Plasma transport simulation modeling for helical confinement systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yamazaki, K.; Amano, T.
1991-08-01
New empirical and theoretical transport models for helical confinement systems are developed based on the neoclassical transport theory including the effect of radial electric field and multi-helicity magnetic components, and the drift wave turbulence transport for electrostatic and electromagnetic modes, or the anomalous semi-empirical transport. These electron thermal diffusivities are compared with CHS (Compact Helical System) experimental data, which indicates that the central transport coefficient of the ECH plasma agrees with the neoclassical axi-symmetric value and the transport outside the half radius is anomalous. On the other hand, the transport of NBI-heated plasmas is anomalous in the whole plasma region. This anomaly is not explained by the electrostatic drift wave turbulence models in these flat-density-profile discharges. For the detailed prediction of plasma parameters in LHD (Large Helical Device), 3-D(dimensional) equilibrium/1-D transport simulations including empirical or drift wave turbulence models are carried out, which suggests that the global confinement time of LHD is determined mainly by the electron anomalous transport near the plasma edge region rather than the helical ripple transport in the core region. Even if the ripple loss can be eliminated, the increase of the global confinement is 10%. However, the rise in the central ion temperature is more than 20%. If the anomalous loss can be reduced to the half level of the present scaling, like so-called `H-mode` of the tokamak discharge, the neoclassical ripple loss through the ion channel becomes important even in the plasma core. The 5% radial inward shift of the plasma column with respect to the major radius is effective for improving plasma confinement and raising more than 50% of the fusion product by reducing this neoclassical asymmetric ion transport loss and increasing 10% in the plasma radius. (author).
A quasi-linear gyrokinetic transport model for tokamak plasmas
Casati, Alessandro
2012-01-01
The development of a quasi-linear gyrokinetic transport model for tokamak plasmas, ultimately designed to provide physically comprehensive predictions of the time evolution of the thermodynamic relevant quantities, is a task that requires tight links among theoretical, experimental and numerical studies. The framework of the model here proposed, which operates a reduction of complexity on the nonlinear self-organizing plasma dynamics, allows in fact multiple validations of the current understanding of the tokamak micro-turbulence. The main outcomes of this work stem from the fundamental steps involved by the formulation of such a reduced transport model, namely: (1) the verification of the quasi-linear plasma response against the nonlinearly computed solution, (2) the improvement of the turbulent saturation model through an accurate validation of the nonlinear codes against the turbulence measurements, (3) the integration of the quasi-linear model within an integrated transport solver.
Modeling of far SOL plasma transport in NSTX
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sergei Krasheninnikov; Alexander Pigarov
2005-11-02
For better understanding and characterization of non-diffusive transport occurring in the NSTX tokamak edge plasma, we performed extensive simulations of NSTX edge plasmas with the multi-fluid two-dimensional UEDGE code by using realistic model for impurity sputtering sources and hybrid model for anomalous cross-field transport. Our cross-field transport model incorporates the effects of non-diffusive intermittent transport by introducing anomalous convective velocities whose spatial profile is adjusted for each ion charge state to match available experimental data. The research in 2002-2005 financial years was focused on the following areas: (i) development of capabilities for UEDGE simulation of NSTX spectroscopy data (i.e., the 3D real-geometry postprocessor UEDGE tools for comparison between UEDGE and experimental data), (ii) simulation of multi-diagnostic data from NSTX with UEDGE, (iii) study of anomalous cross-field convective transport of impurity ions, (iv) analysis of divertor plasma opacity to resonance radiation, and (v) study the effects of ballooning-like anomalous cross-field transport and spherical-torus magnetic configuration on parallel plasma flows in the SOL.
A new model for plasma transport and chemistry at Saturn
Richardson, John D.
1992-01-01
A model of plasma transport and chemistry is described which calculates the evolution of a plasma population in latitude and radial distance. This model is applied to the magnetosphere of Saturn, where it is used to fit the density profile of the heavy ions assuming both satellite and ring sources of plasma. Use of an extended source region is found to significantly alter the resulting plasma profile. Water ions cannot fit the observed density profile inside L = 6 even with a large ring source. Oxygen ions can fit the density profile throughout the region inside L = 12 given a suitable profile of neutral hydrogen; a suitable profile contains up to 5 H/cu cm outside L = 4 with the number increasing inside this. Preferred values of K are 1-3 x 10 exp -10 R(S)2/s, but any value K less than 10 exp -9 R(S)2/s can be accommodated. The temperature profile is shown to favor models invoking in situ plasma formation and loss as opposed to models where transport is important.
Particle model for nonlocal heat transport in fusion plasmas.
Bufferand, H; Ciraolo, G; Ghendrih, Ph; Lepri, S; Livi, R
2013-02-01
We present a simple stochastic, one-dimensional model for heat transfer in weakly collisional media as fusion plasmas. Energies of plasma particles are treated as lattice random variables interacting with a rate inversely proportional to their energy schematizing a screened Coulomb interaction. We consider both the equilibrium (microcanonical) and nonequilibrium case in which the system is in contact with heat baths at different temperatures. The model exhibits a characteristic length of thermalization that can be associated with an interaction mean free path and one observes a transition from ballistic to diffusive regime depending on the average energy of the system. A mean-field expression for heat flux is deduced from system heat transport properties. Finally, it is shown that the nonequilibrium steady state is characterized by long-range correlations.
Simple predictive electron transport models applied to sawtoothing plasmas
Kim, D.; Merle, A.; Sauter, O.; Goodman, T. P.
2016-05-01
In this work, we introduce two simple transport models to evaluate the time evolution of electron temperature and density profiles during sawtooth cycles (i.e. over a sawtooth period time-scale). Since the aim of these simulations is to estimate reliable profiles within a short calculation time, two simplified ad-hoc models have been developed. The goal for these models is to rely on a few easy-to-check free parameters, such as the confinement time scaling factor and the profiles’ averaged scale-lengths. Due to the simplicity and short calculation time of the models, it is expected that these models can also be applied to real-time transport simulations. We show that it works well for Ohmic and EC heated L- and H-mode plasmas. The differences between these models are discussed and we show that their predictive capabilities are similar. Thus only one model is used to reproduce with simulations the results of sawtooth control experiments on the TCV tokamak. For the sawtooth pacing, the calculated time delays between the EC power off and sawtooth crash time agree well with the experimental results. The map of possible locking range is also well reproduced by the simulation.
Fubiani, G.; Garrigues, L.; Hagelaar, G.; Kohen, N.; Boeuf, J. P.
2017-01-01
Negative ion sources for fusion are high densities plasma sources in large discharge volumes. There are many challenges in the modeling of these sources, due to numerical constraints associated with the high plasma density, to the coupling between plasma and neutral transport and chemistry, the presence of a magnetic filter, and the extraction of negative ions. In this paper we present recent results concerning these different aspects. Emphasis is put on the modeling approach and on the methods and approximations. The models are not fully predictive and not complete as would be engineering codes but they are used to identify the basic principles and to better understand the physics of the negative ion sources.
Sánchez, R.; van Milligen, B. Ph.; Carreras, B. A.
2005-05-01
It is argued that the modeling of plasma transport in tokamaks may benefit greatly from extending the usual local paradigm to accommodate scale-free transport mechanisms. This can be done by combining Lévy distributions and a nonlinear threshold condition within the continuous time random walk concept. The advantages of this nonlocal, nonlinear extension are illustrated by constructing a simple particle density transport model that, as a result of these ideas, spontaneously exhibits much of nondiffusive phenomenology routinely observed in tokamaks. The fluid limit of the system shows that the kind of equations that are appropriate to capture these dynamics are based on fractional differential operators. In them, effective diffusivities and pinch velocities are found that are dynamically set by the system in response to the specific characteristics of the fueling source and external perturbations. This fact suggests some dramatic consequences for the extrapolation of these transport properties to larger size systems.
Modeling of negative ion transport in a plasma source
Riz, David; Paméla, Jérôme
1998-08-01
A code called NIETZSCHE has been developed to simulate the negative ion transport in a plasma source, from their birth place to the extraction holes. The ion trajectory is calculated by numerically solving the 3-D motion equation, while the atomic processes of destruction, of elastic collision H-/H+ and of charge exchange H-/H0 are handled at each time step by a Monte-Carlo procedure. This code can be used to calculate the extraction probability of a negative ion produced at any location inside the source. Calculations performed with NIETZSCHE have allowed to explain, either quantitatively or qualitatively, several phenomena observed in negative ion sources, such as the isotopic H-/D- effect, and the influence of the plasma grid bias or of the magnetic filter on the negative ion extraction. The code has also shown that in the type of sources contemplated for ITER, which operate at large arc power densities (>1 W cm-3), negative ions can reach the extraction region provided if they are produced at a distance lower than 2 cm from the plasma grid in the case of «volume production» (dissociative attachment processes), or if they are produced at the plasma grid surface, in the vicinity of the extraction holes.
Modeling of negative ion transport in a plasma source (invited)
Riz, David; Paméla, Jérôme
1998-02-01
A code called NIETZSCHE has been developed to simulate the negative ion transport in a plasma source, from their birth place to the extraction holes. The H-/D- trajectory is calculated by numerically solving the 3D motion equation, while the atomic processes of destruction, of elastic collision with H+/D+ and of charge exchange with H0/D0 are handled at each time step by a Monte Carlo procedure. This code can be used to calculate the extraction probability of a negative ion produced at any location inside the source. Calculations performed with NIETZSCHE have been allowed to explain, either quantitatively or qualitatively, several phenomena observed in negative ion sources, such as the isotopic H-/D- effect, and the influence of the plasma grid bias or of the magnetic filter on the negative ion extraction. The code has also shown that, in the type of sources contemplated for ITER, which operate at large arc power densities (>1 W cm-3), negative ions can reach the extraction region provided they are produced at a distance lower than 2 cm from the plasma grid in the case of volume production (dissociative attachment processes), or if they are produced at the plasma grid surface, in the vicinity of the extraction holes.
A quantum transport model for atomic line radiation in plasmas*
Rosato, Joël
2017-02-01
Emission and absorption lines in plasmas are investigated theoretically using a phase space formulation of quantum electrodynamics. A transport equation for the one-photon Wigner function is derived and formulated in terms of the noncommutative Moyal product. This equation reduces to the standard radiative transfer equation at the large spectral band limit, when the characteristic spectral band of the emission and absorption coefficients is larger than the inverse photon absorption length and time. We examine deviations to this limit. An ideal slab geometry is considered. The Wigner function relative to hydrogen Lyman α in stellar atmospheric conditions is calculated.
Self-organization of hot plasmas the canonical profile transport model
Dnestrovskij, Yu N
2015-01-01
In this monograph the author presents the Canonical Profile Transport Model or CPTM as a rather general mathematical framework to simulate plasma discharges.The description of hot plasmas in a magnetic fusion device is a very challenging task and many plasma properties still lack a physical explanation. One important property is plasma self-organization.It is very well known from experiments that the radial profile of the plasma pressure and temperature remains rather unaffected by changes of the deposited power or plasma density. The attractiveness of the CPTM is that it includes the effect o
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Laporte Patrice, M.
1996-02-22
The results developed in this thesis describe the ions and neutral atoms transport in a tokamak plasma. The effort is especially made on modelling of neutral particles transport. The presentation of the two computer codes Trap and Neli take the first part of the thesis. This study shows that heat and matter transport anomaly present some real characteristics of an electrostatic turbulence. Then, if particles diffusivity stays abnormal on the whole discharge of a tore supra plasma, in revenge in the central part of the discharge, the convective flux value is compatible with neoclassical theory. (N.C.). 67 refs., 67 figs., 6 appends.
Extended numerical modeling of impurity neoclassical transport in tokamak edge plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Inoue, H.; Yamoto, S.; Hatayama, A. [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Keio University, Hiyoshi, Yokohama (Japan); Homma, Y. [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Keio University, Hiyoshi, Yokohama (Japan); Research Fellow of Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Tokyo (Japan)
2016-08-15
Understanding of impurity transport in tokamaks is an important issue in order to reduce the impurity contamination in fusion core plasmas. Recently, a new kinetic numerical scheme of impurity classical/neoclassical transport has been developed. This numerical scheme makes it possible to include classical self-diffusion (CL SD), classical inward pinch (CL IWP), and classical temperature screening effect (CL TSE) of impurity ions. However, impurity neoclassical transport has been modeled only in the case where background plasmas are in the Pfirsch-Schluter (PS) regime. The purpose of this study is to extend our previous model to wider range of collisionality regimes, i.e., not only the PS regime, but also the plateau regime. As in the previous study, a kinetic model with Binary Collision Monte-Carlo Model (BMC) has been adopted. We focus on the modeling of the neoclassical self-diffusion (NC SD) and the neoclassical inward pinch (NC IWP). In order to simulate the neoclassical transport with the BCM, velocity distribution of background plasma ions has been modeled as a deformed Maxwell distribution which includes plasma density gradient. Some test simulations have been done. As for NC SD of impurity ions, our scheme reproduces the dependence on the collisionality parameter in wide range of collisionality regime. As for NC IWP, in cases where test impurity ions and background ions are in the PS and plateau regimes, parameter dependences have been reproduced. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Experimental validation of a filament transport model in turbulent magnetized plasmas
Carralero, D; Aho-Mantila, L; Birkenmeier, G; Brix, M; Groth, M; Müller, H W; Stroth, U; Vianello, N; Wolfrum, E; Contributors, JET
2015-01-01
In a wide variety of natural and laboratory magnetized plasmas, filaments appear as a result of interchange instability. These convective structures substantially enhance transport in the direction perpendicular to the magnetic field. According to filament models, their propagation may follow different regimes depending on the parallel closure of charge conservation. This is of paramount importance in magnetic fusion plasmas, as high collisionality in the scrape-off layer may trigger a regime transition leading to strongly enhanced perpendicular particle fluxes. This work reports for the first time on an experimental verification of this process, linking enhanced transport with a regime transition as predicted by models. Based on these results, a novel scaling for global perpendicular particle transport in reactor relevant tokamaks such as ASDEX-Upgrade and JET is found, leading to important implications for next generation fusion devices.
Sporre, John R.; Elg, Daniel T.; Kalathiparambil, Kishor K.; Ruzic, David N.
2016-01-01
A theoretical model for describing the propagation and scattering of energetic species in an extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light lithography source is presented. An EUV light emitting XTREME XTS 13-35 Z-pinch plasma source is modeled with a focus on the effect of chamber pressure and buffer gas mass on energetic ion and neutral debris transport. The interactions of the energetic debris species, which is generated by the EUV light emitting plasma, with the buffer gas and chamber walls are considered as scattering events in the model, and the trajectories of the individual atomic species involved are traced using a Monte Carlo algorithm. This study aims to establish the means by which debris is transported to the intermediate focus with the intent to verify the various mitigation techniques currently employed to increase EUV lithography efficiency. The modeling is compared with an experimental investigation.
Kendl, Alexander
2014-01-01
Turbulent transport of trace impurities impurities in the edge and scrape-off-layer of tokamak fusion plasmas is modelled by three dimensional electromagnetic gyrofluid computations including evolution of plasma profile gradients. The source function of impurity ions is dynamically computed from pre-determined measured and calculated electron impact ionization cross section data. The simulations describe the generation and further passive turbulent E-cross-B advection of the impurities by intermittent fluctuations and coherent filamentary structures (blobs) across the scrape-off-layer.
Fluid and gyrokinetic modelling of particle transport in plasmas with hollow density profiles
Tegnered, D.; Oberparleiter, M.; Nordman, H.; Strand, P.
2016-11-01
Hollow density profiles occur in connection with pellet fuelling and L to H transitions. A positive density gradient could potentially stabilize the turbulence or change the relation between convective and diffusive fluxes, thereby reducing the turbulent transport of particles towards the center, making the fuelling scheme inefficient. In the present work, the particle transport driven by ITG/TE mode turbulence in regions of hollow density profiles is studied by fluid as well as gyrokinetic simulations. The fluid model used, an extended version of the Weiland transport model, Extended Drift Wave Model (EDWM), incorporates an arbitrary number of ion species in a multi-fluid description, and an extended wavelength spectrum. The fluid model, which is fast and hence suitable for use in predictive simulations, is compared to gyrokinetic simulations using the code GENE. Typical tokamak parameters are used based on the Cyclone Base Case. Parameter scans in key plasma parameters like plasma β, R/LT , and magnetic shear are investigated. It is found that β in particular has a stabilizing effect in the negative R/Ln region, both nonlinear GENE and EDWM show a decrease in inward flux for negative R/Ln and a change of direction from inward to outward for positive R/Ln . This might have serious consequences for pellet fuelling of high β plasmas.
A reduced model for relativistic electron beam transport in solids and dense plasmas
Touati, M.; Feugeas, J.-L.; Nicolaï, Ph; Santos, J. J.; Gremillet, L.; Tikhonchuk, V. T.
2014-07-01
A hybrid reduced model for relativistic electron beam transport based on the angular moments of the relativistic kinetic equation with a special closure is presented. It takes into account collective effects with the self-generated electromagnetic fields as well as collisional effects with the slowing down of the relativistic electrons by plasmons, bound and free electrons and their angular scattering on both ions and electrons. This model allows for fast computations of relativistic electron beam transport while describing their energy distribution evolution. Despite the loss of information concerning the angular distribution of the electron beam, the model reproduces analytical estimates in the academic case of a monodirectional and monoenergetic electron beam propagating through a warm and dense plasma and hybrid particle-in-cell simulation results in a realistic laser-generated electron beam transport case.
Intermittent transport in edge plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Garcia, O.E.; Naulin, V.; Nielsen, A.H.; Juul Rasmussen, J. [Association EURATOM-Riso National Laboratory, Optics and Plasma Research, Roskilde (Denmark)
2004-07-01
The properties of low-frequency convective fluctuations and transport are investigated for the boundary region of magnetized plasmas. We employ a two-dimensional fluid model for the evolution of the global plasma quantities in a geometry and with parameters relevant to the scrape-off layer of confined toroidal plasmas. Strongly intermittent plasma transport is regulated by self-consistently generated sheared poloidal flows and is mediated by burst ejection of particles and heat from the bulk plasma in the form of blobs. Coarse grained probe signals reveal a highly skewed and flat distribution on short time scales, but tends towards a normal distribution at large time scales. Conditionally averaged signals are in perfect agreement with experimental measurements. (authors)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Del Sorbo, D.; Feugeas, J.-L.; Nicolaï, Ph.; Olazabal-Loumé, M.; Dubroca, B.; Guisset, S.; Touati, M.; Tikhonchuk, V. [Centre Lasers Intenses et Applications, Université de Bordeaux-CNRS-CEA, UMR 5107, F-33405 Talence (France)
2015-08-15
Hydrodynamic simulations of high-energy-density plasmas require a detailed description of energy fluxes. For low and intermediate atomic number materials, the leading mechanism is the electron transport, which may be a nonlocal phenomenon requiring a kinetic modeling. In this paper, we present and test the results of a nonlocal model based on the first angular moments of a simplified Fokker-Planck equation. This multidimensional model is closed thanks to an entropic relation (the Boltzman H-theorem). It provides a better description of the electron distribution function, thus enabling studies of small scale kinetic effects within the hydrodynamic framework. Examples of instabilities of electron plasma and ion-acoustic waves, driven by the heat flux, are presented and compared with the classical formula.
Del Sorbo, D.; Feugeas, J.-L.; Nicolaï, Ph.; Olazabal-Loumé, M.; Dubroca, B.; Guisset, S.; Touati, M.; Tikhonchuk, V.
2015-08-01
Hydrodynamic simulations of high-energy-density plasmas require a detailed description of energy fluxes. For low and intermediate atomic number materials, the leading mechanism is the electron transport, which may be a nonlocal phenomenon requiring a kinetic modeling. In this paper, we present and test the results of a nonlocal model based on the first angular moments of a simplified Fokker-Planck equation. This multidimensional model is closed thanks to an entropic relation (the Boltzman H-theorem). It provides a better description of the electron distribution function, thus enabling studies of small scale kinetic effects within the hydrodynamic framework. Examples of instabilities of electron plasma and ion-acoustic waves, driven by the heat flux, are presented and compared with the classical formula.
Benchmark of the local drift-kinetic models for neoclassical transport simulation in helical plasmas
Huang, B.; Satake, S.; Kanno, R.; Sugama, H.; Matsuoka, S.
2017-02-01
The benchmarks of the neoclassical transport codes based on the several local drift-kinetic models are reported here. Here, the drift-kinetic models are zero orbit width (ZOW), zero magnetic drift, DKES-like, and global, as classified in Matsuoka et al. [Phys. Plasmas 22, 072511 (2015)]. The magnetic geometries of Helically Symmetric Experiment, Large Helical Device (LHD), and Wendelstein 7-X are employed in the benchmarks. It is found that the assumption of E ×B incompressibility causes discrepancy of neoclassical radial flux and parallel flow among the models when E ×B is sufficiently large compared to the magnetic drift velocities. For example, Mp≤0.4 where Mp is the poloidal Mach number. On the other hand, when E ×B and the magnetic drift velocities are comparable, the tangential magnetic drift, which is included in both the global and ZOW models, fills the role of suppressing unphysical peaking of neoclassical radial-fluxes found in the other local models at Er≃0 . In low collisionality plasmas, in particular, the tangential drift effect works well to suppress such unphysical behavior of the radial transport caused in the simulations. It is demonstrated that the ZOW model has the advantage of mitigating the unphysical behavior in the several magnetic geometries, and that it also implements the evaluation of bootstrap current in LHD with the low computation cost compared to the global model.
Monte Carlo model of neutral-particle transport in diverted plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Heifetz, D.; Post, D.; Petravic, M.; Weisheit, J.; Bateman, G.
1981-11-01
The transport of neutral atoms and molecules in the edge and divertor regions of fusion experiments has been calculated using Monte-Carlo techniques. The deuterium, tritium, and helium atoms are produced by recombination in the plasma and at the walls. The relevant collision processes of charge exchange, ionization, and dissociation between the neutrals and the flowing plasma electrons and ions are included, along with wall reflection models. General two-dimensional wall and plasma geometries are treated in a flexible manner so that varied configurations can be easily studied. The algorithm uses a pseudo-collision method. Splitting with Russian roulette, suppression of absorption, and efficient scoring techniques are used to reduce the variance. The resulting code is sufficiently fast and compact to be incorporated into iterative treatments of plasma dynamics requiring numerous neutral profiles. The calculation yields the neutral gas densities, pressures, fluxes, ionization rates, momentum transfer rates, energy transfer rates, and wall sputtering rates. Applications have included modeling of proposed INTOR/FED poloidal divertor designs and other experimental devices.
Degenerate Bogdanov-Takens bifurcations in a one-dimensional transport model of a fusion plasma
de Blank, H. J.; Kuznetsov, Yu. A.; Pekkér, M. J.; Veldman, D. W. M.
2016-09-01
Experiments in tokamaks (nuclear fusion reactors) have shown two modes of operation: L-mode and H-mode. Transitions between these two modes have been observed in three types: sharp, smooth and oscillatory. The same modes of operation and transitions between them have been observed in simplified transport models of the fusion plasma in one spatial dimension. We study the dynamics in such a one-dimensional transport model by numerical continuation techniques. To this end the MATLAB package CL_MATCONTL was extended with the continuation of (codimension-2) Bogdanov-Takens bifurcations in three parameters using subspace reduction techniques. During the continuation of (codimension-2) Bogdanov-Takens bifurcations in 3 parameters, generically degenerate Bogdanov-Takens bifurcations of codimension-3 are detected. However, when these techniques are applied to the transport model, we detect a degenerate Bogdanov-Takens bifurcation of codimension 4. The nearby 1- and 2-parameter slices are in agreement with the presence of this codimension-4 degenerate Bogdanov-Takens bifurcation, and all three types of L-H transitions can be recognized in these slices. The same codimension-4 situation is observed under variation of the additional parameters in the model, and under some modifications of the model.
Benchmark of the Local Drift-kinetic Models for Neoclassical Transport Simulation in Helical Plasmas
Huang, B; Kanno, R; Sugama, H; Matsuoka, S
2016-01-01
The benchmarks of the neoclassical transport codes based on the several local drift-kinetic models are reported here. Here, the drift-kinetic models are ZOW, ZMD, DKES-like, and global, as classified in [Matsuoka et al., Physics of Plasmas 22, 072511 (2015)]. The magnetic geometries of HSX, LHD, and W7-X are employed in the benchmarks. It is found that the assumption of $\\boldsymbol E \\times \\boldsymbol B$ incompressibility causes discrepancy of neoclassical radial flux and parallel flow among the models, when $\\boldsymbol E \\times \\boldsymbol B$ is sufficiently large compared to the magnetic drift velocities. On the other hand, when $\\boldsymbol E \\times \\boldsymbol B$ and the magnetic drift velocities are comparable, the tangential magnetic drift, which is included in both the global and ZOW models, fills the role of suppressing unphysical peaking of neoclassical radial-fluxes found in the other local models at $E_r \\simeq 0$. In low collisionality plasmas, in particular, the tangential drift effect works w...
Rognlien, Thomas; Rensink, Marvin
2016-10-01
Transport simulations for the edge plasma of tokamaks and other magnetic fusion devices requires the coupling of plasma and recycling or injected neutral gas. There are various neutral models used for this purpose, e.g., atomic fluid model, a Monte Carlo particle models, transition/escape probability methods, and semi-analytic models. While the Monte Carlo method is generally viewed as the most accurate, it is time consuming, which becomes even more demanding for device simulations of high densities and size typical of fusion power plants because the neutral collisional mean-free path becomes very small. Here we examine the behavior of an extended fluid neutral model for hydrogen that includes both atoms and molecules, which easily includes nonlinear neutral-neutral collision effects. In addition to the strong charge-exchange between hydrogen atoms and ions, elastic scattering is included among all species. Comparisons are made with the DEGAS 2 Monte Carlo code. Work performed for U.S. DoE by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.
Analysis of pedestal plasma transport
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Callen, J. D. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Groebner, R. [General Atomics, San Diego; Osborne, T.H. [General Atomics, San Diego; Canik, John [ORNL; Owen, Larry W [ORNL; Pankin, A. Y. [Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA; Rafiq, T. [Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA; Rognlien, T. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Stacey, W. M. [Georgia Institute of Technology
2010-01-01
An H-mode edge pedestal plasma transport benchmarking exercise was undertaken for a single DIII-D pedestal. Transport modelling codes used include 1.5D interpretive (ONETWO, GTEDGE), 1.5D predictive (ASTRA) and 2D ones (SOLPS, UEDGE). The particular DIII-D discharge considered is 98889, which has a typical low density pedestal. Profiles for the edge plasma are obtained from Thomson and charge-exchange recombination data averaged over the last 20% of the average 33.53 ms repetition time between type I edge localized modes. The modelled density of recycled neutrals is largest in the divertor X-point region and causes the edge plasma source rate to vary by a factor similar to 10(2) on the separatrix. Modelled poloidal variations in the densities and temperatures on flux surfaces are small on all flux surfaces up to within about 2.6 mm (rho(N) > 0.99) of the mid-plane separatrix. For the assumed Fick's-diffusion-type laws, the radial heat and density fluxes vary poloidally by factors of 2-3 in the pedestal region; they are largest on the outboard mid-plane where flux surfaces are compressed and local radial gradients are largest. Convective heat flows are found to be small fractions of the electron (less than or similar to 10%) and ion (less than or similar to 25%) heat flows in this pedestal. Appropriately averaging the transport fluxes yields interpretive 1.5D effective diffusivities that are smallest near the mid-point of the pedestal. Their 'transport barrier' minima are about 0.3 (electron heat), 0.15 (ion heat) and 0.035 (density) m(2) s(-1). Electron heat transport is found to be best characterized by electron-temperature-gradient-induced transport at the pedestal top and paleoclassical transport throughout the pedestal. The effective ion heat diffusivity in the pedestal has a different profile from the neoclassical prediction and may be smaller than it. The very small effective density diffusivity may be the result of an inward pinch flow nearly
Trelles, J P; Vardelle, A; Heberlein, J V R
2013-01-01
Arc plasma torches are the primary components of various industrial thermal plasma processes involving plasma spraying, metal cutting and welding, thermal plasma CVD, metal melting and remelting, waste treatment and gas production. They are relatively simple devices whose operation implies intricate thermal, chemical, electrical, and fluid dynamics phenomena. Modeling may be used as a means to better understand the physical processes involved in their operation. This paper presents an overview of the main aspects involved in the modeling of DC arc plasma torches: the mathematical models including thermodynamic and chemical non-equilibrium models, turbulent and radiative transport, thermodynamic and transport property calculation, boundary conditions and arc reattachment models. It focuses on the conventional plasma torches used for plasma spraying that include a hot-cathode and a nozzle anode.
Nondiffusive plasma transport at tokamak edge
Krasheninnikov, S. I.
2000-10-01
Recent findings show that cross field edge plasma transport at tokamak edge does not necessarily obey a simple diffusive law [1], the only type of a transport model applied so far in the macroscopic modeling of edge plasma transport. Cross field edge transport is more likely due to plasma filamentation with a ballistic motion of the filaments towards the first wall. Moreover, it so fast that plasma recycles on the main chamber first wall rather than to flow into divertor as conventional picture of edge plasma fluxes suggests. Crudely speaking particle recycling wise diverted tokamak operates in a limiter regime due to fast anomalous non-diffusive cross field plasma transport. Obviously that this newly found feature of edge plasma anomalous transport can significantly alter a design of any future reactor relevant tokamaks. Here we present a simple model describing the motion of the filaments in the scrape off layer and discuss it implications for experimental observations. [1] M. Umansky, S. I. Krasheninnikov, B. LaBombard, B. Lipschultz, and J. L. Terry, Phys. Plasmas 6 (1999) 2791; M. Umansky, S. I. Krasheninnikov, B. LaBombard and J. L. Terry, Phys. Plasmas 5 (1998) 3373.
Toda, S.; Nakata, M.; Nunami, M.; Ishizawa, A.; Watanabe, T.-H.; Sugama, H.
2016-10-01
A reduced model of the turbulent ion heat diffusivity is proposed by the gyrokinetic simulation code (GKV-X) with the adiabatic electrons for the high-Ti Large Helical Device discharge. The plasma parameter region of the short poloidal wavelength is studied, where the ion temperature gradient mode becomes unstable. The ion heat diffusivity by the nonlinear simulation with the kinetic electrons is found to be several times larger than the simulation results using the adiabatic electrons in the radial region 0.46 ion energy flux. The model of the turbulent diffusivity is derived as the function of the squared electrostatic potential fluctuation and the squared zonal flow potential. Next, the squared electrostatic potential fluctuation is approximated with the mixing length estimate. The squared zonal flow potential fluctuation is shown as the linear zonal flow response function. The reduced model of the turbulent diffusivity is derived as the function of the physical parameters by the linear GKV-X simulation with the kinetic electrons. This reduced model is applied to the transport code with the same procedure as.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sorina Claudia Popescu
2012-04-01
Full Text Available Intracellular protein transport is emerging as critical in determining the outcome of receptor-activated signal transduction pathways. In plants, relatively little is known about the nature of the molecular components and mechanisms involved in coordinating receptor synthesis and transport to the cell surface. Recent advances in this field indicate that signaling pathways and intracellular transport machinery converge and coordinate to render receptors competent for signaling at their plasma membrane activity sites. The biogenesis and transport to the cell surface of signaling receptors appears to require both general trafficking and receptor-specific factors. Several molecular determinants, residing or associated with compartments of the secretory pathway and known to influence aspects in receptor biogenesis, are discussed and integrated into a predictive cooperative model for the functional expression of signaling receptors at the plasma membrane.
Horwitz, James L.
1996-01-01
During the indicated period of performance, we had a number of publications concerned with kinetic polar ionosphere-lower magnetosphere plasma transport. For the IUGG 1991-4 Quadrennial Report, we reviewed aspects of U.S. accomplishments concerned with polar plasma transport, among other issues. In another review, we examined the computer simulations of multiple-scale processes in space plasmas, including polar plasma outflow and transport. We also examined specifically multiscale processes in ionospheric outflows. We developed a Generalized Semi-Kinetic(GSK) model for the topside-lower magnetosphere which explored the synergistic action of wave heating and electric potentials in the formation of auroral Ion conics, in particular the "pressure cooker" mechanism. We extended the GSK model all the way down to 120 km and applied this code to illustrate the response of the ionosphere- magnetosphere to soft-electron precipitation and convection-driven frictional ion heating, respectively. Later, the convection-driven heating work was extended to a paper for the Journal of Geophysical Research. In addition to the above full published papers, we also presented the first developments of the coupled fluid-semikinetic model for polar plasma transport during this period. The results from a steady-state treatment were presented, with the second presentation being concerned with the effects of photo-electrons on the polar wind, and the first garnering an outstanding student paper award from the American Geophysical Union. We presented the first results from a time-dependent version of this coupled fluid-semikinetic model.
Modeling of limiter heat loads and impurity transport in Wendelstein 7-X startup plasmas
Effenberg, Florian; Feng, Y.; Frerichs, H.; Schmitz, O.; Hoelbe, H.; Koenig, R.; Krychowiak, M.; Pedersen, T. S.; Bozhenkov, S.; Reiter, D.
2015-11-01
The quasi-isodynamic stellarator Wendelstein 7-X starts plasma operation in a limiter configuration. The field consists of closed magnetic flux surfaces avoiding magnetic islands in the plasma boundary. Because of the small size of the limiters and the absence of wall-protecting elements in this phase, limiter heat loads and impurity generation due to plasma surface interaction become a concern. These issues are studied with the 3D fluid plasma edge and kinetic neutral transport code EMC3-Eirene. It is shown that the 3D SOL consists of three separate helical magnetic flux bundles of different field line connection lengths. A density scan at input power of 4MW reveals a strong modulation of the plasma paramters with the connection length. The limiter peak heat fluxes drop from 14 MWm-2 down to 10 MWm-2 with raising the density from 1 ×1018m-3 to 1.9 ×1019m-3, accompanied by an increase of the heat flux channel widths λq. Radiative power losses can help to avoid thermal overloads of the limiters at the upper margin of the heating power. The power removal feasibility of the intrinsic carbon and other extrinsic light impurities via active gas injection is discussed as a preparation of this method for island divertor operation. Work supported in part by start up funds of the Department of Engineering Physics at the University of Wisconsin - Madison, USA and by the U.S. Department of Energy under grant DE-SC0013911.
Turbulent transport in magnetized plasmas
Horton, Wendell
2012-01-01
This book explains how magnetized plasmas self-organize in states of electromagnetic turbulence that transports particles and energy out of the core plasma faster than anticipated by the fusion scientists designing magnetic confinement systems in the 20th century. It describes theory, experiments and simulations in a unified and up-to-date presentation of the issues of achieving nuclear fusion power.
Three-Dimensional PIC-MC Modeling for Relativistic Electron Beam Transport Through Dense Plasma
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CAO Lihua; CHANG Tieqiang; PEI Wenbing; LIU Zhanjun; LI Meng; ZHENG Chunyang
2008-01-01
We have developed a three dimensional (3D) PIC (particle-in-cell)-MC (Monte Carlo) code in order to simulate an electron beam transported into the dense matter based on our previous two dimensional code. The relativistic motion of fast electrons is treated by the particle-in-cell method under the influence of both a self-generated transverse magnetic field and an axial electric field, as well as collisions. The electric field generated by return current is ex-pressed by Ohm's law and the magnetic field is calculated from Faraday's law. The slowing down of monoenergy electrons in DT plasma is calculated and discussed.
Modeling of plasma and thermo-fluid transport in hybrid welding
Ribic, Brandon D.
Hybrid welding combines a laser beam and electrical arc in order to join metals within a single pass at welding speeds on the order of 1 m min -1. Neither autonomous laser nor arc welding can achieve the weld geometry obtained from hybrid welding for the same process parameters. Depending upon the process parameters, hybrid weld depth and width can each be on the order of 5 mm. The ability to produce a wide weld bead increases gap tolerance for square joints which can reduce machining costs and joint fitting difficulty. The weld geometry and fast welding speed of hybrid welding make it a good choice for application in ship, pipeline, and aerospace welding. Heat transfer and fluid flow influence weld metal mixing, cooling rates, and weld bead geometry. Cooling rate affects weld microstructure and subsequent weld mechanical properties. Fluid flow and heat transfer in the liquid weld pool are affected by laser and arc energy absorption. The laser and arc generate plasmas which can influence arc and laser energy absorption. Metal vapors introduced from the keyhole, a vapor filled cavity formed near the laser focal point, influence arc plasma light emission and energy absorption. However, hybrid welding plasma properties near the opening of the keyhole are not known nor is the influence of arc power and heat source separation understood. A sound understanding of these processes is important to consistently achieving sound weldments. By varying process parameters during welding, it is possible to better understand their influence on temperature profiles, weld metal mixing, cooling rates, and plasma properties. The current literature has shown that important process parameters for hybrid welding include: arc power, laser power, and heat source separation distance. However, their influence on weld temperatures, fluid flow, cooling rates, and plasma properties are not well understood. Modeling has shown to be a successful means of better understanding the influence of
Cao, Shanshan; Qin, Guang-You; Wang, Xin-Nian
2016-01-01
A Linearized Boltzmann Transport (LBT) model coupled with hydrodynamical background is established to describe the evolution of jet shower partons and medium excitations in high energy heavy-ion collisions. We extend the LBT model to include both elastic and inelastic processes for light and heavy partons in the quark-gluon plasma. A hybrid model of fragmentation and coalescence is developed for the hadronization of heavy quarks. Within this framework, we investigate how heavy flavor observables depend on various ingredients, such as different energy loss and hadronization mechanisms, the momentum and temperature dependences of the transport coefficients, and the radial flow of the expanding fireball. Our model calculations show good descriptions of $D$ meson suppression and elliptic flow observed at the LHC and RHIC. The prediction for the Pb-Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_\\mathrm{NN}}$=5.02 TeV is provided.
Schmitz, O.; Becoulet, M.; Cahyna, P.; Evans, T. E.; Feng, Y.; Frerichs, H.; Loarte, A.; Pitts, R. A.; Reiser, D.; Fenstermacher, M. E.; Harting, D.; Kirschner, A.; Kukushkin, A.; Lunt, T.; Saibene, G.; Reiter, D.; Samm, U.; Wiesen, S.
2016-06-01
Results from three-dimensional modeling of plasma edge transport and plasma-wall interactions during application of resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) fields for control of edge-localized modes in the ITER standard 15 MA Q = 10 H-mode are presented. The full 3D plasma fluid and kinetic neutral transport code EMC3-EIRENE is used for the modeling. Four characteristic perturbed magnetic topologies are considered and discussed with reference to the axisymmetric case without RMP fields. Two perturbation field amplitudes at full and half of the ITER ELM control coil current capability using the vacuum approximation are compared to a case including a strongly screening plasma response. In addition, a vacuum field case at high q 95 = 4.2 featuring increased magnetic shear has been modeled. Formation of a three-dimensional plasma boundary is seen for all four perturbed magnetic topologies. The resonant field amplitudes and the effective radial magnetic field at the separatrix define the shape and extension of the 3D plasma boundary. Opening of the magnetic field lines from inside the separatrix establishes scrape-off layer-like channels of direct parallel particle and heat flux towards the divertor yielding a reduction of the main plasma thermal and particle confinement. This impact on confinement is most accentuated at full RMP current and is strongly reduced when screened RMP fields are considered, as well as for the reduced coil current cases. The divertor fluxes are redirected into a three-dimensional pattern of helical magnetic footprints on the divertor target tiles. At maximum perturbation strength, these fingers stretch out as far as 60 cm across the divertor targets, yielding heat flux spreading and the reduction of peak heat fluxes by 30%. However, at the same time substantial and highly localized heat fluxes reach divertor areas well outside of the axisymmetric heat flux decay profile. Reduced RMP amplitudes due to screening or reduced RMP
Storm time plasma transport in a unified and inter-coupled global magnetosphere model
Ilie, R.; Liemohn, M. W.; Toth, G.
2014-12-01
We present results from the two-way self-consistent coupling between the kinetic Hot Electron and Ion Drift Integrator (HEIDI) model and the Space Weather Modeling Framework (SWMF). HEIDI solves the time dependent, gyration and bounced averaged kinetic equation for the phase space density of different ring current species and computes full pitch angle distributions for all local times and radial distances. During geomagnetic times the dipole approximation becomes unsuitable even in the inner magnetosphere. Therefore the HEIDI model was generalized to accommodate an arbitrary magnetic field and through the coupling with SWMF it obtains a magnetic field description throughout the HEIDI domain along with a plasma distribution at the model outer boundary from the Block Adaptive Tree Solar Wind Roe Upwind Scheme (BATS-R-US) magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) model within SWMF. Electric field self-consistency is assured by the passing of convection potentials from the Ridley Ionosphere Model (RIM) within SWMF. In this study we test the various levels of coupling between the 3 physics based models, highlighting the role that the magnetic field, plasma sheet conditions and the cross polar cap potential play in the formation and evolution of the ring current. We show that the dynamically changing geospace environment itself plays a key role in determining the geoeffectiveness of the driver. The results of the self-consistent coupling between HEIDI, BATS-R-US and RIM during disturbed conditions emphasize the importance of a kinetic self-consistent approach to the description of geospace.
Electronic transport in partially ionized water plasmas
French, Martin; Redmer, Ronald
2017-09-01
We use ab initio simulations based on density functional theory to calculate the electrical and thermal conductivities of electrons in partially ionized water plasmas at densities above 0.1 g/cm3. The resulting conductivity data are then fitted to analytic expressions for convenient application. For low densities, we develop a simple and fully analytic model for electronic transport in low-density plasmas in the chemical picture using the relaxation-time approximation. In doing so, we derive a useful analytic expression for electronic transport cross sections with neutral particles, based on a model potential. In the regime of thermal ionization, electrical conductivities from the analytic model agree with the ab initio data within a factor of 2. Larger deviations are observed for the thermal conductivity, and their origin is discussed. Our results are relevant for modeling the interior and evolution of water-rich planets as well as for technical plasma applications.
Schultz, D. R.; Ovchinnikov, S. Yu; Stancil, P. C.; Zaman, T.
2016-04-01
Updating and extending previous work (Krstić and Schultz 1999 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 32 3458 and other references) comprehensive calculations were performed for elastic scattering and charge transfer in proton—atomic hydrogen collisions. The results, obtained for 1301 collision energies in the center-of-mass energy range of 10-4-104 eV, are provided for integral and differential cross sections relevant to transport modeling in astrophysical and other plasma environments, and are made available through a website. Use of the data is demonstrated through a Monte Carlo transport simulation of solar wind proton propagation through atomic hydrogen gas representing a simple model of the solar wind interaction with heliospheric neutrals.
Cappelli, Mark; Young, Christopher
2016-10-01
We present continued efforts towards introducing physical models for cross-magnetic field electron transport into Hall thruster discharge simulations. In particular, we seek to evaluate whether such models accurately capture ion dynamics, both averaged and resolved in time, through comparisons with measured ion velocity distributions which are now becoming available for several devices. Here, we describe a turbulent electron transport model that is integrated into 2-D hybrid fluid/PIC simulations of a 72 mm diameter laboratory thruster operating at 400 W. We also compare this model's predictions with one recently proposed by Lafluer et al.. Introducing these models into 2-D hybrid simulations is relatively straightforward and leverages the existing framework for solving the electron fluid equations. The models are tested for their ability to capture the time-averaged experimental discharge current and its fluctuations due to ionization instabilities. Model predictions are also more rigorously evaluated against recent laser-induced fluorescence measurements of time-resolved ion velocity distributions.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
R.E. Waltz
2007-01-01
@@ There has been remarkable progress during the past decade in understanding and modeling turbulent transport in tokamaks. With some exceptions the progress is derived from the huge increases in computational power and the ability to simulate tokamak turbulence with ever more fundamental and physically realistic dynamical equations, e.g.
Plasma transport in an Eulerian AMR code
Vold, E. L.; Rauenzahn, R. M.; Aldrich, C. H.; Molvig, K.; Simakov, A. N.; Haines, B. M.
2017-04-01
A plasma transport model has been implemented in an Eulerian AMR radiation-hydrodynamics code, xRage, which includes plasma viscosity in the momentum tensor, viscous dissipation in the energy equations, and binary species mixing with consistent species mass and energy fluxes driven by concentration gradients, ion and electron baro-diffusion terms and temperature gradient forces. The physics basis, computational issues, numeric options, and results from several test problems are discussed. The transport coefficients are found to be relatively insensitive to the kinetic correction factors when the concentrations are expressed with the molar fractions and the ion mass differences are large. The contributions to flow dynamics from plasma viscosity and mass diffusion were found to increase significantly as scale lengths decrease in an inertial confinement fusion relevant Kelvin-Helmholtz instability mix layer. The mixing scale lengths in the test case are on the order of 100 μm and smaller for viscous effects to appear and 10 μm or less for significant ion species diffusion, evident over durations on the order of nanoseconds. The temperature gradient driven mass flux is seen to deplete a high Z tracer ion at the ion shock front. The plasma transport model provides the generation of the atomic mix per unit of interfacial area between two species with no free parameters. The evolution of the total atomic mix then depends also on an accurate resolution or estimate of the interfacial area between the species mixing by plasma transport. High resolution simulations or a more Lagrangian-like treatment of species interfaces may be required to distinguish plasma transport and numerical diffusion in an Eulerian computation of complex and dynamically evolving mix regions.
The Lunar dusty plasmas -levitation and transport.
Atamaniuk, Barbara; Rothkaehl, Hanna
Lunar dust can exhibit unusual behavior -due to electron photoemission via solar-UV radiation the lunar surface represents a complex plasma -"dusty plasma". The dust grains and lunar surface are electrostatically charged by the Moon's interaction with the local plasma environ-ment and the photoemission of electrons due to solar UV and X-rays. This effect causes the like-charged surface and dust particles to repel each other, and creates a near-surface electric field. Lunar dust must be treated as a dusty plasma. Using analytic (kinetic (Vlasov) and magnetohydrodynamic theory ) and numerical modeling we show physical processes related to levitation and transport dusty plasma on the Moon. These dust grains could affect the lunar environment for radio wave and plasma diagnostics and interfere with exploration activities. References: 1. Wilson T.L. (1992), in Analysis of Interplanetary Dust, M. Zolensky et al. AIP Conf.Proc. 310, 33-44 (AIP, NY), 2.Wilson T.L."LUNAR DUST AND DUSTY PLASMA PHYSICS".40th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference (2009), 3. Grün E., et al.(1993),Nature 363, 144. 4. Morfill G. and Grün E.(1979), Planet. Space Sci.. 27, 1269, 1283, 5. Manka R. and Michel F. (1971), Proc. 2nd Lun. Sci. Conf. 2, 1717 (MIT Press, Cambridge). 6. Manka R. et al.(1973), Lun. Sci.-III, 504. 7. Barbara Atamaniuk "Kinetic Description of Localized Plasma Structure in Dusty Plasmas". Czechoslovak Journal of Physics Vol.54 C 2004
Ruzic, David N.; Juliano, Daniel R.; Hayden, Douglas B.; Allain, Monica M. C.
1998-10-01
A code has been developed to model the transport of sputtered material in a modified industrial-scale magnetron. The device has a target diameter of 355 mm and was designed for 200 mm substrates. The chamber has been retrofitted with an auxilliary RF inductive plasma source located between the target and substrate. The source consists of a water-cooled copper coil immersed in the plasma, but with a diameter large enough to prevent shadowing of the substrate. The RF plasma, target sputter flux distribution, background gas conditions, and geometry are all inputs to the code. The plasma is characterized via a combination of a Langmuir probe apparatus and the results of a simple analytic model of the ICP system. The source of sputtered atoms from the target is found through measurements of the depth of the sputter track in an eroded target and the distribution of the sputter flux is calculated via VFTRIM. A Monte Carlo routine tracks high energy atoms emerging from the target as they move through the chamber and undergo collisions with the electrons and background gas. The sputtered atoms are tracked by this routine whatever their electronic state (neutral, excited, or ion). If the energy of a sputtered atom decreases to near-thermal levels, then it exits the Monte Carlo routine as is tracked with a simple diffusion model. In this way, all sputtered atoms are followed until they hit and stick to a surface, and the velocity distribution of the sputtered atom population (including electronic state information) at each surface is calculated, especially the substrate. Through the use of this simulation the coil parameters and geometry can be tailored to maximize deposition rate and sputter flux uniformity.
West, W. P.; Porter, G. D.; Evans, T. E.; Stangeby, P.; Brooks, N. H.; Fenstermacher, M. E.; Isler, R. C.; Rognlien, T. D.; Wade, M. R.; Whyte, D. G.; Wolf, N. S.
2001-03-01
The UEDGE modeling code has been used to study the effect of varying the carbon yield from the plasma facing surfaces on the core plasma carbon contamination in DIII-D. The model of the lower single-null, ELMing H-mode plasma shows a remarkably weak dependence of the core carbon concentration over an approximate factor of two variation in the source. This weak dependence is in agreement with the analysis of spectroscopic data from DIII-D [1]. Examination of the carbon transport shows a general flow pattern of carbon as follows: (1) parallel flow from the divertors to the near scrape off layer (SOL) near the separatrix, (2) cross field diffusion from the near SOL to the far SOL (near the wall), and (3) parallel flow from the far SOL to the far region of the inner divertor. The carbon flux from the divertors to the near SOL drops as the sputtering rate is reduced. In the far SOL, background plasma parameters adjust in small ways to produce an increasing carbon density with decreasing sputtering yield. This increasing density of carbon in the far SOL is consistent with a reduction in the parallel velocity of carbon ions flowing from the far SOL back to the inner divertor. Since the carbon density near the separatrix is constant as the sputtering yield is reduced, the increasing density in the far SOL reduces the radial gradient and therefore the diffusive radial flow. A balance in the outward radial diffusive flow from the near SOL and the flow from the divertor into the near SOL maintains the carbon density in the near SOL nearly constant, even though the carbon throughput changes.
Validation metrics for turbulent plasma transport
Holland, C.
2016-06-01
Developing accurate models of plasma dynamics is essential for confident predictive modeling of current and future fusion devices. In modern computer science and engineering, formal verification and validation processes are used to assess model accuracy and establish confidence in the predictive capabilities of a given model. This paper provides an overview of the key guiding principles and best practices for the development of validation metrics, illustrated using examples from investigations of turbulent transport in magnetically confined plasmas. Particular emphasis is given to the importance of uncertainty quantification and its inclusion within the metrics, and the need for utilizing synthetic diagnostics to enable quantitatively meaningful comparisons between simulation and experiment. As a starting point, the structure of commonly used global transport model metrics and their limitations is reviewed. An alternate approach is then presented, which focuses upon comparisons of predicted local fluxes, fluctuations, and equilibrium gradients against observation. The utility of metrics based upon these comparisons is demonstrated by applying them to gyrokinetic predictions of turbulent transport in a variety of discharges performed on the DIII-D tokamak [J. L. Luxon, Nucl. Fusion 42, 614 (2002)], as part of a multi-year transport model validation activity.
Validation metrics for turbulent plasma transport
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Holland, C., E-mail: chholland@ucsd.edu [Center for Energy Research, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0417 (United States)
2016-06-15
Developing accurate models of plasma dynamics is essential for confident predictive modeling of current and future fusion devices. In modern computer science and engineering, formal verification and validation processes are used to assess model accuracy and establish confidence in the predictive capabilities of a given model. This paper provides an overview of the key guiding principles and best practices for the development of validation metrics, illustrated using examples from investigations of turbulent transport in magnetically confined plasmas. Particular emphasis is given to the importance of uncertainty quantification and its inclusion within the metrics, and the need for utilizing synthetic diagnostics to enable quantitatively meaningful comparisons between simulation and experiment. As a starting point, the structure of commonly used global transport model metrics and their limitations is reviewed. An alternate approach is then presented, which focuses upon comparisons of predicted local fluxes, fluctuations, and equilibrium gradients against observation. The utility of metrics based upon these comparisons is demonstrated by applying them to gyrokinetic predictions of turbulent transport in a variety of discharges performed on the DIII-D tokamak [J. L. Luxon, Nucl. Fusion 42, 614 (2002)], as part of a multi-year transport model validation activity.
Fundamental aspects of plasma chemical physics transport
Capitelli, Mario; Laricchiuta, Annarita
2013-01-01
Fundamental Aspects of Plasma Chemical Physics: Tranpsort develops basic and advanced concepts of plasma transport to the modern treatment of the Chapman-Enskog method for the solution of the Boltzmann transport equation. The book invites the reader to consider actual problems of the transport of thermal plasmas with particular attention to the derivation of diffusion- and viscosity-type transport cross sections, stressing the role of resonant charge-exchange processes in affecting the diffusion-type collision calculation of viscosity-type collision integrals. A wide range of topics is then discussed including (1) the effect of non-equilibrium vibrational distributions on the transport of vibrational energy, (2) the role of electronically excited states in the transport properties of thermal plasmas, (3) the dependence of transport properties on the multitude of Saha equations for multi-temperature plasmas, and (4) the effect of the magnetic field on transport properties. Throughout the book, worked examples ...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Garbet, X
2001-06-01
The purpose of this work is to introduce the main processes that occur in a magnetized plasma. During the last 2 decades, the understanding of turbulence has made great progress but analytical formulas and simulations are far to produce reliable predictions. The values of transport coefficients in a tokamak plasma exceed by far those predicted by the theory of collisional transport. This phenomenon is called abnormal transport and might be due to plasma fluctuations. An estimation of turbulent fluxes derived from the levels of fluctuations, is proposed. A flow description of plasma allows the understanding of most micro-instabilities. The ballooning representation deals with instabilities in a toric geometry. 3 factors play an important role to stabilize plasmas: density pinch, magnetic shear and speed shear. The flow model of plasma gives an erroneous value for the stability threshold, this is due to a bad description of the resonant interaction between wave and particle. As for dynamics, flow models can be improved by adding dissipative terms so that the linear response nears the kinetic response. The kinetic approach is more accurate but is complex because of the great number of dimensions involved. (A.C.)
Himabindu, M.; Tyagi, Anil; Sharma, Devendra; Deshpande, Shishir P.; Bonnin, Xavier
2014-02-01
Computational analysis of coupled plasma and neutral transport in the Scrape-Off Layer (SOL) region of the Steady-State Superconducting Tokamak (SST-1) is done using SOLPS for Phase-I of double-null divertor plasma operations. An optimum set of plasma parameters is explored computationally for the first phase operations with the central objective of achieving an effective control over particle and power exhaust. While the transport of plasma species is treated using a fluid model in the B2.5 code, a full kinetic description is provided by the EIRENE code for the neutral particle transport in a realistic geometry. Cases with and without external gas puffing are analyzed for finding regimes where an effective control of plasma operations can be exercised by controlling the SOL plasma conditions over a range of heating powers. In the desired parameter range, a reasonable neutral penetration across the SOL is observed, capable of causing a variation of up to 15% of the total input power, in the power deposited on the divertors. Our computational characterization of the SOL plasma with input power 1 MW and lower hybrid current drive, for the separatrix density up to 1019 m-3, indicates that there will be access to high recycling operations producing reduction in the temperature and the peak heat flux at the divertor targets. This indicates that a control of the core plasma density and temperature would be achievable. A power balance analysis done using the kinetic neutral transport code EIRENE indicates about 60%-75% of the total power diverted to the targets, providing quantitative estimates for the relative power loading of the targets and the rest of the plasma facing components.
Modeling electronegative plasma discharge
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lichtenberg, A.J.; Lieberman, M.A. [Univ. of California, Berkley, CA (United States)
1995-12-31
Macroscopic analytic models for a three-component electronegative gas discharge are developed. Assuming the negative ions to be in Boltzmann equilibrium, a positive ion ambipolar diffusion equation is derived. The discharge consists of an electronegative core and electropositive edges. The electron density in the core is nearly uniform, allowing a parabolic approximation to the plasma profile to be employed. The resulting equilibrium equations are solved analytically and matched to a constant mobility transport model of an electropositive edge plasma. The solutions are compared to a simulation of a parallel-plane r.f. driven oxygen plasma for p = 50 mTorr and n{sub eo}= 2.4 x 10{sup 15} m{sup -3}. The ratio {alpha}{sub o} of central negative ion density to electron density, and the electron temperature T{sub e}, found in the simulation, are in reasonable agreement with the values calculated from the model. The model is extended to: (1) low pressures, where a variable mobility model is used in the electropositive edge region; and (2) high {alpha}{sub o} in which the edge region disappears. The inclusion of a second positive ion species, which can be very important in describing electronegative discharges used for materials processing, is a possible extension of the model.
Cartier-Michaud, T.; Ghendrih, P.; Sarazin, Y.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Drouot, T.; Estève, D.; Garbet, X.; Grandgirard, V.; Latu, G.; Norscini, C.; Passeron, C.
2014-11-01
A minimum model of plasma turbulence in a kinetic framework is presented. It is based on trapped ion turbulence, gyro and bounce averaged, and implemented in the versatile and efficient code TERESA. Zonal flow - streamer interplay are readily shown to be key players that govern the confinement properties of the model. The parameter space of the model is explored with brute force numerics. A generic result is either a streamer dominated pattern with large transport, or a staircase temperature profile with very marked corrugations and quenched transport. A case with off-axis heating is found to exhibit quasiperiodic relaxation events relevant to investigate dynamical turbulence self-organisation.
Two-dimensional transport study of scrape off layer plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yamamoto, Nobuyuki [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Advanced Energy Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Yagi, Masatoshi; Itoh, Sanae-I. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics
1999-09-01
Two-dimensional transport code is developed to analyzed the heat pulse propagation in the scrape-off layer plasma. The classical and anomalous transport models are considered as a thermal diffusivity perpendicular to the magnetic field. On the other hand, the classical transport model is chosen as a thermal diffusivity parallel to the magnetic field. The heat deposition profiles are evaluated for various kinds of transport models. It is found that the heat pulse which arrives at the divertor plate due to the classical transport is largest compared with other models. The steady state temperate profiles of the electron and ion are also discussed. (author)
Perturbative Transport Studies in Fusion Plasmas
Cardozo, N. J. L.
1995-01-01
Studies of transport in fusion plasmas using perturbations of an equilibrium state reviewed. Essential differences between steady-state and perturbative transport studies are pointed out. Important transport issues that can be addressed with perturbative experiments are identified as: (i) Are the tr
Transport properties of inertial confinement fusion plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Issanova, M.K.; Kodanova, S.K.; Ramazanov, T.S. [IETP, Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Hoffmann, D.H.H. [Institut fuer Kernphysik, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt (Germany)
2016-06-15
In this paper the transport properties of non-isothermal dense deuterium-tritium plasmas were studied. Based on the effective interaction potentials between particles, the Coulomb logarithm for a two-temperature nonisothermal dense plasma was obtained. These potentials take into consideration long-range multi-particle screening effects and short-range quantum-mechanical effects in two-temperature plasmas. Transport processes in such plasmas were studied using the Coulomb logarithm. The obtained results were compared with the theoretical works of other authors and with the results of molecular dynamics simulations. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Radial plasma transport in Saturn's magnetosphere (Invited)
Hill, T. W.
2010-12-01
Radial plasma transport in the magnetosphere of Saturn, like that of Jupiter, is driven by the centrifugal force of (partial) corotation acting on internally generated plasma. A significant difference is that the internal plasma source is evidently broadly distributed throughout the inner magnetosphere of Saturn (4 CAPS and MAG), and reproduced in numerical simulations (RCM) that contain a distributed plasma source, although it has not, to my knowledge, been explained by an analytical theory containing an active plasma source. Both planets exhibit strong magnetospheric modulations near the planetary spin period, probably indicating a persistent longitudinal asymmetry of the radial plasma transport process. At Jupiter such an asymmetry is readily understood as a consequence of the dramatic asymmetry of the intrinsic planetary magnetic field. This is not so at Saturn, where any such field asymmetry is known to be very modest at best. In neither case has the precise nature of the asymmetry been identified either observationally or theoretically.
Modeling the Europa plasma torus
Schreier, Ron; Eviatar, Aharon; Vasyliunas, Vytenis M.; Richardson, John D.
1993-12-01
The existence of a torus of plasma generated by sputtering from Jupiter's satellite Europa has long been suspected but never yet convincingly demonstrated. Temperature profiles from Voyager plasma observations indicate the presence of hot, possibly freshly picked-up ions in the general vicinity of the orbit of Europa, which may be interpreted as evidence for a local plasma torus. Studies of ion partitioning in the outer regions of the Io torus reveal that the oxygen to sulfur mixing ratio varies with radial distance; this may indicates that oxygen-rich matter is injected from a non-Io source, most probably Europa. We have constructed a quantitative model of a plasma torus near the orbit of Europa which takes into account plasma input from the Io torus, sputtering from the surface of Europa, a great number of ionization and charge exchange processes, and plasma loss by diffusive transport. When the transport time is chosen so that the model's total number density in consistent with the observed total plasma density, the contribution from Europa is found to be significant although not dominant. The model predicts in detail the ion composition, charge states, and the relative fractions of hot Europa-generated and (presumed) cold Io-generated ions. The results are generally consistent with observations from Voyager and can in principle (subject to limitations of data coverage) be confirmed in more detail by Ulysses.
Paloma, Cynthia S.
