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  1. The −93T/G LPL Promoter Polymorphism Is Associated with Lower Third-Trimester Plasma Triglycerides in Pregnant African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmella, Mandy J.; Ferrell, Robert E.; Gallaher, Marcia J.; Lykins, David R.; Althouse, Andrew D.; Roberts, James M.; Hubel, Carl A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Hypertriglyceridemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and several pregnancy complications. Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) genetic variation modulates nonpregnancy plasma triglycerides, but effects during pregnancy are unknown. The G allele of the LPL −93T/G promoter polymorphism is 16–23 times more prevalent in Blacks than in Whites, contributing to lower triglycerides in nonpregnant African Americans by increasing LPL expression. Purpose This study investigated whether the triglyceride-lowering effect of −93G in African Americans is observed during pregnancy. Methods Genotyping was performed on 124 African American women with uncomplicated pregnancies for common functional LPL polymorphisms/mutations (−93T/G, D9N, N291S, S447X). Third-trimester plasma triglyceride, high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, and free fatty acid concentrations were measured with colorimetric assays. Clinical characteristics and lipid values were compared across the −93T/G genotypes. Results Triglycerides were significantly lower in women with the −93GG compared to the −93TT genotype, both with (n = 124, p = 0.02) and without (n = 108, p = 0.03) inclusion of participants with other LPL variant alleles. Triglyceride differences persisted after adjustment for pre-pregnancy body mass index, gestational age at delivery, and smoking. There were no significant differences in the other lipids or apolipoprotein B by −93T/G genotype. Conclusions Despite the considerable metabolic changes accompanying pregnancy, the triglyceride-lowering effect associated with the −93GG LPL genotype in African Americans persists during late pregnancy. The −93GG genotype might protect against pregnancy complications stemming from hypertriglyceridemia, but the overall increased risk for pregnancy complications in African American women points to complex, multifactorial relationships among risk factors, race, and adverse pregnancy outcomes. PMID:25566792

  2. Genetic determinants of plasma triglycerides

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    Johansen, Christopher T.; Kathiresan, Sekar; Hegele, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    Plasma triglyceride (TG) concentration is reemerging as an important cardiovascular disease risk factor. More complete understanding of the genes and variants that modulate plasma TG should enable development of markers for risk prediction, diagnosis, prognosis, and response to therapies and might help specify new directions for therapeutic interventions. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified both known and novel loci associated with plasma TG concentration. However, genetic variation at these loci explains only ∼10% of overall TG variation within the population. As the GWAS approach may be reaching its limit for discovering genetic determinants of TG, alternative genetic strategies, such as rare variant sequencing studies and evaluation of animal models, may provide complementary information to flesh out knowledge of clinically and biologically important pathways in TG metabolism. Herein, we review genes recently implicated in TG metabolism and describe how some of these genes likely modulate plasma TG concentration. We also discuss lessons regarding plasma TG metabolism learned from various genomic and genetic experimental approaches. Treatment of patients with moderate to severe hypertriglyceridemia with existing therapies is often challenging; thus, gene products and pathways found in recent genetic research studies provide hope for development of more effective clinical strategies. PMID:21041806

  3. Alcohol and plasma triglycerides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klop, Boudewijn; do Rego, Ana Torres; Cabezas, Manuel Castro

    2013-08-01

    This study reviews recent developments concerning the effects of alcohol on plasma triglycerides. The focus will be on population, intervention and metabolic studies with respect to alcohol and plasma triglycerides. Alcohol consumption and fat ingestion are closely associated and stimulated by each other via hypothalamic signals and by an elevated cephalic response. A J-shaped relationship between alcohol intake and plasma triglycerides has been described. A normal body weight, polyphenols in red wine and specific polymorphisms of the apolipoprotein A-V and apolipoprotein C-III genes may protect against alcohol-associated hypertriglyceridemia. In contrast, obesity exaggerates alcohol-associated hypertriglyceridemia and therefore the risk of pancreatitis. High alcohol intake remains harmful since it is associated with elevated plasma triglycerides, but also with cardiovascular disease, alcoholic fatty liver disease and the development of pancreatitis. Alcohol-induced hypertriglyceridemia is due to increased very-low-density lipoprotein secretion, impaired lipolysis and increased free fatty acid fluxes from adipose tissue to the liver. However, light to moderate alcohol consumption may be associated with decreased plasma triglycerides, probably determined by the type of alcoholic beverage consumed, genetic polymorphisms and lifestyle factors. Nevertheless, patients should be advised to reduce or stop alcohol consumption in case of hypertriglyceridemia.

  4. Fenofibrate increases very low density lipoprotein triglyceride production despite reducing plasma triglyceride levels in APOE*3-Leiden.CETP mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijland, S.; Pieterman, E.J.; Maas, A.C.E.; Hoorn, J.W.A. van der; Erk, M.J. van; Klinken, J.B. van; Havekes, L.M.; Dijk, K.W. van; Princen, H.M.G.; Rensen, P.C.N.

    2010-01-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) activator fenofibrate efficiently decreases plasma triglycerides (TG), which is generally attributed to enhanced very low density lipoprotein (VLDL)-TG clearance and decreased VLDL-TG production. However, because data on the effect of feno

  5. GLUT4 expression in human muscle fibres is not correlated with intracellular triglyceride (TG) content. Is TG a maker or a marker of insulin resistance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaster, M; Ottosen, P D; Vach, W

    2003-01-01

    We have recently reported a progressive decline in the expression of glucose transporter isoform 4 (GLUT4) from control subjects through obese non-diabetics to obese type 2 diabetic subjects, indicating that the reduced GLUT4 in slow twitch fibres could be secondary to obesity. In this study we...... investigate the association of GLUT4 expression with the intracellular triglyceride (TG) content in the same muscle fibres and with plasma lipid parameters. We used histochemistry and stereology to study the relationship between TG content and GLUT4 expression in muscle fibres from obese, obese type 2...... densities in slow and fast fibres did not correlate with the corresponding GLUT4 density in the same fibres in our study groups (p>0.05). Plasma TG and FFA did not correlate with GLUT4 expression in slow or fast fibres (p>0.05). In conclusion, TG content was increased in diabetic slow fibres with a reduced...

  6. Metformin lowers plasma triglycerides by promoting vldl-triglyceride clearance by brown adipose tissue in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerling, J.J.; Boon, M.R.; Zon, G.C. van der; Berg, S.A.A. van den; Hoek, A.M. van den; Lombès, M.; Princen, H.M.G.; Havekes, L.M.; Rensen, P.C.N.; Guigas, B.

    2014-01-01

    Metformin is the first-line drug for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Besides its well-characterized antihyperglycemic properties, metformin also lowers plasma VLDL triglyceride (TG). In this study, we investigated the underlying mechanisms in APOE*3-Leiden.CETP mice, a well-established model for h

  7. Fish oil -- how does it reduce plasma triglycerides?

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    Shearer, Gregory C; Savinova, Olga V; Harris, William S

    2012-05-01

    Long chain omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) are effective for reducing plasma triglyceride (TG) levels. At the pharmaceutical dose, 3.4g/day, they reduce plasma TG by about 25-50% after one month of treatment, resulting primarily from the decline in hepatic very low density lipoprotein (VLDL-TG) production, and secondarily from the increase in VLDL clearance. Numerous mechanisms have been shown to contribute to the TG overproduction, but a key component is an increase in the availability of FAs in the liver. The liver derives FAs from three sources: diet (delivered via chylomicron remnants), de novo lipogenesis, and circulating non-esterified FAs (NEFAs). Of these, NEFAs contribute the largest fraction to VLDL-TG production in both normotriglyceridemic subjects and hypertriglyceridemic, insulin resistant patients. Thus reducing NEFA delivery to the liver would be a likely locus of action for fish oils (FO). The key regulator of plasma NEFA is intracellular adipocyte lipolysis via hormone sensitive lipase (HSL), which increases as insulin sensitivity worsens. FO counteracts intracellular lipolysis in adipocytes by suppressing adipose tissue inflammation. In addition, FO increases extracellular lipolysis by lipoprotein lipase (LpL) in adipose, heart and skeletal muscle and enhances hepatic and skeletal muscle β-oxidation which contributes to reduced FA delivery to the liver. FO could activate transcription factors which control metabolic pathways in a tissue specific manner regulating nutrient traffic and reducing plasma TG. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Triglyceride Metabolism and Disease.

  8. Aspects of plasma triglyceride metabolism in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.P. Forget

    1975-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis aimed at investigating some aspects of plasma triglyceride metabolism in children. In the introduction general aspects of plasma triglyceride metabolism are presented. Chapter 1 reviews recent litterature data on the intravenous fat tolerance test and on plasma postheparin li

  9. Adipose triglyceride lipase is a TG hydrolase of the small intestine and regulates intestinal PPARα signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obrowsky, Sascha; Chandak, Prakash G; Patankar, Jay V; Povoden, Silvia; Schlager, Stefanie; Kershaw, Erin E; Bogner-Strauss, Juliane G; Hoefler, Gerald; Levak-Frank, Sanja; Kratky, Dagmar

    2013-02-01

    Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) is the rate-limiting enzyme mediating triglyceride (TG) hydrolysis. The lack of ATGL results in TG accumulation in multiple tissues, underscoring the critical role of ATGL in maintaining lipid homeostasis. Recent evidence suggests that ATGL affects TG metabolism via activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα). To investigate specific effects of intestinal ATGL on lipid metabolism we generated mice lacking ATGL exclusively in the intestine (ATGLiKO). We found decreased TG hydrolase activity and increased intracellular TG content in ATGLiKO small intestines. Intragastric administration of [(3)H]trioleate resulted in the accumulation of radioactive TG in the intestine, whereas absorption into the systemic circulation was unchanged. Intraperitoneally injected [(3)H]oleate also accumulated within TG in ATGLiKO intestines, indicating that ATGL mobilizes fatty acids from the systemic circulation absorbed by the basolateral side from the blood. Down-regulation of PPARα target genes suggested modulation of cholesterol absorption by intestinal ATGL. Accordingly, ATGL deficiency in the intestine resulted in delayed cholesterol absorption. Importantly, this study provides evidence that ATGL has no impact on intestinal TG absorption but hydrolyzes TGs taken up from the intestinal lumen and systemic circulation. Our data support the role of ATGL in modulating PPARα-dependent processes also in the small intestine.

  10. Fenofibrate increases very low density lipoprotein triglyceride production despite reducing plasma triglyceride levels in APOE*3-Leiden.CETP mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijland, Silvia; Pieterman, Elsbet J; Maas, Annemarie C E; van der Hoorn, José W A; van Erk, Marjan J; van Klinken, Jan B; Havekes, Louis M; van Dijk, Ko Willems; Princen, Hans M G; Rensen, Patrick C N

    2010-08-13

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) activator fenofibrate efficiently decreases plasma triglycerides (TG), which is generally attributed to enhanced very low density lipoprotein (VLDL)-TG clearance and decreased VLDL-TG production. However, because data on the effect of fenofibrate on VLDL production are controversial, we aimed to investigate in (more) detail the mechanism underlying the TG-lowering effect by studying VLDL-TG production and clearance using APOE*3-Leiden.CETP mice, a unique mouse model for human-like lipoprotein metabolism. Male mice were fed a Western-type diet for 4 weeks, followed by the same diet without or with fenofibrate (30 mg/kg bodyweight/day) for 4 weeks. Fenofibrate strongly lowered plasma cholesterol (-38%) and TG (-60%) caused by reduction of VLDL. Fenofibrate markedly accelerated VLDL-TG clearance, as judged from a reduced plasma half-life of glycerol tri[(3)H]oleate-labeled VLDL-like emulsion particles (-68%). This was associated with an increased post-heparin lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity (+110%) and an increased uptake of VLDL-derived fatty acids by skeletal muscle, white adipose tissue, and liver. Concomitantly, fenofibrate markedly increased the VLDL-TG production rate (+73%) but not the VLDL-apolipoprotein B (apoB) production rate. Kinetic studies using [(3)H]palmitic acid showed that fenofibrate increased VLDL-TG production by equally increasing incorporation of re-esterified plasma fatty acids and liver TG into VLDL, which was supported by hepatic gene expression profiling data. We conclude that fenofibrate decreases plasma TG by enhancing LPL-mediated VLDL-TG clearance, which results in a compensatory increase in VLDL-TG production by the liver.

  11. The -93T/G LPL Promoter Polymorphism Is Associated With Lower Third-Trimester Triglycerides in Pregnant African American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmella, Mandy J; Ferrell, Robert E; Gallaher, Marcia J; Lykins, David L; Althouse, Andrew D; Roberts, James M; Hubel, Carl A

    2015-07-01

    Hypertriglyceridemia is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and several pregnancy complications. Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) genetic variation modulates nonpregnancy plasma triglycerides, but its effects during pregnancy are unknown. The G allele of the LPL -93T/G promoter polymorphism is 16-23 times more prevalent in Blacks than in Whites, contributing to lower triglycerides in nonpregnant African Americans by increasing LPL expression. This study investigated whether the triglyceride-lowering effect of -93G is observed in African Americans during pregnancy. Genotyping was performed on 124 African American women with uncomplicated pregnancies for common functional LPL polymorphisms/mutations (-93T/G, D9N, N291S, and S447X). Third-trimester plasma triglyceride, high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, and free fatty acid concentrations were measured with colorimetric assays. Clinical characteristics and lipid values were compared across the -93T/G genotypes. Triglycerides were significantly lower in women with the -93GG compared to the -93TT genotype, both with (n = 124, p = .02) and without (n = 108, p = .03) inclusion of participants with other LPL variant alleles. Triglyceride differences persisted after adjustment for prepregnancy body mass index, gestational age at delivery, and smoking. There were no significant differences in the other lipids or apolipoprotein B by -93T/G genotype. Despite the considerable metabolic changes accompanying pregnancy, the triglyceride-lowering effect associated with the -93GG LPL genotype in African Americans persists during late pregnancy. The -93GG genotype might protect against pregnancy complications stemming from hypertriglyceridemia, but the overall increased risk of pregnancy complications in African American women points to complex, multifactorial relationships among risk factors, race, and adverse pregnancy outcomes. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Triglyceride content in remnant lipoproteins is significantly increased after food intake and is associated with plasma lipoprotein lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Katsuyuki; Tokita, Yoshiharu; Sakamaki, Koji; Shimomura, Younosuke; Kobayashi, Junji; Kamachi, Keiko; Tanaka, Akira; Stanhope, Kimber L; Havel, Peter J; Wang, Tao; Machida, Tetsuo; Murakami, Masami

    2017-02-01

    Previous large population studies reported that non-fasting plasma triglyceride (TG) reflect a higher risk for cardiovascular disease than TG in the fasting plasma. This is suggestive of the presence of higher concentration of remnant lipoproteins (RLP) in postprandial plasma. TG and RLP-TG together with other lipids, lipoproteins and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in both fasting and postprandial plasma were determined in generally healthy volunteers and in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) after consuming a fat load or a more typical moderate meal. RLP-TG/TG ratio (concentration) and RLP-TG/RLP-C ratio (particle size) were significantly increased in the postprandial plasma of both healthy controls and CAD patients compared with those in fasting plasma. LPL/RLP-TG ratio demonstrated the interaction correlation between RLP concentration and LPL activity The increased RLP-TG after fat consumption contributed to approximately 90% of the increased plasma TG, while approximately 60% after a typical meal. Plasma LPL in postprandial plasma was not significantly altered after either type of meal. Concentrations of RLP-TG found in the TG along with its particle size are significantly increased in postprandial plasma compared with fasting plasma. Therefore, non-fasting TG determination better reflects the presence of higher RLP concentrations in plasma. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The Relationship between the Plasma Triglyceride Concentration and the Severity of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

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    V. V. Kuzkov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Triglycerides (TG may be involved in the pathogenesis of critical impairments. Objective: to study the relationship between the plasma concentration of TG, the outcome of the disease, and the markers of its severity in intensive care unit patients with early-stage acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. Subjects and methods. The prospective study included 18 patients with acute lung injury (ALI, who needed respiratory support. For further analysis, all the patients were divided into groups with TG < 1.00 mmol/l (TGlow; n=7 and >1.00 mmol/l (TGhigh; n=11. Results. A negative correlation was found between plasma TG concentration and oxygenation index (PaO2/FiO2. In the TG^jgh group, extravas-cular lung water index was significantly higher and cardiac index was lower than those in the TGlow group. Among the deceased patients, there was a 1.03 mmol/l reduction in TG concentration by day 4 of the study whereas in the survivors, TG concentration increased by an average of 0.15 mmol/l (p=0.02. Conclusion. In the patients with ALI, the plasma concentration of TG is related to oxygenation impairments and the degree of pulmonary edema, as well as with the outcome of the disease. Key words: triglycerides, acute lung injury, extravascular lung water index, pulmonary edema.

  14. Altered apolipoprotein A-V expression during the acute phase response is independent of plasma triglyceride levels in mice and humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becker, S.; Schomburg, L.; Renko, K.; Tolle, M.; van der Giet, M.; Tietge, U.J.F.

    2006-01-01

    Plasma triglyceride (TG) levels are altered during the acute phase response (APR). Plasma levels of the recently discovered apolipoprotein AN (apoA-V) are inversely associated with plasma TG. The aim of this study was to investigate the change of apoA-V plasma levels and hepatic apoA-V expression

  15. JTT-130, a microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP inhibitor lowers plasma triglycerides and LDL cholesterol concentrations without increasing hepatic triglycerides in guinea pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrestha Sudeep

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microsomal transfer protein inhibitors (MTPi have the potential to be used as a drug to lower plasma lipids, mainly plasma triglycerides (TG. However, studies with animal models have indicated that MTPi treatment results in the accumulation of hepatic TG. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether JTT-130, a unique MTPi, targeted to the intestine, would effectively reduce plasma lipids without inducing a fatty liver. Methods Male guinea pigs (n = 10 per group were used for this experiment. Initially all guinea pigs were fed a hypercholesterolemic diet containing 0.08 g/100 g dietary cholesterol for 3 wk. After this period, animals were randomly assigned to diets containing 0 (control, 0.0005 or 0.0015 g/100 g of MTPi for 4 wk. A diet containing 0.05 g/100 g of atorvastatin, an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor was used as the positive control. At the end of the 7th week, guinea pigs were sacrificed to assess drug effects on plasma and hepatic lipids, composition of LDL and VLDL, hepatic cholesterol and lipoprotein metabolism. Results Plasma LDL cholesterol and TG were 25 and 30% lower in guinea pigs treated with MTPi compared to controls (P Conclusion These results suggest that JTT-130 could have potential clinical applications due to its plasma lipid lowering effects with no alterations in hepatic lipid concentrations.

  16. Human plasma triglyceride labeling after high sucrose feeding. II. Study on triglyceride kinetics and postheparin lipolytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, C.H.; Shreeve, W.W.

    1975-06-01

    Kinetic studies of the very-low-density lipoprotein triglycerides (VLDL-TG) turnover by endogenous labeling with glycerol-2-/sup 3/H were performed in 13 patients in the postabsorptive state, first after 10-14 days on a low-sucrose high-starch-diet, then again after 10-14 days of isocaloric high-sucrose low-starch diet (HSD). After HSD, a significant decrease in the fractional turnover rates of VLDL-TG was observed, as well as a modest but significant increase in its pool size, but the net turn-over rates remained unchanged. Using Michaelis-Menten formulation, we have further calculated the V/sub max/ and Km's of the removal system for VLDL-TG and found that the V/sub max/ and Km's do not differ significantly between the two dietary periods. These results suggest that the removal mechanism for VLDL-TG has not changed after 10-14 days on the HSD, at least when the patients are studied in the postabsorptive state. Measurements of postheparin lipolytic activity under fed condition in 17 patients (including the 13 patients above) have shown a decrease after HSD. However, a defect in the removal of plasma-TG related to decreased activity of tissue-lipoprotein lipase in the fed state has not been conclusively uncovered by the kinetic studies performed in the postabsorptive state, and cannot contribute significantly to the expansion of VLDL-TG pool.

  17. Plasma apolipoprotein A5 and triglycerides in type 2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dallinga-Thie, GM; Van Tol, A; Hattori, H; van Vark-van de Zee, LC; Jansen, H; Sijbrands, EJG

    Aims/hypothesis: Variation in the human apolipoprotein (APO) A5 gene (APOA5) is associated with elevated plasma triglycerides. However, data on the exact role of plasma concentrations of APOA5 in human triglyceride homeostasis are lacking. In the present study, we estimated plasma APOA5 levels in

  18. Plasma apolipoprotein A5 and triglycerides in type 2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dallinga-Thie, GM; Van Tol, A; Hattori, H; van Vark-van de Zee, LC; Jansen, H; Sijbrands, EJG

    2006-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis: Variation in the human apolipoprotein (APO) A5 gene (APOA5) is associated with elevated plasma triglycerides. However, data on the exact role of plasma concentrations of APOA5 in human triglyceride homeostasis are lacking. In the present study, we estimated plasma APOA5 levels in pa

  19. Relationship between plasma free fatty acid, intramyocellular triglycerides and long-chain acylcarnitines in resting humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaley, Jill A; Shadid, Samyah; Sheehan, Michael T; Guo, ZengKui; Jensen, Michael D

    2009-01-01

    We hypothesized that plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) are trafficked directly to intramyocellular long-chain acylcarnitines (imLCAC) rather than transiting intramyocellular triglycerides (imTG) on the way to resting muscle fatty acid oxidation. Overnight fasted adults (n= 61) received intravenous infusions of [U-13C]palmitate (0400–0830 h) and [U-13C]oleate (0800–1400 h) labelling plasma NEFA, imTG, imLCAC and im-non-esterified FA (imNEFA). Two muscle biopsies (0830 and 1400 h) were performed following 6 h, overlapping, sequential palmitate/oleate tracer infusions. Enrichment of plasma palmitate was ∼15 times greater than enrichment of imTG, imNEFA-palmitate and im-palmitoyl-carnitine. Fatty acid enrichment in LCAC was correlated with imTG and imNEFA; there was a significant correlation between imTG concentrations and imLCAC concentrations in women (r= 0.51, P= 0.005), but not men (r= 0.30, P= 0.11). We estimated that ∼11% of NEFA were stored in imTG. imTG NEFA storage was correlated only with NEFA concentrations (r= 0.52, P= 0.004) in women and with (r= 0.45, P= 0.02) in men. At rest, plasma NEFA are trafficked largely to imTG before they enter LCAC oxidative pools; thus, imTG are an important, central pool that regulates the delivery of fatty acids to the intracellular environment. Factors relating to plasma NEFA storage into imTG differ in men and women. PMID:19858228

  20. Relationship between Plasma Triglyceride Level and Severity of Hypertriglyceridemic Pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng-Huei; Chou, Yu-Ching; Shangkuan, Wei-Chuan; Wei, Kuang-Yu; Pan, Yu-Han; Lin, Hung-Che

    2016-01-01

    Background Hypertriglyceridemia is the third most common cause of acute pancreatitis, but whether the level of triglyceride (TG) is related to severity of pancreatitis is unclear. Aim To evaluate the effect of TG level on the severity of hypertriglyceridemic pancreatitis (HTGP). Design Retrospective cohort study. Methods We reviewed the records of 144 patients with HTGP from 1999 to 2013 at Tri-Service General Hospital. Patients with possible etiology of pancreatitis, such as gallstones, those consuming alcohol or drugs, or those with infections were excluded. The classification of severity of pancreatitis was based on the revised Atlanta classification. We allocated the patients into high-TG and low-TG groups based on the optimal cut-off value (2648 mg/dL), which was derived from the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve between TG level and severity of HTGP. We then compared the clinical characteristics, pancreatitis severity, and mortality rates of the groups. Results There were 66 patients in the low-TG group and 78 patients in the high-TG group. There was no significant difference in the age, sex ratio, body mass index, and comorbidity between the 2 groups. The high-TG group had significantly higher levels of glucose (P = 0.022), total cholesterol (P = 0.002), and blood urea nitrogen (P = 0.037), and lower levels of sodium (P = 0.003) and bicarbonate (P = 0.002) than the low-TG group. The incidences of local complication (P = 0.002) and severe and moderate form of pancreatitis (P = 0.004) were significantly higher in the high-TG group than in the low-TG group. The mortality rate was higher in the high-TG group than in the low-TG group (P = 0.07). Conclusions Higher TG level in patients with HTGP may be associated with adverse prognosis, but randomized and prospective studies are needed in the future verify this relationship. PMID:27727299

  1. Triglycerides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triglycerides are a type of fat found in your blood. Too much of this type of fat ... especially in women. A blood test measures your triglycerides along with your cholesterol. Normal triglyceride levels are ...

  2. Increased plasma free fatty acid and triglyceride levels after single administation of toluene in rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Setsunori; Tanabe, Koichi; Shiono, Hiroshi (Shimane Medical Univ., Izumo (Japan)); Maseda, Chikatoshi (Shimane Prefectural Police Headquarters, Matsue (Japan)); Fukui, Yuko (Kyoto Univ. (Japan))

    1988-01-01

    Changes of plasma lipids (triglyceride, TG: total cholesterol, Cho; and phospholipids, PL), free fatty acid (FFA), and blood glucose (BG) were studied in male rabbits after toluene administration (0.5 g/kg per os). Hypertriglyceridemia was observed at and after 2 h. Plasma FFA and BG were elevated temporarily during the early stage and lowered gradually thereafter. Initially, plasma Cho and PL were virtually unchanged, by the Cho levels increased slowly after 6 h. The hypertriglyceridemia observed may have some adverse effects on heart function.

  3. Brown adipose tissue takes up plasma triglycerides mostly after lipolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khedoe, P.P.S.J.; Hoeke, Geerte; Kooijman, Sander; Dijk, Wieneke; Buijs, Jeroen T.; Kersten, Sander; Havekes, Louis M.; Hiemstra, Pieter S.; Berbée, Jimmy F.P.; Boon, Mariëtte R.; Rensen, Patrick C.N.

    2015-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) produces heat by burning TGs that are stored within intracellular lipid droplets and need to be replenished by the uptake of TG-derived FA from plasma. It is currently unclear whether BAT takes up FA via uptake of TG-rich lipoproteins (TRLs), after lipolysis-mediated li

  4. GPIHBP1 and Plasma Triglyceride Metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fong, Loren G; Young, Stephen G; Beigneux, Anne P

    2016-01-01

    GPIHBP1, a GPI-anchored protein in capillary endothelial cells, is crucial for the lipolytic processing of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs). GPIHBP1 shuttles lipoprotein lipase (LPL) to its site of action in the capillary lumen and is essential for the margination of TRLs along capillaries -...

  5. Common variants associated with plasma triglycerides and risk for coronary artery disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Do, Ron; Willer, Cristen J; Schmidt, Ellen M; Sengupta, Sebanti; Gao, Chi; Peloso, Gina M; Gustafsson, Stefan; Kanoni, Stavroula; Ganna, Andrea; Chen, Jin; Buchkovich, Martin L; Mora, Samia; Beckmann, Jacques S; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Demirkan, Ayşe; Den Hertog, Heleen M; Donnelly, Louise A; Ehret, Georg B; Esko, Tõnu; Feitosa, Mary F; Ferreira, Teresa; Fischer, Krista; Fontanillas, Pierre; Fraser, Ross M; Freitag, Daniel F; Gurdasani, Deepti; Heikkilä, Kauko; Hyppönen, Elina; Isaacs, Aaron; Jackson, Anne U; Johansson, Asa; Johnson, Toby; Kaakinen, Marika; Kettunen, Johannes; Kleber, Marcus E; Li, Xiaohui; Luan, Jian'an; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Mangino, Massimo; Mihailov, Evelin; Montasser, May E; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Nolte, Ilja M; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Palmer, Cameron D; Perola, Markus; Petersen, Ann-Kristin; Sanna, Serena; Saxena, Richa; Service, Susan K; Shah, Sonia; Shungin, Dmitry; Sidore, Carlo; Song, Ci; Strawbridge, Rona J; Surakka, Ida; Tanaka, Toshiko; Teslovich, Tanya M; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Van den Herik, Evita G; Voight, Benjamin F; Volcik, Kelly A; Waite, Lindsay L; Wong, Andrew; Wu, Ying; Zhang, Weihua; Absher, Devin; Asiki, Gershim; Barroso, Inês; Been, Latonya F; Bolton, Jennifer L; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Brambilla, Paolo; Burnett, Mary S; Cesana, Giancarlo; Dimitriou, Maria; Doney, Alex S F; Döring, Angela; Elliott, Paul; Epstein, Stephen E; Eyjolfsson, Gudmundur Ingi; Gigante, Bruna; Goodarzi, Mark O; Grallert, Harald; Gravito, Martha L; Groves, Christopher J; Hallmans, Göran; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Hayward, Caroline; Hernandez, Dena; Hicks, Andrew A; Holm, Hilma; Hung, Yi-Jen; Illig, Thomas; Jones, Michelle R; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Kastelein, John J P; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kim, Eric; Klopp, Norman; Komulainen, Pirjo; Kumari, Meena; Langenberg, Claudia; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lin, Shih-Yi; Lindström, Jaana; Loos, Ruth J F; Mach, François; McArdle, Wendy L; Meisinger, Christa; Mitchell, Braxton D; Müller, Gabrielle; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Narisu, Narisu; Nieminen, Tuomo V M; Nsubuga, Rebecca N; Olafsson, Isleifur; Ong, Ken K; Palotie, Aarno; Papamarkou, Theodore; Pomilla, Cristina; Pouta, Anneli; Rader, Daniel J; Reilly, Muredach P; Ridker, Paul M; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rudan, Igor; Ruokonen, Aimo; Samani, Nilesh; Scharnagl, Hubert; Seeley, Janet; Silander, Kaisa; Stančáková, Alena; Stirrups, Kathleen; Swift, Amy J; Tiret, Laurence; Uitterlinden, Andre G; van Pelt, L Joost; Vedantam, Sailaja; Wainwright, Nicholas; Wijmenga, Cisca; Wild, Sarah H; Willemsen, Gonneke; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wilson, James F; Young, Elizabeth H; Zhao, Jing Hua; Adair, Linda S; Arveiler, Dominique; Assimes, Themistocles L; Bandinelli, Stefania; Bennett, Franklyn; Bochud, Murielle; Boehm, Bernhard O; Boomsma, Dorret I; Borecki, Ingrid B; Bornstein, Stefan R; Bovet, Pascal; Burnier, Michel; Campbell, Harry; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chambers, John C; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Collins, Francis S; Cooper, Richard S; Danesh, John; Dedoussis, George; de Faire, Ulf; Feranil, Alan B; Ferrières, Jean; Ferrucci, Luigi; Freimer, Nelson B; Gieger, Christian; Groop, Leif C; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gyllensten, Ulf; Hamsten, Anders; Harris, Tamara B; Hingorani, Aroon; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Hofman, Albert; Hovingh, G Kees; Hsiung, Chao Agnes; Humphries, Steve E; Hunt, Steven C; Hveem, Kristian; Iribarren, Carlos; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jula, Antti; Kähönen, Mika; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kesäniemi, Antero; Kivimaki, Mika; Kooner, Jaspal S; Koudstaal, Peter J; Krauss, Ronald M; Kuh, Diana; Kuusisto, Johanna; Kyvik, Kirsten O; Laakso, Markku; Lakka, Timo A; Lind, Lars; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Martin, Nicholas G; März, Winfried; McCarthy, Mark I; McKenzie, Colin A; Meneton, Pierre; Metspalu, Andres; Moilanen, Leena; Morris, Andrew D; Munroe, Patricia B; Njølstad, Inger; Pedersen, Nancy L; Power, Chris; Pramstaller, Peter P; Price, Jackie F; Psaty, Bruce M; Quertermous, Thomas; Rauramaa, Rainer; Saleheen, Danish; Salomaa, Veikko; Sanghera, Dharambir K; Saramies, Jouko; Schwarz, Peter E H; Sheu, Wayne H-H; Shuldiner, Alan R; Siegbahn, Agneta; Spector, Tim D; Stefansson, Kari; Strachan, David P; Tayo, Bamidele O; Tremoli, Elena; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uusitupa, Matti; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Vollenweider, Peter; Wallentin, Lars; Wareham, Nicholas J; Whitfield, John B; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R; Altshuler, David; Ordovas, Jose M; Boerwinkle, Eric; Palmer, Colin N A; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Chasman, Daniel I; Rotter, Jerome I; Franks, Paul W; Ripatti, Samuli; Cupples, L Adrienne; Sandhu, Manjinder S; Rich, Stephen S; Boehnke, Michael; Deloukas, Panos; Mohlke, Karen L; Ingelsson, Erik; Abecasis, Goncalo R; Daly, Mark J; Neale, Benjamin M; Kathiresan, Sekar

    2013-01-01

    Triglycerides are transported in plasma by specific triglyceride-rich lipoproteins; in epidemiological studies, increased triglyceride levels correlate with higher risk for coronary artery disease (CAD). However, it is unclear whether this association reflects causal processes. We used 185 common

  6. Common variants associated with plasma triglycerides and risk for coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Do, R.; Willer, C. J.; Schmidt, E. M.

    2013-01-01

    Triglycerides are transported in plasma by specific triglyceride-rich lipoproteins; in epidemiological studies, increased triglyceride levels correlate with higher risk for coronary artery disease (CAD). However, it is unclear whether this association reflects causal processes. We used 185 common...

  7. Overexpression of Rad in muscle worsens diet-induced insulin resistance and glucose intolerance and lowers plasma triglyceride level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilany, Jacob; Bilan, Philip J.; Kapur, Sonia; Caldwell, James S.; Patti, Mary-Elizabeth; Marette, Andre; Kahn, C. Ronald

    2006-03-01

    Rad is a low molecular weight GTPase that is overexpressed in skeletal muscle of some patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and/or obesity. Overexpression of Rad in adipocytes and muscle cells in culture results in diminished insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. To further elucidate the potential role of Rad in vivo, we have generated transgenic (tg) mice that overexpress Rad in muscle using the muscle creatine kinase (MCK) promoter-enhancer. Rad tg mice have a 6- to 12-fold increase in Rad expression in muscle as compared to wild-type littermates. Rad tg mice grow normally and have normal glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, but have reduced plasma triglyceride levels. On a high-fat diet, Rad tg mice develop more severe glucose intolerance than the wild-type mice; this is due to increased insulin resistance in muscle, as exemplified by a rightward shift in the dose-response curve for insulin stimulated 2-deoxyglucose uptake. There is also a unexpected further reduction of the plasma triglyceride levels that is associated with increased levels of lipoprotein lipase in the Rad tg mice. These results demonstrate a potential synergistic interaction between increased expression of Rad and high-fat diet in creation of insulin resistance and altered lipid metabolism present in type 2 diabetes. diabetes mellitus | glucose transport | RGK GTPase | transgenic mouse

  8. Echium Oil Reduces Plasma Triglycerides by Increasing Intravascular Lipolysis in apoB100-Only Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL Receptor Knockout Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John S. Parks

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Echium oil (EO, which is enriched in SDA (18:4 n-3, reduces plasma triglyceride (TG concentrations in humans and mice. We compared mechanisms by which EO and fish oil (FO reduce plasma TG concentrations in mildly hypertriglyceridemic male apoB100-only LDLrKO mice. Mice were fed one of three atherogenic diets containing 0.2% cholesterol and palm oil (PO; 20%, EO (10% EO + 10% PO, or FO (10% FO + 10% PO. Livers from PO- and EO-fed mice had similar TG and cholesteryl ester (CE content, which was significantly higher than in FO-fed mice. Plasma TG secretion was reduced in FO vs. EO-fed mice. Plasma very low density lipoprotein (VLDL particle size was ordered: PO (63 ± 4 nm > EO (55 ± 3 nm > FO (40 ± 2 nm. Post-heparin lipolytic activity was similar among groups, but TG hydrolysis by purified lipoprotein lipase was significantly greater for EO and FO VLDL compared to PO VLDL. Removal of VLDL tracer from plasma was marginally faster in EO vs. PO fed mice. Our results suggest that EO reduces plasma TG primarily through increased intravascular lipolysis of TG and VLDL clearance. Finally, EO may substitute for FO to reduce plasma TG concentrations, but not hepatic steatosis in this mouse model.

  9. Echium oil reduces plasma triglycerides by increasing intravascular lipolysis in apoB100-only low density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Lolita M; Lough, Christopher M; Chung, Soonkyu; Boudyguina, Elena Y; Gebre, Abraham K; Smith, Thomas L; Colvin, Perry L; Parks, John S

    2013-07-12

    Echium oil (EO), which is enriched in SDA (18:4 n-3), reduces plasma triglyceride (TG) concentrations in humans and mice. We compared mechanisms by which EO and fish oil (FO) reduce plasma TG concentrations in mildly hypertriglyceridemic male apoB100-only LDLrKO mice. Mice were fed one of three atherogenic diets containing 0.2% cholesterol and palm oil (PO; 20%), EO (10% EO + 10% PO), or FO (10% FO + 10% PO). Livers from PO- and EO-fed mice had similar TG and cholesteryl ester (CE) content, which was significantly higher than in FO-fed mice. Plasma TG secretion was reduced in FO vs. EO-fed mice. Plasma very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) particle size was ordered: PO (63 ± 4 nm) > EO (55 ± 3 nm) > FO (40 ± 2 nm). Post-heparin lipolytic activity was similar among groups, but TG hydrolysis by purified lipoprotein lipase was significantly greater for EO and FO VLDL compared to PO VLDL. Removal of VLDL tracer from plasma was marginally faster in EO vs. PO fed mice. Our results suggest that EO reduces plasma TG primarily through increased intravascular lipolysis of TG and VLDL clearance. Finally, EO may substitute for FO to reduce plasma TG concentrations, but not hepatic steatosis in this mouse model.

  10. Triglycerides Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Triglycerides Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: TG; TRIG Formal name: Triglycerides Related tests: Cholesterol ; HDL Cholesterol ; LDL Cholesterol ; Direct ...

  11. Association between fasting plasma triglycerides, all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in Czech population. Results from the HAPIEE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikhart, H; Hubáček, J A; Peasey, A; Kubínová, R; Bobák, M

    2015-01-01

    Dyslipidemia is the risk factor of cardiovascular disease, but the relationship between the plasma triglyceride (TG) levels and total/cardiovascular mortality has not yet been analyzed in Slavs. The aim of our study was to analyze the association between the fasting TG levels and all-cause/cardiovascular mortality. We have examined 3,143 males and 3,650 females, aged 58.3+/-7.1 years. 729 deaths (274 cardiovascular deaths) have been registered during up to 11.8 years of follow-up. Age-sex adjusted all-cause mortality was higher in individuals with TG values 3.01-4.00 mmol/l (HR 1.37, 95 % CI 1.02-1.83, P=0.035) and over 4.00 mmol/l (HR 1.66, 95 % CI 1.21-2.27, P=0.002) when compared with a reference group (TG 1.41-1.80 mmol/l). Elevated risk remains significant when adjusted for education, marital status and unemployment. When further adjusted for smoking, BMI and dyslipidemia interventions, HR for those in above 4.00 mmol/l group decreased (1.42, P=0.04). The results have been similar when cardiovascular mortality has been examined, however, results reached statistical significance only for the TG over 4.0 mmol/l (P=0.028). Our results confirmed that enhanced plasma levels of plasma triglycerides are dose dependently associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality, however, it seems that individuals with TG values 1.8-3.0 mmol/l are not in higher risk of death.

  12. Association between hemoglobin and diabetes in relation to the triglycerides-to-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG-HDL) ratio in Japanese individuals: the Nagasaki Islands Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Yuji; Nakazato, Mio; Sekita, Takaharu; Koyamatsu, Jun; Kadota, Koichiro; Yamasaki, Hironori; Goto, Hisashi; Takamura, Noboru; Aoyagi, Kiyoshi; Maeda, Takahiro

    2014-01-01

    Our previous study reported that categorizing diabetes patients according to the serum triglycerides-to-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG-HDL) ratio is useful for estimating the risk of atherosclerosis, as a high TG-HDL ratio in patients with diabetes constitutes risk factors for atherosclerosis. Another study showed that a high hemoglobin level is associated with the risk of atherosclerosis. However, no previous studies have examined the association between the hemoglobin level and diabetes categorized by the TG-HDL ratio. In order to investigate these associations, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 3,733 (1,299 men and 2,434 women) Japanese participants 30-89 years of age undergoing a general health checkup. We investigated the association between the hemoglobin levels and the incidence of diabetes in all subjects, who were divided into tertiles according to the TG-HDL ratio. Diabetes was defined as an HbA1c (NGSP) level of ≥ 6.5% and/or the initiation of glucose-lowering or insulin therapy. Of the 265 diabetes patients identified in this study, 116 had a high TG-HDL ratio (high TG-HDL diabetes) and 71 had a low TG-HDL ratio (low TG-HDL diabetes). Independent from classical cardiovascular risk factors, the multivariate odds ratio of a 1 SD (standard deviation) increment in hemoglobin (1.30 g/dL for men, 1.16 g/dL for women) was 1.04 (95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.88-1.22) for all patients with diabetes, 1.44 (95%CI: 1.17-1.77) for the patients with high TG-HDL diabetes and 0.67 (95%CI: 0.54-0.83) for the patients with low TG-HDL diabetes. The hemoglobin level is positively associated with high TG-HDL diabetes and inversely associated with low TG-HDL diabetes. These findings suggest that measuring the hemoglobin level is clinically relevant for estimating the risk of atherosclerosis in patients with diabetes categorized according to the TG-HDL ratio.

  13. Common variants associated with plasma triglycerides and risk for coronary artery disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Do, Ron; Willer, Cristen J; Schmidt, Ellen M; Sengupta, Sebanti; Gao, Chi; Peloso, Gina M; Gustafsson, Stefan; Kanoni, Stavroula; Ganna, Andrea; Chen, Jin; Buchkovich, Martin L; Mora, Samia; Beckmann, Jacques S; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Demirkan, Ayşe; Den Hertog, Heleen M; Donnelly, Louise A; Ehret, Georg B; Esko, Tõnu; Feitosa, Mary F; Ferreira, Teresa; Fischer, Krista; Fontanillas, Pierre; Fraser, Ross M; Freitag, Daniel F; Gurdasani, Deepti; Heikkilä, Kauko; Hyppönen, Elina; Isaacs, Aaron; Jackson, Anne U; Johansson, Asa; Johnson, Toby; Kaakinen, Marika; Kettunen, Johannes; Kleber, Marcus E; Li, Xiaohui; Luan, Jian'an; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Mangino, Massimo; Mihailov, Evelin; Montasser, May E; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Nolte, Ilja M; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Palmer, Cameron D; Perola, Markus; Petersen, Ann-Kristin; Sanna, Serena; Saxena, Richa; Service, Susan K; Shah, Sonia; Shungin, Dmitry; Sidore, Carlo; Song, Ci; Strawbridge, Rona J; Surakka, Ida; Tanaka, Toshiko; Teslovich, Tanya M; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Van den Herik, Evita G; Voight, Benjamin F; Volcik, Kelly A; Waite, Lindsay L; Wong, Andrew; Wu, Ying; Zhang, Weihua; Absher, Devin; Asiki, Gershim; Barroso, Inês; Been, Latonya F; Bolton, Jennifer L; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Brambilla, Paolo; Burnett, Mary S; Cesana, Giancarlo; Dimitriou, Maria; Doney, Alex S F; Döring, Angela; Elliott, Paul; Epstein, Stephen E; Eyjolfsson, Gudmundur Ingi; Gigante, Bruna; Goodarzi, Mark O; Grallert, Harald; Gravito, Martha L; Groves, Christopher J; Hallmans, Göran; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Hayward, Caroline; Hernandez, Dena; Hicks, Andrew A; Holm, Hilma; Hung, Yi-Jen; Illig, Thomas; Jones, Michelle R; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Kastelein, John J P; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kim, Eric; Klopp, Norman; Komulainen, Pirjo; Kumari, Meena; Langenberg, Claudia; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lin, Shih-Yi; Lindström, Jaana; Loos, Ruth J F; Mach, François; McArdle, Wendy L; Meisinger, Christa; Mitchell, Braxton D; Müller, Gabrielle; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Narisu, Narisu; Nieminen, Tuomo V M; Nsubuga, Rebecca N; Olafsson, Isleifur; Ong, Ken K; Palotie, Aarno; Papamarkou, Theodore; Pomilla, Cristina; Pouta, Anneli; Rader, Daniel J; Reilly, Muredach P; Ridker, Paul M; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rudan, Igor; Ruokonen, Aimo; Samani, Nilesh; Scharnagl, Hubert; Seeley, Janet; Silander, Kaisa; Stančáková, Alena; Stirrups, Kathleen; Swift, Amy J; Tiret, Laurence; Uitterlinden, Andre G; van Pelt, L Joost; Vedantam, Sailaja; Wainwright, Nicholas; Wijmenga, Cisca; Wild, Sarah H; Willemsen, Gonneke; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wilson, James F; Young, Elizabeth H; Zhao, Jing Hua; Adair, Linda S; Arveiler, Dominique; Assimes, Themistocles L; Bandinelli, Stefania; Bennett, Franklyn; Bochud, Murielle; Boehm, Bernhard O; Boomsma, Dorret I; Borecki, Ingrid B; Bornstein, Stefan R; Bovet, Pascal; Burnier, Michel; Campbell, Harry; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chambers, John C; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Collins, Francis S; Cooper, Richard S; Danesh, John; Dedoussis, George; de Faire, Ulf; Feranil, Alan B; Ferrières, Jean; Ferrucci, Luigi; Freimer, Nelson B; Gieger, Christian; Groop, Leif C; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gyllensten, Ulf; Hamsten, Anders; Harris, Tamara B; Hingorani, Aroon; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Hofman, Albert; Hovingh, G Kees; Hsiung, Chao Agnes; Humphries, Steve E; Hunt, Steven C; Hveem, Kristian; Iribarren, Carlos; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jula, Antti; Kähönen, Mika; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kesäniemi, Antero; Kivimaki, Mika; Kooner, Jaspal S; Koudstaal, Peter J; Krauss, Ronald M; Kuh, Diana; Kuusisto, Johanna; Kyvik, Kirsten O; Laakso, Markku; Lakka, Timo A; Lind, Lars; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Martin, Nicholas G; März, Winfried; McCarthy, Mark I; McKenzie, Colin A; Meneton, Pierre; Metspalu, Andres; Moilanen, Leena; Morris, Andrew D; Munroe, Patricia B; Njølstad, Inger; Pedersen, Nancy L; Power, Chris; Pramstaller, Peter P; Price, Jackie F; Psaty, Bruce M; Quertermous, Thomas; Rauramaa, Rainer; Saleheen, Danish; Salomaa, Veikko; Sanghera, Dharambir K; Saramies, Jouko; Schwarz, Peter E H; Sheu, Wayne H-H; Shuldiner, Alan R; Siegbahn, Agneta; Spector, Tim D; Stefansson, Kari; Strachan, David P; Tayo, Bamidele O; Tremoli, Elena; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uusitupa, Matti; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Vollenweider, Peter; Wallentin, Lars; Wareham, Nicholas J; Whitfield, John B; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R; Altshuler, David; Ordovas, Jose M; Boerwinkle, Eric; Palmer, Colin N A; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Chasman, Daniel I; Rotter, Jerome I; Franks, Paul W; Ripatti, Samuli; Cupples, L Adrienne; Sandhu, Manjinder S; Rich, Stephen S; Boehnke, Michael; Deloukas, Panos; Mohlke, Karen L; Ingelsson, Erik; Abecasis, Goncalo R; Daly, Mark J; Neale, Benjamin M; Kathiresan, Sekar

    2013-01-01

    Triglycerides are transported in plasma by specific triglyceride-rich lipoproteins; in epidemiological studies, increased triglyceride levels correlate with higher risk for coronary artery disease (CAD). However, it is unclear whether this association reflects causal processes. We used 185 common va

  14. Common variants associated with plasma triglycerides and risk for coronary artery disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triglycerides are transported in plasma by specific triglyceride-rich lipoproteins; in epidemiological studies, increased triglyceride levels correlate with higher risk for coronary artery disease (CAD). However, it is unclear whether this association reflects causal processes. We used 185 common va...

  15. Use of the plasma triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio to identify cardiovascular disease in hypertensive subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Martin R; Carbajal, Horacio A; Espeche, Walter G; Aizpurúa, Marcelo; Leiva Sisnieguez, Carlos E; Leiva Sisnieguez, Betty C; March, Carlos E; Stavile, Rodolfo N; Balbín, Eduardo; Reaven, Gerald M

    2014-10-01

    This analysis evaluated the hypothesis that the plasma triglyceride (TG)/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration ratio can help identify patients with essential hypertension who are insulin-resistant, with the cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk profile associated with that defect. Data from a community-based study developed between 2003 and 2012 were used to compare CVD risk factors and outcome. Plasma TG/HDL-C cut-points of 2.5 (women) and 3.5 (men) subdivided normotensive (n = 574) and hypertensive (n = 373) subjects into "high" and "low" risk groups. Metabolic syndrome criteria (MetS) were also used to identify "high" and "low" risk groups. The baseline cardio-metabolic profile was significantly more adverse in 2003 in "high" risk subgroups, irrespective of BP classification or definition of risk (TG/HDL-C ratio vs. MetS criteria). Crude incidence of combined CVD events increased across risk groups, ranging from 1.9 in normotensive-low TG/HDL-C subjects to 19.9 in hypertensive-high TG/HDL-C ratio individuals (P for trends <.001). Adjusted hazard ratios for CVD events also increased with both hypertension and TG/HDL-C. Comparable findings were seen when CVD outcome was predicted by MetS criteria. The TG/HDL-C concentration ratio and the MetS criteria identify to a comparable degree hypertensive subjects who are at greatest cardio-metabolic risk and develop significantly more CVD.

  16. Relation among the plasma triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration ratio, insulin resistance, and associated cardio-metabolic risk factors in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Martin R; Carbajal, Horacio A; Espeche, Walter G; Leiva Sisnieguez, Carlos E; Balbín, Eduardo; Dulbecco, Carlos A; Aizpurúa, Marcelo; Marillet, Alberto G; Reaven, Gerald M

    2012-06-15

    Results of recent studies using the ratio of plasma triglyceride (TG) to high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration to identify insulin-resistant patients at increased cardiometabolic risk have emphasized that the cut point used for this purpose will vary with race. Because TG and HDL cholesterol concentrations vary with gender, this analysis was initiated to define gender-specific plasma TG/HDL cholesterol concentration ratios that best identified high-risk subjects among women (n = 1,102) and men (n = 464) of primarily European ancestry. Insulin resistance was defined as the 25% of the population with the highest values for fasting plasma insulin concentration and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. Using TG/HDL concentration ratios >2.5 in women and >3.5 in men identified subgroups of men and women that were comparable in terms of insulin resistance and associated cardiometabolic risk, with significantly higher values for fasting plasma insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, blood pressure, body mass index, waist circumference, and glucose and TG concentrations and lower HDL cholesterol concentrations than in women and men below these cut points. The sensitivity and specificity of these gender-specific cut points to identify insulin-resistant subjects were about 40% and about 80%, respectively. In conclusion, the plasma TG/HDL cholesterol concentration ratio that identifies patients who are insulin resistant and at significantly greater cardiometabolic risk varies between men and women.

  17. In vivo triglyceride synthesis in subcutaneous adipose tissue of humans correlates with plasma HDL parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuvdendorj, Demidmaa; Munoz, Alejandro O.; Ruiz-Barros, Viviana; Schwarz, Jean-Marc; Montalto, Giuseppe; Chandalia, Manisha; Sowers, Lawrence C.; Rizzo, Manfredi; Murphy, Elizabeth J; Abate, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Backgrounds and aims Low concentrations of plasma HDL-C are associated with the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. Here we aimed to explore the relationship between the in vivo fractional synthesis of triglycerides (fTG) in subcutaneous (s.q.) abdominal adipose tissue (AT), HDL-C concentrations and HDL particle size composition in non-diabetic humans. Methods The fTG in s.q. abdominal AT was measured in 16 non-diabetic volunteers (7 women, 9 men; Age: 49±20 years; BMI: 31±5 kg/m; Fasting Plasma Glucose: 90±10 mg/dl) after 2H2O labeling. HDL-C concentration and subclasses, large (L-HDL), intermediate (I-HDL) and small (S-HDL) were measured. Results Linear regression analyses demonstrated significant associations of fTG with plasma concentration of HDL-C (r=0.625,p=0.009) and percent contribution of L-HDL (r=0.798,pHDL (r=−0.765,pHDL (r=−0.629, p=0.009). When analyses were performed by gender, the associations remained significant in women (HDL-C: r=0.822,p=0.023; L-HDL: r=0.892,p=0.007; I-HDL: r=−0.927,p=0.003) but not men. Conclusions Our study demonstrated an in vivo association between subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue lipid dynamics and HDL parameters in humans, but this was true for women not men. Positive association with L-HDL and negative with I-HDL suggest that subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue lipid dynamics may play an important role in production of mature functional HDL particles. Further studies evaluating the mechanism responsible for these associations and the observed gender differences are important and warranted to identify potential novel targets of intervention to increase the production of atheroprotective subclasses of HDL-Cs and thus decreasing the risks of development of atherosclerotic conditions. PMID:27323227

  18. Genome-wide scan for quantitative trait loci influencing LDL size and plasma triglyceride in familial hypertriglyceridemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Melissa A; Edwards, Karen L; Monks, Stephanie A; Koprowicz, Kent M; Brunzell, John D; Motulsky, Arno G; Mahaney, Michael C; Hixson, James E

    2003-11-01

    Small, dense LDLs and hypertriglyceridemia, two highly correlated and genetically influenced risk factors, are known to predict for risk of coronary heart disease. The objective of this study was to perform a whole-genome scan for linkage to LDL size and triglyceride (TG) levels in 26 kindreds with familial hypertriglyceridemia (FHTG). LDL size was estimated using gradient gel electrophoresis, and genotyping was performed for 355 autosomal markers with an average heterozygosity of 76% and an average spacing of 10.2 centimorgans (cMs). Using variance components linkage analysis, one possible linkage was found for LDL size [logarithm of odds (LOD) = 2.1] on chromosome 6, peak at 140 cM distal to marker F13A1 (closest marker D6S2436). With adjustment for TG and/or HDL cholesterol, the LOD scores were reduced, but remained in exactly the same location. For TG, LOD scores of 2.56 and 2.44 were observed at two locations on chromosome 15, with peaks at 29 and 61 cM distal to marker D15S822 (closest markers D15S643 and D15S211, respectively). These peaks were retained with adjustment for LDL size and/or HDL cholesterol. These findings, if confirmed, suggest that LDL particle size and plasma TG levels could be caused by two different genetic loci in FHTG.

  19. Use of plasma triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio to identify increased cardio-metabolic risk in young, healthy South Asians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, Elena; Molina, César; Mathur, Ashish; Reaven, Gerald M

    2015-01-01

    Prevalence of insulin resistance and associated dyslipidaemia [high triglyceride (TG) and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations] are increased in South Asian individuals; likely contributing to their increased risk of type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The plasma concentration ratio of TG/HDL-C has been proposed as a simple way to identify apparently healthy individuals at high cardio-metabolic risk. This study was carried out to compare the cardio-metabolic risk profiles of high-risk South Asian individuals identified by an elevated TG/HDL-C ratio versus those with a diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome. Body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, and fasting plasma glucose, insulin, TG, and HDL-C concentrations were determined in apparently healthy men (n=498) and women (n=526). The cardio-metabolic risk profile of "high risk" individuals identified by TG/HDL-C ratios in men (≥ 3.5) and women (≥2.5) was compared to those identified by a diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome. More concentrations of all cardio-metabolic risk factors were significantly higher in "high risk" groups, identified by either the TG/HDL-C ratio or a diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome. TG, HDL-C, and insulin concentrations were not significantly different in "high risk" groups identified by either criterion, whereas plasma glucose and blood pressure were higher in those with the metabolic syndrome. Apparently healthy South Asian individuals at high cardio-metabolic risk can be identified using either the TG/HDL-C ratio or the metabolic syndrome criteria. The TG/HDL-C ratio may be used as a simple marker to identify such individuals.

  20. Two independent apolipoprotein a5 Haplotypes influence human plasma triglyceride levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennacchio, Len A.; Olivier, Michael; Hubacek, Jaroslav A.; Krauss, Ronald M.; Rubin, Edward M.; Cohen, Jonathan C.

    2002-09-16

    The recently identified apolipoprotein A5 gene (APOA5) has been shown to play an important role in determining plasma triglyceride concentrations in humans and mice. We previously identified an APOA5 haplotype (designated APOA5*2) that is present in {approx}16 percent of Caucasians and is associated with increased plasma triglyceride concentrations. In this report we describe another APOA5 haplotype (APOA5*3) containing the rare allele of the single nucleotide polymorphism c.56C>G that changes serine to tryptophan at codon 19 and is independently associated with high plasma triglyceride levels in three different populations. In a sample of 264 Caucasian men and women with plasma triglyceride concentrations above the 90th percentile or below the 10th percentile, the APOA5*3 haplotype was more than three-fold more common in the group with high plasma triglyceride levels. In a second independently ascertained sample of Caucasian men and women (n 1/4 419) who were studied while consuming their self-selected diets as well as after high-carbohydrate diets and high-fat diets, the APOA5*3 haplotype was associated with increased plasma triglyceride levels on all three dietary regimens. In a third population comprising 2660 randomly selected individuals, the APOA5*3 haplotype was found in 12 percent of Caucasians, 14 percent of African-Americans and 28 percent of Hispanics and was associated with increased plasma triglyceride levels in both men and women in each ethnic group. These findings establish that the APOA5 locus contributes significantly to inter-individual variation in plasma triglyceride levels in humans. Together, the APOA5*2 and APOA5*3 haplotypes are found in 25 50 percent of African-Americans, Hispanics and Caucasians and support the contribution of common human variation to quantitative phenotypes in the general population.

  1. Common variants associated with plasma triglycerides and risk for coronary artery disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Ron; Willer, Cristen J.; Schmidt, Ellen M.; Sengupta, Sebanti; Gao, Chi; Peloso, Gina M.; Gustafsson, Stefan; Kanoni, Stavroula; Ganna, Andrea; Chen, Jin; Buchkovich, Martin L.; Mora, Samia; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L.; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Demirkan, Ayşe; Den Hertog, Heleen M.; Donnelly, Louise A.; Ehret, Georg B.; Esko, Tõnu; Feitosa, Mary F.; Ferreira, Teresa; Fischer, Krista; Fontanillas, Pierre; Fraser, Ross M.; Freitag, Daniel F.; Gurdasani, Deepti; Heikkilä, Kauko; Hyppönen, Elina; Isaacs, Aaron; Jackson, Anne U.; Johansson, Åsa; Johnson, Toby; Kaakinen, Marika; Kettunen, Johannes; Kleber, Marcus E.; Li, Xiaohui; Luan, Jian'an; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Magnusson, Patrik K.E.; Mangino, Massimo; Mihailov, Evelin; Montasser, May E.; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Nolte, Ilja M.; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Palmer, Cameron D.; Perola, Markus; Petersen, Ann-Kristin; Sanna, Serena; Saxena, Richa; Service, Susan K.; Shah, Sonia; Shungin, Dmitry; Sidore, Carlo; Song, Ci; Strawbridge, Rona J.; Surakka, Ida; Tanaka, Toshiko; Teslovich, Tanya M.; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Van den Herik, Evita G.; Voight, Benjamin F.; Volcik, Kelly A.; Waite, Lindsay L.; Wong, Andrew; Wu, Ying; Zhang, Weihua; Absher, Devin; Asiki, Gershim; Barroso, Inês; Been, Latonya F.; Bolton, Jennifer L.; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Brambilla, Paolo; Burnett, Mary S.; Cesana, Giancarlo; Dimitriou, Maria; Doney, Alex S.F.; Döring, Angela; Elliott, Paul; Epstein, Stephen E.; Eyjolfsson, Gudmundur Ingi; Gigante, Bruna; Goodarzi, Mark O.; Grallert, Harald; Gravito, Martha L.; Groves, Christopher J.; Hallmans, Göran; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Hayward, Caroline; Hernandez, Dena; Hicks, Andrew A.; Holm, Hilma; Hung, Yi-Jen; Illig, Thomas; Jones, Michelle R.; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Kastelein, John J.P.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kim, Eric; Klopp, Norman; Komulainen, Pirjo; Kumari, Meena; Langenberg, Claudia; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lin, Shih-Yi; Lindström, Jaana; Loos, Ruth J.F.; Mach, François; McArdle, Wendy L; Meisinger, Christa; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Müller, Gabrielle; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Narisu, Narisu; Nieminen, Tuomo V.M.; Nsubuga, Rebecca N.; Olafsson, Isleifur; Ong, Ken K.; Palotie, Aarno; Papamarkou, Theodore; Pomilla, Cristina; Pouta, Anneli; Rader, Daniel J.; Reilly, Muredach P.; Ridker, Paul M.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rudan, Igor; Ruokonen, Aimo; Samani, Nilesh; Scharnagl, Hubert; Seeley, Janet; Silander, Kaisa; Stančáková, Alena; Stirrups, Kathleen; Swift, Amy J.; Tiret, Laurence; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; van Pelt, L. Joost; Vedantam, Sailaja; Wainwright, Nicholas; Wijmenga, Cisca; Wild, Sarah H.; Willemsen, Gonneke; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wilson, James F.; Young, Elizabeth H.; Zhao, Jing Hua; Adair, Linda S.; Arveiler, Dominique; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Bennett, Franklyn; Bochud, Murielle; Boehm, Bernhard O.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Bovet, Pascal; Burnier, Michel; Campbell, Harry; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chambers, John C.; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Collins, Francis S.; Cooper, Richard S.; Danesh, John; Dedoussis, George; de Faire, Ulf; Feranil, Alan B.; Ferrières, Jean; Ferrucci, Luigi; Freimer, Nelson B.; Gieger, Christian; Groop, Leif C.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gyllensten, Ulf; Hamsten, Anders; Harris, Tamara B.; Hingorani, Aroon; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Hofman, Albert; Hovingh, G. Kees; Hsiung, Chao Agnes; Humphries, Steve E.; Hunt, Steven C.; Hveem, Kristian; Iribarren, Carlos; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jula, Antti; Kähönen, Mika; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kesäniemi, Antero; Kivimaki, Mika; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Koudstaal, Peter J.; Krauss, Ronald M.; Kuh, Diana; Kuusisto, Johanna; Kyvik, Kirsten O.; Laakso, Markku; Lakka, Timo A.; Lind, Lars; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Martin, Nicholas G.; März, Winfried; McCarthy, Mark I.; McKenzie, Colin A.; Meneton, Pierre; Metspalu, Andres; Moilanen, Leena; Morris, Andrew D.; Munroe, Patricia B.; Njølstad, Inger; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Power, Chris; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Price, Jackie F.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Quertermous, Thomas; Rauramaa, Rainer; Saleheen, Danish; Salomaa, Veikko; Sanghera, Dharambir K.; Saramies, Jouko; Schwarz, Peter E.H.; Sheu, Wayne H-H; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Siegbahn, Agneta; Spector, Tim D.; Stefansson, Kari; Strachan, David P.; Tayo, Bamidele O.; Tremoli, Elena; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uusitupa, Matti; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Vollenweider, Peter; Wallentin, Lars; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Whitfield, John B.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H.R.; Altshuler, David; Ordovas, Jose M.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Palmer, Colin N.A.; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Chasman, Daniel I.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Franks, Paul W.; Ripatti, Samuli; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Sandhu, Manjinder S.; Rich, Stephen S.; Boehnke, Michael; Deloukas, Panos; Mohlke, Karen L.; Ingelsson, Erik; Abecasis, Goncalo R.; Daly, Mark J.; Neale, Benjamin M.; Kathiresan, Sekar

    2013-01-01

    Triglycerides are transported in plasma by specific triglyceride-rich lipoproteins; in epidemiologic studies, increased triglyceride levels correlate with higher risk for coronary artery disease (CAD). However, it is unclear whether this association reflects causal processes. We used 185 common variants recently mapped for plasma lipids (P<5×10−8 for each) to examine the role of triglycerides on risk for CAD. First, we highlight loci associated with both low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglycerides, and show that the direction and magnitude of both are factors in determining CAD risk. Second, we consider loci with only a strong magnitude of association with triglycerides and show that these loci are also associated with CAD. Finally, in a model accounting for effects on LDL-C and/or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, a polymorphism's strength of effect on triglycerides is correlated with the magnitude of its effect on CAD risk. These results suggest that triglyceride-rich lipoproteins causally influence risk for CAD. PMID:24097064

  2. Common variants associated with plasma triglycerides and risk for coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Ron; Willer, Cristen J; Schmidt, Ellen M; Sengupta, Sebanti; Gao, Chi; Peloso, Gina M; Gustafsson, Stefan; Kanoni, Stavroula; Ganna, Andrea; Chen, Jin; Buchkovich, Martin L; Mora, Samia; Beckmann, Jacques S; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Demirkan, Ayşe; Den Hertog, Heleen M; Donnelly, Louise A; Ehret, Georg B; Esko, Tõnu; Feitosa, Mary F; Ferreira, Teresa; Fischer, Krista; Fontanillas, Pierre; Fraser, Ross M; Freitag, Daniel F; Gurdasani, Deepti; Heikkilä, Kauko; Hyppönen, Elina; Isaacs, Aaron; Jackson, Anne U; Johansson, Asa; Johnson, Toby; Kaakinen, Marika; Kettunen, Johannes; Kleber, Marcus E; Li, Xiaohui; Luan, Jian'an; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Mangino, Massimo; Mihailov, Evelin; Montasser, May E; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Nolte, Ilja M; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Palmer, Cameron D; Perola, Markus; Petersen, Ann-Kristin; Sanna, Serena; Saxena, Richa; Service, Susan K; Shah, Sonia; Shungin, Dmitry; Sidore, Carlo; Song, Ci; Strawbridge, Rona J; Surakka, Ida; Tanaka, Toshiko; Teslovich, Tanya M; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Van den Herik, Evita G; Voight, Benjamin F; Volcik, Kelly A; Waite, Lindsay L; Wong, Andrew; Wu, Ying; Zhang, Weihua; Absher, Devin; Asiki, Gershim; Barroso, Inês; Been, Latonya F; Bolton, Jennifer L; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Brambilla, Paolo; Burnett, Mary S; Cesana, Giancarlo; Dimitriou, Maria; Doney, Alex S F; Döring, Angela; Elliott, Paul; Epstein, Stephen E; Eyjolfsson, Gudmundur Ingi; Gigante, Bruna; Goodarzi, Mark O; Grallert, Harald; Gravito, Martha L; Groves, Christopher J; Hallmans, Göran; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Hayward, Caroline; Hernandez, Dena; Hicks, Andrew A; Holm, Hilma; Hung, Yi-Jen; Illig, Thomas; Jones, Michelle R; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Kastelein, John J P; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kim, Eric; Klopp, Norman; Komulainen, Pirjo; Kumari, Meena; Langenberg, Claudia; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lin, Shih-Yi; Lindström, Jaana; Loos, Ruth J F; Mach, François; McArdle, Wendy L; Meisinger, Christa; Mitchell, Braxton D; Müller, Gabrielle; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Narisu, Narisu; Nieminen, Tuomo V M; Nsubuga, Rebecca N; Olafsson, Isleifur; Ong, Ken K; Palotie, Aarno; Papamarkou, Theodore; Pomilla, Cristina; Pouta, Anneli; Rader, Daniel J; Reilly, Muredach P; Ridker, Paul M; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rudan, Igor; Ruokonen, Aimo; Samani, Nilesh; Scharnagl, Hubert; Seeley, Janet; Silander, Kaisa; Stančáková, Alena; Stirrups, Kathleen; Swift, Amy J; Tiret, Laurence; Uitterlinden, Andre G; van Pelt, L Joost; Vedantam, Sailaja; Wainwright, Nicholas; Wijmenga, Cisca; Wild, Sarah H; Willemsen, Gonneke; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wilson, James F; Young, Elizabeth H; Zhao, Jing Hua; Adair, Linda S; Arveiler, Dominique; Assimes, Themistocles L; Bandinelli, Stefania; Bennett, Franklyn; Bochud, Murielle; Boehm, Bernhard O; Boomsma, Dorret I; Borecki, Ingrid B; Bornstein, Stefan R; Bovet, Pascal; Burnier, Michel; Campbell, Harry; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Chambers, John C; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Collins, Francis S; Cooper, Richard S; Danesh, John; Dedoussis, George; de Faire, Ulf; Feranil, Alan B; Ferrières, Jean; Ferrucci, Luigi; Freimer, Nelson B; Gieger, Christian; Groop, Leif C; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Gyllensten, Ulf; Hamsten, Anders; Harris, Tamara B; Hingorani, Aroon; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Hofman, Albert; Hovingh, G Kees; Hsiung, Chao Agnes; Humphries, Steve E; Hunt, Steven C; Hveem, Kristian; Iribarren, Carlos; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jula, Antti; Kähönen, Mika; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kesäniemi, Antero; Kivimaki, Mika; Kooner, Jaspal S; Koudstaal, Peter J; Krauss, Ronald M; Kuh, Diana; Kuusisto, Johanna; Kyvik, Kirsten O; Laakso, Markku; Lakka, Timo A; Lind, Lars; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Martin, Nicholas G; März, Winfried; McCarthy, Mark I; McKenzie, Colin A; Meneton, Pierre; Metspalu, Andres; Moilanen, Leena; Morris, Andrew D; Munroe, Patricia B; Njølstad, Inger; Pedersen, Nancy L; Power, Chris; Pramstaller, Peter P; Price, Jackie F; Psaty, Bruce M; Quertermous, Thomas; Rauramaa, Rainer; Saleheen, Danish; Salomaa, Veikko; Sanghera, Dharambir K; Saramies, Jouko; Schwarz, Peter E H; Sheu, Wayne H-H; Shuldiner, Alan R; Siegbahn, Agneta; Spector, Tim D; Stefansson, Kari; Strachan, David P; Tayo, Bamidele O; Tremoli, Elena; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uusitupa, Matti; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Vollenweider, Peter; Wallentin, Lars; Wareham, Nicholas J; Whitfield, John B; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R; Altshuler, David; Ordovas, Jose M; Boerwinkle, Eric; Palmer, Colin N A; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Chasman, Daniel I; Rotter, Jerome I; Franks, Paul W; Ripatti, Samuli; Cupples, L Adrienne; Sandhu, Manjinder S; Rich, Stephen S; Boehnke, Michael; Deloukas, Panos; Mohlke, Karen L; Ingelsson, Erik; Abecasis, Goncalo R; Daly, Mark J; Neale, Benjamin M; Kathiresan, Sekar

    2013-11-01

    Triglycerides are transported in plasma by specific triglyceride-rich lipoproteins; in epidemiological studies, increased triglyceride levels correlate with higher risk for coronary artery disease (CAD). However, it is unclear whether this association reflects causal processes. We used 185 common variants recently mapped for plasma lipids (P triglycerides in risk for CAD. First, we highlight loci associated with both low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglyceride levels, and we show that the direction and magnitude of the associations with both traits are factors in determining CAD risk. Second, we consider loci with only a strong association with triglycerides and show that these loci are also associated with CAD. Finally, in a model accounting for effects on LDL-C and/or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, the strength of a polymorphism's effect on triglyceride levels is correlated with the magnitude of its effect on CAD risk. These results suggest that triglyceride-rich lipoproteins causally influence risk for CAD.

  3. Kinetic and Related Determinants of Plasma Triglyceride Concentration in Abdominal Obesity: Multicenter Tracer Kinetic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borén, Jan; Watts, Gerald F; Adiels, Martin; Söderlund, Sanni; Chan, Dick C; Hakkarainen, Antti; Lundbom, Nina; Matikainen, Niina; Kahri, Juhani; Vergès, Bruno; Barrett, P Hugh R; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta

    2015-10-01

    Patients with obesity and diabetes mellitus have increased risk of cardiovascular disease. A major cause is an atherogenic dyslipidemia related primarily to elevated plasma concentrations of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. The aim of this study was to clarify determinants of plasma triglyceride concentration. We focused on factors that predict the kinetics of very-low density lipoprotein 1 (VLDL1) triglycerides. A multicenter study using dual stable isotopes (deuterated leucine and glycerol) and multicompartmental modeling was performed to elucidate the kinetics of triglycerides and apoB in VLDL1 in 46 subjects with abdominal obesity and additional cardiometabolic risk factors. Results showed that plasma triglyceride concentrations were dependent on both the secretion rate (r=0.44, Ptriglycerides and VLDL1-apoB. Liver fat mass was independently and directly associated with secretion rates of VLDL1-triglycerides (r=0.56, Ptriglycerides (r=0.48, Ptriglyceride concentrations in abdominal obesity are determined by the kinetics of VLDL1 subspecies, catabolism being mainly dependent on apoC-III concentration and secretion on liver fat content. Reduction in liver fat and targeting apoC-III may be an effective approach for correcting triglyceride metabolism atherogenic dyslipidemia in obesity. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Plasma apolipoprotein C-III levels, triglycerides, and coronary artery calcification in type 2 diabetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qamar, Arman; Khetarpal, Sumeet A; Khera, Amit V; Qasim, Atif; Rader, Daniel J; Reilly, Muredach P

    2015-08-01

    Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins have emerged as causal risk factors for developing coronary heart disease independent of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Apolipoprotein C-III (ApoC-III) modulates triglyceride-rich lipoprotein metabolism through inhibition of lipoprotein lipase and hepatic uptake of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. Mutations causing loss-of-function of ApoC-III lower triglycerides and reduce coronary heart disease risk, suggestive of a causal role for ApoC-III. Little data exist about the relationship of ApoC-III, triglycerides, and atherosclerosis in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Here, we examined the relationships between plasma ApoC-III, triglycerides, and coronary artery calcification in patients with T2DM. Plasma ApoC-III levels were measured in a cross-sectional study of 1422 subjects with T2DM but without clinically manifest coronary heart disease. ApoC-III levels were positively associated with total cholesterol (Spearman r=0.36), triglycerides (r=0.59), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r=0.16), fasting glucose (r=0.16), and glycosylated hemoglobin (r=0.12; Ptriglycerides (Tobit regression ratio, 1.43; 95% confidence interval, 0.94-2.18; P=0.086) and separately for very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (Tobit regression ratio, 1.14; 95% confidence interval, 0.75-1.71; P=0.53). In persons with T2DM, increased plasma ApoC-III is associated with higher triglycerides, less favorable cardiometabolic phenotypes, and higher coronary artery calcification, a measure of subclinical atherosclerosis. Therapeutic inhibition of ApoC-III may thus be a novel strategy for reducing plasma triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and cardiovascular risk in T2DM. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. The role of plasma triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio to predict cardiovascular outcomes in chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonmez, Alper; Yilmaz, Mahmut Ilker; Saglam, Mutlu; Unal, Hilmi Umut; Gok, Mahmut; Cetinkaya, Hakki; Karaman, Murat; Haymana, Cem; Eyileten, Tayfun; Oguz, Yusuf; Vural, Abdulgaffar; Rizzo, Manfredi; Toth, Peter P

    2015-04-16

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk is substantially increased in subjects with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The Triglycerides (TG) to High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio is an indirect measure of insulin resistance and an independent predictor of cardiovascular risk. No study to date has been performed to evaluate whether the TG/HDL-C ratio predicts CVD risk in patients with CKD. A total of 197 patients (age 53±12 years) with CKD Stages 1 to 5, were enrolled in this longitudinal, observational, retrospective study. TG/HDL-C ratio, HOMA-IR indexes, serum asymmetric dimethyl arginine (ADMA), high sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP), parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcium, phosphorous, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and albumin levels were measured. Flow mediated vasodilatation (FMD) of the brachial artery was assessed by using high-resolution ultrasonography. A total of 11 cardiovascular (CV) deaths and 43 nonfatal CV events were registered in a mean follow-up period of 30 (range 9 to 35) months. Subjects with TG/HDL-C ratios above the median values (>3.29) had significantly higher plasma ADMA, PTH, and phosphorous levels (p=0.04, p=0.02, p=0.01 respectively) and lower eGFR and FMD values (p=0.03, pcardiovascular outcomes [HR: 1.36 (1.11-1.67) (p=0.003)] along with plasma ADMA levels [HR: 1.31 (1.13-1.52) (p<0.001)] and a history of diabetes mellitus [HR: 4.82 (2.80-8.37) (p<0.001)]. This study demonstrates that the elevated TG/HDL-C ratio predicts poor CVD outcome in subjects with CKD. Being a simple, inexpensive, and reproducible marker of CVD risk, the TG/HDL-C ratio may emerge as a novel and reliable indicator among the many well-established markers of CVD risk in CKD. Clinical trial registration number and date: NCT02113462 / 10-04-2014.

