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Sample records for plasma total cholesterol

  1. Dietary cholesterol and plasma lipoprotein profiles: Randomized controlled trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early work suggested that dietary cholesterol increased plasma total cholesterol concentrations in humans. Given the relationship between elevated plasma cholesterol concentrations and cardiovascular disease risk, dietary guidelines have consistently recommended limiting food sources of cholesterol....

  2. The association of 83 Plasma proteins with CHD mortality, BMI, HDL-, and total cholesterol in men: applying multivariate statistics to identify proteins with prognostic value and biological relevance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heidema, A.G.; Thissen, U.; Boer, J.M.; Bouwman, F.G.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Mariman, E.C.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we applied the multivariate statistical tool Partial Least Squares (PLS) to analyze the relative importance of 83 plasma proteins in relation to coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality and the intermediate end points body mass index, HDL-cholesterol and total cholesterol. From a Dutch

  3. Enzymatic assay of total cholesterol in serum or plasma by amperometric measurement of rate of oxygen depletion following saponification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, A; Christian, G D

    1977-01-17

    A method for serum or plasma cholesterol assay involving amperometric measurement of the rate of oxygen depletion in the cholesterol oxidase-catalyzed oxidation of cholesterol is described. The hydrolysis of the serum cholesterol esters is accomplished by saponification of 50 mul of sample with 0.2 ml of ethanolic KOH (1.0 mol/1) containing 0.5% Triton X-100 for 5 min at 75 degrees C. The rate of oxygen consumption in a 25-mul aliquot of this is measured with a Clark electrode in a Beckman Glucose Analyzer and the assay takes about one minute after incubation; results are read digitally on the instrument. The analyzer cell contains 1 ml of 1 M phosphate buffer, pH 7.4, with 100 mg sodium cholate/100 ml and 0.1-0.2 U cholesterol oxidase.

  4. Dairy products and plasma cholesterol levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Ohlsson

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol synthesized in the body or ingested is an essential lipid component for human survival from our earliest life. Newborns ingest about 3–4 times the amount per body weight through mother's milk compared to the dietary intake of adults. A birth level of 1.7 mmol/L plasma total cholesterol will increase to 4–4.5 mmol/L during the nursing period and continue to increase from adulthood around 40% throughout life. Coronary artery disease and other metabolic disorders are strongly associated with low-density lipoprotein (LDL and high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol as well as triacylglycerol concentration. Milk fat contains a broad range of fatty acids and some have a negative impact on the cholesterol rich lipoproteins. The saturated fatty acids (SFAs, such as palmitic acid (C16:0, myristic acid (C14:0, and lauric acid (C12:0, increase total plasma cholesterol, especially LDL, and constitute 11.3 g/L of bovine milk, which is 44.8% of total fatty acid in milk fat. Replacement of dairy SFA and trans-fatty acids with polyunsaturated fatty acids decreases plasma cholesterol, especially LDL cholesterol, and is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. Available data shows different effects on lipoproteins for different dairy products and there is uncertainty as to the impact a reasonable intake amount of dairy items has on cardiovascular risk. The aim of this review is to elucidate the effect of milk components and dairy products on total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, and the LDL/HDL quotients. Based on eight recent randomized controlled trials of parallel or cross-over design and recent reviews it can be concluded that replacement of saturated fat mainly (but not exclusively derived from high-fat dairy products with low-fat dairy products lowers LDL/HDL cholesterol and total/HDL cholesterol ratios. Whey, dairy fractions enriched in polar lipids, and techniques such as fermentation, or fortification of cows feeding can be used

  5. The association of 83 plasma proteins with CHD mortality, BMI, HDL-, and total-cholesterol in men: Applying multivariate statistics to identify proteins with prognostic value and biological relevance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geert Heidema, A.; Thissen, U.; Boer, J.M.A.; Bouwman, F.G.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Mariman, E.C.M.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we applied the multivariate statistical tool Partial Least Squares (PLS) to analyze the relative importance of 83 plasma proteins in relation to coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality and the intermediate end points body mass index, HDL-cholesterol and total cholesterol. From a Dutch

  6. The usefulness of total cholesterol and high density lipoprotein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The usefulness of total cholesterol and high density lipoprotein - cholesterol ratio in ... cholesterol and/or highdensity lipoprotein cholesterol/total cholesterol ratios in the interpretation of lipid profile result in clinical practice. ... Article Metrics.

  7. Simultaneous determination of glucose, triglycerides, urea, cholesterol, albumin and total protein in human plasma by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy: direct clinical biochemistry without reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessen, Torben E; Höskuldsson, Agnar T; Bjerrum, Poul J; Verder, Henrik; Sørensen, Lars; Bratholm, Palle S; Christensen, Bo; Jensen, Lene S; Jensen, Maria A B

    2014-09-01

    Direct measurement of chemical constituents in complex biologic matrices without the use of analyte specific reagents could be a step forward toward the simplification of clinical biochemistry. Problems related to reagents such as production errors, improper handling, and lot-to-lot variations would be eliminated as well as errors occurring during assay execution. We describe and validate a reagent free method for direct measurement of six analytes in human plasma based on Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Blood plasma is analyzed without any sample preparation. FTIR spectrum of the raw plasma is recorded in a sampling cuvette specially designed for measurement of aqueous solutions. For each analyte, a mathematical calibration process is performed by a stepwise selection of wavelengths giving the optimal least-squares correlation between the measured FTIR signal and the analyte concentration measured by conventional clinical reference methods. The developed calibration algorithms are subsequently evaluated for their capability to predict the concentration of the six analytes in blinded patient samples. The correlation between the six FTIR methods and corresponding reference methods were 0.87triglycerides, urea, cholesterol, albumin and total protein in human plasma. Copyright © 2014 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Astragalus polysaccharides lowers plasma cholesterol through mechanisms distinct from statins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunjiu Cheng

    Full Text Available To determine the efficacy and underlying mechanism of Astragalus polysaccharides (APS on plasma lipids in hypercholesterolemia hamsters. The effect of APS (0.25 g/kg/d on plasma and liver lipids, fecal bile acids and neutral sterol, cholesterol absorption and synthesis, HMG-CoA reductase activity, and gene and protein expressions in the liver and small intestine was investigated in twenty-four hypercholesterolemia hamsters. Treatment periods lasted for three months. APS significantly lowered plasma total cholesterol by 45.8%, triglycerides by 30%, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol by 47.4%, comparable to simvastatin. Further examinations revealed that APS reduced total cholesterol and triglycerides in the liver, increased fecal bile acid and neutral sterol excretion, inhibited cholesterol absorption, and by contrast, increased hepatic cholesterol synthesis and HMG-CoA reductase activity. Plasma total cholesterol or low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels were significantly correlated with cholesterol absorption rates. APS up-regulated cholesterol-7α-hydroxylase and LDL-receptor gene expressions. These new findings identify APS as a potential natural cholesterol lowering agent, working through mechanisms distinct from statins.

  9. Nonlinear associations between plasma cholesterol levels and neuropsychological function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendell, Carrington R; Zonderman, Alan B; Katzel, Leslie I; Rosenberger, William F; Plamadeala, Victoria V; Hosey, Megan M; Waldstein, Shari R

    2016-11-01

    Although both high and low levels of total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol have been associated with poor neuropsychological function, little research has examined nonlinear effects. We examined quadratic relations of cholesterol to performance on a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. Participants were 190 older adults (53% men, ages 54-83) free of major medical, neurologic, and psychiatric disease. Measures of fasting plasma total and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were assayed, and LDL cholesterol was calculated. Participants completed neuropsychological measures of attention, executive function, memory, visuospatial judgment, and manual speed and dexterity. Multiple regression analyses examined cholesterol levels as quadratic predictors of each measure of cognitive performance, with age (dichotomized as quadratic effect of Total Cholesterol² × Age was identified for Logical Memory II (b = -.0013, p = .039), such that the 70+ group performed best at high and low levels of total cholesterol than at midrange total cholesterol (U-shaped) and the Quadratic associations between HDL cholesterol and cognitive performance were nonsignificant. Results indicate differential associations between cholesterol and neuropsychological function across different ages and domains of function. High and low total and LDL cholesterol may confer both risk and benefit for suboptimal cognitive function at different ages. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Amperometric determination of serum total cholesterol with nanoparticles of cholesterol esterase and cholesterol oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, V; Malik, J; Prashant, A; Jaiwal, P K; Pundir, C S

    2016-05-01

    We describe the preparation of glutaraldehyde cross-linked and functionalized cholesterol esterase nanoparticles (ChENPs) and cholesterol oxidase nanoparticles (ChOxNPs) aggregates and their co-immobilization onto Au electrode for improved amperometric determination of serum total cholesterol. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) images of ChENPs and ChOxNPs showed their spherical shape and average size of 35.40 and 56.97 nm, respectively. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) studies of Au electrode confirmed the co-immobilization of enzyme nanoparticles (ENPs). The biosensor exhibited optimal response at pH 5.5 and 40°C within 5 s when polarized at +0.25 V versus Ag/AgCl. The working/linear range of the biosensor was 10-700 mg/dl for cholesterol. The sensor showed high sensitivity and measured total cholesterol as low as 0.1 mg/dl. The biosensor was evaluated and employed for total cholesterol determination in sera of apparently healthy and diseased persons. The analytical recovery of added cholesterol was 90%, whereas the within-batch and between-batch coefficients of variation (CVs) were less than 2% and less than 3%. There was a good correlation (r = 0.99) between serum cholesterol values as measured by the standard enzymic colorimetric method and the current method. The initial activity of ENPs/working electrode was reduced by 50% during its regular use (200 times) over a period of 60 days when stored dry at 4°C.

  11. Plasma Ubiquinone, Alpha-Tocopherol and Cholesterol in Man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Jan; Diamant, Bertil; Edlund, Per Olof

    1992-01-01

    Farmakologi, Coenzyme Q10, free cholesterol, vitamin E, antioxidants, Alpha-Tocopherol, vitamin Q, plasma, LDL-particle......Farmakologi, Coenzyme Q10, free cholesterol, vitamin E, antioxidants, Alpha-Tocopherol, vitamin Q, plasma, LDL-particle...

  12. Significance of the percentage of cholesterol efflux capacity and total cholesterol efflux capacity in patients with or without coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norimatsu, Kenji; Kuwano, Takashi; Miura, Shin-Ichiro; Shimizu, Tomohiko; Shiga, Yuhei; Suematsu, Yasunori; Miyase, Yuiko; Adachi, Sen; Nakamura, Ayumi; Imaizumi, Satoshi; Iwata, Atsushi; Nishikawa, Hiroaki; Uehara, Yoshinari; Saku, Keijiro

    2017-01-01

    We hypothesized that cholesterol efflux capacity is more useful than the lipid profile as a marker of the presence and the severity of coronary artery disease (CAD). Therefore, we investigated the associations between the presence and the severity of CAD and both the percentage of cholesterol efflux capacity and total cholesterol efflux capacity and the lipid profile including the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level in patients who underwent coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA). The subjects consisted of 204 patients who were clinically suspected to have CAD and underwent CTA. We isolated HDL from plasma by ultracentrifugation and measured the percentage of cholesterol efflux capacity using (3)H-cholesterol-labeled J774 macrophage cells and calculated total cholesterol efflux capacity as follows: the percentage of cholesterol efflux capacity/100× HDL-C levels. While the percentage of cholesterol efflux capacity was not associated with the presence or the severity of CAD, total cholesterol efflux capacity and HDL-C in patients with CAD were significantly lower than those in patients without CAD. In addition, total cholesterol efflux capacity and HDL-C, but not the percentage of cholesterol efflux capacity, significantly decreased as the number of coronary arteries with significant stenosis increased. Total cholesterol efflux capacity was positively correlated with HDL-C, whereas the percentage of cholesterol efflux capacity showed only weak association. In a logistic regression analysis, the presence of CAD was independently associated with total cholesterol efflux capacity, in addition to age and gender. Finally, a receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis indicated that the areas under the curves for total cholesterol efflux capacity and HDL-C were similar. In conclusion, the percentage of cholesterol efflux capacity using the fixed amount of isolated HDL was not associated with CAD. On the other hand, the calculated total

  13. A whole-grain cereal-rich diet increases plasma betaine, and tends to decrease total and LDL-cholesterol compared with a refined-grain diet in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Alastair B; Bruce, Stephen J; Blondel-Lubrano, Anny; Oguey-Araymon, Sylviane; Beaumont, Maurice; Bourgeois, Alexandre; Nielsen-Moennoz, Corine; Vigo, Mario; Fay, Laurent-Bernard; Kochhar, Sunil; Bibiloni, Rodrigo; Pittet, Anne-Cécile; Emady-Azar, Shahram; Grathwohl, Dominik; Rezzi, Serge

    2011-05-01

    Epidemiological studies have repeatedly found that whole-grain (WG) cereal foods reduce the risk of several lifestyle-related diseases, though consistent clinical outcomes and mechanisms are elusive. To compare the effects of a WG-rich diet with a matched refined-grain (RG) diet on plasma biomarkers and bowel health parameters, seventeen healthy subjects (eleven females and six males) completed an exploratory cross-over study with a 2-week intervention diet based on either WG- or RG-based foods, separated by a washout of at least 5 weeks. Both diets were the same except for the use of WG (150 g/d) or RG foods. Subjects undertook a 4 h postprandial challenge on day 8 of each intervention diet. After 2 weeks, the WG diet tended to decrease plasma total and LDL-cholesterol (both P = 0·09), but did not change plasma HDL-cholesterol, fasting glucose, C-reactive protein or homocysteine compared with the RG diet. Plasma betaine and alkylresorcinol concentrations were elevated after 1 week of the WG diet (P = 0·01 and P < 0·0001, respectively). Clostridium leptum populations in faeces were increased after the WG diet, along with a trend for decreased faecal water pH (P = 0·096) and increased stool frequency (P < 0·0001) compared with the RG diet. A short controlled intervention trial with a variety of commercially available WG-based products tended to improve biomarkers of CVD compared with a RG diet. Changes in faecal microbiota related to increased fibre fermentation and increased plasma betaine concentrations point to both fibre and phytochemical components of WG being important in mediating any potential health effects.

  14. Increased cholesterol efflux from cultured fibroblasts to plasma from hypertriglyceridemic type 2 diabetic patients: roles of pre beta-HDL, phospholipid transfer protein and cholesterol esterification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, R; Groen, A K; Perton, F G; Dallinga-Thie, G M; van Wijland, M J A; Dikkeschei, L D; Wolffenbuttel, B H R; van Tol, A; Dullaart, R P F

    2008-02-01

    We tested whether hypertriglyceridemia associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus is accompanied by alterations in pre beta-HDL, which are considered to be initial acceptors of cell-derived cholesterol, and by changes in the ability of plasma to promote cellular cholesterol efflux. In 28 hypertriglyceridemic and 56 normotriglyceridemic type 2 diabetic patients, and in 56 control subjects, we determined plasma lipids, HDL cholesterol and phospholipids, plasma pre beta-HDL and pre beta-HDL formation, phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) activity, plasma cholesterol esterification (EST) and cholesteryl ester transfer (CET) and the ability of plasma to stimulate cholesterol efflux out of cultured human fibroblasts. HDL cholesterol and HDL phospholipids were lower, whereas plasma PLTP activity, EST and CET were higher in hypertriglyceridemic diabetic patients than in the other groups. Pre beta-HDL levels and pre beta-HDL formation were unaltered, although the relative amount of pre beta-HDL (expressed as % of total plasma apo A-I) was increased in hypertriglyeridemic diabetic patients. Cellular cholesterol efflux to plasma from hypertriglyceridemic diabetic patients was increased compared to efflux to normotriglyceridemic diabetic and control plasma, but efflux to normotriglyceridemic diabetic and control plasma did not differ. Multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated that cellular cholesterol efflux to plasma was positively and independently related to pre beta-HDL formation, PLTP activity and EST (multiple r=0.48), but not to the diabetic state. In conclusion, cholesterol efflux from fibroblasts to normotriglyceridemic diabetic plasma is unchanged. Efflux to hypertriglyceridemic diabetic plasma is enhanced, in association with increased plasma PLTP activity and cholesterol esterification. Unaltered pre beta-HDL formation in diabetic hypertriglyceridemia, despite low apo A-I, could contribute to maintenance of cholesterol efflux.

  15. Soluble fiber polysaccharides: effects on plasma cholesterol and colonic fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topping, D L

    1991-07-01

    Many soluble-fiber polysaccharides, used as stabilizers and thickeners by the food industry, lower plasma cholesterol and slow small intestinal transit and nutrient absorption. Although nondigestible by human enzymes, these polysaccharides are fermented by the large-bowel microflora, yielding short-chain fatty acids that are absorbed and contribute to energy. The caloric yield from fiber polysaccharides needs to be quantified. Short-chain fatty acid production from soluble fibers is modified by the presence of insoluble fibers but, in total, is probably less than from other carbohydrates, e.g., resistant starch. Short-chain fatty acids do not seem to mediate effects of fiber on plasma cholesterol, but in the large bowel they exert the trophic and antineoplastic effects of dietary fiber. The mechanism for cholesterol reduction by soluble fibers relates to enhanced steroid excretion and altered fat absorption and may be a function of the viscosity of these fibers in solution. The relationships between the chemical structure of soluble polysaccharides and their documented physiologic effects are not yet clear. By using polysaccharides of defined structure and properties, it should be possible to identify those characteristics that predict physiologic actions.

  16. Validity of a portable glucose, total cholesterol, and triglycerides multi-analyzer in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coqueiro, Raildo da Silva; Santos, Mateus Carmo; Neto, João de Souza Leal; Queiroz, Bruno Morbeck de; Brügger, Nelson Augusto Jardim; Barbosa, Aline Rodrigues

    2014-07-01

    This study investigated the accuracy and precision of the Accutrend Plus system to determine blood glucose, total cholesterol, and plasma triglycerides in adults and evaluated its efficiency in measuring these blood variables. The sample consisted of 53 subjects (≥ 18 years). For blood variable laboratory determination, venous blood samples were collected and processed in a Labmax 240 analyzer. To measure blood variables with the Accutrend Plus system, samples of capillary blood were collected. In the analysis, the following tests were included: Wilcoxon and Student's t-tests for paired samples, Lin's concordance coefficient, Bland-Altman method, receiver operating characteristic curve, McNemar test, and k statistics. The results show that the Accutrend Plus system provided significantly higher values (p ≤ .05) of glucose and triglycerides but not of total cholesterol (p > .05) as compared to the values determined in the laboratory. However, the system showed good reproducibility (Lin's coefficient: glucose = .958, triglycerides = .992, total cholesterol = .940) and high concordance with the laboratory method (Lin's coefficient: glucose = .952, triglycerides = .990, total cholesterol = .944) and high sensitivity (glucose = 80.0%, triglycerides = 90.5%, total cholesterol = 84.4%) and specificity (glucose = 100.0%, triglycerides = 96.9%, total cholesterol = 95.2%) in the discrimination of high values of the three blood variables analyzed. It could be concluded that despite the tendency to overestimate glucose and triglyceride levels, a portable multi-analyzer is a valid alternative for the monitoring of metabolic disorders and cardiovascular risk factors.

  17. Oral Administration of L-Arginine in Patients With Angina or Following Myocardial Infarction May Be Protective By Increasing Plasma Superoxide Dismutase and Total Thiols With Reduction in Serum Cholesterol and Xanthine Oxidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pratima Tripathi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Administration of L-arginine has been shown to control ischemic injury by producing nitric oxide which dilates the vessels and thus maintains proper blood flow to the myocardium. In the present study attempt has been made to determine whether oral administration of L-arginine has any effect on oxidant/antioxidant homeostasis in ischemic myocardial patients [represented by the patients of acute angina (AA and acute myocardial infarction (MI]. L-arginine has antioxidant and antiapoptotic properties, decreases endothelin-1 expression and improves endothelial function, thereby controlling oxidative injury caused during myocardial ischemic syndrome. Effect of L-arginine administration on the status of free radical scavenging enzymes, pro-oxidant enzyme and antioxidants viz. total thiols, carbonyl content and plasma ascorbic acid levels in the patients has been evaluated. We have observed that L-arginine administration (three grams per day for 15 days resulted in increased activity of free radical scavenging enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD and increase in the levels of total thiols (T-SH and ascorbic acid with concomitant decrease in lipid per-oxidation, carbonyl content, serum cholesterol and the activity of proxidant enzyme, xanthine oxidase (XO. These findings suggest that the supplementation of L-arginine along with regular therapy may be beneficial to the patients of ischemic myocardial syndromes.

  18. 21 CFR 862.1175 - Cholesterol (total) test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cholesterol (total) test system. 862.1175 Section 862.1175 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test...

  19. Why have total cholesterol levels declined in most developed countries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ford Earl S

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Our paper addresses three major public health issues: cholesterol, statins and policies to prevent cardiovascular disease. Discussion Total cholesterol levels in whole populations have fallen substantially in the USA, UK and most other developed countries. This has greatly contributed to decreases in cardiovascular disease deaths. The evidence identifying diet as the major contributor to these historical falls in cholesterol is powerful and consistent. Large falls occurred before statins were introduced. Additional substantial falls occurred before statins were widely used. Now, up to 14% adults in Western populations currently receive statins for primary prevention. Furthermore, because diet is now only slowly improving, the statin contribution currently appears proportionately larger. Summary In conclusion, diet change explains most of the historical falls in cholesterol. Until very recently, the contribution from statins has been surprisingly modest. Furthermore, many middle income countries may have neither the resources nor the infrastructure for mass statin therapy. Further substantial falls in cholesterol are therefore unlikely to be obtained simply by increased use of statins or dietary advice to individuals if unsupported by the wider environment. This further emphasises the need for more effective structural policies. Regulatory and fiscal interventions could easily eradicate industrial transfats, halve the intake of dietary saturated fat, and subsidise healthier fats.

  20. Plasma plant sterols serve as poor markers of cholesterol absorption in man[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakulj, Lily; Mohammed, Hussein; van Dijk, Theo H.; Boer, Theo; Turner, Scott; Groen, Albert K.; Vissers, Maud N.; Stroes, Erik S. G.

    2013-01-01

    The validation of the use of plasma plant sterols as a marker of cholesterol absorption is frail. Nevertheless, plant sterol concentrations are routinely used to describe treatment-induced changes in cholesterol absorption. Their use has also been advocated as a clinical tool to tailor cholesterol-lowering therapy. Prior to wider implementation, however, the validity of plant sterols as absorption markers needs solid evaluation. Therefore, we compared plasma plant sterol concentrations to gold-standard stable isotope-determined cholesterol absorption. Plasma campesterol/TC concentrations (camp/TC) were measured in a population of 175 mildly hypercholesterolemic individuals (age: 59.7 ± 5.6 years; BMI: 25.5 ± 2.9kg/m2; LDL-C: 4.01 ± 0.56 mmol/l). We compared cholesterol absorption according to the plasma dual-isotope method in subjects with the highest camp/TC concentrations (N = 41, camp/TC: 2.14 ± 0.68 μg/mg) and the lowest camp/TC concentrations (N = 39, camp/TC: 0.97 ± 0.22 μg/mg). Fractional cholesterol absorption did not differ between the groups (24 ± 12% versus 25 ± 16%, P = 0.60), nor was it associated with plasma camp/TC concentrations in the total population of 80 individuals (β = 0.13; P = 0.30, adjusted for BMI and plasma triglycerides). Our findings do not support a relation between plasma plant sterol concentrations and true cholesterol absorption and, therefore, do not favor the use of these sterols as markers of cholesterol absorption. This bears direct consequences for the interpretation of earlier studies, as well as for future studies targeting intestinal regulation of cholesterol metabolism. PMID:23178226

  1. Plasma hormones, metabolites, milk production, and cholesterol levels in Murrah buffaloes fed with Asparagus racemosus in transition and postpartum period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Surendra Pratap; Mehla, Ram Kumar; Singh, Mahendra

    2012-12-01

    Ten dry and pregnant Murrah buffaloes were selected to investigate the effect of Asparagus racemosus feeding on hormones, metabolites, milk yield, and plasma cholesterol levels. The treatment groups of buffaloes were fed with A. racemosus (shatavari) @ 150 g/day/animal during prepartum and @ 300 g/day/animal during the postpartum period. Blood samples collected on -6, -4, -2-week, day of parturition (0), and +2, +4, and +6-week postpartum were analyzed for plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, low-density lipoproteins (LDL), prolactin, cortisol, and blood metabolites. Milk samples collected at weekly intervals (+1, +3, +5, and 7 weeks) were analyzed for total milk fat cholesterol. Prepartum plasma cholesterol concentrations were significantly higher in treatment group over the control (P < 0.05). Mean plasma triglycerides, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, glucose, and nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) levels varied nonsignificantly between groups. Plasma prolactin and cortisol concentrations were significantly (P < 0.01) more in treatment group than in control group. On day of parturition, plasma prolactin, cortisol, LDL, and plasma total cholesterol were higher (P < 0.01) in treatment group buffaloes in comparison to control group. A. racemosus feeding significantly (P < 0.01) increased plasma prolactin, cortisol (P < 0.01), and milk fat cholesterol (P < 0.05) without affecting total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, glucose, and NEFA concentrations. The buffaloes of treatment group produced more milk (@ 0.526 kg/animal/day) suggesting thereby that A. racemosus is galactopoietic. It was concluded that feeding of A. racemosus increases plasma prolactin and cortisol and decreased plasma total cholesterol and LDL concentration.

  2. Why cholesterol should be found predominantly in the cytoplasmic leaf of the plasma membrane

    CERN Document Server

    Giang, Ha

    2014-01-01

    In the mammalian plasma membrane, cholesterol can translocate rapidly between the exoplasmic and cytoplasmic leaves, and is found predominantly in the latter. We hypothesize that it is drawn to the inner leaf to reduce the bending free energy of the membrane caused by the presence there of phosphatidylethanolamine. Incorporating this mechanism into a model free energy for the bilayer, we calculate that approximately two thirds of the total cholesterol should be in the inner leaf.

  3. Cheese intake lowers plasma cholesterol concentrations without increasing bile acid excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjerpsted, Julie Bousgaard; Dragsted, Lars Ove; Tholstrup, Tine

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Cheese is a dairy product with high calcium content. It has been suggested that calcium intake may increase fecal excretion of bile acids that would cause a regeneration of bile acids from hepatic cholesterol and thereby result in a lowering of plasma cholesterol concentrations. We aimed...... with 13% energy from cheese or butter. Results After 6 weeks of intervention cheese resulted in higher amounts of calcium excreted in feces compared to butter. However, no difference was observed in fecal bile acid output despite lower serum total, LDL and HDL cholesterol concentrations observed...

  4. Monounsaturated oils do not all have the same effect on plasma cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truswell, A S; Choudhury, N

    1998-05-01

    Evidence assembled here indicates that when olive oil forms a major part of dietary fat in controlled human experiments, total and LDL-cholesterols are somewhat higher than when the same amount of fat is one of the modern predominantly monounsaturated oils: low erucic rapeseed or high oleic sunflower oil. Oils rich in monounsaturated fatty acids thus do not all have the same effect on plasma cholesterol. This phenomenon is explicable by consideration of the content of other fatty acids and the non-saponifiable fractions of the different monounsaturated oils. It helps to explain the discrepancy that has existed between the classic experiments (using olive oil), which found monounsaturated oils 'neutral', and some of the more recent experiments which found them more cholesterol-lowering than carbohydrates. Four published meta-analyses are reviewed. The three which included most of the published experiments show that monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) have less plasma cholesterol-lowering effect than polyunsaturated fatty acids.

  5. Cholesterol concentration in seminal plasma as a predictive tool for quality semen evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer-Ljubić, B; Aladrović, J; Marenjak, T S; Laskaj, R; Majić-Balić, I; Milinković-Tur, S

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between lipid composition of bovine serum and seminal plasma, seasonality, and semen quality. The experiment was carried out in two groups of Simmental breeding bulls: Group I (ages 2 to 4 yr) and Group II (ages 5 to 10 yr). Blood samples were collected from jugular vein, and bovine semen was sampled with an artificial vagina once per season. Serum concentrations of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triacylglycerols, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs), and lipoprotein electrophoretic patterns were determined. Seminal plasma concentrations of total cholesterol, HDL-C, and LDL-C were assayed. Serum concentration of triacylglycerols in young bulls was significantly higher in winter compared with that in autumn, whereas serum NEFA concentration was significantly higher in autumn compared with that in other seasons. Serum concentration of total cholesterol, LDL-C, and LDL lipoproteins in older bulls was significantly higher in winter than in spring. Seminal plasma concentration of total cholesterol in young bulls was significantly higher in spring compared with that in summer, whereas in older bulls it was significantly higher in winter compared with that in autumn samples. Sperm volume of both groups was significantly higher in summer compared with that in autumn and winter. Sperm motility in young bulls was lowest in summer and differed significantly from the values recorded in other seasons. The changes observed in seminal plasma cholesterol concentration were associated with extracellular lipid use and appeared to be applicable as a biochemical marker of sperm quality.

  6. Anthocyanins increase low-density lipoprotein and plasma cholesterol and do not reduce atherosclerosis in Watanabe Heritable Hyperlipidemic rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, I. L. F.; Rasmussen, S.E.; Mortensen, Alicja;

    2005-01-01

    Anthocyanin-rich beverages have shown beneficial effects on coronary heart disease in epidemiological and intervention studies. In the present study, we investigated the effect of black currant anthocyanins on atherosclerosis. Watanabe Heritable Hyperlipidemic rabbits (n = 61) were fed either...... a purified anthocyanin fraction front black currants, a black currant juice, probucol or control diet for 16 weeks. Purified anthocyanins significantly increased plasma cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. Intake of black currant juice had no effect on total plasma cholesterol......, but lowered very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol significantly. There were no significant effects of either purified anthocyanins or black currant juice on aortic cholesterol or development of atherosclerosis after 16 weeks. Probucol had no effect on plasma cholesterol but significantly lowered...

  7. Mutation in APOA1 predicts increased risk of ischaemic heart disease and total mortality without low HDL cholesterol levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haase, C L; Frikke-Schmidt, R; Nordestgaard, B G

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine whether mutations in APOA1 affect levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and to predict risk of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and total mortality in the general population. BACKGROUND: Epidemiologically, risk of IHD is inversely related to HDL cholesterol...... levels. Mutations in apolipoprotein (apo) A-I, the major protein constituent of HDL, might be associated with low HDL cholesterol and predispose to IHD and early death. DESIGN: We resequenced APOA1 in 190 individuals and examined the effect of mutations on HDL cholesterol, risk of IHD, myocardial......164S heterozygotes had normal plasma lipid and lipoprotein levels, including HDL cholesterol and apoA-I, and this finding was confirmed in adenovirus-transfected mice. CONCLUSIONS: A164S is the first mutation in APOA1 to be described that predicts an increased risk of IHD, MI and total mortality...

  8. Fibroblast cholesterol efflux to plasma from metabolic syndrome subjects is not defective despite low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.P.F. Dullaart (Robin); A. Groen (Albert); G.M. Dallinga-Thie (Geesje); R. de Vries (Rindert); W. Sluiter (Wim); A. van Tol (Arie)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractObjective: We tested whether in metabolic syndrome (MetS) subjects the ability of plasma to stimulate cellular cholesterol efflux, an early step in the anti-atherogenic reverse cholesterol transport pathway, is maintained despite low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Design: In

  9. Increased plasma cholesterol esterification by LCAT reduces diet-induced atherosclerosis in SR-BI knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, Seth G; Rousset, Xavier; Esmail, Safiya; Zarzour, Abdalrahman; Jin, Xueting; Collins, Heidi L; Sampson, Maureen; Stonik, John; Demosky, Stephen; Malide, Daniela A; Freeman, Lita; Vaisman, Boris L; Kruth, Howard S; Adelman, Steven J; Remaley, Alan T

    2015-07-01

    LCAT, a plasma enzyme that esterifies cholesterol, has been proposed to play an antiatherogenic role, but animal and epidemiologic studies have yielded conflicting results. To gain insight into LCAT and the role of free cholesterol (FC) in atherosclerosis, we examined the effect of LCAT over- and underexpression in diet-induced atherosclerosis in scavenger receptor class B member I-deficient [Scarab(-/-)] mice, which have a secondary defect in cholesterol esterification. Scarab(-/-)×LCAT-null [Lcat(-/-)] mice had a decrease in HDL-cholesterol and a high plasma ratio of FC/total cholesterol (TC) (0.88 ± 0.033) and a marked increase in VLDL-cholesterol (VLDL-C) on a high-fat diet. Scarab(-/-)×LCAT-transgenic (Tg) mice had lower levels of VLDL-C and a normal plasma FC/TC ratio (0.28 ± 0.005). Plasma from Scarab(-/-)×LCAT-Tg mice also showed an increase in cholesterol esterification during in vitro cholesterol efflux, but increased esterification did not appear to affect the overall rate of cholesterol efflux or hepatic uptake of cholesterol. Scarab(-/-)×LCAT-Tg mice also displayed a 51% decrease in aortic sinus atherosclerosis compared with Scarab(-/-) mice (P esterification by LCAT is atheroprotective, most likely through its ability to increase HDL levels and decrease pro-atherogenic apoB-containing lipoprotein particles.

  10. Plasma HDL cholesterol and risk of myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voight, Benjamin F; Peloso, Gina M; Orho-Melander, Marju

    2012-01-01

    High plasma HDL cholesterol is associated with reduced risk of myocardial infarction, but whether this association is causal is unclear. Exploiting the fact that genotypes are randomly assigned at meiosis, are independent of non-genetic confounding, and are unmodified by disease processes...

  11. Corn fiber oil lowers plasma cholesterol levels and increases cholesterol excretion greater than corn oil and similar to diets containing soy sterols and soy stanols in hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, T A; DeSimone, A P; Romano, C A; Nicolosi, R J

    2000-09-01

    The aims of this study were to compare the cholesterol-lowering properties of corn fiber oil (CFO) to corn oil (CO), whether the addition of soy stanols or soy sterols to CO at similar levels in CFO would increase CO's cholesterol-lowering properties, and the mechanism(s) of action of these dietary ingredients. Fifty male Golden Syrian hamsters were divided into 5 groups of 10 hamsters each, based on similar plasma total cholesterol (TC) levels. The first group of hamsters was fed a chow-based hypercholesterolemic diet containing either 5% coconut oil + 0.24% cholesterol (coconut oil), 5% CO, 5% CFO, 5% CO + 0.6% soy sterols (sterol), or 5% CO + 0.6% soy stanols (stanol) in place of the coconut oil for 4 weeks. The stanol diet significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma TC compared to all other dietary treatments. Also, the CFO and sterol diets significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma TC compared to the CO and coconut oil diets. The CFO, sterol, and stanol diets significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma non-high density lipoprotein cholesterol compared to the CO and coconut oil diets. The stanol diet significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) compared to all other dietary treatments. The sterol diet significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma HDL-C compared to the CO and coconut oil diets, whereas the CFO diet significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma HDL-C compared to the coconut oil diet only. No differences were observed between the CFO and CO for plasma HDL-C. There were no differences observed between groups for plasma triglycerides. The CO and CFO diets had significantly less hepatic TC compared to the coconut oil, sterol, and stanol diets. The CO and CFO diets had significantly less hepatic free cholesterol compared to the sterol and stanol diets but not compared to the coconut oil diet; whereas the coconut oil and sterol diets had significantly less hepatic free cholesterol

  12. High serum total cholesterol--an indicator for monitoring cholesterol lowering efforts: U.S. adults, 2005-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, Susan E; Carroll, Margaret D; Lacher, David A; Hirsch, Rosemarie

    2007-12-01

    Elevated serum total cholesterol is a major and modifiable risk factor for heart disease, the lead-ing cause of death in the United States (1,2). Reducing mean total serum cholesterol levels among adults to less than 200 mg/dL and reducing the proportion who have levels of 240 mg/dL or higher to less than 17% are national Healthy People 2010 objectives (3). Age-adjusted mean serum cholesterol levels among adults aged 20-74 years declined from 222 mg/dL in 1960-1962 to 203 mg/dL in 1999-2002 (4). Among adults aged 20 years and older, the percent of the population with high serum total cholesterol levels (240 mg/dL or higher) declined from 20% during 1988-1994 to 17% during 1999-2002 (4). In individual patients, a high serum total cholesterol level indicates a potential increased risk for heart disease, but further evaluation of other risk factors and the specific components of cholesterol provide the basis for determining the need for initiating therapeutic lifestyle changes or treatment with medication (5). Low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) is the cholesterol component associated with arterial blockage, and it is the primary clinical target for cholesterol management. High-density-lipoprotein (HDL) may help to protect individuals from developing heart disease. In populations, comparisons of total cholesterol levels over time can show if population groups are experiencing improvement in cholesterol levels, and knowledge of trends in levels of total cholesterol can help identify subgroups where additional prevention efforts may be needed.

  13. A physiologically based in silico kinetic model predicting plasma cholesterol concentrations in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pas, van de N.C.A.; Woutersen, R.A.; Ommen, van B.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Graaf, de A.A.

    2012-01-01

    Increased plasma cholesterol concentration is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. This study describes the development, validation, and analysis of a physiologically based kinetic (PBK) model for the prediction of plasma cholesterol concentrations in humans. This model was dire

  14. A physiologically based in silico kinetic model predicting plasma cholesterol concentrations in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pas, N.C.A. van de; Woutersen, R.A.; Ommen, B. van; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Graaf, A.A. de

    2012-01-01

    Increased plasma cholesterol concentration is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. This study describes the development, validation, and analysis of a physiologically based kinetic (PBK) model for the prediction of plasma cholesterol concentrations in humans. This model was

  15. Heart rate variability, overnight urinary norepinephrine, and plasma cholesterol in apparently healthy human adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayer, Julian F; Fischer, Joachim E

    2013-01-20

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between autonomic nervous system activity as indexed by measures of heart rate variability and overnight urinary norepinephrine, and plasma cholesterol levels in a large sample of working adults. The study population comprised 611 apparently healthy employees of an airplane manufacturing plant in Southern Germany. Heart rate variability was calculated as beat-to-beat intervals over the course of one 24-hour weekday measured with an ambulatory ECG recorder. Overnight urine collection and blood samples were also obtained. We found an inverse association between indices of vagally-mediated heart rate variability and plasma levels of total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL), and the ratio of LDL to high density lipoprotein (HDL) that remained significant in multivariate models after controlling for relevant covariates including norepinephrine. Urinary norepinephrine was not significantly related to any measure of cholesterol in multivariate models. We report here for the first time, in a large sample of healthy human adults, evidence supporting the hypothesis of a clinically relevant inverse relationship between measures of plasma cholesterol and vagally-mediated heart rate variability after controlling for sympathetic nervous system activity. This suggests an important role for the vagal control of plasma cholesterol levels in cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Co-administration of berberine and plant stanols synergistically reduces plasma cholesterol in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiaoming; Chen, Yanfeng; Zidichouski, Jeffrey; Zhang, Junzeng; Sun, Changhao; Wang, Yanwen

    2008-11-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the beneficial effects and the safety of oral administration of the combination of berberine (BBR) and plant stanols (PS) on plasma lipid profiles in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Four groups of animals were fed a cornstarch-casein-sucrose-based high-cholesterol (2%, w:w) and high-fat (27.5%) diet. Three treatment groups were supplemented with either BBR (100mgkg(-1)bodyweightd(-1)), PS (1% in diet, w:w), or the combination of both (BBRPS). After 6 wk, animals were sacrificed and followed immediately with the collection of blood and organ samples. Lipid analysis revealed that PS lowered plasma total cholesterol (T-C) by 18% (p=0.067) and non-HDL-cholesterol (non-HDL-C) by 29% (p=0.013) as compared with the control, while BBR had no effect on both T-C and non-HDL-C. The combination treatment of BBRPS reduced plasma T-C by 41% (p=0.0002) and non-HDL-C by 59% (peffect. BBRPS showed an additive effect of BBR and PS on plasma TAG. PS and BBRPS both decreased liver cholesterol (p=0.0027 and 0.0002, respectively). BBR and PS, either alone or in combination, did not show any toxic effects as assessed by plasma concentration of hepatic biochemical parameters. These results demonstrate that BBR and PS, when combined, synergistically lower plasma cholesterol levels and significantly reduce liver cholesterol, without the observation of any toxic effects.

  17. Transport of maternal cholesterol to the fetus is affected by maternal plasma cholesterol concentrations in the golden Syrian hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Katie T; Colvin, Perry L; Myatt, Leslie; Graf, Gregory A; Schroeder, Friedhelm; Woollett, Laura A

    2009-06-01

    The fetus has a high requirement for cholesterol and synthesizes cholesterol at elevated rates. Recent studies suggest that fetal cholesterol also can be obtained from exogenous sources. The purpose of the current study was to examine the transport of maternal cholesterol to the fetus and determine the mechanism responsible for any cholesterol-driven changes in transport. Studies were completed in pregnant hamsters with normal and elevated plasma cholesterol concentrations. Cholesterol feeding resulted in a 3.1-fold increase in the amount of LDL-cholesterol taken up by the fetus and a 2.4-fold increase in the amount of HDL-cholesterol taken up. LDL-cholesterol was transported to the fetus primarily by the placenta, and HDL-cholesterol was transported by the yolk sac and placenta. Several proteins associated with sterol transport and efflux, including those induced by activated liver X receptor, were expressed in hamster and human placentas: NPC1, NPC1L1, ABCA2, SCP-x, and ABCG1, but not ABCG8. NPC1L1 was the only protein increased in hypercholesterolemic placentas. Thus, increasing maternal lipoprotein-cholesterol concentrations can enhance transport of maternal cholesterol to the fetus, leading to 1) increased movement of cholesterol down a concentration gradient in the placenta, 2) increased lipoprotein secretion from the yolk sac (shown previously), and possibly 3) increased placental NPC1L1 expression.

  18. Effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus NS1 on plasma cholesterol levels in diet-induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, M; Park, S; Lee, H; Min, B; Jung, S; Park, S; Kim, E; Oh, S

    2015-03-01

    We investigated the probiotic properties of Lactobacillus acidophilus NS1, such as acid resistance, bile tolerance, adherence to HT-29 cells, and cholesterol assimilation activity. In an animal study, 7-wk-old male C57BL/6 mice were fed a normal diet, a high-fat diet (HFD), or an HFD with L. acidophilus NS1 (ca. 1.0×10(8) cfu/mL) for 10 wk. Total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels were significantly lower in mice fed an HFD with L. acidophilus NS1 than in those fed an HFD only, whereas high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were similar between these 2 groups. To understand the mechanism of the cholesterol-lowering effect of L. acidophilus NS1 on the HFD-mediated increase in plasma cholesterol levels, we determined mRNA levels of genes involved in cholesterol homeostasis in the liver. Expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2 (Srebp2) and LDL receptor (Ldlr) in the liver was dramatically reduced in mice fed a HFD compared with those fed a normal diet. When L. acidophilus NS1 was administered orally to HFD-fed mice, an HFD-induced suppression of Srebp2 and Ldlr expression in the liver was abolished. These results suggest that the oral administration of L. acidophilus NS1 to mice fed an HFD increased the expression of Srebp2 and Ldlr in the liver, which was inhibited by high fat intake, thus leading to a decrease in plasma cholesterol levels. Lactobacillus acidophilus NS1 could be a useful probiotic microorganism for cholesterol-lowering dairy products and the improvement of hyperlipidemia and hepatic lipid metabolism.

  19. Randomised controlled trial of the effect of long-term selenium supplementation on plasma cholesterol in an elderly Danish population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cold, Frederik; Winther, Kristian H; Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Although cross-sectional studies have shown a positive association between Se and cholesterol concentrations, a recent randomised controlled trial in 501 elderly UK individuals of relatively low-Se status found that Se supplementation for 6 months lowered total plasma cholesterol. The Danish......) or 300 (n 119) μg Se-enriched yeast or matching placebo-yeast tablets (n 126) daily for 5 years. A total of 468 participants continued the study for 6 months and 361 participants, equally distributed across treatment groups, continued for 5 years. Plasma samples were analysed for total and HDL......-cholesterol and for total Se concentrations at baseline, 6 months and 5 years. The effect of different doses of Se supplementation on plasma lipid and Se concentrations was estimated by using linear mixed models. Plasma Se concentration increased significantly and dose-dependently in the intervention groups after 6 months...

  20. Inclusion of Almonds in a Cholesterol-Lowering Diet Improves Plasma HDL Subspecies and Cholesterol Efflux to Serum in Normal-Weight Individuals with Elevated LDL Cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berryman, Claire E; Fleming, Jennifer A; Kris-Etherton, Penny M

    2017-08-01

    Background: Almonds may increase circulating HDL cholesterol when substituted for a high-carbohydrate snack in an isocaloric diet, yet little is known about the effects on HDL biology and function.Objective: The objective was to determine whether incorporating 43 g almonds/d in a cholesterol-lowering diet would improve HDL subspecies and function, which were secondary study outcomes.Methods: In a randomized, 2-period, crossover, controlled-feeding study, a diet with 43 g almonds/d (percentage of total energy: 51% carbohydrate, 16% protein, and 32% total and 8% saturated fat) was compared with a similar diet with an isocaloric muffin substitution (58% carbohydrate, 15% protein, and 26% total and 8% saturated fat) in men and women with elevated LDL cholesterol. Plasma HDL subspecies and cholesterol efflux from J774 macrophages to human serum were measured at baseline and after each diet period. Diet effects were examined in all participants (n = 48) and in normal-weight (body mass index: HDL [mean ± SEM: 26.7 ± 1.5 compared with 24.3 ± 1.3 mg apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I)/dL; P = 0.001]. In normal-weight participants, the almond diet, relative to the control diet, increased α-1 HDL (33.7 ± 3.2 compared with 28.4 ± 2.6 mg apoA-I/dL), the α-1 to pre-β-1 ratio [geometric mean (95% CI): 4.3 (3.3, 5.7) compared with 3.1 (2.4, 4.0)], and non-ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 cholesterol efflux (8.3% ± 0.4% compared with 7.8% ± 0.3%) and decreased pre-β-2 (3.8 ± 0.4 compared with 4.6 ± 0.4 mg apoA-I/dL) and α-3 (23.5 ± 0.9 compared with 26.9 ± 1.1 mg apoA-I/dL) HDL (P HDL subpopulation distribution and improve cholesterol efflux in normal-weight individuals with elevated LDL cholesterol. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01101230. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  1. Improvements in cholesterol-related knowledge and behavior and plasma cholesterol levels in youths during the 1980s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, E; Winkleby, M; Fortmann, S P; Rockhill, B; Farquhar, J W

    1993-01-01

    This article examines cholesterol-related knowledge, cholesterol-related behaviors, and plasma cholesterol levels in 12-24-year-olds, using data collected from four community-based cross-sectional surveys conducted 1979-1980, 1981-1982, 1985-1986, and 1989-1990. Participants included 1,552 individuals from randomly sampled households in two control cities (San Luis Obispo and Modesto, California) of the Stanford Five-City Project. Over the eleven-year study period, cholesterol-related knowledge improved in both control cities (P population than Modesto). In general, knowledge and behavior scores and plasma cholesterol levels were lower in these 12-24-year-olds than in 25-74-year-olds, although trends at all ages were similar over time and by demographic variables. Although the cholesterol-related interventions that began in the mid-1980s primarily targeted adults, these 12-24-year-olds' cholesterol-related knowledge improved (as did, to a lesser extent, their cholesterol-related behavior and plasma cholesterol levels). These findings have implications for upcoming youth-related cholesterol interventions.

  2. Mung bean decreases plasma cholesterol by up-regulation of CYP7A1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yang; Hao, Liu; Shi, Zhenxing; Wang, Lixia; Cheng, Xuzhen; Wang, Suhua; Ren, Guixing

    2014-06-01

    Our results affirmed that supplementation of 1 or 2% mung bean could decrease plasma total cholesterol and triacylglycerol level. Mung bean increased mRNA 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A reductase. Most importantly, mung bean increased not only the protein level of cholesterol-7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) but also mRNA CYP7A1. It was concluded that the hypocholesterolemic activity of mung bean was most probable mediated by enhancement of bile acid excretion and up-regulation of CYP7A1.

  3. Linoleic acid intake, plasma cholesterol and 10-year incidence of CHD in 20.000 middle-aged men and women in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goede, de J.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Boer, J.M.A.; Kromhout, D.; Verschuren, W.M.M.

    2012-01-01

    We studied the associations of a difference in linoleic acid or carbohydrate intake with plasma cholesterol levels and risk of CHD in a prospective cohort study in the Netherlands. Data on diet (FFQ) and plasma total and HDL-cholesterol were available at baseline (1993–7) of 20 069 men and women,

  4. Effect of Morinda citrifolia Fruit Extract Capsule on Total Cholesterol ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    smoking, obesity, lack of exercise and the consumption of high-fat meals .... was found in children and adolescents. Indonesian Health ... explained that physical activity reduces most of ... NCEP-ATP III (National Cholesterol Education Program.

  5. Saturated fatty acid (SFA) status and SFA intake exhibit different relations with serum total cholesterol and lipoprotein cholesterol : a mechanistic explanation centered around lifestyle-induced low-grade inflammation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz Nunez, Begona; Kuipers, Remko S.; Luxwolda, Martine F.; De Graaf, Deti J.; Breeuwsma, Benjamin B.; Dijck-Brouwer, Janneke; Muskiet, Frits A. J.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the relations between fatty acid status and serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio in five Tanzanian ethnic groups and one Dutch group. Total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol rati

  6. Lipids rich in phosphatidylethanolamine from natural gas-utilizing bacteria reduce plasma cholesterol and classes of phospholipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, H.; Hellgren, Lars; Olsen, E.

    2004-01-01

    , and unesterified cholesterol increased by 17% compared with the animals fed a diet of 100% lipids from soybean oil (SB-diet). In addition, the ratio of LDL cholesterol to HDL cholesterol was 27% lower in mink fed the 67LNGB-diet than those fed the S13-cliet. When the mink were fed the 67LNGB-diet, plasma PC, total...... was observed in the 67LNGB-fed mink compared with the SB-fed mink. We conclude that phospholipids from the 67LNGB-diet decreased plasma lipoprotein levels, the LDL-HDL cholesterol ratio, and plasma phospholipid levels, especially lysoPC and PC, compared with the highly unsaturated soybean oil. Our findings......-utilizing bacteria (LNGB), which were rich in PE. The group with 0% LNGB was fed a diet for which the lipid content was 100% soybean oil. The total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol of animals consuming a diet with 67% LNGB (67LNGB-diet), were significantly lowered by 35, 49, and 29%, respectively...

  7. Serum resistin is related to plasma HDL cholesterol and inversely correlated with LDL cholesterol in diabetic and obese humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owecki, Maciej; Nikisch, Elżbieta; Miczke, Anna; Pupek-Musialik, Danuta; Sowiński, Jerzy

    2010-01-01

    Plasma cholesterol, triglycerides and serum resisistin may all be influenced by diabetes and obesity, but their associations remain unclear. Therefore, we put forward a hypothesis that serum lipids might be parallel to resistin, as they all reflect the metabolic status of obese humans. We measured the concentrations of resistin, total cholesterol (TC), HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglycerides (TG) in 134 obese non-diabetic (73 women and 61 men) and 65 obese diabetic (33 women, 32 men) humans, and examined their interrelations. Obesity was defined according to the WHO criterion (BMI, ≥ 30 kg/m²) The presence of diabetes was the only differentiating factor between two groups of frankly obese humans. Non-diabetic vs. diabetic, median and interquartile range, respectively: resistin (ng/mL) 26.08, 16.09 vs. 22.37, 14.54, p=0.736; TC (mmol/L) 5.02, 1.39 vs. 5.16, 1.56, p=0.374; HDL-C (mmol/L): 1.10, 0.41 vs. 1.02, 0.47 pHDL-C, LDL-C, and TG, respectively: in the whole cohort r=-0.1364, p=0.0670, r=0.1514, p=0.0437, r=-0.2573, p=0.0006, r=0.0434, p=0.5597; in non-diabetics: r=-0.2067, p=0.0213, r=0.1023, p=0.2621, r=-0.2399, p=0.0083 and r=0.0288, p=0.7497; in diabetics r=0.0280, p=0.8360, r=0.2267, p=0.0929, r=-0.2933, p=0.0298, r=0.1349, p=0.3127. In diabetic and non-diabetic subjects the atherogenic LDL cholesterol shows an inverse correlation with resistin, whereas the protective anti-atherosclerotic HDL cholesterol is positively correlated with resistin.