The plasma electron temperature (Te) plays a critical role in a tokamak nu- clear fusion reactor since temperatures on the order of 108K are required to achieve fusion conditions. Many plasma properties in a tokamak nuclear fusion reactor are modeled by partial differential equations (PDE's) because they depend not only on time but also on space. In particular, the dynamics of the electron temperature is governed by a PDE referred to as the Electron Heat Transport Equation (EHTE). In this work, a numerical method is developed to solve the EHTE based on a custom finite-difference technique. The solution of the EHTE is compared to temperature profiles obtained by using TRANSP, a sophisticated plasma transport code, for specific discharges from the DIII-D tokamak, located at the DIII-D National Fusion Facility in San Diego, CA. The thermal conductivity (also called thermal diffusivity) of the electrons (Xe) is a plasma parameter that plays a critical role in the EHTE since it indicates how the electron temperature diffusion varies across the minor effective radius of the tokamak. TRANSP approximates Xe through a curve-fitting technique to match experimentally measured electron temperature profiles. While complex physics-based model have been proposed for Xe, there is a lack of a simple mathematical model for the thermal diffusivity that could be used for control design. In this work, a model for Xe is proposed based on a scaling law involving key plasma variables such as the electron temperature (Te), the electron density (ne), and the safety factor (q). An optimization algorithm is developed based on the Sequential Quadratic Programming (SQP) technique to optimize the scaling factors appearing in the proposed model so that the predicted electron temperature and magnetic flux profiles match predefined target profiles in the best possible way. A simulation study summarizing the outcomes of the optimization procedure is presented to illustrate the potential of the
Sulfate transport in Penicillium chrysogenum plasma membranes.
Hillenga, Dirk J.; Versantvoort, Hanneke J.M.; Driessen, Arnold J. M.; Konings, Wil N.
1996-01-01
Transport studies with Penicillium chrysogenum plasma membranes fused with cytochrome c oxidase liposomes demonstrate that sulfate uptake is driven by the transmembrane pH gradient and not by the transmembrane electrical potential. Ca2+ and other divalent cations are not required. It is concluded that the sulfate transport system catalyzes the symport of two protons with one sulfate anion.
Anger, Gregory J; Piquette-Miller, Micheline
2010-07-01
It is currently unknown whether gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), a prevalent obstetrical complication, compounds the changes in drug disposition that occur naturally in pregnancy. Hyperlipidemia occurs in GDM. Using a rat model of GDM, we determined whether excess lipids compete with drugs for plasma protein binding. Because lipids activate nuclear receptors that regulate drug transporters and metabolic enzymes, we used proteome analysis to determine whether hyperlipidemia indirectly leads to the dysregulation of these proteins in the liver. GDM was induced on gestational day 6 (GD6) via streptozotocin injection. Controls received either vehicle alone or streptozotocin with subsequent insulin treatment. Liver and plasma were collected on GD20. Glyburide and saquinavir protein binding was determined by ultrafiltration, and an established solvent method was used for plasma delipidation. Proteomics analysis was performed by using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation methodology with membrane-enriched hepatic protein samples. Relative to controls, GDM rat plasma contained more cholesterol and triglycerides. Plasma protein binding of glyburide and saquinavir was decreased in GDM. Delipidation normalized protein binding in GDM plasma. Proteins linked to lipid metabolism were strongly affected in the GDM proteomics data set, with prohyperlipidemic and antihyperlipidemic changes observed, and formed networks that implicated several nuclear receptors. Up-regulation of drug transporters and metabolic enzymes was observed (e.g., multidrug resistance 1/2, CYP2A1, CYP2B9, and CYP2D3). In this study, GDM-induced hyperlipidemia decreased protein binding and was associated with drug transporter and metabolic enzyme up-regulation in the liver. Both of these findings could change drug disposition in affected pregnancies, compounding changes associated with pregnancy itself.
Plasma Transport at the Magnetospheric Flank Boundary. Final report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Otto, Antonius
2012-04-23
Progress is highlighted in these areas: 1. Model of magnetic reconnection induced by three-dimensional Kelvin Helmholtz (KH) modes at the magnetospheric flank boundary; 2. Quantitative evaluation of mass transport from the magnetosheath onto closed geomagnetic field for northward IMF; 3. Comparison of mass transfer by cusp reconnection and Flank Kelvin Helmholtz modes; 4. Entropy constraint and plasma transport in the magnetotail - a new mechanism for current sheet thinning; 5. Test particle model for mass transport onto closed geomagnetic field for northward IMF; 6. Influence of density asymmetry and magnetic shear on (a) the linear and nonlinear growth of 3D Kelvin Helmholtz (KH) modes, and (b) three-dimensional KH mediated mass transport; 7. Examination of entropy and plasma transport in the magnetotail; 8. Entropy change and plasma transport by KH mediated reconnection - mixing and heating of plasma; 9. Entropy and plasma transport in the magnetotail - tail reconnection; and, 10. Wave coupling at the magnetospheric boundary and generation of kinetic Alfven waves.
Akdim, Mohamed Reda
2003-09-01
Nowadays plasmas are used for various applications such as the fabrication of silicon solar cells, integrated circuits, coatings and dental cleaning. In the case of a processing plasma, e.g. for the fabrication of amorphous silicon solar cells, a mixture of silane and hydrogen gas is injected in a reactor. These gases are decomposed by making a plasma. A plasma with a low degree of ionization (typically 10_5) is usually made in a reactor containing two electrodes driven by a radio-frequency (RF) power source in the megahertz range. Under the right circumstances the radicals, neutrals and ions can react further to produce nanometer sized dust particles. The particles can stick to the surface and thereby contribute to a higher deposition rate. Another possibility is that the nanometer sized particles coagulate and form larger micron sized particles. These particles obtain a high negative charge, due to their large radius and are usually trapped in a radiofrequency plasma. The electric field present in the discharge sheaths causes the entrapment. Such plasmas are called dusty or complex plasmas. In this thesis numerical models are presented which describe dusty plasmas in reactive and nonreactive plasmas. We started first with the development of a simple one-dimensional silane fluid model where a dusty radio-frequency silane/hydrogen discharge is simulated. In the model, discharge quantities like the fluxes, densities and electric field are calculated self-consistently. A radius and an initial density profile for the spherical dust particles are given and the charge and the density of the dust are calculated with an iterative method. During the transport of the dust, its charge is kept constant in time. The dust influences the electric field distribution through its charge and the density of the plasma through recombination of positive ions and electrons at its surface. In the model this process gives an extra production of silane radicals, since the growth of dust is
Transport coefficients of a relativistic plasma
Pike, O. J.; Rose, S. J.
2016-05-01
In this work, a self-consistent transport theory for a relativistic plasma is developed. Using the notation of Braginskii [S. I. Braginskii, in Reviews of Plasma Physics, edited by M. A. Leontovich (Consultants Bureau, New York, 1965), Vol. 1, p. 174], we provide semianalytical forms of the electrical resistivity, thermoelectric, and thermal conductivity tensors for a Lorentzian plasma in a magnetic field. This treatment is then generalized to plasmas with arbitrary atomic number by numerically solving the linearized Boltzmann equation. The corresponding transport coefficients are fitted by rational functions in order to make them suitable for use in radiation-hydrodynamic simulations and transport calculations. Within the confines of linear transport theory and on the assumption that the plasma is optically thin, our results are valid for temperatures up to a few MeV. By contrast, classical transport theory begins to incur significant errors above kBT ˜10 keV, e.g., the parallel thermal conductivity is suppressed by 15% at kBT =20 keV due to relativistic effects.
Plasma Interactions with Mixed Materials and Impurity Transport
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rognlien, T. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Beiersdorfer, Peter [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Chernov, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Frolov, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Magee, E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Rudd, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Umansky, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
2016-10-28
The project brings together three discipline areas at LLNL to develop advanced capability to predict the impact of plasma/material interactions (PMI) on metallic surfaces in magnetic fusion energy (MFE) devices. These areas are (1) modeling transport of wall impurity ions through the edge plasma to the core plasma, (2) construction of a laser blow-off (LBO) system for injecting precise amounts of metallic atoms into a tokamak plasma, and (3) material science analysis of fundamental processes that modify metallic surfaces during plasma bombardment. The focus is on tungsten (W), which is being used for the ITER divertor and in designs of future MFE devices. In area (1), we have worked with the University of California, San Diego (UCSD) on applications of the UEDGE/DUSTT coupled codes to predict the influx of impurity ions from W dust through the edge plasma, including periodic edge-plasma oscillations, and revived a parallel version of UEDGE to speed up these simulations. In addition, the impurity transport model in the 2D UEDGE code has been implemented into the 3D BOUT++ turbulence/transport code to allow fundamental analysis of the impact of strong plasma turbulence on the impurity transport. In area (2), construction and testing of the LBO injection system has been completed. The original plan to install the LBO on the National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade (NSTX-U) at Princeton and its use to validate the impurity transport simulations is delayed owing to NSTX-U being offline for substantial magnetic coil repair period. In area (3), an analytic model has been developed to explain the growth of W tendrils (or fuzz) observed for helium-containing plasmas. Molecular dynamics calculations of W sputtering by W and deuterium (D) ions shows that a spatial blending of interatomic potentials is needed to describe the near-surface and deeper regions of the material.
Saturn Plasma Sources and Associated Transport Processes
Blanc, M.; Andrews, D. J.; Coates, A. J.; Hamilton, D. C.; Jackman, C. M.; Jia, X.; Kotova, A.; Morooka, M.; Smith, H. T.; Westlake, J. H.
2015-10-01
This article reviews the different sources of plasma for Saturn's magnetosphere, as they are known essentially from the scientific results of the Cassini-Huygens mission to Saturn and Titan. At low and medium energies, the main plasma source is the H2O cloud produced by the "geyser" activity of the small satellite Enceladus. Impact ionization of this cloud occurs to produce on the order of 100 kg/s of fresh plasma, a source which dominates all the other ones: Titan (which produces much less plasma than anticipated before the Cassini mission), the rings, the solar wind (a poorly known source due to the lack of quantitative knowledge of the degree of coupling between the solar wind and Saturn's magnetosphere), and the ionosphere. At higher energies, energetic particles are produced by energy diffusion and acceleration of lower energy plasma produced by the interchange instabilities induced by the rapid rotation of Saturn, and possibly, for the highest energy range, by contributions from the CRAND process acting inside Saturn's magnetosphere. Discussion of the transport and acceleration processes acting on these plasma sources shows the importance of rotation-induced radial transport and energization of the plasma, and also shows how much the unexpected planetary modulation of essentially all plasma parameters of Saturn's magnetosphere remains an unexplained mystery.
Interchange instability and transport in matter-antimatter plasmas
Kendl, Alexander; Wiesenberger, Matthias; Held, Markus
2016-01-01
Symmetric electron-positron plasmas in inhomogeneous magnetic fields are intrinsically subject to interchange instability and transport. Scaling relations for the propagation velocity of density blob perturbations relevant to transport in isothermal magnetically confined electron-positron plasmas are deduced, including damping effects when Debye lengths are large compared to Larmor radii. The relations are verified by nonlinear full-F gyrofluid computations. Results are in favour of sufficient magnetic confinement for planned electron-positron plasma experiments. The model is generalised to other matter-antimatter plasmas. Magnetised electron-positron-proton-antiproton plasmas are susceptible to interchange driven local matter-antimatter separation, which can be expected to impede (so far unrealised) sustained laboratory magnetic confinement.
Plasma Viscosity with Mass Transport in Spherical ICF Implosion Simulations
Vold, Erik L; Ortega, Mario I; Moll, Ryan; Fenn, Daniel; Molvig, Kim
2015-01-01
The effects of viscosity and small-scale atomic-level mixing on plasmas in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) currently represent challenges in ICF research. Many current ICF hydrodynamic codes ignore the effects of viscosity though recent research indicates viscosity and mixing by classical transport processes may have a substantial impact on implosion dynamics. We have implemented a Lagrange hydrodynamic code in one-dimensional spherical geometry with plasma viscosity and mass transport and including a three temperature model for ions, electrons, and radiation treated in a gray radiation diffusion approximation. The code is used to study ICF implosion differences with and without plasma viscosity and to determine the impacts of viscosity on temperature histories and neutron yield. It was found that plasma viscosity has substantial impacts on ICF shock dynamics characterized by shock burn timing, maximum burn temperatures, convergence ratio, and time history of neutron production rates. Plasma viscosity reduc...
Transport Bifurcation in Plasma Interchange Turbulence
Li, Bo
2016-10-01
Transport bifurcation and mean shear flow generation in plasma interchange turbulence are explored with self-consistent two-fluid simulations in a flux-driven system with both closed and open field line regions. The nonlinear evolution of interchange modes shows the presence of two confinement regimes characterized by the low and high mean flow shear. By increasing the input heat flux above a certain threshold, large-amplitude oscillations in the turbulent and mean flow energy are induced. Both clockwise and counter-clockwise types of oscillations are found before the transition to the second regime. The fluctuation energy is decisively transferred to the mean flows by large-amplitude Reynolds power as turbulent intensity increases. Consequently, a transition to the second regime occurs, in which strong mean shear flows are generated in the plasma edge. The peak of the spectrum shifts to higher wavenumbers as the large-scale turbulent eddies are suppressed by the mean shear flow. The transition back to the first regime is then triggered by decreasing the input heat flux to a level much lower than the threshold for the forward transition, showing strong hysteresis. During the back transition, the mean flow decreases as the energy transfer process is reversed. This transport bifurcation, based on a field-line-averaged 2D model, has also been reproduced in our recent 3D simulations of resistive interchange turbulence, in which the ion and electron temperatures are separated and the parallel current is involved. Supported by the MOST of China Grant No. 2013GB112006, US DOE Contract No. DE-FC02-08ER54966, US DOE by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA2734.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. V. Nezlin
1999-01-01
Full Text Available Three kinds of results have been described in this paper. Firstly, an experimental study of the Rossby vortex meridional drift on the rotating shallow water has been carried out. Owing to the stringent physical analogy between the Rossby vortices and drift vortices in the magnetized plasma, the results obtained have allowed one to make a conclusion that the transport rate of the plasma, trapped by the drift vortices, across the magnetic field is equivalent to the “gyro-Bohm” diffusion coefficient. Secondly, a model of big vortices of the type of the Great Red Spot of Jupiter, dominating in the atmospheres of the outer planets, has been produced. Thirdly, the rotating shallow water modeling has been carried out of the hydrodynamical generation mechanism of spiral structures in galaxies. Trailing spiral waves of various azimuthal modes, generated by a shear flow between fast rotating “nucleus” and slow rotating periphery, were produced. The spirals are similar to those existing in the real galaxies. The hydrodynamical concept of the spiral structure formation in galaxies has been substantiated. Strong anticyclonic vortices between the spiral arms of the structures under study have been discovered for the first time. The existence of analogous vortices in real galaxies has been predicted. (This prediction has been reliably confirmed recently in special astronomical observations, carried out on the basis of the mentioned laboratory modeling and the prediction made – see the paper by A. Fridman et al. (Astrophysics and Space Science, 1997, 252, 115.
Plasma transport induced by the stochastic magnetic field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kubota, Tetsuyuki [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu Univ., Kasuga, Fukuoka (Japan); Itoh, Sanae-I.; Yagi, Masatoshi
1998-10-01
The anomalous plasma transport induced by the stochastic magnetic field is studied to understand the disruption phenomena in the tokamak plasma. At first, the transport matrix which indicate the plasma transport in the stochastic magnetic field is formulated. For the formulation, the quasi-linear approximation for the diffusivity of the stochastic magnetic field is used and the shifted Maxwellian is assumed to the particle distribution. Using this transport matrix the radial electric field formation, which is generated by the ambipolar condition, and the associated temperature profile is obtained. The temperature profile in the stochastic magnetic field becomes flat because of the rapid temperature diffusion. Next the temperature crash, i.e., the sawtooth oscillation and the giant ELM, is analyzed using the turbulence-turbulence transition model, which describes the transition between the state of the electrostatic turbulence and that of the electromagnetic turbulence. This transition has a hysteresis characteristics. When the state changes to the electromagnetic mode, the stochastic magnetic field appears and the temperature transport is enhanced. This transition model is included in the 1-D transport equation. To calculate this transport equation numerically the crash of the temperature profile and the propagation of the crash front (avalanche) are realized by this model. The collapse without a precursor oscillation is revealed. (author)
Electron thermal transport in tokamak plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Konings, J.A.
1994-11-30
The process of fusion of small nuclei thereby releasing energy, as it occurs continuously in the sun, is essential for the existence of mankind. The same process applied in a controlled way on earth would provide a clean and an abundant energy source, and be the long term solution of the energy problem. Nuclear fusion requires an extremely hot (10{sup 8} K) ionized gas, a plasma, that can only be maintained if it is kept insulated from any material wall. In the so called `tokamak` this is achieved by using magnetic fields. The termal insulation, which is essential if one wants to keep the plasma at the high `fusion` temperature, can be predicted using basic plasma therory. A comparison with experiments in tokamaks, however, showed that the electron enery losses are ten to hundred times larger than this theory predicts. This `anomalous transport` of thermal energy implies that, to reach the condition for nuclear fusion, a fusion reactor must have very large dimensions. This may put the economic feasibility of fusion power in jeopardy. Therefore, in a worldwide collaboration, physicists study tokamak plasmas in an attempt to understand and control the energy losses. From a scientific point of view, the mechanisms driving anomalous transport are one of the challenges in fudamental plasma physics. In Nieuwegein, a tokamak experiment (the Rijnhuizen Tokamak Project, RTP) is dedicated to the study of anomalous transport, in an international collaboration with other laboratories. (orig./WL).
Sulfate transport in Penicillium chrysogenum plasma membranes
Hillenga, Dirk J.; Versantvoort, Hanneke J.M.; Driessen, Arnold J.M.; Konings, Wil N.
1996-01-01
Transport studies with Penicillium chrysogenum plasma membranes fused with cytochrome c oxidase liposomes demonstrate that sulfate uptake is driven by the transmembrane pH gradient and not by the transmembrane electrical potential. Ca2+ and other divalent cations are not required. It is concluded th
Transport Studies in Fusion Plasmas - Perturbative Experiments
Cardozo, N. J. L.
1994-01-01
By subjecting a plasma in steady state to small perturbations and measuring the response, it is possible to determine elements of the matrix of transport coefficients. Experimentally this is difficult, and results are mainly limited to tranpsport driven by the pressure and temperature gradients. Imp
Transport studies in fusion plasmas: Perturbative experiments
Cardozo, N. J. L.
1996-01-01
By subjecting a plasma in steady state to small perturbations and measuring the response, it is possible to determine elements of the matrix of transport coefficients. Experimentally this is difficult, and results are mainly limited to tranpsport driven by the pressure and temperature gradients. Imp
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Goudon, Thierry, E-mail: thierry.goudon@inria.fr [Team COFFEE, INRIA Sophia Antipolis Mediterranee (France); Labo. J.A. Dieudonne CNRS and Univ. Nice-Sophia Antipolis (UMR 7351), Parc Valrose, 06108 Nice cedex 02 (France); Parisot, Martin, E-mail: martin.parisot@gmail.com [Project-Team SIMPAF, INRIA Lille Nord Europe, Park Plazza, 40 avenue Halley, F-59650 Villeneuve d' Ascq cedex (France)
2012-10-15
In the so-called Spitzer-Haerm regime, equations of plasma physics reduce to a nonlinear parabolic equation for the electronic temperature. Coming back to the derivation of this limiting equation through hydrodynamic regime arguments, one is led to construct a hierarchy of models where the heat fluxes are defined through a non-local relation which can be reinterpreted as well by introducing coupled diffusion equations. We address the question of designing numerical methods to simulate these equations. The basic requirement for the scheme is to be asymptotically consistent with the Spitzer-Haerm regime. Furthermore, the constraints of physically realistic simulations make the use of unstructured meshes unavoidable. We develop a Finite Volume scheme, based on Vertex-Based discretization, which reaches these objectives. We discuss on numerical grounds the efficiency of the method, and the ability of the generalized models in capturing relevant phenomena missed by the asymptotic problem.
Plasma transport in a simulated magnetic-divertor configuration
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Strawitch, C. M.
1981-03-01
The transport properties of plasma on magnetic field lines that intersect a conducting plate are studied experimentally in the Wisconsin internal ring D.C. machine. The magnetic geometry is intended to simulate certain aspects of plasma phenomena that may take place in a tokamak divertor. It is found by a variety of measurements that the cross field transport is non-ambipolar; this may have important implications in heat loading considerations in tokamak divertors. The undesirable effects of nonambipolar flow make it preferable to be able to eliminate it. However, we find that though the non-ambipolarity may be reduced, it is difficult to eliminate entirely. The plasma flow velocity parallel to the magnetic field is found to be near the ion acoustic velocity in all cases. The experimental density and electron temperature profiles are compared to the solutions to a one dimensional transport model that is commonly used in divertor theory.
Ion sampling and transport in Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry
Farnsworth, Paul B.; Spencer, Ross L.
2017-08-01
Quantitative accuracy and high sensitivity in inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) depend on consistent and efficient extraction and transport of analyte ions from an inductively coupled plasma to a mass analyzer, where they are sorted and detected. In this review we examine the fundamental physical processes that control ion sampling and transport in ICP-MS and compare the results of theory and computerized models with experimental efforts to characterize the flow of ions through plasma mass spectrometers' vacuum interfaces. We trace the flow of ions from their generation in the plasma, into the sampling cone, through the supersonic expansion in the first vacuum stage, through the skimmer, and into the ion optics that deliver the ions to the mass analyzer. At each stage we consider idealized behavior and departures from ideal behavior that affect the performance of ICP-MS as an analytical tool.
Coherent structures and transport in drift wave plasma turbulence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Korsholm, Søren Bang
for optimization. The present work is a part of the puzzle to understand the basic physics of transport induced by drift wave turbulence in the edge region of a plasma. The basis for the study is the Hasegawa- Wakatani model. Simulation results for 3D periodic and nonperiodic geometries are presented. The Hasegawa......-Wakatani model is further expanded to include ion temperature effects. Another expansion of the model is derived from the Braginskii electron temperature equation. The result is a self-consistent set of equations describing the dynamical evolution of the drift wave fluctuations of the electron density, electron......Fusion energy research aims at developing fusion power plants providing safe and clean energy with abundant fuels. Plasma turbulence induced transport of energy and particles is a performance limiting factor for fusion devices. Hence the understanding of plasma turbulence is important...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
M. McGraw
2000-04-13
The UZ Colloid Transport model development plan states that the objective of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document the development of a model for simulating unsaturated colloid transport. This objective includes the following: (1) use of a process level model to evaluate the potential mechanisms for colloid transport at Yucca Mountain; (2) Provide ranges of parameters for significant colloid transport processes to Performance Assessment (PA) for the unsaturated zone (UZ); (3) Provide a basis for development of an abstracted model for use in PA calculations.
Up-gradient transport in a probabilistic transport model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gavnholt, J.; Juul Rasmussen, J.; Garcia, O.E.
2005-01-01
The transport of particles or heat against the driving gradient is studied by employing a probabilistic transport model with a characteristic particle step length that depends on the local concentration or heat gradient. When this gradient is larger than a prescribed critical value, the standard....... These results supplement recent works by van Milligen [Phys. Plasmas 11, 3787 (2004)], which applied Levy distributed step sizes in the case of supercritical gradients to obtain the up-gradient transport. (c) 2005 American Institute of Physics....
Lagrangian coherent structures and plasma transport processes
Falessi, M V; Schep, T J
2015-01-01
A dynamical system framework is used to describe transport processes in plasmas embedded in a magnetic field. For periodic systems with one degree of freedom the Poincar\\'e map provides a splitting of the phase space into regions where particles have different kinds of motion: periodic, quasi-periodic or chaotic. The boundaries of these regions are transport barriers; i.e., a trajectory cannot cross such boundaries during the whole evolution of the system. Lagrangian Coherent Structure (LCS) generalize this method to systems with the most general time dependence, splitting the phase space into regions with different qualitative behaviours. This leads to the definition of finite-time transport barriers, i.e. trajectories cannot cross the barrier for a finite amount of time. This methodology can be used to identify fast recirculating regions in the dynamical system and to characterize the transport between them.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sizyuk, V.; Hassanein, A.; Morozov, V.; Sizyuk, T.; Mathematics and Computer Science
2007-01-16
The HEIGHTS integrated model has been developed as an instrument for simulation and optimization of laser-produced plasma (LPP) sources relevant to extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography. The model combines three general parts: hydrodynamics, radiation transport, and heat conduction. The first part employs a total variation diminishing scheme in the Lax-Friedrich formulation (TVD-LF); the second part, a Monte Carlo model; and the third part, implicit schemes with sparse matrix technology. All model parts consider physical processes in three-dimensional geometry. The influence of a generated magnetic field on laser plasma behavior was estimated, and it was found that this effect could be neglected for laser intensities relevant to EUV (up to {approx}10{sup 12} W/cm{sup 2}). All applied schemes were tested on analytical problems separately. Benchmark modeling of the full EUV source problem with a planar tin target showed good correspondence with experimental and theoretical data. Preliminary results are presented for tin droplet- and planar-target LPP devices. The influence of three-dimensional effects on EUV properties of source is discussed.
Vesicular and Plasma Membrane Transporters for Neurotransmitters
2012-01-01
The regulated exocytosis that mediates chemical signaling at synapses requires mechanisms to coordinate the immediate response to stimulation with the recycling needed to sustain release. Two general classes of transporter contribute to release, one located on synaptic vesicles that loads them with transmitter, and a second at the plasma membrane that both terminates signaling and serves to recycle transmitter for subsequent rounds of release. Originally identified as the target of psychoacti...
Mason, Caroline F.; Mason, Rodney J.; Faehl, R. J.; Kirkpatrick, R. C.
2011-10-01
The implicit simulation code ePLAS has been applied to plasma jets generated with mini-rail guns for plasma production and compression aimed at use with PLX. The rails are typically planar, 2.5 cm apart and arranged to transport an initial 1 cm or wider vertical plasma fill some 10 cm into a void. The driving magnetic field is 3.2 T. The plasma singly ionized argon at 1017 cm-3. We use ePLAS in both its traditional implicit/hybrid form where it is restricted by an electron Courant time step, and in a new super-hybrid form that extracts the main electron moments from the E&B-field solutions. This provides numerical stability at ion Courant limits, for at least a 10 times larger time step, thus probing microsecond jet dynamics with computational economy. We examine possible field penetration at the cathode and anode gun electrodes. Cathode erosion and EMHD B - Field penetration are possible at lower jet densities. We examine jet transport beyond the gun, modeling possible ionization with either analytic or tabular EOSs. We study the merger of jets with ions represented as either fluids or particles. Work supported by the USDOE under SBIR GRANT DE-SC0004207.
Cosmic ray transport in astrophysical plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schlickeiser, R. [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Lehrstuhl IV: Weltraum- & Astrophysik, Ruhr-Universität, Bochum (Germany)
2015-09-15
Since the development of satellite space technology about 50 years ago the solar heliosphere is explored almost routinely by several spacecrafts carrying detectors for measuring the properties of the interplanetary medium including energetic charged particles (cosmic rays), solar wind particle densities, and electromagnetic fields. In 2012, the Voyager 1 spacecraft has even left what could be described as the heliospheric modulation region, as indicated by the sudden disappearance of low energy heliospheric cosmic ray particles. With the available in-situ measurements of interplanetary turbulent electromagnetic fields and of the momentum spectra of different cosmic ray species in different interplanetary environments, the heliosphere is the best cosmic laboratory to test our understanding of the transport and acceleration of cosmic rays in space plasmas. I review both the historical development and the current state of various cosmic ray transport equations. Similarities and differences to transport theories for terrestrial fusion plasmas are highlighted. Any progress in cosmic ray transport requires a detailed understanding of the electromagnetic turbulence that is responsible for the scattering and acceleration of these particles.
Structure and function of thyroid hormone plasma membrane transporters.
Schweizer, Ulrich; Johannes, Jörg; Bayer, Dorothea; Braun, Doreen
2014-09-01
Thyroid hormones (TH) cross the plasma membrane with the help of transporter proteins. As charged amino acid derivatives, TH cannot simply diffuse across a lipid bilayer membrane, despite their notorious hydrophobicity. The identification of monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8, SLC16A2) as a specific and very active TH transporter paved the way to the finding that mutations in the MCT8 gene cause a syndrome of psychomotor retardation in humans. The purpose of this review is to introduce the current model of transmembrane transport and highlight the diversity of TH transmembrane transporters. The interactions of TH with plasma transfer proteins, T3 receptors, and deiodinase are summarized. It is shown that proteins may bind TH owing to their hydrophobic character in hydrophobic cavities and/or by specific polar interaction with the phenolic hydroxyl, the aminopropionic acid moiety, and by weak polar interactions with the iodine atoms. These findings are compared with our understanding of how TH transporters interact with substrate. The presumed effects of mutations in MCT8 on protein folding and transport function are explained in light of the available homology model.
Statistical properties of transport in plasma turbulence
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Naulin, V.; Garcia, O.E.; Nielsen, A.H.;
2004-01-01
The statistical properties of the particle flux in different types of plasma turbulence models are numerically investigated using probability distribution functions (PDFs). The physics included in the models range from two-dimensional drift wave turbulence to three-dimensional MHD dynamics...
Improved Multi-Mode anomalous transport module for tokamak plasmas
Luo, L.; Rafiq, T.; Kritz, A. H.
2013-10-01
The Multi-Mode anomalous transport module version 7.1 (MMM7.1) is a theory-based transport model that is used to predict temperature, density and rotation profiles for tokamak plasmas in integrated whole device modeling codes. The theoretical foundation of the current version, MMM7.1, has been significantly advanced since the first released version in 1995, MMM95. The latest version of the Multi-Mode model, MMM7.1, includes an improved Weiland model for the ITG, TEM, and MHD modes, the Horton model for short wavelength ETG modes and the Rafiq model for the drift resistive inertial ballooning modes (DRIBMs). The ETG transport threshold in the Horton model is refined by using the threshold obtained from toroidal gyrokinetic ETG turbulence simulations. The different components of the MMM7.1 model provide contributions to transport in the different regions of plasma discharge. To facilitate the implementation of the latest version of the Multi-Mode module in integrated predictive modeling codes, a clearly specified interface is described and a test program is provided in order to examine the predictions provided by MMM7.1. MMM7.1 is documented and organized as a standalone module, which fully complies with the National Transport Code Collaboration (NTCC) standards. The MMM7.1 module has been used both with a standalone driver program as well as within the PTRANSP code. Results are presented to illustrate the extent to which the various component models contribute to transport in both L-mode and H-mode discharges.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Villar Colome, J. [Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d`Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee]|[Universitat Polytechnica de Catalunya (Spain)
1997-12-01
The aim of this thesis is to give a global scope of the problem of energy transport within a thermonuclear plasma in the context of its power balance and the implications when modelling ITER operating scenarios. This is made in two phases. First, by furnishing new elements to the existing models of heat and synchrotron radiation transport in a thermonuclear plasma. Second, by applying the improved models to plasma engineering studies of ITER operating scenarios. The scenarios modelled are the steady state operating point and the transient that appears to have the biggest technological implications: the fast burn termination. The conduction-convection losses are modelled through the energy confinement time. This parameter is empirically obtained from the existing experimental data, since the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. In chapter 2 an expression for the energy confinement time is semi-analytically deduced from the Rebut-Lallia-Watkins local transport model. The current estimates of the synchrotron radiation losses are made with expressions of the dimensionless transparency factor deduced from a 0-dimensional cylindrical model proposed by Trubnikov in 1979. In chapter 3 realistic hypothesis for the cases of cylindrical and toroidal geometry are included in the model to deduce compact explicit expressions for the fast numerical computation of the synchrotron radiation losses. Numerical applications are provided for the cylindrical case. The results are checked against the existing models. In chapter 4, the nominal operating point of ITER and its thermal stability is studied by means of a 0-dimensional burn model of the thermonuclear plasma in ignition. This model is deduced by the elements furnished by the plasma particle and power balance. Possible heat overloading on the plasma facing components may provoke severe structural damage, implying potential safety problems related to tritium inventory and metal activation. In chapter 5, the assessment
Geometry changes transient transport in plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Itoh, Kimitaka [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Itoh, Sanae-I. [Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu Univ., Kasuga, Fukuoka (Japan)
2001-06-01
Role of ballooning effect in toroidal plasmas on the transient transport problems is investigated. Due to the mode localization along the magnetic field line, a meso scale appears in a radial correlation length of fluctuating fields. This scale length introduces the interference of the gradient and flux in different radial locations. For the fluctuation which gives the gyro-Bohm-like diffusion in a stationary state, this long radial correlation of the fluctuating field causes a fast propagation of response against a rapid transient perturbation. Upper bound of transient thermal diffusivity is derived. (author)
Possibility of internal transport barrier formation and electric field bifurcation in LHD plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sanuki, H.; Itoh, K.; Yokoyama, M.; Fujisawa, A.; Ida, K.; Toda, S. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Itoh, S.-I.; Yagi, M.; Fukuyama, A.
1999-05-01
Theoretical analysis of the electric field bifurcation is made for the LHD plasma. For given shapes of plasma profiles, a region of bifurcation is obtained in a space of the plasma parameters. In this region of plasma parameters, the electric field domain interface is predicted to appear in the plasma column. The reduction of turbulent transport is expected to occur in the vicinity of the interface, inducing a internal transport barrier. Within this simple model, the plasma with internal barriers is predicted to be realized for the parameters of T{sub e}(0) {approx} 2 keV and n(0) {approx_equal} 10{sup 18} m{sup -3}. (author)
Users manual for the UEDGE edge-plasma transport code
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rognlien, T D; Rensink, M E; Smith, G R
2000-01-10
Operational details are given for the two-dimensional UEDGE edge-plasma transport code. The model applies to nearly fully-ionized plasmas in a strong magnetic field. Equations are solved for the plasma density, velocity along the magnetic field, electron temperature, ion temperature, and electrostatic potential. In addition, fluid models of neutrals species are included or the option to couple to a Monte Carlo code description of the neutrals. Multi-species ion mixtures can be simulated. The physical equations are discretized by a finite-difference procedure, and the resulting system of algebraic equations are solved by fully-implicit techniques. The code can be used to follow time-dependent solutions or to find steady-state solutions by direct iteration.
Heat Transport Effects in Rotating Gases and Plasmas
Kolmes, Elijah; Geyko, Vasily; Fisch, Nathaniel
2016-10-01
In some contexts, rotating gases and plasmas exhibit heat transport effects that are substantially different from what would be found in the absence of rotation. For instance, a Ranque-Hilsch vortex tube is a device which separates an input stream of (neutral) gas into hot and cold streams by setting up a rotating flow in a specially designed cylindrical chamber. One class of vortex tube models involves radial motion that carries gas up and down the pressure gradients set up by the centrifugal potential inside the tube and which results in adiabatic heating and cooling of the radially moving material. The approach of producing heat transport in a rotating flow using pressure gradients and motion along those gradients may have applications in plasma systems. We discuss possible applications for rotational heat transport effects in plasma systems, including Z-pinch configurations. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory; U.S. Defense Reduction Agency Grant No. HDTRA1-11-1-0037; and the NNSA SSAA Program through DOE Research Grant No. DE-NA0002948.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Scott, Roger B.; McKenzie, David E.; Longcope, Dana W. [Montana State University, P.O. Box 173840, Bozeman, MT 59717-3840 (United States)
2016-03-01
Supra-arcade fans are highly dynamic structures that form in the region above post-reconnection flare arcades. In these features the plasma density and temperature evolve on the scale of a few seconds, despite the much slower dynamics of the underlying arcade. Further, the motion of supra-arcade plasma plumes appears to be inconsistent with the low-beta conditions that are often assumed to exist in the solar corona. In order to understand the nature of these highly debated structures, it is, therefore, important to investigate the interplay of the magnetic field with the plasma. Here we present a technique for inferring the underlying magnetohydrodynamic processes that might lead to the types of motions seen in supra-arcade structures. Taking as a case study the 2011 October 22 event, we begin with extreme-ultraviolet observations and develop a time-dependent velocity field that is consistent with both continuity and local correlation tracking. We then assimilate this velocity field into a simplified magnetohydrodynamic simulation, which deals simultaneously with regions of high and low signal-to-noise ratio, thereby allowing the magnetic field to evolve self-consistently with the fluid. Ultimately, we extract the missing contributions from the momentum equation in order to estimate the relative strength of the various forcing terms. In this way we are able to make estimates of the plasma beta, as well as predict the spectral character and total power of Alfvén waves radiated from the supra-arcade region.
Plasma Modeling of Electrosurgery
Jensen, Scott; Friedrichs, Daniel; Gilbert, James; Park, Wounjhang; Maksimovic, Dragan
2014-10-01
Electrosurgery is the use of high frequency alternating current (AC) to illicit a clinical response in tissue, such as cutting or cauterization. Power electronics converters have been demonstrated to generate the necessary output voltage and current for electrosurgery. The design goal of the converter is to regulate output power while supplying high frequency AC. The design is complicated by fast current and voltage transients that occur when the current travels through air in the form of an arc. To assist in designing a converter that maintains the desired output power during these transients, we have used the COMSOL Plasma Module to determine the output voltage and current characteristics during an arc. This plasma model, used in conjunction with linear circuit elements, allows the full electrosurgical system to be validated. Two models have been tested with the COMSOL Plasma Module. One is a four-species, four-reaction model based on the local field approximation technique. The second simulates the underlying air chemistry using 30 species, 151 chemical reactions, and a coupled electron energy distribution function. Experimental output voltage and current samples have been collected and compared to both models.
Barakat, A. R.; Schunk, R. W.
1982-01-01
A wide variety of plasma flow conditions is found in aeronomy and space plasma physics. Transport equations based on an isotropic Maxwellian vilecity distribution function can be used to describe plasma flows which contain 'small' temperature anisotropies. However, for plasma flows characterized by large temperature anisotropies, transport equations based on an anisotropic bi-Maxwellian (or two-temperature) velocity distribution function are expected to provide a much better description of the plasma transport properties. The present investigation is concerned with the extent to which transport equations based on both Maxwellian and bi-Maxwellian series expansions can describe plasma flows characterized by non-Maxwellian velocity distributions, giving particular attention to a modelling of the anisotropic character of the distribution function. The obtained results should provide clues as to the extent to which a given series expansion can account for the anisotropic character of a plasma.
Arrestin-mediated endocytosis of yeast plasma membrane transporters.
Nikko, Elina; Pelham, Hugh R B
2009-12-01
Many plasma membrane transporters in yeast are endocytosed in response to excess substrate or certain stresses and degraded in the vacuole. Endocytosis invariably requires ubiquitination by the HECT domain ligase Rsp5. In the cases of the manganese transporter Smf1 and the amino acid transporters Can1, Lyp1 and Mup1 it has been shown that ubiquitination is mediated by arrestin-like adaptor proteins that bind to Rsp5 and recognize specific transporters. As yeast contains a large family of arrestins, this has been suggested as a general model for transporter regulation; however, analysis is complicated by redundancy amongst the arrestins. We have tested this model by removing all the arrestins and examining the requirements for endocytosis of four more transporters, Itr1 (inositol), Hxt6 (glucose), Fur4 (uracil) and Tat2 (tryptophan). This reveals functions for the arrestins Art5/Ygr068c and Art4/Rod1, and additional roles for Art1/Ldb19, Art2/Ecm21 and Art8/Csr2. It also reveals functional redundancy between arrestins and the arrestin-like adaptors Bul1 and Bul2. In addition, we show that delivery to the vacuole often requires multiple additional ubiquitin ligases or adaptors, including the RING domain ligase Pib1, and the adaptors Bsd2, Ear1 and Ssh4, some acting redundantly. We discuss the similarities and differences in the requirements for regulation of different transporters.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gilmore, Mark Allen [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2017-02-05
Turbulence, and turbulence-driven transport are ubiquitous in magnetically confined plasmas, where there is an intimate relationship between turbulence, transport, instability driving mechanisms (such as gradients), plasma flows, and flow shear. Though many of the detailed physics of the interrelationship between turbulence, transport, drive mechanisms, and flow remain unclear, there have been many demonstrations that transport and/or turbulence can be suppressed or reduced via manipulations of plasma flow profiles. This is well known in magnetic fusion plasmas [e.g., high confinement mode (H-mode) and internal transport barriers (ITB’s)], and has also been demonstrated in laboratory plasmas. However, it may be that the levels of particle transport obtained in such cases [e.g. H-mode, ITB’s] are actually lower than is desirable for a practical fusion device. Ideally, one would be able to actively feedback control the turbulent transport, via manipulation of the flow profiles. The purpose of this research was to investigate the feasibility of using both advanced model-based control algorithms, as well as non-model-based algorithms, to control cross-field turbulence-driven particle transport through appropriate manipulation of radial plasma flow profiles. The University of New Mexico was responsible for the experimental portion of the project, while our collaborators at the University of Montana provided plasma transport modeling, and collaborators at Lehigh University developed and explored control methods.
Turbulent transport of alpha particles in tokamak plasmas
Croitoru, A.; Palade, D. I.; Vlad, M.; Spineanu, F.
2017-03-01
We investigate the \\boldsymbol{E}× \\boldsymbol{B} diffusion of fusion born α particles in tokamak plasmas. We determine the transport regimes for a realistic model that has the characteristics of the ion temperature gradient (ITG) or of the trapped electron mode (TEM) driven turbulence. It includes a spectrum of potential fluctuations that is modeled using the results of the numerical simulations, the drift of the potential with the effective diamagnetic velocity and the parallel motion. Our semi-analytical statistical approach is based on the decorrelation trajectory method (DTM), which is adapted to the gyrokinetic approximation. We obtain the transport coefficients as a function of the parameters of the turbulence and of the energy of the α particles. According to our results, significant turbulent transport of the α particles can appear only at energies of the order of 100 KeV. We determine the corresponding conditions.
Hybrid formulation of radiation transport in optically thick divertor plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rosato, J.; Marandet, Y.; Bufferand, H.; Stamm, R. [PIIM, UMR 7345 Aix-Marseille Universite / CNRS, Centre de St-Jerome, Marseille (France); Reiter, D. [IEK-4 Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Juelich (Germany)
2016-08-15
Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations of coupled atom-radiation transport in optically thick divertor plasmas can be computationally very demanding, in particular in ITER relevant conditions or even larger devices, e.g. for power plant divertor studies. At high (∝ 10{sup 15} cm{sup -3}) atomic densities, it can be shown that sufficiently large divertors behave in certain areas like a black body near the first resonance line of hydrogen (Lyman α). This suggests that, at least in part, the use of continuum model (radiation hydrodynamics) can be sufficiently accurate, while being less time consuming. In this work, we report on the development of a hybrid model devoted to switch automatically between a kinetic and a continuum description according to the plasma conditions. Calculations of the photo-excitation rate in a homogeneous slab are performed as an illustration. The outlined hybrid concept might be also applicable to neutral atom transport, due to mathematical analogy of transport equations for neutrals and radiation. (copyright 2016 The Authors. Contributions to Plasma Physics published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA Weinheim. This)
Plasma confinement theory and transport simulation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ross, D.W.
1992-04-01
The objectives are: (1) to advance the transport studies of tokamaks, including development and maintenance of the Magnetic Fusion Energy Database, and (2) to provide theoretical interpretation, modeling and equilibrium and stability studies for TEXT-Upgrade. Recent reports, publications, and conference presentations of the Fusion Research Center are listed.
Calculation of transport coefficients in an axisymmetric plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shumaker, D.E.
1977-01-01
A method of calculating the transport coefficient in an axisymmetric toroidal plasma is presented. This method is useful in calculating the transport coefficients in a Tokamak plasma confinement device. The particle density and temperature are shown to be a constant on a magnetic flux surface. Transport equations are given for the total particle flux and total energy flux crossing a closed toroidal surface. Also transport equations are given for the toroidal magnetic flux. A computer code was written to calculate the transport coefficients for a three species plasma, electrons and two species of ions. This is useful for calculating the transport coefficients of a plasma which contains impurities. It was found that the particle and energy transport coefficients are increased by a large amount, and the transport coefficients for the toroidal magnetic field are reduced by a small amount.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kirschner, A.; Borodin, D.; Brezinsek, S.; Linsmeier, C.; Romazanov, J. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Institut fuer Energie- und Klimaforschung - Plasmaphysik, Juelich (Germany); Tskhakaya, D. [Fusion rate at OeAW, Institute of Applied Physics, TU Wien (Austria); Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Innsbruck (Austria); Kawamura, G. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Gifu (Japan); Ding, R. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui (China)
2016-08-15
The 3D ERO code, which simulates plasma-wall interaction and impurity transport in magnetically confined fusion-relevant devices is described. As application, prompt deposition of eroded tungsten has been simulated at surfaces with shallow magnetic field of 3 T. Dedicated PIC simulations have been performed to calculate the characteristics of the sheath in front of plasma-exposed surfaces to use as input for these ERO simulations. Prompt deposition of tungsten reaches 100% at the highest electron temperature and density. In comparison to more simplified assumptions for the sheath the amount of prompt deposition is in general smaller if the PIC-calculated sheath is used. Due to friction with the background plasma the impact energy of deposited tungsten can be significantly larger than the energy gained in the sheath potential. (copyright 2016 The Authors. Contributions to Plasma Physics published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA Weinheim. This)
Coherent structures and transport in drift wave plasma turbulence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bang Korsholm, S.
2011-12-15
Fusion energy research aims at developing fusion power plants providing safe and clean energy with abundant fuels. Plasma turbulence induced transport of energy and particles is a performance limiting factor for fusion devices. Hence the understanding of plasma turbulence is important for optimization. The present work is a part of the puzzle to understand the basic physics of transport induced by drift wave turbulence in the edge region of a plasma. The basis for the study is the Hasegawa-Wakatani model. Simulation results for 3D periodic and nonperiodic geometries are presented. The Hasegawa-Wakatani model is further expanded to include ion temperature effects. Another expansion of the model is derived from the Braginskii electron temperature equation. The result is a self-consistent set of equations describing the dynamical evolution of the drift wave fluctuations of the electron density, electron temperature and the potential in the presence of density and temperature gradients. 3D simulation results of the models are presented. Finally, the construction and first results from the MAST fluctuation reflectometer is described. The results demonstrate how L- to H-mode transitions as well as edge-localized-modes can be detected by the relatively simple diagnostic system. The present Risoe report is a slightly updated version of my original PhD report which was submitted in April 2002 and defended in August 2002. (Author)
Transport Bifurcation in a Rotating Tokamak Plasma
Highcock, E G; Schekochihin, A A; Parra, F I; Roach, C M; Cowley, S C
2010-01-01
The effect of flow shear on turbulent transport in tokamaks is studied numerically in the experimentally relevant limit of zero magnetic shear. It is found that the plasma is linearly stable for all non-zero flow shear values, but that subcritical turbulence can be sustained nonlinearly at a wide range of temperature gradients. Flow shear increases the nonlinear temperature gradient threshold for turbulence but also increases the sensitivity of the heat flux to changes in the temperature gradient, except over a small range near the threshold where the sensitivity is decreased. A bifurcation in the equilibrium gradients is found: for a given input of heat, it is possible, by varying the applied torque, to trigger a transition to significantly higher temperature and flow gradients.
Transport and micro-instability analysis of JET H-mode plasma during pellet fueling
Klaywittaphat, P.; Onjun, T.
2017-02-01
Transport and micro-instability analysis in a JET H-mode plasma discharge 53212 during the pellet fueling operation is carried out using the BALDUR integrated predictive modeling code with a combination of the NCLASS neoclassical transport model and an anomalous core transport model (either Mixed B/gB or MMM95 model). In this work, the evolution of plasma current, plasma density and temperature profiles is carried out and, consequently, the plasma’s behaviors during the pellet operation can be observed. The NGS pellet model with the Grad-B drift effect included is used to describe pellet ablation and its behaviors when a pellet is launched into hot plasma. The simulation shows that after each pellet enters the plasma, there is a strong perturbation on the plasma causing a sudden change of both thermal and particle profiles, as well as the thermal and particle transports. For the simulation using MMM95 transport model, the change of both thermal and particle transports during pellet injection are found to be dominated by the transport due to the resistive ballooning modes due to the increase of collisionality and resistivity near the plasma edge. For the simulation based on mixed B/gB transport model, it is found that the change of transport during the pellet injection is dominated by the Bohm term. Micro-instability analysis of the plasma during the time of pellet operation is also carried out for the simulations based on MMM95 transport model. It is found that the ion temperature gradient mode is destabilized due to an increase of temperature gradient in the pellet effective region, while the trapped electron mode is stabilized due to an increase of collisionality in that region.
Community Sediment Transport Model
2007-01-01
are used to determine that model results are consistent across compilers, platforms, and computer architectures , and to ensure that changes in code do...Mississippi State University: Bhate During the early months of this project, the focus was on understanding ROMS-CSTM model, architecture , and...Marchesiello, J.C. McWilliams, & K.D. Stolzenbach, 2007: Sediment transport modeling on Southern Californian shelves: A ROMS case study. Continental
Transport Physics in Reversed Shear Plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Levinton, F.M.; Batha, S.H. [Fusion Physics and Technology, Inc., Torrance, CA (United States); Beer, M.A.; Bell, M.G.; Budny, R.V.; Efthimion, P.C.; Mazzucato, E.; Nazikian, R.; Park, H.K.; Ramsey, A.T.; Schmidt, G.L.; Scott, S.D.; Synakowski, E.J.; Taylor, G.; Von Goeler, S.; Zarnstorff, M.C. [Princeton University, NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Laboratory; Bush, C.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)
1997-12-31
Reversed magnetic shear is considered a good candidate for improving the tokamak concept because it has the potential to stabilize MHD instabilities and reduce particle and energy transport. With reduced transport the high pressure gradient would generate a strong off-axis bootstrap current and could sustain a hollow current density profile. Such a combination of favorable conditions could lead to an attractive steady-state tokamak configuration. Indeed, a new tokamak confinement regime with reversed magnetic shear has been observed on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) where the particle, momentum, and ion thermal diffusivities drop precipitously, by over an order of magnitude. The particle diffusivity drops to the neoclassical level and the ion thermal diffusivity drops to much less than the neoclassical value in the region with reversed shear. This enhanced reversed shear (ERS) confinement mode is characterized by an abrupt transition with a large rate of rise of the density in the reversed shear region during neutral beam injection, resulting in nearly a factor of three increase in the central density to 1.2 X 10(exp 20) cube m. At the same time the density fluctuation level in the reversed shear region dramatically decreases. The ion and electron temperatures, which are about 20 keV and 7 keV respectively, change little during the ERS mode. The transport and transition into and out of the ERS mode have been studied on TFTR with plasma currents in the range 0.9-2.2 MA, with a toroidal magnetic field of 2.7-4.6 T, and the radius of the q(r) minimum, q{sub min}, has been varied from r/a = 0.35 to 0.55. Toroidal field and co/counter neutral beam injection toroidal rotation variations have been used to elucidate the underlying physics of the transition mechanism and power threshold of the ERS mode.
Classical transport equations for burning gas-metal plasmas
Molvig, Kim; Simakov, Andrei N.; Vold, Erik L.
2014-09-01
Thermonuclear inertial confinement fusion plasmas confined by a heavy metal shell may be subject to the mixing of metal into the gas with a resulting degradation of fusion yield. Classical plasma diffusion driven by a number of gradients can provide a physical mechanism to produce atomic mix, possibly in concert with complex hydrodynamic structures and/or turbulence. This paper gives a derivation of the complete dissipative plasma hydrodynamics equations from kinetic theory, for a binary ionic mixture plasma consisting of electrons, e, a light (hydrogenic gas) ion species, i, and a heavy, high ZI plasma metal species, I. A single mean ionization state for the heavy metal, ZI, is assumed to be provided by some independent thermodynamic model of the heavy metal Z I = Z I ( n i , n I , T e ). The kinetic equations are solved by a generalized Chapman-Enskog expansion that assumes small Knudsen numbers for all species: N K e ≡ λ e / L ≪ 1 , N K i ≡ λ i / L ≪ 1. The small electron to ion mass ratio, m e / m i ≪ 1, is utilized to account for electron-ion temperature separation, T e ≠ T i, and to decouple the electron and ion transport coefficient calculations. This produces a well ordered perturbation theory for the electrons, resulting in the well known "Spitzer" problem of Spitzer and collaborators and solved independently by Braginskii. The formulation in this paper makes clear the inherent symmetry of the transport and gives an analytic solution for all values of the effective charge Z eff, including Z eff replaces the Z eff of the electron problem, but has an extended domain, 0≤ Δ I < ∞, to cover all mixture fractions from the pure gas to the pure metal plasma. The extension of the Spitzer problem to include this extended domain is given in this work. The resulting transport equations for the binary gas-metal plasma mixture are complete and accurate through second order. All transport coefficients are provided in analytic form.
Hybrid Simulation of Laser-Plasma Interactions and Fast Electron Transport in Inhomogeneous Plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cohen, B I; Kemp, A; Divol, L
2009-05-27
A new framework is introduced for kinetic simulation of laser-plasma interactions in an inhomogenous plasma motivated by the goal of performing integrated kinetic simulations of fast-ignition laser fusion. The algorithm addresses the propagation and absorption of an intense electromagnetic wave in an ionized plasma leading to the generation and transport of an energetic electron component. The energetic electrons propagate farther into the plasma to much higher densities where Coulomb collisions become important. The high-density plasma supports an energetic electron current, return currents, self-consistent electric fields associated with maintaining quasi-neutrality, and self-consistent magnetic fields due to the currents. Collisions of the electrons and ions are calculated accurately to track the energetic electrons and model their interactions with the background plasma. Up to a density well above critical density, where the laser electromagnetic field is evanescent, Maxwell's equations are solved with a conventional particle-based, finite-difference scheme. In the higher-density plasma, Maxwell's equations are solved using an Ohm's law neglecting the inertia of the background electrons with the option of omitting the displacement current in Ampere's law. Particle equations of motion with binary collisions are solved for all electrons and ions throughout the system using weighted particles to resolve the density gradient efficiently. The algorithm is analyzed and demonstrated in simulation examples. The simulation scheme introduced here achieves significantly improved efficiencies.
13th EU-US Transport Task Force Workshop on transport in fusion plasmas
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Connor, J.W.; Fasoli, A.; Hidalgo, C.
2009-01-01
This report summarizes the contributions presented at the 13th EU-US Transport Task Force Workshop on transport in fusion plasmas, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, 1-4 September 2008. There were sessions on core heat and particle transport; core and edge momentum transport; edge and scrape-off-layer ......This report summarizes the contributions presented at the 13th EU-US Transport Task Force Workshop on transport in fusion plasmas, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, 1-4 September 2008. There were sessions on core heat and particle transport; core and edge momentum transport; edge and scrape...
Tungsten transport in the plasma edge at ASDEX upgrade
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Janzer, Michael Arthur
2015-04-30
Heating (ICRH) limiters on the injected ICRH power was used. The phase and amplitude of the inwardly propagating tungsten signal was then observed at the erosion site and at three radial positions in the main plasma, from which two were identified in the course of this work by a thorough investigation of the tungsten radiation features in the Vacuum Ultra-Violet (VUV) spectral range. The newly found observation sites are located right in the steep gradient region, close to the Edge Transport Barrier (ETB) and slightly further inside at the pedestal top of AUG H-mode discharges. Furthermore, the parallel flows in the SOL have been monitored by spectroscopical means and Langmuir probes. The experimental results were quite unexpected, since the ELM frequency had no influence on the tungsten concentration, and the sole actuator on this quantity was the gas injection rate. The evaluation of the modulated tungsten signal revealed that neither gas puffing nor plasma shape had an measureable influence on the radial tungsten transport processes. In addition, the tungsten erosion sources were only partially responsible for the observed tungsten behavior. These observations inspired a simple model, which balanced the tungsten outflux with the tungsten influx. In this model the impurity exhaust by ELMs is not diffusive, but turbulent and linked to the ELM size. The model predicted a linear dependence between the tungsten concentration and the parallel velocity in the SOL. This linear dependence was confirmed by the spectroscopical evaluation of the SOL parallel flows.
Downstream plasma transport and metal ionization in a high-powered pulsed-plasma magnetron
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Meng, Liang; Szott, Matthew M.; McLain, Jake T.; Ruzic, David N. [Center for Plasma-Materials Interactions, Department of Nuclear, Plasma, and Radiological Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); Yu, He [Center for Plasma-Materials Interactions, Department of Nuclear, Plasma, and Radiological Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States); State Key Laboratory of Electronic Thin Films and Integrated Devices, School of Optoelectronic Information, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China)
2014-06-14
Downstream plasma transport and ionization processes in a high-powered pulsed-plasma magnetron were studied. The temporal evolution and spatial distribution of electron density (n{sub e}) and temperature (T{sub e}) were characterized with a 3D scanning triple Langmuir probe. Plasma expanded from the racetrack region into the downstream region, where a high n{sub e} peak was formed some time into the pulse-off period. The expansion speed and directionality towards the substrate increased with a stronger magnetic field (B), largely as a consequence of a larger potential drop in the bulk plasma region during a relatively slower sheath formation. The fraction of Cu ions in the deposition flux was measured on the substrate using a gridded energy analyzer. It increased with higher pulse voltage. With increased B field from 200 to 800 Gauss above racetrack, n{sub e} increased but the Cu ion fraction decreased from 42% to 16%. A comprehensive model was built, including the diffusion of as-sputtered Cu flux, the Cu ionization in the entire plasma region using the mapped n{sub e} and T{sub e} data, and ion extraction efficiency based on the measured plasma potential (V{sub p}) distribution. The calculations matched the measurements and indicated the main causes of lower Cu ion fractions in stronger B fields to be the lower T{sub e} and inefficient ion extraction in a larger pre-sheath potential.
Density Dependence of Particle Transport in ECH Plasmas of the TJ-II Stellarator
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vargas, V. I.; Lopez-Bruna, D.; Guasp, J.; Herranz, J.; Estrada, T.; Medina, F.; Ochando, M.A.; Velasco, J.L.; Reynolds, J.M.; Ferreira, J.A.; Tafalla, D.; Castejon, F.; Salas, A.
2009-05-21
We present the experimental dependence of particle transport on average density in electron cyclotron heated (ECH) hydrogen plasmas of the TJ-II stellarator. The results are based on: (I) electron density and temperature data from Thomson Scattering and reflectometry diagnostics; (II) a transport model that reproduces the particle density profiles in steady state; and (III) Eirene, a code for neutrals transport that calculates the particle source in the plasma from the particle confinement time and the appropriate geometry of the machine/plasma. After estimating an effective particle diffusivity and the particle confinement time, a threshold density separating qualitatively and quantitatively different plasma transport regimes is found. The poor confinement times found below the threshold are coincident with the presence of ECH-induced fast electron losses and a positive radial electric field all over the plasma. (Author) 40 refs.
Effect of impurities on kinetic transport processes in fusion plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Braun, Stefanie
2010-12-10
Within the framework of this thesis, different problems arising in connection with impurities have been investigated. Collisional damping of zonal flows in tokamaks: Since the Coulomb collision frequency increases with increasing ion charge, heavy, highly charged impurities play an important role in this process. The effect of such impurities on the linear response of the plasma to an external potential perturbation, as caused by zonal flows, is calculated with analytical methods. In comparison with a pure plasma, the damping of the flows occurs, as expected, considerably faster; for experimentally relevant parameters, the enhancement exceeds the effective charge Z{sub eff} of the plasma. Impurity transport driven by microturbulence in tokamaks: With regard to impurities, it is especially important whether the resulting flows are directed inwards or outwards, since they are deleterious for core energy confinement on the one hand, but on the other hand help protecting plasma-facing components from too high energy fluxes in the edge region. A semi-analytical model is presented describing the resulting impurity fluxes and the stability boundary of the underlying mode. The main goal is to bridge the gap between, on the one hand, costly numerical simulations, which are applicable to a broad range of problems but yield scarcely traceable results, and, on the other hand, analytical theory, which might ease the interpretation of the results but is so far rather rudimentary. The model is based on analytical formulae whenever possible but resorts to a numerical treatment when the approximations necessary for an analytical solution would lead to a substantial distortion of the results. Both the direction of the impurity flux and the stability boundary are found to depend sensitively on the plasma parameters such as the impurity density and the temperature gradient. Pfirsch-Schlueter transport in stellarators: Due to geometry effects, collisional transport plays a much more
Transport formulas for multi-component plasmas within the effective potential theory framework
Kagan, Grigory
2016-01-01
The recently proposed effective potential theory [Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 235001 (2013)] allows evaluating transport in coupled plasmas with the well-developed formalisms for systems with binary collisions. To facilitate practical implementation of this concept in fluid models of multi-component plasmas, compact expressions for the transport coefficients in terms the generalized Coulomb logarithms are summarized from existing prescriptions. For weakly coupled plasmas, characterized by Debye-shielded Coulomb interaction potential, expressions become fully analytical. In coupled plasmas the generalized Coulomb logarithms need to be evaluated numerically. Routines implementing the described formalisms are included as supplemental material.
Groupage Cargo Transportation Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aleksejevs Ruslans
2016-03-01
Full Text Available In this work we consider a specific problem of optimal planning of maritime transportation of multiproduct cargo by ships of one (corporate strategy or several (partially corporate strategy companies: the core of the problem consists of the existence of the network of intermediate seaports (i.e. transitional seaports, where for every ship arrived the cargo handling is done, and which are situated between the starting and the finishing seaports. In this work, there are mathematical models built from scratch in the form of multicriteria optimization problem; then the goal attainment method of Gembicki is used for reducing the built models to a one-criterion problem of linear programming.