  6. Independent effects of apolipoprotein AV and apolipoprotein CIII on plasma triglyceride concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baroukh, Nadine N.; Bauge, Eric; Akiyama, Jennifer; Chang, Jessie; Fruchart, Jean-Charles; Rubin, Edward M.; Fruchart, Jamila; Pennacchio, Len A.

    2003-08-15

    Both the apolipoprotein A5 and C3 genes have repeatedly been shown to play an important role in determining plasma triglyceride concentrations in humans and mice. In mice, transgenic and knockout experiments indicate that plasma triglyceride levels are negatively and positively correlated with APOA5 and APOC3 expression, respectively. In humans, common polymorphisms in both genes have also been associated with plasma triglyceride concentrations. The evolutionary relationship among these two apolipoprotein genes and their close proximity on human chromosome 11q23 have largely precluded the determination of their relative contribution to altered Both the apolipoprotein A5 and C3 genes have repeatedly been shown to play an important role in determining plasma triglyceride concentrations in humans and mice. In mice, transgenic and knockout experiments indicate that plasma triglyceride levels are negatively and positively correlated with APOA5 and APOC3 expression, respectively. In humans, common polymorphisms in both genes have also been associated with plasma triglyceride concentrations. The evolutionary relationship among these two apolipoprotein genes and their close proximity on human chromosome 11q23 have largely precluded the determination of their relative contribution to altered triglycerides. To overcome these confounding factors and address their relationship, we generated independent lines of mice that either over-expressed (''double transgenic'') or completely lacked (''double knockout'') both apolipoprotein genes. We report that both ''double transgenic'' and ''double knockout'' mice display intermedia tetriglyceride concentrations compared to over-expression or deletion of either gene alone. Furthermore, we find that human ApoAV plasma protein levels in the ''double transgenic'' mice are approximately 500-fold lower than human ApoCIII levels, supporting Apo

  7. Functional analysis of the TRIB1 associated locus linked to plasma triglycerides and coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douvris, Adrianna; Soubeyrand, Sébastien; Naing, Thet; Martinuk, Amy; Nikpay, Majid; Williams, Andrew; Buick, Julie; Yauk, Carole; McPherson, Ruth

    2014-06-03

    The TRIB1 locus has been linked to hepatic triglyceride metabolism in mice and to plasma triglycerides and coronary artery disease in humans. The lipid-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), identified by genome-wide association studies, are located ≈30 kb downstream from TRIB1, suggesting complex regulatory effects on genes or pathways relevant to hepatic triglyceride metabolism. The goal of this study was to investigate the functional relationship between common SNPs at the TRIB1 locus and plasma lipid traits. Characterization of the risk locus reveals that it encompasses a gene, TRIB1-associated locus (TRIBAL), composed of a well-conserved promoter region and an alternatively spliced transcript. Bioinformatic analysis and resequencing identified a single SNP, rs2001844, within the promoter region that associates with increased plasma triglycerides and reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and coronary artery disease risk. Further, correction for triglycerides as a covariate indicated that the genome-wide association studies association is largely dependent on triglycerides. In addition, we show that rs2001844 is an expression trait locus (eQTL) for TRIB1 expression in blood and alters TRIBAL promoter activity in a reporter assay model. The TRIBAL transcript has features typical of long noncoding RNAs, including poor sequence conservation. Modulation of TRIBAL expression had limited impact on either TRIB1 or lipid regulatory genes mRNA levels in human hepatocyte models. In contrast, TRIB1 knockdown markedly increased TRIBAL expression in HepG2 cells and primary human hepatocytes. These studies demonstrate an interplay between a novel locus, TRIBAL, and TRIB1. TRIBAL is located in the genome-wide association studies identified risk locus, responds to altered expression of TRIB1, harbors a risk SNP that is an eQTL for TRIB1 expression, and associates with plasma triglyceride concentrations. © 2014 The Authors. Published on behalf of the

  8. Relationship of the triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) ratio to the remainder of the lipid profile: The Very Large Database of Lipids-4 (VLDL-4) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quispe, Renato; Manalac, Raoul J; Faridi, Kamil F; Blaha, Michael J; Toth, Peter P; Kulkarni, Krishnaji R; Nasir, Khurram; Virani, Salim S; Banach, Maciej; Blumenthal, Roger S; Martin, Seth S; Jones, Steven R

    2015-09-01

    High levels of the triglycerides to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) ratio are associated with obesity, metabolic syndrome, and insulin resistance. We evaluated variability in the remaining lipid profile, especially remnant lipoprotein particle cholesterol (RLP-C) and its components (very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol subfraction 3 and intermediate-density lipoprotein cholesterol), with variability in the TG/HDL-C ratio in a very large study cohort representative of the general U.S. We examined data from 1,350,908 US individuals who were clinically referred for lipoprotein cholesterol ultracentrifugation (Atherotech, Birmingham, AL) from 2009 to 2011. Demographic information other than age and sex was not available. Changes to the remaining lipid profile across percentiles of the TG/HDL-C ratio were quantified, as well as by three TG/HDL-C cut-off points previously proposed in the literature: 2.5 (male) and 2 (female), 3.75 (male) and 3 (female), and 3.5 (male and female). The mean age of our study population was 58.7 years, and 48% were men. The median TG/HDL-C ratio was 2.2. Across increasing TG/HDL-C ratios, we found steadily increasing levels of RLP-C, non-HDL-C and LDL density. Among the lipid parameters studied, RLP-C and LDL density had the highest relative increase when comparing individuals with elevated TG/HDL-C levels to those with lower TG/HDL-C levels using established cut-off points. Approximately 47% of TG/HDL-C ratio variance was attributable to RLP-C. In the present analysis, a higher TG/HDL-C ratio was associated with an increasingly atherogenic lipid phenotype, characterized by higher RLP-C along with higher non-HDL-C and LDL density. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Cholesteryl ester transfer protein alters liver and plasma triglyceride metabolism through two liver networks in female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmisano, Brian T; Le, Thao D; Zhu, Lin; Lee, Yoon Kwang; Stafford, John M

    2016-08-01

    Elevated plasma TGs increase risk of cardiovascular disease in women. Estrogen treatment raises plasma TGs in women, but molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here we explore the role of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) in the regulation of TG metabolism in female mice, which naturally lack CETP. In transgenic CETP females, acute estrogen treatment raised plasma TGs 50%, increased TG production, and increased expression of genes involved in VLDL synthesis, but not in nontransgenic littermate females. In CETP females, estrogen enhanced expression of small heterodimer partner (SHP), a nuclear receptor regulating VLDL production. Deletion of liver SHP prevented increases in TG production and expression of genes involved in VLDL synthesis in CETP mice with estrogen treatment. We also examined whether CETP expression had effects on TG metabolism independent of estrogen treatment. CETP increased liver β-oxidation and reduced liver TG content by 60%. Liver estrogen receptor α (ERα) was required for CETP expression to enhance β-oxidation and reduce liver TG content. Thus, CETP alters at least two networks governing TG metabolism, one involving SHP to increase VLDL-TG production in response to estrogen, and another involving ERα to enhance β-oxidation and lower liver TG content. These findings demonstrate a novel role for CETP in estrogen-mediated increases in TG production and a broader role for CETP in TG metabolism. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. Association between periodontal disease and plasma levels of cholesterol and triglycerides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Jaramillo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Untreated periodontal disease seems to cause low grade systemic inflammation and blood lipid alteration leading to increased cardiovascular disease risk. To start testing this hypothesis in Colombian patients, a multicentre study was conducted including the three main state capitals: Bogotá, Medellín and Cali. Methods: In this study 192 (28.4% advanced and 256 (37.8% moderate periodontitis patients were  investigated for socio-demographic variables, city of precedence, periodontal parameters, smoking, red complex periodontopathic bacteria, serum antibodies against Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and blood lipids including total cholesterol, HDL, LDL and triglycerides (TG. Those parameters were compared to 229 (33.8% controls having periodontal health or gingivitis. Results: Advanced periodontitis had worst periodontal indexes, than moderate periodontitis and controls. Interestingly, higher HDL and TG levels were present in periodontitis. BMI <30 and smoking were associated with increased HDL, HDL-35, LDL and TG, while glycemia >100 mg/dL associated with HDL, HDL-35 and TG. Tannerella forsythia showed a significant association with HDL-35 in bivariate analysis and serum IgG1 against P. gingivalis associated with HDL-35 and serum IgG1 against T. forsythia associated with TG and serum IgG2 against A. actinomycetemcomitans correlated with levels of HDL y HDL-35. In logistic regression the periodontitis patients from Cali presented reduced HDL levels as compared to Bogotá and Medellín patients. Presence of IgG1 antibodies against P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans correlated with reduced HDL levels. Conclusion: This study confirmed that untreated periodontitis generates alteration in serum lipid levels and systemic bacterial exposure against important periodontopathic bacteria seems to be the biological link. 

  11. High plasma triglyceride levels strongly correlate with low kisspeptin in the arcuate nucleus of male rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, A; Axel, A M; Lie, M E;

    2015-01-01

    signals to the GnRH neurons. METHODS: In this study, we measured body weight and plasma concentrations of leptin, insulin, testosterone, and triglycerides after high fat diet exposure and correlated these parameters with the number of kisspeptin-immunoreactive neurons in the arcuate nucleus of male rats....... In this model, a high fat diet (45% or 60% energy from fat, respectively) or a control diet (10% energy from fat) was provided after weaning for three months. RESULTS: We find a significant increase in body weight and plasma leptin concentration, but no change in the number of kisspeptin-immunoreactive cells...... with increased fat in the diet. Kisspeptin-immunoreactive cells are not correlated with body weight, testosterone, leptin or insulin. However, we find that the number of kisspeptin-immunoreactive cells is strongly and negatively correlated with the level of plasma triglycerides (R2=0.49, p=0.004). CONCLUSION: We...

  12. Altered relationship of plasma triglycerides to HDL cholesterol in patients with HIV/HAART-associated dyslipidemia: further evidence for a unique form of metabolic syndrome in HIV patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, Catherine N; Ruiz-Esponda, Raul; Yang, Eric; Chang, Evelyn; Gillard, Baiba; Pownall, Henry J; Hoogeveen, Ron C; Coraza, Ivonne; Balasubramanyam, Ashok

    2013-07-01

    Plasma triglycerides (TG) and HDL-C are inversely related in Metabolic Syndrome (MetS), due to exchange of VLDL-TG for HDL-cholesteryl esters catalyzed by cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP). We investigated the relationship of TG to HDL-C in highly-active antiretroviral drug (HAART)-treated HIV patients. Fasting plasma TG and HDL-C levels were compared in 179 hypertriglyceridemic HIV/HAART patients and 71 HIV-negative persons (31 normotriglyceridemic (NL) and 40 hypertriglyceridemic due to type IV hyperlipidemia (HTG)). CETP mass and activity were compared in 19 NL and 87 HIV/HAART subjects. Among the three groups, a plot of HDL-C vs. TG gave similar slopes but significantly different y-intercepts (9.24±0.45, 8.16±0.54, 6.70±0.65, sqrt(HDL-C) for NL, HIV and HTG respectively; P<0.001); this difference persisted after adjusting HDL-C for TG, age, BMI, gender, glucose, CD4 count, viral load and HAART strata (7.18±0.20, 6.20±0.05 and 4.55±0.15 sqrt(HDL-C) for NL, HIV and HTG, respectively, P<0.001). CETP activity was not different between NL and HIV, but CETP mass was significantly higher in HIV (1.47±0.53 compared to 0.93±0.27μg/mL, P<0.0001), hence CETP specific activity was lower in HIV (22.67±13.46 compared to 28.46±8.24nmol/μg/h, P=0.001). Dyslipidemic HIV/HAART patients have a distinctive HDL-C plasma concentration adjusted for TG. The weak inverse relationship between HDL-C and TG is not explained by altered total CETP activity; it could result from a non-CETP-dependent mechanism or a decrease in CETP function due to inhibitors of CETP activity in HIV patients' plasma. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. In vivo triglyceride synthesis in subcutaneous adipose tissue of humans correlates with plasma HDL parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuvdendorj, Demidmaa; Munoz, Alejandro O; Ruiz-Barros, Viviana; Schwarz, Jean-Marc; Montalto, Giuseppe; Chandalia, Manisha; Sowers, Lawrence C; Rizzo, Manfredi; Murphy, Elizabeth J; Abate, Nicola

    2016-08-01

    Low concentrations of plasma HDL-C are associated with the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. Here we aimed to explore the relationship between the in vivo fractional synthesis of triglycerides (fTG) in subcutaneous (s.q.) abdominal adipose tissue (AT), HDL-C concentrations and HDL particle size composition in non-diabetic humans. The fTG in s.q. abdominal AT was measured in 16 non-diabetic volunteers (7 women, 9 men; Age: 49 ± 20 years; BMI: 31 ± 5 kg/m; Fasting Plasma Glucose: 90 ± 10 mg/dl) after (2)H2O labeling. HDL-C concentration and subclasses, large (L-HDL), intermediate (I-HDL) and small (S-HDL) were measured. Linear regression analyses demonstrated significant associations of fTG with plasma concentration of HDL-C (r = 0.625,p = 0.009) and percent contribution of L-HDL (r = 0.798,p HDL (r = -0.765,p HDL (r = -0.629, p = 0.009). When analyses were performed by gender, the associations remained significant in women (HDL-C: r = 0.822,p = 0.023; L-HDL: r = 0.892,p = 0.007; I-HDL: r = -0.927,p = 0.003) but not men. Our study demonstrated an in vivo association between subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue lipid dynamics and HDL parameters in humans, but this was true for women not men. Positive association with L-HDL and negative with I-HDL suggest that subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue lipid dynamics may play an important role in production of mature functional HDL particles. Further studies evaluating the mechanism responsible for these associations and the observed gender differences are important and warranted to identify potential novel targets of intervention to increase the production of atheroprotective subclasses of HDL-Cs and thus decreasing the risks of development of atherosclerotic conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. CD36 deficiency in mice impairs lipoprotein lipase-mediated triglyceride clearance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goudriaan, [No Value; den Boer, MAM; Rensen, PCN; Febbraio, M; Kuipers, F; Romijn, JA; Havekes, LM; Voshol, PJ

    2005-01-01

    CD36 is involved in high-affinity peripheral FFA uptake. CD36-deficient (cd36(-/-)) mice exhibit increased plasma FFA and triglyceride (TG) levels. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the cause of the increased plasma TG levels in cd36(-/-) mice. cd36(-/-) mice showed no differences in hep

  15. CD36 deficiency in mice impairs lipoprotein lipase-mediated triglyceride clearance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goudriaan, [No Value; den Boer, MAM; Rensen, PCN; Febbraio, M; Kuipers, F; Romijn, JA; Havekes, LM; Voshol, PJ

    2005-01-01

    CD36 is involved in high-affinity peripheral FFA uptake. CD36-deficient (cd36(-/-)) mice exhibit increased plasma FFA and triglyceride (TG) levels. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the cause of the increased plasma TG levels in cd36(-/-) mice. cd36(-/-) mice showed no differences in

  16. [Changes of fatty acids spectrum of plasma triglycerides and their pharmacological correction by statins in patients with unstable angina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyzohub, V H; Artemchuk, O O; Dolynna, O V; Altunina, N V; Sharaieva, M L; Koniuk, T N

    2013-01-01

    The fatty acid composition of plasma triglycerides by gas chromatography, the dynamics of the segment ST, cardiac arrhythmia by daily monitoring of electrocardiogram in patients with unstable angina (progressive) and the effects of treatment with statins were studied. Revealed marked qualitative abnormalities of plasma triglycerides in patients with progressive angina manifest increase in the amount of saturated and reduction--of unsaturated fatty acids. High therapeutic effect of simvastatin and atorvastatin may be due to the identified strong correlation between the dynamics of the fatty acid components of plasma triglycerides and indicators of ischemia, ectopic activity in patients with progressive angina.

  17. Deranged aortic intima-media thickness, plasma triglycerides and granulopoiesis in Sl/Sld mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kottarappat N. Dileepan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available STUDIES were carried out to evaluate the impact of a high-fat dietary regimen on aortic wall thickness, peripheral blood leukocyte profile, and plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels in the mast cell-deficient Sl/Sld mouse. The results demonstrated that the mean aortic wall thickness of Sl/Sld mice was significantly higher than their normal littermates, and were increased in both genotypes after a 17-day high-fat regimen. In comparison with normal littermates, Sl/Sld genotypes had elevated levels of plasma triglycerides with normal levels of plasma cholesterol, and the high-fat diet markedly lowered the triglyceride levels. Total peripheral blood leukocytes, the monocyte and granulocyte counts, and hemoglobin levels were significantly lower in Sl/Sld mice, although the number of lymphocytes, eosinophils and basophils were the same in both genotypes. Interestingly, the high-fat diet regimen elevated leukocyte counts and the number of monocytes and granulocytes in Sl/Sld mice.

  18. High plasma cholesteryl ester transfer protein levels may favour reduced incidence of cardiovascular events in men with low triglycerides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borggreve, Susanna E.; Hillege, Hans L.; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M.; de Jong, Paul E.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Grobbee, Diederik E.; van Tol, Arie; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    2007-01-01

    Aims High cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) concentrations are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in subjects with high triglycerides. We determined the relationship of plasma CETP with incident CVD in a population with relatively low triglycerides. Methods and re

  19. High plasma cholesteryl ester transfer protein levels may favour reduced incidence of cardiovascular events in men with low triglycerides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borggreve, Susanna E.; Hillege, Hans L.; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M.; de Jong, Paul E.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Grobbee, Diederik E.; van Tol, Arie; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    Aims High cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) concentrations are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in subjects with high triglycerides. We determined the relationship of plasma CETP with incident CVD in a population with relatively low triglycerides. Methods and

  20. Plasma thyroid hormone concentration is associated with hepatic triglyceride content in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bril, Fernando; Kadiyala, Sushma; Portillo Sanchez, Paola; Sunny, Nishanth E; Biernacki, Diane; Maximos, Maryann; Kalavalapalli, Srilaxmi; Lomonaco, Romina; Suman, Amitabh; Cusi, Kenneth

    2016-01-01

    The underlying mechanisms responsible for the development and progression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are unclear. Since the thyroid hormone regulates mitochondrial function in the liver, we designed this study in order to establish the association between plasma free T4 levels and hepatic triglyceride accumulation and histological severity of liver disease in patients with T2DM and NAFLD. This is a cross-sectional study including a total of 232 patients with T2DM. All patients underwent a liver MR spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) to quantify hepatic triglyceride content, and an oral glucose tolerance test to estimate insulin resistance. A liver biopsy was performed in patients with a diagnosis of NAFLD. Patients were divided into 5 groups according to plasma free T4 quintiles. We observed that decreasing free T4 levels were associated with an increasing prevalence of NAFLD (from 55% if free T4≥1.18 ng/dL to 80% if free T4triglyceride accumulation by (1)H-MRS (ptriglyceride content in patients with T2DM. These results suggest that thyroid hormone may play a role in the regulation of hepatic steatosis and support the notion that hypothyroidism may be associated with NAFLD. No NCT number required. Copyright © 2016 American Federation for Medical Research.

  1. Intake of Mung Bean Protein Isolate Reduces Plasma Triglyceride Level in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuhiko Tachibana

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground: Mung bean is well known as a starch source, but the physiological effects of mung bean protein have received little attention. In this study, we isolated mung bean protein from de-starched mung bean solutions, and investigated its influence on lipid metabolism. Objective: The aim of this study is to clarify the influence of the lipid metabolism by consumption of mung bean protein isolate (MPIMethods: Diets containing either mung bean protein isolate (MPI or casein were fed to normal rats for 28 days.Results: Both groups ate the same amount of food, but the plasma triglyceride level, relative liver weight and liver lipid contents (cholesterol and triglyceride pool in the MPI group were significantly lower than in the casein group. In the MPI group, the expression of sterol regulatory-element binding factor 1 (SREBF1 mRNA in the liver was significantly different when compared with the casein group. The significantly lower levels of insulin and free fatty acids in the MPI-fed rats may be due to the regulation of genes related to lipid metabolism in the liver.Conclusions: These results suggest that MPI may improve the plasma lipid profile by normalizing insulin sensitivity.Keywords: mung bean, Vigna radiata L., 8S globulin, triglyceride, β-conglycinin, 7S globulin, insulin sensitivity, SREBF1

  2. The triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) ratio as a predictor of β-cell function in African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maturu, Amita; DeWitt, Peter; Kern, Philip A; Rasouli, Neda

    2015-05-01

    The TG/HDL-C ratio is used as a marker of insulin resistance (IR) in Caucasians. However, there are conflicting data on TG/HDL-C ratio as a predictor of IR in African Americans. Compared to Caucasians, African Americans have lower TG levels and increased insulin levels despite a greater risk for diabetes. We hypothesized that the TG/HDL-C ratio is predictive of IR and/or β-cell function in African American (AA) women. Non-diabetic AA women (n = 41) with a BMI > 25 kg/m(2) underwent frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test (FSIGTT). Insulin sensitivity (SI) and the acute insulin response to glucose (AIRg) were measured using minimal model and β-cell function was determined by disposition index (DI = S I*AIRg). IR was defined as the lowest tertile of SI ( 0.70 was defined as significant discrimination. The mean (± SD) age was 38.5 ± 11.3 years, with BMI of 33.5 ± 6.7 kg/m(2) and fasting glucose of 86.5 ± 10.5 mg/dL. The AUC-ROC for the prediction of DI HDL-C ratio was associated with decreased DI. However, the AUC-ROC for prediction of IR or low AIRg (HDL-C ratio is a poor predictor of IR in AA women. However, we did show an inverse association between the TG/HDL-C ratio and β-cell function, suggesting that this simple tool may effectively identify AA women at risk for DM2. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and triglyceride to HDL-C ratio (TG/HDL-c) as predictors of cardiometabolic risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiler Miralles, Clara Silvana; Wollinger, Luana Maria; Marin, Débora; Genro, Julia Pasqualini; Contini, Veronica; Morelo Dal Bosco, Simone

    2015-05-01

    Introducción: La concentracion excesiva de grasa en la region abdominal se relaciona con un mayor riesgo de desarrollar enfermedad cardiovascular (ECV). Se han realizado estudios para identificar los indicadores simples y eficaces de la obesidad abdominal y el riesgo cardiometabolico asociados con el uso de parametros simples, como las medidas antropometricas y bioquimicas. El / alta densidad de colesterol de lipoproteinas de trigliceridos (TG / HDL-c) se ha propuesto como un enfoque mas practico y facil de usar marcador aterogenico, junto con la relacion cintura-estatura (RCEst), lo que hace que una herramienta superior para separar cardiometabolico riesgos relacionados con el sobrepeso / obesidad cuando se compara con el indice de masa corporal (IMC). Objetivo: Verificar la aplicabilidad de la RCEst y la relacion TG / HDL-c como predictores de riesgo cardiometabolico. Métodos: Este estudio transversal se llevo a cabo en el Departamento de Nutricion del Centro Universitario UNIVATES, donde se recogieron datos antropometricos y bioquimicos de los participantes. El analisis estadistico se realizo mediante el paquete estadistico para el software de Ciencias Sociales (SPSS) 20,0, con un nivel de significacion del 5% (p.

  4. Partial conservation of the sn-2 position of dietary triglycerides in fasting plasma lipids in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zock, P L; Gerritsen, J; Katan, M B

    1996-02-01

    The authors investigated the effect of the position of fatty acids within dietary triglycerides on the composition of plasma lipids. Sixty volunteers consumed two diets of equal fatty acid compositions for 3 weeks each. In the palm oil diet 82% of palmitic acid was attached to the sn-1 and sn-3, and 18% to the sn-2 position of glycerol. In the diet rich in a palm oil analogue, Betapol, these figures were 35% and 65% respectively. Oleic and linoleic acid in palm oil were mainly in the sn-2 position, and in Betapol mainly in the sn-1 and sn-3 position. The proportion of palmitic acid in the 2 position of fasting plasma triglycerides was 10·2 g 100 g-1 on palm oil and 12·3 on Betapol; that of oleic acid was 46·dot 9 vs. 43·6 (P oil (P = 0·002). Betapol increased palmitic and palmitoleic acid in cholesteryl esters by 1 g 100 g-1 (P fat absorption and chylomicron clearance.

  5. Sympathetic nervous system control of triglyceride metabolism: Novel concepts derived from recent studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerling, J.J.; Boon, M.R.; Kooijman, S.; Parlevliet, E.T.; Havekes, L.M.; Romijn, J.A.; Meurs, I.M.; Rensen, P.C.N.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Important players in triglyceride (TG) metabolism include the liver (production), white adipose tissue (WAT) (storage), heart and skeletal muscle (combustion to generate ATP), and brown adipose tissue (BAT) (combustion toward heat), the collective action of which determine plasma TG levels.

  6. Antisense oligonucleotide inhibition of apolipoprotein C-III reduces plasma triglycerides in rodents, nonhuman primates, and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Mark J; Lee, Richard G; Bell, Thomas A; Fu, Wuxia; Mullick, Adam E; Alexander, Veronica J; Singleton, Walter; Viney, Nick; Geary, Richard; Su, John; Baker, Brenda F; Burkey, Jennifer; Crooke, Stanley T; Crooke, Rosanne M

    2013-05-24

    Elevated plasma triglyceride levels have been recognized as a risk factor for the development of coronary heart disease. Apolipoprotein C-III (apoC-III) represents both an independent risk factor and a key regulatory factor of plasma triglyceride concentrations. Furthermore, elevated apoC-III levels have been associated with metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus. To date, no selective apoC-III therapeutic agent has been evaluated in the clinic. To test the hypothesis that selective inhibition of apoC-III with antisense drugs in preclinical models and in healthy volunteers would reduce plasma apoC-III and triglyceride levels. Rodent- and human-specific second-generation antisense oligonucleotides were identified and evaluated in preclinical models, including rats, mice, human apoC-III transgenic mice, and nonhuman primates. We demonstrated the selective reduction of both apoC-III and triglyceride in all preclinical pharmacological evaluations. We also showed that inhibition of apoC-III was well tolerated and not associated with increased liver triglyceride deposition or hepatotoxicity. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase I clinical study was performed in healthy subjects. Administration of the human apoC-III antisense drug resulted in dose-dependent reductions in plasma apoC-III, concomitant lowering of triglyceride levels, and produced no clinically meaningful signals in the safety evaluations. Antisense inhibition of apoC-III in preclinical models and in a phase I clinical trial with healthy subjects produced potent, selective reductions in plasma apoC-III and triglyceride, 2 known risk factors for cardiovascular disease. This compelling pharmacological profile supports further clinical investigations in hypertriglyceridemic subjects.

  7. Artesunate prevents rats from the clozapine-induced hepatic steatosis and elevation in plasma triglycerides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Y

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Yanmei Li,1,2 Ruibing Su,3 Shuqin Xu,2 Qingjun Huang,1 Haiyun Xu1,2 1The Mental Health Center, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong Province, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Anatomy, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong Province, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Forensics and Pathology, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou, Guangdong Province, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Clozapine is an atypical antipsychotic with therapeutic efficacy in treatment-resistant schizophrenia patients and low incidence of extrapyramidal side effects. However, the use of clozapine has been limited by its adverse effects on metabolism. Artesunate is a semisynthetic derivative of artemisinin and was shown to decrease the plasma cholesterol and triglyceride in rabbits and rats in recent studies. The aim of this study was to examine possible effects of artesunate on the clozapine-induced metabolic alterations in rats given saline, clozapine, artesunate, or clozapine plus artesunate for 6 weeks. The clozapine group showed significantly high plasma levels of triglyceride, hepatic steatosis, and fibrosis along with high levels of C-reactive protein, alanine aminotransferase, and aspartate aminotransferase compared to the saline group. But the treatment had no effect on weight gain and caused no hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and behavioral changes in the rats. More significantly, these clozapine-induced changes were not seen in rats coadministered with clozapine plus artesunate. These results added evidence supporting psychiatrists to try add-on treatment of artesunate in schizophrenia patients to ameliorate clozapine-induced adverse metabolic effects. Keywords: artesunate, clozapine, dyslipidemia, hepatic steatosis, schizophrenia 

  8. Fasting plasma triglyceride concentration: A possible approach to identify increased risk of statin-induced type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Ki-Chul; Reaven, Gerald

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate the hypothesis that measurement of fasting plasma triglyceride concentration identifies individuals at enhanced risk of statin-induced type 2 diabetes mellitus. A retrospective analysis of data collected from routine health examinations in non-diabetic, East Asian individuals (n = 5790) with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations of ⩾3.4 mmol/L. Subjects were stratified into those with or without a triglyceride concentration of ⩾1.7 mmol/L, and comparisons made of risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Approximately 40% of men and 20% of women with elevations of both low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations were more insulin resistant (homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance), associated with higher plasma concentrations of HbA1c, glucose and insulin. Apparently, healthy, non-diabetic East Asian men and women with combined elevations of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations are glucose intolerant and insulin resistant, and thereby at enhanced risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Measurement of plasma triglyceride concentration can identify within a hypercholesterolemic population a subset of individuals at enhanced risk of statin-induced type 2 diabetes mellitus. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Transport of plasma free fatty acids and triglycerides in man: a theoretical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shames, David M.; Frank, Arthur; Steinberg, Daniel; Berman, Mones

    1970-01-01

    Three different multicompartmental models of free fatty acid (FFA) and very low density lipoprotein triglyceride fatty acid (VLDL-TGFA) transport in man are formulated from plasma FFA and VLDL-TGFA tracee and tracer data collected over a 24 hr interval after the injection of palmitate-14C. All modeling and data fitting were performed on a digital computer using the SAAM program. Structural differences in the three models relate to the position of the slowly turning over compartment required to generate the late portion of the plasma VLDL-TGFA tracer data. The positions of this slow compartment are along the hepatic pathway from FFA to VLDL-TGFA (model A) or in the distribution system of VLDL-TGFA (model B) or in the distribution system of FFA (model C). Although all three models are equally consistent with our experimental data and are supported by observations of others, each reveals inconsistency with some data obtained from the literature. Consequently, a combination model of FFA-TGFA transport, incorporating properties of models A, B, and C would be more consistent with all available data. Experiments that would help to determine the quantitative significance of each of the slow compartments in the combination model are suggested. Several other models suggesting recycling of plasma VLDL-TGFA through the plasma FFA pool, kinetic heterogencity of the plasma VLDL-TGFA pool, and contamination of plasma VLDL-TGFA radioactivity with low density lipoprotein (LDL) TGFA radioactivity were tested. The first model does not explain the late portion of the plasma VLDL-TGFA tracer data. The second and third models, while consistent with our tracee and tracer data, have steady-state implications with respect to the extent of kinetic heterogeneity and size of the LDL-TGFA contaminant that make them unlikely. Assumptions underlying other investigator's models of FFA and TGFA transport in man are reviewed within the logical framework of our models. Quantitative differences among

  10. Effect of Fenofibrate and Niacin on Intrahepatic Triglyceride Content, Very Low-Density Lipoprotein Kinetics, and Insulin Action in Obese Subjects with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Fabbrini, Elisa; Mohammed, B. Selma; Korenblat, Kevin M.; Magkos, Faidon; McCrea, Jennifer; Patterson, Bruce W.; Klein, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    Context: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with risk factors for cardiovascular disease, particularly increased plasma triglyceride (TG) concentrations and insulin resistance. Fenofibrate and extended release nicotinic acid (Niaspan) are used to treat hypertriglyceridemia and can affect fatty acid oxidation and plasma free fatty acid concentrations, which influence intrahepatic triglyceride (IHTG) content and metabolic function.

  11. Plasma exchange treatment for acute hyperlipidemic pancreatitis with falsely low levels of serum triglycerides - a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markota, A; Knehtl, M; Sinkovic, A; Ekart, R; Hojs, R; Bevc, S

    2014-10-01

    Hypertriglyceridemia is a well-recognized cause of acute pancreatitis. We present a patient with acute hypertriglyceridemic pancreatitis. At presentation serum triglycerides were severely elevated (104 mmol/l) and were decreasing the next day (11 mmol/l). However, based on increasing levels of serum lipase, worsening respiratory failure and evidently lipemic serum, we decided to perform plasma exchange, and patient's condition improved dramatically. Repeated laboratory test of the serum obtained before the first plasma exchange revealed that the actual value of serum triglycerides was 57 mmol/l. A clinically-driven decision is crucial when treating patients with hypertriglyceridemic acute pancreatitis as the serum triglyceride levels can be falsely low.

  12. GESTATIONAL-AGE DEPENDENCY OF ESSENTIAL FATTY-ACIDS IN CORD PLASMA-CHOLESTEROL ESTERS AND TRIGLYCERIDES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HOVING, EB; VANBEUSEKOM, CM; NIJEBOER, HJ; MUSKIET, FAJ

    Plasma cholesterol ester and triglyceride fatty acid compositions of 38 singleton deliveries (23-42 wk), three twins (32, 39, and 40 wk), and their mothers were investigated. No gestational age-dependent changes occurred in maternal fatty acid compositions. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in

  13. Two meals with different carbohydrate, fat and protein contents render equivalent postprandial plasma levels of calprotectin, cortisol, triglycerides and zonulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlsson, Bodil; Darwiche, Gassan; Roth, Bodil; Höglund, Peter

    2016-11-01

    The aim was to compare postprandial plasma levels of calprotectin, cortisol, triglycerides and zonulin between a control breakfast and a moderately low-carbohydrate test breakfast, given randomly after 10-h fast. Blood samples were collected before and repeatedly after the meal. Plasma calprotectin, cortisol, triglycerides and zonulin were analyzed. The total area under the curve (tAUC) and change in AUC from baseline (dAUC) were calculated. Ratios between the test and control values were calculated to investigate equivalence. Healthy volunteers (8 men and 12 women; 46.0 ± 14.5 years) were included. tAUCs of cortisol and triglycerides did not differ between the breakfasts (p = 0.158 versus p = 0.579). Cortisol dAUCs were decreased and triglyceride dAUCs were increased after both breakfasts, with no differences between the breakfasts (p = 0.933 versus p = 0.277). Calprotectin and zonulin levels were unaffected. The meals were bioequivalent for cortisol, triglycerides and zonulin, but not for calprotectin.

  14. Apolipoprotein AV Accelerates Plasma Hydrolysis OfTriglyceride-Rich Lipoproteins By Interaction With Proteoglycan BoundLipoprotein Lipase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merkel, Martin; Loeffler, Britta; Kluger, Malte; Fabig, Nathalie; Geppert, Gesa; Pennacchio, Len A.; Laatsch, Alexander; Heeren, Joerg

    2005-02-22

    Apolipoprotein A5 (APOA5) is associated with differences intriglyceride levels and familial combined hyperlipidemia. In genetically engineered mice, apoAV plasma levels are inversely correlated with plasmatriglycerides. To elucidate the mechanism by which apoAV influences plasma triglycerides, metabolic studies and in vitro assays resembling physiological conditions were performed. In hAPOA5 transgenic mice(hAPOA5tr), catabolism of chylomicrons and VLDL was accelerated due to a faster plasma hydrolysis of triglycerides by lipoprotein lipase (LPL).Hepatic VLDL and intestinal chylomicron production were not affected. The functional interplay between apoAV and LPL was further investigated by crossbreeding a human LPL transgene with the apoa5 knockout, and the hAPOA5tr to an LPL deficient background. Increased LPL activity completely normalized hypertriglyceridemia of apoa5 deficient mice,however, over expression of human apoAV modulated triglyceride levels only slightly when LPL was reduced. To reflect the physiological situation in which LPL is bound to cell surface proteoglycans, we examined hydrolysis in the presence or absence of proteoglycans. Without proteoglycans, apoAV derived either from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, hAPOA5tr HDL, or a recombinant source did not alter the LPL hydrolysis rate. In the presence of proteoglycans, however, apoAV led to a significant and dose-dependent increase in LPL mediated hydrolysis of VLDL triglycerides. These results were confirmed in cell culture using a proteoglycan-deficient cell line.A direct interaction between LPL and apoAV was found by ligand blotting.It is proposed, that apoAV reduces triglyceride levels by guiding VLDL and chylomicrons to proteoglycans bound LPL for lipolysis.

  15. Rare ATGL haplotypes are associated with increased plasma triglyceride concentrations in the Greenland Inuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Christopher T; Gallinger, Zane R; Wang, Jian;

    2010-01-01

    To genotype common genetic variants found in the adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) gene and test them for association with cardiovascular disease risk factors in the Greenland Inuit.......To genotype common genetic variants found in the adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) gene and test them for association with cardiovascular disease risk factors in the Greenland Inuit....

  16. Milk production, peripartal liver triglyceride concentration and plasma metabolites of dairy cows fed diets supplemented with calcium soaps or hydrogenated triglycerides of palm oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karcagi, Roland G; Gaál, Tibor; Ribiczey, Piroska; Huszenicza, Gyula; Husvéth, Ferenc

    2010-05-01

    The aim of the study was to test the effect of rumen-inert fat supplements of different chemical forms or containing different unsaturated/saturated (U/S) fatty acid contents on milk production, milk composition and liver and blood metabolic variables of high-yielding dairy cows in the peripartal period. Thirty Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were divided into three equal groups and fed a corn silage-based diet, without fat supplementation (control) or supplemented with 11.75 MJ NEl per day of calcium soaps of palm oil fatty acids (CAS; U/S=61/39) or with 11.75 MJ NEl per day of hydrogenated palm oil triglyceride (HTG; U/S=6/94). Each diet was fed from 25+/-2 d prior to the expected calving to 100+/-5 d post partum. Compared with the control, both CAS and HTG supplementation resulted in an increase of the average milk yield. Milk fat content and fat-corrected milk yield were higher in the HTG group but lower in the CAS group than in the control group. In all groups liver triglyceride concentrations (TGL) increased from 15 d prepartum to 5 d post partum, and then decreased thereafter. At 5 d TGL was lower in the HTG group than control or CAS cows. No significant differences were detected in TGL among dietary treatments at 15 d prepartum and 25 d post partum. Higher plasma glucose and insulin and lower non-esterified fatty acids and beta-hydroxybutyrate concentrations and aspartate aminotransferase activity were measured in the HTG group than in the control or CAS groups at 5 d or 25 d post partum. Our results show that HTG may provide a better energy supply for high-yielding dairy cows in negative energy balance than CAS around calving.

  17. Nordic school meals improve blood pressure, plasma triglyceride and insulin despite increasing waist circumference: the opus school meal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, C. T.; Dalskov, S.; Laursen, R. P.

    .001) compared to control in intention-to-treat-analyses (n=823). Waist circumference and BMI increased 0.5 cm (0.3;0.7) (P... and physical activity confirmed these results. Conclusions Nutritionally balanced school meals improved blood pressure, plasma triglyceride and glucose homeostasis in 8-11-year-old children, despite small increases in BMI and waist circumference. OPUS (Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish...

  18. Endocrine and metabolic effects of consuming fructose- and glucose-sweetened beverages with meals in obese men and women: influence of insulin resistance on plasma triglyceride responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teff, Karen L; Grudziak, Joanne; Townsend, Raymond R; Dunn, Tamara N; Grant, Ryan W; Adams, Sean H; Keim, Nancy L; Cummings, Bethany P; Stanhope, Kimber L; Havel, Peter J

    2009-05-01

    Compared with glucose-sweetened beverages, consumption of fructose-sweetened beverages with meals elevates postprandial plasma triglycerides and lowers 24-h insulin and leptin profiles in normal-weight women. The effects of fructose, compared with glucose, ingestion on metabolic profiles in obese subjects has not been studied. The objective of the study was to compare the effects of fructose- and glucose-sweetened beverages consumed with meals on hormones and metabolic substrates in obese subjects. The study had a within-subject design conducted in the clinical and translational research center. Participants included 17 obese men (n = 9) and women (n = 8), with a body mass index greater than 30 kg/m(2). Subjects were studied under two conditions involving ingestion of mixed nutrient meals with either glucose-sweetened beverages or fructose-sweetened beverages. The beverages provided 30% of total kilocalories. Blood samples were collected over 24 h. Area under the curve (24 h AUC) for glucose, lactate, insulin, leptin, ghrelin, uric acid, triglycerides (TGs), and free fatty acids was measured. Compared with glucose-sweetened beverages, fructose consumption was associated with lower AUCs for insulin (1052.6 +/- 135.1 vs. 549.2 +/- 79.7 muU/ml per 23 h, P vs. 107.0 +/- 15.0 ng/ml per 24 h, P vs. 704.3 +/- 124.4 mg/dl per 24 h, P fructose-sweetened beverages with meals was associated with less insulin secretion, blunted diurnal leptin profiles, and increased postprandial TG concentrations compared with glucose consumption. Increases of TGs were augmented in obese subjects with insulin resistance, suggesting that fructose consumption may exacerbate an already adverse metabolic profile present in many obese subjects.

  19. Inhibition of intestinal bile acid transporter Slc10a2 improves triglyceride metabolism and normalizes elevated plasma glucose levels in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Lundåsen

    Full Text Available Interruption of the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids increases cholesterol catabolism, thereby stimulating hepatic cholesterol synthesis from acetate. We hypothesized that such treatment should lower the hepatic acetate pool which may alter triglyceride and glucose metabolism. We explored this using mice deficient of the ileal sodium-dependent BA transporter (Slc10a2 and ob/ob mice treated with a specific inhibitor of Slc10a2. Plasma TG levels were reduced in Slc10a2-deficient mice, and when challenged with a sucrose-rich diet, they displayed a reduced response in hepatic TG production as observed from the mRNA levels of several key enzymes in fatty acid synthesis. This effect was paralleled by a diminished induction of mature sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (Srebp1c. Unexpectedly, the SR-diet induced intestinal fibroblast growth factor (FGF 15 mRNA and normalized bile acid synthesis in Slc10a2-/- mice. Pharmacologic inhibition of Slc10a2 in diabetic ob/ob mice reduced serum glucose, insulin and TGs, as well as hepatic mRNA levels of Srebp1c and its target genes. These responses are contrary to those reported following treatment of mice with a bile acid binding resin. Moreover, when key metabolic signal transduction pathways in the liver were investigated, those of Mek1/2-Erk1/2 and Akt were blunted after treatment of ob/ob mice with the Slc10a2 inhibitor. It is concluded that abrogation of Slc10a2 reduces hepatic Srebp1c activity and serum TGs, and in the diabetic ob/ob model it also reduces glucose and insulin levels. Hence, targeting of Slc10a2 may be a promising strategy to treat hypertriglyceridemia and diabetes.

  20. Insulin resistance and plasma triglyceride level are differently related to cardiac hypertrophy and arterial stiffening in hypertensive subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Legedz

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Liliana Legedz1, Giampiero Bricca2, Pierre Lantelme1, Marie-Odile Rial1, Pierre Champomier1, Madeleine Vincent3, Hugues Milon11Service de Cardiologie, Hospices Civils de Lyon, France; 2EA 3740 Génomique Fonctionnelle dans l’athéro-thrombose, Université Lyon I, Faculté de Médecine Laënnec, Lyon, France; 3Laboratoire des Explorations Fonctionnelles Endocriniennes et Métaboliques, Université Lyon I, Faculté de Médecine Rockefeller, Lyon, FranceObjective: The frequent association between the type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardio-vascular diseases suggests that metabolic factors may contribute to cardio-vascular remodeling. The aim of our study was to examine the relationships between left ventricular posterior wall thickness (LVPWT, pulse wave velocity (PWV, and the metabolic abnormalities of insulin resistance syndrome, in hypertensive patients. Methods: In 227 consecutive hypertensives, we examined the relationships between LVPWT, PWV, and metabolic factors: plasma glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides levels as well as the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA. The Pearson correlation coefficient and multiple regression analysis  including age, gender, body mass index, and 24-hour systolic blood pressure were used as statistical tests. Results: In univariate analysis, glucose, HDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides levels were related to LVPWT (r = 0.19, p < 0.05; r = –0.26, p < 0.001; r = 0.31, p < 0.001, respectively; all metabolic variables, except HDL-cholesterol, correlated to PWV (plasma glucose r = 0.25, p < 0.001; total cholesterol r = 0.22, p < 0.01; triglycerides r = 0.20, p < 0.01; insulin r = 0.19, p < 0.01; HOMA r = 0.27; p < 0.001. In the multivariate model, plasma triglycerides remained correlated with LVPWT (β = 0.19, p < 0.02 independently of systolic blood pressure, plasma aldosterone, and normetanephrine. Only HOMA and insulin level remained

  1. Endocrine and Metabolic Effects of Consuming Fructose- and Glucose-Sweetened Beverages with Meals in Obese Men and Women: Influence of Insulin Resistance on Plasma Triglyceride Responses

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Teff, Karen L; Grudziak, Joanne; Townsend, Raymond R; Dunn, Tamara N; Grant, Ryan W; Adams, Sean H; Keim, Nancy L; Cummings, Bethany P; Stanhope, Kimber L; Havel, Peter J

    2009-01-01

    Context: Compared with glucose-sweetened beverages, consumption of fructose-sweetened beverages with meals elevates postprandial plasma triglycerides and lowers 24-h insulin and leptin profiles in normal-weight women...

  2. The plasma membrane redox system is impaired by amyloid β-peptide and in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex of 3xTgAD mice

    OpenAIRE

    Hyun, Dong-Hoon; Mughal, Mohamed R.; Yang, Hyunwon; Lee, Ji Hyun; Ko, Eun Joo; Hunt, Nicole D.; de Cabo, Rafael; Mattson, Mark P.

    2010-01-01

    Membrane-associated oxidative stress has been implicated in the synaptic dysfunction and neuronal degeneration that occurs in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Enzymes of the plasma membrane redox system (PMRS) provide electrons for energy metabolism and recycling of antioxidants. Here, we show that activities of several PMRS enzymes are selectively decreased in plasma membranes from the hippocampus and cerebral cortex of 3xTgAD mice, an animal model of AD. ...

  3. Melatonin effect on plasma adiponectin, leptin, insulin, glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol in normal and high fat-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos-Lugo, María J; Cano, Pilar; Jiménez-Ortega, Vanesa; Fernández-Mateos, María P; Scacchi, Pablo A; Cardinali, Daniel P; Esquifino, Ana I

    2010-11-01

    Melatonin effect on body weight progression, mean levels and 24-hr pattern of circulating adiponectin, leptin, insulin, glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol were examined in rats fed a normal or a high-fat diet. In experiment 1, rats fed a normal diet were divided into two groups: receiving melatonin (25 μg/mL drinking water) or vehicle for 9 wk. In experiment 2, animals were divided into three groups: two fed with a high-fat diet (35% fat) and melatonin (25 μg/mL) or vehicle in drinking water for 11 wk, while a third group was given a normal diet (4% fat). At the end of experiments, groups of eight rats were killed at six different time intervals throughout a 24-hr period. Melatonin administration for 9 wk decreased body weight gain from the 3rd wk on without affecting food intake. A significant reduction in circulating insulin, glucose and triglyceride mean levels and disrupted daily patterns of plasma adiponectin, leptin and insulin were observed after melatonin. In high fat-fed rats, melatonin attenuated body weight increase, hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia, as well as the increase in mean plasma adiponectin, leptin, triglycerides and cholesterol levels. The high-fat diet disrupted normal 24-hr patterns of circulating adiponectin, insulin and cholesterol, the effects on insulin and cholesterol being counteracted by melatonin. Nocturnal plasma melatonin concentration in control and obese rats receiving melatonin for 11 wk attained values 21-24-fold greater than controls. The results indicate that melatonin counteracts some of the disrupting effects of diet-induced obesity in rats. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Pineal Research © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  4. Nordic school meals improve blood pressure, plasma triglyceride and insulin despite increasing waist circumference: the opus school meal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, C. T.; Dalskov, S.; Laursen, R. P.

    and physical activity confirmed these results. Conclusions Nutritionally balanced school meals improved blood pressure, plasma triglyceride and glucose homeostasis in 8-11-year-old children, despite small increases in BMI and waist circumference. OPUS (Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish...... measured blood pressure, lipid profile, insulin resistance based on the Homeostasis Model of Assessment (HOMA-IR), anthropometry and body composition at baseline, month 3 and 6. Results Seventy-six% of the children were normalweight; 10% were underweight and 14% overweight/obese. The NND school meals did...... children through a healthy New Nordic Diet) was funded by the Nordea Foundation....

  5. Multivariate calibration for protein, cholesterol and triglycerides in human plasma using short-wave near infrared spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, A.; Marbach, R.; Heise, H. M.

    1995-04-01

    Recent progress in spectroscopy and chemometrics have brought the reagentless analysis of blood substrates by near infrared spectroscopy into clinical reach. Results for the in-vitro analysis of several blood substrates in human blood plasma using multivariate calibration by partial-least squares are presented for 125 hospital samples. Whereas the relative meansquared prediction error for total protein (1.4 %) using short wave NIR data is comparable with previous results using conventional NIR spectroscopy, the errors found for total cholesterol (6.5 %) and triglycerides (13.8 %) are nearly a factor of two worse for this study.

  6. Interference of flavonoids with enzymatic assays for the determination of free fatty acid and triglyceride levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoek-van den Hil, E.F.; Beekmann, K.; Keijer, J.; Hollman, P.C.H.; Rietjens, I.; Schothorst, van E.M.

    2012-01-01

    Flavonoids are bioactive food compounds with potential lipid-lowering effects. Commercially available enzymatic assays are widely used to determine free fatty acid (FFA) and triglyceride (TG) levels both in vivo in plasma or serum and in vitro in cell culture medium or cell lysate. However, we have

  7. Fasting plasma triglycerides predict the glycaemic response to treatment of type 2 diabetes by gastric electrical stimulation. A novel lipotoxicity paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebovitz, H E; Ludvik, B; Yaniv, I; Haddad, W; Schwartz, T; Aviv, R

    2013-06-01

    Non-stimulatory, meal-mediated electrical stimulation of the stomach (TANTALUS-DIAMOND) improves glycaemic control and causes modest weight loss in patients with Type 2 diabetes who are inadequately controlled on oral anti-diabetic medications. The magnitude of the glycaemic response in clinical studies has been variable. A preliminary analysis of data from patients who had completed 6 months of treatment indicated that the glycaemic response to the electrical stimulation was inversely related to the baseline fasting plasma triglyceride level. An analysis of 40 patients who had had detailed longitudinal studies for 12 months. Twenty-two patients with fasting plasma triglycerides ≤ 1.7 mmol/l had mean decreases in HbA1c after 3, 6 and 12 months of gastric contraction modulation treatment of -15 ± 2.1 mmol/mol (-1.39 ± 0.20%), -16 ± 2.2 mmol/mol (-1.48 ± 0.20%) and -14 ± 3.0 mmol/mol (-1.31 ± 0.26%), respectively. In contrast, 18 patients with fasting plasma triglyceride > 1.7 mmol/l had mean decreases in HbA1c of -7 ± 1.7 mmol/mol (-0.66 ± 0.16%), -5 ± 1.6 mmol/mol (-0.44 ± 0.18%) and -5 ± 1.7 mmol/mol (-0.42 ± 0.16%), respectively. Pearson's correlation coefficient between fasting plasma triglyceride and decreases in HbA1c at 12 months of treatment was 0.34 (P triglycerides, while it progressively improved in patients with low fasting plasma triglycerides. Patients with low fasting plasma triglycerides had a tendency to lose more weight than those with high fasting plasma triglycerides, but this did not achieve statistical significance. The data presented suggest the existence of a triglyceride lipotoxic mechanism that interferes with gastric/neural mediated pathways that can regulate glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. The data suggest the existence of a triglyceride lipotoxic pathway that interferes with gastric/neural mediated pathways that can regulate glycaemic control. © 2013 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2013 Diabetes UK.

  8. Association of Postbreakfast Triglyceride and Visit-to-Visit Annual Variation of Fasting Plasma Glucose with Progression of Diabetic Nephropathy in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaori Kitaoka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR was measured at baseline and after a median follow-up of 6.0 years in 161 patients with type 2 diabetes. Intrapersonal means and SD of HbA1c, systolic BP, fasting, and postmeal plasma glucose (FPG and PMPG, resp. and serum triglycerides (FTG and PMTG, resp. were calculated in each patient during the first 12 months after enrollment. Associations of these variables with nephropathy progression (15 patients with progression of albuminuric stages and 5 with ACR doubling within the microalbuminuric range were determined by multivariate logistic regression analysis providing odds ratio with 95% confidential interval. Patients with nephropathy progression, compared with those without nephropathy progression, had higher HbA1c (p<0.01. They also had higher means and SD of FPG (both p<0.05, FTG (both p<0.05, and PMTG (p=0.001. Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that SD-FPG (1.036, 1.001–1.073, p=0.04 and PMTG (1.013, 1.008–1.040, p=0.001 were significant predictors of progression of nephropathy even after adjustment for mean FPG and SD-FTG, age, sex, BMI, waist circumference, diabetes duration and therapy, means and SDs of HbA1c, PPG, FTG and systolic BP, baseline ACR, smoking status, and uses of antihypertensive and lipid-lowering medications. Consistency of glycemic control and management of postmeal TG may be important to prevent nephropathy progression in type 2 diabetic patients.

  9. Genetic Loci Associated With Plasma Concentration of Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol, High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol, Triglycerides, Apolipoprotein A1, and Apolipoprotein B Among 6382 White Women in Genome-Wide Analysis With Replication

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chasman, Daniel I; Pare, Guillaume; Zee, Robert Y.L; Parker, Alex N; Cook, Nancy R; Buring, Julie E; Kwiatkowski, David J; Rose, Lynda M; Smith, Joshua D; Williams, Paul T; Rieder, Mark J; Rotter, Jerome I; Nickerson, Deborah A; Krauss, Ronald M; Miletich, Joseph P; Ridker, Paul M

    2008-01-01

    Genetic Loci Associated With Plasma Concentration of Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol, High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol, Triglycerides, Apolipoprotein A1, and Apolipoprotein B Among 6382 White...

  10. Triglyceride level

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003493.htm Triglyceride level To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The triglyceride level is a blood test to measure the ...

  11. Triglycerides and Heart Disease, Still a Hypothesis?

    OpenAIRE

    Goldberg, Ira J.; Eckel, Robert H.; McPherson, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the basic and clinical science relating plasma triglycerides and cardiovascular disease. Although many aspects of the basic physiology of triglyceride production, its plasma transport and tissue uptake have been known for several decades, the relationship of plasma triglyceride levels to vascular disease is uncertain. Are triglyceride rich lipoproteins, their influence on HDL and LDL, or the underlying diseases leading to defects in triglyceride metabo...

  12. Triglyceride kinetics in fasted and fed E. coli septic rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanza-Jacoby, S.; Tabares, A. (Jefferson Medical Coll., Philadelphia, PA (United States))

    1990-02-26

    The mechanism for the development of hypertriglyceridemia during gram-negative sepsis was studies by examining the liver production and clearance of very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) triglyceride (TG). To assess the liver output and peripheral clearance the kinetics of VLDL-TG were determined by a constant intravenous infusion of (2-{sup 3}H) glycerol-labeled VLDL in fasted control, fasted E. coli-treated, fed control, and fed E.coli-treated rats. Lewis inbred rats, 275-300 g, were made septic with 8 {times} 10{sup 7} live E.coli colonies per 100 g body weight. Twenty-four hours following E.coli injection serum TG of fasted E.coli-treated rats was elevated by 170% which was attributed to a 67% decrease in the clearance rate of VLDL-TG in fasted E.coli-treated rats compared with their fasted controls. The secretion of VLDL-TG declined by 31% in the livers of the fasted E.coli-treated rats which was accompanied by a 2-fold increase in the composition of liver TG. In a second series of experiments control and E.coli-treated rats were fed intragastrically (IG) a balanced solution containing glucose plus fat as the sources of nonprotein calories. Serum TG were 26% lower in the fed E.coli-treated rats because the clearance rate increased by 86%. The secretion of TG in the fed septic rats increased by 40% but this difference was not significant. In the septic rat the ability to clear triglycerides from the plasma depends upon the nutritional state.

  13. Association of CYP7A1 -278A>C polymorphism and the response of plasma triglyceride after dietary intervention in dyslipidemic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcelos, A L V; Chies, R; Almeida, S E M; Fiegenbaum, M; Schweigert, I D; Chula, F G L; Rossetti, M L; Silva, C M D

    2009-06-01

    We investigated the effect of the -278A>C polymorphism in the CYP7A1 gene on the response of plasma lipids to a reduced-fat diet for 6 to 8 weeks in a group of 82 dyslipidemic males with a mean age of 46.0 +/- 11.7 years. Individuals who presented at least one high alteration in total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol or triglyceride values were considered to be dyslipidemic. Exclusion criteria were secondary dyslipidemia due to diabetes mellitus, renal, liver, or thyroid disease. None of the subjects were using lipid-lowering medication. Baseline and follow-up lipid concentrations were measured. The genotypes were determined by the digestion of PCR products with the BsaI restriction endonuclease. There were statistically significant reductions in plasma total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations after dietary intervention. The minor allele C has a frequency of 43%. Carriers of the C allele had significantly lower triglyceride concentrations (P = 0.02) than AA homozygotes. After adjustment of covariates, subjects with the AC and CC genotypes showed a greater reduction in triglyceride concentrations compared to subjects with the AA genotype. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that the AC and CC CYP7A1 genotypes accounted for 5.2 and 6.2% of triglyceride concentration during follow-up and adjusted percent of change of triglyceride concentration, respectively. The present study provides evidence that -278A>C polymorphism in the CYP7A1 gene can modify triglyceride concentrations in response to a reduced fat diet in a dyslipidemic male population. This gene represents a potential locus for a nutrigenetic directed approach.

  14. Association of CYP7A1 -278A>C polymorphism and the response of plasma triglyceride after dietary intervention in dyslipidemic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.L.V. Barcelos

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of the -278A>C polymorphism in the CYP7A1 gene on the response of plasma lipids to a reduced-fat diet for 6 to 8 weeks in a group of 82 dyslipidemic males with a mean age of 46.0 ± 11.7 years. Individuals who presented at least one high alteration in total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol or triglyceride values were considered to be dyslipidemic. Exclusion criteria were secondary dyslipidemia due to diabetes mellitus, renal, liver, or thyroid disease. None of the subjects were using lipid-lowering medication. Baseline and follow-up lipid concentrations were measured. The genotypes were determined by the digestion of PCR products with the BsaI restriction endonuclease. There were statistically significant reductions in plasma total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations after dietary intervention. The minor allele C has a frequency of 43%. Carriers of the C allele had significantly lower triglyceride concentrations (P = 0.02 than AA homozygotes. After adjustment of covariates, subjects with the AC and CC genotypes showed a greater reduction in triglyceride concentrations compared to subjects with the AA genotype. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that the AC and CC CYP7A1 genotypes accounted for 5.2 and 6.2% of triglyceride concentration during follow-up and adjusted percent of change of triglyceride concentration, respectively. The present study provides evidence that -278A>C polymorphism in the CYP7A1 gene can modify triglyceride concentrations in response to a reduced fat diet in a dyslipidemic male population. This gene represents a potential locus for a nutrigenetic directed approach.

  15. Triglyceride-rich lipoprotein metabolism in unique VLDL receptor, LDL receptor, and LRP triple-deficient mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Espirito Santo, S.M.S.; Rensen, P.C.N.; Goudriaan, J.R.; Bensadoun, A.; Bovenschen, N.; Voshol, P.J.; Havekes, L.M.; Vlijmen, B.J.M. van

    2005-01-01

    The very low density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR), low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR), and low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) are the three main apolipoprotein E-recognizing endocytic receptors involved in the clearance of triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoproteins from plasma.

  16. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE inhibition aggravates fasting-induced triglyceride accumulation in the mouse liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin-Ichi Yokota

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although fasting induces hepatic triglyceride (TG accumulation in both rodents and humans, little is known about the underlying mechanism. Because parasympathetic nervous system activity tends to attenuate the secretion of very-low-density-lipoprotein-triglyceride (VLDL-TG and increase TG stores in the liver, and serum cholinesterase activity is elevated in fatty liver disease, the inhibition of the parasympathetic neurotransmitter acetylcholinesterase (AChE may have some influence on hepatic lipid metabolism. To assess the influence of AChE inhibition on lipid metabolism, the effect of physostigmine, an AChE inhibitor, on fasting-induced increase in liver TG was investigated in mice. In comparison with ad libitum-fed mice, 30 h fasting increased liver TG accumulation accompanied by a downregulation of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP-1 and liver-fatty acid binding-protein (L-FABP. Physostigmine promoted the 30 h fasting-induced increase in liver TG levels in a dose-dependent manner, accompanied by a significant fall in plasma insulin levels, without a fall in plasma TG. Furthermore, physostigmine significantly attenuated the fasting-induced decrease of both mRNA and protein levels of SREBP-1 and L-FABP, and increased IRS-2 protein levels in the liver. The muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine blocked these effects of physostigmine on liver TG, serum insulin, and hepatic protein levels of SREBP-1 and L-FABP. These results demonstrate that AChE inhibition facilitated fasting-induced TG accumulation with up regulation of the hepatic L-FABP and SREBP-1 in mice, at least in part via the activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. Our studies highlight the crucial role of parasympathetic regulation in fasting-induced TG accumulation, and may be an important source of information on the mechanism of hepatic disorders of lipid metabolism.

  17. Identifying cardiovascular disease risk and outcome: use of the plasma triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration ratio versus metabolic syndrome criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, M R; Carbajal, H A; Espeche, W G; Aizpurúa, M; Leiva Sisnieguez, C E; March, C E; Balbín, E; Stavile, R N; Reaven, G M

    2013-06-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been shown to predict both risk and CVD events. We have identified sex-specific values for the triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) ratio associated with an unfavourable cardio-metabolic risk profile, but it is not known whether it also predicts CVD outcome. To quantify risk for CVD outcomes associated with a high TG/HDL-C ratio and to compare this risk with that predicted using MetS, a population longitudinal prospective observational study was performed in Rauch City, Buenos Aires, Argentina. In 2003 surveys were performed on a population random sample of 926 inhabitants. In 2012, 527 women and 269 men were surveyed again in search of new CVD events. The first CVD event was the primary endpoint. Relative risks for CVD events between individuals above and below the TG/HDL-C cut-points, and with or without MetS, were estimated using Cox proportional hazard. The first CVD event was the primary endpoint. Relative risks for CVD events between individuals above and below the TG/HDL-C cut-points, and with or without MetS, were estimated using Cox proportional hazard. The number of subjects deemed at 'high' CVD risk on the basis of an elevated TG/HDL-C ratio (30%) or having the MetS (35%) was relatively comparable. The unadjusted hazard risk was significantly increased when comparing 'high' versus 'low' risk groups no matter which criteria was used, although it was somewhat higher in those with the MetS (HR = 3.17, 95% CI:1.79-5.60 vs. 2.16, 95% CI:1.24-3.75). However, this difference essentially disappeared when adjusted for sex and age (HR = 2.09, 95% CI:1.18-3.72 vs. 2.01, 95% CI:1.14-3.50 for MetS and TG/HDL-C respectively). An elevated TG/HDL-C ratio appears to be just as effective as the MetS diagnosis in predicting the development of CVD. © 2013 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  18. Lack of triglyceride-lowering properties of fish oil in apolipoprotein e-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asset, G; Baugé, E; Fruchart, J C; Dallongeville, J

    2001-03-01

    Fish oil is a potent triglyceride (TG)-lowering agent in humans. The goal of the present study was to assess the contribution of decreased triglyceride synthesis and of apoE in mediation of the triglyceride-lowering effect of fish oil. To this end, apoE-deficient mice and wild-type control mice were supplemented with either coconut oil, sunflower oil, or fish oil (20% wt/wt) for 2 weeks. Compared with coconut oil and sunflower oil, fish oil reduced the concentrations of cholesterol and triglycerides in the wild-type mice, whereas it had no effect on cholesterol concentration and it had a triglyceride-raising effect in apoE-deficient mice. The latter was due to increased triglyceride concentrations in the doil than after a sunflower oil load. These data indicate an impairment of triglyceride metabolism in the fish oil-fed apoE-deficient mice. Compared with coconut oil and sunflower oil, fish oil lowered triglyceride production rates measured with the Triton method in both wild-type (Poil-fed wild-type and apoE-deficient mice, suggesting an alteration in VLDL lipolysis independent of the mice genotype. In conclusion, fish oil does not decrease triglyceride concentrations in apoE-deficient mice despite reducing triglyceride production rates, suggesting that decreased triglyceride synthesis is not sufficient to lower triglyceride concentrations in mice. ApoE appears to be necessary for fish oil to lower plasma triglyceride concentrations, indicating a critical role of apoE in this process.

  19. Lipid metabolism in subclinical hypothyroidism: plasma kinetics of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and lipid transfers to high-density lipoprotein before and after levothyroxine treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigal, Gilbert A; Medeiros-Neto, Geraldo; Vinagre, Juliana C; Diament, Jayme; Maranhão, Raul C

    2011-04-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) has been associated with atherosclerosis, but the abnormalities in plasma lipids that can contribute to atherogenesis are not prominent. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that patients with normocholesterolemic, normotriglyceridemic SCH display abnormalities in plasma lipid metabolism not detected in routine laboratory tests including abnormalities in the intravascular metabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, lipid transfers to high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and paraoxonase 1 activity. The impact of levothyroxine (LT4) treatment and euthyroidism in these parameters was also tested. The study included 12 SCH women and 10 matched controls. Plasma kinetics of an artificial triglyceride-rich emulsion labeled with radioactive triglycerides and cholesteryl esters as well as in vitro transfer of four lipids from an artificial donor nanoemulsion to HDL were determined at baseline in both groups and after 4 months of euthyroidism in the SCH group. Fractional clearance rates of triglycerides (SCH 0.035 ± 0.016 min⁻¹, controls 0.029 ± 0.013 min⁻¹, p = 0.336) and cholesteryl esters (SCH 0.009 ± 0.007 min⁻¹, controls 0.009 ± 0.009 min⁻¹, p = 0.906) were equal in SCH and controls and were unchanged by LT4 treatment and euthyroidism in patients with SCH, suggesting that lipolysis and remnant removal of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins were normal. Transfer of triglycerides to HDL (SCH 3.6 ± 0.48%, controls 4.7 ± 0.63%, p = 0.001) and phospholipids (SCH 16.2 ± 3.58%, controls 21.2 ± 3.32%, p = 0.004) was reduced when compared with controls. After LT4 treatment, transfers increased and achieved normal values. Transfer of free and esterified cholesterol to HDL, HDL particle size, and paraoxonase 1 activity were similar to controls and were unchanged by treatment. Although intravascular metabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins was normal, patients with SCH showed abnormalities in HDL metabolism that were

  20. [Mutations of APOC3 gene, metabolism of triglycerides and reduction of ischemic cardiovascular events].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirillo, Angela; Catapano, Alberico Luigi

    2015-05-01

    A direct relationship between high plasma triglyceride (TG) levels and increased risk of cardiovascular disease has been shown in several studies. TG are present in the blood associated with different lipoprotein classes, including hepatically-derived very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) and intestinally-derived chylomicrons. Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is a key enzyme that hydrolyzes TG, releasing free fatty acids that accumulate in peripheral tissues and remnant lipoproteins, that are then cleared by the liver. LPL activity is finely modulated by several cofactors, including apolipoprotein C-III (apoC-III) which acts as a LPL inhibitor. The key role of apoCIII has been established in several studies: animal models lacking APOC3 gene exhibit reduced plasma TG levels, whereas the overexpression of APOC3 gene led to increased TG levels. In humans, several mutations in APOC3 gene have been identified, leading to lower apoC-III levels and associated with reduced plasma TG levels. Recently, these mutations were found to be associated with a reduced risk for cardiovascular ischemia and coronary heart disease, thus confirming the negative role of apoC-III in TG metabolism and suggesting apoC-III as possible therapeutic target for the management of hypertriglyceridemia.

  1. Plasma Triglycerides and HDL-C Levels Predict the Development of Diabetic Kidney Disease in Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes: The AMD Annals Initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Giuseppina T; De Cosmo, Salvatore; Viazzi, Francesca; Pacilli, Antonio; Ceriello, Antonio; Genovese, Stefano; Guida, Pietro; Giorda, Carlo; Cucinotta, Domenico; Pontremoli, Roberto; Fioretto, Paola

    2016-12-01

    Despite the achievement of blood glucose, blood pressure, and LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) targets, the risk for diabetic kidney disease (DKD) remains high among patients with type 2 diabetes. This observational retrospective study investigated whether diabetic dyslipidemia-that is, high triglyceride (TG) and/or low HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) levels-contributes to this high residual risk for DKD. Among a total of 47,177 patients attending Italian diabetes centers, 15,362 patients with a baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m(2), normoalbuminuria, and LDL-C ≤130 mg/dL completing a 4-year follow-up were analyzed. The primary outcome was the incidence of DKD, defined as either low eGFR (30% and/or albuminuria. Overall, 12.8% developed low eGFR, 7.6% an eGFR reduction >30%, 23.2% albuminuria, and 4% albuminuria and either eGFR 30%. TG ≥150 mg/dL increased the risk of low eGFR by 26%, of an eGFR reduction >30% by 29%, of albuminuria by 19%, and of developing one abnormality by 35%. HDL-C 30%, with a 24% higher risk of developing albuminuria and a 44% risk of developing one abnormality. These associations remained significant when TG and HDL-C concentrations were examined as continuous variables and were only attenuated by multivariate adjustment for numerous confounders. In a large population of outpatients with diabetes, low HDL-C and high TG levels were independent risk factors for the development of DKD over 4 years. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association.

  2. Longitudinal Associations between Triglycerides and Metabolic Syndrome Components in a Beijing Adult Population, 2007-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Li-Xin; Yang, Kun; Liu, Xiang-Tong; Cao, Kai; Zhu, Hui-Ping; Luo, Yan-Xia; Guo, Jin; Wu, Li-Juan; Li, Xia; Guo, Xiu-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Longitudinal associations between triglycerides (TG) and other metabolic syndrome (MetS) components have rarely been reported. The purpose was to investigate the longitudinal association between TG and other MetS components with time. The longitudinal study was established in 2007 on individuals who attended health check-ups at Beijing Tongren Hospital and Beijing Xiaotangshan Hospital. Data used in this study was based on 7489 participants who had at least three health check-ups over a period of 5-year follow up. Joint model was used to explore longitudinal associations between TG and other MetS components after adjusted for age. There were positive correlations between TG and other MetS components except for high density lipoprotein (HDL), and the correlations increased with time. A negative correlation was displayed between TG and HDL, and the correlation also increased with time. Among all five pairs of TG and other MetS components, the marginal correlation between TG and body mass index (BMI) was the largest for both men and women. The marginal correlation between TG and fasting plasma glucose was the smallest for men, while the marginal correlation between TG and diastolic blood pressure was the smallest for women. The longitudinal association between TG and other MetS components increased with time. Among five pairs of TG and other MetS components, the longitudinal correlation between TG and BMI was the largest. It is important to closely monitor subjects with high levels of TG and BMI in health check-up population especially for women, because these two components are closely associated with development of hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and other metabolic diseases.

  3. Regulation of triglyceride metabolism by glucocorticoid receptor

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Jen-Chywan; Gray Nora E; Kuo Taiyi; Harris Charles A

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Glucocorticoids are steroid hormones that play critical and complex roles in the regulation of triglyceride (TG) homeostasis. Depending on physiological states, glucocorticoids can modulate both TG synthesis and hydrolysis. More intriguingly, glucocorticoids can concurrently affect these two processes in adipocytes. The metabolic effects of glucocorticoids are conferred by intracellular glucocorticoid receptors (GR). GR is a transcription factor that, upon binding to glucocorticoids,...

  4. Comparison of the effect of post-heparin and pre-heparin lipoprotein lipase and hepatic triglyceride lipase on remnant lipoprotein metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirakawa, Takashi; Nakajima, Katsuyuki; Shimomura, Younosuke; Kobayashi, Junji; Stanhope, Kimber; Havel, Peter; Machida, Tetsuo; Sumino, Hiroyuki; Murakami, Masami

    2015-02-02

    A comparison of post-heparin and pre-heparin plasma lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hepatic triglyceride lipase (HTGL) on the metabolism of remnant lipoproteins (RLPs) has not been reported yet. Healthy volunteers were injected with heparin for LPL and HTGL determination in the fasting (8:00) and postprandial (20:00) plasma on the same day. Plasma total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), LDL-C, HDL-C, small dense LDL (sdLDL)-C, remnant lipoprotein (RLP)-C, RLP-TG, the RLP-TG/RLP-C ratio, adiponectin and apoCIII were measured. LPL activity and concentration in the post-heparin plasma exhibited a significant inverse correlation with TG, RLP-C, RLP-TG, and RLP particle size estimated as RLP-TG/RLP-C ratio and sdLDL-C, and positively correlated with HDL-C. HTGL was only inversely correlated with HDL-C. LPL concentration in the pre-heparin plasma was also inversely correlated with the RLP-TG/RLP-C ratio and other lipoprotein parameters. Adiponectin was inversely correlated with RLP-TG/RLP-C ratio and apoC III was positively correlated with RLP-TG/RLP-C ratio, but not correlated with LPL activity. LPL activity and concentration were inversely and significantly correlated with the particle size of RLP in both the post-heparin and pre-heparin plasma. Those results suggest that LPL concentration in pre-heparin plasma can take the place of LPL activity in the post-heparin plasma. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Plasma fasting and nonfasting triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in atherosclerotic stroke: different profiles according to low-density lipoprotein cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Suk Jae; Park, Yun Gyoung; Kim, Ji Hyun; Han, Yun Kyung; Cho, Hong Keun; Bang, Oh Young

    2012-08-01

    Although low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is the main lipid target for cardiovascular risk reduction, recent studies suggest that other lipid indicies are also associated with vascular events. We hypothesized that the association of triglycerides (TG) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) with atherosclerotic stroke (AS) differs depending on LDL-C levels. Data prospectively collected on subjects admitted with acute ischemic stroke to a university medical center were analyzed. We divided the patients into AS and non-atherosclerotic stroke (NAS) groups and independent association of lipid parameters and genetic influences of apolipoprotein A5 (ApoA5) polymorphisms with AS were evaluated. Of 268 patients, 160 (59.7%) were classified with AS and 108 (40.3%) were classified with NAS. Vascular risk factors were more prevalent in AS patients than in those with NAS; additionally, AS patients' anthropometric indexes and laboratory findings showed that they were prone to atherosclerosis. AS was independently associated with fasting TG (OR per 10 mg/dL increase, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.16-1.64; OR for highest vs. lowest tertile, 12.85; 95% CI, 3.31-49.85), HDL-C (OR per 10 mg/dL increase, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.42-0.88; OR for lowest vs. highest tertile, 4.28; 95% CI, 1.16-15.86), and nonfasting TG (OR per 10 10 mg/dL increase, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.11-1.42; OR for highest vs. lowest tertile, 8.20; 95% CI, 1.98-33.88) only among patients with LDL <100 mg/dL. No interaction was observed between fasting and nonfasting TG and ApoA5 polymorphisms. In conclusion, fasting and nonfasting TG and HDL-C were associated with AS only when patients had low levels of LDL-C. Non-LDL-C may have an additional role in addition to the LDL-C levels in AS development. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Plasma triglycerides, an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease in men: a prospective study based on a population with prevalent metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onat, Altan; Sari, Ibrahim; Yazici, Mehmet; Can, Günay; Hergenç, Gülay; Avci, Günsel S

    2006-03-22

    We aimed to assess whether fasting plasma triglycerides independently predicted future fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a population having a high prevalence of the metabolic syndrome. In the Turkish Adult Risk Factor Study, a population-based survey, 2682 men and women 20 years of age or over with fasting triglyceride values available and free of CVD at baseline examination in 1990, were prospectively followed up till 2003/04. Triglyceride concentrations were measured by the enzymatic dry chemistry method and stratified into sex-specific quintiles. Information on the mode of death was obtained from first-degree relatives and/or health personnel of local health office. Diagnosis of coronary heart disease and stroke among survivors was based on history, physical examination of the cardiovascular system and Minnesota coding of resting electrocardiograms. A total of 120 fatal and 221 new nonfatal CVD occurred among adults (mean age 43+/-14) during a mean 9.3 years of follow-up. CVD was significantly and independently predicted by the top versus the bottom fasting triglyceride quintile in logistic regression analyses when adjusted for age, sex, BMI, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, lipid-lowering medication, status of smoking and of glucose regulation (relative risk [RR] in men and all adults 2.38 and 1.79, respectively, p both triglycerides are predictive of future CVD among men with an HR of 1.4, independent of age, diabetes, lipid-lowering medication, traditional risk factors including total cholesterol or HDL-C, in a population in which metabolic syndrome prevails. A modest independent risk increment in women did not reach significance.