  8. Serum specific vasopressin-degrading activity is related to blood total cholesterol levels in men but not in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Expósito, María Jesús; Arrazola, Marcelina; Carrera-González, María Pilar; Arias de Saavedra, José Manuel; Sánchez-Agesta, Rafael; Mayas, María Dolores; Martínez-Martos, José Manuel

    2012-07-01

    The role of vasopressin (AVP) in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease is controversial, but this peptide hormone is elevated in heart failure and some forms of hypertension. Also, AVP has vasoconstrictor, mitogenic, hyperplasic and renal fluid retaining properties which, by analogy with angiotensin II, may have deleterious effects when present in chronic excess. Furthermore, cholesterol blood levels are also associated with hypertension, although the underlying mechanism is not known. Here we analyze the relationship between blood total cholesterol levels and serum vasopressin- degrading cystyl-aminopeptidase activity (AVP-DA) in healthy humans, and the differences between men and women. Linear correlation coefficients were calculated to test relationships between AVP-DA and blood total cholesterol levels. Sex differences were observed for AVP-DA, being this activity higher in men than in women. According to the linear model of the regression analysis, AVP-DA showed a significant negative correlation with blood total cholesterol levels in men, whereas no correlation was observed in women. Several studies in humans demonstrate the existence of greater plasma AVP concentrations in normal men compared to normal women, which could explain the gender-differences observed in the present work in relation with AVP-DA. However, AVP-DA is related to blood cholesterol levels only in men, although in our hands, women showed higher blood cholesterol levels than men. This could indicate that the risk of high cholesterol-related hypertension is more probable in men than in women. Although AVP-DA misregulation could be involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension, its relation with cholesterol levels appears only in men, but not in women.

  9. DRIED BLOOD/SERUM SPOT TOTAL CHOLESTEROL ESTIMATION AS AN ALTERNATIVE TO FRESH SERUM TOTAL CHOLESTEROL: AN ANSWER OR A QUESTION IN ITSELF?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushpa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Surveillance for risk factors of heart diseases, like increased blood sugar, cholesterol becomes difficult in places with inadequate lab facilities due to difficulty in sample collection, transportation and processing. Feasibility of using dried blood/seru m spots in such situations can be thought of as an alternative to fresh serum total cholesterol, as sample collection does not require much expertise. AIM: The aim of this study is to determine whether dried blood and serum spots can be used as an alternat ive to fresh serum for estimation of total cholesterol in field studies. METHOD S : Fresh serum from 100 subjects selected randomly was used for estimation of total cholesterol. Four spots each of blood and serum from these samples were made on Whatman paper 3, out of which one spot from each were analysed on the day of collection and rest were kept in resealable bags to be analysed on day 7, 15 and 30. The correlation between the dried blood/serum spot values with the fresh serum total cholesterol values was examined. RESULTS: A significant correlation with fresh serum total cholesterol values (p value<0.01 was seen for dried serum spots stored up to day 30(0.747 to 0.942 and for dried blood spots stored up to day 15(0.598 to 0.949. CONCLUSIONS: Total chol esterol estimated by dried blood spot up to 15 days and dried serum spots stored up to 30 days can be considered as an alternative to fresh serum for estimation of serum total cholesterol.

  10. Standardization of total cholesterol measurement in population surveys--pre-analytic sources of variation and their effect on the prevalence of hypercholesterolaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolonen, Hanna; Ferrario, Marco; Kuulasmaa, Kari

    2005-06-01

    The estimation of population distribution of total cholesterol, as well as other blood lipids requires population surveys. Comparability of the estimates over time or between populations requires a predefined, standardized measurement protocol. This paper will assess the effect of variation in the pre-analytic procedures, on the estimation of population distribution of total cholesterol and the prevalence of hypercholesterolaemia. Implications of variation to real survey results are demonstrated on data collected during the WHO MONICA Project. The extent (%) of pre-analytic variations were determined by literature review. Simulations were then used to estimate the effect of these variations on the distribution of total cholesterol values. Three populations were selected as examples for different population distributions of total cholesterol levels and variations resulting from seasonal and postural changes, use of tourniquet, and serum versus plasma collection were simulated both individually and in combinations. Depending on the population distribution of total cholesterol, differences in pre-analytic procedures can explain a difference of up to 1.12 mmol/l in the mean total cholesterol between populations, and a difference up to 41% in the prevalence of hypercholesterolaemia (> or =6.5 mmol/l). Variation in results on measured total cholesterol levels due to differences in procedures during the pre-analytic stage can diminish substantially the reliability and comparability of measurements among surveys over time and between populations. The effect of pre-analytic variation in the population estimates of total cholesterol can be extensively reduced by standardization and training.

  11. Simultaneous determination of oxysterols, cholesterol and 25-hydroxy-vitamin D3 in human plasma by LC-UV-MS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohini Narayanaswamy

    Full Text Available Oxysterols are promising biomarkers of neurodegenerative diseases that are linked with cholesterol and vitamin D metabolism. There is an unmet need for methods capable of sensitive, and simultaneous quantitation of multiple oxysterols, vitamin D and cholesterol pathway biomarkers.A method for simultaneous determination of 5 major oxysterols, 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 and cholesterol in human plasma was developed. Total oxysterols were prepared by room temperature saponification followed by solid phase extraction from plasma spiked with deuterated internal standards. Oxysterols were resolved by reverse phase HPLC using a methanol/water/0.1% formic acid gradient. Oxysterols and 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 were detected with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry in positive ion mode; in-series photodiode array detection at 204nm was used for cholesterol. Method validation studies were performed. Oxysterol levels in 220 plasma samples from healthy control subjects, multiple sclerosis and other neurological disorders patients were quantitated.Our method quantitated 5 oxysterols, cholesterol and 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 from 200 μL plasma in 35 minutes. Recoveries were >85% for all analytes and internal standards. The limits of detection were 3-10 ng/mL for oxysterols and 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 and 1 μg/mL for simultaneous detection of cholesterol. Analytical imprecision was <10 %CV for 24(S-, 25-, 27-, 7α-hydroxycholesterol (HC and cholesterol and ≤15 % for 7-keto-cholesterol. Multiple Sclerosis and other neurological disorder patients had lower 27-hydroxycholesterol levels compared to controls whereas 7α-hydroxycholesterol was lower specifically in Multiple Sclerosis.The method is suitable for measuring plasma oxysterols levels in human health and disease. Analysis of human plasma indicates that the oxysterol, bile acid precursors 7α-hydroxycholesterol and 27-hydroxycholesterol are lower in Multiple Sclerosis and may serve as potential

  12. Dietary cholesterol does not normalize low plasma cholesterol levels but induces hyperbilirubinemia and hypercholanemia in Mdr2 P-glycoprotein-deficient mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voshol, PJ; Koopen, NR; de Vree, JML; Havinga, R; Princen, HMG; Elferink, RPJO; Groen, AK; Kuipers, F

    Background/Aims: Mdr2 P-glycoprotein deficiency in mice (Mdr2((-/-))) leads to formation of cholesterol/cholesterol-depleted bile and reduced plasma HDL cholesterol. We addressed the questions: (1) does HDL in Mdr2((-/-)) mice normalize upon phospholipid and/or cholesterol feeding, and (2): is the

  13. An enzyme thermistor-based assay for total and free cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, V; Ramanathan, K; Sundaram, P V; Danielsson, B

    1999-11-01

    A method to evaluate the free (FC) and total cholesterol (TC) in human serum, bile and gallstone extract using an enzyme thermistor (ET)-based flow injection analysis (FIA) is presented. The cholesterol in high-density (HDL-C) and low density lipoprotein (LDL-C) have also been evaluated. A heparin functionalized Sepharose column was employed for the isolation of HDL and LDL fractions from serum. The estimation of cholesterol and its esters was based on their reaction with cholesterol oxidase (CO), cholesterol esterase (CE) and catalase (CAT). Three different enzyme columns, i.e. co-immobilized CO/CAT (column A), only CE (column B) and co-immobilized CO/CE/CAT (column C) were prepared by cross-linking the enzymes on glass beads using glutaraldehyde. Column A was used for estimating FC and column C was used for estimating total cholesterol (cholesterol plus esterified cholesterol). Column B was used as a pre-column which could be switched 'in' or 'out' in conjunction with column A for the estimation of TC or FC, respectively. A calibration between 1.0 and 8.0 mmol/l for FC and 0. 25 and 4.0 mmol/l for TC was obtained. For more than 2000 assays with the ET device a C.V. of less than 4% was obtained. The assay time was approximately 4 min per assay. The cholesterol estimations on the ET correlated well with similar estimations using a commercially available cholesterol diagnostic kit.

  14. Concentração plasmática de colesterol total e lipoproteína de alta densidade em novilhas mestiças doadoras de embriões tratadas com somatotropina bovina recombinante Total plasma cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein levels in crossbred heifer embryo donors treated with bovine recombinant somatotropin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Á.M. Borges

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do experimento foi o de estudar as concentrações plasmáticas de colesterol total e lipoproteína de alta densidade (HDL em novilhas mestiças tratadas com somatotropina bovina recombinante (rbST. Coletas de sangue foram feitas durante dois ciclos estrais, normal e superovulado, em 26 fêmeas distribuídas em dois tratamentos: T1 = aplicação de 500mg de rbST no terceiro dia do ciclo estral utilizado para a superovulação e T2 = controle. Análises dos metabólitos sangüíneos foram feitas utilizando-se o método enzimático, cujas concentrações médias plasmáticas de colesterol total e de HDL durante o ciclo estral normal não foram diferentes (P>0,05 entre os dois tratamentos: 87,9 e 25,8mg/dl e 85,9 e 26,7mg/dl para T1 e T2, respectivamente. O ciclo estral utilizado para a superovulação foi dividido em três períodos: P1 = do estro à inseminação artificial (0 ao15º dia, P2 = da inseminação artificial até a coleta de embriões (15º ao 21º dia e P3 = da coleta até o final do período experimental (21º ao 27º dia. As concentrações plasmáticas de colesterol total e HDL no P1 não diferiram entre os tratamentos (P>0,05. Em P2 e P3 houve diferença nas concentrações de HDL e colesterol total entre os dois tratamentos: 29,0 e 88,5mg/dl (T1 e 27,1 e 81,8mg/dl (T2 no P2; e 30,4 e 88,0mg/dl (T1 e 26,6 e 80,5mg/dl (T2 no P3, respectivamente (PThe objective of the experiment was to study the total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein (HDL levels in crossbred heifers treated with bovine recombinant somatotropina (rbST. Blood samples were collected for two estrous cycles, normal and superovulated, from 26 animals randomly distributed into two treatments: T1 - injected with 500mg rbST on day 3 of estrous cycle and T2 - control. The lipidic metabolite levels were determined by an enzymatic method, and plasma levels of total cholesterol and HDL in normal estrous cycle did not differ (P>0.05 between treatments: 87

  15. A physiologically based kinetic model for the prediction of plasma cholesterol concentrations in mice and man

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pas, van de N.

    2011-01-01

    An increased plasma cholesterol concentration is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. However, individuals vary largely in their response to cholesterol lowering drugs and 40% of them, do not reach their cholesterol-lowering target. Development of novel therapies, for example co

  16. Development of alimentary cholesterol in the plasma and the plasmatic lipoproteins in man, after ingestion of a meal containing octa-deuterated cholesterol; Devenir du cholesterol alimentaire dans le plasma et les lipoproteines plasmatiques chez l`homme, apres ingestion d`un repas contenant du cholesterol octa-deutere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becue, T.; Ferezou, J.; Simon, G. [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France); Bernard, P.M.; Portugal, H. [Hopital Sainte-Marguerite, 13 - Marseille (France); Dubois, C.; Lairon, D.

    1994-12-31

    Cholesterol absorbed after a test-meal has two origins with man: the biliary cholesterol and the alimentary cholesterol. In order to understand the mechanism of the modification of cholesterol intestinal absorption by oat bran, the alimentary cholesterol has been labelled with octa-deuterated cholesterol, in test-diets. The kinetics of D-cholesterol in plasma and chylomicrons is described. 1 fig., 6 refs.

  17. A relation between high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol and bile cholesterol saturation.

    OpenAIRE

    Thornton, J R; Heaton, K W; Macfarlane, D.G.

    1981-01-01

    The association of cholesterol gall stones with coronary artery disease is controversial. To investigate this possible relation at the biochemical level, bile cholesterol saturation and the plasma concentrations of triglycerides, total cholesterol, and high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL cholesterol) were measured in 25 healthy, middle-aged women. Bile cholesterol saturation index was negatively correlated with HDL cholesterol. It was positively correlated with plasma triglycerides and ...

  18. Comparison of serum leptin, glucose, total cholesterol and total protein levels in fertile and repeat breeder cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saime Guzel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study we measured serum glucose, leptin, total cholesterol and total protein concentrations in repeat breeder cows and compared them with fertile cows. For this aim, 20 repeat breeder cows and 20 fertile cows were used as material. Repeat breeder cows were found to have lower levels of leptin and glucose as compared with fertile ones. No significant differences in total cholesterol and total protein levels were observed between the two groups. No significant correlation of leptin with glucose, total cholesterol and total protein was observed in fertile and repeat breeder cows. Low concentrations of glucose and leptin can have some effects on reproductive problems as repeat breeder and help to understand potential mechanisms impairing fertility in repeat breeder cows.

  19. Systematic construction of a conceptual minimal model of plasma cholesterol levels based on knockout mouse phenotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pas, N.C.A. van de; Soffers, A.E.M.F.; Freidig, A.P.; Ommen, B. van; Woutersen, R.A.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Graaf, A.A. de

    2010-01-01

    Elevated plasma cholesterol, a well-known risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, is the result of the activity of many genes and their encoded proteins in a complex physiological network. We aim to develop a minimal kinetic computational model for predicting plasma cholesterol levels. To define th

  20. Plasma cholesterol-lowering and transient liver dysfunction in mice lacking squalene synthase in the liver[S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagashima, Shuichi; Yagyu, Hiroaki; Tozawa, Ryuichi; Tazoe, Fumiko; Takahashi, Manabu; Kitamine, Tetsuya; Yamamuro, Daisuke; Sakai, Kent; Sekiya, Motohiro; Okazaki, Hiroaki; Osuga, Jun-ichi; Honda, Akira; Ishibashi, Shun

    2015-01-01

    Squalene synthase (SS) catalyzes the biosynthesis of squalene, the first specific intermediate in the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway. To test the feasibility of lowering plasma cholesterol by inhibiting hepatic SS, we generated mice in which SS is specifically knocked out in the liver (L-SSKO) using Cre-loxP technology. Hepatic SS activity of L-SSKO mice was reduced by >90%. In addition, cholesterol biosynthesis in the liver slices was almost eliminated. Although the hepatic squalene contents were markedly reduced in L-SSKO mice, the hepatic contents of cholesterol and its precursors distal to squalene were indistinguishable from those of control mice, indicating the presence of sufficient centripetal flow of cholesterol and/or its precursors from the extrahepatic tissues. L-SSKO mice showed a transient liver dysfunction with moderate hepatomegaly presumably secondary to increased farnesol production. In a fed state, the plasma total cholesterol and triglyceride were significantly reduced in L-SSKO mice, primarily owing to reduced hepatic VLDL secretion. In a fasted state, the hypolipidemic effect was lost. mRNA expression of liver X receptor α target genes was reduced, while that of sterol-regulatory element binding protein 2 target genes was increased. In conclusion, liver-specific ablation of SS inhibits hepatic cholesterol biosynthesis and induces hypolipidemia without increasing significant mortality. PMID:25755092

  1. Lipids rich in phosphatidylethanolamine from natural gas-utilizing bacteria reduce plasma cholesterol and classes of phospholipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, H.; Hellgren, Lars; Olsen, E.;

    2004-01-01

    We compared the effects of three different high-lipid diets on plasma lipoproteins and phospholipids in mink (Mustela vison). The 18 mink studied were fed one of the three diets during a 25-d period in a parallel group design. The compared diets had 0, 17, and 67% extracted lipids from natural gas...... phospholipids, lysoPC, and PI were lowered significantly compared with the mink fed a SB-diet. Plasma total cholesterol was correlated with total phospholipids as well as with PC (R = 0.8, P ... was observed in the 67LNGB-fed mink compared with the SB-fed mink. We conclude that phospholipids from the 67LNGB-diet decreased plasma lipoprotein levels, the LDL-HDL cholesterol ratio, and plasma phospholipid levels, especially lysoPC and PC, compared with the highly unsaturated soybean oil. Our findings...

  2. Assessment of modes of action and efficacy of plasma cholesterol-lowering drugs : measurement of cholesterol absorption, cholesterol synthesis and bile acid synthesis and turnover using novel stable isotope techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stellaard, Frans; Kuipers, Folkert

    2005-01-01

    Several processes are involved in control of plasma cholesterol levels, e.g., intestinal cholesterol absorption, endogenous cholesterol synthesis and transport and bile acid synthesis. Adaptation of either of these processes allows the body to adapt to changes in dietary cholesterol intake. Disturba

  3. Assessment of modes of action and efficacy of plasma cholesterol-lowering drugs : measurement of cholesterol absorption, cholesterol synthesis and bile acid synthesis and turnover using novel stable isotope techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stellaard, Frans; Kuipers, Folkert

    Several processes are involved in control of plasma cholesterol levels, e.g., intestinal cholesterol absorption, endogenous cholesterol synthesis and transport and bile acid synthesis. Adaptation of either of these processes allows the body to adapt to changes in dietary cholesterol intake.

  4. Rice bran oil and oryzanol reduce plasma lipid and lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations and aortic cholesterol ester accumulation to a greater extent than ferulic acid in hypercholesterolemic hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Thomas A; Nicolosi, Robert J; Woolfrey, Benjamin; Kritchevsky, David

    2007-02-01

    Our laboratory has reported that the hypolipidemic effect of rice bran oil (RBO) is not entirely explained by its fatty acid composition. Because RBO has a greater content of the unsaponifiables, which also lower cholesterol compared to most vegetable oils, we wanted to know whether oryzanol or ferulic acid, two major unsaponifiables in RBO, has a greater cholesterol-lowering activity. Forty-eight F(1)B Golden Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) (BioBreeders, Watertown, MA) were group housed (three per cage) in cages with bedding in an air-conditioned facility maintained on a 12-h light/dark cycle. The hamsters were fed a chow-based hypercholesterolemic diet (HCD) containing 10% coconut oil and 0.1% cholesterol for 2 weeks, at which time they were bled after an overnight fast (16 h) and segregated into 4 groups of 12 with similar plasma cholesterol concentrations. Group 1 (control) continued on the HCD, group 2 was fed the HCD containing 10% RBO in place of coconut oil, group 3 was fed the HCD plus 0.5% ferulic acid and group 4 was fed the HCD plus 0.5% oryzanol for an additional 10 weeks. After 10 weeks on the diets, plasma total cholesterol (TC) and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (very low- and low-density lipoprotein) concentrations were significantly lower in the RBO (-64% and -70%, respectively), the ferulic acid (-22% and -24%, respectively) and the oryzanol (-70% and -77%, respectively) diets compared to control. Plasma TC and non-HDL-C concentrations were also significantly lower in the RBO (-53% and -61%, respectively) and oryzanol (-61% and -70%, respectively) diets compared to the ferulic acid. Compared to control and ferulic acid, plasma HDL-C concentrations were significantly higher in the RBO (10% and 20%, respectively) and oryzanol (13% and 24%, respectively) diets. The ferulic acid diet had significantly lower plasma HDL-C concentrations compared to the control (-9%). The RBO and oryzanol diets were significantly lower for

  5. Effects of Adiposity on Plasma Lipid Response to Reductions in Dietary Saturated Fatty Acids and Cholesterol1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flock, Michael R.; Green, Michael H.; Kris-Etherton, Penny M.

    2011-01-01

    Dietary SFA and cholesterol are major targets for reducing plasma total and LDL cholesterol as a strategy to decrease cardiovascular disease risk. However, many studies show that excess adiposity attenuates the expected lipid and lipoprotein response to a plasma cholesterol–lowering diet. Diets low in SFA and cholesterol are less effective in improving the lipid profile in obese individuals and in patients with metabolic syndrome. In contrast, lean persons are more responsive to reductions in dietary SFA and cholesterol. Multiple mechanisms likely contribute to the altered plasma lipid responses to dietary changes in individuals with excess adiposity. The greater rate of hepatic cholesterol synthesis in obese individuals suppresses the expression of hepatic LDL receptors (LDLR), thereby reducing hepatic LDL uptake. Insulin resistance develops as a result of adipose-tissue induced inflammation, causing significant changes in enzymes necessary for normal lipid metabolism. In addition, the LDLR-mediated uptake in obesity is attenuated by alterations in neuroendocrine regulation of hormonal secretions (e.g. growth hormone, thyroid hormone, and cortisol) as well as the unique gut microbiota, the latter of which appears to affect lipid absorption. Reducing adipose tissue mass, especially from the abdominal region, is an effective strategy to improve the lipid response to dietary interventions by reducing inflammation, enhancing insulin sensitivity, and improving LDLR binding. Thus, normalizing adipose tissue mass is an important goal for maximizing the diet response to a plasma cholesterol–lowering diet. PMID:22332058

  6. Plasma lecithin : cholesterol acyltransferase activity modifies the inverse relationship of C-reactive protein with HDL cholesterol in nondiabetic men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dullaart, R. P. F.; Perton, F.; Kappelle, P.J.W.H.; de Vries, R.; Sluiter, W. J.; van Tol, A.

    Lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) is instrumental in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) maturation, but high LCAT levels do not predict low cardiovascular risk. LCAT may affect antioxidative or anti-inflammatory properties of HDL We determined the relationship of plasma high-sensitivity

  7. Apolipoprotein e genotype, plasma cholesterol, and cancer: a Mendelian randomization study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Trompet, Stella

    2009-12-01

    Observational studies have shown an association between low plasma cholesterol levels and increased risk of cancer, whereas most randomized clinical trials involving cholesterol-lowering medications have not shown this association. Between 1997 and 2002, the authors assessed the association between plasma cholesterol levels and cancer risk, free from confounding and reverse causality, in a Mendelian randomization study using apolipoprotein E (ApoE) genotype. ApoE genotype, plasma cholesterol levels, and cancer incidence and mortality were measured during a 3-year follow-up period among 2,913 participants in the Prospective Study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at Risk. Subjects within the lowest third of plasma cholesterol level at baseline had increased risks of cancer incidence (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.90, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.34, 2.70) and cancer mortality (HR = 2.03, 95% CI: 1.23, 3.34) relative to subjects within the highest third of plasma cholesterol. However, carriers of the ApoE2 genotype (n = 332), who had 9% lower plasma cholesterol levels than carriers of the ApoE4 genotype (n = 635), did not have increased risk of cancer incidence (HR = 0.86, 95% CI: 0.50, 1.47) or cancer mortality (HR = 0.70, 95% CI: 0.30, 1.60) compared with ApoE4 carriers. These findings suggest that low cholesterol levels are not causally related to increased cancer risk.

  8. Smell and Taste Dysfunction Is Associated with Higher Serum Total Cholesterol Concentrations in Chinese Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhe; Huang, Shue; Cong, Hongliang; Li, Zheng; Li, Junjuan; Keller, Kathleen L; Shearer, Gregory C; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; Wu, Shouling; Gao, Xiang

    2017-08-01

    Background: Several lipid-related hormones and peptides, such as glucagon-like peptide-1 and leptin, are involved in the regulation of taste and smell function. However, to our knowledge, it remains unknown whether these chemosensory functions are associated with lipid profiles.Objective: We examined the cross-sectional association between taste and smell dysfunction and blood cholesterol concentrations.Methods: With the use of a questionnaire, we assessed chronic smell and taste dysfunction in 12,627 Chinese participants (10,418 men and 2209 women; mean age: 54.4 y) who did not take hypolipidemic agents. Participants were categorized into 3 groups based on the number of smell and taste dysfunctions, ranging from 0 (best) to 2 (worst). A general linear model was used to test differences in serum concentrations of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides (TGs) across groups with different smell and taste status after adjusting for age, sex, education, occupation, smoking, drinking, obesity, and history of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and head injury.Results: The prevalence of smell and taste dysfunction was 2.4% and 1.2%, respectively. Worse smell and taste dysfunction was associated with higher total cholesterol concentrations (P-trend = 0.005). No significant differences were observed in LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and TG concentrations across groups with different numbers of chemosensory dysfunctions (P-trend > 0.1 for all). The associations between chemosensory dysfunction and total cholesterol concentrations were more pronounced in participants aged ≤60 y and in those who were nonsmokers relative to their counterparts (P-interaction < 0.05 for all).Conclusions: In this large cross-sectional study, chemosensory dysfunction was associated with higher serum total cholesterol concentrations among Chinese adults. Prospective studies are needed to investigate the temporal relation between these chemosensory dysfunctions and

  9. Apolipoprotein E mediates enhanced plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol clearance by low-dose streptococcal serum opacity factor via hepatic low-density lipoprotein receptors in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales, Corina; Tang, Daming; Gillard, Baiba K; Courtney, Harry S; Pownall, Henry J

    2011-08-01

    Recombinant streptococcal serum opacity factor (rSOF) mediates the in vitro disassembly of human plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) into lipid-free apolipoprotein (apo) A-I, a neo-HDL that is cholesterol poor, and a cholesteryl ester-rich microemulsion (CERM) containing apoE. Given the occurrence of apoE on the CERM, we tested the hypothesis that rSOF injection into mice would reduce total plasma cholesterol clearance via apoE-dependent hepatic low-density lipoprotein receptors (LDLR). rSOF (4 μg) injection into wild-type C57BL/6J mice formed neo-HDL, CERM, and lipid-free apoA-I, as observed in vitro, and reduced plasma total cholesterol (-43%, t(1/2)=44±18 minutes) whereas control saline injections had a negligible effect. Similar experiments with apoE(-/-) and LDLR(-/-) mice reduced plasma total cholesterol ≈0% and 20%, respectively. rSOF was potent; injection of 0.18 μg of rSOF produced 50% of maximum reduction of plasma cholesterol 3 hours postinjection, corresponding to a ≈0.5-mg human dose. Most cholesterol was cleared hepatically (>99%), with rSOF treatment increasing clearance by 65%. rSOF injection into mice formed a CERM that was cleared via hepatic LDLR that recognize apoE. This reaction could provide an alternative mechanism for reverse cholesterol transport.

  10. Differential impact of hepatic deficiency and total body inhibition of MTP on cholesterol metabolism and RCT in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dikkers, Arne; Annema, Wijtske; de Boer, Jan Freark; Iqbal, Jahangir; Hussain, M Mahmood; Tietge, Uwe J F

    2014-05-01

    Because apoB-containing lipoproteins are pro-atherogenic and their secretion by liver and intestine largely depends on microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) activity, MTP inhibition strategies are actively pursued. How decreasing the secretion of apoB-containing lipoproteins affects intracellular rerouting of cholesterol is unclear. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to determine the effects of reducing either systemic or liver-specific MTP activity on cholesterol metabolism and reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) using a pharmacological MTP inhibitor or a genetic model, respectively. Plasma total cholesterol and triglyceride levels were decreased in both MTP inhibitor-treated and liver-specific MTP knockout (L-Mttp(-/-)) mice (each P small but significant decrease in fecal bile acid excretion was observed in inhibitor-treated mice (P excretion was substantially increased by 75% (P intestinal absorption. In contrast, in L-Mttp(-/-) mice both fecal neutral sterol and bile acid excretion remained unchanged. However, while total RCT increased in inhibitor-treated mice (P < 0.01), it surprisingly decreased in L-Mttp(-/-) mice (P < 0.05). These data demonstrate that: i) pharmacological MTP inhibition increases RCT, an effect that might provide additional clinical benefit of MTP inhibitors; and ii) decreasing hepatic MTP decreases RCT, pointing toward a potential contribution of hepatocyte-derived VLDLs to RCT.

  11. TOTAL CHOLESTEROL, HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS (HDL AND CORTISOL PLASMA LEVELS, AND THEIR BIORHYTMICITY, IN 24 HOURS, THROUGHOUT YEAR, IN IDEAL-POLWARTH RAMS NÍVEIS PLASMÁTICOS DE COLESTEROL TOTAL, LIPOPROTEÍNAS DE ALTA DENSIDADE (HDL E CORTISOL, E SUA BIORRITMICIDADE, EM CARNEIROS IDEAL-POLWARTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcides de Amorim Ramos

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the mean plasma concentrations of total cholesterol (TC, high density lipoproteins (HDL and cortisol, blood samples were collected of five Ideal-Polwarth rams, maintained at 22?53’S latitude, in semi-confinement, every two months throughout the year, by 24h period, with 2-hour intervals between colects. The TC, changed 40.70?1,11mg/dL (April and 61.48?1,11mg/dL (December, between months, while HDL changed 22.16?0.23mg/dL (December as 33.40?0.23mg/dL (February, but not make evident a circannual rhythm in this levels. The TC presented the lowest value at 16:30h (50.40?1.57mg/dL and the highest value at 8:30h collect (54.67?1.57mg/dL; the HDL lowest level was at 10:30h (27.04?0.33mg/dL and the highest level also at 8:30h collect (28.49?0.33mg/dL, however without permit circadian rhythm determination in your plasma concentrations. Similarly, the cortisol plasma concentrations, between collect months, presents variable, however without demonstrate circadian rhythm in this hormone secretion. In relation to different collection’s moments, throughout months, it wasn’t possible to define, by statistical analysis, a circadian rhythm of cortisol secretion. KEY WORDS: Ovine, adrenal hormone, biochemistry metabolites, circadian rhythm. Visando avaliar as concentrações médias de colesterol total (CT, lipoproteínas de alta densidade (HDL e cortisol plasmáticos, foram colhidas amostras de sangue de cinco carneiros Ideal-Polwarth, alocados em latitude 22°53’S, em regime de semiconfinamento, a cada dois meses, ao longo de um ano, com as colheitas em um período de 24 horas, e intervalos de duas horas entre elas. O CT oscilou entre 40,70±1,11mg/dL (abril e 61,48±1,11mg/dL (dezembro, entre os meses, enquanto HDL variou de 22,16±0,23mg/dL (dezembro a 33,40±0,23mg/dL (fevereiro, mas não evidenciando um ritmo circanual em seus níveis. O CT apresentou seu valor mínimo na colheita das 16h30min (50,40±1,57mg/dL e o máximo às 8h30min

  12. Capsaicinoids but not their analogue capsinoids lower plasma cholesterol and possess beneficial vascular activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Weihuan; Cheang, Wai San; Wang, Xiaobo; Lei, Lin; Liu, Yuwei; Ma, Ka Ying; Zheng, Fangrui; Huang, Yu; Chen, Zhen-Yu

    2014-08-20

    Capsaicinoids exist in chili peppers, whereas capsinoids are present in some sweet peppers. The present study investigated the effects of capsaicinoids and capsinoids on plasma lipids, relaxation of the aorta, atherosclerotic plaque development, and fecal sterol excretion in hamsters fed a high-cholesterol diet. Five groups of male hamsters were given the control diet or one of the four experimental diets containing 1.3 mmol of capsaicinoids (NL), 2.6 mmol of capsaicinoids (NH), 1.3 mmol of capsinoids (OL), or 2.6 mmol of capsinoids (OH), respectively. Results showed capsaicinoids but not capsinoids could decrease plasma total cholesterol (TC), reduce the formation of atherosclerotic plaque, and relax the aortic artery. This was accompanied by a 28-175% increase in fecal excretion of acidic sterols in hamsters fed the diets containing capsaicinoids. Similarly, capsaicinoids but not capsinoids could decrease the pad weights of epididymal and prerenal adipose tissues. It was concluded that capsaicinoids but not capsinoids could favorably modulate plasma lipids and possess beneficial vascular activity.

  13. Higher Total Serum Cholesterol Levels Are Associated With Less Severe Strokes and Lower All-Cause Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tom Skyhøj; Christensen, Rune Haubo Bojesen; Kammersgaard, Lars

    2007-01-01

    Background and Purpose - Evidence of a causal relation between serum cholesterol and stroke is inconsistent. We investigated the relation between total serum cholesterol and both stroke severity and poststroke mortality to test the hypothesis that hyperch....

  14. Plasma plant sterols serve as poor markers of cholesterol absorption in man

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakulj, Lily; Mohammed, Hussein; van Dijk, Theo H.; Boer, Theo; Turner, Scott; Groen, Albert K.; Vissers, Maud N.; Stroes, Erik S. G.

    The validation of the use of plasma plant sterols as a marker of cholesterol absorption is frail. Nevertheless, plant sterol concentrations are routinely used to describe treatment-induced changes in cholesterol absorption. Their use has also been advocated as a clinical tool to tailor

  15. Cholesterol Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities Cholesterol Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Blood Cholesterol Formal name: Total Cholesterol Related tests: HDL Cholesterol , ...

  16. Kefir consumption does not alter plasma lipid levels or cholesterol fractional synthesis rates relative to milk in hyperlipidemic men: a randomized controlled trial [ISRCTN10820810

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mafu Akier

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fermented milk products have been shown to affect serum cholesterol concentrations in humans. Kefir, a fermented milk product, has been traditionally consumed for its potential health benefits but has to date not been studied for its hypocholesterolemic properties. Methods Thirteen healthy mildly hypercholesterolemic male subjects consumed a dairy supplement in randomized crossover trial for 2 periods of 4 wk each. Subjects were blinded to the dairy supplement consumed. Blood samples were collected at baseline and after 4 wk of supplementation for measurement of plasma total, low-density lipoprotein, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations, as well as fatty acid profile and cholesterol synthesis rate. Fecal samples were collected at baseline and after 2 and 4 wk of supplementation for determination of fecal short chain fatty acid level and bacterial content. Results Kefir had no effect on total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol or triglyceride concentrations nor on cholesterol fractional synthesis rates after 4 wk of supplementation. No significant change on plasma fatty acid levels was observed with diet. However, both kefir and milk increased (p Conclusions Since kefir consumption did not result in lowered plasma lipid concentrations, the results of this study do not support consumption of kefir as a cholesterol-lowering agent.

  17. Kefir consumption does not alter plasma lipid levels or cholesterol fractional synthesis rates relative to milk in hyperlipidemic men: a randomized controlled trial [ISRCTN10820810

    Science.gov (United States)

    St-Onge, Marie-Pierre; Farnworth, Edward R; Savard, Tony; Chabot, Denise; Mafu, Akier; Jones, Peter JH

    2002-01-01

    Background Fermented milk products have been shown to affect serum cholesterol concentrations in humans. Kefir, a fermented milk product, has been traditionally consumed for its potential health benefits but has to date not been studied for its hypocholesterolemic properties. Methods Thirteen healthy mildly hypercholesterolemic male subjects consumed a dairy supplement in randomized crossover trial for 2 periods of 4 wk each. Subjects were blinded to the dairy supplement consumed. Blood samples were collected at baseline and after 4 wk of supplementation for measurement of plasma total, low-density lipoprotein, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations, as well as fatty acid profile and cholesterol synthesis rate. Fecal samples were collected at baseline and after 2 and 4 wk of supplementation for determination of fecal short chain fatty acid level and bacterial content. Results Kefir had no effect on total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol or triglyceride concentrations nor on cholesterol fractional synthesis rates after 4 wk of supplementation. No significant change on plasma fatty acid levels was observed with diet. However, both kefir and milk increased (p Kefir supplementation resulted in increased fecal bacterial content in the majority of the subjects. Conclusions Since kefir consumption did not result in lowered plasma lipid concentrations, the results of this study do not support consumption of kefir as a cholesterol-lowering agent. PMID:11825344

  18. Replacement of margarine on bread by rapeseed and olive oils: effects on plasma fatty acid composition and serum cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppänen-Laakso, T; Vanhanen, H; Laakso, I; Kohtamäki, H; Viikari, J

    1993-01-01

    The effects of zero erucic acid rapeseed oil and olive oil on plasma fatty acid composition and serum cholesterol were studied in margarine users (n = 46). The replacement of margarine on bread by these oils accounted, on average, for 16% of the total fat and 7% of the total energy intake. Fatty acid analysis of total plasma indicated a dose-dependent rise in alpha-linolenic (alpha-LLA) and oleic acid (OA) levels during rapeseed and olive oil substitutions, respectively. Rapeseed oil substitution increased the proportion of eicosapentaenoic acid (0.4%- units, on average) in plasma phospholipids. A slight decrease in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and an increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, 4.5%, p acids, but also in the relationships with serum lipids, since the changes in alpha-LLA, rather than in OA, were associated with those in LDL-C and the HDL-C/TC ratio. No competitive action of polyunsaturated acids comparable to rapeseed oil was found during olive oil substitution. In contrast to the rapeseed oil diet, the reduced proportion of linoleic acid (LA) in plasma phospholipids was not restored; this may be unfavorable if the habitual intake of LA is low. However, the effects on LDL-C levels were beneficial: the concentration decreased by 5.9% (p olive oil substitution.

  19. Genetic Loci Associated With Plasma Concentration of Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol, High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol, Triglycerides, Apolipoprotein A1, and Apolipoprotein B Among 6382 White Women in Genome-Wide Analysis With Replication

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chasman, Daniel I; Pare, Guillaume; Zee, Robert Y.L; Parker, Alex N; Cook, Nancy R; Buring, Julie E; Kwiatkowski, David J; Rose, Lynda M; Smith, Joshua D; Williams, Paul T; Rieder, Mark J; Rotter, Jerome I; Nickerson, Deborah A; Krauss, Ronald M; Miletich, Joseph P; Ridker, Paul M

    2008-01-01

    Genetic Loci Associated With Plasma Concentration of Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol, High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol, Triglycerides, Apolipoprotein A1, and Apolipoprotein B Among 6382 White...

  20. Influence of dietary fish proteins on plasma and liver cholesterol concentrations in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X; Beynen, A C

    1993-05-01

    The effects of amount and type of dietary fish proteins on plasma and liver cholesterol concentrations were evaluated in female rats. The isonitrogenous diets used contained 10 g cholesterol/kg and were carefully balanced for residual fat, cholesterol, Ca, Mg and P in the protein preparations. Cod meal, soya-bean protein or casein was incorporated into the diets as the only source of dietary protein at three levels: either 24, 48 or 72 g N/kg diet. Extra protein was added to the diet at the expense of the glucose component. In a second experiment soya-bean protein, casein, cod meal, whiting meal or plaice meal was added to the diet at a level of 24 g N/kg. When compared with casein, cod meal and soya-bean protein decreased plasma and liver cholesterol concentrations. A further cholesterol-lowering effect was achieved by increasing the proportion of either soya-bean protein or cod meal in the diet. Substitution of casein for glucose did not influence plasma and liver cholesterol concentrations. Plaice meal in the diet produced lower group mean plasma cholesterol concentrations than did whiting meal. In rats fed on the diet containing plaice meal, liver cholesterol concentrations were significantly lower than those in their counterparts fed on either cod meal or whiting meal. The present study demonstrates that different fish proteins in the diet have different effects on cholesterol metabolism and that the cholesterol-influencing properties of cod meal can be enhanced by the incorporation of higher proportions of this protein in the diet.

  1. Streptococcal Serum Opacity Factor Increases Hepatocyte Uptake of Human Plasma High Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillard, Baiba K.; Rosales, Corina; Pillai, Biju K.; Lin, Hu Yu; Courtney, Harry S.; Pownall, Henry J.

    2010-01-01

    Serum opacity factor (SOF), a virulence determinant of Streptococcus pyogenes, converts plasma high density lipoproteins (HDL) to three distinct species: lipid-free apolipoprotein (apo) A-I, neo HDL, a small discoidal HDL-like particle, and a large cholesteryl ester-rich microemulsion (CERM), that contains the cholesterol esters (CE) of up to ~400,000 HDL particles and apo E as its major protein. Similar SOF reaction products are obtained with HDL, total plasma lipoproteins and whole plasma. We hypothesized that hepatic uptake of CERM-CE via multiple apo E dependent receptors would be faster than that of HDL-CE. We tested our hypothesis using human hepatoma cells and lipoprotein receptor-specific Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. [3H]CE uptake by HepG2 and Huh7 cells from HDL after SOF treatment, which transfers >90% of HDL-CE to CERM, was respectively 2.4 and 4.5 times faster than from control HDL. CERM-[3H]CE uptake was inhibited by LDL and HDL, suggestive of uptake by both the LDL receptor (LDL-R) and scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI). Studies in CHO cells specifically expressing LDL-R and SR-BI confirmed CERM-[3H]CE uptake by both receptors. RAP and heparin inhibit CERM-[3H]CE but not HDL-[3H]CE uptake thereby implicating LRP-1 and cell surface proteoglycans in this process. These data demonstrate that SOF treatment of HDL increases CE uptake via multiple hepatic apo E receptors. In so doing, SOF might increase hepatic disposal of plasma cholesterol in a way that is therapeutically useful. PMID:20879789

  2. Cashew consumption reduces total and LDL cholesterol: a randomized, crossover, controlled-feeding trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Eunice; Schulz, Jacqueline A; Kaden, Valerie N; Lawless, Andrea L; Rotor, Jose; Mantilla, Libertie B; Liska, DeAnn J

    2017-05-01

    Background: Cashews are the third most-consumed tree nut in the United States and are abundant with monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids, which are associated with reduced cardiovascular disease risk. Although a qualified Food and Drug Administration health claim exists for nuts and heart health, cashews have been exempt from its use because cashews exceed the disqualifying amount of saturated fatty acids. Approximately one-third of the saturated fat in cashews is stearic acid, which is relatively neutral on blood lipids, thereby suggesting that cashews could have effects that are similar to those of other nuts. However, clinical data on cashews and blood lipids have been limited.Objective: We investigated the effect of reasonable intakes of cashews on serum lipids in adults with or at risk of high LDL cholesterol.Design: In a randomized, crossover, isocaloric, controlled-feeding study, 51 men and women (aged 21-73 y) with a median LDL-cholesterol concentration of 159 mg/dL (95% CI: 146, 165 mg/dL) at screening consumed typical American diets with cashews (28-64 g/d; 50% of kilocalories from carbohydrate, 18% of kilocalories from protein, and 32% of kilocalories from total fat) or potato chips (control; 54% of kilocalories from carbohydrate, 18% of kilocalories from protein, and 29% of kilocalories from total fat) for 28 d with a ≥2-wk washout period.Results: Consumption of the cashew diet resulted in a significantly greater median change from baseline (compared with the control, all P cashews into typical American diets decreases total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol. Results from this study provide support that the daily consumption of cashews, when substituted for a high-carbohydrate snack, may be a simple dietary strategy to help manage total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02769741. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  3. Components characterization of total tetraploid jiaogulan (Gynostemma pentaphylla) saponin and its cholesterol-lowering properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study characterized chemical structures of tetraploid jiaogulan saponins, and investigated their cholesterol-lowering effects and mechanisms in hamsters fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Nine saponins, including five reported for the first time, were obtained from total jiaogulan saponins (TJS) and el...

  4. Triglycerides and total serum cholesterol in rotator cuff tears: do they matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, U G; Franceschi, F; Spiezia, F; Forriol, F; Maffulli, N; Denaro, V

    2010-10-01

    In this study, the serum triglycerides and total serum cholesterol levels in patients with rotator cuff tear were determined. Frequency-matched case-control study. Setting University teaching hospital. 240 individuals who were operated on at our institution were included in the study. 120 patients (45 men and 75 women; mean age 64.86 years, range 40 to 83 years) who underwent arthroscopic repair of a rotator cuff tear were included in group 1. 120 patients (45 men and 75 women; mean age 63.91 years, range 38 to 78 years) who underwent arthroscopic meniscectomy for a meniscal tear and had no evidence of shoulder pathology were included in group 2 (control group). These patients were frequency-matched by age (within 3 years) and sex with patients of group 1. Measurement of serum triglyceride and total cholesterol concentrations. When comparing the two groups, there was no difference either in serum triglyceride concentration or total serum cholesterol concentration. There appears to be no association between serum triglyceride concentration and total serum cholesterol concentration in rotator cuff tears.

  5. Triterpenic Acids Present in Hawthorn Lower Plasma Cholesterol by Inhibiting Intestinal ACAT Activity in Hamsters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuguang Lin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida is an edible fruit used in traditional Chinese medicine to lower plasma lipids. This study explored lipid-lowering compounds and underlying mechanisms of action of hawthorn. Hawthorn powder extracts inhibited acylCoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT activity in Caco-2 cells. The inhibitory activity was positively associated with triterpenic acid (i.e., oleanolic acid (OA and ursolic acid (UA contents in the extracts. Cholesterol lowering effects of hawthorn and its potential additive effect in combination with plant sterol esters (PSE were further studied in hamsters. Animals were fed a semi-synthetic diet containing 0.08% (w/w cholesterol (control or the same diet supplemented with (i 0.37% hawthorn dichloromethane extract, (ii 0.24% PSE, (iii hawthorn dichloromethane extract (0.37% plus PSE (0.24% or (iv OA/UA mixture (0.01% for 4 weeks. Compared to the control diet, hawthorn, PSE, hawthorn plus PSE and OA/UA significantly lowered plasma non-HDL (VLDL + LDL cholesterol concentrations by 8%, 9%, 21% and 6% and decreased hepatic cholesterol ester content by 9%, 23%, 46% and 22%, respectively. The cholesterol lowering effects of these ingredients were conversely associated with their capacities in increasing fecal neutral sterol excretion. In conclusion, OA and UA are responsible for the cholesterol lowering effect of hawthorn by inhibiting intestinal ACAT activity. In addition, hawthorn and particularly its bioactive compounds (OA and UA enhanced the cholesterol lowering effect of plant sterols.

  6. Effect of Synthetic Truncated Apolipoprotein C-I Peptide on Plasma Lipoprotein Cholesterol in Nonhuman Primates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rampratap S. Kushwaha

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The present studies were conducted to determine whether a synthetic truncated apoC-I peptide that inhibits CETP activity in baboons would raise plasma HDL cholesterol levels in nonhuman primates with low HDL levels. We used 2 cynomolgus monkeys and 3 baboons fed a cholesterol- and fat-enriched diet. In cynomolgus monkeys, we injected synthetic truncated apoC-I inhibitor peptide at a dose of 20 mg/kg and, in baboons, at doses of 10, 15, and 20 mg/kg at weekly intervals. Blood samples were collected 3 times a week and VLDL + LDL and HDL cholesterol concentrations were measured. In cynomolgus monkeys, administration of the inhibitor peptide caused a rapid decrease in VLDL + LDL cholesterol concentrations (30%–60% and an increase in HDL cholesterol concentrations (10%–20%. VLDL + LDL cholesterol concentrations returned to baseline levels in approximately 15 days. In baboons, administration of the synthetic inhibitor peptide caused a decrease in VLDL + LDL cholesterol (20%–60% and an increase in HDL cholesterol (10%–20%. VLDL + LDL cholesterol returned to baseline levels by day 21, whereas HDL cholesterol concentrations remained elevated for up to 26 days. ApoA-I concentrations increased, whereas apoE and triglyceride concentrations decreased. Subcutaneous and intravenous administrations of the inhibitor peptide had similar effects on LDL and HDL cholesterol concentrations. There was no change in body weight, food consumption, or plasma IgG levels of any baboon during the study. These studies suggest that the truncated apoC-I peptide can be used to raise HDL in humans.

  7. Dietary cholesterol from eggs increases the ratio of total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in humans : a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weggemans, R.M.; Zock, P.L.; Katan, M.B.

    2001-01-01

    Several epidemiologic studies found no effect of egg consumption on the risk of coronary heart disease. It is possible that the adverse effect of eggs on LDL-cholesterol is offset by their favorable effect on HDL cholesterol. Objective: The objective was to review the effect of dietary cholesterol o

  8. Dietary cholesterol from eggs increases the ratio of total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in humans : a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weggemans, R.M.; Zock, P.L.; Katan, M.B.

    2001-01-01

    Several epidemiologic studies found no effect of egg consumption on the risk of coronary heart disease. It is possible that the adverse effect of eggs on LDL-cholesterol is offset by their favorable effect on HDL cholesterol. Objective: The objective was to review the effect of dietary cholesterol

  9. Insoluble carob fiber rich in polyphenols lowers total and LDL cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic sujects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Roso, Baltasar; Quintela, José C; de la Fuente, Ester; Haya, Javier; Pérez-Olleros, Lourdes

    2010-03-01

    Recently, polyphenols have been found to affect blood lipids in animals in a similar manner as soluble dietary fibre. The aim was to assess whether an insoluble dietary fiber very rich in polyphenols has a beneficial effect on serum lipids in humans. In a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled clinical study with parallel arms, 88 volunteers with hypercholesterolemia were randomly assigned to consume daily either, fiber with insoluble 84% polyphenols 4 g twice a day (n = 43) or placebo (n = 45). Serum total, LDL and HDL cholesterol and triglycerides were assessed at baseline and after 4 weeks. The insoluble polyphenols consumption reduced the total cholesterol by 17.8 +/- 6.1% (p < 0.05), LDL cholesterol by 22.5 +/- 8.9% (p < 0.001), LDL: HDL cholesterol ratio by 26.2 +/- 14.3% (p < 0.001) and triglycerides by 16.3 +/- 23.4% (p < 0.05) at the end of the study compared with baseline. No significant differences were found during the study time in the placebo group for the lipid profile. The consumption of fiber very rich in insoluble polyphenols shows beneficial effects on human blood lipid profile and may be effective in prevention and treatment of hyperlipemia.

  10. Increased cholesterol efflux from cultured fibroblasts to plasma from hypertriglyceridemic type 2 diabetic patients : Roles of pre beta-HDL, phospholipid transfer protein and cholesterol esterification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, R.; Groen, A. K.; Perton, F. G.; Dallinga-Thie, G. M.; van Wijland, M. J. A.; Dikkeschei, L. D.; Wolffenbuttel, B. H. R.; van Tol, A.; Dullaart, R. P. F.

    We tested whether hypertriglyceridemia associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus is accompanied by alterations in pre beta-HDL, which are considered to be initial acceptors of cell-derived cholesterol, and by changes in the ability of plasma to promote cellular cholesterol efflux. In 28

  11. Triterpenic Acids Present in Hawthorn Lower Plasma Cholesterol by Inhibiting Intestinal ACAT Activity in Hamsters

    OpenAIRE

    Yuguang Lin; Vermeer, Mario A.; Trautwein, Elke A.

    2011-01-01

    Hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida) is an edible fruit used in traditional Chinese medicine to lower plasma lipids. This study explored lipid-lowering compounds and underlying mechanisms of action of hawthorn. Hawthorn powder extracts inhibited acylCoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) activity in Caco-2 cells. The inhibitory activity was positively associated with triterpenic acid (i.e., oleanolic acid (OA) and ursolic acid (UA)) contents in the extracts. Cholesterol lowering effects of hawtho...

  12. Cheese intake lowers plasma cholesterol concentrations without increasing bile acid excretion

    OpenAIRE

    Hjerpsted, Julie Bousgaard; Dragsted, Lars Ove; Tholstrup, Tine

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Cheese is a dairy product with high calcium content. It has been suggested that calcium intake may increase fecal excretion of bile acids that would cause a regeneration of bile acids from hepatic cholesterol and thereby result in a lowering of plasma cholesterol concentrations. We aimed to test this hypothesis by assessing bile acid and calcium concentrations in fecal samples from humans after intake of cheese and butter. Methods The study was a randomized, 2 × 6 weeks crossover, die...

  13. Total Cholesterol and Cancer Risk in a Large Prospective Study in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitahara, Cari M.; Berrington de González, Amy; Freedman, Neal D.; Huxley, Rachel; Mok, Yejin; Jee, Sun Ha; Samet, Jonathan M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To further clarify the relationship between total cholesterol and cancer, which remains unclear. Methods We prospectively examined the association between total cholesterol and site-specific and all-cancer incidence among 1,189,719 Korean adults enrolled in the National Health Insurance Corporation who underwent a standardized biennial medical examination in 1992 to 1995 and were observed for 14 years until cancer diagnosis or death. Results Over follow-up, 53,944 men and 24,475 women were diagnosed with a primary cancer. Compared with levels less than 160 mg/dL, high total cholesterol (≥ 240 mg/dL) was positively associated with prostate cancer (hazard ratio [HR], 1.24; 95% CI, 1.07 to 1.44; P trend = .001) and colon cancer (HR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.25; P trend = .05) in men and breast cancer in women (HR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.33; P trend = .03). Higher total cholesterol was associated with a lower incidence of liver cancer (men: HR, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.38 to 0.45; P trend < .001; women: HR, 0.32; 95% CI, 0.27 to 0.39; P trend < .001), stomach cancer (men: HR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.82 to 0.93; P trend ≤ .001; women: HR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.77 to 0.97; P trend = .06), and, in men, lung cancer (HR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.82 to 0.96; P trend < .001). Results for liver cancer were slightly attenuated after additional adjustment for liver enzyme levels and hepatitis B surface antigen status (men: HR, 0.60; P trend < .001; women: HR, 0.46; P trend = .003) and exclusion of the first 10 years of follow-up (men: HR, 0.59; P trend < .001; women: HR, 0.44; P trend < .001). Total cholesterol was inversely associated with all-cancer incidence in both men (HR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.81 to 0.86; P trend < .001) and women (HR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.87 to 0.95; P trend < .001), but these associations were attenuated after excluding incident liver cancers (men: HR, 0.95; P trend < .001; women: HR, 0.98; P trend = .32). Conclusion In this large prospective study, we found that total cholesterol was

  14. The human plasma-metabolome: Reference values in 800 French healthy volunteers; impact of cholesterol, gender and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabado, Séverine; Al-Salameh, Abdallah; Croixmarie, Vincent; Masson, Perrine; Corruble, Emmanuelle; Fève, Bruno; Colle, Romain; Ripoll, Laurent; Walther, Bernard; Boursier-Neyret, Claire; Werner, Erwan; Becquemont, Laurent; Chanson, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Metabolomic approaches are increasingly used to identify new disease biomarkers, yet normal values of many plasma metabolites remain poorly defined. The aim of this study was to define the "normal" metabolome in healthy volunteers. We included 800 French volunteers aged between 18 and 86, equally distributed according to sex, free of any medication and considered healthy on the basis of their medical history, clinical examination and standard laboratory tests. We quantified 185 plasma metabolites, including amino acids, biogenic amines, acylcarnitines, phosphatidylcholines, sphingomyelins and hexose, using tandem mass spectrometry with the Biocrates AbsoluteIDQ p180 kit. Principal components analysis was applied to identify the main factors responsible for metabolome variability and orthogonal projection to latent structures analysis was employed to confirm the observed patterns and identify pattern-related metabolites. We established a plasma metabolite reference dataset for 144/185 metabolites. Total blood cholesterol, gender and age were identified as the principal factors explaining metabolome variability. High total blood cholesterol levels were associated with higher plasma sphingomyelins and phosphatidylcholines concentrations. Compared to women, men had higher concentrations of creatinine, branched-chain amino acids and lysophosphatidylcholines, and lower concentrations of sphingomyelins and phosphatidylcholines. Elderly healthy subjects had higher sphingomyelins and phosphatidylcholines plasma levels than young subjects. We established reference human metabolome values in a large and well-defined population of French healthy volunteers. This study provides an essential baseline for defining the "normal" metabolome and its main sources of variation.