Numerical investigation of non-local electron transport in laser-produced plasmas
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Dong Ya-Lin; Zhao Bin; Zheng Jian
2007-01-01
Non-local electron transport in laser-produced plasmas under inertial confinement fusion (ICF) conditions is studied based on Fokker-Planck (FP) and hydrodynamic simulations. A comparison between the classical Spitzer-H(a)rm (SH)transport model and non-local transport models has been made. The result shows that among those non-local models the Epperlein and Short (ES) model of heat flux is in reasonable agreement with the FP simulation in overdense region.However, the non-local models are invalid in the hot underdense plasmas. Hydrodynamic simulation is performed with the flux limiting model and the non-local model, separately. The simulation results show that in the underdense region of the laser-produced plasmas the temperature given by the flux limiting model is significantly higher than that given with the non-local model.
Honda, Mitsuru
2005-10-01
In order to predict the performance of ITER plasma, it is important to validate the existing theory-based turbulent transport models by systematicallycomparing them with the experimental observations. Taking experimental data from the ITPA profile database, we have carried out transport simulations with the CDBM, GLF23 and Weiland models by the one-dimensional diffusive transport code TASK/TR. The results are evaluated by the six figures of merit as specified in ITER Physics Basis^1. From the simulation on 55 discharges, it is found that each model has unique dependence on devices and operation modes and the CDBM model gives the most satisfactory results. We have incorporated the dependence on the elongation on the CDBM model^2 and confirmed that the accuracy of the prediction is improved for H-mode discharges. Single-particle-species heat transport simulations have indicated that the CDBM model reproduces Ti profiles more accurately than Te profiles. We will also show the results of the predictive simulations coupling TASK/TR and TASK/EQ, two-dimensional equilibrium code, for high performance plasmas with internal transport barriers like the high βp and reversed shear plasmas. [1] ITER Physics Basis Expert Groups, Nucl. Fusion, 39, 2175 (1999) [2] M. Yagi et al., J. Phys. Soc. Japan, 66, 379 (1997)
Facilitative plasma membrane transporters function during ER transit.
Takanaga, Hitomi; Frommer, Wolf B
2010-08-01
Although biochemical studies suggested a high permeability of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane for small molecules, proteomics identified few specialized ER transporters. To test functionality of transporters during ER passage, we tested whether glucose transporters (GLUTs, SGLTs) destined for the plasma membrane are active during ER transit. HepG2 cells were characterized by low-affinity ER transport activity, suggesting that ER uptake is protein mediated. The much-reduced capacity of HEK293T cells to take up glucose across the plasma membrane correlated with low ER transport. Ectopic expression of GLUT1, -2, -4, or -9 induced GLUT isoform-specific ER transport activity in HEK293T cells. In contrast, the Na(+)-glucose cotransporter SGLT1 mediated efficient plasma membrane glucose transport but no detectable ER uptake, probably because of lack of a sufficient sodium gradient across the ER membrane. In conclusion, we demonstrate that GLUTs are sufficient for mediating ER glucose transport en route to the plasma membrane. Because of the low volume of the ER, trace amounts of these uniporters contribute to ER solute import during ER transit, while uniporters and cation-coupled transporters carry out export from the ER, together potentially explaining the low selectivity of ER transport. Expression levels and residence time of transporters in the ER, as well as their coupling mechanisms, could be key determinants of ER permeability.
Akdim, M.R. (Mohamed Reda)
2003-01-01
Nowadays plasmas are used for various applications such as the fabrication of silicon solar cells, integrated circuits, coatings and dental cleaning. In the case of a processing plasma, e.g. for the fabrication of amorphous silicon solar cells, a mixture of silane and hydrogen gas is injected in a r
Up-gradient transport in a probabilistic transport model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gavnholt, J.; Juul Rasmussen, J.; Garcia, O.E.
2005-01-01
The transport of particles or heat against the driving gradient is studied by employing a probabilistic transport model with a characteristic particle step length that depends on the local concentration or heat gradient. When this gradient is larger than a prescribed critical value, the standard...... deviation of the step size is large compared to its value when the gradient is below critical. For symmetric as well as asymmetric off-axis fueling, the model is capable of producing profiles peaking at the axis. Additionally, profile consistency is obtained over a broad range of source strengths....... These results supplement recent works by van Milligen [Phys. Plasmas 11, 3787 (2004)], which applied Levy distributed step sizes in the case of supercritical gradients to obtain the up-gradient transport. (c) 2005 American Institute of Physics....
Despagne, Wilfried; Frenod, Emmanuel
2014-01-01
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate the road freight haulage activity. Using the physical and data flow information from a freight forwarder, we intend to model the flow of inbound and outbound goods in a freight transport hub. Approach: This paper presents the operation of a road haulage group. To deliver goods within two days to any location in France, a haulage contractor needs to be part of a network. This network handles the processing of both physical goods and data. We...
Collisionality dependent transport in TCV SOL plasmas
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Garcia, Odd Erik; Pitts, R.A.; Horacek, J.
2007-01-01
Results are presented from probe measurements in the low field side scrape-off layer (SOL) region of TCV during plasma current scan experiments. It is shown that with decreasing plasma current the radial particle density profile becomes broader and the fluctuation levels and turbulence driven...... radial particle flux increase. In the far SOL the fluctuations exhibit a high degree of statistical similarity and the particle density and flux at the wall radius scale inversely with the plasma current. Together with previous TCV density scan experiments, this indicates that plasma fluctuations...
Fast transient transport phenomena measured by soft X-ray emission in TCV tokamak plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Furno, I. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas (CRPP), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)
2001-08-01
Energy and particle transport during sawtooth activity in TCV plasmas has been studied in this thesis with high temporal resolution many chord diagnostics. We indicated the influence of sawteeth on plasma profiles in ohmic conditions and in the presence of auxiliary electron cyclotron resonance heating and current drive. A 2-dimensional model for heat transport, including localised heat source and a magnetic island, has been used to interpret the experimental observations. These results provided a new interpretation of a coupled heat and transport phenomenon which is potentially important for plasma confinement. The observations validate the applicability and show the possibility of improvement of a 2-dimensional theoretic a1 model for the study of heat transport in the presence of localised heat source and a magnetic island. Furthermore, the TCV results showed a new possibility for the interpretation of a coupled heat and particle transport phenomenon previously understood only in stellarators. (author)
Supersonic induction plasma jet modeling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Selezneva, S.E. E-mail: svetlana2@hermes.usherbS_Selezneva2@hermes.usherb; Boulos, M.I
2001-06-01
Numerical simulations have been applied to study the argon plasma flow downstream of the induction plasma torch. It is shown that by means of the convergent-divergent nozzle adjustment and chamber pressure reduction, a supersonic plasma jet can be obtained. We investigate the supersonic and a more traditional subsonic plasma jets impinging onto a normal substrate. Comparing to the subsonic jet, the supersonic one is narrower and much faster. Near-substrate velocity and temperature boundary layers are thinner, so the heat flux near the stagnation point is higher in the supersonic jet. The supersonic plasma jet is characterized by the electron overpopulation and the domination of the recombination over the dissociation, resulting into the heating of the electron gas. Because of these processes, the supersonic induction plasma permits to separate spatially different functions (dissociation and ionization, transport and deposition) and to optimize each of them. The considered configuration can be advantageous in some industrial applications, such as plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition of diamond and polymer-like films and in plasma spraying of nanoscaled powders.
Helicon plasma thruster discharge model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lafleur, T., E-mail: trevor.lafleur@lpp.polytechnique.fr [Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas, CNRS, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, Univ Paris-Sud, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau, France and ONERA - The French Aerospace Lab, 91120 Palaiseau (France)
2014-04-15
By considering particle, momentum, and energy balance equations, we develop a semi-empirical quasi one-dimensional analytical discharge model of radio-frequency and helicon plasma thrusters. The model, which includes both the upstream plasma source region as well as the downstream diverging magnetic nozzle region, is compared with experimental measurements and confirms current performance levels. Analysis of the discharge model identifies plasma power losses on the radial and back wall of the thruster as the major performance reduction factors. These losses serve as sinks for the input power which do not contribute to the thrust, and which reduce the maximum plasma density and hence propellant utilization. With significant radial plasma losses eliminated, the discharge model (with argon) predicts specific impulses in excess of 3000 s, propellant utilizations above 90%, and thruster efficiencies of about 30%.
Basic Studies of Non-Diffusive Transport in Plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Morales, George J. [University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Maggs, James E. [University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)
2014-10-25
The project expanded and developed mathematical descriptions, and corresponding numerical modeling, of non-diffusive transport to incorporate new perspectives derived from basic transport experiments performed in the LAPD device at UCLA, and at fusion devices throughout the world. By non-diffusive it is meant that the transport of fundamental macroscopic parameters of a system, such as temperature and density, does not follow the standard diffusive behavior predicted by a classical Fokker-Planck equation. The appearance of non-diffusive behavior is often related to underlying microscopic processes that cause the value of a system parameter, at one spatial position, to be linked to distant events, i.e., non-locality. In the LAPD experiments the underlying process was traced to large amplitude, coherent drift-waves that give rise to chaotic trajectories. Significant advances were made in this project. The results have lead to a new perspective about the fundamentals of edge transport in magnetically confined plasmas; the insight has important consequences for worldwide studies in fusion devices. Progress was also made in advancing the mathematical techniques used to describe fractional diffusion.
Transport studies in fusion plasmas: Perturbative experiments
Cardozo, N. L.
1998-01-01
By inducing in a small temperature perturbation in a plasma in a steady state one can determine the conductive and convective components of the heat flux, and the associated thermal diffusivity and convection velocity. The same can be done for the density, and in principle also other plasma paramete
Turbulent transport and structural transition in confined plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Itoh, Kimitaka; Itoh, Sanae; Fukuyama, Atsushi; Yagi, Masatoshi
1996-10-01
Theory of the far-nonequilibrium transport of plasmas is described. Analytic as well as simulation studies are developed. The subcritical nature of turbulence and the mechanism for self-sustaining are discussed. The transport coefficient is obtained. The pressure gradient is introduced as an order parameter, and the bifurcation from the collisional transport to the turbulent one is shown. The generation of the electric field and its influence on the turbulent transport are analyzed. The bifurcation of the radial electric field structure is addressed. The hysteresis appears in the flux-gradient relation. This bifurcation causes the multifold states in the plasma structure, driving the transition in transport coefficient or the self-generating oscillations in the flux. Structural formation and dynamics of plasma profiles are explained. (author)
Possibility of electric field bifurcation and internal transport barrier formation in LHD plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sanuki, Heiji; Itoh, Kimitaka; Yokoyama, Masayuki; Fujisawa, Akihide; Ida, Katsumi; Toda, Shin-ichiro [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Itoh, Sanae-I.; Yagi, Masatoshi [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics; Fukuyama, Atsushi [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering
2000-02-01
Theoretical analysis of the electric field bifurcation is made for the LHD plasma. For given shapes of plasma profiles, a region of bifurcation is obtained in a space of the plasma parameters. In this region of plasma parameters, the electric field domain interface is predicted to appear in the plasma column. The reduction of turbulent transport is expected to occur in the vicinity of the interface, inducing internal transport barrier. Within the present simple model, the electric field bifurcation associated with the internal transport barrier is predicted to be realized for the parameter of T{sub e}(0) {approx_equal} 2 keV and n(0) {approx_equal} 10{sup 18} (m{sup -3}). The boundary of the region of multiple solution is characterized by a scaling T{sub e}(0) {approx} [n(0)]{sup 0.4}. (author)
Turbulence modelling of thermal plasma flows
Shigeta, Masaya
2016-12-01
This article presents a discussion of the ideas for modelling turbulent thermal plasma flows, reviewing the challenges, efforts, and state-of-the-art simulations. Demonstrative simulations are also performed to present the importance of numerical methods as well as physical models to express turbulent features. A large eddy simulation has been applied to turbulent thermal plasma flows to treat time-dependent and 3D motions of multi-scale eddies. Sub-grid scale models to be used should be able to express not only turbulent but also laminar states because both states co-exist in and around thermal plasmas which have large variations of density as well as transport properties under low Mach-number conditions. Suitable solution algorithms and differencing schemes must be chosen and combined appropriately to capture multi-scale eddies and steep gradients of temperature and chemical species, which are turbulent features of thermal plasma flows with locally variable Reynolds and Mach numbers. Several simulations using different methods under different conditions show commonly that high-temperature plasma regions exhibit less turbulent structures, with only large eddies, whereas low-temperature regions tend to be more turbulent, with numerous small eddies. These numerical results agree with both theoretical insight and photographs that show the characteristics of eddies. Results also show that a turbulence transition of a thermal plasma jet through a generation-breakup process of eddies in a torch is dominated by fluid dynamic instability after ejection rather than non-uniform or unsteady phenomena.
On turbulent transport in burning plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Itoh, K. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Yagi, M.; Itoh, S.-I. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics; Fukuyama, A. [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering
2000-03-01
The change of the transport coefficient due to the fusion energy source is studied. The scale invariance property of the reduced set of equations is investigated in the presence of the self-heating term due to the fusion reaction. The pressure gradient as well as the fusion power are the free energy sources that dictate the turbulent transport. It is shown that the burning transport coefficient can have a form with much wider variety, and that the transport property could be different owing to the self-heating by the fusion reactions. (author)
Transport proteins of the plant plasma membrane
Assmann, S. M.; Haubrick, L. L.; Evans, M. L. (Principal Investigator)
1996-01-01
Recently developed molecular and genetic approaches have enabled the identification and functional characterization of novel genes encoding ion channels, ion carriers, and water channels of the plant plasma membrane.
Lu, X.; Naidis, G. V.; Laroussi, M.; Reuter, S.; Graves, D. B.; Ostrikov, K.
2016-05-01
Non-equilibrium atmospheric-pressure plasmas have recently become a topical area of research owing to their diverse applications in health care and medicine, environmental remediation and pollution control, materials processing, electrochemistry, nanotechnology and other fields. This review focuses on the reactive electrons and ionic, atomic, molecular, and radical species that are produced in these plasmas and then transported from the point of generation to the point of interaction with the material, medium, living cells or tissues being processed. The most important mechanisms of generation and transport of the key species in the plasmas of atmospheric-pressure plasma jets and other non-equilibrium atmospheric-pressure plasmas are introduced and examined from the viewpoint of their applications in plasma hygiene and medicine and other relevant fields. Sophisticated high-precision, time-resolved plasma diagnostics approaches and techniques are presented and their applications to monitor the reactive species and plasma dynamics in the plasma jets and other discharges, both in the gas phase and during the plasma interaction with liquid media, are critically reviewed. The large amount of experimental data is supported by the theoretical models of reactive species generation and transport in the plasmas, surrounding gaseous environments, and plasma interaction with liquid media. These models are presented and their limitations are discussed. Special attention is paid to biological effects of the plasma-generated reactive oxygen and nitrogen (and some other) species in basic biological processes such as cell metabolism, proliferation, survival, etc. as well as plasma applications in bacterial inactivation, wound healing, cancer treatment and some others. Challenges and opportunities for theoretical and experimental research are discussed and the authors' vision for the emerging convergence trends across several disciplines and application domains is presented to
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lu, X., E-mail: luxinpei@hotmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); IFSA Collaborative Innovation Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Naidis, G.V. [Joint Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 125412 (Russian Federation); Laroussi, M. [Plasma Engineering & Medicine Institute, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23529 (United States); Reuter, S. [Leibniz Institute for Plasma Science and Technology, Felix-Hausdorff-Strasse 2, 17489 Greifswald (Germany); Graves, D.B. [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Ostrikov, K. [Institute for Future Environments, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD 4000 (Australia); School of Physics, Chemistry, and Mechanical Engineering, Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, QLD 4000 (Australia); Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization, P.O.Box 218, Lindfield, NSW 2070 (Australia); School of Physics, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)
2016-05-04
Non-equilibrium atmospheric-pressure plasmas have recently become a topical area of research owing to their diverse applications in health care and medicine, environmental remediation and pollution control, materials processing, electrochemistry, nanotechnology and other fields. This review focuses on the reactive electrons and ionic, atomic, molecular, and radical species that are produced in these plasmas and then transported from the point of generation to the point of interaction with the material, medium, living cells or tissues being processed. The most important mechanisms of generation and transport of the key species in the plasmas of atmospheric-pressure plasma jets and other non-equilibrium atmospheric-pressure plasmas are introduced and examined from the viewpoint of their applications in plasma hygiene and medicine and other relevant fields. Sophisticated high-precision, time-resolved plasma diagnostics approaches and techniques are presented and their applications to monitor the reactive species and plasma dynamics in the plasma jets and other discharges, both in the gas phase and during the plasma interaction with liquid media, are critically reviewed. The large amount of experimental data is supported by the theoretical models of reactive species generation and transport in the plasmas, surrounding gaseous environments, and plasma interaction with liquid media. These models are presented and their limitations are discussed. Special attention is paid to biological effects of the plasma-generated reactive oxygen and nitrogen (and some other) species in basic biological processes such as cell metabolism, proliferation, survival, etc. as well as plasma applications in bacterial inactivation, wound healing, cancer treatment and some others. Challenges and opportunities for theoretical and experimental research are discussed and the authors’ vision for the emerging convergence trends across several disciplines and application domains is presented to
Electrostatic fluctuations and turbulent plasma transport in low-β plasmas
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, A.H.; Pécseli, H.L.; Juul Rasmussen, J.
1995-01-01
Low frequency electrostatic fluctuations are studied experimentally in a low-beta plasma, with particular attention to their importance for the anomalous plasma transport across magnetic field lines. The presence of large coherent structures in a turbulent background is demonstrated by a conditio......Low frequency electrostatic fluctuations are studied experimentally in a low-beta plasma, with particular attention to their importance for the anomalous plasma transport across magnetic field lines. The presence of large coherent structures in a turbulent background is demonstrated...
Turbulent transport and structural transition in confined plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Itoh, Kimitaka [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Nagoya (Japan); Itoh, Sanae-I; Yagi, Masatoshi [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics; Fukuyama, Atsushi [Okayama Univ. (Japan). School of Engineering
1997-05-01
The theory of far-nonequilibrium transport of plasmas is described. Analytic as well as simulation studies are developed. The subcritical nature coefficient is obtained. The pressure gradient is introduced as an order parameter, and the bifurcation from collisional to turbulent transport is shown. The generation of the electric field and its influence on the turbulent transport are analysed. The bifurcation of the radial electric field structure is addressed. Hysteresis appears in the flux-gradient relation. This bifurcation causes the multifold states in the plasma structure, driving the transition in the transport coefficient or the self-generating oscillations in the flux. The structural formation and dynamics of plasma profiles are explained. (Author).
Effective Potential Theory: A Practical Way to Extend Plasma Transport Theory to Strong Coupling
Baalrud, Scott D; Daligault, Jerome
2014-01-01
The effective potential theory is a physically motivated method for extending traditional plasma transport theories to stronger coupling. It is practical in the sense that it is easily incorporated within the framework of the Chapman-Enskog or Grad methods that are commonly applied in plasma physics and it is computationally efficient to evaluate. The extension is to treat binary scatterers as interacting through the potential of mean force, rather than the bare Coulomb or Debye-screened Coulomb potential. This allows for aspects of many-body correlations to be included in the transport coefficients. Recent work has shown that this method accurately extends plasma theory to orders of magnitude stronger coupling when applied to the classical one-component plasma model. The present work shows that similar accuracy is realized for the Yukawa one-component plasma model and it provides a comparison with other approaches.
Particle Transport in ECRH Plasmas of the TJ-II; Transporte de Particulas en Plasmas ECRH del TJ-II
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vargas, V. I.; Lopez-Bruna, D.; Estrada, T.; Guasp, J.; Reynolds, J. M.; Velasco, J. L.; Herranz, J.
2007-07-01
We present a systematic study of particle transport in ECRH plasmas of TJ-II with different densities. The goal is to fi nd particle confinement time and electron diffusivity dependence with line-averaged density. The experimental information consists of electron temperature profiles, T{sub e} (Thomson Scattering TS) and electron density, n{sub e}, (TS and reflectometry) and measured puffing data in stationary discharges. The profile of the electron source, Se, was obtained by the 3D Monte-Carlo code EIRENE. The analysis of particle balance has been done by linking the results of the code EIRENE with the results of a model that reproduces ECRH plasmas in stationary conditions. In the range of densities studied (0.58 {<=}n{sub e}> (10{sup 1}9m{sup -}3) {<=}0.80) there are two regions of confinement separated by a threshold density,
BOOK REVIEW: Transport and Structural Formation in Plasmas
Thyagaraja, A.
1999-06-01
tokamak can be taken as an illustrative example) are clearly dissipative open systems, which are invariably driven far from thermodynamic equilibrium by means of a suitable set of external particle, momentum, energy and current sources. In this sense, such plasmas are analogous to the Earth's atmosphere and many other fluid dynamic systems one encounters in engineering and physics. It is well known that the transport processes in such systems are describable by strictly collisional, kinetically derived models such as neoclassical theory or laminar fluid flow equations only in exceptional circumstances. The generic case is one in which the system acquires `structure' in the sense that symmetry-breaking spatio-temporal turbulent micro/mesoscale fluctuations `spontaneously' occur, and in their turn influence the macroscale evolution of the system. Thus, given typical values of density, temperature, magnetic field and current, the tokamak plasma does not automatically reach a steady state consistent with the sources, symmetry and neoclassical equations. Rather, one finds a more or less turbulent state which often (but not always!) involves much worse thermal and particle insulation than expected on the grounds of Coulomb collisional processes alone. The authors seek to promulgate a particular model which does not require the existence (in principle) of any linear instability of the `equilibrium'. This is a well-known state of affairs in fluid dynamics (e.g. pipe flow) when turbulence can occur in spite of the fact that linear theory predicts the equilibrium to be stable. While this is indeed a welcome clarification of the relatively limited role of linear theory in describing plasma turbulence in any detailed predictive sense, it is not clear why the authors elevate `subcritical turbulence' to a fundamental principle. While it may well be present, it is in general neither necessary nor sufficient to explain turbulent transport in plasmas. In this reviewer's opinion, at the
Surface transport in plasma-balls
Armas, Jay; Kundu, Nilay
2015-01-01
We study the surface transport properties of stationary localized configurations of relativistic fluids to the first two non-trivial orders in a derivative expansion. By demanding that these finite lumps of relativistic fluid are described by a thermal partition function with arbitrary stationary background metric and gauge fields, we are able to find several constraints among surface transport coefficients. At leading order, besides recovering the surface thermodynamics, we obtain a generalization of the Young-Laplace equation for relativistic fluid surfaces, by considering a temperature dependence in the surface tension, which is further generalized in the context of superfluids. At the next order, for uncharged fluids in 3+1 dimensions, we show that besides the 3 independent bulk transport coefficients previously known, a generic localized configuration is characterized by 3 additional surface transport coefficients, one of which may be identified with the surface modulus of rigidity. Finally, as an applic...
Experimental Assessment of Plasma Transport in a 16-cm Multicusp Device
Hubble, Aimee; Foster, John
2012-10-01
The physics of plasma transport from the bulk plasma through the magnetic cusp to the anode remains poorly understood. A proper accounting of plasma losses to the anode is critical to accurate modeling of multicusp device performance. In this work, plasma transport in a 16-cm multicusp discharge chamber was studied. Each ring was covered with an electrically isolated electrode, which enables the direct measurement of current to each individual ring as well as the discharge chamber wall. A translatable Langmuir probe was used to obtain maps of spatially resolved plasma parameters in bulk plasma region. These maps of spatially resolved plasma density, electron temperature, and plasma potential were compared to current collection at the cusps as well as the magnetic circuit and device performance. Ring electrode measurements coupled with spatially resolved plasma parameter measurements throughout the discharge chamber allow for an assessment of plasma losses to each ring in terms of an ``effective loss area'' which, multiplied by electron current density incident on the bulk/cusp boundary, gives the correct collected current to each ring. A relationship between effective loss area and the physical loss area was determined that can be applied to a 0-D particle and energy balance model.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Li, Hui [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Li, Shengtai [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jungman, Gerard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hayes-Sterbenz, Anna Catherine [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2016-08-31
The mechanisms for pinch formation in Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) devices, with the generation of high-energy ions beams and subsequent neutron production over a relatively short distance, are not fully understood. Here we report on high-fidelity 2D and 3D numerical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations using the LA-COMPASS code to study the pinch formation dynamics and its associated instabilities and neutron production.
Modeling of Anomalous Transport in Tokamaks with FACETS code
Pankin, A. Y.; Batemann, G.; Kritz, A.; Rafiq, T.; Vadlamani, S.; Hakim, A.; Kruger, S.; Miah, M.; Rognlien, T.
2009-05-01
The FACETS code, a whole-device integrated modeling code that self-consistently computes plasma profiles for the plasma core and edge in tokamaks, has been recently developed as a part of the SciDAC project for core-edge simulations. A choice of transport models is available in FACETS through the FMCFM interface [1]. Transport models included in FMCFM have specific ranges of applicability, which can limit their use to parts of the plasma. In particular, the GLF23 transport model does not include the resistive ballooning effects that can be important in the tokamak pedestal region and GLF23 typically under-predicts the anomalous fluxes near the magnetic axis [2]. The TGLF and GYRO transport models have similar limitations [3]. A combination of transport models that covers the entire discharge domain is studied using FACETS in a realistic tokamak geometry. Effective diffusivities computed with the FMCFM transport models are extended to the region near the separatrix to be used in the UEDGE code within FACETS. 1. S. Vadlamani et al. (2009) %First time-dependent transport simulations using GYRO and NCLASS within FACETS (this meeting).2. T. Rafiq et al. (2009) %Simulation of electron thermal transport in H-mode discharges Submitted to Phys. Plasmas.3. C. Holland et al. (2008) %Validation of gyrokinetic transport simulations using %DIII-D core turbulence measurements Proc. of IAEA FEC (Switzerland, 2008)
Modeling of plasma devices for pulsed power
Kunc, Joseph A.; Gundersen, Martin A.
1984-07-01
This letter considers quantitative models of microscopic processes in plasmas formed in gas phase devices for pulsed power. Although models have been developed for devices such as lasers, there are others, such as switches, where these processes have been treated only phenomenologically. Further, transport data must be adjusted to include the effects of high electron density. It is shown that it is necessary to use a microscopic model to correctly describe the device behavior. Examples presented include the effect of Coulomb collisions on conductivity in various gases, and the ionization processes in a hydrogen thyratron.
Plasma transport driven by the Rayleigh-Taylor instability
Ma, X.; Delamere, P. A.; Otto, A.
2016-06-01
Two important differences between the giant magnetospheres (i.e., Jupiter's and Saturn's magnetospheres) and the terrestrial magnetosphere are the internal plasma sources and the fast planetary rotation. Thus, there must be a radially outward flow to transport the plasma to avoid infinite accumulation of plasma. This radial outflow also carries the magnetic flux away from the inner magnetosphere due to the frozen-in condition. As such, there also must be a radial inward flow to refill the magnetic flux in the inner magnetosphere. Due to the similarity between Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability and the centrifugal instability, we use a three-dimensional RT instability to demonstrate that an interchange instability can form a convection flow pattern, locally twisting the magnetic flux, consequently forming a pair of high-latitude reconnection sites. This process exchanges a part of the flux tube, thereby transporting the plasma radially outward without requiring significant latitudinal convection of magnetic flux in the ionosphere.
The Anisotropic Transport Effects On The Dilute Plasmas
Devlen, Ebru
2012-01-01
We examine the linear stability analysis of a hot, dilute and differentially rotating plasma by considering anisotropic transport effects. In the dilute plasmas, the ion Larmor radius is small compared with its collisional mean free path. In this case, the transport of heat and momentum along the magnetic field lines become important. This paper presents a novel linear instability that may more powerful and greater than ideal magnetothermal instability (MTI) and ideal magnetorotational instability (MRI) in the dilute astrophysical plasmas. This type of plasma is believed to be found in the intracluster medium of galaxy clusters and radiatively ineffective accretion flows around black holes. We derive the dispersion relation of this instability and obtain the instability condition. There is at least one unstable mode that is independent of the temperature gradient direction for a helical magnetic field geometry. This novel instability is driven by the gyroviscosity coupled with differential rotation. Therefore...
Transport properties of partially ionized hydrogen plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ramazanov, T S [IETP, Al Farabi Kazakh National University, Tole bi, 96a, 480012, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Galiyev, K Zh [IETP, Al Farabi Kazakh National University, Tole bi, 96a, 480012, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Dzhumagulova, K N [IETP, Al Farabi Kazakh National University, Tole bi, 96a, 480012, Almaty (Kazakhstan); Roepke, G [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Rostock, D-18051 Rostock (Germany); Redmer, R [Fachbereich Physik, Universitaet Rostock, D-18051 Rostock (Germany)
2003-06-06
We have considered partially ionized hydrogen plasma for the density region n{sub e} = (10{sup 18}-10{sup 22}) cm{sup -3}. Charged particles in the system (electrons, protons) interact via an effective potential taking into account three-particle correlations. We use the Buckingham polarization potential to describe electron-atom and proton-atom interactions. The electrical and thermal conductivity is determined using the Chapman-Enskog method. We compare the obtained results with other available data.
Surface transport in plasma-balls
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Armas, Jay [Physique Théorique et Mathématique, Université Libre de Bruxelles andInternational Solvay Institutes,ULB-Campus Plaine CP231, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Bhattacharya, Jyotirmoy [Centre for Particle Theory & Department of Mathematical Sciences, Durham University,South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Kundu, Nilay [Harish-Chandra Research Institute,Chhatnag Road, Jhunsi, Allahabad 211019 (India)
2016-06-06
We study the surface transport properties of stationary localized configurations of relativistic fluids to the first two non-trivial orders in a derivative expansion. By demanding that these finite lumps of relativistic fluid are described by a thermal partition function with arbitrary stationary background metric and gauge fields, we are able to find several constraints among surface transport coefficients. At leading order, besides recovering the surface thermodynamics, we obtain a generalization of the Young-Laplace equation for relativistic fluid surfaces, by considering a temperature dependence in the surface tension, which is further generalized in the context of superfluids. At the next order, for uncharged fluids in 3+1 dimensions, we show that besides the 3 independent bulk transport coefficients previously known, a generic localized configuration is characterized by 3 additional surface transport coefficients, one of which may be identified with the surface modulus of rigidity. Finally, as an application, we study the effect of temperature dependence of surface tension on some explicit examples of localized fluid configurations, which are dual to certain non-trivial black hole solutions via the AdS/CFT correspondence.
Surface transport in plasma-balls
Armas, Jay; Bhattacharya, Jyotirmoy; Kundu, Nilay
2016-06-01
We study the surface transport properties of stationary localized configurations of relativistic fluids to the first two non-trivial orders in a derivative expansion. By demanding that these finite lumps of relativistic fluid are described by a thermal partition function with arbitrary stationary background metric and gauge fields, we are able to find several constraints among surface transport coefficients. At leading order, besides recovering the surface thermodynamics, we obtain a generalization of the Young-Laplace equation for relativistic fluid surfaces, by considering a temperature dependence in the surface tension, which is further generalized in the context of superfluids. At the next order, for uncharged fluids in 3+1 dimensions, we show that besides the 3 independent bulk transport coefficients previously known, a generic localized configuration is characterized by 3 additional surface transport coefficients, one of which may be identified with the surface modulus of rigidity. Finally, as an application, we study the effect of temperature dependence of surface tension on some explicit examples of localized fluid configurations, which are dual to certain non-trivial black hole solutions via the AdS/CFT correspondence.
Stochastic models of intracellular transport
Bressloff, Paul C.
2013-01-09
The interior of a living cell is a crowded, heterogenuous, fluctuating environment. Hence, a major challenge in modeling intracellular transport is to analyze stochastic processes within complex environments. Broadly speaking, there are two basic mechanisms for intracellular transport: passive diffusion and motor-driven active transport. Diffusive transport can be formulated in terms of the motion of an overdamped Brownian particle. On the other hand, active transport requires chemical energy, usually in the form of adenosine triphosphate hydrolysis, and can be direction specific, allowing biomolecules to be transported long distances; this is particularly important in neurons due to their complex geometry. In this review a wide range of analytical methods and models of intracellular transport is presented. In the case of diffusive transport, narrow escape problems, diffusion to a small target, confined and single-file diffusion, homogenization theory, and fractional diffusion are considered. In the case of active transport, Brownian ratchets, random walk models, exclusion processes, random intermittent search processes, quasi-steady-state reduction methods, and mean-field approximations are considered. Applications include receptor trafficking, axonal transport, membrane diffusion, nuclear transport, protein-DNA interactions, virus trafficking, and the self-organization of subcellular structures. © 2013 American Physical Society.
Transport studies in high-performance field reversed configuration plasmas
Gupta, S.; Barnes, D. C.; Dettrick, S. A.; Trask, E.; Tuszewski, M.; Deng, B. H.; Gota, H.; Gupta, D.; Hubbard, K.; Korepanov, S.; Thompson, M. C.; Zhai, K.; Tajima, T.
2016-05-01
A significant improvement of field reversed configuration (FRC) lifetime and plasma confinement times in the C-2 plasma, called High Performance FRC regime, has been observed with neutral beam injection (NBI), improved edge stability, and better wall conditioning [Binderbauer et al., Phys. Plasmas 22, 056110 (2015)]. A Quasi-1D (Q1D) fluid transport code has been developed and employed to carry out transport analysis of such C-2 plasma conditions. The Q1D code is coupled to a Monte-Carlo code to incorporate the effect of fast ions, due to NBI, on the background FRC plasma. Numerically, the Q1D transport behavior with enhanced transport coefficients (but with otherwise classical parametric dependencies) such as 5 times classical resistive diffusion, classical thermal ion conductivity, 20 times classical electron thermal conductivity, and classical fast ion behavior fit with the experimentally measured time evolution of the excluded flux radius, line-integrated density, and electron/ion temperature. The numerical study shows near sustainment of poloidal flux for nearly 1 ms in the presence of NBI.
Goods Transport Modelling, Vol 1
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Petersen, Morten Steen (red.); Kristiansen, Jørgen
The report is a study of data requirements and methodologies for goods transport. The study is intended to provide the basis for general discussion about the application of goods transport models in Denmark. The report provides an overview of different types of models and data availability....
Collisional transport in a plasma with steep gradients
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, W.; Okamoto, M.; Nakajima, N.; Murakami, S. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan)
1999-06-01
The validity is given to the newly proposed two {delta}f method for neoclassical transport calculation, which can be solve the drift kinetic equation considering effects of steep plasma gradients, large radial electric field, finite banana width, and an orbit topology near the axis. The new method is applied to the study of ion transport with steep plasma gradients. It is found that the ion thermal diffusivity decreases as the scale length of density gradient decreases, while the ion particle flux due to ion-ion self collisions increases with increasing gradient. (author)
Plasma membrane electron transport in frog blood vessels
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Rashmi P Rao; K Nalini; J Prakasa Rao
2009-12-01
In an attempt to see if frog blood vessels possess a plasma membrane electron transport system, the postcaval vein and aorta isolated from Rana tigrina were tested for their ability to reduce ferricyanide, methylene blue, and 2,6-dichloroindophenol. While the dyes remained unchanged, ferricyanide was reduced to ferrocyanide. This reduction was resistant to inhibition by cyanide and azide. Heptane extraction or formalin fixation of the tissues markedly reduced the capability to reduce ferricyanide. Denuded aortas retained only 30% of the activity of intact tissue. Our results indicate that the amphibian postcaval vein and aorta exhibit plasma membrane electron transport
Computations of intermittent transport in scrape-off layer plasmas
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Garcia, O.E.; Naulin, V.; Nielsen, A.H.
2004-01-01
Two-dimensional fluid simulations of interchange turbulence for geometry and parameters relevant for the scrape-off layer of magnetized plasmas are presented. The computations, which have distinct plasma production and loss regions, reveal bursty ejection of particles and heat from the bulk plasma...... in the form of blobs. These structures propagate far into the scrape-off layer where they are dissipated due to transport along open magnetic field lines. From single-point recordings it is shown that the blobs have asymmetric conditional wave forms and lead to positively skewed and flattened probability...
Behaviors of Electron Heat Transportation in HT-7 Sawtoothing Plasma
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Hu Liqun; Xu Yi; Wan Baonian; Shi Yuejiang; Zhen Xiangjun; Chen Zhongyong; Lin Shiyao; HT-7 Team
2005-01-01
It is found that in HT-7 ohmic plasma, main energy loss comes from electron heat conduction, hence quantitative data of electron heat diffusivity is a very important issue for investigation of electron heat transportation behavior in different target plasmas so as to get high performance plasma. A time-to-peak method of the heat pulse propagation originating from the sawtooth activity on the soft x-ray intensity signal has been adopted to experimentally determine electron heat diffusivity XHPe on the HT-7 tokamak. Aiming to improve the signal-to-noise (S/N)ratio of the original signal to get a stable and reasonable electron heat diffusivity XHDe value, some data processing methods, including average of tens of sawteeth, is discussed. The electron heat diffusivity XHPe is larger than XPBe which is determined from the balance of background plasma power. Based on variation of the measured electron heat diffusivity XHPe, performances of different high confinement plasmas are analyzed.
Fractional Transport in Strongly Turbulent Plasmas
Isliker, Heinz; Vlahos, Loukas; Constantinescu, Dana
2017-07-01
We analyze statistically the energization of particles in a large scale environment of strong turbulence that is fragmented into a large number of distributed current filaments. The turbulent environment is generated through strongly perturbed, 3D, resistive magnetohydrodynamics simulations, and it emerges naturally from the nonlinear evolution, without a specific reconnection geometry being set up. Based on test-particle simulations, we estimate the transport coefficients in energy space for use in the classical Fokker-Planck (FP) equation, and we show that the latter fails to reproduce the simulation results. The reason is that transport in energy space is highly anomalous (strange), the particles perform Levy flights, and the energy distributions show extended power-law tails. Newly then, we motivate the use and derive the specific form of a fractional transport equation (FTE), we determine its parameters and the order of the fractional derivatives from the simulation data, and we show that the FTE is able to reproduce the high energy part of the simulation data very well. The procedure for determining the FTE parameters also makes clear that it is the analysis of the simulation data that allows us to make the decision whether a classical FP equation or a FTE is appropriate.
Final technical report on studies of plasma transport
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
O`Neil, T.M.; Driscoll, C.F.; Malmberg, J.H.
1997-04-01
This document gives an overview of the scientific results obtained under the DOE grant, and references the journal articles which give more complete descriptions of the various topics. Recently, the research has been focused on 2-dimensional vortices and turbulence: experiments using a new camera-diagnosed electron plasma apparatus have given surprising results which both clarify and challenge theories. Here, the crossfield E x B flow of the electron plasma is directly analogous to the 2-d flow of an ideal fluid such as water, and may also give insight into more complicated poloidal flows exhibited in toroidal plasmas. The shear-flow instabilities, turbulence, and vortices can be accurately observed, and the free relaxation of this turbulence has been characterized. The physical processes underlying the complicated turbulent evolution can also be studied in more controlled near-linear regimes. The original experimental focus of this program was on radial particle transport from applied external field asymmetries. Here, this research program clearly identified the importance of the collective response of the plasma, giving smaller fields from shielding, or enhanced fields from resonant modes. Experiments and theory work have also elucidated the flow of a plasma along the magnetic field. Finally, some theory was pursued for direct application to fusion plasmas, and to gravitating gas clouds in astrophysics. This program was highly successful in clarifying basic plasma transport processes.
Role of Plasma Elongation on Turbulent Transport in Magnetically Confined Plasmas
Angelino, P.; Garbet, X.; Villard, L.; Bottino, A.; Jolliet, S.; Ghendrih, Ph.; Grandgirard, V.; McMillan, B. F.; Sarazin, Y.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Tran, T. M.
2009-05-01
The theoretical study of plasma turbulence is of central importance to fusion research. Experimental evidence indicates that the confinement time results mainly from the turbulent transport of energy, the magnitude of which depends on the turbulent state resulting from nonlinear saturation mechanisms, in particular, the self-generation of coherent macroscopic structures and large scale flows. Plasma geometry has a strong impact on the structure and magnitude of these flows and also modifies the mode linear growth rates. Nonlinear global gyrokinetic simulations in realistic tokamak magnetohydrodynamic equilibria show how plasma shape can control the turbulent transport. Results are best described in terms of an effective temperature gradient. With increasing plasma elongation, the nonlinear critical effective gradient is not modified while the stiffness of transport is decreasing.
Container Logistic Transport Planning Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xin Zhang
2013-05-01
Full Text Available The study proposed a stochastic method of container logistic transport in order to solve the unreasonable transportation’s problem and overcome the traditional models’ two shortcomings. Container transport has rapidly developed into a modern means of transportation because of their significant advantages. With the development, it also exacerbated the flaws of transport in the original. One of the most important problems was that the invalid transport had not still reduced due to the congenital imbalances of transportation. Container transport exacerbated the invalid transport for the empty containers. To solve the problem, people made many efforts, but they did not make much progress. There had two theoretical flaws by analyzing the previous management methods in container transport. The first one was the default empty containers inevitability. The second one was that they did not overall consider how to solve the problem of empty containers allocation. In order to solve the unreasonable transportation’s problem and overcome the traditional models’ two shortcomings, the study re-built the container transport planning model-gravity model. It gave the general algorithm and has analyzed the final result of model.
Analysis of electron transport in the plasma of thermionic converters
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stoenescu, M.L.; Heinicke, P.H.
1980-03-01
Electron transport coefficients of a gaseous ensemble are expressed analytically as function of density, and are expressed analytically as function of temperature up to an unknown function which has to be evaluated for each specific electron-neutral atom cross section. In order to complete the analytical temperature dependence one may introduce a polynomial expansion of the function or one may derive the temperature dependence of a set of coefficients, numbering thirteen for a third approximation transport evaluation, which completely determine the transport coefficients. The latter approach is used for determining the electron transport coefficients of a cesium plasma for any ion neutral composition and any temperature between 500/sup 0/K and 3500/sup 0/K. The relation between the transport coefficients of a fully and partly ionized gas is readily available and shows that, in the classical formalism, electron-ion and electron-neutral resistivities are not additive. The present form of the transport coefficients makes possible an accurate numerical integration of transport equations eliminating lengthy computations which are frequently inaccessible. It thus provides a detailed knowledge of spatial distribution of particle and energy transport and makes possible the determination of one of the three internal voltage drops, surface barrier, sheath and plasma, which are linked together experimentally by current density versus voltage characteristics of thermionic converters.
Cold flame on Biofilm - Transport of Plasma Chemistry from Gas to Liquid Phase
Kong, Michael
2014-10-01
One of the most active and fastest growing fields in low-temperature plasma science today is biological effects of gas plasmas and their translation in many challenges of societal importance such as healthcare, environment, agriculture, and nanoscale fabrication and synthesis. Using medicine as an example, there are already three FDA-approved plasma-based surgical procedures for tissue ablation and blood coagulation and at least five phase-II clinical trials on plasma-assisted wound healing therapies. A key driver for realizing the immense application potential of near room-temperature ambient pressure gas plasmas, commonly known as cold atmospheric plasmas or CAP, is to build a sizeable interdisciplinary knowledge base with which to unravel, optimize, and indeed design how reactive plasma species interact with cells and their key components such as protein and DNA. Whilst a logical objective, it is a formidable challenge not least since existing knowledge of gas discharges is largely in the gas-phase and therefore not directly applicable to cell-containing matters that are covered by or embedded in liquid (e.g. biofluid). Here, we study plasma inactivation of biofilms, a jelly-like structure that bacteria use to protect themselves and a major source of antimicrobial resistance. As 60--90% of biofilm is made of water, we develop a holistic model incorporating physics and chemistry in the upstream CAP-generating region, a plasma-exit region as a buffer for as-phase transport, and a downstream liquid region bordering the gas buffer region. A special model is developed to account for rapid chemical reactions accompanied the transport of gas-phase plasma species through the gas-liquid interface and for liquid-phase chemical reactions. Numerical simulation is used to illustrate how key reactive oxygen species (ROS) are transported into the liquid, and this is supported with experimental data of both biofilm inactivation using plasmas and electron spin spectroscopy (ESR
A Unified Gas Kinetic Scheme for Multi-scale Plasma Transport
Liu, Chang
2016-01-01
A unified gas kinetic scheme (UGKS) for multi-scale and multi-component plasma transport is constructed. The current scheme is a direct modeling method, where the time evolution solutions from the Vlasov-BGK equations for both electron and ion, and the Maxwell equations are used to construct the scale-dependent plasma simulation. As a result, based on the modeling scales of mesh size and time step, the discretized governing equations for the whole plasma regimes are obtained. The UGKS takes into account the electron inertia, full electromagnetic field equations, and separate electron and ion evolution. The physics recovered in UGKS ranges from the kinetic Vlasov equation to the hydrodynamic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations, with a unified treatment in all scales from the collisionless particle transport to the hydrodynamic wave interactions. The UGKS presents a plasma description which is more general than the Vlasov equation in the kinetic scale and all kinds of MHD equations in the hydrodynamic scale, su...
ADVECTIVE TRANSPORT OF INTERSTELLAR PLASMA INTO THE HELIOSPHERE ACROSS THE RECONNECTING HELIOPAUSE
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Strumik, M.; Grzedzielski, S.; Czechowski, A.; Macek, W. M.; Ratkiewicz, R. [Space Research Centre, Polish Academy of Sciences, Bartycka 18A, 00-716 Warsaw (Poland)
2014-02-10
We discuss results of magnetohydrodynamical model simulations of plasma dynamics in the proximity of the heliopause (HP). The model is shown to fit details of the magnetic field variations observed by the Voyager 1 spacecraft during the transition from the heliosphere to the local interstellar medium (LISM). We propose an interpretation of magnetic field structures observed by Voyager 1 in terms of fine-scale physical processes. Our simulations reveal an effective transport mechanism of relatively dense LISM plasma across the reconnecting HP into the heliosphere. The mechanism is associated with annihilation of magnetic sectors in the heliospheric plasma near the HP.
Zhdanov, V. M.; Stepanenko, A. A.
2016-11-01
The previously obtained in (Zhdanov and Stepanenko, 2016) general transport equations for partially ionized reactive plasma are employed for analysis of electron transport properties in molecular and atomic plasmas. We account for both elastic and inelastic interaction channels of electrons with atoms and molecules of plasma and also the processes of electron impact ionization of neutral particles and three-body ion-electron recombination. The system of scalar transport equations for electrons is discussed and the expressions for non-equilibrium corrections to electron ionization and recombination rates and the diagonal part of the electron pressure tensor are derived. Special attention is paid to analysis of electron energy relaxation during collisions with plasma particles having internal degrees of freedom and the expression for the electron coefficient of inelastic energy losses is deduced. We also derive the expressions for electron vector and tensorial transport fluxes and the corresponding transport coefficients for partially ionized reactive plasma, which represent a generalization of the well-known results obtained by Devoto (1967). The results of numerical evaluation of contribution from electron inelastic collisions with neutral particles to electron transport properties are presented for a series of molecular and atomic gases.
Modelling the Plasma Jet in Multi-Arc Plasma Spraying
Bobzin, K.; Öte, M.; Schein, J.; Zimmermann, S.; Möhwald, K.; Lummer, C.
2016-08-01
Particle in-flight characteristics in atmospheric plasma spraying process are determined by impulse and heat energy transferred between the plasma jet and injected powder particles. One of the important factors for the quality of the plasma-sprayed coatings is thus the distribution of plasma gas temperatures and velocities in plasma jet. Plasma jets generated by conventional single-arc plasma spraying systems and their interaction with powder particles were subject matter of intensive research. However, this does not apply to plasma jets generated by means of multi-arc plasma spraying systems yet. In this study, a numerical model has been developed which is designated to dealing with the flow characteristics of the plasma jet generated by means of a three-cathode spraying system. The upstream flow conditions, which were calculated using a priori conducted plasma generator simulations, have been coupled to the plasma jet simulations. The significances of the relevant numerical assumptions and aspects of the models are analyzed. The focus is placed on to the turbulence and diffusion/demixing modelling. A critical evaluation of the prediction power of the models is conducted by comparing the numerical results to the experimental results determined by means of emission spectroscopic computed tomography. It is evident that the numerical models exhibit a good accuracy for their intended use.
Implementation of a plasma-neutral model in NIMROD
Taheri, S.; Shumlak, U.; King, J. R.
2016-10-01
Interaction between plasma fluid and neutral species is of great importance in the edge region of magnetically confined fusion plasmas. The presence of neutrals can have beneficial effects such as fueling burning plasmas and quenching the disruptions in tokamaks, as well as deleterious effects like depositing high energy particles on the vessel wall. The behavior of edge plasmas in magnetically confined systems has been investigated using computational approaches that utilize the fluid description for the plasma and Monte Carlo transport for neutrals. In this research a reacting plasma-neutral model is implemented in NIMROD to study the interaction between plasma and neutral fluids. This model, developed by E. T. Meier and U. Shumlak, combines a single-fluid magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) plasma model with a gas dynamic neutral fluid model which accounts for electron-impact ionization, radiative recombination, and resonant charge exchange. Incorporating this model into NIMROD allows the study of the interaction between neutrals and plasma in a variety of plasma science problems. An accelerated plasma moving through a neutral gas background in a coaxial electrode configuration is modeled, and the results are compared with previous calculations from the HiFi code.
Ion transport barriers triggered by plasma polarization in gyrokinetic simulations
Strugarek, A.; Sarazin, Y.; Zarzoso, D.; Abiteboul, J.; Brun, A. S.; Cartier-Michaud, T.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Garbet, X.; Ghendrih, Ph; Grandgirard, V.; Latu, G.; Passeron, C.; Thomine, O.
2013-07-01
The creation of ion transport barriers by externally induced sheared E × B flows is investigated with the global, full-f and flux-driven gyrokinetic code GYSELA. A gyrokinetic source of vorticity is designed and proves to be efficient in polarizing the plasma. Induced sheared electric fields develop in the turbulent core and are accompanied by the creation of a transport barrier. The barrier and the sheared flow relax quasi-periodically because of zonal flow activity and a destabilizing temperature anisotropy induced by the vorticity source. A new cyclic mechanism leading to the relaxation of transport barriers in tokamaks is discovered.
Transport properties of partially ionized and unmagnetized plasmas
Magin, Thierry E.; Degrez, Gérard
2004-10-01
This work is a comprehensive and theoretical study of transport phenomena in partially ionized and unmagnetized plasmas by means of kinetic theory. The pros and cons of different models encountered in the literature are presented. A dimensional analysis of the Boltzmann equation deals with the disparity of mass between electrons and heavy particles and yields the epochal relaxation concept. First, electrons and heavy particles exhibit distinct kinetic time scales and may have different translational temperatures. The hydrodynamic velocity is assumed to be identical for both types of species. Second, at the hydrodynamic time scale the energy exchanged between electrons and heavy particles tends to equalize both temperatures. Global and species macroscopic fluid conservation equations are given. New constrained integral equations are derived from a modified Chapman-Enskog perturbative method. Adequate bracket integrals are introduced to treat thermal nonequilibrium. A symmetric mathematical formalism is preferred for physical and numerical standpoints. A Laguerre-Sonine polynomial expansion allows for systems of transport to be derived. Momentum, mass, and energy fluxes are associated to shear viscosity, diffusion coefficients, thermal diffusion coefficients, and thermal conductivities. A Goldstein expansion of the perturbation function provides explicit expressions of the thermal diffusion ratios and measurable thermal conductivities. Thermal diffusion terms already found in the Russian literature ensure the exact mass conservation. A generalized Stefan-Maxwell equation is derived following the method of Kolesnikov and Tirskiy. The bracket integral reduction in terms of transport collision integrals is presented in Appendix for the thermal nonequilibrium case. A simple Eucken correction is proposed to deal with the internal degrees of freedom of atoms and polyatomic molecules, neglecting inelastic collisions. The authors believe that the final expressions are
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Darmet, G
2007-11-15
This work deals with the kinetic transport in a fusion plasma magnetically confined and flux-constrained. The author proposes a new interpretation of the dynamics of zonal flows. The model that has been studied is a gyrokinetic model reduced to the transport of trapped ions. The inter-change stability that is generated allows the study of the kinetic transport of trapped ions. This model has a threshold instability and can be simulated over a few tens confining time for either thermal bath constraint or flux constraint. For thermal baths constraint, the simulation shows a metastable state where zonal flows are prevailing while turbulence is non-existent. In the case of a flux-constraint, zonal flows appear and relax by exchanging energy with system's kinetic energy and turbulence energy. The competition between zonal flows and turbulence can be then simulated by a predator-prey model. 2 regimes can be featured out: an improved confining regime where zonal flows dominate transport and a turbulent regime where zonal flows and turbulent transport are of the same magnitude order. We show that flux as well as the Reynolds tensor play an important role in the dynamics of the zonal flows and that the gyrokinetic description is relevant for all plasma regions. (A.C.)
Fast ions and momentum transport in JET tokamak plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Salmi, A.
2012-07-01
Fast ions are an inseparable part of fusion plasmas. They can be generated using electromagnetic waves or injected into plasmas as neutrals to heat the bulk plasma and to drive toroidal rotation and current. In future power plants fusion born fast ions deliver the main heating into the plasma. Understanding and controlling the fast ions is of crucial importance for the operation of a power plant. Furthermore, fast ions provide ways to probe the properties of the thermal plasma and get insight of its confinement properties. In this thesis, numerical code packages are used and developed to simulate JET experiments for a range of physics issues related to fast ions. Namely, the clamping fast ion distribution at high energies with RF heating, fast ion ripple torque generation and the toroidal momentum transport properties using NBI modulation technique are investigated. Through a comparison of numerical simulations and the JET experimental data it is shown that the finite Larmor radius effects in ion cyclotron resonance heating are important and that they can prevent fast ion tail formation beyond certain energy. The identified mechanism could be used for tailoring the fast ion distribution in future experiments. Secondly, ASCOT simulations of NBI ions in a ripple field showed that most of the reduction of the toroidal rotation that has been observed in the JET enhanced ripple experiments could be attributed to fast ion ripple torque. Finally, fast ion torque calculations together with momentum transport analysis have led to the conclusion that momentum transport in not purely diffusive but that a convective component, which increases monotonically in radius, exists in a wide range of JET plasmas. Using parameter scans, the convective transport has been shown to be insensitive to collisionality and q-profile but to increase strongly against density gradient. (orig.)
MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC MODELING FOR FUSION PLASMAS
Keppens, R.; Goedbloed, J. P.; Blokland, J. W. S.
2010-01-01
The magnetohydrodynamic model for fusion plasma dynamics governs the large-scale equilibrium properties, and sets the most stringent constraints on the parameter space accessible without violent disruptions. In conjunction with linear stability analysis in the complex tokamak geometry, the MHD parad
Numerical Modeling of Plasmas in which Nanoparticles Nucleate and Grow
Agarwal, Pulkit
Dusty plasmas refer to a broad category of plasmas. Plasmas such as argon-silane plasmas in which particles nucleate and grow are widely used in semiconductor processing and nanoparticle manufacturing. In such dusty plasmas, the plasma and the dust particles are strongly coupled to each other. This means that the presence of dust particles significantly affects the plasma properties and vice versa. Therefore such plasmas are highly complex and they involve several interesting phenomena like nucleation, growth, coagulation, charging and transport. Dusty plasma afterglow is equally complex and important. Especially, residual charge on dust particles carries special significance in several industrial and laboratory situations and it has not been well understood. A 1D numerical model was developed of a low-pressure capacitively-coupled plasma in which nanoparticles nucleate and grow. Polydispersity of particle size distributions can be important in such plasmas. Sectional method, which is well known in aerosol literature, was used to model the evolving particle size and charge distribution. The numerical model is transient and one-dimensional and self consistently accounts for nucleation, growth, coagulation, charging and transport of dust particles and their effect on plasma properties. Nucleation and surface growth rates were treated as input parameters. Results were presented in terms of particle size and charge distribution with an emphasis on importance of polydispersity in particle growth and dynamics. Results of numerical model were compared with experimental measurements of light scattering and light emission from plasma. Reasonable qualitative agreement was found with some discrepancies. Pulsed dusty plasma can be important for controlling particle production and/or unwanted particle deposition. In this case, it is important to understand the behavior of the particle cloud during the afterglow following plasma turn-off. Numerical model was modified to self
Neutral Particle Transport in Cylindrical Plasma Simulated by a Monte Carlo Code
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YU Deliang; YAN Longwen; ZHONG Guangwu; LU Jie; YI Ping
2007-01-01
A Monte Carlo code (MCHGAS) has been developed to investigate the neutral particle transport.The code can calculate the radial profile and energy spectrum of neutral particles in cylindrical plasmas.The calculation time of the code is dramatically reduced when the Splitting and Roulette schemes are applied. The plasma model of an infinite cylinder is assumed in the code,which is very convenient in simulating neutral particle transports in small and middle-sized tokamaks.The design of the multi-channel neutral particle analyser (NPA) on HL-2A can be optimized by using this code.
Line photon transport in a non-homogeneous plasma using radiative coupling coefficients
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Florido, R.; Gil, J.M.; Rodriguez, R.; Rubiano, J.G.; Martel, P. [Las Palmas de Gran Canaria Univ., Dept. de Fisica (Spain); Florido, R.; Gil, J.M.; Rodriguez, R.; Rubiano, J.G.; Martel, P.; Minguez, E. [Madrid Univ. Politecnica, Instituto de Fusion Nuclear-DENIM (Spain)
2006-06-15
We present a steady-state collisional-radiative model for the calculation of level populations in non-homogeneous plasmas with planar geometry. The line photon transport is taken into account following an angle- and frequency-averaged escape probability model. Several models where the same approach has been used can be found in the literature, but the main difference between our model and those ones is that the details of geometry are exactly treated in the definition of coupling coefficients and a local profile is taken into account in each plasma cell. (authors)
Plasma transport in the Scrape-off-Layer of magnetically confined plasma and the plasma exhaust
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Jens Juul; Naulin, Volker; Nielsen, Anders Henry
An overview of the plasma dynamics in the Scrape-off-Layer (SOL) of magnetically confined plasma is presented. The SOL is the exhaust channel of the warm plasma from the core, and the understanding of the SOL plasma dynamics is one of the key issues in contemporary fusion research. It is essential...
Ion confinement and transport in a toroidal plasma with externally imposed radial electric fields
Roth, J. R.; Krawczonek, W. M.; Powers, E. J.; Kim, Y. C.; Hong, H. Y.
1979-01-01
Strong electric fields were imposed along the minor radius of the toroidal plasma by biasing it with electrodes maintained at kilovolt potentials. Coherent, low-frequency disturbances characteristic of various magnetohydrodynamic instabilities were absent in the high-density, well-confined regime. High, direct-current radial electric fields with magnitudes up to 135 volts per centimeter penetrated inward to at least one-half the plasma radius. When the electric field pointed radially toward, the ion transport was inward against a strong local density gradient; and the plasma density and confinement time were significantly enhanced. The radial transport along the electric field appeared to be consistent with fluctuation-induced transport. With negative electrode polarity the particle confinement was consistent with a balance of two processes: a radial infusion of ions, in those sectors of the plasma not containing electrodes, that resulted from the radially inward fields; and ion losses to the electrodes, each of the which acted as a sink and drew ions out of the plasma. A simple model of particle confinement was proposed in which the particle confinement time is proportional to the plasma volume. The scaling predicted by this model was consistent with experimental measurements.
Cross-scale energy transport in space plasmas
Moore, T. W.; Nykyri, K.; Dimmock, A. P.
2016-12-01
The solar wind is a supersonic magnetized plasma streaming far into the heliosphere. Although cooling as it flows, it is rapidly heated upon encountering planetary obstacles. At Earth, this interaction forms the magnetosphere and its sub-regions. The present paper focuses on particle heating across the boundary separating the shocked solar wind and magnetospheric plasma, which is driven by mechanisms operating on fluid, ion and electron scales. The cross-scale energy transport between these scales is a compelling and fundamental problem of plasma physics. Here, we present evidence of the energy transport between fluid and ion scales: free energy is provided in terms of a velocity shear generating fluid-scale Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. We show the unambiguous observation of an ion-scale magnetosonic wave packet, inside a Kelvin-Helmholtz vortex, with sufficient energy to account for observed ion heating. The present finding has universal consequences in understanding cross-scale energy transport, applicable to environments experiencing velocity shears during comparable plasma regimes.
Instabilities and transport in Hall plasmas with ExB drift
Smolyakov, Andrei
2016-10-01
Low temperature plasma with moderate magnetic field, where the ions are not or just weakly magnetized, i.e. the ion Larmor radius being larger or comparable to the characteristic length scale of interest (e.g. the size ofthe system), have distinctly different properties from strongly magnetized plasmas such as that for fusion applications. Such parameters regimes are generally defined here as Hall plasmas. The natural scale separation between the ion and electron Larmor radii in Hall plasma, further exploited by the application of the external electric field, offers unique applications in various plasma devices for material processing and electric propulsion. Plasmas in such devices are in strongly non-equilibrium state making it prone to a number of instabilities. This talk presents physics description of the dominant unstable modes in ExB Hall plasmas resulting in highly turbulent state with nonlinear coherent structures and anomalous electron current. Since ions are un-magnetized, fundamental instabilities operating in low temperature Hall plasmas are very different from much studied gradients (density, temperature and magnetic field) driven drift-wave turbulence in strongly magnetized plasmas for fusion applications. As a result the nonlinear saturation mechanisms, role of the ExB shear flows are also markedly different in such plasmas. We review the basic instabilities in these plasmas which are related to the ion-sound, low-hybrid and anti-drift modes, discuss nonlinear saturation and anomalous transport mechanisms. The advanced nonlinear fluid model for such plasmas and results of nonlinear simulations of turbulence and anomalous transport performed within a modified BOUT++ framework will be presented. Research supported by NSERC Canada and US AFOSR FA9550-15-1-0226.