  7. Fish oil supplementation alters the plasma lipidomic profile and increases long-chain PUFAs of phospholipids and triglycerides in healthy subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inger Ottestad

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: While beneficial health effects of fish and fish oil consumption are well documented, the incorporation of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in plasma lipid classes is not completely understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of fish oil supplementation on the plasma lipidomic profile in healthy subjects. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a double-blinded randomized controlled parallel-group study, healthy subjects received capsules containing either 8 g/d of fish oil (FO (1.6 g/d EPA+DHA (n = 16 or 8 g/d of high oleic sunflower oil (HOSO (n = 17 for seven weeks. During the first three weeks of intervention, the subjects completed a fully controlled diet period. BMI and total serum triglycerides, total-, LDL- and HDL-cholesterol were unchanged during the intervention period. Lipidomic analyses were performed using Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC coupled to electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (QTOFMS, where 568 lipids were detected and 260 identified. Both t-tests and Multi-Block Partial Least Square Regression (MBPLSR analysis were performed for analysing differences between the intervention groups. The intervention groups were well separated by the lipidomic data after three weeks of intervention. Several lipid classes such as phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, lysophosphatidylcholine, sphingomyelin, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylglycerol, and triglycerides contributed strongly to this separation. Twenty-three lipids were significantly decreased (FDR<0.05 in the FO group after three weeks compared with the HOSO group, whereas fifty-one were increased including selected phospholipids and triglycerides of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. After seven weeks of intervention the two intervention groups showed similar grouping. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In healthy subjects, fish oil supplementation alters lipid metabolism and increases the

  8. Decrease in hepatic very-low-density lipoprotein-triglyceride secretion after weight loss is inversely associated with changes in circulating leptin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magkos, F; Fabbrini, E; McCrea, J; Patterson, B W; Eagon, J C; Klein, S

    2010-07-01

    Although weight loss usually decreases very-low-density lipoprotein-triglyceride (VLDL-TG) secretion rate, the change in VLDL-TG kinetics is not directly related to the change in body weight. Circulating leptin also declines with weight loss and can affect hepatic lipid metabolism. The aim of this study was to determine whether circulating leptin is associated with weight loss-induced changes in VLDL-TG secretion. Ten extremely obese subjects were studied. VLDL-TG secretion rate and the contribution of systemic (derived from lipolysis of subcutaneous adipose tissue TG) and non-systemic fatty acids (derived primarily from lipolysis of intrahepatic and intraperitoneal TG, and de novo lipogenesis) to VLDL-TG production were determined by using stable isotopically labelled tracer methods before and 1 year after gastric bypass surgery. Subjects lost 33 +/- 12% of body weight, and VLDL-TG secretion rate decreased by 46 +/- 23% (p = 0.001), primarily because of a decrease in the secretion of VLDL-TG from non-systemic fatty acids (p = 0.002). Changes in VLDL-TG secretion rates were not significantly related to reductions in body weight, body mass index, plasma palmitate flux, free fatty acid or insulin concentrations. The change in VLDL-TG secretion was inversely correlated with the change in plasma leptin concentration (r = -0.72, p = 0.013), because of a negative association between changes in leptin and VLDL-TG secretion from non-systemic fatty acids (r = -0.95, p Weight loss-induced changes in plasma leptin concentration are inversely associated with changes in VLDL-TG secretion rate. Additional studies are needed to determine whether the correlation between circulating leptin and VLDL-TG secretion represents a cause-and-effect relationship.

  9. Corticosterone, cortisol, triglycerides, aspartate aminotransferase and uric acid plasma concentrations during foie gras production in male mule ducks (Anas platyrhynchos × Cairina moschata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flament, A; Delleur, V; Poulipoulis, A; Marlier, D

    2012-01-01

    1. Corticosterone, cortisol, triglycerides, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and uric acid (UA) plasma concentration were measured at 8 (7 days after group housing), 12 (after 7 days of force feeding) and 13 weeks of age (at slaughter after 12 days of force feeding), and 45 min after an adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) stimulation test at 8 weeks of age in 12 male mule ducks in an on-farm experiment. 2. No significant increase of corticosterone was found during the force-feeding period compared with the concentration after housing. 3. Comparison of corticosterone and cortisol values indicates that cortisol can be considered as a reliable acute stress indicator in future routine examinations. 4. Plasma concentrations of triglycerides and aspartate aminotransferase increased progressively from pre-force feeding period to slaughtering. 5. Plasma concentrations of uric acid increased from the start at 8 weeks of age to the mid-force feeding period but no difference was noticed between the mid-force feeding period and slaughtering. 6. It is concluded that acute stress induced by force-feeding is similar at the beginning and end of the commercial production of foie gras.

  10. Kinetic model for production and metabolism of very low density lipoprotein triglycerides. Evidence for a slow production pathway and results for normolipidemic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zech, L A; Grundy, S M; Steinberg, D; Berman, M

    1979-01-01

    A model for the synthesis and degradation of very low density lipoprotein triglyceride (VLDL-TG) in man is proposed to explain plasma VLDL-TG radioactivity data from studies conducted over a 48-h interval after injection of glycerol labeled with 14C, 3H, or both. The curve describing the radioactivity of plasma VLDL triglycerides reaches a maximum at about 2 h, after which the decay is biphasic in all cases; the late curvature becoming evident only after 8--12 h. To fit the complex curve, it was necessary to postulate two pathways for the incorporation of plasma glycerol into VLDL-TG, one much slower than the other. A process of stepwise delipidation of VLDL in the plasma compartment, previously proposed for VLDL apoprotein models, was also necessary. Predicted VLDL-TG synthesis rates calculated with this model can differ significantly from those based on experiments of shorter duration in which the slow VLDL-TG component is not apparent. The results of these studies strongly support the interpretation that the late, slow component of the VLDL-TG activity curve is predominantly due to the slowly turning-over precursor compartment in the conversion pathway and is not due either to a slow compartment in the labeled precursor, plasma free glycerol, or to an exchange of plasma VLDL-TG with an extravascular compartment. It also cannot, in these studies, be attributed to a slowly turning-over VLDL-TG moiety in the plasma. The model was tested with data from 59 studies including normal subjects and patients with obesity and(or) various forms of hyperlipoproteinemia. Good fits were obtained in all cases, and the estimated parameter values and their uncertainties for 13 normolipemic nonobese subjects are presented. Sensitivty testing was carried out to determine how critical various parameter estimations are to the assumptions introduced in the modeling. PMID:221537

  11. Plasma HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides, but not LDL-cholesterol, are associated with insulin secretion in non-diabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natali, Andrea; Baldi, Simona; Bonnet, Fabrice; Petrie, John; Trifirò, Silvia; Tricò, Domenico; Mari, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    Experimental data support the notion that lipoproteins might directly affect beta cell function, however clinical data are sparse and inconsistent. We aimed at verifying whether, independently of major confounders, serum lipids are associated with alterations in insulin secretion or clearance non-diabetic subjects. Cross sectional and observational prospective (3.5yrs), multicentre study in which 1016 non-diabetic volunteers aged 30-60yrs. and with a wide range of BMI (20.0-39.9kg/m(2)) were recruited in a setting of University hospital ambulatory care (RISC study). baseline fasting lipids, fasting and OGTT-induced insulin secretion and clearance (measured by glucose and C-peptide modeling), peripheral insulin sensitivity (by the euglycemic clamp). Lipids and OGTT were repeated in 980 subjects after 3.5years. LDL-cholesterol did not show independent associations with fasting or stimulated insulin secretion or clearance. After accounting for potential confounders, HDL-cholesterol displayed negative and triglycerides positive independent associations with fasting and OGTT insulin secretion; neither with insulin clearance. Low HDL-cholesterol and high triglycerides were associated with an increase in glucose-dependent and a decrease in non-glucose-dependent insulin secretion. Over 3.5years both an HDL-cholesterol decline and a triglycerides rise were associated with an increase in fasting insulin secretion independent of changes in body weight or plasma glucose. LDL-cholesterol does not seem to influence any major determinant of insulin bioavailability while low HDL-cholesterol and high triglycerides might contribute to sustain the abnormalities in insulin secretion that characterize the pre-diabetic state. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Fasting serum triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in patients intended to be treated for dyslipidemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genovefa D Kolovou

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Genovefa D Kolovou1, Katherine Anagnostopoulou1, Nektarios D Pilatis1, Klelia D Salpea1, Ioannis S Hoursalas1, Ilias Petropoulos1, Helen I Bilianou2, Dennis V Cokkinos11Cardiology Department, Onassis Cardiac Surgery Center, Athens, Greece; 2Cardiology Department, Tzanio State Hospital, Piraeus, GreeceObjective: The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the influence of serum triglycerides (TG on other plasma lipids in patients to be treated for dyslipidemia.Methodology: Lipid profiles of a cohort of 801 patients (487 males and 314 females aged 57 ± 9 years (mean ± SD were evaluated. Patients were stratified according to their plasma lipid levels. They were divided into various groups on the basis of serum TG (≥ 150 or < 150 mg/dL and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C (≥ 40 or < 40 mg/dL.Results: Patients with TG ≥ 150 mg/dL had a higher total cholesterol and lower HDL-C levels compared with those with TG < 150 mg/dL, (p < 0.001. Patients with HDL-C < 40 mg/dL had a lower serum total cholesterol and higher TG compared with those with HDL-C ≥ 40 mg/dL (p = 0.011 and p < 0.0001, respectively. In all patients as well as in the subgroups, an inverse correlation between TG and HDL-C was found (r = –0.377, p < 0.001.Conclusions: Although, the metabolic pathway for TG and HDL-C is closely linked, an inverse correlation between TG and HDL-C levels seems to exist in the entire sampled population. This correlation also appears to persist in fasting patients with low levels of TG.Keywords: triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, dyslipidemia

  13. Plasma apoAV levels are markedly elevated in severe hypertriglyceridemia and positively correlated with the APOA5 S19W polymorphism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henneman, P.; Schaap, F.G.; Havekes, L.M.; Rensen, P.C.N.; Frants, R.R.; Tol, A. van; Hattori, H.; Smelt, A.H.M.; Dijk, K.W. van

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The recently discovered apoAV is hypothesized to affect triglyceride metabolism by stimulating the lipolysis of triglycerides in VLDL and chylomicrons. We set out to determine the association between increased serum TG levels, plasma apoAV levels, and polymorphism of the APOA5 gene, with

  14. Apolipoprotein A5, a crucial determinant of plasma triglyceridelevels, is highlyresponsive to PPARalpha activators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vu-Dac, Ngoc; Gervois, Philippe; Jakel, Heidi; Nowak, Maxine; Bauge, Eric; Dehondt, Helene; Staels, Bart; Pennacchio, Len A.; Fruchart-Najib, Jamila; Fruchart, Jean-Charles

    2003-03-30

    The recently discovered APOA5 gene has been shown in humans and mice to be important in determining plasma triglycerides (TG) levels, a major cardiovascular disease risk factor. APOAV represents the first described apolipoprotein where over-expression lowers triglyceride levels. Since fibrates represent a commonly used therapy for lowering plasma triglycerides in humans, we investigated their ability to modulate APOA5 gene expression and consequently influence plasma TG levels. Human primary hepatocytes treated with Wy 14,643 or fenofibrate displayed a strong induction of APOA5 mRNA. Deletion and mutagenesis analyses of the proximal APOA5 promoter firmly demonstrate the presence of a functional PPAR response element. These findings demonstrate that APOA5 is a highly responsive PPARa target gene and support its role as a major mediator for how fibrates reduce plasma triglycerides in humans.

  15. Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins as a causal factor for cardiovascular disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Toth, Peter P

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 25% of US adults are estimated to have hypertriglyceridemia (triglyceride [TG] level ≥150 mg/dL [≥1.7 mmol/L]). Elevated TG levels are associated with increased cardiovascular disease...

  16. Simultaneous determination of glucose, triglycerides, urea, cholesterol, albumin and total protein in human plasma by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy: direct clinical biochemistry without reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessen, Torben E; Höskuldsson, Agnar T; Bjerrum, Poul J; Verder, Henrik; Sørensen, Lars; Bratholm, Palle S; Christensen, Bo; Jensen, Lene S; Jensen, Maria A B

    2014-09-01

    Direct measurement of chemical constituents in complex biologic matrices without the use of analyte specific reagents could be a step forward toward the simplification of clinical biochemistry. Problems related to reagents such as production errors, improper handling, and lot-to-lot variations would be eliminated as well as errors occurring during assay execution. We describe and validate a reagent free method for direct measurement of six analytes in human plasma based on Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Blood plasma is analyzed without any sample preparation. FTIR spectrum of the raw plasma is recorded in a sampling cuvette specially designed for measurement of aqueous solutions. For each analyte, a mathematical calibration process is performed by a stepwise selection of wavelengths giving the optimal least-squares correlation between the measured FTIR signal and the analyte concentration measured by conventional clinical reference methods. The developed calibration algorithms are subsequently evaluated for their capability to predict the concentration of the six analytes in blinded patient samples. The correlation between the six FTIR methods and corresponding reference methods were 0.87triglycerides, urea, cholesterol, albumin and total protein in human plasma. Copyright © 2014 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Triglycerides and heart disease: still a hypothesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Ira J; Eckel, Robert H; McPherson, Ruth

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the basic and clinical science relating plasma triglycerides and cardiovascular disease. Although many aspects of the basic physiology of triglyceride production, its plasma transport, and its tissue uptake have been known for several decades, the relationship of plasma triglyceride levels to vascular disease is uncertain. Are triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, their influence on high-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein, or the underlying diseases that lead to defects in triglyceride metabolism the culprit? Animal models have failed to confirm that anything other than early fatty lesions can be produced by triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. Metabolic products of triglyceride metabolism can be toxic to arterial cells; however, these studies are primarily in vitro. Correlative studies of fasting and postprandial triglycerides and genetic diseases implicate very-low-density lipoprotein and their remnants and chylomicron remnants in atherosclerosis development, but the concomitant alterations in other lipoproteins and other risk factors obscure any conclusions about direct relationships between disease and triglycerides. Genes that regulate triglyceride levels also correlate with vascular disease. Human intervention trials, however, have lacked an appropriately defined population and have produced outcomes without definitive conclusions. The time is more than ripe for new and creative approaches to understanding the relationship of triglycerides and heart disease.

  18. Triglycerides and Heart Disease, Still a Hypothesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Ira J.; Eckel, Robert H.; McPherson, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the basic and clinical science relating plasma triglycerides and cardiovascular disease. Although many aspects of the basic physiology of triglyceride production, its plasma transport and tissue uptake have been known for several decades, the relationship of plasma triglyceride levels to vascular disease is uncertain. Are triglyceride rich lipoproteins, their influence on HDL and LDL, or the underlying diseases leading to defects in triglyceride metabolism the culprit? Animal models have failed to confirm that anything other than early fatty lesions can be produced by triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. Metabolic products of triglyceride metabolism can be toxic to arterial cells; however, these studies are primarily in vitro. Correlative studies of fasting and postprandial triglycerides and genetic diseases implicate VLDL and their remnants, and chylomicron remnants in atherosclerosis development; but the concomitant alterations in other lipoproteins and other risk factors obscure any conclusions about direct relationships between disease and triglycerides. Genes that regulate triglyceride levels also correlate with vascular disease. Human intervention trials, however, have lacked an appropriately defined population, and have produced outcomes without definitive conclusions. The time is more than ripe for new and creative approaches to understanding the relationship of triglycerides and heart disease. PMID:21527746

  19. Effects of Beak Trimming, Stocking Density and Sex on Carcass Yield, Carcass Components, Plasma Glucose and Triglyceride Levels in Large White Turkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengul, Turgay; Inci, Hakan; Sengul, Ahmet Y; Sogut, Bunyamin; Kiraz, Selahattin

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of beak trimming, stocking density (D) and sex (S) on live weight (LW), carcass yield and its component, and plasma glucose (PG) and triglyceride levels in Large White turkeys. To accomplish this aims, totally 288 d old large white turkey chicks (144 in each sex) were used. Beaks of 77 male and female poults were trimmed when 8 d old with an electrical beak trimmer. The birds were fed by commercial turkey rasion. Experiment was designed as 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with 3 replications in each group. Beak trimming and stocking density did not affect live weight, carcass composition and its components. The higher LW and carcass weight observed in trimmed groups. As expected, male birds are heavier than female, and carcass percentage (CP) would be adverse. However, in this study, CP of male was higher in trimmed, in 0.25 m(2)/bird. (D) × sex (S) interaction had an effect on both CP and thigh weights (pplasma glucose level (p<0.05). Triglyceride level was affected (p<0.05) by sex. Significant relationships were found between percentage of thighs (r=0.447, p<0.01) and percentage of breast (r=0.400, p<0.01). According to this study, it can be said that trimming is useful with density of 0.25 m(2)/bird in turkey fattening.

  20. Rs964184 (APOA5-A4-C3-A1) is related to elevated plasma triglyceride levels, but not to an increased risk for vascular events in patients with clinically manifest vascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Woestijne, Anton P; van der Graaf, Yolanda; de Bakker, Paul I W; Asselbergs, Folkert W; Spiering, Wilko; Visseren, Frank L J

    2014-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the APOA5-A4-C3-A1 gene complex are associated with elevated plasma triglycerides and elevated vascular risk in healthy populations. In patients with clinically manifest vascular disease, hypertriglyceridemia and metabolic syndrome are frequently present, but the contribution of these single nucleotide polymorphisms to plasma triglycerides, effect modification by obesity and risk of recurrent vascular events is unknown in these patients. Prospective cohort study of 5547 patients with vascular disease. Rs964184 (APOA5-A4-C3-A1 gene complex) was genotyped, and we evaluated the relation with plasma lipid levels, presence of metabolic syndrome and the risk for new vascular events. The minor allele of rs964184 was strongly associated with log plasma triglycerides (β 0.12; 95%CI 0.10-0.15, p = 1.1*10(-19)), and was also associated with 0.03 mmol/L lower high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (95%CI 0.01-0.04), and 0.14 mmol/L higher non-high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (95%CI 0.09-0.20). The minor allele frequency increased from 10.9% in patients with plasma triglycerides triglycerides between 4 and 10 mmol/L. The relation between rs964184 and plasma triglycerides was modified by body mass index in patients with one minor allele (β 0.02; (95%CI -0.04-0.09) if body mass index 27 kg/m2, p for interaction = 0.02). The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome increased from 52% for patients with two copies of the major allele to 62% for patients with two copies of the minor allele (p = 0.01). Rs964184 was not related with recurrent vascular events (HR 0.99; 95%CI 0.86-1.13). The single nucleotide polymorphism rs964184 (APOA5-A4-C3-A1) is associated with elevated plasma triglycerides concentrations in patients with clinically manifest vascular disease. In carriers of one minor allele, the effect on plasma triglycerides was modified by body mass index. There is no relation between rs964184 and recurrent vascular events in these

  1. A new combined multicompartmental model for apolipoprotein B-100 and triglyceride metabolism in VLDL subfractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adiels, Martin; Packard, Chris; Caslake, Muriel J; Stewart, Philip; Soro, Aino; Westerbacka, Jukka; Wennberg, Bernt; Olofsson, Sven-Olof; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Borén, Jan

    2005-01-01

    The use of stable isotopes in conjunction with compartmental modeling analysis has greatly facilitated studies of the metabolism of the apolipoprotein B (apoB)-containing lipoproteins in humans. The aim of this study was to develop a multicompartment model that allows us to simultaneously determine the kinetics of apoB and triglyceride (TG) in VLDL(1) and VLDL(2) after a bolus injection of [(2)H(3)]leucine and [(2)H(5)]glycerol and to follow the catabolism and transfer of the lipoprotein particles. Here, we describe the model and present the results of its application in a fasting steady-state situation in 17 subjects with lipid values representative of a Western population. Analysis of the correlations showed that plasma TG was determined by the VLDL(1) and VLDL(2) apoB and TG fractional catabolic rate. Furthermore, the model showed a linear correlation between VLDL(1) TG and apoB production. A novel observation was that VLDL TG entered the circulation within 21 min after its synthesis, whereas VLDL apoB entered the circulation after 33 min. These observations are consistent with a sequential assembly model of VLDL and suggest that the TG is added to a primordial apoB-containing particle in the liver.

  2. Phospholipid transfer activity of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein produces apolipoprotein B and reduces hepatosteatosis while maintaining low plasma lipids in mice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Khatun, Irani; Zeissig, Sebastian; Iqbal, Jahangir; Wang, Minghui; Curiel, David; Shelness, Gregory S; Blumberg, Richard S; Hussain, M.Mahmood

    2012-01-01

    Microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP), essential for apolipoprotein B (apoB) biosynthesis, evolved as a phospholipid transfer protein and acquired triglyceride transfer activity during a transition from invertebrates to vertebrates...

  3. Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins as a causal factor for cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Peter P

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 25% of US adults are estimated to have hypertriglyceridemia (triglyceride [TG] level ≥150 mg/dL [≥1.7 mmol/L]). Elevated TG levels are associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, and severe hypertriglyceridemia (TG levels ≥500 mg/dL [≥5.6 mmol/L]) is a well-established risk factor for acute pancreatitis. Plasma TG levels correspond to the sum of the TG content in TG-rich lipoproteins (TRLs; ie, very low-density lipoproteins plus chylomicrons) and their remnants. There remains some uncertainty regarding the direct causal role of TRLs in the progression of atherosclerosis and CVD, with cardiovascular outcome studies of TG-lowering agents, to date, having produced inconsistent results. Although low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) remains the primary treatment target to reduce CVD risk, a number of large-scale epidemiological studies have shown that elevated TG levels are independently associated with increased incidence of cardiovascular events, even in patients treated effectively with statins. Genetic studies have further clarified the causal association between TRLs and CVD. Variants in several key genes involved in TRL metabolism are strongly associated with CVD risk, with the strength of a variant's effect on TG levels correlating with the magnitude of the variant's effect on CVD. TRLs are thought to contribute to the progression of atherosclerosis and CVD via a number of direct and indirect mechanisms. They directly contribute to intimal cholesterol deposition and are also involved in the activation and enhancement of several proinflammatory, proapoptotic, and procoagulant pathways. Evidence suggests that non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, the sum of the total cholesterol carried by atherogenic lipoproteins (including LDL, TRL, and TRL remnants), provides a better indication of CVD risk than LDL-C, particularly in patients with hypertriglyceridemia. This article aims to provide an overview of the available

  4. Inhibition of miR-33a/b in non-human primates raises plasma HDL and lowers VLDL triglycerides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, Katey J; Esau, Christine C; Hussain, Farah N; McDaniel, Allison L; Marshall, Stephanie M; van Gils, Janine M; Ray, Tathagat D; Sheedy, Frederick J; Goedeke, Leigh; Liu, Xueqing; Khatsenko, Oleg G; Kaimal, Vivek; Lees, Cynthia J; Fernandez-Hernando, Carlos; Fisher, Edward A; Temel, Ryan E; Moore, Kathryn J

    2011-10-19

    Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of mortality in westernized countries, despite optimum medical therapy to reduce the levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-associated cholesterol. The pursuit of novel therapies to target the residual risk has focused on raising the levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-associated cholesterol in order to exploit its atheroprotective effects. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as important post-transcriptional regulators of lipid metabolism and are thus a new class of target for therapeutic intervention. MicroRNA-33a and microRNA-33b (miR-33a/b) are intronic miRNAs whose encoding regions are embedded in the sterol-response-element-binding protein genes SREBF2 and SREBF1 (refs 3-5), respectively. These miRNAs repress expression of the cholesterol transporter ABCA1, which is a key regulator of HDL biogenesis. Recent studies in mice suggest that antagonizing miR-33a may be an effective strategy for raising plasma HDL levels and providing protection against atherosclerosis; however, extrapolating these findings to humans is complicated by the fact that mice lack miR-33b, which is present only in the SREBF1 gene of medium and large mammals. Here we show in African green monkeys that systemic delivery of an anti-miRNA oligonucleotide that targets both miR-33a and miR-33b increased hepatic expression of ABCA1 and induced a sustained increase in plasma HDL levels over 12 weeks. Notably, miR-33 antagonism in this non-human primate model also increased the expression of miR-33 target genes involved in fatty acid oxidation (CROT, CPT1A, HADHB and PRKAA1) and reduced the expression of genes involved in fatty acid synthesis (SREBF1, FASN, ACLY and ACACA), resulting in a marked suppression of the plasma levels of very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-associated triglycerides, a finding that has not previously been observed in mice. These data establish, in a model that is highly relevant to humans, that pharmacological inhibition

  5. Inhibition of miR-33a/b in non-human primates raises plasma HDL and reduces VLDL triglycerides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, Katey J.; Esau, Christine C.; Hussain, Farah N.; McDaniel, Allison L.; Marshall, Stephanie M.; van Gils, Janine M.; Ray, Tathagat D.; Sheedy, Frederick J.; Goedeke, Leigh; Liu, Xueqing; Khatsenko, Oleg G.; Kaimal, Vivek; Lees, Cynthia J.; Fernandez-Hernando, Carlos; Fisher, Edward A.; Temel, Ryan E.; Moore, Kathryn J.

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the leading cause of mortality in westernized countries, despite optimum medical therapy to lower LDL cholesterol. The pursuit of novel therapies to target this residual risk has focused on raising levels of HDL cholesterol in order to exploit its atheroprotective effects1. MicroRNAs have emerged as important post-transcriptional regulators of lipid metabolism, and are thus a new class of targets for therapeutic intervention2. MicroRNA-33a and b (miR-33a/b) are intronic microRNAs embedded in the sterol response element binding protein genes SREBF2 and SREBF13–5, respectively, that repress expression of the cholesterol transporter ABCA1, a key regulator of HDL biogenesis. Recent studies in mice suggest that antagonizing miR-33a may be an effective strategy for raising plasma HDL3–5 and protecting from atherosclerosis6, however extrapolation of these findings to humans is complicated by the fact that mice lack miR-33b which is present only in the SREBF1 gene of higher mammals. Here we show in African green monkeys that systemic delivery of an anti-miR oligonucleotide that targets both miR-33a and miR-33b increases hepatic expression of ABCA1 and induces a sustained increase in plasma HDL over 12 weeks. Notably, miR-33 antagonism in this non-human primate model also increased the expression of miR-33 target genes involved in the oxidation of fatty acids (CROT, CPT1A, HADHB, PRKAA1) and reduced genes involved in fatty acid synthesis (SREBF1, FASN, ACLY, ACACA), resulting in a marked suppression of plasma VLDL triglyceride levels, a finding not previously observed in mice. These data establish, in a model highly relevant to humans, that pharmacological inhibition of miR-33a and b is a promising therapeutic strategy to raise plasma HDL and lower VLDL triglycerides for the treatment of dyslipidemias that increase cardiovascular disease risk. PMID:22012398

  6. Acute Effects of Morning Light on Plasma Glucose and Triglycerides in Healthy Men and Men with Type 2 Diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versteeg, Ruth I; Stenvers, Dirk J; Visintainer, Dana; Linnenbank, Andre; Tanck, Michael W; Zwanenburg, Gooitzen; Smilde, Age K; Fliers, Eric; Kalsbeek, A.; Serlie, Mireille J; la Fleur, Susanne E; Bisschop, Peter H

    Ambient light intensity is signaled directly to hypothalamic areas that regulate energy metabolism. Observational studies have shown associations between ambient light intensity and plasma glucose and lipid levels, but human data on the acute metabolic effects of light are scarce. Since light is the

  7. Diagnostic value of postprandial triglyceride testing in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mihas, Constantinos; Kolovou, Genovefa D; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P

    2011-01-01

    Triglycerides (TGs) are measured in studies evaluating changes in non-fasting lipid profiles after a fat tolerance test (FTT); however, the optimal timing for TG measurements after the oral fat load is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate how non-fasting TG levels vary after an oral FTT...

  8. Icosapent ethyl: Eicosapentaenoic acid concentration and triglyceride-lowering effects across clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bays, Harold E; Ballantyne, Christie M; Doyle, Ralph T; Juliano, Rebecca A; Philip, Sephy

    2016-09-01

    Icosapent ethyl is a high-purity prescription form of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) ethyl ester approved at a dose of 4g/day as an adjunct to diet to reduce triglyceride (TG) levels in adult patients with severe (≥500mg/dL) hypertriglyceridemia. This post-hoc exploratory analysis examined the relationship of icosapent ethyl dose with EPA concentrations in plasma and red blood cells (RBCs) across 3 clinical studies-a phase 1 pharmacokinetic study in healthy adult volunteers and 2 pivotal phase 3 studies (MARINE and ANCHOR) in adult patients with hypertriglyceridemia-and examined the relationship between EPA levels and TG-lowering effects in MARINE and ANCHOR. In all 3 studies, icosapent ethyl produced dose-dependent increases in the concentrations of EPA in plasma and RBCs. In both MARINE and ANCHOR, these dose-dependent EPA increases correlated with the degree of TG level lowering (all P170μg/mL and>70μg/mL, respectively. These studies support icosapent ethyl as producing predictable dose-dependent pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics, with TG level lowering dependent upon icosapent ethyl dose and EPA concentrations in plasma and RBCs. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. a successful reduction in triglyceride levels with simultaneous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    triglyceride levels with simultaneous insulin infusion and plasma exchange. A Korba*, PH ... proinflammatory free fatty acids, leading to endothelial damage. ... triglyceride levels remains unclear.1,14 Taking all the available published literature ...

  10. 冠心病患者不同糖代谢对糖餐后甘油三酯的影响%Relationship between plasma triglyceride levels and glucose metabolism after oral glucose load in patients with coronary artery disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑晓敏; 李瑞杰; 李莉; 刘翠平; 陈晓燕; 徐世莹; 王亚娟

    2013-01-01

    This paper observed the levels of plasma triglyceride and glucose after oral glucose load in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD).An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)was performed in 237 CAD patients,plasma lipids,glucose and insulin were quantified in fasting and postprandial samples.According to fasting and postprandial glucose level,patients were divided into three groups,normal group,impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) group and diabetes mellitus (DM) group.The total prevalence of abnormal glucose metabolism was 72.15% in patient with CAD.The levels of plasma triglyceride decreased 2 h after glucose test.The change of the levels of plasma triglyceride between 0h and 2 h were strongly associated with insulin levels and HOMA-IR.The levels of plasma triglyceride in DM and IGT group were significant higher than those in normal UA group (1.88 ± 1.71,1.86 ± 1.28 vs 1.32-±0.78,respectively) (P <0.05).The levels of plasma triglyceride 2 h after glucose test in all groups were significant decreased,especially in IGT group.The observed decrease of triglycerides after glucose load in subjects with signs of insulin resistance suggests that post -glucose triglyceride change is a potential novel biomarker for early detection of metabolic risk.%评估冠心病患者75 g葡萄糖负荷后糖脂代谢变化.对237例冠心病患者行糖耐量试验,检测餐后2h血糖、胰岛素及血脂.将患者根据空腹及OGTT2 h血糖结果分为血糖正常组、糖耐量异常组及糖尿病组.冠心病患者中糖调节异常者占72.15%.冠心病患者糖餐后甘油三酯明显下降,与胰岛素水平及HOMA-IR相关.IGT组及糖尿病组空腹甘油三酯明显高于血糖正常组,服糖后2h各组甘油三酯水平均下降,其中IGT组下降最为明显.表明冠心病患者糖餐后2h甘油三酯水平可以作为胰岛素抵抗的新指标.

  11. Micro RNA-124a Regulates Lipolysis via Adipose Triglyceride Lipase and Comparative Gene Identification 58

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman K. Das

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Lipolysis is the biochemical pathway responsible for the catabolism of cellular triacylglycerol (TG. Lipolytic TG breakdown is a central metabolic process leading to the generation of free fatty acids (FA and glycerol, thereby regulating lipid, as well as energy homeostasis. The precise tuning of lipolysis is imperative to prevent lipotoxicity, obesity, diabetes and other related metabolic disorders. Here, we present our finding that miR-124a attenuates RNA and protein expression of the major TG hydrolase, adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL/PNPLA2 and its co-activator comparative gene identification 58 (CGI-58/ABHD5. Ectopic expression of miR-124a in adipocytes leads to reduced lipolysis and increased cellular TG accumulation. This phenotype, however, can be rescued by overexpression of truncated Atgl lacking its 3'UTR, which harbors the identified miR-124a target site. In addition, we observe a strong negative correlation between miR-124a and Atgl expression in various murine tissues. Moreover, miR-124a regulates the expression of Atgl and Cgi-58 in murine white adipose tissue during fasting as well as the expression of Atgl in murine liver, during fasting and re-feeding. Together, these results point to an instrumental role of miR-124a in the regulation of TG catabolism. Therefore, we suggest that miR-124a may be involved in the regulation of several cellular and organismal metabolic parameters, including lipid storage and plasma FA concentration.

  12. Micro RNA-124a regulates lipolysis via adipose triglyceride lipase and comparative gene identification 58.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Suman K; Stadelmeyer, Elke; Schauer, Silvia; Schwarz, Anna; Strohmaier, Heimo; Claudel, Thiery; Zechner, Rudolf; Hoefler, Gerald; Vesely, Paul W

    2015-04-16

    Lipolysis is the biochemical pathway responsible for the catabolism of cellular triacylglycerol (TG). Lipolytic TG breakdown is a central metabolic process leading to the generation of free fatty acids (FA) and glycerol, thereby regulating lipid, as well as energy homeostasis. The precise tuning of lipolysis is imperative to prevent lipotoxicity, obesity, diabetes and other related metabolic disorders. Here, we present our finding that miR-124a attenuates RNA and protein expression of the major TG hydrolase, adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL/PNPLA2) and its co-activator comparative gene identification 58 (CGI-58/ABHD5). Ectopic expression of miR-124a in adipocytes leads to reduced lipolysis and increased cellular TG accumulation. This phenotype, however, can be rescued by overexpression of truncated Atgl lacking its 3'UTR, which harbors the identified miR-124a target site. In addition, we observe a strong negative correlation between miR-124a and Atgl expression in various murine tissues. Moreover, miR-124a regulates the expression of Atgl and Cgi-58 in murine white adipose tissue during fasting as well as the expression of Atgl in murine liver, during fasting and re-feeding. Together, these results point to an instrumental role of miR-124a in the regulation of TG catabolism. Therefore, we suggest that miR-124a may be involved in the regulation of several cellular and organismal metabolic parameters, including lipid storage and plasma FA concentration.

  13. Potent PPARα activator derived from tomato juice, 13-oxo-9,11-octadecadienoic acid, decreases plasma and hepatic triglyceride in obese diabetic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-il Kim

    Full Text Available Dyslipidemia is a major risk factor for development of several obesity-related diseases. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα is a ligand-activated transcription factor that regulates energy metabolism. Previously, we reported that 9-oxo-10,12-octadecadienoic acid (9-oxo-ODA is presented in fresh tomato fruits and acts as a PPARα agonist. In addition to 9-oxo-ODA, we developed that 13-oxo-9,11-octadecadienoic acid (13-oxo-ODA, which is an isomer of 9-oxo-ODA, is present only in tomato juice. In this study, we explored the possibility that 13-oxo-ODA acts as a PPARα agonist in vitro and whether its effect ameliorates dyslipidemia and hepatic steatosis in vivo. In vitro luciferase assay experiments revealed that 13-oxo-ODA significantly induced PPARα activation; moreover, the luciferase activity of 13-oxo-ODA was stronger than that of 9-oxo-ODA and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, which is a precursor of 13-oxo-ODA and is well-known as a potent PPARα activator. In addition to in vitro experiment, treatment with 13-oxo-ODA decreased the levels of plasma and hepatic triglycerides in obese KK-Ay mice fed a high-fat diet. In conclusion, our findings indicate that 13-oxo-ODA act as a potent PPARα agonist, suggesting a possibility to improve obesity-induced dyslipidemia and hepatic steatosis.

  14. Comparison of FTIR-ATR and Raman spectroscopy in determination of VLDL triglycerides in blood serum with PLS regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleszko, Adam; Hartwich, Jadwiga; Wójtowicz, Anna; Gąsior-Głogowska, Marlena; Huras, Hubert; Komorowska, Małgorzata

    2017-08-01

    Hypertriglyceridemia, related with triglyceride (TG) in plasma above 1.7 mmol/L is one of the cardiovascular risk factors. Very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) are the main TG carriers. Despite being time consuming, demanding well-qualified staff and expensive instrumentation, ultracentrifugation technique still remains the gold standard for the VLDL isolation. Therefore faster and simpler method of VLDL-TG determination is needed. Vibrational spectroscopy, including FT-IR and Raman, is widely used technique in lipid and protein research. The aim of this study was assessment of Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy in determination of VLDL-TG directly in serum with the isolation step omitted. TG concentration in serum and in ultracentrifugated VLDL fractions from 32 patients were measured with reference colorimetric method. FT-IR and Raman spectra of VLDL and serum samples were acquired. Partial least square (PLS) regression was used for calibration and leave-one-out cross validation. Our results confirmed possibility of reagent-free determination of VLDL-TG directly in serum with both Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy. Quantitative VLDL testing by FT-IR and/or Raman spectroscopy applied directly to maternal serum seems to be promising screening test to identify women with increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes and patient friendly method of choice based on ease of performance, accuracy and efficiency.

  15. Enzymes involved in triglyceride hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taskinen, M R; Kuusi, T

    1987-08-01

    The lipolytic enzymes LPL and HL play important roles in the metabolism of lipoproteins and participate in lipoprotein interconversions. LPL was originally recognized to be the key enzyme in the hydrolysis of chylomicrons and triglyceride, but it also turned out to be one determinant of HDL concentration in plasma. When LPL activity is high, chylomicrons and VLDL are rapidly removed from circulation and a concomitant rise of the HDL2 occurs. In contrast, low LPL activity impedes the removal of triglyceride-rich particles, resulting in the elevation of serum triglycerides and a decrease of HDL (HDL2). Concordant changes of this kind in LPL and HDL2 are induced by many physiological and pathological perturbations. Finally, the operation of LPL is also essential for the conversion of VLDL to LDL. This apparently clear-cut role of LPL in lipoprotein interconversions is contrasted with the enigmatic actions of HL. The enzyme was originally thought to participate in the catalyses of chylomicron and VLDL remnants generated in the LPL reaction. However, substantial in vitro and in vivo data indicate that HL is a key enzyme in the degradation of plasma HDL (HDL2) in a manner which opposes LPL. A scheme is presented for the complementary actions of the two enzymes in plasma HDL metabolism. In addition, recent studies have attributed a role to HL in the catabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, particularly those containing apo E. However, this function becomes clinically important only under conditions where the capacity of the LPL-mediated removal system is exceeded. Such a situation may arise when the input of triglyceride-rich particles (chylomicrons and/or VLDL) is excessive or LPL activity is decreased or absent.

  16. Aspirin reduces hypertriglyceridemia by lowering VLDL-triglyceride production in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Diepen, Janna A; Vroegrijk, Irene O C M; Berbée, Jimmy F P; Shoelson, Steven E; Romijn, Johannes A; Havekes, Louis M; Rensen, Patrick C N; Voshol, Peter J

    2011-12-01

    Systemic inflammation is strongly involved in the pathophysiology of the metabolic syndrome, a cluster of metabolic risk factors that includes hypertriglyceridemia. Aspirin treatment lowers inflammation via inhibition of NF-κB activity but also reduces hypertriglyceridemia in humans. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism by which aspirin improves hypertriglyceridemia. Human apolipoprotein CI (apoCI)-expressing mice (APOC1 mice), an animal model with elevated plasma triglyceride (TG) levels, as well as normolipidemic wild-type (WT) mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) and treated with aspirin. Aspirin treatment reduced hepatic NF-κB activity in HFD-fed APOC1 and WT mice, and in addition, aspirin decreased plasma TG levels (-32%, P < 0.05) in hypertriglyceridemic APOC1 mice. This TG-lowering effect could not be explained by enhanced VLDL-TG clearance, but aspirin selectively reduced hepatic production of VLDL-TG in both APOC1 (-28%, P < 0.05) and WT mice (-33%, P < 0.05) without affecting VLDL-apoB production. Aspirin did not alter hepatic expression of genes involved in FA oxidation, lipogenesis, and VLDL production but decreased the incorporation of plasma-derived FA by the liver into VLDL-TG (-24%, P < 0.05), which was independent of hepatic expression of genes involved in FA uptake and transport. We conclude that aspirin improves hypertriglyceridemia by decreasing VLDL-TG production without affecting VLDL particle production. Therefore, the inhibition of inflammatory pathways by aspirin could be an interesting target for the treatment of hypertriglyceridemia.

  17. Caspase-1 deficiency in mice reduces intestinal triglyceride absorption and hepatic triglyceride secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Diepen, Janna A; Stienstra, Rinke; Vroegrijk, Irene O C M; van den Berg, Sjoerd A A; Salvatori, Daniela; Hooiveld, Guido J; Kersten, Sander; Tack, Cees J; Netea, Mihai G; Smit, Johannes W A; Joosten, Leo A B; Havekes, Louis M; van Dijk, Ko Willems; Rensen, Patrick C N

    2013-02-01

    Caspase-1 is known to activate the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18. Additionally, it can cleave other substrates, including proteins involved in metabolism. Recently, we showed that caspase-1 deficiency in mice strongly reduces high-fat diet-induced weight gain, at least partly caused by an increased energy production. Increased feces secretion by caspase-1-deficient mice suggests that lipid malabsorption possibly further reduces adipose tissue mass. In this study we investigated whether caspase-1 plays a role in triglyceride-(TG)-rich lipoprotein metabolism using caspase-1-deficient and wild-type mice. Caspase-1 deficiency reduced the postprandial TG response to an oral lipid load, whereas TG-derived fatty acid (FA) uptake by peripheral tissues was not affected, demonstrated by unaltered kinetics of [(3)H]TG-labeled very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-like emulsion particles. An oral gavage of [(3)H]TG-containing olive oil revealed that caspase-1 deficiency reduced TG absorption and subsequent uptake of TG-derived FA in liver, muscle, and adipose tissue. Similarly, despite an elevated hepatic TG content, caspase-1 deficiency reduced hepatic VLDL-TG production. Intestinal and hepatic gene expression analysis revealed that caspase-1 deficiency did not affect FA oxidation or FA uptake but rather reduced intracellular FA transport, thereby limiting lipid availability for the assembly and secretion of TG-rich lipoproteins. The current study reveals a novel function for caspase-1, or caspase-1-cleaved substrates, in controlling intestinal TG absorption and hepatic TG secretion.

  18. Impaired suppression of plasma free fatty acids and triglycerides by acute hyperglycaemia-induced hyperinsulinaemia and alterations in high density lipoproteins in essential hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligtenberg, JJM; vanTol, A; vanHaeften, TW; Sluiter, WJ; Dullaart, RPF

    1996-01-01

    Objectives. Essential hypertension may be associated with abnormalities in free fatty acids (FFA) and triglyceride metabolism, which could lead to alterations in high density lipoproteins (HDL). Lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) and cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) are key factor

  19. Impaired suppression of plasma free fatty acids and triglycerides by acute hyperglycaemia-induced hyperinsulinaemia and alterations in high density lipoproteins in essential hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligtenberg, JJM; vanTol, A; vanHaeften, TW; Sluiter, WJ; Dullaart, RPF

    1996-01-01

    Objectives. Essential hypertension may be associated with abnormalities in free fatty acids (FFA) and triglyceride metabolism, which could lead to alterations in high density lipoproteins (HDL). Lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) and cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) are key

  20. Accuracy of plasma turbidity measurement for determining fat intolerance during total parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordenström, J; Thörne, A; Lindholm, M

    1990-06-01

    The accuracy of plasma turbidity measurements in predicting ability to metabolise intravenous fat emulsions during total parenteral nutrition was studied in 35 adult surgical patients. Plasma turbidity, expressed as a light scattering index (LSI), was determined by nephelometry and compared with measured triglyceride (TG) concentrations. A poor coefficient of correlation was found between LSI and TG (r = 0.52). The sensitivity and specificity of LSI in predicting TG concentration were 19% and 96% respectively. This indicates that the measurement of LSI is more useful in ruling out hypertriglyceridaemia than in detecting it. Consequently, clinical tolerance of intravenous fat emulsion cannot be monitored by measuring plasma turbidity. In order to avoid metabolic complications which may occasionally occur during intravenous nutritional therapy including fat emulsion, determination of plasma TG levels at timed intervals are recommended.

  1. Risk prediction with triglycerides in patients with stable coronary disease on statin treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Christian; Filmer, Anja; Fritsch, Marco; Groenewold, Stephanie; Gräber, Stefan; Böhm, Michael; Laufs, Ulrich

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the prospective Homburg Cream and Sugar study was to analyze the role of fasting and postprandial serum triglycerides (TG) as risk modifiers in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). A sequential oral triglyceride and glucose tolerance test was developed to obtain standardized measurements of postprandial TG kinetics and glucose in 514 consecutive patients with stable CAD confirmed by angiography (95% were treated with a statin). Fasting and postprandial TG predicted the primary outcome measure of cardiovascular death and hospitalizations after 48 months follow-up (fasting TG >150 vs. 1120 vs. triglycerides >150 mg/dl independently predict cardiovascular events in patients with coronary artery disease on guideline-recommended medication. Assessment of postprandial TG does not improve risk prediction compared to fasting TG in these patients.

  2. Effect of functional sympathetic nervous system impairment of the liver and abdominal visceral adipose tissue on circulating triglyceride-rich lipoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Fountaine, Michael F; Cirnigliaro, Christopher M; Kirshblum, Steven C; McKenna, Cristin; Bauman, William A

    2017-01-01

    Interruption of sympathetic innervation to the liver and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in animal models has been reported to reduce VAT lipolysis and hepatic secretion of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and concentrations of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein particles. Whether functional impairment of sympathetic nervous system (SNS) innervation to tissues of the abdominal cavity reduce circulating concentrations of triglyceride (TG) and VLDL particles (VLDL-P) was tested in men with spinal cord injury (SCI). One hundred-three non-ambulatory men with SCI [55 subjects with neurologic injury at or proximal to the 4th thoracic vertebrae (↑T4); 48 subjects with SCI at or distal to the 5th thoracic vertebrae (↓T5)] and 53 able-bodied (AB) subjects were studied. Fasting blood samples were obtained for determination of TG, VLDL-P concentration by NMR spectroscopy, serum glucose by autoanalyzer, and plasma insulin by radioimmunoassay. VAT volume was determined by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry imaging with calculation by a validated proprietary software package. Significant group main effects for TG and VLDL-P were present; post-hoc tests revealed that serum TG concentrations were significantly higher in ↓T5 group compared to AB and ↑T4 groups [150±9 vs. 101±8 (plipoproteins (i.e., TG or Large VLDL-P) and VAT volume or HOMA-IR was significant only in the ↓T5 group. Despite a similar VAT volume and insulin resistance in both SCI groups, the ↓T5 group had significantly higher serum TG and VLDL-P values than that observed in the ↑T4 and the AB control groups. Thus, level of injury is an important determinate of the concentration of circulating triglyceride rich lipoproteins, which may play a role in the genesis of cardiometabolic dysfunction.

  3. The cis-9,trans-11 isomer of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) lowers plasma triglyceride and raises HDL cholesterol concentrations but does not suppress aortic atherosclerosis in diabetic apoE-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestel, Paul; Fujii, Akihiko; Allen, Terri

    2006-12-01

    Reduction in atherosclerosis has been reported in experimental animals fed mixtures of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). In this study, the major naturally occurring CLA isomer (cis-9,trans-11) was tested in an atherosclerosis-prone mouse model. In a model of insulin deficient apoE deficient mice, 16 animals were fed for 20 weeks with supplemental CLA (09.%, w/w) and compared with a similar number of mice of this phenotype. A control comparison was made of metabolic changes in non-diabetic apoE deficient mice that develop little atherosclerosis over 20 weeks. At 20 weeks, plasma lipids were measured and aortic atherosclerosis quantified by Sudan staining in the arch, thoracic and abdominal segments. The diabetic apoE deficient mice developed marked dyslipidemia, primarily as cholesterol-enriched chylomicron and VLDL-sized lipoproteins and atherosclerosis in the aortic arch. However, there were no significant differences between CLA fed and non-CLA fed mice in either phenotype in plasma cholesterol concentration (in diabetic: 29.4+/-7.7 and 29.5+/-5.9 mmol/L, respectively) or in the area of aortic arch atherosclerosis (in diabetic: 24.8+/-10.3 and 27.6+/-7.7%, respectively). However, among diabetic mice the triglyceride concentration in triglyceride-rich lipoproteins was significantly lower in those fed CLA (for plasma 2.2+/-0.8 to 1.1+/-0.3 mmol/L; Pdiabetic mice in which HDL cholesterol increased significantly with CLA (0.35+/-0.12-0.56+/-0.15 mmol/L). In this atherosclerosis-prone model, the diabetic apoE deficient mouse, supplemental 0.9% CLA (cis-9,trans-11) failed to reduce the severity of aortic atherosclerosis, although plasma triglyceride concentration was substantially lowered and HDL cholesterol raised.

  4. Association between plasma triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and microvascular kidney disease and retinopathy in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a global case-control study in 13 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, Frank M; Hermans, Michel P; Fioretto, Paola; Valensi, Paul; Davis, Timothy; Horton, Edward; Wanner, Christoph; Al-Rubeaan, Khalid; Aronson, Ronnie; Barzon, Isabella; Bishop, Louise; Bonora, Enzo; Bunnag, Pongamorn; Chuang, Lee-Ming; Deerochanawong, Chaicharn; Goldenberg, Ronald; Harshfield, Benjamin; Hernández, Cristina; Herzlinger-Botein, Susan; Itoh, Hiroshi; Jia, Weiping; Jiang, Yi-Der; Kadowaki, Takashi; Laranjo, Nancy; Leiter, Lawrence; Miwa, Takashi; Odawara, Masato; Ohashi, Ken; Ohno, Atsushi; Pan, Changyu; Pan, Jiemin; Pedro-Botet, Juan; Reiner, Zeljko; Rotella, Carlo Maria; Simo, Rafael; Tanaka, Masami; Tedeschi-Reiner, Eugenia; Twum-Barima, David; Zoppini, Giacomo; Carey, Vincent J

    2014-03-04

    Microvascular renal and retinal diseases are common major complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The relation between plasma lipids and microvascular disease is not well established. The case subjects were 2535 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with an average duration of 14 years, 1891 of whom had kidney disease and 1218 with retinopathy. The case subjects were matched for diabetes mellitus duration, age, sex, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol to 3683 control subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus who did not have kidney disease or retinopathy. The study was conducted in 24 sites in 13 countries. The primary analysis included kidney disease and retinopathy cases. Matched analysis was performed by use of site-specific conditional logistic regression in multivariable models that adjusted for hemoglobin A1c, hypertension, and statin treatment. Mean low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration was 2.3 mmol/L. The microvascular disease odds ratio increased by a factor of 1.16 (95% confidence interval, 1.11-1.22) for every 0.5 mmol/L (≈1 quintile) increase in triglycerides or decreased by a factor of 0.92 (0.88-0.96) for every 0.2 mmol/L (≈1 quintile) increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. For kidney disease, the odds ratio increased by 1.23 (1.16-1.31) with triglycerides and decreased by 0.86 (0.82-0.91) with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Retinopathy was associated with triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in matched analysis but not significantly after additional adjustment. Diabetic kidney disease is associated worldwide with higher levels of plasma triglycerides and lower levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol among patients with good control of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Retinopathy was less robustly associated with these lipids. These results strengthen the rationale for studying dyslipidemia treatment to prevent diabetic microvascular disease.

  5. Plasma levels of HDL subpopulations and remnant lipoproteins predict the extent of angiographically defined disease in post-menopausal women

    Science.gov (United States)

    The association of coronary heart disease (CHD) with subpopulations of triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoproteins and high-density lipoproteins (HDL) is established in men, but has not been well characterized in women. Plasma HDL subpopulation concentrations, quantified by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis...

  6. Hepatocyte-specific IKK-β activation enhances VLDL-triglyceride production in APOE*3-Leiden mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Diepen, Janna A; Wong, Man C; Guigas, Bruno; Bos, Jasper; Stienstra, Rinke; Hodson, Leanne; Shoelson, Steven E; Berbée, Jimmy F P; Rensen, Patrick C N; Romijn, Johannes A; Havekes, Louis M; Voshol, Peter J

    2011-05-01

    Low-grade inflammation in different tissues, including activation of the nuclear factor κB pathway in liver, is involved in metabolic disorders such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). In this study, we investigated the relation between chronic hepatocyte-specific overexpression of IkB kinase (IKK)-β and hypertriglyceridemia, an important risk factor for CVD, by evaluating whether activation of IKK-β only in the hepatocyte affects VLDL-triglyceride (TG) metabolism directly. Transgenic overexpression of constitutively active human IKK-β specifically in hepatocytes of hyperlipidemic APOE*3-Leiden mice clearly induced hypertriglyceridemia. Mechanistic in vivo studies revealed that the hypertriglyceridemia was caused by increased hepatic VLDL-TG production rather than a change in plasma VLDL-TG clearance. Studies in primary hepatocytes showed that IKK-β overexpression also enhances TG secretion in vitro, indicating a direct relation between IKK-β activation and TG production within the hepatocyte. Hepatic lipid analysis and hepatic gene expression analysis of pathways involved in lipid metabolism suggested that hepatocyte-specific IKK-β overexpression increases VLDL production not by increased steatosis or decreased FA oxidation, but most likely by carbohydrate-responsive element binding protein-mediated upregulation of Fas expression. These findings implicate that specific activation of inflammatory pathways exclusively within hepatocytes induces hypertriglyceridemia. Furthermore, we identify the hepatocytic IKK-β pathway as a possible target to treat hypertriglyceridemia.

  7. Triglycerides and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordestgaard, Børge G; Varbo, Anette

    2014-08-16

    After the introduction of statins, clinical emphasis first focussed on LDL cholesterol-lowering, then on the potential for raising HDL cholesterol, with less focus on lowering triglycerides. However, the understanding from genetic studies and negative results from randomised trials that low HDL cholesterol might not cause cardiovascular disease as originally thought has now generated renewed interest in raised concentrations of triglycerides. This renewed interest has also been driven by epidemiological and genetic evidence supporting raised triglycerides, remnant cholesterol, or triglyceride-rich lipoproteins as an additional cause of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. Triglycerides can be measured in the non-fasting or fasting states, with concentrations of 2-10 mmol/L conferring increased risk of cardiovascular disease, and concentrations greater than 10 mmol/L conferring increased risk of acute pancreatitis and possibly cardiovascular disease. Although randomised trials showing cardiovascular benefit of triglyceride reduction are scarce, new triglyceride-lowering drugs are being developed, and large-scale trials have been initiated that will hopefully provide conclusive evidence as to whether lowering triglycerides reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Triglycerides: A reappraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesner, Philipp; Watson, Karol E

    2017-08-01

    Elevated cholesterol levels are clearly independently associated with adverse cardiovascular events. Another class of lipid particles, triglycerides, is also abundant in the human body and has been found in atherosclerotic plaques. Recent observational studies have demonstrated an association between elevated triglyceride levels and increased risk for future cardiovascular events. With this knowledge and the discovery of effective agents to lower triglyceride levels, the management of triglycerides is currently undergoing a renaissance. Unfortunately, no randomized, controlled clinical trials have been completed to date, proving that lowering triglycerides will reduce cardiovascular events. In this review we highlight some of the evidence that led to this stage and discuss the current data on pharmacologic intervention of triglyceride levels and the effect on clinical outcomes. Lastly, we want to give the reader insight on what the most recent lipid guidelines state about clinical triglyceride management, mention new pharmacological agents, and highlight the clinical evidence for safe and effective lowering of triglycerides levels with life style modification. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Inhibition of Acyl-Coenzyme A:Cholesterol Acyltransferase 2 (ACAT2) Prevents Dietary Cholesterol-associated Steatosis by Enhancing Hepatic Triglyceride Mobilization*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alger, Heather M.; Brown, J. Mark; Sawyer, Janet K.; Kelley, Kathryn L.; Shah, Ramesh; Wilson, Martha D.; Willingham, Mark C.; Rudel, Lawrence L.

    2010-01-01

    Acyl-CoA:cholesterol O-acyl transferase 2 (ACAT2) promotes cholesterol absorption by the intestine and the secretion of cholesteryl ester-enriched very low density lipoproteins by the liver. Paradoxically, mice lacking ACAT2 also exhibit mild hypertriglyceridemia. The present study addresses the unexpected role of ACAT2 in regulation of hepatic triglyceride (TG) metabolism. Mouse models of either complete genetic deficiency or pharmacological inhibition of ACAT2 were fed low fat diets containing various amounts of cholesterol to induce hepatic steatosis. Mice genetically lacking ACAT2 in both the intestine and the liver were dramatically protected against hepatic neutral lipid (TG and cholesteryl ester) accumulation, with the greatest differences occurring in situations where dietary cholesterol was elevated. Further studies demonstrated that liver-specific depletion of ACAT2 with antisense oligonucleotides prevents dietary cholesterol-associated hepatic steatosis both in an inbred mouse model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (SJL/J) and in a humanized hyperlipidemic mouse model (LDLr−/−, apoB100/100). All mouse models of diminished ACAT2 function showed lowered hepatic triglyceride concentrations and higher plasma triglycerides secondary to increased hepatic secretion of TG into nascent very low density lipoproteins. This work demonstrates that inhibition of hepatic ACAT2 can prevent dietary cholesterol-driven hepatic steatosis in mice. These data provide the first evidence to suggest that ACAT2-specific inhibitors may hold unexpected therapeutic potential to treat both atherosclerosis and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. PMID:20231283

  10. A new combined multicompartmental model for apolipoprotein B-100 and triglyceride metabolism in VLDL subfractions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adiels, Martin; Packard, Chris; Caslake, Muriel J; Stewart, Philip; Soro, Aino; Westerbacka, Jukka; Wennberg, Bernt; Olofsson, Sven-Olof; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta; Borén, Jan

    ...)-containing lipoproteins in humans. The aim of this study was to develop a multicompartment model that allows us to simultaneously determine the kinetics of apoB and triglyceride (TG) in VLDL(1) and VLDL(2...

  11. Postprandial Triglyceride Is Associated with Fasting Triglyceride and HOMA-IR in Korean Subjects with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seo Hee Lee

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundRecent studies indicate postprandial triglyceride (TG had a better association with cardiovascular events and metabolic syndrome than fasting TG. The authors of the present study investigated the metabolic and clinical relevance of postprandial TG.MethodsIn a cross-sectional retrospective study, the authors of the present study compared fasting and postprandial TG and analyzed the relationship between postprandial TG and various demographic and metabolic parameters in 639 Korean subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D, group I, n=539 and impaired fasting glucose (IFG, group II, n=100 after ingestion of a standardized liquid meal (total 500 kcal, 17.5 g fat, 68.5 g carbohydrate, and 17.5 g protein.ResultsFasting and postprandial TG were significantly correlated (r=0.973, r=0.937, P<0.001 in group I and II, respectively. Of the variables, total cholesterol, waist circumference and body mass index were significantly correlated with fasting and postprandial TG in both groups. Only postprandial TG showed a significant correlation with glucose metabolic parameters (e.g., postprandial glucose, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR], and fasting C-peptide in subjects with T2D. Multiple regression analysis showed fasting TG and HOMA-IR could be predictable variables for postprandial TG in subjects with T2D.ConclusionPostprandial TG was very strongly correlated with fasting TG. The authors of the present study suggest insulin resistance may be more associated with postprandial TG than fasting TG in Korean T2D patients on a low-fat diet.

  12. [Usefulness of serum cholesterol and triglycerides assay in nutritional assessment. A study on 58 light-moderate malnourished patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagnoli, T D; Amerio, M L

    1997-09-01

    Few data exist about plasma lipids in malnourished patients. Published studies have shown low cholesterol and normal or high triglycerides concentrations in an extreme energy deficiency in subjects with marasmus. Few studies in less severely malnourished patients show low serum cholesterol concentrations in malnourished elderly and surgical subjects (with cancer or benign diseases), hypercholesterolemia in anorexia nervosa; no data exist about triglyceridemia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of serum cholesterol and trigliceride assays in nutritional assessment in light-moderate malnourished patients. Light-moderate malnourished subjects (BMI >15 eor=10 % e nutritional and dietetic consulting room in 1994-95, were examined; patients with renal and liver diseases, pancreatic deficiency, malabsorption, endocrine-metabolic diseases interfering with lipid metabolism were excluded; 58 subjects, 40 males 18 females according to criteria for inclusion, entered the study. They were examined for levels of total cholesterol (Ct t), HDL, triglycerides (Tg) and anthropometric-laboratory measurements of nutritional assessment (total proteins, albumin, transferrin, pseudocolynesterasis, weight, height, triceps skinfold, midarm muscle circumference, BMI, weight loss %, midarm muscle area). Infor-med consent was obtained prior to entry into the study. Pearson correlation test was used to estimate the degree of association between total cholesterol, HDL, Tg and anthropometric-laboratory indexes evaluated. A significant negative correlation (pnutritional assessment. Unclear is the usefulness of Tg assay.

  13. Camphene, a Plant-Derived Monoterpene, Reduces Plasma Cholesterol and Triglycerides in Hyperlipidemic Rats Independently of HMG-CoA Reductase Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallianou, Ioanna; Peroulis, Nikolaos; Pantazis, Panayotis; Hadzopoulou-Cladaras, Margarita

    2011-01-01

    Background Central to the pathology of coronary heart disease is the accumulation of lipids, cholesterol and triglycerides, within the intima of arterial blood vessels. The search for drugs to treat dislipidemia, remains a major pharmaceutical focus. In this study, we evaluated the hypolipidemic properties of the essential oil from Chios mastic gum (MGO). Methodology/Principal Findings The hypolipidemic effect of MGO was investigated in naïve as well as in rats susceptible to detergent-induced hyperlipidemia. Serum cholesterol and triglycerides were determined using commercial kits. HMG-CoA (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A) reductase activity was measured in HepG2 cell extracts using a radioactive assay; cellular cholesterol and cholesterol esters were assessed using gas chromatography. MGO administration into naïve rats resulted in a dose-dependent reduction in the constitutive synthesis of serum cholesterol and triglycerides. In hyperlipidemic rats, MGO treatment had also a strong hypolipidemic effect. By testing various components of MGO, we show for the first time that the hypolipidemic action is associated with camphene. Administration of camphene at a dose of 30 µg/gr of body weight in hyperlipidemic rats resulted in a 54.5% reduction of total cholesterol (p<0.001), 54% of Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol (p<0.001) and 34.5% of triglycerides (p<0.001). Treatment of HepG2 cells with camphene led to a decrease in cellular cholesterol content to the same extend as mevinolin, a known HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor. The hypolipidemic action of camphene is independent of HMG-CoA reductase activity, suggesting that its hypocholesterolemic and hypotriglyceridemic effects are associated with a mechanism of action different than that of statins. Conclusions Given the critical role that the control of hyperlipidemia plays in cardiovascular disease, the results of our study provide insights into the use of camphene as an alternative lipid lowering agent

  14. Investigation of variants identified in caucasian genome-wide association studies for plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides levels in Mexican dyslipidemic study samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissglas-Volkov, Daphna; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A; Sinsheimer, Janet S; Riba, Laura; Huertas-Vazquez, Adriana; Ordoñez-Sánchez, Maria L; Rodriguez-Guillen, Rosario; Cantor, Rita M; Tusie-Luna, Teresa; Pajukanta, Päivi

    2010-02-01

    Although epidemiological studies have demonstrated an increased predisposition to low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and high triglyceride levels in the Mexican population, Mexicans have not been included in any of the previously reported genome-wide association studies for lipids. We investigated 6 single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with triglycerides, 7 with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and 1 with both triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in recent Caucasian genome-wide association studies in Mexican familial combined hyperlipidemia families and hypertriglyceridemia case-control study samples. These variants were within or near the genes ABCA1, ANGPTL3, APOA5, APOB, CETP, GALNT2, GCKR, LCAT, LIPC, LPL (2), MMAB-MVK, TRIB1, and XKR6-AMAC1L2. We performed a combined analysis of the family-based and case-control studies (n=2298) using the Z method to combine statistics. Ten of the single-nucleotide polymorphisms were nominally significant and 5 were significant after Bonferroni correction (P=2.20 x 10(-3) to 2.6 x 10(-11)) for the number of tests performed (APOA5, CETP, GCKR, and GALNT2). Interestingly, our strongest signal was obtained for triglycerides with the minor allele of rs964184 (P=2.6 x 10(-11)) in the APOA1/C3/A4/A5 gene cluster region that is significantly more common in Mexicans (27%) than in whites (12%). It is important to confirm whether known loci have a consistent effect across ethnic groups. We show replication of 5 Caucasian genome-wide association studies lipid associations in Mexicans. The remaining loci will require a comprehensive investigation to exclude or verify their significance in Mexicans. We also demonstrate that rs964184 has a large effect (odds ratio, 1.74) and is more frequent in the Mexican population, and thus it may contribute to the high predisposition to dyslipidemias in Mexicans.

  15. Impaired plasma lipid profiles in acute hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yongzhong

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present study examined plasma lipid profiles in thirty patients suffered from acute viral hepatitis. Patients' blood samples were collected at both the debut and recovery of diseases. Thirty sex and age matched normal subjects were included as controls. Plasma total triglycerides (TG, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, apolipoprotein AI (ApoAI, apolipoprotein B (ApoB, lipoprotein (a (Lp(a, blood coagulation status including prothrombin complex activity and activated partial tromboplastin time (APTT, and hepatic functions were determined by the automatic biochemical analytical instrument. It demonstrated that plasma levels of total cholesterol, HDL-C and apoAI were significantly lower in the patients at the acute phase of hepatitis than those in normal subjects, whereas plasma levels of TG and LDL-C were obviously higher in the patients than in normal subjects (P

  16. Triglycerides-to-HDL cholesterol ratio as screening tool for impaired glucose tolerance in obese children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manco, Melania; Grugni, Graziano; Di Pietro, Mario; Balsamo, Antonio; Di Candia, Stefania; Morino, Giuseppe Stefano; Franzese, Adriana; Di Bonito, Procolo; Maffeis, Claudio; Valerio, Giuliana

    2016-06-01

    To identify metabolic phenotypes at increased risk of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) in Italian overweight/obese children (n = 148, age 5-10 years) and adolescents (n = 531, age 10-17.9 year). Phenotypes were defined as follows: obesity by the 95th cut-points of the Center for Disease Control body mass index reference standards, impaired fasting glucose (fasting plasma glucose ≥100 mg/dl), high circulating triglycerides (TG), TG/HDL cholesterol ≥2.2, waist-to-height ratio (WTHR) >0.6, and combination of the latter with high TG or TG/HDL cholesterol ≥2.2. In the 148 obese children, TG/HDL-C ≥ 2.2 (OR 20.19; 95 % CI 2.50-163.28, p = 0.005) and the combination of TG/HDL-C ≥ 2.2 and WTHR > 0.60 (OR 14.97; 95 % CI 2.18-102.76, p = 0.006) were significantly associated with IGT. In the 531 adolescents, TG/HDL-C ≥ 2.2 (OR 1.991; 95 % CI 1.243-3.191, p = 0.004) and the combination with WTHR > 0.60 (OR 2.24; 95 % CI 1.29-3.87, p = 0.004) were associated with significantly increased risk of IGT. In the whole sample, having high TG levels according to the NIH National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute Expert Panel was not associated with an increased risk of presenting IGT. TG/HDL-C ratio can be useful, particularly in children, to identify obese young patients at risk of IGT. Its accuracy as screening tool in a general population needs to be verified. The combination of TG/HDL-C ratio and WTHR > 0.6 did not improve prediction. Having high TG according to the NIH definition was not associated with increased risk of developing IGT.

  17. Myocardial triglycerides : magnetic resonance spectroscopy in health and diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammer, Sebastiaan

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis we focused on the functional and metabolic consequences of myocardial triglyceride (TG) accumulation in healthy subjects and in patients with diabetes mellitus. Ectopic accumulation of TGs is associated with organ dysfunction in metabolic disease in experimental animal studies. These

  18. De novo synthesis of milk triglycerides in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammary gland (MG) de novo lipogenesis contributes significantly to milk fat in animals but little is known in humans. Objective: To test the hypothesis that the incorporation of 13C carbons from [U-13C]glucose into fatty acids (FA) and glycerol in triglycerides (TG) will be greater: 1) in milk tha...

  19. Myocardial triglycerides : magnetic resonance spectroscopy in health and diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hammer, Sebastiaan

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis we focused on the functional and metabolic consequences of myocardial triglyceride (TG) accumulation in healthy subjects and in patients with diabetes mellitus. Ectopic accumulation of TGs is associated with organ dysfunction in metabolic disease in experimental animal studies. These

  20. Homozygous carriers of the TCF7L2 rs7903146 T-allele show altered postprandial response in triglycerides and triglyceride-rich lipoproteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelbrechtsen, Line; Hansen, T H; Mahendran, Y

    2017-01-01

    The TCF7L2 rs7903146 T-allele shows the strongest association with type 2 diabetes (T2D) among common gene variants. The aim of this study was to assess circulating levels of metabolites following a meal test in individuals carrying the high risk rs790346 TT genotype (cases) and low-risk CC...... to CC carriers. Additionally, TT carriers had lower postprandial levels of total triglycerides (TG) (q = 0.03), VLDL-TG (q = 0.05, including medium, small and extra small, q = 0.048, q = 0.0009, q = 0.04, respectively), HDL-TG (triglycerides in high density lipoproteins q = 0.037) and S-HDL-TG (q = 0.......00003). In conclusion, TT carriers show altered postprandial triglyceride response, mainly influencing VLDL and HDL subclasses suggesting a genotype-mediated effect on hepatic lipid regulation....

  1. Triglycerides : Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... upon baseline triglyceride level, level of intensity, caloric expenditure and duration of activity. 3. Is body fat ... Stop Hypertension, http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/public/heart/hbp/dash/new_dash.pdf) dietary eating ...

  2. Determination of triglycerides with special emphasis on biosensors: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pundir, C S; Narang, Jagriti

    2013-10-01

    Triglycerides (TG) are transesterification product of fatty acids and glycerol and engaged in the transportation of fats. Elevated triglyceride level is associated with coronary heart disease (CAD), atherosclerosis and hypolipoprotenemia. Convenient and reproducible assay systems based on enzymes are an attractive alternative to conventional analytical methods. Triglyceride biosensors (TGBs) are based on either measurement of oxygen consumed or electron generated from splitting of H2O2, an ultimate product, of immobilized enzymes. TGBs work optimally within 2-900 s, between pH 6.4-8.5 and the potential 0.5-4V. TGBs measure TG level in serum directly and can be used over a period of 14 to 168 days. This review describes the analytic characteristics of various methods available for determination of TGs with special emphasis on TGBs.

  3. Camphene, a plant-derived monoterpene, reduces plasma cholesterol and triglycerides in hyperlipidemic rats independently of HMG-CoA reductase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallianou, Ioanna; Peroulis, Nikolaos; Pantazis, Panayotis; Hadzopoulou-Cladaras, Margarita

    2011-01-01

    Central to the pathology of coronary heart disease is the accumulation of lipids, cholesterol and triglycerides, within the intima of arterial blood vessels. The search for drugs to treat dislipidemia, remains a major pharmaceutical focus. In this study, we evaluated the hypolipidemic properties of the essential oil from Chios mastic gum (MGO). The hypolipidemic effect of MGO was investigated in naïve as well as in rats susceptible to detergent-induced hyperlipidemia. Serum cholesterol and triglycerides were determined using commercial kits. HMG-CoA (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A) reductase activity was measured in HepG2 cell extracts using a radioactive assay; cellular cholesterol and cholesterol esters were assessed using gas chromatography. MGO administration into naïve rats resulted in a dose-dependent reduction in the constitutive synthesis of serum cholesterol and triglycerides. In hyperlipidemic rats, MGO treatment had also a strong hypolipidemic effect. By testing various components of MGO, we show for the first time that the hypolipidemic action is associated with camphene. Administration of camphene at a dose of 30 µg/gr of body weight in hyperlipidemic rats resulted in a 54.5% reduction of total cholesterol (pcholesterol (ptriglycerides (pcholesterol content to the same extend as mevinolin, a known HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor. The hypolipidemic action of camphene is independent of HMG-CoA reductase activity, suggesting that its hypocholesterolemic and hypotriglyceridemic effects are associated with a mechanism of action different than that of statins. Given the critical role that the control of hyperlipidemia plays in cardiovascular disease, the results of our study provide insights into the use of camphene as an alternative lipid lowering agent and merits further evaluation.