  15. Imaging approaches for analysis of cholesterol distribution and dynamics in the plasma membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wüstner, Daniel; Modzel, Maciej; Lund, Frederik W; Lomholt, Michael A

    2016-09-01

    Cholesterol is an important lipid component of the plasma membrane (PM) of mammalian cells, where it is involved in control of many physiological processes, such as endocytosis, cell migration, cell signalling and surface ruffling. In an attempt to explain these functions of cholesterol, several models have been put forward about cholesterol's lateral and transbilayer organization in the PM. In this article, we review imaging techniques developed over the last two decades for assessing the distribution and dynamics of cholesterol in the PM of mammalian cells. Particular focus is on fluorescence techniques to study the lateral and inter-leaflet distribution of suitable cholesterol analogues in the PM of living cells. We describe also several methods for determining lateral cholesterol dynamics in the PM including fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP), fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS), single particle tracking (SPT) and spot variation FCS coupled to stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy. For proper interpretation of such measurements, we provide some background in probe photophysics and diffusion phenomena occurring in cell membranes. In particular, we show the equivalence of the reaction-diffusion approach, as used in FRAP and FCS, and continuous time random walk (CTRW) models, as often invoked in SPT studies. We also discuss mass spectrometry (MS) based imaging of cholesterol in the PM of fixed cells and compare this method with fluorescence imaging of sterols. We conclude that evidence from many experimental techniques converges towards a model of a homogeneous distribution of cholesterol with largely free and unhindered diffusion in both leaflets of the PM.

  16. Cholesterol and Women's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cholesterol.” What is dyslipidemia? Having abnormal levels of cholesterol or triglycerides is called dyslipidemia . A common dyslipidemia in the ... the levels of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides. When should my cholesterol levels be measured? Women ...

  17. Combined pleural fluid cholesterol and total protein in differentiation of exudates and transudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Anand K; Choudhury, Sushmita

    2013-01-01

    The management strategy to be adopted in pleural effusion depends on whether an effusion is a transudate or exudate. To evaluate the usefulness of pleural fluid cholesterol and/or total protein measurements for differentiating between exudates and transudates, and to compare it with Light's criteria. In this prospective study 60 patients with pleural effusion were included. Pleural fluid total protein, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and cholesterol as well as serum total protein and LDH levels along with other investigations were studied. Clinical classification of transudate or exudate was done on the basis of aetiology. Based on clinical signs and symptoms, chest radiograph, other investigations and response to treatment, 49 of these effusions were classified as exudates and 11 as transudates. Using pleural fluid cholesterol levels at a cut-off point of greater than 60 mg/dL and/or total protein at a cut-off point of greater than 3 g/dL for distinguishing transudates and exudates, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV), were 100 percent. Using Light's criteria for discriminating transudates and exudates, sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV were found to be 98%; 100%; 100% and 92%, respectively. The differences resulted from a mis-classification of one expected exudate as transudate by Light's criteria. Pleural fluid cholesterol and total protein are simple, cost-effective, and useful parameters in distinguishing pleural transudates from exudates, with the advantage of requiring only two laboratory determinations and no simultaneous blood sample, compared to the use of Light's criteria.

  18. Deficient Cholesterol Esterification in Plasma of apoc2 Knockout Zebrafish and Familial Chylomicronemia Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao; Gaudet, Daniel; Miller, Yury I.

    2017-01-01

    Hypertriglyceridemia is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Apolipoprotein C-II (APOC2) is an obligatory cofactor for lipoprotein lipase (LPL), the major enzyme catalyzing plasma triglyceride hydrolysis. We have created an apoc2 knockout zebrafish model, which mimics the familial chylomicronemia syndrome (FCS) in human patients with a defect in the APOC2 or LPL gene. In this study, we measured plasma levels of free cholesterol (FC) and cholesterol esters (CE) and found that apoc2 mutant zebrafish have a significantly higher FC to CE ratio (FC/CE), when compared to the wild type. Feeding apoc2 mutant zebrafish a low-fat diet reduced triglyceride levels but not the FC/CE ratio. In situ hybridization and qPCR results demonstrated that the hepatic expression of lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (lcat), the enzyme responsible for esterifying plasma FC to CE, and of apolipoprotein A-I, a major protein component of HDL, were dramatically decreased in apoc2 mutants. Furthermore, the FC/CE ratio was significantly increased in the whole plasma and in a chylomicron-depleted fraction of human FCS patients. The FCS plasma LCAT activity was significantly lower than that of healthy controls. In summary, this study, using a zebrafish model and human patient samples, reports for the first time the defect in plasma cholesterol esterification associated with LPL deficiency. PMID:28107429

  19. Double Potential Pulse Chronocoulometry for Detection of Plasma Membrane Cholesterol Efflux at Disk Platinum Microelectrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Richard H.; Lu, Hui; Shaw, Kendrick; Chiel, Hillel J.; Kelley, Thomas J.; Burgess, James D.

    2016-01-01

    A double potential pulse scheme is reported for observation of cholesterol efflux from the plasma membrane of a single neuron cell. Capillary Pt disk microelectrodes having a thin glass insulator allow the 10 μm diameter electrode and cell to be viewed under optical magnification. The electrode, covalently functionalized with cholesterol oxidase, is positioned in contact with the cell surface resulting in enzyme catalyzed cholesterol oxidation and efflux of cholesterol from the plasma membrane at the electrode contact site. Enzymatically generated hydrogen peroxide accumulates at the electrode/cell interface during a 5 s hold-time and is oxidized during application of a potential pulse. A second, replicate potential pulse is applied 0.5 s after the first potential pulse to gauge background charge prior to significant accumulation of hydrogen peroxide. The difference in charge passed between the first and second potential pulse provides a measure of hydrogen peroxide generated by the enzyme and is an indication of the cholesterol efflux. Control experiments for bare Pt microelectrodes in contact with the cell plasma membrane show difference charge signals in the range of about 7–10 pC. Enzyme-modified electrodes in contact with the plasma membrane show signals in the range of 16–26 pC. PMID:27330196

  20. Red wine prevents the postprandial increase in plasma cholesterol oxidation products: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natella, F; Macone, A; Ramberti, A; Forte, M; Mattivi, F; Matarese, R M; Scaccini, C

    2011-06-28

    Moderate wine consumption has been shown to lower cardiovascular risk. One of the mechanisms could involve the control of postprandial hyperlipaemia, a well-defined risk factor for atherosclerosis, reasonably by reducing the absorption of lipid oxidised species from the meal. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether wine consumption with the meal is able to reduce the postprandial increase in plasma lipid hydroperoxides and cholesterol oxidation products, in human subjects. In two different study sessions, twelve healthy volunteers consumed the same test meal rich in oxidised and oxidisable lipids (a double cheeseburger), with 300 ml of water (control) or with 300 ml of red wine (wine). The postprandial plasma concentration of cholesterol oxidation products was measured by GC-MS. The control meal induced a significant increase in the plasma concentration of lipid hydroperoxides and of two cholesterol oxidation products, 7-β-hydroxycholesterol and 7-ketocholesterol. The postprandial increase in lipid hydroperoxides and cholesterol oxidation products was fully prevented by wine when consumed with the meal. In conclusion, the present study provides evidence that consumption of wine with the meal could prevent the postprandial increase in plasma cholesterol oxidation products.

  1. Perspective on plasma membrane cholesterol efflux and spermatozoal function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhastagir Sultan Sheriff

    2010-01-01

    techniques for enhancing fertility, identifying and treating certain forms of male infertility, and preventing conception. One remarkable insight is the importance of membrane cholesterol efflux in initiating transmembrane signaling events that confer fertilization competence. The identity of the physiologically relevant cholesterol acceptors and modulators of cholesterol efflux is therefore of great interest. Still, it is clear that cholesterol efflux represents only a part of this story. The involvement of phospholipid translocation in mediating dynamic changes in the membrane, rendering it conducive to transmembrane signaling, and the modulation of membrane components of signal transduction cascades by cholesterol or phospholipids will yield important insights into the links between environmental sensing and transmembrane signaling in the sperm. Understanding the membrane molecular events will ultimately provide new and exciting areas of investigation for the future.

  2. Clinical Usefulness of serum total cholesterol as an index of hypothyroidism in patients after cervical radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iguma, Yoko; Iwai, Chikako; Okuyama, Masako; Futami, Takahiro; Inui, Ken-ichi [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Hospital; Asato, Ryo [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Medicine

    2003-02-01

    Cervical radiation therapy is often applied to patients with head and neck cancers because radiation has a high sensitivity to these cancers and permits the preservation of functions and physical form. However, it has been shown that various complications can result from radiation therapy. We have encountered some patients who showed hypercholesterolemia resulting from cervical radiation. Therefore, we have paid close attention to the relationship between hypercholesterolemia after cervical radiation and hypothyroidism. Thyroid hormone tests in these patients with hypercholesterolemia after cervical radiation showed high thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and low free thyroxine (fT{sub 4}), indicating the presence of hypothyroidism. After administration of levothyroxine Na, their fT{sub 4} levels increased and both TSH levels and serum total cholesterol levels decreased. In conclusion, in patients who have received cervical radiation, we recommend monitoring serum total cholesterol periodically to detect hypothyroidism easily before the appearance of its symptoms. (author)

  3. Dietary chitosan enhances hepatic CYP7A1 activity and reduces plasma and liver cholesterol concentrations in diet-induced hypercholesterolemia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Min-Sun; Lee, Mak-Soon; Kim, Chong-Tai; Kim, Yangha

    2007-01-01

    The present study was performed to elucidate the hypocholesterolemic action of chitosan on the diet-induced hypercholesterolemia in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=24) were fed with chitosan-free diet (Control), diets containing 2% or 5% chitosan for 4 weeks. Hypercholesterolemia was induced by adding 1% cholesterol and 0.5% cholic acid to all diets. Body weight gain and food intake of rats did not differ among the groups. The chitosan treated groups showed significant improvement in the plasma concentration of total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol compared to the control group (pCYP7A1), the rate-limiting enzyme in the conversion of cholesterol to bile acids, was increased by 123% and 165% for the 2% or 5% chitosan diets, respectively. These findings suggest that enhancement of hepatic CYP7A1 activity may be a mechanism, which can partially account for the hypocholesterolemic effect of dietary chitosan in cholesterol metabolism.

  4. Effect of aqueous extract of Ajuga iva supplementation on plasma lipid profile and tissue antioxidant status in rats fed a high-cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenni, A; Yahia, D Ait; Boukortt, F O; Prost, J; Lacaille-Dubois, M A; Bouchenak, M

    2007-01-19

    The present study was designed to explore the possible antioxidant and hypolipidemic effects of the aqueous extract of Ajuga iva (0.5% in the diet) in rats fed a high-cholesterol (1%) diet (HCD). The results indicated that the HCD-Ai versus HCD treatment led to many changes in biochemical parameters. They showed a decrease of plasma total cholesterol (TC) and VLDL-cholesterol but an increase of HDL(2)-cholesterol. The triacylglycerol contents were reduced in plasma and in VLDL. The lipid peroxidation determined by TBARS was decreased by 75% in plasma. TBARS in liver, heart and kidneys were highly reduced excepted in the adipose tissue. Ajuga iva treatment enhanced superoxide dismutase activity in liver and kidney. Glutathione reductase activity was lowered in adipose tissue but increased in liver and in kidney. A significant increase was noted in glutathione peroxidase activity in liver, heart and kidney but a low value in adipose tissue was observed. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that in addition to its potent TG and TC-lowering effects, Ajuga iva is effective in improving the antioxidant status by reducing lipid peroxidation in plasma and tissues and enhancing the antioxidant enzymes in rats fed high-cholesterol diet. Furthermore, Ajuga iva may reduce intestinal cholesterol absorption.

  5. Multivariate calibration for protein, cholesterol and triglycerides in human plasma using short-wave near infrared spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, A.; Marbach, R.; Heise, H. M.

    1995-04-01

    Recent progress in spectroscopy and chemometrics have brought the reagentless analysis of blood substrates by near infrared spectroscopy into clinical reach. Results for the in-vitro analysis of several blood substrates in human blood plasma using multivariate calibration by partial-least squares are presented for 125 hospital samples. Whereas the relative meansquared prediction error for total protein (1.4 %) using short wave NIR data is comparable with previous results using conventional NIR spectroscopy, the errors found for total cholesterol (6.5 %) and triglycerides (13.8 %) are nearly a factor of two worse for this study.

  6. Supplementation with Watermelon Extract Reduces Total Cholesterol and LDL Cholesterol in Adults with Dyslipidemia under the Influence of the MTHFR C677T Polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massa, Nayara M L; Silva, Alexandre S; de Oliveira, Caio V C; Costa, Maria J C; Persuhn, Darlene C; Barbosa, Carlos V S; Gonçalves, Maria da C R

    2016-08-01

    Dyslipidemia and genetic polymorphisms are associated with increased risk for developing cardiovascular diseases, and watermelon appears to have the potential to improve hyperlipidemia due to the presence of nutrients such as arginine and citrulline. To test the hypolipidemic effect of watermelon extract (Citrullus lanatus) and the influence of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase genotype (MTHFR C677T) on supplementation response. This is an experimental clinical phase II randomized and double-blind study. Forty-three subjects with dyslipidemia were randomly divided into 2 groups: experimental (n = 22) and control (n = 21) groups. The subjects were supplemented daily for 42 days with 6 g of watermelon extract or a mixture of carbohydrates (sucrose/glucose/fructose). The use of watermelon extract reduced plasma total cholesterol (p < 0.05) and low-density lipoprotein (p < 0.01) without modifying triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein, and very low-density lipoprotein values. Only carriers of the T allele (MTHFR C677T) showed decreasing concentrations of low-density lipoprotein (p < 0.01). No changes in anthropometric parameters analyzed were observed. This is the first study to demonstrate the beneficial effect of the consumption of watermelon extract in reducing plasma levels of lipids in humans. The MTHFR C677T polymorphism did not affect the plasma lipid concentration but made individuals more responsive to treatment with watermelon. The consumption of this functional food represents an alternative therapy in the combined treatment of patients with dyslipidemia, promoting health and minimizing the development of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases.

  7. Fluorescent assay of total serum cholesterol, with use of gas-liquid chromatography to study saponification efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeski, E J; Seltzer, E J; Carter, P L; Howlett, D R; Stuart, J D

    1977-11-01

    We describe a fluorescent determination of total cholesterol in serum for which the accuracy and precision are comparable to that for the method of Abell-Kendall, a method of generally accepted accuracy. By the use of quality reagents and the rigorous exclusion of water, the strong fluorophor that develops on reacting concentrated sulfuric acid with cholesterol can be used to quantitatively determine the total cholesterol in serum. We used gas-liquid chromatography to monitor the extent of saponification of the cholesterol esters, because we found them to have fluorescent efficiencies that differed from that of free cholesterol. Sodium methoxide in methanol/methylene chloride (1/3 by vol) was shown by gas-liquid chromatography to very effectively saponify the cholesterol esters in serum.

  8. The biological response of cells to nanosecond pulsed electric fields is dependent on plasma membrane cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantu, Jody C; Tarango, Melissa; Beier, Hope T; Ibey, Bennett L

    2016-11-01

    Previous work from our laboratory demonstrated nanopore formation in cell membranes following exposure to nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEF). We observed differences in sensitivity to nsPEF in both acute membrane injury and 24h lethality across multiple cells lines. Based on these data, we hypothesize that the biological response of cells to nsPEF is dependent on the physical properties of the plasma membrane (PM), including regional cholesterol content. Results presented in this paper show that depletion of membrane cholesterol disrupts the PM and increases the permeability of cells to small molecules, including propidium iodide and calcium occurring after fewer nsPEF. Additionally, cholesterol depletion concurrently decreases the "dose" of nsPEF required to induce lethality. In summary, the results of the current study suggest that the PM cholesterol composition is an important determinant in the cellular response to nsPEF. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Genetic Association Between Insulin Resistance And Total Cholesterol In Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus - A Preliminary Observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hettihewa Lukshmy Menik

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the degree of genetic association between insulin resistance (IR with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM and abnormalities in lipid metabolism in 42 patients. IR was assessed by fasting insulin test (FI, McAuley (McA, HOMA and QUICKI methods. IR was detected in 34 (81% patients by FI, McA and in 39 (93% patients by HOMA and QUICKI. 26 (62% patients had family history of DM and 23 (89% of them displayed IR by FI & McA. 24 of them (92% displayed IR by HOMA and QUICKI. Our results suggest that association between the family history of DM and IR were statistically significant by chi-square test (P<0.05. Further, 29 (69% patients had elevated total cholesterol levels. Association between elevated total cholesterol and IR as assessed by FI test was also statistically significant (x2=4.6; p<0.05. Results of our study indicate the statistically significant genetic association of IR with abnormal cholesterol metabolism and family history of DM.

  10. Vitamin D production after UVB exposure depends on baseline vitamin D and total cholesterol but not on skin pigmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogh, Morten K B; Schmedes, Anne; Philipsen, Peter A

    2010-01-01

    UVB radiation increases serum vitamin D level expressed as 25-hydroxyvitamin-D(3) (25(OH)D), but the influence of skin pigmentation, baseline 25(OH)D level, and total cholesterol has not been well characterized. To determine the importance of skin pigmentation, baseline 25(OH)D level, and total...... to investigate the influence of skin pigmentation and baseline total cholesterol. The participants had 24% of their skin exposed to UVB (3 standard erythema doses) four times every second or third day. Skin pigmentation and 25(OH)D levels were measured before and after the irradiations. Total cholesterol...

  11. Free-cholesterol loading does not trigger phase separation of the fluorescent sterol dehydroergosterol in the plasma membrane of macrophages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wüstner, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    membrane distribution of the fluorescent cholesterol-mimicking sterol dehydroergosterol (DHE) was investigated in FC-loaded J774 macrophages. Wide field fluorescence and deconvolution microscopy were combined with quantitative assessment of sterol distribution in straightened plasma membrane image segments...... with increased membrane cholesterol content, sterols do not form a separate phase in the plasma membrane....

  12. Systematic construction of a conceptual minimal model of plasma cholesterol levels based on knockout mouse phenotypes knockout mouse phenotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pas, van de N.; Soffers, A.E.M.F.; Freidig, A.P.; Ommen, van B.; Woutersen, R.A.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Graaf, de A.A.

    2010-01-01

    Elevated plasma cholesterol, a well-known risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, is the result of the activity of many genes and their encoded proteins in a complex physiological network. We aim to develop a minimal kinetic computational model for predicting plasma cholesterol levels. To define th

  13. Cellular cholesterol efflux to plasma from moderately hypercholesterolaemic type 1 diabetic patients is enhanced, and is unaffected by simvastatin treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, R; Kerstens, MN; Sluiter, WJ; Groen, AK; van Tol, A; Dullaart, RPF

    Cellular cholesterol efflux to plasma is important in reverse cholesterol transport and may be affected by simvastatin in type 1 diabetes mellitus. In 14 moderately hypercholesterolaemic type 1 diabetic and 13 healthy men we determined plasma (apo)lipoproteins, pre-beta HDL formation, cholesteryl

  14. Early-life determinants of total and HDL cholesterol concentrations in 8-year-old children; the PIAMA birth cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marga B M Bekkers

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adult cholesterol concentrations might be influenced by early-life factors, such as breastfeeding and birth weight, referred to as "early programming". How such early factors exert their influence over the life course is still poorly understood. Evidence from studies in children and adolescents is scarce and conflicting. We investigated the influence of 6 different perinatal risk factors on childhood total and HDL cholesterol concentrations and total-to-HDL cholesterol ratio measured at 8 years of age, and additionally we studied the role of the child's current Body Mass Index (BMI. METHODS: Anthropometric measures and blood plasma samples were collected during a medical examination in 751 8-year-old children participating in the prospective Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA birth cohort study. Linear and logistic regression were performed to estimate associations of total and HDL cholesterol concentrations with breastfeeding, birth weight, infant weight gain, maternal overweight before pregnancy, gestational diabetes and maternal smoking during pregnancy, taking into account the child's current BMI. RESULTS: Linear regressions showed an association between total-to-HDL cholesterol ratio and maternal pre-pregnancy overweight (β = 0.15, Confidence Interval 95% (CI: 0.02, 0.28, rapid infant weight gain (β = 0.13, 95%CI: 0.01, 0.26, and maternal smoking during pregnancy (β = 0.14, 95%CI: 0.00, 0.29. These associations were partly mediated by the child's BMI. CONCLUSION: Total-to-HDL cholesterol ratio in 8-year-old children was positively associated with maternal pre-pregnancy overweight, maternal smoking during pregnancy and rapid infant weight gain.

  15. Plasma HDL cholesterol and risk of myocardial infarction : A mendelian randomisation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voight, Benjamin F.; Peloso, Gina M.; Orho-Melander, Marju; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Barbalic, Maja; Jensen, Majken K.; Hindy, George; Holm, Hilma; Ding, Eric L.; Johnson, Toby; Schunkert, Heribert; Samani, Nilesh J.; Clarke, Robert; Hopewell, Jemma C.; Thompson, John F.; Li, Mingyao; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; Musunuru, Kiran; Pirruccello, James P.; Saleheen, Danish; Chen, Li; Stewart, Alexandre F. R.; Schillert, Arne; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Thorgeirsson, Gudmundur; Anand, Sonia; Engert, James C.; Morgan, Thomas; Spertus, John; Stoll, Monika; Berger, Klaus; Martinelli, Nicola; Girelli, Domenico; McKeown, Pascal P.; Patterson, Christopher C.; Epstein, Stephen E.; Devaney, Joseph; Burnett, Mary-Susan; Mooser, Vincent; Ripatti, Samuli; Surakka, Ida; Nieminen, Markku S.; Sinisalo, Juha; Lokki, Marja-Liisa; Perola, Markus; Havulinna, Aki; de Faire, Ulf; Gigante, Bruna; Ingelsson, Erik; Zeller, Tanja; Wild, Philipp; de Bakker, Paul I. W.; Klungel, Olaf H.; Maitland-van der Zee, Anke-Hilse; Peters, Bas J. M.; de Boer, Anthonius; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Kamphuisen, Pieter W.; Deneer, Vera H. M.; Elbers, Clara C.; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Hofker, Marten H.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Verschuren, W. M. Monique; Boer, Jolanda M. A.; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Rasheed, Asif; Frossard, Philippe; Demissie, Serkalem; Willer, Cristen; Do, Ron; Ordovas, Jose M.; Abecasis, Goncalo R.; Boehnke, Michael; Mohlke, Karen L.; Daly, Mark J.; Guiducci, Candace; Burtt, Noel P.; Surti, Aarti; Gonzalez, Elena; Purcell, Shaun; Gabriel, Stacey; Marrugat, Jaume; Peden, John; Erdmann, Jeanette; Diemert, Patrick; Willenborg, Christina; Koenig, Inke R.; Fischer, Marcus; Hengstenberg, Christian; Ziegler, Andreas; Buysschaert, Ian; Lambrechts, Diether; Van de Werf, Frans; Fox, Keith A.; El Mokhtari, Nour Eddine; Rubin, Diana; Schrezenmeir, Juergen; Schreiber, Stefan; Schaefer, Arne; Danesh, John; Blankenberg, Stefan; Roberts, Robert; McPherson, Ruth; Watkins, Hugh; Hall, Alistair S.; Overvad, Kim; Rimm, Eric; Boerwinkle, Eric; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Reilly, Muredach P.; Melander, Olle; Mannucci, Pier M.; Ardissino, Diego; Siscovick, David; Elosua, Roberto; Stefansson, Kari; O'Donnell, Christopher J.; Salomaa, Veikko; Rader, Daniel J.; Peltonen, Leena; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Altshuler, David; Kathiresan, Sekar

    2012-01-01

    Background High plasma HDL cholesterol is associated with reduced risk of myocardial infarction, but whether this association is causal is unclear. Exploiting the fact that genotypes are randomly assigned at meiosis, are independent of non-genetic confounding, and are unmodified by disease

  16. Plasma HDL cholesterol and risk of myocardial infarction : A mendelian randomisation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voight, Benjamin F.; Peloso, Gina M.; Orho-Melander, Marju; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Barbalic, Maja; Jensen, Majken K.; Hindy, George; Holm, Hilma; Ding, Eric L.; Johnson, Toby; Schunkert, Heribert; Samani, Nilesh J.; Clarke, Robert; Hopewell, Jemma C.; Thompson, John F.; Li, Mingyao; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; Musunuru, Kiran; Pirruccello, James P.; Saleheen, Danish; Chen, Li; Stewart, Alexandre F. R.; Schillert, Arne; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Thorgeirsson, Gudmundur; Anand, Sonia; Engert, James C.; Morgan, Thomas; Spertus, John; Stoll, Monika; Berger, Klaus; Martinelli, Nicola; Girelli, Domenico; McKeown, Pascal P.; Patterson, Christopher C.; Epstein, Stephen E.; Devaney, Joseph; Burnett, Mary-Susan; Mooser, Vincent; Ripatti, Samuli; Surakka, Ida; Nieminen, Markku S.; Sinisalo, Juha; Lokki, Marja-Liisa; Perola, Markus; Havulinna, Aki; de Faire, Ulf; Gigante, Bruna; Ingelsson, Erik; Zeller, Tanja; Wild, Philipp; de Bakker, Paul I. W.; Klungel, Olaf H.; Maitland-van der Zee, Anke-Hilse; Peters, Bas J. M.; de Boer, Anthonius; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Kamphuisen, Pieter W.; Deneer, Vera H. M.; Elbers, Clara C.; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Hofker, Marten H.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Verschuren, W. M. Monique; Boer, Jolanda M. A.; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Rasheed, Asif; Frossard, Philippe; Demissie, Serkalem; Willer, Cristen; Do, Ron; Ordovas, Jose M.; Abecasis, Goncalo R.; Boehnke, Michael; Mohlke, Karen L.; Daly, Mark J.; Guiducci, Candace; Burtt, Noel P.; Surti, Aarti; Gonzalez, Elena; Purcell, Shaun; Gabriel, Stacey; Marrugat, Jaume; Peden, John; Erdmann, Jeanette; Diemert, Patrick; Willenborg, Christina; Koenig, Inke R.; Fischer, Marcus; Hengstenberg, Christian; Ziegler, Andreas; Buysschaert, Ian; Lambrechts, Diether; Van de Werf, Frans; Fox, Keith A.; El Mokhtari, Nour Eddine; Rubin, Diana; Schrezenmeir, Juergen; Schreiber, Stefan; Schaefer, Arne; Danesh, John; Blankenberg, Stefan; Roberts, Robert; McPherson, Ruth; Watkins, Hugh; Hall, Alistair S.; Overvad, Kim; Rimm, Eric; Boerwinkle, Eric; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Reilly, Muredach P.; Melander, Olle; Mannucci, Pier M.; Ardissino, Diego; Siscovick, David; Elosua, Roberto; Stefansson, Kari; O'Donnell, Christopher J.; Salomaa, Veikko; Rader, Daniel J.; Peltonen, Leena; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Altshuler, David; Kathiresan, Sekar

    2012-01-01

    Background High plasma HDL cholesterol is associated with reduced risk of myocardial infarction, but whether this association is causal is unclear. Exploiting the fact that genotypes are randomly assigned at meiosis, are independent of non-genetic confounding, and are unmodified by disease processes

  17. Ethnic differences in total and HDL cholesterol among Turkish, Moroccan and Dutch ethnic groups living in Amsterdam, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ujcic-Voortman, J.K.; Bos, G.; Baan, C.A.; Uitenbroek, D.G.; Verhoeff, A.P.; Seidell, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Background High total cholesterol and low HDL (high-density lipoprotein) cholesterol are important determinants of cardiovascular disease. Little is known about dyslipidemia among Turkish and Moroccan migrants, two of the largest ethnic minority groups in several European countries. This study exami

  18. Protonated nanostructured aluminosilicate (NSAS reduces plasma cholesterol concentrations and atherosclerotic lesions in Apolipoprotein E deficient mice fed a high cholesterol and high fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantinides Panayiotis P

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this work was to assess the effect of chronic administration of protonated nanostructured aluminosilicate (NSAS on the plasma cholesterol levels and development of atherosclerotic lesions in Apolipoprotein (ApoE deficient mice fed a high cholesterol and high fat diet. Apolipoprotein E (ApoE deficient mice were divided into the following treatment groups: protonated NSAS 1.4% (w/w, untreated control and 2% (w/w stigmastanol mixed with high-cholesterol/high-fat diet. Animals were treated for 12 weeks, blood samples were withdrawn every 4 weeks for determination of plasma cholesterol and triglyceride levels. At the end of the study the aortic roots were harvested for assessment of atherosclerotic lesions. NSAS at 1.4% (w/w and stigmastanol at 2% (w/w treatment groups showed significant decreases in plasma cholesterol concentrations at all time points relative to the control animals. The lesion sum area in 1.4% (w/w NSAS and 2% (w/w stigmastanol groups were significantly less from the control animals. In conclusion, in this study, the effectiveness of chronic administration of protonated NSAS material in the reduction of plasma cholesterol levels and decrease in development of atherosclerotic lesions was demonstrated in Apo-E deficient mice model.

  19. The use of a food supplement is associated with changes in total cholesterol levels in adult women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Rodrigues Tavares

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available High levels of total cholesterol are a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease. An oral formulation comprised of two types of capsules was tested in adult women (n = 14 with total cholesterol values >200 mg/dL. In the first capsule were red yeast rice extract, pyridoxine hydrochloride, riboflavin, pteroylglutamic acid and cyanocobalamin, and in the second, a mixture of fish oils containing docosahexaenoic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid. After four weeks of supplementation, a significant (p =0.001 decrease was observed in the mean values of total cholesterol.

  20. Butter increased total and LDL cholesterol compared with olive oil but resulted in higher HDL cholesterol compared with a habitual diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engel, Sara; Tholstrup, Tine

    2015-01-01

    , moderate olive oil intake, and a habitual diet on blood lipids, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), glucose, and insulin. DESIGN: The study was a controlled, double-blinded, randomized 2 × 5-wk crossover dietary intervention study with a 14-d run-in period during which subjects consumed...... their habitual diets. The study included 47 healthy men and women (mean ± SD total cholesterol: 5.22 ± 0.90 mmol/L) who substituted a part of their habitual diets with 4.5% of energy from butter or refined olive oil. RESULTS: Study subjects were 70% women with a mean age and body mass index (in kg/m(2)) of 40.......4 y and 23.5, respectively. Butter intake increased total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol more than did olive oil intake (P

  1. Effects of Kluyveromyces marxianus Isolated from Tibetan Mushrooms on the Plasma Lipids, Egg Cholesterol Level, Egg Quality and Intestinal Health of Laying Hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Zhong

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The effects of the Kluyveromyces marxianus M3 strain, isolated from Tibetan mushrooms, on plasma lipids, egg cholesterol level, egg quality, and intestinal health of laying hens were evaluated. In total, 160 Beijing fatty laying hens (43 weeks old were divided into four groups and fed a basal diet supplemented with 0%, 0.1%, 0.3%, or 0.5% freeze-dried K. marxianus M3 powder for four weeks. The results showed that yeast supplementation reduced serum total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C, and very low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-C levels (p<0.01, and increased serum high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C level (p<0.05. Moreover, regardless of K. marxianus M3 dietary addition level, the cholesterol content of the eggs decreased by more than 26%. When0.3% yeast was supplemented, significant differences were found in the egg weights, shell strength, albumen height, Haugh unit and nutrient content of the eggs (p<0.01. Finally, 0.3% yeast supplementation improved the intestinal flora conditions of the hens by decreasing the Salmonella and Staphylococcus aureus counts (p<0.01 and increasing the Bifidobacterium count (p<0.01. The results in this work demonstrated that yeast culture supplementation to the diets deceased the serum and egg yolk cholesterol, and increased egg quality.

  2. Cholesterol:phospholipid ratio is elevated in platelet plasma membrane in patients with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, N; Robinson, B F; Graham, J G; Wilson, R B

    1990-06-01

    The cholesterol:phospholipid ratio was measured in platelet plasma membrane, red blood cell (RBC) membranes, low density lipoprotein (LDL) and whole plasma in patients with primary hypertension and in matched normal controls. The cholesterol:phospholipid ratio was raised in the platelet membrane from hypertensive patients compared with that from normal controls (0.65 +/- 0.03 vs 0.53 +/- 0.02: mean +/- SEM; P less than 0.01). The ratio observed in RBC membranes, LDL and whole blood was similar in the two groups. If this abnormality in the lipid composition of platelet plasma membrane is present in other cells it could account for some of the changes in cell membrane function that have been described in hypertension.

  3. Fluoxetine Decreased Serum Total Cholesterol and Triglyceride Levels in a Hypercholesterolemic Patient with Postpartum Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Khalili

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To report the case of a 28-year old hypercholesterolemic female with postpartum depression, whose triglyceride (TG and total cholesterol (TC levels decreased while being treated with fluoxetine. Method: A 28-year old female, with a diagnosis of major depressive disorder with postpartum onset based on DSM-IV criteria, was hospitalized at a mental health hospital. Her past history included another episode of depression 4 months after giving birth to her second child, which was 12 years prior to her recent episode. Her serum total cholestrol and triglyceride levels were measured prior to the initiation of medication. Then fluoxetine was initiated at a daily dose of 20 mg and had been increased to 40 mg per day at the time of discharge. The lipid profile measurements was repeated at week 4 and 8 following treatment. Results: Total cholesterol level was reduced from 242 mg/dL at baseline to 224 mg/dL at week 4 and to 202 mg/dL at week 8; triglyceride level was decreased from 516 mg/dL to 448 mg/dL at week 4 and to 404 mg/dL at week 8. Conclusions: Fluoxetine may be an appropriate treatment for hyperlipidemic women with postpartum depression..

  4. Total serum calcium level may have adverse effects on serum cholesterol and triglycerides among female university faculty and staffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lianping; Qian, Yifan; Ren, Xiaohua; Jin, Yuelong; Chang, Weiwei; Li, Jie; Chen, Yan; Song, Xiuli; Tang, Hui; Ding, Lingling; Guo, Daoxia; Yao, Yingshui

    2014-03-01

    Our previous studies showed that serum calcium level may have influence in the blood pressure to older male subjects, but the relationship between serum calcium level and blood lipids is unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between total serum calcium level and blood lipids. In our study, total serum calcium level and blood lipids were measured among 1,075 subjects, with age range of 30-60 years, who were recruited for the routine health screening in 2006. The results showed that serum calcium level was positively correlated with triglyceride and total cholesterol weight, but not HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol in female subjects (P 0.05). These findings suggest that a higher total serum calcium level may have a adverse effects on serum cholesterol and triglycerides among female subjects.

  5. Body mass index, serum total cholesterol, and risk of gastric high-grade dysplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ya-Kai; Kang, Wei-Ming; Ma, Zhi-Qiang; Liu, Yu-Qin; Zhou, Li; Yu, Jian-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Obesity is related to an increased risk of gastric cardia cancer. However, the influences of excess body weight and serum total cholesterol on the risk of gastric high-grade dysplasia have not been fully characterized. A case–control study was conducted to explore the relationships between body mass index (BMI), serum total cholesterol level, and the risk of gastric high-grade dysplasia in Chinese adults. A total of 893 consecutive patients with gastric high-grade dysplasia (537 men and 356 women) and 902 controls (543 men and 359 women) were enrolled from January 2000 to October 2015. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated, and a multivariate analysis was conducted. After adjusting for age, alcohol consumption, smoking status, family history of gastric cancer or esophageal cancer, and serum total cholesterol level, a BMI ranging from 27.5 to 29.9 was significantly related to an increased risk of gastric high-grade dysplasia in both men (adjusted OR = 1.87, 95% CI = 1.24–2.81) and women (adjusted OR = 2.72, 95% CI = 1.44–5.16). The 2 highest BMI categories (27.5–29.9 and ≥30.0) were identified as risk factors for gastric cardia high-grade dysplasia in both men (BMI = 27.5–29.9: adjusted OR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.02–3.10; BMI ≥ 30.0: adjusted OR = 2.54, 95% CI = 1.27–5.08) and women (BMI = 27.5–29.9: adjusted OR = 2.88, 95% CI = 1.27–6.55; BMI ≥ 30.0: adjusted OR = 2.77, 95% CI = 1.36–5.64), whereas only a BMI ranging from 27.5 to 29.9 was a risk factor for gastric noncardia high-grade dysplasia in both men (adjusted OR = 1.98, 95% CI = 1.25–3.14) and women (adjusted OR = 2.88, 95% CI = 1.43–5.81). In addition, higher serum total cholesterol was associated with an increased risk of gastric noncardia high-grade dysplasia (adjusted OR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.25–2.69) in women. Increased BMI was associated with an increased risk

  6. Serum Fructosamine, Total Cholesterol, and High-Density Lipoprotein in Children with Asthma during Glucocorticoid Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schou, A J; Wolthers, O D

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aims. Glucocorticoids may have adverse effects on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. The present study was conducted to investigate possible effects on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism of inhaled and oral glucocorticoids in children with asthma. Methods. Two randomised controlled trials with blinded crossover designs were performed. Active treatment was 400  μ g inhaled budesonide or 5 mg prednisolone orally daily during one week. The budesonide trial included 17 and the prednisolone trial 20 school children. Serum fructosamine, total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein were assessed. Results. Serum fructosamine was increased during active treatment (prednisolone 252.3  μ M versus placebo 247.3  μ M; P = 0.03 and budesonide 228.1  μ M versus no treatment 223.1  μ M; P = 0.02). Total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein were not statistically significantly increased. Conclusion. Short-term treatment with oral prednisolone and inhaled budesonide may adversely affect mean blood glucose concentration. Possible long-term consequences require further investigations.

  7. Blueberry anthocyanins at doses of 0.5 and 1 % lowered plasma cholesterol by increasing fecal excretion of acidic and neutral sterols in hamsters fed a cholesterol-enriched diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yintong; Chen, Jingnan; Zuo, Yuanyuan; Ma, Ka Ying; Jiang, Yue; Huang, Yu; Chen, Zhen-Yu

    2013-04-01

    The present study investigated the underlying mechanism associated with the hypocholesterolemic activity of blueberry anthocyanins by examining its effect on fecal sterol excretion and gene expression of major receptors, enzymes, and transporters involved in cholesterol metabolism. Hamsters were divided into three groups and fed a 0.1 % cholesterol diet containing 0 % (CTL), 0.5 % (BL), and 1.0 % (BH) blueberry anthocyanins, respectively, for six weeks. Plasma total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerols (TAG), and non-high-density lipoproteins cholesterol (non-HDL-C) were measured using the enzymatic kits, and the gene expression of transporters, enzymes, and receptors involved in cholesterol absorption and metabolism was quantified using the quantitative PCR. GC analysis was used to quantify hepatic cholesterol and fecal acidic and neutral sterols. Dietary supplementation of 0.5 and 1.0 % blueberry anthocyanins for 6 weeks decreased plasma TC concentration by 6-12 % in a dose-dependent manner. This was accompanied by increasing the excretion of fecal neutral and acidic sterols by 22-29 % and 41-74 %, respectively. Real-time PCR analyses demonstrated that incorporation of blueberry anthocyanins into diet down-regulated the genes of NPC1L1, ACAT-2, MTP, and ABCG 8. In addition, blueberry anthocyanins were also able to down-regulate the gene expression of hepatic HMG-CoA reductase. The cholesterol-lowering activity of blueberry anthocyanins was most likely mediated by enhancing the excretion of sterols accompanied with down-regulation on gene expression of intestinal NPC1L1, ACAT-2, MTP, and ABCG 8.

  8. Nitric oxide, cholesterol oxides and endothelium-dependent vasodilation in plasma of patients with essential hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Moriel

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to identify disturbances of nitric oxide radical (·NO metabolism and the formation of cholesterol oxidation products in human essential hypertension. The concentrations of·NO derivatives (nitrite, nitrate, S-nitrosothiols and nitrotyrosine, water and lipid-soluble antioxidants and cholesterol oxides were measured in plasma of 11 patients with mild essential hypertension (H: 57.8 ± 9.7 years; blood pressure, 148.3 ± 24.8/90.8 ± 10.2 mmHg and in 11 healthy subjects (N: 48.4 ± 7.0 years; blood pressure, 119.4 ± 9.4/75.0 ± 8.0 mmHg.Nitrite, nitrate and S-nitrosothiols were measured by chemiluminescence and nitrotyrosine was determined by ELISA. Antioxidants were determined by reverse-phase HPLC and cholesterol oxides by gas chromatography. Hypertensive patients had reduced endothelium-dependent vasodilation in response to reactive hyperemia (H: 9.3 and N: 15.1% increase of diameter 90 s after hyperemia, and lower levels of ascorbate (H: 29.2 ± 26.0, N: 54.2 ± 24.9 µM, urate (H: 108.5 ± 18.9, N: 156.4 ± 26.3 µM, ß-carotene (H: 1.1 ± 0.8, N: 2.5 ± 1.2 nmol/mg cholesterol, and lycopene (H: 0.4 ± 0.2, N: 0.7 ± 0.2 nmol/mg cholesterol, in plasma, compared to normotensive subjects. The content of 7-ketocholesterol, 5alpha-cholestane-3ß,5,6ß-triol and 5,6alpha-epoxy-5alpha-cholestan-3alpha-ol in LDL, and the concentration of endothelin-1 (H: 0.9 ± 0.2, N: 0.7 ± 0.1 ng/ml in plasma were increased in hypertensive patients. No differences were found for ·NO derivatives between groups. These data suggest that an increase in cholesterol oxidation is associated with endothelium dysfunction in essential hypertension and oxidative stress, although ·NO metabolite levels in plasma are not modified in the presence of elevated cholesterol oxides.

  9. Higher Plasma LDL-Cholesterol is Associated with Preserved Executive and Fine Motor Functions in Parkinson’s Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Sterling, Nicholas W.; Lichtenstein, Maya; Lee, Eun-Young; Lewis, Mechelle M.; Evans, Alicia; Eslinger, Paul J.; Du, Guangwei; Gao, Xiang; Chen, Honglei; Kong, Lan; Huang, Xuemei

    2016-01-01

    Plasma low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol has been associated both with risk of Parkinson’s disease (PD) and with age-related changes in cognitive function. This prospective study examined the relationship between baseline plasma LDL-cholesterol and cognitive changes in PD and matched Controls. Fasting plasma LDL-cholesterol levels were obtained at baseline from 64 non-demented PD subjects (62.7 ± 7.9 y) and 64 Controls (61.3 ± 6.8 y). Subjects underwent comprehensive neuropsychologica...

  10. A low-saturated-fat, low-cholesterol diet decreases plasma CETP activity and pre beta-HDL formation but does not affect cellular cholesterol efflux to plasma from type 1 diabetic patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, R; Beusekamp, BJ; Kerstens, MN; Groen, AK; Van Tol, A; Dullaart, RPF

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a low-saturated-fat, low-cholesterol diet on plasma lipopoproteins, pre beta-high density lipoprotein (HDL) formation, lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) and phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP)

  11. A low-saturated-fat, low-cholesterol diet decreases plasma CETP activity and pre beta-HDL formation but does not affect cellular cholesterol efflux to plasma from type 1 diabetic patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, R; Beusekamp, BJ; Kerstens, MN; Groen, AK; Van Tol, A; Dullaart, RPF

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a low-saturated-fat, low-cholesterol diet on plasma lipopoproteins, pre beta-high density lipoprotein (HDL) formation, lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) and phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP)

  12. IL-1 regulates the Cyp7a1 gene and serum total cholesterol level at steady state in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Misaki; Ashino, Takashi; Yoshida, Takemi; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Sekimoto, Masashi; Degawa, Masakuni

    2009-02-06

    We examined the role of hepatic interleukin (IL)-1alpha/beta in serum total cholesterol homeostasis using male and female IL-1-knockout (KO) mice and wild-type (WT) mice. Serum total cholesterol level was higher in males than in females in WT and KO mice. The difference between sexes was closely correlated with the difference in gene expression level of cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (Cyp7a1), a rate-limiting enzyme for bile acid synthesis. No significant sex difference in gene expression level of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase, a rate-limiting enzyme for cholesterol synthesis, was observed in WT mice. Interestingly, the gene expression level of hepatic Cyp7a1 was lower in KO mice than in sex-matched WT mice, while the serum total cholesterol level was the opposite. The present findings demonstrate that IL-1alpha and IL-1beta are positive regulators for the Cyp7a1 gene in steady-state mice and that Cyp7a1 is one of the factors that mediate the difference in serum total cholesterol level between sexes.

  13. Effect of cholesterol lowering treatment on plasma markers of endothelial dysfunction in chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinellu, Angelo; Sotgia, Salvatore; Mangoni, Arduino A; Sotgiu, Elisabetta; Ena, Sara; Satta, Andrea E; Carru, Ciriaco

    2016-09-10

    The elevated cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD) is linked with endothelial dysfunction secondary to the pro-inflammatory and pro-oxidative state typical of this pathology. In consideration of the well-known pleiotropic effect of statins, we investigated the effect of cholesterol lowering treatment on endothelial dysfunction markers (MED), asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), vascular cell (VCAM) and intercellular (ICAM) adhesion molecule. Plasma MED concentrations, inflammation and oxidative stress indices [Kynurenine/Tryptophan (Kyn/Trp) ratio, malondialdehyde (MDA) and allantoin/uric acid (All/UA) ratio] were measured in 30 CKD patients randomized to three cholesterol lowering regimens for 12 months (simvastatin 40mg/day, ezetimibe/simvastatin 10/20mg/day, or ezetimibe/simvastatin 10/40mg/day). Treatment significantly reduced ADMA concentrations in all patients [0.694μmol/L (0.606-0.761) at baseline vs. 0.622μmol/L (0.563-0.681) after treatment, p<0.001]. ADMA reduction was paralleled by a significant decrease of MDA, All/AU ratio and Kyn/Trp ratio, but not VCAM and ICAM plasma concentrations. Cholesterol lowering treatment was associated with a significant reduction in plasma ADMA concentrations in CKD patients. This might be mediated by reduced oxidative stress and inflammation.

  14. Plasma cholesterol homeostasis, HDL remodeling and function during the acute phase reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimetti, Francesca; De Vuono, Stefano; Gomaraschi, Monica; Adorni, Maria Pia; Favari, Elda; Ronda, Nicoletta; Ricci, Maria Anastasia; Veglia, Fabrizio; Calabresi, Laura; Lupattelli, Graziana

    2017-10-01

    Acute phase reaction (APR) is a systemic inflammation triggered by several conditions associated with lipid profile alterations. We evaluated whether APR also associates with changes in cholesterol synthesis and absorption, HDL structure, composition, and cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC). We analyzed 59 subjects with APR related to infections, oncologic causes, or autoimmune diseases and 39 controls. We detected no difference in markers of cholesterol synthesis and absorption. Conversely, a significant reduction of LpA-I- and LpAI:AII-containing HDL (-28% and -44.8%, respectively) and of medium-sized HDL (-10.5%) occurred in APR. Total HDL CEC was impaired in APR subjects (-18%). Evaluating specific CEC pathways, we found significant reductions in CEC by aqueous diffusion and by the transporters scavenger receptor B-I and ABCG1 (-25.5, -41.1 and -30.4%, respectively). ABCA1-mediated CEC was not affected. Analyses adjusted for age and gender provided similar results. In addition, correcting for HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, the differences in aqueous diffusion total and ABCG1-CEC remained significant. APR subjects displayed higher levels of HDL serum amyloid A (+20-folds; P = 0.003). In conclusion, APR does not associate with cholesterol synthesis and absorption changes but with alterations of HDL composition and a marked impairment of HDL CEC, partly independent of HDL-C serum level reduction. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Activity of 30 different cheeses on cholesterol plasma levels and Oxidative Balance Risk Index (OBRI) in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelli, Umberto; Bondiolotti, Gianpietro; Battelli, Giovanna; Zanoni, Giuseppe; Finco, Annarosa; Recchia, Martino

    2015-01-01

    Cheese is considered to increase the total cholesterol levels (CH) due to the high-saturated fat content. New models are needed to measure the relationship between cholesterol and cheese. Thirty different cheeses produced in Val Brembana, Italy ("furmai da mut", "caprino" and "stracchino"), were added to the diet of 30 groups of 4 rats. Cheeses were analyzed to differentiate the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and the cholesterol content (Ch(f)). The body weight, CH, urine volume and oxidative balance were measured. Three new indexes in relation to CH were calculated: OI (oxidative index), PI (protective index) and OBRI (oxidative balance risk index). None of the cheeses increased CH. Some of the "furmai de mut" were significantly decreasing CH and improved the oxidative balance. Ch(f) was not affecting the CH levels in plasma. In terms of VOCs, the acetic acid content was correlated (p < 0.05) with the CH reduction and PI improvement. OBRI was reduced mainly in the "stracchino group". The model shows that some cheese can reduce significantly CH levels and improve the antioxidant capacity.

  16. High Total Cholesterol in Peripheral Blood Correlates with Poorer Hearing Recovery in Idiopathic Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss

    OpenAIRE

    Nicola Quaranta; Valentina Squeo; Moris Sangineto; Giusi Graziano; Carlo Sabbà

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSHL) is a common otologic emergency whose cause is still unclear. The importance of blood lipids in the pathogenesis of ISSHL is widely reported in literature. In fact elevated levels of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), total cholesterol (TC) and apolipoprotein B (Apo-B) have been proposed as risk factors for this pathology. No correlation has been described between serum lipid parameters and the prognosis of ISSHL. Aim of the present ...

  17. The Effects of Biopolymer Encapsulation on Total Lipids and Cholesterol in Egg Yolk during in Vitro Human Digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-Kyung Lee

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of biopolymer encapsulation on the digestion of total lipids and cholesterol in egg yolk using an in vitro human digestion model. Egg yolks were encapsulated with 1% cellulose, pectin, or chitosan. The samples were then passed through an in vitro human digestion model that simulated the composition of mouth saliva, stomach acid, and the intestinal juice of the small intestine by using a dialysis tubing system. The change in digestion of total lipids was monitored by confocal fluorescence microscopy. The digestion rate of total lipids and cholesterol in all egg yolk samples dramatically increased after in vitro human digestion. The digestion rate of total lipids and cholesterol in egg yolks encapsulated with chitosan or pectin was reduced compared to the digestion rate of total lipids and cholesterol in other egg yolk samples. Egg yolks encapsulated with pectin or chitosan had lower free fatty acid content, and lipid oxidation values than samples without biopolymer encapsulation. Moreover, the lipase activity decreased, after in vitro digestion, in egg yolks encapsulated with biopolymers. These results improve our understanding of the effects of digestion on total lipids and cholesterol in egg yolk within the gastrointestinal tract.

  18. Association between baseline serum glucose, triglycerides and total cholesterol, and prostate cancer risk categories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur, Rhonda; Møller, Henrik; Garmo, Hans; Holmberg, Lars; Stattin, Pår; Malmstrom, Håkan; Lambe, Mats; Hammar, Niklas; Walldius, Göran; Robinson, David; Jungner, Ingmar; Hemelrijck, Mieke Van

    2016-06-01

    Lifestyle-related risk factors such as hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia have been associated with several cancers. However, studies exploring their link with prostate cancer (PCa) clinicopathological characteristics are sparse and inconclusive. Here, we investigated the associations between serum metabolic markers and PCa clinicopathological characteristics. The study comprised 14,294 men from the Swedish Apolipoprotein MOrtality RISk (AMORIS) cohort who were diagnosed with PCa between 1996 and 2011. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression were used to investigate the relation between glucose, triglycerides and total cholesterol and PCa risk categories, PSA, Gleason score, and T-stage. Mean age at time of PCa diagnosis was 69 years. Men with glucose levels >6.9 mmol/L tend to have PSA20 μg/L compared to PSA 4.0-9.9 μg/L. Hypertriglyceridemia was also positively associated with PSA>20 μg/L. Hyperglycemic men had a greater odds of intermediate- and high-grade PCa and advanced stage or metastatic PCa. Similarly, hypertriglyceridemia was positively associated with high-grade PCa. There was also a trend toward an increased odds of intermediate risk localized PCa and advanced stage PCa among men with hypertriglyceridemia. Total cholesterol did not have any statistically significant association with any of the outcomes studied. Our findings suggest that high serum levels of glucose and triglycerides may influence PCa aggressiveness and severity. Further investigation on the role of markers of glucose and lipid metabolism in influencing PCa aggressiveness and severity is needed as this may help define important targets for intervention.

