additional adherence support, reducing regimen switches and preserving treatment options. The needs of infants and children warrant consideration in all aspects of VL monitoring services. If capacity for paediatric venipuncture is not assured, platforms that accept dried blood spot specimens are necessary in order for infants and children to have equitable access. Healthcare systems also need to prepare to manage the substantial number of infants and children identified with elevated VL, including adherence interventions that are appropriate for children. Establishing robust systems to evaluate processes and outcomes of routine VL monitoring services and to support

  14. Factors associated with recent unsuppressed viral load in HIV-1-infected patients in care on first-line antiretroviral therapy in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph Davey, D; Abrahams, Z; Feinberg, M; Prins, M; Serrao, C; Medeossi, B; Darkoh, E

    2018-05-01

    Unsuppressed viral load (VL) in patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) occurs when treatment fails to suppress a person's VL and is associated with decreased survival and increased HIV transmission. The objective of this study was to evaluate factors associated with unsuppressed VL (VL > 400 copies/ml) in patients currently in care on first-line ART for ≥ 6 months attending South African public healthcare facilities. We analysed electronic medical records of ART patients with a VL result on record who started ART between January 2004 and April 2016 from 271 public health facilities. We present descriptive and multivariable logistic regression for unsuppressed VL at last visit using a priori variables. We included 244,370 patients (69% female) on first-line ART in April 2016 for ≥ 6 months. Median age at ART start was 33 years (7% were < 15 years old). Median duration on ART was 3.7 years. Adjusting for other variables, factors associated with having an unsuppressed VL at the most recent visit among patients in care included: (1) < 15 years old at ART start (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]=2.58; 95% CI = 2.37, 2.81) versus 15-49 years at ART start, (2) male gender (aOR = 1.29; 95% CI = 1.25, 1.35), (3) 6-12 months on ART versus longer (aOR = 1.34; 95% CI = 1.29, 1.40), (4) on tuberculosis (TB) treatment (aOR = 1.78; 95% CI = 1.48, 2.13), and (5) prior ART exposure versus none (aOR = 1.20; 95% CI = 1.08, 1.32). Approximately 85% of the ART cohort who were in care had achieved viral suppression, though men, youth/adolescents, patients with prior ART exposure, those with short duration of ART, and patients on TB treatment had increased odds of not achieving viral suppression. There is a need to develop and evaluate targeted interventions for ART patients in care who are at high risk of unsuppressed VL.

  15. Expression of chicken interleukin-2 by a highly virulent strain of Newcastle disease virus leads to decreased systemic viral load but does not significantly affect mortality in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susta, Leonardo; Diel, Diego G; Courtney, Sean; Cardenas-Garcia, Stivalis; Sundick, Roy S; Miller, Patti J; Brown, Corrie C; Afonso, Claudio L

    2015-08-08

    In mammals, interleukin 2 (IL-2) has been shown to decrease replication or attenuate pathogenicity of numerous viral pathogens (herpes simplex virus, vaccinia virus, human respiratory syncytial virus, human immunodeficiency virus) by activating natural killer cells (NK), cytotoxic T lymphocytes and expanding subsets of memory cells. In chickens, IL-2 has been shown to activate T cells, and as such it might have the potential to affect replication and pathogenesis of Newcastle disease virus (NDV). To assess the effect of IL-2 during NDV infection in chickens, we produced a recombinant virulent NDV strain expressing chicken IL-2 (rZJ1-IL2). The effects of IL-2 expression were investigated in vivo using the intracerebral pathogenicity index (ICPI) in day-old chicks and pathogenesis experiments in 4-week-old chickens. In these studies, rZJ1-IL2 was compared to a control virus expressing the green fluorescent protein (rZJ1-GFP). Assessed parameters included survival curves, detailed histological and immunohistochemical grading of lesions in multiple organs, and virus isolation in blood, spleen and mucosal secretions of infected birds. At the site of infection (eyelid), expression of IL-2 was demonstrated in areas of rZJ-IL2 replication, confirming IL-2 production in vivo. Compared to rZJ1-GFP strain, rZJ1-IL2 caused milder lesions and displayed decreased viral load in blood, spleen and mucosal secretions of infected birds. In the rZJ1-IL2-infected group, virus level in the blood peaked at day 4 post-infection (pi) (10(3.46) EID50 /0.1 ml) and drastically decreased at day 5 pi (10(0.9) EID50/0.1 ml), while in the rZJ1-GFP-infected group virus levels in the blood reached 10(5.35) EID50/0.1 ml at day 5. However, rZJ1-IL2-infected groups presented survival curves similar to control birds infected with rZJ1-GFP, with comparable clinical signs and 100 % mortality. Further, expression of IL-2 did not significantly affect the ICPI scores, compared to rZJ1-GFP strain. Increased

  16. Peg-interferon plus nucleotide analogue treatment versus no treatment in patients with chronic hepatitis B with a low viral load: a randomised controlled, open-label trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Niet, Annikki; Jansen, Louis; Stelma, Femke; Willemse, Sophie B; Kuiken, Sjoerd D; Weijer, Sebastiaan; van Nieuwkerk, Carin M J; Zaaijer, Hans L; Molenkamp, Richard; Takkenberg, R Bart; Koot, Maarten; Verheij, Joanne; Beuers, Ulrich; Reesink, Hendrik W

    2017-08-01

    Antiviral treatment is currently not recommended for patients with chronic hepatitis B with a low viral load. However, they might benefit from acquiring a functional cure (hepatitis B surface antigen [HBsAg] loss with or without formation of antibodies against hepatitis B surface antigen [anti-HBs]). We assessed HBsAg loss during peg-interferon-alfa-2a (peg-IFN) and nucleotide analogue combination therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis B with a low viral load. In this randomised controlled, open-label trial, patients were enrolled from the Academic Medical Center (AMC), Amsterdam, Netherlands. Eligible patients were HBsAg positive and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) negative for more than 6 months, could be treatment naive or treatment experienced, and had alanine aminotransferase (ALT) concentrations less than 5 × upper limit of normal (ULN). Participants were randomly assigned (1:1:1) by a computerised randomisation programme (ALEA Randomisation Service) to receive peg-IFN 180 μg/week plus adefovir 10 mg/day, peg-IFN 180 μg/week plus tenofovir disoproxil fumarate 245 mg/day, or no treatment for 48 weeks. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with serum HBsAg loss among those who received at least one dose of study drug or had at least one study visit (modified intention-to-treat population [mITT]). All patients have finished the initial study of 72 weeks and will be observed for up to 5 years of follow-up. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00973219. Between Aug 4, 2009, and Oct 17, 2013, 167 patients were screened for enrolment, of whom 151 were randomly assigned (52 to peg-IFN plus adefovir, 51 to peg-IFN plus tenofovir, and 48 to no treatment). 46 participants in the peg-IFN plus adefovir group, 45 in the peg-IFN plus tenofovir group, and 43 in the no treatment group began treatment or observation and were included in the mITT population. At week 72, two (4%) patients in the peg-IFN plus adefovir group and two (4

  17. High-throughput strategy for molecular identification of Vel- blood donors employing nucleic acids extracted from plasma pools used for viral nucleic acid test screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezan, Marcia R; Dinardo, Carla L; Bosi, Silvia R A; Vega, Sileni; Salles, Nanci A; Mendrone-Júnior, Alfredo; Levi, José E

    2016-06-01

    Serologic methods to determine the Vel- phenotype require the use of rare human antisera and do not allow for many samples to be tested simultaneously, which limits their application as a tool to search for rare donors. This study developed a low-cost molecular screening strategy using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA, extracted from plasma pools for viral nucleic acid test (NAT) screening, to identify Vel- and Vel+(W) donors. A total of 4680 blood donors from the Brazilian southeast region were genotyped through real-time PCR targeting the 17-nucleotide (c.64_80del) deletion in the SMIM1 gene, which determines the Vel- phenotype, by using remaining nucleic acid from plasma pools of six donors, routinely discarded after the release of viral NAT results. Twenty pools tested reactive and individual testing of samples from reactive pools identified 19 heterozygous donors with the SMIM1*64_80del deletion (0.40%) and one homozygous donor (0.02%). Fourteen of the 19 donors were confirmed as Vel- or Vel+(W) using anti-Vel human antiserum. The DNA pool genotyping strategy using real-time PCR designed to detect the deletion in the SMIM1 gene proved effective and accurate in identifying donors with the Vel- and Vel+(W) phenotypes. The fact that remaining nucleic acid from routine viral NAT screening was used makes this technique economically attractive and definitely superior to the serologic techniques available to search for this rare phenotype. © 2016 AABB.

  18. Real-Time PCR in HIV/Trypanosoma cruzi Coinfection with and without Chagas Disease Reactivation: Association with HIV Viral Load and CD4+ Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, Vera Lúcia Teixeira; da Silva, Sheila Cristina Vicente; Sartori, Ana Marli; Bezerra, Rita Cristina; Westphalen, Elizabeth Visone Nunes; Molina, Tatiane Decaris; Teixeira, Antonio R. L.; Ibrahim, Karim Yaqub; Shikanai-Yasuda, Maria Aparecida

    2011-01-01

    Background Reactivation of chronic Chagas disease, which occurs in approximately 20% of patients coinfected with HIV/Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi), is commonly characterized by severe meningoencephalitis and myocarditis. The use of quantitative molecular tests to monitor Chagas disease reactivation was analyzed. Methodology Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of kDNA sequences, competitive (C-) PCR and real-time quantitative (q) PCR were compared with blood cultures and xenodiagnosis in samples from 91 patients (57 patients with chronic Chagas disease and 34 with HIV/T. cruzi coinfection), of whom 5 had reactivation of Chagas disease and 29 did not. Principal Findings qRT-PCR showed significant differences between groups; the highest parasitemia was observed in patients infected with HIV/T. cruzi with Chagas disease reactivation (median 1428.90 T. cruzi/mL), followed by patients with HIV/T. cruzi infection without reactivation (median 1.57 T. cruzi/mL) and patients with Chagas disease without HIV (median 0.00 T. cruzi/mL). Spearman's correlation coefficient showed that xenodiagnosis was correlated with blood culture, C-PCR and qRT-PCR. A stronger Spearman correlation index was found between C-PCR and qRT-PCR, the number of parasites and the HIV viral load, expressed as the number of CD4+ cells or the CD4+/CD8+ ratio. Conclusions qRT-PCR distinguished the groups of HIV/T. cruzi coinfected patients with and without reactivation. Therefore, this new method of qRT-PCR is proposed as a tool for prospective studies to analyze the importance of parasitemia (persistent and/or increased) as a criterion for recommending pre-emptive therapy in patients with chronic Chagas disease with HIV infection or immunosuppression. As seen in this study, an increase in HIV viral load and decreases in the number of CD4+ cells/mm3 and the CD4+/CD8+ ratio were identified as cofactors for increased parasitemia that can be used to target the introduction of early, pre-emptive therapy. PMID

  19. Differences in cardiovascular risk profile based on relationship between post-load plasma glucose and fasting plasma levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Succurro, Elena; Marini, Maria Adelaide; Grembiale, Alessandro; Lugarà, Marina; Andreozzi, Francesco; Sciacqua, Angela; Hribal, Marta Letizia; Lauro, Renato; Perticone, Francesco; Sesti, Giorgio

    2009-05-01

    It has been shown that subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), whose plasma glucose (PG) levels do not return to their fasting PG level within 2 h during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) (Group I), have a significantly higher risk to develop type 2 diabetes than NGT subjects whose 2-h glucose returns to, or drops below, the fasting level (Group I). However, it is still unsettled whether individuals in Group II have a more atherogenic profile than Group I subjects. To address this issue, we examined 266 non-diabetic offspring of type 2 diabetic patients, recruited in the context of EUGENE2 cross-sectional study. All subjects underwent an euglycaemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp to assess glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity. Furthermore, cardiovascular risk factors and ultrasound measurement of carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) were evaluated. Individuals in Group II exhibited significantly higher waist circumference, blood pressure, triglycerides, 2-h post-load PG, hsC-reactive protein, interleukin-6, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), IMT, and lower insulin sensitivity than subjects in Group I. Subjects with NGT, whose PG concentration does not return to their fasting PG level within 2 h during OGTT, have an atherogenic profile, suggesting that performing OGTT with measurement of PG every 30 min may be useful to assess the risk for cardiovascular disease in glucose-tolerant subjects.

  20. Experimental simulation and analysis of off-normal heat loads accompanying plasma disruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laan, J.G. van der; Bakker, J.; Stad, R.C.L. van der; Klippel, H.T.

    1990-12-01

    The plasma disruption heat load is simulated experimentally using a pulsed laser beam with high energy density and short pulse duration (0.2-20 mm) covering a certain range of ITER design values. The present status of the laser heat flux test facility and new experimental tools are described. Spatial and time resolved profiles of the laser beam are given. Experimental results are presented including the variation of angle of incidence of the laser beam relative to the material surface. The nature and effects of the induced vapour plume are discussed. Materials studied are relevant to the ITER design. Experimental results are compared with numerical calculations. Some implications for the design of First Wall and Divertor of ITER are addressed. (author). 13 refs.; 5 figs

  1. Solitary electron density waves in a magnetized, plasma-loaded waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynov, J.-P.

    1980-08-01

    Investigations of two different types of nonlinear, solitary electron density waves in a magnetized, plasma-loaded waveguide are presented. One of the wavetypes is a localized, compressional pulse identified as a Trivelpiece-Gould soliton. The modification of this soliton by the resonant electrons is studied theoretically, by direct numerical solution of the model equation, experimentally, and by numerical simulation of the experiment. The other wave is a localized, rarefactive pulse called an electron hole. It is a positive pulse consisting of a large number of trapped electrons and is a purely kinetic phenomenon. A simple waterbag model for the electron hole is derived and compared with the results from the experiment and the numerical simulation. Finally, interactions between the solitary waves are investigated. (Auth.)

  2. CD4 and viral load dynamics in antiretroviral-naive HIV-infected adults from Soweto, South Africa: a prospective cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil A Martinson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: CD4 count is a proxy for the extent of immune deficiency and declines in CD4 count are a measure of disease progression. Decline in CD4 count is an important component: for estimating benefits of ARV treatment; for individual level counselling on the rapidity of untreated disease progression and prognosis; and can be used in planning demand for health services. Our objective is to report CD4 decline and changes in viral load (VL in a group of HIV-infected adults enrolled in a randomized trial of preventive treatment for TB in South Africa where clade C infection predominates. METHODS: HIV-infected, tuberculin skin test positive adults who were not eligible for antiretroviral (ARV treatment were randomized to a trial of preventive treatment from 2003-2005. VL and CD4 count were assessed at enrollment and CD4 counts repeated at least annually. During follow-up, individuals whose CD4 counts decreased to 100,000 (N = 122 copies/ml. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggests that six and a half years will elapse for an individual's CD4 count to decline from 750 to 350 cells/mm3 in the absence of ART.

  3. Association of Adolescent- and Caregiver-Reported Antiretroviral Therapy Adherence with HIV Viral Load Among Perinatally-infected South African Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittain, Kirsty; Asafu-Agyei, Nana Akua; Hoare, Jacqueline; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Rabie, Helena; Nuttall, James; Roux, Paul; Stein, Dan J; Zar, Heather J; Myer, Landon

    2018-03-01

    Accurate measurement of antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence remains challenging and there are few data assessing the validity of self-reported adherence among perinatally HIV-infected adolescents. We examined adolescent and caregiver reports of adolescent adherence among perinatally-infected adolescents aged 9-14 years in Cape Town, South Africa, and explored factors that may modify associations between reported adherence and elevated viral load (VL). Among 474 adolescents (median age 12.0 years; median duration of ART use 7.5 years), elevated VL and caregiver- and adolescent-report of missed ART doses were common. Elevated VL was particularly prevalent among older, male adolescents. Low-moderate concordance was observed between caregiver and adolescent report. Among adolescents aged ≥ 12 years, caregiver- and adolescent-reported adherence was associated with elevated VL across most items assessed, but few significant associations were observed among adolescents adolescents who require adherence interventions are needed in this context.

  4. Syphilis and HIV-1 co-infection: influence on CD4 T cell count, HIV-1 viral load and treatment response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Kristian; Gerstoft, Jan; Mathiesen, Lars Reinhardt

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 and syphilis coinfection on HIV-ribonucleic acid (RNA) viral load, CD4 cell count, and the response in rapid plasmin reagin (RPR) to treatment of the syphilis infection. STUDY DESIGN: Cases of syphilis diagnosed during 1 year...... in HIV-infected patients in Copenhagen were included. HIV-RNA, CD4 cell counts, and RPR-serology were measured before, during, and after syphilis. RESULTS: Forty-one patients were included. CD4 cell count decreased significantly during infection in patients with primary and secondary stages of syphilis...... (mean 106 cells/mm, P = 0.03). Treatment of syphilis was associated with an increase in the CD4 cell count and a decrease in HIV-RNA in the overall group (mean 66 cells/mm and -0.261 RNA log10 copies/ml, P = 0.02 and 0.04). The serological response rates for 15 patients treated with penicillin and 25...

  5. Determination of the neutral oxygen atom density in a plasma reactor loaded with metal samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozetic, Miran; Cvelbar, Uros

    2009-08-01

    The density of neutral oxygen atoms was determined during processing of metal samples in a plasma reactor. The reactor was a Pyrex tube with an inner diameter of 11 cm and a length of 30 cm. Plasma was created by an inductively coupled radiofrequency generator operating at a frequency of 27.12 MHz and output power up to 500 W. The O density was measured at the edge of the glass tube with a copper fiber optics catalytic probe. The O atom density in the empty tube depended on pressure and was between 4 and 7 × 1021 m-3. The maximum O density was at a pressure of about 150 Pa, while the dissociation fraction of O2 molecules was maximal at the lowest pressure and decreased with increasing pressure. At about 300 Pa it dropped below 10%. The measurements were repeated in the chamber loaded with different metallic samples. In these cases, the density of oxygen atoms was lower than that in the empty chamber. The results were explained by a drain of O atoms caused by heterogeneous recombination on the samples.

  6. The JET real-time plasma-wall load monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valcárcel, D.F.; Alves, D.; Card, P.; Carvalho, B.B.; Devaux, S.; Felton, R.; Goodyear, A.; Lomas, P.J.; Maviglia, F.; McCullen, P.; Reux, C.; Rimini, F.; Stephen, A.; Zabeo, L.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The paper describes the JET real-time system monitoring the first-wall plasma loads. • It presents the motivation, physics basis, design and implementation of the system. • It also presents the integration in the JET CODAS. • Operational results are presented. - Abstract: In the past, the Joint European Torus (JET) has operated with a first-wall composed of Carbon Fibre Composite (CFC) tiles. The thermal properties of the wall were monitored in real-time during plasma operations by the WALLS system. This software routinely performed model-based thermal calculations of the divertor and Inner Wall Guard Limiter (IWGL) tiles calculating bulk temperatures and strike-point positions as well as raising alarms when these were beyond operational limits. Operation with the new ITER-like wall presents a whole new set of challenges regarding machine protection. One example relates to the new beryllium limiter tiles with a melting point of 1278 °C, which can be achieved during a plasma discharge well before the bulk temperature rises to this value. This requires new and accurate power deposition and thermal diffusion models. New systems were deployed for safe operation with the new wall: the Real-time Protection Sequencer (RTPS) and the Vessel Thermal Map (VTM). The former allows for a coordinated stop of the pulse and the latter uses the surface temperature map, measured by infra-red (IR) cameras, to raise alarms in case of hot-spots. Integration of WALLS with these systems is required as RTPS responds to raised alarms and VTM, the primary protection system for the ITER-like wall, can use WALLS as a vessel temperature provider. This paper presents the engineering design, implementation and results of WALLS towards D-T operation, where it will act as a primary protection system when the IR cameras are blinded by the fusion reaction neutrons. The first operational results, with emphasis on its performance, are also presented

  7. The JET real-time plasma-wall load monitoring system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valcárcel, D.F., E-mail: daniel.valcarcel@ipfn.ist.utl.pt [Associação EURATOM/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Alves, D. [Associação EURATOM/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Card, P. [Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Carvalho, B.B. [Associação EURATOM/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, P-1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Devaux, S. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Assoziation, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Felton, R.; Goodyear, A.; Lomas, P.J. [Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Maviglia, F. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA-CREATE, Univ. di Napoli Federico II, Via Claudio 21, 80125 Napoli (Italy); McCullen, P. [Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Reux, C. [Ecole Polytechnique, LPP, CNRS UMR 7648, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Rimini, F.; Stephen, A. [Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Zabeo, L. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St., Paul Lez Durance (France); and others

    2014-03-15

    Highlights: • The paper describes the JET real-time system monitoring the first-wall plasma loads. • It presents the motivation, physics basis, design and implementation of the system. • It also presents the integration in the JET CODAS. • Operational results are presented. - Abstract: In the past, the Joint European Torus (JET) has operated with a first-wall composed of Carbon Fibre Composite (CFC) tiles. The thermal properties of the wall were monitored in real-time during plasma operations by the WALLS system. This software routinely performed model-based thermal calculations of the divertor and Inner Wall Guard Limiter (IWGL) tiles calculating bulk temperatures and strike-point positions as well as raising alarms when these were beyond operational limits. Operation with the new ITER-like wall presents a whole new set of challenges regarding machine protection. One example relates to the new beryllium limiter tiles with a melting point of 1278 °C, which can be achieved during a plasma discharge well before the bulk temperature rises to this value. This requires new and accurate power deposition and thermal diffusion models. New systems were deployed for safe operation with the new wall: the Real-time Protection Sequencer (RTPS) and the Vessel Thermal Map (VTM). The former allows for a coordinated stop of the pulse and the latter uses the surface temperature map, measured by infra-red (IR) cameras, to raise alarms in case of hot-spots. Integration of WALLS with these systems is required as RTPS responds to raised alarms and VTM, the primary protection system for the ITER-like wall, can use WALLS as a vessel temperature provider. This paper presents the engineering design, implementation and results of WALLS towards D-T operation, where it will act as a primary protection system when the IR cameras are blinded by the fusion reaction neutrons. The first operational results, with emphasis on its performance, are also presented.

  8. Viral Meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... better from treatment such as an antiviral medicine. Antibiotics do not help viral infections, so they are not useful in the treatment of viral meningitis. However, antibiotics do fight bacteria, so they are very important ...

  9. Pharyngitis - viral

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... throat is due to a viral infection. The antibiotics will not help. Using them to treat viral infections helps bacteria become resistant to antibiotics. With some sore throats (such as those caused ...

  10. Energy transformation in Z-pinch and plasma focus discharges with wire and wire-in-liner loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubes, Pavel; Kravarik, Jozef; Klir, Daniel; Scholz, Marek; Paduch, Marian; Tomaszewski, Krzysztof; Karpinski, Leslaw; Bakshaev, Yury L.; Blinov, Peter I.; Chernenko, Andrey S.; Dan'ko, Sergey A.; Korolev, Valery D.; Shashkov, Andrey Y.; Tumanov, Victor I.

    2002-01-01

    The results of the study of the Z-pinch and plasma-focus plasmas at presence of the axial C, Al, or Cu wires of sufficient high diameter are discussed in this paper. The wire was positioned on the top of the inner electrode of the PF 1000 plasma focus (1.8 MA, IPPLM Warsaw), or at the axis with or without the tungsten or alumine wire array load at the S-300 facility (3 MA, RRC Kurchatov Institute, Moscow), and at the axis of the small Z-pinch Z-150 (50 kA, CTU Prague). The plasma corona around the wire was generated both by the current going through the wires and by the implosion of the wire array or of the current sheath. The experiments showed interesting results often observed in some shots of Z-pinch type discharges - existence of helical structures, two relatively long and stable pinch phases, oscillation of pinch diameter, and back return of the plasma exploding from the pinch. All these observed phenomena can be evolved by spontaneous self-generation and transformation of the axial magnetic field in the pinch during the plasma implosion and explosion. A configuration of axial and azimuthal magnetic field confines the plasma and later transforms or dissipates during a few tens or hundreds ns. A fast transformation of internal magnetic fields can induce a sufficiently high electric field for generation of keV particles and radiation. Study and usage of Z-pinch discharges is connected with solving of two principal problems, limitation of instability development and a way of generation of high energy particles and radiation. The first problem is partially solved by the faster increase of the current, by better cylindrical symmetry of the load and plasma, by higher density of the plasma or by the presence of a stronger magnetized plasma

  11. Is There a Need for Viral Load Testing to Assess Treatment Failure in HIV-Infected Patients Who Are about to Change to Tenofovir-Based First-Line Antiretroviral Therapy? Programmatic Findings from Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiha, Nay; Chinnakali, Palanivel; Harries, Anthony D; Shwe, Myint; Balathandan, Thanumalaya Perumal; Thein Than Tun, Sai; Das, Mrinalini; Tin, Htay Htay; Yi, Yi; Babin, François Xavier; Lwin, Thi Thi; Clevenbergh, Philippe Albert

    2016-01-01

    WHO recommends that stavudine is phased out of antiretroviral therapy (ART) programmes and replaced with tenofovir (TDF) for first-line treatment. In this context, the Integrated HIV Care Program, Myanmar, evaluated patients for ART failure using HIV RNA viral load (VL) before making the change. We aimed to determine prevalence and determinants of ART failure in those on first-line treatment. Patients retained on stavudine-based or zidovudine-based ART for >12 months with no clinical/immunological evidence of failure were offered VL testing from August 2012. Plasma samples were tested using real time PCR. Those with detectable VL>250 copies/ml on the first test were provided with adherence counseling and three months later a second test was performed with >1000 copies/ml indicating ART failure. We calculated the prevalence of ART failure and adjusted relative risks (aRR) to identify associated factors using log binomial regression. Of 4934 patients tested, 4324 (87%) had an undetectable VL at the first test while 610 patients had a VL>250 copies/ml. Of these, 502 had a second VL test, of whom 321 had undetectable VL and 181 had >1000 copies/ml signifying ART failure. There were 108 who failed to have the second test. Altogether, there were 94% with an undetectable VL, 4% with ART failure and 2% who did not follow the VL testing algorithm. Risk factors for ART failure were age 15-24 years (aRR 2.4, 95% CI: 1.5-3.8) compared to 25-44 years and previous ART in the private sector (aRR 1.6, 95% CI: 1.2-2.2) compared to the public sector. This strategy of evaluating patients on first-line ART before changing to TDF was feasible and identified a small proportion with ART failure, and could be considered by HIV/AIDS programs in Myanmar and other countries.