  4. Adipocyte Triglyceride Turnover Is Independently Associated With Atherogenic Dyslipidemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frayn, Keith; Bernard, Samuel; Spalding, Kirsty; Arner, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Background Inappropriate storage of fatty acids as triglycerides in adipocytes and their removal from adipocytes through lipolysis and subsequent oxidation may cause the atherogenic dyslipidemia phenotype of elevated apolipoprotein B levels and subsequent hypertriglyceridemia. We tested whether turnover of triglycerides in fat cells was related to dyslipidemia. Methods and Results The age of triglycerides (reflecting removal) and triglyceride storage in adipocytes was determined under free living conditions by measuring incorporation of atmospheric 14C into these lipids within the adipocytes in 47 women and 26 men with a large interindividual variability in body mass index. Because limited 14C data were available, triglyceride age was also determined in 97 men and 233 women by using an algorithm based on adipocyte lipolysis, body fat content, waist‐to‐hip ratio, and insulin sensitivity. This cohort consisted of nonobese subjects since obesity per se is related to all components in the algorithm. Triglyceride turnover (age and storage) was compared with plasma levels of apolipoproteins and lipids. Plasma levels of apolipoprotein B and triglycerides were positively related to triglyceride age in adipocytes, when measured directly using radiocarbon analyses (r=0.45 to 0.47; PTriglyceride storage showed no independent correlation (partial r=0.02 to 0.11; P=0.42 to 0.91). Algorithm‐based values for adipocyte removal of triglycerides were positively associated with plasma triglycerides and apolipoprotein B (r=0.44 to 0.45; Ptriglycerides (as indicated by a high triglyceride age in fat cells) is independently associated with circulating apolipoprotein B and triglycerides. This suggests a hitherto unknown role of triglyceride turnover in adipocytes for the development and/or maintenance of atherogenic dyslipidemia. PMID:23316323

  5. Camphene, a plant-derived monoterpene, reduces plasma cholesterol and triglycerides in hyperlipidemic rats independently of HMG-CoA reductase activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioanna Vallianou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Central to the pathology of coronary heart disease is the accumulation of lipids, cholesterol and triglycerides, within the intima of arterial blood vessels. The search for drugs to treat dislipidemia, remains a major pharmaceutical focus. In this study, we evaluated the hypolipidemic properties of the essential oil from Chios mastic gum (MGO. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The hypolipidemic effect of MGO was investigated in naïve as well as in rats susceptible to detergent-induced hyperlipidemia. Serum cholesterol and triglycerides were determined using commercial kits. HMG-CoA (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase activity was measured in HepG2 cell extracts using a radioactive assay; cellular cholesterol and cholesterol esters were assessed using gas chromatography. MGO administration into naïve rats resulted in a dose-dependent reduction in the constitutive synthesis of serum cholesterol and triglycerides. In hyperlipidemic rats, MGO treatment had also a strong hypolipidemic effect. By testing various components of MGO, we show for the first time that the hypolipidemic action is associated with camphene. Administration of camphene at a dose of 30 µg/gr of body weight in hyperlipidemic rats resulted in a 54.5% reduction of total cholesterol (p<0.001, 54% of Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL-cholesterol (p<0.001 and 34.5% of triglycerides (p<0.001. Treatment of HepG2 cells with camphene led to a decrease in cellular cholesterol content to the same extend as mevinolin, a known HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor. The hypolipidemic action of camphene is independent of HMG-CoA reductase activity, suggesting that its hypocholesterolemic and hypotriglyceridemic effects are associated with a mechanism of action different than that of statins. CONCLUSIONS: Given the critical role that the control of hyperlipidemia plays in cardiovascular disease, the results of our study provide insights into the use of camphene as an alternative lipid

  6. Triglycerides are a predictive factor for arterial stiffness: a community-based 4.8-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaona; Ye, Ping; Cao, Ruihua; Yang, Xu; Xiao, Wenkai; Zhang, Yun; Bai, Yongyi; Wu, Hongmei

    2016-05-18

    Epidemiological studies have disclosed an independent effect of triglycerides on coronary heart disease despite achievement of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol goals with statin therapy. Arterial stiffness has been increasingly recognized as a strong predictor of cardiovascular disease and atherosclerotic disease. The association between triglycerides and arterial stiffness is not well characterized. We aimed to determine the relationship between triglycerides and arterial stiffness in a community-based longitudinal sample from Beijing, China. We related levels of plasma TGs to measures of arterial stiffness (carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity [PWV] and carotid-radial PWV) in 1447 subjects (mean age, 61.3 years) from a community-based population in Beijing, China. After a median follow-up interval of 4.8 years, multiple linear regression analysis revealed that TGs were independently associated with carotid-femoral PWV (β = 0.747, P triglyceride levels were significantly associated with decreases in carotid-femoral PWV, indicating that achieving low TG levels may be an additional therapeutic consideration in subjects with atherosclerotic disease.

  7. Central effects of humanin on hepatic triglyceride secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zhenwei; Su, Kai; Cui, Lingguang; Tas, Emir; Zhang, Ting; Dong, H Henry; Yakar, Shoshana; Muzumdar, Radhika H

    2015-08-01

    Humanin (HN) is an endogenous mitochondria-associated peptide that has been shown to protect against various Alzheimer's disease-associated insults, myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury, and reactive oxygen species-induced cell death. We have shown previously that HN improves whole body glucose homeostasis by improving insulin sensitivity and increasing glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) from the β-cells. Here, we report that intraperitoneal treatment with one of HN analogs, HNG, decreases body weight gain, visceral fat, and hepatic triglyceride (TG) accumulation in high-fat diet-fed mice. The decrease in hepatic TG accumulation is due to increased activity of hepatic microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTTP) and increased hepatic TG secretion. Both intravenous (iv) and intracerebroventricular (icv) infusion of HNG acutely increase TG secretion from the liver. Vagotomy blocks the effect on both iv and icv HNG on TG secretion, suggesting that the effects of HNG on hepatic TG flux are centrally mediated. Our data suggest that HN is a new player in central regulation of peripheral lipid metabolism. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  8. The effect of preoperative serum triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels on the prognosis of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xing; Tang, Hailin; Wang, Jin; Xie, Xinhua; Liu, Peng; Kong, Yanan; Ye, Feng; Shuang, Zeyu; Xie, Zeming; Xie, Xiaoming

    2017-04-01

    Although dyslipidemia has been documented to be associated with several types of cancer including breast cancer, it remains uncertainty the prognostic value of serum lipid in breast cancer. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the association between the preoperative plasma lipid profile and the prognostic of breast cancer patients. The levels of preoperative serum lipid profile (including cholesterol [CHO], Triglycerides [TG], high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol [HDL-C], low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol [LDL-C], apolipoprotein A-I [ApoAI], and apolipoprotein B [ApoB]) and the clinical data were retrospectively collected and reviewed in 1044 breast cancer patients undergoing operation. Kaplan-Meier method and the Cox proportional hazards regression model were used in analyzing the overall survival [OS] and disease-free survival [DFS]. Combining the receiver-operating characteristic and Kaplan-Meier analysis, we found that preoperative lower TG and HDL-C level were risk factors of breast cancer patients. In multivariate analyses, a decreased HDL-C level showed significant association with worse OS (HR: 0.528; 95% CI: 0.302-0.923; P = 0.025), whereas a decreased TG level showed significant association with worse DFS (HR: 0.569; 95% CI: 0.370-0.873; P = 0.010). Preoperative serum levels of TG and HDL-C may be independent factor to predict outcome in breast cancer patient. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Relationship of Plasma IL-6 to the Metabolic Measures associated with Insulin Resistance due to Adiposity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ryoyu Takeda; Isamu Miyamori; WU Pingsheng (吴平生); Yoshihiro Takayama; Yuji Ito; Takaharu Masunaga; Takahiro Zenda; Satoshi Asaka; Hisanori Oiwake; Kimihide Shinozaki; Yoshiyu Takeda

    2004-01-01

    Objectives To elucidate the relationship of plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6) to the metabolic measures associated with insulin resistance (IR) due to adiposity. Methods For a cross-sectional study, eighty normotensive men with and without obesity were enrolled consecutively in our health examination center. Fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting plasma immunoreactive insulin (FIRI), HOMA-R (Homeostasis Model Assessment Insulin Resistance Index), plasma lipids (cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein cholesterol), cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S), interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein(CRP) were measured. Results Plasma levels of FIRI, triglyceride (TG), DHEA-S,CRP and HOMA-R were significantly higher in obese group with BMI over 25 than non-obese group,whereas HDL-C was significantly lower in obese group. BMI was positively correlated with FIRI, TG,hsCRP and HOMA-R, whereas negatively with HDLC. BMI was positively correlated with plasma DHEAS levels but not with cortisol. Plasma levels of IL-6 were positively correlated with FIRI, TG, CRP and HOMA-R but in a multiple regression analysis with IL-6, only HOMA-R and TG remained explainable variables. Conclusions Each of commonly used measures of inflammatory reaction, CRP and IL-6, showed a significantly positive correlation with either FIRI or HOMA-R, suggesting associations between subclinical inflammation and obesity as the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  10. JTT-130, a novel intestine-specific inhibitor of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein, suppresses food intake and gastric emptying with the elevation of plasma peptide YY and glucagon-like peptide-1 in a dietary fat-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, Takahiro; Mera, Yasuko; Ishii, Yukihito; Tadaki, Hironobu; Tomimoto, Daisuke; Kuroki, Yukiharu; Kawai, Takashi; Ohta, Takeshi; Kakutani, Makoto

    2011-03-01

    The microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) takes part in the mobilization and secretion of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins from enterocytes and hepatocytes. In this study, we investigated the effects of diethyl-2-({3-dimethylcarbamoyl-4-[(4'-trifluoromethylbiphenyl-2-carbonyl) amino] phenyl}acetyloxymethyl)-2-phenylmalonate (JTT-130), a novel intestine-specific MTP inhibitor, on food intake, gastric emptying, and gut peptides using Sprague-Dawley rats fed 3.1% fat, 13% fat, or 35% fat diets. JTT-130 treatment suppressed cumulative food intake and gastric emptying in rats fed a 35% fat diet, but not a 3.1% fat diet. In rats fed a 13% fat diet, JTT-130 treatment decreased cumulative food intake but not gastric emptying. In addition, treatment with orlistat, a lipase inhibitor, completely abolished the reduction of food intake and gastric emptying by JTT-130 in rats fed a 35% fat diet. On the other hand, JTT-130 treatment increased the plasma concentrations of gut peptides, peptide YY (PYY) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) but not cholecystokinin, in the portal vein in rats fed a 35% fat diet. These elevations in PYY and GLP-1 were also abolished by treatment with orlistat. Furthermore, JTT-130 treatment in rats fed a 35% fat diet increased the contents of triglycerides and free fatty acids in the intestinal lumen, which might contribute to the elevation of PYY and GLP-1 levels. The present findings indicate that JTT-130 causes satiety responses, decreased food intake, and gastric emptying in a dietary fat-dependent manner, with enhanced production of gut peptides such as PYY and GLP-1 from the intestine.

  11. Plasma cholesteryl ester transfer is a determinant of intima-media thickness in type 2 diabetic and nondiabetic subjects : Role of CETP and triglycerides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, R; Perton, FG; Dallinga-Thie, GM; van Roon, AM; Wolffenbuttel, BHR; van Tol, A; Dullaart, RPF

    2005-01-01

    We tested whether carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) is associated with plasma cholesteryl ester transfer (CET) and/or the plasma cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) concentration in type 2 diabetic and control subjects. In 87 male and female subjects with type 2 diabetes (nonsmokers,

  12. Plasma cholesteryl ester transfer is a determinant of intima-media thickness in type 2 diabetic and nondiabetic subjects : Role of CETP and triglycerides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, R; Perton, FG; Dallinga-Thie, GM; van Roon, AM; Wolffenbuttel, BHR; van Tol, A; Dullaart, RPF

    2005-01-01

    We tested whether carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) is associated with plasma cholesteryl ester transfer (CET) and/or the plasma cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) concentration in type 2 diabetic and control subjects. In 87 male and female subjects with type 2 diabetes (nonsmokers,

  13. Plasma cholesteryl ester transfer is a determinant of intima-media thickness in type 2 diabetic and nondiabetic subjects: Role of CETP and triglycerides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. de Vries (Rindert); F.G. Perton (Frank G.); G.M. Dallinga-Thie (Geesje); A.M.M. van Roon (Arie); B.H.R. Wolffenbuttel (Bruce); A. van Tol (Arie); R.P.F. Dullaart (Robin)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractWe tested whether carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) is associated with plasma cholesteryl ester transfer (CET) and/or the plasma cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) concentration in type 2 diabetic and control subjects. In 87 male and female subjects with type 2 diabetes

  14. Triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio and carotid intima-medial thickness in Chinese adolescents with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Deng, You-Ping; Yang, Miao; Wu, Yu-Wen; Sun, Su-Xin; Sun, Jia-Zhong

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the relationship between triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) ratio and carotid intima-medial thickness (CIMT) in Chinese youth and adolescents with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Ninety-eight subjects aged 10-24 yr with newly-diagnosed T2DM had general inflammation, anthropometric, laboratory and CIMT data collected, and were divided into three groups based on TG/HDL-C tertiles. There were no significant differences in gender, age, fasting plasma glucose (FPG), hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), and carotid arterial diameter (CAD) among the groups based on TG/HDL-C tertiles. Across TG/HDL-C tertiles, there was a significant progressive increase in body mass index (BMI), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), TG, total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and CIMT (all P < 0.01 or P < 0.05), while HDL-C was decreased significantly across the groups (P < 0.01). In general linear regression model, TG/HDL-C was an independent determinant of CIMT even after adjusting for BMI, SBP, DBP, TG, TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, HbA1c and HOMA-IR. TG/HDL-C ratio, the marker of small dense LDL particles, is an independent determinant of CIMT in Chinese youth and adolescents with newly diagnosed T2DM, and may be a simple and helpful tool in predicting the increased CIMT in such patients. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Triglycerides Revisited to the Serial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viecili, Paulo Ricardo Nazário; da Silva, Brenda; Hirsch, Gabriela E; Porto, Fernando G; Parisi, Mariana M; Castanho, Alison R; Wender, Michele; Klafke, Jonatas Z

    This review discusses the role of triglycerides (TGs) in the normal cardiovascular system as well as in the development and clinical manifestation of cardiovascular diseases. Regulation of TGs at the enzymatic and genetic level, in addition to their possible relevance as preclinical and clinical biomarkers, is discussed, culminating with a description of available and emerging treatments. Due to the high complexity of the subject and the vast amount of material in the literature, the objective of this review was not to exhaust the subject, but rather to compile the information to facilitate and improve the understanding of those interested in this topic. The main publications on the topic were sought out, especially those from the last 5 years. The data in the literature still give reason to believe that there is room for doubt regarding the use of TG as disease biomarkers; however, there is increasing evidence for the role of hypertriglyceridemia on the atherosclerotic inflammatory process, cardiovascular outcomes, and mortality. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Usefulness of Icosapent Ethyl (Eicosapentaenoic Acid Ethyl Ester) in Women to Lower Triglyceride Levels (Results from the MARINE and ANCHOR Trials).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosca, Lori; Ballantyne, Christie M; Bays, Harold E; Guyton, John R; Philip, Sephy; Doyle, Ralph T; Juliano, Rebecca A

    2017-02-01

    There are limited data on the efficacy and safety of triglyceride (TG)-lowering agents in women. We conducted subgroup analyses of the effects of icosapent ethyl (a high-purity prescription form of the ethyl ester of the omega-3 fatty acid, eicosapentaenoic acid) on TG levels (primary efficacy variable) and other atherogenic and inflammatory parameters in a total of 215 women with a broad range of TG levels (200-2000 mg/dl) enrolled in two 12-week placebo-controlled trials: MARINE (n = 18; placebo, n = 18) and ANCHOR (n = 91; placebo, n = 88). Icosapent ethyl 4 g/day significantly reduced TG levels from baseline to week 12 versus placebo in both MARINE (-22.7%; p = 0.0327) and ANCHOR (-21.5%; p 500% in eicosapentaenoic acid levels in plasma and red blood cells (all p <0.001). Icosapent ethyl was well tolerated, with adverse-event profiles comparable with findings in the overall studies. In conclusion, icosapent ethyl 4 g/day significantly reduced TG levels and other atherogenic parameters in women without increasing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels compared with placebo; the clinical implications of these findings are being evaluated in the REDUCtion of Cardiovascular Events With Eicosapentaenoic Acid [EPA]-Intervention Trial (REDUCE-IT) cardiovascular outcomes study. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of functional sympathetic nervous system impairment of the liver and abdominal visceral adipose tissue on circulating triglyceride-rich lipoproteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirnigliaro, Christopher M.; Kirshblum, Steven C.; McKenna, Cristin

    2017-01-01

    Background Interruption of sympathetic innervation to the liver and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) in animal models has been reported to reduce VAT lipolysis and hepatic secretion of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and concentrations of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein particles. Whether functional impairment of sympathetic nervous system (SNS) innervation to tissues of the abdominal cavity reduce circulating concentrations of triglyceride (TG) and VLDL particles (VLDL-P) was tested in men with spinal cord injury (SCI). Methods One hundred-three non-ambulatory men with SCI [55 subjects with neurologic injury at or proximal to the 4th thoracic vertebrae (↑T4); 48 subjects with SCI at or distal to the 5th thoracic vertebrae (↓T5)] and 53 able-bodied (AB) subjects were studied. Fasting blood samples were obtained for determination of TG, VLDL-P concentration by NMR spectroscopy, serum glucose by autoanalyzer, and plasma insulin by radioimmunoassay. VAT volume was determined by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry imaging with calculation by a validated proprietary software package. Results Significant group main effects for TG and VLDL-P were present; post-hoc tests revealed that serum TG concentrations were significantly higher in ↓T5 group compared to AB and ↑T4 groups [150±9 vs. 101±8 (p<0.01) and 112±8 mg/dl (p<0.05), respectively]. VLDL-P concentration was significantly elevated in ↓T5 group compared to AB and ↑T4 groups [74±4 vs. 58±4 (p<0.05) and 55±4 μmol/l (p<0.05)]. VAT volume was significantly higher in both SCI groups than in the AB group, and HOMA-IR was higher and approached significance in the SCI groups compared to the AB group. A linear relationship between triglyceride rich lipoproteins (i.e., TG or Large VLDL-P) and VAT volume or HOMA-IR was significant only in the ↓T5 group. Conclusions Despite a similar VAT volume and insulin resistance in both SCI groups, the ↓T5 group had significantly higher serum TG and VLDL-P values than

  18. Triglycerides and cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordestgaard, Børge G; Varbo, Anette

    2014-01-01

    After the introduction of statins, clinical emphasis first focussed on LDL cholesterol-lowering, then on the potential for raising HDL cholesterol, with less focus on lowering triglycerides. However, the understanding from genetic studies and negative results from randomised trials that low HDL c...

  19. Triglyceride Metabolism under Attack

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kersten, Sander

    2017-01-01

    Hydrolysis of circulating triglycerides is carried out by the enzyme lipoprotein lipase, which is transported and anchored to the capillary wall by the protein GPIHBP1. Recent evidence indicates that certain individuals develop autoantibodies against GPIHBP1, impairing lipoprotein lipase function

  20. Polymerized and functionalized triglycerides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant oils are useful sustainable raw materials for the development of new chemical products. As part of our research emphasis in sustainability and green polymer chemistry, we have explored a new method for polymerizing epoxidized triglycerides with the use of fluorosulfonic acid. Depending on the ...

  1. Increased VLDL-TG fatty acid storage in skeletal muscle in men with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Iben R; Søndergaard, Esben; Sørensen, Lars P

    2016-01-01

    -TG storage rate and LPL activity or other storage factors in muscle or adipose tissue. However, LPL activity correlated with fractional VLDL-TG storage in abdominal fat (p=0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Men with type 2 diabetes have increased VLDL-TG storage in muscle tissue, potentially contributing to increased......CONTEXT: Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity is considered the rate-limiting step of very-low-density-lipoprotein triglycerides (VLDL-TG) tissue storage, and has been suggested to relate to the development of obesity as well as insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. OBJECTIVE: The objective...... of the study was to assess the relationship between the quantitative storage of VLDL-TG fatty acids and LPL activity and other storage factors in muscle and adipose tissue. In addition, we examine whether such relations were influenced by type 2 diabetes. DESIGN: 23 men (12 with type 2 diabetes, 11 non...

  2. Inborn errors of cytoplasmic triglyceride metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiang Wei; Yang, Hao; Wang, Shu Pei; Soni, Krishnakant G; Brunel-Guitton, Catherine; Mitchell, Grant A

    2015-01-01

    Triglyceride (TG) synthesis, storage, and degradation together constitute cytoplasmic TG metabolism (CTGM). CTGM is mostly studied in adipocytes, where starting from glycerol-3-phosphate and fatty acyl (FA)-coenzyme A (CoA), TGs are synthesized then stored in cytoplasmic lipid droplets. TG hydrolysis proceeds sequentially, producing FAs and glycerol. Several reactions of CTGM can be catalyzed by more than one enzyme, creating great potential for complex tissue-specific physiology. In adipose tissue, CTGM provides FA as a systemic energy source during fasting and is related to obesity. Inborn errors and mouse models have demonstrated the importance of CTGM for non-adipose tissues, including skeletal muscle, myocardium and liver, because steatosis and dysfunction can occur. We discuss known inborn errors of CTGM, including deficiencies of: AGPAT2 (a form of generalized lipodystrophy), LPIN1 (childhood rhabdomyolysis), LPIN2 (an inflammatory condition, Majeed syndrome, described elsewhere in this issue), DGAT1 (protein loosing enteropathy), perilipin 1 (partial lipodystrophy), CGI-58 (gene ABHD5, neutral lipid storage disease (NLSD) with ichthyosis and "Jordan's anomaly" of vacuolated polymorphonuclear leukocytes), adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL, gene PNPLA2, NLSD with myopathy, cardiomyopathy and Jordan's anomaly), hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL, gene LIPE, hypertriglyceridemia, and insulin resistance). Two inborn errors of glycerol metabolism are known: glycerol kinase (GK, causing pseudohypertriglyceridemia) and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD1, childhood hepatic steatosis). Mouse models often resemble human phenotypes but may diverge markedly. Inborn errors have been described for less than one-third of CTGM enzymes, and new phenotypes may yet be identified.

  3. Impaired Insulin Suppression of VLDL-Triglyceride Kinetics in Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Marianne K; Nellemann, Birgitte; Stødkilde-Jørgensen, Hans;

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with glucose and lipid metabolic abnormalities. However, insulin suppression of VLDL-triglyceride (VLDL-TG) kinetics is not fully understood. OBJECTIVE: To determine VLDL-TG, glucose and palmitate kinetics during fasting and hyperin......CONTEXT: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with glucose and lipid metabolic abnormalities. However, insulin suppression of VLDL-triglyceride (VLDL-TG) kinetics is not fully understood. OBJECTIVE: To determine VLDL-TG, glucose and palmitate kinetics during fasting...... and hyperinsulinemia in men with (NAFLD+) and without NAFLD (NAFLD-). DESIGN: 27 non-diabetic, upper-body obese (WHR >0.9, BMI >28 kg/m(2)) men, 18 NAFLD+ and 9 NAFLD- determined by magnetic resonance spectroscopy, were enrolled.(14)C-labeled VLDL-TG and (3)H-labeled glucose and palmitate tracers were applied...... metabolic abnormalities associated with NAFLD and presumably diabetes....

  4. Postprandial triglyceride metabolism in elderly men with subnormal testosterone levels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ingvild Agledahl; John-Bjarne Hansen; Johan Svartberg

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the level of postprandial triglycerides (TG)s in elderly men with subnormal testosterone level (≤ 11.0 nmol/L) compared to men with normal testosterone level (> 11.0 nmol/L). Methods: Thirthy-seven men with subnormal and 41 men with normal testosterone aged 60-80 years underwent an oral fat load and TG levels were measured fasting and 2, 4, 6 and 8 h afterwards. Results: Men with subnormal testosterone had significantly higher body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (P < 0.001) than men with normal testosterone. They had signifi- cantly higher area under curve (AUC, P = 0.037), incremental area under curve (AUCi, P = 0.035) and TG response (TGR, P = 0.014) for serum-TG and significantly higher AUC (P=0.023), AUCi (P=0.023) and TGR (P = 0.014) for chylomicron-TG compared to men with normal testosterone level. Adjusting for waist circumference erased the significant differences between the groups in postprandial triglyceridemia. Conclusion: Men with subnormal test- osterone have increased postprandial TG levels indicating an impaired metabolism of postprandial TG-rich lipoproteins (TRL), which may add to an unfavourable lipid profile and promote development of atherosclerosis. (Asian JAndrol 2008 Jul; 10: 542-549)

  5. Fatty acid compositions of triglycerides and free fatty acids in sebum depend on amount of triglycerides, and do not differ in presence or absence of acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaza, Narifumi; Akamatsu, Hirohiko; Numata, Shigeki; Matsusue, Miyuki; Mashima, Yasuo; Miyawaki, Masaaki; Yamada, Shunji; Yagami, Akiko; Nakata, Satoru; Matsunaga, Kayoko

    2014-12-01

    To clarify the influence of the fatty acid composition of sebum in acne vulgaris, we investigated the amounts and fatty acid compositions of triglycerides (TG) and free fatty acids (FFA), and the amounts of cutaneous superficial Propionibacterium acnes in acne patients and healthy subjects. The foreheads of 18 female patients, 10 male patients, 10 healthy females and 10 healthy males were studied in a Japanese population. There were significant differences in the amounts of sebum, TG and cutaneous superficial P. acnes, as well as the fatty acid compositions of TG and FFA between acne patients and healthy subjects in females. Their fatty acid compositions were correlated with the amount of TG with or without acne. It was clarified that the fatty acid compositions of TG and FFA depended on the amount of TG, and there were no differences in the fatty acid composition in the presence and absence of acne.

  6. Gut triglyceride production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xiaoyue; Hussain, M Mahmood

    2012-05-01

    Our knowledge of how the body absorbs triacylglycerols (TAG) from the diet and how this process is regulated has increased at a rapid rate in recent years. Dietary TAG are hydrolyzed in the intestinal lumen to free fatty acids (FFA) and monoacylglycerols (MAG), which are taken up by enterocytes from their apical side, transported to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and resynthesized into TAG. TAG are assembled into chylomicrons (CM) in the ER, transported to the Golgi via pre-chylomicron transport vesicles and secreted towards the basolateral side. In this review, we mainly focus on the roles of key proteins involved in uptake and intracellular transport of fatty acids, their conversion to TAG and packaging into CM. We will also discuss intracellular transport and secretion of CM. Moreover, we will bring to light few factors that regulate gut triglyceride production. Furthermore, we briefly summarize pathways involved in cholesterol absorption. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Triglyceride Metabolism and Disease.

  7. The rs2516839 Polymorphism of the USF1 Gene May Modulate Serum Triglyceride Levels in Response to Cigarette Smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Niemiec

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs of the USF1 gene (upstream stimulatory factor 1 influence plasma lipid levels. This study aims to determine whether USF1 SNPs interact with traditional risk factors of atherosclerosis to increase coronary artery disease (CAD risk. In the present study serum lipid levels and USF1 gene polymorphisms (rs2516839 and rs3737787 were determined in 470 subjects: 235 patients with premature CAD and 235 controls. A trend of increasing triglycerides (TG levels in relation to the C allele dose of rs2516839 SNP was observed. The synergistic effect of cigarette smoking and C allele carrier state on CAD risk was also found (SIM = 2.69, p = 0.015. TG levels differentiated significantly particular genotypes in smokers (1.53 mmol/L for TT, 1.80 mmol/L for CT and 2.27 mmol/L for CC subjects. In contrast, these differences were not observed in the non-smokers subgroup (1.57 mmol/L for TT, 1.46 mmol/L for CT and 1.49 mmol/L for CC subjects. In conclusion, the rs2516839 polymorphism may modulate serum triglyceride levels in response to cigarette smoking. Carriers of the C allele seem to be particularly at risk of CAD, when exposed to cigarette smoking.

  8. The rs2516839 Polymorphism of the USF1 Gene May Modulate Serum Triglyceride Levels in Response to Cigarette Smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemiec, Pawel; Nowak, Tomasz; Iwanicki, Tomasz; Gorczynska-Kosiorz, Sylwia; Balcerzyk, Anna; Krauze, Jolanta; Grzeszczak, Wladyslaw; Wiecha, Maria; Zak, Iwona

    2015-06-10

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the USF1 gene (upstream stimulatory factor 1) influence plasma lipid levels. This study aims to determine whether USF1 SNPs interact with traditional risk factors of atherosclerosis to increase coronary artery disease (CAD) risk. In the present study serum lipid levels and USF1 gene polymorphisms (rs2516839 and rs3737787) were determined in 470 subjects: 235 patients with premature CAD and 235 controls. A trend of increasing triglycerides (TG) levels in relation to the C allele dose of rs2516839 SNP was observed. The synergistic effect of cigarette smoking and C allele carrier state on CAD risk was also found (SIM = 2.69, p = 0.015). TG levels differentiated significantly particular genotypes in smokers (1.53 mmol/L for TT, 1.80 mmol/L for CT and 2.27 mmol/L for CC subjects). In contrast, these differences were not observed in the non-smokers subgroup (1.57 mmol/L for TT, 1.46 mmol/L for CT and 1.49 mmol/L for CC subjects). In conclusion, the rs2516839 polymorphism may modulate serum triglyceride levels in response to cigarette smoking. Carriers of the C allele seem to be particularly at risk of CAD, when exposed to cigarette smoking.

  9. Adipose triglyceride lipase plays a key role in the supply of the working muscle with fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoiswohl, Gabriele; Schweiger, Martina; Schreiber, Renate;

    2010-01-01

    Fatty acids (FA) are mobilized from triglyceride (TG) stores during exercise to supply the working muscle with energy. Mice deficient for adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGLko)exhibit defective lipolysis and accumulate TG in adipose tissue and muscle suggesting that ATGL deficiency affects energy a...... use of carbohydrates for energy conversion. Thus, ATGL activity is required for proper energy supply of the skeletal muscle during exercise....

  10. Weekday variation in triglyceride concentrations in 1.8 million blood samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaskolowski, Jörn; Ritz, Christian; Sjödin, Anders Mikael

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Triglyceride (TG) concentration is used as a marker of cardio-metabolic risk. However, diurnal and possibly weekday variation exists in TG concentrations. OBJECTIVE: To investigate weekday variation in TG concentrations among 1.8 million blood samples drawn between 2008 and 2015 from...... variations in TG concentrations were recorded for out-patients between the age of 9 to 26 years, with up to 20% higher values on Mondays compared to Fridays (all PTriglyceride concentrations were highest after the weekend and gradually declined during the week. We suggest that unhealthy...

  11. Fasting and nonfasting triglycerides in cardiovascular and other diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piťha, J; Kovář, J; Blahová, T

    2015-01-01

    Moderately elevated plasma/serum triglycerides (2-10 mmol/l) signalize increased risk for cardiovascular disease or presence of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Extremely elevated triglycerides (more than 10 mmol/l) signalize increased risk for pancreatitis and lipemia retinalis. The concentration of triglycerides is regulated by many genetic and nongenetic factors. Extremely elevated triglycerides not provoked by nutritional factors, especially inappropriate alcohol intake are more likely to have a monogenic cause. On the contrary, mildly to moderately elevated triglycerides are often caused by polygenic disorders; these could be also associated with central obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes mellitus. Concentration of triglycerides is also closely interconnected with presence of atherogenic remnant lipoproteins, impaired reverse cholesterol transport and more atherogenic small LDL particles. In general, there is tight association between triglycerides and many other metabolic factors including intermediate products of lipoprotein metabolism which are frequently atherogenic. Therefore, reliable evaluation of the independent role of triglycerides especially in atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease is difficult. In individual cases values of HDL cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol (total minus HDL cholesterol), non-HDL/nonLDL cholesterol (total minus HDL minus LDL cholesterol, especially in nonfasting status), atherogenic index of plasma and/or apolipoprotein B could help in decisions regarding aggressiveness of treatment.

  12. Genomic determinants of triglyceride and cholesterol distribution into lipoprotein fractions in the rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloslava Hodúlová

    Full Text Available The plasma profile of major lipoprotein classes and its subdivision into particular fractions plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and is a major predictor of coronary artery disease. Our aim was to identify genomic determinants of triglyceride and cholesterol distribution into lipoprotein fractions and lipoprotein particle sizes in the recombinant inbred rat set PXO, in which alleles of two rat models of the metabolic syndrome (SHR and PD inbred strains segregate together with those from Brown Norway rat strain. Adult male rats of 15 PXO strains (n = 8-13/strain and two progenitor strains SHR-Lx (n = 13 and BXH2/Cub (n = 18 were subjected to one-week of high-sucrose diet feeding. We performed association analyses of triglyceride (TG and cholesterol (C concentrations in 20 lipoprotein fractions and the size of major classes of lipoprotein particles utilizing 704 polymorphic microsatellite markers, the genome-wide significance was validated by 2,000 permutations per trait. Subsequent in silico focusing of the identified quantitative trait loci was completed using a map of over 20,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms. In most of the phenotypes we identified substantial gradient among the strains (e.g. VLDL-TG from 5.6 to 66.7 mg/dl. We have identified 14 loci (encompassing 1 to 65 genes on rat chromosomes 3, 4, 7, 8, 11 and 12 showing suggestive or significant association to one or more of the studied traits. PXO strains carrying the SHR allele displayed significantly higher values of the linked traits except for LDL-TG and adiposity index. Cholesterol concentrations in large, medium and very small LDL particles were significantly associated to a haplotype block spanning part of a single gene, low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1B (Lrp1b. Using genome-wide association we have identified new genetic determinants of triglyceride and cholesterol distribution into lipoprotein fractions in the recombinant

  13. Melissa officinalis essential oil reduces plasma triglycerides in human apolipoprotein E2 transgenic mice by inhibiting sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c-dependent fatty acid synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Hee-Jin; Lee, Ji Hae; Jia, Yaoyao; Hoang, Minh-Hien; Byun, Hanna; Kim, Kyoung Heon; Lee, Sung-Joon

    2012-03-01

    We investigated the hypolipidemic effects of Melissa officinalis essential oil (MOEO) in human APOE2 transgenic mice and lipid-loaded HepG2 cells. Plasma TG concentrations were significantly less in APOE2 mice orally administered MOEO (12.5 μg/d) for 2 wk than in the vehicle-treated group. Cellular TG and cholesterol concentrations were also significantly decreased in a dose- (400 and 800 mg/L) and time- (12 and 24 h) dependent manner in HepG2 cells stimulated with MOEO compared with controls. Mouse hepatic transcriptome analysis suggested MOEO feeding altered several lipid metabolic pathways, including bile acid and cholesterol synthesis and fatty acid metabolism. In HepG2 cells, the rate of fatty acid oxidation, as assessed using [1-(14)C]palmitate, was unaltered; however, the rate of fatty acid synthesis quantified with [1-(14)C]acetate was significantly reduced by treatment with 400 and 800 mg/L MOEO compared with untreated controls. This reduction was due to the decreased expression of SREBP-1c and its responsive genes in fatty acid synthesis, including FAS, SCD1, and ACC1. Subsequent chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis further demonstrated that the binding of p300/CBP-associated factor, a coactivator of SREBP-1c, and histone H3 lysine 14 acetylation at the FAS, SCD1, and ACC1 promoters were significantly reduced in the livers of APOE2 mice and HepG2 cells treated with MOEO compared with their controls. Additionally, MOEO stimulation in HepG2 cells induced bile acid synthesis and reduced the nuclear form of SREBP-2, a key transcription factor in hepatic cholesterol synthesis. These findings suggest that the intake of phytochemicals with pleasant scent could have beneficial metabolic effects.

  14. Genome-wide analysis of glucocorticoid receptor binding regions in adipocytes reveal gene network involved in triglyceride homeostasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Yi Yu

    Full Text Available Glucocorticoids play important roles in the regulation of distinct aspects of adipocyte biology. Excess glucocorticoids in adipocytes are associated with metabolic disorders, including central obesity, insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. To understand the mechanisms underlying the glucocorticoid action in adipocytes, we used chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing to isolate genome-wide glucocorticoid receptor (GR binding regions (GBRs in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Furthermore, gene expression analyses were used to identify genes that were regulated by glucocorticoids. Overall, 274 glucocorticoid-regulated genes contain or locate nearby GBR. We found that many GBRs were located in or nearby genes involved in triglyceride (TG synthesis (Scd-1, 2, 3, GPAT3, GPAT4, Agpat2, Lpin1, lipolysis (Lipe, Mgll, lipid transport (Cd36, Lrp-1, Vldlr, Slc27a2 and storage (S3-12. Gene expression analysis showed that except for Scd-3, the other 13 genes were induced in mouse inguinal fat upon 4-day glucocorticoid treatment. Reporter gene assays showed that except Agpat2, the other 12 glucocorticoid-regulated genes contain at least one GBR that can mediate hormone response. In agreement with the fact that glucocorticoids activated genes in both TG biosynthetic and lipolytic pathways, we confirmed that 4-day glucocorticoid treatment increased TG synthesis and lipolysis concomitantly in inguinal fat. Notably, we found that 9 of these 12 genes were induced in transgenic mice that have constant elevated plasma glucocorticoid levels. These results suggested that a similar mechanism was used to regulate TG homeostasis during chronic glucocorticoid treatment. In summary, our studies have identified molecular components in a glucocorticoid-controlled gene network involved in the regulation of TG homeostasis in adipocytes. Understanding the regulation of this gene network should provide important insight for future therapeutic developments for metabolic diseases.

  15. [Triglycerides--a long known risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Subgroup analysis shows the importance after acute coronary syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Anders

    2015-09-09

    An increased blood concentration of triglycerides (TG) has long been recognized as an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Through competition from HDL cholesterol and the arrival of statin treatment for high LDL cholesterol the importance of TG as risk factor was largely forgotten. A high concentration of TG indicates high blood levels of TG-rich lipoproteins including cholesterol rich remnant particles. Studies using Mendelian randomizations have demonstrated that a low HDL cholesterol does not carry a direct atherogenic function and that remnant particles do so. New efforts should be exercised in order to diminish residual cardiovascular risk during statin treatment through decreasing TG rich lipoproteins.

  16. Kinetics of dodecanedioic acid triglyceride in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gaetano, A; Mingrone, G; Castagneto, M; Benedetti, G; Greco, A V; Gasbarrini, G

    1999-03-01

    The kinetics of the triglyceride of dodecanedioic acid (TGDA) has been investigated in 30 male Wistar rats after a rapid intravenous bolus injection. TGDA and its product of hydrolysis, nonesterified dodecanedioic acid (NEDA), were measured in plasma samples taken at different times using an improved high-performance liquid chromatographic method. The 24-h urinary excretion of TGDA was 1.54 +/- 0.37 micromol, corresponding to approximately 0.67% of the administered amount. Several kinetics models were considered, including central and peripheral compartments for the triglyceride and the free forms and expressing transports between compartments with combinations of linear, carrier-limited, or time-varying mechanisms. The parameter estimates of the kinetics of TGDA and of NEDA were finally obtained using a three-compartment model in which the transfer of TGDA to NEDA was assumed to be linear, through a peripheral compartment, and the tissue uptake of NEDA was assumed to be carrier limited. TGDA had a large volume of distribution ( approximately 0.5 l/kg body wt) with a fast disappearance rate from plasma (0.42 min-1), whereas NEDA had a very small volume of distribution ( approximately 0.04 l/kg body wt) and a tissue uptake with maximal transport rate of 0.636 mM/min. In conclusion, this first study on the triglyceride form of dodecanedioic acid indicates that it is rapidly hydrolyzed and that both triglyceride and nonesterified forms are excreted in the urine to a very low extent. The tissue uptake rate of NEDA is consistent with the possibility of achieving substantial energy delivery, should it be added to parenteral nutrition formulations. Furthermore, the amount of sodium administered with the triglyceride form is one-half of that necessary with the free diacid.

  17. Hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) controls hepatic VLDL-triglyceride secretion in rats via the sympathetic nervous system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinstroop, E.; Pei, L.; Ackermans, M.T.; Foppen, E.; Borgers, A.J.F.; Kwakkel, J.; Alkemade, A.; Fliers, E.; Kalsbeek, A.

    2012-01-01

    Excessive secretion of triglyceride-rich very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL-TG) contributes to diabetic dyslipidemia. Earlier studies have indicated a possible role for the hypothalamus and autonomic nervous system in the regulation of VLDL-TG. In the current study, we investigated whether the auto

  18. Triglyceride-Rich Lipoproteins and Remnants: Targets for Therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M; Kroon, Jeffrey; Borén, Jan; Chapman, M John

    2016-07-01

    It is now evident that elevated circulating levels of triglycerides in the non-fasting state, a marker for triglyceride (TG)-rich remnant particles, are associated with increased risk of premature cardiovascular disease (CVD). Recent findings from basic and clinical studies have begun to elucidate the mechanisms that contribute to the atherogenicity of these apoB-containing particles. Here, we review current knowledge of the formation, intravascular remodelling and catabolism of TG-rich lipoproteins and highlight (i) the pivotal players involved in this process, including lipoprotein lipase, glycosylphosphatidylinositol HDL binding protein 1 (GPIHBP1), apolipoprotein (apo) C-II, apoC-III, angiopoietin-like protein (ANGPTL) 3, 4 and 8, apoA-V and cholesteryl ester transfer protein; (ii) key determinants of triglyceride (TG) levels and notably rates of production of very-low-density lipoprotein 1 (VLDL1) particles; and (iii) the mechanisms which underlie the atherogenicity of remnant particles. Finally, we emphasise the polygenic nature of moderate hypertriglyceridemia and briefly discuss modalities for its clinical management. Several new therapeutic strategies to attenuate hypertriglyceridemia have appeared recently, among which those targeted to apoC-III appear to hold considerable promise.

  19. Effects of high plasma triglyceride caused by ApoC Ⅲ transgene on ab-dominal aortic aneurysm induced by elastase in LDLR-/-mice%ApoCⅢ转基因引起的高血浆甘油三酯对弹力蛋白酶诱导的LDLR-/-小鼠腹主动脉瘤的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈聪; 鱼毛毛; 曹旖旎; 王云霞; 王超; 刘国庆; 祁荣

    2016-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the effects of high plasma triglyceride (TG) caused by apolipoprotein C Ⅲ( ApoC Ⅲ) transgene on the occurrence and development of abdominal aortic aneurysm ( AAA) .METHODS:The animal models of hypercholesterolemia and hypercholesterolemia combined with hypertriglyceridemia were established by feeding high-fat diet to LDLR-/-and ApoC Ⅲ+LDLR-/-mice, respectively.AAA was induced in these mice by pancreatic elastase. By evaluating the incidence of AAA, relative maximal abdominal aortic diameter, disruption of the elastic lamellar structure and expression of matrix metalloproteinases ( MMPs) in the aorta walls of the AAA, the occurrence and development of AAA were compared in LDLR-/-and ApoC Ⅲ+LDLR-/-mice fed with either chow diet or high-fat diet.In addition, an in vitro TNF-α-induced aneurysmal microenvironment model on vascular smooth muscle cells ( VSMC) was used to study the impact of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins ( TRLs) from mice with normal or high contents of ApoCⅢon elastin protein expres-sion.RESULTS:Feeding the high-fat diet aggravated the severity of AAA in the LDLR-/-mice.ApoC Ⅲ+LDLR-/-mice fed with high-fat diet had less severe AAA than LDLR-/-mice fed with high-fat diet.TRLs inhibited degradation of VSMC elas-tin protein induced by TNF-α, and in vitro TRLs from the mice with high content of ApoC Ⅲ, compared to those with nor-mal content of ApoC Ⅲ, had better inhibitory effect on the degradation of elastin.CONCLUSION:High plasma TG caused by ApoC Ⅲtransgene alleviates AAA of the LDLR-/-mice induced by elastase and high-fat diet.The effect is probably attrib-uted to the hypertriglyceridemia caused by ApoC Ⅲtransgene.%目的:研究载脂蛋白CⅢ(ApoCⅢ)转基因引起的高血浆甘油三酯(TG)对腹主动脉瘤发生发展的影响.方法:以LDLR-/-和ApoCⅢ+LDLR-/-小鼠喂饲高脂饲料,分别造成高胆固醇血症和高胆固醇合并高甘油三酯血症模型;采用弹力蛋白酶法在2种基因型

  20. Fasting and postprandial remnant-like particle cholesterol concentrations in obese participants are associated with plasma triglycerides, insulin resistance, and body fat distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Hees, Anneke M. J.; Saris, Wim H. M.; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M.;

    2008-01-01

    Elevated plasma concentrations of remnant-like particle cholesterol (RLP-C) are atherogenic. However, factors that determine RLP-C are not fully understood. This study evaluates which factors affect RLP-C in the fasting and postprandial state, using multiple regression analyses in a large cohort...... (n = 613) also participated in a 10-wk weight loss program (-2510 kJ/d), being randomized to either a low-fat or a high-fat diet (20-25 vs. 40-45en% fat). Postprandial RLP-C was associated with fasting RLP-C, waist:hip ratio (WHR), HOMA(IR) (homeostasis model assessment index for insulin resistance......) (P related to fasting RLP-C (P

  1. Association of triglycerides and new lipid markers with the incidence of hypertension in a Spanish cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Íñigo, Laura; Navarro-González, David; Pastrana-Delgado, Juan; Fernández-Montero, Alejandro; Martínez, J Alfredo

    2016-07-01

    Triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) are known to be risk factors for cardiovascular disease. However, there has been limited knowledge on the relationship between triglycerides and incident hypertension. The associations of incident hypertension with triglycerides and triglycerides-related indices such as triglycerides to HDL-C ratio (TG/HDL-C) and triglyceride-glucose index (TyG) were evaluated. Data from 3637 participants from the Vascular Metabolic Clinica Universidad Navarra cohort were followed-up during a mean of 8.49 years. A Cox proportional hazard ratio with repeated measures analyses was performed to assess the risk of developing hypertension across the quintiles of triglycerides, TG/HDL-C ratio, and TyG index. The risk of developing hypertension was 47% and 73% greater for those in the fourth and fifth quintiles of triglycerides, after adjusting for age, sex, BMI, cigarette smoking, daily alcohol intake, lifestyle pattern, type 2 diabetes, antiaggregation therapy, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, SBP, and DBP. In men, those in the top quintile of triglycerides, TG/HDL-C ratio or TyG index were two times more likely to develop hypertension than those in the bottom quintile. In women, the effect was attenuated although the risk of hypertension rose with increasing quintiles (P for trend triglycerides-related variables and incident hypertension independently of adiposity. This association was stronger than those observed for other commonly used lipid parameters or lipid ratios, such as the TC/HDL-C ratio. : http://links.lww.com/HJH/A620.

  2. Targeted delivery of a model immunomodulator to the lymphatic system: comparison of alkyl ester versus triglyceride mimetic lipid prodrug strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sifei; Quach, Tim; Hu, Luojuan; Wahab, Anisa; Charman, William N; Stella, Valentino J; Trevaskis, Natalie L; Simpson, Jamie S; Porter, Christopher J H

    2014-03-10

    A lipophilic prodrug approach has been used to promote the delivery of a model immunomodulator, mycophenolic acid (MPA), to the lymphatic system after oral administration. Lymphatic transport was employed to facilitate enhanced drug uptake into lymphocytes, as recent studies demonstrate that targeted drug delivery to lymph resident lymphocytes may enhance immunomodulatory effects. Two classes of lymph-directing prodrugs were synthesised. Alkyl chain derivatives (octyl mycophenolate, MPA-C8E; octadecyl mycophenolate, MPA-C18E; and octadecyl mycophenolamide, MPA-C18AM), to promote passive partitioning into lipids in lymphatic transport pathways, and a triglyceride mimetic prodrug (1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-mycophenoloyl glycerol, 2-MPA-TG) to facilitate metabolic integration into triglyceride deacylation-reacylation pathways. Lymphatic transport, lymphocyte uptake and plasma pharmacokinetics were assessed in mesenteric lymph and carotid artery cannulated rats following intraduodenal infusion of lipid-based formulations containing MPA or MPA prodrugs. Patterns of prodrug hydrolysis in rat digestive fluid, and cellular re-esterification in vivo, were evaluated to examine the mechanisms responsible for lymphatic transport. Poor enzyme stability and low absorption appeared to limit lymphatic transport of the alkyl derivatives, although two of the three alkyl chain prodrugs - MPA-C18AM (6-fold) and MPA-C18E (13-fold) still increased lymphatic drug transport when compared to MPA. In contrast, 2-MPA-TG markedly increased lymphatic drug transport (80-fold) and drug concentrations in lymphocytes (103-fold), and this was achieved via biochemical incorporation into triglyceride deacylation-reacylation pathways. The prodrug was hydrolysed rapidly to 2-mycophenoloyl glycerol (2-MPA-MG) in the presence of rat digestive fluid, and 2-MPA-MG was subsequently re-esterified in the enterocyte with oleic acid (most likely originating from the co-administered formulation) prior to accessing the

  3. Triglycerides and glucose index: a useful indicator of insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Gisela; Benozzi, Silvia Fabiana; Perruzza, Fernando; Pennacchiotti, Graciela Laura

    2014-12-01

    Insulin resistance assessment requires sophisticated methodology of difficult application. Therefore, different estimators for this condition have been suggested. The aim of this study was to evaluate the triglycerides and glucose (TyG) index as a marker of insulin resistance and to compare it to the triglycerides/HDL cholesterol ratio (TG/HDL-C), in subjects with and without metabolic syndrome (MS). An observational, cross-sectional study was conducted on 525 adults of a population from Bahia Blanca, Argentina, who were divided into two groups: with MS (n=89) and without MS (n=436). The discriminating capacities for MS of the TyG index, calculated as Ln (TG [mg/dL] x glucose [mg/dL]/2), and the TG/HDL-C ratio were evaluated. Pre-test probability for MS was 30%. The mean value of the TyG index was higher in the group with MS as compared to the group without MS and its correlation with the TG/HDL-C ratio was good. The cut-off values for MS in the overall population were 8.8 for the TyG index (sensitivity=79%, specificity=86%), and 2.4 for the TG/HDL-C ratio (sensitivity=88%, specificity=72%). The positive likelihood ratios and post-test probabilities for these parameters were 5.8 vs 3.1 and 72% vs 58% respectively. The cut-off point for the TyG index was 8.8 in men and 8.7 in women; the respective values for TG/C-HDL were 3.1 in men and 2.2 in women. The TyG index was a good discriminant of MS. Its simple calculation warrants its further study as an alternative marker of insulin resistance. Copyright © 2014 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of honey intake on serum cholesterol, triglycerides and lipoprotein levels in albino rats and potential benefits on risks of coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagwu, E A; Okwara, J E; Nneli, R O; Osim, E E

    2011-12-20

    The beneficial effect of honey has been widely reported particularly in the treatment of wounds and gastrointestinal tract disorders. However there is paucity of reports on its effect on the plasma high density lipoproteins (HDL), very low density lipoproteins (VLDL), low density lipoproteins (LDL) and triglycerides (TG) including cholesterol levels despite common consumption of honey worldwide including, Nigeria. The effect of the widely consumed unrefined Nigeria honey on plasma HDL, VLDL, LDL, TG, cholesterol and cardiovascular risk predictive index (CVPI) was studied using 20 adult male albino rats to ascertain its scientific and clinical relevance. The rats were randomly assigned into 2 groups, the control and honey-fed (test) groups, ten in each group. The rats weighed between 190-200gm at the start of the study. The control group was fed on normal rat (Pfizer-Nigeria) while the test group was fed on normal rat feed and honey (1ml of honey was added to 10ml of drinking water given once every day) for 22 weeks. At the end of the experiment, the rats were anesthetized with thiopentone sodium and blood collected by cardiac puncture. Serum TG, HDL, VLDL, LDL and total cholesterol in the control and the test groups were determined. The results showed significant increase in the level of plasma TG, HDL, and VLDL in the test group when compared with the control group. In contrast, there were significant decreases in the levels of plasma LDL and total cholesterol in the test when compared with the control group. Computed values of CVPI showed significant increase in the test values compared to that of the control. It is concluded that consumption of unrefined Nigeria honey significantly improved lipid profile and computed cardiovascular disease predictive index in male albino rats.

  5. MicroRNA-124 promotes hepatic triglyceride accumulation through targeting tribbles homolog 3

    OpenAIRE

    Xing Liu; Jiejie Zhao; Qi Liu; Xuelian Xiong; Zhijian Zhang; Yang Jiao; Xiaoying Li; Bin Liu; Yao Li; Yan Lu

    2016-01-01

    An increase in hepatic triglyceride (TG) contents usually results in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and related metabolic diseases. However, the mechanisms underlying perturbations of hepatic TG homeostasis remain largely unknown. Here, we showed that MicroRNA-124 was up-regulated in the livers of C57BL/6 mice fed a short-term high-fat-diet (HFD). Adenoviral overexpression of miR-124 in C57BL/6 mice led to accumulation of excessive triglycerides and up-regulation of lipogenic genes...

  6. Silicon dioxide nanoparticles increase macrophage atherogenicity: Stimulation of cellular cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, and triglycerides accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrick, Lauren; Rosenblat, Mira; Paland, Nicole; Aviram, Michael

    2016-06-01

    Nanoparticle research has focused on their toxicity in general, while increasing evidence points to additional specific adverse effects on atherosclerosis development. Arterial macrophage cholesterol and triglyceride (TG) accumulation and foam cell formation are the hallmark of early atherogenesis, leading to cardiovascular events. To investigate the in vitro atherogenic effects of silicon dioxide (SiO2 ), J774.1 cultured macrophages (murine cell line) were incubated with SiO2 nanoparticle (SP, d = 12 nm, 0-20 µg/mL), followed by cellular cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, TG and cholesterol metabolism analyses. A significant dose-dependent increase in oxidative stress (up to 164%), in cytotoxicity (up to 390% measured by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release), and in TG content (up to 63%) was observed in SiO2 exposed macrophages compared with control cells. A smaller increase in macrophage cholesterol mass (up to 22%) was noted. TG accumulation in macrophages was not due to a decrease in TG cell secretion or to an increased TG biosynthesis rate, but was the result of attenuated TG hydrolysis secondary to decreased lipase activity and both adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) protein expression (by 42 and 25%, respectively). Overall, SPs showed pro-atherogenic effects on macrophages as observed by cytotoxicity, increased oxidative stress and TG accumulation. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 713-723, 2016.

  7. Berberine increases adipose triglyceride lipase in 3T3-L1 adipocytes through the AMPK pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Dongqing; Wang, Dianhui; ZHUANG, XIANGHUA; Wang, Zhanqing; Ni, Yihong; Chen, Shihong; Sun, Fudun

    2016-01-01

    Background Obesity is closely related to the metabolism of triacylglycerol (TG) in adipocytes. Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) are rate-limiting enzymes that control the hydrolysis of TG. Effects on ATGL and HSL to increase lipolysis may counteract obesity. Berberine (BBR) is a compound derived from the Chinese medicine plant Coptis chinensis. In the present study we show the effects of BBR on ATGL and HSL and explore the potential underlying mechanisms o...

  8. Triglycerides and triglycerides to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio are strong predictors of incident hypertension in Middle Eastern women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohidi, M; Hatami, M; Hadaegh, F; Azizi, F

    2012-09-01

    Dyslipidemia has been reported as a risk factor for incident hypertension in a few prospective studies, however, no study has specifically assessed different lipid measures including the lipid ratios, that is, total cholesterol (TC)/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglycerides (TGs)/HDL-C as predictors of hypertension among Middle Eastern women with high prevalences of dyslipidemia and hypertension. The study population consisted of 2831 non-hypertensive women, aged ≥ 20 years. We measured lipoproteins, and calculated non-HDL-C and the lipid ratios. The risk-factor-adjusted odds ratios for incident hypertension were calculated for every 1 standard deviation (s.d.) change in TC, log-transformed TG, HDL-C, non-HDL-C, TC/HDL-C and log-transformed TG/HDL-C using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Over a mean follow-up of 6.4 years, 397 women developed hypertension. An increase of 1 s.d. in TG, TC/HDL-C and TG/HDL-C increased the risk of incident hypertension by 16, 19 and 18%, respectively, and 1 s.d. increase in HDL-C decreased the risk of hypertension by 14% in the multivariable model (all P ≤ 0.05). In models excluding women with diabetes and central or general obesity, TG, TG/HDL-C and TC/HDL-C remained as independent predictors of incident hypertension. In conclusion, dyslipidemia, using serum TG and TG/HDL-C, in particular, may be useful in identification of women at risk of hypertension, even in those without diabetes and central or general obesity.

  9. n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Supplementation Has No Effect on Postprandial Triglyceride-Rich Lipoprotein Kinetics in Men with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André J. Tremblay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs have been proposed to modulate plasma lipids, lipoprotein metabolism, and inflammatory state and to reduce triglyceride (TG concentrations. The present double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study investigated the effects of n-3 PUFA supplementation at 3 g/d for 8 weeks on the intravascular kinetics of intestinally derived apolipoprotein (apo B-48-containing lipoproteins in 10 men with type 2 diabetes. In vivo kinetics of the TG-rich lipoprotein (TRL apoB-48 and VLDL apoB-100 were assessed using a primed-constant infusion of L-[5,5,5-D3] leucine for 12 hours in a fed state. Compared with the placebo, n-3 PUFA supplementation significantly reduced fasting TG concentrations by −9.7% (P=0.05 but also significantly increased plasma levels of cholesterol (C (+6.0%, P=0.05, LDL-C (+12.2%, P=0.04, and HDL-C (+8.4, P=0.007. n-3 PUFA supplementation had no significant impact on postprandial TRL apoB-48 and VLDL apoB-100 levels or on the production or catabolic rates of these lipoproteins. These data indicate that 8-week supplementation with n-3 PUFAs in men with type 2 diabetes has no beneficial effect on TRL apoB-48 and VLDL apoB-100 levels or kinetics.

  10. Betaine increases the butyrylcholinesterase activity in rat plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šišková, K; Dubničková, M; Pašková, Ľ; Rajdl, D; Ďuračková, Z; Muchová, J; Pauliková, I; Racek, J

    2016-01-01

    The physiological function of butyrylcholinesterase (EC 3.1.1.8, BChE) is not clearly understood, but a role was suggested in the fat utilization process, resulting in positive correlation between plasma triglyceride (TG) levels and BChE activity. Consequently we tested the hypothesis that regular intake of betaine, a natural compound intervening in the liver TG metabolism could influence the BChE activity. The BChE activity was estimated spectrophotometrically in plasma of rats fed with betaine enriched standard (B) or high-fat diet (HFB). The results confirmed decreased TG plasma levels after betaine treatment independently on the type of diet (0.15+/-0.03 (B) vs. 0.27+/-0.08 (control) mmol/l; p=0.003 and 0.13+/-0.03 (HFB) vs. 0.27+/-0.08 (control) mmol/l; p=0.005). The BChE activity increased significantly with betaine administration, however the change was more distinct in the HFB group (0.84+/-0.34 (HFB) vs. 0.22+/-0.04 (control) O.D./min/mg; pbetaine intake led to elevated BChE activity in plasma and this effect was potentiated by the HF diet. Since betaine is in general used as a supplement in the treatment of liver diseases accompanied by TG overload, its impact on the BChE activity in the role of the liver function marker should be taken into account.

  11. CE: Triglycerides: Do They Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scordo, Kristine; Pickett, Kim Anne

    2017-01-01

    : Since the introduction of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, also known as statins, as an adjunct to diet in the treatment of hyperlipidemia and the greater emphasis placed on reducing low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels in the prevention of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD), there has been less focus on the value of lowering serum triglyceride levels. Many patients are aware of their "good" and "bad" cholesterol levels, but they may not be aware of their triglyceride level or of the association between high triglycerides and the development of CVD. In recent years, however, in light of the increasing incidences of obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes, lowering triglyceride levels has gained renewed interest. In addition to the focus on lowering LDL cholesterol levels in CVD prevention, clinicians need to be aware of the role of triglycerides-their contribution to CVD, and the causes and treatment of hypertriglyceridemia.

  12. Triglicerideos sangüíneos e composição química da carne de codornas alimentadas com bixina e niacina suplementar Plasma triglycerides and chemical composition of quail's meat fed on bixin and supplementary niacin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newton Tavares Escocard de Oliveira

    2006-08-01

    niacin. The treatments had no effect upon triglyceride and very low-density lipoprotein levels in plasma, as well as on ether extract contents in the drumstick and thigh meat and carcass of the quails. On the 49th day of age, quails that received rations with 0.08% supplementary niacin had higher fat contents in the breast meat (1.50% than quails fed with reference ration (0.85%. The addition of spice's bixin and supplementary niacin to the rations do not reduce the fat levels in plasma, meat and carcass of japanese male quails.

  13. Triglyceride-rich lipoprotein metabolism in women: roles of apoC-II and apoC-III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooi, Esther M; Chan, Dick C; Hodson, Leanne; Adiels, Martin; Boren, Jan; Karpe, Fredrik; Fielding, Barbara A; Watts, Gerald F; Barrett, P Hugh R

    2016-08-01

    Experimental data suggest that apolipoprotein (apo) C-II and C-III regulate triglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TRL) metabolism, but there are limited studies in humans. We investigated the metabolic associations of TRLs with apoC-II and apoC-III concentrations and kinetics in women. The kinetics of plasma apoC-II, apoC-III and very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) apoB-100 and triglycerides were measured in the postabsorptive state using stable isotopic techniques and compartmental modelling in 60 women with wide-ranging body mass index (19·5-32·9 kg/m(2) ). Plasma apoC-II and apoC-III concentrations were positively associated with the concentrations of plasma triglycerides, VLDL1 - and VLDL2 -apoB-100 and triglyceride (all P triglyceride concentration and VLDL1 triglyceride PR, while apoC-II fractional catabolic rate (FCR) was positively associated with VLDL1 triglyceride FCR (all P triglyceride kinetics. ApoC-III PR, but not FCR, was positively associated with VLDL1 triglyceride, and VLDL2 -apoB-100 and triglyceride concentrations (all P triglyceride kinetics. In multivariable analysis, including homoeostasis model assessment score, menopausal status and obesity, apoC-II concentration was significantly associated with plasma triglyceride, VLDL1 -apoB-100 and VLDL1 triglyceride concentrations and PR. Using the same multivariable analysis, apoC-III was significantly associated with plasma triglyceride and VLDL1 - and VLDL2 -apoB-100 and triglyceride concentrations and FCR. In women, plasma apoC-II and apoC-III concentrations are regulated by their respective PR and are significant, independent determinants of the kinetics and plasma concentrations of TRLs. © 2016 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  14. Studying the Relation of Postprandial Triglyceride with Coronary Artery Disease (CAD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manochehri, Mohammad; Moghadam, Adel Johari

    2016-07-27

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common cause of mortality worldwide and determination of contributing factors is essential. This study was conducted to study the relation of postprandial triglyceride as a risk of coronary artery disease in patients with proven CAD by angiography, referred to 502 Hospital of Army in 2015. This observational study conducted as a case-control and contained 80 male participants referred to 502 Hospital of Army. Half of these participants had proven CAD by angiography test and the other ones were healthy as a control group. Fasting serum triglyceride was evaluated in all participants and postprandial TG was checked 4 hours after a standard meal. Obtained data were analyzed by SPSS ver. 13. The results indicated that fasting TG and postprandial TG level were significantly higher in CAD patients (P-value=0.001). It was also shown evaluation of postprandial TG is more sensitive test than fasting TG in case of CAD patients. Our obtained results shown, evaluation of high level of postprandial TG is more reliable than fasting TG for patients whom suffer from CAD.

  15. Synthesis and evaluation of fluorogenic triglycerides as lipase assay substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Rokhsana J; Brask, Jesper

    2016-06-01

    Three racemic fluorogenic triglycerides are synthesized and evaluated as lipase assay substrates. The presented synthesis route goes through a key triglyceride intermediate which can be chemoselectively functionalized with a wide range of different probes. Hence the substrate can be tailor-made for a specific assay, or focus can be on low cost in larger scale for applications in high-throughput screening (HTS) assays. In the specific examples, TG-ED, TG-FD and TG-F2 are assembled with the Edans-Dabcyl or the fluorescein-Dabcyl FRET pair, or relying on fluorescein self-quenching, respectively. Proof-of-concept assays allowed determination of 1st order kinetic parameters (kcat/KM) of 460s(-1)M(-1), 59s(-1)M(-1) and 346s(-1)M(-1), respectively, for the three substrates. Commercially available EnzChek lipase substrate provided 204s(-1)M(-1). Substrate concentration was identified as a critical parameter, with measured reaction rates decreasing at higher concentrations when intermolecular quenching becomes significant.

  16. Reduced kidney lipoprotein lipase and renal tubule triglyceride accumulation in cisplatin-mediated acute kidney injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Shenyang; Nagothu, K.; Ranganathan, G.; Ali, S.M.; Shank, B.; Gokden, N.; Ayyadevara, S.; Megysi, J.; Olivecrona, G.; Chugh, S.S.; Kersten, A.H.; Portilla, D.

    2012-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-a (PPARa) activation attenuates cisplatin (CP)-mediated acute kidney injury by increasing fatty acid oxidation, but mechanisms leading to reduced renal triglyceride (TG) accumulation could also contribute. Here, we investigated the effects of PPARa and CP

  17. Adipose triglyceride lipase in human skeletal muscle is upregulated by exercise training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alsted, Thomas J; Schweiger, Martina; Nybo, Lars

    2009-01-01

    ) is not changed. Recently, adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) was identified as a TG-specific lipase in various rodent tissues. To investigate whether human skeletal muscle ATGL protein is regulated by endurance exercise training, 10 healthy young men completed 8 wk of supervised endurance exercise training...

  18. Fasting Lipoprotein Lipase Protein Levels Can Predict a Postmeal Increment of Triglyceride Levels in Fasting Normohypertriglyceridemic Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuzaki, Kokoro; Kotani, Kazuhiko; Yamada, Kazunori; Sakane, Naoki

    2016-09-01

    Although a postprandial increment in triglyceride (TG) levels is considered to be a risk factor for atherogenesis, tests (e.g., fat load) to assess postprandial changes in TG levels cannot be easily applied to clinical practice. Therefore, fasting markers that predict postprandial TG states are needed to be developed. One current candidate is lipoprotein lipase (LPL) protein, a molecule that hydrides TGs. This study investigated whether fasting LPL levels could predict postprandial TG levels. A total of 17 subjects (11 men, 6 women, mean age 52 ± 11 years) with normotriglyceridemia during fasting underwent the meal test. Several fasting parameters, including LPL, were measured for the area under the curve of postprandial TGs (AUC-TG). The subjects' mean fasting TG level was 1.30 mmol/l, and their mean LPL level was 41.6 ng/ml. The subjects' TG levels increased after loading (they peaked after two postprandial hours). Stepwise multiple regression analysis demonstrated that fasting TG levels were a predictor of the AUC-TG. In addition, fasting LPL mass levels were found to be a predictor of the AUC-TG (β = 0.65, P fasting TG levels. Fasting LPL levels may be useful to predict postprandial TG increment in this population. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. The Lipid Droplet Protein Hypoxia-inducible Gene 2 Promotes Hepatic Triglyceride Deposition by Inhibiting Lipolysis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiStefano, Marina T.; Danai, Laura V.; Roth Flach, Rachel J.; Chawla, Anil; Pedersen, David J.; Guilherme, Adilson; Czech, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    The liver is a major site of glucose, fatty acid, and triglyceride (TG) synthesis and serves as a major regulator of whole body nutrient homeostasis. Chronic exposure of humans or rodents to high-calorie diets promotes non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, characterized by neutral lipid accumulation in lipid droplets (LD) of hepatocytes. Here we show that the LD protein hypoxia-inducible gene 2 (Hig2/Hilpda) functions to enhance lipid accumulation in hepatocytes by attenuating TG hydrolysis. Hig2 expression increased in livers of mice on a high-fat diet and during fasting, two states associated with enhanced hepatic TG content. Hig2 expressed in primary mouse hepatocytes localized to LDs and promoted LD TG deposition in the presence of oleate. Conversely, tamoxifen-inducible Hig2 deletion reduced both TG content and LD size in primary hepatocytes from mice harboring floxed alleles of Hig2 and a cre/ERT2 transgene controlled by the ubiquitin C promoter. Hepatic TG was also decreased by liver-specific deletion of Hig2 in mice with floxed Hig2 expressing cre controlled by the albumin promoter. Importantly, we demonstrate that Hig2-deficient hepatocytes exhibit increased TG lipolysis, TG turnover, and fatty acid oxidation as compared with controls. Interestingly, mice with liver-specific Hig2 deletion also display improved glucose tolerance. Taken together, these data indicate that Hig2 plays a major role in promoting lipid sequestration within LDs in mouse hepatocytes through a mechanism that impairs TG degradation. PMID:25922078

  20. Triglycerides: Why Do They Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... carbohydrates and fats, you may have high triglycerides (hypertriglyceridemia). A simple blood test can reveal whether your ... 2015. Rosenson RS. Approach to the patient with hypertriglyceridemia. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed July 16, ...

  1. Serum TC/HDL-C,TG/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C in predicting the risk of myocardial infarction in normolipidae-mic patients in South Asia:A case-control study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arun Kumar; Ramiah Sivakanesan

    2008-01-01

    Dyslipidemia the major cause of atherosclerosis are suggested to act synergistically with non-lipid risk factors to increase atherogenesis.Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)is the main therapeutic target in the pre-vention of CVD.Increased triglycerides (TG)and decreased high-density lipoprotein (LDL-C)are considered to be a major risk factor for the development of insulin resistant and metabolic syndrome.Although the TG/HDL-C ratio has been used in recent studies as a clinical indicator for insulin resistance,results were inconsis-tent.The TG/HDL-C ratio is also widely used to assess the lipid atherogenesis.How ever the utility of this rate for predicting coronary heart disease (CHD)risk is not clear.We encountered myocardial infarct patients with normal serum lipid concentration so this study was undertaken to evaluate the usefulness of these lipid ratios in predicting CHD risk in normolipidemic AMI patients and to compare the results with healthy subjects.The aim of the present study was to evaluate serum TC/HDL-C,TG/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C in myocardial infarct subjects with normal lipid profile.To study this,lipid profile was determined in 165 normolipidemic acute myo-cardial infarction patients and 165 age/sex-matched controls.Total cholesterol,triglycerides,and HDL-cho-lesterol were analyzed enzymatically using kits obtained from Randox Laboratories Limited,Crumlin,UK. Plasma LDL-cholesterol was determined from the values of total cholesterol and HDL- cholesterol using the friedwalds formula.The values were expressed as means ± standard deviation (SD)and data from patients and controls was compared using students't'-test.The results and conclusion of the study were:Total cholester-ol,TC:HDL-C ratio,triglycerides,LDL-cholesterol,LDL:HDL-C ratio were higher in MI patients (p<0. 001).HDL-C concentration was significantly lower in MI patients than controls (p<0.001).Higher ratio of TC/HDL-C,TG/HDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C was observed in AMI patients compared

  2. Dialkylphosphatidylcholine and egg yolk lecithin for emulsification of various triglycerides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nii, Tomoko; Ishii, Fumiyoshi

    2005-04-10

    Synthesized saturated phosphatidylcholine (PC) and egg yolk lecithin (EYL) were investigated to explore their influence on particle sizes in emulsions when dispersing various triglycerides (TG). One of four different kinds of synthesized saturated PC (DLPC, DMPC, DPPC and DSPC) or three different kinds of EYL (purified EYL (PEL) and hydrogenated purified EYL with two different iodine values (IV), R-20 and R-5), 2.5% (w/w) glycerol solution and one of four kinds of TG (tricaprylin, tricaprin, trilaurin and trimyristin) were sonicated five times for 1 min with intervals of 0.5 min. When using four kinds of synthesized saturated PCs as emulsifiers, the carbon numbers of each PC had a strong correlation with the mean diameters of the emulsion when analyzed with each of the four kinds of TG used in the study (regression function ranged from 0.811 to 0.915). The carbon numbers of the TG had less correlation with the mean diameters than the PC in simple regression analysis (regression function ranged from 0.236 to 0.875). Multiple regression analysis using the carbon numbers both of the PC and TG as independent variables was remarkably significant in the regression function (2.0 x 10(-14)) and all regression coefficients (2.7 x 10(-13), 5.8 x 10(-7) and 1.9 x 10(-9) for PC, TG and intercept, respectively). Among the regression coefficients, the contribution of the carbon number of the PC was the most significant. These results indicated that a multiple regression function should be useful to estimate the mean diameters of emulsion droplets in any combinations of PC and TG used in this study. In the experiments using three kinds of EYL, the mean diameters also tended to increase according to the order of PEL, R-20 and R-5, which corresponds to the order of degrees of saturation (IV = 75, 20 and 2, respectively). The experimental values for EYL were compared with the estimated values calculated by the multiple regression function derived from synthesized PC data using the

  3. Genome-wide association study of triglyceride response to a high-fat meal among participants of the NHLBI genetics of lipid lowering drugs and diet network (GOLDN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: The triglyceride (TG) response to a high-fat meal (postprandial lipemia, PPL) affects cardiovascular disease risk and is influenced by genes and environment. Genes involved in lipid metabolism have dominated genetic studies of PPL TG response. We sought to elucidate common genetic variant...

  4. C-reactive protein levels are inversely correlated with the apolipoprotein B-48-containing triglyceride-rich lipoprotein production rate in insulin resistant men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouin-Chartier, Jean-Philippe; Tremblay, André J; Hogue, Jean-Charles; Leclerc, Myriam; Labonté, Marie-Ève; Marin, Johanne; Lamarche, Benoît; Couture, Patrick

    2017-03-01

    The pro-inflammatory state and elevated plasma levels of post-prandial triglycerides (TG) are associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk. Recent studies suggested that the increase in the production rate of post-prandial lipoproteins observed in patients with insulin resistance (IR) may be caused, at least in part, by the dysregulation of intestinal insulin sensitivity triggered by inflammation. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the association between IR, plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and the kinetics of TG-rich lipoprotein (TRL) containing apolipoprotein (apo) B-48 in a large sample of insulin sensitive (IS) and IR men. The in vivo kinetics of TRL apoB-48 were measured in 151 men following a primed-constant infusion of l-[5,5,5-D3]leucine. IR subjects (n=91) were characterized by fasting TG levels ≥1.5mmol/L and an index of homeostasis model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR)≥2.5 or type 2 diabetes, while IS subjects (n=24) were characterized by an HOMA-IR index <2.5 and TG levels <1.5mmol/L. IR subjects had higher TRL apoB-48 production rate (+202%; P<0.0001) and CRP levels (+51%; P=0.01) than IS subjects. TRL apoB-48 production rate and CRP levels were inversely correlated in IR subjects (r=-0.32; P=0.002). IR subjects with CRP levels above the median (2.20mg/L) had lower TRL apoB-48 production rate than IR subjects with CRP levels below the median (Δ=-24%; P<0.05). Our results confirm that IR is associated with increased TRL apoB-48 secretion and suggest that a higher inflammatory status is associated with decreased TRL apoB-48 secretion among IR subjects. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Daily injection of tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} increases hepatic triglycerides and alters transcript abundance of metabolic genes in lactating dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradford, Barry J; Mamedova, Laman K; Minton, J Ernest; Drouillard, James S; Johnson, Bradley J

    2009-08-01

    To determine whether inflammation can induce bovine fatty liver, we administered recombinant bovine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (rbTNF) to late-lactation Holstein cows. Cows (n = 5/treatment) were blocked by feed intake and parity and randomly assigned within block to control (CON; saline), rbTNF at 2 microg/(kg.d), or pair-fed control (saline, intake matched) treatments. Treatments were administered once daily by subcutaneous injection for 7 d. Plasma samples were collected daily for analysis of glucose and FFA and a liver biopsy was collected on d 7 for triglyceride (TG) and quantitative RT-PCR analyses. Data were analyzed using treatment contrasts to assess effects of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) and decreased feed intake. By d 7, feed intake of both rbTNF and pair-fed cows was approximately 15% less than CON (P carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 transcript abundance tended to be lower (P = 0.09) and transcript abundance of fatty acid translocase and 1-acyl-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase was higher (both P < 0.05) after rbTNF treatment, consistent with increased FFA uptake and storage as TG. Transcript abundance of glucose-6-phosphatase (P < 0.05) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 (P = 0.09), genes important for gluconeogenesis, was lower for rbTNF-treated cows. These findings indicate that TNFalpha promotes liver TG accumulation and suggest that inflammatory pathways may also be responsible for decreased glucose production in cows with fatty liver.