  19. Higher high density lipoprotein cholesterol associated with moderate alcohol consumption is not related to altered plasma lecithin : cholesterol acyltransferase and lipid transfer protein activity levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riemens, SC; vanTol, A; Hoogenberg, K; vanGent, T; Scheek, LM; Sluiter, WJ; Dullaart, RPF

    1997-01-01

    Lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) and phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) are important factors involved in HDL metabolism. Altered plasma activity levels of these factors could play a role in the increase in high density lipoprotein (HDL) choles

  20. Does Glycine max leaves or Garcinia Cambogia promote weight-loss or lower plasma cholesterol in overweight individuals: a randomized control trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong Tae-Sook

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Natural food supplements with high flavonoid content are often claimed to promote weight-loss and lower plasma cholesterol in animal studies, but human studies have been more equivocal. The aim of this study was firstly to determine the effectiveness of natural food supplements containing Glycine max leaves extract (EGML or Garcinia cambogia extract (GCE to promote weight-loss and lower plasma cholesterol. Secondly to examine whether these supplements have any beneficial effect on lipid, adipocytokine or antioxidant profiles. Methods Eighty-six overweight subjects (Male:Female = 46:40, age: 20~50 yr, BMI > 23 Results EGML and GCE supplementation failed to promote weight-loss or any clinically significant change in %body fat. The EGML group had lower total cholesterol after 10 weeks compared to the placebo group (p Conclusions Ten weeks of EGML or GCE supplementation did not promote weight-loss or lower total cholesterol in overweight individuals consuming their habitual diet. Although, EGML did increase plasma HDL-C levels which is associated with a lower risk of atherosclerosis.

  1. CYP7A1 A-278C polymorphism affects the response of plasma lipids after dietary cholesterol and cafestol interventions in humans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, M.K.; Weggemans, R.M.; Zock, P.L.; Schouten, E.G.; Katan, M.B.; Princen, H.M.G.

    2004-01-01

    The response of plasma lipids to dietary cholesterol and fat varies among individuals. Variations in genes involved in cholesterol metabolism can be important in these interindividual differences. The rate-limiting enzyme in the conversion of cholesterol into bile acids is cholesterol 7-hydroxylase

  2. CYP7A1 A-278C polymorphism affects the response of plasma lipids after dietary cholesterol and cafestol interventions in humans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman, M.K.; Weggemans, R.M.; Zock, P.L.; Schouten, E.G.; Katan, M.B.; Princen, H.M.G.

    2004-01-01

    The response of plasma lipids to dietary cholesterol and fat varies among individuals. Variations in genes involved in cholesterol metabolism can be important in these interindividual differences. The rate-limiting enzyme in the conversion of cholesterol into bile acids is cholesterol 7-hydroxylase

  3. Effect of different curcuminoid supplement dosages on total in vivo antioxidant capacity and cholesterol levels of healthy human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pungcharoenkul, Kanit; Thongnopnua, Phensri

    2011-11-01

    The impact of consuming curcuminoids containing curcumin at 500 mg/day and 6 g/day for 7 days on plasma antioxidant capacity and serum cholesterol level were determined by using vitamin E 200 IU/day consumption as a comparison. Group A and group B subjects consumed 500 mg and 6 g curcumin, respectively, but group C subjects consumed vitamin E 200 IU. By using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay, it was found that plasma antioxidant capacity of group A rose from a baseline of 13% to 24% on day 1 and day 7, as against a 19-20% increase for group B. Serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels were significantly decreased after curcumin treatment at 500 mg/day. By consuming vitamin E, both ORAC values and plasma α-tocopherol concentrations were significantly increased, but only very slight responses on serum cholesterol or triglyceride levels were observed. It is therefore suggested that curcumin supplement would not be appropriate for healthy people except for reducing serum cholesterol or triglyceride levels. The dosage of a daily curcumin supplement at 500 mg is more effective than 6 g, although vitamin E is also considered to be an effective antioxidant supplement.

  4. On the mechanism of plasma cholesterol reduction in the rat given probucol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramaniam, S; Beins, D M; Simons, L A

    1981-11-01

    1. The effects of the cholesterol-lowering drug probucol on lipoprotein metabolism and on the key enzymes that regulate hepatic cholesterol metabolism in the rat were studied. 2. Probucol given for 2 weeks was accompanied by a significant reduction in plasma concentrations of low-density and high-density lipoproteins (LDL,HDL). The fractional catabolic rates of the apolipoproteins of HDL and LDL (apoHDL, apoLDL) were not affected by probucol, although the absolute rates of catabolism of both the apolipoproteins were significantly reduced. 3. The activities of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (CoA) reductase and cholesterol 7 alpha-mono-oxygenase, as well as the rate of hepatic sterol synthesis, were unchanged during the first 2 weeks of probucol. More prolonged probucol led to inhibition of the activity of these enzymes and reduction in sterol synthesis, although the liver cellular content of cholesterol significantly increased. 4. It is postulated that a principal mode of action of the drug is to reduce the rate of lipoprotein synthesis.

  5. High incidence of reduced plasma HDL cholesterol in diabetic patients treated with rosiglitazone and fibrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keidar, Shlomo; Guttmann, Hadassa; Stam, Tamar; Fishman, Ilana; Shapira, Chen

    2007-11-01

    A paradoxical plasma HDL-Cholesterol (HDL-C) reducing effect following combined fibrate and thiazolidinediones (TZDs) therapy was recently reported in occasional cases. As HDL-C level is inversely related to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, we have studied the incidence of reduced HDL-C level following mono- and combined therapy with these drugs in a large diabetic population. This study was designed as a retrospective 5-year study. Lipid profile records of 54 000 diabetic patients were searched for transient reduction of HDL-C to levels lower than 17 mg/dL, which was correlated with fibrates and/or TZD treatment. Transient reduction in plasma HDL-C to values lower than 17 mg/dL was observed in 0.02% (2/11 175) of the patients treated with fibrates alone, none of the rosiglitazone-treated patients (0/3213) and in 1.39% (9/649) of patients treated with combination of fibrate and TZD. HDL-C lowering effect was reversible upon stopping either fibrate or rosiglitazone and in some patients it occurred within 2 weeks. In two of the patients, the effect was dose-dependent. Severe reduction in plasma HDL-C is not rare when TZD and fibrates are co-administrated to diabetic hyperlipidemic patients. As low plasma HDL cholesterol is a risk factor for CVD, the physician should be alert to this phenomenon.

  6. Higher Plasma LDL-Cholesterol is Associated with Preserved Executive and Fine Motor Functions in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Nicholas W; Lichtenstein, Maya; Lee, Eun-Young; Lewis, Mechelle M; Evans, Alicia; Eslinger, Paul J; Du, Guangwei; Gao, Xiang; Chen, Honglei; Kong, Lan; Huang, Xuemei

    2016-05-01

    Plasma low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol has been associated both with risk of Parkinson's disease (PD) and with age-related changes in cognitive function. This prospective study examined the relationship between baseline plasma LDL-cholesterol and cognitive changes in PD and matched Controls. Fasting plasma LDL-cholesterol levels were obtained at baseline from 64 non-demented PD subjects (62.7 ± 7.9 y) and 64 Controls (61.3 ± 6.8 y). Subjects underwent comprehensive neuropsychological testing at baseline, 18-, and 36-months. Linear mixed-effects modeling was used to assess the relationships between baseline LDL-cholesterol levels and longitudinal cognitive changes. At baseline, PD patients had lower scores of fine motor (p0.7). The cholesterol - executive set shifting association differed significantly between PDs and Controls (interaction p=0.005), whereas the cholesterol - fine motor association difference did not reach significance (interaction, p=0.104). In summary, higher plasma LDL-cholesterol levels were associated with better executive function and fine motor performance over time in PD, both of which may reflect an effect on nigrostriatal mediation. Confirmation of these results and elucidation of involved mechanisms are warranted, and might lead to feasible therapeutic strategies.

  7. STARD4 knockdown in HepG2 cells disrupts cholesterol trafficking associated with the plasma membrane, ER, and ERC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garbarino, J.; Pan, M. H.; Chin, H. F.

    2012-01-01

    STARD4, a member of the evolutionarily conserved START gene family, has been implicated in the non-vesicular intracellular transport of cholesterol. However, the direction of transport and the membranes with which this protein interacts are not clear. We present studies of STARD4 function using...... small hairpin RNA knockdown technology to reduce STARD4 expression in HepG2 cells. In a cholesterol-poor environment, we found that a reduction in STARD4 expression leads to retention of cholesterol at the plasma membrane, reduction of endoplasmic reticulum-associated cholesterol, and decreased ACAT...... synthesized cholesteryl esters. Furthermore, D4 KD cells exhibited a reduced rate of sterol transport to the endocytic recycling compartment after cholesterol repletion. Although these cells displayed normal endocytic trafficking in cholesterol-poor and replete conditions, cell surface low density lipoprotein...

  8. Lower levels of total HDL and HDL3 cholesterol are associated with albuminuria in normoalbuminuric Type 1 diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulum, T; Kolaric, B; Duvnjak, L

    2013-09-01

    Previous studies have suggested a positive association between dyslipidemia and chronic kidney disease, but sparse data are available on the relation of lipids and urinary albumin excretion rate (UAE) in normoalbuminuric patients with normal renal function. The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations of serum lipids, including total, LDL, HDL, HDL2, HDL3 cholesterol, and triglyceride levels with UAE in normoalbuminuric Type 1 diabetic (T1D) patients. Study included 313 normoalbuminuric T1D patients with normal renal function and before any interventions with statins, ACE inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blockers. Subjects were classified as low-normoalbuminuric (UAEHDL (p=0.02) and HDL3 cholesterol (p=0.01) levels were higher in low-normoalbuminuric subjects compared to high-normoalbuminuric subjects. In logistic regression analysis, after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, duration of diabetes and HbA1c, lower total HDL and HDL3 cholesterol levels were significantly associated with risk of higher UAE in our normoalbuminuric subjects (p≤0.01), with odds ratios of 0.34 to 0.43. Elevated total HDL and HDL3 cholesterol levels are associated with lower UAE in normoalbuminuric T1D patients. However, whether the detection of elevated total HDL and HDL3 cholesterol levels in T1D patients has protective value for development of microalbuminuria needs to be assessed in further follow-up studies.

  9. Plant sterol ester diet supplementation increases serum plant sterols and markers of cholesterol synthesis, but has no effect on total cholesterol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weingärtner, Oliver; Bogeski, Ivan; Kummerow, Carsten; Schirmer, Stephan H; Husche, Constanze; Vanmierlo, Tim; Wagenpfeil, Gudrun; Hoth, Markus; Böhm, Michael; Lütjohann, Dieter; Laufs, Ulrich

    2017-05-01

    This double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, cross-over intervention-study was conducted in healthy volunteers to evaluate the effects of plant sterol ester supplemented margarine on cholesterol, non-cholesterol sterols and oxidative stress in serum and monocytes. Sixteen volunteers, average age 34 years, with no or mild hypercholesterolemia were subjected to a 4 week period of daily intake of 3g plant sterols per day supplied via a supplemented margarine on top of regular eating habits. After a wash-out period of one week, volunteers switched groups. Compared to placebo, a diet supplementation with plant sterols increased serum levels of plant sterols such as campesterol (+0.16±0.19mg/dL, p=0.005) and sitosterol (+0.27±0.18mg/dL, pcholesterol synthesis such as desmosterol (+0.05±0.07mg/dL, p=0.006) as well as lathosterol (+0.11±0.16mg/dL, p=0.012). Cholesterol serum levels, however, were not changed significantly (+18.68±32.6mg/dL, p=0.052). These findings could not be verified in isolated circulating monocytes. Moreover, there was no effect on monocyte activation and no differences with regard to redox state after plant sterol supplemented diet. Therefore, in a population of healthy volunteers with no or mild hypercholesterolemia, consumption of plant sterol ester supplemented margarine results in increased concentrations of plant sterols and cholesterol synthesis markers without affecting total cholesterol in the serum, activation of circulating monocytes or redox state. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Streptococcal serum opacity factor increases the rate of hepatocyte uptake of human plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillard, Baiba K; Rosales, Corina; Pillai, Biju K; Lin, Hu Yu; Courtney, Harry S; Pownall, Henry J

    2010-11-16

    Serum opacity factor (SOF), a virulence determinant of Streptococcus pyogenes, converts plasma high-density lipoproteins (HDL) to three distinct species: lipid-free apolipoprotein (apo) A-I, neo HDL, a small discoidal HDL-like particle, and a large cholesteryl ester-rich microemulsion (CERM) that contains the cholesterol esters (CE) of up to ∼400000 HDL particles and apo E as its major protein. Similar SOF reaction products are obtained with HDL, total plasma lipoproteins, and whole plasma. We hypothesized that hepatic uptake of CERM-CE via multiple apo E-dependent receptors would be faster than that of HDL-CE. We tested our hypothesis using human hepatoma cells and lipoprotein receptor-specific Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The uptake of [(3)H]CE by HepG2 and Huh7 cells from HDL after SOF treatment, which transfers >90% of HDL-CE to CERM, was 2.4 and 4.5 times faster, respectively, than from control HDL. CERM-[(3)H]CE uptake was inhibited by LDL and HDL, suggestive of uptake by both the LDL receptor (LDL-R) and scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI). Studies in CHO cells specifically expressing LDL-R and SR-BI confirmed CERM-[(3)H]CE uptake by both receptors. RAP and heparin inhibit CERM-[(3)H]CE but not HDL-[(3)H]CE uptake, thereby implicating LRP-1 and cell surface proteoglycans in this process. These data demonstrate that SOF treatment of HDL increases the rate of CE uptake via multiple hepatic apo E receptors. In so doing, SOF might increase the level of hepatic disposal of plasma cholesterol in a way that is therapeutically useful.

  11. Direct intestinal cholesterol secretion contributes significantly to total fecal neutral sterol excretion in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Velde, Astrid E.; Vrins, Carlos L. J.; Van den Oever, Karin; Kunne, Cindy; Elferink, Ronald P. J. Oude; Kljipers, Folkert; Groen, Albert K.

    2007-01-01

    Background & Aims: Hepatobiliary secretion is generally believed to be an integral step in the pathway of cholesterol excretion from the body. Here we have investigated the validity of this paradigm in mice. Methods: Cholesterol balance was assessed by measuring intake, excretion, and biliary output

  12. Determination of cholesterol concentration in human milk samples using attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamelska, A. M.; Pietrzak-Fiećko, R.; Bryl, K.

    2013-03-01

    Results of an inexpensive and rapid evaluation of the cholesterol concentration in human milk using ATR-FTIR techniques are presented. The FTIR spectrum of pure cholesterol was characterized and quantitatively estimated in the region between 2800 and 3200 cm-1. 125 samples at different stages of lactation were analyzed. There were no differences between the cholesterol concentrations in the samples of early (1-3 months), medium (4-6 months), and late (> 6 months) lactation stages ( p = 0.096968). The cholesterol concentration ranged from 4.30 to 21.77 mg/100 cm3. Such a broad range was due to the differences between the samples from different women ( p = 0.000184). The results indicate that ATR-FTIR has potential for rapid estimation of cholesterol concentration in human milk.

  13. Effect of fermented milk containing Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium longum on plasma lipids of women with normal or moderately elevated cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Sara; Borges, Nuno

    2009-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of milk fermented with Lactobacillus acidophilus 145 and Bifidobacterium longum BB536 on plasma lipids in a sample of adult women. A double-blind, placebo controlled, cross-over study (two periods of four weeks each separated by a 1-week washout period) was performed in 34 women, aged between 18 and 65 years. Group A consumed 125 g fermented milk three times a day for the first 4 weeks while group B consumed regular yoghurt under the same conditions. (Groups A and B switched products for the second treatment period). Women taking the test product with a baseline total cholesterol above 190 mg/dl showed a significant reduction in LDL cholesterol. HDL cholesterol was also reduced by the test product. We conclude that the fermented milk may help to reduce LDL levels in hypercholesterolemic adult women.

  14. Cholesterol and F-actin are required for clustering of recycling synaptic vesicle proteins in the presynaptic plasma membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dason, Jeffrey S; Smith, Alex J; Marin, Leo; Charlton, Milton P

    2014-02-15

    Synaptic vesicles (SVs) and their proteins must be recycled for sustained synaptic transmission. We tested the hypothesis that SV cholesterol is required for proper sorting of SV proteins during recycling in live presynaptic terminals. We used the reversible block of endocytosis in the Drosophila temperature-sensitive dynamin mutant shibire-ts1 to trap exocytosed SV proteins, and then examined the effect of experimental treatments on the distribution of these proteins within the presynaptic plasma membrane by confocal microscopy. SV proteins synaptotagmin, vglut and csp were clustered following SV trapping in control experiments but dispersed in samples treated with the cholesterol chelator methyl-β-cyclodextrin to extract SV cholesterol. There was accumulation of phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate (PIP2) in presynaptic terminals following SV trapping and this was reduced following SV cholesterol extraction. Reduced PIP2 accumulation was associated with disrupted accumulation of actin in presynaptic terminals. Similar to vesicular cholesterol extraction, disruption of actin by latrunculin A after SV proteins had been trapped on the plasma membrane resulted in the dispersal of SV proteins and prevented recovery of synaptic transmission due to impaired endocytosis following relief of the endocytic block. Our results demonstrate that vesicular cholesterol is required for aggregation of exocytosed SV proteins in the presynaptic plasma membrane and are consistent with a mechanism involving regulation of PIP2 accumulation and local actin polymerization by cholesterol. Thus, alteration of membrane or SV lipids may affect the ability of synapses to undergo sustained synaptic transmission by compromising the recycling of SV proteins.

  15. Effects of extracted soy isoflavones alone on blood total and LDL cholesterol: Meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoko Taku

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Kyoko Taku1, Keizo Umegaki1, Yoshiko Ishimi2, Shaw Watanabe31Information Center, National Institute of Health and Nutrition, Tokyo, Japan; 2Nutritional Epidemiology Program, National Institute of Health and Nutrition, Tokyo, Japan; 3Nutritional Education Program, National Institute of Health and Nutrition, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: When provided concurrently with soy protein for 1–3 months, soy isoflavones exert synergistic or additive cholesterol-lowering effects. This meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the effects of extracted soy isoflavones alone (not ingested concurrently with soy protein on total and low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol. MEDLINE (1966–2007, EMBASE (1966–2007, CENTRAL (1966–2007, ICHUSHI (1983–2008, and CNKI (1979–2007 were searched for randomized placebo-controlled trials published in English, Japanese, and Chinese, describing the changes in lipid profiles in adult humans resulting from ingestion of extracted soy isoflavones for 1–3 months. Reference lists of relevant systematic reviews and meta-analyses were hand-searched. Meta-analysis of 10 and 9 trials with usable information using REVMAN found that an average of 70 mg soy isoflavones/day (27–132 mg, as the aglycone form alone had a nonsignificant effect on total (0.01 mmol/L [95% CI: –0.12, 0.14]; P = 0.86 and LDL (0.03 mmol/L [95% CI: –0.11, 0.16]; P = 0.71 cholesterol in menopausal women, respectively. It is concluded that ingestion of about 70 mg extracted soy isoflavones/day alone for 1–3 months does not improve total and LDL cholesterol levels in normocholesterolemic menopausal women; further studies are needed to verify the effects of extracted soy isoflavones.Keywords: extracted soy isoflavones, lipid, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol

  16. Phytosterol intake and dietary fat reduction are independent and additive in their ability to reduce plasma LDL cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    The plasma LDL-cholesterol-lowering effect of plant sterols (PS) appears to be independent of background diet, but definitive proof is lacking. The effect of background diet on plasma concentrations of PS has not been reported. We determined the effects of manipulating dietary contents of PS and f...

  17. Fatty acid composition of phospholipids and esterified cholesterol of the blood plasma of rabbit under arginine acute pancreatitis

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    O. O. Hopanenko

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The content and fatty acid composition of phospholipids and esterified cholesterol were studied in the blood plasma of rabbits under acute arginine pancreatitis and its correction using linseed oil. It is established that the transport and anti-inflammatory functions of blood plasma deteriorates under acute arginine pancreatitis due to a decrease of the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids in phospholi­pids. The amount of cholesterol esterified with saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids increases in the blood plasma of rabbits. The concentration of phospholipids­ and esterified cholesterol is normali­zed and their fatty acid composition is improved in the lipid composition of the blood plasma of rabbits with acute arginine pancreatitis fed with linseed oil.

  18. Total and HDL cholesterol and risk of stroke. EUROSTROKE: a collaborative study among research centres in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.L. Bots (Michiel); D.E. Grobbee (Diederick); P.C. Elwood; Y. Nikitin; J.T. Salonen; A. Freire de Concalves; D. Inzitari; J. Sivenius; V. Benetou (Vassiliki); J. Tuomilehto; P.J. Koudstaal (Peter Jan)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Controversy remains on the relation between serum lipids levels and stroke risk. This paper investigated the association of total and HDL cholesterol level to fatal and non-fatal, and haemorrhagic and ischaemic stroke in four European cohorts participating i

  19. High total-to-HDL cholesterol ratio predicting deterioration of ankle brachial index in Asian type 2 diabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, I-Te; Huang, Chien-Ning; Lee, Wen-Jane; Lee, Hong-Shen; Sheu, Wayne Huey-Herng

    2008-03-01

    We conducted a prospective study to determine the risk factors for decrease in ABI in Chinese subjects with type 2 diabetes during a 3-year period. Type 2 diabetic subjects with normal ABI were enrolled in this study. The risk factors for PVD and ABI were examined before and after the follow-up period. A total of 107 type 2 diabetic subjects completed the assessment. Based on the change of ABI, the study subjects were divided into two groups. Forty subjects, in Group 1, had a decrease in ABI; 67 subjects, in Group 2, had no decrease in ABI after the 3-year follow-up. The baseline total-to-HDL cholesterol ratio (4.5+/-1.2 vs. 3.9+/-1.0, P=0.018) and serum creatinine (99.0+/-18.0micromol/L vs. 88.8+/-15.7micromol/L, P=0.004) were significantly higher, and the HDL cholesterol concentration was significantly lower (1.11+/-0.26mmol/L vs. 1.27+/-0.39mmol/L, P=0.011) in Group 1 than in Group 2. Furthermore, total-to-HDL cholesterol ratio was the variable showed an inverse correlation and independent predictor for the change in ABI after the 3-year follow-up. Total-to-HDL cholesterol ratio is a major risk factor for PVD and showed an inverse trend to change in ABI in Asian type 2 diabetic subjects.

  20. Gallbladder motor function, plasma cholecystokinin and cholecystokinin receptor of gallbladder in cholesterol stone patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Zhu; Tian-Quan Han; Sheng Chen; Yu Jiang; Sheng-Dao Zhang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To study the interactive relationship of gallbladder motor function, plasma cholecystokinin (CCK) and cholecystokinin A receptor (CCK-R) of gallbladder in patients with cholesterol stone disease.METHODS: Gallbladder motility was studied by ultrasonography in 33 patients with gallbladder stone and 10 health subjects as controls. Plasma CCK concentration was measured by radioimmunoassay in fasting status (CCK-f) and in 30 min after lipid test meal (CCK-30).Radioligand method was employed to analyze the amount and activity of CCK-R from 33 gallstone patients having cholecystectomy and 8 persons without gallstone died of severe trauma as controls.RESULTS: The percentage of cholesterol in the gallstone composition was more than 70%. The cholesterol stone type was indicated for the patients with gallbladder stone in this study. Based on the criterion of gallbladder residual fraction of the control group, 33 gallstone patients were divided into two subgroups, contractor group (14 cases)and non-contractor group (19 cases), The concentration of CCK-30 was significantly higher in non-contractor group than that in both contractor group and control group (55.86±3.86 pmol/l vs 37.85±0.88 pmol/l and 37.95±0.74 pmol/L, P<0.01), but there was no difference between contractor group and control group. Meanwhile no significant difference of the concentration of CCK-f could be observed among three groups. The amount of CCK-R was lower in non-contractor group than those in both control group and contractor group (10.27±0.94 fmol/mg vs24.59±2.39 fmol/mg and 22.66±0.55 fmol/mg, P<0.01).The activity of CCK-R shown as KD in non-contractor group decreased compared to that in control group and contractor group. Only was the activity of CCK-R lower in contractor group than that in control group. The ejection fraction correlated closely with the amount of CCK-R (r = 0.9683,P<0.01), and the concentration of CCK-30 correlated negatively with the amount of CCK-R closely (r = -0

  1. High Total Cholesterol in Peripheral Blood Correlates with Poorer Hearing Recovery in Idiopathic Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss.

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    Nicola Quaranta

    Full Text Available Idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSHL is a common otologic emergency whose cause is still unclear. The importance of blood lipids in the pathogenesis of ISSHL is widely reported in literature. In fact elevated levels of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL, total cholesterol (TC and apolipoprotein B (Apo-B have been proposed as risk factors for this pathology. No correlation has been described between serum lipid parameters and the prognosis of ISSHL. Aim of the present study was to identify prognostic factors associated with hearing recovery in a group of patients affected by ISSHL. Ninety-four patients with the diagnosis of ISSHL hospitalized between March 2013 and October 2014 were included in this study. Patients' blood sampling and hearing assessments were carried out. Patients were divided into two groups as "recovered" and "unrecovered", according to their response to the treatment. We found a statistically significant higher level of total cholesterol in the unrecovered group compared to the recovered one (p = 0.03. None of the other routine laboratory parameters have shown a statistically significant difference between the patients successfully treated and patients with poor outcomes. Total cholesterol concentrations may be a prognostic factor for recovery in ISSHL and should be assessed together with routine tests in patients with this condition. The other routine laboratory parameters seem to have no effect on the development and prognosis of this pathology.

  2. High Total Cholesterol in Peripheral Blood Correlates with Poorer Hearing Recovery in Idiopathic Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaranta, Nicola; Squeo, Valentina; Sangineto, Moris; Graziano, Giusi; Sabbà, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSHL) is a common otologic emergency whose cause is still unclear. The importance of blood lipids in the pathogenesis of ISSHL is widely reported in literature. In fact elevated levels of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), total cholesterol (TC) and apolipoprotein B (Apo-B) have been proposed as risk factors for this pathology. No correlation has been described between serum lipid parameters and the prognosis of ISSHL. Aim of the present study was to identify prognostic factors associated with hearing recovery in a group of patients affected by ISSHL. Ninety-four patients with the diagnosis of ISSHL hospitalized between March 2013 and October 2014 were included in this study. Patients' blood sampling and hearing assessments were carried out. Patients were divided into two groups as "recovered" and "unrecovered", according to their response to the treatment. We found a statistically significant higher level of total cholesterol in the unrecovered group compared to the recovered one (p = 0.03). None of the other routine laboratory parameters have shown a statistically significant difference between the patients successfully treated and patients with poor outcomes. Total cholesterol concentrations may be a prognostic factor for recovery in ISSHL and should be assessed together with routine tests in patients with this condition. The other routine laboratory parameters seem to have no effect on the development and prognosis of this pathology.

  3. The ATP-binding cassette transporter-2 (ABCA2) regulates esterification of plasma membrane cholesterol by modulation of sphingolipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Warren

    2014-01-01

    The ATP-binding cassette transporters are a large family (~48 genes divided into seven families A-G) of proteins that utilize the energy of ATP-hydrolysis to pump substrates across lipid bilayers against a concentration gradient. The ABC "A" subfamily is comprised of 13 members and transport sterols, phospholipids and bile acids. ABCA2 is the most abundant ABC transporter in human and rodent brain with highest expression in oligodendrocytes, although it is also expressed in neurons. Several groups have studied a possible connection between ABCA2 and Alzheimer's disease as well as early atherosclerosis. ABCA2 expression levels have been associated with changes in cholesterol and sphingolipid metabolism. In this paper, we hypothesized that ABCA2 expression level may regulate esterification of plasma membrane-derived cholesterol by modulation of sphingolipid metabolism. ABCA2 overexpression in N2a neuroblastoma cells was associated with an altered bilayer distribution of the sphingolipid ceramide that inhibited acylCoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) activity and cholesterol esterification. In contrast, depletion of endogenous ABCA2 in the rat schwannoma cell line D6P2T increased esterification of plasma membrane cholesterol following treatment with exogenous bacterial sphingomyelinase. These findings suggest that control of ABCA2 expression level may be a key locus of regulation for esterification of plasma membrane-derived cholesterol through modulation of sphingolipid metabolism.

  4. Prostate cancer risk in the Swedish AMORIS study: the interplay among triglycerides, total cholesterol, and glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hemelrijck, Mieke; Garmo, Hans; Holmberg, Lars; Walldius, Göran; Jungner, Ingmar; Hammar, Niklas; Lambe, Mats

    2011-05-15

    In a cohort including 5112 prostate cancer (pCa) patients, the authors investigated associations among triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), and pCa while taking into account glucose. A cohort (n = 200,660) based on 4 groups of men, according to age at cohort entry, with TG, TC, and glucose measurements was selected from the Apolipoprotein MOrtality RISk (AMORIS) database. Of these, 5112 men developed pCa. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard models were used to analyze associations among TG, TC, and pCa. Competing risks were assessed graphically. Age-stratified analyses for quartiles of TG, TC, and glucose showed a negative association between glucose and pCa risk (HR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.86-1.01), 0.93 (0.86-1.01), 0.87 (0.81-0.94) for the second, third, and fourth quartiles compared with the first (P(trend) = .001). Stratified analysis by glucose levels (<6.11 or ≥ 6.11 mmol/L) showed a positive association between hypertriglyceridemia (TG ≥ 1.71 mmol/L) and pCa risk, when there were high glucose levels (HR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.01-1.48). No association was found for hypercholesterolemia (TC ≥ 6.50 mmol/L). Competing risk analysis showed that protective effects of glucose were overestimated in conventional Cox proportional hazard models and strengthened positive findings between TG and pCa risk. The authors'; findings supported the hypothesis that factors of the glucose and lipid metabolism influence pCa risk. Competing risk assessment showed that it is important to take into account the long natural history and age distribution of pCa when interpreting results. The authors'; findings indicate another reason to fight the increasing prevalence of obesity and dyslipidemia. 2010 American Cancer Society.

  5. Apricot and pumpkin oils reduce plasma cholesterol and triacylglycerol concentrations in rats fed a high-fat diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadan, Mohamed F.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Non-conventional oilseeds are being taken into greater consideration because their constituents have unique chemical properties and may increase the supply of edible oils. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of apricot kernel oil (AO and pumpkin kernel oil (PO on the lipid profiles and liver functions of rats fed high fat diets. The high fat diet resulted in great alterations in plasma lipid profiles and liver functions. Twenty-four male albino rats were used over a 28 day period. The animals were divided into 4 groups, where group 1 represents the negative control which were a fed basal diet, while group 2 received a high fat diet to serve as the hypercholesterolemic group (positive control. The other two groups were given a high fat diet supplemented with AO and PO. Group 3 was treated daily with AO (1g/Kg body weight, while group 4 was treated with PO (1g/Kg body weight. The plasma lipid profile and liver functions in the different groups were determined after 14 and 28 days. The rats in the treated groups (AO and PO showed significantly lower levels of total cholesterol (TC, total triglycerides (TG, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C, alanine-aminotransferase (ALT and aspartateaminotransferase (AST activities as well as high levels of high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C and total protein in comparison with the hypercholesterolemic group. It could be concluded that AO and PO under study are useful for the treatment of hypercholesterolemia.

    Las semillas oleaginosas no convencionales están siendo consideradas debido a que sus componentes tienen propiedades químicas únicas y pueden aumentar la oferta de los aceites comestibles. El propósito del presente estudio fue investigar el efecto de los aceites de semilla de albaricoque (AO y de calabaza (PO sobre los perfiles de lípidos y las funciones del hígado de ratas alimentadas con una dieta rica en grasas. Las dietas ricas en grasas dan lugar

  6. Plasma HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides, but not LDL-cholesterol, are associated with insulin secretion in non-diabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natali, Andrea; Baldi, Simona; Bonnet, Fabrice; Petrie, John; Trifirò, Silvia; Tricò, Domenico; Mari, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    Experimental data support the notion that lipoproteins might directly affect beta cell function, however clinical data are sparse and inconsistent. We aimed at verifying whether, independently of major confounders, serum lipids are associated with alterations in insulin secretion or clearance non-diabetic subjects. Cross sectional and observational prospective (3.5yrs), multicentre study in which 1016 non-diabetic volunteers aged 30-60yrs. and with a wide range of BMI (20.0-39.9kg/m(2)) were recruited in a setting of University hospital ambulatory care (RISC study). baseline fasting lipids, fasting and OGTT-induced insulin secretion and clearance (measured by glucose and C-peptide modeling), peripheral insulin sensitivity (by the euglycemic clamp). Lipids and OGTT were repeated in 980 subjects after 3.5years. LDL-cholesterol did not show independent associations with fasting or stimulated insulin secretion or clearance. After accounting for potential confounders, HDL-cholesterol displayed negative and triglycerides positive independent associations with fasting and OGTT insulin secretion; neither with insulin clearance. Low HDL-cholesterol and high triglycerides were associated with an increase in glucose-dependent and a decrease in non-glucose-dependent insulin secretion. Over 3.5years both an HDL-cholesterol decline and a triglycerides rise were associated with an increase in fasting insulin secretion independent of changes in body weight or plasma glucose. LDL-cholesterol does not seem to influence any major determinant of insulin bioavailability while low HDL-cholesterol and high triglycerides might contribute to sustain the abnormalities in insulin secretion that characterize the pre-diabetic state. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Consumption of a Diet Rich in Cottonseed Oil (CSO Lowers Total and LDL Cholesterol in Normo-Cholesterolemic Subjects

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    Kathleen E. Davis

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Animal data indicates that dietary cottonseed oil (CSO may lower cholesterol; however, the effects of a CSO-rich diet have not been evaluated in humans. Thirty-eight healthy adults (aged 18–40; 12 males, 26 females consumed a CSO rich diet (95 g CSO daily for one week. Anthropometric measurements were obtained, and blood was drawn pre- and post-intervention. Serum lipids (total cholesterol (TC, high density lipoprotein (HDL, low density lipoprotein (LDL, triglyceride (TG, and free fatty acids (FFA were assayed. There was no change in weight or waist circumference among participants. There was no change in HDL (Pre: 1.27 ± 0.4 mmol/L; Post: 1.21 ± 0.3 mmol/L or TG (Pre: 0.91 ± 0.6 mmol/L; Post: 1.06 ± 1.0 mmol/L. Total cholesterol and LDL were reduced (TC Pre: 4.39 ± 0.9 mmol/L; Post: 4.16 ± 0.8 mmol/L; LDL Pre: 2.70 ± 0.8 mmol/L; Post: 2.47 ± 0.6 mmol/L. When data were grouped by sex, total cholesterol was reduced in female participants (Pre: 4.34 ± 0.9 mmol/L; Post: 4.09 ± 0.8 mmol/L. Consumption of a high fat, CSO-rich diet for one week reduced total cholesterol in female participants without reducing HDL.

  8. Development of a rapid, simple assay of plasma total carotenoids

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    Donaldson Michael

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasma total carotenoids can be used as an indicator of risk of chronic disease. Laboratory analysis of individual carotenoids by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC is time consuming, expensive, and not amenable to use beyond a research laboratory. The aim of this research is to establish a rapid, simple, and inexpensive spectrophotometric assay of plasma total carotenoids that has a very strong correlation with HPLC carotenoid profile analysis. Results Plasma total carotenoids from 29 volunteers ranged in concentration from 1.2 to 7.4 μM, as analyzed by HPLC. A linear correlation was found between the absorbance at 448 nm of an alcohol / heptane extract of the plasma and plasma total carotenoids analyzed by HPLC, with a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.989. The average coefficient of variation for the spectrophotometric assay was 6.5% for the plasma samples. The limit of detection was about 0.3 μM and was linear up to about 34 μM without dilution. Correlations between the integrals of the absorption spectra in the range of carotenoid absorption and total plasma carotenoid concentration gave similar results to the absorbance correlation. Spectrophotometric assay results also agreed with the calculated expected absorbance based on published extinction coefficients for the individual carotenoids, with a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.988. Conclusion The spectrophotometric assay of total carotenoids strongly correlated with HPLC analysis of carotenoids of the same plasma samples and expected absorbance values based on extinction coefficients. This rapid, simple, inexpensive assay, when coupled with the carotenoid health index, may be useful for nutrition intervention studies, population cohort studies, and public health interventions.

  9. Characteristics associated with differences in reported versus measured total cholesterol among male physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scranton, Richard E; Sesso, Howard D; Glynn, Robert J; Levenson, James W; Stedman, Margaret; Gagnon, David; Gaziano, J Michael

    2005-01-01

    We studied 4,543 male physicians to assess accuracy of self-reported cholesterol level. The rate of accurate reporting improved over 14 years (25% to 62%), while failing to report a cholesterol level decreased. Overweight, current or past smoking, and physical inactivity were significantly associated with not reporting or inaccurately reporting cholesterol level. Though an increasing proportion of physicians accurately reported their cholesterol level over time, those at increased risk for developing cardiovascular disease tended to underestimate or fail to report their cholesterol level. Knowledge may be a critical factor in empowering physicians and patients to advocate for and adopt healthier lifestyles. EDITORS' STRATEGIC IMPLICATIONS: Rates of sedentary behavior and obesity in the U.S. continue to rise. In this promising study with a large sample, a longitudinal design, and multi-method assessments, we find that--even among this sample of highly educated medical professionals--those individuals who are at greatest cardiovascular risk might require different types of monitoring, motivational interventions, or health education.

  10. Apolipoprotein B/A-I and total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratios both predict cardiovascular events in the general population independently of nonlipid risk factors, albuminuria and C-reactive protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kappelle, P.J.W.H.; Gansevoort, R. T.; Hillege, J. L.; Wolffenbuttel, B. H. R.; Dullaart, R. P. F.

    2011-01-01

    Background. The total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TC/HDL-C) and apolipoprotein (apo) B/A-I ratios predict major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs). The extent to which these associations are modified by high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and albuminuria is largely

  11. The role of total fats, saturated/unsaturated fatty acids and cholesterol content in chicken meat as cardiovascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milićević, Dragan; Vranić, Danijela; Mašić, Zoran; Parunović, Nenad; Trbović, Dejana; Nedeljković-Trailović, Jelena; Petrović, Zoran

    2014-03-03

    The objective of the study was to present information about the chemical composition, the fatty acids profile, and cholesterol content of chicken meat in order to investigate the impact of chicken meat consumption on cardiovascular risk in the general population. A total of 48 6-wk-old broiler chickens broilers from two farms in June to November of 2012, and February of 2013, were used in this trial. Total lipid content was determined by extraction of fat by petrol ether (Soxhlet) after acid hydrolysis of samples. Fatty acids were determined by capillary gas chromatography. Cholesterol determination was performed by using HPLC/PDA system. The results indicate that the total free cholesterol content in raw breast and drumstick of chickens was in the range of 37,41-79,9 mg/100 g and 48,35-99,5 mg/100 g, respectively. The main fatty acids identified in all cuts were C18:1c9, C18:2n6, C16:0, C18:0, and C16:1. Decreasing the dietary n-6/n-3 clearly decreased the content in breast and drumstick muscle of C18:2n6, C18:3n3, and C20: 3n6, but increased that of C16:0, C18:0, and C20:2. Also, the major saturated fatty acid (SFA) (C16:0 and C18:0) was significantly differ among the four treatments. Our study shows that dietary fat and fatty acid composition influence the concentrations of total cholesterol content, total fat content, and fatty acid composition in broiler muscle. This information will aid in determining the burden of chicken meat as a cardiovascular risk factors disease and act as a planning tool for public-health Programmes.

  12. Association between variations in the TLR4 gene and incident type 2 diabetes is modified by the ratio of total cholesterol to HDL-cholesterol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meisinger Christine

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4, the signaling receptor for lipopolysaccharides, is an important member of the innate immunity system. Since several studies have suggested that type 2 diabetes might be associated with changes in the innate immune response, we sought to investigate the association between genetic variants in the TLR4 gene and incident type 2 diabetes. Methods A case-cohort study was conducted in initially healthy, middle-aged subjects from the MONICA/KORA Augsburg studies including 498 individuals with incident type 2 diabetes and 1,569 non-cases. Seven SNPs were systematically selected in the TLR4 gene and haplotypes were reconstructed. Results The effect of TLR4 SNPs on incident type 2 diabetes was modified by the ratio of total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TC/HDL-C. In men, four out of seven TLR4 variants showed significant interaction with TC/HDL-C after correction for multiple testing (p -3. However, none of the investigated variants or haplotypes was associated with type 2 diabetes in main effect models without assessment of effect modifications. Conclusion We conclude that minor alleles of several TLR4 variants, although not directly associated with type 2 diabetes might increase the risk for type 2 diabetes in subjects with high TC/HDL-C. Additionally, our results confirm previous studies reporting sex-related dissimilarities in the development of type 2 diabetes.

  13. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease severity is associated with the ratios of total cholesterol and triglycerides to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kuan-Ta; Kuo, Po-Lin; Su, Shih-Bin; Chen, Yi-Yu; Yeh, Ming-Lum; Huang, Ching-I; Yang, Jeng-Fu; Lin, Chia-I; Hsieh, Meng-Hsuan; Hsieh, Ming-Yen; Huang, Chung-Feng; Lin, Wen-Yi; Yu, Ming-Lung; Dai, Chia-Yen; Wang, Hsien-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Limited data support the notion that lipid ratios are risk factors for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We evaluated the association between lipid ratios and NAFLD. This was a large population, cross-sectional, retrospective study. Data on NAFLD severity, blood pressure, fasting glucose, total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels were obtained from 44,767 examinees at single health checkup center. The enrollees were stratified into four subgroups based on their TC/HDL-C and TG/HDL-C ratios. We used multivariate analyses to evaluate the odds between lipid ratios and NAFLD. The prevalence rate of fatty liver in this study was 53.76%. In the baseline subgroup with the lowest TC/HDL-C and TG/HDL-C ratios, the prevalence of NAFLD, hypertension, and diabetes was lower than that of the other three subgroups. Patients with higher lipid ratios had a significantly greater risk for advanced NAFLD. Adults with high TC/HDL-C or TG/HDL-C ratios, or both, have a greater risk for NAFLD, especially advanced NAFLD. Copyright © 2016 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Plasma Total Antioxidant Capacity and Cardiometabolic Risk in Non-Obese and Clinically Healthy Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Jamille Oliveira; Vásquez, Cecília M Passos; Santana, Gleiciane de Jesus; Silva, Natanael de Jesus; Braz, Juciene de Matos; Jesus, Amélia M Ribeiro de; Silva, Danielle Góes da; Cunha, Luana Celina Seraphim; Barbosa, Kiriaque Barra Ferreira

    2017-07-10

    The oxidative biomarkers play an important role in the genesis of cardiometabolic risk-related processes. To investigate the total antioxidant capacity of plasma and its association with cardiometabolic risk in non-obese and clinically healthy young adults. University students of the state of Sergipe, Brazil, aged between 18 and 25 years, were recruited for this study from May of 2013 and October of 2014. Anthropometric, clinical and biochemical parameters were measured and analyzed using protocols which were previously standardized and described in the literature. The measurement of plasma total antioxidant capacity was based on the ability that all the antioxidants present in the sample (plasma) have to inhibit the oxidation of the oxidizable substrate ABTS (2,2`- Azino-di-[3-ethylbenzthiazoline sulphonate]) to ABTS•+ by metmyoglobin. Approximately 25% of the sample presented more than one component of cardiometabolic risk. Low HDL-cholesterol was the most prevalent component. Compared to absence of components, the subjects with at least one component presented greater body weight and waist circumference, higher levels of diastolic blood pressure and fasting glucose, greater total cholesterol/HDL-c ratio, and lower levels of HDL-c (p literatura. A medida da capacidade antioxidante total do plasma baseou-se na capacidade de todos os antioxidantes presentes na amostra (plasma) em inibir a oxidação do substrato oxidável ABTS (2,2-Azino-bis-(3-etilbenzotiazolina-6-sulfonato) a ABTS•+ pela metamioglobina. Aproximadamente 25% da amostra apresentaram mais de um componente do risco cardiometabólico. Valores baixos de HDL foram o componente mais prevalente. Em comparação à ausência de componentes, os indivíduos com pelo menos um componente apresentou valores mais altos de peso corporal, circunferência da cintura, pressão sanguínea diastólica, glicemia de jejum e razão colesterol total/HDL-c, e valores mais baixos de HDL-c (p < 0,05). A glicemia de jejum

  15. Hampering Effect of Cholesterol on the Permeation of Reactive Oxygen Species through Phospholipids Bilayer: Possible Explanation for Plasma Cancer Selectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Paal, Jonas; Verheyen, Claudia; Neyts, Erik C.; Bogaerts, Annemie

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, the ability of cold atmospheric pressure plasmas (CAPS) to selectively induce cell death in cancer cells has been widely established. This selectivity has been assigned to the reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) created in CAPs. To provide new insights in the search for an explanation for the observed selectivity, we calculate the transfer free energy of multiple ROS across membranes containing a varying amount of cholesterol. The cholesterol fraction is investigated as a selectivity parameter because membranes of cancer cells are known to contain lower fractions of cholesterol compared to healthy cells. We find that cholesterol has a significant effect on the permeation of reactive species across a membrane. Indeed, depending on the specific reactive species, an increasing cholesterol fraction can lead to (i) an increase of the transfer free energy barrier height and width, (ii) the formation of a local free energy minimum in the center of the membrane and (iii) the creation of extra free energy barriers due to the bulky sterol rings. In the context of plasma oncology, these observations suggest that the increased ingress of RONS in cancer cells can be explained by the decreased cholesterol fraction of their cell membrane. PMID:28059085

  16. Hampering Effect of Cholesterol on the Permeation of Reactive Oxygen Species through Phospholipids Bilayer: Possible Explanation for Plasma Cancer Selectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Paal, Jonas; Verheyen, Claudia; Neyts, Erik C.; Bogaerts, Annemie

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, the ability of cold atmospheric pressure plasmas (CAPS) to selectively induce cell death in cancer cells has been widely established. This selectivity has been assigned to the reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) created in CAPs. To provide new insights in the search for an explanation for the observed selectivity, we calculate the transfer free energy of multiple ROS across membranes containing a varying amount of cholesterol. The cholesterol fraction is investigated as a selectivity parameter because membranes of cancer cells are known to contain lower fractions of cholesterol compared to healthy cells. We find that cholesterol has a significant effect on the permeation of reactive species across a membrane. Indeed, depending on the specific reactive species, an increasing cholesterol fraction can lead to (i) an increase of the transfer free energy barrier height and width, (ii) the formation of a local free energy minimum in the center of the membrane and (iii) the creation of extra free energy barriers due to the bulky sterol rings. In the context of plasma oncology, these observations suggest that the increased ingress of RONS in cancer cells can be explained by the decreased cholesterol fraction of their cell membrane.

  17. Single dose testosterone increases total cholesterol levels and induces the expression of HMG CoA Reductase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gårevik Nina

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cholesterol is mainly synthesised in liver and the rate-limiting step is the reduction of 3-hydroxy-3methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA to mevalonate, a reaction catalysed by HMG-CoA reductase (HMGCR. There is a comprehensive body of evidence documenting that anabolic-androgenic steroids are associated with deleterious alterations of lipid profile. In this study we investigated whether a single dose of testosterone enanthate affects the cholesterol biosynthesis and the expression of HMGCR. Methods 39 healthy male volunteers were given 500 mg testosterone enanthate as single intramuscular dose of Testoviron®--Depot. The total cholesterol levels prior to and two days after testosterone administration were analysed. Protein expression of HMGCR in whole blood was investigated by Western blotting. In order to study whether testosterone regulates the mRNA expression of HMGCR, in vitro studies were performed in a human liver cell-line (HepG2. Results The total cholesterol level was significantly increased 15% two days after the testosterone injection (p = 0.007. This is the first time a perturbation in the lipoprotein profile is observed after only a single dose of testosterone. Moreover, the HMGCR mRNA and protein expression was induced by testosterone in vitro and in vivo, respectively. Conclusion Here we provide a molecular explanation how anabolic androgenic steroids may impact on the cholesterol homeostasis, i.e. via an increase of the HMGCR expression. Increasing knowledge and understanding of AAS induced side-effects is important in order to find measures for treatment and care of these abusers.

  18. Insulin decreases plasma cholesteryl ester transfer but not cholesterol esterification in healthy subjects as well as in normotriglyceridaemic patients with type 2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dullaart, RPF; Riemens, SC; Scheek, LM; van Tol, A

    1999-01-01

    Background Plasma cholesterol esterification (EST) and subsequent cholesteryl ester transfer (CET) from high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) towards apolipoprotein (apo) B-containing lipoproteins are key steps in HDL metabolism. Materials and methods The effects of exogenous hyperinsulinaemia on plasma

  19. Effects of cholesterol on plasma membrane lipid order in MCF-7 cells by two-photon microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yixiu; Chen, Jianling; Yang, Hongqin; Wang, Yuhua; Li, Hui; Xie, Shusen

    2014-09-01

    Lipid rafts are cholesterol- and glycosphingolipids- enriched microdomains on plasma membrane surface of mammal cells, involved in a variety of cellular processes. Depleting cholesterol from the plasma membrane by drugs influences the trafficking of lipid raft markers. Optical imaging techniques are powerful tools to study lipid rafts in live cells due to its noninvasive feature. In this study, breast cancer cells MCF-7 were treated with different concentrations of MβCD to deplete cholesterol and an environmentally sensitive fluorescence probe, Laurdan was loaded to image lipid order by two-photon microscopy. The generalized polarization (GP) values were calculated to distinguish the lipid order and disorder phase. GP images and GP distributions of native and cholesterol-depleted MCF-7 cells were obtained. Our results suggest that even at low concentration (0.5 mM) of MβCD, the morphology of the MCF-7 cells changes. Small high GP areas (lipid order phase) decrease more rapidly than low GP areas (lipid disorder phase), indicating that lipid raft structure was altered more severely than nonraft domains. The data demonstrates that cholesterol dramatically affect raft coverage and plasma membrane fluidity in living cells.

  20. Polyacrylate adsorbents for the selective adsorption of cholesterol-rich lipoproteins from plasma or blood

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    Heuck, Claus-Chr.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyacrylate (PAA adsorbents selectively bind low density lipoproteins (LDL from human plasma and blood, whereas very low density lipoproteins (VLDL are only minimally adsorbed. The adsorption of cholesterol-rich lipoproteins to PAA adsorbents is related to the molecular weight (mw of the polyanion ligand. Ca++ and Mg++ inhibit the binding of LDL to PAA adsorbents. The chemical composition of the organic hardgels of the adsorbents does not have an influence on adsorption. The selective adsorption of LDL to PAA adsorbents can be explained to result from their low negative surface charge density and the specific colloid-chemical properties of the surface-bound PAA, which do not prevent LDL from binding to charge-like domains of the ligand. By contrast, VLDL and high density lipoproteins (HDL are repelled from the adsorbents due to their higher negative surface charge density.

  1. Polyacrylate adsorbents for the selective adsorption of cholesterol-rich lipoproteins from plasma or blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuck, Claus-Chr

    2011-01-24

    Polyacrylate (PAA) adsorbents selectively bind low density lipoproteins (LDL) from human plasma and blood, whereas very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) are only minimally adsorbed. The adsorption of cholesterol-rich lipoproteins to PAA adsorbents is related to the molecular weight (mw) of the polyanion ligand. Ca(++) and Mg(++) inhibit the binding of LDL to PAA adsorbents. The chemical composition of the organic hardgels of the adsorbents does not have an influence on adsorption. The selective adsorption of LDL to PAA adsorbents can be explained to result from their low negative surface charge density and the specific colloid-chemical properties of the surface-bound PAA, which do not prevent LDL from binding to charge-like domains of the ligand. By contrast, VLDL and high density lipoproteins (HDL) are repelled from the adsorbents due to their higher negative surface charge density.