  12. Performance Evaluation of the Bioneer AccuPower® HIV-1 Quantitative RT-PCR kit: Comparison with the Roche COBAS® AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan® HIV-1 Test Ver.2.0 for Quantification of HIV-1 Viral Load in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosasih, Agus Susanto; Sugiarto, Christine; Hayuanta, Hubertus Hosti; Juhaendi, Runingsih; Setiawan, Lyana

    2017-08-08

    Measurement of viral load in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infected patients is essential for the establishment of a therapeutic strategy. Several assays based on qPCR are available for the measurement of viral load; they differ in sample volume, technology applied, target gene, sensitivity and dynamic range. The Bioneer AccuPower® HIV-1 Quantitative RT-PCR is a novel commercial kit that has not been evaluated for its performance. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of the Bioneer AccuPower® HIV-1 Quantitative RT-PCR kit. In total, 288 EDTA plasma samples from the Dharmais Cancer Hospital were analyzed with the Bioneer AccuPower® HIV-1 Quantitative RT-PCR kit and the Roche COBAS? AmpliPrep/COBAS® TaqMan® HIV-1 version 2.0 (CAP/CTM v2.0). The performance of the Bioneer assay was then evaluated against the Roche CAP/CTM v2.0. Overall, there was good agreement between the two assays. The Bioneer assay showed significant linear correlation with CAP/CTM v2.0 (R2=0.963, plaboratories.

  13. Dynamics of viral replication in blood and lymphoid tissues during SIVmac251 infection of macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mannioui Abdelkrim

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extensive studies of primary infection are crucial to our understanding of the course of HIV disease. In SIV-infected macaques, a model closely mimicking HIV pathogenesis, we used a combination of three markers -- viral RNA, 2LTR circles and viral DNA -- to evaluate viral replication and dissemination simultaneously in blood, secondary lymphoid tissues, and the gut during primary and chronic infections. Subsequent viral compartmentalization in the main target cells of the virus in peripheral blood during the chronic phase of infection was evaluated by cell sorting and viral quantification with the three markers studied. Results The evolutions of viral RNA, 2LTR circles and DNA levels were correlated in a given tissue during primary and early chronic infection. The decrease in plasma viral load principally reflects a large decrease in viral replication in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT, with viral RNA and DNA levels remaining stable in the spleen and peripheral lymph nodes. Later, during chronic infection, a progressive depletion of central memory CD4+ T cells from the peripheral blood was observed, accompanied by high levels of viral replication in the cells of this subtype. The virus was also found to replicate at this point in the infection in naive CD4+ T cells. Viral RNA was frequently detected in monocytes, but no SIV replication appeared to occur in these cells, as no viral DNA or 2LTR circles were detected. Conclusion We demonstrated the persistence of viral replication and dissemination, mostly in secondary lymphoid tissues, during primary and early chronic infection. During chronic infection, the central memory CD4+ T cells were the major site of viral replication in peripheral blood, but viral replication also occurred in naive CD4+ T cells. The role of monocytes seemed to be limited to carrying the virus as a cargo because there was an observed lack of replication in these cells. These data may have important

  14. Quantification of Epstein-Barr virus-DNA load in lung transplant recipients : A comparison of plasma versus whole blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Nicolaas A.; Verschuuren, Erik A.; Veeger, Nic J.; van der Bij, Wim; van Imhoff, Gustaaf W.; Kallenberg, Cees G.; Hepkema, Bouke G.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Monitoring of the Epstein-Barr virus-DNA load is frequently used to identify patients at risk for post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD). Epstein-Barr virus DNA can be measured in the plasma and whole blood serum compartments. Methods: We compared levels of Epstein-Barr virus

  15. Response of Jupiter's Aurora to Plasma Mass Loading Rate Monitored by the Hisaki Satellite During Volcanic Eruptions at Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, T.; Hiraki, Y.; Tao, C.; Tsuchiya, F.; Delamere, P. A.; Yoshioka, K.; Murakami, G.; Yamazaki, A.; Kita, H.; Badman, S. V.; Fukazawa, K.; Yoshikawa, I.; Fujimoto, M.

    2018-03-01

    The production and transport of plasma mass are essential processes in the dynamics of planetary magnetospheres. At Jupiter, it is hypothesized that Io's volcanic plasma carried out of the plasma torus is transported radially outward in the rotating magnetosphere and is recurrently ejected as plasmoid via tail reconnection. The plasmoid ejection is likely associated with particle energization, radial plasma flow, and transient auroral emissions. However, it has not been demonstrated that plasmoid ejection is sensitive to mass loading because of the lack of simultaneous observations of both processes. We report the response of plasmoid ejection to mass loading during large volcanic eruptions at Io in 2015. Response of the transient aurora to the mass loading rate was investigated based on a combination of Hisaki satellite monitoring and a newly developed analytic model. We found that the transient aurora frequently recurred at a 2-6 day period in response to a mass loading increase from 0.3 to 0.5 t/s. In general, the recurrence of the transient aurora was not significantly correlated with the solar wind, although there was an exceptional event with a maximum emission power of 10 TW after the solar wind shock arrival. The recurrence of plasmoid ejection requires the precondition that an amount comparable to the total mass of magnetosphere, 1.5 Mt, is accumulated in the magnetosphere. A plasmoid mass of more than 0.1 Mt is necessary in case that the plasmoid ejection is the only process for mass release.

  16. Effect of Lopinavir and Nevirapine Concentrations on Viral Outcomes in Protease Inhibitor-experienced HIV-infected Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moholisa, Retsilisitsoe R; Schomaker, Michael; Kuhn, Louise; Castel, Sandra; Wiesner, Lubbe; Coovadia, Ashraf; Strehlau, Renate; Patel, Faeezah; Pinillos, Francoise; Abrams, Elaine J; Maartens, Gary; McIlleron, Helen

    2016-12-01

    Adequate exposure to antiretroviral drugs is necessary to achieve and sustain viral suppression. However, the target antiretroviral concentrations associated with long-term viral suppression have not been adequately defined in children. We assessed the relationship between plasma lopinavir or nevirapine concentrations and the risk of subsequent viremia in children initially suppressed on antiretroviral therapy. After an induction phase of antiretroviral treatment, 195 children with viral suppression (viral load ≤400 copies/mL) were randomized to continue a lopinavir/ritonavir-based regimen or to switch to a nevirapine-based regimen (together with lamivudine and stavudine). Viral load and lopinavir or nevirapine concentrations were measured at clinic visits 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 36, 52, 64 and 76 weeks post randomization. Cox multiple failure event models were used to estimate the effects of drug concentrations on the hazard of viremia (viral load >50 copies/mL) RESULTS:: At randomization, the median (interquartile range) age, CD4 T-Lymphocyte percentage, weight-for-age and weight-for-height z scores were 19 (16-24) months, 29% (23-37), -0.6 (-1.3 to 0.2) and -3.2 (-4.1 to -2.1), respectively. The proportion of children with viral load 51-400 copies/mL at randomization was 43%. The hazard of subsequent viremia during follow-up was increased for lopinavir concentrations <1 versus ≥1 mg/L [adjusted hazard ratio 0.62 (95% confidence interval, 0.40-0.94)] and for children with viral loads 51-400 copies/mL at randomization. Nevirapine concentrations were not significantly associated with subsequent viremia. Plasma lopinavir concentrations predicted viral outcomes in children receiving lopinavir-based antiretroviral therapy. Our findings support a minimum target concentration of ≥1 mg/L of lopinavir to ensure sustained viral suppression.

  17. Experimental investigation of vapor shielding effects induced by ELM-like pulsed plasma loads using the double plasma gun device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakuma, I.; Kikuchi, Y.; Kitagawa, Y.; Asai, Y.; Onishi, K.; Fukumoto, N.; Nagata, M.

    2015-08-01

    We have developed a unique experimental device of so-called double plasma gun, which consists of two magnetized coaxial plasma gun (MCPG) devices, in order to clarify effects of vapor shielding on material erosion due to transient events in magnetically confined fusion devices. Two ELM-like pulsed plasmas produced by the two MCPG devices were injected into a target chamber with a variable time difference. For generating ablated plasmas in front of a target material, an aluminum foil sample in the target chamber was exposed to a pulsed plasma produced by the 1st MCPG device. The 2nd pulsed plasma was produced with a time delay of 70 μs. It was found that a surface absorbed energy measured by a calorimeter was reduced to ∼66% of that without the Al foil sample. Thus, the reduction of the incoming plasma energy by the vapor shielding effect was successfully demonstrated in the present experiment.

  18. Experimental investigation of vapor shielding effects induced by ELM-like pulsed plasma loads using the double plasma gun device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakuma, I., E-mail: eu13z002@steng.u-hyogo.ac.jp; Kikuchi, Y.; Kitagawa, Y.; Asai, Y.; Onishi, K.; Fukumoto, N.; Nagata, M.

    2015-08-15

    We have developed a unique experimental device of so-called double plasma gun, which consists of two magnetized coaxial plasma gun (MCPG) devices, in order to clarify effects of vapor shielding on material erosion due to transient events in magnetically confined fusion devices. Two ELM-like pulsed plasmas produced by the two MCPG devices were injected into a target chamber with a variable time difference. For generating ablated plasmas in front of a target material, an aluminum foil sample in the target chamber was exposed to a pulsed plasma produced by the 1st MCPG device. The 2nd pulsed plasma was produced with a time delay of 70 μs. It was found that a surface absorbed energy measured by a calorimeter was reduced to ∼66% of that without the Al foil sample. Thus, the reduction of the incoming plasma energy by the vapor shielding effect was successfully demonstrated in the present experiment.

  19. Reported Church Attendance at the Time of Entry into HIV Care is Associated with Viral Load Suppression at 12 Months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wagoner, Nicholas; Elopre, Latesha; Westfall, Andrew O; Mugavero, Michael J; Turan, Janet; Hook, Edward W

    2016-08-01

    The Southeast has high rates of church attendance and HIV infection rates. We evaluated the relationship between church attendance and HIV viremia in a Southeastern US, HIV-infected cohort. Viremia (viral load ≥200 copies/ml) was analyzed 12 months after initiation of care. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression models were fit for variables potentially related to viremia. Of 382 patients, 74 % were virally suppressed at 12 months. Protective variables included church attendance (AOR 0.5; 95 % CI 0.2, 0.9), being on antiretroviral therapy (AOR 0.01; 95 % CI 0.004, 0.04), CD4(+) T lymphocyte count 200-350 cells/mm(3) at care entry (AOR 0.3; 95 % 0.1, 0.9), and education (AOR 0.5; 95 % CI 0.2, 0.9). Variables predicting viremia included black race (AOR 3.2; 95 % CI 1.4, 7.4) and selective disclosure of HIV status (AOR 2.7; 95 % CI 1.2, 5.6). Church attendance may provide needed support for patients entering HIV care for the first time. El Sur Este de los Estados Unidos tiene tasas altas de visitas a iglesias y de infección por VIH. Evaluamos la relación entre visitas a iglesias y viremia por VIH en una cohorte de pacientes infectados con VIH en el Sur Este de los EEUU. La viremia (carga viral ≥ 200 copias/ml) fue analizada a los 12 meses de iniciar el cuidado médico. Los modelos de regresión logística univariado y multivariado fueron ajustados para variables potencialmente relacionadas a viremia. De 382 pacientes, 75 % tuvieron supresión virológica a los 12 meses. Variables que ofrecieron protección fueron visitas a iglesias (AOR 0.5; IC95 % 0.2-0.9), recibir terapia antiretroviral (AOR 0.01; IC95 % 0.004,0.04), recuento de linfocitos T CD4 + 200-350 al iniciar cuidado médico (AOR 0.3; IC95 % 0.1,09), y educación (AOR 0.5; IC95 % 0.2,0.9). Las variables que predijeron viremia incluyeron raza negra (AOR 3.2; IC95 % 1.4,7.4) y la comunicación selectiva del diagnóstico de VIH a otras personas (AOR 2.7; 95 % IC 1

  20. Dynamic load balancing in a concurrent plasma PIC code on the JPL/Caltech Mark III hypercube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liewer, P.C.; Leaver, E.W.; Decyk, V.K.; Dawson, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    Dynamic load balancing has been implemented in a concurrent one-dimensional electromagnetic plasma particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation code using a method which adds very little overhead to the parallel code. In PIC codes, the orbits of many interacting plasma electrons and ions are followed as an initial value problem as the particles move in electromagnetic fields calculated self-consistently from the particle motions. The code was implemented using the GCPIC algorithm in which the particles are divided among processors by partitioning the spatial domain of the simulation. The problem is load-balanced by partitioning the spatial domain so that each partition has approximately the same number of particles. During the simulation, the partitions are dynamically recreated as the spatial distribution of the particles changes in order to maintain processor load balance

  1. Projecting the epidemiological effect, cost-effectiveness and transmission of HIV drug resistance in Vietnam associated with viral load monitoring strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Quang Duy; Wilson, David P; Nguyen, Thuong Vu; Do, Nhan Thi; Truong, Lien Xuan; Nguyen, Long Thanh; Zhang, Lei

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the potential epidemiological impact of viral load (VL) monitoring and its cost-effectiveness in Vietnam, where transmitted HIV drug resistance (TDR) prevalence has increased from HIV drug-resistance tests. We assessed the cost per disability-adjusted life year (DALY) averted for each scenario. Projecting expected ART scale-up levels, to approximately double the number of people on ART by 2030, will lead to an estimated 18 510 cases (95% CI: 9120-34 600 cases) of TDR and 55 180 cases (95% CI: 40 540-65 900 cases) of acquired drug resistance (ADR) in the absence of VL monitoring. This projection corresponds to a TDR prevalence of 16% (95% CI: 11%-24%) and ADR of 18% (95% CI: 15%-20%). Annual or biennial VL monitoring with 30% coverage is expected to relieve 12%-31% of TDR (2260-5860 cases), 25%-59% of ADR (9620-22 650 cases), 2%-6% of HIV-related deaths (360-880 cases) and 19 270-51 400 DALYs during 2015-30. The 30% coverage of VL monitoring is estimated to cost US$4848-5154 per DALY averted. The projected additional cost for implementing this strategy is US$105-268 million over 2015-30. Our study suggests that a programmatically achievable 30% coverage of VL monitoring can have considerable benefits for individuals and leads to population health benefits by reducing the overall national burden of HIV drug resistance. It is marginally cost-effective according to common willingness-to-pay thresholds. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. CD4 and viral load dynamics in antiretroviral-naïve HIV-infected adults from Soweto, South Africa: a prospective cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinson, Neil A; Gupte, Nikhil; Msandiwa, Reginah; Moulton, Lawrence H; Barnes, Grace L; Ram, Malathi; Gray, Glenda; Hoffmann, Chris; Chaisson, Richard E

    2014-01-01

    CD4 count is a proxy for the extent of immune deficiency and declines in CD4 count are a measure of disease progression. Decline in CD4 count is an important component: for estimating benefits of ARV treatment; for individual level counselling on the rapidity of untreated disease progression and prognosis; and can be used in planning demand for health services. Our objective is to report CD4 decline and changes in viral load (VL) in a group of HIV-infected adults enrolled in a randomized trial of preventive treatment for TB in South Africa where clade C infection predominates. HIV-infected, tuberculin skin test positive adults who were not eligible for antiretroviral (ARV) treatment were randomized to a trial of preventive treatment from 2003-2005. VL and CD4 count were assessed at enrollment and CD4 counts repeated at least annually. During follow-up, individuals whose CD4 counts decreased to alcohol use had little impact on the estimate of CD4 decline. However, VL at baseline had a major impact on CD4 decline. The percent decline in CD4 count was 13.3% (95% CI 12.0%, 14.7%), 10.6% (95% CI 8.8%, 12.4%), and 13.8% (95% CI 12.1%, 15.5%) per annum for baseline VLs of 100,000 (N = 122) copies/ml. Our data suggests that six and a half years will elapse for an individual's CD4 count to decline from 750 to 350 cells/mm3 in the absence of ART.

  3. Partner Disclosure of PrEP Use and Undetectable Viral Load on Geosocial Networking Apps: Frequency of Disclosure and Decisions About Condomless Sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomb, Michael E; Mongrella, Melissa C; Weis, Benjamin; McMillen, Samuel J; Mustanski, Brian

    2016-02-01

    Recent advances in biomedical prevention strategies, including pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and achieving an undetectable viral load (UVL) among HIV-infected persons, show promise in curbing the rising incidence of HIV among men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States. This mixed-methods study aimed to investigate the frequency with which MSM encounter potential sex partners on geosocial networking apps who disclose biomedical prevention use, and how MSM make decisions about condom use after these disclosures. Participants were recruited through advertisements placed on a large geosocial networking app for MSM. A total of 668 and 727 participants, respectively, responded to questionnaires assessing partner disclosure of PrEP use and UVL. Each questionnaire included an open-ended item assessing reasons for condomless anal sex (CAS) with partners using biomedical prevention. Across both surveys, most respondents encountered potential sex partners who disclosed PrEP use or UVL, and the majority of those who met up with these partners engaged in CAS at least once. Qualitative analyses found that most participants who reported CAS did so after making a calculated risk about HIV transmission. We also describe a novel risk reduction strategy, "biomed-matching," or having CAS only when both individuals use PrEP or have UVL. We report serostatus differences in both quantitative and qualitative findings. Disclosure of PrEP use and UVL is not uncommon among MSM. Many MSM make accurate appraisals of the risks of CAS with biomedical prevention, and mobile apps may aid with disclosing biomedical prevention use.

  4. Associations Between Medicare Part D and Out-of-Pocket Spending, HIV Viral Load, Adherence, and ADAP Use in Dual Eligibles With HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belenky, Nadya; Pence, Brian W; Cole, Stephen R; Dusetzina, Stacie B; Edmonds, Andrew; Oberlander, Jonathan; Plankey, Michael W; Adedimeji, Adebola; Wilson, Tracey E; Cohen, Jennifer; Cohen, Mardge H; Milam, Joel E; Golub, Elizabeth T; Adimora, Adaora A

    2018-01-01

    The implementation of Medicare part D on January 1, 2006 required all adults who were dually enrolled in Medicaid and Medicare (dual eligibles) to transition prescription drug coverage from Medicaid to Medicare part D. Changes in payment systems and utilization management along with the loss of Medicaid protections had the potential to disrupt medication access, with uncertain consequences for dual eligibles with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who rely on consistent prescription coverage to suppress their HIV viral load (VL). To estimate the effect of Medicare part D on self-reported out-of-pocket prescription drug spending, AIDS Drug Assistance Program (ADAP) use, antiretroviral adherence, and HIV VL suppression among dual eligibles with HIV. Using 2003-2008 data from the Women's Interagency HIV Study, we created a propensity score-matched cohort and used a difference-in-differences approach to compare dual eligibles' outcomes pre-Medicare and post-Medicare part D to those enrolled in Medicaid alone. Transition to Medicare part D was associated with a sharp increase in the proportion of dual eligibles with self-reported out-of-pocket prescription drug costs, followed by an increase in ADAP use. Despite the increase in out-of-pocket costs, both adherence and HIV VL suppression remained stable. Medicare part D was associated with increased out-of-pocket spending, although the increased spending did not seem to compromise antiretroviral therapy adherence or HIV VL suppression. It is possible that increased ADAP use mitigated the increase in out-of-pocket spending, suggesting successful coordination between Medicare part D and ADAP as well as the vital role of ADAP during insurance transitions.

  5. Viral CTL escape mutants are generated in lymph nodes and subsequently become fixed in plasma and rectal mucosa during acute SIV infection of macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas H Vanderford

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available SIV(mac239 infection of rhesus macaques (RMs results in AIDS despite the generation of a strong antiviral cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL response, possibly due to the emergence of viral escape mutants that prevent recognition of infected cells by CTLs. To determine the anatomic origin of these SIV mutants, we longitudinally assessed the presence of CTL escape variants in two MamuA*01-restricted immunodominant epitopes (Tat-SL8 and Gag-CM9 in the plasma, PBMCs, lymph nodes (LN, and rectal biopsies (RB of fifteen SIV(mac239-infected RMs. As expected, Gag-CM9 did not exhibit signs of escape before day 84 post infection. In contrast, Tat-SL8 escape mutants were apparent in all tissues by day 14 post infection. Interestingly LNs and plasma exhibited the highest level of escape at day 14 and day 28 post infection, respectively, with the rate of escape in the RB remaining lower throughout the acute infection. The possibility that CTL escape occurs in LNs before RBs is confirmed by the observation that the specific mutants found at high frequency in LNs at day 14 post infection became dominant at day 28 post infection in plasma, PBMC, and RB. Finally, the frequency of escape mutants in plasma at day 28 post infection correlated strongly with the level Tat-SL8-specific CD8 T cells in the LN and PBMC at day 14 post infection. These results indicate that LNs represent the primary source of CTL escape mutants during the acute phase of SIV(mac239 infection, suggesting that LNs are the main anatomic sites of virus replication and/or the tissues in which CTL pressure is most effective in selecting SIV escape variants.

  6. Plasma facing materials performance under ITER-relevant mitigated disruption photonic heat loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimov, N. S.; Putrik, A. B.; Linke, J.; Pitts, R. A.; Zhitlukhin, A. M.; Kuprianov, I. B.; Spitsyn, A. V.; Ogorodnikova, O. V.; Podkovyrov, V. L.; Muzichenko, A. D.; Ivanov, B. V.; Sergeecheva, Ya. V.; Lesina, I. G.; Kovalenko, D. V.; Barsuk, V. A.; Danilina, N. A.; Bazylev, B. N.; Giniyatulin, R. N.

    2015-08-01

    PFMs (Plasma-facing materials: ITER grade stainless steel, beryllium, and ferritic-martensitic steels) as well as deposited erosion products of PFCs (Be-like, tungsten, and carbon based) were tested in QSPA under photonic heat loads relevant to those expected from photon radiation during disruptions mitigated by massive gas injection in ITER. Repeated pulses slightly above the melting threshold on the bulk materials eventually lead to a regular, "corrugated" surface, with hills and valleys spaced by 0.2-2 mm. The results indicate that hill growth (growth rate of ∼1 μm per pulse) and sample thinning in the valleys is a result of melt-layer redistribution. The measurements on the 316L(N)-IG indicate that the amount of tritium absorbed by the sample from the gas phase significantly increases with pulse number as well as the modified layer thickness. Repeated pulses significantly below the melting threshold on the deposited erosion products lead to a decrease of hydrogen isotopes trapped during the deposition of the eroded material.

  7. Plasma facing materials performance under ITER-relevant mitigated disruption photonic heat loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klimov, N.S., E-mail: klimov@triniti.ru [SRC RF TRINITI, ul. Pushkovykh, vladenie 12, Troitsk, Moscow 142190 (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Kashirskoye shosse 31, Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation); Putrik, A.B. [SRC RF TRINITI, ul. Pushkovykh, vladenie 12, Troitsk, Moscow 142190 (Russian Federation); Linke, J. [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, EURATOM Association, Jülich D-52425 (Germany); Pitts, R.A. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 3640, Karlsruhe 76021 (Germany); Zhitlukhin, A.M. [SRC RF TRINITI, ul. Pushkovykh, vladenie 12, Troitsk, Moscow 142190 (Russian Federation); Kuprianov, I.B. [Bochvar Institute, ul. Rogova, 5a, Moscow 123098 (Russian Federation); Spitsyn, A.V. [NRC «Kurchatov Institute», Akademika Kurchatova pl., 1, Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation); Ogorodnikova, O.V. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Moscow Engineering Physics Institute), Kashirskoye shosse 31, Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation); Podkovyrov, V.L.; Muzichenko, A.D. [SRC RF TRINITI, ul. Pushkovykh, vladenie 12, Troitsk, Moscow 142190 (Russian Federation); Ivanov, B.V.; Sergeecheva, Ya.V.; Lesina, I.G. [Bochvar Institute, ul. Rogova, 5a, Moscow 123098 (Russian Federation); Kovalenko, D.V.; Barsuk, V.A.; Danilina, N.A. [SRC RF TRINITI, ul. Pushkovykh, vladenie 12, Troitsk, Moscow 142190 (Russian Federation); Bazylev, B.N. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 3640, Karlsruhe 76021 (Germany); Giniyatulin, R.N. [Efremov Institute, Doroga na Metallostroy, 3 bld., Metallostroy, Saint-Petersburg 196641 (Russian Federation)

    2015-08-15

    PFMs (Plasma-facing materials: ITER grade stainless steel, beryllium, and ferritic–martensitic steels) as well as deposited erosion products of PFCs (Be-like, tungsten, and carbon based) were tested in QSPA under photonic heat loads relevant to those expected from photon radiation during disruptions mitigated by massive gas injection in ITER. Repeated pulses slightly above the melting threshold on the bulk materials eventually lead to a regular, “corrugated” surface, with hills and valleys spaced by 0.2–2 mm. The results indicate that hill growth (growth rate of ∼1 μm per pulse) and sample thinning in the valleys is a result of melt-layer redistribution. The measurements on the 316L(N)-IG indicate that the amount of tritium absorbed by the sample from the gas phase significantly increases with pulse number as well as the modified layer thickness. Repeated pulses significantly below the melting threshold on the deposited erosion products lead to a decrease of hydrogen isotopes trapped during the deposition of the eroded material.