  6. Triglyceride selectivity of immobilized Thermomyces lanuginosa lipase in interesterification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønne, Torben Harald; Pedersen, Lars S.; Xu, Xuebing

    2005-01-01

    The triglyceride (fatty acid) selectivity of an immobilized lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosa (Lipozyme TL IM) was investigated in lipase-catalyzed interesterification reactions between two mono-acid TG in n-hexane. Tristearin (tri-C18:0) was used as a reference in a series of TG with saturated FA...... of the lipase on the different TG, indicating that Lipozyme TL IM is nonselective toward FA or TG in the system used. A response surface design was used to investigate the influence of water activities (aw) and reaction temperatures on the reactivity of Lipozyme TL IM with a system of tripalmitin (tri-C16......:0) and trilaurin (tri-C12:0) in n-hexane. An increase in temperature (40 to 60°C) was found to affect the reactivity of the lipase significantly. The reactivity of Lipozyme TL IM was unaffected by the change in aw from 0.1130 to 0.5289. An increase in aw only led to an increase in FFA formation....

  7. Triglyceride kinetics, tissue lipoprotein lipase, and liver lipogenesis in septic rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanza-Jacoby, S.; Tabares, A. (Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, PA (USA))

    1990-04-01

    The mechanism for the development of hypertriglyceridemia during gram-negative sepsis was studied by examining liver production and clearance of very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) triglyceride (TG). To assess liver output and peripheral clearance the kinetics of VLDL-TG were determined by a constant iv infusion of (2-3H)glycerol-labeled VLDL. Clearance of VLDL-TG was also evaluated by measuring activities of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in heart, soleus muscle, and adipose tissue from fasted control, fasted E. coli-treated, fed control, and fed E. coli-treated rats. Lewis inbred rats, 275-300 g, were made septic with 8 x 10(7) live E. coli colonies per 100 g body wt. Twenty-four hours after E. coli injection, serum TG, free fatty acids (FFA), and cholesterol of fasted E. coli-treated rats were elevated by 170, 76, and 16%, respectively. The elevation of serum TG may be attributed to the 67% decrease in clearance rate of VLDL-TG in fasted E. coli-treated rats compared with their fasted controls. The suppressed activities of LPL in adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and heart were consistent with reduced clearance of TG. Secretion of VLDL-TG declined by 31% in livers of fasted E. coli-treated rats, which was accompanied by a twofold increase in the composition of liver TG. Rates of in vivo TG synthesis in livers of the fasted E. coli-treated rats were twofold higher than in those of fasted control rats. Decreased rate of TG appearance along with the increase in liver synthesis of TG contributed to the elevation of liver lipids in the fasted E. coli-treated rats.

  8. Differences between IC Analysis and TG Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张美玲

    2014-01-01

    Structuralism and generative approach are two representative syntax theories, which study language from different per-spectives. They employ different methodologies i.e. Immediate constituent (IC) Analysis and transformational-generative (TG) approach to make syntactical analysis. In this paper, these two methods will be applied to analyze some sentences for further dis-cussion and comparison. After analysis by examples, we find that both these two methods have their merits and inadequacies. To some extent, TG method can help IC analysis solve some problems. However, TG grammar is by no means complete and perfect. Improvements are needed to reach its ultimate goal of producing a universal grammar for all human languages.

  9. lowered serum triglyceride levels among chronic hepatitis b-infected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    about the effect of the two pathological stages of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection – chronic- symptomatic .... RESULTS. The age, gender, and basal serum transaminases ... plasma lipid abnormalities associated with pa- ..... triglyceride synthesis in HepG2 cells. Me- ... as a precocious marker of autoimmune disor- ders.

  10. Impact of Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 1b Infection on Triglyceride Concentration in Serum Lipoprotein Fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohisa Nagano

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Reduced low-density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol level is a characteristic feature of dyslipidemia in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection. However, abnormality in serum triglyceride (TG has not been fully investigated. To clarify the impact of HCV genotype 1b (G1b infection and advanced fibrosis on serum TG profiles, TG concentrations in lipoprotein fractions were examined in fasting sera from 185 subjects with active or cleared HCV infection by high-performance liquid chromatography. Serum lipoproteins were fractionated into four classes: chylomicron, very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL, LDL, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL. Then, the significance of HCV G1b infection on TG levels in each lipoprotein fraction was determined using multiple regression models. We found that active HCV G1b infection was positively associated with high HDL-TG levels and low VLDL-TG levels, independent of other factors included in the regression model. In VLDL sub-fractions, active HCV infection was only found to be associated with low levels of large VLDL-TG. Similarly, advanced liver fibrosis in chronic HCV G1b infection was associated with high levels of LDL-TG, HDL-TG, and small VLDL-TG, independent of other clinical factors. These findings indicate that active HCV G1b infection and advanced fibrosis are closely associated with abnormal serum TG profiles.

  11. Impact of Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Genotype 1b Infection on Triglyceride Concentration in Serum Lipoprotein Fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagano, Tomohisa; Seki, Nobuyoshi; Tomita, Yoichi; Sugita, Tomonori; Aida, Yuta; Itagaki, Munenori; Sutoh, Satoshi; Abe, Hiroshi; Tsubota, Akihito; Aizawa, Yoshio

    2015-08-31

    Reduced low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol level is a characteristic feature of dyslipidemia in chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. However, abnormality in serum triglyceride (TG) has not been fully investigated. To clarify the impact of HCV genotype 1b (G1b) infection and advanced fibrosis on serum TG profiles, TG concentrations in lipoprotein fractions were examined in fasting sera from 185 subjects with active or cleared HCV infection by high-performance liquid chromatography. Serum lipoproteins were fractionated into four classes: chylomicron, very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), LDL, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Then, the significance of HCV G1b infection on TG levels in each lipoprotein fraction was determined using multiple regression models. We found that active HCV G1b infection was positively associated with high HDL-TG levels and low VLDL-TG levels, independent of other factors included in the regression model. In VLDL sub-fractions, active HCV infection was only found to be associated with low levels of large VLDL-TG. Similarly, advanced liver fibrosis in chronic HCV G1b infection was associated with high levels of LDL-TG, HDL-TG, and small VLDL-TG, independent of other clinical factors. These findings indicate that active HCV G1b infection and advanced fibrosis are closely associated with abnormal serum TG profiles.

  12. Genetics and causality of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenson, Robert S; Davidson, Michael H; Hirsh, Benjamin J; Kathiresan, Sekar; Gaudet, Daniel

    2014-12-16

    Triglycerides represent 1 component of a heterogeneous pool of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TGRLs). The reliance on triglycerides or TGRLs as cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk biomarkers prompted investigations into therapies that lower plasma triglycerides as a means to reduce CVD events. Genetic studies identified TGRL components and pathways involved in their synthesis and metabolism. We advocate that only a subset of genetic mechanisms regulating TGRLs contribute to the risk of CVD events. This "omic" approach recently resulted in new targets for reducing CVD events. Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Association of faecal elastase 1 with non-fasting triglycerides in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathmann, Wolfgang; Haastert, Burkhard; Oscarsson, Jan; Berglind, Niklas; Lindkvist, Björn; Wareham, Nicholas J

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal absorption of esterified fatty acids depends on exocrine pancreatic function and influences plasma triglycerides levels. The aim was to investigate the association of reduced exocrine pancreatic function (low fecal elastase-1; FE1) with plasma triglycerides in type 2 diabetes and controls without diabetes. FE1 (μg/g stool) and non-fasting plasma triglyceride measurements were undertaken in 544 type 2 diabetes patients (age: 63 ± 8 years) randomly selected from diabetes registers in Cambridgeshire (UK), and 544 matched controls (age, sex, practice) without diabetes. Linear regression models were fitted using FE1 as dependent and log-triglycerides as independent variable adjusting for sex, age, body mass index, alcohol consumption, serum lipase, HbA1c, and smoking. FE1 concentrations were lower (mean ± SD: 337 ± 204 vs. 437 ± 216 μg/g, p triglycerides were higher (geometric mean */: standard deviation factor: 2.2*/:1.9 vs. 1.6*/:1.8 mmol/l, p triglycerides was associated with 4.5 μg/g higher FE1 concentrations (p triglycerides (significant only in controls). Non-fasting triglycerides were positively related to FE1 in both type 2 diabetes and controls suggesting that impairment of exocrine pancreas function is influencing plasma triglycerides. Marked loss of exocrine pancreatic function had the opposite effect, resulting in higher levels of plasma triglycerides. Copyright © 2016 IAP and EPC. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Novel polymeric materials from triglycerides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triglycerides are good platforms for new polymeric products that can substitute for petroleum-based materials. As part of our research emphasis in sustainability and green polymer chemistry, we have explored a number of reactions in efforts to produce a wide range of value-added products. In this ...

  15. Genetic mutations in adipose triglyceride lipase and myocardial up-regulation of peroxisome proliferated activated receptor-γ in patients with triglyceride deposit cardiomyovasculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Ken-ichi; Tanaka, Tatsuya; Ikeda, Yoshihiko; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Zaima, Nobuhiro; Kobayashi, Kazuhiro; Suzuki, Akira; Sakata, Yasuhiko; Sakata, Yasushi; Kobayashi, Kunihisa; Toda, Tatsushi; Fukushima, Norihide; Ishibashi-Ueda, Hatsue; Tavian, Daniela; Nagasaka, Hironori; Hui, Shu-Ping; Chiba, Hitoshi; Sawa, Yoshiki; Hori, Masatsugu

    2014-01-10

    Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL, also known as PNPLA2) is an essential molecule for hydrolysis of intracellular triglyceride (TG). Genetic ATGL deficiency is a rare multi-systemic neutral lipid storage disease. Information regarding its clinical profile and pathophysiology, particularly for cardiac involvement, is still very limited. A previous middle-aged ATGL-deficient patient in our institute (Case 1) with severe heart failure required cardiac transplantation (CTx) and exhibited a novel phenotype, "Triglyceride deposit cardiomyovasculopathy (TGCV)". Here, we tried to elucidate molecular mechanism underlying TGCV. The subjects were two cases with TGCV, including our second case who was a 33-year-old male patient (Case 2) with congestive heart failure requiring CTx. Case 2 was homozygous for a point mutation in the 5' splice donor site of intron 5 in the ATGL, which results in at least two types of mRNAs due to splicing defects. The myocardium of both patients (Cases 1 and 2) showed up-regulation of peroxisome proliferated activated receptors (PPARs), key transcription factors for metabolism of long chain fatty acids (LCFAs), which was in contrast to these molecules' lower expression in ATGL-targeted mice. We investigated the intracellular metabolism of LCFAs under human ATGL-deficient conditions using patients' passaged skin fibroblasts as a model. ATGL-deficient cells showed higher uptake and abnormal intracellular transport of LCFA, resulting in massive TG accumulation. We used these findings from cardiac specimens and cell-biological experiments to construct a hypothetical model to clarify the pathophysiology of the human disorder. In patients with TGCV, even when hydrolysis of intracellular TG is defective, the marked up-regulation of PPARγ and related genes may lead to increased uptake of LCFAs, the substrates for TG synthesis. This potentially vicious cycle of LCFAs could explain the massive accumulation of TG and severe clinical course for this rare

  16. Is there any relationship between coronary artery disease and postprandial triglyceride levels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atar, Inci Aslı; Atar, Ilyas; Aydınalp, Alp; Ertan, Cağatay; Bozbaş, Hüseyin; Ozin, Bülent; Yıldırır, Aylin; Müderrisoğlu, Haldun

    2011-05-01

    We aimed to evaluate the relationship between postprandial triglyceride (PPTG) levels and coronary artery disease (CAD). A total of 80 patients were included in this prospective cohort study. Oral lipid loading was used in order to measure PPTG levels. In the fasting state and after the high fat breakfast, triglyceride levels were measured by enzymatic methods at 2nd, 4th, 6th and 8th hours. We made subgroup analysis to show the effects of lipid loading on triglyceride levels in patients with and without fasting hypertriglyceridemia. We evaluated triglyceride levels and changes of triglyceride levels in percentages after lipid loading using a general linear model for repeated measures. Sample size analysis was performed. Baseline clinical, demographic and laboratory characteristics of both groups were similar. The peak triglyceride levels were seen at the 4th hour in both groups. Triglyceride levels were significantly increased after lipid-rich-breakfast loading compared to baseline levels in both groups (ptriglyceride levels, the area under the plasma triglyceride concentration curve was significantly larger in CAD group than control group (334±103 vs. 233±58 mg/dl, p=0.02). Our data show that in patients who have a high fasting triglyceride level, high levels of PPTG may be related to CAD, however high PPTG levels are not related to CAD in patients with normal fasting levels of triglyceride.

  17. ANGPTL4 variants E40K and T266M are associated with lower fasting triglyceride levels and predicts cardiovascular disease risk in Type 2 diabetic Tunisian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abid, Kaouthar; Trimeche, Thouraya; Mili, Donia; Msolli, Mohamed Amine; Trabelsi, Imen; Nouira, Semir; Kenani, Abderraouf

    2016-03-23

    Angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) is a metabolic factor that increases plasma triglyceride levels by inhibiting lipoprotein lipase (LPL). The objective of this study was to investigate the association of ANGPTL4 variants (E40K and T266M) with triglyceride levels and with cardiovascular risk factors, such as metabolic syndrome (MetS) and obesity in type 2 diabetic Tunisian population. We investigated the effect of the tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs1044250 (T266M) and rs116843064 (E40K) with triglyceride (TG) levels and CAD risk factors in a cohort of 220 patients undergoing coronary angiography for the evaluation of stable CAD, all of whom had (type 2 diabetes) T2D and were at least overweight. Multivariate logistic regressions were performed on association studies. TT genotype of rs1044250 (T266M variant) showed a protective effect on CVD risk in CAD group patients (OR 1.92, 95% CI 0.601.42, p =0.05) compared with control Group patients (OR 1.17, 95% CI 0.70-1.66, p = 0.72). Likewise, GA genotype of rs116843064 (E40K variant): (OR 0.74, 95% CI 0.54-1.65, p =0.01) for the CAD group compared with control Group patients (OR 1.12, 95% CI 0.68-1.74, p = 0.074). ANGPTL4 variants are associated with, not only lower fasting triglyceride levels, but also a decreased cardiovascular risk in T2D Tunisian patients. So, T266M and E40K polymorphism predicts cardiovascular disease risk in Type 2 diabetic Tunisian population.

  18. Intracytoplasmic triglyceride accumulation produced by dexamethasone in adult rat hepatocytes cultivated on 3T3 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Figueroa, T; Hernandez, A; De Lourdes Lopez, M; Kuri-Harcuch, W

    1988-11-30

    Glucocorticoids, such as hydrocortisone (HC) and dexamethasone (DEX), when administered to rats, induce lipid accumulation within hepatocytes (fatty liver). To investigate whether glucocorticoids can produce triglyceride (TG) accumulation as they do in vivo and the involved mechanisms, we have used primary cultures of rat hepatocytes which synthesized and secrete triglycerides into the culture medium. Hepatocytes cultivated on a feeder layer of lethally treated 3T3 cells were exposed for 2 weeks to micromolar concentrations of DEX. This glucocorticoid caused morphological alterations and cells accumulated lipid droplets in their cytoplasm; the TG content increased up to 6-fold in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. The removal of [14C]acetic or [14C]oleic acid from the culture medium was not altered in the cultures treated with 50 micrograms/ml DEX but the incorporation of [14C]acetic and [14C]oleic acid into TG in these cultures was about 13-fold and 60% higher than in non-treated cells, respectively. On the other hand, hepatocytes treated with 50 micrograms/ml DEX for 2 weeks showed a 16-fold decrease in TG release and 40% inhibition in protein export, whereas synthesis of total cellular proteins was not altered. Our results show that corticosteroids, such as DEX, caused lipid accumulation in liver cells through an increased synthesis and/or esterification of fatty acids, but mostly through a decrease in the secretion of TG.

  19. Influence of light absorption rate by Nannochloropsis oculata on triglyceride production during nitrogen starvation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandilian, Razmig; Pruvost, Jérémy; Legrand, Jack; Pilon, Laurent

    2014-07-01

    This study aims to understand the role of light transfer in triglyceride fatty-acid (TG-FA) cell content and productivity from microalgae during nitrogen starvation. Large amounts of TG-FA can be produced via nitrogen starvation of microalgae in photobioreactors exposed to intense light. First, spectral absorption and scattering cross-sections of N. oculata were measured at different times during nitrogen starvation. They were used to relate the mean volumetric rate of energy absorption (MVREA) per unit mass of microalgae to the TG-FA productivity and cell content. TG-FA productivity correlated with the MVREA and reached a maximum for MVREA of 13 μmol hν/gs. This indicated that TG-FA synthesis was limited by the photon absorption rate in the PBR. A minimum MVREA of 13 μmol hν/gs was also necessary at the onset of nitrogen starvation to trigger large accumulation of TG-FA in cells. These results will be instrumental in defining protocols for TG-FA production in scaled-up photobioreactors.

  20. Low triglyceride levels are associated with a better metabolic control in patients with type 1 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcantara Leticia M

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although it is well known in the literature that high triglyceride serum (TG levels can jeopardize the metabolic control, little is known about the influence of low TG on type 1 diabetes patients (T1D. The aim of this study is to investigate the distribution of TG serum levels in individuals with T1D and its relationship with metabolic control. Findings We reviewed the medical charts of 180 patients with T1D, who were classified in groups according to TG levels: 1 low (below 50 mg/dL; 2 normal (50-150 mg/dL; 3 high (above 150 mg/dL. TG were low in 21.1% (n = 38; group 1, normal in 68.6% (n = 123; group 2 and high in 10.6% (n = 19; group 3. High TG was associated with a poor metabolic control (p Conclusion TG lower than 50 mg/dL was common and might be associated with a better metabolic control in patients with T1D, although it is not clear whether the former is the cause or consequence for the latter.

  1. Efficient phagocytosis requires triacylglycerol hydrolysis by adipose triglyceride lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandak, Prakash G; Radovic, Branislav; Aflaki, Elma; Kolb, Dagmar; Buchebner, Marlene; Fröhlich, Eleonore; Magnes, Christoph; Sinner, Frank; Haemmerle, Guenter; Zechner, Rudolf; Tabas, Ira; Levak-Frank, Sanja; Kratky, Dagmar

    2010-06-25

    Macrophage phagocytosis is an essential biological process in host defense and requires large amounts of energy. To date, glucose is believed to represent the prime substrate for ATP production in macrophages. To investigate the relative contribution of free fatty acids (FFAs) in this process, we determined the phagocytosis rates in normal mouse macrophages and macrophages of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL)-deficient mice. ATGL was shown to be the rate-limiting enzyme for the hydrolysis of lipid droplet-associated triacylglycerol (TG) in many tissues. Here, we demonstrate that Atgl(-/-) macrophages fail to efficiently hydrolyze cellular TG stores leading to decreased cellular FFA concentrations and concomitant accumulation of lipid droplets, even in the absence of exogenous lipid loading. The reduced availability of FFAs results in decreased cellular ATP concentrations and impaired phagocytosis suggesting that fatty acids must first go through a cycle of esterification and re-hydrolysis before they are available as energy substrate. Exogenously added glucose cannot fully compensate for the phagocytotic defect in Atgl(-/-) macrophages. Hence, phagocytosis was also decreased in vivo when Atgl(-/-) mice were challenged with bacterial particles. These findings imply that phagocytosis in macrophages depends on the availability of FFAs and that ATGL is required for their hydrolytic release from cellular TG stores. This novel mechanism links ATGL-mediated lipolysis to macrophage function in host defense and opens the way to explore possible roles of ATGL in immune response, inflammation, and atherosclerosis.

  2. Assessment and clinical relevance of non-fasting and postprandial triglycerides: an expert panel statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolovou, Genovefa D; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Kovar, Jan; Lairon, Dennis; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Ooi, Teik Chye; Perez-Martinez, Pablo; Bilianou, Helen; Anagnostopoulou, Katherine; Panotopoulos, George

    2011-05-01

    An Expert Panel group of scientists and clinicians met to consider several aspects related to non-fasting and postprandial triglycerides (TGs) and their role as risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). In this context, we review recent epidemiological studies relevant to elevated non-fasting TGs as a risk factor for CVD and provide a suggested classification of non-fasting TG concentration. Secondly, we sought to describe methodologies to evaluate postprandial TG using a fat tolerance test (FTT) in the clinic. Thirdly, we discuss the role of non-fasting lipids in the treatment of postprandial hyperlipemia. Finally, we provide a series of clinical recommendations relating to non-fasting TGs based on the consensus of the Expert Panel: 1). Elevated non-fasting TGs are a risk factor for CVD. 2). The desirable non-fasting TG concentration is fast and should consist of 75 g of fat, 25 g of carbohydrates and 10 g of protein. 4). A single TG measurement 4 h after a FTT meal provides a good evaluation of the postprandial TG response. 5). Preferably, subjects with non-fasting TG levels of 1-2 mmol/l (89-180 mg/dl) should be tested with a FTT. 6). TG concentration ≤ 2.5 mmol/l (220 mg/dl) at any time after a FTT meal should be considered as a desirable postprandial TG response. 7). A higher and undesirable postprandial TG response could be treated by aggressive lifestyle modification (including nutritional supplementation) and/or TG lowering drugs like statins, fibrates and nicotinic acid.

  3. Triglyceride accumulation inhibitory effects of new chromone glycosides from Drynaria fortunei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Lifeng; Zheng, Fang; Zhang, Yi; Liu, Erwei; Li, Wei; Xia, Minghui; Wang, Tao; Gao, Xiumei

    2015-01-01

    Two new chromone glycosides, drynachromosides C (1) and D (2), along with five known chromones (3-7), were isolated from the rhizomes of Drynaria fortunei. The structures of the two new compounds were elucidated on the basis of physico-chemical property and spectroscopic data. Triglyceride (TG) accumulation inhibitory effects of the obtained chromones on 3T3-L1 cells were investigated. The results showed that 1, 2 and 5 exhibited inhibitory activity on TG accumulation. Effects of compounds 1 and 2 on mRNA expression of PPARγ, C/EBPα and aP2 in 3T3-L1 cells were also investigated.

  4. Triglycerides in fish oil affect the blood clearance of lipid emulsions containing long- and medium-chain triglycerides in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Kemin; Seo, Toru; Jiang, Zaifang; Carpentier, Yvon A; Deckelbaum, Richard J

    2006-11-01

    Lipid emulsions containing long-chain triglycerides (LCT) and medium chain triglycerides (MCT) are widely used in parenteral nutrition. Recently, fish oil (FO) triglyceride (TG)-derived emulsions are considered therapeutic because of their many beneficial biological modulatory actions. We investigated in mice whether adding 10% FO to an intravenous lipid emulsion with MCT and LCT (MCT:LCT:FO -50:40:10% by wt) would affect particle blood clearance and tissue targeting in comparison to LCT (100% by wt) and MCT:LCT (50:50% by wt) emulsions. The 3 emulsions were labeled with [3H] cholesteryl oleoyl ether and administered by bolus injection (400 microg TG/mouse) to C57BL/6J mice. Contributions of LDL receptor (LDL-R) and LDL-R-related protein to emulsion catabolism were assessed using LDL-R-deficient mice and preinjection of lactoferrin, and the effects of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) were determined by preinjection of heparin and Triton WR 1339. Although fractional catabolic rates did not differ among the 3 emulsions, blood removal at each time point after injection was greater for MCT:LCT:FO particles due to their higher initial margination volume. Compared with MCT:LCT and LCT emulsions, patterns of tissue uptake of the MCT:LCT:FO emulsions were different, e.g. MCT:LCT:FO emulsion particle uptake was lower in heart, adipose tissue, and muscle, and higher in lung, and the removal of MCT:LCT:FO emulsion particles was less dependent on LPL, LDL-R, and lactoferrin-sensitive pathways. These data suggest that the addition of a low percentage of FO to MCT:LCT emulsions substantially changes their particle clearance and tissue uptake mechanisms.

  5. Aging of Dielectric Properties below Tg

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Niels Boye; Dyre, Jeppe; Christensen, Tage Emil

    The dielectric loss at 1Hz in TPP is studied during a temperature step from one equilibrium state to another. In the applied cryostate the temperature can be equilibrated on a timescale of 1 second. The aging time dependence of the dielectric loss is studied below Tg applying temperature steps...

  6. Leukocyte activation by triglyceride-rich lipoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alipour, Arash; van Oostrom, Antonie J H H M; Izraeljan, Alisa; Verseyden, Caroline; Collins, Jennifer M; Frayn, Keith N; Plokker, Thijs W M; Elte, Jan Willem F; Castro Cabezas, Manuel

    2008-04-01

    Postprandial lipemia has been linked to atherosclerosis and inflammation. Because leukocyte activation is obligatory for atherogenesis, leukocyte activation by triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) was investigated. The expression of CD11b and CD66b after incubation with glucose and native and artificial TRLs (NTRL and ATRL) in vivo and in vitro was evaluated by flowcytometry. Oral fat loading tests showed an increased expression of CD11b on monocytes and neutrophils and CD66b on neutrophils. In 11 volunteers, postprandial leukocytes became enriched with meal-derived fatty acids ([1-(13)C]16:0) suggesting uptake of exogenous fat. ApoB binding on leukocytes measured by flowcytometry in 65 subjects was highest on neutrophils and monocytes suggesting adherence of apoB-containing lipoproteins. Physiological concentrations of TRLs showed 62% increased neutrophil CD11b and a dose-dependent increased monocyte CD11b up to 84% in vitro. Incubations with lipid emulsions in the hypertriglyceridemic range showed a 5-fold increased monocyte CD11b expression, which was higher than the positive control (fMLP), and a dose-dependent 2- to 3-fold increased neutrophil CD11b and CD66b. The oxidative scavenger DMTU decreased the neutrophil CD66b expression by 36%. Acute hypertriglyceridemia is a leukocyte activator most likely by direct interaction between TRLs and leukocytes and uptake of fatty acids. TG-mediated leukocyte activation is an alternative proinflammatory and proatherogenic mechanism of hypertriglyceridemia in part associated to the generation of oxidative stress.

  7. Assessment of postprandial triglycerides in clinical practice: validation in a general population and coronary heart disease patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have suggested that for clinical purposes, subjects with fasting triglycerides (TGs) between 89-180 mg/dl (1-2 mmol/l) would benefit from postprandial TGs testing. OBJECTIVE: To determine the postprandial TG response in 2 independent studies and validate who should benef...

  8. Low nonfasting triglycerides and reduced all-cause mortality: a mendelian randomization study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Mette; Varbo, Anette; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2014-05-01

    Increased nonfasting plasma triglycerides marking increased amounts of cholesterol in remnant lipoproteins are important risk factors for cardiovascular disease, but whether lifelong reduced concentrations of triglycerides on a genetic basis ultimately lead to reduced all-cause mortality is unknown. We tested this hypothesis. Using individuals from the Copenhagen City Heart Study in a mendelian randomization design, we first tested whether low concentrations of nonfasting triglycerides were associated with reduced all-cause mortality in observational analyses (n = 13 957); second, whether genetic variants in the triglyceride-degrading enzyme lipoprotein lipase, resulting in reduced nonfasting triglycerides and remnant cholesterol, were associated with reduced all-cause mortality (n = 10 208). During a median 24 and 17 years of 100% complete follow-up, 9991 and 4005 individuals died in observational and genetic analyses, respectively. In observational analyses compared to individuals with nonfasting plasma triglycerides of 266-442 mg/dL (3.00-4.99 mmol/L), multivariably adjusted hazard ratios for all-cause mortality were 0.89 (95% CI 0.78-1.02) for 177-265 mg/dL (2.00-2.99 mmol/L), 0.74 (0.65-0.84) for 89-176 mg/dL (1.00-1.99 mmol/L), and 0.59 (0.51-0.68) for individuals with nonfasting triglycerides triglycerides was 0.50 (0.30-0.82), with a corresponding observational hazard ratio of 0.87 (0.85-0.89). Also, the odds ratio for a genetically derived 50% lower concentration in nonfasting triglycerides was 0.43 (0.23-0.80), with a corresponding observational hazard ratio of 0.73 (0.70-0.77). Genetically reduced concentrations of nonfasting plasma triglycerides are associated with reduced all-cause mortality, likely through reduced amounts of cholesterol in remnant lipoproteins.

  9. Suppression of endothelin-3-induced nitric oxide synthesis by triglyceride in human endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, M; Yokokawa, K; Kohno, M; Yasunari, K; Yoshikawa, J

    1998-01-01

    Reduced endothelium-derived nitric oxide (NO) production characterizes several vascular diseases. This study examined the effect of triglyceride on NO production induced by endothelin-3 (ET-3) in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Triglyceride-rich human plasma obtained after a high-carbohydrate diet with white wine was used in an ex vivo study. The plasma triglyceride fraction was found to consist of large amounts of palmitic and oleic acids detected by gas-liquid chromatography. Therefore, the effect of synthetic tripalmitin and triolein emulsion on NO production was also examined. ET-3 stimulated NO and guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate production and increased cytosolic Ca2+ levels in the endothelial cells (ECs). After incubation of the ECs with the triglyceride-rich plasma for 2 h, these responses to ET-3 were ameliorated in a triglyceride concentration-dependent manner (50-200 mg/dl). A synthesized emulsion of tripalmitin (100 mg/dl) and triolein (100 mg/dl) also blunted the responses to ET-3. Neither endothelial constitutive NO synthase mRNA expression nor its protein level was affected by treatment with triglycerides. These results suggest that triglyceride suppresses ET-3-induced NO synthesis in human ECs by inhibiting cytosolic Ca2+ elevation.

  10. TG-FTIR analysis of biomass pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bassilakis, R.; Carangelo, R.M.; Wojtowicz, M.A. [Advanced Fuel Research Inc., Hartford, CT (United States)

    2001-10-09

    A great need exists for comprehensive biomass-pyrolysis models that could predict yields and evolution patterns of selected volatile products as a function of feedstock characteristics and process conditions. A thermogravimetric analyzer coupled with Fourier transform infrared analysis of evolving products (TG-FTIR) can provide useful input to such models in the form of kinetic information obtained under low heating rate conditions. In this work, robust TG-FTIR quantification routes were developed for infrared analysis of volatile products relevant to biomass pyrolysis. The analysis was applied to wheat straw, three types of tobacco (Burley, Oriental, and Bright) and three biomass model compounds (xylan, chlorogenic acid, and D-glucose). Product yields were compared with literature data, and species potentially quantifiable by FT-IR are reviewed. Product-evolution patterns are reported for all seven biomass samples. 41 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. [Effects of fructose on triglycerides in individuals with diabetes: a Meta-analysis of experimental trials].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Xuesong; Zhao, Jia; Zhu, Jing; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Zhu; Yang, Yuexin

    2015-05-01

    To assess the effects of fructose on the blood triglycerides, particularly examining treatment dose, duration, and control of food in individuals with diabetes. A systematic review and Meta-analysis of experimental clinical trials were conducted to investigate the effect of isocaloric fructose exchange for carbohydrate on triglycerides, total cholesterol. MedLine, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library, CMBdisc, CNKI (1970-2014), and some related journals were searched. Heterogeneity was assessed by 2 tests and quantified by I2. Meta-analysis was conducted by RevMan 5.3. 15 reports (21 trials) met the eligibility criteria. Isocaloric fructose exchange for carbohydrate raised triglycerides under specific conditions in individuals with type 2 diabetes. A triglyceride-raising effect without heterogeneity was seen only in type 2 diabetes when the dose was ≥ 100 g fructose/d (WMD 0.17, 95% CI0.08 - 0.25, P triglyceride-raising effect with heterogeneity was seen in type 2 diabetes when the reference carbohydrate was starch (WMD 0.13, 95% CI 0.02 - 0.23 , P = 0.02). Effect of fructose on the level of TG in type 2 diabetes patients is more sensitive than that in type 1 diabetes. The effect on triglycerides is dose dependent and depends on what kinds of carbohydrate is being exchanged with fructose.

  12. Preparation of Oxygen Meter Based Biosensor for Determination of Triglyceride in Serum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. BHAMBI

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available A method is described for preparation of a dissolved oxygen meter (make Aqualytic, Germany based triglyceride biosensor employing a polyvinyl chloride (PVC membrane bound lipase, glycerol kinase (GK and glycerol-3-phosphate oxidase The biosensor measures dissolved O2 utilized in the oxidation of triglyceride (TG by membrane bound lipase, glycerol kinase (GK and glycerol-3-phosphate oxidase (GPO, which is directly proportional to (TG concentration. The biosensor showed optimum response within 10-15 sec at pH 7.5 and 39.5 ºC. A linear relationship was obtained between the (TG concentration from 5mM to 20mM and oxygen consumed (mg/L. The biosensor was employed for determination of triglyceride in serum. The within and between batch coefficient of variation (CV were < 2.18 % and < 1.7% respectively. The minimum detection limit of the biosensor was 0.35 mM. A study of interference revealed that ascorbic acid, cholesterol and bilirubin caused 13%, 15%, and 12% interference, respectively.The biosensor is portable and can be used outside the laboratory.

  13. Piromelatine decreases triglyceride accumulation in insulin resistant 3T3-L1 adipocytes: role of ATGL and HSL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping-Ping; She, Mei-Hua; He, Ping-Ping; Chen, Wu-Jun; Laudon, Moshe; Xu, Xuan-Xuan; Yin, Wei-Dong

    2013-08-01

    Piromelatine, a novel investigational multimodal sleep medicine, is developed for the treatment of patients with primary and co-morbid insomnia. Piromelatine has been shown to inhibit weight gain and improve insulin sensitivity in high-fat/high-sucrose-fed (HFHS) rats. Considering that piromelatine has also been implicated in lowering of triglyceride levels in HFHS rats, this work elucidated whether this effect involves in the regulation of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) in triglyceride (TG) metabolism. In this study, we investigated the effects of piromelatine and MT2 receptors inhibition on TG content, insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, and the expressions of ATGL and HSL in 3T3-L1 adipocytes preincubated in high glucose and high insulin (HGI) conditions. Our results showed that culturing 3T3-L1 adipocytes under HGI conditions increased triglyceride accumulation with concomitant decrease of ATGL and HSL expression, inducing insulin resistance in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We also found that triglyceride accumulation was significantly inhibited and the levels of ATGL/HSL increased after melatonin or piromelatine treatment. The effects of melatonin/piromelatine (10 nM) were counteracted by pretreatment with the relatively selective MT2 receptor antagonist luzindole (100 nM). In this study, our data demonstrate that piromelatine reverses high glucose and high insulin-induced triglyceride accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, possibly through up-regulating of ATGL and HSL expression via a melatonin-dependent manner.

  14. Mechanisms of intrahepatic triglyceride accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ress, Claudia; Kaser, Susanne

    2016-01-28

    Hepatic steatosis defined as lipid accumulation in hepatocytes is very frequently found in adults and obese adolescents in the Western World. Etiologically, obesity and associated insulin resistance or excess alcohol intake are the most frequent causes of hepatic steatosis. However, steatosis also often occurs with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and is also found in rare but potentially life-threatening liver diseases of pregnancy. Clinical significance and outcome of hepatic triglyceride accumulation are highly dependent on etiology and histological pattern of steatosis. This review summarizes current concepts of pathophysiology of common causes of hepatic steatosis, including non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), alcoholic fatty liver disease, chronic HCV infections, drug-induced forms of hepatic steatosis, and acute fatty liver of pregnancy. Regarding the pathophysiology of NAFLD, this work focuses on the close correlation between insulin resistance and hepatic triglyceride accumulation, highlighting the potential harmful effects of systemic insulin resistance on hepatic metabolism of fatty acids on the one side and the role of lipid intermediates on insulin signalling on the other side. Current studies on lipid droplet morphogenesis have identified novel candidate proteins and enzymes in NAFLD.

  15. Low Nonfasting Triglycerides and Reduced All-Cause Mortality: A Mendelian Randomization Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Mette; Varbo, Anette; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne;

    2014-01-01

    Increased nonfasting plasma triglycerides marking increased amounts of cholesterol in remnant lipoproteins are important risk factors for cardiovascular disease, but whether lifelong reduced concentrations of triglycerides on a genetic basis ultimately lead to reduced all-cause mortality is unknown....... We tested this hypothesis.METHODS: Using individuals from the Copenhagen City Heart Study in a Mendelian randomization design, we first tested whether low concentrations of nonfasting triglycerides were associated with reduced all-cause mortality in observational analyses (n = 13 957); second......, whether genetic variants in the triglyceride-degrading enzyme lipoprotein lipase, resulting in reduced nonfasting triglycerides and remnant cholesterol, were causally associated with reduced all-cause mortality (n = 10 208).RESULTS: During a median 24 and 17 years of 100% complete follow-up, 9991 and 4005...

  16. Therapeutic Targets of Triglyceride Metabolism as Informed by Human Genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Robert C; Khetarpal, Sumeet A; Hand, Nicholas J; Rader, Daniel J

    2016-04-01

    Human genetics has contributed to the development of multiple drugs to treat hyperlipidemia and coronary artery disease (CAD), most recently including antibodies targeting PCSK9 to reduce LDL cholesterol. Despite these successes, a large burden of CAD remains. Genetic and epidemiological studies have suggested that circulating triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) are a causal risk factor for CAD, presenting an opportunity for novel therapeutic strategies. We discuss recent unbiased human genetics testing, including genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and whole-genome or -exome sequencing, that have identified the lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hepatic lipogenesis pathways as important mechanisms in the regulation of circulating TRLs. Further strengthening the causal relationship between TRLs and CAD, findings such as these may provide novel targets for much-needed potential therapeutic interventions. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Genetic mutations in adipose triglyceride lipase and myocardial up-regulation of peroxisome proliferated activated receptor-γ in patients with triglyceride deposit cardiomyovasculopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirano, Ken-ichi, E-mail: khirano@cnt-osaka.com [Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease, Novel, Non-Invasive, and Nutritional Therapeutics (CNT), Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 6-2-3, Furuedai, Suita, Osaka 565-0874 (Japan); Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 2-2, Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Tanaka, Tatsuya [Center for Medical Research and Education, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 2-2, Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Ikeda, Yoshihiko [Department of Pathology, National Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center, 5-7-1 Fujishirodai, Suita 565-8565 (Japan); Yamaguchi, Satoshi [Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease, Novel, Non-Invasive, and Nutritional Therapeutics (CNT), Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 6-2-3, Furuedai, Suita, Osaka 565-0874 (Japan); Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 2-2, Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Zaima, Nobuhiro [Department of Applied Biochemistry, Kinki University, 3327-204, Nakamachi, Nara 631-8505 (Japan); Kobayashi, Kazuhiro [Division of Neurology/Molecular Brain Science, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, 7-5-1, Kusunoki-cho, Chuo-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 650-0017 (Japan); Suzuki, Akira [Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease, Novel, Non-Invasive, and Nutritional Therapeutics (CNT), Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 6-2-3, Furuedai, Suita, Osaka 565-0874 (Japan); Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 2-2, Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Sakata, Yasuhiko [Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 2-2, Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-1, Seiryo-cho, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8574 (Japan); and others

    2014-01-10

    Highlights: •Triglyceride deposit cardiomyovasculopathy (TGCV) is a rare severe heart disease. •PPARγ is up-regulated in myocardium in patients with TGCV. •Possible vicious cycle for fatty acid may be involved in pathophysiology of TGCV. -- Abstract: Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL, also known as PNPLA2) is an essential molecule for hydrolysis of intracellular triglyceride (TG). Genetic ATGL deficiency is a rare multi-systemic neutral lipid storage disease. Information regarding its clinical profile and pathophysiology, particularly for cardiac involvement, is still very limited. A previous middle-aged ATGL-deficient patient in our institute (Case 1) with severe heart failure required cardiac transplantation (CTx) and exhibited a novel phenotype, “Triglyceride deposit cardiomyovasculopathy (TGCV)”. Here, we tried to elucidate molecular mechanism underlying TGCV. The subjects were two cases with TGCV, including our second case who was a 33-year-old male patient (Case 2) with congestive heart failure requiring CTx. Case 2 was homozygous for a point mutation in the 5′ splice donor site of intron 5 in the ATGL, which results in at least two types of mRNAs due to splicing defects. The myocardium of both patients (Cases 1 and 2) showed up-regulation of peroxisome proliferated activated receptors (PPARs), key transcription factors for metabolism of long chain fatty acids (LCFAs), which was in contrast to these molecules’ lower expression in ATGL-targeted mice. We investigated the intracellular metabolism of LCFAs under human ATGL-deficient conditions using patients’ passaged skin fibroblasts as a model. ATGL-deficient cells showed higher uptake and abnormal intracellular transport of LCFA, resulting in massive TG accumulation. We used these findings from cardiac specimens and cell-biological experiments to construct a hypothetical model to clarify the pathophysiology of the human disorder. In patients with TGCV, even when hydrolysis of intracellular TG

  18. Krill oil supplementation lowers serum triglycerides without increasing low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in adults with borderline high or high triglyceride levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Kjetil; Musa-Veloso, Kathy; Harwood, Melody; Hoem, Nils; Burri, Lena

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the effects of 12 weeks daily krill oil supplementation on fasting serum triglyceride (TG) and lipoprotein particle levels in subjects whose habitual fish intake is low and who have borderline high or high fasting serum TG levels (150-499 mg/dL). We hypothesized that Krill oil lowers serum TG levels in subjects with borderline high or high fasting TG levels. To test our hypothesis 300 male and female subjects were included in a double-blind, randomized, multi-center, placebo-controlled study with five treatment groups: placebo (olive oil) or 0.5, 1, 2, or 4 g/day of krill oil. Serum lipids were measured after an overnight fast at baseline, 6 and 12 weeks. Due to a high intra-individual variability in TG levels, data from all subjects in the four krill oil groups were pooled to increase statistical power, and a general time- and dose-independent one-way analysis of variance was performed to assess efficacy. Relative to subjects in the placebo group, those administered krill oil had a statistically significant calculated reduction in serum TG levels of 10.2%. Moreover, LDL-C levels were not increased in the krill oil groups relative to the placebo group. The outcome of the pooled analysis suggests that krill oil is effective in reducing a cardiovascular risk factor. However, owing to the individual fluctuations of TG concentrations measured, a study with more individual measurements per treatment group is needed to increase the confidence of these findings. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Echo-lucency of computerized ultrasound images of carotid atherosclerotic plaques are associated with increased levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins as well as increased plaque lipid content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønholdt, Marie-Louise Moes; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Weibe, Brit M.

    1998-01-01

    with elevated levels of fasting and postprandial plasma triglycerides (P=.0002 and P=.002), IDL cholesterol (P=.0009 and P=.006), and VLDL/chylomicron remnant cholesterol (P=.0003 and P=.0004) and triglycerides (P=.0003 and P=.003), the area under the plasma triglyceride curve 0 to 4 hours after a fatty meal (P......=.001): and body mass index (P=.0001). On ANCOVA, body mass index, fasting IDL cholesterol, and fasting plasma triglycerides were independent predictors of echo-lucency. Echo-lucency was associated with increased relative plaque lipid content (P=.02). Conclusions-Increased plasma levels of triglyceride......Background-Echo-lucency of carotid atherosclerotic plaques on computerized ultrasound B-mode images has been associated with a high incidence of brain infarcts as evaluated on CT scans. We tested the hypotheses that triglyceride-rich lipoproteins in the fasting and postprandial state predict...

  20. THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN PLASMA CHOLESTEROL、TRIGLYCERIDE、HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN AND ION TRANSPORT ENZYMES IN ERYTHROCYTE MEMBRANES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    符云峰; 王素敏; 卢振敏; 李红

    2002-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationships between levels of plasma cholesterol (Ch), triglyceride (TG)、high density lipoprotein(HDL) and ion transport enzyme activities in red cell membranes of essential hypertensive patients.Methods Plasma Ch, TG, HDL-c, activites of Na+ -K+ -ATPase and Ca2+-ATPase, Ca2+-binding capacity of interior membrane surface, and membrane Ch, phospholipid(PL) were measured in 32 normotensive (NT) subjects and 55 essential hypertensive patients(HT).Results ①Mean artery pressure(MAP), plasma Ch、TG and membrane Ch levels, and membrane cholesterol/phospholipid(C/P) molar ratio were significantly increased compared with those in NT group, respectively; ②The plasma HDL-c level, the activities of Na+-K+-ATPase and Ca2+-ATPase, and the Ca2+-binding capacity of the interior membrane surface in HT group were significantly lower than those in NT group, respectively.Conclusion The depressed activities of Na+-K+-ATPase and Ca2+-ATPase, and Ca2+-binding capacity of the interior surface in cell membranes are the major evidence of ion transport abnormalities in essential hypertension. The plasma TG and membrance C/P molar ratio-dependent changes in membrane microviscosity seem to be responsible for the modulation of particular ion transport pathways.

  1. Lapacho tea (Tabebuia impetiginosa) extract inhibits pancreatic lipase and delays postprandial triglyceride increase in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiage-Mokua, Beatrice Nyanchama; Roos, Nils; Schrezenmeir, Jürgen

    2012-12-01

    Earlier work in our laboratory indicated that ethanolic extracts of Tabebuia impetiginosa, Arctium lappa L., Calendula officinalis, Helianthus annuus, Linum usitatissimum and L. propolis, inhibit pancreatic lipase in vitro. In a follow-up study we assessed their effects on plasma triglycerides in rats fed on a fatty meal. Extracts, orlistat or only ethanol were given orally to the rats together with the test meal and the rate of increase of postprandial triglycerides was assessed over 4 h. Clearing of the triglycerides from the blood compartment was abolished by inhibiting lipoprotein lipase with Triton WR-1339. Our results showed that out of all the extracts, the bark of Tabebuia impetiginosa led to a significant delay in the postprandial increase of plasma triglycerides. However, lapachol, which is contained in the bark of Tabebuia impetiginosa and soluble in ethanol, had no lipase inhibitory effect in vitro and hence this substance did not seem to mediate the pertinent effect.

  2. Long-term consumption of a raw food diet is associated with favorable serum LDL cholesterol and triglycerides but also with elevated plasma homocysteine and low serum HDL cholesterol in humans

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Koebnick, Corinna; Garcia, Ada L; Dagnelie, Pieter C; Strassner, Carola; Lindemans, Jan; Katz, Norbert; Leitzmann, Claus; Hoffmann, Ingrid

    2005-01-01

    ...) on serum lipids and plasma vitamin B-12, folate, and total homocysteine (tHcy). In a cross-sectional study, the lipid, folate, vitamin B-12, and tHcy status of 201 adherents to a raw food diet...

  3. Long-Term Consumption of a Raw Food Diet Is Associated with Favorable Serum LDL Cholesterol and Triglycerides but Also with Elevated Plasma Homocysteine and Low Serum HDL Cholesterol in Humans1,2

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Corinna Koebnick; Ada L Garcia; Pieter C Dagnelie; Carola Strassner

    2005-01-01

    ...) on serum lipids and plasma vitamin B-12, folate, and total homocysteine (tHcy). In a cross-sectional study, the lipid, folate, vitamin B-12, and tHcy status of 201 adherents to a raw food diet...

  4. Serum zinc is associated with plasma leptin and Cu-Zn SOD in elite male basketball athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jiexiu; Fan, Bin; Wu, Zhaozhao; Xu, Minxiao; Luo, Yufeng

    2015-04-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between plasma trace element and plasma leptin, as well as percent fat mass, in 16 male basketball athletes. Blood samples were obtained before intensive training and 24h after intensive training to measure plasma zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe), and leptin levels. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), triglyceride (TG), total and cholesterol (TC) levels were determined using commercially available kits for humans. Subjects presented similar values in terms of age (21.1±2.2 years old), body mass index (23.9±2.00kg/m(2)), percent body fat (14.40±1.52%), plasma hemoglobin (150.1±9.4g/L), plasma Zn (17.47±1.28μmol/l), plasma Cu (13.42±1.40μmol/L), plasma Ca (2.41±0.14mmol/L), and plasma Mg (0.96±0.02mmol/L). The correlation analysis between degree of plasma leptin and plasma element contents was performed using the SPSS 16.0 software. Plasma Zn correlated positively with plasma leptin (r=0.746, P0.05). In conclusion, plasma Zn may be involved in the regulation of plasma leptin and may serve as a lipid-mobilizing factor in Chinese men's basketball athletes.

  5. Packaged bulk micromachined triglyceride biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanasundaram, S. V.; Mercy, S.; Harikrishna, P. V.; Rani, Kailash; Bhattacharya, Enakshi; Chadha, Anju

    2010-02-01

    Estimation of triglyceride concentration is important for the health and food industries. Use of solid state biosensors like Electrolyte Insulator Semiconductor Capacitors (EISCAP) ensures ease in operation with good accuracy and sensitivity when compared to conventional sensors. In this paper we report on packaging of miniaturized EISCAP sensors on silicon. The packaging involves glass to silicon bonding using adhesive. Since this kind of packaging is done at room temperature, it cannot damage the thin dielectric layers on the silicon wafer unlike the high temperature anodic bonding technique and can be used for sensors with immobilized enzyme without denaturing the enzyme. The packaging also involves a teflon capping arrangement which helps in easy handling of the bio-analyte solutions. The capping solves two problems. Firstly, it helps in the immobilization process where it ensures the enzyme immobilization happens only on one pit and secondly it helps with easy transport of the bio-analyte into the sensor pit for measurements.

  6. Central nervous system control of triglyceride metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Geerling, Johanna Janetta (Janine)

    2013-01-01

    This thesis describes the role of the brain in the regulation of peripheral triglyceride metabolism, in the context of the metabolic syndrome. Based on various pharmacological studies we described the role of two hormones, insulin and glucagon-like peptide-1, in the production and clearance of triglycerides. We showed that insulin stimulates the uptake of (triglyceride-derived) fatty acids and that the brain plays an essential role in this process. Additionally, we showed that the glucagon-li...

  7. Alcohol intake and triglycerides/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio in men with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Ichiro

    2013-07-01

    The triglycerides/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) ratio has been proposed to be a good predictor of cardiovascular disease. The relationship between alcohol consumption and TG/HDL-C ratio in patients with hypertension is unknown. Subjects were normotensive and hypertensive men aged 35-60 years who were divided by daily ethanol intake into non-, light (<22g/day), heavy (≥22 but <44g/day), and very heavy (≥44g/day) drinkers. The TG/HDL-C ratio was significantly higher in the hypertensive group than in the normotensive group. Both in the normotensive and hypertensive groups, TG/HDL-C ratio was significantly lower in light, heavy, and very heavy drinkers than in nondrinkers and was lowest in light drinkers. In the hypertensive group, odds ratios (ORs) for high TG/HDL-C ratio (≥3.75) in light, heavy, and very heavy drinkers vs. nondrinkers were significantly lower (P < 0.01) than a reference level of 1.00 (light drinkers: OR = 0.49, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.40-0.59; heavy drinkers: OR = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.52-0.67; very heavy drinkers: OR = 0.70, 95% CI = 0.61-0.80) and were significantly lower than the corresponding ORs in the normotensive group. The ORs for hypertension in subjects with vs. subjects without high TG/HDL-C ratio were significantly higher than the reference level in all the alcohol groups and were significantly lower in light, heavy, and very heavy drinkers than in nondrinkers. The results suggest that there is an inverted J-shaped relationship between alcohol and TG/HDL-C ratio in individuals with hypertension and that alcohol weakens the positive association between TG/HDL-C ratio and hypertension.

  8. Triglyceride-to-high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol ratio is an index of heart disease mortality and of incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Gloria Lena; Barlow, Carolyn E; Grundy, Scott M; Leonard, David; DeFina, Laura F

    2014-02-01

    High triglyceride (TG) and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) impart risk for heart disease. This study examines the relationships of TG/HDL-C ratio to mortality from all causes, coronary heart disease (CHD), or cardiovascular disease (CVD). Survival analysis was done in 39,447 men grouped by TG/HDL-C ratio cut point of 3.5 and for metabolic syndrome. National Death Index International Classification of Diseases (ICD-9 and ICD-10) codes were used for CVD and CHD deaths occurring from 1970 to 2008. Incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) according to ratio was estimated in 22,215 men. Triglyceride/HDL-C ratio and cross-product of TG and fasting blood glucose (TyG index) were used in analysis. Men were followed up for 581,194 person-years. Triglyceride/HDL-C ratio predicted CHD, CVD, and all-cause mortality after adjustment for established risk factors and non-HDL-C. Mortality rates were higher in individuals with a high ratio than in those with a low ratio. Fifty-five percent of men had metabolic syndrome that was also predictive of CHD, CVD, and all-cause mortality. Annual incidence of DM was 2 times higher in men with high TG/HDL-C ratio than in those with a low ratio. Individuals with high TG/HDL-C ratio had a higher incidence of DM than those with a low ratio. The TyG index was not equally predictive of causes of mortality to TG/HDL-C, but both were equally predictive of diabetes incidence. Triglyceride/HDL-C ratio predicts CHD and CVD mortality as well as or better than do metabolic syndrome in men. Also, a high ratio predisposes to DM. The TyG index does not predict CHD, CVD, or all-cause mortality equally well, but like TG/HDL-C ratio, it predicts DM incidence.

  9. Polymorphic variations in manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPX1), and catalase (CAT) contribute to elevated plasma triglyceride levels in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes or diabetic cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong; Yu, Ming; Li, Ming; Zhao, Ruie; Zhu, Qihan; Zhou, Wenrui; Lu, Ming; Lu, Yufeng; Zheng, Taishan; Jiang, Jiamei; Zhao, Weijing; Xiang, Kunsan; Jia, Weiping; Liu, Limei

    2012-04-01

    Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), glutathione peroxidase-1 (GPX1), and catalase (CAT) provide the primary antioxidant defense system. Impaired antioxidant defense increases oxidative stress and contributes to the development of type 2 diabetes and diabetic cardiovascular disease (CVD). We preformed a case-control study in Chinese type 2 diabetes patients, to determine if the MnSOD Val16Ala (T→C), GPX1 Pro198Leu (C→T), and CAT -262C/T (C→T) functional polymorphisms contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes or diabetic CVD. Patients with type 2 diabetes (n = 168) were divided into the non-CVD group (n = 83, >10 year since diagnosis) and CVD group (n = 85, history of ischemic CVD). Genotyping was performed using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) or PCR-based direct sequencing. The genotypic distribution in the non-CVD- and CVD-group and the clinical parameters in genotypic groups were not significantly different in the three polymorphic sites, respectively. Among eight genotypic combinations, the most common TT+CC+CC genotype (59.5%) was associated with higher triglyceride levels than the TT+CT+CC genotype, the second frequent one (14.9%; 1.77 ± 0.12 vs. 1.21 ± 0.11 mmol/l, P = 0.001), and all non-TT+CC+CC genotypes (40.5%; 1.77 ± 0.12 vs. 1.43 ± 0.12 mmol/l, P = 0.048). In the CVD group, significantly elevated triglyceride levels were also observed in patients with TT+CC+CC compared to patients with TT+CT+CC (2.00 ± 0.18 vs. 1.37 ± 0.16 mmol/l, P = 0.018) or non-TT+CC+CC genotypes (2.00 ± 0.18 vs. 1.65 ± 0.19 mmol/l, P = 0.070). The common MnSOD, GPX1, and CAT TT+CC+CC genotype may contribute to hypertriglyceridemia in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes or diabetic CVD.

  10. The inclusion of a partial meal replacement with or without inulin to a calorie restricted diet contributes to reach recommended intakes of micronutrients and decrease plasma triglycerides: A randomized clinical trial in obese Mexican women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tovar Alma

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity is a major public health problem in many poor countries where micronutrient deficiencies are prevalent. A partial meal replacement may be an effective strategy to decrease obesity and increase micronutrient intake in such populations. The objective was to evaluate the efficacy of a partial meal replacement with and without inulin on weight reduction, blood lipids and micronutrients intake in obese Mexican women. Methods In a randomized controlled clinical trial 144 women (18–50 y with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2, were allocated into one of the following treatments during 3 months: 1 Two doses/d of a partial meal replacement (PMR, 2 Two doses/d of PMR with inulin (PMR + I , 3 Two doses/d of 5 g of inulin (INU and 4 Control group (CON. All groups received a low calorie diet (LCD. Weight, height, hip and waist circumference were measured every 2 weeks and body composition, lipids and glucose concentration and nutrient intake were assessed at baseline and after 3 months. Results All groups significantly reduced weight, BMI, waist and hip circumference. Differences between groups were only observed in BMI and weight adjusted changes: At 45 days PMR group lost more weight than INU and CON groups by 0.9 and 1.2Kg, respectively. At 60 days, PMR + I and PMR groups lost more weight than in INU by 0.7 and 1Kg, respectively. Subjects in PMR, PMR + I and INU significantly decreased triglycerides. Energy intake was reduced in all groups. Fiber intake increased in PMR + I and INU groups. Some minerals and vitamins intakes were higher in PMR and PMR + I compared with INU and CON groups. Conclusion Inclusion of PMR with and without inulin to a LCD had no additional effect on weight reduction than a LCD alone but reduced triglycerides and improved intake of micronutrients during caloric restriction. PMR could be a good alternative for obese populations with micronutrient deficiencies. ClinicalTrials.Gov ID

  11. Reduced triglyceride secretion in response to an acute dietary fat challenge in obese compared to lean mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aki eUchida

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Obesity results in abnormally high levels of triglyceride (TG storage in tissues such as liver, heart and muscle, which disrupts their normal functions. Recently, we found that lean mice challenged with high levels of dietary fat store TGs in cytoplasmic lipid droplets in the absorptive cells of the intestine, enterocytes, and that this storage increases and then decreases over time after an acute dietary fat challenge. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of obesity on intestinal TG metabolism. More specifically we asked whether TG storage in and secretion from the intestine are altered in obesity. We investigated these questions in diet-induced obese (DIO and leptin-deficient (ob/ob mice. We found greater levels of TG storage in the intestine of DIO mice compared to lean mice in the fed state, but similar levels of TG storage after fasting. In addition, we found similar TG storage in the intestine of lean and DIO mice at multiple time points after an acute dietary fat challenge. Surprisingly, we found remarkably lower TG secretion from both DIO and ob/ob mice compared to lean controls in response to an acute dietary fat challenge. Furthermore, we found altered mRNA levels for genes involved in regulation of intestinal TG metabolism in lean and DIO mice at fasting and in response to an acute dietary fat challenge. More specifically, we found that many of the genes related to TG synthesis, chylomicron synthesis, TG storage and lipolysis were induced in response to an acute dietary fat challenge in lean mice, but this induction was not observed in DIO mice. In fact, we found a significant decrease in intestinal mRNA levels of genes related to lipolysis and fatty acid oxidation in DIO mice in response to an acute dietary fat challenge. Our findings demonstrate altered TG handling by the small intestine of obese compared to lean mice.

  12. Low gray scale values of computerized images of carotid plaques associated with increased levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and with increased plaque lipid content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønholdt, Marie-Louise M.; Nordestgaard, Børge; Weibe, Britt M.

    1997-01-01

    Relatioin between low gray scale values in computerized images of carotid plaques and 1) plasma levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and 2) plaque lipid content......Relatioin between low gray scale values in computerized images of carotid plaques and 1) plasma levels of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and 2) plaque lipid content...

  13. THE EFFECT OF ANTICONVULSANT DRUGS (PHENOBARBITAL AND VALPROIC ACID ON THE SERUM LEVEL OF CHOLESTEROL, TRIGLYCERIDE, LIPOPROTEIN AND LIVER ENZYMES IN CONVULSIVE CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza SALEHIOMRAN

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveStudies on the effect of various antiepileptic drugs on serum lipids show contradictory results. We aimed to find the effect of Phenobarbital and Sodium Valproate monotherapy on serum lipid profile and liver function tests in epileptic children.Materials & MethodsThis cohort study was conducted in Amirkola Children Hospital. One hundred and ten children with epilepsy were included in this study. Children with hepatic or renal disease, those receiving medications which could alter liver function tests or serum lipid profile were excluded from the study. Patients were allocated into two groups. The first group, including 63 patients, received Phenobarbital and the second group, including 47 patients, received Sodium Valproate, both in divided doses. A venous blood sample was collected after overnight fasting to evaluate serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, and liver function tests. Data was analyzed with SPSS version 17.ResultsIn children receiving Phenobarbital, total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, ALP, SGOT and SGPT increased significantly after treatment, but TG level showed no significant changes. In children receiving Sodium Valproate, HDL, ALP, SGOT, SGPT significantly increased after treatment but there were no statistically significant changes in total cholesterol, LDL and TG. In our study, the plasma levels of LPa elevated significantly after treatment with Phenobarbital and Sodium Valproate (P Value=0.0001. This increase was more significant in patients receiving Sodium Valproate.ConclusionOur results suggested a need for monitoring serum total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and TG levels in patients receiving Phenobarbital and Valproic Acid.Keywords: Seizure, Phenobarbital, Sodium Valproate.

  14. Understanding triglyceride levels related to intravenous fat administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Lipid is an essential macronutrient in parenteral nutrition (PN) support. intravenous (IV) lipid provides essential fatty acids and a concentrated calorie source. Preterm infants are at risk for essential fatty deficiency early in life. Lipid administration is associated with some risks, and there are guidelines for administration to minimize complications. Lipid emulsions in the United States are derived from soybean oil. Outside of the United States, lipid emulsions made from fish oil or combinations of fish, soybean, olive, and medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) are under investigation for improved tolerance, lower plasma lipid levels, and improved fatty acid profiles, all of which are considered beneficial. Triglyceride levels are an important measurement to assess patient tolerance.

  15. Sleeve Gastrectomy in Rats Improves Post-Prandial Lipid Clearance by Reducing Intestinal Triglyceride Secretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefater, MA; Sandoval, DA; Chambers, AP; Wilson-Pérez, HE; Hofmann, SM; Jandacek, R; Tso, P; Woods, SC; Seeley, RJ

    2011-01-01

    Background & Aims Post-prandial hyperlipidemia is a risk factor for atherosclerotic heart disease and is associated with the consumption of high-fat diets and obesity. Bariatric surgeries result in superior and more durable weight loss than dieting. These surgeries are also associated with multiple metabolic improvements, including reduced plasma lipid levels. We investigated whether the beneficial effects of vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG) on plasma lipid levels are weight-independent. Methods VSG was performed on Long-Evans rats with diet-induced obesity and pair-fed and ad libitum-fed rats that received sham operations (controls). We measured fasting and post-prandial levels of plasma lipid. To determine hepatic and intestinal triglyceride secretion, we injected the lipase inhibitor poloxamer 407 alone, or before oral lipid gavage. 13C-Triolein was used to estimate post-prandial uptake of lipid in the intestine. Results Rats that received VSG and high-fat diets (HFDs) had markedly lower fasting levels of plasma triglyceride, cholesterol, and phospholipid than obese and lean (pair-fed) controls that were fed HFD. Rats that received VSG had a marked, weight-independent reduction in secretion of intestinal triglycerides. VSG did not alter total intestinal triglyceride levels or size of the cholesterol storage pool, nor did it affect the expression of genes in the intestine that control triglyceride metabolism and synthesis . VSG did not affect fasting secretion of triglyceride, liver weight, hepatic lipid storage, or transcription of genes that regulate hepatic lipid processing. Conclusions VSG reduced post-prandial levels of plasma lipid, independently of body weight. This resulted from reduced intestinal secretion of triglycerides following ingestion of a lipid meal and indicates that VSG has important effects on metabolism. PMID:21699773

  16. Inverse association between triglycerides-to-HDL-cholesterol ratio and alcohol drinking in middle-aged Japanese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Ichiro

    2012-11-01

    Triglycerides-to-high-density-lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol ratio (TG/HDL-C ratio) has been proposed to be a useful predictor of cardiovascular disease. Habitual alcohol drinking causes elevation of triglycerides and HDL cholesterol levels. The purpose of this study was to determine how the TG/HDL-C ratio is influenced by alcohol intake. Subjects were 21,572 Japanese men (age range: 35-60 years) who were divided into non-, light (<22 g ethanol/day), heavy (≥22 but <44 g ethanol/day), and very heavy (≥44 g ethanol/day) drinkers. The relationship between alcohol intake and TG/HDL-C ratio was investigated by using analysis of covariance and logistic regression analysis. Log-transformed TG/HDL-C ratio was significantly lower in light, heavy, and very heavy drinkers than in nondrinkers and was lowest in light drinkers. Odds ratios for high TG/HDL-C ratios in light and heavy drinkers versus nondrinkers were significantly lower than a reference level of 1.00 (light drinkers: 0.63, 95% CI [0.57, 0.71],p < .01); heavy drinkers: 0.75, 95% CI [0.69, 0.81],p < .01]). Odds ratios for high waist-to-height ratio of subjects with versus subjects without high TG/HDL-C ratios were significantly higher than the reference level in non-, light, heavy, and very heavy drinkers and were significantly lower in heavy and very heavy drinkers than in nondrinkers (nondrinkers: 3.84 [3.42,4.31]; light drinkers: 3.65 [2.97,4.48]; heavy drinkers: 3.17 [2.84, 3.54],p < .05 compared with nondrinkers; very heavy drinkers: 2.61 [2.29, 2.97],p < .01 compared with nondrinkers). Alcohol drinking is inversely associated with TG/ HDL-C ratio and confounds the relationship between TG/HDL-C ratio and obesity.

  17. Effects of antinutritional factors on plasma lipoprotein levels in Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, J M; Mai, K S; Ai, Q H; Zhang, W B; Wang, X J; Xu, W; Liufu, Z G; Cai, Y H; Chen, W

    2012-02-01

    This study examined the effects of four types of antinutritional factor (phytic acid, stachyose, soy saponins and soy isoflavones) on lipoprotein levels in plasma of Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. A basal diet was prepared with fish meal as primary protein source, the other diets were supplemented with 0·2, 0·4 or 0·8% phytic acid, 0·4, 0·8 or 1·5% stachyose, 0·1, 0·35 or 0·7% soy saponins and 0·10, 0·35 or 0·70% soy isoflavones, by dry mass, in place of white flour in the basal diet. Total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) levels in plasma of P. olivaceus were not affected by phytic acid or stachyose. In general, addition of 0·2-0·8% phytic acid or 0·4-1·5% stachyose decreased plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, increased plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels, thereby increasing the LDL-C:HDL-C ratio. By contrast, supplementation with 0·35-0·7% soy saponins generally depressed plasma TC levels and the LDL-C:HDL-C ratio. Supplementation with 0·35-0·7% soy isoflavones, however, increased plasma TC and TG levels. These results indicate that soy saponins may be partly responsible for the cholesterol-lowering effects of soybean meal.

  18. Physical Properties of Triglycerides IV. Dielectric Constant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gouw, T.H.; Vlugter, J.C.

    1967-01-01

    Dielectric constants at 20° and at 40° C of a number of triglycerides in the liquid state have been measured. A molar additive function of the dielectric constant, based on a relation derived by J. van Elk, was used in combination with a previously derived equation for triglycerides to give an equat

  19. Serum triglycerides and risk of cardiovascular disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boullart, I.; Graaf, J. de; Stalenhoef, A.F.H.

    2012-01-01

    Dyslipidemia, especially elevated serum levels of cholesterol, is causally related to cardiovascular disease. The specific role of triglycerides has long been controversial. In this article we discuss the role of serum triglycerides in relation to the risk of cardiovascular disease. First, the

  20. HDL (Good), LDL (Bad) Cholesterol and Triglycerides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More HDL (Good), LDL (Bad) Cholesterol and Triglycerides Updated:Jul 5,2017 Cholesterol isn’t just ... Your Cholesterol Score Explained What Are High Blood Cholesterol and Triglycerides? How Can I Improve My Cholesterol? | Spanish What ...

  1. How do elevated triglycerides and low HDL-cholesterol affect inflammation and atherothrombosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welty, Francine K

    2013-09-01

    This review article summarizes recent research into the mechanisms as to how elevated levels of triglyceride (TG) and low levels of high- density- lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) contribute to inflammation and atherosclerosis. Evidence supports the role of TG-rich lipoproteins in signaling mechanisms via apolipoproteins C-III and free fatty acids leading to activation of NFKβ, VCAM-1 and other inflammatory mediators which lead to fatty streak formation and advanced atherosclerosis. Moreover, the cholesterol content in TG-rich lipoproteins has been shown to predict CAD risk better than LDL-C. In addition to reverse cholesterol transport, HDL has many other cardioprotective effects which include regulating immune function. The "functionality" of HDL appears more important than the level of HDL-C. Insulin resistance and central obesity underlie the pathophysiology of elevated TG and low HDL-C in metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Lifestyle recommendations including exercise and weight loss remain first line therapy in ameliorating insulin resistance and the adverse signaling processes from elevated levels of TG-rich lipoproteins and low HDL-C.

  2. The ANGPTL3-4-8 model, a molecular mechanism for triglyceride trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ren

    2016-04-01

    Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) is a rate-limiting enzyme for hydrolysing circulating triglycerides (TG) into free fatty acids that are taken up by peripheral tissues. Postprandial LPL activity rises in white adipose tissue (WAT), but declines in the heart and skeletal muscle, thereby directing circulating TG to WAT for storage; the reverse is true during fasting. However, the mechanism for the tissue-specific regulation of LPL activity during the fed-fast cycle has been elusive. Recent identification of lipasin/angiopoietin-like 8 (Angptl8), a feeding-induced hepatokine, together with Angptl3 and Angptl4, provides intriguing, yet puzzling, insights, because all the three Angptl members are LPL inhibitors, and the deficiency (overexpression) of any one causes hypotriglyceridaemia (hypertriglyceridaemia). Then, why does nature need all of the three? Our recent data that Angptl8 negatively regulates LPL activity specifically in cardiac and skeletal muscles suggest an Angptl3-4-8 model: feeding induces Angptl8, activating the Angptl8-Angptl3 pathway, which inhibits LPL in cardiac and skeletal muscles, thereby making circulating TG available for uptake by WAT, in which LPL activity is elevated owing to diminished Angptl4; the reverse is true during fasting, which suppresses Angptl8 but induces Angptl4, thereby directing TG to muscles. The model suggests a general framework for how TG trafficking is regulated.

  3. How Do Elevated Triglycerides and Low HDL-Cholesterol Affect Inflammation and Atherothrombosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welty, Francine K.

    2015-01-01

    This review article summarizes recent research into the mechanisms as to how elevated levels of triglyceride (TG) and low levels of high- density- lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) contribute to inflammation and atherosclerosis. Evidence supports the role of TG-rich lipoproteins in signaling mechanisms via apolipoproteins C-III and free fatty acids leading to activation of NFKβ, VCAM-1 and other inflammatory mediators which lead to fatty streak formation and advanced atherosclerosis. Moreover, the cholesterol content in TG-rich lipoproteins has been shown to predict CAD risk better than LDL-C. In addition to reverse cholesterol transport, HDL has many other cardioprotective effects which include regulating immune function. The “functionality” of HDL appears more important than the level of HDL-C. Insulin resistance and central obesity underlie the pathophysiology of elevated TG and low HDL-C in metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Lifestyle recommendations including exercise and weight loss remain first line therapy in ameliorating insulin resistance and the adverse signaling processes from elevated levels of TG-rich lipoproteins and low HDL-C. PMID:23881582

  4. Serum triglycerides and risk of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boullart, A C I; de Graaf, J; Stalenhoef, A F

    2012-05-01

    Dyslipidemia, especially elevated serum levels of cholesterol, is causally related to cardiovascular disease. The specific role of triglycerides has long been controversial. In this article we discuss the role of serum triglycerides in relation to the risk of cardiovascular disease. First, the (patho)physiology of triglycerides is described, including the definition and a short summary of the primary and secondary causes of hypertriglyceridemia. Furthermore, we will give an overview of the published epidemiological studies concerning hypertriglyceridemia and cardiovascular disease to support the view that triglyceride-rich lipoproteins are an independently associated risk factor. Finally, treatment strategies and treatment targets are discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Triglyceride Metabolism and Disease. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Triglyceride-lowering therapies reduce cardiovascular disease event risk in subjects with hypertriglyceridemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maki, Kevin C; Guyton, John R; Orringer, Carl E; Hamilton-Craig, Ian; Alexander, Dominik D; Davidson, Michael H

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular outcomes trials of fibrates, niacin, or omega-3 fatty acids alone, or added to a statin, have not consistently demonstrated reduced risk, but larger, statistically significant clinical benefits have been reported in subgroups with elevated triglycerides (TG) and/or elevated TG plus low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). To perform a meta-analysis of the effects of therapies targeting TG and TG-rich lipoprotein cholesterol on cardiovascular disease event risk in subjects with elevated TG or elevated TG paired with low HDL-C. Publications were identified using PubMed, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, clinicaltrials.gov, the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, and Internet Stroke Center. Random-effects meta-analysis models were used to generate summary relative risk estimates and 95% confidence intervals. Heterogeneity was assessed by χ(2) and I(2) statistics, and the impact of each trial was assessed in one study-removed sensitivity analyses. Six trials of fibrates, 2 of niacin, 1 of fibrate + niacin, and 1 of omega-3 eicosapentaenoic acid ethyl esters were identified. For the prespecified primary cardiovascular disease or coronary heart disease end point used in each trial, the summary relative risk estimate (95% confidence interval) for subjects with elevated TG was 0.82 (0.73-0.91), p-heterogeneity = 0.13, I(2) = 36.2, and for subjects with elevated TG and low-HDL-C, it was 0.71 (0.63-0.81), p-heterogeneity = 0.52, I(2) = 0.0. There was no evidence of publication bias, and the results remained statistically significant when each individual trial was removed. Drugs that substantially, but not exclusively, lower TG and TG-rich lipoprotein cholesterol may have cardiovascular benefits in individuals with elevated TG, particularly if accompanied by low HDL-C. Copyright © 2016 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Determinants of maternal triglycerides in women with gestational diabetes mellitus in the Metformin in Gestational Diabetes (MiG) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Helen L; Dekker Nitert, Marloes; Jones, Lee; O'Rourke, Peter; Lust, Karin; Gatford, Kathryn L; De Blasio, Miles J; Coat, Suzette; Owens, Julie A; Hague, William M; McIntyre, H David; Callaway, Leonie; Rowan, Janet

    2013-07-01

    Factors associated with increasing maternal triglyceride concentrations in late pregnancy include gestational age, obesity, preeclampsia, and altered glucose metabolism. In a subgroup of women in the Metformin in Gestational Diabetes (MiG) trial, maternal plasma triglycerides increased more between enrollment (30 weeks) and 36 weeks in those treated with metformin compared with insulin. The aim of this study was to explain this finding by examining factors potentially related to triglycerides in these women. Of the 733 women randomized to metformin or insulin in the MiG trial, 432 (219 metformin and 213 insulin) had fasting plasma triglycerides measured at enrollment and at 36 weeks. Factors associated with maternal triglycerides were assessed using general linear modeling. Mean plasma triglyceride concentrations were 2.43 (95% CI 2.35-2.51) mmol/L at enrollment. Triglycerides were higher at 36 weeks in women randomized to metformin (2.94 [2.80-3.08] mmol/L; +23.13% [18.72-27.53%]) than insulin (2.65 [2.54-2.77] mmol/L, P = 0.002; +14.36% [10.91-17.82%], P = 0.002). At 36 weeks, triglycerides were associated with HbA1c (P = 0.03), ethnicity (P = 0.001), and treatment allocation (P = 0.005). In insulin-treated women, 36-week triglycerides were associated with 36-week HbA1c (P = 0.02), and in metformin-treated women, they were related to ethnicity. At 36 weeks, maternal triglycerides were related to glucose control in women treated with insulin and ethnicity in women treated with metformin. Whether there are ethnicity-related dietary changes or differences in metformin response that alter the relationship between glucose control and triglycerides requires further study.