  2. Combined effect of blood pressure and total cholesterol levels on long-term risks of subtypes of cardiovascular death: Evidence for Cardiovascular Prevention from Observational Cohorts in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Michihiro; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Asayama, Kei; Murakami, Yoshitaka; Sakurai, Masaru; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Iso, Hiroyasu; Okayama, Akira; Miura, Katsuyuki; Imai, Yutaka; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Okamura, Tomonori

    2015-03-01

    No large-scale, longitudinal studies have examined the combined effects of blood pressure (BP) and total cholesterol levels on long-term risks for subtypes of cardiovascular death in an Asian population. To investigate these relationships, a meta-analysis of individual participant data, which included 73 916 Japanese subjects (age, 57.7 years; men, 41.1%) from 11 cohorts, was conducted. During a mean follow-up of 15.0 years, deaths from coronary heart disease, ischemic stroke, and intraparenchymal hemorrhage occurred in 770, 724, and 345 cases, respectively. Cohort-stratified Cox proportional hazard models were used. After stratifying the participants by 4 systolic BP ×4 total cholesterol categories, the group with systolic BP ≥160 mm Hg with total cholesterol ≥5.7 mmol/L had the greatest risk for coronary heart disease death (adjusted hazard ratio, 4.39; P<0.0001 versus group with systolic BP <120 mm Hg and total cholesterol <4.7 mmol/L). The adjusted hazard ratios of systolic BP (per 20 mm Hg) increased with increases in total cholesterol categories (hazard ratio, 1.52; P<0.0001 in group with total cholesterol ≥5.7 mmol/L). Similarly, the adjusted hazard ratios of total cholesterol increased with increases in systolic BP categories (P for interaction ≤0.04). Systolic BP was positively associated with ischemic stroke and intraparenchymal hemorrhage death, and total cholesterol was inversely associated with intraparenchymal hemorrhage, but no significant interactions between BP and total cholesterol were observed for stroke. High BP and high total cholesterol can synergistically increase the risk for coronary heart disease death but not for stroke in the Asian population.

  3. Short-term Acipimox decreases the ability of plasma from Type 2 diabetic patients and healthy subjects to stimulate cellular cholesterol efflux : a potentially adverse effect on reverse cholesterol transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dullaart, RPF; van Tol, A

    Aims To evaluate the effect of short-term administration of the anti-lipolytic agent, Acipimox, on the ability of plasma to stimulate cellular cholesterol removal, which represents one of the first steps in the anti-atherogenic process of reverse cholesterol transport. Methods Eight male Type 2

  4. Short-term Acipimox decreases the ability of plasma from type 2 diabetic patients and healthy subjects to stimulate cellular cholesterol efflux: A potentially adverse effect on reverse cholesterol transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.P.F. Dullaart (Robin); A. van Tol (Arie)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractAims: To evaluate the effect of short-term administration of the anti-lipolytic agent, Acipimox, on the ability of plasma to stimulate cellular cholesterol removal, which represents one of the first steps in the anti-atherogenic process of reverse cholesterol transport. Methods: Eight

  5. GESTATIONAL-AGE DEPENDENCY OF ESSENTIAL FATTY-ACIDS IN CORD PLASMA-CHOLESTEROL ESTERS AND TRIGLYCERIDES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HOVING, EB; VANBEUSEKOM, CM; NIJEBOER, HJ; MUSKIET, FAJ

    Plasma cholesterol ester and triglyceride fatty acid compositions of 38 singleton deliveries (23-42 wk), three twins (32, 39, and 40 wk), and their mothers were investigated. No gestational age-dependent changes occurred in maternal fatty acid compositions. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in

  6. Plasma total homocysteine (THCY) level and other biochemical risk factors in hypertensives with and without cardiovascular events

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Akande AA; Salisu OT; Omotoso ABO; Kolo PM

    2009-01-01

    Objective:The aim of this study is to assess the correlation between traditional cardiovascular risk factors and elevated plasma tHcy level in Nigerian hypertensive. Methods: Thirty-six hypertensive patients were recruited with 36 age and sex-matched controls. The age, sex and anthropometric measurements including height, weight and body mass index (BMI) were taken. Plasma total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), tri-glycerides and tHey were analyzed. The results of the two groups were compared. Results: The mean total cholesterol and LDL-C were significantly higher in the subjects than in the controls (P=0.01 and 0.03 respectively). On the other hand, means of HDL-C and triglycerides were not significantly different between the two groups (P = 0.06 and O. 68 respectively). Mean total plasma tHey was (12. 95±4.9)μmol/L in hypertensive patients when compared with (11.29±3.6)μmol/L in the controls (P =0.09), however the mean they was significantly higher in hypertensive patients who had stroke or myocardial infarction than those without these complications (one way Anova F = 3.63, P =0.04). Significant positive correlation was seen between tHcy and systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, BMI and LDL-C. Conclusion:The study suggests that elevated plasma tH-ey may predict occurrence of cardiovascular complications in hypertensive individuals.

  7. Essential fatty acids for premenstrual syndrome and their effect on prolactin and total cholesterol levels: a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study

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    Pinho Neto João S

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of polyunsaturated fatty acids for the treatment of the premenstrual syndrome (PMS using a graded symptom scale and to assess the effect of this treatment on basal plasma levels of prolactin and total cholesterol. Methods A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted with 120 women with PMS divided into three groups and treated with 1 or 2 grams of the medication or placebo. Symptoms were recorded over a 6-month period using the Prospective Record of the Impact and Severity of Menstruation (PRISM calendar. Total cholesterol and prolactin levels were measured. Analysis of variance (ANOVA, Pearson's chi-square test, Wilcoxon's nonparametric signed-rank test for paired samples and the Mann-Whitney nonparametric test for independent samples were used in the statistical analysis. Results There were no differences in age, marital status, schooling or ethnicity between the groups. In the group treated with 1 gram of the medication, a significant reduction was found when the median PRISM score recorded in the luteal phase at baseline (99 was compared with the median score recorded in the 3rd month (58 and in the 6th month of evaluation (35. In the 2-gram group, these differences were even more significant (baseline score: 98; 3rd month: 48; 6th month: 28. In the placebo group, there was a significant reduction at the 3rd but not at the 6th month (baseline: 96.5; 3rd month: 63.5; 6th month: 62. The difference between the phases of the menstrual cycle was greater in the 2-gram group compared to the group treated with 1 gram of the medication. There were no statistically significant differences in prolactin or total cholesterol levels between baseline values and those recorded after six months of treatment. Conclusion The difference between the groups using the medication and the placebo group with respect to the improvement in symptomatology appears to indicate the

  8. [Effect of raw and cooked nopal (Opuntia ficus indica) ingestion on growth and profile of total cholesterol, lipoproteins, and blood glucose in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas Medellín, M L; Serna Saldívar, S O; Velazco de la Garza, J

    1998-12-01

    Two different concentrations (approx. 6 and 12%) and two presentations (raw and cooked) of dehydrated nopal were fed to laboratory rats and growth and serum total cholesterol, lipoprotein profile and glucose determined. Samples of raw and cooked nopal were chemically characterized for moisture, protein, ash, crude fiber, ether extract, total dietary fiber, reducing sugars, amino acids, minerals and gross energy. Cooking slightly affected some of the nutrients analyzed. After one month feeding, blood was withdrawn via intracardiac puncture and serum glucose, total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, and VLDL were determined. Rats fed 12% nopal had lower weight gains (P nopal or the control diet. Consumption of nopal did not affect (P > 0.05) glucose, total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol levels. However, rats fed raw nopal at the 12% concentration level had a 34% reduction in LDL cholesterol levels; thus, it was concluded that raw nopal had a potentially beneficial effect for hypercholesterolemic individuals.

  9. Elevated HDL2-paraoxonase and reduced CETP activity are associated with a dramatically lower ratio of LDL-cholesterol/total cholesterol in a hypercholesterolemic and hypertriglyceridemic patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji-Hye; Park, Jung-Heun; Lee, Sang-Hak; Kim, Jae-Ryong; Cho, Kyung-Hyun

    2010-06-01

    A female patient (64 years of age; body mass index, 26) had a markedly and relatively low low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) level (97 mg/dl) despite high serum total cholesterol (TC) (331 mg/dl) and triacylglyceride levels (307 mg/dl). Since the expected LDL-C was 222 mg/dl, there was a significant difference between the calculation and measurement based on direct enzyme assay. Only 30% of serum cholesterol was associated with LDL-C in this patient. To determine the basis for the markedly low LDL-C/TC ratio, we isolated and analyzed lipoproteins from the patient as well as age- and gender-matched controls. The patient had lowered serum CETP activity and elevated paraoxonase activity with GOT and GPT values in the normal range. The very low-density lipoprotein particles from the patient were larger than those of the controls and enriched with lipid and protein, while the LDL from the patient (LDL-P) had a lower particle number and protein content than the controls. The LDL-P was more resistant to cupric ion-mediated oxidation. HDL2 from the patient (HDL2-P) had highly enhanced paraoxonase activity and antioxidant ability. The patient had a 1.5-fold higher level of apolipoprotein (apo) A-I expression in HDL2. ApoA-I in HDL2 and HDL3 from the patient showed no fragmentation, while the control had fragmented bands (17 and 21 kDa) in the HDL. The HDL2-P also had a larger particle size and greater protein content with less lipid content. HDL3-associated cholesteryl ester transfer protein was reduced in the patient, although the particle size was similar to the controls. In conclusion, a patient who had a markedly lower LDL-C/TC ratio despite hyperlipidemia associated with higher paraoxonase activity, higher apoA-I level and lower CETP activity without fragmentation of apoA-I in the HDL fraction is presented. The enhanced antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of HDL might contribute to the low LDL-C/TC ratio in this patient.

  10. Primary hyperlipidemias in children: effect of plant sterol supplementation on plasma lipids and markers of cholesterol synthesis and absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardamagna, O; Abello, F; Baracco, V; Federici, G; Bertucci, P; Mozzi, A; Mannucci, L; Gnasso, A; Cortese, C

    2011-06-01

    Plant sterols lower serum cholesterol concentration. Available data have confirmed the lipid-lowering efficacy in adults, while there is a relative dearth of data in children and almost exclusively restricted to subjects with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). Aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy, tolerability and safety of plant sterol supplementation in children with different forms of primary hyperlipidemias. The effect of plant sterol consumption on plasma lipids was evaluated in 32 children with heterozygous FH, 13 children with Familial Combined Hyperlipidemia (FCH) and 13 children with Undefined Hypercholesterolemia (UH) in a 12-week open-label intervention study using plant sterol-enriched yoghurt. Plasma lipids and apolipoproteins were measured by routine methods. Markers of cholesterol synthesis (lathosterol) and absorption (campesterol and sitosterol) were measured by GC-MS. Tolerability and adherence to recommended regimen was very high. A significant reduction was observed in LDL-cholesterol in the three groups (10.7, 14.2 and 16.0% in FH, FCH and UH, respectively). Lathosterol concentrations were unchanged, reflecting a lack of increased synthesis of cholesterol. Of the two absorption markers, only sitosterol showed a slight but significant increase. Daily consumption of plant sterol dairy products favorably changes lipid profile by reducing LDL-cholesterol. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the use of plant sterols-enriched foods in treating children with primary hyperlipidemia such as FCH and UH, likely to be the most frequent form also in the young age in the western populations.

  11. Association between apolipoprotein E promoter-219G/T polymorphism and total cholesterol level in patients with Alzheimer disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Liu; Xiao Sun; Jing Wang; Yan Kong; Li Cui; Xiangdang Shi

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many researches have suggested that apolipoprotein E (APOE) and total cholesterol metabolism are closely related with dementia. In the supposed theory, 219 site of APOE promoter region is near gene coding region, so its polymorphism may result in the abnormality of APOE gene and protein expression,and finally lead to dementia.OBJECTIVE: To observe the association between APOE promoter-219G/T polymorphisms with serum total cholesterol in patients with Alzheimer disease, and compare it with non-dementia people.DESIGN: Case-control, comparative observation.SETTING: Department of Neurology, Fengtian Hospital of Shenyang Medical College.PARTICIPANTS: Fifty-five dementia patients including 27 males and 28 females aged (66±3) years and treated in the Department of Neurology, Fengtian Hospital were selected from January 2002 to December 2005 as the Alzheimer disease group. They all diagnosed according to the DSM- Ⅳ diagnostic criteria of Alzheimer disease instituted by American Psychiatry Association in 1994. Meanwhile, 44 none-dementia patients including 21 males and 23 females aged (66±3) years were selected from other clinical departments of Fengtian Hospital as control group. All the participants were informed the detection and agreed.METHODS: Genomic DNA was extracted from the peripheral blood of all subjects, then "NEST"PCR, DNA sequence and enzyme digestion were adopted to detect the expression of APOE promoter-219 polymorphism,following by biomedical statistics analysis based on the clinical total cholesterol level.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Polymorphism of APOEpromoter-219 G/T and total cholesterol level.RESULTS: All 55 dementia patients and 44 non-dementia ones were involved in the result analysis. ①Allele and genotype frequency: The T allele frequency of the Alzheimer disease group was significantly higher than that in the control group [88.2% (97/110), 54.5% (48/88)], while G allele frequency was remarkably lower than that in the control group [11

  12. Cytotoxic cholesterol is generated by the hydrolysis of cytoplasmic cholesteryl ester and transported to the plasma membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellner-Weibel, G; Geng, Y J; Rothblat, G H

    1999-10-01

    The present study examines the fate and effects of free cholesterol (FC) generated by the hydrolysis of cytoplasmic cholesteryl esters (CE) in model macrophage foam cells. J774 or elicited mouse peritoneal macrophages (MPM) were enriched with CE by incubating with acetylated low density lipoprotein (acLDL) and FC/phospholipid dispersions, thus creating model foam cells. Treatment of the foam cells with the acyl coenzyme-A:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) inhibitor, CP-113,818, in the absence of any extracellular cholesterol acceptors, resulted in cellular toxicity. This was accompanied by an increase in the amount of FC available for oxidation by an exogenous cholesterol oxidase. Furthermore, cellular toxicity was proportional to the size of the oxidase susceptible pool of FC over time. Morphological analysis and in situ DNA fragmentation assay demonstrated the occurrence of apoptosis in the ACAT inhibited cells. Co-treatment with the hydrophobic amine U18666A, an intracellular cholesterol transport inhibitor, led to a dose dependent reduction in cytotoxicity and apoptosis, and blocked the movement of FC into the oxidase susceptible pool. In addition, treating model foam cells with CP-113,818 plus chloroquine, a compound that inhibits the function of acidic vesicles, also diminished cellular toxicity. Staining with the cholesterol binding dye filipin revealed that the macrophages treated with CP-113,818 contained a cholesterol oxidase accessible pool of FC in the plasma membrane. These results suggest that FC generated by the hydrolysis of cytoplasmic CE is transported through acidic vesicles to the plasma membrane, and accumulation of FC in this pool triggers cell death by necrosis and apoptosis.

  13. Spectrophotometric and Refractometric Determination of Total Protein in Avian Plasma

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    Rodica Căpriță

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the total protein values obtained in heparin plasma of chickens by a spectrophotometric technique (biuret method, and the values obtained on the same day in the same samples by refractometry. The results obtained by refractometry (average value 2.638±0.153g% were higher than those obtained by the spectrophotometric method (average value 2.441±0.181g%. There was a low correlation (r = 0.6709 between the total protein values, determined with both methods. Protein is the major determinant of plasma refractive index, but glucose contributes too. The refractometric method is not recommended in chickens for the determination of total protein, because avian blood glucose concentration averages about twice than in mammalian blood.

  14. The Food Matrix and Sterol Characteristics Affect the Plasma Cholesterol Lowering of Phytosterol/Phytostanol1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusack, Laura Kells; Fernandez, Maria Luz; Volek, Jeff S.

    2013-01-01

    Foods with added phytosterols/phytostanols (PS) are recommended to lower LDL cholesterol (LDL-c) concentrations. Manufacturers have incorporated PS into a variety of common foods. Understanding the cholesterol-lowering impact of the food matrix and the PS characteristics would maximize their success and increase the benefit to consumers. This review systematically examines whether the PS characteristics and the fatty acid composition of foods with added PS affects serum LDL-c. A total of 33 studies published between the years 1998 and 2011 inclusive of 66 individual primary variables (strata) were evaluated. The functional food matrices included margarine, mayonnaise, yogurt, milk, cheese, meat, grain, juice, and chocolate. Consistently, ≥10% reductions in LDL-c were reported when the characteristics of the food matrix included poly- and monounsaturated fatty acids known to lower LDL-c. Also, >10% mean reductions in LDL-c were reported when β-sitostanol and campestanol as well as stanol esters were used. These characteristics allow both low-fat and high-fat foods to successfully incorporate PS and significantly lower LDL-c. PMID:24228192

  15. The food matrix and sterol characteristics affect the plasma cholesterol lowering of phytosterol/phytostanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusack, Laura Kells; Fernandez, Maria Luz; Volek, Jeff S

    2013-11-01

    Foods with added phytosterols/phytostanols (PS) are recommended to lower LDL cholesterol (LDL-c) concentrations. Manufacturers have incorporated PS into a variety of common foods. Understanding the cholesterol-lowering impact of the food matrix and the PS characteristics would maximize their success and increase the benefit to consumers. This review systematically examines whether the PS characteristics and the fatty acid composition of foods with added PS affects serum LDL-c. A total of 33 studies published between the years 1998 and 2011 inclusive of 66 individual primary variables (strata) were evaluated. The functional food matrices included margarine, mayonnaise, yogurt, milk, cheese, meat, grain, juice, and chocolate. Consistently, ≥10% reductions in LDL-c were reported when the characteristics of the food matrix included poly- and monounsaturated fatty acids known to lower LDL-c. Also, >10% mean reductions in LDL-c were reported when β-sitostanol and campestanol as well as stanol esters were used. These characteristics allow both low-fat and high-fat foods to successfully incorporate PS and significantly lower LDL-c.

  16. Plasma cholesterol-induced lesion networks activated before regression of early, mature, and advanced atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkegren, Johan L M; Hägg, Sara; Talukdar, Husain A; Foroughi Asl, Hassan; Jain, Rajeev K; Cedergren, Cecilia; Shang, Ming-Mei; Rossignoli, Aránzazu; Takolander, Rabbe; Melander, Olle; Hamsten, Anders; Michoel, Tom; Skogsberg, Josefin

    2014-02-01

    Plasma cholesterol lowering (PCL) slows and sometimes prevents progression of atherosclerosis and may even lead to regression. Little is known about how molecular processes in the atherosclerotic arterial wall respond to PCL and modify responses to atherosclerosis regression. We studied atherosclerosis regression and global gene expression responses to PCL (≥80%) and to atherosclerosis regression itself in early, mature, and advanced lesions. In atherosclerotic aortic wall from Ldlr(-/-)Apob (100/100) Mttp (flox/flox)Mx1-Cre mice, atherosclerosis regressed after PCL regardless of lesion stage. However, near-complete regression was observed only in mice with early lesions; mice with mature and advanced lesions were left with regression-resistant, relatively unstable plaque remnants. Atherosclerosis genes responding to PCL before regression, unlike those responding to the regression itself, were enriched in inherited risk for coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction, indicating causality. Inference of transcription factor (TF) regulatory networks of these PCL-responsive gene sets revealed largely different networks in early, mature, and advanced lesions. In early lesions, PPARG was identified as a specific master regulator of the PCL-responsive atherosclerosis TF-regulatory network, whereas in mature and advanced lesions, the specific master regulators were MLL5 and SRSF10/XRN2, respectively. In a THP-1 foam cell model of atherosclerosis regression, siRNA targeting of these master regulators activated the time-point-specific TF-regulatory networks and altered the accumulation of cholesterol esters. We conclude that PCL leads to complete atherosclerosis regression only in mice with early lesions. Identified master regulators and related PCL-responsive TF-regulatory networks will be interesting targets to enhance PCL-mediated regression of mature and advanced atherosclerotic lesions.

  17. Plasma cholesterol-induced lesion networks activated before regression of early, mature, and advanced atherosclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan L M Björkegren

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Plasma cholesterol lowering (PCL slows and sometimes prevents progression of atherosclerosis and may even lead to regression. Little is known about how molecular processes in the atherosclerotic arterial wall respond to PCL and modify responses to atherosclerosis regression. We studied atherosclerosis regression and global gene expression responses to PCL (≥80% and to atherosclerosis regression itself in early, mature, and advanced lesions. In atherosclerotic aortic wall from Ldlr(-/-Apob (100/100 Mttp (flox/floxMx1-Cre mice, atherosclerosis regressed after PCL regardless of lesion stage. However, near-complete regression was observed only in mice with early lesions; mice with mature and advanced lesions were left with regression-resistant, relatively unstable plaque remnants. Atherosclerosis genes responding to PCL before regression, unlike those responding to the regression itself, were enriched in inherited risk for coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction, indicating causality. Inference of transcription factor (TF regulatory networks of these PCL-responsive gene sets revealed largely different networks in early, mature, and advanced lesions. In early lesions, PPARG was identified as a specific master regulator of the PCL-responsive atherosclerosis TF-regulatory network, whereas in mature and advanced lesions, the specific master regulators were MLL5 and SRSF10/XRN2, respectively. In a THP-1 foam cell model of atherosclerosis regression, siRNA targeting of these master regulators activated the time-point-specific TF-regulatory networks and altered the accumulation of cholesterol esters. We conclude that PCL leads to complete atherosclerosis regression only in mice with early lesions. Identified master regulators and related PCL-responsive TF-regulatory networks will be interesting targets to enhance PCL-mediated regression of mature and advanced atherosclerotic lesions.

  18. Effects of plasma membrane cholesterol level and cytoskeleton F-actin on cell protrusion mechanics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nima Khatibzadeh

    Full Text Available Protrusions are deformations that form at the surface of living cells during biological activities such as cell migration. Using combined optical tweezers and fluorescent microscopy, we quantified the mechanical properties of protrusions in adherent human embryonic kidney cells in response to application of an external force at the cell surface. The mechanical properties of protrusions were analyzed by obtaining the associated force-length plots during protrusion formation, and force relaxation at constant length. Protrusion mechanics were interpretable by a standard linear solid (Kelvin model, consisting of two stiffness parameters, k0 and k1 (with k0>k1, and a viscous coefficient. While both stiffness parameters contribute to the time-dependant mechanical behavior of the protrusions, k0 and k1 in particular dominated the early and late stages of the protrusion formation and elongation process, respectively. Lowering the membrane cholesterol content by 25% increased the k0 stiffness by 74%, and shortened the protrusion length by almost half. Enhancement of membrane cholesterol content by nearly two-fold increased the protrusion length by 30%, and decreased the k0 stiffness by nearly two-and-half-fold as compared with control cells. Cytoskeleton integrity was found to make a major contribution to protrusion mechanics as evidenced by the effects of F-actin disruption on the resulting mechanical parameters. Viscoelastic behavior of protrusions was further characterized by hysteresis and force relaxation after formation. The results of this study elucidate the coordination of plasma membrane composition and cytoskeleton during protrusion formation.

  19. Spirulina platensis effects on the levels of total cholesterol, HDL and triacylglycerols in rabbits fed with a hypercholesterolemic diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Maria Colla

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, hypercholesterolemia was induced in rabbits by feeding them a high cholesterol diet (CD, 350 mg/d and the effects of supplementing this diet with 0.5 g/d Spirulina platensis was evaluated by measuring the levels of serum total-cholesterol (TC, triacylglycerols (TAG and high-density lipoprotein (HDL-cholesterol at the start of the experiment and after 30 d and 60 d. It was found that the levels of serum cholesterol decreased from 1,054±101 mg.dL-1 in the rabbits fed a CD without S. platensis to 516±163 mg.dL-1 to those fed with a high cholesterol diet supplemented with S. platensis (significant at p A microalga Spirulina é cultivada e comercializada no mundo devido a suas características nutricionais (elevada concentração de proteínas, em torno de 65%, vitaminas e sais minerais e ao seu potencial terapêutico no tratamento de inúmeras doenças, inclusive a hipercolesterolemia. Neste trabalho foi avaliada a inibição da hipercolesterolemia induzida em coelhos por uma dieta adicionada de colesterol (350 mg.d-1, pela suplementação de 0,5 g.dia-1 de biomassa de Spirulina platensis, sendo avaliados os níveis de colesterol total, triglicerídeos e HDL nos tempos de 0 d, 30 d e 60 d de tratamento. Os resultados indicaram que a adição de Spirulina platensis na dieta ocasionou decréscimo nos níveis de colesterol total de 1054±101 mg.dL-1 para 516±163 mg.dL-1 (p<0,0001, para os coelhos alimentados com a dieta colesterolêmica em comparação com os que receberam a dieta adicionada de Spirulina platensis. A adição de Spirulina a dieta colesterolêmica não ocasionou decréscimo significativo nos níveis de triglicerídios dos coelhos. Os valores de HDL aumentaram de 73±31 mg.dL-1 para 91,0±15,7 mg.dL-1, comparando-se os coelhos alimentados com a dieta colesterolêmica e os alimentados com a dieta adicionada de Spirulina, estatisticamente diferentes a um nível de significância maior que 0,1533.

  20. Efficient detection of total cholesterol using (ChEt–ChOx/ZnO/Pt/Si) bioelectrode based on ZnO matrix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batra, Neha; Sharma, Anjali [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Tomar, Monika [Department of Physics, Miranda House, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Gupta, Vinay, E-mail: drguptavinay@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India)

    2014-07-01

    Present study highlights the importance of ZnO matrix prepared by vapour phase transport technique on platinum coated Si platform (ZnO/Pt/Si) as a potential matrix for the realization of highly sensitive and selective bioelectrode for detection of total cholesterol. Bienzymes cholesterol esterase (ChEt) and cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) have been immobilized onto the surface of ZnO thin film matrix by physical adsorption technique. The prepared bioelectrode (ChEt–ChOx/ZnO/Pt/Si) is utilized for detection of total cholesterol using the cyclic voltammetry technique. The bioelectrode (ChEt–ChOx/ZnO/Pt/Si) is found to exhibit efficient sensing response characteristics with high sensitivity of 190 μA mM{sup −1} cm{sup −2}; good linearity in the range of 0.5–12 mM total cholesterol concentration, and a very low Michaelis–Menten constant of 0.68 mM which indicates high affinity of bienzymes immobilized on ZnO towards the analyte (total cholesterol). The enhanced response is attributed to the development of ZnO thin film based matrix having good electron transport property and nanoporous morphology for effective loading of enzymes with favourable orientation. - Highlights: • Fabrication of a ZnO nanostructured thin film based efficient matrix • Utilizing prepared matrix for detection of total cholesterol (free + esterified) • Cholesterol oxidase and cholesterol esterase are the corresponding selective enzymes. • Vapour phase transport technique, for the fabrication of nanostructured ZnO matrix • The bioelectrode exhibits enhanced response characteristics towards total cholesterol detection.

  1. Genetic predisposition to an adverse lipid profile limits the improvement in total cholesterol in response to weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Celia G; Holzapfel, Christina; Loos, Ruth J F; Mander, Adrian P; Klopp, Norman; Illig, Thomas; Caterson, Ian D; Hauner, Hans; Jebb, Susan A

    2013-12-01

    Overweight and obesity are associated with a dyslipidaemia which can be improved by weight loss. Whether genetic predisposition to an adverse lipid profile modifies such beneficial effects of weight loss on lipid levels in overweight and obese individuals was examined. White European participants (n = 374) who completed a 12-month weight loss trial were genotyped for 36 lipid-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), previously identified in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Genetic predisposition scores (GPSs) were calculated for four lipid traits by summing the number of risk alleles (RA) for each participant. The associations of each GPS with four lipid traits were assessed at baseline, and with lipid changes in response to weight change after 12 months. At baseline, the trait-specific GPSs were associated with 0.11 ± 0.04 mM higher total cholesterol/RA (P = 0.004), 0.05 ± 0.02 mM higher low density lipoprotein cholesterol/RA (P = 0.005), 0.03 ± 0.007 mM lower high density lipoprotein cholesterol/RA (P = 0.00002) and 0.04 ± 0.01 mM higher triglyceride/RA (P = 0.00002). After the intervention, weight loss was associated with improvements in all lipids (P AIChE J, 2013. Copyright © 2013 The Obesity Society.

  2. Plasma lipid oxidation predicts atherosclerotic status better than cholesterol in diabetic apolipoprotein E deficient mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Karen Ekkelund; Lykkesfeldt, Jens; Raun, Kirsten

    2017-01-01

    significantly different from the control group as they had higher blood glucose, HbA1c, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, very low-density lipoprotein, together with a lower high-density lipoprotein concentration and body weight. Animals in the diabetic group had significantly higher plaque area......Increased levels of oxidative stress have been suggested to play a detrimental role in the development of diabetes-related vascular complications. Here, we investigated whether the concentration of malondialdehyde, a marker of lipid oxidation correlated to the degree of aortic plaque lesions...... in a proatherogenic diabetic mouse model. Three groups of apolipoprotein E knockout mice were studied for 20 weeks, a control, a streptozotocin-induced diabetic, and a diabetic enalapril-treated group. Enalapril was hypothesized to lower oxidative stress level and thus the plaque burden. Both diabetic groups were...

  3. INFLUENCE OF CHRONIC EXERCISE ON RED CELL ANTIOXIDANT DEFENSE, PLASMA MALONDIALDEHYDE AND TOTAL ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY IN HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIC RABBITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Alipour

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the knowledge on the antiatherogenic effects of exercise, the mechanism by which exercise reduces atherogenic risk remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the hypothesis that chronic exercise-induced oxidative stress may increase plasma total antioxidant capacity and antioxidant defense in the red cells. For 8 weeks, 60 male Dutch rabbits were fed rabbit chow with or without the addition of 2% cholesterol. The animals were further divided into rest and exercise groups (n = 15 for each group. Animals in exercise groups ran on a rodent treadmill at 15 m/min for 10 to 60 minutes gradually for 5 days per week for a total of 8 weeks. At the end of experiments, blood samples were collected and glutathione peroxidase (GPX, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and catalase (CAT activities were determined in red blood cells. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC, malondialdehyde (MDA and total thiol (T-SH levels were measured in plasma. Thoracic aorta and carotid arteries were isolated for histological examination to evaluate atherosclerosis. Eight weeks of chronic exercise reduced atherogenic diet-induced atherosclerotic lesions in all the arteries studied, along with positive changes in cholesterol profile, especially increase of serum HDL-C level. Plasma MDA, TAC and T-SH concentrations were enhanced by exercise in both control and hypercholesterolemic diet groups. Erythrocyte catalase activity was significantly increased by chronic exercise (p < 0.05, whereas total SOD activity rose with exercise only in the control group. Surprisingly, GPX activity was significantly reduced (P < 0.05 in response to exercise in the control group and also in the high cholesterol diet group. Exercise is a useful tool for the prevention and regression of atherosclerosis which is evident by our findings of the enhancement of plasma TAC and positive change in serum cholesterol profile. However, the effect of exercise on red cell antioxidant activities is limited in the

  4. Vitamin D production after UVB exposure depends on baseline vitamin D and total cholesterol but not on skin pigmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogh, Morten Huus; Schmedes, Anne V; Philipsen, Peter Alshede

    2010-01-01

    cholesterol on 25(OH)D production after UVB exposure, 182 persons were screened for 25(OH)D level. A total of 50 participants with a wide range in baseline 25(OH)D levels were selected to define the importance of baseline 25(OH)D level. Of these, 28 non-sun worshippers with limited past sun exposure were used...... was measured at baseline. The increase in 25(OH)D level after UVB exposure was negatively correlated with baseline 25(OH)D level (P...

  5. Spectrophotometric and Refractometric Determination of Total Protein in Avian Plasma

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the total protein values obtained in heparin plasma of chickens by a spectrophotometric technique (biuret method), and the values obtained on the same day in the same samples by refractometry. The results obtained by refractometry (average value 2.638±0.153g%) were higher than those obtained by the spectrophotometric method (average value 2.441±0.181g%). There was a low correlation (r = 0.6709) between the total protein values, determined with both methods...

  6. Forty-three loci associated with plasma lipoprotein size, concentration, and cholesterol content in genome-wide analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel I Chasman

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available While conventional LDL-C, HDL-C, and triglyceride measurements reflect aggregate properties of plasma lipoprotein fractions, NMR-based measurements more accurately reflect lipoprotein particle concentrations according to class (LDL, HDL, and VLDL and particle size (small, medium, and large. The concentrations of these lipoprotein sub-fractions may be related to risk of cardiovascular disease and related metabolic disorders. We performed a genome-wide association study of 17 lipoprotein measures determined by NMR together with LDL-C, HDL-C, triglycerides, ApoA1, and ApoB in 17,296 women from the Women's Genome Health Study (WGHS. Among 36 loci with genome-wide significance (P<5x10(-8 in primary and secondary analysis, ten (PCCB/STAG1 (3q22.3, GMPR/MYLIP (6p22.3, BTNL2 (6p21.32, KLF14 (7q32.2, 8p23.1, JMJD1C (10q21.3, SBF2 (11p15.4, 12q23.2, CCDC92/DNAH10/ZNF664 (12q24.31.B, and WIPI1 (17q24.2 have not been reported in prior genome-wide association studies for plasma lipid concentration. Associations with mean lipoprotein particle size but not cholesterol content were found for LDL at four loci (7q11.23, LPL (8p21.3, 12q24.31.B, and LIPG (18q21.1 and for HDL at one locus (GCKR (2p23.3. In addition, genetic determinants of total IDL and total VLDL concentration were found at many loci, most strongly at LIPC (15q22.1 and APOC-APOE complex (19q13.32, respectively. Associations at seven more loci previously known for effects on conventional plasma lipid measures reveal additional genetic influences on lipoprotein profiles and bring the total number of loci to 43. Thus, genome-wide associations identified novel loci involved with lipoprotein metabolism-including loci that affect the NMR-based measures of concentration or size of LDL, HDL, and VLDL particles-all characteristics of lipoprotein profiles that may impact disease risk but are not available by conventional assay.

  7. Plasma membrane cholesterol level and agonist-induced internalization of δ-opioid receptors; colocalization study with intracellular membrane markers of Rab family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brejchova, Jana; Vosahlikova, Miroslava; Roubalova, Lenka; Parenti, Marco; Mauri, Mario; Chernyavskiy, Oleksandr; Svoboda, Petr

    2016-08-01

    Decrease of cholesterol level in plasma membrane of living HEK293 cells transiently expressing FLAG-δ-OR by β-cyclodextrin (β-CDX) resulted in a slight internalization of δ-OR. Massive internalization of δ-OR induced by specific agonist DADLE was diminished in cholesterol-depleted cells. These results suggest that agonist-induced internalization of δ-OR, which has been traditionally attributed exclusively to clathrin-mediated pathway, proceeds at least partially via membrane domains. Identification of internalized pools of FLAG-δ-OR by colocalization studies with proteins of Rab family indicated the decreased presence of receptors in early endosomes (Rab5), late endosomes and lysosomes (Rab7) and fast recycling vesicles (Rab4). Slow type of recycling (Rab11) was unchanged by cholesterol depletion. As expected, agonist-induced internalization of oxytocin receptors was totally suppressed in β-CDX-treated cells. Determination of average fluorescence lifetime of TMA-DPH, the polar derivative of hydrophobic membrane probe diphenylhexatriene, in live cells by FLIM indicated a significant alteration of the overall PM structure which may be interpreted as an increased "water-accessible space" within PM area. Data obtained by studies of HEK293 cells transiently expressing FLAG-δ-OR by "antibody feeding" method were extended by analysis of the effect of cholesterol depletion on distribution of FLAG-δ-OR in sucrose density gradients prepared from HEK293 cells stably expressing FLAG-δ-OR. Major part of FLAG-δ-OR was co-localized with plasma membrane marker Na,K-ATPase and β-CDX treatment resulted in shift of PM fragments containing both FLAG-δ-OR and Na,K-ATPase to higher density. Thus, the decrease in content of the major lipid constituent of PM resulted in increased density of resulting PM fragments.

  8. Plasma Total Cysteine and Cardiovascular Risk Burden: Action and Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedetta De Chiara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We hypothesized that redox analysis could provide sensitive markers of the oxidative pathway associated to the presence of an increasing number of cardiovascular risk factors (RFs, independently of type. We classified 304 subjects without cardiovascular disease into 4 groups according to the total number of RFs (smoking, hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, hyperhomocysteinaemia, diabetes, obesity, and their combination. Oxidative stress was evaluated by measuring plasma total and reduced homocysteine, cysteine (Cys, glutathione, cysteinylglycine, blood reduced glutathione, and malondialdehyde. Twenty-seven percent of subjects were in group 0 RF, 26% in 1 RF, 31% in 2 RF, and 16% in ≥3 RF. By multivariable ordinal regression analysis, plasma total Cys was associated to a higher number of RF (OR = 1.068; 95% CI = 1.027–1.110, =0.002. Total RF burden is associated with increased total Cys levels. These findings support a prooxidant effect of Cys in conjunction with RF burden, and shed light on the pathophysiologic role of redox state unbalance in preclinical atherosclerosis.

  9. Lowering plasma cholesterol levels halts progression of aortic valve disease in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jordan D.; Weiss, Robert M.; Serrano, Kristine M.; Brooks, Robert M.; Berry, Christopher J.; Zimmerman, Kathy; Young, Stephen G.; Heistad, Donald D.

    2009-01-01

    Background Treatment of hyperlipidemia produces functional and structural improvements in atherosclerotic vessels. However, the effects of treating hyperlipidemia on the structure and function of the aortic valve has been controversial, and any effects could be confounded by pleiotropic effects of hypolipidemic treatment. The goal of this study was to determine whether reducing elevated plasma lipid levels with a “genetic switch” in Reversa mice (Ldlr−/−/Apob100/100/Mttpfl/fl/Mx1Cre+/+) reduces oxidative stress, reduces proosteogenic signaling, and retards the progression of aortic valve disease. Methods and Results After 6 months of hypercholesterolemia, Reversa mice exhibited increases in superoxide, lipid deposition, myofibroblast activation, calcium deposition, and pro-osteogenic protein expression in the aortic valve. Maximum aortic valve cusp separation, as judged by echocardiography, was not altered. During an additional 6 months of hypercholesterolemia, superoxide levels, valvular lipid deposition, and myofibroblast activation remained elevated. Furthermore, calcium deposition and pro-osteogenic gene expression became more pronounced and the aortic cusp separation decreased from 0.85 ± 0.04 to 0.70 ± 0.04 mm (mean ± SE; p < 0.05). Rapid normalization of cholesterol levels at 6 months of age (by inducing expression of Cre recombinase) normalized aortic valve superoxide levels, decreased myofibroblast activation, reduced valvular calcium burden, suppressed pro-osteogenic signaling cascades, and prevented the reductions in aortic valve cusp separation. Conclusions Collectively, these data indicate that reducing plasma lipid levels by genetic inactivation of the mttp gene in hypercholesterolemic mice with early aortic valve disease normalizes oxidative stress, reduces pro-osteogenic signaling, and halts the progression of aortic valve stenosis. PMID:19433756

  10. Modifying the fatty acid profile of dairy products through feedlot technology lowers plasma cholesterol of humans consuming the products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noakes, M; Nestel, P J; Clifton, P M

    1996-01-01

    Intake of milk and butter has been clearly associated with higher coronary heart disease rates in different countries and this is likely to be mediated by the hypercholesterolemic effect of dairy fat. Fat-modified dairy products are an innovation involving a technology in which protected unsaturated lipids are fed to ruminants resulting in milk and tissue lipids with reduced saturated fatty acids. We examined the impact of these novel dairy fats on plasma lipids in a human dietary trial. Thirty-three men and women participated in an 8-wk randomized crossover trial comparing fat-modified with conventional dairy products. The trial consisted of a 2-wk low-fat baseline period followed by two 3-wk intervention phases. During the test periods, the fat-modified products resulted in a significant 0.28-mmol/L (4.3%) lowering of total cholesterol (P dairy products, if applied to populations typical of developed Western countries, represents a potential strategy to lower the risk of coronary heart disease without any appreciable change in customary eating patterns.

  11. The evolution of plasma cholesterol: direct utility or a "spandrel" of hepatic lipid metabolism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babin, Patrick J; Gibbons, Geoffrey F

    2009-03-01

    Fats provide a concentrated source of energy for multicellular organisms. The efficient transport of fats through aqueous biological environments raises issues concerning effective delivery to target tissues. Furthermore, the utilization of fatty acids presents a high risk of cytotoxicity. Improving the efficiency of fat transport while simultaneously minimizing the cytotoxic risk confers distinct selective advantages. In humans, most of the plasma cholesterol is associated with low-density lipoprotein (LDL), a metabolic by-product of very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), which originates in the liver. However, the functions of VLDL are not clear. This paper reviews the evidence that LDL arose as a by-product during the natural selection of VLDL. The latter, in turn, evolved as a means of improving the efficiency of diet-derived fatty acid storage and utilization, as well as neutralizing the potential cytotoxicity of fatty acids while conserving their advantages as a concentrated energy source. The evolutionary biology of lipid transport processes has provided a fascinating insight into how and why these VLDL functions emerged during animal evolution. As causes of historical origin must be separated from current utilities, our spandrel-LDL theory proposes that LDL is a spandrel of VLDL selection, which appeared non-adaptively and may later have become crucial for vertebrate fitness.

  12. Fine mapping of the insulin-induced gene 2 identifies a variant associated with LDL cholesterol and total apolipoprotein B levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Ron; Bailey, Swneke D; Paré, Guillaume; Montpetit, Alexandre; Desbiens, Katia; Hudson, Thomas J; Yusuf, Salim; Bouchard, Claude; Gaudet, Daniel; Pérusse, Louis; Anand, Sonia; Vohl, Marie-Claude; Pastinen, Tomi; Engert, James C

    2010-10-01

    In a whole-genome scan, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (rs7566605) upstream of the insulin-induced gene 2 (INSIG2) was shown to influence body mass index and obesity in the Framingham Heart Study, with replication of these results in an additional 4 of 5 studies. However, other studies could not replicate the association. Because INSIG2 plays an important role in cholesterol biosynthesis, we hypothesized that human INSIG2 variants might play a role in the regulation of plasma lipid and lipoprotein levels. We selected tagging SNPs spanning >100 kb of INSIG2 locus and sequenced 18 434 base pairs to discover novel SNPs. Thirty-two SNPs were genotyped in 645 individuals from the Quebec Family Study. Two SNPs (rs10490626 and rs12464355) were associated with plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (PJean, Quebec (P=0.040 for LDL-C, P=0.044 for apoB), 3247 Europeans (P=0.028 for LDL-C, P=0.030 for apoB), and 1695 South Asians (P=0.0036 for LDL-C, P=0.034 for apoB) from the INTERHEART study (for LDL-C, the combined 2-sided P=6.2×10⁻⁵ and for total apoB, P=0.0011). Furthermore, we identified a variant in the human sorbin and SH(3)-domain-containing-1 gene that was associated with INSIG2 mRNA levels, and this SNP was shown to act in combination with rs10490626 to affect LDL-C (P=0.022) in the Quebec Family Study and in INTERHEART South Asians (P=0.019) and Europeans (P=0.052). These results suggest that INSIG2 genetic variants may have a more direct role in lipid and lipoprotein metabolism than in obesity.

  13. Plasma Antimicrobial Peptide LL-37 Level Is Inversely Associated with HDL Cholesterol Level in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Meguro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Relation between atherosclerosis and innate immunity has attracted attention. As the antimicrobial peptide, LL-37, could have an important role in atherosclerosis, we supposed that there could be a meaningful association of plasma LL-37 level with risk factors for cardiovascular disease in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods. We evaluated plasma LL-37 level and other clinical markers in Japanese subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (n=133, 115 men and 18 women; age 64.7±11.5 years; HbA1c 8.1±1.6%. Plasma level of LL-37 was measured by ELISA. Results. Mean plasma LL-37 level was 71.2±22.3 ng/mL. Plasma LL-37 level showed significant correlations with HDL cholesterol (r=−0.450, P<0.01, triglyceride (r=0.445, P<0.01, and high sensitive C-reactive protein (r=0.316, P<0.01 but no significant correlation with age, body mass index, HbA1c, estimated glomerular filtration rate, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, or vitamin D binding protein. Multiple linear regression analysis showed significant correlations of plasma LL-37 level with HDL cholesterol (β=−0.411, P<0.01 and high sensitive C-reactive protein (β=0.193, P<0.05. Conclusion. Plasma LL-37 level was positively correlated with inflammatory markers and negatively correlated with HDL cholesterol in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  14. Influence of High Cholesterol Diet on Total Cholesterol in Serum of Mice%高胆固醇饮食对昆明小鼠血清总胆固醇的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘超

    2011-01-01

    It Objective: test influence of high cholesterol diet on total cholesterol in serum of mice.Methods: feed KM mice using high cholesterol diet for 3 months, take caudal vein blood sample at 0, 1st, 2nd, 3rd month; the levels of serum total cholesterol will be detected.Conclusion: Hypercholesterolemia model was successfully established in mouse.In the condition of high-cholesterol diet, total cholesterol levels of KM mice significantly increased (p < 0.05), and positively correlated with time.%目的检测高胆固醇饮食对小鼠血脂水平的影响.方法采用高胆固醇饲料饲养KM小鼠3个月,第0、1、2、3月尾静脉取血,常规检测血清总胆固醇水平变化.结论:成功建立高胆固醇小鼠模型,在高胆固醇饮食条件下,KM小鼠总胆固醇水平升高(p<0.05),并与时间呈正相关.

  15. Low plasma carnitine in patients on prolonged total parenteral nutrition: association with low plasma lysine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, Y N; Larchian, W A; Lowry, S F; Nicroa, R R; Brennan, M F; Shike, M

    1990-01-01

    Plasma carnitine levels were determined in 17 patients maintained on long-term total parenteral nutrition (TPN) for a mean (+/- SEM) period of 69 +/- 11 months (range 12-196). All had severe malabsorption and were dependent on intravenous feeding. Plasma carnitine was determined by a modified Cederblad enzymatic method. Mean plasma carnitine was significantly below the mean normal for females (p less than 0.02) and borderline low for males (p = 0.07). In six patients the levels were below the low normal range, and in five others they were at the lowest levels of normal. Of the six patients with normal levels, three had elevated serum creatinine, indicating renal dysfunction which may by itself elevate plasma carnitine. In 10 patients the plasma levels of lysine (a carnitine precursor) were determined and found to be lower than normal (p less than 0.05). Plasma carnitine levels correlated positively with serum albumin (r = 0.62, p less than 0.05), and negatively with serum alkaline phosphatase (r = -0.64, p less than 0.05). Thus, patients maintained on long-term TPN may have low plasma carnitine, which could represent carnitine deficiency. The low plasma carnitine may be related to a deficiency of the carnitine precursor lysine. Further studies are required to determine the significance of the low plasma carnitine and whether carnitine supplementation should be required in long-term TPN.

  16. Effects of dietary fatty acids and carbohydrates on the ratio of serum total to HDL cholesterol and on serum lipids and apolipoproteins: a meta-analysis of 60 controlled trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mensink, R.P.; Zock, P.L.; Kester, A.D.M.; Katan, M.B.

    2003-01-01

    Background: The effects of dietary fats on the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) have traditionally been estimated from their effects on LDL cholesterol. Fats, however, also affect HDL cholesterol, and the ratio of total to HDL cholesterol is a more specific marker of CAD than is LDL cholesterol

  17. Whole grain oats improve insulin sensitivity and plasma cholesterol profile and modify gut microbiota composition in C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Albert Lihong; Hergert, Nancie; Rompato, Giovanni; Lefevre, Michael

    2015-02-01

    Whole grain consumption reduces the risk of major chronic diseases. It is not clear how whole grains exert their beneficial effects. The aim was to compare the physiologic effects of whole grain oat (WGO) flour with low bran oat (LBO) flour. Two AIN-93G-based diets were formulated with either WGO or LBO flour. Five-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were fed LBO (n = 11) and WGO (n = 13) diets for 8 wk. Cecal microbiota was profiled by pyrosequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene. Data are reported as means ± SEMs or antilogs of the mean (mean - SEM, mean + SEM). The weight gain was 14.6% less in the WGO group during week 7 (P = 0.04). WGO improved insulin sensitivity as reflected by significantly lower plasma insulin [1500 (1370, 1650) ng/L vs. 2340 (2090, 2620) ng/L; P = 0.006], C-peptide (3980 ± 548 ng/L vs. 7340 ± 1050 ng/L; P = 0.007), and homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (21.4 ± 2.3 vs. 34.7 ± 4.9; P = 0.03). Plasma total cholesterol was 9.9% less and non-HDL cholesterol was 11% less in the WGO group. A comparison of relative abundance indicated Prevotellaceae, Lactobacillaceae, and Alcaligenaceae families were 175.5% (P = 0.03), 184.5% (P = 0.01), and 150.0% (P = 0.004), respectively, greater in the WGO group and Clostridiaceae and Lachnospiraceae families were 527% (P = 0.004) and 62.6% (P = 0.01), respectively, greater in the LBO group. Cecal microbiota composition predicts 63.9% variation in plasma insulin and 88.9% variation in plasma non-HDL cholesterol. In mice, WGOs improved insulin sensitivity and plasma cholesterol profile compared with LBOs, and the effects were associated with the changes in cecal microbiota composition. Increasing WGO consumption may help improve insulin sensitivity and dyslipidemia in chronic diseases. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  18. Evaluating computational models of cholesterol metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paalvast, Yared; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert; Groen, Albert K

    2015-10-01

    Regulation of cholesterol homeostasis has been studied extensively during the last decades. Many of the metabolic pathways involved have been discovered. Yet important gaps in our knowledge remain. For example, knowledge on intracellular cholesterol traffic and its relation to the regulation of cholesterol synthesis and plasma cholesterol levels is incomplete. One way of addressing the remaining questions is by making use of computational models. Here, we critically evaluate existing computational models of cholesterol metabolism making use of ordinary differential equations and addressed whether they used assumptions and make predictions in line with current knowledge on cholesterol homeostasis. Having studied the results described by the authors, we have also tested their models. This was done primarily by testing the effect of statin treatment in each model. Ten out of eleven models tested have made assumptions in line with current knowledge of cholesterol metabolism. Three out of the ten remaining models made correct predictions, i.e. predicting a decrease in plasma total and LDL cholesterol or increased uptake of LDL upon treatment upon the use of statins. In conclusion, few models on cholesterol metabolism are able to pass a functional test. Apparently most models have not undergone the critical iterative systems biology cycle of validation. We expect modeling of cholesterol metabolism to go through many more model topologies and iterative cycles and welcome the increased understanding of cholesterol metabolism these are likely to bring.

  19. Subacute therapeutic dosing of artemether-lumefantrine and artesunate-amodiaquine combination preserves plasma cholesterol, renal antioxidant status, and organ weights in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otuechere, Chiagoziem A; Edewor, Gloria; Kale, Oluwafemi Ezekiel; Ekor, Martins

    2012-01-01

    Recent instances of breakdowns of malaria control programs and the constant emergence of drug-resistant parasites to monotherapies have shored up the use of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) as the malaria therapy of choice. We evaluated a subacute therapeutic dosing of artemether-lumefantrine and artesunate-amodiaquine on plasma cholesterol, renal antioxidants, and organ weights in rats. Sixteen albino rats were grouped into three. Group A (n = 5) served as the control. Groups B (n = 6) and C (n = 5) were administered, twice daily, oral therapeutic doses of artemether-lumefantrine (1.14/6.86 mg/kg/d) and artesunate-amodiaquine (2.86/8.58 mg/kg/d), respectively, for seven days. From our results, ACTs did not significantly (P > 0.05) alter catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione S-transferase, myeloperoxidase, and total glutathione levels when compared with the control. Plasma total cholesterol levels also decreased insignificantly (P > 0.05). Organ-system weights were not significantly (P > 0.05) different from control rats. Artesunate-amodiaquine, but not artemether-lumefantrine, significantly increased (P artesunate-amodiaquine and artemether-lumefantrine may preserve renal antioxidants and organ weights in vivo. However, caution is required above therapeutic indications or in chronic doses as this may predispose to renal oxidative stress.

  20. Antidiabetogenic Effects of Chromium Mitigate Hyperinsulinemia-Induced Cellular Insulin Resistance via Correction of Plasma Membrane Cholesterol Imbalance

    OpenAIRE

    Horvath, Emily M.; Tackett, Lixuan; McCarthy, Alicia M.; Raman, Priya; Brozinick, Joseph T.; Elmendorf, Jeffrey S.

    2007-01-01

    Previously, we found that a loss of plasma membrane (PM) phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2)-regulated filamentous actin (F-actin) structure contributes to insulin-induced insulin resistance. Interestingly, we also demonstrated that chromium picolinate (CrPic), a dietary supplement thought to improve glycemic status in insulin-resistant individuals, augments insulin-regulated glucose transport in insulin-sensitive 3T3-L1 adipocytes by lowering PM cholesterol. Here, to gain mechanisti...

  1. Home-Use Tests - Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medical Procedures In Vitro Diagnostics Home Use Tests Cholesterol Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... a home-use test kit to measure total cholesterol. What cholesterol is: Cholesterol is a fat (lipid) ...