Recent developments in plasma turbulence and turbulent transport
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Terry, P.W. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)
1997-09-22
This report contains viewgraphs of recent developments in plasma turbulence and turbulent transport. Localized nonlinear structures occur under a variety of circumstances in turbulent, magnetically confined plasmas, arising in both kinetic and fluid descriptions, i.e., in either wave-particle or three-wave coupling interactions. These structures are non wavelike. They cannot be incorporated in the collective wave response, but interact with collective modes through their shielding by the plasma dielectric. These structures are predicted to modify turbulence-driven transport in a way that in consistent with, or in some cases are confirmed by recent experimental observations. In kinetic theory, non wavelike structures are localized perturbations of phase space density. There are two types of structures. Holes are self-trapped, while clumps have a self-potential that is too weak to resist deformation and mixing by ambient potential fluctuations. Clumps remain correlated in turbulence if their spatial extent is smaller than the correlation length of the scattering fields. In magnetic turbulence, clumps travel along stochastic magnetic fields, shielded by the plasma dielectric. A drag on the clump macro-particle is exerted by the shielding, inducing emission into the collective response. The emission in turn damps back on the particle distribution via Landau dampling. The exchange of energy between clumps and particles, as mediated by the collective mode, imposes constraints on transport. For a turbulent spectrum whose mean wavenumber along the equilibrium magnetic field is nonzero, the electron thermal flux is proportional to the ion thermal velocity. Conventional predictions (which account only for collective modes) are larger by the square root of the ion to electron mass ratio. Recent measurements are consistent with the small flux. In fluid plasma,s localized coherent structures can occur as intense vortices.
Transport and chemical loss rates in Saturn's inner plasma disk
Holmberg, M. K. G.; Wahlund, J.-E.; Vigren, E.; Cassidy, T. A.; Andrews, D. J.
2016-03-01
The Kronian moon Enceladus is constantly feeding its surrounding with new gas and dust, from cryovolcanoes located in its south polar region. Through photoionization and impact ionization of these neutrals, a plasma disk is created, which mainly contains hydrogen ions and water group ions. This paper investigates the importance of ion loss by outward radial transport and ion loss by dissociative recombination, which is the dominant chemical loss process in the inner plasma disk. We use plasma densities derived from several years of measurements by the Cassini Radio and Plasma Wave Science electric field power spectral density and Langmuir probe to calculate the total flux tube content NL2. Our calculation shows that NL2 agrees well with earlier estimates within dipole L shell 8. We also show that loss by transport dominates chemical loss between L shells 4 and 10. Using extrapolation of available measurements, we extend the study to include L shells 2.5 to 4. The results indicate that loss by transport dominates chemical loss also between L shells 2.5 and 4. The loss rate by transport is around five times larger at L shell 5, and the difference increases as L7.7 beyond L = 5, for the net ion population. Chemical loss may still be important for the structure of the plasma disk in the region closest to Enceladus (around ±0.5 RS) at 3.95 RS (1 RS = Saturn's equatorial radius = 60,268 km), since the transport and chemical loss rates only differ by a factor of ˜2 in this region. We also derive the total plasma content of the plasma disk between L shells 4 and 10 to be 1.9 × 1033 ions and the total ion source rate for the same region to be 5.8 × 1027 s-1. The estimated equatorial ion production rate P ranges from 2.6 × 10-5 cm-3 s-1 (at L = 10) to 1.1 × 10-4 cm-3 s-1 (at L = 4.8). The net mass loading rate is derived to be 123 kg/s for L shells 4 to 10.
Ablation plasma transport using multicusp magnetic field for laser ion source
Takahashi, K.; Umezawa, M.; Uchino, T.; Ikegami, K.; Sasaki, T.; Kikuchi, T.; Harada, N.
2016-05-01
We propose a plasma guiding method using multicusp magnetic field to transport the ablation plasma keeping the density for developing laser ion sources. To investigate the effect of guiding using the magnetic field on the ablation plasma, we demonstrated the transport of the laser ablation plasma in the multicusp magnetic field. The magnetic field was formed with eight permanent magnets and arranged to limit the plasma expansion in the radial direction. We investigated the variation of the plasma ion current density and charge distribution during transport in the magnetic field. The results indicate that the plasma is confined in the radial direction during the transport in the multicusp magnetic field.
Guiding-center models for edge plasmas and numerical simulations of isolated plasma filaments
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Jens
The work presented in this thesis falls into two categories: development of reduced dynamical models applicable to edge turbulence in magnetically confined fusion plasmas and numerical simulations of isolated plasma filaments in the scrape-off layer region investigating the influence of finite...... models are presented that overcome some of the difficulties associated with the development of reduced dynamical models applicable to the edge. Second order guiding-center coordinates are derived using the phasespace Lie transform method. Using a variational principle the corresponding Vlasov......-Maxwell equations in a more tractable form, which could be relevant for direct numerical simulations of edge plasma turbulence. Finally, an investigation of the influence of finite Larmor radius effects on the radial transport of isolated plasma filaments (blobs) in the scrape-off region of fusion plasmas...
Multi-Scale Modeling of Plasma Thrusters
Batishchev, Oleg
2004-11-01
Plasma thrusters are characterized with multiple spatial and temporal scales, which are due to the intrinsic physical processes such as gas ionization, wall effects and plasma acceleration. Characteristic times for hot plasma and cold gas are differing by 6-7 orders of magnitude. The typical collisional mean-free-paths vary by 3-5 orders along the devices. These make questionable a true self-consistent modeling of the thrusters. The latter is vital to the understanding of complex physics, non-linear dynamics and optimization of the performance. To overcome this problem we propose the following approach. All processes are divided into two groups: fast and slow. The slow ones include gas evolution with known sources and ionization sink. The ionization rate, transport coefficients, energy sources are defined during "fast step". Both processes are linked through external iterations. Multiple spatial scales are handled using moving adaptive mesh. Development and application of this method to the VASIMR helicon plasma source and other thrusters will be discussed. Supported by NASA.
Transport of plasma free fatty acids and triglycerides in man: a theoretical analysis
Shames, David M.; Frank, Arthur; Steinberg, Daniel; Berman, Mones
1970-01-01
Three different multicompartmental models of free fatty acid (FFA) and very low density lipoprotein triglyceride fatty acid (VLDL-TGFA) transport in man are formulated from plasma FFA and VLDL-TGFA tracee and tracer data collected over a 24 hr interval after the injection of palmitate-14C. All modeling and data fitting were performed on a digital computer using the SAAM program. Structural differences in the three models relate to the position of the slowly turning over compartment required to generate the late portion of the plasma VLDL-TGFA tracer data. The positions of this slow compartment are along the hepatic pathway from FFA to VLDL-TGFA (model A) or in the distribution system of VLDL-TGFA (model B) or in the distribution system of FFA (model C). Although all three models are equally consistent with our experimental data and are supported by observations of others, each reveals inconsistency with some data obtained from the literature. Consequently, a combination model of FFA-TGFA transport, incorporating properties of models A, B, and C would be more consistent with all available data. Experiments that would help to determine the quantitative significance of each of the slow compartments in the combination model are suggested. Several other models suggesting recycling of plasma VLDL-TGFA through the plasma FFA pool, kinetic heterogencity of the plasma VLDL-TGFA pool, and contamination of plasma VLDL-TGFA radioactivity with low density lipoprotein (LDL) TGFA radioactivity were tested. The first model does not explain the late portion of the plasma VLDL-TGFA tracer data. The second and third models, while consistent with our tracee and tracer data, have steady-state implications with respect to the extent of kinetic heterogeneity and size of the LDL-TGFA contaminant that make them unlikely. Assumptions underlying other investigator's models of FFA and TGFA transport in man are reviewed within the logical framework of our models. Quantitative differences among
Carboxylic Acids Plasma Membrane Transporters in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Casal, Margarida; Queirós, Odília; Talaia, Gabriel; Ribas, David; Paiva, Sandra
2016-01-01
This chapter covers the functionally characterized plasma membrane carboxylic acids transporters Jen1, Ady2, Fps1 and Pdr12 in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, addressing also their homologues in other microorganisms, as filamentous fungi and bacteria. Carboxylic acids can either be transported into the cells, to be used as nutrients, or extruded in response to acid stress conditions. The secondary active transporters Jen1 and Ady2 can mediate the uptake of the anionic form of these substrates by a H(+)-symport mechanism. The undissociated form of carboxylic acids is lipid-soluble, crossing the plasma membrane by simple diffusion. Furthermore, acetic acid can also be transported by facilitated diffusion via Fps1 channel. At the cytoplasmic physiological pH, the anionic form of the acid prevails and it can be exported by the Pdr12 pump. This review will highlight the mechanisms involving carboxylic acids transporters, and the way they operate according to the yeast cell response to environmental changes, as carbon source availability, extracellular pH and acid stress conditions.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dubuit, N
2006-10-15
This work deals with the transport of impurities in magnetically confined thermonuclear plasmas. The accumulation of impurities in the core of the plasma would imply dramatic losses of energy that may lead to the extinction of the plasma. On the opposite, the injection of impurities in the plasma edge is considered as an efficient means to extract heat without damaging the first wall. The balance between these 2 contradictory constraints requires an accurate knowledge of the impurity transport inside the plasma. The effect of turbulence, the main transport mechanism for impurities is therefore a major issue. In this work, the complete formula of a turbulent flow of impurities for a given fluctuation spectrum has been inferred. The origin and features of the main accumulation processes have been identified. The main effect comes from the compressibility of the electrical shift speed in a plane perpendicular to the magnetic field. This compressibility appears to be linked to the curvature of the magnetic field. A less important effect is a thermal-diffusion process that is inversely proportional to the number of charges and then disappears for most type of impurities except the lightest. This effect implies an impurity flux proportional to the temperature gradient and its direction can change according to the average speed of fluctuations. A new version of the turbulence code TRB has been developed. This new version allows the constraints of the turbulence not by the gradients but by the flux which is more realistic. The importance of the processes described above has been confirmed by a comparison between calculation and experimental data from Tore-supra and the Jet tokamak. The prevailing role of the curvature of the magnetic field in the transport impurity is highlighted. (A.C.)
Glycine transporter dimers: evidence for occurrence in the plasma membrane
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bartholomäus, Ingo; Milan-Lobo, Laura; Nicke, Annette
2008-01-01
membrane based on hydrodynamic and native gel electrophoretic studies. Here, we used cysteine substitution and oxidative cross-linking to show that of GlyT1 and GlyT2 also form dimeric complexes within the plasma membrane. GlyT oligomerization at the cell surface was confirmed for both GlyT1 and GlyT2......Different Na(+)/Cl(-)-dependent neurotransmitter transporters of the SLC6a family have been shown to form dimers or oligomers in both intracellular compartments and at the cell surface. In contrast, the glycine transporters (GlyTs) GlyT1 and -2 have been reported to exist as monomers in the plasma...
Modelling of Transport Projects Uncertainties
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Salling, Kim Bang; Leleur, Steen
2009-01-01
This paper proposes a new way of handling the uncertainties present in transport decision making based on infrastructure appraisals. The paper suggests to combine the principle of Optimism Bias, which depicts the historical tendency of overestimating transport related benefits and underestimating...... investment costs, with a quantitative risk analysis based on Monte Carlo simulation and to make use of a set of exploratory scenarios. The analysis is carried out by using the CBA-DK model representing the Danish standard approach to socio-economic cost-benefit analysis. Specifically, the paper proposes......-based graphs which function as risk-related decision support for the appraised transport infrastructure project....
Modern methods in collisional-radiative modeling of plasmas
2016-01-01
This book provides a compact yet comprehensive overview of recent developments in collisional-radiative (CR) modeling of laboratory and astrophysical plasmas. It describes advances across the entire field, from basic considerations of model completeness to validation and verification of CR models to calculation of plasma kinetic characteristics and spectra in diverse plasmas. Various approaches to CR modeling are presented, together with numerous examples of applications. A number of important topics, such as atomic models for CR modeling, atomic data and its availability and quality, radiation transport, non-Maxwellian effects on plasma emission, ionization potential lowering, and verification and validation of CR models, are thoroughly addressed. Strong emphasis is placed on the most recent developments in the field, such as XFEL spectroscopy. Written by leading international research scientists from a number of key laboratories, the book offers a timely summary of the most recent progress in this area. It ...
Next Generation Transport Phenomenology Model
Strickland, Douglas J.; Knight, Harold; Evans, J. Scott
2004-01-01
This report describes the progress made in Quarter 3 of Contract Year 3 on the development of Aeronomy Phenomenology Modeling Tool (APMT), an open-source, component-based, client-server architecture for distributed modeling, analysis, and simulation activities focused on electron and photon transport for general atmospheres. In the past quarter, column emission rate computations were implemented in Java, preexisting Fortran programs for computing synthetic spectra were embedded into APMT through Java wrappers, and work began on a web-based user interface for setting input parameters and running the photoelectron and auroral electron transport models.
Dynamics between the fishbone instability and nonlocal transient transport in HL-2A NBI plasmas
Chen, W.; Xu, Y.; Ding, X. T.; Shi, Z. B.; Jiang, M.; Zhong, W. L.; Ji, X. Q.; HL-2A Team
2016-04-01
Understanding of nonlocal electron heat transport is of key importance for current magnetic confinement fusion research. Global nonlocal response presents a fundamental challenge to the standard anomalous transport model based on local microinstabilities and turbulence. Here, we present for the first time a new nonlocal phenomenon triggered by the fishbone instability in HL-2A neutral beam injection plasmas. Rapid core heating leads to a simultaneous decrease in temperature at the plasma edge. The effect reveals fast anomalous transport of core heat pulses to the plasma edge, not compatible with diffusive time scales. More importantly, Δ {{T}\\text{e}}/text{e}}> variations at different locations are restricted by the intensity of magnetic fluctuations. The Δ {{T}\\text{e}}/text{e}}> and {{≤ft(δ {{B}θ}\\right)}\\text{rms}} form two types of hysteresis loops at two sides of the inversion radius. The ECEIs show that the 2D mode structure of the fishbone is intensive shearing/spiraling during the nonlocal transport. Experimental results suggest that magnetic perturbation, long-range correlation, mesoscale structure and E× B flow play crucial roles in the nonlocal response. The Hurst exponent and auto-correlation coefficient indicate that the nonlocal transport is potentially linked to the self-organized critical (SOC) dynamics. This work will be beneficial for understanding of the plasma dynamics in future fusion reactors.
Ion transport from plasma ion source at ISOLTRAP
Steinsberger, Timo Pascal
2017-01-01
In this report, my work as CERN Summer Student at the ISOLTRAP experiment at ISOLDE is described. A new plasma ion source used as oine source for calibration and implemented before my arrival was commissioned and transportation settings for the produced ions to the ion traps were found. The cyclotron frequencies of 40Ar and the xenon isotopes 129-132Xe were measured using time-of-flight and phase-imaging ion-cyclotron-resonance mass spectroscopy.
Nonlinear magnetic field transport in opening switch plasmas
Mason, R. J.; Auer, P. L.; Sudan, R. N.; Oliver, B. V.; Seyler, C. E.; Greenly, J. B.
1993-04-01
The nonlinear transport of magnetic field in collisionless plasmas, as present in the plasma opening switch (POS), using the implicit multifluid simulation code anthem [J. Comput. Phys. 71, 429 (1987)] is studied. The focus is on early time behavior in the electron-magnetohydrodynamic (EMHD) limit, with the ions fixed, and the electrons streaming as a fluid under the influence of ve×B Hall forces. Through simulation, magnetic penetration and magnetic exclusion waves are characterized, due to the Hall effect in the presence of transverse density gradients, and the interaction of these Hall waves with nonlinear diffusive disturbances from electron velocity advection, (veṡ∇)ve, is studied. It is shown how these mechanisms give rise to the anode magnetic insulation layer, central diffusion, and cathode potential hill structures seen in earlier opening switch plasmas studies.
Finite difference methods for coupled flow interaction transport models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shelly McGee
2009-04-01
Full Text Available Understanding chemical transport in blood flow involves coupling the chemical transport process with flow equations describing the blood and plasma in the membrane wall. In this work, we consider a coupled two-dimensional model with transient Navier-Stokes equation to model the blood flow in the vessel and Darcy's flow to model the plasma flow through the vessel wall. The advection-diffusion equation is coupled with the velocities from the flows in the vessel and wall, respectively to model the transport of the chemical. The coupled chemical transport equations are discretized by the finite difference method and the resulting system is solved using the additive Schwarz method. Development of the model and related analytical and numerical results are presented in this work.
Study of negative ion transport phenomena in a plasma source
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Riz, D.; Pamela, J. [Departement de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee C. E., Cadarache, 13108 St-Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France)
1996-07-01
NIETZSCHE (Negative Ions Extraction and Transport ZSimulation Code for HydrogEn species) is a negative ion (NI) transport code developed at Cadarache. This code calculates NI trajectories using a 3D Monte-Carlo technique, taking into account the main destruction processes, as well as elastic collisions (H{sup {minus}}/H{sup +}) and charge exchanges (H{sup {minus}}/H{sup 0}). It determines the extraction probability of a NI created at a given position. According to the simulations, we have seen that in the case of volume production, only NI produced close to the plasma grid (PG) can be extracted. Concerning the surface production, we have studied how NI produced on the PG and accelerated by the plasma sheath backward into the source could be extracted. We demonstrate that elastic collisions and charge exchanges play an important role, which in some conditions dominates the magnetic filter effect, which acts as a magnetic mirror. NI transport in various conditions will be discussed: volume/surface production, high/low plasmas density, tent filter/transverse filter. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}
Study of negative ion transport phenomena in a plasma source
Riz, D.; Paméla, J.
1996-07-01
NIETZSCHE (Negative Ions Extraction and Transport ZSimulation Code for HydrogEn species) is a negative ion (NI) transport code developed at Cadarache. This code calculates NI trajectories using a 3D Monte-Carlo technique, taking into account the main destruction processes, as well as elastic collisions (H-/H+) and charge exchanges (H-/H0). It determines the extraction probability of a NI created at a given position. According to the simulations, we have seen that in the case of volume production, only NI produced close to the plasma grid (PG) can be extracted. Concerning the surface production, we have studied how NI produced on the PG and accelerated by the plasma sheath backward into the source could be extracted. We demonstrate that elastic collisions and charge exchanges play an important role, which in some conditions dominates the magnetic filter effect, which acts as a magnetic mirror. NI transport in various conditions will be discussed: volume/surface production, high/low plasmas density, tent filter/transverse filter.
Magnetic-perturbation-induced plasma transport in H-mode pedestals
Callen, J. D.; Cole, A. J.; Hegna, C. C.
2012-03-01
Plasma toroidal rotation can prevent reconnection of externally applied resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) fields on rational surfaces and hence magnetic island formation and stochasticity in the edge of tokamak H-mode plasmas. However, magnetic flutter induced by RMPs off the rational surfaces causes a radial electron heat diffusivity χe^RMP˜(δBr/B0)^2χ| F(x) in which χ|˜vTe^2/νe is an effective parallel electron heat diffusivity and F is a spatially varying factor [1]. The flutter also diffuses electrons radially and causes a factor of about 3 smaller increases in density diffusion. Since the electron density transport is non-ambipolar, this flutter process also modifies the radial electric field and plasma toroidal rotation. This work extends the previously developed periodic cylinder screw pinch model [1] of RMP-flutter-induced plasma transport to a full toroidal model which is axisymmetric to lowest order plus gyroradius-small magnetic field perturbations. The possible role of the RMP-flutter-induced plasma transport in reducing pressure gradients in H-mode pedestals and thereby suppressing ELMs will be discussed.[4pt] [1] J.D. Callen et al., UW-CPTC 11-13, http://www.cptc.wisc.edu (submitted to Nucl. Fusion.)
Rate of radial transport of plasma in Saturn’s inner magnetosphere
Chen, Y.; Hill, T. W.
2009-12-01
The Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) and the Cassini Magnetospheric Imaging Instrument (MIMI) frequently observe longitudinally localized injection and drift dispersion of hot plasma in Saturn’s magnetosphere. These signatures provide direct evidence for the major convective process in the inner magnetosphere of a rapidly rotating planet, in which the radial transport of plasma comprises hot, tenuous plasma moving inward and cooler, denser plasma moving outward. These injection events have been found to occupy only a small fraction of the total available longitudinal space, indicating that the inflow speed is probably much larger than the outflow speed. We set the local corotation speed as the upper limit of inflow velocities, and deduce the corresponding radial velocities of the outflowing flux tubes by analyzing the width of injection structures and assuming that the total potential drop around a given L-shell is zero. We then estimate an upper limit to the plasma outward mass transport rate, which turns out to be somewhat larger than previous estimates of the Enceladus source rate (e.g., Pontius and Hill, 2006). An important assumption in this study is that the plasma is largely confined to a thin equatorial sheet, and we have applied a centrifugal scale height model developed by Hill and Michel [1976].
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stoschus, Henning
2011-10-13
Small three-dimensional (3D) magnetic perturbations can be used as a tool to control the edge plasma parameters in magnetically confined plasmas in high confinement mode (''H-mode'') to suppress edge instabilities inherent to this regime, the Edge Localized Modes (ELMs). In this work, the impact of rotating 3D resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) fields on the edge plasma structure characterized by electron density and temperature fields is investigated. We study a low confinement (L-mode) edge plasma (r/a>0.9) with high resistivity (edge electron collisionality {nu}{sup *}{sub e}>4) at the TEXTOR tokamak. The plasma structure in the plasma edge is measured by a set of high resolution diagnostics: a fast CCD camera ({delta}t=20 {mu}s) is set up in order to visualize the plasma structure in terms of electron density variations. A supersonic helium beam diagnostic is established as standard diagnostic at TEXTOR to measure electron density n{sub e} and temperature T{sub e} with high spatial ({delta}r=2 mm) and temporal resolution ({delta}t=20 {mu}s). The measured plasma structure is compared to modeling results from the fluid plasma and kinetic neutral transport code EMC3-EIRENE. A sequence of five new observations is discussed: (1) Imaging of electron density variations in the plasma edge shows that a fast rotating RMP field imposes an edge plasma structure, which rotates with the external RMP rotation frequency of vertical stroke {nu}{sub RMP} vertical stroke =1 kHz. (2) Measurements of the electron density and temperature provide strong experimental evidence that in the far edge a rotating 3D scrape-off layer (SOL) exists with helical exhaust channels to the plasma wall components. (3) Radially inward, the plasma structure at the next rational flux surface is found to depend on the relative rotation between external RMP field and intrinsic plasma rotation. For low relative rotation the plasma structure is dominated by a particle and energy loss
Resonant-magnetic-perturbation-induced plasma transport in H-mode pedestals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Callen, J. D.; Hegna, C. C. [University of Wisconsin, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, Wisconsin 53706-1609 (United States); Cole, A. J. [Columbia University, 201 S.W. Mudd, New York, New York 10027 (United States)
2012-11-15
Plasma toroidal rotation reduces reconnection of externally applied resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) fields {delta}B on rational (q = m/n) magnetic flux surfaces. Hence, it causes radial perturbations {delta}B{sub {rho}m/n} to be small there, and thus inhibits magnetic island formation and stochasticity in the edge of high (H-) mode confinement tokamak plasmas. However, electron collisional damping combined with the spatial magnetic flutter {delta}B{sub {rho}m/n} induced by RMPs in the vicinity of rational surfaces causes a radial electron heat diffusivity in which {chi}{sub e Parallel-To }{sup eff}{approx}(v{sub Te}{sup 2}/{nu}{sub e})/(1+x{sup 2}/{delta}{sub Parallel-To }{sup 2}) is an effective parallel electron thermal diffusivity. These effects are reduced by magnetic shear effects at a distance x from rational surfaces for |x|>{delta}{sub Parallel-To} but amplified for {delta}B-caret{sub {rho}m/n}(x)>{delta}B-caret{sub {rho}m/n}(0). A kinetic, toroidal model of these RMP-flutter-induced plasma transport effects is developed and compared to a previously developed cylindrical model. The RMP-induced increases in plasma transport can be large enough to reduce plasma gradients in H-mode pedestals. Thus, they may contribute to suppressing edge localized modes in tokamak plasmas.
Theory of self-organized critical transport in tokamak plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kishimoto, Y.; Tajima, T.; Horton, W.; LeBrun, M.J.; Kim, J.Y. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment]|[Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Inst. for Fusion Studies
1995-07-01
A theoretical and computational study of the ion temperature gradient and {eta}{sub i} instabilities in tokamak plasmas has been carried out. In toroidal geometry the modes have a radially extended structure and their eigenfrequencies are constant over many rational surfaces that are coupled through toroidicity. These nonlocal properties of the ITG modes impose strong constraint on the drift mode fluctuations and the amciated transport, showing a self-organized characteristic. As any significant deviation away from marginal stability causes rapid temperature relaxation and intermittent bursts, the modes hover near marginality and exhibit strong kinetic characteristics. As a result, the temperature relaxation is self-semilar and nonlocal, leading to a radially increasing heat diffusivity. The nonlocal transport leads to the Bohm-like diffusion scaling. The heat input regulates the deviation of the temperature gradient away from marginality. The obtained transport scalings and properties are globally consistent with experimental observations of L-mode charges.
Mathematical modeling of kidney transport.
Layton, Anita T
2013-01-01
In addition to metabolic waste and toxin excretion, the kidney also plays an indispensable role in regulating the balance of water, electrolytes, nitrogen, and acid-base. In this review, we describe representative mathematical models that have been developed to better understand kidney physiology and pathophysiology, including the regulation of glomerular filtration, the regulation of renal blood flow by means of the tubuloglomerular feedback mechanisms and of the myogenic mechanism, the urine concentrating mechanism, epithelial transport, and regulation of renal oxygen transport. We discuss the extent to which these modeling efforts have expanded our understanding of renal function in both health and disease.
The plasma membrane transport systems and adaptation to salinity.
Mansour, Mohamed Magdy F
2014-11-15
Salt stress represents one of the environmental challenges that drastically affect plant growth and yield. Evidence suggests that glycophytes and halophytes have a salt tolerance mechanisms working at the cellular level, and the plasma membrane (PM) is believed to be one facet of the cellular mechanisms. The responses of the PM transport proteins to salinity in contrasting species/cultivars were discussed. The review provides a comprehensive overview of the recent advances describing the crucial roles that the PM transport systems have in plant adaptation to salt. Several lines of evidence were presented to demonstrate the correlation between the PM transport proteins and adaptation of plants to high salinity. How alterations in these transport systems of the PM allow plants to cope with the salt stress was also addressed. Although inconsistencies exist in some of the information related to the responses of the PM transport proteins to salinity in different species/cultivars, their key roles in adaptation of plants to high salinity is obvious and evident, and cannot be precluded. Despite the promising results, detailed investigations at the cellular/molecular level are needed in some issues of the PM transport systems in response to salinity to further evaluate their implication in salt tolerance.
Furno, I.; Fasoli, A.; Avino, F.; Bovet, A.; Gustafson, K.; Iraji, D.; Labit, B.; Loizu, J.; Ricci, P.; Theiler, C.
2012-04-01
TORPEX is a toroidal device located at the CRPP-EPFL in Lausanne. In TORPEX, a vertical magnetic field superposed on a toroidal field creates helicoidal field lines with both ends terminating on the torus vessel. The turbulence driven by magnetic curvature and plasma gradients causes plasma transport in the radial direction while at the same time plasma is progressively lost along the field lines. The relatively simple magnetic geometry and diagnostic access of the TORPEX configuration facilitate the experimental study of low frequency instabilities and related turbulent transport, and make an accurate comparison between simulations and experiments possible. We first present a detailed investigation of electrostatic interchange turbulence, associated structures and their effect on plasma using high-resolution diagnostics of plasma parameters and wave fields throughout the whole device cross-section, fluid models and numerical simulations. Interchange modes nonlinearly develop blobs, radially propagating filaments of enhanced plasma pressure. Blob velocities and sizes are obtained from probe measurements using pattern recognition and are described by an analytical expression that includes ion polarization currents, parallel sheath currents and ion-neutral collisions. Then, we describe recent advances of a non-perturbative Li 6+ miniaturized ion source and a detector for the investigation of the interaction between supra thermal ions and interchange-driven turbulence. We present first measurements of the spatial and energy space distribution of the fast ion beam in different plasma scenarios, in which the plasma turbulence is fully characterized. The experiments are interpreted using two-dimensional fluid simulations describing the low-frequency interchange turbulence, taking into account the plasma source and plasma losses at the torus vessel. By treating fast ions as test particles, we integrate their equations of motion in the simulated electromagnetic fields, and
A Selected Library of Transport Coefficients for Combustion and Plasma Physics Applications
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cloutman, L.D.
2000-08-01
COYOTE and similar combustion programs based on the multicomponent Navier-Stokes equations require the mixture viscosity, thermal conductivity, and species transport coefficients as input. This report documents a model of these molecular transport coefficients that is simpler than the general theory, but which provides adequate accuracy for many purposes. This model leads to a computationally convenient, self-contained, and easy-to-use source of such data in a format suitable for use by such programs. We present the data for various neutral species in two forms. The first form is a simple functional fit to the transport coefficients. The second form is the use of tabulated Lennard-Jones parameters in simple theoretical expressions for the gas-phase transport coefficients. The model then is extended to the case of a two-temperature plasma. Lennard-Jones parameters are given for a number of chemical species of interest in combustion research.
Non-LTE Radiation Transport in High Radiation Plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Scott, H A
2005-01-07
A primary goal of numerical radiation transport is obtaining a self-consistent solution for both the radiation field and plasma properties. Obtaining such a solution requires consideration of the coupling between the radiation and the plasma. The different characteristics of this coupling for continuum and line radiation have resulted in two separate sub-disciplines of radiation transport with distinct emphases and computational techniques. LTE radiation transfer focuses on energy transport and exchange through broadband radiation, primarily affecting temperature and ionization balance. Non-LTE line transfer focuses on narrowband radiation and the response of individual level populations, primarily affecting spectral properties. Many high energy density applications, particularly those with high-Z materials, incorporate characteristics of both these regimes. Applications with large radiation fields including strong line components require a non-LTE broadband treatment of energy transport and exchange. We discuss these issues and present a radiation transport treatment which combines features of both types of approaches by explicitly incorporating the dependence of material properties on both temperature and radiation fields. The additional terms generated by the radiation dependence do not change the character of the system of equations and can easily be added to a numerical transport implementation. A numerical example from a Z-pinch application demonstrates that this method improves both the stability and convergence of the calculations. The information needed to characterize the material response to radiation is closely related to that used by the Linear Response Matrix (LRM) approach to near-LTE simulation, and we investigate the use of the LRM for these calculations.
Plasma transport properties at the L-H transition and high performance phase of JET discharges
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Balet, B.; Cordey, J.G.; Erba, M.; Jones, T.T.C.; Lomas, P.J.; Smeulders, P.; Springmann, E.M.; Stubberfield, P.M.; Taroni, A.; Thomsen, K. [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Parail, V.V. [Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)
1994-07-01
Numerical analysis are performed which show that both electron and ion thermal diffusivities are reduced by one order of magnitude everywhere, not only in a narrow region near separatrix during the L-H transition. There is no separate H-VH transition on JET, this transition coincides with the cessation of ELMs. In the ELM free phase ion transport in the core is close to its neoclassical value, but probably rises towards plasma edge (however still remaining much less than it was in L-mode). The best agreement with experiment is obtained with the model which simultaneously takes into account both the global reduction of Bohm type anomalous transport in plasma core and formation of temperature pedestal near plasma edge. (authors). 6 refs., 5 figs.
Modeling the Lunar plasma wake
Holmstrom, M
2013-01-01
Bodies that lack a significant atmosphere and internal magnetic fields, such as the Moon and asteroids, can to a first approximation be considered passive absorbers of the solar wind. The solar wind ions and electrons directly impact the surface of these bodies due to the lack of atmosphere, and the interplanetary magnetic field passes through the obstacle relatively undisturbed because the bodies are assumed to be non-conductive. Since the solar wind is absorbed by the body, a wake is created behind the object. This wake is gradually filled by solar wind plasma downstream of the body, through thermal expansion and the resulting ambipolar electric field, along the magnetic field lines. Here we study this plasma expansion into a vacuum using a hybrid plasma solver. In the hybrid approximation, ions are treated as particles, and electrons as a massless fluid. We also derive corresponding one- and two-dimensional model problems that account for the absorbing obstacle. It is found that the absorbing obstacle crea...
Interchange turbulence model for the edge plasma in SOLEDGE2D-EIRENE
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bufferand, H.; Marandet, Y. [Aix-Marseille Universite, CNRS, PIIM, Marseille (France); Ciraolo, G.; Ghendrih, P.; Bucalossi, J.; Fedorczak, N.; Gunn, J.; Tamain, P. [CEA, IRFM, Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Colin, C.; Galassi, D.; Leybros, R.; Serre, E. [Aix-Marseille Universite, CNRS, M2P2, Marseille (France)
2016-08-15
Cross-field transport in edge tokamak plasmas is known to be dominated by turbulent transport. A dedicated effort has been made to simulate this turbulent transport from first principle models but the numerical cost to run these simulations on the ITER scale remains prohibitive. Edge plasma transport study relies mostly nowadays on so-called transport codes where the turbulent transport is taken into account using effective ad-hoc diffusion coefficients. In this contribution, we propose to introduce a transport equation for the turbulence intensity in SOLEDGE2D-EIRENE to describe the interchange turbulence properties. Going beyond the empirical diffusive model, this system automatically generates profiles for the turbulent transport and hence reduces the number of degrees of freedom for edge plasma transport codes. We draw inspiration from the k-epsilon model widely used in the neutral fluid community. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Thermodynamical and microscopic properties of turbulent transport in the edge plasma
Ghendrih, Ph; Norscini, C.; Hasenbeck, F.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Abiteboul, J.; Cartier-Michaud, T.; Garbet, X.; Grandgirard, V.; Marandet, Y.; Sarazin, Y.; Tamain, P.; Zarzoso, D.
2012-12-01
Edge plasma turbulence modelled with 2D interchange is shown to exhibit convective transport at the microscale level. This transport property is related to avalanche like transport in such a flux-driven system. Correlation functions and source modulation are used to analyse the transport properties but do not allow one to recover the Fick law that must characterise the system at large scales. Coarse graining is then introduced to average out the small scales in order to recover the Fick law. One finds that the required space averaging is comparable to the system size while the time averaging is comparable to the confinement time. The system is then reduced to a single reservoir such that transport is characterised by a single scalar, either the diffusion coefficient of the Fick law or a characteristic evolution time constant.
Perturbative momentum transport in MAST L-mode plasmas
Guttenfelder, W.; Field, A. R.; Lupelli, I.; Tala, T.; Kaye, S. M.; Ren, Y.; Solomon, W. M.
2017-05-01
Non-axisymmetric magnetic fields are used to perturbatively probe momentum transport physics in MAST L-mode plasmas. The low beta L-mode target was chosen to complement previous experiments conducted in high beta NSTX H-mode plasmas (β N = 3.5-4.6) where an inward momentum pinch was measured. In those cases quasi-linear gyrokinetic simulations of unstable ballooning micro-instabilities predict weak or outward momentum convection, in contrast to the measurements. The weak pinch was predicted to be due to both electromagnetic effects at high beta and low aspect ratio minimizing the symmetry-breaking of the instabilities responsible for momentum transport. In an attempt to lessen these electromagnetic effects at low aspect ratio, perturbative experiments were run in MAST L-mode discharges at lower beta (β N = 2). The perturbative transport analysis used the time-dependent response following the termination of applied 3D fields that briefly brake the plasma rotation (similar to the NSTX H-mode experiments). Assuming time-invariant diffusive (χ φ ) and convective (V φ ) transport coefficients, an inward pinch is inferred with magnitudes, (RV φ /χ φ ) = (-1)-(-9), similar to those found in NSTX H-modes and in conventional tokamaks. However, if experimental uncertainties due to non-stationary conditions during and after the applied 3D field are considered, a weak pinch or even outward convection is inferred, (RV φ /χ φ ) = (-1)-(+5). Linear gyrokinetic simulations indicate that for these lower beta L-modes, the predicted momentum pinch is predicted to be relatively small, (RV φ /χ φ )sim ≈ -1. While this falls within the experimentally inferred range, the uncertainties are practically too large to quantitatively validate the predictions. Challenges and implications for this particular experimental technique are discussed, as well as additional possible physical mechanisms that may be important in
Plant Phosphoproteomics: Analysis of Plasma Membrane Transporters by Mass Spectrometry
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ye, Juanying; Rudashevskaya, Elena; Young, Clifford
important physiological functions, such as stomata aperture, cell elongation, or cellular pH regulation. It is known that the activity of plant plasma membrane H+-ATPase is regulated by phosphorylation. Therefore, we first investigated the phosphorylation profile of plant H+-ATPase by enriching...... the phosphopeptides with optimized TiO2 and IMAC enrichment methods prior to MS analysis. We further investigated the global phosphorylation profile of the whole plant plasma membrane proteins using the combination of our recently established phosphopeptide enrichment method, Calcium phosphate precipitation...... Phosphorylation is a key regulatory factor in all aspects of eukaryotic biology including the regulation of plant membrane-bound transport proteins. To date, mass spectrometry (MS) has been introduced as powerful technology for study of post translational modifications (PTMs), including protein...
Modelling of Transport Projects Uncertainties
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Salling, Kim Bang; Leleur, Steen
2012-01-01
This paper proposes a new way of handling the uncertainties present in transport decision making based on infrastructure appraisals. The paper suggests to combine the principle of Optimism Bias, which depicts the historical tendency of overestimating transport related benefits and underestimating...... investment costs, with a quantitative risk analysis based on Monte Carlo simulation and to make use of a set of exploratory scenarios. The analysis is carried out by using the CBA-DK model representing the Danish standard approach to socio-economic cost-benefit analysis. Specifically, the paper proposes......-based graphs which functions as risk-related decision support for the appraised transport infrastructure project. The presentation of RSF is demonstrated by using an appraisal case concerning a new airfield in the capital of Greenland, Nuuk....
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Itoh, Kimitaka [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Itoh, Sanae-I.; Yagi, Masatoshi [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics
2002-09-01
Nonlocal properties of fluctuations in confined plasmas are briefly surveyed. Contributions to understanding the bifurcation phenomena, improved confinement, and transient transport problem are explained. The theoretical progress in this aspect is addressed: Namely, the fluctuations are not excited by linear instabilities but are dressed with other turbulent fluctuations or fluctuations of meso-scale. Nonlinear interactions of fluctuations with different scale lengths are essential in dictating the dynamics of turbulence and turbulent transport. There are activators and suppressers in global inhomogeneities for evolution of turbulence. Turbulent fluctuations, on the other hand, induce or destroy these global inhomogeneities. Finally, statistical nature of turbulence is addressed. (author)
Guiding-center models for edge plasmas and numerical simulations of isolated plasma filaments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Madsen, Jens
2010-09-15
The work presented in this thesis falls into two categories: development of reduced dynamical models applicable to edge turbulence in magnetically confined fusion plasmas and numerical simulations of isolated plasma filaments in the scrape-off layer region investigating the influence of finite Larmor radius effects on the radial plasma transport. The coexistence of low-frequency fluctuations, having length scales comparable to the ion gyroradius, steep pressure gradients and strong E x B flows in the edge region of fusion plasmas violates the standard gyrokinetic ordering. In this thesis two models are presented that overcome some of the difficulties associated with the development of reduced dynamical models applicable to the edge. Second order guiding-center coordinates are derived using the phasespace Lie transform method. Using a variational principle the corresponding Vlasov-Maxwell equations expressed in guiding-center coordinates are derived including a local energy theorem. The second order terms describe lowest order finite Larmor radius effects. This set of equations might be relevant for edge plasmas due to the capability of capturing strong E x B flows and lowest order finite Larmor radius effects self-consistently. Next, an extension of the existing gyrokinetic formalism with strong flows is presented. In this work the background electric fields is dynamical, whereas earlier contributions did only incorporate a stationary electric field. In an ordering relevant for edge plasma turbulence, fully electromagnetic second order gyrokinetic coordinates and the corresponding gyrokinetic Vlasov-Maxwell equations are derived, including a local energy theorem. By taking the polarization and magnetization densities in the drift kinetic limit, we present the gyrokinetic Vlasov-Maxwell equations in a more tractable form, which could be relevant for direct numerical simulations of edge plasma turbulence. Finally, an investigation of the influence of finite Larmor
Transport of electron-hole plasma in germanium
Kirch, S. J.; Wolfe, J. P.
1986-08-01
Time-resolved luminescence imaging techniques are used to observe the spectral and spatial evolution of laser-generated electron-hole plasma in Ge. Both pulsed and cw excitation conditions are examined above and below the critical temperature for electron-hole liquid formation, Tc(LG). For Q-switched Nd-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser excitation, the transport behavior is qualitatively similar above and below Tc(LG), although the luminescence spectrum undergoes significant changes in this temperature range. A rapid initial expansion (v~105 cm/s) is followed by a period of slower growth which gradually reduces as the carriers recombine. The initial velocity for pulsed excitation increases monotonically as the crystal temperature is lowered and saturates near the phonon sound velocity for high-energy excitation. These observations are consistent with phonon-wind driven transport. For intense Q-switched excitation, the motion is characterized by three regimes: (1) During the laser pulse the plasma expands as a large drop with near-unity filling fraction. (2) Expansion at near-sonic velocity continues after the peak of the laser pulse due to a ``prompt'' pulse of ballistic phonons produced by the carrier thermalization process. (3) After this intense phonon wind passes the carrier distribution, the expansion velocity abruptly decreases, but the plasma continues to expand more slowly under the influence of a ``hot spot'' produced at the excitation point. The sound barrier observed on these time scales (>=30 ns) can be explained in terms of nonlinear damping of the plasma motion near the sound velocity. For cw excitation, the expansion is observed to occur at much lower velocities (v~104 cm/s). These expansion rates are much too low to require the inclusion of a drifted Fermi distribution in the spectral analysis as has been previously suggested. Instead, based upon a careful study of corresponding spectral data, an alternative explanation for these spectra is
Radiation Belt and Plasma Model Requirements
Barth, Janet L.
2005-01-01
Contents include the following: Radiation belt and plasma model environment. Environment hazards for systems and humans. Need for new models. How models are used. Model requirements. How can space weather community help?
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schuster, Eugenio
2014-05-02
The strong coupling between the different physical variables involved in the plasma transport phenomenon and the high complexity of its dynamics call for a model-based, multivariable approach to profile control where those predictive models could be exploited. The overall objective of this project has been to extend the existing body of work by investigating numerically and experimentally active control of unstable fluctuations, including fully developed turbulence and the associated cross-field particle transport, via manipulation of flow profiles in a magnetized laboratory plasma device. Fluctuations and particle transport can be monitored by an array of electrostatic probes, and Ex B flow profiles can be controlled via a set of biased concentric ring electrodes that terminate the plasma column. The goals of the proposed research have been threefold: i- to develop a predictive code to simulate plasma transport in the linear HELCAT (HELicon-CAThode) plasma device at the University of New Mexico (UNM), where the experimental component of the proposed research has been carried out; ii- to establish the feasibility of using advanced model-based control algorithms to control cross-field turbulence-driven particle transport through appropriate manipulation of radial plasma flow profiles, iii- to investigate the fundamental nonlinear dynamics of turbulence and transport physics. Lehigh University (LU), including Prof. Eugenio Schuster and one full-time graduate student, has been primarily responsible for control-oriented modeling and model-based control design. Undergraduate students have also participated in this project through the National Science Foundation Research Experience for Undergraduate (REU) program. The main goal of the LU Plasma Control Group has been to study the feasibility of controlling turbulence-driven transport by shaping the radial poloidal flow profile (i.e., by controlling flow shear) via biased concentric ring electrodes.
Transport Bifurcation Induced by Sheared Toroidal Flow in Tokamak Plasmas
Highcock, E G; Parra, F I; Schekochihin, A A; Roach, C M; Cowley, S C
2011-01-01
First-principles numerical simulations are used to describe a transport bifurcation in a differentially rotating tokamak plasma. Such a bifurcation is more probable in a region of zero magnetic shear, where the component of the sheared toroidal flow that is perpendicular to the magnetic field has the strongest suppressing effect on the turbulence, than one of finite magnetic shear. Where the magnetic shear is zero, there are no growing linear eigenmodes at any finite value of flow shear. However, subcritical turbulence can be sustained, owing to the transient growth of modes driven by the ion temperature gradient (ITG) and the parallel velocity gradient (PVG). Nonetheless, in a parameter space containing a wide range of temperature gradients and velocity shears, there is a sizeable window where all turbulence is suppressed. Combined with the relatively low transport of momentum by collisional (neoclassical) mechanisms, this produces the conditions for a bifurcation from low to high temperature and velocity gr...
A Theoretic Model of Transport Logistics Demand
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Natalija Jolić
2006-01-01
Full Text Available Concerning transport logistics as relation between transportand integrated approaches to logistics, some transport and logisticsspecialists consider the tenn tautological. However,transport is one of the components of logistics, along with inventories,resources, warehousing, infonnation and goods handling.Transport logistics considers wider commercial and operationalframeworks within which the flow of goods is plannedand managed. The demand for transport logistics services canbe valorised as highly qualitative, differentiated and derived.While researching transport phenomenon the implementationof models is inevitable and demand models highly desirable. Asa contribution to transport modelling this paper improves decisionmaking and planning in the transport logistics field.
Application of the New Weiland Model for Studying Transport Barriers
Kritz, Arnold; Fan, Xiang; Rafiq, Tariq; Tangri, Varun; Pankin, Alexei; Weiland, Jan
2012-10-01
Recent advances in the Weiland drift wave model include new correlation length and new kink (peeling) terms as well as collisions on free electrons. The new model also includes electromagnetic effects on toroidal and poloidal momentum transport. These advances make the model suitable for simulating anomalous effects in transport barriers. A description of the Weiland model content is included in the adjacent poster by T. Rafiq et al. In this study, particle, thermal, and momentum transport coefficients are computed in systematic scans over electron and ion temperature gradients, temperature ratio, density gradient, magnetic q, collision frequency, trapped particle fraction, magnetic shear, Larmor radius, plasma β and elongation. Special consideration is given to the plasma parameter scans that correspond to the plasma edge region such as large temperature and density gradients, large magnetic shear and large magnetic q. The transport results yielded by the new Weiland drift wave model are contrasted with the earlier version of the model. Combined with high fidelity models for neoclassical effects such as NEO and XGC0 models, it is anticipated that the new Weiland model can be used to model H-mode pedestal buildup and recovery between ELM crashes.
A Particle In Cell code development for high current ion beam transport and plasma simulations
Joshi, N
2016-01-01
A simulation package employing a Particle in Cell (PIC) method is developed to study the high current beam transport and the dynamics of plasmas. This package includes subroutines those are suited for various planned projects at University of Frankfurt. In the framework of the storage ring project (F8SR) the code was written to describe the beam optics in toroidal magnetic fields. It is used to design an injection system for a ring with closed magnetic field lines. The generalized numerical model, in Cartesian coordinates is used to describe the intense ion beam transport through the chopper system in the low energy beam section of the FRANZ project. Especially for the chopper system, the Poisson equation is implemented with irregular geometries. The Particle In Cell model is further upgraded with a Monte Carlo Collision subroutine for simulation of plasma in the volume type ion source.
Valinataj Omran, A.; Sohbatzadeh, F.; Siadati, S. N.; Hosseinzadeh Colagar, A.; Akishev, Y.; Arefi-Khonsari, F.
2017-08-01
In this article, we developed transporting plasma sources that operate at atmospheric pressure. The effect of electrode configuration on plasma transporting was investigated. In order to increase the transporting plasma cross-section, we converted a plasma stream into four plasma channels by a cylindrical housing. Electron excitation and rotational temperatures were estimated using optical emission spectroscopy. Furthermore, the electrical and temporal characteristics of the plasma, discharge power and charge deposition on the target were investigated. The propagation characteristics of single and multi-channel transporting plasma were compared with the same cross-sectional area. Two configurations for multi-channels were designed for this purpose. Escherichia coli bacteria were exposed to the single and multi-channel transporting discharge for different time durations. After exposure, the results indicated that the inactivation zones were significantly increased by a multi-channel transporting plasma. Finally, E. coli inactivation by those plasma apparatuses was compared with that of several standard antimicrobial test discs such as Gentamicin, Tetracycline, Amoxicillin and Cefixime.
Multi-field plasma sandpile model in tokamaks and applications
Peng, X. D.; Xu, J. Q.
2016-08-01
A multi-field sandpile model of tokamak plasmas is formulated for the first time to simulate the dynamic process with interaction between avalanche events on the fast/micro time-scale and diffusive transports on the slow/macro time-scale. The main characteristics of the model are that both particle and energy avalanches of sand grains are taken into account simultaneously. New redistribution rules of a sand-relaxing process are defined according to the transport properties of special turbulence which allows the uphill particle transport. Applying the model, we first simulate the steady-state plasma profile self-sustained by drift wave turbulences in the Ohmic discharge of a tokamak. A scaling law as f = a q0 b + c for the relation of both center-density n ( 0 ) and electron (ion) temperatures T e ( 0 ) ( T i ( 0 ) ) with the center-safety-factor q 0 is found. Then interesting work about the nonlocal transport phenomenon observed in tokamak experiments proceeds. It is found that the core electron temperature increases rapidly in response to the edge cold pulse and inversely it decreases in response to the edge heat pulse. The results show that the nonlocal response of core electron temperature depending on the amplitudes of background plasma density and temperature is more remarkable in a range of gas injection rate. Analyses indicate that the avalanche transport caused by plasma drift instabilities with thresholds is a possible physical mechanism for the nonlocal transport in tokamaks. It is believed that the model is capable of being applied to more extensive questions occurring in the transport field.
Hamiltonian approach to hybrid plasma models
Tronci, Cesare
2010-01-01
The Hamiltonian structures of several hybrid kinetic-fluid models are identified explicitly, upon considering collisionless Vlasov dynamics for the hot particles interacting with a bulk fluid. After presenting different pressure-coupling schemes for an ordinary fluid interacting with a hot gas, the paper extends the treatment to account for a fluid plasma interacting with an energetic ion species. Both current-coupling and pressure-coupling MHD schemes are treated extensively. In particular, pressure-coupling schemes are shown to require a transport-like term in the Vlasov kinetic equation, in order for the Hamiltonian structure to be preserved. The last part of the paper is devoted to studying the more general case of an energetic ion species interacting with a neutralizing electron background (hybrid Hall-MHD). Circulation laws and Casimir functionals are presented explicitly in each case.
ITER plasma safety interface models and assessments
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Uckan, N.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Bartels, H-W. [ITER San Diego Joint Work Site, La Jolla, CA (United States); Honda, T. [Hitachi Ltd., Ibaraki (Japan). Hitachi Research Lab.; Putvinski, S. [ITER San Diego Joint Work Site, La Jolla, CA (United States); Amano, T. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Nagoya (Japan); Boucher, D.; Post, D.; Wesley, J. [ITER San Diego Joint Work Site, La Jolla, CA (United States)
1996-12-31
Physics models and requirements to be used as a basis for safety analysis studies are developed and physics results motivated by safety considerations are presented for the ITER design. Physics specifications are provided for enveloping plasma dynamic events for Category I (operational event), Category II (likely event), and Category III (unlikely event). A safety analysis code SAFALY has been developed to investigate plasma anomaly events. The plasma response to ex-vessel component failure and machine response to plasma transients are considered.
Modelling of density limit phenomena in toroidal helical plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Itoh, K. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Itoh, S.-I. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics; Giannone, L. [Max Planck Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-IPP Association, Garching (Germany)
2000-03-01
The physics of density limit phenomena in toroidal helical plasmas based on an analytic point model of toroidal plasmas is discussed. The combined mechanism of the transport and radiation loss of energy is analyzed, and the achievable density is derived. A scaling law of the density limit is discussed. The dependence of the critical density on the heating power, magnetic field, plasma size and safety factor in the case of L-mode energy confinement is explained. The dynamic evolution of the plasma energy and radiation loss is discussed. Assuming a simple model of density evolution, of a sudden loss of density if the temperature becomes lower than critical value, then a limit cycle oscillation is shown to occur. A condition that divides the limit cycle oscillation and the complete radiation collapse is discussed. This model seems to explain the density limit oscillation that has been observed on the W7-AS stellarator. (author)
Modelling of density limit phenomena in toroidal helical plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Itoh, Kimitaka [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Itoh, Sanae-I. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics; Giannone, Louis [EURATOM-IPP Association, Max Planck Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany)
2001-11-01
The physics of density limit phenomena in toroidal helical plasmas based on an analytic point model of toroidal plasmas is discussed. The combined mechanism of the transport and radiation loss of energy is analyzed, and the achievable density is derived. A scaling law of the density limit is discussed. The dependence of the critical density on the heating power, magnetic field, plasma size and safety factor in the case of L-mode energy confinement is explained. The dynamic evolution of the plasma energy and radiation loss is discussed. Assuming a simple model of density evolution, of a sudden loss of density if the temperature becomes lower than critical value, then a limit cycle oscillation is shown to occur. A condition that divides the limit cycle oscillation and the complete radiation collapse is discussed. This model seems to explain the density limit oscillation that has been observed on the Wendelstein 7-AS (W7-AS) stellarator. (author)
Modelling of Transport Projects Uncertainties
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Salling, Kim Bang; Leleur, Steen
2009-01-01
This paper proposes a new way of handling the uncertainties present in transport decision making based on infrastructure appraisals. The paper suggests to combine the principle of Optimism Bias, which depicts the historical tendency of overestimating transport related benefits and underestimating...... investment costs, with a quantitative risk analysis based on Monte Carlo simulation and to make use of a set of exploratory scenarios. The analysis is carried out by using the CBA-DK model representing the Danish standard approach to socio-economic cost-benefit analysis. Specifically, the paper proposes...... to supplement Optimism Bias and the associated Reference Class Forecasting (RCF) technique with a new technique that makes use of a scenario-grid. We tentatively introduce and refer to this as Reference Scenario Forecasting (RSF). The final RSF output from the CBA-DK model consists of a set of scenario...
Beltrami States for Plasma Dynamics Models
Shivamoggi, B. K.
2007-01-01
The various plasma models - incompressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model, compressible MHD model, incompressible Hall MHD model, compressible Hall MHD model, electron MHD model, compressible Hall MHD with electron inertia model - notwithstanding the diversity of the underlying physics, are shown to exhibit some common features in the Beltrami states like certain robustness with respect to the plasma compressibility effects (albeit in the barotropy assumption) and the {\\it Bernoulli} conditi...
Transport timescale calculations of sawteeth and helical structures in non-circular tokamak plasmas
Jardin, Stephen; Ferraro, Nate; Breslau, Josh; Chen, Jin
2012-10-01
We present results of using the implicit 3D MHD code M3D-C^1 [1,2] to perform 3D nonlinear magnetohydrodynamics calculations of the internal dynamics of a shaped cross-section tokamak plasma that span the timescales associated with ideal and resistive stability as well as parallel and perpendicular transport. We specify the transport coefficients and apply a ``current controller'' that adjusts the boundary loop-voltage to keep the total plasma current fixed. The 3D 2-fluid plasma model advances the magnetic field, velocities, electron and ion temperatures, and plasma density. We find that the plasma either reaches a stationary quasi-helical state in which the central safety factor is approximately unity, or it periodically undergoes either simple or compound sawtooth oscillations [3] with a period that approaches a constant value. By comparing a dee-shaped cross section with an elliptical shaped cross section, it is shown that the plasma shape has a large effect on determining the sawtooth behavior and the associated mode activity. Application to ITER shaped tokamak plasmas predict the magnitude of the 3D boundary deformation as a result of a stationary quasi-helical state forming in the interior. [4pt] [1] J. Breslau, N. Ferraro, S.C. Jardin, Physics of Plasmas 16 092503 (2009) [0pt] [2] S. C. Jardin, N. Ferraro, J. Breslau, J. Chen, Computational Science and Discovery 5 014002 (2012) [0pt] [3] X. von Goeler, W. Stodiek, and N. Sauthoff, Phys. Rev. Lett. 33, 1201 (1974)
Plasma membrane microdomains regulate turnover of transport proteins in yeast
Grossmann, Guido; Malinsky, Jan; Stahlschmidt, Wiebke; Loibl, Martin; Weig-Meckl, Ina; Frommer, Wolf B.; Opekarová, Miroslava; Tanner, Widmar
2008-01-01
In this study, we investigate whether the stable segregation of proteins and lipids within the yeast plasma membrane serves a particular biological function. We show that 21 proteins cluster within or associate with the ergosterol-rich membrane compartment of Can1 (MCC). However, proteins of the endocytic machinery are excluded from MCC. In a screen, we identified 28 genes affecting MCC appearance and found that genes involved in lipid biosynthesis and vesicle transport are significantly overrepresented. Deletion of Pil1, a component of eisosomes, or of Nce102, an integral membrane protein of MCC, results in the dissipation of all MCC markers. These deletion mutants also show accelerated endocytosis of MCC-resident permeases Can1 and Fur4. Our data suggest that release from MCC makes these proteins accessible to the endocytic machinery. Addition of arginine to wild-type cells leads to a similar redistribution and increased turnover of Can1. Thus, MCC represents a protective area within the plasma membrane to control turnover of transport proteins. PMID:19064668
Quasilinear Carbon Transport In An Impurity Hole Plasma In LHD
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mikkelsen, David R. [PPPL; Tanaka, K. [NIFS; Nunami, M. [NIFS; Watanabe, T-H. [Nagoya University; Sugama, H. [NIFS; Yoshinuma, M. [NIFS; Suzuki, Y. [NIFS; Goto, M. [NIFS; Morita, S. [NIFS; Wieland, B. [NIFS; Yamada, I. [NIFS; Yashura, R. [NIFS; Akiyama, T. [NIFS; Pablant, Novimir A. [PPPL
2014-04-01
Comprehensive electrostatic gyrokinetic linear stability calculations for ion-scale microinstabilities in an LHD plasma with an ion-ITB and carbon "impurity hole" are used to make quasilinear estimates of particle flux to explore whether microturbulence can explain the observed outward carbon fluxes that flow "up" the impurity density gradient. The ion temperature is not stationary in the ion-ITB phase of the simulated discharge, during which the core carbon density decreases continuously. To fully sample these varying conditions the calculations are carried out at three radial locations and four times. The plasma parameter inputs are based on experimentally measured profiles of electron and ion temperature, as well as electron and carbon density. The spectroscopic line-average ratio of hydrogen and helium densities is used to set the density of these species. Three ion species (H,He,C) and the electrons are treated kinetically, including collisions. Electron instability drive does enhance the growth rate significantly, but the most unstable modes have characteristics of ion temperature gradient (ITG) modes in all cases. As the carbon density gradient is scanned between the measured value and zero, the quasilinear carbon flux is invariably inward when the carbon density profile is hollow, so turbulent transport due to the instabilities considered here does not explain the observed outward flux of impurities in impurity hole plasmas. The stiffness of the quasilinear ion heat flux is found to be 1.7-2.3, which is lower than several estimates in tokamaks.
Hydrodynamic transport coefficients for the non-conformal quark-gluon plasma from holography
Finazzo, Stefano I; Marrochio, Hugo; Noronha, Jorge
2014-01-01
In this paper we obtain holographic formulas for the transport coefficients $\\kappa$ and $\\tau_\\pi$ present in the second-order derivative expansion of relativistic hydrodynamics in curved spacetime associated with a non-conformal strongly coupled plasma described holographically by an Einstein+Scalar action in the bulk. We compute these coefficients as functions of the temperature in a bottom-up non-conformal model that is tuned to reproduce lattice QCD thermodynamics at zero baryon chemical potential. We directly compute, besides the speed of sound, 6 other transport coefficients that appear at second-order in the derivative expansion. We also give an estimate for the temperature dependence of 11 other transport coefficients taking into account the simplest contribution from non-conformal effects that appear near the QCD crossover phase transition. Using these results, we construct an Israel-Stewart-like theory in flat spacetime containing 13 of these 17 transport coefficients that should be suitable for ph...
Model analysis of edge relaxation phenomena in Tokamak plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Matsukawa, Shogo [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka (Japan); Itoh, Sanae I.; Yagi, Masatoshi [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics
2000-09-01
From the view point of the oscillatory characteristics, the heat transport in the plasma edge region is investigated based on a transition transport model with hysteresis nature. A hysteresis type flux-force relation is incorporated into the model by introducing a transition model of the heat diffusivity. For a given influx from the upstream side, the one dimensional heat transport equitation is solved numerically. The time evolution of the heat flux oscillation due to the hysteresis nature and the parameter dependences of its amplitude and frequency are examined. The non-monotonous relation between the frequency of the flux oscillation and the influx is obtained. The critical behavior of the transition between transport mechanisms, i.e., the hysteresis type and the discontinuous one, is expressed as power law relations of them. The self-organized criticality like behavior, i.e., power spectrum obeying power law, is found in a limiting case of the model. (author)
Reduced Fast Ion Transport Model For The Tokamak Transport Code TRANSP
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Podesta,, Mario; Gorelenkova, Marina; White, Roscoe
2014-02-28
Fast ion transport models presently implemented in the tokamak transport code TRANSP [R. J. Hawryluk, in Physics of Plasmas Close to Thermonuclear Conditions, CEC Brussels, 1 , 19 (1980)] are not capturing important aspects of the physics associated with resonant transport caused by instabilities such as Toroidal Alfv en Eigenmodes (TAEs). This work describes the implementation of a fast ion transport model consistent with the basic mechanisms of resonant mode-particle interaction. The model is formulated in terms of a probability distribution function for the particle's steps in phase space, which is consistent with the MonteCarlo approach used in TRANSP. The proposed model is based on the analysis of fast ion response to TAE modes through the ORBIT code [R. B. White et al., Phys. Fluids 27 , 2455 (1984)], but it can be generalized to higher frequency modes (e.g. Compressional and Global Alfv en Eigenmodes) and to other numerical codes or theories.