  8. Overall glycemic index and glycemic load of vegan diets in relation to plasma lipoproteins and triacylglycerols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldmann, Annika; Ströhle, Alexander; Koschizke, Jochen W; Leitzmann, Claus; Hahn, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the overall glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL), and intake of dietary fiber, and to examine the associations between these factors and plasma lipoproteins and triacylglycerols in adult vegans in the German Vegan Study (GVS). Cross-sectional study, Germany. Healthy men (n = 67) and women (n = 87), who fulfilled the study criteria (vegan diet for >or=1 year prior to study start; minimum age of 18 years; no pregnancy/childbirth during the last 12 months) and who participated in all study segments. The average dietary GL of the GVS population was 144, and the average GI was 51.4. The adjusted geometric mean total, HDL, and LDL cholesterol concentrations decreased across the increasing quartiles of GL, carbohydrate and dietary fiber intake. The associations between total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and GL density and GI were inconsistent. Also, associations between GI, GL, the intake of carbohydrates, and triacylglycerol concentration were not observed. Fiber-rich vegan diets are characterized by a low GI and a low to moderate GL. The data do not support the hypothesis that a carbohydrate-rich diet per se is associated with unfavorable effects on triaclyglycerols that would be predicted to increase the risk of coronary heart disease. Copyright (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Evaluation of electromagnetic loads on various design options of the ITER diagnostic upper port plug during plasma disruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pak, Sunil; Ku, Duck Young; Oh, Dong-Keun; Jhang, Hogun; Kim, Duck-Hoi; Cheon, Mun-Seong; Seon, Chang Rae; Lee, Hyeon Gon; Pitcher, Spencer

    2011-01-01

    Electromagnetic (EM) loads due to eddy current and halo current during plasma disruptions are evaluated for the ITER diagnostic upper port plug. To reduce strong EM loads acting on the port plug fixed to the vacuum vessel like a cantilever beam, three design options have been considered: removal of the diagnostic first wall, slitting of the diagnostic shield module and recess of the port plug. The main focus of the present study is to examine the efficacy of these options in terms of EM loads on the upper port plug. It is found that making slits is more effective than removing the first wall. It is also shown that the upper port plug needs to be recessed to reduce the EM load induced by halo current.

  10. Unconjugated oestetrol in plasma in response to an intravenous load of dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHAS) in uncomplicated and complicated human pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Axelsson, Ove

    1978-01-01

    A non-chromatographic radioimmunoassay for estimation of unconjugated oestetrol in plasma from pregnant women is described. The antiserum has a high specificity to oestetrol. The technical procedure is simple and rapid. Only small amounts of plasma (0.2-0.4 ml) are needed for the analysis. The method has been applied to the measurement of oestetrol in plasma from pregnant women before and after an intravenous injection of 50 mg DHAS. In women with uncomplicated pregnancies a rise of plasma oestetrol was found 60 min after the injection. From 120 to 360 min there was a plateau level, at 600 min a decrease from this level was observed. No changes in the oestetrol response were found with advancing gestational age from the 33rd to the 40th week of pregnancy. A great spread in the individual responses were recorded. Patients with pre-eclampsia and intrauterine growth retardation had a tendency to a lower increase and patients with diabetes a tendency to a higher increase of plasma oestetrol after the DHAS administration. From the data obtained it is concluded that the increase of plasma oestetrol after an intraveneous injection of DHAS in most cases is secondary to the increase of plasma oestradiol. The results suggest that measurement of unconjugated oestetrol in plasma after an intravenous load of DHAS is no safe way to assess foetal wellbeing. In women with intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) the simultaneous measurement of plasma oestradiol and oestetrol after an injection of DHAS indicates a possibility to distinguish placental from foetal causes of this syndrome. (author)

  11. Protocol for a randomised controlled implementation trial of point-of-care viral load testing and task shifting: the Simplifying HIV TREAtment and Monitoring (STREAM) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorward, Jienchi; Garrett, Nigel; Quame-Amaglo, Justice; Samsunder, Natasha; Ngobese, Hope; Ngomane, Noluthando; Moodley, Pravikrishnen; Mlisana, Koleka; Schaafsma, Torin; Donnell, Deborah; Barnabas, Ruanne; Naidoo, Kogieleum; Abdool Karim, Salim; Celum, Connie; Drain, Paul K

    2017-09-27

    Achieving the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV and AIDS 90-90-90 targets requires models of HIV care that expand antiretroviral therapy (ART) coverage without overburdening health systems. Point-of-care (POC) viral load (VL) testing has the potential to efficiently monitor ART treatment, while enrolled nurses may be able to provide safe and cost-effective chronic care for stable patients with HIV. This study aims to demonstrate whether POC VL testing combined with task shifting to enrolled nurses is non-inferior and cost-effective compared with laboratory-based VL monitoring and standard HIV care. The STREAM (Simplifying HIV TREAtment and Monitoring) study is an open-label, non-inferiority, randomised controlled implementation trial. HIV-positive adults, clinically stable at 6 months after ART initiation, will be recruited in a large urban clinic in South Africa. Approximately 396 participants will be randomised 1:1 to receive POC HIV VL monitoring and potential task shifting to enrolled nurses, versus laboratory VL monitoring and standard South African HIV care. Initial clinic follow-up will be 2-monthly in both arms, with VL testing at enrolment, 6 months and 12 months. At 6 months (1 year after ART initiation), stable participants in both arms will qualify for a differentiated care model involving decentralised ART pickup at community-based pharmacies. The primary outcome is retention in care and virological suppression at 12 months from enrolment. Secondary outcomes include time to appropriate entry into the decentralised ART delivery programme, costs per virologically suppressed patient and cost-effectiveness of the intervention compared with standard care. Findings will inform the scale up of VL testing and differentiated care in HIV-endemic resource-limited settings. Ethical approval has been granted by the University of KwaZulu-Natal Biomedical Research Ethics Committee (BFC296/16) and University of Washington Institutional Review Board (STUDY

  12. Scaling up HIV viral load - lessons from the large-scale implementation of HIV early infant diagnosis and CD4 testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Trevor; Zeh, Clement; Katz, Zachary; Elbireer, Ali; Alemayehu, Bereket; Vojnov, Lara; Costa, Alex; Doi, Naoko; Jani, Ilesh

    2017-11-01

    The scale-up of effective HIV viral load (VL) testing is an urgent public health priority. Implementation of testing is supported by the availability of accurate, nucleic acid based laboratory and point-of-care (POC) VL technologies and strong WHO guidance recommending routine testing to identify treatment failure. However, test implementation faces challenges related to the developing health systems in many low-resource countries. The purpose of this commentary is to review the challenges and solutions from the large-scale implementation of other diagnostic tests, namely nucleic-acid based early infant HIV diagnosis (EID) and CD4 testing, and identify key lessons to inform the scale-up of VL. Experience with EID and CD4 testing provides many key lessons to inform VL implementation and may enable more effective and rapid scale-up. The primary lessons from earlier implementation efforts are to strengthen linkage to clinical care after testing, and to improve the efficiency of testing. Opportunities to improve linkage include data systems to support the follow-up of patients through the cascade of care and test delivery, rapid sample referral networks, and POC tests. Opportunities to increase testing efficiency include improvements to procurement and supply chain practices, well connected tiered laboratory networks with rational deployment of test capacity across different levels of health services, routine resource mapping and mobilization to ensure adequate resources for testing programs, and improved operational and quality management of testing services. If applied to VL testing programs, these approaches could help improve the impact of VL on ART failure management and patient outcomes, reduce overall costs and help ensure the sustainable access to reduced pricing for test commodities, as well as improve supportive health systems such as efficient, and more rigorous quality assurance. These lessons draw from traditional laboratory practices as well as fields

  13. Simplified clinical prediction scores to target viral load testing in adults with suspected first line treatment failure in Phnom Penh, Cambodia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan van Griensven

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: For settings with limited laboratory capacity, 2013 World Health Organization (WHO guidelines recommend targeted HIV-1 viral load (VL testing to identify virological failure. We previously developed and validated a clinical prediction score (CPS for targeted VL testing, relying on clinical, adherence and laboratory data. While outperforming the WHO failure criteria, it required substantial calculation and review of all previous laboratory tests. In response, we developed four simplified, less error-prone and broadly applicable CPS versions that can be done 'on the spot'. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL: Findings From May 2010 to June 2011, we validated the original CPS in a non-governmental hospital in Phnom Penh, Cambodia applying the CPS to adults on first-line treatment >1 year. Virological failure was defined as a single VL >1000 copies/ml. The four CPSs included CPS1 with 'current CD4 count' instead of %-decline-from-peak CD4; CPS2 with hemoglobin measurements removed; CPS3 having 'decrease in CD4 count below baseline value' removed; CPS4 was purely clinical. Score development relied on the Spiegelhalter/Knill-Jones method. Variables independently associated with virological failure with a likelihood ratio ≥ 1.5 or ≤ 0.67 were retained. CPS performance was evaluated based on the area-under-the-ROC-curve (AUROC and 95% confidence intervals (CI. The CPSs were validated in an independent dataset. A total of 1490 individuals (56.6% female, median age: 38 years (interquartile range (IQR 33-44; median baseline CD4 count: 94 cells/µL (IQR 28-205, median time on antiretroviral therapy 3.6 years (IQR 2.1-5.1, were included. Forty-five 45 (3.0% individuals had virological failure. CPS1 yielded an AUROC of 0.69 (95% CI: 0.62-0.75 in validation, CPS2 an AUROC of 0.68 (95% CI: 0.62-0.74, and CPS3, an AUROC of 0.67 (95% CI: 0.61-0.73. The purely clinical CPS4 performed poorly (AUROC-0.59; 95% CI: 0.53-0.65. CONCLUSIONS: Simplified CPSs retained

  14. Effect of high-flux H/He plasma exposure on tungsten damage due to transient heat loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Temmerman, G., E-mail: gregory.detemmerman@iter.org [FOM Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, Association EURATOM-FOM, Trilateral Euregion Cluster, Postbus 1207, 3430BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, CS 90 096, 13067 Saint Paul-lez-Durance (France); Morgan, T.W.; Eden, G.G. van; Kruif, T. de [FOM Institute DIFFER, Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, Association EURATOM-FOM, Trilateral Euregion Cluster, Postbus 1207, 3430BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Wirtz, M. [Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH, Institute of Energy and Climate Research – Microstructure and Properties of Materials (IEK-2), EURATOM Association, 52425 Jülich (Germany); Matejicek, J.; Chraska, T. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Association EURATOM-IPP, CR Prague (Czech Republic); Pitts, R.A. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, CS 90 096, 13067 Saint Paul-lez-Durance (France); Wright, G.M. [MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center, 77 Massachusetts Ave., Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    The thermal shock behaviour of tungsten exposed to high-flux plasma is studied using a high-power laser. The cases of laser-only, sequential laser and hydrogen (H) plasma and simultaneous laser plus H plasma exposure are studied. H plasma exposure leads to an embrittlement of the material and the appearance of a crack network originating from the centre of the laser spot. Under simultaneous loading, significant surface melting is observed. In general, H plasma exposure lowers the heat flux parameter (F{sub HF}) for the onset of surface melting by ∼25%. In the case of He-modified (fuzzy) surfaces, strong surface deformations are observed already after 1000 laser pulses at moderate F{sub HF} = 19 MJ m{sup −2} s{sup −1/2}, and a dense network of fine cracks is observed. These results indicate that high-fluence ITER-like plasma exposure influences the thermal shock properties of tungsten, lowering the permissible transient energy density beyond which macroscopic surface modifications begin to occur.

  15. Effects of fusion relevant transient energetic radiation, plasma and thermal load on PLANSEE double forged tungsten samples in a low-energy plasma focus device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javadi, S.; Ouyang, B.; Zhang, Z.; Ghoranneviss, M.; Salar Elahi, A.; Rawat, R. S.

    2018-06-01

    Tungsten is the leading candidate for plasma facing component (PFC) material for thermonuclear fusion reactors and various efforts are ongoing to evaluate its performance or response to intense fusion relevant radiation, plasma and thermal loads. This paper investigates the effects of hot dense decaying pinch plasma, highly energetic deuterium ions and fusion neutrons generated in a low-energy (3.0 kJ) plasma focus device on the structure, morphology and hardness of the PLANSEE double forged tungsten (W) samples surfaces. The tungsten samples were provided by Forschungszentrum Juelich (FZJ), Germany via International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria. Tungsten samples were irradiated using different number of plasma focus (PF) shots (1, 5 and 10) at a fixed axial distance of 5 cm from the anode top and also at various distances from the top of the anode (5, 7, 9 and 11 cm) using fixed number (5) of plasma focus shots. The virgin tungsten sample had bcc structure (α-W phase). After PF irradiation, the XRD analysis showed (i) the presence of low intensity new diffraction peak corresponding to β-W phase at (211) crystalline plane indicating the partial structural phase transition in some of the samples, (ii) partial amorphization, and (iii) vacancy defects formation and compressive stress in irradiated tungsten samples. Field emission scanning electron microscopy showed the distinctive changes to non-uniform surface with nanometer sized particles and particle agglomerates along with large surface cracks at higher number of irradiation shots. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis demonstrated the reduction in relative tungsten oxide content and the increase in metallic tungsten after irradiation. Hardness of irradiated samples initially increased for one shot exposure due to reduction in tungsten oxide phase, but then decreased with increasing number of shots due to increasing concentration of defects. It is demonstrated that the plasma focus device provides

  16. Doxorubicin-loaded QuadraSphere microspheres: plasma pharmacokinetics and intratumoral drug concentration in an animal model of liver cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kwang-Hun; Liapi, Eleni A; Cornell, Curt; Reb, Philippe; Buijs, Manon; Vossen, Josephina A; Ventura, Veronica Prieto; Geschwind, Jean-Francois H

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate, in vitro and in vivo, doxorubicin-loaded poly (vinyl alcohol-sodium acrylate) copolymer microspheres [QuadraSphere microspheres (QSMs)] for transcatheter arterial delivery in an animal model of liver cancer. Doxorubicin loading efficiency and release profile were first tested in vitro. In vivo, 15 rabbits, implanted with a Vx-2 tumor in the liver, were divided into three groups of five rabbits each, based on the time of euthanasia. Twenty-five milligrams of QSMs was diluted in 10 ml of a 10 mg/ml doxorubicin solution and 10 ml of nonionic contrast medium for a total volume of 20 ml. One milliliter of a drug-loaded QSM solution containing 5 mg of doxorubicin was injected into the tumor feeding artery. Plasma doxorubicin and doxorubicinol concentrations, and intratumoral and peritumoral doxorubicin tissue concentrations, were measured. Tumor specimens were pathologically evaluated to record tumor necrosis. As a control, one animal was blandly embolized with plain QSMs in each group. In vitro testing of QSM doxorubicin loadability and release over time showed 82-94% doxorubicin loadability within 2 h and 6% release within the first 6 h after loading, followed by a slow release pattern. In vivo, the doxorubicin plasma concentration declined at 40 min. The peak doxorubicin intratumoral concentration was observed at 3 days and remained detectable till the study's end point (7 days). Mean percentage tumor cell death in the doxorubicin QSM group was 90% at 7 days and 60% in the bland QSM embolization group. In conclusion, QSMs can be efficiently loaded with doxorubicin. Initial experiments with doxorubicin-loaded QSMs show a safe pharmacokinetic profile and effective tumor killing in an animal model of liver cancer.

  17. Doxorubicin-Loaded QuadraSphere Microspheres: Plasma Pharmacokinetics and Intratumoral Drug Concentration in an Animal Model of Liver Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kwang-Hun; Liapi, Eleni A.; Cornell, Curt; Reb, Philippe; Buijs, Manon; Vossen, Josephina A.; Ventura, Veronica Prieto; Geschwind, Jean-Francois H.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate, in vitro and in vivo, doxorubicin-loaded poly (vinyl alcohol-sodium acrylate) copolymer microspheres [QuadraSphere microspheres (QSMs)] for transcatheter arterial delivery in an animal model of liver cancer. Doxorubicin loading efficiency and release profile were first tested in vitro. In vivo, 15 rabbits, implanted with a Vx-2 tumor in the liver, were divided into three groups of five rabbits each, based on the time of euthanasia. Twenty-five milligrams of QSMs was diluted in 10 ml of a 10 mg/ml doxorubicin solution and 10 ml of nonionic contrast medium for a total volume of 20 ml. One milliliter of a drug-loaded QSM solution containing 5 mg of doxorubicin was injected into the tumor feeding artery. Plasma doxorubicin and doxorubicinol concentrations, and intratumoral and peritumoral doxorubicin tissue concentrations, were measured. Tumor specimens were pathologically evaluated to record tumor necrosis. As a control, one animal was blandly embolized with plain QSMs in each group. In vitro testing of QSM doxorubicin loadability and release over time showed 82-94% doxorubicin loadability within 2 h and 6% release within the first 6 h after loading, followed by a slow release pattern. In vivo, the doxorubicin plasma concentration declined at 40 min. The peak doxorubicin intratumoral concentration was observed at 3 days and remained detectable till the study's end point (7 days). Mean percentage tumor cell death in the doxorubicin QSM group was 90% at 7 days and 60% in the bland QSM embolization group. In conclusion, QSMs can be efficiently loaded with doxorubicin. Initial experiments with doxorubicin-loaded QSMs show a safe pharmacokinetic profile and effective tumor killing in an animal model of liver cancer.

  18. Measurement of Epstein-Barr virus DNA loads in whole blood and plasma by TaqMan PCR and in peripheral blood lymphocytes by competitive PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadowsky, Robert M; Laus, Stella; Green, Michael; Webber, Steven A; Rowe, David

    2003-11-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA load values were measured in samples of whole blood (n = 60) and plasma (n = 59) by TaqMan PCR and in samples of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) (n = 60) by competitive PCR (cPCR). The samples were obtained from 44 transplant recipients. The whole-blood and PBL loads correlated highly (r(2) > 0.900), whereas the plasma and PBL loads correlated poorly (r(2) = 0.512). Testing of whole blood by TaqMan PCR is an acceptable alternative to testing of PBLs by cPCR for quantifying EBV DNA load.

  19. Is There a Need for Viral Load Testing to Assess Treatment Failure in HIV-Infected Patients Who Are about to Change to Tenofovir-Based First-Line Antiretroviral Therapy? Programmatic Findings from Myanmar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nay Thiha

    Full Text Available WHO recommends that stavudine is phased out of antiretroviral therapy (ART programmes and replaced with tenofovir (TDF for first-line treatment. In this context, the Integrated HIV Care Program, Myanmar, evaluated patients for ART failure using HIV RNA viral load (VL before making the change. We aimed to determine prevalence and determinants of ART failure in those on first-line treatment.Patients retained on stavudine-based or zidovudine-based ART for >12 months with no clinical/immunological evidence of failure were offered VL testing from August 2012. Plasma samples were tested using real time PCR. Those with detectable VL>250 copies/ml on the first test were provided with adherence counseling and three months later a second test was performed with >1000 copies/ml indicating ART failure. We calculated the prevalence of ART failure and adjusted relative risks (aRR to identify associated factors using log binomial regression.Of 4934 patients tested, 4324 (87% had an undetectable VL at the first test while 610 patients had a VL>250 copies/ml. Of these, 502 had a second VL test, of whom 321 had undetectable VL and 181 had >1000 copies/ml signifying ART failure. There were 108 who failed to have the second test. Altogether, there were 94% with an undetectable VL, 4% with ART failure and 2% who did not follow the VL testing algorithm. Risk factors for ART failure were age 15-24 years (aRR 2.4, 95% CI: 1.5-3.8 compared to 25-44 years and previous ART in the private sector (aRR 1.6, 95% CI: 1.2-2.2 compared to the public sector.This strategy of evaluating patients on first-line ART before changing to TDF was feasible and identified a small proportion with ART failure, and could be considered by HIV/AIDS programs in Myanmar and other countries.

  20. Performance Test of Korea Heat Load Test Facility (KoHLT-EB) for the Plasma Facing Components of Fusion Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Suk-Kwon; Jin, Hyung Gon; Lee, Eo Hwak; Yoon, Jae-Sung; Lee, Dong Won; Cho, Seungyon

    2014-01-01

    The main components of the plasma facing components (PFCs) in the tokamak are the blanket first wall and divertor, which include the armour materials, the heat sink with the cooling mechanism, and the diagnostics devices for the temperature measurement. The Korea Heat Load Test facility by using electron beam (KoHLT-EB) has been operating for the plasma facing components to develop fusion engineering. This electron beam facility was constructed using a 300 kW electron gun and a cylindrical vacuum chamber. Performance tests were carried out for the calorimetric calibrations with Cu dummy mockup and for the heat load test of large Cu module. For the simulation of the heat load test of each mockup, the preliminary thermal-hydraulic analyses with ANSYS-CFX were performed. For the development of the plasma facing components in the fusion reactors, test mockups were fabricated and tested in the high heat flux test facility. To perform a beam profile test, an assessment of the possibility of electron beam Gaussian power density profile and the results of the absorbed power for that profile before the test starts are needed. To assess the possibility of a Gaussian profile, for the qualification test of the Gaussian heat load profile, a calorimeter mockup and large Cu module were manufactured to simulate real heat. For this high-heat flux test, the Korean high-heat flux test facility using an electron beam system was constructed. In this facility, a cyclic heat flux test will be performed to measure the surface heat flux, surface temperature profile, and cooling capacity

  1. Performance Test of Korea Heat Load Test Facility (KoHLT-EB) for the Plasma Facing Components of Fusion Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Suk-Kwon; Jin, Hyung Gon; Lee, Eo Hwak; Yoon, Jae-Sung; Lee, Dong Won [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Seungyon [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The main components of the plasma facing components (PFCs) in the tokamak are the blanket first wall and divertor, which include the armour materials, the heat sink with the cooling mechanism, and the diagnostics devices for the temperature measurement. The Korea Heat Load Test facility by using electron beam (KoHLT-EB) has been operating for the plasma facing components to develop fusion engineering. This electron beam facility was constructed using a 300 kW electron gun and a cylindrical vacuum chamber. Performance tests were carried out for the calorimetric calibrations with Cu dummy mockup and for the heat load test of large Cu module. For the simulation of the heat load test of each mockup, the preliminary thermal-hydraulic analyses with ANSYS-CFX were performed. For the development of the plasma facing components in the fusion reactors, test mockups were fabricated and tested in the high heat flux test facility. To perform a beam profile test, an assessment of the possibility of electron beam Gaussian power density profile and the results of the absorbed power for that profile before the test starts are needed. To assess the possibility of a Gaussian profile, for the qualification test of the Gaussian heat load profile, a calorimeter mockup and large Cu module were manufactured to simulate real heat. For this high-heat flux test, the Korean high-heat flux test facility using an electron beam system was constructed. In this facility, a cyclic heat flux test will be performed to measure the surface heat flux, surface temperature profile, and cooling capacity.

  2. Viral Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Sorina Raula Gîrboveanu; Silvia Puiu

    2008-01-01

    With consumers showing increasing resistance to traditional forms of advertising such as TV or newspaper ads, marketers have turned to alternate strategies, including viral marketing. Viral marketing exploits existing social networks by encouraging customers to share product information with their friends.In our study we are able to directly observe the effectiveness of person to person word of mouth advertising for hundreds of thousands of products for the first time

  3. Effect of plasma spraying parameter on wear resistance of NiCrBSiCFe plasma coatings on austenitic stainless steel at elevated temperatures at various loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parthasarathi, N.L.; Duraiselvam, Muthukannan; Borah, Utpal

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Effect of plasma spraying parameters, especially the stand-off distance. ► Effect of microstructure and applied load on coating in sliding wear. ► The reason for maximum wear rate at 250 °C and the minimum wear at 350 °C were explained. ► The worn debris were characterised by SEM analysis and correlated with wear rate. -- Abstract: The dry sliding wear tests were carried out on AISI 316 austenitic stainless steel (ASS) plasma coated with NiCrBSiCFe alloy powder under two set of plasma spraying parameters (PSP-1 and PSP-2). EN 8 medium carbon steel was used as a counterface material. The tests were carried out at loads of 20 N and 40 N with a constant sliding velocity of 1 m/s at room temperature (35°), 150 °C, 250 °C and 350 °C. Metallographic characterisation was carried out by optical microscope (OM), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Between the two plasma parameters tested, stand-off distance of 125 mm was found to be more suitable for producing uniform lamellar microstructure with fewer amounts of pores which shows better wear resistance. The wear rate at 250 °C was comparatively more due to the material softening and adhesion by intermolecular bonding. The worn debris collected during sliding at 350 °C turn into oxides which further behaves like a protective and lubricative film eliminating the chances of severe material loss. SEM was used to characterise the worn track and debris to identity the wear mechanism.