  2. Cholesterol Metabolism Is Altered in Rett Syndrome: A Study on Plasma and Primary Cultured Fibroblasts Derived from Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segatto, Marco; Trapani, Laura; Di Tunno, Ilenia; Sticozzi, Claudia; Valacchi, Giuseppe; Hayek, Joussef; Pallottini, Valentina

    2014-01-01

    Rett (RTT) syndrome is a severe neurological disorder that affects almost exclusively females. Several detectable mutations in the X-linked methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 gene (MECP2) are responsible for the onset of the disease. MeCP2 is a key transcription regulator involved in gene silencing via methylation-dependent remodeling of chromatin. Recent data highlight that lipid metabolism is perturbed in brains and livers of MECP2-null male mice. In addition, altered plasma lipid profile in RTT patients has been observed. Thus, the aim of the work is to investigate the protein network involved in cholesterol homeostasis maintenance on freshly isolated fibroblasts and plasma from both RTT and healthy donors. To this end, protein expression of 3-hydroxy-3methyl glutaryl Coenzyme A reductase (HMGR), sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs), low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLr) and scavenger receptor B-1 (SRB-1) was assessed in cultured skin fibroblasts from unaffected individuals and RTT patients. In addition, lipid profile and the abundance of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) were analyzed on plasma samples. The obtained results demonstrate that the main proteins belonging to cholesterol regulatory network are altered in RTT female patients, providing the proof of principle that cholesterol metabolism may be taken into account as a new target for the treatment of specific features of RTT pathology. PMID:25118178

  3. Cholesterol metabolism is altered in Rett syndrome: a study on plasma and primary cultured fibroblasts derived from patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Segatto

    Full Text Available Rett (RTT syndrome is a severe neurological disorder that affects almost exclusively females. Several detectable mutations in the X-linked methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 gene (MECP2 are responsible for the onset of the disease. MeCP2 is a key transcription regulator involved in gene silencing via methylation-dependent remodeling of chromatin. Recent data highlight that lipid metabolism is perturbed in brains and livers of MECP2-null male mice. In addition, altered plasma lipid profile in RTT patients has been observed. Thus, the aim of the work is to investigate the protein network involved in cholesterol homeostasis maintenance on freshly isolated fibroblasts and plasma from both RTT and healthy donors. To this end, protein expression of 3-hydroxy-3methyl glutaryl Coenzyme A reductase (HMGR, sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs, low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLr and scavenger receptor B-1 (SRB-1 was assessed in cultured skin fibroblasts from unaffected individuals and RTT patients. In addition, lipid profile and the abundance of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9 were analyzed on plasma samples. The obtained results demonstrate that the main proteins belonging to cholesterol regulatory network are altered in RTT female patients, providing the proof of principle that cholesterol metabolism may be taken into account as a new target for the treatment of specific features of RTT pathology.

  4. Statins attenuate but do not eliminate the reverse epidemiology of total serum cholesterol in patients with non-ischemic chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröhlich, Hanna; Raman, Nandita; Täger, Tobias; Schellberg, Dieter; Goode, Kevin M; Kazmi, Syed; Grundtvig, Morten; Hole, Torstein; Cleland, John G F; Katus, Hugo A; Agewall, Stefan; Clark, Andrew L; Atar, Dan; Frankenstein, Lutz

    2017-07-01

    In patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) increasing levels of total serum cholesterol are associated with improved survival - while statin usage is not. The impact of statin treatment on the "reverse epidemiology" of cholesterol is unclear. 2992 consecutive patients with non-ischemic CHF due to left ventricular systolic dysfunction from the Norwegian CHF Registry and the CHF Registries of the Universities of Hull, UK, and Heidelberg, Germany, were studied. 1736 patients were individually double-matched on both cholesterol levels and the individual propensity scores for statin treatment. All-cause mortality was analyzed as a function of baseline cholesterol and statin use in both the general and the matched sample. 1209 patients (40.4%) received a statin. During a follow-up of 13,740 patient-years, 360 statin users (29.8%) and 573 (32.1%) statin non-users died. When grouped according to total cholesterol levels as low (≤3.6mmol/L), moderate (3.7-4.9mmol/L), high (4.8-6.2mmol/L), and very high (>6.2mmol/L), we found improved survival with very high as compared with low cholesterol levels. This association was present in statin users and non-users in both the general and matched sample (p<0.05 for each group comparison). The negative association of total cholesterol and mortality persisted when cholesterol was treated as a continuous variable (HR 0.83, 95%CI 0.77-0.90, p<0.001 for matched patients), but it was less pronounced in statin users than in non-users (F-test p<0.001). Statins attenuate but do not eliminate the reverse epidemiological association between increasing total serum cholesterol and improved survival in patients with non-ischemic CHF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. ProAlgaZyme and its subfractions increase plasma HDL cholesterol via upregulation of ApoA1, ABCA1, and SRB1, and inhibition of CETP in hypercholesterolemic hamsters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geamanu A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Andreea Geamanu, Nadia Saadat, Arvind Goja, Monika Wadehra, Xiangming Ji, Smiti V GuptaNutrition and Food Science, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI, USABackground: Plasma HDL cholesterol levels are inversely related to cardiovascular disease, which is the leading cause of death worldwide. This study investigated the effect of an algae infusion, ProAlgaZyme (PAZ, and its subfractions (P1, P2, P3, P4 on plasma HDL in a hamster model.Methods: Sixty male golden Syrian hamsters (8 weeks old were randomized into controls (W or PAZ (P, P1, P2, P3, and P4 (n = 10 per group. An infusion of either 5% (P1, P2, P3 or 20% (P, P4 concentration (v/v was administered via the drinking water for 4 weeks, while the hamsters were being fed a high-fat diet (30% of calories from fat. Serum lipids were assayed and liver samples subjected to reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction to determine the relative transcription levels of genes involved in HDL/reverse cholesterol transport metabolism, ie, ApoA1, ABCA1, CETP, and SRB1.Results: Non-HDL cholesterol was significantly reduced in the P (P < 0.05, P3 and P4 (P < 0.001 groups as compared with the W group, while HDL cholesterol showed a significant increase in the P, P3, and P4 groups (P < 0.001. Moreover, the total cholesterol/HDL ratio was significantly improved in the P, P1, and P2 (P < 0.05, and P3 and P4 (P < 0.001 groups. The shift in cholesterol towards the higher density fractions was validated by density gradient ultracentrifugation. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction showed a significant increase in hepatic ApoA1 (P, P4 and ABCA1 (P3, P4 expression, consistent with an increase in HDL production, biogenesis, and maturation. A two-fold increase in SRB1 expression indicates that P4 further augments the reverse cholesterol transport mechanism. Reduction of CETP expression (P4 is consistent with a decrease in the transfer of cholesteryl ester to LDL, further increasing the amount of

  6. Effect of 6 dietary fatty acids on the postprandial lipid profile, plasma fatty acids, lipoprotein lipase, and cholesterol ester transfer activities in healthy young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tholstrup, T.; Sandstrøm, B.; Bysted, Anette

    2001-01-01

    Background: There is increasing evidence that postprandial triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins may be related to atherogenic risk. Objective: The objective was to investigate the effect of individual fatty acid intakes on postprandial plasma lipoprotein triacylglycerol and cholesterol concentration...

  7. Insulin decreases plasma cholesteryl ester transfer but not cholesterol esterification in healthy subjects as well as in normotriglyceridaemic patients with type 2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.P.F. Dullaart (Robin); S.C. Riemens; L. Scheek (Leo); A. van Tol (Arie)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractBackground. Plasma cholesterol esterification (EST) and subsequent cholesteryl ester transfer (CET) from high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) towards apolipoprotein (apo) B-containing lipoproteins are key steps in HDL metabolism. Materials and methods. The effects of exogenous

  8. Intake of up to 3 Eggs/Day Increases HDL Cholesterol and Plasma Choline While Plasma Trimethylamine-N-oxide is Unchanged in a Healthy Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMarco, Diana M; Missimer, Amanda; Murillo, Ana Gabriela; Lemos, Bruno S; Malysheva, Olga V; Caudill, Marie A; Blesso, Christopher N; Fernandez, Maria Luz

    2017-03-01

    Eggs are a source of cholesterol and choline and may impact plasma lipids and trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) concentrations, which are biomarkers for cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Therefore, the effects of increasing egg intake (0, 1, 2, and 3 eggs/day) on these and other CVD risk biomarkers were evaluated in a young, healthy population. Thirty-eight subjects [19 men/19 women, 24.1 ± 2.2 years, body mass index (BMI) 24.3 ± 2.5 kg/m(2)] participated in this 14-week crossover intervention. Participants underwent a 2-week washout with no egg consumption, followed by intake of 1, 2, and 3 eggs/day for 4 weeks each. Anthropometric data, blood pressure (BP), dietary records, and plasma biomarkers (lipids, glucose, choline, and TMAO) were measured during each intervention phase. BMI, waist circumference, systolic BP, plasma glucose, and plasma triacylglycerol did not change throughout the intervention. Diastolic BP decreased with egg intake (P HDL cholesterol (HDL-c) (P HDL-c ratio (P HDL-c, a reduced LDL-c/HDL-c ratio, and increased plasma choline in combination with no change in plasma LDL-c or TMAO concentrations.

  9. C57Bl/6 N mice on a western diet display reduced intestinal and hepatic cholesterol levels despite a plasma hypercholesterolemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desmarchelier Charles

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Small intestine and liver greatly contribute to whole body lipid, cholesterol and phospholipid metabolism but to which extent cholesterol and phospholipid handling in these tissues is affected by high fat Western-style obesogenic diets remains to be determined. Methods We therefore measured cholesterol and phospholipid concentration in intestine and liver and quantified fecal neutral sterol and bile acid excretion in C57Bl/6 N mice fed for 12 weeks either a cholesterol-free high carbohydrate control diet or a high fat Western diet containing 0.03% (w/w cholesterol. To identify the underlying mechanisms of dietary adaptations in intestine and liver, changes in gene expression were assessed by microarray and qPCR profiling, respectively. Results Mice on Western diet showed increased plasma cholesterol levels, associated with the higher dietary cholesterol supply, yet, significantly reduced cholesterol levels were found in intestine and liver. Transcript profiling revealed evidence that expression of numerous genes involved in cholesterol synthesis and uptake via LDL, but also in phospholipid metabolism, underwent compensatory regulations in both tissues. Alterations in glycerophospholipid metabolism were confirmed at the metabolite level by phospolipid profiling via mass spectrometry. Conclusions Our findings suggest that intestine and liver react to a high dietary fat intake by an activation of de novo cholesterol synthesis and other cholesterol-saving mechanisms, as well as with major changes in phospholipid metabolism, to accommodate to the fat load.

  10. Association of total cholesterol and HDL-C levels and outcome in coronary heart disease patients with heart failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qin; Li, Jianfei; Yang, Jin; Li, Rongshan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The aim of the study was to evaluate associations of total cholesterol (TC) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels with prognosis in coronary heart disease (CHD) patients with heart failure (HF). Patients who were angiographical-diagnosis of CHD and echocardiographical-diagnosis of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) Hs-CRP) was observed. TC was positively correlated with BMI and albumin, and HDL-C was inversely correlated with Hs-CRP. The associations of TC level and rehospitalization for HF and all-cause mortality were attenuated but consistently significant through model 1 to 4, with odds ratio (OR) of 0.97 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.92–0.99). Associations of HDL-C level and rehospitalization for HF and all-cause mortality were also consistently significant through model 1 to 4, with OR of 0.95 (95% CI: 0.90–0.98). Strength of association was attenuated prominently in model 3 after adjusted for Hs-CRP, and no change was observed after further adjusted for BMI and albumin. Higher baseline TC and HDL-C levels are associated with better outcome in CHD patients with HF. PMID:28248864

  11. The N342S MYLIP polymorphism is associated with high total cholesterol and increased LDL receptor degradation in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissglas-Volkov, Daphna; Calkin, Anna C.; Tusie-Luna, Teresa; Sinsheimer, Janet S.; Zelcer, Noam; Riba, Laura; Tino, Ana Maria Vargas; Ordoñez-Sánchez, Maria Luisa; Cruz-Bautista, Ivette; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A.; Tontonoz, Peter; Pajukanta, Päivi

    2011-01-01

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) affects more than 1 in 3 American adults. Hypercholesterolemia is a major treatable risk factor for ASCVD, yet many individuals fail to reach target levels of LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) through the use of statins and lifestyle changes. The E3 ubiquitin ligase myosin regulatory light chain–interacting protein (MYLIP; also known as IDOL) is a recently identified regulator of the LDL receptor (LDLR) pathway. Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) in populations of mixed European descent have identified noncoding variants in the MYLIP region as being associated with LDL-C levels, but no underlying functional variants were pinpointed. In order to fine-map actual susceptibility variants, we studied a population demographically distinct from the discovery population to ensure a different pattern of linkage disequilibrium. Our analysis revealed that in a Mexican population, the nonsynonymous SNP rs9370867, which encodes the N342S amino acid substitution, is an underlying functional variant that was associated with high total cholesterol and accounted for one of the previous significant GWAS signals. Functional characterization showed that the Asn-encoding allele was associated with more potent LDLR degradation and decreased LDL uptake. Mutagenesis of residue 342 failed to affect intrinsic MYLIP E3 ligase activity, but it was critical for LDLR targeting. Our findings suggest that modulation of MYLIP activity can affect LDL-C levels and that pharmacologic inhibition of MYLIP activity might be a useful strategy in the treatment of dyslipidemia and ASCVD. PMID:21765216

  12. Metabonomics analysis of plasma reveals the lactate to cholesterol ratio as an independent prognostic factor of short-term mortality in acute heart failure.

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    Franck Desmoulin

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Mortality in heart failure (AHF remains high, especially during the first days of hospitalization. New prognostic biomarkers may help to optimize treatment. The aim of the study was to determine metabolites that have a high prognostic value. METHODS: We conducted a prospective study on a training cohort of AHF patients (n = 126 admitted in the cardiac intensive care unit and assessed survival at 30 days. Venous plasmas collected at admission were used for (1H NMR--based metabonomics analysis. Differences between plasma metabolite profiles allow determination of discriminating metabolites. A cohort of AHF patients was subsequently constituted (n = 74 to validate the findings. RESULTS: Lactate and cholesterol were the major discriminating metabolites predicting 30-day mortality. Mortality was increased in patients with high lactate and low total cholesterol concentrations at admission. Accuracies of lactate, cholesterol concentration and lactate to cholesterol (Lact/Chol ratio to predict 30-day mortality were evaluated using ROC analysis. The Lact/Chol ratio provided the best accuracy with an AUC of 0.82 (P < 0.0001. The acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE II scoring system provided an AUC of 0.76 for predicting 30-day mortality. APACHE II score, Cardiogenic shock (CS state and Lact/Chol ratio ≥ 0.4 (cutoff value with 82% sensitivity and 64% specificity were significant independent predictors of 30-day mortality with hazard ratios (HR of 1.11, 4.77 and 3.59, respectively. In CS patients, the HR of 30-day mortality risk for plasma Lact/Chol ratio ≥ 0.4 was 3.26 compared to a Lact/Chol ratio of < 0.4 (P = 0.018. The predictive power of the Lact/Chol ratio for 30-day mortality outcome was confirmed with the independent validation cohort. CONCLUSION: This study identifies the plasma Lact/Chol ratio as a useful objective and simple parameter to evaluate short term prognostic and could be integrated into quantitative

  13. Melatonin effect on plasma adiponectin, leptin, insulin, glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol in normal and high fat-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos-Lugo, María J; Cano, Pilar; Jiménez-Ortega, Vanesa; Fernández-Mateos, María P; Scacchi, Pablo A; Cardinali, Daniel P; Esquifino, Ana I

    2010-11-01

    Melatonin effect on body weight progression, mean levels and 24-hr pattern of circulating adiponectin, leptin, insulin, glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol were examined in rats fed a normal or a high-fat diet. In experiment 1, rats fed a normal diet were divided into two groups: receiving melatonin (25 μg/mL drinking water) or vehicle for 9 wk. In experiment 2, animals were divided into three groups: two fed with a high-fat diet (35% fat) and melatonin (25 μg/mL) or vehicle in drinking water for 11 wk, while a third group was given a normal diet (4% fat). At the end of experiments, groups of eight rats were killed at six different time intervals throughout a 24-hr period. Melatonin administration for 9 wk decreased body weight gain from the 3rd wk on without affecting food intake. A significant reduction in circulating insulin, glucose and triglyceride mean levels and disrupted daily patterns of plasma adiponectin, leptin and insulin were observed after melatonin. In high fat-fed rats, melatonin attenuated body weight increase, hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia, as well as the increase in mean plasma adiponectin, leptin, triglycerides and cholesterol levels. The high-fat diet disrupted normal 24-hr patterns of circulating adiponectin, insulin and cholesterol, the effects on insulin and cholesterol being counteracted by melatonin. Nocturnal plasma melatonin concentration in control and obese rats receiving melatonin for 11 wk attained values 21-24-fold greater than controls. The results indicate that melatonin counteracts some of the disrupting effects of diet-induced obesity in rats. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Pineal Research © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  14. The role of plasma triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio to predict cardiovascular outcomes in chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonmez, Alper; Yilmaz, Mahmut Ilker; Saglam, Mutlu; Unal, Hilmi Umut; Gok, Mahmut; Cetinkaya, Hakki; Karaman, Murat; Haymana, Cem; Eyileten, Tayfun; Oguz, Yusuf; Vural, Abdulgaffar; Rizzo, Manfredi; Toth, Peter P

    2015-04-16

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk is substantially increased in subjects with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The Triglycerides (TG) to High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio is an indirect measure of insulin resistance and an independent predictor of cardiovascular risk. No study to date has been performed to evaluate whether the TG/HDL-C ratio predicts CVD risk in patients with CKD. A total of 197 patients (age 53±12 years) with CKD Stages 1 to 5, were enrolled in this longitudinal, observational, retrospective study. TG/HDL-C ratio, HOMA-IR indexes, serum asymmetric dimethyl arginine (ADMA), high sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP), parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcium, phosphorous, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and albumin levels were measured. Flow mediated vasodilatation (FMD) of the brachial artery was assessed by using high-resolution ultrasonography. A total of 11 cardiovascular (CV) deaths and 43 nonfatal CV events were registered in a mean follow-up period of 30 (range 9 to 35) months. Subjects with TG/HDL-C ratios above the median values (>3.29) had significantly higher plasma ADMA, PTH, and phosphorous levels (p=0.04, p=0.02, p=0.01 respectively) and lower eGFR and FMD values (p=0.03, pcardiovascular outcomes [HR: 1.36 (1.11-1.67) (p=0.003)] along with plasma ADMA levels [HR: 1.31 (1.13-1.52) (p<0.001)] and a history of diabetes mellitus [HR: 4.82 (2.80-8.37) (p<0.001)]. This study demonstrates that the elevated TG/HDL-C ratio predicts poor CVD outcome in subjects with CKD. Being a simple, inexpensive, and reproducible marker of CVD risk, the TG/HDL-C ratio may emerge as a novel and reliable indicator among the many well-established markers of CVD risk in CKD. Clinical trial registration number and date: NCT02113462 / 10-04-2014.

  15. Exercise attenuates the increase in plasma monounsaturated fatty acids and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol but not high-density lipoprotein 2b cholesterol caused by high-oleic ground beef in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, L Anne; Crouse, Stephen F; Carbuhn, Aaron; Klooster, Jennifer; Calles, José Antonio Elias; Meade, Thomas; Smith, Stephen B

    2013-12-01

    We hypothesized that dietary monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and exercise increase high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) by independent mechanisms, so there would be additive effects between a single, intensive session of exercise and high-MUFA ground beef on HDL-C and blood risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Seventeen postmenopausal women completed a 2-way crossover design in which they consumed five 114-g ground beef patties per week for two 6-week periods separated by a 4-week washout (habitual diet) period. The ground beef patties contained 21% total fat with either 9.97 (low-MUFA) or 12.72 (high-MUFA) g total MUFA. Blood was taken at entry, at the end of each 6-week diet period, after the 4-week washout period, and 24 hours after aerobic exercise sessions (75% VO₂peak, 2.07 MJ). After the ground beef intervention, the high-MUFA ground beef increased plasma palmitoleic acid and oleic acid, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particle density, HDL-C, and HDL2b-C (all P density. After the washout (habitual diet) period, the single exercise session increased serum LDL cholesterol, HDL-C, and HDL2a and decreased TAG and oleic acid. After the low-MUFA ground beef diet, exercise increased LDL size and HDL density and decreased LDL density and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, but had no effect on HDL-C fractions. After the high-MUFA ground beef intervention, exercise decreased palmitioleic acid, oleic acid, HDL-C, and HDL2a-C, but not HDL2b-C. Contrary to our hypothesis, the effects of exercise and a high-MUFA diet were not additive; instead, exercise attenuated the effects of the high-MUFA ground beef on HDL-C and plasma MUFAs. The differential effects of high-MUFA ground beef and exercise on HDL2a-C and HDL2b-C indicate that diet and exercise affect HDL-C by different mechanisms.

  16. Comparing the effects of fluoxetine and imipramine on total cholesterol, triglyceride, and weight in patients with major depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahsavand Ananloo Esmaeil

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are some reports on the effects of antidepressants on metabolic syndrome. However, our search in the previously published literature showed a lack of information on the comparison of the effects of different classes of antidepressants on lipid profile. Therefore, this study was aimed to compare the effects of fluoxetine and imipramine on serum total cholesterol (TC and triglyceride (TG as well as body weight (BW in patients with major depressive disorder. Methods Fifty one patients, 18 to 70 years of age, with major depressive disorder complied with the criteria of this preliminary, open-label clinical trial. Subjects received either imipramine (75–200 mg/day or fluoxetine (20–40 mg/day for 8 weeks. Total cholesterol and TG levels, as well as BW were compared at baseline with those at weeks 4 and 8. Data was analyzed by SPSS software version 16.0. Results In the fluoxetine group, TC levels decreased from 165.71 mg/dL to 156.71 mg/dL at week 4 (P = 0.07, and to 143.94 mg/dL at week 8 (P = 0.16; TG levels decreased from 129.35 mg/dL to 115.88 mg/dL at week 4 (P Repeated measures ANOVA showed significant effects on both TC and TG levels as well as on BW in all patients receiving imipramine. However, in patients on fluoxetine, repeated measures ANOVA showed significant effects of this medication only on TC levels in males. Conclusions Monitoring TC and TG and BW is recommended before starting imipramine in depressed patients with increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Fluoxetine may be the preferred agent in those with high or borderline high lipid levels.

  17. Nonfasting cholesterol and triglycerides and association with risk of myocardial infarction and total mortality: the Copenhagen City Heart Study with 31 years of follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langsted, A; Freiberg, J J; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A; Schnohr, P; Jensen, G B; Nordestgaard, B G

    2011-07-01

    We compared the ability of very high levels of nonfasting cholesterol and triglycerides to predict risk of myocardial infarction and total mortality. Prospective study from 1976 to 1978 until 2007. Danish general population. Randomly selected population of 7581 women and 6391 men, of whom 768 and 1151 developed myocardial infarction and 4398 and 4416 died, respectively. Participation rate was 72%, and follow-up was 100% complete. Less than 2% of participants were taking lipid-lowering therapy. Compared to women with cholesterol cholesterol level of 5.0-5.99 mmol L(-1) to 2.5 (95%CI: 1.6-4.0) for cholesterol ≥ 9 mmol L(-1) (trend: P triglycerides triglycerides of 1.0-1.99 mmol L(-1) to 4.2 (95%CI: 2.5-7.2) for triglycerides ≥ 5 mmol L(-1) (pcholesterol (P triglycerides (P cholesterol levels were not consistently associated with total mortality in women (trend: P = 0.39) or men (P = 0.02). By contrast, compared with women with triglycerides triglycerides of 1.0-1.99 mmol L(-1) to 2.0 (95%CI: 1.5-2.9) for triglycerides ≥5 mmol L(-1) (trend: P cholesterol and nonfasting triglycerides were similarly associated with stepwise increasing risk of myocardial infarction, with nonfasting triglycerides being the best predictor in women and nonfasting cholesterol the best predictor in men. Even more surprisingly, only increasing levels of nonfasting triglycerides were associated with total mortality, whereas increasing cholesterol levels were not. © 2010 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  18. Changes in Plasma Lipids during Exposure to Total Sleep Deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, Eric Chern-Pin; Shui, Guanghou; Cazenave-Gassiot, Amaury; Wenk, Markus R; Gooley, Joshua J

    2015-11-01

    The effects of sleep loss on plasma lipids, which play an important role in energy homeostasis and signaling, have not been systematically examined. Our aim was to identify lipid species in plasma that increase or decrease reliably during exposure to total sleep deprivation. Twenty individuals underwent sleep deprivation in a laboratory setting. Blood was drawn every 4 h and mass spectrometry techniques were used to analyze concentrations of 263 lipid species in plasma, including glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, and sterols. Chronobiology and Sleep Laboratory, Duke-NUS Graduate Medical School. Healthy ethnic-Chinese males aged 21-28 y (n = 20). Subjects were kept awake for 40 consecutive hours. Each metabolite time series was modeled as a sum of sinusoidal (circadian) and linear components, and we assessed whether the slope of the linear component differed from zero. More than a third of all individually analyzed lipid profiles exhibited a circadian rhythm and/or a linear change in concentration during sleep deprivation. Twenty-five lipid species showed a linear and predominantly unidirectional trend in concentration levels that was consistent across participants. Choline plasmalogen levels decreased, whereas several phosphatidylcholine (PC) species and triacylglycerides (TAG) carrying polyunsaturated fatty acids increased. The decrease in choline plasmalogen levels during sleep deprivation is consistent with prior work demonstrating that these lipids are susceptible to degradation by oxidative stress. The increase in phosphatidylcholines and triacylglycerides suggests that sleep loss might modulate lipid metabolism, which has potential implications for metabolic health in individuals who do not achieve adequate sleep. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  19. Creosote Bush (Larrea tridentata) Improves Insulin Sensitivity and Reduces Plasma and Hepatic Lipids in Hamsters Fed a High Fat and Cholesterol Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Vecchyo-Tenorio, Georgina; Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Andrade-Cetto, Adolfo; Cárdenas-Vázquez, René

    2016-01-01

    Creosote bush, Larrea tridentata (Sesse y Moc. Ex DC, Zygophyllaceae) is a shrub found in the deserts of Northern Mexico and Southwestern United States. In traditional medicine, it is used to treat a variety of illnesses including type 2 diabetes. The present study aims to investigate the effects of creosote bush ethanolic extract on plasma and liver parameters associated with the metabolic syndrome in hamsters fed a high fat and cholesterol diet (HFD), comparing them with those induced by ezetimibe (EZ). Seven groups of six hamsters each were formed. Six groups were fed HFD for 2 weeks. The following 2 weeks, the HFD groups received: (1) only HFD, (2) HFD + 3 mg% EZ, (3) HFD + 0.2% creosote bush ethanolic extract, (4) only standard diet (Std Diet), (5) Std Diet + 3 mg% EZ, (6) Std Diet + 0.2% creosote bush ethanolic extract. The beneficial effects of creosote bush ethanolic extract in the HFD hamster model were a reduction of insulin resistance, associated with lower serum insulin and leptin, lower hepatic lipid peroxidation and higher liver antioxidant capacity. Plasma and liver lipids tended or were reduced to values closer to those of animals fed standard diet. A similar effect on lipids was induced by EZ, although with even lower hepatic cholesterol and total lipids concentrations. In general, the change from HFD to standard diet plus ethanolic extract induced the same but deeper changes, including a reduction in plasma glucose and an increase in the percentage of HDL cholesterol. Unlike creosote bush extract, EZ increased food consumption and neutral fecal steroids, with no significant effect on body weight, epididymal fat pads, liver peroxidation or antioxidant capacity. Also EZ did not modify serum insulin and leptin. However, insulin sensitivity improved to values similar to those induced by the extract. This suggests that the mechanism of action of creosote bush ethanolic extract is different to inhibition of cholesterol absorption or increase excretion

  20. Creosote Bush (Larrea tridentata) Improves Insulin Sensitivity and Reduces Plasma and Hepatic Lipids in Hamsters Fed a High Fat and Cholesterol Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Vecchyo-Tenorio, Georgina; Rodríguez-Cruz, Maricela; Andrade-Cetto, Adolfo; Cárdenas-Vázquez, René

    2016-01-01

    Creosote bush, Larrea tridentata (Sesse y Moc. Ex DC, Zygophyllaceae) is a shrub found in the deserts of Northern Mexico and Southwestern United States. In traditional medicine, it is used to treat a variety of illnesses including type 2 diabetes. The present study aims to investigate the effects of creosote bush ethanolic extract on plasma and liver parameters associated with the metabolic syndrome in hamsters fed a high fat and cholesterol diet (HFD), comparing them with those induced by ezetimibe (EZ). Seven groups of six hamsters each were formed. Six groups were fed HFD for 2 weeks. The following 2 weeks, the HFD groups received: (1) only HFD, (2) HFD + 3 mg% EZ, (3) HFD + 0.2% creosote bush ethanolic extract, (4) only standard diet (Std Diet), (5) Std Diet + 3 mg% EZ, (6) Std Diet + 0.2% creosote bush ethanolic extract. The beneficial effects of creosote bush ethanolic extract in the HFD hamster model were a reduction of insulin resistance, associated with lower serum insulin and leptin, lower hepatic lipid peroxidation and higher liver antioxidant capacity. Plasma and liver lipids tended or were reduced to values closer to those of animals fed standard diet. A similar effect on lipids was induced by EZ, although with even lower hepatic cholesterol and total lipids concentrations. In general, the change from HFD to standard diet plus ethanolic extract induced the same but deeper changes, including a reduction in plasma glucose and an increase in the percentage of HDL cholesterol. Unlike creosote bush extract, EZ increased food consumption and neutral fecal steroids, with no significant effect on body weight, epididymal fat pads, liver peroxidation or antioxidant capacity. Also EZ did not modify serum insulin and leptin. However, insulin sensitivity improved to values similar to those induced by the extract. This suggests that the mechanism of action of creosote bush ethanolic extract is different to inhibition of cholesterol absorption or increase excretion

  1. Fatty acid profile, total cholesterol, vitamin content, and TBARS value of turkey breast muscle cured with the addition of lycopene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skiepko, N; Chwastowska-Siwiecka, I; Kondratowicz, J; Mikulski, D

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of lycopene addition for curing turkey meat on the profile of fatty acids, total cholesterol, vitamin content, and the TBARS of the final products. The analyzed material comprised 64 breast muscles, of which 16 (RBM) were immediately transported to a laboratory. Another 16 (UBM) were heat treated in a convection steam oven, and 32 muscles were cured for 3 days in two types of curing mixture: without (CBM) and with (CBM+Lyc) tomato peel extract standardized for 5% lycopene content. After completed curing, samples were steamed and grilled under the same conditions as raw samples. Statistical analysis demonstrated the highest (P≤0.01) mean content of vitamin A (0.07 μg/g) in chilled muscles. The content of vitamin E was lower (P≤0.01) in UBM samples than in CBM+Lyc and RBM. The TBARS value was the lowest (P≤0.01) in RBM muscles (0.35 mg MDA/kg of meat). Although there were no differences between products, but lower TBARS were found in CBM+Lyc samples. The content of cholesterol was higher (P≤0.01) in CBM+Lyc products than in the RBM and UBM. RBM samples contained (P≤0.01) the lowest amount of saturated, monounsaturated, and hypercholesterolemic fatty acids, and the highest of unsaturated, polyunsaturated, and hypocholesterolemic fatty acids. CBM+Lyc samples contained (P≤0.01) less hypercholesterolemic and more hypocholesterolemic fatty acids than CBM group. Higher (P≤0.01) unsaturated/saturated and hypocholesterolemic/hypercholesterolemic fatty acid ratios were also found in CBM+Lyc products. The study demonstrated that the used processing technology caused reduction (P≤0.01) of n-3 and n-6 PUFA content. Findings suggest that the addition of lycopene in the process of meat curing and heat treatment in meat industry do not change the content of vitamins and cholesterol or alter the TBARS value in turkey meat products. Nevertheless, lycopene can be used to increase the content of essential

  2. A Study on Cholesterol,Triglyceride,and Total Lipid in 100 Patients Suffering from Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. MAHDAVI

    1980-07-01

    Full Text Available 100 patients s uffering f rom myocardial i n f a r cti on we r e t ested i n various hos p itals, f o r cho l ester o l , t r iglyceride , and t otal lipid ."nMethod s f or choleste r o l , triglyce ride a nd total lipid tests , as wel l as the ir norma l ranges e xpl ained . Spe cifi cations of pa t i ents were compi l e d a s f a r as poss ible and i n Table No.1, a comparison has be en g i ven on the number of addi cts , t h e t ype o f add i c tion , as well a s the s e x of patients. In Table No.2, the r e s ult o f test s on 100 pati ents ob jec t o f ou r s tudy , a r e compared wi t h e ach o t he r and conc lus ion has been drawn . In the l ast part , a general d i scuss ion has be e n made on l i p ids .

  3. Association between periodontal disease and plasma levels of cholesterol and triglycerides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Jaramillo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Untreated periodontal disease seems to cause low grade systemic inflammation and blood lipid alteration leading to increased cardiovascular disease risk. To start testing this hypothesis in Colombian patients, a multicentre study was conducted including the three main state capitals: Bogotá, Medellín and Cali. Methods: In this study 192 (28.4% advanced and 256 (37.8% moderate periodontitis patients were  investigated for socio-demographic variables, city of precedence, periodontal parameters, smoking, red complex periodontopathic bacteria, serum antibodies against Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and blood lipids including total cholesterol, HDL, LDL and triglycerides (TG. Those parameters were compared to 229 (33.8% controls having periodontal health or gingivitis. Results: Advanced periodontitis had worst periodontal indexes, than moderate periodontitis and controls. Interestingly, higher HDL and TG levels were present in periodontitis. BMI <30 and smoking were associated with increased HDL, HDL-35, LDL and TG, while glycemia >100 mg/dL associated with HDL, HDL-35 and TG. Tannerella forsythia showed a significant association with HDL-35 in bivariate analysis and serum IgG1 against P. gingivalis associated with HDL-35 and serum IgG1 against T. forsythia associated with TG and serum IgG2 against A. actinomycetemcomitans correlated with levels of HDL y HDL-35. In logistic regression the periodontitis patients from Cali presented reduced HDL levels as compared to Bogotá and Medellín patients. Presence of IgG1 antibodies against P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans correlated with reduced HDL levels. Conclusion: This study confirmed that untreated periodontitis generates alteration in serum lipid levels and systemic bacterial exposure against important periodontopathic bacteria seems to be the biological link. 

  4. Reduced plasma total homocysteine concentrations in Type 1 diabetes mellitus is determined by increased renal clearance.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldman, B.A.J.; Vervoort, G.M.M.; Blom, H.J.; Smits, P.

    2005-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Elevated plasma levels of total homocysteine are related to the development of vascular complications. Patients with diabetes mellitus are particularly at risk for the development of these complications. Several factors determine plasma total homocysteine including renal function.

  5. Association between worldwide dietary and lifestyle patterns with total cholesterol concentrations and DALYs for infectious and cardiovascular diseases: an ecological analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oggioni, C; Cena, H; Wells, J C K; Lara, J; Celis-Morales, C; Siervo, M

    2015-12-01

    Global dietary and lifestyle trends are primary risk factors for communicable and non-communicable diseases. An ecological analysis was conducted to examine the association of global dietary and lifestyle patterns with total cholesterol concentrations. This study also investigated whether total cholesterol modified the association between dietary and lifestyle habits with disability-adjusted-life-years-lost (DALYs) for infectious and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Country-specific mean total cholesterol concentrations and DALYs for infectious and CVDs were obtained. Data were then matched to country-specific food and energy availability for consumption and information on obesity, physical inactivity, urbanization, gross domestic product (GDP), life expectancy and smoking. Stepwise multiple regression models were developed to identify significant predictors of total cholesterol concentrations and DALYs for infectious and CVDs. Life expectancy and egg and meat consumption were significantly associated with cholesterol concentrations. DALYs for infectious diseases were associated with smoking, life expectancy and per capita GDP. Smoking was the only predictor of DALYs for CVDs. The improvement of socio-demographic conditions and economic growth is likely to reduce the burden of communicable diseases in developing countries. A concurring increase in non-communicable diseases is expected, and these results have, yet again, identified smoking as a primary risk factor for CVDs. Copyright © 2015 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Changes in total plasma content of electrolytes and proteins with maximal exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Beaumont, W.; Strand, J. C.; Petrofsky, J. S.; Hipskind, S. G.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    To determine to what extent the increases in concentration of plasma proteins and electrolytes with short maximal work were a result of hemoconcentration, the changes in plasma volume and total content of the plasma constituents were simultaneously evaluated. The results obtained from six human subjects indicated that in comparison to preexercise values there was a net decrease in total content of plasma protein, sodium, and chloride in the first 2 min of the postexercise period, due primarily to a significant loss (13-15%) of plasma fluid. The total plasma potassium content was increased immediately after exercise but was significantly below the preexercise plasma content after 2 min of recovery.

  7. Lipid peroxidation and total cholesterol in HAART-naive patients infected with circulating recombinant forms of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 in Cameroon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges Teto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: HIV infection has commonly been found to affect lipid profile and antioxidant defense. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV infection and viral subtype on patient's cholesterol and oxidative stress markers, and determine whether in the absence of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART, these biochemical parameters could be useful in patient's management and monitoring disease progression in Cameroon. For this purpose, we measured total cholesterol (TC, LDL cholesterol (LDLC, HDL cholesterol (HDLC, total antioxidant ability (TAA, lipid peroxidation indices (LPI, and malondialdehyde (MDA in HIV negative persons and HIV positive HAART-naïve patients infected with HIV-1 group M subtypes. METHODS: We measured serum TC, LDLC, HDLC, plasma MDA, and TAA concentrations, and calculated LPI indices in 151 HIV-positive HAART-naïve patients and 134 seronegative controls. We also performed gene sequence analysis on samples from 30 patients to determine the effect of viral genotypes on these biochemical parameters. We also determined the correlation between CD4 cell count and the above biochemical parameters. RESULTS: We obtained the following controls/patients values for TC (1.96±0.54/1. 12±0. 48 g/l, LDLC (0. 67±0. 46/0. 43±0. 36 g/l, HDLC (105. 51±28. 10/46. 54±23. 36 mg/dl TAA (0. 63±0. 17/0. 16±0. 16 mM, MDA (0. 20±0. 07/0. 41±0. 10 µM and LPI (0. 34±0. 14/26. 02±74. 40. In each case, the difference between the controls and patients was statistically significant (p<0.05. There was a positive and statistically significant Pearson correlation between CD4 cell count and HDLC (r = +0.272; p<0.01, TAA (r = +0.199; p<0.05 and a negative and statistically significant Pearson correlation between CD4 cell count and LPI (r = -0.166; p<0.05. Pearson correlation between CD4 cell count and TC, CD4cell count and LDLC was positive but not statistically significant while it was negative but

  8. Effect of soy lecithin on total cholesterol content, fatty acid composition and carcass characteristics in the Longissimus dorsi of Hanwoo steers (Korean native cattle).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiang Zi; Park, Byung Ki; Hong, Byuong Chon; Ahn, Jun Sang; Shin, Jong Suh

    2017-06-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of soy lecithin on the total cholesterol content, the fatty acid composition and carcass characteristics in the Longissimus dorsi in Hanwoo steers. Hanwoo steers (24 head) were fed two diets: Control (CON) (concentrate + alcohol-fermented feed (AFF)) and soy lecithin treatment (CON + soy lecithin at 0.5% of the AFF). Soy lecithin treatment increased average daily gain, serum concentrations of triglyceride, total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol in the blood. A lower cholesterol concentration was found in the Longissimus dorsi for the soy lecithin diet compared to the CON diet. With respect to the marbling score and quality grade of Longissimus dorsi, soy lecithin supplementation significantly increased the C20:5n3, C22:4 and polyunsaturated fatty acids contents compared to the CON diet. Soy lecithin supplementation would alter the total cholesterol content, polyunsaturated fatty acid profile and meat quality of Longissimus dorsi. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  9. Serum concentrations of cholesterol, apolipoprotein A-I and apolipoprotein B in a total of 1694 meat-eaters, fish-eaters, vegetarians and vegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, K E; Crowe, F L; Appleby, P N; Schmidt, J A; Travis, R C; Key, T J

    2014-02-01

    The objective of this study was to describe serum lipid concentrations, including apolipoproteins A-I and B, in different diet groups. A cross-sectional analysis of a sample of 424 meat-eaters, 425 fish-eaters, 423 vegetarians and 422 vegans, matched on sex and age, from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Oxford cohort. Serum concentrations of total, and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, as well as apolipoproteins A-I and B were measured, and serum non-HDL cholesterol was calculated. Vegans had the lowest body mass index (BMI) and the highest and lowest intakes of polyunsaturated and saturated fat, respectively. After adjustment for age, alcohol and physical activity, compared with meat-eaters, fish-eaters and vegetarians, serum concentrations of total and non-HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B were significantly lower in vegans. Serum apolipoprotein A-I concentrations did not differ between the diet groups. In males, the mean serum total cholesterol concentration was 0.87 mmol/l lower in vegans than in meat-eaters; after further adjustment for BMI this difference was 0.76 mmol/l. In females, the difference in total cholesterol between these two groups was 0.6 mmol/l, and after further adjustment for BMI was 0.55 mmol/l. [corrected]. In this study, which included a large number of vegans, serum total cholesterol and apolipoprotein B concentrations were lower in vegans compared with meat-eaters, fish-eaters and vegetarians. A small proportion of the observed differences in serum lipid concentrations was explained by differences in BMI, but a large proportion is most likely due to diet.

  10. Gel coating of edible Brasenia schreberi leaves lowers plasma cholesterol in hamsters (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The young leaves of B. schreberi are coated with gelatinous water-insoluble mucilage. This mucilage is a polysaccharide composed of galactose, mannose, fucose and other monosaccharides. Since some carbohydrate gels are hypocholesterolemic, we evaluated the cholesterol lowering properties in male h...

  11. Maternal Plasma Cholesterol and Duration of Pregnancy: A Prospective Cohort Study in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low serum cholesterol may be associated with preterm birth, however results are mixed and limited primarily to high-income countries. Our objective was to determine whether maternal blood lipid concentrations are associated with duration of gestation. We performed a nested cohort (n=320) study of pr...

  12. Predicting individual responses to pravastatin using a physiologically based kinetic model for plasma cholesterol concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pas, N.C.A. van de; Rullmann, J.A.C.; Woutersen, R.A.; Ommen, B. van; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Graaf, A.A. de

    2014-01-01

    We used a previously developed physiologically based kinetic (PBK) model to analyze the effect of individual variations in metabolism and transport of cholesterol on pravastatin response. The PBK model is based on kinetic expressions for 21 reactions that interconnect eight different body

  13. Relation among the plasma triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration ratio, insulin resistance, and associated cardio-metabolic risk factors in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Martin R; Carbajal, Horacio A; Espeche, Walter G; Leiva Sisnieguez, Carlos E; Balbín, Eduardo; Dulbecco, Carlos A; Aizpurúa, Marcelo; Marillet, Alberto G; Reaven, Gerald M

    2012-06-15

    Results of recent studies using the ratio of plasma triglyceride (TG) to high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentration to identify insulin-resistant patients at increased cardiometabolic risk have emphasized that the cut point used for this purpose will vary with race. Because TG and HDL cholesterol concentrations vary with gender, this analysis was initiated to define gender-specific plasma TG/HDL cholesterol concentration ratios that best identified high-risk subjects among women (n = 1,102) and men (n = 464) of primarily European ancestry. Insulin resistance was defined as the 25% of the population with the highest values for fasting plasma insulin concentration and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance. Using TG/HDL concentration ratios >2.5 in women and >3.5 in men identified subgroups of men and women that were comparable in terms of insulin resistance and associated cardiometabolic risk, with significantly higher values for fasting plasma insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, blood pressure, body mass index, waist circumference, and glucose and TG concentrations and lower HDL cholesterol concentrations than in women and men below these cut points. The sensitivity and specificity of these gender-specific cut points to identify insulin-resistant subjects were about 40% and about 80%, respectively. In conclusion, the plasma TG/HDL cholesterol concentration ratio that identifies patients who are insulin resistant and at significantly greater cardiometabolic risk varies between men and women.

  14. Subacute Therapeutic Dosing of Artemether-Lumefantrine and Artesunate-Amodiaquine Combination Preserves Plasma Cholesterol, Renal Antioxidant Status, and Organ Weights in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiagoziem A. Otuechere

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent instances of breakdowns of malaria control programs and the constant emergence of drug-resistant parasites to monotherapies have shored up the use of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT as the malaria therapy of choice. We evaluated a subacute therapeutic dosing of artemether-lumefantrine and artesunate-amodiaquine on plasma cholesterol, renal antioxidants, and organ weights in rats. Sixteen albino rats were grouped into three. Group A (n=5 served as the control. Groups B (n=6 and C (n=5 were administered, twice daily, oral therapeutic doses of artemether-lumefantrine (1.14/6.86 mg/kg/d and artesunate-amodiaquine (2.86/8.58 mg/kg/d, respectively, for seven days. From our results, ACTs did not significantly (P>0.05 alter catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione S-transferase, myeloperoxidase, and total glutathione levels when compared with the control. Plasma total cholesterol levels also decreased insignificantly (P>0.05. Organ-system weights were not significantly (P>0.05 different from control rats. Artesunate-amodiaquine, but not artemether-lumefantrine, significantly increased (P<0.05 lactate dehydrogenase activity and also afforded a 27.2% decrease in heart weight when compared with control. Also, both ACTs increased (P<0.05 lipid peroxidation. Overall, artesunate-amodiaquine and artemether-lumefantrine may preserve renal antioxidants and organ weights in vivo. However, caution is required above therapeutic indications or in chronic doses as this may predispose to renal oxidative stress.

  15. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Enriched Chevon (Goat Meat Lowers Plasma Cholesterol Levels and Alters Gene Expressions in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Ebrahimi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, control chevon (goat meat and omega-3 fatty acid enriched chevon were obtained from goats fed a 50% oil palm frond diet and commercial goat concentrate for 100 days, respectively. Goats fed the 50% oil palm frond diet contained high amounts of α-linolenic acid (ALA in their meat compared to goats fed the control diet. The chevon was then used to prepare two types of pellets (control or enriched chevon that were then fed to twenty-male-four-month-old Sprague-Dawley rats (n=10 in each group for 12 weeks to evaluate their effects on plasma cholesterol levels, tissue fatty acids, and gene expression. There was a significant increase in ALA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA in the muscle tissues and liver of the rats fed the enriched chevon compared with the control group. Plasma cholesterol also decreased (P<0.05 in rats fed the enriched chevon compared to the control group. The rat pellets containing enriched chevon significantly upregulated the key transcription factor PPAR-γ and downregulated SREBP-1c expression relative to the control group. The results showed that the omega-3 fatty acid enriched chevon increased the omega-3 fatty acids in the rat tissues and altered PPAR-γ and SREBP-1c genes expression.

  16. Hormonal regulation of total antioxidant capacity in seminal plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancini, Antonio; Festa, Roberto; Silvestrini, Andrea; Nicolotti, Nicola; Di Donna, Vincenzo; La Torre, Giuseppe; Pontecorvi, Alfredo; Meucci, Elisabetta

    2009-01-01

    Infertility is associated with oxidative stress, normally counterbalanced by different antioxidant systems. In order to explore the hormonal control of seminal plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) we evaluated TAC and hormone patterns in a group of unselected infertile patients and control subjects. One hundred and ten infertile patients (divided into 3 groups: inflammation, varicocele, and other etiologies) and 31 fertile men were examined, evaluating blood serum gonadotropins, testosterone, estradiol, free tri-iodothyronine, free tetraiodothyronine (FT4), thyrotropin, prolactin (PRL), seminal parameters, and TAC. TAC was measured using the H(2)O(2)-metmyoglobin system, which generates the spectroscopically detectable radical cation of the chromogenous compound 2,2(I)-azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate). The "lag time" of its appearance is proportional to the antioxidant activity. Lag phase was significantly higher in varicocele vs controls, whereas it was lower in patients with inflammation vs varicocele or other kinds of infertility. The correlation analysis between hormones and seminal parameters showed an inverse correlation between PRL and sperm motility, and a direct correlation of TAC with PRL and FT4, but not with gonadotropins or gonadal steroids. Our data suggest that systemic hormones may play a role in regulating seminal antioxidant capacity. This is interesting also because some hormones, such as thyroid and pituitary hormones, are not usually tested in the first-level evaluation of male patients with fertility problems.

  17. Determination of plasma cholesterol sulfate by LC-APCI-MS/MS in the context of pediatric autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Bonnie Mei-Wah; Tam, Sidney; Leung, Kelvin Sze-Yin

    2013-11-15

    Cholesterol sulfate (CS) has various biological functions. Previously, plasma CS was measured primarily as a means to diagnose X-linked ichthyosis; however, a recent hypothesis suggests that CS deficiency might be related to autism. As such, an assay capable of measuring both very high (in the case of X-linked ichthyosis) and very low (in the case of autism) plasma CS levels is required. Here we describe a novel LC-APCI-MS/MS method for the determination of CS in human plasma, and we propose normal CS ranges for children, based on studies of a local population of normal Chinese children between the ages of 2 and 10. In addition, we have used this method to measure plasma CS in autistic children. CS was isolated by solid-phase extraction, and quantified by isotope-dilution LC-APCI-MS/MS in negative ion mode monitoring 465.3>97.1 m/z (CS) and 472.3>97.1 m/z (CS-d7). Mean recovery of the assay ranged from 88.1 to 112.7%; within- and between-run imprecisions have CVs less than 7.2 and 8.1%, respectively. The assay was linear up to at least 100 µmol L(-1). The reference interval of plasma CS in males (range: 1.16-4.23 µmol L(-1)) was found to be higher than in females (range: 0.86-3.20 µmol L(-1)). Comparison of normal and autistic children showed no statistically significant difference in the plasma CS level. In conclusion, a robust LC-APCI-MS/MS method for plasma CS was developed, and a pediatric reference interval was derived from applying the method to normal and autistic children.

  18. The Effect of Aerobic Exercise on Total Cholesterol, High-Density Lipoprotein, Apolipoprotein B, Apolipoprotein A-I, and Percent Body Fat in Adolescent Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lungo, Diane; And Others

    The effect of aerobic exercise on total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), apolipoprotein B (Apo B), apolioprotein A-I (Apo A-I), and percent body fat in adolescent females was studied. The control subjects (n=86) were volunteers who had completed a physical education class at least six months prior to the commencement of the study,…

  19. Seasonal and biological variation of blood concentrations of total cholesterol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, hemoglobin A(1c), IgA, prolactin, and free testosterone in healthy women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, A H; Hansen, Åse Marie; Skovgaard, L T

    2000-01-01

    Concentrations of physiological response variables fluctuate over time. The present study describes within-day and seasonal fluctuations for total cholesterol, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S), hemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1c)), IgA, prolactin, and free testosterone in blood, and estimates within...

  20. Sustained postprandial decrease in plasma levels of LDL cholesterol in patients with type-2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, S.S.; Petersen, Martin; Frandsen, M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective. Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is an independent and modifiable risk factor for development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Postprandial lipid metabolism has been linked to CVD, but little is known about the postprandial LDL-C profile in patients with type-2 diabetes (T2DM......). We aimed to study the postprandial levels of LDL-C in T2DM patients. Material and methods. After an overnight fast, 74 T2DM patients, mean age approximately 60 years, were served a standard fat-rich meal of 3,515 kJ containing 54 % fat, 13 % protein and 33 % carbohydrates. Only drinking water...... inhibitors; lipoproteins; low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C); postprandial period; statins; ultracentrifugation...

  1. Total and High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol in Adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2011-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... density Lipoprotein Cholesterol in Adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2011–2012 Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Associate Director for Science Division of Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys Kathryn S. Porter, M.D., M.S., Director ...

  2. [Erythrocyte cholesterol content in polycythemia vera: relation to ischemic heart disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torkhovskaia, T I; Khalilov, E M; Gorokhovskaia, G N; Fortinskaia, E S; Soboleva, V V; Kochetova, M M; Nikitina, N A; Martynov, A I

    2003-01-01

    Relative cholesterol content and its distribution between erythrocytes and plasma were studied in 34 patients with polycythemia vera (PV) both with and without concomitant coronary heart disease (CHD). Deformability of erythrocytes, disturbances of microcirculation (blood flow fragmentation, decrease of capillary density) were also assessed. Erythrocytes cholesterol/phospholipids molar ratios (0.68+/-0.03) in patients was lower than normal value (0.8) in spite of decreased cell deformability. This was associated with some increase of peroxidation products. Blood cholesterol distribution between cell and plasma species had some peculiarities caused by high hematocrit: compared with normal value erythrocytes of patients carried relatively larger portion of total blood cholesterol (23.7+/-0.8% and 27-31%, respectively). However in CHD patients these values were significantly lower with correspondent increase of plasma cholesterol quota. This allowed to suggest possible protective role of blood cholesterol redistribution in polycythemia patients, through erythrocytes trafficking of some part of plasma cholesterol.

  3. Single dose testosterone increases total cholesterol levels and induces the expression of HMG CoA Reductase

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Cholesterol is mainly synthesised in liver and the rate-limiting step is the reduction of 3-hydroxy-3methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) to mevalonate, a reaction catalysed by HMG-CoA reductase (HMGCR). There is a comprehensive body of evidence documenting that anabolic-androgenic steroids are associated with deleterious alterations of lipid profile. In this study we investigated whether a single dose of testosterone enanthate affects the cholesterol biosynthesis and the e...