Electron thermal transport barriers in RTP: experiment and modelling
Schilham, A.M.R.; Hogeweij, G. M. D.; Cardozo, N. J. L.
2001-01-01
Experiments in which very localized electron cyclotron heating (ECH) is scanned through the RTP plasma show sharp transitions, in which the electron temperature profile abruptly changes shape. The phenomenology-the profiles shapes, the sharp transitions-can be reproduced with a transport model which
Some problems of pulsar physics. [magnetospheric plasma model
Arons, J.
1979-01-01
The theories of particle acceleration along polar field lines are reviewed, and the total energization of the charge separated plasma is summarized, when pair creation is absent. The application of these theories and plasma supply to pulsars is discussed, with attention given to the total amount of electron-positron plasma created and its momentum distribution. Various aspects of radiation emission and transport are analyzed, based on a polar current flow model with pair creation, and the phenomenon of marching subpulses is considered. The coronation beaming and the relativistically expanding current sheet models for pulsar emission are also outlined, and the paper concludes with a brief discussion of the relation between the theories of polar flow with pair plasma and the problem of the energization of the Crab Nebula.
Recent progress in plasma modelling at INFN-LNS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Neri, L., E-mail: neri@lns.infn.it; Castro, G.; Mascali, D.; Celona, L.; Gammino, S. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, 95125 Catania (Italy); Torrisi, G. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, 95125 Catania (Italy); Università Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, Via Graziella, 89100 Reggio Calabria (Italy); Galatà, A. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Viale dell’Università 2, 35020 Legnaro, Padova (Italy)
2016-02-15
At Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (INFN-LNS), the development of intense ion and proton sources has been supported by a great deal of work on the modelling of microwave generated plasmas for many years. First, a stationary version of the particle-in-cell code was developed for plasma modelling starting from an iterative strategy adopted for the space charge dominated beam transport simulations. Electromagnetic properties of the plasma and full-waves simulations are now affordable for non-homogenous and non-isotropic magnetized plasma via “cold” approximation. The effects of Coulomb collisions on plasma particles dynamics was implemented with the Langevin formalism, instead of simply applying the Spitzer 90° collisions through a Monte Carlo technique. A wide database of different cross sections related to reactions occurring in a hydrogen plasma was implemented. The next step consists of merging such a variety of approaches for retrieving an “as-a-whole” picture of plasma dynamics in ion sources. The preliminary results will be summarized in the paper for a microwave discharge ion source designed for intense and high quality proton beams production, proton source for European Spallation Source project. Even if the realization of a predictive software including the complete processes involved in plasma formation is still rather far, a better comprehension of the source behavior is possible and so the simulations may support the optimization phase.
Recent progress in plasma modelling at INFN-LNS
Neri, L.; Castro, G.; Torrisi, G.; Galatà, A.; Mascali, D.; Celona, L.; Gammino, S.
2016-02-01
At Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (INFN-LNS), the development of intense ion and proton sources has been supported by a great deal of work on the modelling of microwave generated plasmas for many years. First, a stationary version of the particle-in-cell code was developed for plasma modelling starting from an iterative strategy adopted for the space charge dominated beam transport simulations. Electromagnetic properties of the plasma and full-waves simulations are now affordable for non-homogenous and non-isotropic magnetized plasma via "cold" approximation. The effects of Coulomb collisions on plasma particles dynamics was implemented with the Langevin formalism, instead of simply applying the Spitzer 90° collisions through a Monte Carlo technique. A wide database of different cross sections related to reactions occurring in a hydrogen plasma was implemented. The next step consists of merging such a variety of approaches for retrieving an "as-a-whole" picture of plasma dynamics in ion sources. The preliminary results will be summarized in the paper for a microwave discharge ion source designed for intense and high quality proton beams production, proton source for European Spallation Source project. Even if the realization of a predictive software including the complete processes involved in plasma formation is still rather far, a better comprehension of the source behavior is possible and so the simulations may support the optimization phase.
Heat transport modelling in EXTRAP T2R
Frassinetti, L.; Brunsell, P. R.; Cecconello, M.; Drake, J. R.
2009-02-01
A model to estimate the heat transport in the EXTRAP T2R reversed field pinch (RFP) is described. The model, based on experimental and theoretical results, divides the RFP electron heat diffusivity χe into three regions, one in the plasma core, where χe is assumed to be determined by the tearing modes, one located around the reversal radius, where χe is assumed not dependent on the magnetic fluctuations and one in the extreme edge, where high χe is assumed. The absolute values of the core and of the reversal χe are determined by simulating the electron temperature and the soft x-ray and by comparing the simulated signals with the experimental ones. The model is used to estimate the heat diffusivity and the energy confinement time during the flat top of standard plasmas, of deep F plasmas and of plasmas obtained with the intelligent shell.
Modelling of radon transport in porous media
van der Graaf, E.R.; de Meijer, R.J.; Katase, A; Shimo, M
1998-01-01
This paper aims to describe the state of the art of modelling radon transport in soil on basis of multiphase radon transport equations. Emphasis is given to methods to obtain a consistent set of input parameters needed For such models. Model-measurement comparisons with the KVI radon transport Facil
Modelling of radon transport in porous media
van der Graaf, E.R.; de Meijer, R.J.; Katase, A; Shimo, M
1998-01-01
This paper aims to describe the state of the art of modelling radon transport in soil on basis of multiphase radon transport equations. Emphasis is given to methods to obtain a consistent set of input parameters needed For such models. Model-measurement comparisons with the KVI radon transport Facil
Transport analysis of high radiation and high density plasmas in the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Casali L.
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Future fusion reactors, foreseen in the “European road map” such as DEMO, will operate under more demanding conditions compared to present devices. They will require high divertor and core radiation by impurity seeding to reduce heat loads on divertor target plates. In addition, DEMO will have to work at high core densities to reach adequate fusion performance. The performance of fusion reactors depends on three essential parameters: temperature, density and energy confinement time. The latter characterizes the loss rate due to both radiation and transport processes. The DEMO foreseen scenarios described above were not investigated so far, but are now addressed at the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak. In this work we present the transport analysis of such scenarios. Plasma with high radiation by impurity seeding: transport analysis taking into account the radiation distribution shows no change in transport during impurity seeding. The observed confinement improvement is an effect of higher pedestal temperatures which extend to the core via stiffness. A non coronal radiation model was developed and compared to the bolometric measurements in order to provide a reliable radiation profile for transport calculations. High density plasmas with pellets: the analysis of kinetic profiles reveals a transient phase at the start of the pellet fuelling due to a slower density build up compared to the temperature decrease. The low particle diffusion can explain the confinement behaviour.
Transport Properties for Combustion Modeling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brown, N.J.; Bastein, L.; Price, P.N.
2010-02-19
This review examines current approximations and approaches that underlie the evaluation of transport properties for combustion modeling applications. Discussed in the review are: the intermolecular potential and its descriptive molecular parameters; various approaches to evaluating collision integrals; supporting data required for the evaluation of transport properties; commonly used computer programs for predicting transport properties; the quality of experimental measurements and their importance for validating or rejecting approximations to property estimation; the interpretation of corresponding states; combination rules that yield pair molecular potential parameters for unlike species from like species parameters; and mixture approximations. The insensitivity of transport properties to intermolecular forces is noted, especially the non-uniqueness of the supporting potential parameters. Viscosity experiments of pure substances and binary mixtures measured post 1970 are used to evaluate a number of approximations; the intermediate temperature range 1 < T* < 10, where T* is kT/{var_epsilon}, is emphasized since this is where rich data sets are available. When suitable potential parameters are used, errors in transport property predictions for pure substances and binary mixtures are less than 5 %, when they are calculated using the approaches of Kee et al.; Mason, Kestin, and Uribe; Paul and Warnatz; or Ern and Giovangigli. Recommendations stemming from the review include (1) revisiting the supporting data required by the various computational approaches, and updating the data sets with accurate potential parameters, dipole moments, and polarizabilities; (2) characterizing the range of parameter space over which the fit to experimental data is good, rather than the current practice of reporting only the parameter set that best fits the data; (3) looking for improved combining rules, since existing rules were found to under-predict the viscosity in most cases; (4
Simulation study of scalings in scrape-off layer plasma by two-dimensional transport code
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Itoh, S.-I.; Ueda, Noriaki; Itoh, Kimitaka (National Inst. for Fusion Science, Nagoya (Japan))
1990-07-01
Scrape-off Layer (SOL) plasma and divertor plasma in Tokamaks were numerically analyzed using a two-dimensional time-dependent transport code (UEDA code). Plasma transport in the SOL and the divertor region was studied for given particle and heat sources from the main plasma. A scaling study of the density, the temperature and their fall-off lengths was carried out for the JFT-2M Tokamak. The results show the inter-relations between the divertor plasma parameters and core plasma confinement. The operational conditions of the core necessary to guarantee the divertor performance are discussed. (author).
Directions in Radiation Transport Modelling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P Nicholas Smith
2016-12-01
More exciting advances are on the horizon to increase the power of simulation tools. The advent of high performance computers is allowing bigger, higher fidelity models to be created, if the challenges of parallelization and memory management can be met. 3D whole core transport modelling is becoming possible. Uncertainty quantification is improving with large benefits to be gained from more accurate, less pessimistic estimates of uncertainty. Advanced graphical displays allow the user to assimilate and make sense of the vast amounts of data produced by modern modelling tools. Numerical solvers are being developed that use goal-based adaptivity to adjust the nodalisation of the system to provide the optimum scheme to achieve the user requested accuracy on the results, thus removing the need to perform costly convergence studies in space and angle etc. More use is being made of multi-physics methods in which radiation transport is coupled with other phenomena, such as thermal-hydraulics, structural response, fuel performance and/or chemistry in order to better understand their interplay in reactor cores.
Assessment of Plasma Transport and Convection at High Latitudes
1984-01-01
The high-latitude ionosphere is strongly coupled to the thermosphere and magnetosphere. The magnetospheric coupling occurs via electric fields, field-aligned currents, and particle precipitation. Owing to the interaction of the shocked solar wind with the geomagnetic field, an electric potential difference is generated across the tail of the magnetosphere, with the resulting electric field pointing from dawn to dusk. Energetic particle precipitation from the magnetosphere in the auroral region leads to the creation of ionization and to electron, ion, and neutral gas heating. In order to assess the current understanding of plasma transport and convection at high latitudes, it is necessary to take account of the strong coupling between the ionosphere, thermosphere, and magnetosphere.
Multi-Fraction Bayesian Sediment Transport Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mark L. Schmelter
2015-09-01
Full Text Available A Bayesian approach to sediment transport modeling can provide a strong basis for evaluating and propagating model uncertainty, which can be useful in transport applications. Previous work in developing and applying Bayesian sediment transport models used a single grain size fraction or characterized the transport of mixed-size sediment with a single characteristic grain size. Although this approach is common in sediment transport modeling, it precludes the possibility of capturing processes that cause mixed-size sediments to sort and, thereby, alter the grain size available for transport and the transport rates themselves. This paper extends development of a Bayesian transport model from one to k fractional dimensions. The model uses an existing transport function as its deterministic core and is applied to the dataset used to originally develop the function. The Bayesian multi-fraction model is able to infer the posterior distributions for essential model parameters and replicates predictive distributions of both bulk and fractional transport. Further, the inferred posterior distributions are used to evaluate parametric and other sources of variability in relations representing mixed-size interactions in the original model. Successful OPEN ACCESS J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2015, 3 1067 development of the model demonstrates that Bayesian methods can be used to provide a robust and rigorous basis for quantifying uncertainty in mixed-size sediment transport. Such a method has heretofore been unavailable and allows for the propagation of uncertainty in sediment transport applications.
Comparison of scrape-off layer transport in inner and outer wall limited JET plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Silva, C., E-mail: csilva@ipfn.ist.utl.pt [Associação Euratom/IST, Instituto de Plasmas e Fusão Nuclear, Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade Técnica Lisboa (Portugal); Arnoux, G.; Devaux, S. [Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Frigione, D. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla fusione, CR Frascati, Roma (Italy); Groth, M. [Aalto University, Association EURATOM-Tekes, Otakaari 4, 02015 Espoo (Finland); Horacek, J. [Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR, v.v.i., Association EURATOM/IPP.CR, Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Lomas, P.J. [Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Marsen, S. [Max-Planck-Institute for Plasma Physics, EURATOM Association, 17491 Greifswald (Germany); Matthews, G. [Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Pitts, R.A. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France)
2013-07-15
The JET scrape-off layer has been characterized with a reciprocating probe in inner wall, IW, and outer wall, OW, limited plasmas. Broad SOL profiles are observed for IW limited plasmas with power e-folding length substantially larger (by a factor of ∼5–7.5) than in OW limited plasmas. The properties of the fluctuations in the SOL parameters indicate larger turbulent transport for IW limited plasmas. The striking differences observed between IW and OW limited plasmas on the power e-folding length, parallel flow, turbulent transport as well as the characteristics of the fluctuations support the existence of a poloidally localized region of enhanced radial transport near the outboard midplane. The dependence of the SOL power e-folding length on the main plasma parameters was also investigated for IW limited plasmas and a modest negative dependence on both the plasma current and the line-averaged density found.
Modeling plasma pressure anisotropy's effect on Saturn's global magnetospheric dynamics
Tilley, M.; Harnett, E. M.; Winglee, R.
2014-12-01
A 3D multi-fluid, multi-scale plasma model with a complete treatment of plasma pressure anisotropy is employed to study global magnetospheric dynamics at Saturn. Cassini has observed anisotropies in the Saturnian magnetosphere, and analyses have showed correlations between anisotropy and plasma convection, ring current structure and intensity, confinement of plasma to the equatorial plane, as well as mass transport to the outer magnetosphere. The energization and transport of plasma within Saturn's magnetosphere is impactful upon the induced magnetic environments and atmospheres of potentially habitable satellites such as Enceladus and Titan. Recent efforts to couple pressure anisotropy with 3D multi-fluid plasma modeling have shown a significant move towards matching observations for simulations of Earth's magnetosphere. Our approach is used to study the effects of plasma pressure anisotropy on global processes of the Saturnian magnetosphere such as identifying the effect of pressure anisotropy on the centrifugal interchange instability. Previous simulation results have not completely replicated all aspects of the structure and formation of the interchange 'fingers' measured by Cassini at Saturn. The related effects of anisotropy, in addition to those mentioned above, include contribution to formation of MHD waves (e.g. reduction of Alfvén wave speed) and formation of firehose and mirror instabilities. An accurate understanding of processes such as the interchange instability is required if a complete picture of mass and energy transport at Saturn is to be realized. The results presented here will detail how the inclusion of a full treatment of pressure anisotropy for idealized solar wind conditions modifies the interchange structure and shape of the tail current sheet. Simulation results are compared to observations made by Cassini.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chicheportiche, Alexandre; Benhenni, Malika; Yousfi, Mohammed, E-mail: yousfi@laplace.univ-tlse.fr [Laboratoire Plasma et Conversion d’Energie, LAPLACE and UMR5213 du CNRS, Université de Toulouse, UPS, 118 route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse Cedex (France); Stachoň, Martin; Kalus, René, E-mail: rene.kalus@vsb.cz [Center of Excellence IT4Innovations and Department of Applied Mathematics, VSB - Technical University of Ostrava, 17. listopadu 15, 708 33 Ostrava (Czech Republic); Gadéa, Florent Xavier [Laboratoire de Chimie et de Physique Quantiques, IRSAMC and UMR5626 du CNRS, Université de Toulouse, UPS, 118 route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse Cedex (France)
2014-10-07
Momentum-transfer collision cross-sections and integral collision cross-sections for the collision-induced dissociation are calculated for collisions of ionized argon dimers with argon atoms using a nonadiabatic semiclassical method with the electronic Hamiltonian calculated on the fly via a diatomics-in-molecules semiempirical model as well as inverse-method modeling based on simple isotropic rigid-core potential. The collision cross-sections are then used in an optimized Monte Carlo code for evaluations of the Ar{sub 2}{sup +} mobility in argon gas, longitudinal diffusion coefficient, and collision-induced dissociation rates. A thorough comparison of various theoretical calculations as well as with available experimental data on the Ar{sub 2}{sup +} mobility and collision cross-sections is performed. Good agreement is found between both theoretical approaches and the experiment. Analysis of the role of inelastic processes in Ar{sub 2}{sup +}/Ar collisions is also provided.
Impurities in a non-axisymmetric plasma: Transport and effect on bootstrap current
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mollén, A., E-mail: albertm@chalmers.se [Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg (Sweden); Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, 17491 Greifswald (Germany); Landreman, M. [Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Smith, H. M.; Helander, P. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, 17491 Greifswald (Germany); Braun, S. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, 17491 Greifswald (Germany); German Aerospace Center, Institute of Engineering Thermodynamics, Pfaffenwaldring 38-40, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany)
2015-11-15
Impurities cause radiation losses and plasma dilution, and in stellarator plasmas the neoclassical ambipolar radial electric field is often unfavorable for avoiding strong impurity peaking. In this work we use a new continuum drift-kinetic solver, the SFINCS code (the Stellarator Fokker-Planck Iterative Neoclassical Conservative Solver) [M. Landreman et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 042503 (2014)] which employs the full linearized Fokker-Planck-Landau operator, to calculate neoclassical impurity transport coefficients for a Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) magnetic configuration. We compare SFINCS calculations with theoretical asymptotes in the high collisionality limit. We observe and explain a 1/ν-scaling of the inter-species radial transport coefficient at low collisionality, arising due to the field term in the inter-species collision operator, and which is not found with simplified collision models even when momentum correction is applied. However, this type of scaling disappears if a radial electric field is present. We also use SFINCS to analyze how the impurity content affects the neoclassical impurity dynamics and the bootstrap current. We show that a change in plasma effective charge Z{sub eff} of order unity can affect the bootstrap current enough to cause a deviation in the divertor strike point locations.
Rabie, M.; Franck, C. M.
2016-06-01
We present a freely available MATLAB code for the simulation of electron transport in arbitrary gas mixtures in the presence of uniform electric fields. For steady-state electron transport, the program provides the transport coefficients, reaction rates and the electron energy distribution function. The program uses established Monte Carlo techniques and is compatible with the electron scattering cross section files from the open-access Plasma Data Exchange Project LXCat. The code is written in object-oriented design, allowing the tracing and visualization of the spatiotemporal evolution of electron swarms and the temporal development of the mean energy and the electron number due to attachment and/or ionization processes. We benchmark our code with well-known model gases as well as the real gases argon, N2, O2, CF4, SF6 and mixtures of N2 and O2.
Nonlinear physics and energetic particle transport features of the beam-plasma instability
Carlevaro, Nakia; Montani, Giovanni; Zonca, Fulvio
2015-01-01
In this paper, we study transport features of a one-dimensional beam-plasma system in the presence of multiple resonances. As a model description of the general problem of a warm energetic particle beam, we assume $n$ cold supra-thermal beams and investigate the self-consistent evolution in the presence of the complete spectrum of nearly degenerate Langmuir modes. A qualitative transport estimation is obtained by computing the Lagrangian Coherent Structures of the system on given temporal scales. This leads to the splitting of the phase space into regions where the local transport processes are relatively faster. The general theoretical framework is applied to the case of the nonlinear dynamics of two cold beams, for which numerical simulation results are illustrated and analyzed.
Business Models For Transport eBusiness
Dragan Cisic; Ivan Franciskovic; Ana Peric
2003-01-01
In this paper authors are presenting expectations from electronic commerce and its connotations on transport logistics. Based on trends, the relations between the companies in the international transport have to be strengthened using Internet business models. In the paper authors are investigating e-business information models for usage in transport
Kopp, Andreas; Wiengarten, Tobias; Fichtner, Horst; Effenberger, Frederic; Kühl, Patrick; Heber, Bernd; Raath, Jan-Louis; Potgieter, Marius S.
2017-03-01
The transport of cosmic rays (CRs) in the heliosphere is determined by the properties of the solar wind plasma. The heliospheric plasma environment has been probed by spacecraft for decades and provides a unique opportunity for testing transport theories. Of particular interest for the three-dimensional (3D) heliospheric CR transport are structures such as corotating interaction regions (CIRs), which, due to the enhancement of the magnetic field strength and magnetic fluctuations within and due to the associated shocks as well as stream interfaces, do influence the CR diffusion and drift. In a three-fold series of papers, we investigate these effects by modeling inner-heliospheric solar wind conditions with the numerical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) framework Cronos (Wiengarten et al., referred as Paper I), and the results serve as input to a transport code employing a stochastic differential equation approach (this paper). While, in Paper I, we presented results from 3D simulations with Cronos, the MHD output is now taken as an input to the CR transport modeling. We discuss the diffusion and drift behavior of Galactic cosmic rays using the example of different theories, and study the effects of CIRs on these transport processes. In particular, we point out the wide range of possible particle fluxes at a given point in space resulting from these different theories. The restriction of this variety by fitting the numerical results to spacecraft data will be the subject of the third paper of this series.
A partially ionized plasma modeling; Un modele de plasma partiellement ionise
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Le Thanh, K.C.; Raviart, P.A
2003-07-01
We propose a model for the partially ionized plasma sheaths near the anode of an anodic spot electric arc where the cathode is considered as an electron emitter. A fluid description takes into account the heating and the ionization of the plasma induced by the electron beam. As physical hypothesis we assume that the condition of charge neutrality is valid. According that the electron mass can be neglected compared to the ion mass, we can assume that ions and atoms have the same velocity and the same temperature. Electrons and heavy particles are then regarded as two separate fluids coexisting in the plasma. Governing equations are then multi-fluid equations with relaxation correction to the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) and heating by Joule effect. Equations are solved by an operator splitting procedure. That is we first discretize the homogeneous conservation laws (i.e. without source terms) by a finite volume method. The second step is to solve the ordinary differential system (i.e, governing equation without transport terms) with an implicit scheme. (authors)
Noguchi, Saki; Nishimura, Tomohiro; Fujibayashi, Ayasa; Maruyama, Tetsuo; Tomi, Masatoshi; Nakashima, Emi
2015-09-01
Mechanisms regulating fetal transfer of olmesartan, an angiotensin-II receptor type 1 antagonist, are important as potential determinants of life-threatening adverse fetal effects. The purpose of this study was to examine the olmesartan transport mechanism through the basal plasma membrane (BM) of human syncytiotrophoblasts forming the placental barrier. Uptake of olmesartan by human placental BM vesicles was potently inhibited by dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), estrone 3-sulfate, and bromosulfophthalein, which are all typical substrates of organic anion transporter (OAT) 4 localized at the BM of syncytiotrophoblasts, and was increased in the absence of chloride. In tetracycline-inducible OAT4-expressing cells, [(3) H]olmesartan uptake was increased by tetracycline treatment. Olmesartan uptake via OAT4 was concentration dependent with a Km of 20 μM, and was increased in the absence of chloride. [(3) H]Olmesartan efflux via OAT4 was also observed and was trans-stimulated by extracellular chloride and DHEAS. Thus, OAT4 mediates bidirectional transport of olmesartan and appears to regulate fetal transfer of olmesartan at the BM of syncytiotrophoblasts. Efflux transport of olmesartan via OAT4 from syncytiotrophoblasts to the fetal circulation might be facilitated in the presence of an inwardly directed physiological chloride gradient and extracellular DHEAS. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.
Tests of the improved Weiland ion temperature gradient transport model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kinsey, J.E.; Bateman, G.; Kritz, A.H. [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States)] [and others
1996-12-31
The Weiland theoretically derived transport model for ion temperature gradient and trapped electron modes has been improved to include the effects of parallel ion motion, finite beta, and collisionality. The model also includes the effects of impurities, fast ions, unequal ion and electron temperatures, and finite Larmor radius. This new model has been implemented in our time-dependent transport code and is used in conjunction with pressure-driven modes and neoclassical theory to predict the radial particle and thermal transport in tokamak plasmas. Simulations of TFTR, DIII-D, and JET L-mode plasmas have been conducted to test how the new effects change the predicted density and temperature profiles. Comparisons are made with results obtained using the previous version of the model which was successful in reproducing experimental data from a wide variety of tokamak plasmas. Specifically, the older model has been benchmarked against over 50 discharges from at least 7 different tokamaks including L-mode scans in current, heating power, density, and dimensionless scans in normalized gyro-radius, collisionality, and beta. We have also investigated the non-diffusive elements included in the Weiland model, particularly the particle pinch in order to characterize its behavior. This is partly motivated by recent simulations of ITER. In those simulations, the older Weiland model predicted a particle pinch and ignition was more easily obtained.
Enquiry into the Topology of Plasma Membrane-Localized PIN Auxin Transport Components.
Nodzyński, Tomasz; Vanneste, Steffen; Zwiewka, Marta; Pernisová, Markéta; Hejátko, Jan; Friml, Jiří
2016-11-07
Auxin directs plant ontogenesis via differential accumulation within tissues depending largely on the activity of PIN proteins that mediate auxin efflux from cells and its directional cell-to-cell transport. Regardless of the developmental importance of PINs, the structure of these transporters is poorly characterized. Here, we present experimental data concerning protein topology of plasma membrane-localized PINs. Utilizing approaches based on pH-dependent quenching of fluorescent reporters combined with immunolocalization techniques, we mapped the membrane topology of PINs and further cross-validated our results using available topology modeling software. We delineated the topology of PIN1 with two transmembrane (TM) bundles of five α-helices linked by a large intracellular loop and a C-terminus positioned outside the cytoplasm. Using constraints derived from our experimental data, we also provide an updated position of helical regions generating a verisimilitude model of PIN1. Since the canonical long PINs show a high degree of conservation in TM domains and auxin transport capacity has been demonstrated for Arabidopsis representatives of this group, this empirically enhanced topological model of PIN1 will be an important starting point for further studies on PIN structure-function relationships. In addition, we have established protocols that can be used to probe the topology of other plasma membrane proteins in plants.
Modeling energy transport in nanostructures
Pattamatta, Arvind
Heat transfer in nanostructures differ significantly from that in the bulk materials since the characteristic length scales associated with heat carriers, i.e., the mean free path and the wavelength, are comparable to the characteristic length of the nanostructures. Nanostructure materials hold the promise of novel phenomena, properties, and functions in the areas of thermal management and energy conversion. Example of thermal management in micro/nano electronic devices is the use of efficient nanostructured materials to alleviate 'hot spots' in integrated circuits. Examples in the manipulation of heat flow and energy conversion include nanostructures for thermoelectric energy conversion, thermophotovoltaic power generation, and data storage. One of the major challenges in Metal-Oxide Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET) devices is to study the 'hot spot' generation by accurately modeling the carrier-optical phonon-acoustic phonon interactions. Prediction of hotspot temperature and position in MOSFET devices is necessary for improving thermal design and reliability of micro/nano electronic devices. Thermoelectric properties are among the properties that may drastically change at nanoscale. The efficiency of thermoelectric energy conversion in a material is measured by a non-dimensional figure of merit (ZT) defined as, ZT = sigmaS2T/k where sigma is the electrical conductivity, S is the Seebeck coefficient, T is the temperature, and k is the thermal conductivity. During the last decade, advances have been made in increasing ZT using nanostructures. Three important topics are studied with respect to energy transport in nanostructure materials for micro/nano electronic and thermoelectric applications; (1) the role of nanocomposites in improving the thermal efficiency of thermoelectric devices, (2) the interfacial thermal resistance for the semiconductor/metal contacts in thermoelectric devices and for metallic interconnects in micro/nano electronic devices, (3) the
Bogaerts, A.; Berthelot, A.; Heijkers, S.; Kolev, St.; Snoeckx, R.; Sun, S.; Trenchev, G.; Van Laer, K.; Wang, W.
2017-06-01
In recent years there has been growing interest in the use of plasma technology for CO2 conversion. To improve this application, a good insight into the underlying mechanisms is of great importance. This can be obtained from modeling the detailed plasma chemistry in order to understand the chemical reaction pathways leading to CO2 conversion (either in pure form or mixed with another gas). Moreover, in practice, several plasma reactor types are being investigated for CO2 conversion, so in addition it is essential to be able to model these reactor geometries so that their design can be improved, and the most energy efficient CO2 conversion can be achieved. Modeling the detailed plasma chemistry of CO2 conversion in complex reactors is, however, very time-consuming. This problem can be overcome by using a combination of two different types of model: 0D chemical reaction kinetics models are very suitable for describing the detailed plasma chemistry, while the characteristic features of different reactor geometries can be studied by 2D or 3D fluid models. In the first instance the latter can be developed in argon or helium with a simple chemistry to limit the calculation time; however, the ultimate aim is to implement the more complex CO2 chemistry in these models. In the present paper, examples will be given of both the 0D plasma chemistry models and the 2D and 3D fluid models for the most common plasma reactors used for CO2 conversion in order to emphasize the complementarity of both approaches. Furthermore, based on the modeling insights, the paper discusses the possibilities and limitations of plasma-based CO2 conversion in different types of plasma reactors, as well as what is needed to make further progress in this field.
Validation of transport models using additive flux minimization technique
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pankin, A. Y.; Kruger, S. E. [Tech-X Corporation, 5621 Arapahoe Ave., Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States); Groebner, R. J. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92121 (United States); Hakim, A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543-0451 (United States); Kritz, A. H.; Rafiq, T. [Department of Physics, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015 (United States)
2013-10-15
A new additive flux minimization technique is proposed for carrying out the verification and validation (V and V) of anomalous transport models. In this approach, the plasma profiles are computed in time dependent predictive simulations in which an additional effective diffusivity is varied. The goal is to obtain an optimal match between the computed and experimental profile. This new technique has several advantages over traditional V and V methods for transport models in tokamaks and takes advantage of uncertainty quantification methods developed by the applied math community. As a demonstration of its efficiency, the technique is applied to the hypothesis that the paleoclassical density transport dominates in the plasma edge region in DIII-D tokamak discharges. A simplified version of the paleoclassical model that utilizes the Spitzer resistivity for the parallel neoclassical resistivity and neglects the trapped particle effects is tested in this paper. It is shown that a contribution to density transport, in addition to the paleoclassical density transport, is needed in order to describe the experimental profiles. It is found that more additional diffusivity is needed at the top of the H-mode pedestal, and almost no additional diffusivity is needed at the pedestal bottom. The implementation of this V and V technique uses the FACETS::Core transport solver and the DAKOTA toolkit for design optimization and uncertainty quantification. The FACETS::Core solver is used for advancing the plasma density profiles. The DAKOTA toolkit is used for the optimization of plasma profiles and the computation of the additional diffusivity that is required for the predicted density profile to match the experimental profile.
Orbital-free molecular dynamics simulations of transport properties in dense-plasma uranium
Kress, J. D.; Cohen, James S.; Kilcrease, D. P.; Horner, D. A.; Collins, L. A.
2011-09-01
We have calculated the self-diffusion coefficients and shear viscosity of dense-plasma uranium using orbital-free molecular dynamics (OFMD) at the Thomas-Fermi-Dirac level. The transport properties of uranium in this regime have not previously been investigated experimentally or theoretically. The OFMD calculations were performed for temperatures from 50 to 5000 eV and densities from ambient to 10 times compressed. The results are compared with the one-component-plasma (OCP) model, using effective charges given by the average-atom code INFERNO and by the regularization procedure from the OFMD method. The latter generally showed better agreement with the OFMD for viscosity and the former for diffusion. A Stokes-Einstein relationship of the OFMD viscosities and diffusion coefficients is found to hold fairly well with a constant of 0.075 ± 0.10, while the OCP/INFERNO model yields 0.13 ± 0.10.
Momentum transport in strongly coupled anisotropic plasmas in the presence of strong magnetic fields
Finazzo, Stefano Ivo; Rougemont, Romulo; Noronha, Jorge
2016-01-01
We present a holographic perspective on momentum transport in strongly coupled, anisotropic non-Abelian plasmas in the presence of strong magnetic fields. We compute the anisotropic heavy quark drag forces and Langevin diffusion coefficients and also the anisotropic shear viscosities for two different holographic models, namely, a top-down deformation of strongly coupled $\\mathcal{N} = 4$ Super-Yang-Mills (SYM) theory triggered by an external Abelian magnetic field, and a bottom-up Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton (EMD) model which is able to provide a quantitative description of lattice QCD thermodynamics with $(2+1)$-flavors at both zero and nonzero magnetic fields. We find that, in general, energy loss and momentum diffusion through strongly coupled anisotropic plasmas are enhanced by a magnetic field being larger in transverse directions than in the direction parallel to the magnetic field. Moreover, the anisotropic shear viscosity coefficient is smaller in the direction of the magnetic field than in the plane pe...
Cholesterol transport in model membranes
Garg, Sumit; Porcar, Lionel; Butler, Paul; Perez-Salas, Ursula
2010-03-01
Physiological processes distribute cholesterol unevenly within the cell. The levels of cholesterol are maintained by intracellular transport and a disruption in the cell's ability to keep these normal levels will lead to disease. Exchange rates of cholesterol are generally studied in model systems using labeled lipid vesicles. Initially donor vesicles have all the cholesterol and acceptor vesicles are devoid of it. They are mixed and after some time the vesicles are separated and cholesterol is traced in each vesicle. The studies performed up to date have significant scatter indicating that the methodologies are not consistent. The present work shows in-situ Time-Resolved SANS studies of cholesterol exchange rates in unsaturated PC lipid vesicles. Molecular dynamics simulations were done to investigate the energetic and kinetic behavior of cholesterol in this system. This synergistic approach will provide insight into our efforts to understand cholesterol traffic.
Laser-Plasma Modeling Using PERSEUS Extended-MHD Simulation Code for HED Plasmas
Hamlin, Nathaniel; Seyler, Charles
2016-10-01
We discuss the use of the PERSEUS extended-MHD simulation code for high-energy-density (HED) plasmas in modeling laser-plasma interactions in relativistic and nonrelativistic regimes. By formulating the fluid equations as a relaxation system in which the current is semi-implicitly time-advanced using the Generalized Ohm's Law, PERSEUS enables modeling of two-fluid phenomena in dense plasmas without the need to resolve the smallest electron length and time scales. For relativistic and nonrelativistic laser-target interactions, we have validated a cycle-averaged absorption (CAA) laser driver model against the direct approach of driving the electromagnetic fields. The CAA model refers to driving the radiation energy and flux rather than the fields, and using hyperbolic radiative transport, coupled to the plasma equations via energy source terms, to model absorption and propagation of the radiation. CAA has the advantage of not requiring adequate grid resolution of each laser wavelength, so that the system can span many wavelengths without requiring prohibitive CPU time. For several laser-target problems, we compare existing MHD results to extended-MHD results generated using PERSEUS with the CAA model, and examine effects arising from Hall physics. This work is supported by the National Nuclear Security Administration stewardship sciences academic program under Department of Energy cooperative agreements DE-FOA-0001153 and DE-NA0001836.
Coulomb Collision for Plasma Simulations: Modelling and Numerical Methods
Geiser, Juergen
2016-09-01
We are motivated to model weakly ionized Plasma applications. The modeling problem is based on an incorporated explicit velocity-dependent small-angle Coulomb collision terms into a Fokker-Planck equation. Such a collision is done with so called test and field particles, which are scattered stochastically based on a Langevin equation. Based on such different model approaches, means the transport part is done with kinetic equations, while the collision part is done via the Langevin equations, we present a splitting of these models. Such a splitting allow us to combine different modeling parts. For the transport part, we can apply particle models and solve them with particle methods, e.g., PIC, while for the collision part, we can apply the explicit Coulomb collision model, e.g., with fast stochastic differential equation solvers. Additional, we also apply multiscale approaches for the different parts of the transport part, e.g., different time-scales of an explicit electric field, and model-order reduction approaches. We present first numerical results for particle simulations with the deterministic-stochastic splitting schemes. Such ideas can be applied to sputtering problems or plasma applications with dominant Coulomb collisions.
Stability properties of elementary dynamic models of membrane transport.
Hernández, Julio A
2003-01-01
Living cells are characterized by their capacity to maintain a stable steady state. For instance, cells are able to conserve their volume, internal ionic composition and electrical potential difference across the plasma membrane within values compatible with the overall cell functions. The dynamics of these cellular variables is described by complex integrated models of membrane transport. Some clues for the understanding of the processes involved in global cellular homeostasis may be obtained by the study of the local stability properties of some partial cellular processes. As an example of this approach, I perform, in this study, the neighborhood stability analysis of some elementary integrated models of membrane transport. In essence, the models describe the rate of change of the intracellular concentration of a ligand subject to active and passive transport across the plasma membrane of an ideal cell. The ligand can be ionic or nonionic, and it can affect the cell volume or the plasma membrane potential. The fundamental finding of this study is that, within the physiological range, the steady states are asymptotically stable. This basic property is a necessary consequence of the general forms of the expressions employed to describe the active and passive fluxes of the transported ligand.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Miao, Y.C.; Liu, C.
2010-12-28
Lignin is a complex biopolymer derived primarily from the condensation of three monomeric precursors, the monolignols. The synthesis of monolignols occurs in the cytoplasm. To reach the cell wall where they are oxidized and polymerized, they must be transported across the cell membrane. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the transport process are unclear. There are conflicting views about whether the transport of these precursors occurs by passive diffusion or is an energized active process; further, we know little about what chemical forms are required. Using isolated plasma and vacuolar membrane vesicles prepared from Arabidopsis, together with applying different transporter inhibitors in the assays, we examined the uptake of monolignols and their derivatives by these native membrane vesicles. We demonstrate that the transport of lignin precursors across plasmalemma and their sequestration into vacuoles are ATP-dependent primary-transport processes, involving ATP-binding cassette-like transporters. Moreover, we show that both plasma and vacuolar membrane vesicles selectively transport different forms of lignin precursors. In the presence of ATP, the inverted plasma membrane vesicles preferentially take up monolignol aglycones, whereas the vacuolar vesicles are more specific for glucoconjugates, suggesting that the different ATP-binding cassette-like transporters recognize different chemical forms in conveying them to distinct sites, and that glucosylation of monolignols is necessary for their vacuolar storage but not required for direct transport into the cell wall in Arabidopsis.
Transport properties of multicomponent thermal plasmas: Grad method versus Chapman-Enskog method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Porytsky, P. [Institute for Nuclear Research, 03680 Kyiv (Ukraine); Krivtsun, I.; Demchenko, V. [Paton Welding Institute, 03680 Kyiv (Ukraine); Reisgen, U.; Mokrov, O.; Zabirov, A. [RWTH Aachen University, ISF-Welding and Joining Institute, 52062 Aachen (Germany); Gorchakov, S.; Timofeev, A.; Uhrlandt, D. [Leibniz Institute for Plasma Science and Technology (INP Greifswald), 17489 Greifswald (Germany)
2013-02-15
Transport properties (thermal conductivity, viscosity, and electrical conductivity) for multicomponent Ar-Fe thermal plasmas at atmospheric pressure have been determined by means of two different methods. The transport coefficients set based on Grad's method is compared with the data obtained when using the Chapman-Enskog's method. Results from both applied methods are in good agreement. It is shown that the Grad method is suitable for the determination of transport properties of the thermal plasmas.
SATURATED ZONE FLOW AND TRANSPORT MODEL ABSTRACTION
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
B.W. ARNOLD
2004-10-27
The purpose of the saturated zone (SZ) flow and transport model abstraction task is to provide radionuclide-transport simulation results for use in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for license application (LA) calculations. This task includes assessment of uncertainty in parameters that pertain to both groundwater flow and radionuclide transport in the models used for this purpose. This model report documents the following: (1) The SZ transport abstraction model, which consists of a set of radionuclide breakthrough curves at the accessible environment for use in the TSPA-LA simulations of radionuclide releases into the biosphere. These radionuclide breakthrough curves contain information on radionuclide-transport times through the SZ. (2) The SZ one-dimensional (I-D) transport model, which is incorporated in the TSPA-LA model to simulate the transport, decay, and ingrowth of radionuclide decay chains in the SZ. (3) The analysis of uncertainty in groundwater-flow and radionuclide-transport input parameters for the SZ transport abstraction model and the SZ 1-D transport model. (4) The analysis of the background concentration of alpha-emitting species in the groundwater of the SZ.
Logistics and Transport - a conceptual model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jespersen, Per Homann; Drewes, Lise
2004-01-01
This paper describes how the freight transport sector is influenced by logistical principles of production and distribution. It introduces new ways of understanding freight transport as an integrated part of the changing trends of mobility. By introducing a conceptual model for understanding...... the interaction between logistics and transport, it points at ways to over-come inherent methodological difficulties when studying this relation...
Signals of the QGP phase transition - a view from microscopic transport models
Bratkovskaya, E L
2007-01-01
In this contribution the results from various transport models on different observables - considered as possible signals of the phase transition from hadronic matter to the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) - are briefly reviewed.
Kouznetsov, Igor; Lotko, William
1995-01-01
The 'radial' transport of energy by internal ULF waves, stimulated by dayside magnetospheric boundary oscillations, is analyzed in the framework of one-fluid magnetohydrodynamics. (the term radial is used here to denote the direction orthogonal to geomagnetic flux surfaces.) The model for the inhomogeneous magnetospheric plasma and background magnetic field is axisymmetric and includes radial and parallel variations in the magnetic field, magnetic curvature, plasma density, and low but finite plasma pressure. The radial mode structure of the coupled fast and intermediate MHD waves is determined by numerical solution of the inhomogeneous wave equation; the parallel mode structure is characterized by a Wentzel-Kramer-Brillouin (WKB) approximation. Ionospheric dissipation is modeled by allowing the parallel wave number to be complex. For boudnary oscillations with frequencies in the range from 10 to 48 mHz, and using a dipole model for the background magnetic field, the combined effects of magnetic curvature and finite plasma pressure are shown to (1) enhance the amplitude of field line resonances by as much as a factor of 2 relative to values obtained in a cold plasma or box-model approximation for the dayside magnetosphere; (2) increase the energy flux delivered to a given resonance by a factor of 2-4; and (3) broaden the spectral width of the resonance by a factor of 2-3. The effects are attributed to the existence of an 'Alfven buoyancy oscillation,' which approaches the usual shear mode Alfven wave at resonance, but unlike the shear Alfven mode, it is dispersive at short perpendicular wavelengths. The form of dispersion is analogous to that of an internal atmospheric gravity wave, with the magnetic tension of the curved background field providing the restoring force and allowing radial propagation of the mode. For nominal dayside parameters, the propagation band of the Alfven buoyancy wave occurs between the location of its (field line) resonance and that of the
RADIONUCLIDE TRANSPORT MODELS UNDER AMBIENT CONDITIONS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
S. Magnuson
2004-11-01
The purpose of this model report is to document the unsaturated zone (UZ) radionuclide transport model, which evaluates, by means of three-dimensional numerical models, the transport of radioactive solutes and colloids in the UZ, under ambient conditions, from the repository horizon to the water table at Yucca Mountain, Nevada.
Biological transportation networks: Modeling and simulation
Albi, Giacomo
2015-09-15
We present a model for biological network formation originally introduced by Cai and Hu [Adaptation and optimization of biological transport networks, Phys. Rev. Lett. 111 (2013) 138701]. The modeling of fluid transportation (e.g., leaf venation and angiogenesis) and ion transportation networks (e.g., neural networks) is explained in detail and basic analytical features like the gradient flow structure of the fluid transportation network model and the impact of the model parameters on the geometry and topology of network formation are analyzed. We also present a numerical finite-element based discretization scheme and discuss sample cases of network formation simulations.
Qualitative model of a plasma photoelectric converter
Gorbunov, N. A.; Flamant, G.
2009-01-01
A converter of focused optical radiation into electric current is considered on the basis of the photovoltaic effect in plasmas. The converter model is based on analysis of asymmetric spatial distributions of charge particle number density and ambipolar potential in the photoplasma produced by external optical radiation focused in a heat pipe filled with a mixture of alkali vapor and a heavy inert gas. Energy balance in the plasma photoelectric converter is analyzed. The conditions in which the external radiation energy is effectively absorbed in the converter are indicated. The plasma parameters for which the energy of absorbed optical radiation is mainly spent on sustaining the ambipolar field in the plasma are determined. It is shown that the plasma photoelectric converter makes it possible to attain a high conversion efficiency for focused solar radiation.
Choudhary, Mangilal; Bandyopadhyay, P
2016-01-01
A versatile linear dusty (complex) plasma device is designed to study the transport and dynamical behavior of dust particles in a large volume. Diffused inductively coupled plasma is generated in the background of argon gas. A novel technique is used to introduce the dust particles in the main plasma by striking a secondary direct current (DC) glow discharge. These dust particles are found to get trapped in an electrostatic potential well which is formed due to the combination of the ambipolar electric field caused by diffusive plasma and the field produced by the charged glass wall of the vacuum chamber. According to the requirements, the volume of the dust cloud can be controlled very precisely by tuning the plasma and discharge parameters. The present device can be used to address the underlying physics behind the transport of dust particles, self excited dust acoustic waves and instabilities. The detailed design of this device, plasma production and characterization, trapping and transport of the dust par...
A Sediment Transport Model for Sewers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mark, Ole; Larsson, Johan; Larsen, Torben
1993-01-01
This paper describes a mathematical model for transport processes in sewers. The model consists of three sub models, a surface model for the description of the buildup and the washoff of sediment particles from the surface area, a morphological model and an advection-dispersion model. The model...
Modelling of electron transport and of sawtooth activity in tokamaks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Angioni, C
2001-10-01
Transport phenomena in tokamak plasmas strongly limit the particle and energy confinement and represent a crucial obstacle to controlled thermonuclear fusion. Within the vast framework of transport studies, three topics have been tackled in the present thesis: first, the computation of neoclassical transport coefficients for general axisymmetric equilibria and arbitrary collisionality regime; second, the analysis of the electron temperature behaviour and transport modelling of plasma discharges in the Tokamak a configuration Variable (TCV); third, the modelling and simulation of the sawtooth activity with different plasma heating conditions. The work dedicated to neoclassical theory has been undertaken in order to first analytically identify a set of equations suited for implementation in existing Fokker-Planck codes. Modifications of these codes enabled us to compute the neoclassical transport coefficients considering different realistic magnetic equilibrium configurations and covering a large range of variation of three key parameters: aspect ratio, collisionality, and effective charge number. A comparison of the numerical results with an analytical limit has permitted the identification of two expressions for the trapped particle fraction, capable of encapsulating the geometrical effects and thus enabling each transport coefficient to be fitted with a single analytical function. This has allowed us to provide simple analytical formulae for all the neoclassical transport coefficients valid for arbitrary aspect ratio and collisionality in general realistic geometry. This work is particularly useful for a correct evaluation of the neoclassical contribution in tokamak scenarios with large bootstrap cur- rent fraction, or improved confinement regimes with low anomalous transport and for the determination of the plasma current density profile, since the plasma conductivity is usually assumed neoclassical. These results have been included in the plasma transport code
Long wavelength perfect fluidity from short distance jet transport in quark-gluon plasmas
Xu, Jiechen; Gyulassy, Miklos
2015-01-01
We build a new phenomenological framework that bridges the long wavelength bulk viscous transport properties of the strongly-coupled quark-gluon plasma (sQGP) and short distance hard jet transport properties in the QGP. The full nonperturbative chromo-electric (E) and chromo-magnetic (M) structure of the near "perfect fluid" like sQGP in the critical transition region are integrated into a semi-Quark-Gluon-Monopole Plasma (sQGMP) model lattice-compatibly and implemented into the new CUJET3.0 jet quenching framework. All observables computed from CUJET3.0 are found to be consistent with available data at RHIC and LHC simultaneously. A quantitative connection between the shear viscosity and jet transport parameter is rigorously established within this framework. We deduce the $T=160-600$ MeV dependence of the QGP's $\\eta/s$: its near vanishing value in the near $T_c$ regime is determined by the composition of E and M charges, it increases as $T$ rises, and its high $T$ limit is fixed by color screening scales.
Long wavelength perfect fluidity from short distance jet transport in quark-gluon plasmas
Xu, Jiechen; Liao, Jinfeng; Gyulassy, Miklos
2016-12-01
We build a new phenomenological framework that bridges the long wavelength bulk viscous transport properties of the strongly-coupled quark-gluon plasma (sQGP) and short distance hard jet transport properties in the QGP. The full nonperturbative chromo-electric (E) and chromo-magnetic (M) structure of the near "perfect fluid" like sQGP in the critical transition region are integrated into a semi-Quark-Gluon-Monopole Plasma (sQGMP) model lattice-compatibly and implemented into the new CUJET3.0 jet quenching framework. All observables computed from CUJET3.0 are found to be consistent with available data at RHIC and LHC simultaneously. A quantitative connection between the shear viscosity and jet transport parameter is rigorously established within this framework. We deduce the T = 160 - 600 MeV dependence of the QGP's η / s: its near vanishing value in the near Tc regime is determined by the composition of E and M charges, it increases as T rises, and its high T limit is fixed by color screening scales.
Laboratory Plasma Source as an MHD Model for Astrophysical Jets
Mayo, Robert M.
1997-01-01
The significance of the work described herein lies in the demonstration of Magnetized Coaxial Plasma Gun (MCG) devices like CPS-1 to produce energetic laboratory magneto-flows with embedded magnetic fields that can be used as a simulation tool to study flow interaction dynamic of jet flows, to demonstrate the magnetic acceleration and collimation of flows with primarily toroidal fields, and study cross field transport in turbulent accreting flows. Since plasma produced in MCG devices have magnetic topology and MHD flow regime similarity to stellar and extragalactic jets, we expect that careful investigation of these flows in the laboratory will reveal fundamental physical mechanisms influencing astrophysical flows. Discussion in the next section (sec.2) focuses on recent results describing collimation, leading flow surface interaction layers, and turbulent accretion. The primary objectives for a new three year effort would involve the development and deployment of novel electrostatic, magnetic, and visible plasma diagnostic techniques to measure plasma and flow parameters of the CPS-1 device in the flow chamber downstream of the plasma source to study, (1) mass ejection, morphology, and collimation and stability of energetic outflows, (2) the effects of external magnetization on collimation and stability, (3) the interaction of such flows with background neutral gas, the generation of visible emission in such interaction, and effect of neutral clouds on jet flow dynamics, and (4) the cross magnetic field transport of turbulent accreting flows. The applicability of existing laboratory plasma facilities to the study of stellar and extragalactic plasma should be exploited to elucidate underlying physical mechanisms that cannot be ascertained though astrophysical observation, and provide baseline to a wide variety of proposed models, MHD and otherwise. The work proposed herin represents a continued effort on a novel approach in relating laboratory experiments to
Theoretical modeling of electromagnetically imploded plasma liners
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Roderick, N.F.; Kohn, B.J.; McCullough, W.F.; Beason, C.W.; Lupo, J.A.; Letterio, J.D. (Air Force Weapons Lab., Kirtland AFB, NM (USA)); Kloc, D.A. (Air Force Academy, CO (USA)); Hussey, T.W. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA))
1983-05-01
The generation of high-energy-density plasmas by the electromagnetic implosion of cylindrical foils is explored analytically and through numerical simulation. Theoretical investigations have been performed for a variety of foil initial conditions for both capacitive and inductive pulsed power systems. The development of the theoretical modeling techniques is presented, covering both circuit models and plasma load models. Results from a series of configurations are given, showing the development of modelling techniques used to study the dynamics of the plasma implosion process and the role of instabilities. Interaction between analytic techniques and detailed numerical simulation has led to improvement in all theoretical modeling techniques presently used to study the implosion process. Comparisons of implosion times, shell structure, instability growth rates, and thermalization times have shown good agreement between analytic/heuristic techniques and more detailed two dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations. These in turn have provided excellent agreement with experimental results for both capacitor and inductor pulse power systems.
Effect of radial plasma transport at the magnetic throat on axial ion beam formation
Zhang, Yunchao; Charles, Christine; Boswell, Rod
2016-08-01
Correlation between radial plasma transport and formation of an axial ion beam has been investigated in a helicon plasma reactor implemented with a convergent-divergent magnetic nozzle. The plasma discharge is sustained under a high magnetic field mode and a low magnetic field mode for which the electron energy probability function, the plasma density, the plasma potential, and the electron temperature are measured at the magnetic throat, and the two field modes show different radial parametric behaviors. Although an axial potential drop occurs in the plasma source for both field modes, an ion beam is only observed in the high field mode while not in the low field mode. The transport of energetic ions is characterized downstream of the plasma source using the delimited ion current and nonlocal ion current. A decay of ion beam strength is also observed in the diffusion chamber.
Modeling of transient dust events in fusion edge plasmas with DUSTT-UEDGE code
Smirnov, R. D.; Krasheninnikov, S. I.; Pigarov, A. Yu.; Rognlien, T. D.
2016-10-01
It is well known that dust can be produced in fusion devices due to various processes involving structural damage of plasma exposed materials. Recent computational and experimental studies have demonstrated that dust production and associated with it plasma contamination can present serious challenges in achieving sustained fusion reaction in future fusion devices, such as ITER. To analyze the impact, which dust can have on performance of fusion plasmas, modeling of coupled dust and plasma transport with DUSTT-UEDGE code is used by the authors. In past, only steady-state computational studies, presuming continuous source of dust influx, were performed due to iterative nature of DUSTT-UEDGE code coupling. However, experimental observations demonstrate that intermittent injection of large quantities of dust, often associated with transient plasma events, may severely impact fusion plasma conditions and even lead to discharge termination. In this work we report on progress in coupling of DUSTT-UEDGE codes in time-dependent regime, which allows modeling of transient dust-plasma transport processes. The methodology and details of the time-dependent code coupling, as well as examples of simulations of transient dust-plasma transport phenomena will be presented. These include time-dependent modeling of impact of short out-bursts of different quantities of tungsten dust in ITER divertor on the edge plasma parameters. The plasma response to the out-bursts with various duration, location, and ejected dust sizes will be analyzed.
Transport hysteresis of core plasma, isotope effect, and H-mode physics
Itoh, S.-I.; Itoh, K.; Inagaki, S.
2017-02-01
This article assesses the understanding of and impact by the hysteresis in transport relation. The rapid changes of fluxes compared to slow changes of plasma parameters are overviewed for both edge barrier and core plasmas. The theoretical approaches to understanding the direct influence of heating power on turbulent transport are addressed. Based on this new theoretical framework, the ‘isotope effect’ of plasma confinement time is discussed. A trial explanation is given for this unresolved mystery in plasma confinement. The advanced data analysis method to research the hysteresis in gradient-flux relation is explained.
Turbulent transport and heating of trace heavy ions in hot, magnetized plasmas
Barnes, M; Dorland, W
2012-01-01
Scaling laws for the transport and heating of trace heavy ions in low-frequency, magnetized plasma turbulence are derived and compared with direct numerical simulations. The predicted dependences of turbulent fluxes and heating on ion charge and mass number are found to agree with numerical results for both stationary and differentially rotating plasmas. Heavy ion momentum transport is found to increase with mass, and heavy ions are found to be preferentially heated, implying a mass-dependent ion temperature for very weakly collisional plasmas and for partially-ionized heavy ions in strongly rotating plasmas.
Phase Transition in the Simplest Plasma Model
Iosilevskiy, Igor
2009-01-01
We have investigated the phase transition of the gas-liquid type, with an upper critical point, in a variant of the One Component Plasma model (OCP) that has a uniform but compressible compensating background. We have calculated the parameters of the critical and triple points, spinodals, and two-phase coexistence curves (binodals). We have analyzed the connection of this simplest plasma phase transition with anomalies in the spatial charge profiles of equilibrium non-uniform plasma in the local-density approximations of Thomas-Fermi or Poisson-Boltzmann-type.
Ssh4, Rcr2 and Rcr1 affect plasma membrane transporter activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Kota, Jhansi; Melin-Larsson, Monika; Ljungdahl, Per O; Forsberg, Hanna
2007-04-01
Nutrient uptake in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a highly regulated process. Cells adjust levels of nutrient transporters within the plasma membrane at multiple stages of the secretory and endosomal pathways. In the absence of the ER-membrane-localized chaperone Shr3, amino acid permeases (AAP) inefficiently fold and are largely retained in the ER. Consequently, shr3 null mutants exhibit greatly reduced rates of amino acid uptake due to lower levels of AAPs in their plasma membranes. To further our understanding of mechanisms affecting AAP localization, we identified SSH4 and RCR2 as high-copy suppressors of shr3 null mutations. The overexpression of SSH4, RCR2, or the RCR2 homolog RCR1 increases steady-state AAP levels, whereas the genetic inactivation of these genes reduces steady-state AAP levels. Additionally, the overexpression of any of these suppressor genes exerts a positive effect on phosphate and uracil uptake systems. Ssh4 and Rcr2 primarily localize to structures associated with the vacuole; however, Rcr2 also localizes to endosome-like vesicles. Our findings are consistent with a model in which Ssh4, Rcr2, and presumably Rcr1, function within the endosome-vacuole trafficking pathway, where they affect events that determine whether plasma membrane proteins are degraded or routed to the plasma membrane.
Jovian Plasma Modeling for Mission Design
Garrett, Henry B.; Kim, Wousik; Belland, Brent; Evans, Robin
2015-01-01
The purpose of this report is to address uncertainties in the plasma models at Jupiter responsible for surface charging and to update the jovian plasma models using the most recent data available. The updated plasma environment models were then used to evaluate two proposed Europa mission designs for spacecraft charging effects using the Nascap-2k code. The original Divine/Garrett jovian plasma model (or "DG1", T. N. Divine and H. B. Garrett, "Charged particle distributions in Jupiter's magnetosphere," J. Geophys. Res., vol. 88, pp. 6889-6903,1983) has not been updated in 30 years, and there are known errors in the model. As an example, the cold ion plasma temperatures between approx.5 and 10 Jupiter radii (Rj) were found by the experimenters who originally published the data to have been underestimated by approx.2 shortly after publication of the original DG1 model. As knowledge of the plasma environment is critical to any evaluation of the surface charging at Jupiter, the original DG1 model needed to be updated to correct for this and other changes in our interpretation of the data so that charging levels could beproperly estimated using the Nascap-2k charging code. As an additional task, the Nascap-2k spacecraft charging tool has been adapted to incorporate the so-called Kappa plasma distribution function--an important component of the plasma model necessary to compute the particle fluxes between approx.5 keV and 100 keV (at the outset of this study,Nascap-2k did not directly incorporate this common representation of the plasma thus limiting the accuracy of our charging estimates). The updating of the DG1 model and its integration into the Nascap-2k design tool means that charging concerns can now be more efficiently evaluated and mitigated. (We note that, given the subsequent decision by the Europa project to utilize solar arrays for its baseline design, surface charging effects have becomeeven more of an issue for its mission design). The modifications and
Modeling the Enceladus plume--plasma interaction
Fleshman, B L; Bagenal, F
2010-01-01
We investigate the chemical interaction between Saturn's corotating plasma and Enceladus' volcanic plumes. We evolve plasma as it passes through a prescribed H2O plume using a physical chemistry model adapted for water-group reactions. The flow field is assumed to be that of a plasma around an electrically-conducting obstacle centered on Enceladus and aligned with Saturn's magnetic field, consistent with Cassini magnetometer data. We explore the effects on the physical chemistry due to: (1) a small population of hot electrons; (2) a plasma flow decelerated in response to the pickup of fresh ions; (3) the source rate of neutral H2O. The model confirms that charge exchange dominates the local chemistry and that H3O+ dominates the water-group composition downstream of the Enceladus plumes. We also find that the amount of fresh pickup ions depends heavily on both the neutral source strength and on the presence of a persistent population of hot electrons.
A model for transonic plasma flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guazzotto, Luca, E-mail: luca.guazzotto@rochester.edu [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Hameiri, Eliezer, E-mail: hameiri@cims.nyu.edu [Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, New York, New York 10012 (United States)
2014-02-15
A linear, two-dimensional model of a transonic plasma flow in equilibrium is constructed and given an explicit solution in the form of a complex Laplace integral. The solution indicates that the transonic state can be solved as an elliptic boundary value problem, as is done in the numerical code FLOW [Guazzotto et al., Phys. Plasmas 11, 604 (2004)]. Moreover, the presence of a hyperbolic region does not necessarily imply the presence of a discontinuity or any other singularity of the solution.
Plasma Modeling Enabled Technology Development Empowered by Fundamental Scattering Data
Kushner, Mark J.
2016-05-01
Technology development increasingly relies on modeling to speed the innovation cycle. This is particularly true for systems using low temperature plasmas (LTPs) and their role in enabling energy efficient processes with minimal environmental impact. In the innovation cycle, LTP modeling supports investigation of fundamental processes that seed the cycle, optimization of newly developed technologies, and prediction of performance of unbuilt systems for new applications. Although proof-of-principle modeling may be performed for idealized systems in simple gases, technology development must address physically complex systems that use complex gas mixtures that now may be multi-phase (e.g., in contact with liquids). The variety of fundamental electron and ion scattering, and radiation transport data (FSRD) required for this modeling increases as the innovation cycle progresses, while the accuracy required of that data depends on the intended outcome. In all cases, the fidelity, depth and impact of the modeling depends on the availability of FSRD. Modeling and technology development are, in fact, empowered by the availability and robustness of FSRD. In this talk, examples of the impact of and requirements for FSRD in the innovation cycle enabled by plasma modeling will be discussed using results from multidimensional and global models. Examples of fundamental studies and technology optimization will focus on microelectronics fabrication and on optically pumped lasers. Modeling of systems as yet unbuilt will address the interaction of atmospheric pressure plasmas with liquids. Work supported by DOE Office of Fusion Energy Science and the National Science Foundation.