  4. Treatment-associated polymorphisms in protease are significantly associated with higher viral load and lower CD4 count in newly diagnosed drug-naive HIV-1 infected patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Theys (Kristof); K. Deforche; J. Vercauteren (Jurgen); P. Libin (Pieter); D.A.M.C. van de Vijver (David); J. Albert (Jan); B. Åsjö (Birgitta); M. Bruckova (Marie); R.J. Camacho (Ricardo Jorge); B. Clotet (Bonaventura); Z. Grossman (Zehava); A. Horban (Andrzej); C. Kücherer (Claudia); D. Paraskevis (Dimitrios); E. Puchhammer-Stöckl (Elisabeth); C. Riva (Chiara); L. Ruiz (Lidia); J.-C. Schmit (Jean-Claude); R. Schuurman (Rob); A. Sonnerborg (Anders); D. Stanekova (Danica); D. Struck (Daniel); K. van Laethem (Kristel); A.M.J. Wensing (Annemarie); E. Puchhammer-Stockl E. (Elisabeth); M. Sarcletti (M.); B. Schmied (B.); M. Geit (M.); G. Balluch (G.); A.M. Vandamme (Anne Mieke); I. Derdelinck (Inge); A. Sasse (A.); M. Bogaert (M.); H. Ceunen (H.); A. de Roo (Annie); M. De Wit (Meike); F. Echahidi (F.); K. Fransen (K.); J.-C. Goffard (J.); P. Goubau (Patrick); E. Goudeseune (E.); J.-C. Yombi (J.); P. Lacor (Patrick); C. Liesnard (C.); M. Moutschen (M.); L.A. Pierard; R. Rens (R.); J. Schrooten; D. Vaira (D.); A. van den Heuvel (A.); B. van der Gucht (B.); M. van Ranst (Marc); E. van Wijngaerden (Eric); T. Vandercam; M. Vekemans (M.); C. Verhofstede; N. Clumeck (N.); K. van Laethem (K.); L.G. Kostrikis (Leondios); I. Demetriades (I.); I. Kousiappa (Ioanna); V.L. Demetriou (Victoria); J. Hezka (Johana); M. Linka (Marek); L. Machala (L.); L.B. Jrgensen (L.); J. Gerstoft (J.); L. Mathiesen (L.); C. Pedersen (Court); C. Nielsen (Claus); A. Laursen (A.); B. Kvinesdal (B.); K. Liitsola (Kirsi); M. Ristola (M.); J. Suni (J.); J. Sutinen (J.); K. Korn (Klaus); C. K̈ucherer (C.); P. Braun (P.); G. Poggensee (G.); M. Däumer (M.); D. Eberle (David); O. Hamouda (Osamah); H. Heiken (H.); R. Kaiser (Rolf); H. Knechten (H.); H. M̈uller (H.); S. Neifer (S.); H. Walter (Hauke); B. Gunsenheimer-Bartmeyer (B.); T. Harrer (T.); A. Hatzakis (Angelos); E. Hatzitheodorou (E.); C. Issaris (C.); C. Haida (C.); A. Zavitsanou (A.); G. Magiorkinis (Gkikas); M. Lazanas (M.); L. Chini; N. Magafas (N.); N. Tsogas (N.); V. Paparizos (V.); S. Kourkounti (S.); A. Antoniadou (A.); A. Papadopoulos (A.); P. Panagopoulos (P.); G. Poulakou (G.); V. Sakka (V.); G. Chryssos (G.); S. Drimis (S.); P. Gargalianos (P.); M. Lelekis (M.); G. Xilomenos (G.); M. Psichogiou (M.); G.L. Daikos (George); G. Panos (G.); G. Haratsis (G.); T. Kordossis (T.); A. Kontos (Angelos); G. Koratzanis (G.); M. Theodoridou (M.); G. Mostrou (G.); V. Spoulou (V.); W. Hall (W.); C. de Gascun (Cillian); C. Byrne (C.); M. Duffy (M.); P. Bergin; D. Reidy (D.); G. Farrell; J. Lambert (Julien); E. O'Connor (E.); A. Rochford (A.); J. Low (J.); P. Coakely (P.); S. Coughlan (Suzie); I. Levi (I.); D. Chemtob (D.); C. Balotta (Claudia); C. Mussini (C.); I. Caramma (I.); A. Capetti (A.); M.C. Colombo (M.); C. Rossi (Cesare); F. Prati (Francesco); F. Tramuto (F.); F. Vitale (F.); M. Ciccozzi (M.); G. Angarano (Guiseppe); G. Rezza (G.); R. Hemmer (R.); V. Arendt (V.); T. Staub (T.); F. Schneider (F.); F. Roman (Francois); C.A.B. Boucher (Charles); P.H.M. van Bentum (P. H M); K. Brinkman (Kees); E.L.M. Op de Coul (Eline); M.E. van der Ende (Marchina); I.M. Hoepelman (Ilja Mohandas); M.E.E. van Kasteren (Marjo); J. Juttmann (Job); M. Kuipers (M.); N. Langebeek (Nienke); C. Richter (C.); R.M.W.J. Santegoets (R. M W J); L. Schrijnders-Gudde (L.); R. Schuurman (Rob); B.J.M. van de Ven (B. J M); B. Asjö (Birgitta); V. Ormaasen (Vidar); P. Aavitsland (P.); J. Stanczak (J.); G.P. Stanczak (G.); E. Firlag-Burkacka (E.); A. Wiercinska-Drapalo (A.); E. Jablonowska (E.); E. Malolepsza (E.); M. Leszczyszyn-Pynka (M.); W. Szata (W.); A. de Palma (Andre); F. Borges (F.); T. Paix̃ao (T.); V. Duque (V.); F. Aráujo (F.); M. Stanojevic (Maja); D.J. Jevtovic (D.); D. Salemovic (D.); M. Habekova (M.); M. Mokras (M.); P. Truska (P.); M. Poljak (Mario); D.Z. Babic (Dunja); J. Tomazic (J.); S. Vidmar (Suzanna); P. Karner (P.); C. Gutíerrez (C.); C. deMendoza (C.); I. Erkicia (I.); P. Domingo (P.); X. Camino (X.); M.A. Galindo (Miguel Angel); J.L. Blanco (J.); M. Leal (M.); A. Masabeu (A.); A. Guelar (A.); J.M. Llibre (Josep M.); N. Margall (N.); C. Iribarren (Carlos); S. Gutierrez (S.); J.F. Baldov́i (J.); C.E. Pedreira (Carlos Eduardo); J.M. Gatell (J.); S. Moreno (S.); C. de Mendoza (Carmen); V. Soriano (Virtudes); A. Blaxhult (A.); A. Heidarian (A.); A. Karlsson (A.); K. Aperia-Peipke (K.); I.-M. Bergbrant (I.); M. Gissĺen (M.); M. Svennerholm (M.); P. Bj̈orkman (P.); G. Bratt (G.); M. Carlsson (M.); H. Ekvall (H.); M. Ericsson (M.); M. Ḧofer (M.); B. Johansson (Bert); N. Kuylenstierna (N.); K. Ljungberg (Karl); S. Mäkitalo (S.); A. Strand; K. Öberg (Kjell); T. Berg (Trine)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The effect of drug resistance transmission on disease progression in the newly infected patient is not well understood. Major drug resistance mutations severely impair viral fitness in a drug free environment, and therefore are expected to revert quickly. Compensatory

  5. Heat loads to divertor nearby components from secondary radiation evolved during plasma instabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sizyuk, V., E-mail: vsizyuk@purdue.edu; Hassanein, A., E-mail: hassanein@purdue.edu [Center for Materials under Extreme Environment, School of Nuclear Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2015-01-15

    A fundamental issue in tokamak operation related to power exhaust during plasma instabilities is the understanding of heat and particle transport from the core plasma into the scrape-off layer and to plasma-facing materials. During abnormal and disruptive operation in tokamaks, radiation transport processes play a critical role in divertor/edge-generated plasma dynamics and are very important in determining overall lifetimes of the divertor and nearby components. This is equivalent to or greater than the effect of the direct impact of escaped core plasma on the divertor plate. We have developed and implemented comprehensive enhanced physical and numerical models in the upgraded HEIGHTS package for simulating detailed photon and particle transport in the evolved edge plasma during various instabilities. The paper describes details of a newly developed 3D Monte Carlo radiation transport model, including optimization methods of generated plasma opacities in the full range of expected photon spectra. Response of the ITER divertor's nearby surfaces due to radiation from the divertor-developed plasma was simulated by using actual full 3D reactor design and magnetic configurations. We analyzed in detail the radiation emission spectra and compared the emission of both carbon and tungsten as divertor plate materials. The integrated 3D simulation predicted unexpectedly high damage risk to the open stainless steel legs of the dome structure in the current ITER design from the intense radiation during a disruption on the tungsten divertor plate.

  6. Evaluation of surface, microstructure and phase modifications on various tungsten grades induced by pulsed plasma loading

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vilémová, Monika; Pala, Zdeněk; Jäger, Aleš; Matějíček, Jiří; Chernyshova, M.; Kowalska-Strzęciwilk, E.; Tonarová, Dana; Gribkov, V. A.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 91, č. 3 (2016), č. článku 034003. ISSN 0031-8949. [PLASMA 2015 : International Conference on Research and Applications of Plasmas. Warsaw, 07.09.2015-11.09.2015] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-12837S Institutional support: RVO:61389021 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : tungsten * titanium carbide * yttrium oxide * plasma focus * damage Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics; BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics (FZU-D) OBOR OECD: 1.3 Physical sciences; 1.3 Physical sciences (FZU-D) Impact factor: 1.280, year: 2016 http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/0031-8949/91/3/034003/meta

  7. Results of high heat flux tests of tungsten divertor targets under plasma heat loads expected in ITER and tokamaks (review)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budaev, V. P., E-mail: budaev@mail.ru [National Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    Heat loads on the tungsten divertor targets in the ITER and the tokamak power reactors reach ~10MW m{sup −2} in the steady state of DT discharges, increasing to ~0.6–3.5 GW m{sup −2} under disruptions and ELMs. The results of high heat flux tests (HHFTs) of tungsten under such transient plasma heat loads are reviewed in the paper. The main attention is paid to description of the surface microstructure, recrystallization, and the morphology of the cracks on the target. Effects of melting, cracking of tungsten, drop erosion of the surface, and formation of corrugated and porous layers are observed. Production of submicron-sized tungsten dust and the effects of the inhomogeneous surface of tungsten on the plasma–wall interaction are discussed. In conclusion, the necessity of further HHFTs and investigations of the durability of tungsten under high pulsed plasma loads on the ITER divertor plates, including disruptions and ELMs, is stressed.

  8. Effect of cyclodextrin-loaded cholesterol conjugates on plasma membrane viability of Piau swine breed frozen/thawed spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, R O; Lima, D M A; Shiomi, H H; Siqueira, J B; Silveira, C O; Faria, V R; Lopes, P S; Guimarães, S E F; Guimarães, J D

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of cyclodextrin-loaded cholesterol conjugates addition to freezing extenders on plasma membrane viability of frozen-thawed spermatozoa of the Piau swine breed. Twenty semen samples were used from five males. The freezing extender was based on lactose-egg yolk extender, added to 2% glycerol, 3% dimethylacetamide. The addition of cyclodextrin-loaded cholesterol conjugates was performed after centrifugation, when semen was diluted with the cooling extender. Four groups were subjected to the following treatment: without addition (group 1); 1.5 mg of cyclodextrin-loaded cholesterol/120 × 10(6) sperm (group 2); 1.5 mg of cyclodextrin-loaded cholestanol/120 × 10(6) sperm (group 3); 1.5 mg of cyclodextrin-loaded desmosterol/120 × 10(6) sperm (group 4). To check post-thawing sperm quality sperm motility and sperm morphology evaluation were used. Additionally, to check sperm viability the hypoosmotic swelling test, supravital staining, and fluorescent assay were used. The mean values recorded for total sperm motility of semen immediately after thawing were 54.5 ± 5.8, 55.5 ± 5.3, 53.7 ± 6.7, and 52.5 ± 6.6% respectively for groups one to four, without difference between themselves (p > 0.05). Regarding fluorescent assay the results were 28.3 ± 13.2, 26.9 ± 12.2, 22.2 ± 11.4, and 32.0 ± 15.3% respectively for groups one to four, also without difference between groups (p > 0,05). Similarly, complementary tests for evaluating the integrity and functionality of the plasma membrane showed no difference between treatments (p > 0.05). In conclusion, use of cyclodextrin-loaded cholesterol conjugates added to the plasma membrane of sperm did not demonstrate any additive effect on increasing and/or maintaining sperm motility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Relação entre diagnóstico citopatológico de neoplasia intra-epitelial cervical e índices de células CD4+ e de carga viral em pacientes HIV-soropositivas Association of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia with CD4 T cell counts and viral load in HIV-infected women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Autran Coelho

    2004-03-01

    -RNA viral load in HIV-positive patients. METHODS: one hundred and fifteen HIV patients were evaluated retrospectively in the present study, during the period from January 2002 to April 2003, at a university hospital. Eighty-three patients presented cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN in Pap smear, in comparison with thirty-two with no lesions. Patients were divided into three groups, according to CD4 counts: CD4 more than 500 cells/mm³, between 200 and 500 cells/mm³, and less than 200 cells/mm³, and other three groups, according to HIV viral load: less than 10,000 HIV-RNA copies/mL, between 10,000 and 100,000 HIV-RNA copies/mL, or more than 100,000 HIV-RNA copies/mL. Correlation was investigated by the Fisher test. RESULTS: of the eighty-three patients with CIN, 73% presented CD4 counts less than 500 cells/mm³. In all CD4 groups, more than 50% of the patients presented CIN. According to the viral load, 71.7% of the patients with less than 10,000 HIV-RNA copies/mL presented CIN I, compared with 11.3% that showed CIN III. In the group with higher viral load (>100.000 HIV-RNA copies/mL, 61.5% showed CIN I and 30.8% presented CIN III. CONCLUSION: association between viral load and CIN was established (p=0.013, which was not observed with CD4 cell counts and CIN. Concomitant cervicovaginal infection was considered a potential confounding factor.

  10. Association of Plasma Neurofilament Light Chain with Neocortical Amyloid-β Load and Cognitive Performance in Cognitively Normal Elderly Participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Pratishtha; Goozee, Kathryn; Sohrabi, Hamid R; Shen, Kaikai; Shah, Tejal; Asih, Prita R; Dave, Preeti; ManYan, Candice; Taddei, Kevin; Chung, Roger; Zetterberg, Henrik; Blennow, Kaj; Martins, Ralph N

    2018-01-01

    The disruption of neurofilament, an axonal cytoskeletal protein, in neurodegenerative conditions may result in neuronal damage and its release into the cerebrospinal fluid and blood. In Alzheimer's disease (AD), neurofilament light chain (NFL), a neurofilament subunit, is elevated in the cerebrospinal fluid and blood. Investigate the association of plasma NFL with preclinical-AD features, such as high neocortical amyloid-β load (NAL) and subjective memory complaints, and cognitive performance in cognitively normal older adults. Plasma NFL concentrations were measured employing the single molecule array platform in participants from the Kerr Anglican Retirement Village Initiative in Ageing Health cohort, aged 65- 90 years. Participants underwent a battery of neuropsychological testing to evaluate cognitive performance and were categorized as low NAL (NAL-, n = 65) and high NAL (NAL+, n = 35) assessed via PET, and further stratified into subjective memory complainers (SMC; nNAL- = 51, nNAL+ = 25) and non-SMC (nNAL- = 14, nNAL+ = 10) based on the Memory Assessment Clinic- Questionnaire. Plasma NFL inversely correlated with cognitive performance. No significant difference in NFL was observed between NAL+ and NAL- participants; however, within APOEɛ4 non-carriers, higher NAL was observed in individuals with NFL concentrations within quartiles 3 and 4 (versus quartile 1). Additionally, within the NAL+ participants, SMC had a trend of higher NFL compared to non-SMC. Plasma NFL is inversely associated with cognitive performance in elderly individuals. While plasma NFL may not reflect NAL in individuals with normal global cognition, the current observations indicate that onset of axonal injury, reflected by increased plasma NFL, within the preclinical phase of AD may contribute to the pathogenesis of AD.

  11. Effects of microbial loading and sporulation temperature on atmospheric plasma inactivation of Bacillus subtilis spores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, X. T.; Shi, J. J.; Shama, G.; Kong, M. G.

    2005-10-01

    Current inactivation studies of Bacillus subtilis spores using atmospheric-pressure glow discharges (APGD) do not consider two important factors, namely microbial loading at the surface of a substrate and sporulation temperature. Yet these are known to affect significantly microbial resistance to heat and hydrogen peroxide. This letter investigates effects of microbial loading and sporulation temperature on spore resistance to APGD. It is shown that microbial loading can lead to a stacking structure as a protective shield against APGD treatment and that high sporulation temperature increases spore resistance by altering core water content and cross-linked muramic acid content of B. subtilis spores.

  12. Tritium loading in ITER plasma-facing surfaces and its release under accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longhurst, G.R.; Anderl, R.A.; Pawelko, R.J.

    1996-01-01

    Plasma-facing surfaces of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) will take up tritium from the plasma. These surfaces will probably consist of matures of Be, C, and possibly W together with other impurities. Recent experimental results have suggested mechanisms, not previously considered in analyses, by which tritium and other hydrogen isotopes are retained in Be. This warrants revised modeling and estimation of the amount of tritium that will be deposited in ITER beryllium plasma-facing surfaces and the rates at which it can be released under postulated accident scenarios. In this paper we describe improvements in modeling and experiments planned at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to investigate the tritium uptake and thermal release behavior for mixed plasma- facing materials. TMAP4 calculations were made using recent data to estimate first-wall tritium inventories in ITER. 16 refs., 1 fig

  13. Melt layer macroscopic erosion of tungsten and other metals under plasma heat loads simulating ITER off-normal events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garkusha, I.E.; Bandura, A.N.; Byrka, O.V.; Kulik, N.V.; Landman, I.; Wuerz, H.

    2002-01-01

    This paper is focused on experimental analysis of metal layer erosion and droplet splashing of tungsten and other metals under heat loads typical for ITER FEAT off-normal events,such as disruptions and VDE's. Plasma pressure gradient action on melt layer results in erosion crater formation with mountains of displaced material at the crater edge. It is shown that macroscopic motion of melt layer and surface cracking are the main factors responsible for tungsten damage. Weight loss measurements of all exposed materials demonstrate inessential contribution of evaporation process to metals erosion

  14. Heat loads on JET plasma facing components from ICRF and LH wave absorption in the SOL

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jacquet, P.; Colas, L.; Mayoral, M.-L.; Arnoux, G.; Bobkov, V.; Brix, M.; Coad, P.; Czarnecka, A.; Dodt, D.; Durodie, F.; Ekedahl, A.; Frigione, D.; Fursdon, M.; Gauthier, E.; Goniche, M.; Graham, M.; Joffrin, E.; Korotkov, A.; Lerche, E.; Mailloux, J.; Monakhov, I.; Noble, C.; Ongena, J.; Petržílka, Václav; Portafaix, C.; Rimini, F.; Sirinelli, A.; Riccardo, V.; Vizvary, Z.; Widdowson, A.; Zastrow, K.-D.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 10 (2011), s. 103018-103018 ISSN 0029-5515 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/07/0044 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : LH wave * plasma Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 4.090, year: 2011 http://iopscience.iop.org/0029-5515/51/10/103018/pdf/0029-5515_51_10_103018.pdf

  15. Long-term risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or worse according to high-risk human papillomavirus genotype and semi-quantitative viral load among 33,288 women with normal cervical cytology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Louise T; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Munk, Christian

    2015-01-01

    with single hrHPV infections. The cohort was followed in a nationwide pathology register for up to 11.5 years. In women aged ≥30 years at baseline, the 8-year absolute risk for CIN3+ following baseline detection of HPV16 was 21.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 18.0-25.6%). The corresponding risks for HPV18......In this prospective cohort study, we estimated the long-term risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3 or cancer (CIN3+) by high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) genotype and semi-quantitative viral load at baseline among 33,288 women aged 14-90 years with normal baseline cytology. During...... 2002-2005, residual liquid-based cervical cytology samples were collected from women screened for cervical cancer in Copenhagen, Denmark. Samples were HPV-tested with Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) and genotyped with INNO-LiPA. Semi-quantitative viral load was measured by HC2 relative light units in women...

  16. Rapid detection and quantification of cell free cytomegalovirus by a high-speed centrifugation-based microculture assay: comparison to longitudinally analyzed viral DNA load and pp67 late transcript during lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamprecht, Klaus; Witzel, Simone; Maschmann, Jens; Dietz, Klaus; Baumeister, Andrea; Mikeler, Elfriede; Goelz, Rangmar; Speer, Christian P; Jahn, Gerhard

    2003-12-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is reactivated in nearly every seropositive breastfeeding mother during lactation [Lancet 357 (2001) 513]. Conventional tissue culture (TC) and low-speed centrifugation-enhanced microtiter culture methods are not able to detect HCMV from milk during all stages of lactation. Development of a sensitive and quantitative microculture technique to describe the dynamics of HCMV reactivation in different milk compartments during lactation. Milk samples were collected longitudinally from seropositive breastfeeding mothers of preterm infants. Native milk samples were separated into fraction 1 (aqueous extract of milk fat), fraction 2 (cell and fat free milk whey) and fraction 3 (milk cells). Each of these fractions was screened qualitatively (TC, nPCR, pp67 late mRNA) and quantitatively (high-speed centrifugation-based microculture, quantitative PCR). Prior to low-speed centrifugation-enhanced inoculation, virus particles were concentrated by high-speed centrifugation (60 min at 50,000 x g, 4 degrees C). Using fraction 2 we were able to describe the dynamics of viral reactivation during lactation. We present the course of the quantitative virolactia and DNAlactia and qualitative detection of HCMV pp67 late mRNA in milk whey of four mothers (three transmitters and one non-transmitter). In all these cases virolactia described an unimodal and self limited course. Peak levels of virolactia for transmitters (T1: day 44; T2: day 43; T3: day 50) were closely related the onset of viruria of the corresponding preterm infants (U1: day 39; U2a/U2b: day 44/57; U3: day 60). The courses of viral load coincidence with the courses of DNA load. We present a rapid and highly sensitive microculture method for the quantification of cell free HCMV from milk whey and aqueous extracts from milk fat. Viral reactivation during lactation describes an unimodal course. Our findings have strong implications for quality control of any virus inactivation procedure.

  17. Valuable Virality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akpinar, E.; Berger, Jonah

    2017-01-01

    Given recent interest in social media, many brands now create content that they hope consumers will view and share with peers. While some campaigns indeed go “viral,” their value to the brand is limited if they do not boost brand evaluation or increase purchase. Consequently, a key question is how

  18. Disintegration of fast magnetoacoustic oscillation spectra in non-uniform current-loaded plasma cylinder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girka, I.A.; Stepanov, K.N.

    1990-01-01

    Dispersion equation for fast plasma cylinder with longitudinal current including a weak azimuthal magnetic field β 0v is obtained and analyzed on the basis of perturbation theory. Simple asymptotic expressions for S w , S n and σ k are derived under different limiting cases (propagation of small-scale waves with high values of radial wave number, wave in the uniform cylinder, surface mode etc.). 10 refs.; 1 fig

  19. Low inductance diode design on the Proto II accelerator for imploding plasma loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsing, W.W.; Coats, R.; McDaniel, D.H.; Spielman, R.B.

    1985-01-01

    A new water transmission line convolute, single piece insulator, and double disk feed has been designed and tested on the .125 ohm, 10 TW Proto II accelerator. The water transmission lines have a 5 cm gap to eliminate any water arcing. A two-dimensional magnetic field code was used to calculate the convolute inductance. The authors used an acrylic insulator as well as a single piece, laminated polycarbonate insulator. They have been successfully tested at over 90% of the Shipman criteria for classical insulator breakdown, although the laminations in the polycarbonate insulator failed after a few shots. The anode and cathode each have two pieces and are held together mechanically. The vacuum MITL tapers to a 3 mm minimum gap. The total inductance is 8.4 nH for gas puff loads and 7.8 nH for imploding foil loads

  20. Low inductance diode design on the Proto II accelerator for imploding plasma loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsing, W.W.; Coats, R.; McDaniel, D.H.; Spielman, R.B.

    1985-01-01

    A new water transmission line convolute, single piece insulator, and double disk feed has been designed and tested on the .125 ohm, 10 TW Proto II accelerator. The water transmission lines have a 5 cm gap to eliminate any water arcing. A two-dimensional magnetic field code was used to calculate the convolute inductance. We used an acrylic insulator as well as a single piece, laminated polycarbonate insulator. They have been succuessfully tested at over 90% of the Shipman criteria for classical insulator breakdown, although the laminations in the polycarbonate insulator failed after a few shots. The anode and cathode each have two pieces and are held together mechanically. The vacuum MITL tapers to a 3 mm minimum gap. The total inductance is 8.4 nH for gas puff loads and 7.8 nH for imploding foil loads. Out of a forward-going energy of 290 kJ, 175 kJ has been delivered past the insulator, and 100 kJ has been successfully delivered to the load

  1. Low inductance diode design of the Proto 2 accelerator for imploding plasma loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsing, W. W.; Coats, R.; McDaniel, D. H.; Spielman, R. B.

    A new water transmission line convolute, single piece insulator, and double accelerator. The water transmission lines have a 5 cm gap to eliminate any water arcing. A two-dimensional magnetic field code was used to calculate the convolute inductance. An acrylic insulator was used as well as a single piece, laminated polycarbonate insulator. They have been successfully tested at over 90% of the Shipman criteria for classical insulator breakdown, although the laminations in the polycarbonate insulator failed after a few shots. The anode and cathode each have two pieces and are held together mechanically. The vacuum MITL tapers to a 3 mm minimum gap. The total inductance is 8.4 nH for gas puff loads and 7.8 nH for imploding foil loads. Out of a forward-going energy of 290 kJ, 175 kJ has been delivered past the insulator, and 100 kJ has been successfully delivered to the load.

  2. Measuring deuterium permeation through tungsten near room temperature under plasma loading using a getter layer and ion-beam based detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Kapser

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A method to measure deuterium permeation through tungsten near room temperature under plasma loading is presented. The permeating deuterium is accumulated in a getter layer of zirconium, titanium or erbium, respectively, on the unexposed side of the sample. Subsequently, the amount of deuterium in the getter is measured ex-situ using nuclear reaction analysis. A cover layer system on the getter prevents direct loading of the getter with deuterium from the gas phase during plasma loading. In addition, it enables the distinction of deuterium in the getter and at the cover surface. The method appears promising to add additional permeation measurement capabilities to deuterium retention experiments, also in other plasma devices, without the need for a complex in-situ permeation measurement setup.

  3. Correlation of virus load in plasma and lymph node tissue in human immunodeficiency virus infection. INCAS Study Group. Italy, Netherlands, Canada, Australia, and (United) States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, M; Patenaude, P; Cooperberg, P; Filipenko, D; Thorne, A; Raboud, J; Rae, S; Dailey, P; Chernoff, D; Todd, J; Conway, B; Montaner, J S

    1997-11-01

    The impact of long-term changes in plasma viremia, produced by effective combination antiretroviral therapy, on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) burden within tissue reservoirs is unknown. Fifteen patients who had received at least 1 year of therapy with two or three drug combinations of zidovudine, didanosine, and nevirapine had suitable samples of lymph node tissue obtained by ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy. HIV RNA was extracted from homogenized tissue samples and quantitated using a modified branched DNA assay. Results were correlated with antiretroviral treatment effect on the basis of plasma virus load measurements over the preceding 12-18 months. A statistically significant negative correlation was observed between magnitude of treatment effect on plasma viremia and lymph node virus load. These data suggest that combinations of antiretroviral drugs that produce sustained suppression of plasma HIV RNA may also be able to reduce the virus burden in lymphoid tissues.