  4. Changes in lipid metabolism during last month of pregnancy and first two months of lactation in primiparous cows - analysis of apolipoprotein expression pattern and changes in concentration of total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, triglycerides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurpińska, A K; Jarosz, A; Ożgo, M; Skrzypczak, W F

    2015-01-01

    The final weeks of pregnancy and period of increasing lactation abound with adaptive changes in the intensity of metabolic processes. Maintaining the homeostasis of an organism in prepartum and postpartum periods is the key condition in maintaining the health of the mother and the fetus/calf. The aim of the study was to analyze physiological changes in lipid metabolism in cows during the last month of first pregnancy and in the first two months of lactation, based on the expression of identified apolipoproteins and changes in selected parameters of the lipid metabolism in peripheral blood plasma. Statistically significant changes in the expression of identified apolipoproteins were observed for apolipoprotein A-1 precursor, apolipoprotein A-IV precursor, apolipoprotein E precursor and apolipoprotein J precursor. The lowest expression of the apolipoproteins was noted around parturition and higher expression was observed during the final weeks of pregnancy and during lactation. Tendencies of changes in the concentration of total cholesterol, HDL and LDL were similar in blood plasma from analyzed cows - in the last month of pregnancy a decrease was observed and subsequently an increase in the first two months of lactation was noted. In contrast to abrupt changes observed for total cholesterol, HDL and LDL, changes in concentration of triglycerides were not that extensive and during lactation this parameter was rather stable. Evaluation of changes in the analyzed parameters may contribute to a better understanding of the changes in lipid metabolism occurring in the body of pregnant and lactating young cows.

  5. Effective kinetics of schisandrin B on serum/hepatic triglyceride and total cholesterol levels in mice with and without the influence of fenofibrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Si-Yuan; Dong, Hang; Guo, Bao-Feng; Zhang, Yi; Yu, Zhi-Ling; Fong, Wang-Fun; Han, Yi-Fan; Ko, Kam-Ming

    2011-06-01

    Schisandrin B, an active ingredient isolated from the fruit of Schisandra chinensis, increased serum and hepatic triglyceride levels in mice. In the present study, the effective kinetics of schisandrin B on serum/hepatic triglyceride and total cholesterol levels in mice without and with the influence of fenofibrate were investigated. Parameters on hepatic index (the ratio of liver weight to body weight × 100) were also analyzed. Mice were intragastrically treated with schisandrin B at a single dose of 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, or 1.6 g/kg, without or with fenofibrate pretreatment (0.1 g/kg/day for 4 days, p.o.). Twenty-four hours after schisandrin B treatment, serum/hepatic triglyceride and total cholesterol levels were measured. Schisandrin B treatment dose-dependently increased serum and hepatic triglyceride levels as well as hepatic index in mice. In contrast, hepatic total cholesterol levels were decreased in a dose-dependent manner in schisandrin B-treated mice. Data obtained from effective kinetics analysis indicated that the action of schisandrin B on serum triglyceride had a higher specificity than those on hepatic total cholesterol and hepatic index. While fenofibrate pretreatment inhibited the schisandrin B-induced elevation in serum triglyceride levels, it completely abrogated the elevation of hepatic triglyceride levels in schisandrin B-treated mice. The combined treatment with schisandrin B and fenofibrate decreased hepatic total cholesterol level and increased the hepatic index in an additive or semi-additive manner, respectively. In conclusion, the results of effective kinetics analysis indicated that the schisandrin B-induced hypertriglyceridemia was competitively inhibited by fenofibrate. Schisandrin B may offer the prospect of setting up a mouse model of hypertriglyceridemia and fatty liver for screening triglyceride-lowering drug candidates.

  6. Total cholesterol and triglycerides are associated with the development of new bone marrow lesions in asymptomatic middle-aged women - a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies-Tuck, Miranda L; Hanna, Fahad; Davis, Susan R; Bell, Robin J; Davison, Sonia L; Wluka, Anita E; Adams, Jenny; Cicuttini, Flavia M

    2009-01-01

    Given the emerging evidence that osteoarthritis (OA) may have a vascular basis, the aim of this study was to determine whether serum lipids were associated with change in knee cartilage, presence of bone marrow lesions (BMLs) at baseline and the development of new BMLs over a 2-year period in a population of pain-free women in mid-life. One hundred forty-eight women 40 to 67 years old underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of their dominant knee at baseline and 2.2 (standard deviation 0.12) years later. Cartilage volume and BMLs were determined for both time points. Serum lipids were measured from a single-morning fasting blood test approximately 1.5 years prior to the MRI. The incidence of BML at follow-up was associated with higher levels of total cholesterol (odds ratio [OR] 1.84, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01, 3.36; P = 0.048) and triglycerides (OR 8.4, 95% CI 1.63, 43.43; P = 0.01), but not high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (P = 0.93), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) (P = 0.20) or total cholesterol/HDL ratio (P = 0.17). No association between total cholesterol, triglycerides, HDL, LDL or total cholesterol/HDL ratio and presence of BMLs at baseline or annual change in total tibial cartilage volume was observed. In this study of asymptomatic middle-aged women with no clinical knee OA, serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels were associated with the incidence of BMLs over 2 years. This provides support for the hypothesis that vascular pathology may have a role in the pathogenesis of knee OA. Further work is warranted to clarify this and whether treatments aimed at reducing serum lipids may have a role in reducing the burden of knee OA.

  7. Plasma YKL-40 and total and disease-specific mortality in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Julia S; Bojesen, Stig E; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Increased plasma YKL-40 is associated with short-term survival in patients with cardiovascular disease and cancer. We tested the hypothesis that increased plasma YKL-40 is associated with total and disease-specific mortality in the general population....

  8. Plasma total antioxidant capacity is associated with dietary intake and plasma level of antioxidants in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Yang, Meng; Lee, Sang-Gil; Davis, Catherine G; Kenny, Anne; Koo, Sung I; Chun, Ock K

    2012-12-01

    Increased plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) has been associated with a high consumption of fruits and vegetables. However, limited information is available on whether plasma TAC reflects the dietary intake of antioxidants and the levels of individual antioxidants in plasma. By using three different assays, the study aimed to determine if plasma TAC can effectively predict dietary intake of antioxidants and plasma antioxidant status. Forty overweight and apparently healthy postmenopausal women were recruited. Seven-day food records and 12-h fasting blood samples were collected for dietary and plasma antioxidant assessments. Plasma TAC was determined by vitamin C equivalent antioxidant capacity (VCEAC), ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays. TAC values determined by VCEAC were highly correlated with FRAP (r=0.79, Pantioxidants and represents more closely the plasma antioxidant levels than ORAC and FRAP.

  9. [Plasma cholesterol determination in birds--a diagnostic tool for detection of organophosphate and carbamate intoxication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiesau, B; Kummerfeld, N

    1998-07-01

    An investigation was done on the clinical usefulness of the dry chemistry analyzer Vitros DT 60 II for determination of avian plasma cholinesterase. The analytical reliability of the method, evaluated by precision and accuracy, proved to be high for plasma of numerous pet and wild birds. Values of normal plasma-cholinesterase activity were established for different psittacine and European wild birds. Significant differences in physiologic plasma-cholinesterase activity were noted between closely related species as well as between juvenile and adult birds. These findings emphasize the necessity to use control values of the same species and age group for comparison. Dry chemistry plasma-cholinesterase determination can be used as a diagnostic tool for detection of organophosphate and carbamate poisonings in the majority of investigated birds.

  10. The biosynthesis, absorption, and origin of cholesterol and plant sterols in the Florida land crab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass, T S; Connor, W E; Lin, D S

    1981-08-01

    In order to study the biosynthesis, composition, and origin of sterols in the Florida land crabs, Cardisoma guanhumi (Latreille), we fed 17 male crabs either a cholesterol-free or a high cholesterol diet for 2 to 7 weeks. The origin of sterols in these crabs, whether from biosynthesis or from the diet, was determined by tahree procedures: the incorporation of isotopic mevalonate into the cholesterol when the diet was cholesterol-free; the absorption of isotopic cholesterol and sitosterol from the diet; the cholesterol and plant sterol concentrations of hepatopancreas, plasma, and muscle under conditions of cholesterol-free and high cholesterol diets. In addition, the interconversion of cholesterol and sitosterol was investigated. Dietary sterols of plant and animal sources were readily absorbed and provided the major source of sterols for this species of crab. The biosynthesis of cholesterol from mevalonate in this crab was minimal. However, cholesterol was synthesized from dietary sitosterol by dealkylation. Cholesterol and the three plant sterols (24 epsilon-methyl cholesterol, stigmasterol, and sitosterol) were found in the hepatopancreas, plasma, and muscle of the crab. Plant sterols contributed from 9 to 37% of the total sterols in the hepatopancreas, plasma, and muscle of the crabs fed a cholesterol-free diet.

  11. PLATELET RICH PLASMA (PRP) APPLICATION IN TOTAL KNEE ARTHROPLASTY (TKA)

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To find out the PRP application effects in TKA on pain syndrome, wound healing, postoperative blood loss, range of motion and the knee circumference (centimetry). MATERIAL AND METHOD: The preparation of the platelet-rich plasma is based on our treatment algorithm. 20 patients have been subject to TKA within the period from October 2012 to November 2014 and underwent TKA, as platelet rich plasma was used intraoperatively. The average patient age is 72,3; 9 male and 11 female patien...

  12. Hazelnut Oil Administration Reduces Aortic Cholesterol Accumulation and Lipid Peroxides in the Plasma, Liver, and Aorta of Rabbits Fed a High-cholesterol Diet

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    HATIPOGLU, Aydan; KANBAGLI, Öznur; BALKAN, Jale; KÜÇÜK, Mutlu; ÇEVIKBAS, Ugur; AYKAÇ-TOKER, Gülçin; BERKKAN, Hakan; UYSAL, Müjdat

    2004-01-01

    Hazelnut oil (HO) is rich in monounsaturated fatty acids and antioxidants. We wanted to investigate the effect of HO on lipid levels and prooxidant-antioxidant status in rabbits fed a high-cholesterol (HC) diet...

  13. LRP5 and plasma cholesterol levels modulate the canonical Wnt pathway in peripheral blood leukocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrell-Pages, Maria; Carolina Romero, July; Badimon, Lina

    2015-08-01

    Inflammation is triggered after invasion or injury to restore homeostasis. Although the activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling is one of the first molecular responses to cellular damage, its role in inflammation is still unclear. It was our hypothesis that the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5) and the canonical Wnt signaling pathway are modulators of inflammatory mechanisms. Wild-type (WT) and LRP5(-/-) mice were fed a hypercholesterolemic (HC) diet to trigger dislipidemia and chronic inflammation. Diets were supplemented with plant sterol esters (PSEs) to induce LDL cholesterol lowering and the reduction of inflammation. HC WT mice showed increased serum cholesterol levels that correlated with increased Lrp5 and Wnt/β-catenin gene expression while in the HC LRP5(-/-) mice Wnt/β-catenin pathway was shut down. Functionally, HC induced pro-inflammatory gene expression in LRP5(-/-) mice, suggesting an inhibitory role of the Wnt pathway in inflammation. Dietary PSE administration downregulated serum cholesterol levels in WT and LRP5(-/-) mice. Furthermore, in WT mice PSE increased anti-inflammatory genes expression and inhibited Wnt/β-catenin activation. Hepatic gene expression of Vldlr, Lrp2 and Lrp6 was increased after HC feeding in WT mice but not in LRP5(-/-) mice, suggesting a role for these receptors in the clearance of plasmatic lipoproteins. Finally, an antiatherogenic role for LRP5 was demonstrated as HC LRP5(-/-) mice developed larger aortic atherosclerotic lesions than WT mice. Our results show an anti-inflammatory, pro-survival role for LRP5 and the Wnt signaling pathway in peripheral blood leukocytes.

  14. Reducing elevated plasma LDL cholesterol: the central role of the LDL receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, J

    2014-07-01

    Elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is an established risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), and reduction of elevated LDL-C reduces mortality in patients at risk. This benefit has evolved from the use of statins and knowledge of the LDL receptor (LDLR). The most potent drugs used for dyslipidemias act by mechanisms that involve this receptor. Advances in molecular genetics and understanding of the regulation of this receptor have revealed several pharmacological targets that are being explored to develop more targeted therapies for dyslipidemias.

  15. Promotion of classic neutral bile acids synthesis pathway is responsible for cholesterol-lowing effect of Si-miao-yong-an decoction: Application of LC-MS/MS method to determine 6 major bile acids in rat liver and plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ziying; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Ruowen; Gu, Liqiang; Chen, Xiaohui

    2017-02-20

    Si-miao-yong-an decoction (SMYAD), a traditional Chinese medicine formula, significantly reduced plasma TC, LDL-c levels and increased HDL-c level in hyperlipidemia rats. Liver function test and tissue section examination indicated that SMYAD improved liver function and reduced fat accumulation in hyperlipidemia rat liver. A LC-MS/MS method was established and well validated to evaluate major bile acids derived from cholesterol metabolism through the classic neutral pathway and the alternative acidic pathway (cholic acid, chenodeoxycholic acid and their taurine and glycine conjugates) in liver and plasma. Increased total 6 bile acids concentrations in both liver and plasma were observed after oral administration of 12g/kg/d, 24g/kg/d and 36g/kg/d of SMYAD in a dose dependent manner which contributed to eliminate of cholesterol. Cholic acid, taurocholic acid and glycocholic acid act as the main products of bile acid classic neutral synthesis pathway and show sharp increase (p<0.01) after treatment of SMYAD at dosage of 24-36g/kg/d. For liver samples, taurocholic acid level act as the largest growth section, while in plasma samples, cholic acid act as the largest growth section after SMYAD treatment, compared with Model group. By contrast, the main products of alternative acidic pathway (chenodeoxycholic acid and its glycine and taurine conjugates) show no significant increase after treatment of SMYAD. In conclusion, the cholesterol lowing effect of SMYAD may be related with the accelerated transformation of cholesterol into bile acids through the classic neutral pathway.

  16. Fabrication and Optimization of ChE/ChO/HRP-AuNPs/c-MWCNTs Based Silver Electrode for Determining Total Cholesterol in Serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lata, Kusum; Dhull, Vikas; Hooda, Vikas

    2016-01-01

    The developed method used three enzymes comprised of cholesterol esterase, cholesterol oxidase, and peroxidase for fabrication of amperometric biosensor in order to determine total cholesterol in serum samples. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and carboxylated multiwall carbon nanotubes (cMWCNTs) were used to design core of working electrode, having covalently immobilized ChO, ChE, and HRP. Polyacrylamide layer was finally coated on working electrode in order to prevent enzyme leaching. Chemically synthesised Au nanoparticles were subjected to transmission electron microscopy (TEM) for analysing the shape and size of the particles. Working electrode was subjected to FTIR and XRD. The combined action of AuNP and c-MWCNT showed enhancement in electrocatalytic activity at a very low potential of 0.27 V. The pH 7, temperature 40°C, and response time of 20 seconds, respectively, were observed. The biosensor shows a broad linear range from 0.5 mg/dL to 250 mg/dL (0.01 mM-5.83 mM) with minimum detection limit being 0.5 mg/dL (0.01 mM). The biosensor showed reusability of more than 45 times and was stable for 60 days. The biosensor was successfully tested for determining total cholesterol in serum samples amperometrically with no significant interference by serum components.

  17. Fabrication and Optimization of ChE/ChO/HRP-AuNPs/c-MWCNTs Based Silver Electrode for Determining Total Cholesterol in Serum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusum Lata

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The developed method used three enzymes comprised of cholesterol esterase, cholesterol oxidase, and peroxidase for fabrication of amperometric biosensor in order to determine total cholesterol in serum samples. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs and carboxylated multiwall carbon nanotubes (cMWCNTs were used to design core of working electrode, having covalently immobilized ChO, ChE, and HRP. Polyacrylamide layer was finally coated on working electrode in order to prevent enzyme leaching. Chemically synthesised Au nanoparticles were subjected to transmission electron microscopy (TEM for analysing the shape and size of the particles. Working electrode was subjected to FTIR and XRD. The combined action of AuNP and c-MWCNT showed enhancement in electrocatalytic activity at a very low potential of 0.27 V. The pH 7, temperature 40°C, and response time of 20 seconds, respectively, were observed. The biosensor shows a broad linear range from 0.5 mg/dL to 250 mg/dL (0.01 mM–5.83 mM with minimum detection limit being 0.5 mg/dL (0.01 mM. The biosensor showed reusability of more than 45 times and was stable for 60 days. The biosensor was successfully tested for determining total cholesterol in serum samples amperometrically with no significant interference by serum components.

  18. Association between total serum cholesterol and suicide attempts in subjects with major depressive disorder: Exploring the role of clinical and biochemical confounding factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoli, Francesco; Crocamo, Cristina; Dakanalis, Antonios; Riboldi, Ilaria; Miotto, Alessio; Brosio, Enrico; Clerici, Massimo; Carrà, Giuseppe

    2017-04-01

    We tested whether serum total cholesterol levels might be associated with recent suicide attempts in subjects with major depressive disorder, after controlling for relevant individual characteristics. We conducted a comparative cross-sectional study including consecutive inpatients with major depressive disorder. We differentiated subjects admitted for a recent serious (violent or non-violent) suicide attempt and those without such recent history. Total cholesterol was measured from fasting blood tests. At univariate analyses, suicide attempters had levels of total cholesterol (174.0±45.7mg/dL) lower than non-attempters (193.9±42.6mg/dL) (p=0.004). This was confirmed among both violent (174.1±46.2mg/dL) and non-violent (173.8±46.1mg/dL) suicide attempters (p=0.035 and 0.016, respectively). However, logistic regression analyses, sequentially including demographic, clinical (comorbid alcohol and personality disorders), and biochemical factors, did not show any association between serum cholesterol and recent suicide attempts (p=0.172). Similar findings were observed in multinomial logistic regression analyses, for both violent (p=0.512) and non-violent (p=0.157) suicide attempts. Our findings do not support the hypothesis that serum cholesterol and suicide attempts are associated among subjects with major depressive disorder. The identification of valid and accessible biological markers of suicidal behaviors still represents a challenge for future research. Copyright © 2016 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Total HDL cholesterol efflux capacity in healthy children - Associations with adiposity and dietary intakes of mother and child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, H; Murrin, C; O'Reilly, M; Viljoen, K; Segurado, R; O'Brien, J; Somerville, R; McGillicuddy, F; Kelleher, C C

    2017-01-01

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol efflux capacity in adults may be a measure of the atheroprotective property of HDL. Little however, is known about HDL cholesterol efflux capacity in childhood. We aimed to investigate the relationship between HDL cholesterol efflux capacity and childhood anthropometrics in a longitudinal study. Seventy-five children (mean age = 9.4 ± 0.4 years) were followed from birth until the age of 9 years. HDL cholesterol efflux capacity was determined at age 9 by incubating serum-derived HDL-supernatants with (3)H-cholesterol labeled J774 macrophages and percentage efflux determined. Mothers provided dietary information by completing food frequency questionnaires in early pregnancy and then 5 years later on behalf of themselves and their children. Pearson's correlations and multiple regression analyses were conducted to confirm independent associations with HDL efflux. There was a negative correlation between HDL cholesterol efflux capacity and waist circumference at age 5 (r = -0.3, p = 0.01) and age 9 (r = -0.24, p = 0.04) and BMI at age 5 (r = -0.45, p = 0.01) and age 9 (r = -0.19, p = 0.1). Multiple regression analysis showed that BMI at age 5 remained significantly associated with reduced HDL cholesterol efflux capacity (r = -0.45, p HDL-C was negatively correlated with energy-adjusted fat intake (r = -0.24, p = 0.04) and positively correlated with energy-adjusted protein (r = 0.24, p = 0.04) and starch (r = 0.29, p = 0.01) intakes during pregnancy. HDL-C was not significantly correlated with children dietary intake at age 5. There were no significant correlations between maternal or children dietary intake and HDL cholesterol efflux capacity. This novel analysis shows that efflux capacity is negatively associated with adiposity in early childhood independent of HDL-C. Copyright © 2016 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian

  20. Struktur Mikroanatomi Hati dan Kadar Kolesterol Total Plasma Darah Tikus Putih Strain Wistar Pasca Suplementasi Minyak Lemuru dan Minyak Sawit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngudy Jaka Surasa

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Mengkonsumsi minyak lemuru dan minyak sawit secara terus menerus, diduga dapat menyebabkan kerusakan mikroanatomi hati. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui struktur mikroanatomi hati dan kadar kolesterol total plasma darah tikus putih strain Wistar paska suplementasi minyak lemuru dan minyak sawit. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian eksperimental, dengan rancangan acak lengkap. Penelitian menggunakan 25 ekor tikus usia ± 3 bulan. Masing-masing diberi minyak sawit dan minyak lemuru sebanyak 0%+0%, 5%+5%, 10%+10%, 15%+15%, dan 20%+20% secara per oral selama 28 hari. Data kadar kolesterol total plasma darah, berat badan tikus dan berat hati tikus dianalisis secara kuantitatif menggunakan ANAVA satu arah, dengan tingkat kesalahan 5%. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pemberian minyak sawit dan minyak lemuru bersifat toksik terhadap hati dan dapat menurunan kadar kolesterol total plasma darah. Sifat toksik minyak lemuru dan minyak sawit terhadap hati dapat dilihat dari adanya perubahan struktur mikroanatomi hati, makroskopis hati tikus, dan berat hati tikus. Kerusakan struktur mikroanatomi hati yang ditemukan berupa kerusakan sel hati (nekrosis hati serta melebarnya sinusoid. Kesimpulan penelitian ini adalah pemberian minyak sawit dan minyak lemuru mengakibatkan kerusakan mikroanatomi berupa nekrosis sel hati, sehingga mempengaruhi makroskopis hati (perubahan tekstur dan warna, berat hati, dan mempengaruhi berat badan tikus.Consuming lemuru oil and palm oil continuously could be expected to cause damage to the liver micro-anatomy. This study aimed to determine the micro-anatomy structure of liver and blood plasma total cholesterol level of white rats Wistar strain by post-oil supplementation of lemuru and palm oil. This research was experimental, with a completely randomized design. The research used 25 mice aged ± 3 months. Each was given a palm oil and lemuru oil as much as 0%+0%, 5%+5%, 10%+10%, 15%+15%, and 20%+20% orally for 28 days

  1. Colesterol total e fatores associados: estudo de base escolar no sul do Brasil Colesterol total y factores asociados: estudio de base escolar en el sur del Brasil Associated factors to total cholesterol: school based study in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauren Lúcia de Araújo Bergmann

    2011-07-01

    medidas de colesterol total, de aptitud cardiorrespiratoria, de masa corporal y estatura para el cálculo del índice de masa corporal. Para el tratamiento de los datos fueron utilizados los análisis univariado, bivariado y multivariado. RESULTADOS: El análisis multivariado identificó que individuos con nivel socioeconómico alto (OR: 1,70; IC: 1,05-2,75, del sexo femenino (OR: 1,32; IC: 1,03-1,67, y con exceso de peso (OR: 1,40; IC: 1,10-1,77 presentan posibilidades aumentadas de tener colesterol total aumentado (> 3º tercil. CONCLUSIÓN: Elevados niveles de colesterol total en escolares de 7 a 12 años están asociados a nivel socioeconómico alto, al sexo femenino y a exceso de peso. El incentivo a un estilo de vida activo y a hábitos alimenticios adecuados puede auxiliar en el control de los niveles de colesterol y disminuir los factores de riesgo.BACKGROUND: Evidence has suggested that a significant proportion of children and adolescents has high levels of total cholesterol. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia and associated factors in 07-12 year-old school children. METHODS: School based cross sectional study of a random sample of 1,294 07-12 year-old school children from Caxias do Sul/RS, Brazil. The students answered an interview with information on socioeconomic status, food habits, and physical and leisure activities. Total cholesterol, cardiorespiratory fitness, body mass and height were measured to calculate body mass index. For the data treatment, univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analyzes were used. RESULTS: The multivariate analysis identified that individuals from high socioeconomic level (OR: 1.70; CI: 1.05-2.75, of female gender (OR: 1.32; CI: 1.03-1.67, and overweight (OR: 1.40; IC: 1.10-1.77 had increased chances of having increased total cholesterol (> 3rd tercile. CONCLUSION: High total cholesterol levels on 07-12 year-old school children are associated with high socioeconomic level, female gender, and overweight

  2. TRH-receptor mobility and function in intact and cholesterol-depleted plasma membrane of HEK293 cells stably expressing TRH-R-eGFP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brejchová, Jana; Sýkora, Jan; Ostašov, Pavel; Merta, Ladislav; Roubalová, Lenka; Janáček, Jiří; Hof, Martin; Svoboda, Petr

    2015-03-01

    Here we investigated the effect of disruption of plasma membrane integrity by cholesterol depletion on thyrotropin-releasing hormone receptor (TRH-R) surface mobility in HEK293 cells stably expressing TRH-R-eGFP fusion protein (VTGP cells). Detailed analysis by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) in bleached spots of different sizes indicated that cholesterol depletion did not result in statistically significant alteration of mobile fraction of receptor molecules (Mf). The apparent diffusion coefficient (Dapp) was decreased, but this decrease was detectable only under the special conditions of screening and calculation of FRAP data. Analysis of mobility of receptor molecules by raster image correlation spectroscopy (RICS) did not indicate any significant difference between control and cholesterol-depleted cells. Results of our FRAP and RICS experiments may be collectively interpreted in terms of a "membrane fence" model which regards the plasma membrane of living cells as compartmentalized plane where lateral diffusion of membrane proteins is limited to restricted areas by cytoskeleton constraints. Hydrophobic interior of plasma membrane, studied by steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence anisotropy of hydrophobic membrane probe DPH, became substantially more "fluid" and chaotically organized in cholesterol-depleted cells. Decrease of cholesterol level impaired the functional coupling between the receptor and the cognate G proteins of Gq/G11 family. the presence of an unaltered level of cholesterol in the plasma membrane represents an obligatory condition for an optimum functioning of TRH-R signaling cascade. The decreased order and increased fluidity of hydrophobic membrane interior suggest an important role of this membrane area in TRH-R-Gq/G11α protein coupling. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The association of HDL cholesterol concentration with the-629C > A CETP promoter polymorphism is not fully explained by its relationship with plasma cholesteryl ester transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dullaart, R. P. F.; Borggreve, S. E.; Hillege, H. L.; Dallinga-Thie, G. M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective . HDL cholesterol is associated with the -629C>A cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) promoter polymorphism. This relationship may in part be explained via effects on plasma cholesteryl ester transfer (CET), which reflects the activity of CETP in the context of endogenous lipoproteins

  4. JTT-130, a microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP inhibitor lowers plasma triglycerides and LDL cholesterol concentrations without increasing hepatic triglycerides in guinea pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrestha Sudeep

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microsomal transfer protein inhibitors (MTPi have the potential to be used as a drug to lower plasma lipids, mainly plasma triglycerides (TG. However, studies with animal models have indicated that MTPi treatment results in the accumulation of hepatic TG. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether JTT-130, a unique MTPi, targeted to the intestine, would effectively reduce plasma lipids without inducing a fatty liver. Methods Male guinea pigs (n = 10 per group were used for this experiment. Initially all guinea pigs were fed a hypercholesterolemic diet containing 0.08 g/100 g dietary cholesterol for 3 wk. After this period, animals were randomly assigned to diets containing 0 (control, 0.0005 or 0.0015 g/100 g of MTPi for 4 wk. A diet containing 0.05 g/100 g of atorvastatin, an HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor was used as the positive control. At the end of the 7th week, guinea pigs were sacrificed to assess drug effects on plasma and hepatic lipids, composition of LDL and VLDL, hepatic cholesterol and lipoprotein metabolism. Results Plasma LDL cholesterol and TG were 25 and 30% lower in guinea pigs treated with MTPi compared to controls (P Conclusion These results suggest that JTT-130 could have potential clinical applications due to its plasma lipid lowering effects with no alterations in hepatic lipid concentrations.

  5. Stanol esters attenuate the aggravating effect of dietary cholesterol on atherosclerosis in homozygous Watanabe rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Malene; Husche, Constanze; Pilegaard, Kirsten

    2009-01-01

    Plant stanols are marketed as natural means to lower blood cholesterol in humans; hence the effect on combined familial hyperlipidemia is not known. The objective was to investigate the effect of stanol esters on blood lipids and aortic atherosclerosis in homozygous WHHL rabbits challenged...... with dietary cholesterol. A total of 36 rabbits, 6 weeks of age, with initial plasma cholesterol of 22.5 mmol/L were assigned to two treatment groups fed a standard rabbit chow with 1 g/kg cholesterol or this diet added 34 g/kg stanol ester, respectively, for 16 weeks. Plasma cholesterol was measured initially...... and at termination, also in lipoproteins. Aortic atherosclerosis was evaluated as cholesterol content and area covered by plaque. Plasma cholesterol was not significantly different between the groups at termination (35.7 mmol/L vs. 35.5 mmol/L). A significant increase in LDL was seen (13.1 mmol/L vs. 16.5 mmol...

  6. Antihyperlipidemic effect of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) protein isolate in rats fed a normal and high cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Arundhati; Dhar, Pubali; Ghosh, Santinath

    2010-01-01

    The dietary influence of sesame protein isolate (protein content 91.5%), produced from dehulled, defatted sesame meal, on blood and tissue lipid profile and lipid peroxidation has been assessed in normal and hypercholesterolemic rats. To evaluate their hypocholesterolemic and antioxidative activity in vivo, we fed 18% sesame protein isolate with or without 2% cholesterol in comparison with casein to rats for 28 d. We determined plasma total protein, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, triacylglycerol as well as susceptibility of plasma and erythrocyte membrane lipid to oxidation ex vivo. Liver tissue lipid, cholesterol, phospholipids, and lipid peroxidations were also determined. The total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels were significantly reduced in the sesame protein isolate and isolate containing cholesterol group than the corresponding control casein groups. HDL-cholesterol level was also increased in sesame protein isolate (41%) and protein isolate containing cholesterol group (38%) than the corresponding control casein and casein containing cholesterol groups. There was 49% and 64% lowering of plasma lipid peroxidation as well as 36% and 56% lowering of lipoprotein oxidation susceptibility (LOS) in the 2 experimental groups (sesame protein isolate and isolate containing cholesterol group) than the corresponding control (casein and casein containing cholesterol) groups. There was significant lowering of erythrocyte membrane lipid peroxidation (68% and 63% lowering in sesame protein isolate and isolate containing cholesterol groups) and liver lipid peroxidation (61% and 76% lowering in the 2 experimental groups than the corresponding control casein groups). Therefore, our results indicate that sesame protein isolate decreases cholesterol concentration in plasma, increases HDL-cholesterol, and also decreases plasma and erythrocyte membrane lipid peroxidation with or

  7. What's Cholesterol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... los dientes Video: Getting an X-ray What's Cholesterol? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's Cholesterol? Print A A ... thing for food to be low in it? Cholesterol and Your Body Cholesterol (say: kuh-LES-tuh- ...

  8. What's Cholesterol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? What's Cholesterol? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's Cholesterol? A A A ... thing for food to be low in it? Cholesterol and Your Body Cholesterol (say: kuh-LES-tuh- ...

  9. Plasma protein oxidation and total antioxidant power in premenstrual syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eans Tara Tuladhar; Anjali Rao

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To explore whether oxidative stress has any role inpremenstrual syndrome (PMS). Methods: Female volunteers suffering from PMS , in the age group of 20-24 years were compared to their asymptomatic normomennorhoeic counterparts in follicular phase and late luteal phase for ferric reducing antioxidant power of plasma(FRAP), plasma protein thiols(PPT) and protein carbonyls(PPC) levels.Results:There was no significant change in FRAP and PPC levels in controls andPMS groups but PPT decreased significantly in luteal phase ofPMS (P< 0.05) when compared to follicular phase.Conclusions:Estrogen and progesterone, might be responsible for a healthy antioxidant profile inPMS. However, a marked decrease inPPT in luteal phase of PMS group may be due to pro-oxidant nature of estrogen-active in this phase of PMS leading to consumption of the sacrificial antioxidant-protein thiol.

  10. Effect of plant extract of Tribulus terrestris and probiotics on the reproductive performance, total cholesterol and testosterone hormone levels of rams

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to compare between the effects of tribulus terrestris extract and probiotics on scrotal circumference, testicular volume, reaction time, semen characteristics, serum total cholesterol and testosterone hormone levels of rams. The study was carried out from February to July 2013 on eight sexually mature Rahmani rams. The eight rams were used as control group for one month before treatment (weekly assessment for all the parameters). Rams were divided into two...

  11. Effect of Atorvastatin on Serum Levels of Total Cholesterol and High-Sensitivity C-reactive Protein in High-Risk Patients with Atrial Fibrillation in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ming Yu; Xue, Feng Hua; Teng, Shi Chao; Jiang, Li; Zhu, Jing; Yin, Feng; Gu, Hong Yue

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this meta-analysis was to investigate the effects of atorvastatin on serum levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and total cholesterol in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients in Asia. By searching English and Chinese language-based electronic databases (ie, PubMed, EBSCO, Ovid, SpringerLink, Wiley, Web of Science, Wanfang database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and VIP database), we identified 13 studies relevant to our topic of interest. Data were collected from the 13 studies and analyzed with Comprehensive Meta-Analysis software (version 2.0, Biostat Inc., Englewood, New Jersey). Initially, our database searches retrieved 356 studies (45 in English, 311 in Chinese). Thirteen studies were selected for the meta-analysis following stringent criteria. The data included 1239 patients with AF, of whom 634 were treated with atorvastatin and included in the treatment group, and 605 patients were treated with conventional treatment and included in the control group. The results of our meta-analysis suggested that the serum levels of hs-CRP (mg/L) and total cholesterol (mmol/L) in the treatment group were significantly lower than those of the control group (hs-CRP: standardized mean difference = 0.962; 95% CI, 0.629-1.295, P < 0.001; total cholesterol: standardized mean difference = 1.400; 95% CI, 0.653-2.146, P < 0.001). The findings of this study suggest that atorvastatin may be very effective in decreasing serum levels of hs-CRP and total cholesterol to prevent cardiovascular events. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Oriented immobilized anti-LDL antibody carrying poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate) cryogel for cholesterol removal from human plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bereli, Nilay [Department of Chemistry, Hacettepe University, Beytepe, Ankara (Turkey); Sener, Guelsu [Nanotechnology and Nanomedicine Division, Hacettepe University, Ankara (Turkey); Yavuz, Handan, E-mail: handany@hacettepe.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Hacettepe University, Beytepe, Ankara (Turkey); Denizli, Adil [Department of Chemistry, Hacettepe University, Beytepe, Ankara (Turkey)

    2011-07-20

    Low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol is a major ingredient of the plaque that collects in the coronary arteries and causes coronary heart diseases. Among the methods used for the extracorporeal elimination of LDL from intravasal volume, immunoaffinity technique using anti-LDL antibody as a ligand offers superior selectivity and specificity. Proper orientation of the immobilized antibody is the main issue in immunoaffinity techniques. In this study, anti-human {beta}-lipoprotein antibody (anti-LDL antibody) molecules were immobilized and oriented through protein A onto poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) cryogel in order to remove LDL from hypercholesterolemic human plasma. PHEMA cryogel was prepared by free radical polymerization initiated with N,N,N',N'-tetramethylene diamine (TEMED). PHEMA cryogel with a swelling degree of 8.89 g H{sub 2}O/g and 67% macro-porosity was characterized by swelling studies, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and blood compatibility tests. All the clotting times were increased when compared with control plasma. The maximum immobilized anti-LDL antibody amount was 63.2 mg/g in the case of random antibody immobilization and 19.6 mg/g in the case of oriented antibody immobilization (protein A loading was 57.0 mg/g). Random and oriented anti-LDL antibody immobilized PHEMA cryogels adsorbed 111 and 129 mg LDL/g cryogel from hypercholesterolemic human plasma, respectively. Up to 80% of the adsorbed LDL was desorbed. The adsorption-desorption cycle was repeated 6 times using the same cryogel. There was no significant loss of LDL adsorption capacity. - Research highlights: {yields} LDL cholesterol is a risk factor in the development of coronary heart diseases. {yields} Antibodies against LDL are used for the selective extracorporeal removal of LDL. {yields} Protein A is used for the oriented immobilization of anti LDL onto PHEMA cryogel. {yields} PHEMA cryogels are biocompatible, exhibit a low pressure drop, lack diffusion

  13. Uric Acid or 1-Methyl Uric Acid in the Urinary Bladder Increases Serum Glucose, Insulin, True Triglyceride, and Total Cholesterol Levels in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Balasubramanian

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In animals deprived of food for a long period, a drop in the fat mass below 5% of the total body mass results in an increase in blood glucocorticoids and uric acid levels, followed by foraging activity. Since the glucocorticoids increase the uric acid excretion, an increase in the level of uric acid in the bladder urine could be the signal for this feeding behaviour and subsequent fat storage. Accumulation of fat is associated with hyperglycaemia, hyperinsulinaemia, hyperlipidaemia, and hypercholesterolaemia as seen in the metabolic syndrome or hibernation. It is hypothesized that uric acid or its structurally related compound, 1-methyl uric acid (one of the metabolites of the methyl xanthines namely caffeine, theophylline, and theobromine present in coffee, tea, cocoa, and some drugs, can act on the urinary bladder mucosa and increases the blood glucose, insulin, triglyceride, and cholesterol levels. In rats, perfusion of the urinary bladder with saturated aqueous solution of uric acid or 1-methyl uric acid results in a significant increase in the serum levels of glucose, insulin, true triglyceride, and total cholesterol in comparison with perfusion of the bladder with distilled water at 20, 40, and 80 min. The uric acid or the 1-methyl uric acid acts on the urinary bladder mucosa and increases the serum glucose, insulin, true triglyceride, and total cholesterol levels.

  14. Molecular mechanisms of protein-cholesterol interactions in plasma membranes: Functional distinction between topological (tilted) and consensus (CARC/CRAC) domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantini, Jacques; Di Scala, Coralie; Baier, Carlos J; Barrantes, Francisco J

    2016-09-01

    The molecular mechanisms that control the multiple possible modes of protein association with membrane cholesterol are remarkably convergent. These mechanisms, which include hydrogen bonding, CH-π stacking and dispersion forces, are used by a wide variety of extracellular proteins (e.g. microbial or amyloid) and membrane receptors. Virus fusion peptides penetrate the membrane of host cells with a tilted orientation that is compatible with a transient interaction with cholesterol; this tilted orientation is also characteristic of the process of insertion of amyloid proteins that subsequently form oligomeric pores in the plasma membrane of brain cells. Membrane receptors that are associated with cholesterol generally display linear consensus binding motifs (CARC and CRAC) characterized by a triad of basic (Lys/Arg), aromatic (Tyr/phe) and aliphatic (Leu/Val) amino acid residues. In some cases, the presence of both CARC and CRAC within the same membrane-spanning domain allows the simultaneous binding of two cholesterol molecules, one in each membrane leaflet. In this review the molecular basis and the functional significance of the different modes of protein-cholesterol interactions in plasma membranes are discussed.

  15. Modulation of the intestinal microbiota is associated with lower plasma cholesterol and weight gain in hamsters fed chardonnay grape seed flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunsook; Kim, Dong-Hyeon; Seo, Kun-Ho; Chon, Jung-Whan; Nah, Seung-Yeol; Bartley, Glenn E; Arvik, Torey; Lipson, Rebecca; Yokoyama, Wallace

    2015-02-11

    The relationship between the intestinal microbiota and the hypocholesterolemic and antiobesity effects of whole grape seed flour from white and red winemaking was evaluated. Male Golden Syrian hamsters were fed a high-fat (HF) control diet or a HF diet supplemented with 10% partially defatted grape seed flours from either Chardonnay (ChrSd) or Cabernet Sauvignon (CabSd) grapes for 3 weeks. The numbers of total bacteria and relative abundances of Bifidobacterium spp., Lactobacillus spp., and Firmicutes in feces were significantly lower, while the relative abundance of Bacteroides fragilis was greater than the control from feeding the ChrSd diet. The ratio of Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes (F/B) was lower in the ChrSd diet. There were significantly positive correlations between Lactobacillus spp., ratio of F/B, and plasma total- and LDL-cholesterol and liver weight. The reduction of Lactobacillus spp. by the ChrSd diet was accompanied by inhibition of Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) signaling in the intestine as expression of intestinal fibrablast growth factor (FGF)15, positively regulated by FXR, was decreased. Expression of CYP7A1, negatively regulated by FGF15, was up-regulated in the liver, which indicates that alteration of the intestinal microbiota may regulate bile acid and lipid metabolism. These findings suggest that beneficial health effects of Chardonnay grape seed flour on HF-induced metabolic disease relate in part to modulation of intestinal microbiota and their metabolic processes.

  16. Strength of family history in predicting levels of blood pressure, plasma glucose and cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandeler, G; Paccaud, F; Vollenweider, P; Waeber, G; Mooser, V; Bochud, M

    2010-01-01

    Limited information is available on the quantitative relationship between family history and the corresponding underlying traits. We analyzed these associations for blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, and cholesterol levels. Data were obtained from 6,102 Caucasian participants (2,903 men and 3,199 women) aged 35-75 years using a population-based cross-sectional survey in Switzerland. Cardiovascular disease risk factors were measured, and the corresponding family history was self-reported using a structured questionnaire. The prevalence of a positive family history (in first-degree relatives) was 39.6% for hypertension, 22.3% for diabetes, and 29.0% for hypercholesterolemia. Family history was not known for at least one family member in 41.8% of participants for hypertension, 14.4% for diabetes, and 50.2% for hypercholesterolemia. A positive family history was strongly associated with higher levels of the corresponding trait, but not with the other traits. Participants who reported not to know their family history of hypertension had a higher systolic blood pressure than participants with a negative history. Sibling histories had higher positive predictive values than parental histories. The ability to discriminate, calibrate, and reclassify was best for the family history of hypertension. Family history of hypertension, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia was strongly associated with the corresponding dichotomized and continuous phenotypes. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. PLATELET RICH PLASMA (PRP APPLICATION IN TOTAL KNEE ARTHROPLASTY (TKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pencho Kosev

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To find out the PRP application effects in TKA on pain syndrome, wound healing, postoperative blood loss, range of motion and the knee circumference (centimetry. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The preparation of the platelet-rich plasma is based on our treatment algorithm. 20 patients have been subject to TKA within the period from October 2012 to November 2014 and underwent TKA, as platelet rich plasma was used intraoperatively. The average patient age is 72,3; 9 male and 11 female patients. Control group consisted of 17 patients, who underwent surgery in the same period but no platelet rich plasma was used during surgery. Average patient age 73,1; 8 male and 9 female patients. RESULTS: The following results have been reported for the PRP group of patients: the average amount of blood in the aspiration drainage tube in 24 hours - 285 ml.; postoperative pain on the 1st postoperative day was - 7 p., on the 5th day - 5 p., on the 10th day - 2 p., average circumference (centimetry of the knee between the 1st and the 10th postoperative day decreased on average by 1,5-2 cm., range of motion – reported average degrees per patient on the 1st postoperative day in sagittal plane: 0-10-20 degrees; on the 10th postoperative day: 0-0-55 degrees, surgical wounds of all patients healed primarily without any complications. No PRP group: average amount of blood in the aspiration drainage in 24 hours – 300 pl., postoperative pain on the 1st, 5th , and 10th postoperative day - 8 p., on the 5th day - 6 p., on the 10th day - 3 p., average knee circumference (centimetry between 1 and 10 postoperative day has decreased by 1 cm on average, range of motion - reported average degrees per patient on the 1st postoperative day in sagittal plane 0-5-20 degrees, on the 10th: 0-0-50 degrees, surgical wounds healed primarily without any complications in 10 patients, but in 7 patients we observed superficial wound edge skin necrosis. CONCLUSION: Our results unequivocally

  18. Comparison of Apolipoprotein (apoB/apoA-I) and Lipoprotein (Total Cholesterol/HDL) Ratio Determinants. Focus on Obesity, Diet and Alcohol Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tognon, Gianluca; Berg, Christina; Mehlig, Kirsten; Thelle, Dag; Strandhagen, Elisabeth; Gustavsson, Jaana; Rosengren, Annika; Lissner, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    The ratio between apolipoprotein B and apolipoprotein A-I (apoB/apoA-I) has been suggested to be a powerful and more accurate predictor of future cardiovascular disease risk than total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol. Since diet and lifestyle can directly influence dyslipidemia, it is of interest to identify modifiable factors that are associated with high levels of the apolipoprotein ratio and if they can have a different association with a more traditional indicator of cardiovascular risk such as total cholesterol/HDL. The relationship between obesity and dyslipidemia is established and it is of interest to determine which factors can modify this association. This study investigated the cross-sectional association of obesity, diet and lifestyle factors with apoB/apoA-I and total cholesterol/HDL respectively, in a Swedish population of 2,907 subjects (1,537 women) as part of the INTERGENE study. The apolipoprotein and lipoprotein ratios were highly correlated, particularly in women, and obesity was strongly associated with both. Additionally, age, cigarette smoking and alcohol intake were important determinants of these ratios. Alcohol was the only dietary factor that appreciably attenuated the association between obesity and each of the ratios, with a stronger attenuation in women. Other dietary intake and lifestyle-related factors such as smoking status and physical activity had a lower effect on this association. Because the apolipoprotein and lipoprotein ratios share similar diet and lifestyle determinants as well as being highly correlated, we conclude that either of these ratios may be a sufficient indicator of dyslipidemia. PMID:22848405

  19. Cholesterol-lowering activity of soy-derived glyceollins in the golden Syrian hamster model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Haiqiu; Xie, Zhuohong; Boue, Stephen M; Bhatnagar, Deepak; Yokoyama, Wallace; Yu, Liangli Lucy; Wang, Thomas T Y

    2013-06-19

    Hypercholesterolemia is one of the major factors contributing to the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), which is the leading cause of death in developed countries. Consumption of soy foods has been recognized to lower the risk of CVD, and phytochemicals in soy are believed to contribute to the health benefits. Glyceollin is one of the candidate phytochemicals synthesized in stressed soy that may account for many unique biological activities. In this study, the in vivo cholesterol-lowering effect of glyceollins was investigated. Male golden Syrian hamsters were fed diets including (1) 36 kcal% fat diet, (2) 36 kcal% fat diet containing 250 mg/kg diet glyceollins, or (3) chow for 28 days. Hepatic cholesterol esters and free cholesterol, hepatic total lipid content, plasma lipoproteins, fecal bile acid, fecal total cholesterol, and cholesterol metabolism related gene expressions were measured. Glyceollin supplementation led to significant reduction of plasma VLDL, hepatic cholesterol esters, and total lipid content. Consistent with changes in circulating cholesterol, glyceollin supplementation also altered expression of the genes related to cholesterol metabolism in the liver. In contrast, no change in plasma LDL and HDL, fecal bile acid, or cholesterol content was observed. The cholesterol-lowering effect of glyceollins appeared not to go through the increase of bile excretion. These results supported glyceollins' role as novel soy-derived cholesterol-lowering phytochemicals that may contribute to soy's health effects.

  20. Nonfasting cholesterol and triglycerides and association with risk of myocardial infarction and total mortality: the Copenhagen City Heart Study with 31 years of follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langsted, A; Freiberg, J J; Tybjaerg-Hansen, A

    2011-01-01

    and total mortality: the Copenhagen City Heart Study with 31 years of follow-up. J Intern Med 2010; doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2796.2010.02333.x. Objectives. We compared the ability of very high levels of nonfasting cholesterol and triglycerides to predict risk of myocardial infarction and total mortality. Design....... Prospective study from 1976 to 1978 until 2007. Setting. Danish general population. Participants. Randomly selected population of 7581 women and 6391 men, of whom 768 and 1151 developed myocardial infarction and 4398 and 4416 died, respectively. Participation rate was 72%, and follow-up was 100% complete...

  1. Effect of sulfite treatment on total antioxidant capacity, total oxidant status, lipid hydroperoxide, and total free sulfydryl groups contents in normal and sulfite oxidase-deficient rat plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herken, Emine Nur; Kocamaz, Erdogan; Erel, Ozcan; Celik, Hakim; Kucukatay, Vural

    2009-08-01

    Sulfites, which are commonly used as preservatives, are continuously formed in the body during the metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids. Sulfite oxidase (SOX) is an essential enzyme in the pathway of the oxidative degradation of sulfite to sulfate protecting cells from sulfite toxicity. This article investigated the effect of sulfite on total antioxidant capacity (TAC), total oxidant status, lipid hydroperoxide (LOOH), and total free sulfydryl groups (-SH) levels in normal and SOX-deficient male albino rat plasma. For this purpose, rats were divided into four groups: control, sulfite-treated, SOX-deficient, and sulfite-treated SOX-deficient groups. SOX deficiency was established by feeding rats a low molybdenum diet and adding to their drinking water 200 ppm tungsten. Sulfite (70 mg/kg) was administered to the animals via their drinking water. SOX deficiency together with sulfite treatment caused a significant increase in the plasma LOOH and total oxidant status levels. -SH content of rat plasma significantly decreased by both sulfite treatment and SOX deficiency compared to the control. There was also a significant decrease in plasma TAC level by sulfite treatment. In conclusion, sulfite treatment affects the antioxidant/oxidant balance of the plasma cells of the rats toward oxidants in SOX-deficient groups.

  2. Pretreatment direct bilirubin and total cholesterol are significant predictors of overall survival in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer patients with EGFR mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanwei; Xu, Jianlin; Lou, Yuqing; Hu, Song; Yu, Keke; Li, Rong; Zhang, Xueyan; Jin, Bo; Han, Baohui

    2017-04-01

    This study was designed to examine the prediction of pretreatment circulating bilirubin and cholesterol for overall survival in 459 advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations. Circulating total bilirubin, direct bilirubin (DB), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were measured at baseline. The mean age (standard deviation) of all study patients was 58.7 (10.5) years, and 42.9% of them was males. Ever smokers accounted for 27.0% and lung adenocarcinoma for 90.4%. The median follow-up time and survival time were 29.5 and 34.9 months, respectively. Patients with higher DB had a 1.68-fold increased risk of death compared with patients with lower DB (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.68, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.22-2.30, p = 0.001), while patients with higher TC were at a 63% reduced risk of death compared with patients with lower TC (HR = 0.37, 95% CI: 0.20-0.67, p = 0.001). As for HDL-C, patients with higher levels had the risk of death reduced by 46% (HR = 0.54, 95% CI: 0.29-1.00, p = 0.049) compared with patients with lower levels. After the Bonferroni correction, only DB and TC were significantly associated with NSCLC survival. Our findings demonstrate for the first time that pretreatment DB was identified as a significant risk factor, yet TC as a protective factor, for overall survival in NSCLC patients with EGFR mutations. © 2016 UICC.

  3. Cholesterol, bile acid and triglyceride metabolism intertwined

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schonewille, Marleen

    2016-01-01

    Hyperlipidemie wordt gekarakteriseerd door verhoogd plasma cholesterol en/of triglyceriden en sterk geassocieerd met het risico op cardiovasculaire aandoeningen. Dit proefschrift beschrijft onderzoek naar de regulatie van plasma cholesterol en triglyceriden concentraties en de achterliggende mechani

  4. Higher Dietary Intake of Vitamin D May Influence Total Cholesterol and Carbohydrate Profile Independent of Body Composition in Men with Chronic Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beal, Christopher; Gorgey, Ashraf; Moore, Pamela; Wong, Nathan; Adler, Robert A; Gater, David

    2017-08-16

    A case-control design. To determine the effects of dietary vitamin D intake on insulin sensitivity (Si), glucose effectiveness (Sg), and lipid profile in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). 20 male, paraplegic (T3-L1) with chronic (> one year) motor complete SCI (AIS A or B) were recruited. Three-day dietary records were analyzed for dietary vitamin D (calciferol), and participants were assigned to one of two groups, a high vitamin D intake group and a low vitamin D intake group based on the mid-point of vitamin D frequency distribution. Individuals in both groups were matched based on age, weight, time since injury and level of injury. Sg, Si and lipid profiles were measured of the two groups. The high vitamin D group had an average intake of 5.33 ± 4.14 mcg compared to low vitamin D group, 0.74 ± 0.24 mcg. None of the 20 participants met the recommended guidelines for daily vitamin D intake. The higher vitamin D group had a significantly lower (P = 0.035) total cholesterol (148.00 ± 14.12 mg/dl) than the lower vitamin D group (171.80 ± 36.22 mg/dl). Vitamin D adjusted to total dietary intake was positively correlated to improvement in Si and Sg (PD intake. However, a higher dietary intake of vitamin D may influence total cholesterol and carbohydrate profile as demonstrated by a significant decrease in total cholesterol and improvement in glucose homeostasis independent of body composition changes after SCI.