The european Trans-Tools transport model
Rooijen, T. van; Burgess, A.
2008-01-01
The paper presents the use of ArcGIS in the Transtools Transport Model, TRANS-TOOLS, created by an international consortium for the European Commission. The model describe passenger as well as freight transport in Europe with all medium and long distance modes (cars, vans, trucks, train, inland
The european Trans-Tools transport model
Rooijen, T. van; Burgess, A.
2008-01-01
The paper presents the use of ArcGIS in the Transtools Transport Model, TRANS-TOOLS, created by an international consortium for the European Commission. The model describe passenger as well as freight transport in Europe with all medium and long distance modes (cars, vans, trucks, train, inland wate
The Low-Recycling Lithium Boundary and Implications for Plasma Transport
Granstedt, Erik Michael
Pumping of incident hydrogen and impurity ions by lithium enables control of the particle inventory and fueling profile in magnetic-confined plasmas, and may raise the plasma temperature near the wall. As a result, the density gradient is expected to contribute substantially to the free-energy, affecting particle and thermal transport from micro-turbulence which is typically the dominant transport mechanism in high-temperature fusion experiments. Transport in gyrokinetic simulations of density-gradient-dominated profiles is characterized by a small linear critical gradient, large particle flux, and preferential diffusion of cold particles. As a result, the heat flux is below 5/2 or even 3/2 times the particle flux, usually assumed to be the minimum for convection. While surprising, this result is consistent with increasing entropy. Coupled TEM-ITG (ion-temperature-gradient) simulations using η e = ηi find η = ∇ T/∇n ≈ 0.8 maximizes the linear critical pressure gradient, which suggests that experiments operating near marginal ITG stability with larger η would increase the linear critical pressure gradient by transferring free-energy from the temperature gradient to the density gradient. Simulations were performed with profiles predicted for the Lithium Tokamak Experiment (LTX) if ion thermal transport was neoclassical, while electron thermal transport and particle transport were a fixed ratio above the neoclassical level. A robust TEM instability was found for the outer half radius, while the ITG was found to be driven unstable as well during gas puff fueling. This suggests that TEM transport will be an important transport mechanism in high-temperature low-recycling fusion experiments, and in the absence of stabilizing mechanisms, may dominate over neoclassical transport. A diagnostic suite has been developed to measure hydrogen and impurity emission in LTX in order to determine the lower bound on recycling that can be achieved in a small tokamak using
Effenberg, F.; Feng, Y.; Schmitz, O.; Frerichs, H.; Bozhenkov, S. A.; Hölbe, H.; König, R.; Krychowiak, M.; Pedersen, T. Sunn; Reiter, D.; Stephey, L.; W7-X Team
2017-03-01
The results of a first systematic assessment of plasma edge transport processes for the limiter startup configuration at Wendelstein 7-X are presented. This includes an investigation of transport from intrinsic and externally injected impurities and their impact on the power balance and limiter heat fluxes. The fully 3D coupled plasma fluid and kinetic neutral transport Monte Carlo code EMC3-EIRENE is used. The analysis of the magnetic topology shows that the poloidally and toroidally localized limiters cause a 3D helical scrape-off layer (SOL) consisting of magnetic flux tubes of three different connection lengths L C. The transport in the helical SOL is governed by L C as topological scale length for the parallel plasma loss channel to the limiters. A clear modulation of the plasma pressure with L C is seen. The helical flux tube topology results in counter streaming sonic plasma flows. The heterogeneous SOL plasma structure yields an uneven limiter heat load distribution with localized peaking. Assuming spatially constant anomalous transport coefficients, increasing plasma density yields a reduction of the maximum peak heat loads from 12 MWm-2 to 7.5 MWm-2 and a broadening of the deposited heat fluxes. The impact of impurities on the limiter heat loads is studied by assuming intrinsic carbon impurities eroded from the limiter surfaces with a gross chemical sputtering yield of 2 % . The resulting radiative losses account for less than 10% of the input power in the power balance with marginal impact on the limiter heat loads. It is shown that a significant mitigation of peak heat loads, 40-50%, can be achieved with controlled impurity seeding with nitrogen and neon, which is a method of particular interest for the later island divertor phase.
Optimal transportation networks models and theory
Bernot, Marc; Morel, Jean-Michel
2009-01-01
The transportation problem can be formalized as the problem of finding the optimal way to transport a given measure into another with the same mass. In contrast to the Monge-Kantorovitch problem, recent approaches model the branched structure of such supply networks as minima of an energy functional whose essential feature is to favour wide roads. Such a branched structure is observable in ground transportation networks, in draining and irrigation systems, in electrical power supply systems and in natural counterparts such as blood vessels or the branches of trees. These lectures provide mathematical proof of several existence, structure and regularity properties empirically observed in transportation networks. The link with previous discrete physical models of irrigation and erosion models in geomorphology and with discrete telecommunication and transportation models is discussed. It will be mathematically proven that the majority fit in the simple model sketched in this volume.
New bipartition model of neutral particle transport in the HL-2A divertor region
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
DENG Bai-quan; YAN Jian-cheng; PENG Li-lin
2005-01-01
A new bipartition neutral transport model has been developed for simulation of the hydrogenic neutral particle transport in the vicinity of HL-2A divertor target plate. The numerical calculation results on the basis of this model are fairly consistent with the results obtained with the "multi-generation method". One possible application of this model is to provide a source term originating from neutral transport calculation for any other edge plasma transport code, for instance, B-2 code, which has been used to simulate edge plasma transport of the HL-2A divertor configuration. Especially it can be utilized to quickly classify the plasma in divertor region as high or low recycling regime.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1993-12-01
The long-range goal of the Numerical Tokamak Project (NTP) is the reliable prediction of tokamak performance using physics-based numerical tools describing tokamak physics. The NTP is accomplishing the development of the most advanced particle and extended fluid model`s on massively parallel processing (MPP) environments as part of a multi-institutional, multi-disciplinary numerical study of tokamak core fluctuations. The NTP is a continuing focus of the Office of Fusion Energy`s theory and computation program. Near-term HPCC work concentrates on developing a predictive numerical description of the core plasma transport in tokamaks driven by low-frequency collective fluctuations. This work addresses one of the greatest intellectual challenges to our understanding of the physics of tokamak performance and needs the most advanced computational resources to progress. We are conducting detailed comparisons of kinetic and fluid numerical models of tokamak turbulence. These comparisons are stimulating the improvement of each and the development of hybrid models which embody aspects of both. The combination of emerging massively parallel processing hardware and algorithmic improvements will result in an estimated 10**2--10**6 performance increase. Development of information processing and visualization tools is accelerating our comparison of computational models to one another, to experimental data, and to analytical theory, providing a bootstrap effect in our understanding of the target physics. The measure of success is the degree to which the experimentally observed scaling of fluctuation-driven transport may be predicted numerically. The NTP is advancing the HPCC Initiative through its state-of-the-art computational work. We are pushing the capability of high performance computing through our efforts which are strongly leveraged by OFE support.
Uncertainty in tsunami sediment transport modeling
Jaffe, Bruce E.; Goto, Kazuhisa; Sugawara, Daisuke; Gelfenbaum, Guy R.; La Selle, SeanPaul M.
2016-01-01
Erosion and deposition from tsunamis record information about tsunami hydrodynamics and size that can be interpreted to improve tsunami hazard assessment. We explore sources and methods for quantifying uncertainty in tsunami sediment transport modeling. Uncertainty varies with tsunami, study site, available input data, sediment grain size, and model. Although uncertainty has the potential to be large, published case studies indicate that both forward and inverse tsunami sediment transport models perform well enough to be useful for deciphering tsunami characteristics, including size, from deposits. New techniques for quantifying uncertainty, such as Ensemble Kalman Filtering inversion, and more rigorous reporting of uncertainties will advance the science of tsunami sediment transport modeling. Uncertainty may be decreased with additional laboratory studies that increase our understanding of the semi-empirical parameters and physics of tsunami sediment transport, standardized benchmark tests to assess model performance, and development of hybrid modeling approaches to exploit the strengths of forward and inverse models.
Advancing the understanding of plasma transport in mid-size stellarators
Hidalgo, Carlos; Talmadge, Joseph; Ramisch, Mirko; TJ-II, the; HXS; TJ-K Teams
2017-01-01
The tokamak and the stellarator are the two main candidate concepts for magnetically confining fusion plasmas. The flexibility of the mid-size stellarator devices together with their unique diagnostic capabilities make them ideally suited to study the relation between magnetic topology, electric fields and transport. This paper addresses advances in the understanding of plasma transport in mid-size stellarators with an emphasis on the physics of flows, transport control, impurity and particle transport and fast particles. The results described here emphasize an improved physics understanding of phenomena in stellarators that complements the empirical approach. Experiments in mid-size stellarators support the development of advanced plasma scenarios in Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) and, in concert with better physics understanding in tokamaks, may ultimately lead to an advance in the prediction of burning plasma behaviour.
Modelling transport of graded sediment under partial transport conditions
Tuijnder, Arjan; Ribberink, Jan S.; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.; Weerts, H.J.T.; Ritsema, I.L; van Os, A.G.
2006-01-01
Tentative plans are presented for research on the modelling of i) selective sediment transport in suspension and as bed-load, and ii) large-scale morphology in mixed sand-gravel bed rivers. Since the planning of the research is still in its early stages, the plans are flexible. Please feel free to
Charge-transport model for conducting polymers
Dongmin Kang, Stephen; Jeffrey Snyder, G.
2016-11-01
The growing technological importance of conducting polymers makes the fundamental understanding of their charge transport extremely important for materials and process design. Various hopping and mobility edge transport mechanisms have been proposed, but their experimental verification is limited to poor conductors. Now that advanced organic and polymer semiconductors have shown high conductivity approaching that of metals, the transport mechanism should be discernible by modelling the transport like a semiconductor with a transport edge and a transport parameter s. Here we analyse the electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient together and determine that most polymers (except possibly PEDOT:tosylate) have s = 3 and thermally activated conductivity, whereas s = 1 and itinerant conductivity is typically found in crystalline semiconductors and metals. The different transport in polymers may result from the percolation of charge carriers from conducting ordered regions through poorly conducting disordered regions, consistent with what has been expected from structural studies.
Plasma interfacial mixing layers: Comparisons of fluid and kinetic models
Vold, Erik; Yin, Lin; Taitano, William; Albright, B. J.; Chacon, Luis; Simakov, Andrei; Molvig, Kim
2016-10-01
We examine plasma transport across an initial discontinuity between two species by comparing fluid and kinetic models. The fluid model employs a kinetic theory approximation for plasma transport in the limit of small Knudsen number. The kinetic simulations include explicit particle-in-cell simulations (VPIC) and a new implicit Vlasov-Fokker-Planck code, iFP. The two kinetic methods are shown to be in close agreement for many aspects of the mixing dynamics at early times (to several hundred collision times). The fluid model captures some of the earliest time dynamic behavior seen in the kinetic results, and also generally agrees with iFP at late times when the total pressure gradient relaxes and the species transport is dominated by slow diffusive processes. The results show three distinct phases of the mixing: a pressure discontinuity forms across the initial interface (on times of a few collisions), the pressure perturbations propagate away from the interfacial mixing region (on time scales of an acoustic transit) and at late times the pressure relaxes in the mix region leaving a non-zero center of mass flow velocity. The center of mass velocity associated with the outward propagating pressure waves is required to conserve momentum in the rest frame. Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. DOE by the LANS, LLC, Los Alamos National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC52-06NA25396. Funding provided by the Advanced Simulation and Computing (ASC) Program.
Theory of nonlocal heat transport in fully ionized plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maximov, A.V. (Tesla Labs., Inc., La Jolla, CA (United States)); Silin, V.P. (P.N. Lebedev Inst., Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russia))
1993-01-25
A new analytic solution of the electron kinetic equation describing the interacting of the electromagnetic heating field with plasma is obtained in the region of plasma parameters where the Spitzer-Harm classical theory is invalid. A novel expression for the nonlocal electron thermal conductivity is derived. (orig.).
Ubiquitination regulates the plasma membrane expression of renal UT-A urea transporters.
Stewart, Gavin S; O'Brien, Jennifer H; Smith, Craig P
2008-07-01
The renal UT-A urea transporters UT-A1, UT-A2, and UT-A3 are known to play an important role in the urinary concentrating mechanism. The control of the cellular localization of UT-A transporters is therefore vital to overall renal function. In the present study, we have investigated the effect of ubiquitination on UT-A plasma membrane expression in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell lines expressing each of the three renal UT-A transporters. Inhibition of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway caused an increase in basal transepithelial urea flux across MDCK-rat (r)UT-A1 and MDCK-mouse (m)UT-A2 monolayers (P UT-A transporter expression in the plasma membrane (P UT-A3 expression in the plasma membrane (P UT-A urea transporters, but that this is not the mechanism primarily used by vasopressin to produce its physiological effects.
Fluxon Modeling of Low-Beta Plasmas
DeForest, C E; Forest, Craig E. De; Kankelborg, Charles C.
2006-01-01
We have developed a new, quasi-Lagrangian approach for numerical modeling of magnetohydrodynamics in low to moderate $\\beta$ plasmas such as the solar corona. We introduce the concept of a ``fluxon'', a discretized field line. Fluxon models represent the magnetic field as a skeleton of such discrete field lines, and interpolate field values from the geometry of the skeleton where needed, reversing the usual direction of the field line transform. The fluxon skeleton forms the grid for a collection of 1-D Eulerian models of plasma along individual flux tubes. Fluxon models have no numerical resistivity, because they preserve topology explicitly. Our prototype code, \\emph{FLUX}, is currently able to find 3-D nonlinear force-free field solutions with a specified field topology, and work is ongoing to validate and extend the code to full magnetohydrodynamics. FLUX has significant scaling advantages over conventional models: for ``magnetic carpet'' models, with photospheric line-tied boundary conditions, FLUX simul...
Scoggins, James B.; Knisely, Carleton P.; Magin, Thierry E.
2016-11-01
We propose a unified fluid model for multicomponent plasmas in thermal nonequilibrium accounting for the influence of the electromagnetic field. In a previous work, this model was derived from kinetic theory based on a generalized Chapman-Enskog perturbative solution of the Boltzmann equation, scaled using the ratio of electron to heavy-particle masses. Anisotropic transport properties were derived in terms of bracket integrals. In this work, explicit expressions for asymptotic solutions of the transport properties are derived using a spectral Galerkin projection supplied with Laguerre-Sonine polynomial basis functions, and we analyze the crossed contributions to electron and heavy particle mass and energy fluxes, known as the Kolesnikov effect.
Plasma channel and Z-pinch dynamics for heavy ion transport
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ponce-Marquez, David [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)
2002-01-01
A self stabilized, free standing, z-pinch plasma channel has been proposed to deliver the high intensity heavy ion beam from the end of a driver to the fuel target in a heavy ion inertial fusion power plant. The z-pinch relaxes emittance and energy spread requirements requiring a lower cost driver. A z-pinch transport would reduce the number of beam entry port holes to the target chamber from over a hundred to four as compared to neutralized ballistic focusing thus reducing the driver hardware exposure to neutron flux. Experiments where a double pulse discharge technique is used, z-pinch plasma channels with enhanced stability are achieved. Typical parameters are 7 kV pre-pulse discharge and 30 kV main bank discharge with 50 kA of channel current in a 7 torr background gas atmosphere. This work is an experimental study of these plasma channels examining the relevant physics necessary to understand and model such plasmas. Laser diagnostics measured the dynamical properties of neutrals and plasma. Schlieren and phase contrast techniques probe the pre-pulse gas dynamics and infrared interferometry and faraday effect polarimetry are used on the z-pinch to study its electron density and current distribution. Stability and repeatability of the z-pinch depend on the initial conditions set by the pre-pulse. Results show that the z-pinch channel is wall stabilized by an on-axis gas density depression created by the pre-pulse through hydrodynamic expansion where the ratio of the initial gas density to the final gas density is > 10/1. The low on-axis density favors avalanching along the desired path for the main bank discharge. Pinch time is around 2 s from the main bank discharge initiation with a FWHM of ~ 2 cm. Results also show that typical main bank discharge plasma densities reach 10^{17} cm^{-3} peak on axis for a 30 kV, 7 torr gas nitrogen discharge. Current rise time is limited by the circuit-channel inductance with the highest contribution to the
Plasma channel and Z-pinch dynamics for heavy ion transport
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ponce-Marquez, David
2002-07-09
A self stabilized, free standing, z-pinch plasma channel has been proposed to deliver the high intensity heavy ion beam from the end of a driver to the fuel target in a heavy ion inertial fusion power plant. The z-pinch relaxes emittance and energy spread requirements requiring a lower cost driver. A z-pinch transport would reduce the number of beam entry port holes to the target chamber from over a hundred to four as compared to neutralized ballistic focusing thus reducing the driver hardware exposure to neutron flux. Experiments where a double pulse discharge technique is used, z-pinch plasma channels with enhanced stability are achieved. Typical parameters are 7 kV pre-pulse discharge and 30 kV main bank discharge with 50 kA of channel current in a 7 torr background gas atmosphere. This work is an experimental study of these plasma channels examining the relevant physics necessary to understand and model such plasmas. Laser diagnostics measured the dynamical properties of neutrals and plasma. Schlieren and phase contrast techniques probe the pre-pulse gas dynamics and infrared interferometry and faraday effect polarimetry are used on the z-pinch to study its electron density and current distribution. Stability and repeatability of the z-pinch depend on the initial conditions set by the pre-pulse. Results show that the z-pinch channel is wall stabilized by an on-axis gas density depression created by the pre-pulse through hydrodynamic expansion where the ratio of the initial gas density to the final gas density is > 10/1. The low on-axis density favors avalanching along the desired path for the main bank discharge. Pinch time is around 2 s from the main bank discharge initiation with a FWHM of {approx} 2 cm. Results also show that typical main bank discharge plasma densities reach 10{sup 17} cm{sup -3} peak on axis for a 30 kV, 7 torr gas nitrogen discharge. Current rise time is limited by the circuit-channel inductance with the highest contribution to the
Modeling TeV Class Plasma Afterburners
Huang Cheng Kun; Clayton, Chris; Decker, Franz Josef; Deng, Suzhi; Hogan, Mark; Iverson, Richard; Johnson, Devon K; Joshi, Chandrashekhar; Katsouleas, Thomas C; Lu, Wei; Mori, Warren; Muggli, Patric; Oz, Erdem; Zhou, Miaomiao
2005-01-01
Plasma wakefield acceleration can sustain acceleration gradients three orders of magnitude larger than conventional RF accelerator. In the recent E164X experiment, substantial energy gain of about 3Gev has been observed. Thus, a plasma afterburner, which has been proposed to double the incoming beam energy for a future linear collider, is now of great interest. In an afterburner, a particle beam drives a plasma wave and generates a strong wakefield which has a phase velocity equal to the velocity of the beam. This wakefield can then be used to accelerate part of the drive beam or a trailing beam. Several issues such as the efficient transfer of energy and the stable propagation of both the drive and trailing beams in the plasma are critical to the afterburner concept. We investigate the nonlinear beam-plasma interaction in such scenario using the 3D computer modeling code QuickPIC. We will report the latest simulation results of both 50 GeV and 1 TeV plasma afterburner stages for electrons including the beam-...
A collisionless plasma thruster plume expansion model
Merino, Mario; Cichocki, Filippo; Ahedo, Eduardo
2015-06-01
A two-fluid model of the unmagnetized, collisionless far region expansion of the plasma plume for gridded ion thrusters and Hall effect thrusters is presented. The model is integrated into two semi-analytical solutions valid in the hypersonic case. These solutions are discussed and compared against the results from the (exact) method of characteristics; the relative errors in density and velocity increase slowly axially and radially and are of the order of 10-2-10-3 in the cases studied. The plasma density, ion flux and ambipolar electric field are investigated. A sensitivity analysis of the problem parameters and initial conditions is carried out in order to characterize the far plume divergence angle in the range of interest for space electric propulsion. A qualitative discussion of the physics of the secondary plasma plume is also provided.
Damage modelling in plasma facing components
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Martin, E. [Universite Bordeaux 1, UMR 5801 (CNRS-SPS-CEA-UB1), Laboratoire des Composites Thermostructuraux, F-33600 Pessac (France)], E-mail: martin@lcts.u-bordeaux1.fr; Camus, G. [Universite Bordeaux 1, UMR 5801 (CNRS-SPS-CEA-UB1), Laboratoire des Composites Thermostructuraux, F-33600 Pessac (France); Schlosser, J.; Chevet, G. [Association Euratom-CEA, DSM/DRFC, CEA Cadarache, St. Paul Lez Durance (France)
2009-04-30
The plasma facing components of controlled fusion devices are submitted to high heat fluxes in operating conditions (from 10 to 20 MW/m{sup 2}). These components are made of a carbon/carbon composite tile bonded to a copper alloy heat sink. Due to the thermal expansion mismatch between the composite and the copper alloy, significant stresses may develop during fabrication and under heat load inducing damage in the composite material as well as at the copper/composite interface. The present study describes a modelling approach aimed at predicting damage development in plasma facing components. For this purpose, damage laws related to the non-linear behaviour of both the composite material and the copper/composite joint have been identified. These constitutive laws were then introduced in a numerical model representative of a plasma facing component. Results show the development of damage within the assembly submitted to a heat load.
Polar auxin transport: models and mechanisms
Berkel, van K.; Boer, de R.J.; Scheres, B.; Tusscher, ten K.
2013-01-01
Spatial patterns of the hormone auxin are important drivers of plant development. The observed feedback between the active, directed transport that generates auxin patterns and the auxin distribution that influences transport orientation has rendered this a popular subject for modelling studies. Her
Multi-Organ Contribution to the Metabolic Plasma Profile Using Hierarchical Modelling.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Frida Torell
Full Text Available Hierarchical modelling was applied in order to identify the organs that contribute to the levels of metabolites in plasma. Plasma and organ samples from gut, kidney, liver, muscle and pancreas were obtained from mice. The samples were analysed using gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC TOF-MS at the Swedish Metabolomics centre, Umeå University, Sweden. The multivariate analysis was performed by means of principal component analysis (PCA and orthogonal projections to latent structures (OPLS. The main goal of this study was to investigate how each organ contributes to the metabolic plasma profile. This was performed using hierarchical modelling. Each organ was found to have a unique metabolic profile. The hierarchical modelling showed that the gut, kidney and liver demonstrated the greatest contribution to the metabolic pattern of plasma. For example, we found that metabolites were absorbed in the gut and transported to the plasma. The kidneys excrete branched chain amino acids (BCAAs and fatty acids are transported in the plasma to the muscles and liver. Lactic acid was also found to be transported from the pancreas to plasma. The results indicated that hierarchical modelling can be utilized to identify the organ contribution of unknown metabolites to the metabolic profile of plasma.
Particle simulation of neoclassical transport in the plasma Edge
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chang, C.S. [Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (Korea); Ku, S. [Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, 251 Mercer Street, New York, NY (United States); Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (Korea)
2006-09-15
Particle-in-cell is a popular technique for a global five dimensional numerical simulation of the neoclassical plasma phenomena in a toroidal plasma. In this paper, we briefly review the physical and mathematical aspects of the modern neoclassical particle simulation methodology for a plasma edge simulation and present representative results recently obtained from XGC (X-point included Guiding Center) code. The strength and weakness in the modern neoclassical particle simulation techniques will also be discussed. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
Impurity generation, transport and redeposition at plasma boundary
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kojima, M.; Ido, Y.; Ezumi, N.; Ohno, N.; Takamura, S. [Nagoya Univ. (Japan)
1997-12-31
Erosion and redeposition processes have been investigated using a linear plasma device and a Monte-Carlo simulation code. Molybdenum substrate is exposed to argon plasmas for oblique incidence of magnetic field under well-defined plasma conditions. The effect of magnetic field directions on the erosion distribution is clearly observed. We have a qualitative explanation for the erosion profiles with the effect of prompt redeposition of high Z material in comparison with numerical code predictions. However, we have quantitative differences for their erosion rates. (author)
The Effect of Correlations on the Heat Transport in a Magnetized Plasma
Ott, Torben; Donko, Zoltan
2015-01-01
In a classical ideal plasma, a magnetic field is known to reduce the heat conductivity perpendicular to the field whereas it does not alter the one along the field. Here we show that, in strongly correlated plasmas that are observed at high pressure or/and low temperature, a magnetic field reduces the perpendicular heat transport much less and even {\\it enhances} the parallel transport. These surprising observations are explained by the competition of kinetic, potential and collisional contributions to the heat conductivity. Our results are based on first principle molecular dynamics simulations of a one-component plasma.
Energy Conservation Tests of a Coupled Kinetic-kinetic Plasma-neutral Transport Code
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stotler, D. P.; Chang, C. S.; Ku, S. H.; Lang, J.; Park, G.
2012-08-29
A Monte Carlo neutral transport routine, based on DEGAS2, has been coupled to the guiding center ion-electron-neutral neoclassical PIC code XGC0 to provide a realistic treatment of neutral atoms and molecules in the tokamak edge plasma. The DEGAS2 routine allows detailed atomic physics and plasma-material interaction processes to be incorporated into these simulations. The spatial pro le of the neutral particle source used in the DEGAS2 routine is determined from the uxes of XGC0 ions to the material surfaces. The kinetic-kinetic plasma-neutral transport capability is demonstrated with example pedestal fueling simulations.
Carbon transport and escape fraction in a high density plasma beam
van Swaaij, G. A.; Bystrov, K.; Borodin, D.; Kirschner, A.; Zaharia, T.; van der Vegt, L. B.; De Temmerman, G.; W. J. Goedheer,
2013-01-01
Hydrocarbon injection experiments on molybdenum targets facing high-density plasmas in Pilot-PSI were simulated with the 3D Monte Carlo impurity transport and PSI code ERO. Impurity transport and calculation of redeposition profiles were decoupled by calculating carbon redistribution matrices with E
ADENOSINE-TRIPHOSPHATE DEPENDENT TAUROCHOLATE TRANSPORT IN HUMAN LIVER PLASMA-MEMBRANES
WOLTERS, H; KUIPERS, F; SLOOFF, MJH; VONK, RJ
1992-01-01
Transport systems involved in uptake and biliary secretion of bile salts have been extensively studied in rat liver; however, little is known about these systems in the human liver. In this study, we investigated taurocholate (TC) transport in canalicular and basolateral plasma membrane vesicles iso
Concept Layout Model of Transportation Terminals
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Li-ya Yao
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Transportation terminal is the key node in transport systems. Efficient terminals can improve operation of passenger transportation networks, adjust the layout of public transportation networks, provide a passenger guidance system, and regulate the development of commercial forms, as well as optimize the assembly and distribution of modern logistic modes, among others. This study aims to clarify the relationship between the function and the structure of transportation terminals and establish the function layout design. The mapping mechanism of demand, function, and structure was analyzed, and a quantitative relationship between function and structure was obtained from a design perspective. Passenger demand and terminal structure were decomposed into several demand units and structural elements following the principle of reverse engineering. The relationship maps between these two kinds of elements were then analyzed. Function-oriented concept layout model of transportation terminals was established using the previous method. Thus, a technique in planning and design of transportation structures was proposed. Meaningful results were obtained from the optimization of transportation terminal facilities, which guide the design of the functional layout of transportation terminals and improve the development of urban passenger transportation systems.
Electromagnetic effects on plasma blob-filament transport
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Wonjae, E-mail: wol023@ucsd.edu [University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Angus, J.R. [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC (United States); Umansky, Maxim V. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Krasheninnikov, Sergei I. [University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States); Nuclear Research National University MEPhI, Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation)
2015-08-15
Both microscopic and macroscopic impacts of the electromagnetic effects on blob dynamics are considered. Linear stability analysis and nonlinear BOUT++ simulations demonstrate that electromagnetic effects in high temperature or high beta plasmas suppress the resistive drift wave turbulence in the blob when resistivity drops below a certain value. In the course of blob’s motion in the SOL its temperature is reduced, which leads to enhancement of resistive effects, so the blob can switch from electromagnetic to electrostatic regime, where resistive drift wave turbulence become important. It is found that inhomogeneity of magnetic curvature or plasma pressure along the filament length leads to bending of the high-beta blob filaments. This is caused by the increase of the propagation time of plasma current (Alfvén time) in higher-density plasma. The effects of sheath boundary conditions on the part of the blob away from the boundary are also diminished by the increased Alfvén time.
A unified model of density limit in fusion plasmas
Zanca, P.; Sattin, F.; Escande, D. F.; Pucella, G.; Tudisco, O.
2017-05-01
In this work we identify by analytical and numerical means the conditions for the existence of a magnetic and thermal equilibrium of a cylindrical plasma, in the presence of Ohmic and/or additional power sources, heat conduction and radiation losses by light impurities. The boundary defining the solutions’ space having realistic temperature profile with small edge value takes mathematically the form of a density limit (DL). Compared to previous similar analyses the present work benefits from dealing with a more accurate set of equations. This refinement is elementary, but decisive, since it discloses a tenuous dependence of the DL on the thermal transport for configurations with an applied electric field. Thanks to this property, the DL scaling law is recovered almost identical for two largely different devices such as the ohmic tokamak and the reversed field pinch. In particular, they have in common a Greenwald scaling, linearly depending on the plasma current, quantitatively consistent with experimental results. In the tokamak case the DL dependence on any additional heating approximately follows a 0.5 power law, which is compatible with L-mode experiments. For a purely externally heated configuration, taken as a cylindrical approximation of the stellarator, the DL dependence on transport is found stronger. By adopting suitable transport models, DL takes on a Sudo-like form, in fair agreement with LHD experiments. Overall, the model provides a good zeroth-order quantitative description of the DL, applicable to widely different configurations.
Transport phenomena in a plasma of confining gluons
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ryblewski Radoslaw
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The plasma of confining gluons resulting from the Gribov quantization is considered. In the fluid dynamical framework the non-equilibrium properties of the system are studied. In the linear response approximation the formulas for the bulk, ζ, and shear, η, viscosities of the plasma are calculated analytically. Surprisingly, the approximate scaling of the ζ/η ratio reveals the strong-coupling properties of the system under consideration.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Leconte, M.
2008-11-15
The H confinement regime is set when the heating power reaches a threshold value P{sub c} and is linked to the formation of a transport barrier in the edge region of the plasma. Such a barrier is characterized by a high pressure gradient and is submitted to ELM (edge localized mode) instabilities. ELM instabilities trigger violent quasi-periodical ejections of matter and heat that induce quasi-periodical relaxations of the transport barrier called relaxation oscillations. In this work we studied the interaction between sheared flows and turbulence in fusion plasmas. In particular, we studied the complex dynamics of a transport barrier and we show through a simulation that resonant magnetic perturbations could control relaxation oscillations without a significant loss of confinement
Generalized Plasma Skimming Model for Cells and Drug Carriers in the Microvasculature
Lee, Tae-Rin; Yang, Jiho
2016-01-01
In microvascular transport, where both blood and drug carriers are involved, plasma skimming has a key role on changing hematocrit level and drug carrier concentration in capillary beds after continuous vessel bifurcation in the microvasculature. While there have been numerous studies on modeling the plasma skimming of blood, previous works lacked in consideration of its interaction with drug carriers. In this paper, a generalized plasma skimming model is suggested to predict the redistributions of both the cells and drug carriers at each bifurcation. In order to examine its applicability, this new model was applied on a single bifurcation system to predict the redistribution of red blood cells and drug carriers. Furthermore, this model was tested at microvascular network level under different plasma skimming conditions for predicting the concentration of drug carriers. Based on these results, the applicability of this generalized plasma skimming model is fully discussed and future works along with the model'...
Wang, J
2016-11-01
Plasma membrane monoamine transporter (PMAT) is a new polyspecific organic cation transporter that transports a variety of biogenic amines and xenobiotic cations. Highly expressed in the brain, PMAT represents a major uptake2 transporter for monoamine neurotransmitters. At the blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier, PMAT is the principal organic cation transporter for removing neurotoxins and drugs from the CSF. Here I summarize our latest understanding of PMAT and its roles in monoamine uptake and xenobiotic disposition. © 2016 American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.
Geophysical Plasmas and Atmospheric Modeling.
1982-01-01
will be submitted to the Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences. 32 - .- I. LIMITATIONS ON STRATOSPHERIC DYNAMICS We have performed an investigation of...Amplitudes" which will be submitted to the Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences. 1i 33 A& J. GENERAL CIRCULATION MODEL STUDIES Comparison computer runs...In tis case, as clearly shov.i by Petvia-mensona. I ths cseas ceary sou byPetia- cavities requires a local theory going beyond the limitshvilli,’ the
Nondiffusive toroidal-momentum-transport in the JFT-2M tokamak plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ida, Katsumi; Itoh, Kimitaka [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Miura, Yukitoshi; Itoh, Sanae; Matsuda, Toshiaki
1998-12-01
A nondiffusive term in the toroidal-momentum-transport equation is evaluated by the analysis of the transport of toroidal rotation in the transient phase, where the direction of neutral beam injection is changed from parallel to the plasma current to antiparallel. The ratio of nondiffusive viscosity coefficient to diffusive viscosity coefficient is evaluated to be 0.1 to 0.3, which increases as the plasma current is decreased. Nondiffusive momentum transport is found to be in proportion to {nabla}T{sub i}. (author)
Jet propagation within a Linearized Boltzmann Transport model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Luo, Tan; He, Yayun [Key Laboratory of Quark and Lepton Physics (MOE) and Institute of Particle Physics, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079 (China); Wang, Xin-Nian [Key Laboratory of Quark and Lepton Physics (MOE) and Institute of Particle Physics, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079 (China); Nuclear Science Division, Mailstop 70R0319, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94740 (United States); Zhu, Yan [Departamento de Física de Partículas and IGFAE, Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, E-15706 Santiago de Compostela, Galicia (Spain)
2014-12-15
A Linearized Boltzmann Transport (LBT) model has been developed for the study of parton propagation inside quark–gluon plasma. Both leading and thermal recoiled partons are tracked in order to include the effect of jet-induced medium excitation. In this talk, we present a study within the LBT model in which we implement the complete set of elastic parton scattering processes. We investigate elastic parton energy loss and their energy and length dependence. We further investigate energy loss and transverse shape of reconstructed jets. Contributions from the recoiled thermal partons and jet-induced medium excitations are found to have significant influences on the jet energy loss and transverse profile.
Channeling of particles and associated anomalous transport in a 2D complex plasma crystal
Du, Cheng-Ran; Zhdanov, Sergey; Thomas, Hubertus M; Morfill, Gregor E
2013-01-01
Implications of recently discovered effect of channeling of upstream extra particles for transport phenomena in a two-dimensional plasma crystal are discussed. Upstream particles levitated above the lattice layer and tended to move between the rows of lattice particles. An example of heat transport is considered, where upstream particles act as moving heat sources, which may lead to anomalous heat transport. The average channeling length observed was 15 - 20 interparticle distances. New features of the channeling process are also reported.
Boltzmann Transport in Hybrid PIC HET Modeling
2015-07-01
Paper 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) July 2015-July 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Boltzmann transport in hybrid PIC HET modeling 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In...produced a variety of self-consistent electron swarm codes, such as the Magboltz code, focused on directly solving the steady Boltzmann trans-port...Std. 239.18 Boltzmann transport in hybrid PIC HET modeling IEPC-2015- /ISTS-2015-b- Presented at Joint Conference of 30th International
Sanchez, R.; Newman, D. E.
2015-12-01
The high plasma temperatures expected at reactor conditions in magnetic confinement fusion toroidal devices suggest that near-marginal operation could be a reality in future devices and reactors. By near-marginal it is meant that the plasma profiles might wander around the local critical thresholds for the onset of instabilities. Self-organized criticality (SOC) was suggested in the mid 1990s as a more proper paradigm to describe the dynamics of tokamak plasma transport in near-marginal conditions. It advocated that, near marginality, the evolution of mean profiles and fluctuations should be considered simultaneously, in contrast to the more common view of a large separation of scales existing between them. Otherwise, intrinsic features of near-marginal transport would be missed, that are of importance to understand the properties of energy confinement. In the intervening 20 years, the relevance of the idea of SOC for near-marginal transport in fusion plasmas has transitioned from an initial excessive hype to the much more realistic standing of today, which we will attempt to examine critically in this review paper. First, the main theoretical ideas behind SOC will be described. Secondly, how they might relate to the dynamics of near-marginal transport in real magnetically confined plasmas will be discussed. Next, we will review what has been learnt about SOC from various numerical studies and what it has meant for the way in which we do numerical simulation of fusion plasmas today. Then, we will discuss the experimental evidence available from the several experiments that have looked for SOC dynamics in fusion plasmas. Finally, we will conclude by identifying the various problems that still remain open to investigation in this area. Special attention will be given to the discussion of frequent misconceptions and ongoing controversies. The review also contains a description of ongoing efforts that seek effective transport models better suited than traditional
Fast Propagation in Fluid Transport Models with Evolution of Turbulence Saturation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lopez-Bruna, D.
2012-07-01
This report compiles and extends two works on models that reproduce the experimental facts of non local transport and pulse propagation in magnetically confined fusion plasmas. The works are based on fluid transport models, originally designed to explain the formation of edge or internal transport barriers, that include fast evolution equations for the particle and heat fluxes. The heating of the plasma core in response to a sudden edge cooling or the propagation of turbulent fronts around transport barriers are a consequence of the competing roles of linear drive and non-linear reduction of the turbulent fluxes. Possibilities to use the models to interpret TJ-II plasmas are discussed. (Author) 62 refs.
Multiscale Gyrokinetics for Rotating Tokamak Plasmas: Fluctuations, Transport and Energy Flows
Abel, I G; Wang, E; Barnes, M; Cowley, S C; Dorland, W; Schekochihin, A A
2012-01-01
This paper presents a complete theoretical framework for plasma turbulence and transport in tokamak plasmas. The fundamental scale separations present in plasma turbulence are codified as an asymptotic expansion in the ratio of the gyroradius to the equilibrium scale length. Proceeding order-by-order in this expansion, a framework for plasma turbulence is developed. It comprises an instantaneous equilibrium, the fluctuations driven by gradients in the equilibrium quantities, and the transport-timescale evolution of mean profiles of these quantities driven by the fluctuations. The equilibrium distribution functions are local Maxwellians with each flux surface rotating toroidally as a rigid body. The magnetic equillibrium is obtained from the Grad-Shafranov equation for a rotating plasma and the slow (resistive) evolution of the magnetic field is given by an evolution equation for the safety factor q. Large-scale deviations of the distribution function from a Maxwellian are given by neoclassical theory. The flu...
Hydrologic modeling of pathogen fate and transport.
Dorner, Sarah M; Anderson, William B; Slawson, Robin M; Kouwen, Nicholas; Huck, Peter M
2006-08-01
A watershed-scale fate and transport model has been developed for Escherichia coli and several waterborne pathogens: Cryptosporidiumspp., Giardiaspp., Campylobacter spp, and E. coli O157:H7. The objectives were to determine the primary sources of pathogenic contamination in a watershed used for drinking water supply and to gain a greater understanding of the factors that most influence their survival and transport. To predict the levels of indicator bacteria and pathogens in surface water, an existing hydrologic model, WATFLOOD, was augmented for pathogen transport and tested on a watershed in Southwestern Ontario, Canada. The pathogen model considered transport as a result of overland flow, subsurface flow to tile drainage systems, and in-stream routing. The model predicted that most microorganisms entering the stream from land-based sources enter the stream from tile drainage systems rather than overland transport. Although the model predicted overland transport to be rare, when it occurred, it corresponded to the highest observed and modeled microbial concentrations. Furthermore, rapid increases in measured E. coli concentrations during storm events suggested that the resuspension of microorganisms from stream sediments may be of equal or greater importance than land-based sources of pathogens.
Computational modelling flow and transport
Stelling, G.S.; Booij, N.
1999-01-01
Lecture notes CT wa4340. Derivation of equations using balance principles; numerical treatment of ordinary differential equations; time dependent partial differential equations; the strucure of a computer model:DUFLO; usage of numerical models.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. M. Becker
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Common fluid models used for the description of electron transport in nonthermal discharge plasmas are subject to substantial restrictions if the electron energy transport significantly influences the discharge behaviour. A drift-diffusion approach is presented which is based on a multiterm approximation of the electron velocity distribution function and overcomes some of these restrictions. It is validated using a benchmark model and applied for the analysis of argon discharge plasmas at low and atmospheric pressure. The results are compared to those of common drift-diffusion models as well as to experimental data. It is pointed out that fluid models are able to describe nonlocal phenomena caused by electron energy transport, if the energy transport is consistently described. Numerical difficulties that frequently occur when the conventional drift-diffusion model is consistently applied are avoided by the proposed method.
Dynamical interplay between ﬂuctuations, electric ﬁelds and transport in fusion plasmas
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
C Hidalgo; B Gonçalves; M A Pedrosa
2003-12-01
A view of recent experimental results and progress in the characterization of the statistical properties of electrostatic turbulence in magnetically conﬁned devices is given. An empirical similarity in the scaling properties of the probability distribution function (PDF) of turbulent transport has been observed in the plasma edge region in fusion plasmas. The investigation of the dynamical interplay between ﬂuctuation in gradients, turbulent transport and radial electric ﬁelds has shown that these parameters are strongly coupled both in tokamak and stellarator plasmas. The bursty behaviour of turbulent transport is linked with a departure from the most probable radial gradient. The dynamical relation between ﬂuctuations in gradients and transport is strongly affected by the presence of sheared poloidal ﬂows which organized themselves near marginal stability. These results emphasize the importance of the statistical description of transport processes in fusion plasmas as an alternative approach to the traditional way to characterize transport based on the computation of effective transport coefﬁcients.
Kumar, Vineet; Prasad, Bhagwat; Patilea, Gabriela; Gupta, Anshul; Salphati, Laurent; Evers, Raymond; Hop, Cornelis E C A; Unadkat, Jashvant D
2015-02-01
To predict transporter-mediated drug disposition using physiologically based pharmacokinetic models, one approach is to measure transport activity and relate it to protein expression levels in cell lines (overexpressing the transporter) and then scale these to via in vitro to in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE). This approach makes two major assumptions. First, that the expression of the transporter is predominantly in the plasma membrane. Second, that there is a linear correlation between expression level and activity of the transporter protein. The present study was conducted to test these two assumptions. We evaluated two commercially available kits that claimed to separate plasma membrane from other cell membranes. The Qiagen Qproteome kit yielded very little protein in the fraction purported to be the plasma membrane. The Abcam Phase Separation kit enriched the plasma membrane but did not separate it from other intracellular membranes. For the Abcam method, the expression level of organic anion-transporting polypeptides (OATP) 1B1/2B1 and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) proteins in all subcellular fractions isolated from cells or human liver tissue tracked that of Na⁺-K⁺ ATPase. Assuming that Na⁺-K⁺ ATPase is predominantly located in the plasma membrane, these data suggest that the transporters measured are also primarily located in the plasma membrane. Using short hairpin RNA, we created clones of cell lines with varying degrees of OATP1B1 or BCRP expression level. In these clones, transport activity of OATP1B1 or BCRP was highly correlated with protein expression level (r² > 0.9). These data support the use of transporter expression level data and activity data from transporter overexpressing cell lines for IVIVE of transporter-mediated disposition of drugs.
Effect of the plasma-generated magnetic field on relativistic electron transport.
Nicolaï, Ph; Feugeas, J-L; Regan, C; Olazabal-Loumé, M; Breil, J; Dubroca, B; Morreeuw, J-P; Tikhonchuk, V
2011-07-01
In the fast-ignition scheme, relativistic electrons transport energy from the laser deposition zone to the dense part of the target where the fusion reactions can be ignited. The magnetic fields and electron collisions play an important role in the collimation or defocusing of this electron beam. Detailed description of these effects requires large-scale kinetic calculations and is limited to short time intervals. In this paper, a reduced kinetic model of fast electron transport coupled to the radiation hydrodynamic code is presented. It opens the possibility to carry on hybrid simulations in a time scale of tens of picoseconds or more. It is shown with this code that plasma-generated magnetic fields induced by noncollinear temperature and density gradients may strongly modify electron transport in a time scale of a few picoseconds. These fields tend to defocus the electron beam, reducing the coupling efficiency to the target. This effect, that was not seen before in shorter time simulations, has to be accounted for in any ignition design using electrons as a driver.
Molecular model of the neural dopamine transporter
Ravna, Aina Westrheim; Sylte, Ingebrigt; Dahl, Svein G.
2003-05-01
The dopamine transporter (DAT) regulates the action of dopamine by reuptake of the neurotransmitter into presynaptic neurons, and is the main molecular target of amphetamines and cocaine. DAT and the Na+/H+ antiporter (NhaA) are secondary transporter proteins that carry small molecules across a cell membrane against a concentration gradient, using ion gradients as energy source. A 3-dimensional projection map of the E. coli NhaA has confirmed a topology of 12 membrane spanning domains, and was previously used to construct a 3-dimensional NhaA model with 12 trans-membrane α-helices (TMHs). The NhaA model, and site directed mutagenesis data on DAT, were used to construct a detailed 3-dimensional DAT model using interactive molecular graphics and empiric force field calculations. The model proposes a dopamine transport mechanism involving TMHs 1, 3, 4, 5, 7 and 11. Asp79, Tyr252 and Tyr274 were the primary cocaine binding residues. Binding of cocaine or its analogue, (-)-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-fluorophenyl)tropane (CFT), seemed to lock the transporter in an inactive state, and thus inhibit dopamine transport. The present model may be used to design further experimental studies of the molecular structure and mechanisms of DAT and other secondary transporter proteins.
Plasma Reactors and Plasma Thrusters Modeling by Ar Complete Global Models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chloe Berenguer
2012-01-01
Full Text Available A complete global model for argon was developed and adapted to plasma reactor and plasma thruster modeling. It takes into consideration ground level and excited Ar and Ar+ species and the reactor and thruster form factors. The electronic temperature, the species densities, and the ionization percentage, depending mainly on the pressure and the absorbed power, have been obtained and commented for various physical conditions.
Trieschmann, Jan; Schmidt, Frederik; Mussenbrock, Thomas
2016-01-01
The paper provides a tutorial to the conceptual layout of a self-consistently coupled Particle-In-Cell/Test-Particle model for the kinetic simulation of sputtering transport in capacitively coupled plasmas at low gas pressures. It explains when a kinetic approach is actually needed and which numerical concepts allow for the inherent nonequilibrium behavior of the charged and neutral particles. At the example of a generic sputtering discharge both the fundamentals of the applied Monte Carlo me...
Ionic structures and transport properties of hot dense W and U plasmas
Hou, Yong; Yuan, Jianmin
2016-10-01
We have combined the average-atom model with the hyper-netted chain approximation (AAHNC) to describe the electronic and ionic structure of uranium and tungsten in the hot dense matter regime. When the electronic structure is described within the average-atom model, the effects of others ions on the electronic structure are considered by the correlation functions. And the ionic structure is calculated though using the hyper-netted chain (HNC) approximation. The ion-ion pair potential is calculated using the modified Gordon-Kim model based on the electronic density distribution in the temperature-depended density functional theory. And electronic and ionic structures are determined self-consistently. On the basis of the ion-ion pair potential, we perform the classical (CMD) and Langevin (LMD) molecular dynamics to simulate the ionic transport properties, such as ionic self-diffusion and shear viscosity coefficients, through the ionic velocity correlation functions. Due that the free electrons become more and more with increasing the plasma temperature, the influence of the electron-ion collisions on the transport properties become more and more important.
Uncertainty calculation in transport models and forecasts
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Manzo, Stefano; Prato, Carlo Giacomo
in a four-stage transport model related to different variable distributions (to be used in a Monte Carlo simulation procedure), assignment procedures and levels of congestion, at both the link and the network level. The analysis used as case study the Næstved model, referring to the Danish town of Næstved2...... the uncertainty propagation pattern over time specific for key model outputs becomes strategically important. 1 Manzo, S., Nielsen, O. A. & Prato, C. G. (2014). The Effects of uncertainty in speed-flow curve parameters on a large-scale model. Transportation Research Record, 1, 30-37. 2 Manzo, S., Nielsen, O. A...
Influence of Plasma Shape on Transport in the TCV Tokamak
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moret, J.; Franke, S.; Weisen, H.; Anton, M.; Behn, R.; Duval, B.P.; Hofmann, F.; Joye, B.; Martin, Y.; Nieswand, C.; Pietrzyk, Z.A.; van Toledo, W. [Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, Association EURATOM-Confederation Suisse, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)
1997-09-01
The energy confinement time of TCV Ohmic, L -mode discharges is observed to depend strongly on the plasma shape, improving slightly with elongation and degrading strongly as triangularity is increased from zero to positive values. The thermal conductivity of these plasmas is found to be independent of the shape. This observation, combined with geometrical effects on the temperature gradient and a degradation with increasing input energy flux, can explain the observed variation in the energy confinement time. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}
2011-11-01
rich low temperature chemistry Pressure: 1 atm DME model: Zhao et al., Int. J. Chem. Kinet ., (40) 2008 37 Flow tube experiments DME : rich low... Kinetic enhancement Fuel fragmentsTemperature increase Transport enhancementThermal enhancement Radicals H2, CO CH4 Understanding: Good poor O, NO O2(a∆g...plasma flame kinetic mechanism Develop numerical methods to achieve efficient modeling of detailed plasma flame chemistry 5 Outline 1. Background 2
Nonlinear Transport Processes in Tokamak Plasmas. Part I: The Collisional Regimes
Sonnino, Giorgio
2008-01-01
An application of the thermodynamic field theory (TFT) to transport processes in L-mode tokamak plasmas is presented. The nonlinear corrections to the linear (Onsager) transport coefficients in the collisional regimes are derived. A quite encouraging result is the appearance of an asymmetry between the Pfirsch-Schlueter (P-S) ion and electron transport coefficients: the latter presents a nonlinear correction, which is absent for the ions, and makes the radial electron coefficients much larger than the former. Explicit calculations and comparisons between the neoclassical results and the TFT predictions for JET plasmas are also reported. We found that the nonlinear electron P-S transport coefficients exceed the values provided by neoclassical theory by a factor, which may be of the order 100. The nonlinear classical coefficients exceed the neoclassical ones by a factor, which may be of order 2. The expressions of the ion transport coefficients, determined by the neoclassical theory in these two regimes, remain...
Hybrid Plasma Reactor/Filter for Transportable Collective Protection Systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Josephson, Gary B.; Tonkyn, Russell G.; Frye, J. G.; Riley, Brian J.; Rappe, Kenneth G.
2011-04-06
Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has performed an assessment of a Hybrid Plasma/Filter system as an alternative to conventional methods for collective protection. The key premise of the hybrid system is to couple a nonthermal plasma (NTP) reactor with reactive adsorption to provide a broader envelope of protection than can be provided through a single-solution approach. The first step uses highly reactive species (e.g. oxygen radicals, hydroxyl radicals, etc.) created in a nonthermal plasma (NTP) reactor to destroy the majority (~75% - 90%) of an incoming threat. Following the NTP reactor an O3 reactor/filter uses the O3 created in the NTP reactor to further destroy the remaining organic materials. This report summarizes the laboratory development of the Hybrid Plasma Reactor/Filter to protect against a ‘worst-case’ simulant, methyl bromide (CH3Br), and presents a preliminary engineering assessment of the technology to Joint Expeditionary Collective Protection performance specifications for chemical vapor air purification technologies.
A plasma membrane association module in yeast amino acid transporters
Popov-Čeleketić, Dušan; Bianchi, Frans; Ruiz, Stephanie J; Meutiawati, Febrina; Poolman, Bert
2016-01-01
Amino acid permeases (AAPs) in the plasma membrane (PM) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are responsible for the uptake of amino acids and involved in regulation of their cellular levels. Here, we report on a strong and complex module for PM association found in the C-terminal tail of AAPs. Using in sili
A plasma membrane association module in yeast amino acid transporters
Popov-Čeleketić, Dušan; Bianchi, Frans; Ruiz, Stephanie J; Meutiawati, Febrina; Poolman, Bert
2016-01-01
Amino acid permeases (AAPs) in the plasma membrane (PM) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are responsible for the uptake of amino acids and involved in regulation of their cellular levels. Here, we report on a strong and complex module for PM association found in the C-terminal tail of AAPs. Using in
Theoretical and Numerical Study of Anomalous Turbulent Transport in Plasmas
1991-02-05
1983). CONFERENCE RECORD - ABSTRACTS 1067 IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON PLASMA SCIENCE June 1-3, 1987 Aifington, Virginia 2X5 Real Space Difusion ...disuibution. The effect of aon-GaussWa tubulent fields on dte pautile difusion coeffickat is discussed in deaiL To examine the long behavior of th
Experimental Investigation of Active Feedback Control of Turbulent Transport in a Magnetized Plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gilmore, Mark Allen [University of New Mexico
2013-07-07
A new and unique basic plasma science laboratory device - the HelCat device (HELicon-CAThode) - has been constructed and is operating at the University of New Mexico. HelCat is a 4 m long, 0.5 m diameter device, with magnetic field up to 2.2 kG, that has two independent plasmas sources - an RF helicon source, and a thermionic cathode. These two sources, which can operate independently or simultaneously, are capable of producing plasmas with a wide range of parameters and turbulence characteristics, well suited to a variety of basic plasma physics experiments. An extensive set of plasma diagnostics is also operating. Experiments investigating the active feedback control of turbulent transport of particles and heat via electrode biasing to affect plasma ExB flows are underway, and ongoing.
Transport barriers with and without shear flows in a magnetized plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Martinell, Julio J. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, A. Postal 70-543, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)
2014-01-14
Different ways of producing a transport barrier in a toroidal magnetized plasma are discussed and the properties of the barriers are analyzed. The first mechanism is associated with the presence of a sheared plasma flow that is present in a limited region of the plasma, which creates a zonal flow. In contrast to the usual paradigm stating that the sheared flow reduces the turbulence correlation length and leads to suppression of the fluctuation driven transport in the region of highest shear, it is shown that from the perspective of chaotic transport of plasma particles in the fluctuation fields, the transport barrier is formed in the region of zero shear and it can be destroyed when the fluctuation level is high enough. It is also shown that finite gyroradius effects modify the dynamics and introduces new conditions for barrier formation. The second mechanism considers a method in which radio-frequency waves injected into the plasma can stabilize the drift waves and therefore the anomalous transport is reduced, creating a barrier. This process does not involve the presence of sheared flows and depends only on the effect of the RF wave field on the drift waves. The stabilizing effect in this case is due to the nonlinear ponderomotive force which acts in a way that offsets the pressure gradient destabilization. Finally, a mechanism based on the ponderomotive force of RF waves is described which produces poloidal plasma rotation around the resonant surface due to the asymmetry of induced transport; it creates a transport barrier by shear flow stabilization of turbulence.
Real time model for public transportation management
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ireneusz Celiński
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Background: The article outlines managing a public transportation fleet in the dynamic aspect. There are currently many technical possibilities of identifying demand in the transportation network. It is also possible to indicate legitimate basis of estimating and steering demand. The article describes a general public transportation fleet management concept based on balancing demand and supply. Material and methods: The presented method utilizes a matrix description of demand for transportation based on telemetric and telecommunication data. Emphasis was placed mainly on a general concept and not the manner in which data was collected by other researchers. Results: The above model gave results in the form of a system for managing a fleet in real-time. The objective of the system is also to optimally utilize means of transportation at the disposal of service providers. Conclusions: The presented concept enables a new perspective on managing public transportation fleets. In case of implementation, the project would facilitate, among others, designing dynamic timetables, updated based on observed demand, and even designing dynamic points of access to public transportation lines. Further research should encompass so-called rerouting based on dynamic measurements of the characteristics of the transportation system.
An experimentally constrained MHD model for a collisional, rotating plasma column
Wright, A. M.; Qu, Z. S.; Caneses, J. F.; Hole, M. J.
2017-02-01
A steady-state single fluid MHD model which describes the equilibrium of plasma parameters in a collisional, rotating plasma column with temperature gradients and a non-uniform externally applied magnetic field is developed. Two novel methods of simplifying the governing equations are introduced. Specifically, a ‘radial transport constraint’ and an ordering argument are applied. The reduced system is subsequently solved to yield the equilibrium of macroscopic plasma parameters in the bulk region of the plasma. The model is benchmarked by comparing these solutions to experimental measurements of axial velocity and density for a hydrogen plasma in the converging-field experiment MAGPIE and overall a good agreement is observed. The plasma equilibrium is determined by the interaction of a density gradient, due to a temperature gradient, with an electric field. The magnetic field and temperature gradient are identified as key parameters in determining the flow profile, which may be important considerations in other applications.
2D edge plasma modeling extended up to the main chamber
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dekeyser, W., E-mail: wouter.dekeyser@mech.kuleuven.be [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 300A, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Baelmans, M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 300A, 3001 Leuven (Belgium); Reiter, D.; Boerner, P.; Kotov, V. [Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, EURATOM-Association, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, D-52425 Juelich (Germany)
2011-08-01
Far SOL plasma flow, and hence main chamber recycling and plasma surface interaction, are today still only very poorly described by current 2D fluid edge codes, such as B2, UEDGE or EDGE2D, due to a common technical limitation. We have extended the B2 plasma fluid solver in the current ITER version of B2-EIRENE (SOLPS4.3) to allow plasma solutions to be obtained up to the 'real vessel wall', at least on the basis of ad hoc far SOL transport models. We apply here the kinetic Monte Carlo Code EIRENE on such plasma solutions to study effects of this model refinement on main chamber fluxes and sputtering, for an ITER configuration. We show that main chamber sputtering may be significantly modified both due to thermalization of CX neutrals in the far SOL and poloidally highly asymmetric plasma wall contact, as compared to hitherto applied teleportation of particle fluxes across this domain.
A study on the fusion reactor - Study on the plasma transport in advanced= tokamaks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Chang Bae; Hong, Kyu Seon; Choi, Kang Oak [Soongsil University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
1996-09-01
Upper bound on the heat transport is considered with varying {eta}{sub i} and the curvature of the q profile. Nonlinear variational principle is adopted to= maximize the heat transport under the conditions of energy balance and the parallel energy balance. As a model, fluid plasma is assumed in the slab geometry. Resulting Lagrange equations are solved on the computer. Critical value of {eta}{sub i} energy stability is obtained and eigen states for higher {eta}{sub i}`s are found upon considering only the critical mode. Upper bound is found to be smaller when the curvature of q profile id of the same sign as the magnetic shear than the opposite case. As future studies, study on the bifurcation of the modes and, thus, inclusion of more modes are suggested. For more sophisticated model, there seems to be no untoward problems in applying the same method and, after such calculation is done, useful bounds with direct implications to real experiments will be predicted. Lower bound may be interesting, as well, and the work is in progress. 23 refs., 4 figs. (author)
Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
G. Moridis; Q. Hu
2001-12-20
The purpose of Revision 00 of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to evaluate (by means of 2-D semianalytical and 3-D numerical models) the transport of radioactive solutes and colloids in the unsaturated zone (UZ) under ambient conditions from the potential repository horizon to the water table at Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada.
Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
G. Moridis; Q. Hu
2000-03-12
The purpose of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to evaluate (by means of 2-D semianalytical and 3-D numerical models) the transport of radioactive solutes and colloids in the unsaturated zone (UZ) under ambient conditions from the potential repository horizon to the water table at Yucca Mountain (YM), Nevada. This is in accordance with the ''AMR Development Plan U0060, Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions'' (CRWMS M and O 1999a). This AMR supports the UZ Flow and Transport Process Model Report (PMR). This AMR documents the UZ Radionuclide Transport Model (RTM). This model considers: the transport of radionuclides through fractured tuffs; the effects of changes in the intensity and configuration of fracturing from hydrogeologic unit to unit; colloid transport; physical and retardation processes and the effects of perched water. In this AMR they document the capabilities of the UZ RTM, which can describe flow (saturated and/or unsaturated) and transport, and accounts for (a) advection, (b) molecular diffusion, (c) hydrodynamic dispersion (with full 3-D tensorial representation), (d) kinetic or equilibrium physical and/or chemical sorption (linear, Langmuir, Freundlich or combined), (e) first-order linear chemical reaction, (f) radioactive decay and tracking of daughters, (g) colloid filtration (equilibrium, kinetic or combined), and (h) colloid-assisted solute transport. Simulations of transport of radioactive solutes and colloids (incorporating the processes described above) from the repository horizon to the water table are performed to support model development and support studies for Performance Assessment (PA). The input files for these simulations include transport parameters obtained from other AMRs (i.e., CRWMS M and O 1999d, e, f, g, h; 2000a, b, c, d). When not available, the parameter values used are obtained from the literature. The results of the simulations are used to evaluate the transport of radioactive
Modeling Detached Plasmas in DIII-D
Porter, Gary D.; Rognlien, T. D.; Rensink, M. E.; DIII-D Team
1996-11-01
The ITER divertor design relies on operation of the machine with a detached divertor plasma as a means of reducing the divertor heat load to manageable levels. This operating mode has been seen on all of the world's diverted tokamaks, and is characterized by very low plate temperatures and ion currents. Experimental results on DIII-D have shown the plate electron temperature is between 1 and 2 eV. We describe the results of modeling these detached plasmas with the UEDGE code in this paper. Plasma detachment can be achieved in a variety of ways in the code as well as in experiment. Simulations indicate the detachment process occurs in two steps: a thermal collapse in which the plate temperature drops to 1 to 2 eV, followed by a decrease in the plate ion current. When the low temperature region extends off the plate, parallel momentum of the plasma is reduced by ion/neutral interactions. The plate ion current decreases when the parallel momentum is reduced sufficiently to permit volume recombination processes to compete with ion flow to the plate.