  4. Evolution of approaches to viral safety issues for biological products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubiniecki, Anthony S

    2011-01-01

    CONFERENCE PROCEEDING Proceedings of the PDA/FDA Adventitious Viruses in Biologics: Detection and Mitigation Strategies Workshop in Bethesda, MD, USA; December 1-3, 2010 Guest Editors: Arifa Khan (Bethesda, MD), Patricia Hughes (Bethesda, MD) and Michael Wiebe (San Francisco, CA) Approaches to viral safety issues for biological products have evolved during the past 50+ years. The first cell culture products (viral vaccines) relied largely on the use of in vitro and in vivo virus screening assays that were based upon infectivity of adventitious viral agents. The use of Cohn fractionation and pasteurization by manufacturers of plasma derivatives introduced the concepts that purification and treatment with physical and chemical agents could greatly reduce the risk of viral contamination of human albumin and immunoglobulin products. But the limitations of such approaches became clear for thermolabile products that were removed early in fractionation such as antihemophilic factors, which transmitted hepatitis viruses and HIV-1 to some product recipients. These successes and limitations were taken into account by the early developers of recombinant DNA (rDNA)-derived cell culture products and by regulatory agencies, leading to the utilization of cloning technology to reduce/eliminate contamination due to human viruses and purification technologies to physically remove and inactivate adventitious and endogenous viruses, along with cell banking and cell bank characterization for adventitious and endogenous viruses, viral screening of biological raw materials, and testing of cell culture harvests, to ensure virus safety. Later development and incorporation of nanofiltration technology in the manufacturing process provided additional assurance of viral clearance for safety of biotechnology products. These measures have proven very effective at preventing iatrogenic infection of recipients of biotechnology products; however, viral contamination of production cell cultures has

  5. Behavior and microstructural changes in different tungsten-based materials under pulsed plasma loading

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vilémová, Monika; Pala, Zdeněk; Jäger, Aleš; Matějíček, Jiří; Chernyshova, M.; Kowalska-Strzeciwilk, E.; Gribkov, V. A.; Janata, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 9, December (2016), s. 123-127 ISSN 2352-1791. [International Conference of Fusion Reactor Material (ICFRM-17) /17./. Aachen, 11.10.2015-16.10.2015] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-12837S Institutional support: RVO:61389021 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : ODS tungsten * yttrium oxide * porosity * phase stability * monoclinic phase * plasma focus * damage * erosion Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials; JJ - Other Materials (FZU-D) http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nme.2016.06.004

  6. Behavior and microstructural changes in different tungsten-based materials under pulsed plasma loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Vilémová

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, morphological, microstructural and phase changes of four types of tungsten materials after exposure to dense deuterium plasma were examined. The microstructures of the prepared materials mutually differ by the porosity, grain size and phase content. It was found that inherent porosity of sintered materials leads to a specific mechanism of erosion and might be a significant source of dust in the case of materials with higher porosity. Further, a preferential erosion of the dispersed particles by melting and evaporation and subsequent formation of thin film on the surface of W-Y2O3 was described as well.

  7. Association of a 3' untranslated region polymorphism in proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 with HIV viral load and CD4+ levels in HIV/hepatitis C virus coinfected women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuniholm, Mark H; Liang, Hua; Anastos, Kathryn; Gustafson, Deborah; Kassaye, Seble; Nowicki, Marek; Sha, Beverly E; Pawlowski, Emilia J; Gange, Stephen J; Aouizerat, Bradley E; Pushkarsky, Tatiana; Bukrinsky, Michael I; Prasad, Vinayaka R

    2017-11-28

    To assess variation in genes that regulate cholesterol metabolism in relation to the natural history of HIV infection. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis of the Women's Interagency HIV Study. We examined 2050 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 19 genes known to regulate cholesterol metabolism in relation to HIV viral load and CD4 T-cell levels in a multiracial cohort of 1066 antiretroviral therapy-naive women. Six SNPs were associated with both HIV viral load and CD4 T-cell levels at a false discovery rate of 0.01. Bioinformatics tools did not predict functional activity for five SNPs, located in introns of nuclear receptor corepressor 2, retinoid X receptor alpha (RXRA), and tetratricopeptide repeat domain 39B. Rs17111557 located in the 3' untranslated region of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) putatively affects binding of hsa-miR-548t-5p and hsa-miR-4796-3p, which could regulate PCSK9 expression levels. Interrogation of rs17111557 revealed stronger associations in the subset of women with HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection (n = 408, 38% of women). Rs17111557 was also associated with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in HIV/HCV coinfected (β: -10.4; 95% confidence interval: -17.9, -2.9; P = 0.007), but not in HIV monoinfected (β:1.2; 95% confidence interval: -6.3, 8.6; P = 0.76) women in adjusted analysis. PCSK9 polymorphism may affect HIV pathogenesis, particularly in HIV/HCV coinfected women. A likely mechanism for this effect is PCSK9-mediated regulation of cholesterol metabolism. Replication in independent cohorts is needed to clarify the generalizability of the observed associations.

  8. A European multicientre study on the comparison of HIV-1 viral loads between VERIS HIV-1 Assay and Roche COBAS® TAQMAN® HIV-1 test, Abbott RealTime HIV-1 Assay, and Siemens VERSANT HIV-1 Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Patrick; Delgado, Rafael; Drago, Monica; Fanti, Diana; Fleury, Hervé; Hofmann, Jörg; Izopet, Jacques; Kühn, Sebastian; Lombardi, Alessandra; Mancon, Alessandro; Marcos, Mª Angeles; Mileto, Davide; Sauné, Karine; O'Shea, Siobhan; Pérez-Rivilla, Alfredo; Ramble, John; Trimoulet, Pascale; Vila, Jordi; Whittaker, Duncan; Artus, Alain; Rhodes, Daniel

    2017-07-01

    Viral load monitoring is essential for patients under treatment for HIV. Beckman Coulter has developed the VERIS HIV-1 Assay for use on the novel, automated DxN VERIS Molecular Diagnostics System. ¥ OBJECTIVES: Evaluation of the clinical performance of the new quantitative VERIS HIV-1 Assay at multiple EU laboratories. Method comparison with the VERIS HIV-1 Assay was performed with 415 specimens at 5 sites tested with COBAS ® AmpliPrep/COBAS ® TaqMan ® HIV-1 Test, v2.0, 169 specimens at 3 sites tested with RealTime HIV-1 Assay, and 202 specimens from 2 sites tested with VERSANT HIV-1 Assay. Patient monitoring sample results from 4 sites were also compared. Bland-Altman analysis showed the average bias between VERIS HIV-1 Assay and COBAS HIV-1 Test, RealTime HIV-1 Assay, and VERSANT HIV-1 Assay to be 0.28, 0.39, and 0.61 log 10 cp/mL, respectively. Bias at low end levels below 1000cp/mL showed predicted bias to be <0.3 log 10 cp/mL for VERIS HIV-1 Assay versus COBAS HIV-1 Test and RealTime HIV-1 Assay, and <0.5 log 10 cp/mL versus VERSANT HIV-1 Assay. Analysis on 174 specimens tested with the 0.175mL volume VERIS HIV-1 Assay and COBAS HIV-1 Test showed average bias of 0.39 log 10 cp/mL. Patient monitoring results using VERIS HIV-1 Assay demonstrated similar viral load trends over time to all comparators. The VERIS HIV-1 Assay for use on the DxN VERIS System demonstrated comparable clinical performance to COBAS ® HIV-1 Test, RealTime HIV-1 Assay, and VERSANT HIV-1 Assay. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of heat loads on the plasma facing components of demo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igitkhanov, Yu., E-mail: juri.igitkhanov@partner.kit.edu [ITEP, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany); Fetzer, R. [IHM, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany); Bazylev, B. [INR, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Under the DEMO1 stationary operation the nominal power fluxes along the magnetic field at the FW blanket modules is expected about 50 MW/m{sup 2}. • In the current design and averaged incident angle about 3–4.5° (similar to ITER) the engineering power load to the FW is expected within 2.5÷3.9 MW/m{sup 2}. • In the case of the unmitigated Type I ELMs unavoidable in the higher confinement H-mode of operation energy load per ELM is about 20 MJ/m{sup 2} along the field line, arriving at a frequency of 0.8 Hz with deposition time of 0.6 ms per each ELM. - Abstract: In this paper we analyse a thermo-hydraulic performance of the first wall blanket module during the stationary DEMO operation with the edge localized mode (ELM). Heat loads are estimated based on scaling arguments and predictions from the peeling-ballooning ELM model. Effect of parallel heat fluxes intersecting with the first wall panels and avoidance of overheating by inclination of the panels are considered. The material temperatures of the W/EUROFER sandwich type module with water cooling stainless steel tube and Cu alloy compliance embedded into EUROFER is calculated by using the MEMOS code. The calculations were carried out indicating the required geometric parameters as well as the cooling conditions which allow keeping materials temperatures within allowable engineering limits. Effect of inclination of the first wall plates to avoid the misalignment problems is considered.

  10. Heat load and deuterium plasma effects on SPS and WSP tungsten

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vilémová, Monika; Matějíček, Jiří; Nevrlá, Barbara; Chernyshova, M.; Gasior, P.; Kowalska-Strzeciwilk, E.; Jäger, Aleš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 2 (2015), s. 275-283 ISSN 0029-5922. [Kudowa Summer School 2014 "Towards Fusion Energy"/12./. Kudowa Zdrój, 09.06.2014-13.06.2014] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-12837S Institutional support: RVO:61389021 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : Tungsten * fusion * heat loading * irradiation * bubbles * surface damage Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials; JJ - Other Materials (FZU-D) Impact factor: 0.546, year: 2015 http://www.nukleonika.pl/www/back/full/vol60_2015/v60n2p275f.pdf

  11. Healing of skin wounds with a chitosan-gelatin sponge loaded with tannins and platelet-rich plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Bitao; Wang, Tianyou; Li, Zhiquan; Dai, Fangying; Lv, Lingmei; Tang, Fengling; Yu, Kun; Liu, Jiawei; Lan, Guangqian

    2016-01-01

    A chitosan-gelatin sponge (CSGT) was prepared using a chitosan/ascorbic acid solution blend containing gelatin, followed by crosslinking with tannin acid and freeze-drying, thereby combining the chitosan sponge and gelatin sponge. The structure of the CSGT was observed by scanning electron microscopy and was shown to have uniform and abundant pores measuring about 145-240μm in size. We also characterized the sponges by infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, mechanical property tests, swelling behavior analysis, water retention capacity tests, antibacterial property analysis, and cytotoxicity tests. Our data showed that the CSGT had good thermostability and mechanical properties as well as efficient water absorption and retention capacities. Moreover, the CSGT could effectively inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus with low toxicity. In animal experiments, macroscopic observations and histological examinations showed that the wound covered by the CSGT healed quickly. Additionally, loading of the CSGT with platelet-rich plasma resulted in further acceleration of wound healing. Therefore, the CSGT and the CSGT with platelet-rich plasma were suitable for application as a wound dressing and may have potential for use in various biomedical applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Production of high-quality electron bunches by dephasing and beam loading in channeled and unchanneled laser plasma accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geddes, C.G.R.; Toth, Cs.; Tilborg, J. van; Esarey, E.; Schroeder, C.B.; Bruhwiler, D.; Nieter, C.; Cary, J.; Leemans, W.P.

    2005-01-01

    High-quality electron beams, with a few 10 9 electrons within a few percent of the same energy above 80 MeV, were produced in a laser wakefield accelerator by matching the acceleration length to the length over which electrons were accelerated and outran (dephased from) the wake. A plasma channel guided the drive laser over long distances, resulting in production of the high-energy, high-quality beams. Unchanneled experiments varying the length of the target plasma indicated that the high-quality bunches are produced near the dephasing length and demonstrated that channel guiding was more stable and efficient than relativistic self-guiding. Consistent with these data, particle-in-cell simulations indicate production of high-quality electron beams when trapping of an initial bunch of electrons suppresses further injection by loading the wake. The injected electron bunch is then compressed in energy by dephasing, when the front of the bunch begins to decelerate while the tail is still accelerated

  13. Mechanistic evaluation of the pros and cons of digital RT-LAMP for HIV-1 viral load quantification on a microfluidic device and improved efficiency via a two-step digital protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bing; Shen, Feng; McCalla, Stephanie E; Kreutz, Jason E; Karymov, Mikhail A; Ismagilov, Rustem F

    2013-02-05

    Here we used a SlipChip microfluidic device to evaluate the performance of digital reverse transcription-loop-mediated isothermal amplification (dRT-LAMP) for quantification of HIV viral RNA. Tests are needed for monitoring HIV viral load to control the emergence of drug resistance and to diagnose acute HIV infections. In resource-limited settings, in vitro measurement of HIV viral load in a simple format is especially needed, and single-molecule counting using a digital format could provide a potential solution. We showed here that when one-step dRT-LAMP is used for quantification of HIV RNA, the digital count is lower than expected and is limited by the yield of desired cDNA. We were able to overcome the limitations by developing a microfluidic protocol to manipulate many single molecules in parallel through a two-step digital process. In the first step we compartmentalize the individual RNA molecules (based on Poisson statistics) and perform reverse transcription on each RNA molecule independently to produce DNA. In the second step, we perform the LAMP amplification on all individual DNA molecules in parallel. Using this new protocol, we increased the absolute efficiency (the ratio between the concentration calculated from the actual count and the expected concentration) of dRT-LAMP 10-fold, from ∼2% to ∼23%, by (i) using a more efficient reverse transcriptase, (ii) introducing RNase H to break up the DNA:RNA hybrid, and (iii) adding only the BIP primer during the RT step. We also used this two-step method to quantify HIV RNA purified from four patient samples and found that in some cases, the quantification results were highly sensitive to the sequence of the patient's HIV RNA. We learned the following three lessons from this work: (i) digital amplification technologies, including dLAMP and dPCR, may give adequate dilution curves and yet have low efficiency, thereby providing quantification values that underestimate the true concentration. Careful

  14. Enhancement of glomerular filtration rate and renal plasma flow by oral glucose load in well controlled insulin-dependent diabetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandahl Christiansen, J; Christensen, C K; Hermansen, K

    1986-01-01

    Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and renal plasma flow (RPF) were measured in 27 patients with uncomplicated insulin-dependent diabetes (IDDM) before and after an oral glucose load of 1.1 g glucose/kg body wt. In the 18 patients showing near-normoglycaemia (blood glucose less than or equal to 8...... mmol/l) before the glucose challenge the increase in blood glucose from 4.2 +/- 1.7 to 15.2 +/- 2.3 mmol/l was accompanied by an enhancement of GFR from 128 +/- 15 to 132 +/- 14 ml/min X 1.73 m2 (2p = 0.030) and of RPF from 534 +/- 116 to 562 +/- 105 ml/min X 1.73 m2 (2p = 0.023). By contrast oral...... glucose load to the nine patients with hyperglycaemia (greater than 8 mmol/l) during baseline conditions raising blood glucose from 11.9 +/- 2.0 to 19.6 +/- 1.5 mmol/l was accompanied by a reduction in GFR from 149 +/- 15 to 139 +/- 9 ml/min X 1.73 m2 (2p less than 0.001) while RPF was unchanged...

  15. Plasma induced material defects and threshold values for thermal loads in high temperature resistant alloys and in refractory metals for first wall application in fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolt, H.; Hoven, H.; Kny, E.; Koizlik, K.; Linke, J.; Nickel, H.; Wallura, E.

    1986-10-01

    Materials for the application in the first wall of fusion reactors of the tokamak type are subjected to pulsed heat fluxes which range from some 0.5 MW m -2 to 10 MW m -2 during normal plasma operation, and which can exceed 1000 MW m -2 during total plasma disruptions. The structural defects and material fatigue caused by this types of plasma wall interaction are investigated and the results are plotted in threshold loading curves. Additionally, the results are, as far as possible, compared with quantitative, theoretical calculations. These procedures allow a semiquantitative evaluation of the applicability of the mentioned metals in the first wall of fusion reactors. (orig.) [de

  16. Killing malignant melanoma cells with protoporphyrin IX-loaded polymersome-mediated photodynamic therapy and cold atmospheric plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang M

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Mian Wang,1 Benjamin M Geilich,2 Michael Keidar,3 Thomas J Webster1,4 1Department of Chemical Engineering, 2Department of Bioengineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, 3Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, George Washington University, Washington, DC, USA; 4Wenzhou Institute of Biomaterials and Engineering, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Traditional cancer treatments contain several limitations such as incomplete ablation and multidrug resistance. It is known that photodynamic therapy (PDT is an effective treatment for several tumor types especially melanoma cells. During the PDT process, protoporphyrin IX (PpIX, an effective photosensitizer, can selectively kill cancer cells by activating a special light source. When tumor cells encapsulate a photosensitizer, they can be easily excited into an excited state by a light source. In this study, cold atmospheric plasma (CAP was used as a novel light source. Results of some studies have showed that cancer cells can be effectively killed by using either a light source or an individual treatment due to the generation of reactive oxygen species and electrons from a wide range of wavelengths, which suggest that CAP can act as a potential light source for anticancer applications compared with UV light sources. Results of the present in vitro study indicated for the first time that PpIX can be successfully loaded into polymersomes. Most importantly, cell viability studies revealed that PpIX-loaded polymersomes had a low toxicity to healthy fibroblasts (20% were killed at a concentration of 400 µg/mL, but they showed a great potential to selectively kill melanoma cells (almost 50% were killed. With the application of CAP posttreatment, melanoma cell viability significantly decreased (80% were killed compared to not using a light source (45% were killed or using a UV light source (65% were killed. In summary, these results indicated for the

  17. [To consider negative viral loads below the limit of quantification can lead to errors in the diagnosis and treatment of hepatitis C virus infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acero Fernández, Doroteo; Ferri Iglesias, María José; López Nuñez, Carme; Louvrie Freire, René; Aldeguer Manté, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    For years many clinical laboratories have routinely classified undetectable and unquantifiable levels of hepatitis C virus RNA (HCV-RNA) determined by RT-PCR as below limit of quantification (BLOQ). This practice might result in erroneous clinical decisions. To assess the frequency and clinical relevance of assuming that samples that are BLOQ are negative. We performed a retrospective analysis of RNA determinations performed between 2009 and 2011 (Cobas/Taqman, lower LOQ: 15 IU/ml). We distinguished between samples classified as «undetectable» and those classified as «<1.50E+01IU/mL» (BLOQ). We analyzed 2.432 HCV-RNA measurements in 1.371 patients. RNA was BLOQ in 26 samples (1.07%) from 23 patients (1.68%). BLOQ results were highly prevalent among patients receiving Peg-Riba: 23 of 216 samples (10.6%) from 20 of 88 patients receiving treatment (22.7%). The clinical impact of BLOQ RNA samples was as follows: a) 2 patients initially considered to have negative results subsequently showed quantifiable RNA; b) 8 of 9 patients (88.9%) with BLOQ RNA at week 4 of treatment later showed sustained viral response; c) 3 patients with BLOQ RNA at weeks 12 and 48 of treatment relapsed; d) 4 patients with BLOQ RNA at week 24 and/or later had partial or breakthrough treatment responses, and e) in 5 patients the impact were null or could not be ascertained. This study suggests that BLOQ HCV-RNA indicates viremia and that equating a BLOQ result with a negative result can lead to treatment errors. BLOQ results are highly prevalent in on-treatment patients. The results of HCV-RNA quantification should be classified clearly, distinguishing between undetectable levels and levels that are BLOQ. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  18. Significant reduction of peripheral blood interleukin-35 and CD4+EBI3+ T cells, which are negatively correlated with an increase in the plasma IL-17 and cTnI level, in viral myocarditis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Ouyang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Viral myocarditis (VMC has become an increasingly common heart disease that endangers human health. In the present study, the plasma interleukin-35 (IL-35 level and the percentage of CD4 + EBI3 + T cells in VMC patients were detected to investigate the significance of changes in these parameters in the plasma of VMC patients and their association with the disease. Material and methods: ELISA was performed to detect the plasma IL-35 level and the percentage of peripheral blood CD4 + EBI3 + T cells in 40 VMC patients and in 20 healthy individuals. Moreover, the plasma IL-17 levels in the VMC patients and in the healthy individuals were detected using an ELISA, and the cardiac Troponin-I (cTnI levels were detected using a chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay to compare the differences in the groups. Results : Plasma IL-35 level and the percentage of CD4 + EBI3 + T cells in acute phase VMC patients was lower than that in the healthy control group and the convalescent phase VMC patients. Additionally, the plasma IL-35 level in the VMC patients exhibited a negative correlation with the levels of cTnI and IL-17. The percentage of CD4 + EBI3 + T cells also showed a negative correlation with the levels of cTnI and IL-17. Conclusions : The plasma IL-35 level and the percentage of CD4 + EBI3 + T cells in VMC patients was reduced, and the amount of the decrease was associated with the severity of the disease. These results suggest that IL-35 and CD4 + EBI3 + T might play important roles in the progression of VMC and could be used as indictors of the disease.

  19. Enhanced load current delivery from the SHIVA Star vacuum inductive store/plasma flow switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, D.W.; Baker, W.L.; Beason, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    The experimental results reported here were obtained from passively integrated Rogowski coils mounted in the SHIVA Star device and B located in the load and transfer regions of the device. The integrator time constant was 100 μs. Current measurements accuracy is estimated to be 5% for the Rogowski coils and 10% for B probes. B probes indicated peak currents of 13.5 MA at the breech and 13.0 MA at the muzzle with 650 ns 10-90% rise time. B probes in the implosion region indicated a current greater than 9.4 MA inside 5.5 cm radius; at that time, the muzzle current was 10.3 MA. The 10-90% rise time was 170 ns. The innermost probe indicated 7.3 MA inside 3.2 cm; at that time, the muzzle current was 9.3 MA. The 10-90% rise time at 3.2 cm was 300 ns. Timing anomalies suggested some azimuthal current asymmetry in the implosion region. The data indicate greater than 90% current delivery from the gun muzzle to just outside the initial position implosion foil and 70-80% current delivery from the gun muzzle to the partially imploded foil

  20. Effect of design geometry of the demo first wall on the plasma heat load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. Igitkhanov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work we analyse the effect of W armour surface shaping on the heat load on the W/EUROFER DEMO sandwich type first wall blanket module with the water coolant. The armour wetted area is varied by changing the inclination and height of the «roof» type armor surface. The deleterious effect of leading edge at the tiles corner caused by misalignment is replaced in current design by rounded corners. Analysis has been carried out by means of the MEMOS code to assess the influence of the thickness of the layers and effect of the magnetic field inclination. Calculations show the evolution of the maximum temperatures in the tungsten, EUROFER, Cu allow and the stainless-steel water tube for different level of surface inclination (chamfering and in the case of rounded corners used in the current design. It is shown that the blanket module materials remain within a proper temperature range only at shallow incident angle if the width of EUROFER is reduced at list twice compare with the reference case.

  1. Heat loads on poloidal and toroidal edges of castellated plasma-facing components in COMPASS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejarnac, R.; Corre, Y.; Vondracek, P.; Gaspar, J.; Gauthier, E.; Gunn, J. P.; Komm, M.; Gardarein, J.-L.; Horacek, J.; Hron, M.; Matejicek, J.; Pitts, R. A.; Panek, R.

    2018-06-01

    Dedicated experiments have been performed in the COMPASS tokamak to thoroughly study the power deposition processes occurring on poloidal and toroidal edges of castellated plasma-facing components in tokamaks during steady-state L-mode conditions. Surface temperatures measured by a high resolution infra-red camera are compared with reconstructed synthetic data from a 2D thermal model using heat flux profiles derived from both the optical approximation and 2D particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. In the case of poloidal leading edges, when the contribution from local radiation is taken into account, the parallel heat flux deduced from unperturbed, upstream measurements is fully consistent with the observed temperature increase at the leading edges of various heights, respecting power balance assuming simple projection of the parallel flux density. Smoothing of the heat flux deposition profile due to finite ion Larmor radius predicted by the PIC simulations is found to be weak and the power deposition on misaligned poloidal edges is better described by the optical approximation. This is consistent with an electron-dominated regime associated with a non-ambipolar parallel current flow. In the case of toroidal gap edges, the different contributions of the total incoming flux along the gap have been observed experimentally for the first time. They confirm the results of recent numerical studies performed for ITER showing that in specific cases the heat deposition does not necessarily follow the optical approximation. Indeed, ions can spiral onto the magnetically shadowed toroidal edge. Particle-in-cell simulations emphasize again the role played by local non-ambipolarity in the deposition pattern.

  2. Reduction in HIV community viral loads following the implementation of a "Treatment as Prevention" strategy over 2 years at a population-level among men who have sex with men in Hangzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lin; Yang, Jiezhe; Ma, Qiaoqin; Zhang, Jiafeng; Xu, Yun; Xia, Yan; Chen, Wanjun; Wang, Hui; Zheng, Jinlei; Jiang, Jun; Luo, Yan; Xu, Ke; Zhang, Xingliang; Xia, Shichang; Pan, Xiaohong

    2018-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that the increased coverage of antiretroviral therapy (ART) could reduce the community viral load (CVL) and reduce the occurrence of new HIV infections. However, the impact on the reduction of HIV transmission among men who have sex with men (MSM) is much less certain. The frequency of HIV infections in MSM have been rapidly increasing in recent years in Hangzhou, China. The "Treatment as Prevention" strategy was implemented at a population-level for HIV-infected MSM from January 2014 to June 2016 in Hangzhou; it aimed to increase the ART coverage, reduce the CVL, and reduce HIV transmission. We investigated a subset of MSM diagnosed with HIV pre- and post-implementation of the strategy, using random sampling methods. Viral load (VL) testing was performed for all enrolled individuals; the lower limits of detection were 20 and 50 copies/mL. The data on infections were collected from the national epidemiology database of Hangzhou. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify factors associated with the differences in social demographic characteristics and available VL data. The ART coverage increased from 60.7% (839/1383) during the pre-implementation period to 92.3% (2183/2365) during the post-implementation period in Hangzhou. A total of 940 HIV-infected MSM were selected for inclusion in this study: 490 (52.1%) and 450 (47.9%) MSM in the pre- and post-implementation periods, respectively. In total, 89.5% (841/940) of patients had data available on VL rates. The mean CVL was 579 copies/mL pre-implementation and this decreased to 33 copies/mL post-implementation (Kruskal-Wallis implementation of the treatment strategy (P implementation period was 50.0% which increased to 84.7% post-implementation (P implementation (Kruskal-Wallis < 0.05). Our study confirmed a population-level association between increased ART coverage and decreased mean CVL; overall 84.7% of HIV infected MSM had an undetectable VL and were no longer

  3. CXCR5+ CD8+ T Cells Indirectly Offer B Cell Help and Are Inversely Correlated with Viral Load in Chronic Hepatitis B Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hang; Li, Linhai; Han, Jiang; Sun, Zhiwei; Rong, Yihui; Jin, Yun

    2017-04-01

    Treatment options for chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection are extremely limited. CXCR5 + CD8 + T cell is a novel cell subtype and could possess strong cytotoxic properties in HIV infection. In this study, we investigated the role of CXCR5 + CD8 + T cells in CHB patients. Compared to healthy individuals, both CHB patients and hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected hepatocellular carcinoma patients presented significant upregulation of CXCR5 + CD8 + T cells in peripheral blood, in which CXCR5 + CD8 + T cells were negatively correlated with the frequency of CXCR5 + CD4 + T cells in CHB patients. After PMA+ionomycin stimulation, CXCR5 + CD8 + T cells from CHB patients presented significantly higher transcription level of interferon gamma (IFN-γ), interleukin 10 (IL-10), and IL-21, as well as higher IL-10 and IL-21 protein secretion, than CXCR5 - CD8 + T cells. Unlike CXCR5 + CD4 + T cells, when incubated with naive CD19 + CD27 - B cells, CXCR5 + CD8 + T cells alone did not upregulate IgM, IgG, and IgA secretion. However, addition of CXCR5 + CD8 + T cells in B cell-CXCR5 + CD4 + T cell coculture significantly increased the levels of secreted IgG and IgA, demonstrating that CXCR5 + CD8 + T cell could indirectly offer B cell help. Furthermore, high frequencies of CXCR5 + CD8 + T cells tended to associate with low HBV DNA load, and the frequency of CXCR5 + CD8 + T cells was negatively correlated with alanine aminotransferase (ALT) level. Together, these results suggested that CXCR5 + CD8 + T cells were involved in the antiviral immune responses in CHB and could potentially serve as a therapeutic candidate.