  7. Diagnostic Value of Serum TG/HDL-C Ratio in Diabetic Nephropathy%甘油三酯与高密度脂蛋白胆固醇比值在糖尿病肾病中的价值研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘成

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨甘油三酯与高密度脂蛋白胆固醇比值(TG/HDL-C)在糖尿病肾病中的价值.方法 随机选取2型糖尿病患者150例,将其分为糖尿病无肾病组(45例)、早期糖尿病肾病组(35例)、临床糖尿病肾病组(42例)和晚期糖尿病肾病组(28例)4组,检测4组患者空腹血糖(FPG)、糖化血红蛋白(HbAlc)、甘油三脂(TG)、总胆固醇(TC)、低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(LDL-C)、高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(HDL-C)、脂蛋白-A(Apro-A),脂蛋白-B(Apro-B),并计算TG/HDL-C比值.结果 与糖尿病无肾病组患者比较,各组患者糖尿病肾病HDL-C明显降低,且随着肾脏损害的加重,血清TG、TC、LDL-C、Apro-B、TG/HDL-C逐渐升高,而HDL-C、Apro-A逐渐降低,组间比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).相关分析结果显示,UAER与HDL-C呈负相关(r=-0.558,P=0.027),而与TG/HDL-C比值呈正相关(r=0.638,P=0.015).结论 HDL-C是糖尿病肾病发生、发展中的重要保护因子,而TG/HDL-C是与其密切相关的危险因素.%Objective To study the diagnostic value of the serum TG/HDL-C ratio in diabetic nephropathy. Methods 150 patients with diabetes mellitus in our hospital were randomly selected and divided into four groups: non-nephropathy group (n=45), early nephropathy group (n=35), clinical nephropathy group (n=42) and later nephropathy group (n=42). Serum levels of triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein-choleste (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein-choleste (HDL-C), Apro-A, Apro-B, fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbAlc) were measured and the ratio of TG and HDL-C was then calculated. Results The level of HDL-C in the nephropathy group was significantly lower than the non-nephropathy group. And with the increase of kidney damage, the serum levels of TC, TG, LDL-C, Apro-B, and TG/HDL-C were gradually increased, whereas -the levels of HDL-C and Apro-A were gradually reduced (P<0.01). Results form the correlation analysis showed

  8. Very low density lipoprotein cholesterol associates with coronary artery calcification in type 2 diabetes beyond circulating levels of triglycerides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prenner, Stuart B; Mulvey, Claire K; Ferguson, Jane F; Rickels, Michael R; Bhatt, Anish B; Reilly, Muredach P

    2014-10-01

    While recent genomic studies have focused attention on triglyceride (TG) rich lipoproteins in cardiovascular disease (CVD), little is known of very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) relationship with atherosclerosis and CVD. We examined, in a high-risk type-2 diabetic population, the association of plasma VLDL-C with coronary artery calcification (CAC). The Penn Diabetes Heart Study (PDHS) is a cross-sectional study of CVD risk factors in type-2 diabetics (n = 2118, mean age 59.1 years, 36.5% female, 34.1% Black). Plasma lipids including VLDL-C were calculated (n = 1879) after ultracentrifugation. In Tobit regression, VLDL-C levels were positively associated with increasing CAC after adjusting for age, race, gender, Framingham risk score, body mass index, C-reactive protein, exercise, medication and alcohol use, hemoglobin A1c, and diabetes duration [Tobit ratio (TR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.38 (0.12-0.65), P = 0.005] and even after inclusion of apolipoprotein B data [TR 0.31 (0.03-0.58), P = 0.030]. Approximately 3-fold stronger effect was observed in women [TR 0.75 (0.16-1.34), P = 0.013] than men [TR 0.20 (-0.10-0.50), P = 0.189; gender interaction P = 0.034]. Plasma VLDL-C was related more strongly to CAC scores than TG levels (e.g., Akaike information criteria of 7263.65 vs. 7263.94) and had stronger CAC association in individuals with TGs >150 mg/dl (TR 0.80, P = 0.010) vs. those with TGs <150 mg/dl (TR 0.27, P = 0.185). In PDHS, VLDL-C is associated with CAC independent of established CVD risk factors, particularly in women, and may have value even beyond apolipoprotein B levels and in patients with elevated TGs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Triglyceride to HDL-C Ratio is Associated with Insulin Resistance in Overweight and Obese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwani, Nur Ahmad Kamil Zati; Jalaludin, Muhammad Yazid; Zin, Ruziana Mona Wan Mohd; Fuziah, Md Zain; Hong, Janet Yeow Hua; Abqariyah, Yahya; Mokhtar, Abdul Halim; Wan Nazaimoon, Wan Mohamud

    2017-01-06

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the usefulness of triglyceride to hdl-c ratio (TG:HDL-C) as an insulin resistance (IR) marker for overweight and obese children. A total of 271 blood samples of obese and overweight children aged 9-16 years were analysed for fasting glucose, lipids and insulin. Children were divided into IR and non-insulin resistance, using homeostasis model assessment (HOMA). The children were then stratified by tertiles of TG: HDL-C ratio. The strength between TG:HDL-C ratio and other parameters of IR were quantified using Pearson correlation coefficient (r). Odds ratio was estimated using multiple logistic regression adjusted for age, gender, pubertal stages and IR potential risk factors. Children with IR had significantly higher TG:HDL-C ratio (2.48) (p = 0.01). TG:HDL-C ratio was significantly correlated with HOMA-IR (r = 0.104, p HDL-C ratio showed significant increase in mean insulin level (p = 0.03), HOMA-IR (p = 0.04) and significantly higher number of children with acanthosis nigricans and metabolic syndrome. The odds of having IR was about 2.5 times higher (OR = 2.47; 95% CI 1.23, 4.95; p = 0.01) for those in the highest tertiles of TG:HDL-C ratio. Hence, TG:HDL-C may be a useful tool to identify high risk individuals.

  10. Impact of admission triglyceride for early outcome in diabetic patients with stable coronary artery disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background The role of triglyceride (TG) in predicting the outcomes in diabetic patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) has not been well investigated. Methods A total of 329 cases with stable angina pectoris (SAP) were prospectively enrolled and followed up for an average of 12 months. They were classified into the two groups according to the cut-off values of predicting early outcome of fasting TG level (low group <1.2 mmol/L, n = 103; High group ≥1.2 mmol/L, n = 226). The relationship between the TG levels and early outcomes were evaluated. Results High TG group showed severer lipid profile and elevated inflammatory markers. During an average of 12-month follow-up, 47 out of 329 patients suffered from pre-specified outcomes. Area under the receivers operating characteristic curve suggested that TG, similar to serum Hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C), was a significant predictor of early outcome for diabetic patients with SAP (P = 0.002). In Cox regression models, after adjusted age, gender, body mass index, other lipid parameters, fasting blood glucose, high sensitivity C-reactive protein, neutrophil count and HbA1C, TG remained as an independent predictor of adverse prognosis. Conclusions High level of fasting TG (≥1.2 mmol/L) was an independent predictor for early outcome of diabetic patients with SAP as like as HBA1c and number of affected coronary arteries in the era of revascularization and statin therapeutics. PMID:24766776

  11. Non-HDL Cholesterol and Triglycerides: Implications for Coronary Atheroma Progression and Clinical Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Rishi; Nissen, Steven E; Shao, Mingyuan; Elshazly, Mohamed B; Kataoka, Yu; Kapadia, Samir R; Tuzcu, E Murat; Nicholls, Stephen J

    2016-11-01

    Non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDLC) levels reflect the full burden of cholesterol transported in atherogenic lipoproteins. Genetic studies suggest a causal association between elevated triglycerides (TGs)-rich lipoproteins and atherosclerosis. We evaluated associations between achieved non-HDLC and TG levels on changes in coronary atheroma volume. Data were analyzed from 9 clinical trials involving 4957 patients with coronary disease undergoing serial intravascular ultrasonography to assess changes in percent atheroma volume (ΔPAV) and were evaluated against on-treatment non-HDLC and TG levels. The effects of lower (cholesterol (LDLC) 0) was associated with achieved TG levels >200 mg/dL, respectively. Lower on-treatment non-HDLC and TG levels associated with significant PAV regression compared with higher non-HDLC and TG levels across all levels of LDLC and C-reactive protein and irrespective of diabetic status (P<0.001 across all comparisons). ΔPAV were more strongly influenced by changes in non-HDLC (β=0.62; P<0.001) compared with changes in LDLC (β=0.51; P<0.001). Kaplan-Meier sensitivity analyses demonstrated significantly greater major adverse cardiovascular event rates in those with higher versus lower non-HDLC and TG levels, with an earlier separation of the non-HDLC compared with the LDLC curve. Achieved non-HDLC levels seem more closely associated with coronary atheroma progression than LDLC. Plaque progression associates with achieved TGs, but only above levels of 200 mg/dL. These observations support a more prominent role for non-HDLC (and possibly TG) lowering in combating residual cardiovascular risk. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Assessment of triglyceride and cholesterol in overweight people based on multiple linear regression and artificial intelligence model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jing; Yu, Jiong; Hao, Guangshu; Wang, Dan; Sun, Yanni; Lu, Jianxin; Cao, Hongcui; Lin, Feiyan

    2017-02-20

    The prevalence of high hyperlipemia is increasing around the world. Our aims are to analyze the relationship of triglyceride (TG) and cholesterol (TC) with indexes of liver function and kidney function, and to develop a prediction model of TG, TC in overweight people. A total of 302 adult healthy subjects and 273 overweight subjects were enrolled in this study. The levels of fasting indexes of TG (fs-TG), TC (fs-TC), blood glucose, liver function, and kidney function were measured and analyzed by correlation analysis and multiple linear regression (MRL). The back propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN) was applied to develop prediction models of fs-TG and fs-TC. The results showed there was significant difference in biochemical indexes between healthy people and overweight people. The correlation analysis showed fs-TG was related to weight, height, blood glucose, and indexes of liver and kidney function; while fs-TC was correlated with age, indexes of liver function (P < 0.01). The MRL analysis indicated regression equations of fs-TG and fs-TC both had statistic significant (P < 0.01) when included independent indexes. The BP-ANN model of fs-TG reached training goal at 59 epoch, while fs-TC model achieved high prediction accuracy after training 1000 epoch. In conclusions, there was high relationship of fs-TG and fs-TC with weight, height, age, blood glucose, indexes of liver function and kidney function. Based on related variables, the indexes of fs-TG and fs-TC can be predicted by BP-ANN models in overweight people.

  13. Validity of a portable glucose, total cholesterol, and triglycerides multi-analyzer in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coqueiro, Raildo da Silva; Santos, Mateus Carmo; Neto, João de Souza Leal; Queiroz, Bruno Morbeck de; Brügger, Nelson Augusto Jardim; Barbosa, Aline Rodrigues

    2014-07-01

    This study investigated the accuracy and precision of the Accutrend Plus system to determine blood glucose, total cholesterol, and plasma triglycerides in adults and evaluated its efficiency in measuring these blood variables. The sample consisted of 53 subjects (≥ 18 years). For blood variable laboratory determination, venous blood samples were collected and processed in a Labmax 240 analyzer. To measure blood variables with the Accutrend Plus system, samples of capillary blood were collected. In the analysis, the following tests were included: Wilcoxon and Student's t-tests for paired samples, Lin's concordance coefficient, Bland-Altman method, receiver operating characteristic curve, McNemar test, and k statistics. The results show that the Accutrend Plus system provided significantly higher values (p ≤ .05) of glucose and triglycerides but not of total cholesterol (p > .05) as compared to the values determined in the laboratory. However, the system showed good reproducibility (Lin's coefficient: glucose = .958, triglycerides = .992, total cholesterol = .940) and high concordance with the laboratory method (Lin's coefficient: glucose = .952, triglycerides = .990, total cholesterol = .944) and high sensitivity (glucose = 80.0%, triglycerides = 90.5%, total cholesterol = 84.4%) and specificity (glucose = 100.0%, triglycerides = 96.9%, total cholesterol = 95.2%) in the discrimination of high values of the three blood variables analyzed. It could be concluded that despite the tendency to overestimate glucose and triglyceride levels, a portable multi-analyzer is a valid alternative for the monitoring of metabolic disorders and cardiovascular risk factors.

  14. Correlation of CRP, fasting serum triglycerides and obesity as cardiovascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firdous, Samar

    2014-05-01

    To determine the correlation of C-reactive protein (CRP) with fasting triglycerides (TG) among pre-obese and obese patients without established diagnosis of coronary artery disease (CAD). A comparative cross-sectional study. Mayo Hospital, Lahore, from January to June 2010. Patients with BMI > 23 kg/m2 aged between 18 - 65 years were inducted and above variables were studied. Patients with signs of fluid retention, collagen vascular disease, CAD, patients on corticosteroids, immunomodulators or lipid lowering medications and febrile patients were not recruited. Body mass index was also determined. Independent sample t-test was applied to see the mean difference of age, CRP level and triglycerides level in relation to gender. Chi-square test was used to see the association between qualitative variables. ANOVA was applied to see CRP and fasting serum TG level in relation to BMI categories. Pearson correlation and simple linear regression was applied to see the dependency of CRP and triglycerides with BMI. P-value ² 0.05 was taken as significant. Raised CRP was major finding among all groups of BMI. Most of obese and pre-obese patients were young and middle aged and belonged to pre-obese group followed by class-1 and class-2 obesity. CRP level increased with body mass index. No such trend was observed for triglycerides. There was an intermediate positive correlation between CRP and BMI and triglycerides and BMI showed a weak negative correlation. If BMI increases by 1 unit on the average, CRP rises by 0.239 times and this unit rise was significant. Whereas 1 unit rise increase in triglycerides on the average cause CRP to decrease -0.006 times but this value was insignificant. Raised CRP and high fasting TG were major findings in all age groups especially among young and middle aged people. Obesity, hypertriglyceridemia and raised CRP are interrelated suggesting that obesity is not only linked to hypertriglyceridemia but vascular inflammation among pre-obese and obese

  15. Increased susceptibility to experimental steatohepatitis induced by methionine-choline deficiency in HBs-Tg mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miao-MiaoFu; RuiSun; Zhi-GangTian; Hai-MingWei

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Worldwide, about 25% of individuals with chronic hepatitis B have fatty liver disease. Lipogenic diets that are completely devoid of methionine and choline induce nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. However, no animal model of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis associated with HBV infection is available, and the influence of viral infection on nutritional hepatic steatosis is unclear. METHODS: We used HBV surface antigen transgenic mice (HBs-Tg mice), which mimic healthy human carriers with hepatitis B surface antigen. The mice were fed with a high-fat methionine-choline-deficient diet (MCD) to build a reliable rodent nutritional model of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis associated with HBV infection, and the changes in body weight and serum triglycerides were measured. Hepatocyte ballooning changes were determined by hematoxylin and eosin staining. The extent of hepatic fat accumulation was evaluated by oil red O staining. Immunohistochemical assays were performed to detect proliferating cell nuclear antigen as an index of cell proliferation. RESULTS: MCD feeding provoked systemic weight loss and liver injury. MCD feeding caused more macrovesicular fat droplets and fat accumulation in the livers of HBs-Tg mice than in wild-type C57BL/6 mice. In addition, within 30 days of MCD exposure, more PCNA-positive nuclei were found in the livers of HBs-Tg mice. CONCLUSIONS: HBs-Tg mice fed with a lipogenic MCD form more macrovesicular fat droplets earlier, coincident with more hepatocyte proliferation, resulting in the appearance of increased susceptibility to experimental steatohepatitis in these mice.

  16. High Triglycerides Predicts Arteriogenic Erectile Dysfunction and Major Adverse Cardiovascular Events in Subjects With Sexual Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona, Giovanni; Cipriani, Sarah; Rastrelli, Giulia; Sforza, Alessandra; Mannucci, Edoardo; Maggi, Mario

    2016-09-01

    The atherogenic role of triglycerides (TG) remains controversial. The aim of the present study is to analyze the contribution of TG in the pathogenesis of erectile dysfunction (ED) and to verify the value of elevated TG in predicting major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). An unselected series of 3,990 men attending our outpatient clinic for sexual dysfunction was retrospectively studied. A subset of this sample (n = 1,687) was enrolled in a longitudinal study. Several clinical, biochemical, and instrumental (penile color Doppler ultrasound; PCDU) factors were evaluated. Among the patients studied, after adjustment for confounders, higher TG levels were associated with arteriogenic ED and a higher risk of clinical and biochemical hypogonadism. Conversely, no association between TG and other sexual dysfunctions was observed. When pathological PCDU parameters-including flaccid acceleration (<1.17 m/sec(2)) or dynamic peak systolic velocity (PSV <35 cm/sec)-were considered, the negative association between impaired penile flow and higher TG levels was confirmed, even when subjects taking lipid-lowering drugs or those with diabetes were excluded from the analysis (OR = 6.343 [1.243;32.362], P = .026 and 3.576 [1.104;11.578]; P = .34 for impaired acceleration and PSV, respectively). Similarly, when the same adjusted models were applied, TG levels were associated with a higher risk of hypogonadism, independently of the definition criteria (OR = 2.892 [1.643;5.410], P < .0001 and 4.853 [1.965;11.990]; P = .001 for total T <12 and 8 nM, respectively). In the longitudinal study, after adjusting for confounders, elevated TG levels (upper quartile: 162-1686 mg/dL) were independently associated with a higher incidence of MACE (HR = 2.469 [1.019;5.981]; P = .045), when compared to the rest of the sample. Our data suggest an association between elevated TG and arteriogenic ED and its cardiovascular (CV) risk stratification. Whether the use of TG lowering drugs

  17. Central nervous system neuropeptide Y regulates mediators of hepatic phospholipid remodeling and very low-density lipoprotein triglyceride secretion via sympathetic innervation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rojas, Jennifer M; Bruinstroop, E.; Printz, Richard L; Alijagic-Boers, Aldijana; Foppen, E.; Turney, Maxine K; George, Leena; Beck-Sickinger, Annette G; Kalsbeek, A.; Niswender, Kevin D

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Elevated very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-triglyceride (TG) secretion from the liver contributes to an atherogenic dyslipidemia that is associated with obesity, diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. Numerous models of obesity and diabetes are characterized by increased central nervous s

  18. Loss-of-Function Mutations in APOC3, Triglycerides, and Coronary Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Plasma triglyceride levels are heritable and are correlated with the risk of coronary heart disease. Sequencing of the protein-coding regions of the human genome (the exome) has the potential to identify rare mutations that have a large effect on phenotype. Methods We sequenced the protein-coding regions of 18,666 genes in each of 3734 participants of European or African ancestry in the Exome Sequencing Project. We conducted tests to determine whether rare mutations in coding sequence, individually or in aggregate within a gene, were associated with plasma triglyceride levels. For mutations associated with triglyceride levels, we subsequently evaluated their association with the risk of coronary heart disease in 110,970 persons. Results An aggregate of rare mutations in the gene encoding apolipoprotein C3 (APOC3) was associated with lower plasma triglyceride levels. Among the four mutations that drove this result, three were loss-of-function mutations: a nonsense mutation (R19X) and two splice-site mutations (IVS2+1G→A and IVS3+1G→T). The fourth was a missense mutation (A43T). Approximately 1 in 150 persons in the study was a heterozygous carrier of at least one of these four mutations. Triglyceride levels in the carriers were 39% lower than levels in noncarriers (Ptriglycerides and APOC3. Carriers of these mutations were found to have a reduced risk of coronary heart disease. (Funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and others.) PMID:24941081

  19. Impact of Serum Retinol-Binding Protein 4 Levels on Regulation of Remnant-Like Particles Triglyceride in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoto Yamaaki

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Although retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4 associates with insulin resistance and remnant-like particles triglyceride (RLP-TG elevated in the insulin resistant state, few data exist regarding the relationship between RBP4 and RLP-TG. Subjects and Methods. The study included 92 Japanese type 2 diabetic mellitus (T2DM male patients (age years, body mass index (BMI  kg/m2, waist circumference (WC  cm, and HbA1c (NGSP %. Patients on medications affecting insulin sensitivity, including fibrates, biguanides, and thiazolidinedione, were excluded. Visceral fat area (VFA and subcutaneous fat area (SFA were measured by computed tomography. Results. RBP4 levels showed a significant positive correlation with RLP-TG ( and , TG ( and , RLP-TG/TG ( and , and age ( and , although there was no significant correlation with VFA, SFA, adiponectin levels, or homeostasis model of assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-R. Multiple regression analysis revealed that RBP4 was an independent determinant of RLP-TG ( but was not a determinant of TG. Conclusions. RBP4 correlates positively with serum RLP-TG independent of fat accumulation in T2DM. RBP4 may regulate remnant metabolism independent of glycemic control in T2DM.

  20. Estimations of cholesterol, triglycerides and fractionation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Estimations of cholesterol, triglycerides and fractionation of lipoproteins in serum samples of some Nigerian female subjects. ... low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) and very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C) ... Article Metrics.

  1. Comparison of serum triglyceride levels with propofol in long chain triglyceride and propofol in medium and long chain triglyceride after short term anesthesia in pediatric patients

    OpenAIRE

    Ishwar Bhukal; Gokul Thimmarayan; Indu Bala; Sohan Lal Solanki; Tanvir Samra

    2014-01-01

    Background: Significant increase in serum triglyceride (ST) concentration have been described in adult population after prolonged administration of propofol formulation containing long chain triglyceride (LCT). Though, medium chain triglyceride-LCT (MCT-LCT) propofol when compared with LCT propofol for long-term sedation in adults resulted in identical triglyceride levels, the elimination of triglyceride was faster in patients administered MCT-LCT propofol. Materials and Methods: A total of 4...

  2. High ratio of triglycerides to hdl-cholesterol predicts extensive coronary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Protasio Lemos da Luz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available An abnormal ratio of triglycerides to HDL-cholesterol (TG/HDL-c indicates an atherogenic lipid profile and a risk for the development of coronary disease. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between lipid levels, specifically TG/HDL-c, and the extent of coronary disease. METHODS: High-risk patients (n = 374 submitted for coronary angiography had their lipid variables measured and coronary disease extent scored by the Friesinger index. RESULTS: The subjects consisted of 220 males and 154 females, age 57.2 ± 11.1 years, with total cholesterol of 210± 50.3 mg/dL, triglycerides of 173.8 ± 169.8 mg/dL, HDL-cholesterol (HDL-c of 40.1 ± 12.8 mg/dL, LDL-cholesterol (LDL-c of 137.3 ± 46.2 mg/dL, TG/HDL-c of 5.1 ± 5.3, and a Friesinger index of 6.6 ± 4.7. The relationship between the extent of coronary disease (dichotomized by a Friesenger index of 5 and lipid levels (normal vs. abnormal was statistically significant for the following: triglycerides, odds ratio of 2.02 (1.31-3.1; p = 0.0018; HDL-c, odds ratio of 2.21 (1.42-3.43; p = 0.0005; and TG/HDL-c, odds ratio of 2.01(1.30-3.09; p = 0.0018. However, the relationship was not significant between extent of coronary disease and total cholesterol [1.25 (0.82-1.91; p = 0.33] or LDL-c [1.47 (0.96-2.25; p = 0.0842]. The chi-square for linear trends for Friesinger > 4 and lipid quartiles was statistically significant for triglycerides (p = 0.0017, HDL-c (p = 0.0001, and TG/HDL-c (p = 0.0018, but not for total cholesterol (p = 0.393 or LDL-c (p = 0.0568. The multivariate analysis by logistic regression OR gave 1.3 ± 0.79 (p = .0001 for TG/HDL-c, 0.779 ± 0.074 (p = .0001 for HDL-c, and 1.234 ± 0.097 (p = 0.03 for LDL. Analysis of receiver operating characteristic curves showed that only TG/HDL-c and HDL-c were useful for detecting extensive coronary disease, with the former more strongly associated with disease. CONCLUSIONS: Although some lipid variables were associated with the extent of

  3. TgCDPK3 Regulates Calcium-Dependent Egress of Toxoplasma gondii from Host Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, James M.; Whitehead, Lachlan; van Dooren, Giel G.; Tonkin, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    The phylum Apicomplexa comprises a group of obligate intracellular parasites of broad medical and agricultural significance, including Toxoplasma gondii and the malaria-causing Plasmodium spp. Key to their parasitic lifestyle is the need to egress from an infected cell, actively move through tissue, and reinvade another cell, thus perpetuating infection. Ca2+-mediated signaling events modulate key steps required for host cell egress, invasion and motility, including secretion of microneme organelles and activation of the force-generating actomyosin-based motor. Here we show that a plant-like Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinase (CDPK) in T. gondii, TgCDPK3, which localizes to the inner side of the plasma membrane, is not essential to the parasite but is required for optimal in vitro growth. We demonstrate that TgCDPK3, the orthologue of Plasmodium PfCDPK1, regulates Ca2+ ionophore- and DTT-induced host cell egress, but not motility or invasion. Furthermore, we show that targeting to the inner side of the plasma membrane by dual acylation is required for its activity. Interestingly, TgCDPK3 regulates microneme secretion when parasites are intracellular but not extracellular. Indeed, the requirement for TgCDPK3 is most likely determined by the high K+ concentration of the host cell. Our results therefore suggest that TgCDPK3's role differs from that previously hypothesized, and rather support a model where this kinase plays a role in rapidly responding to Ca2+ signaling in specific ionic environments to upregulate multiple processes required for gliding motility. PMID:23226109

  4. Elevated triglycerides may affect cystatin C recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witzel, Samantha H; Butts, Katherine; Filler, Guido

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of triglyceride concentration on cystatin C (CysC) measurements. Serum samples collected from 10 nephrology patients, 43 to 78years of age, were air centrifuged to separate aqueous and lipid layers. The lipid layer from each patient was pooled together to create a mixture with a high triglyceride concentration. This pooled lipid layer was mixed with each of the ten patient aqueous layers in six different ratios. Single factor ANOVA was used to assess whether CysC recovery was affected by triglyceride levels. Regression analysis was used to develop a formula to correct for the effect of triglycerides on CysC measurement, based on samples from 6 randomly chosen patients from our study population. The formula was validated with the 4 remaining samples. The analysis revealed a significant reduction in measured CysC with increasing concentrations of triglycerides (Pearson r=-0.56, ptriglycerides: Subsequent Bland-Altman plots revealed a bias (mean±1 standard deviation [SD]) of -3.7±15.6% for the data used to generate the correction formula and a bias of 3.52±9.38% for the validation set. Our results suggest that triglyceride concentrations significantly impact cystatin C measurements and that this effect may be corrected in samples that cannot be sufficiently clarified by air centrifugation using the equation that we developed. Copyright © 2014 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of recipient’s pre-transplant triglyceride abnormalities on early renal function recovery after kidney transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-wei ZHANG

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the effect of recipient's pre-transplant triglyceride (TG abnormalities on early graft function (EGF after kidney transplantation. Methods According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 154 identified living-kidney transplant recipients in the 309 Hospital of Chinese PLA from Jan. 2011 to Dec. 2014 were enrolled in present study, including 124 males and 30 females, and aged of 31.9±8.4 years. The cohort was divided into two groups: TG normal group (0.401.70mmol/L or require lipid lowering therapy, n=47. The incidences of poor early graft renal function (PEGF, slow graft function (SGF and delayed graft function (DGF were compared between the two groups, and then the serum creatinine (Scr levels were compared among the patients showing immediate graft function (IGF at 3rd, 7th and 30th day after transplantation. The ROC curve was drawn up taking TG as diagnosis index to explore the optimal cut-off value for predicting PEGF, SGF and DGF after transplantation. Results Compared with the TG normal group, the TG abnormalities group showed significantly higher incidence of PEGF and DGF (P<0.05. Among the IGF patients, the TG abnormalities group showed higher Scr level at the 7th and 30th day after transplantation (P<0.05. The area under ROC curve (AUC reflected TG levels for PEGF, SGF and DGF were 0.774, 0.704 and 0.818, respectively (P<0.05. The optimal cut-off values were all 1.37mmol/L. Conclusions Recipients with abnormal pre-transplant TG level may have worse EGF after renal transplantation. The risk of developing PEGF, SGF and DGF tends to emerge when pre-transplant TG level is higher than 1.37mmol/L. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2017.05.12

  6. Pyrolysis characteristic of tobacco stem studied by Py-GC/MS, TG-FTIR, and TG-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bei Liu

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Pyrolysis characteristics and mechanism of tobacco stem were studied by pyrolysis coupled with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS, thermogravimetric analyzer coupled with Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, and mass spectrometry (TG-FTIR and TG-MS techniques. The composition of evolved volatiles from fast pyrolysis of tobacco stem was determined by Py-GC/MS analysis, and the evolution patterns of the major products were investigated by TG-FTIR and TG-MS. Py-GC/MS data indicated that furfural and phenol were the major products in low temperature pyrolysis, and these were generated from depolymerization of cellulose. Indene and naphthalene were the major products in high temperature pyrolysis. TG-FTIR and TG-MS results showed that CO, CO2, phenols, aldehydes, and ketones were released between 167ºC and 500ºC; at temperatures >500ºC, CO and CO2 were the main gaseous products.

  7. Infliximab Induces Increase in Triglyceride Levels in Psoriatic Arthritis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla R. Castro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To evaluate lipid profile changes after anti-TNF therapy in patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA. Methods. Fifteen PsA patients (eight polyarticular, four oligoarticular, two axial, and one mutilating under infliximab were included. None had dyslipoproteinemia or previous statin use. Total cholesterol (TC and its fractions, inflammatory markers, and prednisone use were evaluated. Results. The comparisons of lipid levels between baseline and after three months (3M of anti-TNF therapy showed that there was a significant increase in mean triglycerides (117.8±49.7 versus 140.1±64.1 mg/dL, P=0.028 and VLDL-c (23.6±10.5 versus 28.4±13.7 mg/dL, P=0.019 levels. In contrast, there were no differences in the mean TC (P=0.28, LDL-c (P=0.42, and HDL-c (P=0.26 levels. Analysis of the frequencies of each lipid alteration at baseline and at 3M were alike (P>0.05. Positive correlations were found between VLDL-c and CRP (r=0.647, P=0.009 and between triglycerides and CRP (r=0.604, P=0.017 levels at 3M. ESR reduction was observed after 3M (P=0.04. Mean prednisone dose remained stable at beginning and at 3M (P=0.37. Conclusion. This study demonstrated that anti-TNF may increase TG and VLDL-c levels in PsA patients after three months.

  8. Triglycerides and Triglyceride-Rich Lipoproteins in the Causal Pathway of Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budoff, Matthew

    2016-07-01

    Epidemiologic and clinical studies suggest that elevated triglyceride levels are a biomarker of cardiovascular (CV) risk. Consistent with these findings, recent genetic evidence from mutational analyses, genome-wide association studies, and Mendelian randomization studies provide robust evidence that triglycerides and triglyceride-rich lipoproteins are in the causal pathway for atherosclerotic CV disease, indicating that they may play a pathogenic role, much like low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Although statins are the cornerstone of dyslipidemia management, high triglyceride levels may persist in some patients despite statin therapy. Several triglyceride-lowering agents are available, including fibrates, niacin, and omega-3 fatty acids, of which prescription omega-3 fatty acids have the best tolerability and safety profile. In clinical studies, omega-3 fatty acids have been shown to reduce triglyceride levels, but products containing both eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid may increase LDL-C levels. Icosapent ethyl, a high-purity eicosapentaenoic acid-only product, does not raise LDL-C levels and also reduces triglyceride, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride-rich lipoprotein levels. In conclusion, omega-3 fatty acids are currently being evaluated in large CV outcome studies in statin-treated patients; these studies should help to elucidate the causative role of triglycerides in atherosclerotic CV disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Prostate cancer risk in the Swedish AMORIS study: the interplay among triglycerides, total cholesterol, and glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hemelrijck, Mieke; Garmo, Hans; Holmberg, Lars; Walldius, Göran; Jungner, Ingmar; Hammar, Niklas; Lambe, Mats

    2011-05-15

    In a cohort including 5112 prostate cancer (pCa) patients, the authors investigated associations among triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), and pCa while taking into account glucose. A cohort (n = 200,660) based on 4 groups of men, according to age at cohort entry, with TG, TC, and glucose measurements was selected from the Apolipoprotein MOrtality RISk (AMORIS) database. Of these, 5112 men developed pCa. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard models were used to analyze associations among TG, TC, and pCa. Competing risks were assessed graphically. Age-stratified analyses for quartiles of TG, TC, and glucose showed a negative association between glucose and pCa risk (HR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.86-1.01), 0.93 (0.86-1.01), 0.87 (0.81-0.94) for the second, third, and fourth quartiles compared with the first (P(trend) = .001). Stratified analysis by glucose levels (<6.11 or ≥ 6.11 mmol/L) showed a positive association between hypertriglyceridemia (TG ≥ 1.71 mmol/L) and pCa risk, when there were high glucose levels (HR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.01-1.48). No association was found for hypercholesterolemia (TC ≥ 6.50 mmol/L). Competing risk analysis showed that protective effects of glucose were overestimated in conventional Cox proportional hazard models and strengthened positive findings between TG and pCa risk. The authors'; findings supported the hypothesis that factors of the glucose and lipid metabolism influence pCa risk. Competing risk assessment showed that it is important to take into account the long natural history and age distribution of pCa when interpreting results. The authors'; findings indicate another reason to fight the increasing prevalence of obesity and dyslipidemia. 2010 American Cancer Society.

  10. Relationship of advanced oxidative protein products levels in saliva and triglyceride levels in plasma in T2DM patients%Ⅱ型糖尿病人唾液晚期氧化蛋白产物和血浆甘油三酯含量的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯福奎; 鄂玲玲; 姜勇; 王三杏; 孔祥盼; 刘洪臣

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析Ⅱ型糖尿病(type two diabetes mellitus,T2DM)患者唾液晚期氧化蛋白产物(advanced oxidative protein products,AOPPs)与血浆甘油三酯(Triglyceride,TG)含量之间的相关性,探讨能否通过测量唾液晚期氧化蛋白产物的含量来间接反映血浆甘油三酯的水平,从而为预测T2DM患者心血管危害程度提供一种新的检测方法.方法:选取56例T2DM患者(女性32例,男性24例,平均年龄51.31±5.83岁),分别测量其血浆TG、血浆AOPPs、唾液AOPPs三者含量.分析T2DM患者血浆TG与血浆和唾液中AOPPs含量之间的关系,以及性别间的差异.结果:T2DM患者血浆TG含量、血浆中AOPPs含量及唾液中AOPPs含量差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05).T2DM患者血浆TG与血浆中AOPPs含量呈正性相关关系(r=0.686,P<0.001),与唾液中AOPPs含量也呈正相关关系(r=0.693,P<0.001).血浆中AOPPs含量与唾液中AOPPs含量呈正相关关系(r-0.474,P<0.001).结论:Ⅱ型糖尿病患者的血浆甘油三酯、血浆和唾液中的晚期氧化蛋白产物含量差异均无统计学意义.Ⅱ型糖尿病患者的血浆甘油三酯与血浆晚期氧化蛋白产物含量、唾液晚期氧化蛋白产物含量均呈正相关关系.Ⅱ型糖尿病患者的唾液晚期氧化蛋白产物含量可间接反映血浆甘油三酯的水平.

  11. Loss-of-function mutations in APOC3, triglycerides, and coronary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Jacy; Peloso, Gina M; Auer, Paul L; Crosslin, David R; Stitziel, Nathan O; Lange, Leslie A; Lu, Yingchang; Tang, Zheng-zheng; Zhang, He; Hindy, George; Masca, Nicholas; Stirrups, Kathleen; Kanoni, Stavroula; Do, Ron; Jun, Goo; Hu, Youna; Kang, Hyun Min; Xue, Chenyi; Goel, Anuj; Farrall, Martin; Duga, Stefano; Merlini, Pier Angelica; Asselta, Rosanna; Girelli, Domenico; Olivieri, Oliviero; Martinelli, Nicola; Yin, Wu; Reilly, Dermot; Speliotes, Elizabeth; Fox, Caroline S; Hveem, Kristian; Holmen, Oddgeir L; Nikpay, Majid; Farlow, Deborah N; Assimes, Themistocles L; Franceschini, Nora; Robinson, Jennifer; North, Kari E; Martin, Lisa W; DePristo, Mark; Gupta, Namrata; Escher, Stefan A; Jansson, Jan-Håkan; Van Zuydam, Natalie; Palmer, Colin N A; Wareham, Nicholas; Koch, Werner; Meitinger, Thomas; Peters, Annette; Lieb, Wolfgang; Erbel, Raimund; Konig, Inke R; Kruppa, Jochen; Degenhardt, Franziska; Gottesman, Omri; Bottinger, Erwin P; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Psaty, Bruce M; Ballantyne, Christie M; Abecasis, Goncalo; Ordovas, Jose M; Melander, Olle; Watkins, Hugh; Orho-Melander, Marju; Ardissino, Diego; Loos, Ruth J F; McPherson, Ruth; Willer, Cristen J; Erdmann, Jeanette; Hall, Alistair S; Samani, Nilesh J; Deloukas, Panos; Schunkert, Heribert; Wilson, James G; Kooperberg, Charles; Rich, Stephen S; Tracy, Russell P; Lin, Dan-Yu; Altshuler, David; Gabriel, Stacey; Nickerson, Deborah A; Jarvik, Gail P; Cupples, L Adrienne; Reiner, Alex P; Boerwinkle, Eric; Kathiresan, Sekar

    2014-07-03

    Plasma triglyceride levels are heritable and are correlated with the risk of coronary heart disease. Sequencing of the protein-coding regions of the human genome (the exome) has the potential to identify rare mutations that have a large effect on phenotype. We sequenced the protein-coding regions of 18,666 genes in each of 3734 participants of European or African ancestry in the Exome Sequencing Project. We conducted tests to determine whether rare mutations in coding sequence, individually or in aggregate within a gene, were associated with plasma triglyceride levels. For mutations associated with triglyceride levels, we subsequently evaluated their association with the risk of coronary heart disease in 110,970 persons. An aggregate of rare mutations in the gene encoding apolipoprotein C3 (APOC3) was associated with lower plasma triglyceride levels. Among the four mutations that drove this result, three were loss-of-function mutations: a nonsense mutation (R19X) and two splice-site mutations (IVS2+1G→A and IVS3+1G→T). The fourth was a missense mutation (A43T). Approximately 1 in 150 persons in the study was a heterozygous carrier of at least one of these four mutations. Triglyceride levels in the carriers were 39% lower than levels in noncarriers (Pdisease among 498 carriers of any rare APOC3 mutation was 40% lower than the risk among 110,472 noncarriers (odds ratio, 0.60; 95% confidence interval, 0.47 to 0.75; P=4×10(-6)). Rare mutations that disrupt APOC3 function were associated with lower levels of plasma triglycerides and APOC3. Carriers of these mutations were found to have a reduced risk of coronary heart disease. (Funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and others.).

  12. Hematocrit and plasma chemistry values in adult collared scops owls (Otus lettia) and crested serpent eagles (Spilornis cheela hoya).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Fang-Tse; Lin, Pei-I; Chang, Geng-Ruei; Wang, Hsien-Chi; Hsu, Tien-Huan

    2012-07-01

    In this study, we report hematocrit and plasma chemistry values for adult captive collared scops owls (Otus lettia) and crested serpent eagles (Spilornis cheela hoya). In particular, we address the gender-specific differences within these values. We measured hematocrit (HCT) and plasma chemistry values for uric acid (UA), plasma urea nitrogen (BUN), total protein (TP), albumin (ALB), glucose (GLU), cholesterol (CHO), triglyceride (TG), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin (TBIL), creatine (CRE), creatine phosphokinase (CPK), amylase (AMY), calcium (CA), ionic phosphorous (IP) and sodium (NA), potassium (K) and chloride ions (CL) in 37 adult captive collared scops owls and 39 adult captive crested serpent eagles. Significant differences between the sexes were found for UA, GLU and CPK in the collared scope owls. UA and GLU concentrations were significantly higher (Pscops owls and crested serpent eagles, making them a potentially useful complementary diagnostic tool for veterinary care of individuals for both species in captivity.

  13. Fenofibrate, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α agonist, alters triglyceride metabolism in enterocytes of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Aki; Slipchenko, Mikhail N; Cheng, Ji-Xin; Buhman, Kimberly K

    2011-03-01

    Fenofibrate, a drug in the fibrate class of amphiphathic carboxylic acids, has multiple blood lipid modifying actions, which are beneficial to the prevention of atherosclerosis. One of its benefits is in lowering fasting and postprandial blood triglyceride (TG) concentrations. The goal of this study was to determine whether the hypotriglyceridemic actions of fenofibrate in the postprandial state include alterations in TG and fatty acid metabolism in the small intestine. We found that the hypotriglyceridemic actions of fenofibrate in the postprandial state of high-fat (HF) fed mice include a decrease in supply of TG for secretion by the small intestine. A decreased supply of TG for secretion was due in part to the decreased dietary fat absorption and increased intestinal fatty acid oxidation in fenofibrate compared to vehicle treated HF fed mice. These results suggest that the effects of fenofibrate on the small intestine play a critical role in the hypotriglyceridemic effects of fenofibrate. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Cerebrospinal fluid neurofilament light chain as a biomarker of neurodegeneration in the Tg4510 and MitoPark mouse models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clement, Amalie; Mitchelmore, Cathy; Andersson, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    disorders like Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD) and tauopathies. We hypothesized that CSF neurofilament light (NF-L) can be used to track progression of neurodegeneration and potentially monitor the efficacy of novel therapeutic agents in preclinical development. To substantiate this, we...... examined whether changes in NF-L levels in brain, plasma, and CSF reflect the changing disease status of preclinical models of neurodegeneration. Using Western Blot and ELISA we characterized NF-L and disease-related proteins in brain, CSF and plasma samples from Tg4510 mice (tauopathy/AD), MitoPark mice...... (PD), and their age-matched control littermates. We found that CSF NF-L clearly discriminates Tg4510 from control littermates, which was not observed for the MitoPark model. However, both Tg4510 and MitoPark showed altered expression and solubilization of NFs compared to control littermates. We found...

  15. Triglycerides to High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Ratio Can Predict Impaired Glucose Tolerance in Young Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Do Kyeong; Lee, Hyejin; Sung, Yeon Ah; Oh, Jee Young

    2016-11-01

    The triglycerides to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) ratio could be related to insulin resistance (IR). We previously reported that Korean women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) had a high prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). We aimed to determine the cutoff value of the TG/HDL-C ratio for predicting IR and to examine whether the TG/HDL-C ratio is useful for identifying individuals at risk of IGT in young Korean women with PCOS. We recruited 450 women with PCOS (24±5 yrs) and performed a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). IR was assessed by a homeostasis model assessment index over that of the 95th percentile of regular-cycling women who served as the controls (n=450, 24±4 yrs). The cutoff value of the TG/HDL-C ratio for predicting IR was 2.5 in women with PCOS. Among the women with PCOS who had normal fasting glucose (NFG), the prevalence of IGT was significantly higher in the women with PCOS who had a high TG/HDL-C ratio compared with those with a low TG/HDL-C ratio (15.6% vs. 5.6%, p2.5 are recommended to be administered an OGTT to detect IGT even if they have NFG.

  16. Adipose triglyceride lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase are the major enzymes in adipose tissue triacylglycerol catabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweiger, Martina; Schreiber, Renate; Haemmerle, Guenter; Lass, Achim; Fledelius, Christian; Jacobsen, Poul; Tornqvist, Hans; Zechner, Rudolf; Zimmermann, Robert

    2006-12-29

    The mobilization of free fatty acids from adipose triacylglycerol (TG) stores requires the activities of triacylglycerol lipases. In this study, we demonstrate that adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) are the major enzymes contributing to TG breakdown in in vitro assays and in organ cultures of murine white adipose tissue (WAT). To differentiate between ATGL- and HSL-specific activities in cytosolic preparations of WAT and to determine the relative contribution of these TG hydrolases to the lipolytic catabolism of fat, mutant mouse models lacking ATGL or HSL and a mono-specific, small molecule inhibitor for HSL (76-0079) were used. We show that 76-0079 had no effect on TG catabolism in HSL-deficient WAT but, in contrast, essentially abolished free fatty acid mobilization in ATGL-deficient fat. CGI-58, a recently identified coactivator of ATGL, stimulates TG hydrolase activity in wild-type and HSL-deficient WAT but not in ATGL-deficient WAT, suggesting that ATGL is the sole target for CGI-58-mediated activation of adipose lipolysis. Together, ATGL and HSL are responsible for more than 95% of the TG hydrolase activity present in murine WAT. Additional known or unknown lipases appear to play only a quantitatively minor role in fat cell lipolysis.

  17. The Hyplip2 locus causes hypertriglyceridemia by decreased clearance of triglycerides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moen, Corina J. A.; Tholens, Aart P.; Voshol, Peter J.; de Haan, Willeke; Havekes, Louis M.; Gargalovic, Peter; Lusis, Aldons J.; Frants, Rune R.; Hofker, Marten H.; Rensen, Patrick C. N.

    2007-01-01

    The Hyplip2 congenic mouse strain contains part of chromosome 15 from MRL/MpJ on the BALB/cJ background. Hyplip2 mice show increased plasma levels of cholesterol and predominantly triglycerides (TGs) and are susceptible to diet-induced atherosclerosis. This study aimed at elucidation of the

  18. Effects of modifying triglycerides and triglyceride-rich lipoproteins on cardiovascular outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Maksoud, Madiha; Sazonov, Vasilisa; Gutkin, Stephen W; Hokanson, John E

    2008-04-01

    Elevated levels of triglycerides (and triglyceride-rich lipoproteins) are increasingly being recognized as treatment targets to lower cardiovascular risk in certain patient subgroups, including individuals receiving HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins). Evidence suggests that these agents reduce the risk of coronary events more markedly in patients with elevated triglycerides and low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). Further, intensive long-term statin therapy that reduces both low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) to triglycerides to cardiovascular events compared with more moderate statin treatment. Long-term therapy with fibric-acid derivatives, which lower triglycerides and raise HDL-C, appears to reduce mortality in patients with elevated triglycerides and/or those experiencing the most marked reductions in triglycerides on therapy. However, randomized clinical trials involving fibrates have not shown consistent benefit. Niacin (nicotinic acid), which is the most effective available medication for raising HDL-C and also lowers triglycerides, has not been as extensively studied as fibrates in long-term randomized controlled trials. Initial reports (eg, Coronary Drug Project) demonstrated a reduction in coronary disease but not total mortality in patients randomized to niacin. However, a 15-year follow-up demonstrated that all-cause mortality was significantly reduced in those initially randomized to niacin. At the pathophysiologic level, elevated triglycerides and triglyceride-rich lipoproteins are recognized as potential factors in driving atherosclerotic progression, particularly in mild-to-moderate lesions. Elevated triglycerides also constitute a plausible therapeutic target in certain patients with coronary heart disease (and/or insulin resistance) but without profound LDL-C elevations. The foregoing and other evidence has led consensus panels to lower the upper limit for "normal" triglycerides to 150 mg/dL. Adequately powered

  19. TG Grammar's Implications for the Foreign Language Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷彩

    2009-01-01

    Chomsky's Transformational-Generative (TG) grammar is another revolution to linguistics after Saussure's strueturalism, and it plays an important role in the modem linguistics. Introducing the research perspective and method of TG grammar, this paper analyses its implications for the foreign language teaching.

  20. MicroRNA-192* impairs adipocyte triglyceride storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mysore, Raghavendra; Zhou, You; Sädevirta, Sanja; Savolainen-Peltonen, Hanna; Nidhina Haridas, P A; Soronen, Jarkko; Leivonen, Marja; Sarin, Antti-Pekka; Fischer-Posovszky, Pamela; Wabitsch, Martin; Yki-Järvinen, Hannele; Olkkonen, Vesa M

    2016-04-01

    We investigated the expression of miR-192* (miR-192-3p) in the visceral adipose tissue (VAT) of obese subjects and its function in cultured human adipocytes. This miRNA is a 3' arm derived from the same pre-miRNA as miR-192 (miR-192-5p) implicated in type 2 diabetes, liver disease and cancers, and is predicted to target key genes in lipid metabolism. In morbidly obese subjects undergoing bariatric surgery preceded by a very low calorie diet, miR-192* in VAT correlated negatively (r=-0.387; p=0.046) with serum triglyceride (TG) and positively with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) concentration (r=0.396; p=0.041). In a less obese patient cohort, the miRNA correlated negatively with the body mass index (r=-0.537; p=0.026). To characterize the function of miR-192*, we overexpressed it in cultured adipocytes and analyzed the expression of adipogenic differentiation markers as well as cellular TG content. Reduced TG and expression of the adipocyte marker proteins aP2 (adipocyte protein 2) and perilipin 1 were observed. The function of miR-192* was further investigated by transcriptomic profiling of adipocytes expressing this miRNA, revealing impacts on key lipogenic genes. A number of the mRNA alterations were validated by qPCR. Western analysis confirmed a marked reduction of the lipogenic enzyme SCD (stearoyl coenzyme A desaturase-1), the fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase ALDH3A2 (aldehyde dehydrogenase 3 family member A2) and the high-density lipoprotein receptor SCARB1 (scavenger receptor B, type I). SCD and ALDH3A2 were demonstrated to be direct targets of miR-192*. To conclude, the present data identify miR-192* as a novel controller of adipocyte differentiation and lipid homeostasis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Cystatin C, CRP, log TG/HDLc and metabolic syndrome are associated with microalbuminuria in hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Rafaela do Socorro Souza e Silva [Pós-Graduação em Ciências Médicas, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil); Vasconcelos, Daniel França [Área de Cardiologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil); Freitas, Eduardo [Departamento de Estatística, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil); Moura, Flavio José Dutra de; Rosa, Tânia Torres; Veiga, Joel Paulo Russomano, E-mail: joelprv@unb.br [Área de Clínica Médica, Nefrologia, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, DF (Brazil)

    2014-01-15

    In patients with systemic hypertension, microalbuminuria is a marker of endothelial damage and is associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease. To determine the factors that may lead to the occurrence of microalbuminuria in hypertensive patients with serum creatinine lower than 1.5 mg/dL. This cross-sectional study included 133 Brazilians with essential hypertension followed up at a hypertension outpatient clinic. Those with serum creatinine higher than 1.5 mg/dL, as well as those with diabetes mellitus, were excluded. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were measured, and body mass index (BMI) and GFR estimated by using the CKD-EPI formula were calculated. The serum levels of the following were assessed: CysC, creatinine, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides, C-reactive protein (CRP) and fasting glucose. Microalbuminuria was determined in 24-hour urine. Hypertensive patients were classified according to the presence of one or more criteria for metabolic syndrome. In a multiple regression analysis, the serum levels of CysC and CRP, the atherogenic index log TG/HDLc and the presence of three or more criteria for metabolic syndrome were positively correlated with microalbuminuria (r{sup 2}: 0.277, p < 0.05). CysC, CRP, log TG/HDLc, and the presence of three or more criteria for metabolic syndrome, regardless of serum creatinine, were associated with microalbuminuria, an early marker of kidney damage and cardiovascular risk in patients with essential hypertension.

  2. Mechanisms of hepatic triglyceride accumulation in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, Yuki; Cohen, David E

    2013-04-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by hepatic lipid accumulation in the absence of excess alcohol intake. NAFLD is the most common chronic liver disease, and ongoing research efforts are focused on understanding the underlying pathobiology of hepatic steatosis with the anticipation that these efforts will identify novel therapeutic targets. Under physiological conditions, the low steady-state triglyceride concentrations in the liver are attributable to a precise balance between acquisition by uptake of non-esterified fatty acids from the plasma and by de novo lipogenesis, versus triglyceride disposal by fatty acid oxidation and by the secretion of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. In NAFLD patients, insulin resistance leads to hepatic steatosis by multiple mechanisms. Greater uptake rates of plasma non-esterified fatty acids are attributable to increased release from an expanded mass of adipose tissue as a consequence of diminished insulin responsiveness. Hyperinsulinemia promotes the transcriptional upregulation of genes that promote de novo lipogenesis in the liver. Increased hepatic lipid accumulation is not offset by fatty acid oxidation or by increased secretion rates of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. This review discusses the molecular mechanisms by which hepatic triglyceride homeostasis is achieved under normal conditions, as well as the metabolic alterations that occur in the setting of insulin resistance and contribute to the pathogenesis of NAFLD.

  3. Association of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and low-density lipoprotein heterogeneity as a risk factor of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease with triglyceride metabolic disorder: a pilot cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, Kiyoshi; Tani, Shigemasa; Atsumi, Wataru; Yagi, Tsukasa; Kawauchi, Kenji; Matsumoto, Naoya; Hirayama, Atsushi

    2017-11-01

    We hypothesized that an increase in plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) might reduce low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particle size in conjunction with triglyceride (TG) metabolism disorder, resulting in an increased risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). This study was carried out as a hospital-based cross-sectional study in 537 consecutive outpatients (mean age: 64 years; men: 71%) with one or more risk factors for ASCVD from April 2014 to October 2014 at the Cardiovascular Center of Nihon University Surugadai Hospital. The estimated LDL-particle size was measured as relative LDL migration using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with the LipoPhor system.The plasma PAI-1 level, including the tissue PA/PAI-1 complex and the active and latent forms of PAI-1, was determined using a latex photometric immunoassay method. A multivariate regression analysis after adjustments for ASCVD risk factors showed that an elevated PAI-1 level was an independent predictor of smaller-sized LDL-particle in both the overall patients population (β=0.209, P<0.0001) and a subset of patients with a serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level lower than 100 mg/dl (β=0.276, P<0.0001). Furthermore, an increased BMI and TG-rich lipoprotein related markers [TG, remnant-like particle cholesterol, apolipoprotein (apo) B, apo C-II, and apo C-III] were found to be independent variables associated with an increased PAI-1 level in multivariate regression models. A statistical analysis of data from nondiabetic patients with well-controlled serum LDL-C levels yielded similar findings. Furthermore, in the 310 patients followed up for at least 6 months, a multiple-logistic regression analysis after adjustments for ASCVD risk factors identified the percent changes of the plasma PAI-1 level in the third tertile compared with those in the first tertile as being independently predictive of decreased LDL-particle size [odds ratio (95% confidence interval): 2.11 (1

  4. The Triglyceride to HDL Ratio and Its Relationship to Insulin Resistance in Pre- and Postpubertal Children: Observation from the Wausau SCHOOL Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Olson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Insulin resistance (IR is a risk factor for ischemic heart disease and diabetes and raises the triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein (TG/HDL ratio in adults, but is not well defined in children. Purpose. To investigate the TG/HDL ratios in children as an IR marker. Methods. Wausau SCHOOL Project assessed 99 prepubertal and 118 postpubertal children. The TG/HDL ratio was correlated with numerous risk factors. Results. TG/HDL ratio was significantly correlated with QUICKI, HOMA-IR, zBMI, waist-to hip ratio, systolic and diastolic BP, LDL size and LDL number. A group of 32 IR children (HOMA-IR > 1 SD from the mean, i.e., >2.45 had significantly higher TG/HDL (3.11 ± 1.77 compared to non-IR children (1.86 ± 0.75. A TG/HDL ratio of ≥2.0 identified 32 of the 40 children deemed IR by HOMA-IR (>2.45 with a sensitivity of 0.80 and a specificity of 0.66. Children with TG/HDL ratio ≥3 were heavier and had higher BP, glucose, HOMA-IR, LDL number, and lower HDL level, QUICKI, and LDL size, regardless of pubertal status. Conclusion. The TG/HDL ratio is strongly associated with IR in children, and with higher BMI, waist hip ratio, BP, and more athrogenic lipid profile.

  5. [Adipose triglyceride lipase regulates adipocyte lipolysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chong; Xu, Guo-Heng

    2008-01-01

    Obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes are associated with elevated concentration of circulating free fatty acids (FFAs), which are critically governed by the process of triglyceride lipolysis in adipocytes. Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) and adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) are two major enzymes in the control of triacylglycerol hydrolysis in adipose tissue. ATGL expressed predominantly in white adipose tissue specifically initiates triacylglycerol hydrolysis to generate diacylglycerols and FFA, a role distinguished from HSL that mainly hydrolyzes diacylglycerols. The transcription of ATGL is regulated by several factors. ATGL activity is regulated by CGI-58. Under basal conditions, interaction of CGI-58 with a lipid droplet associating protein, perilipin, results in an inactivation of ATGL activity. During PKA-stimulated lipolysis, CGI-58 is released from phosphorylated perilipin and in turn, binds to ATGL. This action facilitates triglyceride lipolysis. This review focuses on the regulation and function of ATGL in adipose lipolysis and metabolism.

  6. Ikkefastende triglycerider og risiko for iskamisk apopleksi--sekundaerpublikation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freiberg, Jacob J; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Jensen, Jan Skov

    2009-01-01

    The role of triglycerides in the risk of ischemic stroke remains controversial. We tested the hypothesis that increased levels of nonfasting triglycerides are associated with ischemic stroke in the general population. Men with a nonfasting triglyceride level 5 mmol/l had a multivariable, adjusted...... hazard ratio for ischemic stroke of 2.5 (95% confidence interval: 1.3-4.8) compared with men with a nonfasting triglyceride level triglycerides is associated with risk of ischemic stroke...

  7. [Nonfasting triglycerides and risk of ischemic stroke--secondary publication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Freiberg, J.J.; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A.; Jensen, J.S.

    2009-01-01

    The role of triglycerides in the risk of ischemic stroke remains controversial. We tested the hypothesis that increased levels of nonfasting triglycerides are associated with ischemic stroke in the general population. Men with a nonfasting triglyceride level 5 mmol/l had a multivariable, adjusted...... hazard ratio for ischemic stroke of 2.5 (95% confidence interval: 1.3-4.8) compared with men with a nonfasting triglyceride level triglycerides is associated with risk of ischemic stroke Udgivelsesdato...

  8. Comparability of skinfold thickness to DXA whole-body total fat in their associations with serum triglycerides in youths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addo, O Y; Pereira, M A; Himes, J H

    2012-09-01

    To determine the comparability of triceps and subscapular skinfold thicknesses with dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) whole-body total fat (kg) in relation to serum triglyceride (TG) levels and increased risk of elevated TG levels, and identified optimum skinfold cutoffs for screening purposes in US adolescents. Data from triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness, DXA whole-body total fat and serum TGs were obtained from 1505 US adolescents ages 12.00-17.99 years, who participated in two continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) cycles 2001-2004. Study associations were examined with linear and logistic models, and ROC (receiver operating characteristic) analyses were used to derive skinfold cutoffs for identifying the risk of elevated TG levels. Using area under the curves (AUCs) as metrics of prediction accuracy (with bootstrapped 95% CIs), no significant differences were found between skinfolds and DXA logistic models for predicting elevated TG levels. Similarly, skinfold and DXA models had comparable precision in predicting continuous serum TG from bootstrapped root mean squared errors for both sexes. Population-adjusted marginal mean estimates indicated that youths whose skinfolds are in the top quartile had TG levels within 83-108 mg/dl. Skinfold cutoffs for predicting elevated estimated TG using ROC analyses showed that cutoffs decreased with age and ranged from 13 to 30 mm for ages 12-17, in yearly intervals. Skinfold thicknesses were comparable to DXA whole-body total fat in predicting serum TG levels. These skinfold cutoffs could be used in practical settings as a first pass screener for identifying US adolescents at risk of elevated serum TGs.

  9. Myocardial triglyceride content in patients with left ventricular hypertrophy: comparison between hypertensive heart disease and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sai, Eiryu; Shimada, Kazunori; Yokoyama, Takayuki; Hiki, Makoto; Sato, Shuji; Hamasaki, Nozomi; Maruyama, Masaki; Morimoto, Ryoko; Miyazaki, Tetsuro; Fujimoto, Shinichiro; Tamura, Yoshifumi; Aoki, Shigeki; Watada, Hirotaka; Kawamori, Ryuzo; Daida, Hiroyuki

    2017-02-01

    Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) enables the assessment of myocardial triglyceride (TG) content, which is reported to be associated with cardiac dysfunction and morphology accompanied by metabolic disorder and cardiac hemodynamic status. The clinical usefulness of myocardial TG content measurements in patients with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) has not been fully investigated. We examined whether myocardial TG content assessed by (1)H-MRS was useful for diagnosis in patients with LVH. To quantify myocardial TG content, we conducted (1)H-MRS in 35 subjects with LVH. Left ventricular function was measured by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. Patients were assigned to a hypertensive heart disease (HHD, n = 10) or hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM, n = 25) group based on the histology and/or late gadolinium enhancement pattern. The myocardial TG content was significantly higher in the HHD group than in the HCM group (2.14 ± 1.29 vs. 1.09 ± 0.72 %, P < 0.001). Myocardial TG content were significantly and negatively correlated with LV mass (r = -0.41, P < 0.04) and stroke volume (r = -0.64, P < 0.05) in the HCM group and HHD group, respectively. In a multivariate analysis, LV mass volume and diagnosis of HCM or HHD were independent factors of the myocardial TG content. The results suggest that myocardial metabolism may differ between HCM and HHD patients and that measurement of myocardial TG content by (1)H-MRS may be useful for evaluating the myocardial metabolic features of LVH.

  10. Triglyceride-based screening tests fail to recognize cardiometabolic disease in African immigrant and African-American men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Sophia S K; Ramsey, Natalie L M; Castillo, Darleen C; Ricks, Madia; Sumner, Anne E

    2013-02-01

    The prevalence of cardiometabolic disease in Africa now rivals that of Western nations. Therefore, screening programs that lead to effective prevention of cardiometabolic disease in Africans is imperative. Most screening tests for cardiometabolic disease use triglyceride (TG) levels as a criterion. However, the failure rate of TG-based screening tests in African Americans is high. In Africans, the efficacy of TG-based screening tests is unknown. Our goal was to determine the association between hypertriglyceridemia (TG ≥150 mg/dL) and cardiometabolic disease in African and African-American men. This was a cross-sectional study of 155 men (80 African immigrants, 75 African Americans) [age, 35±9 years, mean±standard deviation (SD), body mass index (BMI) 28.5±5.2 kg/m(2)] who self-identified as healthy. Lipid profiles were performed. Glucose tolerance and insulin resistance was determined by oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT) and the insulin sensitivity index (S(I)), respectively. Cardiometabolic disease was defined by four possible subtypes--prediabetes, diabetes, insulin resistance, or metabolic triad [hyperinsulinemia, hyperapolipoprotein B, small low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles]. TG levels were higher in men with cardiometabolic disease than without (88±43 versus 61±26 mg/dL, Pdisease had TG ≥150 mg/dL. Even within each cardiometabolic disease subtype, the prevalence of TG ≥150 mg/dL was disease in men of African descent. Therefore TG-based screening tests fail to identify both African immigrants and African-American men with cardiometabolic disease. As a consequence, the opportunity for early intervention and prevention is lost.

  11. Association of arterial stiffness and diabetes with triglycerides-to-HDL cholesterol ratio for Japanese men: the Nagasaki Islands Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Yuji; Nakazato, Mio; Sekita, Takaharu; Kadota, Koichiro; Yamasaki, Hironori; Takamura, Noboru; Aoyagi, Kiyoshi; Maeda, Takahiro

    2013-06-01

    Although many studies have reported that elevated serum triglycerides to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG-HDL) ratios constitute a risk for insulin resistance and increased arterial stiffness, no study has clarified as yet the association, in terms of the TG-HDL ratio, between diabetes and increased arterial stiffness evaluated by means of carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI). To investigate this association, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 1344 Japanese men aged 36-79 years undergoing a general health check. We investigated the associations between atherosclerosis/arterial stiffness, evaluated by means of CIMT and CAVI, and diabetes for all subjects, who were divided into tertiles according to TG-HDL levels. Diabetes was defined as HbA1c (NGSP) ≥6.5%, and/or initiation of glucose-lowering medication or insulin therapy. Of the 130 diabetes patients identified in the cohort, 56 patients had high TG-HDL (high TG-HDL diabetes) and 43 had low TG-HDL (low TG-HDL diabetes). We found that only diabetic patients with high TG-HDL were at a significant risk for atherosclerosis (diagnosed as CIMT ≥ 1.1 mm) and increased arterial stiffness (diagnosed as CAVI ≥ 8.0). The multivariable-adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals of atherosclerosis and increased arterial stiffness for diabetes were 2.67 (95%CI: 1.35-5.28) and 2.36 (95%CI: 1.01-5.50), for total TG-HDL diabetes 2.57 (95%CI: 1.32-5.02) and 3.56 (95%CI: 1.50-8.46) for high TG-HDL diabetes, and 1.17 (95%CI: 0.52-2.63) and 0.80 (95%CI: 0.33-1.90) for low TG-HDL diabetes, respectively. Diabetes, especially high TG-HDL diabetes, constitutes a significant risk for increased arterial stiffness and atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Variable (Tg, Ts) Measurements of Alkane Dissociative Sticking Coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valadez, Leticia; Dewitt, Kristy; Abbott, Heather; Kolasinski, Kurt; Harrision, Ian

    2006-03-01

    Dissociative sticking coefficients S(Tg, Ts) for CH4 and C2H6 on Pt(111) have been measured as a function of gas temperature (Tg) and surface temperature (Ts) using an effusive molecular beam. Microcanonical unimolecular rate theory (MURT) was employed to extract transition state characteristics [e.g., E0(CH4) = 52.5±3.5 kJ/mol-1 and E0(C2H6) = 26.5±3 kJ/mol-1]. MURT allows our S(Tg, Ts) values to be directly compared to other supersonic molecular beam and thermal equilibrium sticking measurements. The S(Tg, Ts) depend strongly on Ts, however, only for CH4 is a strong Tg dependence observed. The fairly weak Tg dependence for C2H6 suggests that vibrational mode specific behavior and/or molecular rotations play stronger roles in the dissociative chemisorption of C2H6 than they do for CH4. Interestingly, thermal S(Tg=Ts) predictions based on MURT modeling of our CH4/Pt(111) data are three orders of magnitude higher than recent thermal equilibrium measurements on supported Pt nanocrystallite catalysts [J. M. Wei, E. Iglesia, J. Phys. Chem. B 108, 4094 (2004)].

  13. Mangiferin Decreases Plasma Free Fatty Acids through Promoting Its Catabolism in Liver by Activation of AMPK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yucun; Li, Songtao; Na, Lixin; Feng, Rennan; Liu, Liyan; Li, Ying; Sun, Changhao

    2012-01-01

    Mangiferin has been shown to have the effect of improving dyslipidemia. Plasma free fatty acids (FFA) are closely associated with blood lipid metabolism as well as many diseases including metabolic syndrome. This study is to investigate whether mangiferin has effects on FFA metabolism in hyperlipidemic rats. Wistar rats were fed a high-fat diet and administered mangiferin simultaneously for 6 weeks. Mangiferin (50, 100, 150 mg/kg BW) decreased dose-dependently FFA and triglycerides (TG) levels in plasma, and their accumulations in liver, but increased the β-hydroxybutyrate levels in both plasma and liver of hyperlipidemic rats. HepG2 cells were treated with oleic acid (OA, 0.2 mmol/L) to simulate the condition of high level of plasma FFA in vitro, and were treated with different concentrations of mangiferin simultaneously for 24 h. We found that mangiferin significantly increased FFA uptake, significantly decreased intracellular FFA and TG accumulations in HepG2 cells. Mangiferin significantly increased AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation and its downstream proteins involved in fatty acid translocase (CD36) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1), but significantly decreased acyl-CoA: diacylgycerol acyltransferase 2 (DGAT2) expression and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) activity by increasing its phosphorylation level in both in vivo and in vitro studies. Furthermore, these effects were reversed by Compound C, an AMPK inhibitor in HepG2 cells. For upstream of AMPK, mangiferin increased AMP/ATP ratio, but had no effect on LKB1 phosphorylation. In conclusion, mangiferin decreased plasma FFA levels through promoting FFA uptake and oxidation, inhibiting FFA and TG accumulations by regulating the key enzymes expression in liver through AMPK pathway. Therefore, mangiferin is a possible beneficial natural compound for metabolic syndrome by improving FFA metabolism. PMID:22292039

  14. Mangiferin decreases plasma free fatty acids through promoting its catabolism in liver by activation of AMPK.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yucun Niu

    Full Text Available Mangiferin has been shown to have the effect of improving dyslipidemia. Plasma free fatty acids (FFA are closely associated with blood lipid metabolism as well as many diseases including metabolic syndrome. This study is to investigate whether mangiferin has effects on FFA metabolism in hyperlipidemic rats. Wistar rats were fed a high-fat diet and administered mangiferin simultaneously for 6 weeks. Mangiferin (50, 100, 150 mg/kg BW decreased dose-dependently FFA and triglycerides (TG levels in plasma, and their accumulations in liver, but increased the β-hydroxybutyrate levels in both plasma and liver of hyperlipidemic rats. HepG2 cells were treated with oleic acid (OA, 0.2 mmol/L to simulate the condition of high level of plasma FFA in vitro, and were treated with different concentrations of mangiferin simultaneously for 24 h. We found that mangiferin significantly increased FFA uptake, significantly decreased intracellular FFA and TG accumulations in HepG2 cells. Mangiferin significantly increased AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK phosphorylation and its downstream proteins involved in fatty acid translocase (CD36 and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1, but significantly decreased acyl-CoA: diacylgycerol acyltransferase 2 (DGAT2 expression and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC activity by increasing its phosphorylation level in both in vivo and in vitro studies. Furthermore, these effects were reversed by Compound C, an AMPK inhibitor in HepG2 cells. For upstream of AMPK, mangiferin increased AMP/ATP ratio, but had no effect on LKB1 phosphorylation. In conclusion, mangiferin decreased plasma FFA levels through promoting FFA uptake and oxidation, inhibiting FFA and TG accumulations by regulating the key enzymes expression in liver through AMPK pathway. Therefore, mangiferin is a possible beneficial natural compound for metabolic syndrome by improving FFA metabolism.

  15. The Effects of Eight-Week Treatment with High Dose Vitamin E on Serum Cholesterol and Triglyceride Level of Patients with Schizophrenia on Olanzapine: A Placebo Controlled Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firoozeh Raisi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available "n  "n Objective: To study the effects of a high dose alpha-tocopherol on serum total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, and the high density lipoprotein (HDL levels of patients with schizophrenia receiving olanzapine. "nMethod: Thirty six adults diagnosed with schizophrenia based on DSM-IV who were taking olanzapine for a minimum of thirty days entered this eight-week, double blind, placebo-controlled study. Patients were randomized to receive alpha-tocopherol 400IU or placebo capsules twice a day for 2 weeks, then three times a day for 6 more weeks. Fasting total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride(TG,and HDL levels were measured at the baseline and weeks 4 and 8. "nResults: "nTC, TG and HDL levels did not change significantly during this study. There were no significant differences in TC, TG and HDL levels between the two groups at the baseline and weeks 4 and 8. "nConclusion: High-dose vitamin may not improve triglyceride and cholesterol levels in patients who are already on olanzapine. Further studies with greater number of patients and for a longer duration are needed.

  16. Quantitative trait loci that control plasma lipid levels in an F2 intercross between C57BL/6J and DDD.Cg-A(y) inbred mouse strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suto, Jun-ichi

    2012-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to characterize plasma lipid phenotypes and dissect the genetic basis of plasma lipid levels in an obese DDD.Cg-A(y) mouse strain. Plasma triglyceride (TG) levels were significantly higher in the DDD.Cg-A(y) strain than in the B6.Cg-A(y) strain. In contrast, plasma total-cholesterol (CHO) levels did not substantially differ between the two strains. As a rule, the A(y) allele significantly increased TG levels, but did not increase CHO levels. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses for plasma TG and CHO levels were performed in two types of F(2) female mice [F(2)A(y) (F(2) mice carrying the A(y) allele) and F(2) non- A(y) mice (F(2) mice without the A(y) allele)] produced by crossing C57BL/6J females and DDD.Cg-A(y) males. Single QTL scan identified one significant QTL for TG levels on chromosome 1, and two significant QTLs for CHO levels on chromosomes 1 and 8. When the marker nearest to the QTL on chromosome 1 was used as covariates, four additional significant QTLs for CHO levels were identified on chromosomes 5, 6, and 17 (two loci). In contrast, consideration of the agouti locus genotype as covariates did not detect additional QTLs. DDD.Cg-A(y) showed a low CHO level, although it had Apoa2(b), which was a CHO-increasing allele at the Apoa2 locus. This may have been partly due to the presence of multiple QTLs, which were associated with decreased CHO levels, on chromosome 8.

  17. Identifikasi dan klasifikasi bakteri amilolitik isolat TG12, TG19, dan TG31 penyebab kemasaman pada tepung sagu basah berdasarkan analisis gen 16SrDNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Gunaedi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available 16SrDNA gene were known essentialy for procaryotic life involved bacteria. The gene very concerved such as usefull for bacterial identification and classification in phylogeny tree constructed. The object of this research were identified and cllassified amylolitic bacteria TG12, TG19 and TG31 isolates, causers sourness on raw starch sago by 16SrDNA gene sequences analysis approach. The native isolates from raw starch sago under traditionality processing arround Jayapura and selected depend on activity amylolitic and organic acid productivity. Before DNA genom extraction, isolates were throught out generic assignment analysis. Futhermore DNA genom were amplified and purified by PCR with 27f and 1529r primers. The pure of DNA was sequenced by ABI PRISM 310 DNA sequencer with internal primers 27f, 357f, 790f and 1230f. The generic assignment resulted those isolates related with Bacillus. The 16S rDNA data were aligned with corresponding available Bacillus sequences retrieved from the NCBI data base using the CLUSTAL X software. Phylogeny tree was constructed by PHYLIP programme and visualized by Treeview programme. Phylogenetic trees were and the extended the value of 16S rDNA sequencing in amylolitic bacteria causing sourness on raw starch sago. Completed 16S rDNA sequence data showed that two of the tested isolate TG12 formed a distinct center of diversity with Bacillus substilis DSM 10 AJ276351, isolate TG19 with Bacillus substilis strain 1778 EU982544 and TG31 similar genetic with Bacillus cereus strain WJL-063 FJ527559. Identification based on 16S rDNA gene sequences of amylolitic bacteria causing sourness on raw sago starch provided a powerfull way of uncovering genetic of strain within the spesies Bacillus substilis and Bacillus cereus.

  18. Hydrogen sulfide reduces serum triglyceride by activating liver autophagy via the AMPK-mTOR pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li; Zhang, Song; Yu, Chengyuan; Pan, Zhenwei; Liu, Yang; Zhao, Jing; Wang, Xiaoyu; Yun, Fengxiang; Zhao, Hongwei; Yan, Sen; Yuan, Yue; Wang, Dingyu; Ding, Xue; Liu, Guangzhong; Li, Wenpeng; Zhao, Xuezhu; Liu, Zhaorui; Li, Yue

    2015-12-01

    Autophagy plays an important role in liver triglyceride (TG) metabolism. Inhibition of autophagy could reduce the clearance of TG in the liver. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a potent stimulator of autophagic flux. Recent studies showed H2S is protective against hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) and noalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), while the mechanism remains to be explored. Here, we tested the hypothesis that H2S reduces serum TG level and ameliorates NAFLD by stimulating liver autophagic flux by the AMPK-mTOR pathway. The level of serum H2S in patients with HTG was lower than that of control subjects. Sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS, H2S donor) markedly reduced serum TG levels of male C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD), which was abolished by coadministration of chloroquine (CQ), an inhibitor of autophagic flux. In HFD mice, administration of NaSH increased the LC3BII-to-LC3BI ratio and decreased the p62 protein level. Meanwhile, NaSH increased the phosphorylation of AMPK and thus reduced the phosphorylation of mTOR in a Western blot study. In cultured LO2 cells, high-fat treatment reduced the ratio of LC3BII to LC3BI and the phosphorylation of AMPK, which were reversed by the coadministration of NaSH. Knockdown of AMPK by siRNA in LO2 cells blocked the autophagic enhancing effects of NaSH. The same qualitative effect was observed in AMPKα2(-/-) mice. These results for the first time demonstrated that H2S could reduce serum TG level and ameliorate NAFLD by activating liver autophagy via the AMPK-mTOR pathway.