Transport properties site descriptive model. Guidelines for evaluation and modelling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Berglund, Sten [WSP Environmental, Stockholm (Sweden); Selroos, Jan-Olof [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)
2004-04-01
This report describes a strategy for the development of Transport Properties Site Descriptive Models within the SKB Site Investigation programme. Similar reports have been produced for the other disciplines in the site descriptive modelling (Geology, Hydrogeology, Hydrogeochemistry, Rock mechanics, Thermal properties, and Surface ecosystems). These reports are intended to guide the site descriptive modelling, but also to provide the authorities with an overview of modelling work that will be performed. The site descriptive modelling of transport properties is presented in this report and in the associated 'Strategy for the use of laboratory methods in the site investigations programme for the transport properties of the rock', which describes laboratory measurements and data evaluations. Specifically, the objectives of the present report are to: Present a description that gives an overview of the strategy for developing Site Descriptive Models, and which sets the transport modelling into this general context. Provide a structure for developing Transport Properties Site Descriptive Models that facilitates efficient modelling and comparisons between different sites. Provide guidelines on specific modelling issues where methodological consistency is judged to be of special importance, or where there is no general consensus on the modelling approach. The objectives of the site descriptive modelling process and the resulting Transport Properties Site Descriptive Models are to: Provide transport parameters for Safety Assessment. Describe the geoscientific basis for the transport model, including the qualitative and quantitative data that are of importance for the assessment of uncertainties and confidence in the transport description, and for the understanding of the processes at the sites. Provide transport parameters for use within other discipline-specific programmes. Contribute to the integrated evaluation of the investigated sites. The site descriptive
System Convergence in Transport Modelling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rich, Jeppe; Nielsen, Otto Anker; Cantarella, Guilio E.
2010-01-01
-of-successive-averages (MSA) have been proposed. Convergence of the MSA under fairly weak regularity conditions was shown in Robbins and Monro (1951). The iteration between demand and assignment ? the external equilibrium ? are in many models either decoupled or follow a very simple iteration pattern. However, as demand...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
KOHIO Niéssan
2014-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper we calculate the transport coefficients of plasmas formed by air and water vapor mixtures. The calculation, which assume local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE are performed in the temperature range from 500 to 12000 K. We use the Gibbs free energy minimization method to determine the equilibrium composition of the plasmas, which is necessary to calculate the transport coefficients. We use the Chapman-Enskog method to calculate the transport coefficients. The results are presented and discussed according to the rate of water vapor. The results of the total thermal conductivity and electrical conductivity show in particular that the increasing of the rate of water vapor in air can be interesting for power cut. This could be improve the performance of plasma during current breaking in air contaminate by the water vapor.
Impurities in a non-axisymmetric plasma: transport and effect on bootstrap current
Mollén, Albert; Smith, Håkan M; Braun, Stefanie; Helander, Per
2015-01-01
Impurities cause radiation losses and plasma dilution, and in stellarator plasmas the neoclassical ambipolar radial electric field is often unfavorable for avoiding strong impurity peaking. In this work we use a new continuum drift-kinetic solver, the SFINCS code (the Stellarator Fokker-Planck Iterative Neoclassical Conservative Solver) [M. Landreman et al., Phys. Plasmas 21 (2014) 042503] which employs the full linearized Fokker-Planck operator, to calculate neoclassical impurity transport coefficients for a Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) magnetic configuration. We compare SFINCS calculations with theoretical asymptotes in the high collisionality limit. In intermediate and high collisionality regimes, a momentum conserving collision operator is critical to correctly determine the impurity transport coefficients, and a simple pitch-angle scattering approximation can lead to transport predictions in the wrong direction. In the low collisionality regime pitch-angle scattering is sufficient to accurately describe impuri...
Comprehensive Study of Plasma-Wall Sheath Transport Phenomena
2016-10-26
temperature is always well below that expected for significant thermionic emission from LaB6, and the heat flux from the plasma is also low given the order...measurements from HET materials is their low electrical conductivity. In a typical electron emission study, a primary electron beam is focused onto to...Transition Controlled by Secondary Electron Emission at Low Gas Pressure,” 67th Annual Gaseous Electronics Conference, Raleigh, NC, November 2-7, 2014
Hybrid Plasma Reactor/Filter for Transportable Collective Protection Systems
2011-03-01
None From the ion chromatography results we can calculate the concentration of HNO3 in the gas leaving the plasma reactor. The small NO3- detected...resistant to decomposition by O3. Carbon and polymeric adsorbents were not considered because they would react with O3 and decompose . Potential...nor any ability to decompose ozone. A SAC-13 catalyst was obtained from Engelhard for testing also. This material is an H- Nafion Ion Exchange
Investigation of inter-ELM ion heat transport in the H-mode pedestal of ASDEX Upgrade plasmas
Viezzer, E.; Fable, E.; Cavedon, M.; Angioni, C.; Dux, R.; Laggner, F. M.; Bernert, M.; Burckhart, A.; McDermott, R. M.; Pütterich, T.; Ryter, F.; Willensdorfer, M.; Wolfrum, E.; the ASDEX Upgrade Team; the EUROfusion MST1 Team
2017-02-01
The ion heat transport in the pedestal of H-mode plasmas is investigated in various H-mode discharges with different pedestal ion collisionalities. Interpretive modelling suggests that in all analyzed discharges the ion heat diffusivity coefficient, {χ\\text{i}} , in the pedestal is close to the neoclassical prediction within the experimental uncertainties. The impact of changing the deposition location of the electron cyclotron resonance heating on the ion heat transport has been studied. The effect on the background profiles is small. The pre-ELM (edge localized modes) edge profiles as well as the behaviour of the electron temperature and density, ion temperature and impurity toroidal rotation during the ELM cycle are very similar in discharges with on- and off-axis ECRH heating. No significant deviation of {χ\\text{i}} from neoclassics is observed when changing the ECRH deposition location to the plasma edge.
Turbulence evolution and transport behavior during current ramp-up in ITER-like plasmas on DIII-D
McKee, G. R.; Austin, M.; Boedo, J.; Bravenec, R.; Holland, C.; Jackson, G.; Luce, T. C.; Rhodes, T. L.; Rudakov, D.; Wang, G.; Yan, Z.; Zeng, L.; Zhao, Y.
2017-08-01
Low-wavenumber density fluctuations exhibit unique characteristics during the current ramp-up phase of ITER-like discharges that can partially explain the challenges of correctly modeling transport behavior and predicting global plasma parameters during this period. A strong interaction takes place between the evolving transport, safety factor (q) and kinetic profiles as well as the appearance and evolution of low-order rational surfaces. Density fluctuations from 0.75 qualitative consistency with measured fluctuation levels, but calculations don’t exhibit reduced growth rates near low-order rational surfaces, which is inconsistent with experimental observations. This indicates a mechanism that can contribute to reconciling observed turbulence behavior with transport models, allowing for the development of more accurate predictive tools.
Development of A Stochastic Bedload Transport Model
Tsai, C. W.; Kuai, Z.
2009-12-01
Sediment particle transport can be viewed as a Markov chain process. In a non-equilibrium condition, the interchange of sediment particles occurs not only between the bedload layer and the bed surface, but also across the interface between bedload and suspended load. We can quantify the number of saltating particles by modeling the occupancy probabilities vector of particles staying in three states, namely, the bed surface, bedload layer, and suspended sediment layer. Most bedload transport models in the literature are formulated in terms of the mean bed shear stress or flow velocity. The proposed Markovian bedload model and the bedload transport rates are governed by various transition probabilities. These transition probabilities are all functions of the bed shear stress. The stochastic property of the bed shear stress can be incorporated into the above bedload transport model knowing the probability density function of the bed shear stress. This study presents a theoretical method to compute stochastic bedload transport rates considering the stochastic fluctuation of the bed shear stress.
Band transport model for discotic liquid crystals
Lever, L. J.; Kelsall, R. W.; Bushby, R. J.
2005-07-01
A theoretical model is presented for charge transport in discotic liquid crystals in which a charge is delocalized over more than one lattice site. As such, charge transport is via a banded conduction process in a narrow bandwidth system and takes place over coherent lengths of a few molecules. The coherent lengths are disrupted by the geometrical disorder of the system and are treated as being terminated by quantum tunnel barriers. The transmission probabilities at these barriers have been calculated as a function of the charge carrier energy. Phononic interactions are also considered and the charge carrier scattering rates are calculated for intermolecular and intramolecular vibrations. The results of the calculations have been used to develop a Monte Carlo simulation of the charge transport model. Simulated data are presented and used to discuss the nature of the tunnel barriers required to reproduce experimental data. We find that the model successfully reproduces experimental time of flight data including temperature dependence.
DAC 22 High Speed Civil Transport Model
1992-01-01
Between tests, NASA research engineer Dave Hahne inspects a tenth-scale model of a supersonic transport model in the 30- by 60-Foot Tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. The model is being used in support of NASA's High-Speed Research (HSR) program. Langley researchers are applying advance aerodynamic design methods to develop a wing leading-edge flap system which significantly improves low-speed fuel efficiency and reduces noise generated during takeoff operation. Langley is NASA's lead center for the agency's HSR program, aimed at developing technology to help U.S. industry compete in the rapidly expanding trans-oceanic transport market. A U.S. high-speed civil transport is expected to fly in about the year 2010. As envisioned, it would fly 300 passengers across the Pacific in about four hours at Mach 2.4 (approximately 1,600 mph/1950 kph) for a modest increase over business class fares.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Graff, J; Fugleberg, S; Brahm, J
1996-01-01
was not identifiable. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the electrochemical gradient between plasma water and dialysate favours the diffusive phosphate transport, and both electric and chemical potentials must be taken into account in calculations of the transperitoneal phosphate transport....
GEOS-5 Chemistry Transport Model User's Guide
Kouatchou, J.; Molod, A.; Nielsen, J. E.; Auer, B.; Putman, W.; Clune, T.
2015-01-01
The Goddard Earth Observing System version 5 (GEOS-5) General Circulation Model (GCM) makes use of the Earth System Modeling Framework (ESMF) to enable model configurations with many functions. One of the options of the GEOS-5 GCM is the GEOS-5 Chemistry Transport Model (GEOS-5 CTM), which is an offline simulation of chemistry and constituent transport driven by a specified meteorology and other model output fields. This document describes the basic components of the GEOS-5 CTM, and is a user's guide on to how to obtain and run simulations on the NCCS Discover platform. In addition, we provide information on how to change the model configuration input files to meet users' needs.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ring-Larsen, H; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl
1984-01-01
the abdominal puncture may lead to overestimation of TERperit.space, whereas systematic understimation seems less likely. This may besides differences in patient selection and unsteady state, account for the discrepancy between the present relatively low value and earlier reports on much higher values.......10-0.59). The transport rate of albumin from ascitic fluid back to plasma was measured in eight patients by plasma sampling after intraperitoneal injection of 131I-labelled serum albumin. After correction for tracer re-extravasation this back transport (median 0.31, range 0.07-0.44% IVM/h-1) was not significantly...
Transport and Non-Invasive Position Detection of Electron Beams from Laser-Plasma Accelerators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Osterhoff, Jens; Sokollik, Thomas; Nakamura, Kei; Bakeman, Michael; Weingartner, R; Gonsalves, Anthony; Shiraishi, Satomi; Lin, Chen; vanTilborg, Jeroen; Geddes, Cameron; Schroeder, Carl; Esarey, Eric; Toth, Csaba; DeSantis, Stefano; Byrd, John; Gruner, F; Leemans, Wim
2011-07-20
The controlled imaging and transport of ultra-relativistic electrons from laser-plasma accelerators is of crucial importance to further use of these beams, e.g. in high peak-brightness light sources. We present our plans to realize beam transport with miniature permanent quadrupole magnets from the electron source through our THUNDER undulator. Simulation results demonstrate the importance of beam imaging by investigating the generated XUV-photon flux. In addition, first experimental findings of utilizing cavity-based monitors for non-invasive beam-position measurements in a noisy electromagnetic laser-plasma environment are discussed.
Cross-field transport of electrons at the magnetic throat in an annular plasma reactor
Zhang, Yunchao; Charles, Christine; Boswell, Rod
2017-01-01
Cross-field transport of electrons has been studied at the magnetic throat of the annular Chi-Kung reactor. This annular configuration allows the creation of a low pressure argon plasma with two distinct electron heating locations by independently operating a radio-frequency antenna surrounding the outer source tube, or an antenna housed inside the inner source tube. The two antenna cases show opposite variation trends in radial profiles of electron energy probability function, electron density, plasma potential and electron temperature. The momentum and energy transport coefficients are obtained from the electron energy probability functions, and the related electron fluxes follow the path of electron cooling across the magnetic throat.
Modelling Transition Towards Sustainable Transportation Sector
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dominkovic, Dominik Franjo; Bačeković, I.; Mýrdal, Jón Steinar Garðarsson
2016-01-01
In a transition towards 100% renewable energy system, transportation sector is rarely dealt withusing the holistic approach and measuring its impact on the whole energy system. Furthermore, assolutions for power and heat sectors are clearer, it is a tendency of the researchers to focus on thelatter...... two energy sectors. In order to deal with the raised issue, authors of this paper developed amethodology for calculation of the transition towards sustainable transport sector, focusing on thesolutions that are already available. Furthermore, as a part of the model, a detailed mapping ofresources...... needed has been carried out for each of the alternatives. It was shown that theelectrification of the transportation sector is a crucial point in transition, while for the transportmodes that cannot be electrified, or shifted to different transportation modes, four alternatives weredefined: synthetic...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mosel Ulrich
2013-06-01
Full Text Available We give an overview over the hadronic transport model GiBUU as a simulation tool for hadronic and electroweak reactions on nuclei over a wide energy range [1]. The model is able to handle hadron-, photon- and lepton-induced reactions as well as nucleus nucleus collisions from sub-GeV energies up to hundreds of GeV. After a general introduction of the model, we discuss its possible application to cosmic ray air showers.
On the non-stiffness of edge transport in L-mode tokamak plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sauter, O.; Brunner, S.; Kim, D.; Merlo, G.; Behn, R.; Coda, S.; Duval, B. P.; Federspiel, L.; Goodman, T. P.; Karpushov, A.; Merle, A.; Team, TCV, E-mail: olivier.sauter@epfl.ch [Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, Association EURATOM-Confédération Suisse, EPFL, PPB-Ecublens, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Camenen, Y. [CNRS, UMR 7345, Aix-Marseille Université, Marseille (France)
2014-05-15
Transport analyses using first-principle turbulence codes and 11/2 -D transport codes usually study radial transport properties between the tokamak plasma magnetic axis and a normalized minor radius around 0.8. In this region, heat transport shows significantly stiff properties resulting in temperature scalelength values (R∕L{sub T}) that are relatively independent of the level of the radial heat flux. We have studied experimentally in the tokamak à configuration variable [F. Hofmann et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 36, B277 (1994)] the radial electron transport properties of the edge region, close to the last closed flux surface, namely, between ρ{sub V}=√(V/V{sub edge})=0.8 to 1. It is shown that electron transport is not stiff in this region and high R∕L{sub Te} values (∼20–40) can be attained even for L-mode confinement. We can define a “pedestal” location, already in L-mode regimes, where the transport characteristics change from constant logarithmic gradient, inside ρ{sub V} = 0.8, to constant gradient between 0.8 and 1.0. In particular, we demonstrate, with well resolved T{sub e} and n{sub e} profiles, that the confinement improvement with plasma current I{sub p}, with or without auxiliary heating, is due to this non-stiff edge region. This new result is used to explain the significant confinement improvement observed with negative triangularity, which could not be explained by theory to date. Preliminary local gyrokinetic simulations are now consistent with an edge, less stiff, region that is more sensitive to triangularity than further inside. We also show that increasing the electron cyclotron heating power increases the edge temperature inverse scalelength, in contrast to the value in the main plasma region. The dependence of confinement on density in ohmic plasmas is also studied and brings new insight in the understanding of the transition between linear and saturated confinement regimes, as well as of the density limit and
The chemical transport model Oslo CTM3
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
O. A. Søvde
2012-06-01
Full Text Available We present here the global chemical transport model Oslo CTM3, an update of the Oslo CTM2. The update comprises a faster transport scheme, an improved wet scavenging scheme for large scale rain, updated photolysis rates and a new lightning parameterization. Oslo CTM3 is better parallelized and allows for stable, large time steps for advection, enabling more complex or high resolution simulations. Thorough comparisons between the Oslo CTM3, Oslo CTM2 and measurements are performed, and in general the Oslo CTM3 is found to reproduce measurements well. Inclusion of tropospheric sulfur chemistry and nitrate aerosols in CTM3 is shown to be important to reproduce tropospheric O_{3}, OH and the CH_{4} lifetime well. Using the same meteorology to drive the two models, shows that some features related to transport are better resolved by the CTM3, such as polar cap transport, while features like transport close to the vortex edge are resolved better in the Oslo CTM2 due to its required shorter transport time step. The longer transport time steps in CTM3 result in larger errors e.g. near the jets, and when necessary, this can be remedied by using a shorter time step. An additional, more accurate and time consuming, treatment of polar cap transport is presented, however, both perform acceptably. A new treatment of the horizontal distribution of lightning is presented and found to compare well with measurements. Vertical distributions of lighting are updated, and tested against the old vertical distribution. The new profiles are found to produce more NO_{x} in the tropical middle troposphere, and less at the surface and at high altitudes.
Turbulence and intermittent transport at the boundary of magnetized plasmas
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Garcia, O.E.; Naulin, V.; Nielsen, A.H.
2005-01-01
a forcing region with spatially localized sources of particles and heat outside which losses due to the motion along open magnetic-field lines dominate, corresponding to the edge region and the scrape-off layer, respectively. Turbulent states reveal intermittent eruptions of hot plasma from the edge region......, propagating radially far into the scrape-off layer in the form of field-aligned filaments, or blobs. This results in positively skewed and flattened single-point probability distribution functions of particle density and temperature, reflecting the frequent appearance of large fluctuations. The conditional...
Plasma Transport at Magnetic Axis in Toroidal Confinement System
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANGZhongtian
2001-01-01
The particle orbits which intersect the magnetic axis behave differently from banana ones, referred to as potato orbits. The potential importance on tokamak transport is emphasized by Politzer, Lin, Tang, and Lee,and Shaing, Hazeltine, and Zarnstoff. However, there are many problems in the lasttwo papers. For example, the Eq. (48) in Ref. [5] should satisfy the orbit constraint which guarantees single value of the function go, that is, solubility condition, and Eq. (8) in Ref. [6] has the same problem.
Heat Transport Simulation for Atmospheric-Pressure High-Density Microgap Plasma
Kono, Akihiro; Shibata, Tomoyuki; Aramaki, Mitsutoshi
2006-02-01
Atmospheric-pressure cw high-density plasma can be produced in a microgap between two knife-edge electrodes by microwave excitation. A possible application of such a plasma is as an excimer light source and for this purpose the gas temperature in the plasma is a particularly important parameter. In this paper we report a fluid dynamic simulation of heat transport in the microgap plasma and compare the results with previously studied experimental gas temperature characteristics (e.g., dependence on the microwave power and the forced gas flow rate). The simulation explains reasonably well the experimental results when the effect of local gas density change on the gas heating process is taken into consideration. Discussion is given that the existence of thermally driven convection in the microgap plasma indicated in a preliminary report is incorrect.
Anomalous plasma transport and induced electric field in a stochastic magnetic field structure
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kubota, Tetsuyuki; Itoh, Sanae-I.; Toda, Shinichiro; Yamaguchi, Hiroki [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Fukuyama, Atsushi [Okayama Univ. (Japan)
1995-04-01
The plasma transport matrix is formulated using the kinetic equation for the particles in the stochastic magnetic field. The radial electric field generation is analyzed using this transport matrix. This thermoelectric field is dictated by the difference between the electron heat flux and the ion heat flux. We calculate the spatial structures of the radial electric field and the temperature in the stochastic field region. 7 refs., 3 figs.
Multi-compartment Aerosol Transport Model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hubbard, Joshua Allen; Santarpia, Joshua; Brotherton, Christopher M.; Omana, Michael Alexis; Rivera, Danielle; Lucero, Gabriel Anthony
2017-06-01
A simple aerosol transport model was developed for a multi-compartmented cleanroom. Each compartment was treated as a well-mixed volume with ventilating supply and return air. Gravitational settling, intercompartment transport, and leakage of exterior air into the system were included in the model. A set of first order, coupled, ordinary differential equations was derived from the conservation equations of aerosol mass and air mass. The system of ODEs was then solved in MATLAB using pre-existing numerical methods. The model was verified against cases of (1) constant inlet-duct concentration, and (2) exponentially decaying inlet-duct concentration. Numerical methods resulted in normalized error of less than 10 -9 when model solutions were compared to analytical solutions. The model was validated against experimental measurements from a single field test and showed good agreement in the shape and magnitude of the aerosol concentration profile with time.
Error estimation and adaptive chemical transport modeling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Malte Braack
2014-09-01
Full Text Available We present a numerical method to use several chemical transport models of increasing accuracy and complexity in an adaptive way. In largest parts of the domain, a simplified chemical model may be used, whereas in certain regions a more complex model is needed for accuracy reasons. A mathematically derived error estimator measures the modeling error and provides information where to use more accurate models. The error is measured in terms of output functionals. Therefore, one has to consider adjoint problems which carry sensitivity information. This concept is demonstrated by means of ozone formation and pollution emission.
Smolyakov, A. I.; Chapurin, O.; Frias, W.; Koshkarov, O.; Romadanov, I.; Tang, T.; Umansky, M.; Raitses, Y.; Kaganovich, I. D.; Lakhin, V. P.
2017-01-01
Partially-magnetized plasmas with magnetized electrons and non-magnetized ions are common in Hall thrusters for electric propulsion and magnetron material processing devices. These plasmas are usually in strongly non-equilibrium state due to presence of crossed electric and magnetic fields, inhomogeneities of plasma density, temperature, magnetic field and beams of accelerated ions. Free energy from these sources make such plasmas prone to various instabilities resulting in turbulence, anomalous transport, and appearance of coherent structures as found in experiments. This paper provides an overview of instabilities that exist in such plasmas. A nonlinear fluid model has been developed for description of the Simon-Hoh, lower-hybrid and ion-sound instabilities. The model also incorporates electron gyroviscosity describing the effects of finite electron temperature. The nonlinear fluid model has been implemented in the BOUT++ framework. The results of nonlinear simulations are presented demonstrating turbulence, anomalous current and tendency toward the formation of coherent structures.
What can we learn about HiPIMS process from the multidimensional plasma modeling?
Minea, Tiberiu
2016-09-01
The modeling of PVD process and especially magnetron plasma is widely reported. The novel way to excite the plasma applying to the cathode very high power pulses brings the temporal dimension to the system together with new phenomena. From the kinetic model of the dense plasma region, so called Ionization Region - IR, one can quantify the global behavior of the plasma parameters during the pulse. The most significant are the plasma composition, especially in the case of reactive gases, the fraction of back-attracted sputtered ions, the rarefaction due to wind effect, but also the discharge heating mechanisms and contribution to the discharge current. From the 2D particle modeling of the plasma new insights are revealed concerning the shape of the dense plasma region, the time evolution of the sheath, the electron energy distribution function, but also the characteristics of the diffusion plasma facing the substrate. Adding the third dimension to the model, the results reveal the complex transport of electrons especially in the azimuthal direction (instabilities and drifts), the formation of spokes and flares, and the strong relation between the secondary emission of electrons from the target and the plasma structuring. Warm thanks to Peter Awakowicz and Ante Hecimovic for inviting me to this GEC edition.
Turbulence in edge and core transport barriers: new experimental results and modeling
Tokuzawa, T.
2017-02-01
In this paper, recent progressive studies on experimental analysis and theoretical models for turbulence phenomena around the transport barriers in high-performance magnetic confined fusion plasma are reviewed. The linkage of radial electric fields and turbulence, the importance of radial electric field curvature, and observations of spatiotemporal turbulence structures are described with related theoretical models.
Gyrokinetic Particle Simulation of Turbulent Transport in Burning Plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Diamond, P.H.; Lin, Z.; Wang, W.; Horton, W.; Klasky, S.; Decyk, V.; Ma, K.-L.; Chames, J.; Adams, M.
2011-09-21
The three-year project GPS-TTBP resulted in over 152 publications and 135 presentations. This summary focuses on the scientific progress made by the project team. A major focus of the project was on the physics intrinsic rotation in tokamaks. Progress included the first ever flux driven study of net intrinsic spin-up, mediated by boundary effects (in collaboration with CPES), detailed studies of the microphysics origins of the Rice scaling, comparative studies of symmetry breaking mechanisms, a pioneering study of intrinsic torque driven by trapped electron modes, and studies of intrinsic rotation generation as a thermodynamic engine. Validation studies were performed with C-Mod, DIII-D and CSDX. This work resulted in very successful completion of the FY2010 Theory Milestone Activity for OFES, and several prominent papers of the 2008 and 2010 IAEA Conferences. A second major focus was on the relation between zonal flow formation and transport non-locality. This culminated in the discovery of the ExB staircase - a conceptually new phenomenon. This also makes useful interdisciplinary contact with the physics of the PV staircase, well-known in oceans and atmospheres. A third topic where progress was made was in the simulation and theory of turbulence spreading. This work, now well cited, is important for understanding the dynamics of non-locality in turbulent transport. Progress was made in studies of conjectured non-diffusive transport in trapped electron turbulence. Pioneering studies of ITB formation, coupling to intrinsic rotation and hysteresis were completed. These results may be especially significant for future ITER operation. All told, the physics per dollar performance of this project was quite good. The intense focus was beneficial and SciDAC resources were essential to its success.
Study on impurity radiation and transport of JT-60U plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ishijima, Tatsuo [Tsukuba Univ., Ibaraki (Japan)
2000-03-01
This thesis describes an investigation on impurity transport in the JT-60U tokamak plasma both in the core and the divertor plasmas to provide a better understanding of plasma physics. This work has been performed under the collaborative graduate school between University of Tsukuba and Naka Fusion Research Establishment of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. A radiative divertor experiment with neon gas puff was carried out with an aim of investigating impurity behaviors in the divertor, after the open divertor was modified to the pumped W-shaped divertor. To evaluate neon radiation, analysis was made for lines from neon ions measured with a VUV spectrometer in the divertor plasma. As a result, lines from Ne IV-Ne VIII were identified. By combining the measurement with an absolutely calibrated multi-channel interference filter spectrometer and that with the VUV spectrometer, the radiation loss through neon line emission was estimated in the divertor plasma. In the case of pumping off, the detached plasma evolved into a MARFE. It was observed that the line intensities of highly ionized neon (Ne VII, Ne VIII) increased simultaneously with the formation of the MARFE and furthermore increased after the MARFE formation. It is considered that after the divertor plasma was detached, the plasma flow velocity and the friction force were weaker in the case of pumping off than in the case of pumping on and more impurities moved toward the X-point region. This observation implies reduction of impurity back flow from the divertor to the upstream by the friction force. This thesis indicates that the plasma flow in the SOL (Scrape-Off Layer) is important to confine the impurity in the divertor region and prevent the MARFE for the first time. In reversed shear discharges with ITB (internal transport barrier), electron density, temperature and radiation power strongly increased inside the ITB. The core radiation was analyzed by bolometry, VUV spectrometer and CXRS (charge
A depth integrated model for suspended transport
Galappatti, R.
1983-01-01
A new depth averaged model for suspended sediment transport in open channels has been developed based on an asymptotic solution to the two dimensional convection-diffusion equation in the vertical plane. The solution for the depth averaged concentration is derived from the bed boundary condition and
Climate impact of transportation A model comparison
Girod, B.; Vuuren, D.P. van; Grahn, M.; Kitous, A.; Kim, S.H.; Kyle, P.
2013-01-01
Transportation contributes to a significant and rising share of global energy use and GHG emissions. Therefore modeling future travel demand, its fuel use, and resulting CO2 emission is highly relevant for climate change mitigation. In this study we compare the baseline projections for global
Transport properties of fully screened Kondo models
Hörig, Christoph B M; Mora, Christophe; Schuricht, Dirk
2014-01-01
We study the nonequilibrium transport properties of fully (exactly) screened Kondo quantum dots subject to a finite bias voltage or a finite temperature. First, we calculate the Fermi-liquid coefficients of the conductance for models with arbitrary spin, i.e., its leading behavior for small bias vol
Logistics Chains in Freight Transport Modelling
Davydenko, I.Y.
2015-01-01
The flow of trade is not equal to transport flows, mainly due to the fact that warehouses and distribution facilities are used as intermediary stops on the way from production locations to the points of consumption or further rework of goods. This thesis proposes a logistics chain model, which estim
Climate impact of transportation A model comparison
Girod, B.; Vuuren, D.P. van; Grahn, M.; Kitous, A.; Kim, S.H.; Kyle, P.
2013-01-01
Transportation contributes to a significant and rising share of global energy use and GHG emissions. Therefore modeling future travel demand, its fuel use, and resulting CO2 emission is highly relevant for climate change mitigation. In this study we compare the baseline projections for global servic
Logistics Chains in Freight Transport Modelling
Davydenko, I.Y.
2015-01-01
The flow of trade is not equal to transport flows, mainly due to the fact that warehouses and distribution facilities are used as intermediary stops on the way from production locations to the points of consumption or further rework of goods. This thesis proposes a logistics chain model, which
Equilibrium models in multimodal container transport systems
Corman, F.; Viti, F.; Negenborn, R.R.
2015-01-01
Optimizing the performance of multimodal freight transport networks involves adequately balancing the interplay between costs, volumes, times of departure and arrival, and times of travel. In order to study this interplay, we propose an assignment model that is able to efficiently determine flows an
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Subrata Pal
2015-05-01
We review the transport models that are widely used to study the properties of the quark-gluon plasma formed in relativistic heavy-ion collisions at RHIC and LHC. We show that transport model analysis of two important and complementary observables, the anisotropic flow of bulk hadrons and suppression of hadron yields at high transverse momentum, provide exciting new information on the properties of the plasma formed.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Noer, Ivan; Lassen, N A
1978-01-01
Under slight lymphatic stasis (tilting the body 15 degrees) we measured the arrival of locally injected I-albumin to the plasma pool. From 30 min. to 90 min. after the injection the return rate was zero i.e. local back transport in the two tissues studied viz.muscle and subcutaneous fat is very...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Noer, Ivan; Lassen, N A
1979-01-01
Under slight lymphatic stasis (tilting the body 15 degrees) we measured the arrival of locally injected 131I-albumin in the plasma pool. From 30 min to 90 min after the injection the return rate was zero, i.e. local back transport in the two tissues studied, muscle and subcutaneous fat, is very...
The effect of plasma fluctuations on parallel transport parameters in the SOL
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Havlíčková, E.; Fundamenski, W.; Naulin, Volker
2011-01-01
in the scrape-off layer (SOL) taking into account these fluctuations is presented. Plasma transport in the SOL along the magnetic field between two targets is calculated by a one-dimensional fluid code in order to estimate the response to transient conditions along the SOL and the attention is given...
Tungsten and Barium Transport in the Internal Plasma of Hollow Cathodes
Polk, James E.; Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira; Capece, Angela M.
2008-01-01
The effect of tungsten erosion, transport and redeposition on the operation of dispenser hollow cathodes was investigated in detailed examinations of the discharge cathode inserts from an 8200 hour and a 30,352 hour ion engine wear test. Erosion and subsequent re-deposition of tungsten in the electron emission zone at the downstream end of the insert reduces the porosity of the tungsten matrix, preventing the flow of barium from the interior. This inhibits the interfacial reactions of the barium-calcium-aluminate impregnant with the tungsten in the pores. A numerical model of barium transport in the internal xenon discharge plasma shows that the barium required to reduce the work function in the emission zone can be supplied from upstream through the gas phase. Barium that flows out of the pores of the tungsten insert is rapidly ionized in the xenon discharge and pushedback to the emitter surface by the electric field and drag from the xenon ion flow. Thisbarium ion flux is sufficient to maintain a barium surface coverage at the downstream endgreater than 0.6, even if local barium production at that point is inhibited by tungsten deposits. The model also shows that the neutral barium pressure exceeds the equilibrium vapor pressure of the impregnant decomposition reaction over much of the insert length,so the reactions are suppressed. Only a small region upstream of the zone blocked by tungsten deposits is active and supplies the required barium. These results indicate that hollowcathode failure models based on barium depletion rates in vacuum dispenser cathodes are very conservative.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Peters, M.
1996-01-16
In the first experiment the plasma current in the RTP tokamak is varied. Here the underlying idea was to check whether at a low plasma current, transport in the tokamak resembles transport in stellarators more than at higher currents. Secondly, experiments have been done to study the relation of the diffusivity {chi} to the temperature and its gradient in both W7-AS and RTP. In this case the underlying idea was to find the explanation for the phenomenon observed in both tokamaks and stellarators that the quality of the confinement degrades when more heating is applied. A possible explanation is that the diffusivity increases with the temperature or its gradient. Whereas in standard tokamak and stellarator experiments the temperature and its gradient are strongly correlated, a special capability of the plasma heating system of W7-AS and RTP can force them to decouple. (orig.).
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Goumiri, I. R. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Mechanical and Aerospace Dept.; Rowley, C. W. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Mechanical and Aerospace Dept.; Sabbagh, S. A. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics; Gates, D. A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Gerhardt, S. P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Boyer, M. D. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Andre, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Kolemen, E. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Taira, K. [Florida State Univ, Dept Mech Engn, Tallahassee, FL USA.
2016-02-19
A model-based feedback system is presented to control plasma rotation in a magnetically confined toroidal fusion device, to maintain plasma stability for long-pulse operation. This research uses experimental measurements from the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) and is aimed at controlling plasma rotation using two different types of actuation: momentum from injected neutral beams and neoclassical toroidal viscosity generated by three-dimensional applied magnetic fields. Based on the data-driven model obtained, a feedback controller is designed, and predictive simulations using the TRANSP plasma transport code show that the controller is able to attain desired plasma rotation profiles given practical constraints on the actuators and the available measurements of rotation.
Realtime capable first principle based modelling of tokamak turbulent transport
Citrin, Jonathan; Breton, Sarah; Felici, Federico; Imbeaux, Frederic; Redondo, Juan; Aniel, Thierry; Artaud, Jean-Francois; Baiocchi, Benedetta; Bourdelle, Clarisse; Camenen, Yann; Garcia, Jeronimo
2015-11-01
Transport in the tokamak core is dominated by turbulence driven by plasma microinstabilities. When calculating turbulent fluxes, maintaining both a first-principle-based model and computational tractability is a strong constraint. We present a pathway to circumvent this constraint by emulating quasilinear gyrokinetic transport code output through a nonlinear regression using multilayer perceptron neural networks. This recovers the original code output, while accelerating the computing time by five orders of magnitude, allowing realtime applications. A proof-of-principle is presented based on the QuaLiKiz quasilinear transport model, using a training set of five input dimensions, relevant for ITG turbulence. The model is implemented in the RAPTOR real-time capable tokamak simulator, and simulates a 300s ITER discharge in 10s. Progress in generalizing the emulation to include 12 input dimensions is presented. This opens up new possibilities for interpretation of present-day experiments, scenario preparation and open-loop optimization, realtime controller design, realtime discharge supervision, and closed-loop trajectory optimization.
Relationship between plasma growth hormone concentration and cellular sodium transport in acromegaly
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Herlitz, H.; Jonsson, O.; Bengtsson, B.-Aa. (Departments of Nephrology, Urology and Endocrinology, University of Goeteborg, Goeteborg (Sweden))
1992-01-01
We investigated the relationship between mean plasma growth hormone (GH) concentration and cellular sodium transport in untreated and treated acromegaly. Seventeen patients (age 55 [+-] 3 years) with active acromegaly were studied with respect to plasma GH (mean of 24 h GH profile) and erythrocyte electrolyte content as well as transmembrane sodium transport. The patients were reinvestigated two weeks after successful surgery (N = 14) and again after one year (N = 13). Erythrocyte electrolytes were analyzed by flame photometry and sodium influx and efflux rate constant determined by in vitro incubation using a modified Keyne's formula. In patients with active acromegaly there was a significant positive correlation between IGF-1 and cellular sodium transport, while GH tended to show a negative relatonship to the same parameter. After successful treatment, both IGF-1 and GH disclosed a positive relationship to cellular sodium transport. After one year, a significant increase in erythrocyte sodium content was seen in the patients compared to the preoperative situation. In conclusion, if this is a generalized phenomonen the results are compatible with a sodium-retaining effect of GH via stimulation of transmembrane sodium transport. In active acromegaly this may be counteracted by a sodium transport inhibitor giving the reverse relationship between GH and cellular sodium transport. (au).
ACE-Asia Chemical Transport Modeling Overview
UNO, I.; Chin, M.; Collins, W.; Ginoux, P.; Rasch, P.; Carmichael, G. R.; Yienger, J. J.
2001-12-01
ACE-Asia (Asia Pacific Regional Aerosol Characterization Experiment) was designed to increase our understanding of how atmospheric aerosol particles affect the Earth?s climate system. The intensive observation period was carried out during March to May, 2001, and more than 100 researchers from several countries (United States, Japan, Korea, China, and many other Asian countries) participated using aircraft, a research vessel, surface stations and numerical models. Aerosol transport forecast activities played an important role during the ACE-Asia intensive observation period. Three independent modeling groups operated chemical transport models in forecast mode and participated in flight planning activities at the operations center. These models were: MATCH (Model of Atmospheric Transport and Chemistry; Rasch and Collins); GOCART (Georgia Tech/Goddard Global Ozone Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport model; Chin and Ginour) and CFORS (Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu University + University of Iowa - Chemical weather FORecast System; Uno, Carmichael and Yienger). The MATCH model used in ACE-Asia was a transport model applied for the Asia region, driven by NCEP forecast meteorology. A unique feature of this model was that it assimilated satellite derived optical depths into its forecast algorithm. The GOCART model provided global aerosol forecast using forecast meteorological fields provided by the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System (GEOS DAS). The CFORS model provided regional forecasts using a limited area transport model coupled with Regional Meteorological Modeling System (RAMS), initialized by NCEP and JMA forecasts. All models produced 3-d aerosol forecast products consisting of aerosol mass distributions and optical depths for sulfate, black carbon, organic carbon, sea salt, and dust. In the field these model products were made available to all participating scientists via the Web, and were also presented during the
Coherent structures and anomalous transport in reversed field pinch plasmas
Antoni, V.; Drake, J. R.; Spada, E.; Spolaore, M.; Vianello, N.; Bergsåker, H.; Cavazzana, R.; Cecconello, M.; Martines, E.; Serianni, G.
2006-02-01
The results leading to the identification of coherent structures emerging from the background turbulence in the edge region of the reversed field pinch experiments EXTRAP-T2R and RFX are reviewed. These structures have traits of vortices in velocity field and blobs in density, and the reconstruction of their spatial structure and of their time evolution is discussed focusing on the analysis tools applied. The role of these structures in the particle anomalous transport is addressed, showing that their collisions can contribute up to 50% the total particle losses.This process is shown to be responsible for bursts in particle flux and it is found to set a characteristic collision time, which is in agreement with the statistical properties of laminar times for particle flux bursts.
Numerical modelling of ion transport in flames
Han, Jie
2015-10-20
This paper presents a modelling framework to compute the diffusivity and mobility of ions in flames. The (n, 6, 4) interaction potential is adopted to model collisions between neutral and charged species. All required parameters in the potential are related to the polarizability of the species pair via semi-empirical formulas, which are derived using the most recently published data or best estimates. The resulting framework permits computation of the transport coefficients of any ion found in a hydrocarbon flame. The accuracy of the proposed method is evaluated by comparing its predictions with experimental data on the mobility of selected ions in single-component neutral gases. Based on this analysis, the value of a model constant available in the literature is modified in order to improve the model\\'s predictions. The newly determined ion transport coefficients are used as part of a previously developed numerical approach to compute the distribution of charged species in a freely propagating premixed lean CH4/O2 flame. Since a significant scatter of polarizability data exists in the literature, the effects of changes in polarizability on ion transport properties and the spatial distribution of ions in flames are explored. Our analysis shows that changes in polarizability propagate with decreasing effect from binary transport coefficients to species number densities. We conclude that the chosen polarizability value has a limited effect on the ion distribution in freely propagating flames. We expect that the modelling framework proposed here will benefit future efforts in modelling the effect of external voltages on flames. Supplemental data for this article can be accessed at http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13647830.2015.1090018. © 2015 Taylor & Francis.
Delft Mass Transport model DMT-2
Ditmar, Pavel; Hashemi Farahani, Hassan; Inacio, Pedro; Klees, Roland; Zhao, Qile; Guo, Jing; Liu, Xianglin; Sun, Yu; Riva, Ricardo; Ran, Jiangjun
2013-04-01
Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission has enormously extended our knowledge of the Earth's system by allowing natural mass transport of various origin to be quantified. This concerns, in particular, the depletion and replenishment of continental water stocks; shrinking of polar ice sheets; deformation of the Earth's crust triggered by large earthquakes, and isostatic adjustment processes. A number of research centers compute models of temporal gravity field variations and mass transport, using GRACE data as input. One of such models - Delft Mass Transport model - is being produced at the Delft University of Technology in collaboration with the GNSS Research Center of Wuhan University. A new release of this model, DMT-2, has been produced on the basis of a new (second) release of GRACE level-1b data. This model consists of a time-series of monthly solutions spanning a time interval of more than 8 years, starting from Feb. 2003. Each solution consists of spherical harmonic coefficients up to degree 120. Both unconstrained and optimally filtered solutions are obtained. The most essential improvements of the DMT-2 model, as compared to its predecessors (DMT-1 and DMT-1b), are as follows: (i) improved estimation and elimination of low-frequency noise in GRACE data, so that strong mass transport signals are not damped; (ii) computation of accurate stochastic models of data noise for each month individually with a subsequent application of frequency-dependent data weighting, which allows statistically optimal solutions to be compiled even if data noise is colored and gradually changes in time; (iii) optimized estimation of accelerometer calibration parameters; (iv) incorporation of degree 1 coefficients estimated with independent techniques; (v) usage of state-of-the-art background models to de-alias GRACE data from rapid mass transport signals (this includes the EOT11a model of ocean tides and the latest release of the AOD1B product describing
Symposium on unsaturated flow and transport modeling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Arnold, E.M.; Gee, G.W.; Nelson, R.W. (eds.)
1982-09-01
This document records the proceedings of a symposium on flow and transport processes in partially saturated groundwater systems, conducted at the Battelle Seattle Research Center on March 22-24, 1982. The symposium was sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission for the purpose of assessing the state-of-the-art of flow and transport modeling for use in licensing low-level nuclear waste repositories in partially saturated zones. The first day of the symposium centered around research in flow through partially saturated systems. Papers were presented with the opportunity for questions following each presentation. In addition, after all the talks, a formal panel discussion was held during which written questions were addressed to the panel of the days speakers. The second day of the Symposium was devoted to solute and contaminant transport in partially saturated media in an identical format. Individual papers are abstracted.
Model prodrugs for the intestinal oligopeptide transporter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, C U; Andersen, R; Brodin, Birger
2001-01-01
(sigma*) may influence the acid, water or base catalyzed model drug release rates, when released from series of D-Glu-Ala and D-Asp-Ala pro-moieties. Release rates were investigated in both aqueous solutions with varying pH, ionic strength, and buffer concentrations as well as in in vitro biological...... as Taft (sigma*) values, has a significant influence on the release rate of the model drug.......The human intestinal di/tri-peptide carrier, hPepT1, has been suggested as a target for increasing intestinal transport of low permeability compounds by creating prodrugs designed for the transporter. Model ester prodrugs using the stabilized dipeptides D-Glu-Ala and D-Asp-Ala as pro...
A Radiative Transport Model for Blazars
Lewis, Tiffany; Justin, Finke; Becker, Peter A.
2017-01-01
Blazars are observed across the electromagnetic spectrum, often with strong variability throughout. The underlying electron distribution associated with the observed emission is typically not computed from first principles. We start from first-principles to build up a transport model, whose solution is the electron distribution, rather than assuming a convenient functional form. Our analytical transport model considers shock acceleration, adiabatic expansion, stochastic acceleration, Bohm diffusion, and synchrotron radiation. We use this solution to generate predictions for the X-ray spectrum and time lags, and compare the results with data products from BeppoSAX observations of X-ray flares from Mrk 421. This new self-consistent model provides an unprecedented view into the jet physics at play in this source, especially the strength of the shock and stochastic acceleration components and the size of the acceleration region.More recently, we augmented the transport model to incorporate Compton scattering, including Klein-Nishina effects. In this case, an analytical solution cannot be derived, and therefore we obtain the steady-state electron distribution computationally. We compare the resulting radiation spectrum with multi-wavelength data for 3C 279. We show that our new Compton + synchrotron blazar model is the first to successfully fit the FermiLAT gamma-ray data for this source based on a first-principles physical calculation.
Transport simulations of linear plasma generators with the B2.5-Eirene and EMC3-Eirene codes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rapp, J., E-mail: rappj@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37830 (United States); Owen, L.W. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37830 (United States); Bonnin, X. [LSPM-CNRS, Université Paris 13, Sorbonne Paris Cité, F-93430 Villetaneuse (France); Caneses, J.F. [PRL, Research School of Physics and Engineering, ANU, Canberra (Australia); Canik, J.M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37830 (United States); Corr, C. [PRL, Research School of Physics and Engineering, ANU, Canberra (Australia); Lore, J.D. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37830 (United States)
2015-08-15
Linear plasma generators are cost effective facilities to simulate divertor plasma conditions of present and future fusion reactors. The codes B2.5-Eirene and EMC3-Eirene were extensively used for design studies of the planned Material Plasma Exposure eXperiment (MPEX). Effects on the target plasma of the gas fueling and pumping locations, heating power, device length, magnetic configuration and transport model were studied with B2.5-Eirene. Effects of tilted or vertical targets were calculated with EMC3-Eirene and showed that spreading the incident flux over a larger area leads to lower density, higher temperature and off-axis profile peaking in front of the target. The simulations indicate that with sufficient heating power MPEX can reach target plasma conditions that are similar to those expected in the ITER divertor. B2.5-Eirene simulations of the MAGPIE experiment have been carried out in order to establish an additional benchmark with experimental data from a linear device with helicon wave heating.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Forest, Cary B. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Physics
2016-11-10
This report covers the UW-Madison activities that took place within a larger DoE Center Administered and directed by Professor George Tynan at the University of California, San Diego. The work at Wisconsin will also be covered in the final reporting for the entire center, which will be submitted by UCSD. There were two main activities, one experimental and one that was theoretical in nature, as part of the Center activities at the University of Wisconsin, Madison. First, the Center supported an experimentally focused postdoc (Chris Cooper) to carry out fundamental studies of momentum transport in rotating and weakly magnetized plasma. His experimental work was done on the Plasma Couette Experiment, a cylindrical plasma confinement device, with a plasma flow created through electromagnetically stirring plasma at the plasma edge facilitated by arrays of permanent magnets. Cooper's work involved developing optical techniques to measure the ion temperature and plasma flow through Doppler-shifted line radiation from the plasma argon ions. This included passive emission measurements and development of a novel ring summing Fabry-Perot spectroscopy system, and the active system involved using a diode laser to induce fluorescence. On the theoretical side, CMTFO supported a postdoc (Johannes Pueschel) to carry out a gyrokinetic extension of residual zonal flow theory to the case with magnetic fluctuations, showing that magnetic stochasticity disrupts zonal flows. The work included a successful comparison with gyrokinetic simulations. This work and its connection to the broader CMTFO will be covered more thoroughly in the final CMTFO report from Professor Tynan.
Transperitoneal transport of creatinine. A comparison of kinetic models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fugleberg, S; Graff, J; Joffe, P;
1994-01-01
Six kinetic models of transperitoneal creatinine transport were formulated and validated on the basis of experimental results obtained from 23 non-diabetic patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis. The models were designed to elucidate the presence or absence of diffusive, non-lymphatic convective...... including all three forms of transport is superior to other models. We conclude that the best model of transperitoneal creatinine transport includes diffusion, non-lymphatic convective transport and lymphatic convective transport....
Time-dependent Integrated Predictive Modeling of ITER Plasmas
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
R.V. Budny
2007-01-01
@@ Introduction Modeling burning plasmas is important for speeding progress toward practical Tokamak energy production. Examples of issues that can be elucidated by modelinginclude requirements for heating, fueling, torque, and current drive systems, design of diagnostics, and estimates of the plasma performance (e.g., fusion power production) in various plasma scenarios. The modeling should be time-dependent to demonstrate that burning plasmas can be created, maintained (controlled), and terminated successfully. The modeling also should be integrated to treat self-consistently the nonlinearities and strong coupling between the plasma, heating, current drive, confinement, and control systems.
Rudin, Sergey; Rupper, Greg
2012-02-01
The non-linear electron plasma response to electromagnetic signal applied to a gated graphene conduction channel can be used to make a graphene based Dyakonov-Shur terahertz detector. The hydrodynamic model predicts a resonance response to electromagnetic radiation at the plasma oscillation frequency. With less damping and higher mobility, the graphene conduction channels may provide higher quality plasma response than possible with semiconductor channels. Our analysis of plasma oscillations in a graphene channel is based on the hydrodynamic equations which we derive from the Boltzmann equation accounting for both electrons and holes, and including the effects of viscosity and finite mobility.
Modelling an Ammonium Transporter with SCLS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Angelo Troina
2009-10-01
Full Text Available The Stochastic Calculus of Looping Sequences (SCLS is a recently proposed modelling language for the representation and simulation of biological systems behaviour. It has been designed with the aim of combining the simplicity of notation of rewrite systems with the advantage of compositionality. It also allows a rather simple and accurate description of biological membranes and their interactions with the environment.In this work we apply SCLS to model a newly discovered ammonium transporter. This transporter is believed to play a fundamental role for plant mineral acquisition, which takes place in the arbuscular mycorrhiza, the most wide-spread plant-fungus symbiosis on earth. Due to its potential application in agriculture this kind of symbiosis is one of the main focuses of the BioBITs project. In our experiments the passage of NH3 / NH4+ from the fungus to the plant has been dissected in known and hypothetical mechanisms; with the model so far we have been able to simulate the behaviour of the system under different conditions. Our simulations confirmed some of the latest experimental results about the LjAMT2;2 transporter. The initial simulation results of the modelling of the symbiosis process are promising and indicate new directions for biological investigations.
Modeling of low pressure plasma sources for microelectronics fabrication
Agarwal, Ankur; Bera, Kallol; Kenney, Jason; Likhanskii, Alexandre; Rauf, Shahid
2017-10-01
Chemically reactive plasmas operating in the 1 mTorr–10 Torr pressure range are widely used for thin film processing in the semiconductor industry. Plasma modeling has come to play an important role in the design of these plasma processing systems. A number of 3-dimensional (3D) fluid and hybrid plasma modeling examples are used to illustrate the role of computational investigations in design of plasma processing hardware for applications such as ion implantation, deposition, and etching. A model for a rectangular inductively coupled plasma (ICP) source is described, which is employed as an ion source for ion implantation. It is shown that gas pressure strongly influences ion flux uniformity, which is determined by the balance between the location of plasma production and diffusion. The effect of chamber dimensions on plasma uniformity in a rectangular capacitively coupled plasma (CCP) is examined using an electromagnetic plasma model. Due to high pressure and small gap in this system, plasma uniformity is found to be primarily determined by the electric field profile in the sheath/pre-sheath region. A 3D model is utilized to investigate the confinement properties of a mesh in a cylindrical CCP. Results highlight the role of hole topology and size on the formation of localized hot-spots. A 3D electromagnetic plasma model for a cylindrical ICP is used to study inductive versus capacitive power coupling and how placement of ground return wires influences it. Finally, a 3D hybrid plasma model for an electron beam generated magnetized plasma is used to understand the role of reactor geometry on plasma uniformity in the presence of E × B drift.
Modelling of new generation plasma optical devices
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Litovko Irina V.
2016-06-01
Full Text Available The paper presents new generation plasma optical devices based on the electrostatic plasma lens configuration that opens a novel attractive possibility for effective high-tech practical applications. Original approaches to use of plasma accelerators with closed electron drift and open walls for the creation of a cost-effective low-maintenance plasma lens with positive space charge and possible application for low-cost, low-energy rocket engine are described. The preliminary experimental, theoretical and simulation results are presented. It is noted that the presented plasma devices are attractive for many different applications in the state-of-the-art vacuum-plasma processing.
Experiments on the transportation of a magnetized plasma stream in the GOL-3 facility
Postupaev, V. V.; Batkin, V. I.; Burdakov, A. V.; Ivanov, I. A.; Kuklin, K. N.; Mekler, K. I.; Rovenskikh, A. F.
2016-04-01
The program of the deep upgrade of the GOL-3 multiple-mirror trap is presented. The upgrade is aimed at creating a new GOL-NB open trap located at the GOL-3 site and intended to directly demonstrate the efficiency of using multiple-mirror magnetic cells to improve longitudinal plasma confinement in a gasdynamic open trap. The GOL-NB device will consist of a new central trap, adjoint cells with a multiple-mirror magnetic field, and end tanks (magnetic flux expanders). Plasma in the central trap will be heated by neutral beam injection with a power of up to 1.5 MW and duration of 1 ms. At present, physical experiments directed at developing plasma technologies that are novel for this facility are being carried out using the 6-m-long autonomous part of the GOL-3 solenoid. The aim of this work was to develop a method for filling the central trap with a low-temperature start plasma. Transportation of a plasma stream from an arc source over a distance of 3 m in a uniform magnetic field with an induction of 0.5-4.5 T is demonstrated. In these experiments, the axial plasma density was (1-4) × 1020 m-3 and the mirror ratio varied from 5 to 60. In general, the experiments confirmed the correctness of the adopted decisions for the start plasma source of the GOL-NB device.
A kinetic model of plasma turbulence
Servidio, S.; Valentini, F.; Perrone, D.; Greco, A.; Califano, F.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Veltri, P.
2015-01-01
A Hybrid Vlasov-Maxwell (HVM) model is presented and recent results about the link between kinetic effects and turbulence are reviewed. Using five-dimensional (2D in space and 3D in the velocity space) simulations of plasma turbulence, it is found that kinetic effects (or non-fluid effects) manifest through the deformation of the proton velocity distribution function (DF), with patterns of non-Maxwellian features being concentrated near regions of strong magnetic gradients. The direction of the proper temperature anisotropy, calculated in the main reference frame of the distribution itself, has a finite probability of being along or across the ambient magnetic field, in general agreement with the classical definition of anisotropy T ⊥/T ∥ (where subscripts refer to the magnetic field direction). Adopting the latter conventional definition, by varying the global plasma beta (β) and fluctuation level, simulations explore distinct regions of the space given by T ⊥/T ∥ and β∥, recovering solar wind observations. Moreover, as in the solar wind, HVM simulations suggest that proton anisotropy is not only associated with magnetic intermittent events, but also with gradient-type structures in the flow and in the density. The role of alpha particles is reviewed using multi-ion kinetic simulations, revealing a similarity between proton and helium non-Maxwellian effects. The techniques presented here are applied to 1D spacecraft-like analysis, establishing a link between non-fluid phenomena and solar wind magnetic discontinuities. Finally, the dimensionality of turbulence is investigated, for the first time, via 6D HVM simulations (3D in both spaces). These preliminary results provide support for several previously reported studies based on 2.5D simulations, confirming several basic conclusions. This connection between kinetic features and turbulence open a new path on the study of processes such as heating, particle acceleration, and temperature
Validating a quasi-linear transport model versus nonlinear simulations
Casati, A.; Bourdelle, C.; Garbet, X.; Imbeaux, F.; Candy, J.; Clairet, F.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Falchetto, G.; Gerbaud, T.; Grandgirard, V.; Gürcan, Ö. D.; Hennequin, P.; Kinsey, J.; Ottaviani, M.; Sabot, R.; Sarazin, Y.; Vermare, L.; Waltz, R. E.
2009-08-01
In order to gain reliable predictions on turbulent fluxes in tokamak plasmas, physics based transport models are required. Nonlinear gyrokinetic electromagnetic simulations for all species are still too costly in terms of computing time. On the other hand, interestingly, the quasi-linear approximation seems to retain the relevant physics for fairly reproducing both experimental results and nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations. Quasi-linear fluxes are made of two parts: (1) the quasi-linear response of the transported quantities and (2) the saturated fluctuating electrostatic potential. The first one is shown to follow well nonlinear numerical predictions; the second one is based on both nonlinear simulations and turbulence measurements. The resulting quasi-linear fluxes computed by QuaLiKiz (Bourdelle et al 2007 Phys. Plasmas 14 112501) are shown to agree with the nonlinear predictions when varying various dimensionless parameters, such as the temperature gradients, the ion to electron temperature ratio, the dimensionless collisionality, the effective charge and ranging from ion temperature gradient to trapped electron modes turbulence.
Jordanova, V.
2015-12-01
The mechanisms for particle injection in the near-Earth space environment and their subsequent trapping or loss have been studied for many years, however, their theoretical evaluation and implementation in numerical models remain challenging. We address these outstanding questions using our RAM-SCB model that couples the kinetic ring current-atmosphere interactions model with an Euler potential-based three-dimensional plasma equilibrium code. We simulate wave-particle interactions on a global scale using L and MLT-dependent event-specific wave models and investigate the fast dropout of the radiation belts during the October 2012 "double-dip" storm event. The calculated cold plasma densities with a coupled time-dependent 2-D plasmasphere model show good agreement with in situ EMFISIS observations along the Van Allen Probes' orbits. The simulated with RAM-SCB precipitating electron fluxes are compared with measurements of electron precipitation by multiple NOAA satellites during the investigated storm event. The combined effects from radial transport and scattering by plasma waves on ring current and radiation belt dynamics are evaluated.
Chemical element transport in stellar evolution models
Cassisi, Santi
2017-01-01
Stellar evolution computations provide the foundation of several methods applied to study the evolutionary properties of stars and stellar populations, both Galactic and extragalactic. The accuracy of the results obtained with these techniques is linked to the accuracy of the stellar models, and in this context the correct treatment of the transport of chemical elements is crucial. Unfortunately, in many respects calculations of the evolution of the chemical abundance profiles in stars are still affected by sometimes sizable uncertainties. Here, we review the various mechanisms of element transport included in the current generation of stellar evolution calculations, how they are implemented, the free parameters and uncertainties involved, the impact on the models and the observational constraints.
Variational multiscale models for charge transport.
Wei, Guo-Wei; Zheng, Qiong; Chen, Zhan; Xia, Kelin
2012-01-01
This work presents a few variational multiscale models for charge transport in complex physical, chemical and biological systems and engineering devices, such as fuel cells, solar cells, battery cells, nanofluidics, transistors and ion channels. An essential ingredient of the present models, introduced in an earlier paper (Bulletin of Mathematical Biology, 72, 1562-1622, 2010), is the use of differential geometry theory of surfaces as a natural means to geometrically separate the macroscopic domain from the microscopic domain, meanwhile, dynamically couple discrete and continuum descriptions. Our main strategy is to construct the total energy functional of a charge transport system to encompass the polar and nonpolar free energies of solvation, and chemical potential related energy. By using the Euler-Lagrange variation, coupled Laplace-Beltrami and Poisson-Nernst-Planck (LB-PNP) equations are derived. The solution of the LB-PNP equations leads to the minimization of the total free energy, and explicit profiles of electrostatic potential and densities of charge species. To further reduce the computational complexity, the Boltzmann distribution obtained from the Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) equation is utilized to represent the densities of certain charge species so as to avoid the computationally expensive solution of some Nernst-Planck (NP) equations. Consequently, the coupled Laplace-Beltrami and Poisson-Boltzmann-Nernst-Planck (LB-PBNP) equations are proposed for charge transport in heterogeneous systems. A major emphasis of the present formulation is the consistency between equilibrium LB-PB theory and non-equilibrium LB-PNP theory at equilibrium. Another major emphasis is the capability of the reduced LB-PBNP model to fully recover the prediction of the LB-PNP model at non-equilibrium settings. To account for the fluid impact on the charge transport, we derive coupled Laplace-Beltrami, Poisson-Nernst-Planck and Navier-Stokes equations from the variational principle
Lorenzini, R.; Auriemma, F.; Fassina, A.; Martines, E.; Terranova, D.; Sattin, F.
2016-05-01
The reversed field pinch (RFP) device RFX-mod features strong internal transport barriers when the plasma accesses states with a single dominant helicity. Such transport barriers enclose a hot helical region with high confinement whose amplitude may vary from a tiny one to an amplitude encompassing an appreciable fraction of the available volume. The transition from narrow to wide thermal structures has been ascribed so far to the transport reduction that occurs when the dominant mode separatrix, which is a preferred location for the onset of stochastic field lines, disappears. In this Letter we show instead that the contribution from the separatrix disappearance, by itself, is marginal and the main role is instead played by the progressive stabilization of secondary modes. The position and the width of the stochastic boundary encompassing the thermal structures have been estimated by applying the concept of a 3D quasiseparatrix layer, developed in solar physics to treat reconnection phenomena without true separatrices and novel to toroidal laboratory plasmas. Considering the favorable scaling of secondary modes with the Lundquist number, these results open promising scenarios for RFP plasmas at temperatures higher than the presently achieved ones, where lower secondary modes and, consequently, larger thermal structures are expected. Furthermore, this first application of the quasiseparatrix layer to a toroidal plasma indicates that such a concept is ubiquitous in magnetic reconnection, independent of the system geometry under investigation.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Krommes, J.A.; Kleva, R.G.; Oberman, C.