  4. A study of plasma facing tungsten components with electrical discharge machined surface exposed to cyclic thermal loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seki, Yohji, E-mail: seki.yohji@jaea.go.jp; Ezato, Koichiro; Suzuki, Satoshi; Yokoyama, Kenji; Yamada, Hirokazu; Hirayama, Tomoyuki

    2016-11-01

    Through R&D for a plasma facing units (PFUs) in an outer vertical target of an ITER full-tungsten (W) divertor, Japan Atomic Energy Agency succeeded in demonstrating the durability of the W divertor shaped by an electrical discharge machining (EDM). To prevent melting of W armors in the PFUs, an adequate technology to meet requirements of a geometrical shape and a tolerance is one of the most important key issues in a manufacturing process. From the necessity, the EDM has been evaluated to control the final shape of the W armor. Though the EDM was known to be advantages such as an easy workability, a potential disadvantage of presence of micro-cracks on the W surface appeared. In order to examine a potential effect of the micro-crack on a heat removal durability, a high heat flux testing was carried out for the W divertor mock-up with the polish and the EDM. As the result, all of the W armors endured the repetitive heat load of 1000 cycles at an absorbed heat flux of more than 20 MW/m{sup 2}, which strongly encourages the realization of the PFUs of the ITER full-W divertor with the various geometrical shape and the high accuracy tolerance.

  5. A study of plasma facing tungsten components with electrical discharge machined surface exposed to cyclic thermal loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Yohji; Ezato, Koichiro; Suzuki, Satoshi; Yokoyama, Kenji; Yamada, Hirokazu; Hirayama, Tomoyuki

    2016-01-01

    Through R&D for a plasma facing units (PFUs) in an outer vertical target of an ITER full-tungsten (W) divertor, Japan Atomic Energy Agency succeeded in demonstrating the durability of the W divertor shaped by an electrical discharge machining (EDM). To prevent melting of W armors in the PFUs, an adequate technology to meet requirements of a geometrical shape and a tolerance is one of the most important key issues in a manufacturing process. From the necessity, the EDM has been evaluated to control the final shape of the W armor. Though the EDM was known to be advantages such as an easy workability, a potential disadvantage of presence of micro-cracks on the W surface appeared. In order to examine a potential effect of the micro-crack on a heat removal durability, a high heat flux testing was carried out for the W divertor mock-up with the polish and the EDM. As the result, all of the W armors endured the repetitive heat load of 1000 cycles at an absorbed heat flux of more than 20 MW/m"2, which strongly encourages the realization of the PFUs of the ITER full-W divertor with the various geometrical shape and the high accuracy tolerance.

  6. Damage prediction of carbon fibre composite armoured actively cooled plasma-facing components under cycling heat loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevet, G; Schlosser, J; Courtois, X; Escourbiac, F; Missirlian, M; Herb, V; Martin, E; Camus, G; Braccini, M

    2009-01-01

    In order to predict the lifetime of carbon fibre composite (CFC) armoured plasma-facing components in magnetic fusion devices, it is necessary to analyse the damage mechanisms and to model the damage propagation under cycling heat loads. At Tore Supra studies have been launched to better understand the damage process of the armoured flat tile elements of the actively cooled toroidal pump limiter, leading to the characterization of the damageable mechanical behaviour of the used N11 CFC material and of the CFC/Cu bond. Up until now the calculations have shown damage developing in the CFC (within the zone submitted to high shear stress) and in the bond (from the free edge of the CFC/Cu interface). Damage is due to manufacturing shear stresses and does not evolve under heat due to stress relaxation. For the ITER divertor, NB31 material has been characterized and the characterization of NB41 is in progress. Finite element calculations show again the development of CFC damage in the high shear stress zones after manufacturing. Stresses also decrease under heat flux so the damage does not evolve. The characterization of the CFC/Cu bond is more complex due to the monoblock geometry, which leads to more scattered stresses. These calculations allow the fabrication difficulties to be better understood and will help to analyse future high heat flux tests on various mock-ups.

  7. Failure study of helium-cooled tungsten divertor plasma-facing units tested at DEMO relevant steady-state heat loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritz, G; Pintsuk, G; Linke, J; Hirai, T; Norajitra, P; Reiser, J; Giniyatulin, R; Makhankov, A; Mazul, I

    2009-01-01

    Tungsten was selected as armor material for the helium-cooled divertor in future DEMO-type fusion reactors and fusion power plants. After realizing the design and testing of them under cyclic thermal loads of up to ∼14 MW m -2 , the tungsten divertor plasma-facing units were examined by metallography; they revealed failures such as cracks at the thermal loaded and as-machined surfaces, as well as degradation of the brazing layers. Furthermore, in order to optimize the machining processes, the quality of tungsten surfaces prepared by turning, milling and using a diamond cutting wheel were examined. This paper presents a metallographic examination of the tungsten plasma-facing units as well as technical studies and the characterization on machining of tungsten and alternative brazing joints.

  8. Failure study of helium-cooled tungsten divertor plasma-facing units tested at DEMO relevant steady-state heat loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritz, G.; Hirai, T.; Norajitra, P.; Reiser, J.; Giniyatulin, R.; Makhankov, A.; Mazul, I.; Pintsuk, G.; Linke, J.

    2009-12-01

    Tungsten was selected as armor material for the helium-cooled divertor in future DEMO-type fusion reactors and fusion power plants. After realizing the design and testing of them under cyclic thermal loads of up to ~14 MW m-2, the tungsten divertor plasma-facing units were examined by metallography; they revealed failures such as cracks at the thermal loaded and as-machined surfaces, as well as degradation of the brazing layers. Furthermore, in order to optimize the machining processes, the quality of tungsten surfaces prepared by turning, milling and using a diamond cutting wheel were examined. This paper presents a metallographic examination of the tungsten plasma-facing units as well as technical studies and the characterization on machining of tungsten and alternative brazing joints.

  9. Plasma PCSK9 concentrations during an oral fat load and after short term high-fat, high-fat high-protein and high-fructose diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cariou Bertrand

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background PCSK9 (Proprotein Convertase Subtilisin Kexin type 9 is a circulating protein that promotes hypercholesterolemia by decreasing hepatic LDL receptor protein. Under non interventional conditions, its expression is driven by sterol response element binding protein 2 (SREBP2 and follows a diurnal rhythm synchronous with cholesterol synthesis. Plasma PCSK9 is associated to LDL-C and to a lesser extent plasma triglycerides and insulin resistance. We aimed to verify the effect on plasma PCSK9 concentrations of dietary interventions that affect these parameters. Methods We performed nutritional interventions in young healthy male volunteers and offspring of type 2 diabetic (OffT2D patients that are more prone to develop insulin resistance, including: i acute post-prandial hyperlipidemic challenge (n=10, ii 4 days of high-fat (HF or high-fat/high-protein (HFHP (n=10, iii 7 (HFruc1, n=16 or 6 (HFruc2, n=9 days of hypercaloric high-fructose diets. An acute oral fat load was also performed in two patients bearing the R104C-V114A loss-of-function (LOF PCSK9 mutation. Plasma PCSK9 concentrations were measured by ELISA. For the HFruc1 study, intrahepatocellular (IHCL and intramyocellular lipids were measured by 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Hepatic and whole-body insulin sensitivity was assessed with a two-step hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (0.3 and 1.0 mU.kg-1.min-1. Findings HF and HFHP short-term diets, as well as an acute hyperlipidemic oral load, did not significantly change PCSK9 concentrations. In addition, post-prandial plasma triglyceride excursion was not altered in two carriers of PCSK9 LOF mutation compared with non carriers. In contrast, hypercaloric 7-day HFruc1 diet increased plasma PCSK9 concentrations by 28% (p=0.05 in healthy volunteers and by 34% (p=0.001 in OffT2D patients. In another independent study, 6-day HFruc2 diet increased plasma PCSK9 levels by 93% (p Conclusions Plasma PCSK9 concentrations vary

  10. Targeting of conserved gag-epitopes in early HIV infection is associated with lower plasma viral load and slower CD4+ T cell depletion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perez, Carina L.; Milush, Jeffrey M.; Buggert, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to investigate whether the character of the immunodominant HIV-Gag peptide (variable or conserved) targeted by CD8+ T cells in early HIV infection would influence the quality and quantity of T cell responses, and whether this would affect the rate of disease progression. Treatment-naive ...

  11. Anode plasma dynamics in an extraction applied-B ion diode: effects on divergence, ion species and parasitic load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenly, J.B.; Appartaim, R.K.; Olson, J.C.

    1996-01-01

    Analysis of data from the LION (1.2 MV, 300 kA, 40 ns) extraction applied-B diode allows a number of inferences regarding the effect of anode plasma dynamics on ion beam divergence, ion species composition, and diode impedance and power coupling. The two dominant features of anode plasma dynamics observed on LION are (1) plasma expansion away from the solid anode surface and into the accelerating gap during the beam pulse, and (2) evolution of the composition of the plasma during the pulse. The data presented in this paper characterize the plasma expansion, and suggest a possible picture of the mechanism of the plasma dynamics that could produce these basic features. (J.U.). 2 figs., 5 refs

  12. Anode plasma dynamics in an extraction applied-B ion diode: effects on divergence, ion species and parasitic load

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenly, J B; Appartaim, R K; Olson, J C [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Lab. of Plasma Studies

    1997-12-31

    Analysis of data from the LION (1.2 MV, 300 kA, 40 ns) extraction applied-B diode allows a number of inferences regarding the effect of anode plasma dynamics on ion beam divergence, ion species composition, and diode impedance and power coupling. The two dominant features of anode plasma dynamics observed on LION are (1) plasma expansion away from the solid anode surface and into the accelerating gap during the beam pulse, and (2) evolution of the composition of the plasma during the pulse. The data presented in this paper characterize the plasma expansion, and suggest a possible picture of the mechanism of the plasma dynamics that could produce these basic features. (J.U.). 2 figs., 5 refs.

  13. A significant reduction in the frequency of HIV-1 drug resistance in Québec from 2001 to 2011 is associated with a decrease in the monitored viral load.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugues Charest

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV drug resistance represents a major threat for effective treatment. We assessed the trends in the frequency of drug resistance mutations and the monitored viral load (VL in treatment-naïve (TN and treatment-experienced (TE individuals infected with HIV-1 in Québec, Canada, between 2001 and 2011. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Resistance data were obtained from 4,105 and 5,086 genotypic tests performed on TN and TE patients, respectively. Concomitantly, 274,161 VL tests were carried out in the Province. Changes over time in drug resistance frequency and in different categories of VL were assessed using univariate logistic regression. Multiple logistic regression was used to evaluate associations between the rates of certain mutations and antiretroviral prescriptions. From 2001 to 2011, the proportion of undetectable VL test results continually increased, from 42.1% to 75.9%, while a significant decrease in the frequency of resistance mutations associated with protease inhibitors [PI (from 54% to 16%], nucleoside [NRTI (from 78% to 37% and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors [NNRTI (from 44% to 31%] was observed in TE patients. In TN individuals, the overall frequency of transmitted drug resistance was 13.1%. A multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that the introduction of co-formulated emtricitabine/tenofovir or emtricitabine/tenofovir/efavirenz was positively associated with the decrease of the frequency of the M184I/V mutations observed overtime (p = 0.0004. CONCLUSIONS: We observed a significant decrease in the frequency of drug resistance mutations in TE patients, concomitant with a decrease in the proportion of patients with detectable viremia. These findings may be related to both the increased potencies and adherence to therapy associated with newer antiretroviral regimens. Nevertheless, our data demonstrate that broad use of antiretrovirals does not increase the level of circulating drug resistant

  14. Comparison of HPV detection technologies: Hybrid capture 2, PreTect HPV-Proofer and analysis of HPV DNA viral load in HPV16, HPV18 and HPV33 E6/E7 mRNA positive specimens.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keegan, Helen

    2012-02-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing using molecular methods in liquid based cytology (LBC) specimens may be useful as an adjunct to cervical screening by cytology. We compared the positivity rate of the commercially available HPV DNA method hybrid capture 2 (hc2) and the commercially available E6\\/E7 mRNA method PreTect HPV-Proofer in cytological specimens (n=299). LBC specimens collected (n=299) represented the following cervical cytological disease categories: Normal (n=60), borderline nuclear abnormalities (BNA) (n=34), CIN1 (n=121), CIN2 (n=60), CIN3 (n=24). Overall, 69% (205\\/299) of the cases were positive by hc2 and 38% (112\\/299) of the cases were positive by PreTect HPV-Proofer. Concordance rates between the two tests were highest in the high-grade cytology cases (CIN2: 67% and CIN3: 83%) and the normal cytology cases (88%) and lowest in the BNA and CIN1 categories (56% and 52%). HPV DNA viral load analyses were carried out on HPV16 (n=55), HPV18 (n=9) and HPV33 (n=13) samples that were positive by PreTect HPV-Proofer. The sensitivity and specificity of PreTect HPV-Proofer and the hc2 DNA test for the detection of high-grade cytology (i.e. CIN2+) were 71.4% and 75.8% vs 100% and 43.7%, respectively. The relatively low detection rate observed by PreTect HPV-Proofer in the whole range of cytological positive cases, combined with a relatively higher specificity and PPV, suggests that PreTect HPV-Proofer may be more useful than hc2 for triage and in predicting high-grade disease.

  15. Economic impact of optimising antiretroviral treatment in human immunodeficiency virus-infected adults with suppressed viral load in Spain, by implementing the grade A-1 evidence recommendations of the 2015 GESIDA/National AIDS Plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribera, Esteban; Martínez-Sesmero, José Manuel; Sánchez-Rubio, Javier; Rubio, Rafael; Pasquau, Juan; Poveda, José Luis; Pérez-Mitru, Alejandro; Roldán, Celia; Hernández-Novoa, Beatriz

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this study is to estimate the economic impact associated with the optimisation of triple antiretroviral treatment (ART) in patients with undetectable viral load according to the recommendations from the GeSIDA/PNS (2015) Consensus and their applicability in the Spanish clinical practice. A pharmacoeconomic model was developed based on data from a National Hospital Prescription Survey on ART (2014) and the A-I evidence recommendations for the optimisation of ART from the GeSIDA/PNS (2015) consensus. The optimisation model took into account the willingness to optimise a particular regimen and other assumptions, and the results were validated by an expert panel in HIV infection (Infectious Disease Specialists and Hospital Pharmacists). The analysis was conducted from the NHS perspective, considering the annual wholesale price and accounting for deductions stated in the RD-Law 8/2010 and the VAT. The expert panel selected six optimisation strategies, and estimated that 10,863 (13.4%) of the 80,859 patients in Spain currently on triple ART, would be candidates to optimise their ART, leading to savings of €15.9M/year (2.4% of total triple ART drug cost). The most feasible strategies (>40% of patients candidates for optimisation, n=4,556) would be optimisations to ATV/r+3TC therapy. These would produce savings between €653 and €4,797 per patient per year depending on baseline triple ART. Implementation of the main optimisation strategies recommended in the GeSIDA/PNS (2015) Consensus into Spanish clinical practice would lead to considerable savings, especially those based in dual therapy with ATV/r+3TC, thus contributing to the control of pharmaceutical expenditure and NHS sustainability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  16. Smart alloys for a future fusion power plant: First studies under stationary plasma load and in accidental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Litnovsky

    2017-08-01

    Plasma exposure was followed by the oxidation of alloys at 1000°C accomplishing the first test of these new materials both in a plasma environment and under accidental conditions. Compared to pure tungsten, smart alloys featured the 3-fold suppression of oxidation. Plasma exposure did not affect the oxidation resistance of smart alloys. At the same time, the self-passivation of the protective layer did not occur, calling for further optimization of alloys.

  17. Viral and immunological factors associated with breast milk transmission of SIV in rhesus macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fresh Lynn

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The viral and host factors involved in transmission of HIV through breastfeeding are largely unknown, and intervention strategies are urgently needed to protect at-risk populations. To evaluate the viral and immunological factors directly related to milk transmission of virus, we have evaluated the disease course of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV in lactating rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta as a model of natural breast milk transmission of HIV. Results Fourteen lactating macaques were infected intravenously with SIV/DeltaB670, a pathogenic isolate of SIV and were pair-housed with their suckling infants throughout the disease course. Transmission was observed in 10 mother-infant pairs over a one-year period. Two mothers transmitted virus during the period of initial viremia 14–21 days post inoculation (p.i. and were classified as early transmitters. Peak viral loads in milk and plasma of early transmitters were similar to other animals, however the early transmitters subsequently displayed a rapid progressor phenotype and failed to control virus expression as well as other animals at 56 days p.i. Eight mothers were classified as late transmitters, with infant infection detected at time points in the chronic stage of the maternal SIV disease course (81 to 360 days. Plasma viral loads, CD4+ T cell counts and SIV-specific antibody titers were similar in late transmitters and non-transmitters. Late breast milk transmission, however, was correlated with higher average milk viral loads and more persistent viral expression in milk 12 to 46 weeks p.i. as compared to non-transmitters. Four mothers failed to transmit virus, despite disease progression and continuous lactation. Conclusion These studies validate the SIV-infected rhesus macaque as a model for breast milk transmission of HIV. As observed in studies of HIV-infected women, transmission occurred at time points throughout the period of lactation. Transmission during the

  18. Effects of an aqueous leaf extract of Sansevieria senegambica Baker on plasma biochemistry and haematological indices of salt-loaded rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jude C. Ikewuchi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of an aqueous extract of the leaves of Sansevieria senegambica on plasma marker enzymes, plasma chemistry and the haematological profile of salt-loaded rats were studied. The control group received only a commercial feed, whilst the four test groups received a diet consisting of the commercial feed and salt, although the reference treatment group was reverted to the normal feed at the end of 6 weeks. The extract was orally administered daily at 150 mg/kg or 200 mg/kg body weight to two test groups, respectively; whilst the test control, reference and control groups received equivalent volumes of water by the same route. The extract had no negative effects on markers of liver and kidney functions, but it did produce leukocytosis, significantly increased (p < 0.05 plasma calcium and potassium levels and significantly decreased (p < 0.05 plasma sodium and chloride levels in the test animals compared to the test control animals. This result supports the traditional use of Sansevieria senegambica in the management of hypertension, whilst suggesting that the extract may be a potassium-sparing diuretic whose mechanism of antihypertensive action may be achieved through alteration of plasma sodium and potassium balances, or through calcium-mediated changes in vascular muscle tone.

  19. A three-dimensional cell-loading system using autologous plasma loaded into a porous β-tricalcium-phosphate block promotes bone formation at extraskeletal sites in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, Nobutaka; Sotome, Shinichi; Marukawa, Eriko; Omura, Ken; Shinomiya, Kenichi

    2007-01-01

    The effects of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and platelet-poor plasma (PPP) on bone marrow stromal cells (MSCs) with respect to proliferation, osteogenic differentiation, and bone formation capability were investigated. MSCs derived from rats were cultured in medium containing mixtures of PRP and PPP. Fibrinogen was eliminated prior to the experiment. The DNA content and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity were measured. PRP stimulated cell proliferation and inhibited osteoblastic differentiation. To examine the effects of fibrin in plasma, MSCs were cultured in PRP or PPP fibrin gels formed both on a cell culture insert installed in a culture well and on the bottom surface of the same culture well. The ALP activities of the MSCs in both of the gels were higher than those on the surface of the culture wells. The MSCs cultured on the PPP gel showed the highest ALP activity. The effects of PRP and PPP used as scaffolds for bone formation were also investigated. MSCs were suspended in PRP or PPP, introduced into porous β-tricalcium phosphate blocks, and then implanted into subcutaneous sites. Subsequently, bone formation was quantified. Further in vivo studies found that implants prepared using PPP had a greater osteoinductive capability than implants prepared with PRP

  20. A three-dimensional cell-loading system using autologous plasma loaded into a porous {beta}-tricalcium-phosphate block promotes bone formation at extraskeletal sites in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tajima, Nobutaka [Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Graduate school, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (Japan); Orthopaedic and Spinal Surgery, Graduate school, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (Japan); Sotome, Shinichi [Orthopaedic and Spinal Surgery, Graduate school, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (Japan); Marukawa, Eriko [Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Graduate school, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (Japan); Orthopaedic and Spinal Surgery, Graduate school, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (Japan); Omura, Ken [Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Graduate school, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (Japan); Center of Excellence Program for Frontier Research on Molecular Destruction and Reconstruction of Tooth and Bone, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (Japan); Shinomiya, Kenichi [Orthopaedic and Spinal Surgery, Graduate school, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (Japan) and Center of Excellence Program for Frontier Research on Molecular Destruction and Reconstruction of Tooth and Bone, Tokyo Medical and Dental University (Japan) and Advanced Bone and Joint Science (Japan)]. E-mail: shinomiya.orth@tmd.ac.jp

    2007-05-16

    The effects of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and platelet-poor plasma (PPP) on bone marrow stromal cells (MSCs) with respect to proliferation, osteogenic differentiation, and bone formation capability were investigated. MSCs derived from rats were cultured in medium containing mixtures of PRP and PPP. Fibrinogen was eliminated prior to the experiment. The DNA content and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity were measured. PRP stimulated cell proliferation and inhibited osteoblastic differentiation. To examine the effects of fibrin in plasma, MSCs were cultured in PRP or PPP fibrin gels formed both on a cell culture insert installed in a culture well and on the bottom surface of the same culture well. The ALP activities of the MSCs in both of the gels were higher than those on the surface of the culture wells. The MSCs cultured on the PPP gel showed the highest ALP activity. The effects of PRP and PPP used as scaffolds for bone formation were also investigated. MSCs were suspended in PRP or PPP, introduced into porous {beta}-tricalcium phosphate blocks, and then implanted into subcutaneous sites. Subsequently, bone formation was quantified. Further in vivo studies found that implants prepared using PPP had a greater osteoinductive capability than implants prepared with PRP.

  1. Recycling Endosomes and Viral Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vale-Costa, Sílvia; Amorim, Maria João

    2016-03-08

    Many viruses exploit specific arms of the endomembrane system. The unique composition of each arm prompts the development of remarkably specific interactions between viruses and sub-organelles. This review focuses on the viral-host interactions occurring on the endocytic recycling compartment (ERC), and mediated by its regulatory Ras-related in brain (Rab) GTPase Rab11. This protein regulates trafficking from the ERC and the trans-Golgi network to the plasma membrane. Such transport comprises intricate networks of proteins/lipids operating sequentially from the membrane of origin up to the cell surface. Rab11 is also emerging as a critical factor in an increasing number of infections by major animal viruses, including pathogens that provoke human disease. Understanding the interplay between the ERC and viruses is a milestone in human health. Rab11 has been associated with several steps of the viral lifecycles by unclear processes that use sophisticated diversified host machinery. For this reason, we first explore the state-of-the-art on processes regulating membrane composition and trafficking. Subsequently, this review outlines viral interactions with the ERC, highlighting current knowledge on viral-host binding partners. Finally, using examples from the few mechanistic studies available we emphasize how ERC functions are adjusted during infection to remodel cytoskeleton dynamics, innate immunity and membrane composition.

  2. Loading of deuterium and helium by Pilot-PSI plasma and their detection by in-situ LIBS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piip, K.; van der Meiden, H. J.; Bystrov, K.; Hämarik, L.; Karhunen, J.; Aints, M.; Laan, M.; Paris, P.; Seemen, H.; Hakola, A.; Brezinsek, S.

    2017-01-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a promising method for quantifying the fuel content of the plasma-facing components of ITER both in between plasma discharges (in-situ) and after maintenance operations. The aim of the present study is to test the applicability of in-situ LIBS for

  3. Pillbox organizers are associated with improved adherence to HIV antiretroviral therapy and viral suppression: a marginal structural model analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Maya L; Wang, Yue; van der Laan, Mark J; Guzman, David; Riley, Elise; Bangsberg, David R

    2007-10-01

    Pillbox organizers are inexpensive and easily used; however, their effect on adherence to antiretroviral medications is unknown. Data were obtained from an observational cohort of 245 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected subjects who were observed from 1996 through 2000 in San Francisco, California. Adherence was the primary outcome and was measured using unannounced monthly pill counts. Plasma HIV RNA level was considered as a secondary outcome. Marginal structural models were used to estimate the effect of pillbox organizer use on adherence and viral suppression, adjusting for confounding by CD4+ T cell count, viral load, prior adherence, recreational drug use, demographic characteristics, and current and past treatment. Pillbox organizer use was estimated to improve adherence by 4.1%-4.5% and was associated with a decrease in viral load of 0.34-0.37 log10 copies/mL and a 14.2%-15.7% higher probability of achieving a viral load organizers appear to significantly improve adherence to antiretroviral therapy and to improve virologic suppression. We estimate that pillbox organizers may be associated with a cost of approximately $19,000 per quality-adjusted life-year. Pillbox organizers should be a standard intervention to improve adherence to antiretroviral therapy.