  19. Central nervous system control of triglyceride metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerling, Johanna Janetta (Janine)

    2013-01-01

    This thesis describes the role of the brain in the regulation of peripheral triglyceride metabolism, in the context of the metabolic syndrome. Based on various pharmacological studies we described the role of two hormones, insulin and glucagon-like peptide-1, in the production and clearance of

  20. Polymerization of epoxidized triglycerides with fluorosulfonic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of triglycerides as agri-based renewable raw materials for the development of new products is highly desirable in view of uncertain future petroleum prices. A new method of polymerizing epoxidized soybean oil has been devised with the use of fluorosulfonic acid. Depending on the reaction con...

  1. Central nervous system control of triglyceride metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerling, Johanna Janetta (Janine)

    2013-01-01

    This thesis describes the role of the brain in the regulation of peripheral triglyceride metabolism, in the context of the metabolic syndrome. Based on various pharmacological studies we described the role of two hormones, insulin and glucagon-like peptide-1, in the production and clearance of trigl

  2. Long-term therapeutic silencing of miR-33 increases circulating triglyceride levels and hepatic lipid accumulation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goedeke, Leigh; Salerno, Alessandro; Ramírez, Cristina M; Guo, Liang; Allen, Ryan M; Yin, Xiaoke; Langley, Sarah R; Esau, Christine; Wanschel, Amarylis; Fisher, Edward A; Suárez, Yajaira; Baldán, Angel; Mayr, Manuel; Fernández-Hernando, Carlos

    2014-09-01

    Plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels show a strong inverse correlation with atherosclerotic vascular disease. Previous studies have demonstrated that antagonism of miR-33 in vivo increases circulating HDL and reverse cholesterol transport (RCT), thereby reducing the progression and enhancing the regression of atherosclerosis. While the efficacy of short-term anti-miR-33 treatment has been previously studied, the long-term effect of miR-33 antagonism in vivo remains to be elucidated. Here, we show that long-term therapeutic silencing of miR-33 increases circulating triglyceride (TG) levels and lipid accumulation in the liver. These adverse effects were only found when mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Mechanistically, we demonstrate that chronic inhibition of miR-33 increases the expression of genes involved in fatty acid synthesis such as acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) and fatty acid synthase (FAS) in the livers of mice treated with miR-33 antisense oligonucleotides. We also report that anti-miR-33 therapy enhances the expression of nuclear transcription Y subunit gamma (NFYC), a transcriptional regulator required for DNA binding and full transcriptional activation of SREBP-responsive genes, including ACC and FAS. Taken together, these results suggest that persistent inhibition of miR-33 when mice are fed a high-fat diet (HFD) might cause deleterious effects such as moderate hepatic steatosis and hypertriglyceridemia. These unexpected findings highlight the importance of assessing the effect of chronic inhibition of miR-33 in non-human primates before we can translate this therapy to humans. © 2014 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  3. Hepatic diseases related to triglyceride metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera-Méndez, Asdrubal; Álvarez-Delgado, Carolina; Hernández-Godinez, Daniel; Fernandez-Mejia, Cristina

    2013-10-01

    Triglycerides participate in key metabolic functions such as energy storage, thermal insulation and as deposit for essential and non-essential fatty acids that can be used as precursors for the synthesis of structural and functional phospholipids. The liver is a central organ in the regulation of triglyceride metabolism, and it participates in triglyceride synthesis, export, uptake and oxidation. The metabolic syndrome and associated diseases are among the main concerns of public health worldwide. One of the metabolic syndrome components is impaired triglyceride metabolism. Diseases associated with the metabolic syndrome promote the appearance of hepatic alterations e.g., non-alcoholic steatosis, steatohepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis and cancer. In this article, we review the molecular actions involved in impaired triglyceride metabolism and its association with hepatic diseases. We discuss mechanisms that reconcile the chronic inflammation and insulin resistance, and new concepts on the role of intestinal micro-flora permeability and proliferation in fatty liver etiology. We also describe the participation of oxidative stress in the progression of events leading from steatosis to steatohepatitis and fibrosis. Finally, we provide information regarding the mechanisms that link fatty acid accumulation during steatosis with changes in growth factors and cytokines that lead to the development of neoplastic cells. One of the main medical concerns vis-a-vis hepatic diseases is the lack of symptoms at the onset of the illness and, as result, its late diagnosis. The understandings of the molecular mechanisms that underlie hepatic diseases could help design strategies towards establishing markers for their accurate and timely diagnosis.

  4. Interactions of the apolipoprotein C-III 3238C>G polymorphism and alcohol consumption on serum triglyceride levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruixing Yin

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both apolipoprotein (Apo C-III gene polymorphism and alcohol consumption have been associated with increased serum triglyceride (TG levels, but their interactions on serum TG levels are not well known. The present study was undertaken to detect the interactions of the ApoC-III 3238C>G (rs5128 polymorphism and alcohol consumption on serum TG levels. Methods A total of 516 unrelated nondrinkers and 514 drinkers aged 15-89 were randomly selected from our previous stratified randomized cluster samples. Genotyping of the ApoC-III 3238C>G was performed by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism combined with gel electrophoresis, and then confirmed by direct sequencing. Interactions of the ApoC-III 3238C>G genotype and alcohol consumption was assessed by using a cross-product term between genotypes and the aforementioned factor. Results Serum total cholesterol (TC, TG, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, ApoA-I and ApoB levels were higher in drinkers than in nondrinkers (P P P P P P P P Conclusions This study suggests that the ApoC-III 3238CG heterozygotes benefited more from alcohol consumption than CC and GG homozygotes in increasing serum levels of HDL-C, ApoA-I, and the ratio of ApoA-I to ApoB, and lowering serum levels of TC and TG.

  5. Low-fasting triglyceride levels are associated with non-invasive markers of advanced liver fibrosis among adults in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Z G; Tsugawa, Y; Tapper, E B; Lai, M; Afdhal, N; Robson, S C; Mukamal, K J

    2015-07-01

    Elevated fasting triglyceride is often associated with metabolic syndrome and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the most common form of chronic liver disease. On the other hand, as liver disease progresses, patients may develop hepatocellular dysfunction that impairs triglyceride production. To test the hypothesis that lower fasting triglyceride levels may paradoxically indicate more advanced liver disease. A cross-sectional analysis of 11 947 adults aged 20 years or older without chronic viral hepatitis from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2010 was performed to analyze the relationships between fasting triglyceride levels and five validated non-invasive indices of liver fibrosis, including Fibrosis 4 Score (FIB4), NAFLD Fibrosis Score (NFS), Ast-Platelet Ration Index, AST/ALT ratio and BARD. Low-fasting triglyceride levels were consistently associated with elevated liver fibrosis indices. Individuals in the lowest quintile of triglycerides (TG) had an adjusted odds ratio (OR) of 3.0 (95% CI, 1.7-5.2; P triglyceride levels were inversely associated with liver fibrosis indicators in American adults, especially among white men. Our findings suggest that sequential lipid measurements may serve as a useful disease marker in the management of chronic liver disease patients. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Blood clearance and tissue uptake of intravenous lipid emulsions containing long-chain and medium-chain triglycerides and fish oil in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treskova, E; Carpentier, Y A; Ramakrishnan, R; Al-Haideri, M; Seo, T; Deckelbaum, R J

    1999-01-01

    Increasing interest in using different triglycerides (TGs) for specific clinical applications raised the question as to how the emulsion TG composition would affect blood clearance and emulsion delivery to hepatic and extrahepatic tissues. Emulsions used were long-chain soy oil TG (long-chain triglyceride [LCT]), LCT/ medium-chain triglyceride (MCT; 1:1, wt/wt), LCT/MCT/C/omega-3 (5:4:1, wt/wt) and pure fish oil (omega-3 TG) labeled with non-degradable 3H-cholesteryl oleoyl ether (3H-CE) as a particle marker. Mice (C57BL/6J) were injected with four different commercial emulsions at a nonsaturating dose of 0.4 mg TG/20 to 25 g per mouse to obtain 1st order kinetics. Blood was sampled at 0.5, 2, 5, 10, 15, and 25 minutes, and the fractional catabolic rate was determined by fitting a straight line to the logarithm of the blood 3H-CE radioactivity. Retention of 3H-CE for each tissue at 25 minutes reflected organ uptake of the emulsion. Blood clearance of pure omega-3 TG (10.40% +/- 0.54% pools/h; mean +/- SE) was significantly slower than that of LCT, LCT/MCT, and LCT/MCT/omega-3 emulsion (18.9 +/- 0.6 pools/h, 17.0 +/- 0.96 pools/h, 16.5 +/- 1.08 pools/h, respectively) (p < .01). Based on 3H-CE uptake, LCT, LCT/MCT, and omega-3 TG emulsions showed similar delivery to liver (39% +/- 3.9%, 46% +/- 3.6%, 34% +/- 3.2%). Liver uptake of LCT/MCT/omega-3, (23% +/- 2.2%) was less than LCT/MCT (46% +/-3.6%, p < .0001) and LCT (39% +/- 3.9%, p = .002). Results indicate slow blood clearance of pure omega-3 TG emulsion from the blood compared with emulsion in which omega-3 TG was mixed with LCT and MCT. Earlier data showed that omega-3 TG are poorly hydrolyzed in extracellular media and therefore are delivered to tissues as part of the core of emulsion remnants. Thus, our data suggest that the incorporation of omega-3 TG with LCT/MCT will result in greater delivery of omega-3 fatty acids to extrahepatic tissue, which could be important in modulating immune and other responses.

  7. A Sensitive Tg Assay or rhTSH Stimulated Tg : What's the Best in the Long-Term Follow-Up of Patients with Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Persoon, Adrienne C. M.; Jager, Pieter L.; Sluiter, Wim J.; Plukker, John T. M.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H. R.; Links, Thera P.

    2007-01-01

    Sensitivity of thyroglobulin (Tg) measurement in the follow-up of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) can be optimized by using a sensitive Tg assay and rhTSH stimulation. We evaluated the diagnostic yield of a sensitive Tg assay and rhTSH stimulated Tg in the detection of recurrences in the foll

  8. Very low density lipoproteins in intestinal lymph: role in triglyceride and cholesterol transport during fat absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ockner, Robert K.; Hughes, Faith B.; Isselbacher, Kurt J.

    1969-01-01

    The role of nonchylomicron very low density lipoproteins (VLDL, Sf 20-400) in the transport of triglyceride and cholesterol was studied during lipid absorption. Various long chain fatty acids were infused intraduodenally in the form of mixed fatty acid—mono-olein-taurocholate micelles; control animals received saline or taurocholate. As compared with controls, all fatty acids (palmitic, oleic, linoleic) resulted in significant increases in chylomicron (Sf > 400) triglyceride. In addition, palmitic acid resulted in a twofold increase in VLDL triglyceride, whereas with the absorption of oleic or linoleic acid VLDL triglyceride did not change significantly. Differences in triglyceride fatty acid composition between chylomicrons and VLDL were observed during lipid absorption. Although the absolute amount of endogenous cholesterol in intestinal lymph was not significantly affected by lipid absorption under these conditions, its lipoprotein distribution differed substantially among the lipid-infused groups. During palmitate absorption, VLDL cholesterol was similar to that in the taurocholate-infused controls, and was equal to chylomicron cholesterol. In contrast, during oleate and linoleate absorption the VLDL cholesterol fell markedly, and was less than half of the chylomicron cholesterol in these groups. The half-time of plasma survival of VLDL cholesterol-14C was found to be twice that of chylomicron cholesterol-14C. These studies demonstrate that dietary long chain fatty acids differ significantly in their effects upon the transport of triglyceride and cholesterol by lipoproteins of rat intestinal lymph. These findings, together with the observed differences in rates of removal of chylomicrons and VLDL from plasma, suggest that variations in lipoprotein production at the intestinal level may be reflected in differences in the subsequent metabolism of absorbed dietary and endogenous lipids. PMID:5355348

  9. IMRT Commissioning: application of the AAPM's TG-119; Comissionamento de IMRT: aplicacao do TG-119 da AAPM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeppellini, Caroline; Furnari, Laura, E-mail: laurafurnari@hotmail.com [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina. Inst. de Radiologia

    2013-08-15

    In order to verify the commissioning of the planning of intensity-modulated radiation therapy system (IMRT), the TG-119 of the American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) was applied. Using pre defined targets and normal structures, plans were realized, absolute and relative dose were measured with an ionizing chamber and films, and the results were compared with planned values. The maximum deviation of the measurements with the ionization chamber was 3,6%, but, in the total eleven measurements, only two were bigger than the tolerance limit of 3%, recommended by TG-119. The number of points which passed criteria gamma 3% to 3 mm ranged between 96.36% and 99.92%, all measurements were within the recommended 95%. The confidence limits found for both film and for chamber were lower than those achieved in the TG-119. Our results showed a good concordance with TG-119, what means that the system is adequate for clinical applications. (author)

  10. Fluoxetine Decreased Serum Total Cholesterol and Triglyceride Levels in a Hypercholesterolemic Patient with Postpartum Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Khalili

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To report the case of a 28-year old hypercholesterolemic female with postpartum depression, whose triglyceride (TG and total cholesterol (TC levels decreased while being treated with fluoxetine. Method: A 28-year old female, with a diagnosis of major depressive disorder with postpartum onset based on DSM-IV criteria, was hospitalized at a mental health hospital. Her past history included another episode of depression 4 months after giving birth to her second child, which was 12 years prior to her recent episode. Her serum total cholestrol and triglyceride levels were measured prior to the initiation of medication. Then fluoxetine was initiated at a daily dose of 20 mg and had been increased to 40 mg per day at the time of discharge. The lipid profile measurements was repeated at week 4 and 8 following treatment. Results: Total cholesterol level was reduced from 242 mg/dL at baseline to 224 mg/dL at week 4 and to 202 mg/dL at week 8; triglyceride level was decreased from 516 mg/dL to 448 mg/dL at week 4 and to 404 mg/dL at week 8. Conclusions: Fluoxetine may be an appropriate treatment for hyperlipidemic women with postpartum depression..

  11. An intrinsic gut leptin-melanocortin pathway modulates intestinal microsomal triglyceride transfer protein and lipid absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Jahangir; Li, Xiaosong; Chang, Benny Hung-Junn; Chan, Lawrence; Schwartz, Gary J; Chua, Streamson C; Hussain, M Mahmood

    2010-07-01

    Fat is delivered to tissues by apoB-containing lipoproteins synthesized in the liver and intestine with the help of an intracellular chaperone, microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP). Leptin, a hormone secreted by adipose tissue, acts in the brain and on peripheral tissues to regulate fat storage and metabolism. Our aim was to identify the role of leptin signaling in MTP regulation and lipid absorption using several mouse models deficient in leptin receptor (LEPR) signaling and downstream effectors. Mice with spontaneous LEPR B mutations or targeted ablation of LEPR B in proopiomelanocortin (POMC) or agouti gene related peptide (AGRP) expressing cells had increased triglyceride in plasma, liver, and intestine. Furthermore, melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) knockout mice expressed a similar triglyceride phenotype, suggesting that leptin might regulate intestinal MTP expression through the melanocortin pathway. Mechanistic studies revealed that the accumulation of triglyceride in the intestine might be secondary to decreased expression of MTP and lipid absorption in these mice. Surgical and chemical blockade of vagal efferent outflow to the intestine in wild-type mice failed to alter the triglyceride phenotype, demonstrating that central neural control mechanisms were likely not involved in the observed regulation of intestinal MTP. Instead, we found that enterocytes express LEPR, POMC, AGRP, and MC4R. We propose that a peripheral, local gut signaling mechanism involving LEPR B and MC4R regulates intestinal MTP and controls intestinal lipid absorption.

  12. Association of polymorphisms in genes involved in lipoprotein metabolism with plasma concentrations of remnant lipoproteins and HDL subpopulations before and after hormone therapy in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamon-Fava, Stefania; Asztalos, Bela F; Howard, Timothy D; Reboussin, David M; Horvath, Katalin V; Schaefer, Ernst J; Herrington, David M

    2010-02-01

    A high degree of inter-individual variability in plasma lipid level response to hormone therapy (HT) has been reported. Variations in the oestrogen receptor alpha gene (ESR1) and in genes involved in lipid metabolism may explain some of the variability in response to HT. Subjects Postmenopausal Caucasian women (n = 208) participating in a placebo-controlled randomized trial of 3.2 years of hormone therapy (HT). Plasma triglyceride (TG), remnant lipoprotein cholesterol (RLP-C), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels and HDL subpopulations were assessed at baseline and at follow up. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ESR1 and in the ATP binding cassette A1 (ABCA1), cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), hepatic lipase (LIPC), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), and scavenger receptor class B type I (SRB1) genes were assessed for their association with baseline plasma levels and HT-related changes in levels of RLP-C and HDL subpopulations. Carriers of the ESR1 PvuII or IVS1-1505 variants had lower plasma TG concentrations and higher plasma HDL-C and alpha-1 and prealpha-1 HDL particle levels at baseline and showed greater increases in HDL-C, apo A-I and alpha-1 particle levels after HT than wild-type carriers. Carriers of the N291S and D9N variants in the LPL gene had significantly higher remnant lipoproteins and lower alpha-2 HDL particle levels at baseline. The CETP TaqIB SNP was a significant determinant of baseline plasma HDL-C and HDL subpopulation profile. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in ESR1, CETP and LPL had significant effects on baseline plasma levels of TG-rich and HDL subpopulations. With the exception of ESR1 SNPs, variation in genes involved in lipid metabolism has a very modest effect on lipoprotein response to HT.

  13. Association between serum triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio and sarcopenia in elderly Korean males: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Tae-Ha; Kwon, Yu-Jin; Shim, Jae-Yong; Lee, Yong-Jae

    2016-12-01

    We investigated the association between the triglycerides to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL) ratio and sarcopenia in elderly Korean males. We examined the relationship between the TG/HDL ratio and sarcopenia in 879 elderly males ≥60years who participated in the 2010-2011 KNHANES. Sarcopenia was defined as an appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) divided by the weight (%), which is >1 SD below the mean for young adults. The odds ratios (ORs) for sarcopenia were calculated using multiple logistic regression across the TG/HDL ratio quartiles (Q1: ≤1.4, Q2: 1.5-2.4, Q3: 2.5-3.8 and Q4: ≥3.9) after adjusting for confounding variables. The prevalence of sarcopenia significantly increased in accordance with TG/HDL ratio quartiles. Compared with the lowest quartile of the TG/HDL ratio, the corresponding OR (95% CI) of the highest quartile of the TG/HDL ratio for sarcopenia was 2.10 (1.12-3.91) after adjusting for age, body mass index (BMI), cigarette smoking, alcohol intake and physical activity. TG/HDL ratio was positively related with a higher risk of sarcopenia in elderly Korean males. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Use of random forest in FTIR analysis of LDL cholesterol and tri-glycerides for hyperlipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hua-Zhou; Tang, Guo-Qiang; Ai, Wu; Xu, Li-Li; Cai, Ken

    2015-01-01

    A quantitative determination method for the diagnosis of hyperlipidemia was developed using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Random forest (RF) was demonstrated as a potential multivariate algorithm for the FTIR analysis of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and tri-glycerides (TG) in human serum samples. The informative wavebands for LDL-C and TG were selected based on the Gini importance. The selected wavebands were mainly within the fingerprint region. The RF modeling results were better than those derived using PLS in validation process, because the chance for over-fitting was possibly eliminated in RF algorithm. ARF also demonstrated favorable results in the test process. The prospective model exhibited a higher than 90% true prediction in negative/positive properties for male and female samples. These clinical statistical results indicated the optimization of RF algorithm performed accurately in the FTIR determination of LDL-C and TG. RF is evaluated as a promising tool for diagnosing and controlling hyperlipidemia in populations. The parameter optimization methodology is useful in the improving model accuracy using FTIR spectroscopic technology.

  15. Triglyceride accumulation in long-term cultures of adult rat hepatocytes by chronic exposure to Aroclor 1254.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Figueroa, T; Hernández, A; López, M L

    1989-01-01

    The effect of chronic exposure to micromolar concentrations of Aroclor 1254 (Aro) on the hepatic lipid metabolism was studied in long-term cultures of adult rat hepatocytes. Hepatocytes were cocultivated with mitomycin C-treated 3T3 cells and exposed for 2 wk to Aroclor 1254 concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 20 micrograms/ml. The Aro-exposed cultures showed intracytoplasmic lipid droplets and a maximum increase of 55% in the triglyceride (TG) content and of 4.4-fold in the cytochrome P-450 content. Labeling studies with [14C]acetic and [14C]oleic acid showed no changes in the uptake of fatty acid and TG precursors by the Aro-treated cultures; the synthesis of cellular lipids from [14C]acetic acid was slightly inhibited by Aroclor 1254, but that from [14C]oleic acid was increased, specially for TG (37%). The secretion of total lipids and TG was 2.1- and 2.7-fold lower, respectively, in the cultures treated with 20 micrograms/ml of Aroclor 1254, resulting in an increase of 1.9-fold in the intracellular content of TG. The synthesis of cellular proteins labeled with [3H]leucine was unchanged in the Aro-treated cultures, but the secretion of exportable proteins was 1.7-fold lower in the cultures treated with 20 micrograms/ml of Aroclor 1254. Our results showed that long-term exposure to in vivo relevant concentrations of Aroclor 1254 produced morphological and biochemical changes in cultured hepatocytes, like those described in vivo, and intracellular TG accumulation due mostly to impaired secretion of TG by the hepatocytes. Our results also suggest that this culture system could be useful for the screening of toxic agents producing fatty liver and the study of the involved mechanism(s).

  16. A genome-wide association and gene-environment interaction study for serum triglycerides levels in a healthy Chinese male population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Aihua; Sun, Jielin; Xia, Ning; Qin, Xue; Hu, Yanling; Zhang, Shijun; Tao, Sha; Gao, Yong; Yang, Xiaobo; Zhang, Haiying; Kim, Seong-Tae; Peng, Tao; Lin, Xiaoling; Li, Li; Mo, Linjian; Liang, Zhengjia; Shi, Deyi; Huang, Zhang; Huang, Xianghua; Liu, Ming; Ding, Qiang; Trent, Jeffrey M; Zheng, S Lilly; Mo, Zengnan; Xu, Jianfeng

    2012-04-01

    Triglyceride (TG) is a complex phenotype influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified genes or loci affecting lipid levels; however, such studies in Chinese populations are limited. A two-stage GWAS were conducted to identify genetic variants that were associated with TG in a Chinese population of 3495 men. Gene-environment interactions on serum TG levels were further investigated for the seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that were studied in both stages. Two previously reported SNPs (rs651821 in APOA5, rs328 in LPL) were replicated in the second stage, and the combined P-values were 9.19 × 10(-26) and 1.41 × 10(-9) for rs651821 and rs328, respectively. More importantly, a significant interaction between aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) rs671 and alcohol consumption on serum TG levels were observed (P = 3.34 × 10(-5)). Rs671 was significantly associated with serum TG levels in drinkers (P = 1.90 × 10(-10)), while no association was observed in non-drinkers (P > 0.05). For drinkers, men carrying the AA/AG genotype have significantly lower serum TG levels, compared with men carrying the GG genotype. For men with the GG genotype, the serum TG levels increased with the quantity of alcohol intake (P = 1.28 × 10(-8) for trend test). We identified a novel, significant interaction effect between alcohol consumption and the ALDH2 rs671 polymorphism on TG levels, which suggests that the effect of alcohol intake on TG occurs in a two-faceted manner. Just one drink can increase TG level in susceptible individuals who carry the GG genotype, while individuals carrying AA/AG genotypes may actually benefit from moderate drinking.

  17. Absence of Nitric Oxide Synthase 3 Increases Amyloid β-Protein Pathology in Tg-5xFAD Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zishuo Ian; Kotarba, Ann Marie E.; Van Nostrand, William E.

    2013-01-01

    Aim The abnormal accumulation, assembly and deposition of the amyloid β-protein (Aβ) are prominent pathological features of patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and related disorders. A number of factors in the brain can influence Aβ accumulation and associated pathologies. The aim of the present study was to determine the consequences of deleting nitric oxide synthase (NOS) 3, the endothelial form of NOS, in Tg-5xFAD mice, a model of parenchymal AD-like amyloid pathology. Methods Tg-5xFAD mice were bred with NOS3−/− mice. Cohorts of Tg-5xFAD mice and bigenic Tg-5xFAD/NOS3−/− mice were aged to six months followed by collection of the blood and brain tissues from the mice for biochemical and pathological analyses. Results ELISA analyses show that the absence of NOS3 results in elevated levels of cerebral and plasma Aβ peptides in Tg-5xFAD mice. Immunohistochemical analyses show that the absence of NOS3 increased the amount of parenchymal Aβ deposition and fibrillar amyloid accumulation in Tg-5xFAD mice. The elevated levels of Aβ were not due to changes in the expression levels of transgene encoded human amyloid precursor protein (APP), endogenous β-secretase, or increased proteolytic processing of APP. Conclusions The results from this study suggest that the loss of NOS3 activity enhances Aβ pathology in Tg-5xFAD mice. These findings are similar to previous studies of NOS2 deletion suggesting that reduced NOS activity and NO levels enhance amyloid-associated pathologies in human APP transgenic mice. PMID:24159423

  18. Application of AAPM TG 119 to volumetric arc therapy (VMAT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mynampati, Dinesh Kumar; Yaparpalvi, Ravindra; Hong, Linda; Kuo, Hsiang-Chi; Mah, Dennis

    2012-09-06

    The purpose of this study was to create AAPM TG 119 benchmark plans for volumetric arc therapy (VMAT) and to compare VMAT plans with IMRT plan data. AAPM TG 119 proposes a set of test clinical cases for testing the accuracy of IMRT planning and delivery system. For these test cases, we generated two treatment plans, the first plan using 7-9 static dMLC IMRT fields and a second plan utilizing one- or two-arc VMAT technique. Dose optimization and calculations performed using 6 MV photons and Eclipse treatment planning system. Dose prescription and planning objectives were set according to the TG 119 goals. Plans were scored based on TG 119 planning objectives. Treatment plans were compared using conformity index (CI) for reference dose and homogeneity index (HI) (for D(5)-D(95)). For test cases prostate, head-and-neck, C-shape and multitarget prescription dose are 75.6 Gy, 50.4 Gy, 50 Gy and 50 Gy, respectively. VMAT dose distributions were comparable to dMLC IMRT plans. Our planning results matched TG 119 planning results. For treatment plans studied, conformity indices ranged from 1.05-1.23 (IMRT) and 1.04-1.23 (VMAT). Homogeneity indices ranged from 4.6%-11.0% (IMRT) and 4.6%-10.5% (VMAT). The ratio of total monitor units necessary for dMLC IMRT to that of VMAT was in the range of 1.1-2.0. AAPM TG 119 test cases are useful to generate VMAT benchmark plans. At preclinical implementation stage, plan comparison of VMAT and IMRT plans of AAPM TG 119 test case allowed us to understand basic capabilities of VMAT technique.

  19. Genetic determinants of LDL, lipoprotein(a), triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and HDL: concordance and discordance with cardiovascular disease risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordestgaard, Børge G; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate whether new and known genetic determinants of plasma levels of LDL cholesterol, lipoprotein(a), triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, and HDL cholesterol associate with the risk of cardiovascular disease expected from the effect on lipoprotein levels. Concordance or discordance of such gene......To evaluate whether new and known genetic determinants of plasma levels of LDL cholesterol, lipoprotein(a), triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, and HDL cholesterol associate with the risk of cardiovascular disease expected from the effect on lipoprotein levels. Concordance or discordance...

  20. A new HPLC method for the direct analysis of triglycerides of dicarboxylic acids in biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capristo, E; Mingrone, G; De Gaetano, A; Addolorato, G; Greco, A V; Gasbarrini, G

    1999-11-01

    Dicarboxylic acids (DA) are alternate lipid substrates recently proposed in parenteral nutrition. Two new derivatives of DA, a triglyceride of sebacic (TGC10) and one of dodecanedioic (TGC12) acid have been synthesised in order to reduce the amount of sodium given with the unesterified forms. The present paper describes a rapid and direct high-performance liquid chromatographic method (HPLC) for the analysis of these substances in both plasma and urine. Thirty-six male Wistar rats were rapidly injected with 64 mg of TGC10 or 53 mg of TGC12. The triglycerides and their products of hydrolysis were measured in plasma samples taken at different times. For the dose of 500 ng the intra-assay variations ranged from 6. 80+/-0.35% for TGC10 to 18.6+/-3.20% for TGC12 and the inter-assay variations were from 4.44+/-2.21% for TGC10 to 15.0+/-6.72% for TGC12. The detection limit for both triglycerides was 5 ng. This rapid and direct HPLC method could have practical implications in monitoring the concentration of both triglycerides and free forms of DA in biological samples of patients who might benefit from the administration of these substances during parenteral nutrition regimens.

  1. Nonfasting triglycerides, cholesterol, and ischemic stroke in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varbo, Anette; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Current guidelines on stroke prevention have recommendations on desirable cholesterol levels, but not on nonfasting triglycerides. We compared stepwise increasing levels of nonfasting triglycerides and cholesterol for their association with risk of ischemic stroke in the general population....

  2. Blood Pressure Medications: Can They Raise My Triglycerides?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... some blood pressure medications cause an increase in triglycerides? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. Yes, some blood pressure medications can affect triglyceride and cholesterol levels. Hydrochlorothiazide is commonly prescribed for ...

  3. Analysis of the Triglycerides of Some Vegetable Oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farines, Marie; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Explains that triglycerides consist of a mixture of different compounds, depending on the total number of fatty acid constituents. Details the method and instrumentation necessary for students to analyze a vegetable oil for its triglyceride content. Describes sample results. (CW)

  4. Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Intake Is Positively Associated with Baseline Triglyceride Concentrations, and Changes in Intake Are Inversely Associated with Changes in HDL Cholesterol over 12 Months in a Multi-Ethnic Sample of Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rompay, Maria I; McKeown, Nicola M; Goodman, Elizabeth; Eliasziw, Misha; Chomitz, Virginia R; Gordon, Catherine M; Economos, Christina D; Sacheck, Jennifer M

    2015-10-01

    Intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) is linked to greater cardiometabolic risk in adults. Although longitudinal evidence is sparse among children, SSB intake reduction is targeted to reduce cardiometabolic risk factors in this group. We investigated characteristics associated with consumption of SSBs in a multi-ethnic sample of children/adolescents and measured cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between SSB intake and plasma HDL cholesterol and triglycerides (TGs) over 12 mo. In a diverse cohort of children aged 8-15 y, cross-sectional associations (n = 613) between baseline SSB intake and blood lipid concentrations and longitudinal associations (n = 380) between mean SSB intake, changes in SSB intake, and lipid changes over 12 mo were assessed with multivariable linear regression. Greater SSB intake was associated with lower socioeconomic status, higher total energy intake, lower fruit/vegetable intake, and more sedentary time. In cross-sectional analysis, greater SSB intake was associated with higher plasma TG concentrations among consumers (62.4, 65.3, and 71.6 mg/dL in children who consumed >0 but children who decreased their intake by ≥1 serving/wk (4.6 ± 0.8 mg/dL) compared with children whose intake stayed the same (2.0 ± 0.8 mg/dL) or increased (1.5 ± 0.8 mg/dL; P = 0.02). In a multi-ethnic sample of children, intake of SSBs was positively associated with TG concentrations among consumers, and changes in SSB intake were inversely associated with HDL cholesterol concentration changes over 12 mo. Further research in large diverse samples of children is needed to study the public health implications of reducing SSB intake among children of different racial/ethnic groups. The Daily D Health Study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01537809. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  5. Comparison of TG-43 and TG-186 in breast irradiation using a low energy electronic brachytherapy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Shane A.; Landry, Guillaume; Reniers, Brigitte, E-mail: brigitte.reniers@maastro.nl [Department of Radiation Oncology (MAASTRO), GROW School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Center (MUMC), Maastricht 6201 BN (Netherlands); Fonseca, Gabriel Paiva [Department of Radiation Oncology (MAASTRO), GROW School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Center (MUMC), Maastricht 6201 BN, The Netherlands and Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares – IPEN-CNEN/SP, São Paulo CP 11049, 05422-970 (Brazil); Holt, Randy; Rusch, Thomas [Xoft, A Subsidiary of iCAD, Sunnyvale, California 94085-4115 (United States); Beaulieu, Luc [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Québec Université Laval, Radio-Oncologie et Centre de Recherche en Cancérologie de l’Université Laval, Québec, Québec G1R 2J6 Canada (Canada); Verhaegen, Frank [Department of Radiation Oncology (MAASTRO), GROW School for Oncology and Developmental Biology, Maastricht University Medical Center (MUMC), Maastricht 6201 BN, The Netherlands and Department of Oncology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1A4 (Canada)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: The recently updated guidelines for dosimetry in brachytherapy in TG-186 have recommended the use of model-based dosimetry calculations as a replacement for TG-43. TG-186 highlights shortcomings in the water-based approach in TG-43, particularly for low energy brachytherapy sources. The Xoft Axxent is a low energy (<50 kV) brachytherapy system used in accelerated partial breast irradiation (APBI). Breast tissue is a heterogeneous tissue in terms of density and composition. Dosimetric calculations of seven APBI patients treated with Axxent were made using a model-based Monte Carlo platform for a number of tissue models and dose reporting methods and compared to TG-43 based plans. Methods: A model of the Axxent source, the S700, was created and validated against experimental data. CT scans of the patients were used to create realistic multi-tissue/heterogeneous models with breast tissue segmented using a published technique. Alternative water models were used to isolate the influence of tissue heterogeneity and backscatter on the dose distribution. Dose calculations were performed using Geant4 according to the original treatment parameters. The effect of the Axxent balloon applicator used in APBI which could not be modeled in the CT-based model, was modeled using a novel technique that utilizes CAD-based geometries. These techniques were validated experimentally. Results were calculated using two dose reporting methods, dose to water (D{sub w,m}) and dose to medium (D{sub m,m}), for the heterogeneous simulations. All results were compared against TG-43-based dose distributions and evaluated using dose ratio maps and DVH metrics. Changes in skin and PTV dose were highlighted. Results: All simulated heterogeneous models showed a reduced dose to the DVH metrics that is dependent on the method of dose reporting and patient geometry. Based on a prescription dose of 34 Gy, the average D{sub 90} to PTV was reduced by between ∼4% and ∼40%, depending on the

  6. Interaction of PPARG Pro12Ala with dietary fat influences plasma lipids in subjects at cardiometabolic risk[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlSaleh, Aseel; O'Dell, Sandra D.; Frost, Gary S.; Griffin, Bruce A.; Lovegrove, Julie A.; Jebb, Susan A.; Sanders, Thomas A. B.

    2011-01-01

    The PPARγ2 gene single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) Pro12Ala has shown variable association with metabolic syndrome traits in healthy subjects. The RISCK Study investigated the effect of interaction between genotype and the ratio of polyunsaturated:saturated (P:S) fatty acid intake on plasma lipids in 367 white subjects (ages 30-70 years) at increased cardiometabolic risk. Interaction was determined after habitual diet at recruitment, at baseline after a 4-week high-SFA (HS) diet, and after a 24-week reference (HS), high-MUFA (HM), or low-fat (LF) diet. At recruitment, there were no significant associations between genotype and plasma lipids; however, P:S × genotype interaction influenced plasma total cholesterol (TC) (P = 0.02), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) (P = 0.002), and triglyceride (TG) (P = 0.02) concentrations. At P:S ratio ≤ 0.33, mean TC and LDL-C concentrations in Ala12 allele carriers were significantly higher than in noncarriers (respectively, P = 0.003; P = 0.0001). Significant trends in reduction of plasma TC (P = 0.02) and TG (P = 0.002) concentrations occurred with increasing P:S (respectively, ≤0.33 to >0.65; 0.34 to >0.65) in Ala12 allele carriers. There were no significant differences between carriers and noncarriers after the 4-week HS diet or 24-week interventions. Plasma TC and TG concentrations in PPARG Ala12 allele carriers decrease as P:S increases, but they are not dependent on a reduction in SFA intake. PMID:21949049

  7. Effects of calcium salts of long-chain fatty acids and rumen-protected methionine on plasma concentrations of ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (7 to 36) amide and pancreatic hormones in lactating cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukumori, R; Sugino, T; Shingu, H; Moriya, N; Hasegawa, Y; Kojima, M; Kangawa, K; Obitsu, T; Kushibiki, S; Taniguchi, K

    2012-02-01

    Our objective was to determine the effects of calcium salts of long-chain fatty acids (CLFAs) and rumen-protected methionine (RPM) on plasma concentrations of ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (7 to 36) amide, and pancreatic hormones in lactating cows. Four Holstein cows in midlactation were used in a 4 by 4 Latin square experiment in each 2-wk period. Cows were fed corn silage-based diets with supplements of CLFAs (1.5% added on dry matter basis), RPM (20 g/d), CLFAs plus RPM, and without supplement. Jugular blood samples were taken from 1 h before to 2 h after morning feeding at 10-min intervals on day 12 of each period. CLFAs decreased dry matter intake, but RPM did not affect dry matter intake. Both supplements of CLFAs and RPM did not affect metabolizable energy intake and milk yield and composition. Plasma concentrations of NEFAs, triglyceride (TG), and total cholesterol (T-Cho) were increased with CLFAs alone, but increases of plasma concentrations of TG and T-Cho were moderated by CLFAs plus RPM. Calcium salts of long-chain fatty acids increased plasma ghrelin concentration, and the ghrelin concentration with CLFAs plus RPM was the highest among the treatments. Plasma concentrations of glucagon-like peptide-1, glucagon, and insulin were decreased with CLFAs, whereas adding RPM moderated the decrease of plasma glucagon concentration by CLFAs. These results indicate that the addition of methionine to cows given CLFAs increases plasma concentrations of ghrelin and glucagon associated with the decrease in plasma concentrations of TG and T-Cho.

  8. Age dependency of myocardial triglyceride content. A 3T high-field {sup 1}H-MR spectroscopy study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petritsch, B.; Gassenmaier, T.; Kunz, A.S.; Donhauser, J.; Bley, T.A.; Horn, M. [University Hospital of Wuerzburg (Germany). Inst. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology; Goltz, J.P. [University Hospital of Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Luebeck (Germany). Clinic for Radiology and Nuclear Medicine

    2015-11-15

    The role of myocardial triglyceride (mTG) content in the aging human heart is not entirely understood. The aim of this study was to measure concentrations of mTG content from healthy volunteers and to determine the association between age, mTG content and systolic heart function. Furthermore, the technical stability of the {sup 1}H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H-MRS) and the reliability of peak evaluation at 3 T were evaluated. The total study population of 47 healthy volunteers was divided into 4 age classes, according to the age of the subjects (1{sup st} cohort 20-29 years (yrs.), n=20; 2{sup nd} cohort 30-39 yrs., n=10; 3{sup rd} cohort 40-49 yrs., n=9; 4{sup th} cohort 50-60 yrs., n=8). Cardiac MRI and double triggered {sup 1}H-MRS of the myocardium were consecutively performed using a 3 T scanner. Each participant underwent spectroscopic measurements twice in the same investigation. mTG content increases with age. The correlation of age and mTG is minimal (r=0.48; p<0.001). The following age-averaged mTG content values expressed as % of mTG signal compared to the water signal were determined for each cohort: 1{sup st} cohort 0.25 % (± 0.17); 2{sup nd} cohort 0.48 % (± 0.30); 3{sup rd} cohort 0.48 % (± 0.18); 4{sup th} cohort 0.77 % (± 0.70). There was no significant correlation (r=0.04; p=n.s.) between LV mass and mTG content in healthy volunteers. Within our cohorts, no effects of age or mTG content on systolic heart function were seen (r=-0.01; p=n.s.). The intraclass correlation coefficient of spectroscopic measurements was high (r=0.965; p<0.001). Myocardial TG content increases with age. The normal age-dependent concentration ranges of myocardial lipid metabolites reported in this study may be helpful for the correction of acquired {sup 1}H-MRS data in patients when evaluating metabolic and cardiovascular diseases in future magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies.

  9. Cholesterol, bile acid and triglyceride metabolism intertwined

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schonewille, Marleen

    2016-01-01

    Hyperlipidemie wordt gekarakteriseerd door verhoogd plasma cholesterol en/of triglyceriden en sterk geassocieerd met het risico op cardiovasculaire aandoeningen. Dit proefschrift beschrijft onderzoek naar de regulatie van plasma cholesterol en triglyceriden concentraties en de achterliggende mechani

  10. Low Plasma Atherogenic Index Associated with Poor Prognosis in Hospitalized Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anggoro Budi Hartopo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: the impact of atherogenic index of plasma (AIP, calculated as logarithmic of triglyceride:HDL ratio (log10.[TG:HDL], on major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE during acute myocardial infarction (AMI has not been fully accepted. This study aims to investigate the role of AIP in predicting major adverse cardiovascular events following AMI during intensive care in the hospital. Methods: this was a prospective cohort study. We enrolled subjects with AMI hospitalized in intensive coronary care unit at Dr. Sardjito General Hospital, Yogyakarta. The AIP was measured in fasting blood within 24 hours of hospital admission. The total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, and triglyceride (TG, were measured and AIP value was determined as log10.[TG:HDL]. Based on AIP value, subjects were allocated into low AIP (<0.24 and high AIP (≥0.24. The outcome of the study was major adverse cardiovascular events during hospitalization, i.e. multipart of all cause mortality, acute heart failure, cardiogenic shock, reinfarction, and rescucitated VT/VF. Results: among 277 subjects, the high AIP group comprised 213 subjects (77% and low AIP group comprised 64 subjects (33%. During intensive hospitalisation, 66 subjects (24% developed MACE and 20 subjects (7% developed fatal outcome (all cause mortality. The incidence of MACE tended to be higher in low AIP group, however its difference was not significant. The incidence of all cause mortality was significantly higher in low AIP group (14% than in high AIP group (5%. Multivariable analysis showed that low AIP predicted all cause mortality independently with a risk ratio 3.71 (95% CI 1.26 – 10.97, p=0.02. Conclusion: low AIP value (<0.24 is an independent predictor for all cause mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction undergoing intensive hospitalisation.

  11. OBSERVATION OF ENERGY DISSIPATION PEAK IN POLYSTYRENE MELT ABOVE Tg

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this paper two different kinds of dynamic mechanical techniques (inversed torsion pendulum and energy dissipation apparatus) were used to study the dynamic behavior of atactic monodisperse polystyrene above glass transition.The plots of energy dissipation versus temperature were presented for two atactic polystyrene samples. An apparent energy dissipation peak occurred above Tg in each plot measured by the inversed torsion pendulum, and simultaneously the sample was found to flow assuredly at the moment. To exclude the influence of the flow and demonstrate there was a peak indeed above Tg, the energy dissipation apparatus was used, in which the samples were put into a cup. An obvious peak appeared,and it was in agreement with the peak observed by the inversed torsion pendulum. On basis of the results measured by the two kinds of apparatus, a conclusion is drawn that a peak occurrs above Tg, which gives a manifestation for the existence of the liquid-liquid transition.

  12. Patient Guide to the Assessment and Treatment of Hypertriglyceridemia (High Triglycerides)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assessment and Treatment of Hypertriglyceridemia (High Triglycerides) A Patient’s Guide Having high levels of triglycerides, or hypertriglyceridemia , is a common problem. Triglycerides are fats in ...

  13. Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Some Antioxidants on Liver Antioxidant Status and Plasma Biochemistry Parameters of Heat-Stressed Quail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senay Sarıca

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare the dietary supplementation of oleuropein (O and α-tocopherol acetate (TA alone or with organic selenium (Se on liver antioxidant status and some plasma biochemistry parameters in Japanese quails reared under heat stress (HS. A total of 800, two-weeks old quails were kept in wire cages in the temperature-controlled rooms at either 22°C or 34°C for 8 h/d and fed on a basal diet (NC or the diets supplemented with TA (TA200 or O (O200 at 200 mg/kg alone or with OSe (TA200+OSe and O200+OSe to the NC diet. HS decreased the total antioxidant status (TAS and increased the total oxidative stress (TOS and oxidative stress index (OSI of liver compared to thermoneutral temperature (TN. The TA200, O200, TA200+OSe and O200+OSe diets increased TAS and decreased TOS of liver compared to those of quails fed NC. OSI was decreased by the TA200, O200 and TA200+OSe diets compared to NC and O200+OSe diets. HS reduced plasma albumin (A and total protein (TP concentrations, on the other hand, increased plasma glucose (G, total cholesterol (CHO and triglyceride (TG levels compared to TN. The TA200, O200, TA200+OSe and O200+OSe diets reduced plasma total CHO and TG levels and increased plasma A level. The TA200 and TA200+OSe diets reduced plasma G level and increased plasma TP levels compared to those of quails fed the other diets. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of vitamin E and oleuropein alone or with organic selenium is necessary to remove the negative effects of heat stress on liver antioxidant status and some plasma parameters of quails.

  14. TSC STUDIES ON SUB-Tg STORAGE OF POLYETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wei; TONG Gang; ZHOU Yiqin; QI Zongneng

    1987-01-01

    The Thermally Stimulated Current (TSC) spectra of a series of Sub-Tg annealed polyethylene terephthalate (PET) specimens have been measured. It is found that there is only one peak at 80℃ above room temperature, which related to the thermo-relaxation of frozen-in dipoles. The activation energy of such dipole motion has been calculated. The relation between the maximum current and the storage time can be explained by the free volume theory and agrees with the results from the excess thermodynamic properties. Compared with Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) and tensile stress-strain method, TSC is a simpler and more sensitive method in studying Sub-Tg annealed polymers.

  15. Atorvastatin and fenofibrate increase apolipoprotein AV and decrease triglycerides by up-regulating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xian-sheng; Zhao, Shui-ping; Bai, Lin; Hu, Min; Zhao, Wang; Zhang, Qian

    2009-01-01

    Background and purpose: Combining statin and fibrate in clinical practice provides a greater reduction of triglycerides than either drug given alone, but the mechanism for this effect is poorly understood. Apolipoprotein AV (apoAV) has been implicated in triglyceride metabolism. This study was designed to investigate the effect of the combination of statin and fibrate on apoAV and the underlying mechanism(s). Experimental approach: Hypertriglyceridaemia was induced in rats by giving them 10% fructose in drinking water for 2 weeks. They were then treated with atorvastatin, fenofibrate or the two agents combined for 4 weeks, and plasma triglyceride and apoAV measured. We also tested the effects of these two agents on triglycerides and apoAV in HepG2 cells in culture. Western blot and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was used to measure apoAV and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) expression. Key results: The combination of atorvastatin and fenofibrate resulted in a greater decrease in plasma triglycerides and a greater increase in plasma and hepatic apoAV than either agent given alone. Hepatic expression of the PPARα was also more extensively up-regulated in rats treated with the combination. A similar, greater increase in apoAV and a greater decrease in triglycerides were observed following treatment of HepG2 cells pre-exposed to fructose), with the combination. Adding an inhibitor of PPARα (MK886) abolished the effects of atorvastatin on HepG2 cells. Conclusions and implications: A combination of atorvastatin and fenofibrate increased apoAV and decreased triglycerides through up-regulation of PPARα. PMID:19694729

  16. Pseudocholinesterase in gestational diabetes: positive correlation with LDL and negative correlation with triglyceride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocelli, Lütfiye Pirbudak; Dikensoy, Ebru; Cicek, Hulya; Ibar, Yelda; Kul, Seval; Balat, Ozcan

    2012-07-01

    Low pseudocholinesterase (PChE) activity accompanies pregnancy, liver disease, renal failure, and certain drug therapies. The aim of this study was to investigate a possible relationship among PChE and plasma insulin levels, lipid profile, and inflammatory response ingestational diabetes. This study included 165 women aged 20–40 years. Subjects were divided into four groups as follows:Control group, 29 non-pregnant healthy women; GroupNGT, 61 healthy pregnant women (normal glucose tolerance);Group GD, 62 pregnant women with gestational diabetes; and Group AGT, 13 pregnant women with abnormal glucose tolerance. Gestational ages were between 34 and 40 weeks. Plasma PChE, triglyceride, high-/lowdensity lipoprotein (HDL, LDL), glycated hemoglobin A1c(HbA1c), insulin, C-reactive protein (CRP), and white blood cell (WBC) levels were measured in all subjects. There were no statistically significant differences in plasma PChE, insulin, and LDL levels between the groups. Plasma triglyceride, HbA1c, WBC, and CRP levels were significantly higher in Group GD and Group AGT compared to the other groups (P\\0.000). There was a positive correlation between increased PChE and LDL,while a negative correlation was observed between PChE and triglyceride in Group GD. There was a positive correlation between increased CRP and HbA1c and a negative correlation among CRP and LDL and triglyceride in Group GD. PChE activity was not significantly different between the groups. However, there was a positive correlation between PChE and LDL levels in pregnant women with GD, suggesting that LDL levels in pregnant women with GD may help to predict the risk of prolonged apnea in situations in which PChE activity cannot be measured.

  17. Reduced hepatic triglyceride secretion in rats fed docosahexaenoic acid-rich fish oil suppresses postprandial hypertriglyceridemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, I; Kumamaru, J; Nakatani, N; Sakono, M; Murota, I; Imaizumi, K

    2001-04-01

    To evaluate the mechanisms of suppression of postprandial hypertriglyceridemia by fish oil rich in docosahexaenoic acid, the effect on the intestinal absorption of triglyceride, activities of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hepatic triglyceride lipase (HTGL) and metabolism of chylomicrons (CM) and CM remnants were compared with that of safflower oil in Sprague-Dawley rats in a series of studies. The feeding of fish oil for 3 wk suppressed postprandial hypertriglyceridemia (study 1). Dietary fish oil did not alter the rate of lymphatic absorption of triglyceride (study 2). The activities of LPL and HTGL were measured at 5 h after the beginning of feeding, when serum triglyceride concentrations were highest in both dietary groups. The activities of LPL in adipose tissue and heart were greater (P fish oil (study 3). In contrast, there were no differences in the activities of LPL and HTGL in postheparin plasma between the fish and safflower oil groups (study 4). The clearance rates of CM and CM remnants were measured by injecting intravenously CM collected from rats fed safflower or fish oils with [14C]triolein and [3H]cholesterol (study 5). Dietary oil did not influence the half-lives of CM or CM remnants. The secretion of triglyceride from the liver of rats injected with Triton WR-1339 was lower (P fish oil, than those fed linoleic acid, a major component of safflower oil (study 6). These observations strongly support the hypothesis that in rats, the principal cause of the suppression of postprandial hypertriglyceridemia by fish oil is the depression of triglyceride secretion from the liver.

  18. Common variants in the genes of triglyceride and HDL-C metabolism lack association with coronary artery disease in the Pakistani subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahid, Saleem Ullah; Shabana, N A; Cooper, Jackie A; Rehman, Abdul; Humphries, Steve E

    2017-01-31

    Serum Triglyceride (TG) and High Density Lipoprotein (HDL-C) levels are modifiable coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factors. Polymorphisms in the genes regulating TG and HDL-C levels contribute to the development of CAD. The objective of the current study was to investigate the effect of four such single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) in the genes for Lipoprotein Lipase (LPL) (rs328, rs1801177), Apolipoprotein A5 (APOA5) (rs66279) and Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) (rs708272) on HDL-C and TG levels and to examine the association of these SNPs with CAD risk. A total of 640 subjects (415 cases, 225 controls) were enrolled in the study. The SNPs were genotyped by KASPar allelic discrimination technique. Serum HDL-C and TG were determined by spectrophotometric methods. The population under study was in Hardy Weinberg equilibrium and minor allele of SNP rs1801177 was completely absent in the studied subjects. The SNPs were association with TG and HDL-C levels was checked through regression analysis. For rs328, the effect size of each risk allele on TG and HDL-C (mmol/l) was 0.16(0.08) and -0.11(0.05) respectively. Similarly, the effect size of rs662799 for TG and HDL-C was 0.12(0.06) and -0.13(0.0.3) and that of rs708272 was 0.08(0.04) and 0.1(0.03) respectively. The risk allele frequencies of the SNPs were higher in cases than controls, but the difference was not significant (p > 0.05) and SNPs were not associated with CAD risk (p > 0.05). The combined gene score of four SNPs significantly raised TG and lowered HDL-C but did not increase CAD risk. The studied SNPs were associated with TG and HDL-C levels, but not with CAD in Pakistani population under study.

  19. Determining triglyceride reductions needed for clinical impact in severe hypertriglyceridemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Jennifer B; Arondekar, Bhakti; Buysman, Erin K; Jacobson, Terry A; Snipes, Rose G; Horwitz, Ralph I

    2014-01-01

    Patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and pancreatitis. Target triglyceride levels associated with clinical benefit for patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia are not currently known. This study evaluates the association between lower follow-up triglyceride levels and incidence of clinical events for patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia. By using claims data from 2 large US healthcare databases, we conducted a retrospective cohort study and identified 41,210 adults with severe hypertriglyceridemia (triglycerides ≥ 500 mg/dL) between June 2001 and September 2010. The date of the first severe hypertriglyceridemia laboratory result was the index date. Patients were categorized into 1 of 5 triglyceride ranges (hypertriglyceridemia with follow-up triglyceride levels hypertriglyceridemia with follow-up triglyceride levels 200 to 299 mg/dL and 300 to 399 mg/dL (P hypertriglyceridemia with the lowest follow-up triglyceride levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Insulin-independent regulation of hepatic triglyceride synthesis by fatty acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatner, Daniel F.; Majumdar, Sachin K.; Kumashiro, Naoki; Petersen, Max C.; Rahimi, Yasmeen; Gattu, Arijeet K.; Bears, Mitchell; Camporez, João-Paulo G.; Cline, Gary W.; Jurczak, Michael J.; Samuel, Varman T.; Shulman, Gerald I.

    2015-01-01

    A central paradox in type 2 diabetes is the apparent selective nature of hepatic insulin resistance—wherein insulin fails to suppress hepatic glucose production yet continues to stimulate lipogenesis, resulting in hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and hepatic steatosis. Although efforts to explain this have focused on finding a branch point in insulin signaling where hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism diverge, we hypothesized that hepatic triglyceride synthesis could be driven by substrate, independent of changes in hepatic insulin signaling. We tested this hypothesis in rats by infusing [U-13C] palmitate to measure rates of fatty acid esterification into hepatic triglyceride while varying plasma fatty acid and insulin concentrations independently. These experiments were performed in normal rats, high fat-fed insulin-resistant rats, and insulin receptor 2′-O-methoxyethyl chimeric antisense oligonucleotide-treated rats. Rates of fatty acid esterification into hepatic triglyceride were found to be dependent on plasma fatty acid infusion rates, independent of changes in plasma insulin concentrations and independent of hepatocellular insulin signaling. Taken together, these results obviate a paradox of selective insulin resistance, because the major source of hepatic lipid synthesis, esterification of preformed fatty acids, is primarily dependent on substrate delivery and largely independent of hepatic insulin action. PMID:25564660

  1. Regulation of triglyceride metabolism by the Farnesoid X receptor%法尼醇X受体对甘油三酯的代谢调节

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何道同; 陈珺明; 王兵

    2012-01-01

    法尼醋X受体(farnesoid x receptor,FXR)属于配体依赖的核转录因子,FXR主要在肝脏、肠道、肾脏、肾上腺等表达,FXR因其可被内源性配体胆汁酸激活,故又称胆汁酸受体,他是孤儿核受体超家族中的一员.被内源性配体胆汁酸激活后的FXR在甘油三酯(triglyceride,TG)代谢过程中起着重要作用,FXR可通过调控与TG代谢的关键酶、脂蛋白和相应受体,从而使肝脏及循环血液中TG含量达到稳态平衡,本文就FXR对TG的代谢调节作一综述.%Farnesoid x receptor (FXR) is a ligand-depen-dent nuclear transcription factor, belonging to the nuclear receptor superfamily. It is activated by bile acids (Bas) and is expressed in the liver, intestine, kidney, and adrenal gland. Upon activation by endogenous ligand (Bas), FXR can regulate triglyceride (TG) metabolism by modulating the activity of related enzymes, lipopro-tein and receptors, and maintaining the balance between the contents of TG in the liver and circulation. This review aims to elucidate the regulation of triglyceride metabolism by FXR.

  2. Triglyceride accumulation in long-term cultures of adult rat hepatocytes by chronic exposure to Aroclor 1254

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendoza-Figueroa, T.; Hernandez, A.; de Lourdes Lopez, M. (Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico City (Mexico))

    1989-01-01

    The effect of chronic exposure to micromolar concentrations of Aroclor 1254 (Aro) on the hepatic lipid metabolism was studied in long-term cultures of adult rat hepatocytes. Hepatocytes were cocultivated with mytomicin C-treated 3T3 cells and exposed for 2 wk to Aroclor 1254 concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 20 {mu}g/ml. The Aro-exposed cultures showed intracytoplasmic lipid droplets and a maximum increase of 55% in the triglyceride (TG) content and of 4.4-fold in the cytochrome P-450 content. Labeling studies with ({sup 14}C)acetic and ({sup 14}C)oleic acid showed no changes in the uptake of fatty acid and TG precursors by the Aro-treated cultures; the synthesis of cellular lipids from ({sup 14}C)acetic acid was slightly inhibited by Aroclor 1254, but that from ({sup 14}C)oleic acid was increased, specially for TF (37%). The secretion of total lipids and TG was 2.1- and 2.7-fold lower, respectively, in the cultures treated with 20 {mu}g/ml of Aroclor 1254, resulting in an increase of 1.9-fold in the intracellular content of TG. The synthesis of cellular proteins labeled with ({sup 3}H)leucine was unchanged in the Aro-treated cultures, but the secretion of exportable proteins was 1.7-fold lower in the cultures treated with 20 {mu}g/ml of Aroclor 1254. Our results showed that long-term exposure to in vivo relevant concentrations of Aroclor 1254 produced morphological and biochemical changes in cultured hepatocytes, like those described in vivo, and intracellular TG accumulation due mostly to impaired secretion of TG by the hepatocytes. Our results also suggest that this culture system could be useful for the screening of toxic agents producing fatty liver and the study of the involved mechanism(s).

  3. Low-fat dairy products consumption is associated with lower triglyceride concentrations in a Spanish hypertriglyceridemic cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Merino

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The first line of treatment for hypertriglyceridemic (HTG includes a well-balanced diet, although the association of dietary components with triglyceride (TG concentrations in hypertriglyceridemic patients is not fully understood. Objective: To describe the main dietary patterns in a cohort of hypertriglyceridaemic patients and to evaluate the association between dietary components and TG levels. Methods: This multicentre cross-sectional study included subjects (n = 1.394 with HTG (TG > 2.25 mmol/L visiting lipid units affiliated with the Spanish Atherosclerosis Society. A validated 14-item food questionnaire was performed to assess diet. Clinical, anthropometry and biochemical parameters were also obtained. Results: Two dietary patterns were defined a posteriori by cluster analysis. Patients following the "prudent dietary pattern" (predominantly fish, fruits, vegetables, low-fat dairy and legumes had lower TG levels than those with the "western dietary pattern" (predominantly red and processed meat products, alcohol, cakes and pastries and sugar (3.51 ± 2.41 vs. 3.96 ± 3.61 mmol/L, P = 0.002. In a multivariant test, low-fat dairy products (B: -0.089; 95% IC: -16.1, -3.1, P = 0.004 and alcohol intake (B: 0.070; 95% IC: 1.1, 13.1, P = 0.022 were significantly associated with TG concentrations independently of potential confounders. Conclusions: Mediterranean dietary pattern including low-fat dairy products and abstaining from alcohol intake is highly associated with lower TG concentration in hypertriglyceridaemic patients even under lipid-lowering treatment. The reinforcement in nutritional counselling mainly in these food groups should be done and further specifically studies about the direct association of these and other dietary groups should be carried out to the development of more effective nutritional recommendations.

  4. Changes in triglyceride, HDL-C, and non-HDL-C levels in patients with acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koncsos, Péter; Fülöp, Péter; Juhász, Imre; Bíró, Klára; Márk, László; Simonyi, Gábor; Paragh, György

    2016-12-01

    Changes in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglyceride (TG) levels have been linked to residual cardiovascular risk, whereas non-HDL-C levels have been shown to be more predictive of cardiovascular risk than are low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. We aimed to investigate the impact of HDL-C, TG, and non-HDL-C levels on acute coronary syndrome (ACS) risk with on-target LDL-C levels. In all, 424 Caucasian patients aged over 50 years who had LDL-C levels below 3.4 mmol/l with a first or subsequent ACS event were enrolled in a multicenter, retrospective study. Lipid samples were collected within 4 days after the cardiovascular event. The subjects of the age-matched, gender-balanced control group (n = 443) had LDL-C levels below 3.4 mmol/l and were free of cardiovascular diseases. Patients with ACS had significantly higher TG and lower HDL-C levels compared with the control patients; however, we did not find any significant difference regarding non-HDL-C levels between the two groups. In regression analysis, the risk of coronary heart disease increased significantly with 1 standard deviation (SD) increase in TG and 1 SD decrease in HDL-C levels. High TG and low HDL-C levels may contribute to residual cardiovascular risk in patients with well-controlled LDL-C levels; however, non-HDL-C levels at admission did not seem to be predictive for patients with ACS. Detection and treatment of secondary lipid targets such as high TG and low HDL-C levels may be important for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases.

  5. Elevated serum triglyceride and retinol-binding protein 4 levels associated with fructose-sweetened beverages in adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Te-Fu Chan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The metabolic effect of fructose in sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB has been linked to de novo lipogenesis and uric acid (UA production. OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the biological effects of SSB consumption on serum lipid profiles and retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4 among Taiwanese adolescents. METHODS: We evaluated the anthropometric parameters and biochemical outcomes of 200 representative adolescents (98 boys and 102 girls who were randomly selected from a large-scale cross-sectional study. Data were analyzed using multiple regression models adjusted for covariates. RESULTS: Increased SSB consumption was associated with increased waist and hip circumferences, body mass index (BMI values and serum UA, triglyceride (TG and RBP4 levels. Adolescents who consumed >500 ml/day of beverages half-to-heavily sweetened with high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS exhibited TG and RBP4 levels 22.7 mg/dl and 13.92 ng/ml higher than non-drinkers, respectively. HFCS drinkers with hyperuricemia had higher TG levels than HFCS drinkers with normal UA levels (98.6 vs. 81.6 mg/dl. The intake of HFCS-rich SSBs and high value of BMI (≥24 interactively reinforced RBP4 levels among overweight/obese adolescents. Circulating RBP4 levels were significantly correlated with weight-related outcomes and TG and UA concentration among HFCS drinkers (r = 0.253 to 0.404, but not among non-drinkers. CONCLUSIONS: High-quantity HFCS-rich beverage consumption is associated with higher TG and RBP4 levels. Hyperuricemia is likely to intensify the influence of HFCS-rich SSB intake on elevated TG levels, and in overweight and obese adolescents, high BMI may modify the action of fructose on higher circulating levels of RBP4.

  6. APOE modulates the correlation between triglycerides, cholesterol, and CHD through pleiotropy, and gene-by-gene interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Taylor J; Ballantyne, Christie M; Cheverud, James M; Guild, Cameron S; Ndumele, Chiadi E; Boerwinkle, Eric

    2013-12-01

    Relationship loci (rQTL) exist when the correlation between multiple traits varies by genotype. rQTL often occur due to gene-by-gene (G × G) or gene-by-environmental interactions, making them a powerful tool for detecting G × G. Here we present an empirical analysis of apolipoprotein E (APOE) with respect to lipid traits and incident CHD leading to the discovery of loci that interact with APOE to affect these traits. We found that the relationship between total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (ln TG) varies by APOE isoform genotype in African-American (AA) and European-American (EA) populations. The e2 allele is associated with strong correlation between ln TG and TC while the e4 allele leads to little or no correlation. This led to a priori hypotheses that APOE genotypes affect the relationship of TC and/or ln TG with incident CHD. We found that APOE*TC was significant (P = 0.016) for AA but not EA while APOE*ln TG was significant for EA (P = 0.027) but not AA. In both cases, e2e2 and e2e3 had strong relationships between TC and ln TG with CHD while e2e4 and e4e4 results in little or no relationship between TC and ln TG with CHD. Using ARIC GWAS data, scans for loci that significantly interact with APOE produced four loci for African Americans (one CHD, one TC, and two HDL). These interactions contribute to the rQTL pattern. rQTL are a powerful tool to identify loci that modify the relationship between risk factors and disease and substantially increase statistical power for detecting G × G.

  7. Liver X receptor α mediates hepatic triglyceride accumulation through upregulation of G0/G1 Switch Gene 2 expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckmann, Bradlee L.; Zhang, Xiaodong; Saarinen, Alicia M.; Schoiswohl, Gabriele; Kershaw, Erin E.; Zechner, Rudolf

    2017-01-01

    Liver X receptors (LXRs) are transcription factors essential for cholesterol homeostasis and lipogenesis. LXRα has been implicated in regulating hepatic triglyceride (TG) accumulation upon both influx of adipose-derived fatty acids (FAs) during fasting and stimulation of de novo FA synthesis by chemical agonism of LXR. However, whether or not a convergent mechanism is employed to drive deposition of FAs from these 2 different sources in TGs is undetermined. Here, we report that the G0/G1 Switch Gene 2 (G0S2), a selective inhibitor of intracellular TG hydrolysis/lipolysis, is a direct target gene of LXRα. Transcriptional activation is conferred by LXRα binding to a direct repeat 4 (DR4) motif in the G0S2 promoter. While LXRα–/– mice exhibited decreased hepatic G0S2 expression, adenoviral expression of G0S2 was sufficient to restore fasting-induced TG storage and glycogen depletion in the liver of these mice. In response to LXR agonist T0901317, G0S2 ablation prevented hepatic steatosis and hypertriglyceridemia without affecting the beneficial effects on HDL. Thus, the LXRα-G0S2 axis plays a distinct role in regulating hepatic TG during both fasting and pharmacological activation of LXR.

  8. Risk of coronary heart disease is associated with triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in women and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Maksoud, Madiha F; Eckel, Robert H; Hamman, Richard F; Hokanson, John E

    2012-01-01

    Although the physiologic interrelationships between triglycerides (TG) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) are not fully understood, studies typically are adjusted for one when one is examining the role of the other. If the mechanism of coronary heart disease (CHD) risk is mediated through the other, then controlling for the second factor may mask the true effect of the first. We investigated the relationship between the combined effect of increased (↑) TG and decreased (↓) HDL-C compared with isolated ↑TG or isolated ↓HDL-C on CHD risk in men and women and compared these TG/HDL-C categories to non-HDL cholesterol (non-HDL-C). Subjects (936 women and 746 men) from the San Luis Valley Study were grouped on the basis of 4 sex-specific NCEP-ATP III cutpoints (↑TG ≥150 mg/dL, and ↓HDL-C, 50 and >40 mg/dL for women and men, respectively). Non-HDL-C was analyzed as a continuous variable. Among women, all groups had greater risk of CHD compared with the ↓TG/↑HDL-C reference in univariate analysis: ↓TG/↓HDL-C HR = 2.82 [95% confidence interval 1.12-7.1], ↑TG/↑HDL-C HR = 3.82 [1.50-9.74], ↑TG/↓HDL-C HR= 4.32 [1.91-9.80]. The risk remained significant in the ↓TG/↓HDL-C group (HR= 3.27 [1.26-8.50] and marginally significant in other groups in multivariable analysis. Neither ↑TG nor ↓HDL-C was related to CHD risk in men. Non-HDL cholesterol was significantly related to CHD in men but not in women. The CHD risk associated with ↓HDL-C in women was >2- to 4-fold elevated depending on TG levels. Non-HDL cholesterol was a significant predictor of CHD in men. Examining the combined effects of risk factors that share physiologic pathways may reveal important associations that can be otherwise obscured. Further dissection of gender specific pathways that affect HDL-C and TG and non-HDL cholesterol are important in understanding CHD risk. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. TG13 miscellaneous etiology of cholangitis and cholecystitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Ryota; Takada, Tadahiro; Strasberg, Steven M; Pitt, Henry A; Gouma, Dirk J; Garden, O James; Büchler, Markus W; Windsor, John A; Mayumi, Toshihiko; Yoshida, Masahiro; Miura, Fumihiko; Kimura, Yasutoshi; Okamoto, Kohji; Gabata, Toshifumi; Hata, Jiro; Gomi, Harumi; Supe, Avinash N; Jagannath, Palepu; Singh, Harijt; Kim, Myung-Hwan; Hilvano, Serafin C; Ker, Chen-Guo; Kim, Sun-Whe

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes typical diseases and morbidities classified in the category of miscellaneous etiology of cholangitis and cholecystitis. The paper also comments on the evidence presented in the Tokyo Guidelines for the management of acute cholangitis and cholecystitis (TG 07) published in 2007 and the evidence reported subsequently, as well as miscellaneous etiology that has not so far been touched on. (1) Oriental cholangitis is the type of cholangitis that occurs following intrahepatic stones and is frequently referred to as an endemic disease in Southeast Asian regions. The characteristics and diagnosis of oriental cholangitis are also commented on. (2) TG 07 recommended percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage in patients with cholestasis (many of the patients have obstructive jaundice or acute cholangitis and present clinical signs due to hilar biliary stenosis or obstruction). However, the usefulness of endoscopic naso-biliary drainage has increased along with the spread of endoscopic biliary drainage procedures. (3) As for biliary tract infections in patients who underwent biliary tract surgery, the incidence rate of cholangitis after reconstruction of the biliary tract and liver transplantation is presented. (4) As for primary sclerosing cholangitis, the frequency, age of predilection and the rate of combination of inflammatory enteropathy and biliary tract cancer are presented. (5) In the case of acalculous cholecystitis, the frequency of occurrence, causative factors and complications as well as the frequency of gangrenous cholecystitis, gallbladder perforation and diagnostic accuracy are included in the updated Tokyo Guidelines 2013 (TG13). Free full-text articles and a mobile application of TG13 are available via http://www.jshbps.jp/en/guideline/tg13.html.

  10. Genetic determinants of LDL, lipoprotein(a), triglyceride-rich lipoproteins and HDL: concordance and discordance with cardiovascular disease risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordestgaard, Børge G; Tybjærg-Hansen, Anne

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate whether new and known genetic determinants of plasma levels of LDL cholesterol, lipoprotein(a), triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, and HDL cholesterol associate with the risk of cardiovascular disease expected from the effect on lipoprotein levels. Concordance or discordance...... of such genetic determinants with cardiovascular disease risk will either favor or disfavor that these lipoproteins are causally related to cardiovascular disease....

  11. Effects of blood triglycerides on cardiovascular and all-cause mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis of 61 prospective studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The relationship of triglycerides (TG) to the risk of death remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to determine the associations between blood triglyceride levels and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) mortality and all-cause mortality. Four databases were searched without language restriction for relevant studies: PubMed, ScienceDirect, EMBASE, and Google Scholar. All prospective cohort studies reporting an association between TG and CVDs or all-cause mortality published before July 2013 were included. Risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were extracted and pooled according to TG categories, unit TG, and logarithm of TG using a random-effects model with inverse-variance weighting. We identified 61 eligible studies, containing 17,018 CVDs deaths in 726,030 participants and 58,419 all-cause deaths in 330,566 participants. Twelve and fourteen studies, respectively, reported the effects estimates of CVDs and total mortality by TG categories. Compared to the referent (90–149 mg/dL), the pooled RRs (95% CI) of CVDs mortality for the lowest (< 90 mg/dL), borderline-high (150–199 mg/dL), and high TG (≥ 200 mg/dL) groups were 0.83 (0.75 to 0.93), 1.15 (1.03 to 1.29), and 1.25 (1.05 to 1.50); for total mortality they were 0.94 (0.85 to 1.03), 1.09 (1.02 to 1.17), and 1.20 (1.04 to 1.38), respectively. The risks of CVDs and all-cause deaths were increased by 13% and 12% (p < 0.001) per 1-mmol/L TG increment in twenty-two and twenty-two studies reported RRs per unit TG, respectively. In conclusion, elevated blood TG levels were dose-dependently associated with higher risks of CVDs and all-cause mortality. PMID:24164719

  12. [Association between systemic inflammation and autoimmunity parameters and plasma lipid in patients with rheumatoid arthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Chao; Liu, Wen-ling; Sun, Yi-hong; Ding, Rong-jing; Hu, Da-yi

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to observe the association between inflammation status/autoimmune antibodies and plasma lipid in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A total of 402 RA patients were admitted into our hospital during January 2008 to March 2009 and 225 RA patients who met the inclusion criteria were selected to perform a full lipid profile examination including total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglyceride (TG). Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), rheumatoid factor (RF), anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP), anti-keratin antibody (AKA), anti-perinuclear factor autoantibody (APF) and complement (C) were also evaluated. Atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) was calculate by the formula Log (TG/HDL-C). (1) There were 12.9%, 10.2% and 14.2% patients with elevated TC, LDL-C and TC respectively, patients with reduced HDL-C accounted for 43.6%. (2) C(3) was higher in elevated TC group than normal TC group (P elevated LDL-C group than in normal LDL-C group (P anti-CCP were positively correlated with LDL-C (R(2) = 0.129, P antibodies. Moreover, ESR and C(4) were predictors of increased AIP in this cohort.

  13. Plasma n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid and cardiovascular disease risk factors in Japanese, Korean and Mongolian workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogi, Akiko; Yang, Jianjun; Li, Limei; Yamasaki, Masayuki; Watanabe, Mamiko; Watanabe, Minako; Hashimoto, Michio; Shiwaku, Kuninori

    2007-05-01

    The favorable role of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been demonstrated in animal experiments and in humans in Western countries, but its effect remains controversial in Asian populations. An observational study of Japanese, Koreans and Mongolians with extended histories of remarkably different frequencies of fish intake was conducted to examine whether differences in plasma n-3 PUFA affects CVD risk factors. We conducted a cross-sectional study in workplace settings and determined body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and fatty acid composition in plasma. A total of 411 Japanese, 418 Korean and 252 Mongolian workers aged 30-60 yr participated in this study. The Japanese ate fish more frequently and had remarkably higher values of eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid and n-3 PUFA, and lower values of BMI and HOMA-IR, followed by the Koreans, and then the Mongolians. In age groups, the Japanese and Koreans showed a similar tendency of increase in n-3 PUFA with increasing age. General linear measurement multivariate analysis after adjustment for gender, age, smoking, drinking, exercise habits and BMI showed n-3 PUFA was associated with HDL-C and TG in the Japanese, while it was associated with systolic blood pressure in the Koreans, and TG in the Mongolians. In conclusion, an increase in n-3 PUFA was associated with HDL-C and TG in the Japanese and Mongolians, but these beneficial effects were not constant across the three Asian ethnic groups.