1978-05-01
A systematic theory is developed for the computation of electron transport in stochastic magnetic fields. Small scale magnetic perturbations arising, for example, from finite-..beta.. micro-instabilities are assumed to destroy the flux surfaces of a standard tokamak equilibrium. Because the magnetic lines then wander in a volume, electron radial flux is enhanced due to the rapid particle transport along as well as across the lines. By treating the magnetic lines as random variables, it is possible to develop a kinetic equation for the electron distribution function. This is solved approximately to yield the diffusion coefficient.
Studies of instability and transport in tokamak plasmas with very weak magnetic shear
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dong, J.Q.; Zhang, Y.Z. [Southwestern Inst. of Physics, Chengdu (China)]|[International Center for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy); Mahajan, S.M. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Inst. for Fusion Studies
1997-04-01
Ion temperature gradient (ITG or {eta}{sub i}) driven microinstabilities are studied, using kinetic theory, for tokamak plasmas with very weak (positive or negative) magnetic shear (VWS). The gradient of magnetic shear as well as the effects of parallel and perpendicular velocity shear (v{prime}{sub {parallel}} and v{prime}{sub E}) are included in the defining equations. Two eigenmodes: the double (D) and the global (G) are found to coexist. Parametric dependence of these instabilities, and of the corresponding quasilinear transport is systematically analyzed. It is shown that, in VWS plasmas, a parallel velocity shear (PVS) may stabilize or destabilize the modes, depending on the individual as well as the relative signs of PVS and of the gradient of magnetic shear. The quasilinear transport induced by the instabilities may be significantly reduced with PVS in VWS plasmas. The v{prime}{sub E} values required to completely suppress the instabilities are much lower in VWS plasmas than they are in normal plasmas. Possible correlations with tokamak experiments are discussed.
Analysis and modelling of the magnetic and plasma profiles during PPCD experiments in RFX
Puiatti, M. E.; Cappello, S.; Lorenzini, R.; Martini, S.; Ortolani, S.; Paccagnella, R.; Sattin, F.; Terranova, D.; Bolzonella, T.; Buffa, A.; Canton, A.; Carraro, L.; Escande, D. F.; Garzotti, L.; Innocente, P.; Marrelli, L.; Martines, E.; Scarin, P.; Spizzo, G.; Valisa, M.; Zanca, P.; Antoni, V.; Apolloni, L.; Bagatin, M.; Baker, W.; Barana, O.; Bettella, D.; Bettini, P.; Cavazzana, R.; Cavinato, M.; Chitarin, G.; Cravotta, A.; D'Angelo, F.; Dal Bello, S.; DeLorenzi, A.; Desideri, D.; Fiorentin, P.; Franz, P.; Frassinetti, L.; Gaio, E.; Giudicotti, L.; Gnesotto, F.; Grando, L.; Guo, S. C.; Luchetta, A.; Malesani, G.; Manduchi, G.; Marchiori, G.; Marcuzzi, D.; Martin, P.; Masiello, A.; Milani, F.; Moresco, M.; Murari, A.; Nielsen, P.; Pasqualotto, R.; Pégourie, B.; Peruzzo, S.; Piovan, R.; Piovesan, P.; Pomaro, N.; Preti, G.; Regnoli, G.; Rostagni, G.; Serianni, G.; Sonato, P.; Spada, E.; Spolaore, M.; Taliercio, C.; Telesca, G.; Toigo, V.; Vianello, N.; Zaccaria, P.; Zaniol, B.; Zanotto, L.; Zilli, E.; Zollino, G.; Zuin, M.
2003-10-01
In this paper, we analyse the main features of the pulsed poloidal current drive (PPCD) technique, used in the reversed field pinch configuration to achieve improved confinement conditions. In the RFX experiment, PPCD corresponds to a decrease of the magnetic fluctuations, to a peaking of the temperature profile, and to a reduced transport and plasma-wall interaction. A three-dimensional MHD nonlinear code and one-dimensional time-dependent transport models have been applied to study the effect of PPCD on the magnetic and plasma profiles. The three-dimensional MHD simulations show that the external inductive drive pinches and peaks the current profile driving the configuration through a transient phase, where the spontaneous turbulent dynamo action is quenched. The one-dimensional transport codes indicate that the experimental profile modifications associated with PPCD are consistent with a reduction of the stochastic transport.
Asymptotic-Preserving methods and multiscale models for plasma physics
Degond, Pierre
2016-01-01
The purpose of the present paper is to provide an overview of Asymptotic-Preserving methods for multiscale plasma simulations by addressing three singular perturbation problems. First, the quasi-neutral limit of fluid and kinetic models is investigated in the framework of non magnetized as well as magnetized plasmas. Second, the drift limit for fluid descriptions of thermal plasmas under large magnetic fields is addressed. Finally efficient numerical resolutions of anisotropic elliptic or diffusion equations arising in magnetized plasma simulation are reviewed.
Turbulence theories and modelling of fluids and plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yoshizawa, Akira; Yokoi, Nobumitsu [Institute of Industrial Science, Univ. of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Itoh, Sanae-I. [Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu Univ., Kasuga, Fukuoka (Japan); Itoh, Kimitaka [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan)
2001-04-01
Theoretical and heuristic modelling methods are reviewed for studying turbulence phenomena of fluids and plasmas. Emphasis is put on understanding of effects on turbulent characteristics due to inhomogeneities of field and plasma parameters. The similarity and dissimilarity between the methods for fluids and plasmas are sought in order to shed light on the properties that are shared or not by fluid and plasma turbulence. (author)
Turbulence theories and modelling of fluids and plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yoshizawa, Akira; Yokio, Nobumitsu [Institute of Industrial Science, University of Tokyo, Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Itoh, Sanae-I [Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu University, 87, Kasuga 816-8580 (Japan); Itoh, Kimitaka [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan)
2001-03-01
Theoretical and heuristic modelling methods are reviewed for studying turbulence phenomena of fluids and plasmas. Emphasis is placed on understanding of effects on turbulence characteristics due to inhomogeneities of field and plasma parameters. The similarity and dissimilarity between the methods for fluids and plasmas are sought in order to shed light on the properties that are shared or not by fluid and plasma turbulence. (author)
Modification of argon impurity transport by electron cyclotron heating in KSTAR H-mode plasmas
Hong, Joohwan; Henderson, S. S.; Kim, Kimin; Seon, C. R.; Song, Inwoo; Lee, H. Y.; Jang, Juhyeok; Park, Jae Sun; Lee, S. G.; Lee, J. H.; Lee, Seung Hun; Hong, Suk-Ho; Choe, Wonho
2017-03-01
Experiments with a small amount of Ar gas injection as a trace impurity were conducted in the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) H-mode plasma ({{B}\\text{T}} = 2.8 T, {{I}\\text{P}} = 0.6 MA, and {{P}\\text{NBI}} = 4.0 MW). 170 GHz electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECH) at 600 and 800 kW was focused along the mid-plane with a fixed major radial position of R = 1.66 m. The emissivity of the Ar16+ (3.949 {\\mathring{\\text{A}}} ) and Ar15+ (353.860 {\\mathring{\\text{A}}} ) spectral lines were measured by x-ray imaging crystal spectroscopy (XICS) and a vacuum UV (VUV) spectrometer, respectively. ECH reduces the peak Ar15+ emission and increases the Ar16+ emission, an effect largest with 800 kW. The ADAS-SANCO impurity transport code was used to evaluate the Ar transport coefficients. It was found that the inward convective velocity found in the plasma core without ECH was decreased with ECH, while diffusion remained approximately constant resulting in a less-peaked Ar density profile. Theoretical results from the NEO code suggest that neoclassical transport is not responsible for the change in transport, while the microstability analysis using GKW predicts a dominant ITG mode during both ECH and non-ECH plasmas.
Steady-state and time-dependent modelling of parallel transport in the scrape-off layer
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Havlickova, E.; Fundamenski, W.; Naulin, Volker
2011-01-01
The one-dimensional fluid code SOLF1D has been used for modelling of plasma transport in the scrape-off layer (SOL) along magnetic field lines, both in steady state and under transient conditions that arise due to plasma turbulence. The presented work summarizes results of SOLF1D with attention...
Bifurcation and hysteresis of plasma edge transport in a flux-driven system
Li, B.; Wang, X. Y.; Sun, C. K.; Zhou, A.; Liu, D.; Ma, C. H.; Wang, X. G.
2016-10-01
Transition dynamics and mean shear flow generation in plasma interchange turbulence are explored in a flux-driven system that resembles the plasma edge region. The nonlinear evolution of the interchange mode shows two confinement regimes with different transport levels. Large amplitude oscillations in the phase space of turbulence intensity and mean flow energy are observed and investigated. Both clockwise and counterclockwise oscillations occur during the transition between the two regimes. The Reynolds stress gradients are shown to play a critical role in the generation of mean sheared flows in the edge region. Both the forward and back transitions are simulated self-consistently and a significant hysteresis is found.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zimbardo, G.; Veltri, P. [Arcavacata di Rende, Cosenza, Univ. della Calabria (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica
1997-11-01
The magnetic fluctuations due to, e.g., magnetohydrodynamic turbulence cause a magnetic-field line random walk that influences many cosmic plasma phenomena. The results of a three-dimensional numerical simulation of a turbulent magnetic field in plane geometry are presented here. Magnetic percolation, Levy flights, and non-Gaussian random walk of the magnetic-field lines are found for moderate perturbation levels. In such a case plasma transport can be anomalous, i.e., either super diffusive or sub diffusive. Increasing the perturbation level a Gaussian diffusion regime is attained. The implications on the structure of the electron fore shock and of planetary magneto pauses are discussed.
Measurement of hot electron transport in overdense plasma VIA self induced giant magnetic pulses
Mondal, S.; Narayanan, V.; Lad, Amit D.; Ahmed, Saima; Sengupta, S.; Das, A.; Sheng, Z. M.; Kaw, P. K.; Kumar, G. Ravindra
2010-08-01
Spatial and temporal resolved ultrashort(8ps) multimegagauss(65 MG) magnetic field has been measured in plasma produced on Al-coated BK-7 glass by the interaction of a relativististic intensity laser(4x1018W/cm2, 30 fs) using pump-probe polarimetry. The 2D profile of magnetic field is captured using a CCD camera. Mapping of this magnetic field maps the transport of relativistic electrons in the plasma. The magnetic field profiles indicate filamentary behavior (Weibel-like instability). Particle in cell simulation are used to explain the result obtained.
Modeling Quark Gluon Plasma Using CHIMERA
Abelev, Betty
2011-09-01
We attempt to model Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP) evolution from the initial Heavy Ion collision to the final hadronic gas state by combining the Glauber model initial state conditions with eccentricity fluctuations, pre-equilibrium flow, UVH2+1 viscous hydrodynamics with lattice QCD Equation of State (EoS), a modified Cooper-Frye freeze-out and the UrQMD hadronic cascade. We then evaluate the model parameters using a comprehensive analytical framework which together with the described model we call CHIMERA. Within our framework, the initial state parameters, such as the initial temperature (Tinit), presence or absence of initial flow, viscosity over entropy density (η/S) and different Equations of State (EoS), are varied and then compared simultaneously to several experimental data observables: HBT radii, particle spectra and particle flow. χ2/nds values from comparison to the experimental data for each set of initial parameters will then used to find the optimal description of the QGP with parameters that are difficult to obtain experimentally, but are crucial to understanding of the matter produced.
Modeling Quark Gluon Plasma Using CHIMERA
Abelev, Betty B I
2011-01-01
We attempt to model Quark Gluon Plasma (QGP) evolution from the initial Heavy Ion collision to the final hadronic gas state by combining the Glauber model initial state conditions with eccentricity fluctuations, pre-equilibrium flow, UVH2+1 viscous hydrodynamics with lattice QCD Equation of State (EoS), a modified Cooper-Frye freeze-out and the UrQMD hadronic cascade. We then evaluate the model parameters using a comprehensive analytical framework which together with the described model we call CHIMERA. Within our framework, the initial state parameters, such as the initial temperature (T$_{\\mathrm{init}}$), presence or absence of initial flow, viscosity over entropy density ($\\eta$/s) and different Equations of State (EoS), are varied and then compared simultaneously to several experimental data observables: HBT radii, particle spectra and particle flow. $\\chi^2$/nds values from comparison to the experimental data for each set of initial parameters will then used to find the optimal description of the QGP wi...
[Fluctuations and transport in fusion plasma]: Progress report, October 1, 1989--September 30, 1990
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
1995-12-31
In the study of plasma collection by obstacles in a tokamak edge plasma, the effect of anomalous transport have been examined using an extension of the 2D fluid code developed here previously (Appendices A and B). The origin of the anomalous transport is assumed to be a randomly fluctuating electric field such as would be caused by drift waves. As before, the magnetic field is assumed to be uniform and perpendicular to the obstacle, which is taken to be an infinite strip. In the absence of ambient plasma flow, the numerical results indicate that ion viscous heating is important near the tip of the obstacle, where there is a large velocity gradient in the flow. For typical plasma parameters, the maximum ion temperature near the tip is up to 85% higher than the ambient ion temperature. When there is a subsonic plasma flow past the obstacle, the numerical results indicate that, near the tip of the obstacle, the ions on the downstream side are hotter than those on the upstream side. Furthermore, the ion density is higher on the upstream side. A detailed report of this work has been prepared and will be submitted as part of the Annual Progress Report. Recently, the 2D parallel electrostatic plasma particle-in-cell (PIC) code described in reference (9) (Appendix B) has been upgraded to a 2D fully electromagnetic PIC code. This code has been successfully tested on the JPL/Caltech Mark III Hypercube concurrent computers and can be used to simulate interactions of electromagnetic waves with a magnetized plasma. It is currently applied to investigate the decay of large amplitude Alfven waves, such as those observed in the solar wind. Large amplitude Alfven waves, propagating parallel to the magnetic field, are predicted to decay into obliquely propagating daughter waves and standing magnetosonic waves. Results from the simulations will be compared with theoretical predictions.
A New Global Core Plasma Model of the Plasmasphere
Gallagher, D. L.; Comfort, R. H.; Craven, P. D.
2014-01-01
The Global Core Plasma Model (GCPM) is the first empirical model for thermal inner magnetospheric plasma designed to integrate previous models and observations into a continuous in value and gradient representation of typical total densities. New information about the plasmasphere, in particular, makes possible significant improvement. The IMAGE Mission Radio Plasma Imager (RPI) has obtained the first observations of total plasma densities along magnetic field lines in the plasmasphere and polar cap. Dynamics Explorer 1 Retarding Ion Mass Spectrometer (RIMS) has provided densities in temperatures in the plasmasphere for 5 ion species. These and other works enable a new more detailed empirical model of thermal in the inner magnetosphere that will be presented.
Characterization of a plasma photonic crystal using the multi-fluid plasma model
Thomas, Whitney; Shumlak, Uri; Miller, Sean
2016-10-01
Plasma photonic crystals have great potential to expand the capabilities of current microwave filtering and switching technologies by providing high speed control of energy band-gap/pass characteristics. While there has been considerable research into dielectric, semiconductor, metallic, and even liquid crystal based radiation manipulation, using plasmas is a relatively new field. Concurrently, processing power has reached levels where realistic, computationally expensive, multi-fluid plasma simulations are now possible. Unlike single-fluid magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) models, multi-fluid plasma models capture the electron fluid response to electromagnetic waves, a key process responsible for reflecting radiation. In this study, a 5-moment multi-fluid plasma model is implemented in University of Washington's WARPXM computational plasma physics code to examine the energy band-gap characteristics of an array of plasma-filled rods. This configuration permits the thorough analysis of the effect that plasma temperature, density, and array configuration have on energy transmission, absorption, and reflection. Furthermore, high-resolution simulations of the plasma columns gives a detailed window into plasma-radiation interactions. This work is supported by a Grant from the United States Air Force Office of Scientific Research.
Local Transport Barrier Formation and Relaxation in Reversed Shear Plasmas on TFTR
Synakowski, E. J.
1996-11-01
Central to discussions of transport barrier formation and sustainment in the plasma core or edge is E× B shear stabilization of plasma turbulence. It has also been suggested that the low core current densities in TFTR reversed shear plasmas yield large gradients in the Shafranov shift that in themselves stabilize the dominant modes in the core of these plasmas without the benefit of E× B shear. (M. Beer, invited presentation, this meeting) Examined here are the possibilities that one, both, or neither mechanism is responsible for the improved core confinement of TFTR Enhanced Reversed Shear (ERS) plasmas. The difficulty in separating the influence of both effects centers in part on the fact that large Shafranov shifts are accompanied by large pressure gradients, implying that shift-induced stabilization will always be favorable when pressure-gradient-driven E× B shear is expected to be large. The roles of these two mechanisms are separated on TFTR by varying the local radial electric field through changes in the velocity shear induced by different combinations of co- and counter-injection of neutral beams at constant heating power. Co- and counter-injection provide the opportunity of generating V_φ-driven contributions to the E× B shear that add both destructively and constructively to the nabla p-driven term in the radial force balance equation. Significant variations in the E× B shear at and near the transport barrier region can thus be realized, permitting detailed examinations of the response of local transport to changes in the local radial electric field with small variations in the Shafranov shift. The relation between shearing rates, predicted growth rates, and the threshold behavior of local barrier formation and losses in confinement will be discussed. Changes in local fluctuation behavior across the transition into and out of ERS confinement will also be examined for these experiments. The characteristics and power thresholds of barrier formation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Duclous, R
2009-11-15
This research thesis which is at the interface between numerical analysis, plasma physics and applied mathematics, deals with the kinetic modelling and numerical simulations of the electron energy transport and deposition in laser-produced plasmas, having in view the processes of fuel assembly to temperature and density conditions necessary to ignite fusion reactions. After a brief review of the processes at play in the collisional kinetic theory of plasmas, with a focus on basic models and methods to implement, couple and validate them, the author focuses on the collective aspect related to the free-streaming electron transport equation in the non-relativistic limit as well as in the relativistic regime. He discusses the numerical development and analysis of the scheme for the Vlasov-Maxwell system, and the selection of a validation procedure and numerical tests. Then, he investigates more specific aspects of the collective transport: the multi-specie transport, submitted to phase-space discontinuities. Dealing with the multi-scale physics of electron transport with collision source terms, he validates the accuracy of a fast Monte Carlo multi-grid solver for the Fokker-Planck-Landau electron-electron collision operator. He reports realistic simulations for the kinetic electron transport in the frame of the shock ignition scheme, the development and validation of a reduced electron transport angular model. He finally explores the relative importance of the processes involving electron-electron collisions at high energy by means a multi-scale reduced model with relativistic Boltzmann terms.
Model of strong stationary vortex turbulence in space plasmas
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. D. Aburjania
2009-01-01
Full Text Available This paper investigates the macroscopic consequences of nonlinear solitary vortex structures in magnetized space plasmas by developing theoretical model of plasma turbulence. Strongly localized vortex patterns contain trapped particles and, propagating in a medium, excite substantial density fluctuations and thus, intensify the energy, heat and mass transport processes, i.e., such vortices can form strong vortex turbulence. Turbulence is represented as an ensemble of strongly localized (and therefore weakly interacting vortices. Vortices with various amplitudes are randomly distributed in space (due to collisions. For their description, a statistical approach is applied. It is supposed that a stationary turbulent state is formed by balancing competing effects: spontaneous development of vortices due to nonlinear twisting of the perturbations' fronts, cascading of perturbations into short scales (direct spectral cascade and collisional or collisionless damping of the perturbations in the short-wave domain. In the inertial range, direct spectral cascade occurs through merging structures via collisions. It is shown that in the magneto-active plasmas, strong turbulence is generally anisotropic Turbulent modes mainly develop in the direction perpendicular to the local magnetic field. It is found that it is the compressibility of the local medium which primarily determines the character of the turbulent spectra: the strong vortex turbulence forms a power spectrum in wave number space. For example, a new spectrum of turbulent fluctuations in k^{−8/3} is derived which agrees with available experimental data. Within the framework of the developed model particle diffusion processes are also investigated. It is found that the interaction of structures with each other and particles causes anomalous diffusion in the medium. The effective coefficient of diffusion has a square root dependence on the stationary level of noise.
Wang, W. X.; Ethier, S.; Ren, Y.; Kaye, S.; Chen, J.; Startsev, E.; Lu, Z.; Li, Z. Q.
2015-10-01
Highly distinct features of spherical tokamaks (ST), such as National Spherical Torus eXperiment (NSTX) and NSTX-U, result in a different fusion plasma regime with unique physics properties compared to conventional tokamaks. Nonlinear global gyrokinetic simulations critical for addressing turbulence and transport physics in the ST regime have led to new insights. The drift wave Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability characterized by intrinsic mode asymmetry is identified in strongly rotating NSTX L-mode plasmas. While the strong E ×B shear associated with the rotation leads to a reduction in KH/ion temperature gradient turbulence, the remaining fluctuations can produce a significant ion thermal transport that is comparable to the experimental level in the outer core region (with no "transport shortfall"). The other new, important turbulence source identified in NSTX is the dissipative trapped electron mode (DTEM), which is believed to play little role in conventional tokamak regime. Due to the high fraction of trapped electrons, long wavelength DTEMs peaking around kθρs˜0.1 are destabilized in NSTX collisionality regime by electron density and temperature gradients achieved there. Surprisingly, the E ×B shear stabilization effect on DTEM is remarkably weak, which makes it a major turbulence source in the ST regime dominant over collisionless TEM (CTEM). The latter, on the other hand, is subject to strong collisional and E ×B shear suppression in NSTX. DTEM is shown to produce significant particle, energy and toroidal momentum transport, in agreement with experimental levels in NSTX H-modes. Moreover, DTEM-driven transport in NSTX parametric regime is found to increase with electron collision frequency, providing one possible source for the scaling of confinement time observed in NSTX H-modes. Most interestingly, the existence of a turbulence-free regime in the collision-induced CTEM to DTEM transition, corresponding to a minimum plasma transport in advanced ST
Collisional transport across the magnetic field in drift-fluid models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, Jens; Naulin, Volker; Nielsen, Anders Henry;
2016-01-01
Drift ordered fluid models are widely applied in studies of low-frequency turbulence in the edge and scrape-off layer regions of magnetically confined plasmas. Here, we show how collisional transport across the magnetic field is self-consistently incorporated into drift-fluid models without...... simulations. We further derive a computationally efficient, two-dimensional model, which can be time integrated for several turbulence de-correlation times using only limited computational resources. The model describes interchange turbulence in a two-dimensional plane perpendicular to the magnetic field...... located at the outboard midplane of a tokamak. The model domain has two regions modeling open and closed field lines. The model employs a computational expedient model for collisional transport. Numerical simulations show good agreement between the full and the simplified model for collisional transport....
Meeting in Turkey: WASP Transport Modeling and WASP Ecological Modeling
A combination of lectures, demonstrations, and hands-on excercises will be used to introduce pollutant transport modeling with the U.S. EPA's general water quality model, WASP (Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program). WASP features include a user-friendly Windows-based interfa...
Model for radionuclide transport in running waters
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jonsson, Karin; Elert, Mark [Kemakta Konsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)
2005-11-15
Two sites in Sweden are currently under investigation by SKB for their suitability as places for deep repository of radioactive waste, the Forsmark and Simpevarp/Laxemar area. As a part of the safety assessment, SKB has formulated a biosphere model with different sub-models for different parts of the ecosystem in order to be able to predict the dose to humans following a possible radionuclide discharge from a future deep repository. In this report, a new model concept describing radionuclide transport in streams is presented. The main difference from the previous model for running water used by SKB, where only dilution of the inflow of radionuclides was considered, is that the new model includes parameterizations also of the exchange processes present along the stream. This is done in order to be able to investigate the effect of the retention on the transport and to be able to estimate the resulting concentrations in the different parts of the system. The concentrations determined with this new model could later be used for order of magnitude predictions of the dose to humans. The presented model concept is divided in two parts, one hydraulic and one radionuclide transport model. The hydraulic model is used to determine the flow conditions in the stream channel and is based on the assumption of uniform flow and quasi-stationary conditions. The results from the hydraulic model are used in the radionuclide transport model where the concentration is determined in the different parts of the stream ecosystem. The exchange processes considered are exchange with the sediments due to diffusion, advective transport and sedimentation/resuspension and uptake of radionuclides in biota. Transport of both dissolved radionuclides and sorbed onto particulates is considered. Sorption kinetics in the stream water phase is implemented as the time scale of the residence time in the stream water probably is short in comparison to the time scale of the kinetic sorption. In the sediment
Understanding transport in model water desalination membranes
Chan, Edwin
Polyamide based thin film composites represent the the state-of-the-art nanofiltration and reverse osmosis membranes used in water desalination. The performance of these membranes is enabled by the ultrathin (~100 nm) crosslinked polyamide film in facilitating the selective transport of water over salt ions. While these materials have been refined over the last several decades, understanding the relationships between polyamide structure and membrane performance remains a challenge because of the complex and heterogeneous nature of the polyamide film. In this contribution, we present our approach to addressing this challenge by studying the transport properties of model polyamide membranes synthesized via molecular layer-by-layer (mLbL) assembly. First, we demonstrate that mLbL can successfully construct polyamide membranes with well-defined nanoscale thickness and roughness using a variety of monomer formulations. Next, we present measurement tools for characterizing the network structure and transport of these model polyamide membranes. Specifically, we used X-ray and neutron scattering techniques to characterize their structure as well as a recently-developed indentation based poromechanics approach to extrapolate their water diffusion coefficient. Finally, we illustrate how these measurements can provide insight into the original problem by linking the key polyamide network properties, i.e. water-polyamide interaction parameter and characteristic network mesh size, to the membrane performance.
Observation of internal transport barrier in ELMy H-mode plasmas on the EAST tokamak
Yang, Y.; Gao, X.; Liu, H. Q.; Li, G. Q.; Zhang, T.; Zeng, L.; Liu, Y. K.; Wu, M. Q.; Kong, D. F.; Ming, T. F.; Han, X.; Wang, Y. M.; Zang, Q.; Lyu, B.; Li, Y. Y.; Duan, Y. M.; Zhong, F. B.; Li, K.; Xu, L. Q.; Gong, X. Z.; Sun, Y. W.; Qian, J. P.; Ding, B. J.; Liu, Z. X.; Liu, F. K.; Hu, C. D.; Xiang, N.; Liang, Y. F.; Zhang, X. D.; Wan, B. N.; Li, J. G.; Wan, Y. X.; EAST Team
2017-08-01
The internal transport barrier (ITB) has been obtained in ELMy H-mode plasmas by neutron beam injection and lower hybrid wave heating on the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST). The ITB structure has been observed in profiles of ion temperature, electron temperature, and electron density within ρ beta, β N, increases from 1.5 to near 2. The fishbone activity observed during the ITB phase suggests the central safety factor q(0) ˜ 1. Transport coefficients are calculated by particle balance and power balance analysis, showing an obvious reduction after the ITB formation.
Sugama, H.; Nunami, M.; Nakata, M.; Watanabe, T.-H.
2017-02-01
A novel gyrokinetic formulation is presented by including collisional effects into the Lagrangian variational principle to yield the governing equations for background and turbulent electromagnetic fields and gyrocenter distribution functions, which can simultaneously describe classical, neoclassical, and turbulent transport processes in toroidal plasmas with large toroidal flows on the order of the ion thermal velocity. Noether's theorem modified for collisional systems and the collision operator given in terms of Poisson brackets are applied to derivation of the particle, energy, and toroidal momentum balance equations in the conservative forms, which are desirable properties for long-time global transport simulation.
Transport model of underground sediment in soils.
Jichao, Sun; Guangqian, Wang
2013-01-01
Studies about sediment erosion were mainly concentrated on the river channel sediment, the terrestrial sediment, and the underground sediment. The transport process of underground sediment is studied in the paper. The concept of the flush potential sediment is founded. The transport equation with stable saturated seepage is set up, and the relations between the flush potential sediment and water sediment are discussed. Flushing of underground sediment begins with small particles, and large particles will be taken away later. The pore ratio of the soil increases gradually. The flow ultimately becomes direct water seepage, and the sediment concentration at the same position in the water decreases over time. The concentration of maximal flushing potential sediment decreases along the path. The underground sediment flushing model reflects the flushing mechanism of underground sediment.
Io Volcanism: Modeling Vapor And Heat Transport
Allen, Daniel R.; Howell, R. R.
2010-10-01
Loki is a large, active volcanic source on Jupiter's moon, Io, whose overall temperatures are well explained by current cooling models, but there are unexplainable subtleties. Using the SO2 atmospheric models of Ingersoll (1989) as a starting point, we are investigating how volatiles, specifically sulfur, are transported on the surface and how they modify the temperatures at Loki and other volcanoes. Voyager images reveal light colored deposits, colloquially called "sulfur bergs,” on Loki's dark patera floor that may be sulfur fumaroles. Galileo images show the presence of red short-chain sulfur deposits around the patera. We are investigating the mechanisms that lead to these features. The light deposits are a few kilometers across. Calculations of the mean free paths for day time conditions on Io indicate lengths on the order of 0.1 km while poorly constrained night time conditions indicate mean free paths about 100 times greater, on the order of what is needed to produce the deposits under ballistic conditions. Preliminary calculations reveal horizontal transport length scales for diffuse transport in a collisional atmosphere of approximately 30 km for sublimating S8 sulfur at 300 K. These length scales would be sufficient to move the sulfur from the warm patera floor to the locations of the red sulfur deposits. At a typical Loki temperature of 300 K, the sublimation/evaporation rate of S8 is a few tens of microns/day. It then requires just a few days to deposit an optically thick 100 µm layer of material. Preliminary length scales and sublimation rates are thus of sufficient scale to produce the deposits. Investigations into the sulfur transport and its effect on temperature are ongoing.
Effect of entropy on anomalous transport in ITG-modes of magneto-plasma
Yaqub Khan, M.; Qaiser Manzoor, M.; Haq, A. ul; Iqbal, J.
2017-04-01
The ideal gas equation and S={{c}v}log ≤ft(P/ρ \\right) (where S is entropy, P is pressure and ρ is the mass density) define the interconnection of entropy with the temperature and density of plasma. Therefore, different phenomena relating to plasma and entropy need to be investigated. By employing the Braginskii transport equations for a nonuniform electron–ion magnetoplasma, two new parameters—the entropy distribution function and the entropy gradient drift—are defined, a new dispersion relation is obtained, and the dependence of anomalous transport on entropy is also proved. Some results, like monotonicity, the entropy principle and the second law of thermodynamics, are proved with a new definition of entropy. This work will open new horizons in fusion processes, not only by controlling entropy in tokamak plasmas—particularly in the pedestal regions of the H-mode and space plasmas—but also in engineering sciences.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANG Ai-Ke; QIU Xiao-Ming
2001-01-01
Drift mode linear growth rate and quasi-linear ion thermal transport in the reversed magnetic shear plasma are investigated by using the two-fluid theory, previously developed by Weiland and the Chalmers group [J. Nucl.Fusion, 29 (1989) 1810; ibid. 30 (1990) 983]. The theory is here extended to include both the radial electrical field shear (dEr/dr) and the electron fluid velocity (Ve) in the sheared coordinate system. Here, Ve describes the coupling between the safety factor q and the Er × B velocity V E. Their influences on the growth rate and associated ion thermal transport are obtained numerically. In addition, the ion heat pinch in the reversed shear plasma is observed. Qualitatively, the present conclusions are in good agreement with the experimental results.
Multi-scale physics mechanisms and spontaneous edge transport bifurcations in fusion plasmas
Hidalgo, C.; Pedrosa, M. A.; Silva, C.; Carralero, D.; Ascasibar, E.; Carreras, B. A.; Estrada, T.; Tabarés, F.; Tafalla, D.; Guasp, J.; Liniers, M.; López-Fraguas, A.; van Milligen, B.; Ochando, M. A.
2009-09-01
The magnitude of radial transport in magnetic confinement devices for controlled nuclear fusion suffers spontaneous bifurcations when specific system parameter values are exceeded. Here we show, for the first time, that the correlation length of the plasma potential becomes of the order of the machine size during the edge bifurcation itself, quite unlike the density fluctuations. The mechanism governing the development of this bifurcation, leading to the establishment of an edge transport barrier, is still one of the main scientific conundrums facing the magnetic fusion community after more than twenty years of intense research. The results presented here show the dominant role of long-range correlations when approaching the Low to High confinement edge transition in fusion plasmas. This is in line with the expectation that multi-scale interactions are a crucial ingredient of complex dynamics in many non-equilibrium systems.
Transport studies in boundary and divertor plasmas of JT-60U
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kumagai, Akira [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment
1999-03-01
This thesis describes an investigation on transport of plasma, neutral particle and impurity in the boundary and divertor of the JT-60U tokamak to provide a better understanding of plasma-surface interactions and divertor physics. The asymmetry between the inboard and outboard divertor on plasma parameters (in-out asymmetry) are usually observed in tokamaks with the divertor. In this study, the in-out asymmetry was investigated under various plasma conditions and discharge parameters. The observed results were discussed with several mechanisms that can produce the in-out asymmetry. It was confirmed experimentally that the importance of each mechanism depends on the plasma parameters and discharge conditions. The current flowing in the scrape-off layer (SOL) due to the in-out asymmetry was observed. The SOL currents in the high density plasma with the occurrence of the plasma detachment were investigated for the first time in this study. The ion temperature in the divertor region is one of the most important factors for both generation and transport of impurity. However, the background ion temperature in the divertor region has not been measured in any tokamak so far. The ion temperature in the divertor region has been measured for the first time with the Doppler broading of the C{sup 3+} ion emission line. The measured temperature was analyzed by an impurity particle transport code. The code calculation showed that the measured temperature reflects the low temperature at the outside of the separatrix in the inboard region. The spectral profile of Balmer-{alpha} (D{sub {alpha}}) line emitted from the deuterium atoms reflects the velocity distribution of neutral particles by the Doppler effect and is effective for investigating the detailed neutral behavior and recycling process. The spatial variation of the D{sub {alpha}} line spectral profile in the divertor region has been measured for the first time in this study. The observed results were compared with the
3 Lectures: "Lagrangian Models", "Numerical Transport Schemes", and "Chemical and Transport Models"
Douglass, A.
2005-01-01
The topics for the three lectures for the Canadian Summer School are Lagrangian Models, numerical transport schemes, and chemical and transport models. In the first lecture I will explain the basic components of the Lagrangian model (a trajectory code and a photochemical code), the difficulties in using such a model (initialization) and show some applications in interpretation of aircraft and satellite data. If time permits I will show some results concerning inverse modeling which is being used to evaluate sources of tropospheric pollutants. In the second lecture I will discuss one of the core components of any grid point model, the numerical transport scheme. I will explain the basics of shock capturing schemes, and performance criteria. I will include an example of the importance of horizontal resolution to polar processes. We have learned from NASA's global modeling initiative that horizontal resolution matters for predictions of the future evolution of the ozone hole. The numerical scheme will be evaluated using performance metrics based on satellite observations of long-lived tracers. The final lecture will discuss the evolution of chemical transport models over the last decade. Some of the problems with assimilated winds will be demonstrated, using satellite data to evaluate the simulations.
Modelling the plasma plume of an assist source in PIAD
Wauer, Jochen; Harhausen, Jens; Foest, Rüdiger; Loffhagen, Detlef
2016-09-01
Plasma ion assisted deposition (PIAD) is a technique commonly used to produce high-precision optical interference coatings. Knowledge regarding plasma properties is most often limited to dedicated scenarios without film deposition. Approaches have been made to gather information on the process plasma in situ to detect drifts which are suspected to cause limits in repeatability of resulting layer properties. Present efforts focus on radiance monitoring of the plasma plume of an Advanced Plasma Source (APSpro, Bühler) by optical emission spectroscopy to provide the basis for an advanced plasma control. In this contribution modelling results of the plume region are presented to interpret these experimental data. In the framework of the collisional radiative model used, 15 excited neutral argon states in the plasma are considered. Results of the species densities show good consistency with the measured optical emission of various argon 2 p - 1 s transitions. This work was funded by BMBF under grant 13N13213.
Kinetic effects in edge plasma: kinetic modeling for edge plasma and detached divertor
Takizuka, T.
2017-03-01
Detached divertor is considered a solution for the heat control in magnetic-confinement fusion reactors. Numerical simulations using the comprehensive divertor codes based on the plasma fluid modeling are indispensable for the design of the detached divertor in future reactors. Since the agreement in the results between detached-divertor experiments and simulations has been rather fair but not satisfactory, further improvement of the modeling is required. The kinetic effect is one of key issues for improving the modeling. Complete kinetic behaviors are able to be simulated by the kinetic modeling. In this paper at first, major kinetic effects in edge plasma and detached divertor are listed. One of the most powerful kinetic models, particle-in-cell (PIC) model, is described in detail. Several results of PIC simulations of edge-plasma kinetic natures are presented. Future works on PIC modeling and simulation for the deeper understanding of edge plasma and detached divertor are discussed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sugama, H.; Okamoto, M.; Horton, W.; Wakatani, M.
1996-01-01
Transport processes and resultant entropy production in magnetically confined plasmas are studied in detail for toroidal systems with gyrokinetic electromagnetic turbulence. The kinetic equation including the turbulent fluctuations are double-averaged over the ensemble and the gyrophase. The entropy balance equation is derived from the double-averaged kinetic equation with the nonlinear gyrokinetic equation for the fluctuating distribution function. The result clarifies the spatial transport and local production of the entropy due to the classical, neoclassical and anomalous transport processes, respectively. For the anomalous transport process due to the electromagnetic turbulence as well as the classical and neoclassical processes, the kinetic form of the entropy production is rewritten as the thermodynamic form, from which the conjugate pairs of the thermodynamic forces and the transport fluxes are identified. The Onsager symmetry for the anomalous transport equations is shown to be valid within the quasilinear framework. The complete energy balance equation, which takes account of the anomalous transport and exchange of energy due to the fluctuations, is derived from the ensemble-averaged kinetic equation. The intrinsic ambipolarity of the anomalous particle fluxes is shown to hold for the self-consistent turbulent electromagnetic fields satisfying Poisson`s equation and Ampere`s law. (author).
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Craig, D.J.G.
1998-09-01
Two techniques are employed in the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) to test and control different aspects of fluctuation induced transport in the Reversed Field Pinch (RFP). Auxiliary edge currents are driven along the magnetic field to modify magnetic fluctuations, and the particle and energy transport associated with them. In addition, strong edge flows are produced by plasma biasing. Their effect on electrostatic fluctuations and the associated particle losses is studied. Both techniques are accomplished using miniature insertable plasma sources that are biased negatively to inject electrons. This type of emissive electrode is shown to reliably produce intense, directional current without significant contamination by impurities. The two most important conclusions derived from these studies are that the collective modes resonant at the reversal surface play a role in global plasma confinement, and that these modes can be controlled by modifying the parallel current profile outside of the reversal surface. This confirms predictions based on magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations that auxiliary current drive in the sense to flatten the parallel current profile can be successful in controlling magnetic fluctuations in the RFP. However, these studies expand the group of magnetic modes believed to cause transport in MST and suggest that current profile control efforts need to address both the core resonant magnetic modes and those resonant at the reversal surface. The core resonant modes are not significantly altered in these experiments; however, the distribution and/or amplitude of the injected current is probably not optimal for affecting these modes. Plasma biasing generates strong edge flows with shear and particle confinement likely improves in these discharges. These experiments resemble biased H modes in other magnetic configurations in many ways. The similarities are likely due to the common role of electrostatic fluctuations in edge transport.
2005-01-01
The present study was undertaken to characterise the relationship between in vivo brain serotonin transporter (SERT) binding, plasma concentration and pharmacological effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in mice. Oral administration of fluvoxamine, fluoxetine, paroxetine and sertraline at pharmacologically relevant doses exerted dose- and time-dependent binding activity of brain SERT as revealed by significant increases in KD for specific [3H]paroxetine binding, and the i...
Tungsten transport and sources control in JET ITER-like wall H-mode plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fedorczak, N., E-mail: nicolas.fedorczak@cea.fr [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Monier-Garbet, P. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Pütterich, T. [MPI für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstrasse 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Brezinsek, S. [Institute of Energy and Climate Research, Forschungszentrum Jlich, Assoc EURATOM-FZJ, Jlich (Germany); Devynck, P.; Dumont, R.; Goniche, M.; Joffrin, E. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Lerche, E. [Association EURATOM-Belgian State, LPP-ERM-KMS, TEC partner, Brussels (Belgium); Euratom/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Lipschultz, B. [York Plasma Institute, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5DD (United Kingdom); Luna, E. de la [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusin, Asociacin EURATOM/CIEMAT, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Maddison, G. [Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, EURATOM-CCFE Association, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Maggi, C. [MPI für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstrasse 2, 85748 Garching (Germany); Matthews, G. [Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, EURATOM-CCFE Association, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Nunes, I. [Istituto de plasmas e fusao nuclear, Lisboa (Portugal); Rimini, F. [Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, EURATOM-CCFE Association, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Solano, E.R. [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusin, Asociacin EURATOM/CIEMAT, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Tamain, P. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Tsalas, M. [Association EURATOM-Hellenic Republic, NCSR Demokritos 153 10, Attica (Greece); Vries, P. de [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France)
2015-08-15
A set of discharges performed with the JET ITER-like wall is investigated with respect to control capabilities on tungsten sources and transport. In attached divertor regimes, increasing fueling by gas puff results in higher divertor recycling ion flux, lower divertor tungsten source, higher ELM frequency and lower core plasma radiation, dominated by tungsten ions. Both pedestal flushing by ELMs and divertor screening (including redeposition) are possibly responsible. For specific scenarios, kicks in plasma vertical position can be employed to increase the ELM frequency, which results in slightly lower core radiation. The application of ion cyclotron radio frequency heating at the very center of the plasma is efficient to increase the core electron temperature gradient and flatten electron density profile, resulting in a significantly lower central tungsten peaking. Beryllium evaporation in the main chamber did not reduce the local divertor tungsten source whereas core radiation was reduced by approximately 50%.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Shi Bing-Ren; Qu Wen-Xiao
2006-01-01
A ballooning mode equation for tokamak plasma, with the toroidicity and the Shafranov shift effects included, is derived for a shift circular flux tokamak configuration. Using this equation, the stability of the plasma configuration with an internal transport barrier (IT2 against the high n (the toroidal mode number) ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) ballooning mode is analysed. It is shown that both the toroidicity and the Shafranov shift effects are stabilizing.In the ITB region, these effects give rise to a low shear stable channel between the first and the second stability regions.Out of the ITB region towards the plasma edge, the stabilizing effect of the Shafranov shift causes the unstable zone to be significantly narrowed.
Thermodynamic properties and transport coefficients of two-temperature helium thermal plasmas
Guo, Xiaoxue; Murphy, Anthony B.; Li, Xingwen
2017-03-01
Helium thermal plasmas are in widespread use in arc welding and many other industrial applications. Simulation of these processes relies on accurate plasma property data, such as plasma composition, thermodynamic properties and transport coefficients. Departures from LTE (local thermodynamic equilibrium) generally occur in some regions of helium plasmas. In this paper, properties are calculated allowing for different values of the electron temperature, T e, and heavy-species temperature, T h, at atmospheric pressure from 300 K to 30 000 K. The plasma composition is first calculated using the mass action law, and the two-temperature thermodynamic properties are then derived. The viscosity, diffusion coefficients, electrical conductivity and thermal conductivity of the two-temperature helium thermal plasma are obtained using a recently-developed method that retains coupling between electrons and heavy species by including the electron–heavy-species collision term in the heavy-species Boltzmann equation. It is shown that the viscosity and the diffusion coefficients strongly depend on non-equilibrium ratio θ (θ ={{T}\\text{e}}/{{T}\\text{h}} ), through the plasma composition and the collision integrals. The electrical conductivity, which depends on the electron number density and ordinary diffusion coefficients, and the thermal conductivity have similar dependencies. The choice of definition of the Debye length is shown to affect the electrical conductivity significantly for θ > 1. By comparing with literature data, it is shown that the coupling between electrons and heavy species has a significant influence on the electrical conductivity, but not on the viscosity. Plasma properties are tabulated in the supplementary data.
Trieschmann, Jan; Mussenbrock, Thomas
2016-01-01
The paper provides a tutorial to the conceptual layout of a self-consistently coupled Particle-In-Cell/Test-Particle model for the kinetic simulation of sputtering transport in capacitively coupled plasmas at low gas pressures. It explains when a kinetic approach is actually needed and which numerical concepts allow for the inherent nonequilibrium behavior of the charged and neutral particles. At the example of a generic sputtering discharge both the fundamentals of the applied Monte Carlo methods as well as the conceptual details in the context of the sputtering scenario are elaborated on. Finally, two in the context of sputtering transport simulations often exploited assumptions, namely on the energy distribution of impinging ions as well as on the test particle approach, are validated for the proposed example discharge.
A disaggregate freight transport model of transport chain and shipment size choice
Windisch, E.; De Jong, G.C.; Van Nes, R.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.
2010-01-01
The field of freight transport modelling is relatively young compared to passenger transport modelling. However, some key issues in freight policy, like growing freight shares on the road, advanced logistics concepts or emerging strict freight transport regulations, have been creating increasing dem
A disaggregate freight transport model of transport chain and shipment size choice
Windisch, E.; De Jong, G.C.; Van Nes, R.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.
2010-01-01
The field of freight transport modelling is relatively young compared to passenger transport modelling. However, some key issues in freight policy, like growing freight shares on the road, advanced logistics concepts or emerging strict freight transport regulations, have been creating increasing
A disaggregate freight transport model of transport chain and shipment size choice
Windisch, E.; De Jong, G.C.; Van Nes, R.; Hoogendoorn, S.P.
2010-01-01
The field of freight transport modelling is relatively young compared to passenger transport modelling. However, some key issues in freight policy, like growing freight shares on the road, advanced logistics concepts or emerging strict freight transport regulations, have been creating increasing dem
Herst, Patries M; Perrone, Gabriel G; Dawes, Ian W; Bircham, Peter W; Berridge, Michael V
2008-09-01
Most investigations into plasma membrane electron transport (PMET) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae have focused on the inducible ferric reductase responsible for iron uptake under iron/copper-limiting conditions. In this paper, we describe a PMET system, distinct from ferric reductase, which reduces the cell-impermeable water-soluble tetrazolium dye, 2-(4-iodophenyl)-3-(4-nitrophenyl)-5-(2,4-disulphophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium monosodium salt (WST-1), under normal iron/copper conditions. WST-1/1-methoxy-phenazine methosulphate reduction was unaffected by anoxia and relatively insensitive to diphenyleneiodonium. Dye reduction was increased when intracellular NADH levels were high, which, in S. cerevisiae, required deletion of numerous genes associated with NADH recycling. Genome-wide screening of all viable nuclear gene-deletion mutants of S. cerevisiae revealed that, although mitochondrial electron transport per se was not required, the presence of several nuclear and mitochondrially encoded subunits of respiratory complexes III and IV was mandatory for PMET. This suggests some form of interaction between components of mitochondrial and plasma membrane electron transport. In support of this, mitochondrial tubular networks in S. cerevisiae were shown to be located in close proximity to the plasma membrane using confocal microscopy.
Investigation of turbulent transport and shear flows in the Edge of toroidal plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Birkenmeier, G.; Koehn, A.; Manz, P.; Nold, B.; Stroth, U. [Institut fuer Plasmaforschung, Universitaet Stuttgart, Stuttgart (Germany); Happel, T. [Lab. Nacional de Fusion, Asociacion EURATOM-CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Mahdizadeh, N. [ABB Switzerland Ltd. Corporate Research, Baden-Daettwil (Switzerland); Wilcox, R.; Anderson, D.T. [HSX Plasma Lab., University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin (United States); Ramisch, M.
2010-08-15
Intense Langmuir-probe measurements were carried out in the toroidal low-temperature plasma of the torsatron TJ-K in order to investigate the origin and dynamics of intermittent transport events, so-called blobs, at the transition from closed to open field lines. The statistical properties of the fluctuations at the plasma boundary agree with observations made in fusion edge plasmas. Blobs were found to be generated locally through a change in turbulence drive across the separatrix. The non-linear spectral energy transfer from small-scale fluctuations into large-scale flows was measured with a 128-probe array. The results point to the transfer being a key loss channel for turbulence energy leading to a reduction in turbulent transport. Earlier observations[M.A. Pedrosa et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 215003 (2008)] of enhanced long-range correlations in the plasma potential through externally induced shear flows in TJ-II stellarator were verified. The newly measured correlation of zonal vorticity and Reynolds stress at induced flow shear indicates an enhancement of zonal-flow drive (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
Modeling charge transport in organic photovoltaic materials.
Nelson, Jenny; Kwiatkowski, Joe J; Kirkpatrick, James; Frost, Jarvist M
2009-11-17
The performance of an organic photovoltaic cell depends critically on the mobility of charge carriers within the constituent molecular semiconductor materials. However, a complex combination of phenomena that span a range of length and time scales control charge transport in disordered organic semiconductors. As a result, it is difficult to rationalize charge transport properties in terms of material parameters. Until now, efforts to improve charge mobilities in molecular semiconductors have proceeded largely by trial and error rather than through systematic design. However, recent developments have enabled the first predictive simulation studies of charge transport in disordered organic semiconductors. This Account describes a set of computational methods, specifically molecular modeling methods, to simulate molecular packing, quantum chemical calculations of charge transfer rates, and Monte Carlo simulations of charge transport. Using case studies, we show how this combination of methods can reproduce experimental mobilities with few or no fitting parameters. Although currently applied to material systems of high symmetry or well-defined structure, further developments of this approach could address more complex systems such anisotropic or multicomponent solids and conjugated polymers. Even with an approximate treatment of packing disorder, these computational methods simulate experimental mobilities within an order of magnitude at high electric fields. We can both reproduce the relative values of electron and hole mobility in a conjugated small molecule and rationalize those values based on the symmetry of frontier orbitals. Using fully atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of molecular packing, we can quantitatively replicate vertical charge transport along stacks of discotic liquid crystals which vary only in the structure of their side chains. We can reproduce the trends in mobility with molecular weight for self-organizing polymers using a cheap, coarse
Fully implicit kinetic modelling of collisional plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mousseau, V.A.
1996-05-01
This dissertation describes a numerical technique, Matrix-Free Newton Krylov, for solving a simplified Vlasov-Fokker-Planck equation. This method is both deterministic and fully implicit, and may not have been a viable option before current developments in numerical methods. Results are presented that indicate the efficiency of the Matrix-Free Newton Krylov method for these fully-coupled, nonlinear integro-differential equations. The use and requirement for advanced differencing is also shown. To this end, implementations of Chang-Cooper differencing and flux limited Quadratic Upstream Interpolation for Convective Kinematics (QUICK) are presented. Results are given for a fully kinetic ion-electron problem with a self consistent electric field calculated from the ion and electron distribution functions. This numerical method, including advanced differencing, provides accurate solutions, which quickly converge on workstation class machines. It is demonstrated that efficient steady-state solutions can be achieved to the non-linear integro-differential equation, obtaining quadratic convergence, without incurring the large memory requirements of an integral operator. Model problems are presented which simulate plasma impinging on a plate with both high and low neutral particle recycling typical of a divertor in a Tokamak device. These model problems demonstrate the performance of the new solution method.
Development of electron thermal transport model in DIII-D discharges
Rafiq, T.; Pankin, A. Y.; Bateman, G.; Kritz, A. H.; Halpern, F. D.; Callen, J. D.
2008-11-01
The electron thermal transport in tokamak plasmas is investigated with predictive integrated modeling simulations using a choice of different electron thermal transport models. Two models for transport driven by Electron Temperature Gradient (ETG) modes are considered: (1) the ETG part of the GLF23 transport model; and (2) the Horton model for the the electromagnetic part of the ETG anomalous transport [1]. These models are combined with the paleoclassical model [2] for electron thermal transport. ASTRA predictive simulation results obtained using these models are compared with one another and compared with experimental data from DIII-D H-mode discharges in an effort to discriminate among the models. It is found that the electromagnetic limit of the Horton model is important near the magnetic axis where the ETG mode in the GLF23 model is below threshold. The paleoclassical model is found to be needed to produce the observed edge pedestal in the DIII-D simulations. [1] W. Horton, B. G. Hong, and W. M. Tang, Phys. Fluids 31, 2971 (1988). [2] J. D. Callen, Nucl. Fusion 45, 1120 (2005).
Risk management model in road transport systems
Sakhapov, R. L.; Nikolaeva, R. V.; Gatiyatullin, M. H.; Makhmutov, M. M.
2016-08-01
The article presents the results of a study of road safety indicators that influence the development and operation of the transport system. Road safety is considered as a continuous process of risk management. Authors constructed a model that relates the social risks of a major road safety indicator - the level of motorization. The model gives a fairly accurate assessment of the level of social risk for any given level of motorization. Authors calculated the dependence of the level of socio-economic costs of accidents and injured people in them. The applicability of the concept of socio-economic damage is caused by the presence of a linear relationship between the natural and economic indicators damage from accidents. The optimization of social risk is reduced to finding the extremum of the objective function that characterizes the economic effect of the implementation of measures to improve safety. The calculations make it possible to maximize the net present value, depending on the costs of improving road safety, taking into account socio-economic damage caused by accidents. The proposed econometric models make it possible to quantify the efficiency of the transportation system, allow to simulate the change in road safety indicators.
Modeling in transport phenomena a conceptual approach
Tosun, Ismail
2007-01-01
Modeling in Transport Phenomena, Second Edition presents and clearly explains with example problems the basic concepts and their applications to fluid flow, heat transfer, mass transfer, chemical reaction engineering and thermodynamics. A balanced approach is presented between analysis and synthesis, students will understand how to use the solution in engineering analysis. Systematic derivations of the equations and the physical significance of each term are given in detail, for students to easily understand and follow up the material. There is a strong incentive in science and engineering to
Modeling physical chemistry of the Io plasma torus in two dimensions
Copper, M.; Delamere, P. A.; Overcast-Howe, K.
2016-07-01
Periodicities in the Io plasma illustrate the rich complexity of magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling in space plasmas. The confounding System IV period (slower than the rotation of Jupiter's magnetic field ≡ System III) remains a mystery of the torus. Common to both System III and IV are modulations of the superthermal electron population. The small fraction (<1%) of hot electrons plays a vital role in torus physical and chemical properties, modulating the abundance and temperature of ion species. Building on previous models of torus physical chemistry, we have developed a two-dimensional model that includes azimuthal and radial transport (diffusion equation) while averaging chemical processes in latitude. This paper presents initial results of the model, demonstrating the role of hot electrons in forming a single-peaked torus structure. The effect of azimuthal shear is investigated as plasma is transported radially outward, showing how the torus properties evolve during transport from a chemically dominated regime (inner torus) to a transport dominated regime (outer torus). Surprisingly, we find that hot electron populations influence torus properties at all radial distances. While many of our results are preliminary, suggestions for future modeling experiments are suggested to provide additional insight into the origin of the ubiquitous superthermal electrons.
Forward transport of proteins in the plasma membrane of migrating cerebellar granule cells.
Wang, Dong; She, Liang; Sui, Ya-nan; Yuan, Xiao-bing; Wen, Yunqing; Poo, Mu-ming
2012-12-18
Directional flow of membrane components has been detected at the leading front of fibroblasts and the growth cone of neuronal processes, but whether there exists global directional flow of plasma membrane components over the entire migrating neuron remains largely unknown. By analyzing the trajectories of antibody-coated single quantum dots (QDs) bound to two membrane proteins, overexpressed myc-tagged synaptic vesicle-associated membrane protein VAMP2 and endogenous neurotrophin receptor TrkB, we found that these two proteins exhibited net forward transport, which is superimposed upon Brownian motion, in both leading and trailing processes of migrating cerebellar granule cells in culture. Furthermore, no net directional transport of membrane proteins was observed in nonmigrating cells with either growing or stalling leading processes. Analysis of the correlation of motion direction between two QDs on the same process in migrating neurons also showed a higher frequency of correlated forward than rearward movements. Such correlated QD movements were markedly reduced in the presence of myosin II inhibitor blebbistatin,suggesting the involvement of myosin II-dependent active transport processes. Thus, a net forward transport of plasma membrane proteins exists in the leading and trailing processes of migrating neurons, in line with the translocation of the soma.
Turbulent momentum transport in core tokamak plasmas and penetration of scrape-off layer flows
Abiteboul, J.; Ghendrih, Ph; Grandgirard, V.; Cartier-Michaud, T.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Garbet, X.; Latu, G.; Passeron, C.; Sarazin, Y.; Strugarek, A.; Thomine, O.; Zarzoso, D.
2013-07-01
The turbulent transport of toroidal angular momentum in the core of a tokamak plasma is investigated in global, full-f gyrokinetic simulations, performed with the GYSELA code in the flux-driven regime. During the initial turbulent phase, a front of positive Reynolds stress propagates radially, generating intrinsic toroidal rotation from a vanishing initial profile. This is also accompanied by a propagating front of turbulent heat flux. In the statistical steady-state regime, turbulent transport exhibits large-scale avalanche-like events which are found to transport both heat and momentum, and similar statistical properties are obtained for both fluxes. The impact of scrape-off layer flows is also investigated by modifying the boundary conditions in the simulations. The observed impact is radially localized for L-mode like poloidal profiles of parallel velocity at the edge, while a constant velocity at the edge can modify the core toroidal rotation profile in a large fraction of the radial domain.
OsHT, a Rice Gene Encoding for a Plasma-Membrane Localized Histidine Transporter
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Di LIU; Wei GONG; Yong BAI; Jing-Chu LUO; Yu-Xian ZHU
2005-01-01
Using a degenerative probe designed according to the most conservative region of a known Lys- and His-specific amino acid transporter (LHT1) from Arabidopsis, we isolated a full-length cDNA named OsHT (histidine transporter of Oryza sativa L.) by screening the rice cDNA library. The cDNA is 1.3kb in length and the open reading frame encodes for a 441 amino acid protein with a calculated molecular mass of 49 kDa. Multiple sequence alignments showed that OsHT shares a high degree of sequence conservation at the deduced amino acid level with the Arabidopsis LHT1 and six putative lysine and histidine transporters. Computational analysis indicated that OsHT is an integral membrane protein with 11 putative transmembrane helices. This was confirmed by the transient expression assay because the OsHT-GFP fusion protein was, indeed, localized mainly in the plasma membrane of onion epidermal cells. Functional complementation experiments demonstrated that OsHT was able to work as a histidine transporter in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, suggesting that OsHT is a gene that encodes for a histidine transporter from rice.This is the first time that an LHT-type amino acid transporter gene has been cloned from higher plants other than A rabidopsis.
SciDAC Center for Gyrokinetic Particle Simulation of Turbulent Transport in Burning Plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lin, Zhihong [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)
2013-12-18
During the first year of the SciDAC gyrokinetic particle simulation (GPS) project, the GPS team (Zhihong Lin, Liu Chen, Yasutaro Nishimura, and Igor Holod) at the University of California, Irvine (UCI) studied the tokamak electron transport driven by electron temperature gradient (ETG) turbulence, and by trapped electron mode (TEM) turbulence and ion temperature gradient (ITG) turbulence with kinetic electron effects, extended our studies of ITG turbulence spreading to core-edge coupling. We have developed and optimized an elliptic solver using finite element method (FEM), which enables the implementation of advanced kinetic electron models (split-weight scheme and hybrid model) in the SciDAC GPS production code GTC. The GTC code has been ported and optimized on both scalar and vector parallel computer architectures, and is being transformed into objected-oriented style to facilitate collaborative code development. During this period, the UCI team members presented 11 invited talks at major national and international conferences, published 22 papers in peer-reviewed journals and 10 papers in conference proceedings. The UCI hosted the annual SciDAC Workshop on Plasma Turbulence sponsored by the GPS Center, 2005-2007. The workshop was attended by about fifties US and foreign researchers and financially sponsored several gradual students from MIT, Princeton University, Germany, Switzerland, and Finland. A new SciDAC postdoc, Igor Holod, has arrived at UCI to initiate global particle simulation of magnetohydrodynamics turbulence driven by energetic particle modes. The PI, Z. Lin, has been promoted to the Associate Professor with tenure at UCI.
An evaluation of twelve nested models of transperitoneal transport of urea
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Graff, J; Fugleberg, S; Joffe, P;
1995-01-01
Models of transperitoneal urea transport are generally based on the one-compartment assumption, i.e. that the plasma water urea concentration in the peritoneal capillary bed is equal to the plasma water urea concentration in the peripheral veins. The aim of this study was to investigate...... the mechanism(s) of transperitoneal urea transport and to test the one-compartment assumption for urea. A total of 12 nested models were formulated and validated on the basis of experimental results obtained from 23 non-diabetic patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis. The validation procedure demonstrated...... that transperitoneal transport of urea probably involves diffusion, non-lymphatic convection and lymphatic convection. It was furthermore demonstrated that the inclusion of lymphatic convection changes the mass transfer area coefficient considerably. Finally, no deviation from the one-compartment assumption...