  4. Plasma facing materials and components for future fusion devices - development, characterization and performance under fusion specific loading conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linke, J. [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). Inst. fuer Plasmaphysik

    2006-04-15

    The plasma exposed components in existing and future fusion devices are strongly affected by the plasma material interaction processes. These mechanisms have a strong influence on the plasma performance; in addition they have major impact on the lifetime of the plasma facing armour and the joining interface between the plasma facing material (PFM) and the heat sink. Besides physical and chemical sputtering processes, high heat quasi-stationary fluxes during normal and intense thermal transients are of serious concern for the engineers who develop reliable wall components. In addition, the material and component degradation due to intense fluxes of energetic neutrons is another critical issue in D-T-burning fusion devices which requires extensive RandD. This paper presents an overview on the materials development and joining, the testing of PFMs and components, and the analysis of the neutron irradiation induced degradation.

  5. Plasma facing materials and components for future fusion devices - development, characterization and performance under fusion specific loading conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linke, J.

    2006-01-01

    The plasma exposed components in existing and future fusion devices are strongly affected by the plasma material interaction processes. These mechanisms have a strong influence on the plasma performance; in addition they have major impact on the lifetime of the plasma facing armour and the joining interface between the plasma facing material (PFM) and the heat sink. Besides physical and chemical sputtering processes, high heat quasi-stationary fluxes during normal and intense thermal transients are of serious concern for the engineers who develop reliable wall components. In addition, the material and component degradation due to intense fluxes of energetic neutrons is another critical issue in D-T-burning fusion devices which requires extensive RandD. This paper presents an overview on the materials development and joining, the testing of PFMs and components, and the analysis of the neutron irradiation induced degradation

  6. Plasma facing materials and components for future fusion devices—development, characterization and performance under fusion specific loading conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linke, J.

    2006-04-01

    The plasma exposed components in existing and future fusion devices are strongly affected by the plasma material interaction processes. These mechanisms have a strong influence on the plasma performance; in addition they have major impact on the lifetime of the plasma facing armour and the joining interface between the plasma facing material (PFM) and the heat sink. Besides physical and chemical sputtering processes, high heat quasi-stationary fluxes during normal and intense thermal transients are of serious concern for the engineers who develop reliable wall components. In addition, the material and component degradation due to intense fluxes of energetic neutrons is another critical issue in D-T-burning fusion devices which requires extensive R&D. This paper presents an overview on the materials development and joining, the testing of PFMs and components, and the analysis of the neutron irradiation induced degradation.

  7. Experimental study of divertor plasma-facing components damage under a combination of pulsed and quasi-stationary heat loads relevant to expected transient events at ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimov, N S; Podkovyrov, V L; Kovalenko, D V; Zhitlukhin, A M; Barsuk, V A; Mazul, I V; Giniyatulin, R N; Kuznetsov, V Ye; Riccardi, B; Loarte, A; Merola, M; Koidan, V S; Linke, J; Landman, I S; Pestchanyi, S E; Bazylev, B N

    2011-01-01

    This paper concerns the experimental study of damage of ITER divertor plasma-facing components (PFCs) under a combination of pulsed plasma heat loads (representative of controlled ITER type I edge-localized modes (ELMs)) and quasi-stationary heat loads (representative of the high heat flux (HHF) thermal fatigue expected during ITER normal operations and slow transient events). The PFC's tungsten armor damage under pulsed plasma exposure was driven by (i) the melt layer motion, which leads to bridges formation between neighboring tiles and (ii) the W brittle failure giving rise to a stable crack pattern on the exposed surface. The crack width reaches a saturation value that does not exceed some tens of micrometers after several hundreds of ELM-like pulses. HHF thermal fatigue tests have shown (i) a peeling-off of the re-solidified material due to its brittle failure and (ii) a significant widening (up to 10 times) of the cracks and the formation of additional cracks.

  8. Pediatric Solid-Organ Transplant Recipients Carry Chronic Loads of Epstein-Barr Virus Exclusively in the Immunoglobulin D-Negative B-Cell Compartment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Camille; Green, Michael; Webber, Steven; Ellis, Demetrius; Reyes, Jorges; Rowe, David

    2001-01-01

    Solid-organ transplant recipients are at risk for development of lymphoproliferative diseases. The purpose of this study was to examine the distribution of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) load in the peripheral blood of pediatric transplant recipients who had become chronic viral load carriers (>8 copies/105 lymphocytes for >2 months). A total of 19 patients with viral loads ranging from 20 to 5,000 viral genome copies/105 lymphocytes were studied. Ten patients had no previous diagnosis of posttransplant lymphoproliferative disease (PT-LPD), while nine had recovered from a diagnosed case of PT-LPD. No portion of the peripheral blood viral load was detected in the cell-free plasma fraction. Viral DNA was found in a population of cells characterized as CD19hi and immunoglobulin D negative, a phenotype that is consistent with the virus being carried exclusively in the memory B-cell compartment of the peripheral blood. There was no difference in the compartmentalization based upon either the level of the viral load or the past diagnosis of an episode of PT-LPD. These results have implications for the design of tests to detect EBV infection and for the interpretation and use of positive EBV PCR assays in the management of transplant recipients. PMID:11283064

  9. Surface cracking and melting of different tungsten grades under transient heat and particle loads in a magnetized coaxial plasma gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Y.; Sakuma, I.; Iwamoto, D.; Kitagawa, Y.; Fukumoto, N.; Nagata, M.; Ueda, Y.

    2013-07-01

    Surface damage of pure tungsten (W), W alloys with 2 wt.% tantalum (W-Ta) and vacuum plasma spray (VPS) W coating on a reduced activation material of ferritic steel (F82H) due to repetitive ELM-like pulsed (˜0.3 ms) deuterium plasma irradiation has been investigated by using a magnetized coaxial plasma gun. Surface cracks appeared on a pure W sample exposed to 10 plasma pulses of ˜0.3 MJ m-2, while a W-Ta sample did not show surface cracks with similar pulsed plasma irradiation. The energy density threshold for surface cracking was significantly increased by the existence of the alloying element of tantalum. No surface morphology change of a VPS W coated F82H sample was observed under 10 plasma pulses of ˜0.3 MJ m-2, although surface melting and cracks in the resolidification layer occurred at higher energy density of ˜0.9 MJ m-2. There was no indication of exfoliation of the W coating from the substrate of F82H after the pulsed plasma exposures.

  10. Surface cracking and melting of different tungsten grades under transient heat and particle loads in a magnetized coaxial plasma gun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, Y., E-mail: ykikuchi@eng.u-hyogo.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, University of Hyogo, 2167 Shosha, Himeji, Hyogo 671-2280 (Japan); Sakuma, I.; Iwamoto, D.; Kitagawa, Y.; Fukumoto, N.; Nagata, M. [Graduate School of Engineering, University of Hyogo, 2167 Shosha, Himeji, Hyogo 671-2280 (Japan); Ueda, Y. [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2013-07-15

    Surface damage of pure tungsten (W), W alloys with 2 wt.% tantalum (W–Ta) and vacuum plasma spray (VPS) W coating on a reduced activation material of ferritic steel (F82H) due to repetitive ELM-like pulsed (∼0.3 ms) deuterium plasma irradiation has been investigated by using a magnetized coaxial plasma gun. Surface cracks appeared on a pure W sample exposed to 10 plasma pulses of ∼0.3 MJ m{sup −2}, while a W–Ta sample did not show surface cracks with similar pulsed plasma irradiation. The energy density threshold for surface cracking was significantly increased by the existence of the alloying element of tantalum. No surface morphology change of a VPS W coated F82H sample was observed under 10 plasma pulses of ∼0.3 MJ m{sup −2}, although surface melting and cracks in the resolidification layer occurred at higher energy density of ∼0.9 MJ m{sup −2}. There was no indication of exfoliation of the W coating from the substrate of F82H after the pulsed plasma exposures.

  11. Effect of high-flux H/He plasma exposure on tungsten damage due to transient heat loads

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    De Temmerman, G.; Morgan, T.W.; van Eden, G.G.; de Kruif, T.; Wirtz, M.; Matějíček, Jiří; Chráska, Tomáš; Pitts, R.A.; Wright, G.M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 463, August (2015), s. 198-201 ISSN 0022-3115. [PLASMA-SURFACE INTERACTIONS 21: International Conference on Plasma-Surface Interactions in Controlled Fusion Devices. Kanazawa, 26.05.2014-30.05.2014] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-12837S Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : plasma-facing components * tungsten * hydrogen * helium * ELM Subject RIV: JF - Nuclear Energetics OBOR OECD: Nuclear related engineering Impact factor: 2.199, year: 2015 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022311514006758#

  12. An HPLC Method for Microanalysis and Pharmacokinetics of Marine Sulfated Polysaccharide PSS-Loaded Poly Lactic-co-Glycolic Acid (PLGA Nanoparticles in Rat Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-Shi Guan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at developing a sensitive and selective HPLC method with postcolumn fluorescence derivatization for the detection of propylene glycol alginate sodium sulfate (PSS in rat plasma. Plasma samples were prepared by a simple and fast ultrafiltration method. PSS was extracted from rat plasma with d-glucuronic acid as internal standard. Isocratic chromatographic separation was performed on a TSKgel G2500 PWxL column with the mobile phase of 0.1 M sodium sulfate at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. Analyte detection was achieved by fluorescence detection (FLD at 250 nm (excitation and 435 nm (emission using guanidine hydrochloride as postcolumn derivatizing reagent in an alkaline medium at 120 °C. The calibration curve was linear over a concentration range of 1–500 μg/mL, and the lower limit of detection (LLOD was found to be 250 ng/mL. This validated method was applied successfully to the pharmacokinetic study of PSS and PSS-loaded poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA nanoparticles (PSS-NP in rat plasma after a single intravenous (PSS only and oral administration (PSS and PSS-NP. Significant differences in the main pharmacokinetic parameters of PSS and PSS-NP were observed. The relative bioavailability of PSS-NP was 190.10% compared with PSS which shows that PSS-NP can improve oral bioavailability.

  13. Schistosomiasis and HIV-1 infection in rural Zimbabwe: effect of treatment of schistosomiasis on CD4 cell count and plasma HIV-1 RNA load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallestrup, Per; Zinyama, Rutendo; Gomo, Exnevia

    2005-01-01

    To determine whether treatment of schistosomiasis has an effect on the course of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, individuals with schistosomiasis and with or without HIV-1 infection were randomized to receive praziquantel treatment at inclusion or after a delay of 3 months......; 287 participants were included in the study, and 227 (79%) were followed up. Among the 130 participants who were coinfected, those who received early treatment (n=64) had a significantly lower increase in plasma HIV-1 RNA load than did those who received delayed treatment (n=66) (P...

  14. Deuterium retention in tungsten under combined high cycle ELM-like heat loads and steady-state plasma exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Huber

    2016-12-01

    Enhanced blister formation has been observed under combined loading conditions at power densities close to the threshold for damaging. It is shown that blisters are not mainly responsible for the pronounced increase of the D retention.

  15. Variability of plasma and urine betaine in diabetes mellitus and its relationship to methionine load test responses: an observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Lever, Michael; Slow, Sandy; McGregor, David O; Dellow, Warwick J; George, Peter M; Chambers, Stephen T

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Since betaine is an osmolyte and methyl donor, and abnormal betaine loss is common in diabetes mellitus (>20% patients), we investigated the relationship between betaine and the post-methionine load rise in homocysteine, in diabetes and control subjects. The post-methionine load test is reported to be both an independent vascular risk factor and a measure of betaine sufficiency. Methods Patients with type 2 diabetes (n = 34) and control subjects (n = 17) were recruited. We...

  16. Vapor shielding effects on energy transfer from plasma-gun generated ELM-like transient loads to material surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Y.; Sakuma, I.; Asai, Y.; Onishi, K.; Isono, W.; Nakazono, T.; Nakane, M.; Fukumoto, N.; Nagata, M.

    2016-02-01

    Energy transfer processes from ELM-like pulsed helium (He) plasmas with a pulse duration of ˜0.1 ms to aluminum (Al) and tungsten (W) surfaces were experimentally investigated by the use of a magnetized coaxial plasma gun device. The surface absorbed energy density of the He pulsed plasma on the W surface measured with a calorimeter was ˜0.44 MJ m-2, whereas it was ˜0.15 MJ m-2 on the Al surface. A vapor layer in front of the Al surface exposed to the He pulsed plasma was clearly identified by Al neutral emission line (Al i) measured with a high time resolution spectrometer, and fast imaging with a high-speed visible camera filtered around the Al i emission line. On the other hand, no clear evaporation in front of the W surface exposed to the He pulsed plasma was observed in the present condition. Discussions on the reduction in the surface absorbed energy density on the Al surface are provided by considering the latent heat of vaporization and radiation cooling due to the Al vapor cloud.

  17. Experimental investigation of heat transport and divertor loads of fusion plasmas in all metal ASDEX upgrade and JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sieglin, Bernhard A.

    2014-01-01

    This work presents divertor heat load studies conducted at two of the largest tokamaks currently in operation, ASDEX Upgrade and the Joint European Torus (JET). A commonly agreed empirical scaling for the power fall-off length in H-mode obtained in carbon devices is validated in JET with the ILW. Bohm and Gyro-Bohm like models are identified as possible candidates describing the divertor broadening. Quantities for the assessment of the thermal load induced by transient heat loads are defined. JET with the ILW exhibits an on average longer ELM duration as compared to the carbon wall. For identical pedestal conditions the ELM durations in both cases are found to be the same within error bars. The energy fluency is found to depend mainly on the pedestal pressure with a weak dependence on the relative loss in stored energy. This is noteworthy since the current extrapolation to ITER assumes a linear dependence on the relative ELM size.

  18. Core Gene Expression and Association of Genotypes with Viral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine genotypic distribution, ribonucleic acid (RNA) RNA viral load and express core gene from Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infected patients in Punjab, Pakistan. Methods: A total of 1690 HCV RNA positive patients were included in the study. HCV genotyping was tested by type-specific genotyping assay, viral ...

  19. Prognosis of patients treated with cART from 36 months after initiation, according to current and previous CD4 cell count and plasma HIV-1 RNA measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lanoy, Emilie; May, Margaret; Mocroft, Amanda; Phillips, Andrew; Justice, Amy; Chene, Genevieve; Furrer, Hansjakob; Sterling, Timothy; D'Arminio Monforte, Antonella; Force, Lluis; Gill, John; Harris, Ross; Hogg, Robert S.; Rockstroh, Juergen; Saag, Mike; Khaykin, Pavel; de Wolf, Frank; Sterne, Jonathan A. C.; Costagliola, Dominique

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: CD4 cell count and plasma viral load are well known predictors of AIDS and mortality in HIV-1-infected patients treated with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). This study investigated, in patients treated for at least 3 years, the respective prognostic importance of values

  20. Mobil Viral Pazarlama

    OpenAIRE

    Barutçu, Süleyman

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Mobile Viral Marketing, with using mobile phones, is one of the most importantinnovations after Word of Mouth Marketing performed by face to face amongpeople and Viral Marketing performed in the İnternet. The main objective of thisstudy is to call marketing communicators’ and academicians’ attentions whowant to increase the recognition of companies’ products, services and brands tobecome a current issue in the marketplace using Mobile Viral Marketingapplications by reason of techno...

  1. [Immunotherapy for refractory viral infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morio, Tomohiro; Fujita, Yuriko; Takahashi, Satoshi

    Various antiviral agents have been developed, which are sometimes associated with toxicity, development of virus-resistant strain, and high cost. Virus-specific T-cell (VST) therapy provides an alternative curative therapy that can be effective for a prolonged time without eliciting drug resistance. VSTs can be directly separated using several types of capture devices and can be obtained by stimulating peripheral blood mononuclear cells with viral antigens (virus, protein, or peptide) loaded on antigen-presenting cells (APC). APC can be transduced with virus-antigen coding plasmid or pulsed with overlapping peptides. VST therapy has been studied in drug non-responsive viral infections after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Several previous studies have demonstrated the efficacy of VST therapy without significant severe GVHD. In addition, VSTs from a third-party donor have been prepared and administered for post-HCT viral infection. Although target viruses of VSTs include herpes virus species and polyomavirus species, a wide variety of pathogens, such as papillomavirus, intracellular bacteria, and fungi, can be treated by pathogen-specific T-cells. Perhaps, these specific T-cells could be used for opportunistic infections in other immunocompromised hosts in the near future.

  2. How Can Viral Dynamics Models Inform Endpoint Measures in Clinical Trials of Therapies for Acute Viral Infections?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin Vegvari

    Full Text Available Acute viral infections pose many practical challenges for the accurate assessment of the impact of novel therapies on viral growth and decay. Using the example of influenza A, we illustrate how the measurement of infection-related quantities that determine the dynamics of viral load within the human host, can inform investigators on the course and severity of infection and the efficacy of a novel treatment. We estimated the values of key infection-related quantities that determine the course of natural infection from viral load data, using Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods. The data were placebo group viral load measurements collected during volunteer challenge studies, conducted by Roche, as part of the oseltamivir trials. We calculated the values of the quantities for each patient and the correlations between the quantities, symptom severity and body temperature. The greatest variation among individuals occurred in the viral load peak and area under the viral load curve. Total symptom severity correlated positively with the basic reproductive number. The most sensitive endpoint for therapeutic trials with the goal to cure patients is the duration of infection. We suggest laboratory experiments to obtain more precise estimates of virological quantities that can supplement clinical endpoint measurements.

  3. Kinetics of HIV-1 in cerebrospinal fluid and plasma in cryptococcal meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge A. Benetucci

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine HIV-1 kinetics in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and plasma in patients with cryptococcal meningitis (CM, we undertook a prospective collection of paired CSF/plasma samples from antiretroviral therapy- free HIV-infected patients with CM. Samples were obtained at baseline (S1 and at the second (S2 and third (S3 weeks of antifungal therapy. HIV-1 CSF concentrations were significantly lower in both S2 and S3 with respect to S1. Plasma concentrations remained stable. HIV-1 concentrations were higher in plasma than CSF in all cases. Patients who survived the episode of CM (but not those who died showed a decrease in CSF viral load, what suggests different viral kinetics of HIV-1 in the CSF according to the clinical course of this opportunistic disease.

  4. Comparison of the RealTime HIV-1, COBAS TaqMan 48 v1.0, Easy Q v1.2, and Versant v3.0 assays for Determination of HIV-1 Viral Loads in a Cohort of Canadian Patients with Diverse HIV Subtype Infections▿

    OpenAIRE

    Church, Deirdre; Gregson, Daniel; Lloyd, Tracie; Klein, Marina; Beckthold, Brenda; Laupland, Kevin; Gill, M. John

    2010-01-01

    HIV clinics in Canada provide care to an increasing number of patients born outside of Canada with HIV-1 non-B subtype infections. Because the Easy Q HIV-1 v1.2 assay (EQ; bioMérieux) failed to detect some non-B subtype infections, a multiassay HIV-1 viral load (VL) study was conducted with patients with diverse HIV subtype infections. Patients were enrolled from the Southern Alberta HIV Clinic (SAC), Calgary, Alberta, Canada (n = 349) and the McGill HIV Clinic (MHC), Montreal, Quebec, Canada...

  5. [Emergent viral infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galama, J.M.D.

    2001-01-01

    The emergence and re-emergence of viral infections is an ongoing process. Large-scale vaccination programmes led to the eradication or control of some viral infections in the last century, but new viruses are always emerging. Increased travel is leading to a rise in the importation of exotic

  6. Viral Haemorrhagic Septicaemia Virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Skall, Helle Frank

    2013-01-01

    This chapter covers the genetics (genotypes and serotypes), clinical signs, host species, transmission, prevalence, diagnosis, control and prevention of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus.......This chapter covers the genetics (genotypes and serotypes), clinical signs, host species, transmission, prevalence, diagnosis, control and prevention of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus....

  7. Viral Disease Networks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulbahce, Natali; Yan, Han; Vidal, Marc; Barabasi, Albert-Laszlo

    2010-03-01

    Viral infections induce multiple perturbations that spread along the links of the biological networks of the host cells. Understanding the impact of these cascading perturbations requires an exhaustive knowledge of the cellular machinery as well as a systems biology approach that reveals how individual components of the cellular system function together. Here we describe an integrative method that provides a new approach to studying virus-human interactions and its correlations with diseases. Our method involves the combined utilization of protein - protein interactions, protein -- DNA interactions, metabolomics and gene - disease associations to build a ``viraldiseasome''. By solely using high-throughput data, we map well-known viral associated diseases and predict new candidate viral diseases. We use microarray data of virus-infected tissues and patient medical history data to further test the implications of the viral diseasome. We apply this method to Epstein-Barr virus and Human Papillomavirus and shed light into molecular development of viral diseases and disease pathways.

  8. ACVP-05: Virus Genetic Analysis from Cell-Free Plasma, Virally Infected Cells or Tissues and Cultured Supernatant Via Single Genome Amplification and Direct Sequencing | Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Viral Evolution Core within the AIDS and Cancer Virus Program will extract viral RNA/DNA from cell-free or cell-associated samples. Complementary (cDNA) will be generated as needed, and cDNA or DNA will be diluted to a single copy prior to nested

  9. Oligomeric recombinant H5 HA1 vaccine produced in bacteria protects ferrets from homologous and heterologous wild-type H5N1 influenza challenge and controls viral loads better than subunit H5N1 vaccine by eliciting high-affinity antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Swati; Dimitrova, Milena; Munjal, Ashok; Fontana, Juan; Crevar, Corey J; Carter, Donald M; Ross, Ted M; Khurana, Surender; Golding, Hana

    2012-11-01

    Recombinant hemagglutinin from influenza viruses with pandemic potential can be produced rapidly in various cell substrates. In this study, we compared the functionality and immunogenicity of bacterially produced oligomeric or monomeric HA1 proteins from H5N1 (A/Vietnam/1203/04) with those of the egg-based licensed subunit H5N1 (SU-H5N1) vaccine in ferrets challenged with homologous or heterologous H5N1 highly pathogenic influenza strains. Ferrets were vaccinated twice with the oligomeric or monomeric rHA1 or with SU-H5N1 (Sanofi Pasteur) emulsified with Titermax adjuvant and were challenged with wild-type homologous (A/Vietnam/1203/04; clade 1) or heterologous (A/Whooperswan/Mongolia/244/2005; clade 2.2) virus. Only the oligomeric rHA1 (not the monomeric rHA1) immunogen and the SU-H5N1 vaccine provided protection against the lethality and morbidity of homologous and heterologous highly pathogenic H5N1. Oligomeric rHA1 generated more cross-neutralizing antibodies and higher levels of serum antibody binding to HA1, with stronger avidity and a better IgG/IgM ratio, than monomeric HA1 and SU-H5N1 vaccines, as determined by surface plasmon resonance (SPR). Importantly, viral loads after heterologous H5N1 challenge were more efficiently controlled in ferrets vaccinated with the oligomeric rHA1 immunogen than in SU-H5N1-vaccinated ferrets. The reduction of viral loads in the nasal washes correlated strongly with higher-avidity antibodies to oligomeric rHA1 derived from H5N1 clade 1 and clade 2.2 viruses, as measured by SPR. This is the first study to show the role of antibody avidity for the HA1 globular head domain in reduction of viral loads in the upper respiratory tract, which could significantly reduce viral transmission.

  10. Repair of segmental load-bearing bone defect by autologous mesenchymal stem cells and plasma-derived fibrin impregnated ceramic block results in early recovery of limb function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Min Hwei; Duski, Suryasmi; Tan, Kok Keong; Yusof, Mohd Reusmaazran; Low, Kiat Cheong; Rose, Isa Mohamed; Mohamed, Zahiah; Bin Saim, Aminuddin; Idrus, Ruszymah Bt Hj

    2014-01-01

    Calcium phosphate-based bone substitutes have not been used to repair load-bearing bone defects due to their weak mechanical property. In this study, we reevaluated the functional outcomes of combining ceramic block with osteogenic-induced mesenchymal stem cells and platelet-rich plasma (TEB) to repair critical-sized segmental tibial defect. Comparisons were made with fresh marrow-impregnated ceramic block (MIC) and partially demineralized allogeneic bone block (ALLO). Six New Zealand White female rabbits were used in each study group and three rabbits with no implants were used as negative controls. By Day 90, 4/6 rabbits in TEB group and 2/6 in ALLO and MIC groups resumed normal gait pattern. Union was achieved significantly faster in TEB group with a radiological score of 4.50 ± 0.78 versus ALLO (1.06 ± 0.32), MIC (1.28 ± 0.24), and negative controls (0). Histologically, TEB group scored the highest percentage of new bone (82% ± 5.1%) compared to ALLO (5% ± 2.5%) and MIC (26% ± 5.2%). Biomechanically, TEB-treated tibiae achieved the highest compressive strength (43.50 ± 12.72 MPa) compared to those treated with ALLO (15.15 ± 3.57 MPa) and MIC (23.28 ± 6.14 MPa). In conclusion, TEB can repair critical-sized segmental load-bearing bone defects and restore limb function.

  11. Effect of cold plasma pre-treatment on photocatalytic activity of 3D fabric loaded with nano-photocatalysts: Response surface methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoreishian, Seyed Majid; Badii, Khashayar; Norouzi, Mohammad; Malek, Kaveh

    2016-03-01

    In this study, the physico-chemical effects occasioned by the cold plasma discharge (CPD) on the photo-decolorization of Reactive Orange 16 (RO16) by 3D fabrics (spacer fabrics) loaded with ZnO:TiO2 nano-photocatalysts (nphs) were optimized via response surface methodology (RSM). CPD was employed to improve the surface characteristics of the spacer fabrics for nphs loading. Surface morphology and color variation were studied utilizing scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and CIE-Lab system, respectively. The effect of CPD on the wetting ability of the spacer fabrics was examined using dynamic adsorption measurement (DAM). Also, X-ray fluorescence (XRF) was utilized to investigate the durability of the nphs on the spacer fabrics. All the experiments were implemented in a Box-Behnken design (BBD) with three independent variables (CPD treatment time, dye concentration and irradiation time) in order to optimize the decolorization of RO16. The anticipated values of the decolorization efficiency were found to be in excellent agreement with the experimental values (R2 = 0.9996, Adjusted R2 = 0.9992). The kinetic analysis demonstrated that the photocatalytic decolorization followed the Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetic model. In conclusion, this heterogeneous photocatalytic process is capable of decolorizing and mineralizing azoic reactive dye in textile wastewater. Moreover, the results confirmed that RSM based on the BBD was a suitable method to optimize the operating conditions of RO16 degradation.