  14. Community-based study on the relationship between serum cholesterol/triglyceride and dietary habits/life styles in Pu-Li, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, P; Shaw, C K; Lai, M Y

    1993-09-01

    This is a community-based study on the relationship between serum cholesterol (CHO)/triglyceride (TG) and dietary habits/life styles of persons living in a central Taiwan Town. Door-to-door interviews were carried out by the Yang-Ming Crusade, and fasting blood for CHO and TG tests was drawn by public health nurses from Pu-Li Health Station. Univariate analysis found that significant variables correlated with CHO were age (+), locality, non-fish seafood (+) and pungent food (+). Significant variables correlated with TG were age (+), sex, locality, smoking (+), alcohol (+) and physical activity (-). Stratified by age (> or = 50 and area; and OR = 0.74, 95% C.I. = 0.50-1.08 for rural area); sea food consumption (OR = 1.50, 95% C.I. = 0.94-2.40); and smoking (OR = 0.69, 95% C.I. = 0.48-0.99).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Placental triglyceride accumulation in maternal type 1 diabetes is associated with increased lipase gene expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Marie Louise Skakkebæk; Damm, Peter; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R

    2006-01-01

    RNA expression of lipoprotein lipase and lysosomal lipase were similar in women with diabetes and the control group. Immunohistochemistry showed EL protein in syncytiotrophoblasts facing the maternal blood and endothelial cells facing the fetal blood in placentas from both normal women and women with diabetes......Maternal diabetes can cause fetal macrosomia and increased risk of obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease in adulthood of the offspring. Although increased transplacental lipid transport could be involved, the impact of maternal type 1 diabetes on molecular mechanisms for lipid transport...... in placenta is largely unknown. To examine whether maternal type 1 diabetes affects placental lipid metabolism, we measured lipids and mRNA expression of lipase-encoding genes in placentas from women with type 1 diabetes (n = 27) and a control group (n = 21). The placental triglyceride (TG) concentration...

  16. Pleiotropic regulation of mitochondrial function by adipose triglyceride lipase-mediated lipolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratky, Dagmar; Obrowsky, Sascha; Kolb, Dagmar; Radovic, Branislav

    2014-01-01

    Lipolysis is defined as the catabolism of triacylglycerols (TGs) stored in cellular lipid droplets. Recent discoveries of essential lipolytic enzymes and characterization of numerous regulatory proteins and mechanisms have fundamentally changed our perception of lipolysis and its impact on cellular metabolism. Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) is the rate-limiting enzyme for TG catabolism in most cells and tissues. This review focuses on recent advances in understanding the (patho)physiological impact due to defective lipolysis by ATGL deficiency on mitochondrial (dys)function. Depending on the type of cells and tissues investigated, absence of ATGL has pleiotropic roles in mitochondrial function. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.. All rights reserved.

  17. The atherogenic dyslipidemia ratio [log(TG/HDL-C] is associated with residual vascular risk, beta-cell function loss and microangiopathy in type 2 diabetes females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermans Michel P

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Atherogenic dyslipidemia (AD, defined as low HDL-C plus elevated triglycerides (TG, comorbid to T2DM, increases cardiometabolic risk for CAD even when LDL-C is at target. In T2DM males, AD was shown to correlate with β-cell function loss, yet it is not established whether this applies across gender. Aim To establish the prevalence and severity of AD in T2DM females, and to determine how it relates to cardiometabolic phenotype, glucose homeostasis, micro- and macrovascular complications, and 10-year absolute CV risk (UKPDS Risk Engine. Methods 340 T2DM females were ranked according to quintiles (Q of the continuous variable log(TG/HDL-C, with AD prevalence defined as HDL-C -1 plus TG ≥150 mg.dL-1, and β-cell function assessed with HOMA. Results AD prevalence was 35%; mean HDL-C and TG were 52 (15 and 160 (105 mg.dL-1. AD was significantly related to central fat, metabolic syndrome, sedentarity and skeletal sarcopenia, as well as to hsCRP, fibrinogen, uric acid, cystatin-C, Big ET-1, and 10-year UKPDS CV risk. AD correlated stepwise with lower β-cell function and hyperbolic product, and with accelerated loss of residual insulin secretion, higher HbA1c and prevalent microangiopathy. Conclusions log(TG/HDL-C is a simple means to grade AD and residual macrovascular risk in T2DM females. This ratio associates with major non-LDL cardiometabolic variables and ranks predicted CAD risk. In addition, log(TG/HDL-C identifies worsening glucose homeostasis, poorer glycemic control, and prevalent microangiopathy.

  18. CTRP3 attenuates diet-induced hepatic steatosis by regulating triglyceride metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Jonathan M.; Seldin, Marcus M.; Wei, Zhikui; Aja, Susan

    2013-01-01

    CTRP3 is a secreted plasma protein of the C1q family that helps regulate hepatic gluconeogenesis and is downregulated in a diet-induced obese state. However, the role of CTRP3 in regulating lipid metabolism has not been established. Here, we used a transgenic mouse model to address the potential function of CTRP3 in ameliorating high-fat diet-induced metabolic stress. Both transgenic and wild-type mice fed a high-fat diet showed similar body weight gain, food intake, and energy expenditure. Despite similar adiposity to wild-type mice upon diet-induced obesity (DIO), CTRP3 transgenic mice were strikingly resistant to the development of hepatic steatosis, had reduced serum TNF-α levels, and demonstrated a modest improvement in systemic insulin sensitivity. Additionally, reduced hepatic triglyceride levels were due to decreased expression of enzymes (GPAT, AGPAT, and DGAT) involved in triglyceride synthesis. Importantly, short-term daily administration of recombinant CTRP3 to DIO mice for 5 days was sufficient to improve the fatty liver phenotype, evident as reduced hepatic triglyceride content and expression of triglyceride synthesis genes. Consistent with a direct effect on liver cells, recombinant CTRP3 treatment reduced fatty acid synthesis and neutral lipid accumulation in cultured rat H4IIE hepatocytes. Together, these results establish a novel role for CTRP3 hormone in regulating hepatic lipid metabolism and highlight its protective function and therapeutic potential in attenuating hepatic steatosis. PMID:23744740

  19. Oxidative stress and triglycerides as predictors of subclinical atherosclerosis in prediabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Aubaidy, Hayder A; Jelinek, Herbert F

    2014-03-01

    The role of triglycerides in early preclinical atherosclerosis is controversial. Antioxidant markers may be associated with triglyceride levels in early preclinical atherosclerosis especially when fasting plasma glucose is raised. This cross-sectional study included 127 participants attending the Diabetes Screening Clinic, Charles Sturt University, Australia. Serum 8-hydroxy-2-deoxy-guanosine (8-OHdG) was significantly greater in the impaired fasting glucose (IFG) group compared with the control group (536.7 pg/ml ± 249.8 versus 171.4 pg/ml ± 96.9, respectively). The increase in 8-OHdG was associated with a mildly non-significant elevation in low-density lipoprotein level (3.2 ± 1.1 mmol/l) and a poor level of high-density lipoprotein (1.31 ± 0.3 mmol/l) in the IFG group. However, a significant increase in triglycerides (1.6 ± 0.97 mmol/l; P triglycerides in the absence of significant changes in reduced GSH and normal levels of cholesterol in the IFG cohort, suggesting that oxidative stress may be present and indicative of subclinical atherosclerosis.

  20. APOA5 gene variation interacts with dietary fat intake to modulate obesity and circulating triglycerides in a Mediterranean population

    Science.gov (United States)

    APOA5 is one of the strongest regulators of plasma TG concentrations; nevertheless, its mechanisms of action are poorly characterized. Genetic variability at the APOA5 locus has also been associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk; however, this predisposition could be attenuated in the c...

  1. Triglyceride levels are closely associated with mild declines in estimated glomerular filtration rates in middle-aged and elderly Chinese with normal serum lipid levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinguo Hou

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between lipid profiles [including total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C] and a mild decline in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR in subjects with normal serum lipid levels. DESIGN AND METHODS: In this study, we included 2647 participants who were ≥ 40 years old and had normal serum lipid levels. The Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI equation was used to estimate the GFR. A mildly reduced eGFR was defined as 60-90 mL/min/1.73 m(2. First, multiple linear regression analysis was used to estimate the association of lipid profiles with the eGFR. Then, the levels of each lipid component were divided into four groups, using the 25th, 50th and 75th percentiles as cut-off points. Finally, multiple logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the association of different lipid components with the risk of mildly reduced eGFR. RESULTS: In the group with a mildly reduced eGFR, TG and LDL-C levels were significantly increased, but HDL-C levels were significantly decreased. After adjusting for age, gender, body mass index (BMI, systolic blood pressure (SBP, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c, smoking and drinking, only TC and TG were independently related to the eGFR. Additionally, only TG showed a linear relationship with an increased risk of a mildly reduced eGFR, with the highest quartile group (TG: 108-150 mg/dl [1.22-1.70 mmol/L] having a significantly increased risk after adjusting for the above factors. CONCLUSIONS: Triglyceride levels are closely associated with a mildly reduced eGFR in subjects with normal serum lipid levels. Dyslipidemia with lower TG levels could be used as new diagnostic criteria for subjects with mildly reduced renal function.

  2. Hepatic HNF4α Is Essential for Maintaining Triglyceride and Cholesterol Homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Liya; Ma, Huiyan; Ge, Xuemei; Edwards, Peter A.; Zhang, Yanqiao

    2010-01-01

    Objective Loss-of-function mutations in human hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α (HNF4α) are associated with maturity-onset diabetes of the young and lipid disorders. However, the mechanisms underlying the lipid disorders are poorly understood. In this report, we determined the effect of acute loss or augmentation of hepatic HNF4α function on lipid homeostasis. Methods and Results We generated adenovirus expressing LacZ (Ad-shLacZ) or small hairpin RNA of Hnf4α (Ad-shHnf4α). Tail vain injection of C57BL/6J mice with Ad-shHnf4α reduced hepatic Hnf4α expression and resulted in striking phenotypes including the development of fatty liver and a >80% decrease in plasma levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol and HDL-C. These latter changes were associated with reduced hepatic lipogenesis and impaired VLDL secretion. Deficiency in hepatic Hnf4α did not affect intestinal cholesterol absorption despite decreased expression of genes involved in bile acid synthesis. Consistent with the loss-of-function data, over-expression of Hnf4α induced numerous genes involved in lipid metabolism in isolated primary hepatocytes. Interestingly, many of these HNF4α-regulated genes were not induced in wild-type mice that over-expressed hepatic Hnf4α. Due to selective gene regulation, mice over-expressing hepatic Hnf4α had unchanged plasma triglyceride levels and decreased plasma cholesterol levels. Conclusions Loss of hepatic HNF4α results in severe lipid disorder as a result of dysregulation of multiple genes involved in lipid metabolism. In contrast, augmentation of hepatic HNF4α activity lowers plasma cholesterol levels but has no effect on plasma triglyceride levels due to selective gene regulation. Our data indicate that hepatic HNF4α is essential for controlling the basal expression of numerous genes involved in lipid metabolism and is indispensable for maintaining normal lipid homeostasis. PMID:21071704

  3. Binding of thyroglobulin (Tg) to the low-density lipoprotein receptor-associated protein (RAP) during the biosynthetic pathway prevents premature Tg interactions with sortilin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botta, R; Lisi, S; Rotondo Dottore, G; Vitti, P; Marinò, M

    2017-04-05

    Sortilin, a Vps10p family member, is expressed by thyroid epithelial cells (TEC), where it binds to internalized thyroglobulin (Tg) molecules. Premature binding of Tg to sortilin during biosynthesis may cause intracellular retention of Tg. Such a premature interaction may be prevented by one or more inhibitor/s. Because both sortilin and Tg bind to the low-density lipoprotein receptor-associated protein (RAP), we investigated whether RAP serves such a function. Immunofluorescence staining for sortilin, Tg, and RAP was performed in FRTL-5 cells. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments were performed in extracts from FRTL-5 or COS-7 cells, the former co-transfected with Tg and/or RAP and/or sortilin, or in thyroid extracts from RAP KO mice. Tg and sortilin did not co-localize in FRTL-5 cells following inhibition of protein synthesis, suggesting that newly synthesized, endogenous sortilin and Tg do not interact, in confirmation of which an anti-sortilin antibody did not co-precipitate Tg in FRTL-5 cells. In contrast, Tg co-localized with RAP in FRTL-5 cells. Co-immunoprecipitation of Tg with an anti-sortilin antibody in COS-7 cells transfected with sortilin and Tg was abolished when cells were co-transfected with RAP, indicating that RAP prevents binding of Tg to sortilin during biosynthesis, in confirmation of which an anti-sortilin antibody co-precipitated Tg in thyroid extracts from RAP KO mice to a greater extent than in thyroid extracts from WT mice. Tg does not bind prematurely to sortilin because of its interaction with RAP during protein biosynthesis. These findings add new information to the knowledge of thyroid physiology.

  4. Glucagon-like peptide 1 abolishes the postprandial rise in triglyceride concentrations and lowers levels of non-esterified fatty acids in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, J J; Gethmann, A; Götze, O;

    2006-01-01

    . Venous blood was drawn frequently for measurement of glucose, insulin, C-peptide, glucagon, GLP-1, triglycerides and NEFA. RESULTS: GLP-1 administration lowered fasting and postprandial glycaemia (p... administration, insulin secretory responses were higher in the fasting state but lower after meal ingestion. After meal ingestion, triglyceride plasma levels increased by 0.33+/-0.14 mmol/l in the placebo experiments (ptriglyceride levels was completely...... abolished by GLP-1 (change in triglycerides, -0.023+/-0.045 mmol/l; p

  5. Unreliability of triglyceride measurement to predict turbidity induced interference

    OpenAIRE

    Twomey, P J; Don-Wauchope, A C; McCullough, D

    2003-01-01

    Lipaemic specimens are a common problem in clinical chemistry. Most laboratories will measure the concentration of triglycerides and then decide whether the analytical result is valid or not. There is a poor association between the concentration of triglycerides and an objective assessment of turbidity for visually turbid specimens. Extrapolation of triglyceride concentrations derived from the use of intravenous emulsions to visually turbid specimens found in clinical practice will overestima...

  6. DETECTION OF Tg BY MODULATED DIFFERENTIAL SCANNING CALORIMETRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    The glassy transition of the polyethylene terephthalate (PET) samples which have been subjected to solvent induced crystallization (SINC) was investigated by modulated differential scanning calorimetry (MDSC) and density measurement. The differential of heat capacity signal, d Cp/dT from MDSC, was used to monitor the SINC process. It reveals that the Tg temperature shifts to higher value with the advancement of SINC. When the toluene-immersing time was longer (168h), the detection of Tg become more difficult, because some smaller peaks emerged at the lower temperatures and these are explained as the movement of small segments in the amorphous region. These observed results are due to the morphology and structure introduced by the SINC process.

  7. Serum Immunoglobulin M Concentration Varies with Triglyceride Levels in an Adult Population: Tianjin Chronic Low-Grade Systemic Inflammation and Health (TCLSIHealth) Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hongbin; Guo, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Qing; Wu, Hongmei; Du, Huanmin; Liu, Li; Wang, Chongjin; Xia, Yang; Liu, Xing; Li, Chunlei; Sun, Shaomei; Wang, Xing; Zhou, Ming; Jia, Qiyu; Zhao, Honglin; Song, Kun; Wei, Dianjun; Niu, Kaijun

    2015-01-01

    Persistent low-grade inflammation is thought to underlie the pathogenesis of many chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases and metabolic syndrome. Autoimmunity is correlated with increased levels of chronic low-grade inflammation, and immunoglobulin M (IgM) is reactive to autoantigens and believed to be important for autoimmunity. Triglyceride (TG) is fatty acid carrier and initiator of oxidative stress, and it has been hypothesized that TG stimulates B cells to secrete IgM. However, few studies have investigated the relationship between TG and IgM in human populations. We designed a cross-sectional and prospective cohort study to evaluate how serum TG levels are related to IgM concentration. Participants were recruited from Tianjin Medical University General Hospital-Health Management Centre. Both a baseline cross-sectional (n = 10,808) and a prospective assessment (n = 2,615) were performed. Analysis of covariance was used in the cross-sectional analysis. After multiple adjustments for confounding factors, serum IgM level in the highest quartile of TG in males was significantly higher than levels in lower quartiles (P <0.05). There was no significant difference between the four quartiles in females (P = 0.91). In follow-up analysis, a multiple linear regression model showed a significant and positive correlation between changes in IgM levels and changes of TG concentration in males (P = 0.04, standard β coefficient = 0.882). This cross-sectional and cohort study is the first to show that serum concentration of IgM varies with TG levels in adult male populations. Further research is needed to explore the mechanism by which TG leads to increased IgM concentration.

  8. Serum Immunoglobulin M Concentration Varies with Triglyceride Levels in an Adult Population: Tianjin Chronic Low-Grade Systemic Inflammation and Health (TCLSIHealth Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbin Shi

    Full Text Available Persistent low-grade inflammation is thought to underlie the pathogenesis of many chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases and metabolic syndrome. Autoimmunity is correlated with increased levels of chronic low-grade inflammation, and immunoglobulin M (IgM is reactive to autoantigens and believed to be important for autoimmunity. Triglyceride (TG is fatty acid carrier and initiator of oxidative stress, and it has been hypothesized that TG stimulates B cells to secrete IgM. However, few studies have investigated the relationship between TG and IgM in human populations. We designed a cross-sectional and prospective cohort study to evaluate how serum TG levels are related to IgM concentration. Participants were recruited from Tianjin Medical University General Hospital-Health Management Centre. Both a baseline cross-sectional (n = 10,808 and a prospective assessment (n = 2,615 were performed. Analysis of covariance was used in the cross-sectional analysis. After multiple adjustments for confounding factors, serum IgM level in the highest quartile of TG in males was significantly higher than levels in lower quartiles (P <0.05. There was no significant difference between the four quartiles in females (P = 0.91. In follow-up analysis, a multiple linear regression model showed a significant and positive correlation between changes in IgM levels and changes of TG concentration in males (P = 0.04, standard β coefficient = 0.882. This cross-sectional and cohort study is the first to show that serum concentration of IgM varies with TG levels in adult male populations. Further research is needed to explore the mechanism by which TG leads to increased IgM concentration.

  9. Association of the triglycerides to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio with the risk of chronic kidney disease: analysis in a large Japanese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuruya, Kazuhiko; Yoshida, Hisako; Nagata, Masaharu; Kitazono, Takanari; Hirakata, Hideki; Iseki, Kunitoshi; Moriyama, Toshiki; Yamagata, Kunihiro; Yoshida, Hideaki; Fujimoto, Shouichi; Asahi, Koichi; Kurahashi, Issei; Ohashi, Yasuo; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the relationship between triglycerides to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (TG/HDL-C) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). We used data from 216,007 Japanese adults who participated in a nationwide health checkup program. Men (n = 88,516) and women (n = 127,491) were grouped into quartiles based on their TG/HDL-C levels (3.18 in men; 2.22 in women). We cross-sectionally assessed the association of TG/HDL-C levels with CKD [defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of <60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (low eGFR) and/or proteinuria (defined as urinary protein ≥ 1+ on dipstick testing)], low eGFR, and proteinuria. The prevalence of CKD, low eGFR, and proteinuria increased significantly with elevating quartiles of TG/HDL-C in both genders (all P for trend <0.001). Participants in the highest quartile of TG/HDL-C had a significantly greater risk of CKD than those in the lowest quartile after adjustment for the relevant confounding factors (odds ratio: 1.57, 95% confidence interval: 1.49-1.65 in men; 1.41, 1.34-1.48 in women, respectively). Furthermore, there were significant associations with low eGFR and proteinuria. In stratified analysis, the risk of CKD increased linearly with greater TG/HDL-C levels in participants with and without hypertension, diabetes, and obesity. Moreover, higher TG/HDL-C levels were relevant for CKD, especially in participants with hypertension and diabetes (P for interaction <0.001, respectively). An elevated TG/HDL-C is associated with the risk of CKD in the Japanese population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Compound list: rosiglitazone maleate [Open TG-GATEs

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rosiglitazone maleate RGZ 00151 ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LAT...EST/Human/in_vitro/rosiglitazone_maleate.Human.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tg...gates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Single/rosiglitazone_maleate.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Single.zip ftp://ftp.bioscienc...edbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Repeat/rosiglitazone_maleate.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Repeat.zip ...

  11. A VOYAGER Meta-Analysis of the Impact of Statin Therapy on Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol and Triglyceride Levels in Patients With Hypertriglyceridemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlson, Björn W; Palmer, Michael K; Nicholls, Stephen J; Lundman, Pia; Barter, Philip J

    2016-05-01

    Elevated triglyceride (TG) levels are associated with increased cardiovascular disease risk. In patients with mild-to-moderate hypertriglyceridemia, defined by the European Atherosclerosis Society Consensus Panel as a TG level of 177 to 885 mg/dl (2.0 to 10.0 mmol/L), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) reduction remains the primary treatment goal. Using data from the indiVidual patient meta-analysis Of statin therapY in At risk Groups: Effects of Rosuvastatin, atorvastatin and simvastatin (VOYAGER) meta-analysis, we analyzed LDL-C and TG reductions in patients with baseline TG ≥177 mg/dl (≥2.0 mmol/L). Least squares mean percentage change from baseline in LDL-C and TG was compared using 15,800 patient exposures to rosuvastatin 5 to 40 mg, atorvastatin 10 to 80 mg, and simvastatin 10 to 80 mg in patients with baseline TG ≥177 mg/dl (≥2.0 mmol/L). Comparisons were made using mixed-effects models with data only from studies directly comparing treatments by randomized design. Mean LDL-C reductions ranged from -26.9% to -55.5%. Rosuvastatin 10 to 40 mg resulted in significantly greater LDL-C reductions than equal or double doses of atorvastatin and simvastatin (p <0.05). Mean TG reductions ranged from -15.1% to -31.3%. Rosuvastatin 10 mg resulted in significantly greater TG reductions than atorvastatin 10 mg (p <0.05). Rosuvastatin 20 and 40 mg resulted in TG reductions similar to those with equal doses of atorvastatin. Rosuvastatin 10 to 40 mg resulted in significantly greater TG reductions than equal or double doses of simvastatin (p <0.05). In conclusion, in patients with hypertriglyceridemia, LDL-C reduction was substantial and dependent on the choice and dose of statin. TG reduction was numerically less than for LDL-C, and additional TG-lowering therapy may be considered to further reduce residual cardiovascular risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Nonfasting triglycerides, cholesterol, and ischemic stroke in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varbo, Anette; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Schnohr, Peter; Jensen, Gorm B; Benn, Marianne

    2011-04-01

    Current guidelines on stroke prevention have recommendations on desirable cholesterol levels, but not on nonfasting triglycerides. We compared stepwise increasing levels of nonfasting triglycerides and cholesterol for their association with risk of ischemic stroke in the general population. A total of 7,579 women and 6,372 men from the Copenhagen City Heart Study with measurements of nonfasting triglycerides and cholesterol at baseline in 1976-1978 were followed for up to 33 years; of these, 837 women and 837 men developed ischemic stroke during follow-up, which was 100% complete. The fluctuation of nonfasting triglycerides and cholesterol over 15 years was similar. In both women and men, stepwise increasing levels of nonfasting triglycerides were associated with increased risk of ischemic stroke. Compared to women with triglycerides triglyceride levels of 1.00-1.99 mmol/liter to 3.9 (95%CI, 1.3-11.1) for triglyceride levels ≥ 5 mmol/liter (trend: p cholesterol levels were not associated with risk of ischemic stroke except in men with cholesterol levels ≥ 9.00 mmol/liter vs triglycerides were associated with increasing risk of ischemic stroke while increasing cholesterol levels were not. In men, these results were similar except that cholesterol ≥ 9.00 mmol/liter was associated with increased risk of ischemic stroke. Copyright © 2011 American Neurological Association.

  13. EFFECT OF ACUPUNCTURE TREATMENT ON CELLULAR HEMORHEOLOGY,CHOLESTEROL AND TRIGLYCERIDE OF SIMPLE OBESITY PATIENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵宁侠; 郭瑞林; 任秦有; 张周良; 史恒军

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effect of acupuncture on simple obesity and cellular hemorheology. Methods: Thirty-two cases of simple obesity patients were enrolled into this study. Acupoints of the Stomach Meridian and Spleen Meridian as Zhongwan (中脘CV 12), Liangmen (梁门ST 21), Tianshu (天枢ST 25), Guanyuan (关元CV 4), etc. were punctured, once daily in the first 5 days, and once every other day afterwards, with 10 sessions being a therapeutic course. Before treatment and after 3 courses of treatment, the body weight, waistline, weight index, serum cholesterol (CH), triglyceride and aggregation index of red blood cell (RBC) were detected. Results: After acupuncture treatment, all the indexes of body weight, waistline, weight index, serum CH, triglyceride and aggregation index of RBC decreased significantly in comparison with those of pre-treatment (P<0.05). Conclusion: Acupuncture can apparently improve cellular hemorheology, reduce body weight, serum cholesterol and TG levels in simple obesity patients.

  14. Effect of bilirubin on triglyceride synthesis in streptozotocin-induced diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianwei; Lee, Eun Seong; Baek, Seon Ha; Ahn, Shin-Young; Kim, Sejoong; Na, Ki Young; Chae, Dong-Wan; Chin, Ho Jun

    2014-09-01

    We aimed to elucidate the effect of bilirubin on dyslipidemia and nephropathy in a diabetes mellitus (DM) type I animal model. Sprague-Dawley rats were separated into control, DM, and bilirubin-treated DM (Bil) groups. The Bil group was injected intraperitoneally with 60 mg/kg bilirubin 3 times per week and hepatoma cells were cultured with bilirubin at a concentration of 0.3 mg/dL. The Bil group showed lower serum creatinine levels 5 weeks after diabetes onset. Bilirubin treatment also decreased the amount of mesangial matrix, lowered the expression of renal collagen IV and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1, and reduced the level of apoptosis in the kidney, compared to the DM group. These changes were accompanied by decreased tissue levels of hydrogen superoxide and NADPH oxidase subunit proteins. Bilirubin decreased serum total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), free fatty acids, and triglycerides (TGs), as well as the TG content in the liver tissues. Bilirubin suppressed protein expression of LXRα, SREBP-1, SCD-1, and FAS, factors involved in TG synthesis that were elevated in the livers of DM rats and hepatoma cells under high-glucose conditions. In conclusion, bilirubin attenuates renal dysfunction and dyslipidemia in diabetes by suppressing LXRα and SREBP-1 expression and oxidative stress.

  15. Inhibitory Effects of Constituents from the Aerial Parts of Rosmarinus officinalis L. on Triglyceride Accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Adelakun, Tiwalade Adegoke; Wang, Sijian; Ruan, Jingya; Yang, Shengcai; Li, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Tao

    2017-01-17

    Sixteen flavonoids (1-16) including two new ones, named officinoflavonosides A (1) and B (2) were obtained from the aerial parts of Rosmarinus officinalis. Among the known ones, 6, 10, and 13 were isolated from the rosmarinus genus for the first time. Their structures were elucidated by chemical and spectroscopic methods. Moreover, the effects on sodium oleate-induced triglyceride accumulation (TG) in HepG2 cells of the above-mentioned compounds and 16 other isolates (17-32) reported previously to have been obtained in the plant were analyzed. Results show that eight kinds of flavonoids (compounds 1, 2, 3, 6-9 and 11) and seven kinds of other known isolates (compounds 17-20, 23, 26 and 31) possessed significant inhibitory effects on intracellular TG content in HepG2 cells. Among them, the activities of compounds 1 and 20 were comparable to that of orlistat, which suggested that these compounds in this plant might be involved in lipid metabolism.

  16. Interaction of dietary cholesterol and triglycerides in the regulation of hepatic low density lipoprotein transport in the hamster.

    OpenAIRE

    Spady, D K; Dietschy, J M

    1988-01-01

    These studies report the effects of dietary cholesterol and triglyceride on rates of receptor-dependent and receptor-independent LDL transport in the liver of the hamster. In animals fed diets enriched with 0.1, 0.25, or 1% cholesterol for 1 mo, receptor-dependent LDL transport in the liver was suppressed by 43, 63, and 77%, respectively, and there were reciprocal changes in plasma LDL-cholesterol concentrations. In addition, dietary triglycerides modified the effect of dietary cholesterol on...

  17. Mentha piperita effects on wistar rats plasma lipids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Maria Barbalho

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effects of Mentha piperita juice and tea on plasma lipids of Wistar rats. The animals were divided in control group (CG and four treated groups: TG1 treated with tea and TG2 treated with juice (both receiving commercial rat chow; TG3 and TG4 were fed with supplemented fat chow (with hydrogenated fat and soybean oil and treated respectively with tea and juice. Both tea and juice were administered by intra-gastric route (gavage two times a day for 30 days. TG2 and TG4 animals showed significant decrease in triacylglycerols and increase in HDL-c levels. TG1 and TG2 also showed lower cholesterol values. The levels of LDL-c increased in CG but decreased in the treated groups. Animals of TG1, TG2 and TG4 showed substantial reduction in food intake and in percentage of weight gain. TG3 increased food intake but did not increase the percentage of weight gain.Os efeitos hipolipidêmicos de algumas plantas medicinais já foram demonstrados, mas muitas plantas que são comumente utilizadas pela população precisam ser estudadas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o efeito da Mentha piperita no perfil lipídico de ratos machos Wistar. Os animais foram divididos em grupo controle (CG e quatro grupos experimentais: TG1 e TG2 receberam ração comercial normal, sendo que TG1 foi tratado com chá e TG2 com suco de M. piperita; TG3 e TG4 receberam ração enriquecida (com gordura hidrogenada e óleo de soja, sendo que TG3 foi tratado com chá e TG4 com suco. O tratamento foi feito por via intragástrica duas vezes ao dia durante 30 dias. Os animais de TG2 e TG4 tiveram diminuição significativa nos níveis de triacilglicerídeos e aumento nos níveis de HDL-c. Houve aumento nos níveis de LDL-c em CG, mas nos demais grupos houve diminuição. TG1, TG2 e TG4 tiveram redução significativa no consumo alimentar e na porcentagem de ganho de peso. TG3 aumentou o consumo alimentar, mas não aumentou a porcentagem de

  18. Unrefined and refined black raspberry seed oils significantly lower triglycerides and moderately affect cholesterol metabolism in male Syrian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Mark M; Wolford, Kate A; Carden, Trevor J; Hwang, Keum Taek; Carr, Timothy P

    2011-09-01

    Unrefined and refined black raspberry seed oils (RSOs) were examined for their lipid-modulating effects in male Syrian hamsters fed high-cholesterol (0.12% g/g), high-fat (9% g/g) diets. Hamsters fed the refined and the unrefined RSO diets had equivalently lower plasma total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in comparison with the atherogenic coconut oil diet. The unrefined RSO treatment group did not differ in liver total and esterified cholesterol from the coconut oil-fed control animals, but the refined RSO resulted in significantly elevated liver total and esterified cholesterol concentrations. The unrefined RSO diets significantly lowered plasma triglycerides (46%; P=.0126) in comparison with the coconut oil diet, whereas the refined RSO only tended to lower plasma triglyceride (29%; P=.1630). Liver triglyceride concentrations were lower in the unrefined (46%; P=.0002) and refined (36%; P=.0005) RSO-fed animals than the coconut oil group, with the unrefined RSO diet eliciting a lower concentration than the soybean oil diet. Both RSOs demonstrated a null or moderate effect on cholesterol metabolism despite enrichment in linoleic acid, significantly lowering HDL cholesterol but not non-HDL cholesterol. Dramatically, both RSOs significantly reduced hypertriglyceridemia, most likely due to enrichment in α-linolenic acid. As a terrestrial source of α-linolenic acid, black RSOs, both refined and unrefined, provide a promising alternative to fish oil supplementation in management of hypertriglyceridemia, as demonstrated in hamsters fed high levels of dietary triglyceride and cholesterol.

  19. 他汀类药物通过激活PPARα和升高大鼠载脂蛋白A5降低甘油三酯%Statin reduces triglyceride level via activating PPARα and upregulating apolipoprotein A5 in hypertriglyceridemic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄贤圣; 赵水平; 柏林; 张骞; 胡敏; 赵旺

    2010-01-01

    目的 明确他汀类药物降低甘油三酯(TG)作用是否与载脂蛋白A5(ApoA5)有关,探讨他汀调节ApoA5的机制.方法 24只Sprague-Dawley大鼠分为3组:(1)对照组:正常普通饮食喂养;(2)高甘油三酯血症(HTG)组:10%果糖水喂养2周建立HTG大鼠模型,并继续喂养4周;(3)他汀组:HTG大鼠建模后,以阿托伐他汀(10 mg·kg-1·d-1)干预4周.测定空腹血脂及肝脏ApoA5和PPARα表达.体外观察阿托伐他汀对HepG2细胞TG、ApoA5和PPARα的影响.结果 (1)HTG组大鼠TG显著高于对照组,而阿托伐他汀干预可以显著降低HTG大鼠的TG(均P<0.05).(2)HTG组大鼠ApoA5表达显著低于对照组,而他汀组的ApoA5表达显著高于HTG组.(3)HTG组大鼠PPARα的mRNA表达显著低于对照组,而他汀组PPARα mRNA表达显著高于HTG组.(4)他汀显著升高肝细胞ApoA5和PPARα表达,降低细胞TG,但PPARα抑制剂可以显著抑制他汀的上述效应.结论他汀通过PPARα通路,上调ApoA5表达,降低TG.%Objective To explore the potential role of apolipoprotein A5 (ApoA5) on the hypertriglyceridemia (HTG)-lowering effects of statin. Methods Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to 3 groups:(1)control group, with no special treatment. (2) HTG group, treated with 10% fructose water for 6 weeks. (3) statin 4 weeks. Body weight, fasting plasma lipids, and the hepatic expressions of ApoA5 and PPARα were determined. In separate in vitro experiments, the effects of atorvastatin on triglyceride (TG) and the expressions of ApoA5 and PPARα in HepG2 cells were tested. Results (1) Plasma TG was higher in HTG group than in controls group, which was significantly reduced in statin group (both P < 0. 05). (2) Rat hepatic ApoA5expression in HTG group was significantly lower than in control group and it was significantly higher in statin group than in HTG group (both P<0. 05). (3) Similarly, rat PPARα mRNA expression in HTG group was lower than in control group and it was higher in statin

  20. Thyroid-stimulating hormone inhibits adipose triglyceride lipase in 3T3-L1 adipocytes through the PKA pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongqing Jiang

    Full Text Available Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH has been shown to play an important role in the regulation of triglyceride (TG metabolism in adipose tissue. Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL is a rate-limiting enzyme controlling the hydrolysis of TG. Thus far, it is unclear whether TSH has a direct effect on the expression of ATGL. Because TSH function is mediated through the TSH receptor (TSHR, TSHR knockout mice (Tshr-/- mice (supplemented with thyroxine were used in this study to determine the effects of TSHR deletion on ATGL expression. These effects were verified in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and potential underlying mechanisms were explored. In the Tshr-/- mice, ATGL expression in epididymal adipose tissue was significantly increased compared with that in Tshr+/+ mice. ATGL expression was observed to increase with the differentiation process of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. In mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes, TSH significantly suppressed ATGL expression at both the protein and mRNA levels in a dose-dependent manner. Forskolin, which is an activator of adenylate cyclase, suppressed the expression of ATGL in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The inhibitory effects of TSH on ATGL expression were abolished by H89, which is a protein kinase A (PKA inhibitor. These results indicate that TSH has an inhibitory effect on ATGL expression in mature adipocytes. The associated mechanism is related to PKA activation.

  1. Comparing the effects of fluoxetine and imipramine on total cholesterol, triglyceride, and weight in patients with major depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahsavand Ananloo Esmaeil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are some reports on the effects of antidepressants on metabolic syndrome. However, our search in the previously published literature showed a lack of information on the comparison of the effects of different classes of antidepressants on lipid profile. Therefore, this study was aimed to compare the effects of fluoxetine and imipramine on serum total cholesterol (TC and triglyceride (TG as well as body weight (BW in patients with major depressive disorder. Methods Fifty one patients, 18 to 70 years of age, with major depressive disorder complied with the criteria of this preliminary, open-label clinical trial. Subjects received either imipramine (75–200 mg/day or fluoxetine (20–40 mg/day for 8 weeks. Total cholesterol and TG levels, as well as BW were compared at baseline with those at weeks 4 and 8. Data was analyzed by SPSS software version 16.0. Results In the fluoxetine group, TC levels decreased from 165.71 mg/dL to 156.71 mg/dL at week 4 (P = 0.07, and to 143.94 mg/dL at week 8 (P = 0.16; TG levels decreased from 129.35 mg/dL to 115.88 mg/dL at week 4 (P Repeated measures ANOVA showed significant effects on both TC and TG levels as well as on BW in all patients receiving imipramine. However, in patients on fluoxetine, repeated measures ANOVA showed significant effects of this medication only on TC levels in males. Conclusions Monitoring TC and TG and BW is recommended before starting imipramine in depressed patients with increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Fluoxetine may be the preferred agent in those with high or borderline high lipid levels.

  2. High doses of bifendate elevate serum and hepatic triglyceride levels in rabbits and mice: animal models of acute hypertriglyceridemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Si-yuan PAN; Rong YANG; Yi-fan HAN; Hang DONG; Xu-dong FENG; Na LI; Wei GENG; Kam-ming KO

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effects of bifendate on serum and hepatic lipids level in rabbits and mice. Methods: Animals were administered bifendate [powdered pill suspended in 0.5% sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC)] at increasing doses (0.25-1 g/kg, ig). Blood lipid and apolipoprotein levels were measured using commercially available assay kits. Results: The treatment of rabbits with a single dose of bifendate (0.3 g/kg) caused a time-dependent and biphasic change in serum triglyceride (TG) levels, with the value reaching a maximum (3-fold increase compared to the baseline value) between 24 and 36 h post-dosing. When mice were orally treated with bifendate (0.25-1 g/kg), serum TG levels increased by 39%-76% and 14%-39% at 24 and 48 h post-dosing, respectively. When given at daily doses of 0.25 and 1 g/kg for 4 d, bifendate increased serum TG levels (56%-79%), with concomitant elevations in apolipoprotein A-I and apolipoprotein B levels at 24 h after the last dosing. TG levels were also increased (11%-43%) in liver samples of mice receiving single or multiple doses of bifendate. However, bifendate treatment caused slight reductions in serum and hepatic total cholesterol levels (9%-13%). The hypertriglyceridemia induced by bifendate was ameliorated by fenofibrate but not inositol nicotinate treatment in mice. Conclusion: The findings suggest that bifendate treatment at high oral doses can cause an acute elevation in serum and hepatic TG levels.

  3. Triglyceride to High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Ratio and Cardiovascular Events in Diabetics With Coronary Artery Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sheng-Hua; Du, Ying; Li, Xiao-Lin; Zhang, Yan; Li, Sha; Xu, Rui-Xia; Zhu, Cheng-Gang; Guo, Yuan-Lin; Wu, Na-Qiong; Qing, Ping; Gao, Ying; Cui, Chuan-Jue; Dong, Qian; Sun, Jing; Li, Jian-Jun

    2017-08-01

    It has been demonstrated that an elevated ratio of triglycerides (TG) to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) is a risk factor of coronary artery disease (CAD) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and is also found to be associated with cardiovascular events (CVEs) in the general population. However, its prognostic value in patients with T2DM along with CAD remains to be determined. A total of 1,447 consecutive patients with T2DM with angiographic-proven stable CAD were enrolled in the present study and followed-up for an average of 20.3 months. The characteristics of all patients including fasting lipid profile were obtained at baseline and multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were constructed using log TG/HDL-C as a predictor variable. The relationships between CVEs and total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), non-HDL-C, TC/HDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C and apolipoprotein B/ apolipoprotein AI (apoB/apoAI) were also explored. Compared with patients without CVEs, the ones who experienced CVEs had a higher TG/HDL-C ratio. Univariable regression revealed a significant association of log TG/HDL-C with CVEs (hazard ratio = 2.5, P = 0.015). After adjusting for multiple traditional risk factors of cardiovascular disease, the association was still found (hazard ratio = 2.47, P = 0.047). Moreover, results suggested that the ratios of non-HDL-C, TC/HDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C and apoB/apoAI were not predictors for CVEs in T2DM. In our primary study, data suggested that elevated TG/HDL-C value might be a useful predictor for future CVEs in Chinese patients with T2DM with stable CAD. Further study is needed to confirm our findings. Copyright © 2017 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Association of Triglyceride-Related Genetic Variants With Mitral Annular Calcification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshar, Mehdi; Luk, Kevin; Do, Ron; Dufresne, Line; Owens, David S; Harris, Tamara B; Peloso, Gina M; Kerr, Kathleen F; Wong, Quenna; Smith, Albert V; Budoff, Mathew J; Rotter, Jerome I; Cupples, L Adrienne; Rich, Stephen S; Engert, James C; Gudnason, Vilmundur; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Post, Wendy S; Thanassoulis, George

    2017-06-20

    Mitral annular calcium (MAC), commonly identified by cardiac imaging, is associated with cardiovascular events and predisposes to the development of clinically important mitral valve regurgitation and mitral valve stenosis. However, its biological determinants remain largely unknown. The authors sought to evaluate whether a genetic predisposition to elevations in plasma lipids is associated with the presence of MAC. The authors used 3 separate Mendelian randomization techniques to evaluate the associations of lipid genetic risk scores (GRS) with MAC in 3 large patient cohorts: the Framingham Health Study, MESA (Multiethnic European Study of Atherosclerosis), and the AGE-RS (Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study). The authors provided cross-ethnicity replication in the MESA Hispanic-American participants. MAC was present in 1,149 participants (20.4%). In pooled analyses across all 3 cohorts, a triglyceride GRS was significantly associated with the presence of MAC (odds ratio [OR] per triglyceride GRS unit: 1.73; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.24 to 2.41; p = 0.0013). Neither low- nor high-density lipoprotein cholesterol GRS was significantly associated with MAC. Results were consistent in cross-ethnicity analyses among the MESA Hispanic-Americans cohort (OR per triglyceride GRS unit: 2.04; 95% CI: 1.03 to 4.03; p = 0.04). In joint meta-analysis across all included cohorts, the triglyceride GRS was associated with MAC (OR per triglyceride GRS unit: 1.79; 95% CI: 1.32 to 2.41; p = 0.0001). The results were robust to several sensitivity analyses that limit both known and unknown forms of genetic pleiotropy. Genetic predisposition to elevated triglyceride levels was associated with the presence of MAC, a risk factor for clinically significant mitral valve disease, suggesting a causal association. Whether reducing triglyceride levels can lower the incidence of clinically significant mitral valve disease requires further study. Copyright © 2017

  5. Increased fasting plasma acylation-stimulating protein concentrations in nephrotic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozata, Metin; Oktenli, Cagatay; Gulec, Mustafa; Ozgurtas, Taner; Bulucu, Fatih; Caglar, Kayser; Bingol, Necati; Vural, Abdulgaffar; Ozdemir, I Caglayan

    2002-02-01

    Acylation-stimulating protein (ASP) is an adipocyte-derived protein that has recently been suggested to play an important role in the regulation of lipoprotein metabolism and triglyceride (TG) storage. ASP also appears to have a role in the regulation of energy balance. In addition to its role as a hormonal regulator of body weight and energy expenditure, leptin is now implicated as a regulatory molecule in lipid metabolism. However, little is known about the alterations in fasting plasma ASP and leptin concentrations in the nephrotic syndrome. As hyperlipidemia is one of the most striking manifestations of the nephrotic syndrome, we have investigated fasting plasma ASP and leptin levels and their relation to lipid levels in this syndrome. Twenty-five patients with untreated nephrotic syndrome and 25 age-, sex-, and body mass index-matched healthy controls were included in the study. Fasting plasma lipoproteins, TG, total cholesterol, lipoprotein(a), apolipoprotein AI (apoAI), apoB, urinary protein, plasma albumin, third component of complement (C3), ASP, and leptin levels were measured in both groups. Total cholesterol, TG, low and very low density lipoproteins, lipoprotein(a), apoB, and urinary protein levels were increased in the patient group, whereas plasma albumin, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and apoAI levels were decreased compared with those in the control group (P Fasting ASP concentrations showed no correlation with body mass index, proteinuria, plasma albumin, leptin, or any lipid parameter in either group, but C3 levels (in patient group: r(s) = 0.92; P < 0.001; in control group: r(s) = 0.68; P < 0.001). Our findings showed that plasma ASP levels were significantly elevated, whereas leptin levels were normal in the nephrotic syndrome. Increased ASP levels in the setting of dyslipidemia in the nephrotic syndrome raise the possibility of an ASP receptor defect in adipocytes, which also suggests the existence of so-called ASP resistance. Moreover

  6. The g0/g1 switch gene 2 is an important regulator of hepatic triglyceride metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinfang Wang

    Full Text Available Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with obesity and insulin resistance. Factors that regulate the disposal of hepatic triglycerides contribute to the development of hepatic steatosis. G0/G1 switch gene 2 (G0S2 is a target of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and plays an important role in regulating lipolysis in adipocytes. Therefore, we investigated whether G0S2 plays a role in hepatic lipid metabolism. Adenovirus-mediated expression of G0S2 (Ad-G0S2 potently induced fatty liver in mice. The liver mass of Ad-G0S2-infected mice was markedly increased with excess triglyceride content compared to the control mice. G0S2 did not change cellular cholesterol levels in hepatocytes. G0S2 was found to be co-localized with adipose triglyceride lipase at the surface of lipid droplets. Hepatic G0S2 overexpression resulted in an increase in plasma Low-density lipoprotein (LDL/Very-Low-density (VLDL lipoprotein cholesterol level. Plasma High-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol and ketone body levels were slightly decreased in Ad-G0S2 injected mice. G0S2 also increased the accumulation of neutral lipids in cultured HepG2 and L02 cells. However, G0S2 overexpression in the liver significantly improved glucose tolerance in mice. Livers expressing G0S2 exhibited increased 6-(N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1-3-diazol-4-yl amino-6-deoxyglucose uptake compared with livers transfected with control adenovirus. Taken together, our results provide evidence supporting an important role for G0S2 as a regulator of triglyceride content in the liver and suggest that G0S2 may be a molecular target for the treatment of insulin resistance and other obesity-related metabolic disorders.

  7. The Correlation between the Triglyceride to High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Ratio and Computed Tomography-Measured Visceral Fat and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Local Adult Male Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye-Rin; Shin, Sae-Ron; Han, A Lum; Jeong, Yong Joon

    2015-11-01

    We studied the association between the triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio and computed tomography-measured visceral fat as well as cardiovascular risk factors among Korean male adults. We measured triglycerides, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, body mass, waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose, hemoglobin A1c, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, visceral fat, and subcutaneous fat among 372 Korean men. The visceral fat and subcutaneous fat areas were measured by computed tomography using a single computed tomography slice at the L4-5 lumbar level. We analyzed the association between the triglyceride to high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio and visceral fat as well as cardiovascular risk factors. A positive correlation was found between the triglyceride to high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio and variables such as body mass index, waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose, hemoglobin A1c, visceral fat, and the visceral-subcutaneous fat ratio. However, there was no significant correlation between the triglyceride to high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio and subcutaneous fat or blood pressure. Multiple logistic regression analyses revealed significant associations between a triglyceride to high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio ≥3 and diabetes, a body mass index ≥25 kg/m(2), a waist circumference ≥90 cm, and a visceral fat area ≥100 cm(2). The triglyceride to high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio was not significantly associated with hypertension. There were significant associations between the triglyceride to high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio and body mass, waist circumference, diabetes, and visceral fat among a clinical sample of Korean men. In the clinical setting, the triglyceride to high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio may be a simple and useful indicator for visceral obesity and cardiovascular disease.

  8. Estradiol enhances effects of fructose rich diet on cardiac fatty acid transporter CD36 and triglycerides accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korićanac, Goran; Tepavčević, Snežana; Romić, Snježana; Živković, Maja; Stojiljković, Mojca; Milosavljević, Tijana; Stanković, Aleksandra; Petković, Marijana; Kamčeva, Tina; Žakula, Zorica

    2012-11-05

    Fructose rich diet increases hepatic triglycerides production and has deleterious cardiac effects. Estrogens are involved in regulation of lipid metabolism as well, but their effects are cardio beneficial. In order to study effects of fructose rich diet on the main heart fatty acid transporter CD36 and the role of estrogens, we subjected ovariectomized female rats to the standard diet or fructose rich diet, with or without estradiol (E2) replacement. The following parameters were analyzed: feeding behavior, visceral adipose tissue mass, plasma lipids, cardiac CD36 expression, localization and insulin regulation, as well as the profile of cardiac lipids. Results show that fructose rich diet significantly increased plasma triglycerides and decreased plasma free fatty acid (FFA) concentration, while E2 additionally emphasized FFA decrease. The fructose diet increased cardiac plasma membrane content of CD36 in the basal and insulin-stimulated states, and decreased its low density microsomes content. The E2 in fructose-fed rats raised the total cardiac protein content of CD36, its presence in plasma membranes and low density microsomes, and cardiac deposition of triglycerides, as well. Although E2 counteracts fructose in some aspects of lipid metabolism, and separately they have opposite cardiac effects, in combination with fructose rich diet, E2 additionally enhances CD36 presence in plasma membranes of cardiac cells and triglycerides accumulation, which paradoxically might promote deleterious effects of fructose diet on cardiac lipid metabolism. Taken together, the results presented in this work are of high importance for clinical administration of estrogens in females with a history of type 2 diabetes.

  9. Chemical Sciences A comparative study of triglyceride and fatty acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. ... Triglyceride and fatty acid composition were determined for palm oils from three different ... Much of the variations occurred in triglycerides with two or more unsaturated fatty acids in their ...

  10. Static and Dynamic Wetting Behavior of Triglycerides on Solid Surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski; Saramago

    2000-07-15

    Triglyceride wetting properties on solid surfaces of different hydro-phobicities were investigated using three different methods, namely, the sessile drop method for static contact angle measurements, the Wilhelmy method for dynamic contact angle measurements, and the captive bubble method to investigate thin triglyceride film stability. For solid surfaces having a surface free energy higher than the surface tension of triglycerides (tributyrin, tricaprylin, and triolein), a qualitative correlation was observed between wetting and solid/triglyceride relative hydrophobicities. On surfaces presenting extreme hydrophobic or hydrophilic properties, medium-chain triglycerides had a behavior similar to that of long-chain unsaturated ones. On a high-energy surface (glass), tricaprylin showed an autophobic effect subsequent to molecular adsorption in trident conformation on the solid, observed with the three methods. Thin triglyceride films between an air bubble and a solid surface were stable for a short time, for solids with a surface free energy larger than the triglyceride surface tension. If the solid surface had a lower surface free energy, the thin film collapsed after a time interval which increased with triglyceride viscosity. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  11. Profile of Free Fatty Acids and Fractions of Phospholipids, Cholesterol Esters and Triglycerides in Serum of Obese Youth with and without Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermúdez-Cardona, Juliana; Velásquez-Rodríguez, Claudia

    2016-02-15

    The study evaluated the profile of circulating fatty acids (FA) in obese youth with and without metabolic syndrome (MetS) to determine its association with nutritional status, lifestyle and metabolic variables. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 96 young people, divided into three groups: obese with MetS (OBMS), obese (OB) and appropriate weight (AW). FA profiles were quantified by gas chromatography; waist circumference (WC), fat folds, lipid profile, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, glucose, insulin, the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA index), food intake and physical activity (PA) were assessed. The OBMS group had significantly greater total free fatty acids (FFAs), palmitic-16:0 in triglyceride (TG), palmitoleic-16:1n-7 in TG and phospholipid (PL); in the OB group, these FAs were higher than in the AW group. Dihomo-gamma-linolenic (DHGL-20:3n-6) was higher in the OBMS than the AW in PL and FFAs. Linoleic-18:2n-6 in TG and PL had the lowest proportion in the OBMS group. WC, PA, total FFA, linoleic-18:2n-6 in TG and DHGL-20:3n-6 in FFAs explained 62% of the HOMA value. The OB group presented some higher proportions of FA and biochemical values than the AW group. The OBMS had proportions of some FA in the TG, PL and FFA fractions that correlated with disturbances of MetS.

  12. Muscle and liver glycogen, protein, and triglyceride in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Erik; Sonne, Bente; Joensen Mikines, Kari

    1984-01-01

    in skeletal muscle was accompanied by increased breakdown of triglyceride and/or protein. Thus, the effect of exhausting swimming and of running on concentrations of glycogen, protein, and triglyceride in skeletal muscle and liver were studied in rats with and without deficiencies of the sympatho......-adrenal system. In control rats, both swimming and running decreased the concentration of glycogen in fast-twitch red and slow-twitch red muscle whereas concentrations of protein and triglyceride did not decrease. In the liver, swimming depleted glycogen stores but protein and triglyceride concentrations did...... not decrease. In exercising rats, muscle glycogen breakdown was impaired by adrenodemedullation and restored by infusion of epinephrine. However, impaired glycogen breakdown during exercise was not accompanied by a significant net breakdown of protein or triglyceride. Surgical sympathectomy of the muscles did...

  13. Triglyceride-Lowering Effects of Two Probiotics, Lactobacillus plantarum KY1032 and Lactobacillus curvatus HY7601, in a Rat Model of High-Fat Diet-Induced Hypertriglyceridemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Il-Dong; Kim, Sung-Hwan; Jeong, Ji-Woong; Lee, Dong Eun; Huh, Chul-Sung; Hong, Seong Soo; Sim, Jae-Hun; Ahn, Young-Tae

    2016-03-01

    The triglyceride-lowering effect of probiotics Lactobacillus plantarum KY1032 and Lactobacillus curvatus HY7601 were investigated. Male SD Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups and fed high-fat diet (HFD), HFD and probiotics (5 X 10(9) CFU/day of L. plantarum KY1032 and 5 X 10(9) CFU/day of L. curvatus HY7601), or normal diet for 6 weeks. Probiotic treatment significantly lowered the elevated plasma triglyceride and increased plasma free fatty acid, glycerol, and plasma apolipoprotein A-V (ApoA-V) levels. The probiotic-treated group showed elevated hepatic mRNA expression of PPARα, bile acid receptor (FXR), and ApoA-V. These results demonstrate that L. plantarum KY1032 and L. curvatus HY7601 lower triglycerides in hypertriglyceridemic rats by upregulating ApoA-V, PPARα, and FXR.

  14. Altered plasma lysophosphatidylcholines and amides in non-obese and non-diabetic subjects with borderline-to-moderate hypertriglyceridemia: a case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sae Young Lee

    Full Text Available Hypertriglyceridemia (HTG is a risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD. We investigated alterations in plasma metabolites associated with borderline-to-moderate HTG (triglycerides (TG 150-500 mg/dL. Using UPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometry analysis, the metabolomics profiles of 111 non-diabetic and non-obese individuals with borderline-to-moderate HTG were compared with those of 111 age- and sex-matched controls with normotriglyceridemia (NTG, TG <150 mg/dL. When compared to the NTG control group, the HTG group exhibited higher plasma levels of lysophosphatidylcholines (lysoPCs, including C14:0 (q = 0.001 and C16:0 (q = 1.8E-05, and several amides, including N-ethyldodecanamide (q = 2.9E-05, N-propyldodecanamide (q = 3.5E-05, palmitoleamide (q = 2.9E-06, and palmitic amide (q = 0.019. The metabolomic profiles of the HTG group also exhibited lower plasma levels of cis-4-octenedioic acid (q<1.0E-9 and docosanamide (q = 0.002 compared with those of the NTG controls. LysoPC 16:0 and palmitoleamide emerged as the primary metabolites able to discriminate the HTG group from the NTG group in a partial least-squares discriminant analysis and were positively associated with the fasting triglyceride levels. We identified alterations in lysoPCs, amides, and cis-4-octenedioic acid among non-diabetic and non-obese individuals with borderline-to-moderate HTG. These results provide novel insights into the metabolic alterations that occur in the early metabolic stages of HTG. This information may facilitate the design of early interventions to prevent disease progression.

  15. Altered Plasma Lysophosphatidylcholines and Amides in Non-Obese and Non-Diabetic Subjects with Borderline-To-Moderate Hypertriglyceridemia: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Saem; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Jong Ho

    2015-01-01

    Hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) is a risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD). We investigated alterations in plasma metabolites associated with borderline-to-moderate HTG (triglycerides (TG) 150-500 mg/dL). Using UPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometry analysis, the metabolomics profiles of 111 non-diabetic and non-obese individuals with borderline-to-moderate HTG were compared with those of 111 age- and sex-matched controls with normotriglyceridemia (NTG, TG <150 mg/dL). When compared to the NTG control group, the HTG group exhibited higher plasma levels of lysophosphatidylcholines (lysoPCs), including C14:0 (q = 0.001) and C16:0 (q = 1.8E-05), and several amides, including N-ethyldodecanamide (q = 2.9E-05), N-propyldodecanamide (q = 3.5E-05), palmitoleamide (q = 2.9E-06), and palmitic amide (q = 0.019). The metabolomic profiles of the HTG group also exhibited lower plasma levels of cis-4-octenedioic acid (q<1.0E-9) and docosanamide (q = 0.002) compared with those of the NTG controls. LysoPC 16:0 and palmitoleamide emerged as the primary metabolites able to discriminate the HTG group from the NTG group in a partial least-squares discriminant analysis and were positively associated with the fasting triglyceride levels. We identified alterations in lysoPCs, amides, and cis-4-octenedioic acid among non-diabetic and non-obese individuals with borderline-to-moderate HTG. These results provide novel insights into the metabolic alterations that occur in the early metabolic stages of HTG. This information may facilitate the design of early interventions to prevent disease progression. PMID:25856314

  16. DynTG: A tool for Interactive, Dynamic Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, M; May, J; Gyllenhaal, J

    2005-02-16

    With the increasing complexity of today's systems, detailed performance analysis is more important than ever. We have developed DynTG, a tool for interactive, dynamic instrumentation. It uses performance module plugins to reconfigure the data acquisition and provides a source browser that allows users to insert any probe functionality provided by the modules dynamically into the target application. Any instrumentation can be added both before and during the application's execution and the acquired data is presented in realtime within the source viewer. This enables users to monitor their applications' progress and interactively control and adapt the instrumentation based on their observations.

  17. TG-FTIR characterization of flame retardant polyurethane foams materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W.; Tang, Y.; Li, F.; Ge, X. G.; Zhang, Z. J.

    2016-07-01

    Dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) and trichloroethyl phosphtate (TCEP) have been used to enhance the flame retardancy of polyurethane foams materials (PUF). Flame retardancy and thermal degradation of PUF samples have been investigated by the LOI tests and thermal analysis. The results indicate that the excellent flame retardancy can be achieved due to the presence of the flame retardant system containing DMMP and TCEP. TG-FTIR reveals that the addition of DMMP/TCEP can not only improve the thermal stability of PUF samples but can also affect the gaseous phase at high temperature.

  18. Hepatic triglyceride synthesis and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Steve S; Diehl, Anna Mae

    2008-06-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is a spectrum of diseases ranging from simple steatosis to cirrhosis. The hallmark of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is hepatocyte accumulation of triglycerides. We will review the role of triglyceride synthesis in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease progression and summarize recent findings about triglyceride synthesis inhibition and prevention of progressive disease. Attempts to inhibit triglyceride synthesis in animal models have resulted in improvement in hepatic steatosis. Studies in animal models of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease demonstrate that inhibition of acyl-coenzyme A:diacylglycerol acyltransferase, the enzyme that catalyzes the final step in triglyceride synthesis, results in improvement in hepatic steatosis and insulin sensitivity. We recently confirmed that hepatic specific inhibition of acyl-coenzyme A:diacylglycerol acyltransferase with antisense oligonucleotides improves hepatic steatosis in obese, diabetic mice but, unexpectedly, exacerbated injury and fibrosis in that model of progressive nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. When hepatocyte triglyceride synthesis was inhibited, free fatty acids accumulated in the liver, leading to induction of fatty acid oxidizing systems that increased hepatic oxidative stress and liver damage. These findings suggest that the ability to synthesize triglycerides may, in fact, be protective in obesity. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is strongly associated with obesity and peripheral insulin resistance. Peripheral insulin resistance increases lipolysis in adipose depots, promoting increased free fatty acid delivery to the liver. In states of energy excess, such as obesity, the latter normally triggers hepatic triglyceride synthesis. When hepatic triglyceride synthesis is unable to accommodate increased hepatocyte free fatty acid accumulation, however, lipotoxicity results. Thus, rather than being hepatotoxic, liver triglyceride accumulation is actually hepato-protective in obese

  19. Triglycerides and ratio of triglycerides to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol are better than liver enzymes to identify insulin resistance in urban middle-aged and older non-obese Chinese without diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Yu; Li Wenjuan; Hou Xinguo; Wang Chuan; Li Chengqiao; Zhang Xiuping; Yang Weifang

    2014-01-01

    Background Insulin resistance (IR) plays an important pathophysiological role in the development of diabetes,dyslipidemia,hypertension,and cardiovascular disease.Moreover,IR can occur even in non-obese people without diabetes.However,direct detection of IR is complicated.In order to find a simple surrogate marker of IR early in nonobese people,we investigate the association of commonly-used biochemical markers (liver enzymes and lipid profiles) with IR in urban middle-aged and older non-obese Chinese without diabetes.Methods This cross-sectional study included 1 987 subjects (1 473 women).Fasting blood samples were collected for measurement of glucose,insulin,liver enzymes,lipid profiles and creatinine.Subjects whose homeostasis model of assessment-IR (HOMA-IR) index values exceeded the 75th percentile (2.67 for women and 2.48 for men) of the population were considered to have IR.The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) was used to compare the power of potential markers in identifying IR.Results Triglycerides (TG) and ratio of TG to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) discriminated IR better than other indexes for both sexes; areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves (AUC) values were 0.770 (95% confidence interval 0.733-0.807) and 0.772 (0.736-0.809),respectively,for women and 0.754 (0.664-0.844)and 0.756 (0.672-0.840),respectively,for men.To identify IR,the optimal cut-offs for TG and TG/HDL-C ratio were 1.315 mmol/L (sensitivity 74.3%,specificity 71.0%) and 0.873 (sensitivity 70.1%,specificity 73.4%),respectively,for women,and 1.275 mmol/L (sensitivity 66.7%,specificity 74.4%) and 0.812 (sensitivity 75.8%,specificity 69.2%),respectively,for men.Conclusion TG and TG/HDL-C ratio could be used to identify IR in urban middle-aged and older non-obese Chinese without diabetes.

  20. Triglycerides and ratio of triglycerides to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol are better than liver enzymes to identify insulin resistance in urban middle-aged and older non-obese Chinese without diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu; Li, Wenjuan; Hou, Xinguo; Wang, Chuan; Li, Chengqiao; Zhang, Xiuping; Yang, Weifang; Ma, Zeqiang; Wang, Weiqing; Ning, Guang; Zheng, Huizhen; Ma, Aixia; Song, Jun; Lin, Peng; Liang, Kai; Liu, Fuqiang; Gong, Lei; Wang, Meijian; Xiao, Juan; Yan, Fei; Yang, Junpeng; Wang, Lingshu; Tian, Meng; Liu, Jidong; Zhao, Ruxing; Zhu, Ping; Chen, Li

    2014-01-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) plays an important pathophysiological role in the development of diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. Moreover, IR can occur even in non-obese people without diabetes. However, direct detection of IR is complicated. In order to find a simple surrogate marker of IR early in non-obese people, we investigate the association of commonly-used biochemical markers (liver enzymes and lipid profiles) with IR in urban middle-aged and older non-obese Chinese without diabetes. This cross-sectional study included 1 987 subjects (1 473 women). Fasting blood samples were collected for measurement of glucose, insulin, liver enzymes, lipid profiles and creatinine. Subjects whose homeostasis model of assessment-IR (HOMA-IR) index values exceeded the 75th percentile (2.67 for women and 2.48 for men) of the population were considered to have IR. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) was used to compare the power of potential markers in identifying IR. Triglycerides (TG) and ratio of TG to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) discriminated IR better than other indexes for both sexes; areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves (AUC) values were 0.770 (95% confidence interval 0.733-0.807) and 0.772 (0.736-0.809), respectively, for women and 0.754 (0.664-0.844) and 0.756 (0.672-0.840), respectively, for men. To identify IR, the optimal cut-offs for TG and TG/HDL-C ratio were 1.315 mmol/L (sensitivity 74.3%, specificity 71.0%) and 0.873 (sensitivity 70.1%, specificity 73.4%), respectively, for women, and 1.275 mmol/L (sensitivity 66.7%, specificity 74.4%) and 0.812 (sensitivity 75.8%, specificity 69.2%), respectively, for men. TG and TG/HDL-C ratio could be used to identify IR in urban middle-aged and older non-obese Chinese without diabetes.

  1. Triglyceride lipases alter fuel metabolism and mitochondrial gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Matthew J

    2009-06-01

    Fatty acids derived from the hydrolysis of adipose tissue and skeletal muscle triacylglycerol (TG) are an important energy substrate at rest and during prolonged moderate-intensity exercise. Hormone sensitive lipase (HSL) was long considered to be the rate-limiting enzyme for adipocyte and skeletal muscle TG lipolysis. However, the understanding of TG lipolysis regulation was recently challenged by the finding that adipose TG lipase (ATGL) is the predominant TG lipase in adipose tissue and an important regulator of TG degradation in skeletal muscle. Thus, it is now proposed that ATGL and HSL regulate lipolysis in a serial manner, with ATGL cleaving the first fatty acid and HSL the second fatty acid of TG. Further to this biochemical evaluation, the generation and metabolic characterization of ATGL-/- and HSL-/- mice have revealed distinct phenotypes. ATGL-/- mice are obese, exhibit impaired thermogenesis, oxidize more carbohydrate, and die prematurely due to cardiac dysfunction. Studies in HSL-/- mice report defective beta-adrenergic stimulated lipolysis, protection against high-fat diet-induced obesity, and possible impairments in insulin secretion. This review outlines the current understanding of the cellular regulation of TG lipases, lipolytic regulation, and the functional implications of manipulating ATGL and HSL in vivo.

  2. The hepatitis C virus core protein inhibits adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL)-mediated lipid mobilization and enhances the ATGL interaction with comparative gene identification 58 (CGI-58) and lipid droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camus, Gregory; Schweiger, Martina; Herker, Eva; Harris, Charles; Kondratowicz, Andrew S; Tsou, Chia-Lin; Farese, Robert V; Herath, Kithsiri; Previs, Stephen F; Roddy, Thomas P; Pinto, Shirly; Zechner, Rudolf; Ott, Melanie

    2014-12-26

    Liver steatosis is a common health problem associated with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and an important risk factor for the development of liver fibrosis and cancer. Steatosis is caused by triglycerides (TG) accumulating in lipid droplets (LDs), cellular organelles composed of neutral lipids surrounded by a monolayer of phospholipids. The HCV nucleocapsid core localizes to the surface of LDs and induces steatosis in cultured cells and mouse livers by decreasing intracellular TG degradation (lipolysis). Here we report that core at the surface of LDs interferes with the activity of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL), the key lipolytic enzyme in the first step of TG breakdown. Expressing core in livers or mouse embryonic fibroblasts of ATGL(-/-) mice no longer decreases TG degradation as observed in LDs from wild-type mice, supporting the model that core reduces lipolysis by engaging ATGL. Core must localize at LDs to inhibit lipolysis, as ex vivo TG hydrolysis is impaired in purified LDs coated with core but not when free core is added to LDs. Coimmunoprecipitation experiments revealed that core does not directly interact with the ATGL complex but, unexpectedly, increased the interaction between ATGL and its activator CGI-58 as well as the recruitment of both proteins to LDs. These data link the anti-lipolytic activity of the HCV core protein with altered ATGL binding to CGI-58 and the enhanced association of both proteins with LDs.

  3. NS5ATP6 modulates intracellular triglyceride content through FGF21 and independently of SIRT1 and SREBP1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhongshu; Feng, Shenghu; Zhou, Li; Liu, Shunai; Cheng, Jun

    2016-06-17

    The prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is rising strikingly in Western countries and China. The molecular biological mechanism of NAFLD remains unclear, with no effective therapies developed so far. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a recently discovered hormone, with safe lipid lowering effects. FGF21 analogs are being developed for clinical application. Here we demonstrated that a novel gene, NS5ATP6, modulated intracellular triglyceride (TG) content independently of sirtuin1 (SIRT1) and sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP1) in HepG2 cells. Interestingly, NS5ATP6 regulated FGF21 expression both at the mRNA and protein levels. The modulatory effects of NS5ATP6 on intracellular TG content depended upon FGF21. Further studies revealed that NS5ATP6 decreased the promoter activity of FGF21. In addition, NS5ATP6 regulated the expression of miR-577, which directly targeted and regulated FGF21. Therefore, miR-577 might be involved in NS5ATP6 regulation of FGF21 at the post-transcriptional level. In conclusion, NS5ATP6 regulates the intracellular TG level via FGF21, and independently of SIRT1 and SREBP1.

  4. Coordinated Defects in Hepatic Long Chain Fatty Acid Metabolism and Triglyceride Accumulation Contribute to Insulin Resistance in Non-Human Primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastaldelli, Amalia; Casiraghi, Francesca; Halff, Glenn A.; Abrahamian, Gregory A.; Davalli, Alberto M.; Bastarrachea, Raul A.; Comuzzie, Anthony G.; Guardado-Mendoza, Rodolfo; Jimenez-Ceja, Lilia M.; Mattern, Vicki; Paez, Ana Maria; Ricotti, Andrea; Tejero, Mary E.; Higgins, Paul B.; Rodriguez-Sanchez, Iram Pablo; Tripathy, Devjit; DeFronzo, Ralph A.; Dick, Edward J.; Cline, Gary W.; Folli, Franco

    2011-01-01

    Non-Alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by accumulation of triglycerides (TG) in hepatocytes, which may also trigger cirrhosis. The mechanisms of NAFLD are not fully understood, but insulin resistance has been proposed as a key determinant. Aims To determine the TG content and long chain fatty acyl CoA composition profile in liver from obese non-diabetic insulin resistant (IR) and lean insulin sensitive (IS) baboons in relation with hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity. Methods Twenty baboons with varying grades of adiposity were studied. Hepatic (liver) and peripheral (mainly muscle) insulin sensitivity was measured with a euglycemic clamp and QUICKI. Liver biopsies were performed at baseline for TG content and LCFA profile by mass spectrometry, and histological analysis. Findings were correlated with clinical and biochemical markers of adiposity and insulin resistance. Results Obese IR baboons had elevated liver TG content compared to IS. Furthermore, the concentration of unsaturated (LC-UFA) was greater than saturated (LC-SFA) fatty acyl CoA in the liver. Interestingly, LC-FA UFA and SFA correlated with waist, BMI, insulin, NEFA, TG, QUICKI, but not M/I. Histological findings of NAFLD ranging from focal to diffuse hepatic steatosis were found in obese IR baboons. Conclusion Liver TG content is closely related with both hepatic and peripheral IR, whereas liver LC-UFA and LC-SFA are closely related only with hepatic IR in non-human primates. Mechanisms leading to the accumulation of TG, LC-UFA and an altered UFA: LC-SFA ratio may play an important role in the pathophysiology of fatty liver disease in humans. PMID:22125617

  5. Coordinated defects in hepatic long chain fatty acid metabolism and triglyceride accumulation contribute to insulin resistance in non-human primates.

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    Subhash Kamath

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is characterized by accumulation of triglycerides (TG in hepatocytes, which may also trigger cirrhosis. The mechanisms of NAFLD are not fully understood, but insulin resistance has been proposed as a key determinant.To determine the TG content and long chain fatty acyl CoA composition profile in liver from obese non-diabetic insulin resistant (IR and lean insulin sensitive (IS baboons in relation with hepatic and peripheral insulin sensitivity.Twenty baboons with varying grades of adiposity were studied. Hepatic (liver and peripheral (mainly muscle insulin sensitivity was measured with a euglycemic clamp and QUICKI. Liver biopsies were performed at baseline for TG content and LCFA profile by mass spectrometry, and histological analysis. Findings were correlated with clinical and biochemical markers of adiposity and insulin resistance.Obese IR baboons had elevated liver TG content compared to IS. Furthermore, the concentration of unsaturated (LC-UFA was greater than saturated (LC-SFA fatty acyl CoA in the liver. Interestingly, LC-FA UFA and SFA correlated with waist, BMI, insulin, NEFA, TG, QUICKI, but not M/I. Histological findings of NAFLD ranging from focal to diffuse hepatic steatosis were found in obese IR baboons.Liver TG content is closely related with both hepatic and peripheral IR, whereas liver LC-UFA and LC-SFA are closely related only with hepatic IR in non-human primates. Mechanisms leading to the accumulation of TG, LC-UFA and an altered UFA: LC-SFA ratio may play an important role in the pathophysiology of fatty liver disease in humans.

  6. Association of serum triglyceride-to-HDL cholesterol ratio with carotid artery intima-media thickness, insulin resistance and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacifico, L; Bonci, E; Andreoli, G; Romaggioli, S; Di Miscio, R; Lombardo, C V; Chiesa, C

    2014-07-01

    The triglyceride (TG)/high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio has been reported as a useful marker of atherogenic lipid abnormalities, insulin resistance, and cardiovascular disease. We evaluated in a large sample of children and adolescents the association of TG/HDL-C ratio with early signs of morphological vascular changes and cardiometabolic risk factors including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The study population, including 548 children (aged 6-16 years), of whom 157 were normal-weight, 118 overweight, and 273 obese, had anthropometric, laboratory, liver and carotid ultrasonography (carotid artery intima-media thickness-cIMT) data collected. Subjects were stratified into tertiles of TG/HDL-C. There was a progressive increase in body mass index (BMI), BMI-SD score (SDS), waist circumference, blood pressure (BP), liver enzymes, glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), and cIMT values across TG/HDL-C tertiles. The odds ratios for central obesity, insulin resistance, high hsCRP, NAFLD, metabolic syndrome, and elevated cIMT increased significantly with the increasing tertile of TG/HDL-C ratio, after adjustment for age, gender, pubertal status, and BMI-SDS. In a stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis, increased cIMT was associated with high TG/HDL-C ratio [OR, 1.81 (95% CI, 1.08-3.04); P < 0.05], elevated BP [5.13 (95% CI, 1.03-15.08); P < 0.05], insulin resistance [2.16 (95% CI, 1.30-3.39); P < 0.01], and NAFLD [2.70 (95% CI, 1.62-4.56); P < 0.01]. TG/HDL-C ratio may help identify children and adolescents at high risk for structural vascular changes and metabolic derangement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Triglycerides and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and the incidence of cardiovascular disease in an urban Japanese cohort: the Suita study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, Tomonori; Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Watanabe, Makoto; Higashiyama, Aya; Ono, Yuu; Miyamoto, Yoshihiro; Yoshimasa, Yasunao; Okayama, Akira

    2010-03-01

    The impact of elevated triglycerides (TG) and non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDLC) on the incidence of stroke and myocardial infarction (MI) has not been well evaluated in Asian populations such as in Japan, which have a lower incidence of myocardial infarction, but a higher risk of stroke than Western populations. The authors conducted an 11.7-year prospective study ending in 2005 of 5098 Japanese aged 30-79 living in an urban population, initially free of stroke or MI. The relationship between serum lipids and the risk for stroke and MI was determined by dividing the participants into four groups stratified by the combination of serum levels of TG and non-HDLC. The cut-off value was 1.7mmol/L for TG and 4.9mmol/L for non-HDLC. The total person-years were 59,774 (27,461 for men and 32,313 for women). During the follow-up period, there were 113 cases of MI and 180 of stoke (with 116 cerebral i