  12. Recrystallization and modification of the stainless-steel surface relief under photonic heat load in powerful plasma discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budaev, V. P., E-mail: budaev@mail.ru; Martynenko, Yu. V. [National Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation); Khimchenko, L. N. [Project Center ITER (Russian Federation); Zhitlukhin, A. M.; Klimov, N. S. [Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research (Russian Federation); Pitts, R. A. [ITER Organization (France); Linke, J. [EURATOM Association, Forschungszentrum Jülich GmbH (Germany); Bazylev, B. [IHM, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany); Belova, N. E.; Karpov, A. V. [National Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation); Kovalenko, D. V.; Podkovyrov, V. L.; Yaroshevskaya, A. D. [Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research (Russian Federation)

    2013-11-15

    Targets made of ITER-grade 316L(N)-IG stainless steel and Russian-grade 12Cr18Ni10Ti stainless steel with a close composition were exposed at the QSPA-T plasma gun to plasma photonic radiation pulses simulating conditions of disruption mitigation in ITER. After a large number of pulses, modification of the stainless-steel surface was observed, such as the formation of a wavy structure, irregular roughness, and cracks on the target surface. X-ray and optic microscopic analyses of targets revealed changes in the orientation and dimensions of crystallites (grains) over a depth of up to 20 μm for 316L(N)-IG stainless steel after 200 pulses and up to 40 μm for 12Cr18Ni10Ti stainless steel after 50 pulses, which is significantly larger than the depth of the layer melted in one pulse (∼10 μm). In a series of 200 tests of ITER-grade 316L(N)-IG ITER stainless steel, a linear increase in the height of irregularity (roughness) with increasing number of pulses at a rate of up to ∼1 μm per pulse was observed. No alteration in the chemical composition of the stainless-steel surface in the series of tests was revealed. A model is developed that describes the formation of wavy irregularities on the melted metal surface with allowance for the nonlinear stage of instability of the melted layer with a vapor/plasma flow above it. A decisive factor in this case is the viscous flow of the melted metal from the troughs to tops of the wavy structure. The model predicts saturation of the growth of the wavy structure when its amplitude becomes comparable with its wavelength. Approaches to describing the observed stochastic relief and roughness of the stainless-steel surface formed in the series of tests are considered. The recurrence of the melting-solidification process in which mechanisms of the hill growth compete with the spreading of the material from the hills can result in the formation of a stochastic relief.

  13. Understanding Image Virality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-07

    Example non-viral images. Figure 1: Top: Images with high viral scores in our dataset depict internet “celebrity” memes ex. “Grumpy Cat”; Bottom: Images...of images that is most similar to ours is the concurrently introduced viral meme generator of Wang et al., that combines NLP and Computer Vision (low...doing any of our tasks. The test included questions about widely spread Reddit memes and jargon so that anyone familiar with Reddit can easily get a high

  14. Behavior of porous beryllium under thermomechanical loading. Part 6. Effect of pressure on the microstructure of plasma-sprayed beryllium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanafee, J.E.; Snell, E.O.

    1975-01-01

    The effects of pressure and specimen preparation on the microstructure of two grades of porous plasma-sprayed beryllium were determined. One grade, P-1, was sintered after spraying while the other grade, P-10, was tested in the as-sprayed condition. the principal microstructural characteristics studied were grain size: grain morphology, and void distribution and size. It was found that machining can readily cause a significant dense surface layer on the porous beryllium specimens, and that the dense surface layer can be removed by etching. There was substantial difference in microstructure between the P-1 sintered and P-10 unsintered specimens both before and after being subjected to shock waves and static compression. (U.S.)

  15. Viral hemorrhagic septicemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batts, William N.; Winton, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS) is one of the most important viral diseases of finfish worldwide. In the past, VHS was thought to affect mainly rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss reared at freshwater facilities in Western Europe where it was known by various names including Egtved disease and infectious kidney swelling and liver degeneration (Wolf 1988). Today, VHS is known as an important source of mortality for cultured and wild fish in freshwater and marine environments in several regions of the northern hemisphere (Dixon 1999; Gagné et al. 2007; Kim and Faisal 2011; Lumsden et al. 2007; Marty et al. 1998, 2003; Meyers and Winton 1995; Skall et al. 2005b; Smail 1999; Takano et al. 2001). Viral hemorrhagic septicemia is caused by the fish rhabdovirus, viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), a member of the genus Novirhabdovirus of the family Rhabdoviridae

  16. Hepatitis viral aguda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Rubén Hernández Garcés

    1998-10-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica de las hepatitis virales agudas sobre aspectos vinculados a su etiología. Se tuvieron en cuenta además algunos datos epidemiológicos, las formas clínicas más importantes, los exámenes complementarios con especial énfasis en los marcadores virales y el diagnóstico positivoA bibliographical review of acute viral hepatitis was made taking into account those aspects connected with its etiology. Some epidemiological markers, the most important clinical forms, and the complementary examinations with special emphasis on the viral markers and the positive diagnosis were also considered

  17. Wastewater viral community

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The dataset contains the information used to generate the figures in the manuscript. The data describes the viral loss measured at all steps of sample processing,...

  18. Viral pathogenesis in diagrams

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tremblay, Michel; Berthiaume, Laurent; Ackermann, Hans-Wolfgang

    2001-01-01

    .... The 268 diagrams in Viral Pathogenesis in Diagrams were selected from over 800 diagrams of English and French virological literature, including one derived from a famous drawing by Leonardo da Vinci...

  19. Metabolism goes viral.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake-Stoner, Shigeki J; O'Shea, Clodagh C

    2014-04-01

    Viral and cellular oncogenes converge in targeting critical protein interaction networks to reprogram the cellular DNA and protein replication machinery for pathological replication. In this issue, Thai et al. (2014) show that adenovirus E4ORF1 activates MYC glycolytic targets to induce a Warburg-like effect that converts glucose into nucleotides for viral replication. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Influence of the inclusion of spray-dried animal plasma in weanling pigs’ diet on porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2 loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Pacheco Monferdini

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available O plasma sanguíneo em pó (PSP, produto natural de indústria frigorífica, tem mostrado efeitos benéficos sobre o crescimento e desempenho de leitões desmamados precocemente. Atualmente, embora o circovírus suíno 2 (PCV2 tenha grande importância para a suinocultura, não há informações sobre o impacto do uso de PSP e a resposta imune ao PCV2 em infecções naturais. Este trabalho avaliou diferentes níveis de inclusão de PSP em dietas de leitões e as cargas virais de PCV2 correspondentes. Quatro níveis de inclusão de PSP foram testados em dois períodos consecutivos: 0, 2, 4 ou 6% durante o período 1 (14 aos 28 dias de idade e 1, 2 ou 3% de PSP durante o período 2 (29 a 42 dias de idade. No período 3 (42 aos 56 dias de idade, todos os leitões foram alimentados com dieta isenta de PSP. Amostras de soro foram coletadas semanalmente e testadas para anticorpos anti-PCV2 e carga de DNA de PCV2. As concentrações de 6% e 3% de PSP fornecidas nas rações durante o período 1 e 2, respectivamente, influenciaram na carga viral de PCV2 de suínos naturalmente infectados.

  1. Plasma EBV microRNAs in paediatric renal transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Jaythoon; Dean, Jonathan; De Gascun, Cillian F; Riordan, Michael; Sweeney, Clodagh; Connell, Jeff; Awan, Atif

    2018-06-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) was the first human virus identified to express microRNA (miRNA). To date, 44 mature miRNAs are encoded for within the EBV genome. EBV miRNAs have not been profiled in paediatric renal transplant recipients. In this study, we investigated circulating EBV miRNA profiles as novel biomarkers in paediatric renal transplant patients. Forty-two microRNAs encoded within 2 EBV open reading frames (BART and BHRF) were examined in renal transplant recipients who resolved EBV infection (REI) or maintained chronic high viral loads (CHL), and in non-transplant patients with acute infectious mononucleosis (IM). Plasma EBV-miR-BART2-5p was present in higher numbers of IM (7/8) and CHL (7/10) compared to REI (7/12) patients. A trend was observed between the numbers of plasma EBV miRNAs expressed and EBV viral load (p < 0.07). Several EBV-miRs including BART7-3p, 15, 9-3p, 11-3p, 1-3p and 3-3p were detected in IM and CHL patients only. The lytic EBV-miRs, BHRF1-2-3p and 1-1, indicating active viral replication, were detected in IM patients only. One CHL patient developed post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) after several years and analysis of 10 samples over a 30-month period showed an average 24-fold higher change in plasma EBV-miR-BART2-5p compared to the CHL group and 110-fold higher change compared to the REI group. Our results suggest that EBV-miR-BART2-5p, which targets the stress-induced immune ligand MICB to escape recognition and elimination by NK cells, may have a role in sustaining high EBV viral loads in CHL paediatric kidney transplant recipients.

  2. Platelet-rich plasma loaded in situ-formed hydrogel enhances hyaline cartilage regeneration by CB1 upregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye-Rim; Park, Kyung Min; Joung, Yoon Ki; Park, Ki Dong; Do, Sun Hee

    2012-11-01

    The efficacy of three-dimensional (3D) culture on the proliferation and maturation of chondrocytes seeded into a hydrogel scaffold was assessed. Three types of hydrogel were prepared for the 3D culture of primary isolated chondrocytes. Chondrocyte proliferation was assessed using a live/dead viability/cytotoxicity assay and semiquantitative RT-PCR after 3D culture in hydrogel. Cylindrical defects in the center of rat xyphoids were used for the implantation of platelet-rich plasma (PRP)/hydrogel composites. Rats were killed at day 7 postoperatively and evaluated histochemically and immunohistologically. Xyphoid chondrocytes proliferated well with time in hydrogels. In the PRP-containing hydrogels, xyphoid defects displayed early formation of chondroid matrix with massive peripheral infiltration of spindle cells. These results were consistent with Safranin-O staining for proteoglycans and immunohistochemistry for type II collagen. Gene expression analyses in vitro revealed aggrecan, type II collagen, and ChM-1 and CB1 upregulation by PRP/hydrogel. PRP/hydrogel provided a suitable environment for hyaline cartilaginous regeneration, leading to anti-inflammation by significant increase of CB1 and inhibiting vascular ingrowth via considerable upregulation of ChM-1. The results provide a valuable reference for the clinical application of hydrogel scaffolds for hyaline cartilage regeneration, as well as the use of autologous PRP to improve cellular proliferation and maturation of xyphoid repair. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Physician experience and rates of plasma HIV-1 RNA suppression among illicit drug users: an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangsari Sassan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the availability of antiretroviral therapy (ART, suboptimal treatment outcomes have been observed among HIV-seropositive illicit drug users. As there is an urgent need to improve responses to antiretroviral therapy among this population, we undertook this study to evaluate the role of physician experience on rates of plasma HIV-1 RNA suppression following initiation of ART. Methods Using data from a community-recruited cohort of HIV-positive illicit drug users, we used Cox proportional hazards regression to model the time to plasma viral HIV RNA Results Between May 1996 and December 2008, 267 individuals initiated ART among whom 227 (85% achieved a plasma HIV RNA Conclusions In this setting of universal HIV/AIDS care, illicit drug users with more experienced physicians exhibited faster rates of plasma viral load suppression. These findings argue for specialized services to help optimize HIV treatment outcomes among this population.

  4. Rice (Oryza sativa japonica) Albumin Suppresses the Elevation of Blood Glucose and Plasma Insulin Levels after Oral Glucose Loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ina, Shigenobu; Ninomiya, Kazumi; Mogi, Takashi; Hase, Ayumu; Ando, Toshiki; Matsukaze, Narumi; Ogihara, Jun; Akao, Makoto; Kumagai, Hitoshi; Kumagai, Hitomi

    2016-06-22

    The suppressive effect of rice albumin (RA) of 16 kDa on elevation of blood glucose level after oral loading of starch or glucose and its possible mechanism were examined. RA suppressed the increase in blood glucose levels in both the oral starch tolerance test and the oral glucose tolerance test. The blood glucose concentrations 15 min after the oral administration of starch were 144 ± 6 mg/dL for control group and 127 ± 4 mg/dL for RA 200 mg/kg BW group, while those after the oral administration of glucose were 157 ± 7 mg/dL for control group and 137 ± 4 mg/dL for RA 200 mg/kg BW group. However, in the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test, no significant differences in blood glucose level were observed between RA and the control groups, indicating that RA suppresses the glucose absorption from the small intestine. However, RA did not inhibit the activity of mammalian α-amylase. RA was hydrolyzed to an indigestible high-molecular-weight peptide (HMP) of 14 kDa and low-molecular-weight peptides by pepsin and pancreatin. Furthermore, RA suppressed the glucose diffusion rate through a semipermeable membrane like dietary fibers in vitro. Therefore, the indigestible HMP may adsorb glucose and suppress its absorption from the small intestine.

  5. Effects of particle size, helium gas pressure and microparticle dose on the plasma concentration of indomethacin after bombardment of indomethacin-loaded poly-L-lactic acid microspheres using a Helios gun system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Masaki; Natsume, Hideshi; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Sugibayashi, Kenji; Morimoto, Yasunori

    2002-05-01

    We investigated the effects of the particle size of indomethacin-loaded poly-L-lactic acid microspheres (IDM-loaded PLA MS), the helium pressure used to accelerate the particles, and the bombardment dose of PLA MS on the plasma concentration of IDM after bombarding with IDM-loaded PLA MS of different particle size ranges, 20-38, 44-53 and 75-100 microm, the abdomen of hairless rats using the Helios gene gun system (Helios gun system). Using larger particles and a higher helium pressure, produced an increase in the plasma IDM concentration and the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) and resultant F (relative bioavailability with respect to intracutaneous injection) of IDM increased by an amount depending on the particle size and helium pressure. Although a reduction in the bombardment dose led to a decrease in C(max) and AUC, F increased on decreasing the bombardment dose. In addition, a more efficient F was obtained after bombarding with IDM-loaded PLA MS of 75-100 microm in diameter at each low dose in different sites of the abdomen compared with that after bolus bombardment with a high dose (dose equivalent). These results suggest that the bombardment injection of drug-loaded microspheres by the Helios gun system is a very useful tool for delivering a variety of drugs in powder form into the skin and systemic circulation.

  6. Bile acids for viral hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Weikeng; Liu, J; Gluud, C

    2003-01-01

    The viral hepatitides are common causes of liver diseases globally. Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus was reached regarding their usefulness.......The viral hepatitides are common causes of liver diseases globally. Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus was reached regarding their usefulness....

  7. Membrane-based, sedimentation-assisted plasma separator for point-of-care applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changchun; Mauk, Michael; Gross, Robert; Bushman, Frederic D; Edelstein, Paul H; Collman, Ronald G; Bau, Haim H

    2013-11-05

    Often, high-sensitivity, point-of-care (POC) clinical tests, such as HIV viral load, require large volumes of plasma. Although centrifuges are ubiquitously used in clinical laboratories to separate plasma from whole blood, centrifugation is generally inappropriate for on-site testing. Suitable alternatives are not readily available to separate the relatively large volumes of plasma from milliliters of blood that may be needed to meet stringent limit-of-detection specifications for low-abundance target molecules. We report on a simple-to-use, low-cost, pump-free, membrane-based, sedimentation-assisted plasma separator capable of separating a relatively large volume of plasma from undiluted whole blood within minutes. This plasma separator consists of an asymmetric, porous, polysulfone membrane housed in a disposable chamber. The separation process takes advantage of both gravitational sedimentation of blood cells and size exclusion-based filtration. The plasma separator demonstrated a "blood in-plasma out" capability, consistently extracting 275 ± 33.5 μL of plasma from 1.8 mL of undiluted whole blood within less than 7 min. The device was used to separate plasma laden with HIV viruses from HIV virus-spiked whole blood with recovery efficiencies of 95.5% ± 3.5%, 88.0% ± 9.5%, and 81.5% ± 12.1% for viral loads of 35,000, 3500, and 350 copies/mL, respectively. The separation process is self-terminating to prevent excessive hemolysis. The HIV-laden plasma was then injected into our custom-made microfluidic chip for nucleic acid testing and was successfully subjected to reverse-transcriptase loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP), demonstrating that the plasma is sufficiently pure to support high-efficiency nucleic acid amplification.

  8. Loading regimen required to rapidly achieve therapeutic trough plasma concentration of teicoplanin and evaluation of clinical features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seki M

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Masafumi Seki,1,* Kaori Yabuno,1,2,* Koji Miyawaki,1,2 Yoshihiro Miwa,2 Kazunori Tomono11Division of Infection Control and Prevention, 2Department of Pharmacy, Osaka University Hospital, Suita, Osaka, Japan*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: A trough concentration of >20 mg/L is considered the optimal dosage of teicoplanin required to ensure early therapeutic effects against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA infections including those in patients who develop febrile neutropenia after chemotherapy. This study determines appropriate initial doses during the first 2 days of administration and evaluates the therapeutic target teicoplanin trough concentration.Method: A 2-day regimen was evaluated in patients treated with 600 mg and 1200 mg or 1200 mg and 600 mg (total 1800 mg, Group 1, 800 mg and 800 mg (total 1600 mg, Group 2, and 800 mg and 400 mg (total 1200 mg, Group 3 of teicoplanin on Days 1 and 2, respectively. We also compared the efficiency and adverse effects at trough concentrations of 15–20 mg/L (Group A, n = 28 with >20 mg/L (Group B, n = 27 of teicoplanin, and also compared them with those on the similar concentrations of vancomycin (Groups C and D, n = 50 and 34, respectively.Results: The mean trough concentrations of teicoplanin on Days 4 or 5 were 22.2, 17.5, and 16.2 mg/L in Groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The clinical efficiency was 85.7%, 81.5%, 92.0%, and 91.5%, in Groups A, B, C, and D, respectively. The rates of adverse effects were not high in teicoplanin (nephrotoxicity, 7.1% and 3.7%, and hepatotoxicity, 14.3% and 11.1% in Groups A and B, respectively. However, more adverse effects tended to arise in patients who received vancomycin in nephrotoxicity (14.0% and 11.8%, in Groups C and D, respectively.Conclusion: These results suggest that the 2-day regimens with total 1800 mg achieved the most effective therapeutic trough plasma concentration of teicoplanin (20 mg/L. However, 15–20

  9. Viral Reservoirs in Lymph Nodes of FIV-Infected Progressor and Long-Term Non-Progressor Cats during the Asymptomatic Phase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C D Eckstrand

    Full Text Available Examination of a cohort of cats experimentally infected with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV for 5.75 years revealed detectable proviral DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs harvested during the asymptomatic phase, undetectable plasma viral RNA (FIV gag, and rarely detectable cell-associated viral RNA. Despite apparent viral latency in peripheral CD4+ T cells, circulating CD4+ T cell numbers progressively declined in progressor animals. The aim of this study was to explore this dichotomy of peripheral blood viral latency in the face of progressive immunopathology. The viral replication status, cellular immunophenotypes, and histopathologic features were compared between popliteal lymph nodes (PLNs and peripheral blood. Also, we identified and further characterized one of the FIV-infected cats identified as a long-term non-progressor (LTNP.PLN-derived leukocytes from FIV-infected cats during the chronic asymptomatic phase demonstrated active viral gag transcription and FIV protein translation as determined by real-time RT-PCR, Western blot and in situ immunohistochemistry, whereas viral RNA in blood leukocytes was either undetectable or intermittently detectable and viral protein was not detected. Active transcription of viral RNA was detectable in PLN-derived CD4+ and CD21+ leukocytes. Replication competent provirus was reactivated ex vivo from PLN-derived leukocytes from three of four FIV-infected cats. Progressor cats showed a persistent and dramatically decreased proportion and absolute count of CD4+ T cells in blood, and a decreased proportion of CD4+ T cells in PLNs. A single long-term non-progressor (LTNP cat persistently demonstrated an absolute peripheral blood CD4+ T cell count indistinguishable from uninfected animals, a lower proviral load in unfractionated blood and PLN leukocytes, and very low amounts of viral RNA in the PLN.Collectively our data indicates that PLNs harbor important reservoirs of ongoing viral

  10. Repair of Segmental Load-Bearing Bone Defect by Autologous Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Plasma-Derived Fibrin Impregnated Ceramic Block Results in Early Recovery of Limb Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Hwei Ng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium phosphate-based bone substitutes have not been used to repair load-bearing bone defects due to their weak mechanical property. In this study, we reevaluated the functional outcomes of combining ceramic block with osteogenic-induced mesenchymal stem cells and platelet-rich plasma (TEB to repair critical-sized segmental tibial defect. Comparisons were made with fresh marrow-impregnated ceramic block (MIC and partially demineralized allogeneic bone block (ALLO. Six New Zealand White female rabbits were used in each study group and three rabbits with no implants were used as negative controls. By Day 90, 4/6 rabbits in TEB group and 2/6 in ALLO and MIC groups resumed normal gait pattern. Union was achieved significantly faster in TEB group with a radiological score of 4.50 ± 0.78 versus ALLO (1.06 ± 0.32, MIC (1.28 ± 0.24, and negative controls (0. Histologically, TEB group scored the highest percentage of new bone (82% ± 5.1% compared to ALLO (5% ± 2.5% and MIC (26% ± 5.2%. Biomechanically, TEB-treated tibiae achieved the highest compressive strength (43.50 ± 12.72 MPa compared to those treated with ALLO (15.15 ± 3.57 MPa and MIC (23.28 ± 6.14 MPa. In conclusion, TEB can repair critical-sized segmental load-bearing bone defects and restore limb function.

  11. Effect of cold plasma pre-treatment on photocatalytic activity of 3D fabric loaded with nano-photocatalysts: Response surface methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghoreishian, Seyed Majid; Badii, Khashayar; Norouzi, Mohammad; Malek, Kaveh

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The potential of immobilized TiO_2 and ZnO nanophotocatalysts for the removal of reactive dye was investigated. • Optimum decolorization conditions have been determined. • The immobilized nanophotocatalysts decolorized azo dyes completely from a textile effluent within 60 min. • Photocatalytic decolorization rates obeyed the pseudo-first-order rate. - Abstract: In this study, the physico-chemical effects occasioned by the cold plasma discharge (CPD) on the photo-decolorization of Reactive Orange 16 (RO16) by 3D fabrics (spacer fabrics) loaded with ZnO:TiO_2 nano-photocatalysts (nphs) were optimized via response surface methodology (RSM). CPD was employed to improve the surface characteristics of the spacer fabrics for nphs loading. Surface morphology and color variation were studied utilizing scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and CIE-Lab system, respectively. The effect of CPD on the wetting ability of the spacer fabrics was examined using dynamic adsorption measurement (DAM). Also, X-ray fluorescence (XRF) was utilized to investigate the durability of the nphs on the spacer fabrics. All the experiments were implemented in a Box–Behnken design (BBD) with three independent variables (CPD treatment time, dye concentration and irradiation time) in order to optimize the decolorization of RO16. The anticipated values of the decolorization efficiency were found to be in excellent agreement with the experimental values (R"2 = 0.9996, Adjusted R"2 = 0.9992). The kinetic analysis demonstrated that the photocatalytic decolorization followed the Langmuir–Hinshelwood kinetic model. In conclusion, this heterogeneous photocatalytic process is capable of decolorizing and mineralizing azoic reactive dye in textile wastewater. Moreover, the results confirmed that RSM based on the BBD was a suitable method to optimize the operating conditions of RO16 degradation.

  12. Effect of cold plasma pre-treatment on photocatalytic activity of 3D fabric loaded with nano-photocatalysts: Response surface methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghoreishian, Seyed Majid, E-mail: m.ghoreishian.1985@gmail.com [Young Researchers and Elite Club, South Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Badii, Khashayar [Department of Environmental Researches, Institute for Color Science and Technology (ICST), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Norouzi, Mohammad [Graduate Program of Biomedical Engineering, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB (Canada); Malek, Kaveh [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The potential of immobilized TiO{sub 2} and ZnO nanophotocatalysts for the removal of reactive dye was investigated. • Optimum decolorization conditions have been determined. • The immobilized nanophotocatalysts decolorized azo dyes completely from a textile effluent within 60 min. • Photocatalytic decolorization rates obeyed the pseudo-first-order rate. - Abstract: In this study, the physico-chemical effects occasioned by the cold plasma discharge (CPD) on the photo-decolorization of Reactive Orange 16 (RO16) by 3D fabrics (spacer fabrics) loaded with ZnO:TiO{sub 2} nano-photocatalysts (nphs) were optimized via response surface methodology (RSM). CPD was employed to improve the surface characteristics of the spacer fabrics for nphs loading. Surface morphology and color variation were studied utilizing scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and CIE-Lab system, respectively. The effect of CPD on the wetting ability of the spacer fabrics was examined using dynamic adsorption measurement (DAM). Also, X-ray fluorescence (XRF) was utilized to investigate the durability of the nphs on the spacer fabrics. All the experiments were implemented in a Box–Behnken design (BBD) with three independent variables (CPD treatment time, dye concentration and irradiation time) in order to optimize the decolorization of RO16. The anticipated values of the decolorization efficiency were found to be in excellent agreement with the experimental values (R{sup 2} = 0.9996, Adjusted R{sup 2} = 0.9992). The kinetic analysis demonstrated that the photocatalytic decolorization followed the Langmuir–Hinshelwood kinetic model. In conclusion, this heterogeneous photocatalytic process is capable of decolorizing and mineralizing azoic reactive dye in textile wastewater. Moreover, the results confirmed that RSM based on the BBD was a suitable method to optimize the operating conditions of RO16 degradation.

  13. Discordant CSF/plasma HIV-1 RNA in individuals on virologically suppressive antiretroviral therapy in Western India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dravid, Ameet N; Natrajan, Kartik; Kulkarni, Milind M; Saraf, Chinmay K; Mahajan, Uma S; Kore, Sachin D; Rathod, Niranjan M; Mahajan, Umakant S; Wadia, Rustom S

    2018-02-01

    Aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)/Plasma HIV-1 RNA discordance in virologically suppressed individuals presenting with incident neurologic symptoms.In this retrospective cohort study conducted between March 1, 2009, and March 1, 2017, HIV-1 infected adults exposed to atleast 12 months of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and having plasma viral load (VL) CSF/Plasma HIV-1 RNA discordance by measuring HIV-1