  5. Use of the plasma triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio to identify cardiovascular disease in hypertensive subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Martin R; Carbajal, Horacio A; Espeche, Walter G; Aizpurúa, Marcelo; Leiva Sisnieguez, Carlos E; Leiva Sisnieguez, Betty C; March, Carlos E; Stavile, Rodolfo N; Balbín, Eduardo; Reaven, Gerald M

    2014-10-01

    This analysis evaluated the hypothesis that the plasma triglyceride (TG)/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration ratio can help identify patients with essential hypertension who are insulin-resistant, with the cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk profile associated with that defect. Data from a community-based study developed between 2003 and 2012 were used to compare CVD risk factors and outcome. Plasma TG/HDL-C cut-points of 2.5 (women) and 3.5 (men) subdivided normotensive (n = 574) and hypertensive (n = 373) subjects into "high" and "low" risk groups. Metabolic syndrome criteria (MetS) were also used to identify "high" and "low" risk groups. The baseline cardio-metabolic profile was significantly more adverse in 2003 in "high" risk subgroups, irrespective of BP classification or definition of risk (TG/HDL-C ratio vs. MetS criteria). Crude incidence of combined CVD events increased across risk groups, ranging from 1.9 in normotensive-low TG/HDL-C subjects to 19.9 in hypertensive-high TG/HDL-C ratio individuals (P for trends <.001). Adjusted hazard ratios for CVD events also increased with both hypertension and TG/HDL-C. Comparable findings were seen when CVD outcome was predicted by MetS criteria. The TG/HDL-C concentration ratio and the MetS criteria identify to a comparable degree hypertensive subjects who are at greatest cardio-metabolic risk and develop significantly more CVD.

  6. High-density cholesterol and apolipoprotein AI as modifiers of plasma fibrin clot properties in apparently healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ząbczyk, Michał; Hońdo, Łukasz; Krzek, Marzena; Undas, Anetta

    2013-01-01

    Low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) increases cardiovascular risk, whereas its high levels protect against atherosclerosis via multiple beneficial effects. Dense and poorly lysable fibrin clot formation is observed in cardiovascular disease. We sought to investigate whether HDL-C and its major component apolipoprotein A (Apo A)-I affect fibrin clot properties. In 136 apparently healthy individuals (99 men, 37 women, aged 49-69 years) we determined plasma fibrin clot permeability (Ks coefficient) and lysis time (t50%) together with Apo A-I and lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] levels. The median HDL-C level was 1.33  mmol/l (range from 0.77 to 2.19  mmol/l). HDL-C was positively associated with Apo A-I (r = 0.62, P Ks (r = 0.52, P Ks and t50% were associated with Lp(a) (r = -0.42, P Ks (P = 0.00016) and 17% shorter t50% (P = 0.0012) than the remainder. After adjustment for age, fibrinogen, and Lp(a), HDL-C was the independent predictor of Ks (β = 0.7, P < 0.00001) and t50% (β = -0.62, P < 0.00001). This study shows that elevated HDL-C levels are associated with improved fibrin clot permeability and lysis, indicating a novel antithrombotic mechanism underlying the postulated beneficial effects of therapy targeted at HDL-C.

  7. Anthocyanin-Rich Juice Lowers Serum Cholesterol, Leptin, and Resistin and Improves Plasma Fatty Acid Composition in Fischer Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Graf

    Full Text Available Obesity and obesity-associated diseases e.g. cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes are spread worldwide. Anthocyanins are supposed to have health-promoting properties, although convincing evidence is lacking. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of anthocyanins on several risk factors for obesity-associated diseases. Therefore, Fischer rats were fed anthocyanin-rich grape-bilberry juice or an anthocyanin-depleted control juice for 10 weeks. Intervention with anthocyanin-rich grape-bilberry juice reduced serum cholesterol and tended to decrease serum triglycerides. No effects were seen for serum non-esterified fatty acids, glucose, and insulin. Anthocyanin-rich grape-bilberry juice intervention reduced serum leptin and resistin, but showed no influence on serum adiponectin and secretion of adipokines from mesenteric adipose tissue. Furthermore, anthocyanin-rich grape-bilberry juice increased the proportion of polyunsaturated fatty acids and decreased the amount of saturated fatty acids in plasma. These results indicate that anthocyanins possess a preventive potential for obesity-associated diseases.

  8. Effect of extracorporeal ultraviolet blood irradiation on blood cholesterol level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalesskaya, G. A.; Laskina, O. V.; Mitkovskaya, N. P.; Kirkovsky, V. V.

    2012-07-01

    We have studied the effect of extracorporeal ultraviolet blood irradiation on cholesterol metabolism in patients with cardiovascular diseases. We have carried out a comprehensive analysis of the spectral characteristics of blood and plasma, gas-exchange and oximetry parameters, and the results of a complete blood count and chemistry panel before and after UV blood irradiation. We have assessed the changes in concentrations of cholesterols (total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, triglycerides) in the blood of the patients in response to a five-day course of UV blood irradiation. The changes in the spectral characteristics of blood and plasma, the chemistry panel, the gas composition, and the fractional hemoglobin composition initiated by absorption of UV radiation are used to discuss the molecular mechanisms for the effect of therapeutic doses of UV radiation on blood cholesterols.

  9. 血清总胆固醇与高密度脂蛋白胆固醇比值作为冠心病危险标志的意义%Significance of serum total cholesterol to high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio as a risk marker for coronary heart disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李璐; 纪玲

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析冠心病(CHD)患者的血脂水平,探讨血清总胆固醇(TC)与高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(HDL‐C)比值作为CHD危险标志的临床意义。方法测定295例CHD患者的血清 TC、三酰甘油(TG)、HDL‐C及低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(LDL‐C)水平,并计算TC/HDL‐C比值。结果依据《中国成人血脂异常防治指南》颁布的血脂水平合适范围,CHD患者血清 TC、TG及LDL‐C高于合适范围百分率分别为32.20%、34.24%及37.63%,血清 HDL‐C低于合适范围百分率为39.32%。血清TC/HDL‐C比值高于合适范围百分率为57.29%。血清TC/HDL‐C比值异常率显著高于血清TC、TG、HDL‐C及LDL‐C(χ2=37.540、31.576、19.066、22.866,P<0.01)。结论与任一单项血脂检测相比,血清 TC/HDL‐C比值作为CHD危险标志可能更有临床意义,临床血脂检测报告单应增加TC/HDL‐C比值。%Objective To analyze blood lipid levels in patients with coronary heart disease ,and to explore clinical significance of serum total cholesterol to high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio as a risk marker for coronary heart disease .Methods Serum lev‐els of total cholesterol ,triglycerides ,high density lipoprotein cholesterol ,and low density lipoprotein cholesterol were measured for 295 patients with coronary heart disease .Ratio of total cholesterol to high density lipoprotein cholesterol was calculated based on the lipid tests .Results The percentages of abnormal total cholesterol ,triglycerides ,high density lipoprotein cholesterol ,and low density lipoprotein cholesterol were 32 .20% 、34 .24% ,39 .32% ,and 37 .63% ,respectively ,for patients with coronary heart disease according to normal ranges issued by Guidelines on Prevention and Treatment of Dyslipidemia in Adults in Chinese Population .The abnormal percentage of total cholesterol to high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio was 57 .29% .The

  10. The Effect of EDTA and Garlic Extract Combination on Plasma Lipids, Lipoporteins, and Fatty Streaks in Cholesterol Fed Male Rabbit Aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M R Sharifi

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Garlic extract is used in treatment of hypercholesterolemia, although its efficacy isn’t exactly clear. There is a little information about mechanism of garlic effect on plasma lipids. By intervention of garlic in atherogenesis process it has been shown that it has a protective effect against cardiovascular disease. On the other hand, it has been shown that EDTA (Ethylene Diamin Tetra Acetic Acid improves blood flow and decreases the vascular atherosclerotic symptoms. Methods: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of EDTA and garlic extract with together on plasma concentration of cholesterol, Triglyceride, LDL, and HDL, and formation of fatty streaks through the phenomena called “chelation therapy” in male Rabbit aorta. 32 male Rabbits were used and divided to 4 groups as group 1: cholesterol – rich diet (CRD + EDTA + Garlic Extract (GE, group 2: CRD + EDTA, Group 3: CRD + GE, Group 4: CRD (control group. The animals were under food and drug diet for 5 weeks. Blood samples of Rabbits were taken before and after the test and then plasma cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL and HDL were measured. Finally, abdominal aorta was studied and pathologically evaluated. Results: The experiments showed the significant decrease of mean cholesterol in case groups and mean triglyceride in the groups which have received EDTA + GE and EDTA. Our results showed that mean LDL and LDL/HDL Ratio in case groups have been decreased in comparison to control group. In addition, there was a significant increase in mean HDL in the group which has received EDTA + GE. Conclusion: In this study it was shown that the using of fresh garlic and EDTA with together has a reductive effect on cholesterol, Triglyceride, and LDL concentration and also has an increasing effect on HDL concentration. But it seems that concomitant using of these tow substances with together strengthen the effect of each one, and it produces a great reduction of the blood

  11. Self-Reported Snoring Is Associated with Dyslipidemia, High Total Cholesterol, and High Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol in Obesity: A Cross-Sectional Study from a Rural Area of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Naijin; Chen, Yintao; Chen, Shuang; Jia, Pengyu; Guo, Xiaofan; Sun, Guozhe; Sun, Yingxian

    2017-01-17

    Studies to explore the relationship between self-reported snoring and dyslipidemia, especially high total cholesterol (TC) and high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), in the general population are still lacking. Our study was designed to examine whether self-reported snoring is significantly associated with dyslipidemia and ascertain the effects of different snoring intensities on dyslipidemia. There were 10,139 participants in our study. After adjustment for all confounding factors, self-reported snoring (OR = 1.207; p = 0.003), moderate (OR = 1.229; p = 0.015), strong (OR = 1.222; p = 0.033), and very strong (OR = 1.467; p = 0.012) snoring intensity, but not low (OR = 1.110; p = 0.224) snoring intensity, were significantly associated with dyslipidemia among adults with BMI (body mass index) ≥ 25 kg/m². In addition, self-reported snoring was significantly associated with high TC (OR = 1.167; p = 0.048) and high LDL-C (OR = 1.228; p = 0.044), rather than low HDL-C (OR = 1.171; p = 0.057) and high triglyceride (TG) (OR = 1.110; p = 0.141). In conclusion, adults with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m² and who experience snoring, especially moderate, strong, and very strong intensity levels of snoring, should be on the alert regarding the possibility of dyslipidemia, especially high LDL-C and high TC.

  12. The cholesterol lowering property of coriander seeds (Coriandrum sativum): mechanism of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanapakiam, P; Joseph, J Mini; Ramaswamy, V K; Moorthi, M; Kumar, A Senthil

    2008-01-01

    Coriandrum sativum (Coriander) has been documented as a traditional treatment for cholesterol and diabetes patients. In the present study, coriander seeds incorporated into diet and the effect of the administration of coriander seeds on the metabolism of lipids was studied in rats, fed with high fat diet and added cholesterol. The seeds had a significant hypolipidemic action. In the experimental group of rats (tissue) the level of total cholesterol and triglycerides increased significantly There was significant increase in beta-hydroxy, beta-methyl glutaryl CoA reductase and plasma lecithin cholesterol acyl transferase activity were noted in the experimental group. The level of low density lipoprotein (LDL) + very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol decreased while that of high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol increased in the experimental group compared to the control group. The increased activity of plasma LCAT enhanced degradation of cholesterol to fecal bile acids and neutral sterols appeared to account for its hypocholesterolemic effect.

  13. About Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More About Cholesterol Updated:Apr 3,2017 It may surprise you ... our bodies to keep us healthy. What is cholesterol and where does it come from? Cholesterol is ...

  14. Cholesterol Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/cholesterollevels.html Cholesterol Levels To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is a Cholesterol Test? Cholesterol is a waxy, fat-like substance ...

  15. Camphene, a Plant-Derived Monoterpene, Reduces Plasma Cholesterol and Triglycerides in Hyperlipidemic Rats Independently of HMG-CoA Reductase Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallianou, Ioanna; Peroulis, Nikolaos; Pantazis, Panayotis; Hadzopoulou-Cladaras, Margarita

    2011-01-01

    Background Central to the pathology of coronary heart disease is the accumulation of lipids, cholesterol and triglycerides, within the intima of arterial blood vessels. The search for drugs to treat dislipidemia, remains a major pharmaceutical focus. In this study, we evaluated the hypolipidemic properties of the essential oil from Chios mastic gum (MGO). Methodology/Principal Findings The hypolipidemic effect of MGO was investigated in naïve as well as in rats susceptible to detergent-induced hyperlipidemia. Serum cholesterol and triglycerides were determined using commercial kits. HMG-CoA (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A) reductase activity was measured in HepG2 cell extracts using a radioactive assay; cellular cholesterol and cholesterol esters were assessed using gas chromatography. MGO administration into naïve rats resulted in a dose-dependent reduction in the constitutive synthesis of serum cholesterol and triglycerides. In hyperlipidemic rats, MGO treatment had also a strong hypolipidemic effect. By testing various components of MGO, we show for the first time that the hypolipidemic action is associated with camphene. Administration of camphene at a dose of 30 µg/gr of body weight in hyperlipidemic rats resulted in a 54.5% reduction of total cholesterol (p<0.001), 54% of Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol (p<0.001) and 34.5% of triglycerides (p<0.001). Treatment of HepG2 cells with camphene led to a decrease in cellular cholesterol content to the same extend as mevinolin, a known HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor. The hypolipidemic action of camphene is independent of HMG-CoA reductase activity, suggesting that its hypocholesterolemic and hypotriglyceridemic effects are associated with a mechanism of action different than that of statins. Conclusions Given the critical role that the control of hyperlipidemia plays in cardiovascular disease, the results of our study provide insights into the use of camphene as an alternative lipid lowering agent

  16. What Do My Cholesterol Levels Mean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... results: total cholesterol, LDL (“bad”) and HDL (“good”) cholesterol, and triglycerides (blood fats). What should my total cholesterol level ... I Improve My Cholesterol? What Are High Blood Cholesterol and Triglycerides? What Is High Blood Pressure? How Can I ...

  17. Effect of dosage and application mode of L-carnitine on plasma lipid and egg-yolk cholesterol of turkeys, hatchability of eggs and post-hatch growth of their offsprings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oso, A O; Fafiolu, A O; Adeleke, M A; Ladokun, O A; Sobayo, R A; Jegede, A V; Peters, S O; Oyebamiji, O A; Akinsola, J

    2014-08-01

    The effect of dosage and application mode of L-carnitine on plasma lipid and egg-yolk cholesterol of breeder turkeys, hatchability of eggs and post-hatch growth response was investigated using 180 breeder hens. The hens were assigned to six dietary treatments in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangements of two application modes of L-carnitine (diet and drinking water) supplemented at 0, 50 and 100 ppm (mg/kg or mg/l) levels, respectively. Each treatment was replicated five times with six hens per replicate. Dietary inclusion of 50 ppm L-carnitine showed the lowest (p plasma total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein concentration (LDL). Breeder hens offered 50 ppm L-carnitine with no regard to application mode recorded the highest (p plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Hens offered 50 and 100 ppm L-carnitine irrespective of application mode also showed reduced (p water of 100 ppm L-carnitine for breeder turkeys resulted in highest (p < 0.05) egg fertility. Offsprings from breeder hens fed diets supplemented with L-carnitine recorded no post-hatch mortality. Highest (p < 0.05) post-hatch final live weight and weight gain was obtained with poults obtained from hens fed diet supplemented with 50 ppm L-carnitine. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of 50 ppm L-carnitine for turkey hens showed improved serum lipid profile, egg fertility, reduced dead-in-shell, egg-yolk cholesterol and resulted in improved post-hatch growth performance.

  18. Circulating Cholesterol Levels May Link to the Factors Influencing Parkinson’s Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijun Zhang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ObjectivesA growing literature suggests that circulating cholesterol levels have been associated with Parkinson’s disease (PD. In this study, we investigated a possible causal basis for the cholesterol-PD link.MethodsFasting plasma cholesterol levels were obtained from 91 PD and 70 age- and gender-matched controls from an NINDS PD Biomarkers Program cohort at the Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine. Based on the literature, genetic polymorphisms in selected cholesterol management genes (APOE, LDLR, LRP1, and LRPAP1 were chosen as confounding variables because they may influence both cholesterol levels and PD risk. First, the marginal structure model was applied, where the associations of total- and LDL-cholesterol levels with genetic polymorphisms, statin usage, and smoking history were estimated using linear regression. Then, potential causal influences of total- and LDL-cholesterol on PD occurrence were investigated using a generalized propensity score approach in the second step.ResultsBoth statins (p < 0.001 and LRP1 (p < 0.03 influenced total- and LDL-cholesterol levels. There also was a trend for APOE to affect total- and LDL-cholesterol (p = 0.08 for both, and for LRPAR1 to affect LDL-cholesterol (p = 0.05. Conversely, LDLR did not influence plasma cholesterol levels (p > 0.19. Based on propensity score methods, lower total- and LDL-cholesterol were significantly linked to PD (p < 0.001 and p = 0.04, respectively.ConclusionThe current study suggests that circulating total- and LDL-cholesterol levels potentially may be linked to the factor(s influencing PD risk. Further studies to validate these results would impact our understanding of the role of cholesterol as a risk factor in PD, and its relationship to recent public health controversies.

  19. Effect of 6 dietary fatty acids on the postprandial lipid profile, plasma fatty acids, lipoprotein lipase, and cholesterol ester transfer activities in healthy young men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tholstrup, T.; Sandstrøm, B.; Bysted, Anette;

    2001-01-01

    to the test-fat meals were observed for plasma lipoprotein triacylglycerol and cholesterol concentrations, plasma fatty acid concentrations, and lipoprotein lipase and CETP activities (diet x time interaction: 0.001 saturated fatty acids stearic and palmitic acids resulted...... in a relatively lower lipemic response than did intake of the unsaturated fatty acids, probably because the saturated fatty acids were absorbed less and at a lower rate; therefore, the lipemic response took longer to return to postabsorptive values. Conclusions: Fatty acid chain length and degree of saturation...

  20. Increased plasma carnitine in trauma patients given lipid-supplemented total parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, A T; Albrecht, R M; Scholten, D J; Morgan, R E

    1988-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of altering the fuel substrate mix of total parenteral nutrition (TPN) on plasma and urinary carnitine in trauma patients. TPN solutions were either 100% carbohydrate (CHO) based or lipid based (70% CHO, 30% lipid). There were statistically significant (p less than 0.05) increases in plasma levels of free carnitine, short-chain acyl carnitine, and total carnitine in trauma patients receiving lipid-based TPN. No significant differences in urinary carnitine excretion were noted between groups. We conclude that the use of lipids in the TPN of trauma patients leads to an alteration in plasma carnitine metabolism.

  1. Synbiotic food consumption reduces levels of triacylglycerols and VLDL, but not cholesterol, LDL, or HDL in plasma from pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghizadeh, Mohsen; Hashemi, Teibeh; Shakeri, Hossein; Abedi, Fatemeh; Sabihi, Sima-Sadat; Alizadeh, Sabihe-Alsadat; Asemi, Zatolla

    2014-02-01

    To our knowledge, no reports are available indicating the effects of synbiotic food consumption on blood lipid profiles and biomarkers of oxidative stress among pregnant women. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of daily consumption of a synbiotic food on blood lipid profiles and biomarkers of oxidative stress in pregnant women. This randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial was performed among 52 primigravida pregnant women, aged 18 to 35-year-old at their third trimester. After a 2-week run-in period, subjects were randomly assigned to consume either a synbiotic (n = 26) or control food (n = 26) for 9 weeks. The synbiotic food consisted of a probiotic viable and heat-resistant Lactobacillus sporogenes (1 × 10⁷ CFU) and 0.04 g inulin (HPX)/g as the prebiotic. Patients were asked to consume the synbiotic and control foods two times a day. Biochemical measurements including blood lipid profiles, plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total glutathione (GSH) were conducted before and after 9 weeks of intervention. Consumption of a synbiotic food for 9 weeks resulted in a significant reduction in serum TAG (P = 0.04), VLDL (P = 0.04) and a significant rise in plasma GSH levels (P = 0.004) compared to the control food. No significant effects of the synbiotic food consumption on serum TC, LDL, HDL and plasma TAC levels (P > 0.05) were observed. Trial registry code: http://www.irct.ir . IRCT201212105623N3.

  2. Body mass index, serum total cholesterol, and risk of gastric high-grade dysplasia: A case-control study among Chinese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ya-Kai; Kang, Wei-Ming; Ma, Zhi-Qiang; Liu, Yu-Qin; Zhou, Li; Yu, Jian-Chun

    2016-08-01

    Obesity is related to an increased risk of gastric cardia cancer. However, the influences of excess body weight and serum total cholesterol on the risk of gastric high-grade dysplasia have not been fully characterized.A case-control study was conducted to explore the relationships between body mass index (BMI), serum total cholesterol level, and the risk of gastric high-grade dysplasia in Chinese adults. A total of 893 consecutive patients with gastric high-grade dysplasia (537 men and 356 women) and 902 controls (543 men and 359 women) were enrolled from January 2000 to October 2015. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated, and a multivariate analysis was conducted.After adjusting for age, alcohol consumption, smoking status, family history of gastric cancer or esophageal cancer, and serum total cholesterol level, a BMI ranging from 27.5 to 29.9 was significantly related to an increased risk of gastric high-grade dysplasia in both men (adjusted OR = 1.87, 95% CI = 1.24-2.81) and women (adjusted OR = 2.72, 95% CI = 1.44-5.16). The 2 highest BMI categories (27.5-29.9 and ≥30.0) were identified as risk factors for gastric cardia high-grade dysplasia in both men (BMI = 27.5-29.9: adjusted OR = 1.78, 95% CI = 1.02-3.10; BMI ≥ 30.0: adjusted OR = 2.54, 95% CI = 1.27-5.08) and women (BMI = 27.5-29.9: adjusted OR = 2.88, 95% CI = 1.27-6.55; BMI ≥ 30.0: adjusted OR = 2.77, 95% CI = 1.36-5.64), whereas only a BMI ranging from 27.5 to 29.9 was a risk factor for gastric noncardia high-grade dysplasia in both men (adjusted OR = 1.98, 95% CI = 1.25-3.14) and women (adjusted OR = 2.88, 95% CI = 1.43-5.81). In addition, higher serum total cholesterol was associated with an increased risk of gastric noncardia high-grade dysplasia (adjusted OR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.25-2.69) in women.Increased BMI was associated with an increased risk of gastric high-grade dysplasia in

  3. Comparison of the effects of three different Baccaurea angulata whole fruit juice doses on plasma, aorta and liver MDA levels, antioxidant enzymes and total antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Muhammad; Mikail, Maryam Abimbola; Ahmed, Idris Adewale; Hazali, Norazlanshah; Abdul Rasad, Mohammad Syaiful Bahari; Abdul Ghani, Radiah; Hashim, Ridzwan; Arief, Solachuddin Jahuari; Md Isa, Muhammad Lokman; Draman, Samsul

    2017-05-17

    Baccaurea angulata (common names: belimbing dayak or belimbing hutan) is a Malaysian underutilized fruit. The preliminary work on B. angulata fruit juice showed that it possesses antioxidant properties. Therefore, further work is needed to confirm the efficacy and proper dosage of B. angulata as a potential natural antioxidant. The present study was thus carried out to compare the effects of three different B. angulata whole fruit (WF) juice doses administered at nutritional doses of 0.50, 1.00 and 1.50 ml/kg/day on plasma, aorta and liver malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase) as well as total antioxidant capacity in rabbits fed high-cholesterol diet. Thirty-five male rabbits of New Zealand strain were randomly assigned to seven groups. For 12 weeks, group CH was fed 1% cholesterol diet only; group C1 was fed 1% cholesterol diet and 0.50 ml/kg/day B. angulata WF juice; group C2 was fed 1% cholesterol diet and 1.00 ml/kg/day B. angulata WF juice; group C3 was fed 1% cholesterol diet and 1.50 ml/kg/day B. angulata WF juice; group N was fed standard pellet only; group N1 was fed standard pellet and 0.50 ml/kg/day B. angulata WF juice; and group N2 was fed standard pellet and 1.00 ml/kg/day B. angulata WF juice. The three doses reduced the formation of MDA and enhanced the expression of endogenous antioxidant enzymes. The highest dose used (1.50 ml/kg/day) was, however, seen as the most potent. Higher doses of B. angulata juice exerted better antioxidant activity.

  4. X-ray plasma diagnostics for totally and partially photoionized plasmas such as Warm Absorber in AGN

    CERN Document Server

    Porquet, D; Porquet, Delphine; Dubau, Jacques

    1999-01-01

    Thanks to the new generation of X-ray satellites such as Chandra and XMM, high resolution and high sensitivity spectra are available. In particular, for the first time, the three most intense lines (resonance, intercombination and forbidden) of low charged (low Z) He-like ions are splitted for non solar plasmas. We present density, ionizing process and temperature diagnostics, for totally and partially photoionized plasmas, based on ratios of these three lines. These powerful plasma diagnostics could be used for hot astrophysical plasmas such as AGN, starburst galaxies, X-ray binaries, etc. In particular, they could be applied to Warm Absorber often seen in Active Galactic Nuclei (Porquet & Dubau 2000), which is an important key tool to understand central region of different types of AGN (Seyfert 1 and 2, high and low redshift quasars).

  5. The effect of polyphenol-rich dark chocolate on fasting capillary whole blood glucose, total cholesterol, blood pressure and glucocorticoids in healthy overweight and obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almoosawi, Suzana; Fyfe, Lorna; Ho, Clement; Al-Dujaili, Emad

    2010-03-01

    Numerous studies indicate that polyphenol-rich chocolate reduces fasting blood glucose, blood pressure (BP) and total cholesterol in healthy individuals and hypertensives with or without glucose intolerance. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of two doses of polyphenol-rich dark chocolate (DC) on fasting capillary whole blood glucose, total cholesterol and BP and to examine whether improvements in these parameters are associated with changes in adrenocorticoid excretion in overweight and obese individuals. The study used a randomised, single-blind, cross-over design where fourteen overweight and obese subjects were randomised to either take 20 g DC with 500 mg polyphenols then 20 g DC with 1000 mg polyphenols or vice-versa. Participants followed each diet for 2 weeks separated by a 1-week washout period. It was observed that the 500 mg polyphenol dose was equally effective in reducing fasting blood glucose levels, systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) as the 1000 mg polyphenol dose suggesting that a saturation effect might occur with increasing dose of polyphenols. There was also a trend towards a reduction in urinary free cortisone levels with both groups although it did not reach statistical significance. No changes in anthropometrical measurements were seen. We suggest that more research is required to investigate the mechanism(s) by which polyphenol-rich foods influence health.

  6. Long-term consumption of a raw food diet is associated with favorable serum LDL cholesterol and triglycerides but also with elevated plasma homocysteine and low serum HDL cholesterol in humans

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Koebnick, Corinna; Garcia, Ada L; Dagnelie, Pieter C; Strassner, Carola; Lindemans, Jan; Katz, Norbert; Leitzmann, Claus; Hoffmann, Ingrid

    2005-01-01

    ...) on serum lipids and plasma vitamin B-12, folate, and total homocysteine (tHcy). In a cross-sectional study, the lipid, folate, vitamin B-12, and tHcy status of 201 adherents to a raw food diet...

  7. Long-Term Consumption of a Raw Food Diet Is Associated with Favorable Serum LDL Cholesterol and Triglycerides but Also with Elevated Plasma Homocysteine and Low Serum HDL Cholesterol in Humans1,2

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Corinna Koebnick; Ada L Garcia; Pieter C Dagnelie; Carola Strassner

    2005-01-01

    ...) on serum lipids and plasma vitamin B-12, folate, and total homocysteine (tHcy). In a cross-sectional study, the lipid, folate, vitamin B-12, and tHcy status of 201 adherents to a raw food diet...

  8. Evaluation of the refractometric method for the determination of total protein in avian plasma or serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumeij, J T; de Bruijne, J J

    1985-07-01

    Serum total protein concentrations in pigeon blood determined with the biuret method (TPB-se) were compared with total protein concentrations in plasma (TPR-pl) and serum (TPR-se) obtained by estimation from refractive index. The refractometric method consistently yielded higher values (Prefractometric method for determination of TP in pigeon blood is not recommended.

  9. HDL cholesterol: atherosclerosis and beyond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bochem, A.E.

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the Western world. Myocardial infarction and stroke are the result of a compromised blood flow which may result from cholesterol accumulation in the vessel wall due to high plasma levels of LDL cholesterol. High plasma levels of HDL

  10. EFFECT OF DIETARY OLIVE OIL/CHOLESTEROL ON SERUM LIPOPROTEINS, LIPID PEROXIDATION, AND ATHEROSCLEROSIS IN RABBITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R MAHDAVI

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: High plasma cholesterol levels, mainly LDL are a widely recognized major risk factor for Coronary Heart Disease (CHD. According to the epidemiologic studies findings, people from the Mediterranean countries, have lower CHD rats than other countries, in these countries usual diet is high in olive oil. The present study compares the effects of cholesterol enriched diet with or without adding olive oil on serum Lipoproteins, lipid per oxidation, and atherosclerosis development. Method: Twenty Dutch male rabbits were Categorized to four groups (one group as Control, and others as Experimental. They received one of standard, cholesterol - rich, olive oil rich and combined (cholesterol + olive oil diet for Twelve weeks. Fasting blood samples from heart were collected at the beginning, and the end of Experimental period. Means of total cholesterol, HDL-Ctriglycerides, MDA and antioxidant caperimental period, significant differences were showed in total cholesterol, HDL-C, triglyceride and MDA between groups. Results: The comparison of cholesterol rich diet with cholesterol + olive oil showed a higher mean of MDA in cholesterol rich group (P < 0.001. Biochemical factors and aortic lesion degree showed no significant difference between standard and olive oil group. Aortic lesions in cholesterol + olive oil showed nonsignificant lower degree than cholesterol group. Discussion: This findings showed preventive effect of olive oil against atherosclerosis which is independent of plasma lipoprotein effect, and suggested that probably olive oil acts on arteries directly.

  11. Trend in prevalence of uncontrolled total serum cholesterol for cardio-cerebro-vascular disease in a mediterranean area, 1988/89-2008/09.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuano, Vincenzo; Lamaida, Norman; Capuano, Ernesto; Borrelli, Maria Immacolata; Capuano, Rocco; Notari, Elisabetta; Iannone, Anna Grazia; Marchese, Federica; Sonderegger, Matteo; Capuano, Eduardo

    2013-11-26

    To examine trends of uncontrolled total serum cholesterol, treatment and control in a Mediterranean region (Campania). We considered and compared the data collected as part of "Montecorvino Rovella Project" 1988-1989 and cross-sectional data from the two phases of the "VIP Project-Valle dell'Irno Prevenzione": 1998-1999 (1(st) phase) and 2008-2009 (2(nd) phase), in the 35-74-year-old-population. Data show a reduction of mean cholesterolemia in the last twenty years of 7.3 mg/dL for men and unchanged values for women. In the three surveys the mean values for serum cholesterol are in men: 205.2 ± 47.1 mg/dL (1988/89), 200 ± 38.9 mg/dL (1998/99) and 197.9 ± 40.2 mg/dL (2008/09); in the women: 203.1 ± 42.5 mg/dL (1988/89), 198.9 ± 37.9 mg/dL (1998/99) and 203.3 ± 39.3 mg/dL (2008/09). Prevalence of uncontrolled high cholesterol ≥ 240 mg/dL for men decreased from 20.8% (1988/89) to 14.3% (1998/99) and 13.9% (2008/9), P = 0.002; for women the values decreased from 19.9% (1988/89), to 18.2% (1998/99) and 18.1% (2008/09), P = 0.007. Is statistically increased the number of patients treated and those treated to target. Encouraging increases in awareness, treatment, and control of hypercholesterolemia occurred from 1988 through 2008. Nevertheless, control of hypercholesterolemia remains poor.

  12. Plasma fasting and nonfasting triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in atherosclerotic stroke: different profiles according to low-density lipoprotein cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Suk Jae; Park, Yun Gyoung; Kim, Ji Hyun; Han, Yun Kyung; Cho, Hong Keun; Bang, Oh Young

    2012-08-01

    Although low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is the main lipid target for cardiovascular risk reduction, recent studies suggest that other lipid indicies are also associated with vascular events. We hypothesized that the association of triglycerides (TG) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) with atherosclerotic stroke (AS) differs depending on LDL-C levels. Data prospectively collected on subjects admitted with acute ischemic stroke to a university medical center were analyzed. We divided the patients into AS and non-atherosclerotic stroke (NAS) groups and independent association of lipid parameters and genetic influences of apolipoprotein A5 (ApoA5) polymorphisms with AS were evaluated. Of 268 patients, 160 (59.7%) were classified with AS and 108 (40.3%) were classified with NAS. Vascular risk factors were more prevalent in AS patients than in those with NAS; additionally, AS patients' anthropometric indexes and laboratory findings showed that they were prone to atherosclerosis. AS was independently associated with fasting TG (OR per 10 mg/dL increase, 1.38; 95% CI, 1.16-1.64; OR for highest vs. lowest tertile, 12.85; 95% CI, 3.31-49.85), HDL-C (OR per 10 mg/dL increase, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.42-0.88; OR for lowest vs. highest tertile, 4.28; 95% CI, 1.16-15.86), and nonfasting TG (OR per 10 10 mg/dL increase, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.11-1.42; OR for highest vs. lowest tertile, 8.20; 95% CI, 1.98-33.88) only among patients with LDL <100 mg/dL. No interaction was observed between fasting and nonfasting TG and ApoA5 polymorphisms. In conclusion, fasting and nonfasting TG and HDL-C were associated with AS only when patients had low levels of LDL-C. Non-LDL-C may have an additional role in addition to the LDL-C levels in AS development. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. An immunomodulating fatty acid analogue targeting mitochondria exerts anti-atherosclerotic effect beyond plasma cholesterol-lowering activity in apoe(-/- mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Vik

    Full Text Available Tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA is a hypolipidemic antioxidant with immunomodulating properties involving activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs and proliferation of mitochondria. This study aimed to penetrate the effect of TTA on the development of atherosclerotic lesions in apolipoprotein (apo-E(-/- mice fed a high-fat diet containing 0.3% TTA for 12 weeks. These mice displayed a significantly less atherosclerotic development vs control. Plasma cholesterol was increased by TTA administration and triacylglycerol (TAG levels in plasma and liver were decreased by TTA supplementation, the latter, probably due to increased mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and reduced lipogenesis. TTA administration also changed the fatty acid composition in the heart, and the amount of arachidonic acid (ARA and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA was reduced and increased, respectively. The heart mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxidase (NOS-2 was decreased in TTA-treated mice, whereas the mRNA level of catalase was increased. Finally, reduced plasma levels of inflammatory mediators as IL-1α, IL-6, IL-17, TNF-α and IFN-γ were detected in TTA-treated mice. These data show that TTA reduces atherosclerosis in apoE(-/- mice and modulates risk factors related to atherosclerotic disorders. TTA probably acts at both systemic and vascular levels in a manner independent of changes in plasma cholesterol, and triggers TAG catabolism through improved mitochondrial function.

  14. Common and Rare Alleles in Apolipoprotein B Contribute to Plasma Levels of LDL Cholesterol in the General Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, M; Stene, MC; Nordestgaard, BG;

    2008-01-01

    CONTEXT: We have previously shown that rare mutations in the apolipoprotein B gene (APOB) may result in not only severe hypercholesterolemia and ischemic heart disease but also hypocholesterolemia. Despite this, common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in APOB have not convincingly been...... on cholesterol and apolipoprotein B levels. However, as predicted from the magnitude of the observed LDL cholesterol effects, none of these SNPs predicted risk of ischemic heart disease prospectively in the general population, in a case-control study, or as haplotypes. CONCLUSIONS: Multiple common and rare...... demonstrated to affect low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that nonsynonymous SNPs in three important functional domains of APOB and APOB tag SNPs predict levels of LDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B and risk of ischemic heart disease. DESIGN...

  15. Cholesterol oxides inhibit cholesterol esterification by lecithin: cholesterol acyl transferase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eder de Carvalho Pincinato

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol oxides are atherogenic and can affect the activity of diverse important enzymes for the lipidic metabolism. The effect of 7β-hydroxycholesterol, 7-ketocholesterol, 25-hydroxycholesterol, cholestan-3β,5α,6β-triol,5,6β-epoxycholesterol, 5,6α-epoxycholesterol and 7α-hydroxycholesterol on esterification of cholesterol by lecithin:cholesterol acyl transferase (LCAT, EC 2.3.1.43 and the transfer of esters of cholesterol oxides from high density lipoprotein (HDL to low density lipoproteins (LDL and very low density lipoproteins (VLDL by cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP was investigated. HDL enriched with increasing concentrations of cholesterol oxides was incubated with fresh plasma as source of LCAT. Cholesterol and cholesterol oxides esterification was followed by measuring the consumption of respective free sterol and oxysterols. Measurements of cholesterol and cholesterol oxides were done by gas-chromatography. 14C-cholesterol oxides were incorporated into HDL2 and HDL3 subfractions and then incubated with fresh plasma containing LCAT and CETP. The transfer of cholesterol oxide esters was followed by measuring the 14C-cholesterol oxide-derived esters transferred to LDL and VLDL. All the cholesterol oxides studied were esterified by LCAT after incorporation into HDL particles, competing with cholesterol by LCAT. Cholesterol esterification by LCAT was inversely related to the cholesterol oxide concentration. The esterification of 14C-cholesterol oxides was higher in HDL3 and the transfer of the derived esters was greater from HDL2 to LDL and VLDL. The results suggest that cholesterol esterification by LCAT is inhibited in cholesterol oxide-enriched HDL particles. Moreover, the cholesterol oxides-derived esters are efficiently transferred to LDL and VLDL. Therefore, we suggest that cholesterol oxides may exert part of their atherogenic effect by inhibiting cholesterol esterification on the HDL surface and thereby disturbing

  16. Low cholesterol and violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mufti, R M; Balon, R; Arfken, C L

    1998-02-01

    The association between violent behavior and low serum total cholesterol levels was examined in a psychiatric inpatient population with diverse diagnoses. The study used a case-control design to compare the cholesterol levels of patients in a long-term psychiatric hospital who had a history of seclusion or restraints (N = 20) and those who did not (N = 20). A low cholesterol level was defined as less than 180 mg/dL. A strong association was found between low cholesterol levels and violent behavior (odds ratio = 15.49), an association that was not due to age, race, sex, or diagnosis. The finding was consistent whether mean levels or dichotomized levels of cholesterol were examined. Physical health, cholesterol-lowering medication, current alcohol use, or unusual diets could not explain the results. However, the raw frequency of episodes of seclusion or restraint as an indicator of the frequency of violent behavior was not associated with cholesterol level. Dichotomizing cholesterol levels at 180 mg/dL yielded high sensitivity (90 percent) for predicting violent behavior but at the cost of low specificity (65 percent). The results support the hypothesis that an association exists between low cholesterol and violent behavior among psychiatric patients but argue against using cholesterol level as a screening tool for predicting violent behavior.

  17. Resveratrol Protects Rabbits Against Cholesterol Diet-Induced Hyperlipidaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanko, Y; Jimoh, A; Ahmed, A; Mohammed, A; Ayo, J O

    2016-08-30

    The excessive consumption of high cholesterol diet has been associated with an increased incidence oflipidaemia. Lipidaemia is enhanced by formation of oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation and hyperglycaemia. The aim ofthese experiments was to investigate the protective effect of resveratrol co-administered with cholesterol diet inducedhyperlipidaemia in rabbits. Thirty rabbits divided into six groups of five animal (group= 5) each: group 1 = normal control,group 2 = cholesterol diet/high fat diet group only (HFD), group 3 = resveratrol 200 mg/kg (R200), group 4 = resveratrol400 mg/kg (R400), group 5 = HFD + R200 and group 6 = HFD + R400. The normal group was fed with standard animalfeeds only; while the HFD groups were fed with standard animal feeds + cholesterol diet (10% Groundnut oil, 20%Groundnut mill and 2% cholesterol). Resveratrol-treated rabbits received resveratrol suspended in 10 g/Lcarboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and the control group received the vehicle only, CMC. The preparations were administeredfor 8 weeks of experimental protocol. At the end of the study period, the animals were sacrificed. Blood and plasma sampleswere collected. Serum evaluation of lipid profile such as total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerol (Tg), low density lipoproteincholesterol (LDP-c) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) were also assessed. The results obtained showsignificant (P < 0.05) decrease in total cholesterol (TC), Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDP-c), total triacylglyceroland an increase in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) in resveratrol treated groups compared to HFD group only.In conclusion, the findings indicated that Resveratrol may contain polar products able to lower plasma lipid concentrationsand might be beneficial in treatment of hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis.

  18. Camphene, a plant-derived monoterpene, reduces plasma cholesterol and triglycerides in hyperlipidemic rats independently of HMG-CoA reductase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallianou, Ioanna; Peroulis, Nikolaos; Pantazis, Panayotis; Hadzopoulou-Cladaras, Margarita

    2011-01-01

    Central to the pathology of coronary heart disease is the accumulation of lipids, cholesterol and triglycerides, within the intima of arterial blood vessels. The search for drugs to treat dislipidemia, remains a major pharmaceutical focus. In this study, we evaluated the hypolipidemic properties of the essential oil from Chios mastic gum (MGO). The hypolipidemic effect of MGO was investigated in naïve as well as in rats susceptible to detergent-induced hyperlipidemia. Serum cholesterol and triglycerides were determined using commercial kits. HMG-CoA (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A) reductase activity was measured in HepG2 cell extracts using a radioactive assay; cellular cholesterol and cholesterol esters were assessed using gas chromatography. MGO administration into naïve rats resulted in a dose-dependent reduction in the constitutive synthesis of serum cholesterol and triglycerides. In hyperlipidemic rats, MGO treatment had also a strong hypolipidemic effect. By testing various components of MGO, we show for the first time that the hypolipidemic action is associated with camphene. Administration of camphene at a dose of 30 µg/gr of body weight in hyperlipidemic rats resulted in a 54.5% reduction of total cholesterol (pcholesterol (ptriglycerides (pcholesterol content to the same extend as mevinolin, a known HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor. The hypolipidemic action of camphene is independent of HMG-CoA reductase activity, suggesting that its hypocholesterolemic and hypotriglyceridemic effects are associated with a mechanism of action different than that of statins. Given the critical role that the control of hyperlipidemia plays in cardiovascular disease, the results of our study provide insights into the use of camphene as an alternative lipid lowering agent and merits further evaluation.

  19. [Effects of Yanggan Lidan Granule on rate of gallstone formation and content of plasma cholecystokinin in guinea pigs with induced cholesterol gallstones].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Si-bo; Fang, Bang-jiang

    2008-04-01

    To explore the effects of Yanggan Lidan Granule (YGLDG), a compound traditional Chinese herbal medicine for nourishing liver and improving choleresis, on the rate of gallstone formation and content of plasma cholecystokinin in guinea pigs with induced cholesterol gallstones. Eighty guinea pigs were randomly divided into 4 groups, which were normal control group, untreated group, YGLDG-treated group and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA)-treated group (n=20). Except the normal control group, gallstones were induced by high-cholesterol diet in the guinea pigs. YGLDG (1.81 g/kg daily) and UDCA (30.12 mg/kg daily) were given orally to guinea pigs in the corresponding group respectively for seven weeks; however, the guinea pigs of normal control group and untreated group were administered with normal saline. The physical signs of the guinea pigs and the rates of gallstone formation were examined, and the content of cholecystokinin (CCK) in the plasma was detected by radio-immunoassay. YGLDG could obviously improve the ethological signs of the guinea pigs. Gallstone formation rate of the untreated group (82.35%) was significantly increased as compared with that of the normal control group (5.26%) (Pgallstone formation rates of the YGLDG-treated group (27.28%) and UDCA-treated group (38.89%) were lower than that of the untreated group (P0.05). YGLDG can significantly decrease the rate of gallstone formation in guinea pigs. It may be related to elevating the content of CCK in the plasma.

  20. Modification of Cellular Cholesterol Content Affects Traction Force, Adhesion and Cell Spreading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Leann L; Oetama, Ratna J; Dembo, Micah; Byfield, F; Hammer, Daniel A; Levitan, Irena; Aranda-Espinoza, Helim

    2010-06-01

    Cellular cholesterol is a critical component of the plasma membrane, and plays a key role in determining the physical properties of the lipid bilayer, such as elasticity, viscosity, and permeability. Surprisingly, it has been shown that cholesterol depletion increases cell stiffness, not due to plasma membrane stiffening, but rather, due to the interaction between the actin cytoskeleton and the plasma membrane. This indicates that traction stresses of the acto-myosin complex likely increase during cholesterol depletion. Here we use force traction microscopy to quantify the forces individual cells are exerting on the substrate, and total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy as well as interference reflection microscopy to observe cell-substrate adhesion and spreading. We show that single cells depleted of cholesterol produce larger traction forces and have large focal adhesions compared to untreated or cholesterol-enriched cells. Cholesterol depletion also causes a decrease in adhesion area for both single cells and monolayers. Spreading experiments illustrate a decrease in spreading area for cholesterol-depleted cells, and no effect on cholesterol-enriched cells. These results demonstrate that cholesterol plays an important role in controlling and regulating the cell-substrate interactions through the actin-plasma membrane complex, cell-cell adhesion, and spreading.

  1. Total plasma protein in very preterm babies: prognostic value and comparison with illness severity scores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Iacobelli

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the predictive value for severe adverse outcome of plasma protein measurements on day one of life in very preterm infants and to compare total plasma protein levels with the validated illness severity scores CRIB, CRIB-II, SNAP-II and SNAPPE-II, regarding their predictive ability for severe adverse outcome. METHODS: We analyzed a cohort of infants born at 24-31 weeks gestation, admitted to the tertiary intensive care unit of a university hospital over 10.5 years. The outcome measure was "severe adverse outcome" defined as death before discharge or severe neurological injury on cranial ultrasound. The adjusted odd ratio (aOR and 95% confidence interval (95% CI of severe adverse outcome for hypoproteinemia (total plasma protein level <40 g/L was calculated by univariate and multivariate analyses. Calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit was performed and the predictive ability for severe adverse outcome was assessed for total plasma protein and compared with CRIB, CRIB-II, SNAP-II and SNAPPE-II, by calculating receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves and their associated area under the curve (AUC. RESULTS: 761 infants were studied: 14.4% died and 4.1% survived with severe cerebral ultrasound findings. The aOR of severe adverse outcome for hypoproteinemia was 6.1 (95% CI 3.8-9.9. The rank order for variables, as assessed by AUCs and 95% CIs, in predicting outcome was: total plasma protein [0.849 (0.821-0.873], SNAPPE-II [0.822 (0.792-0.848], CRIB [0.821 (0.792-0.848], SNAP-II [0.810 (0.780-0.837] and CRIB-II [0.803 (0.772-0.830]. Total plasma protein predicted severe adverse outcome significantly better than CRIB-II and SNAP-II (both p<0.05. Calibration for total plasma protein was very good. CONCLUSIONS: Early hypoproteinemia has prognostic value for severe adverse outcome in very preterm, sick infants. Total plasma protein has a predictive performance comparable with CRIB and SNAPPE-II and greater than

  2. Camphene, a plant-derived monoterpene, reduces plasma cholesterol and triglycerides in hyperlipidemic rats independently of HMG-CoA reductase activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioanna Vallianou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Central to the pathology of coronary heart disease is the accumulation of lipids, cholesterol and triglycerides, within the intima of arterial blood vessels. The search for drugs to treat dislipidemia, remains a major pharmaceutical focus. In this study, we evaluated the hypolipidemic properties of the essential oil from Chios mastic gum (MGO. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The hypolipidemic effect of MGO was investigated in naïve as well as in rats susceptible to detergent-induced hyperlipidemia. Serum cholesterol and triglycerides were determined using commercial kits. HMG-CoA (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase activity was measured in HepG2 cell extracts using a radioactive assay; cellular cholesterol and cholesterol esters were assessed using gas chromatography. MGO administration into naïve rats resulted in a dose-dependent reduction in the constitutive synthesis of serum cholesterol and triglycerides. In hyperlipidemic rats, MGO treatment had also a strong hypolipidemic effect. By testing various components of MGO, we show for the first time that the hypolipidemic action is associated with camphene. Administration of camphene at a dose of 30 µg/gr of body weight in hyperlipidemic rats resulted in a 54.5% reduction of total cholesterol (p<0.001, 54% of Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL-cholesterol (p<0.001 and 34.5% of triglycerides (p<0.001. Treatment of HepG2 cells with camphene led to a decrease in cellular cholesterol content to the same extend as mevinolin, a known HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor. The hypolipidemic action of camphene is independent of HMG-CoA reductase activity, suggesting that its hypocholesterolemic and hypotriglyceridemic effects are associated with a mechanism of action different than that of statins. CONCLUSIONS: Given the critical role that the control of hyperlipidemia plays in cardiovascular disease, the results of our study provide insights into the use of camphene as an alternative lipid

  3. Cholesterol (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholesterol is a soft, waxy substance that is present in all parts of the body including the ... and obtained from animal products in the diet. Cholesterol is manufactured in the liver and is needed ...

  4. Accuracy of plasma turbidity measurement for determining fat intolerance during total parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordenström, J; Thörne, A; Lindholm, M

    1990-06-01

    The accuracy of plasma turbidity measurements in predicting ability to metabolise intravenous fat emulsions during total parenteral nutrition was studied in 35 adult surgical patients. Plasma turbidity, expressed as a light scattering index (LSI), was determined by nephelometry and compared with measured triglyceride (TG) concentrations. A poor coefficient of correlation was found between LSI and TG (r = 0.52). The sensitivity and specificity of LSI in predicting TG concentration were 19% and 96% respectively. This indicates that the measurement of LSI is more useful in ruling out hypertriglyceridaemia than in detecting it. Consequently, clinical tolerance of intravenous fat emulsion cannot be monitored by measuring plasma turbidity. In order to avoid metabolic complications which may occasionally occur during intravenous nutritional therapy including fat emulsion, determination of plasma TG levels at timed intervals are recommended.

  5. Body fat and fat distribution by anthropometry and the response to high-fat cholesterol-containing diet in monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, D S; Sharma, R C; Chin, H P; Jiao, Q; Kramsch, D M

    1993-02-01

    Considerable variability exists among individuals in the response of plasma cholesterol to changes in dietary fat and cholesterol, and obesity is one variable reported to affect this response. This study was performed to determine the relationship between body fat and changes in plasma cholesterol in cynomolgus monkeys fed a high-fat cholesterol-containing diet for 12 months. The animals gained significant body weight (body mass index increased from 30.5 +/- 0.5 to 35.7 +/- 2.8 kg/m2) and skinfold parameters of body fat increased as well. Total cholesterol increased from 109 +/- 4 to 390 +/- 25 mg/dl (P < 0.001), and there were also significant increases in LDL- and HDL-cholesterol and triglyceride. While there was very little relationship between body fat and plasma lipids before the diet, after 12 months, there were significant negative correlations between total and LDL-cholesterol and anthropometric measures of body fat (r ranged from -0.37 to -0.55, P < 0.01). The correlations were not affected when the effects of baseline body mass index and serum cholesterol and total food intake were controlled by partial correlation analysis. In this sample of animals, the acquisition of greater body fat appeared to protect against rises in cholesterol in response to consumption of a high-fat cholesterol-containing diet.

  6. Cholesterol-Lowering Supplements: Lower Your Numbers without Prescription Medication

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... extract May reduce total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL), or "bad," cholesterol May cause gas or ... Niacin May lower LDL cholesterol, improve high-density lipoprotein (HDL), or "good" cholesterol May cause headache, nausea, ...

  7. Effects of plasma total ammonia content and pH on urea excretion in Nile tilapia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, D J; Piraccini, G; Felskie, A; Romano, P; Bronzi, P; Bolis, C L

    1999-01-01

    Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) were infused with ammonium salts, acid, and base to investigate the effects of changes in arterial plasma total ammonia content (Tamm) and pH (pHa) on plasma urea-nitrogen (urea-N) levels and urea-N excretory fluxes (Jurea-N). The tilapia did not possess a functional hepatic ornithine urea-cycle (no significant carbamyl phosphate synthetase III activity). Infused substances were dissolved in a saline vehicle and injected twice (5 mL kg-1), the first infusion to "prime" the animal and promote a more marked response to the second infusion, given 2.5 h later. The results reported are those of the second infusion. Infusion of 200 mM NH4Cl increased Tamm, reduced pHa, and increased plasma urea-N and Jurea-N. Two hundred mM NH4HCO3 increased Tamm and arterial plasma total CO2 content (TaCO2), reduced pHa, and increased Jurea-N. Fifty mM HCl reduced pHa but had no effects on urea dynamics. Fifty mM NaOH increased pHa, plasma urea-N levels, and Jurea-N. Two hundred mM NaHCO3 increased pHa, TaCO2, plasma urea-N levels, and Jurea-N. Infusion of the saline vehicle was without effect. The results indicate that ammonia loading and plasma alkalosis both stimulate urea excretion in uricolytic fish. The responses to hyperammonemia or alkalosis were not modified when combined with elevated plasma bicarbonate levels.

  8. Total plasma proANP increases with atrial dilatation in horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Der Vekens, N; Hunter, I; Timm, A

    2015-01-01

    Equine atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) plasma concentrations are correlated with left atrial size. However, species-specific assays are lacking and the results from human assays are poorly reproducible. A new methodology called processing independent analysis (PIA) that measures the total pro......ANP product in plasma has proven to be successful in human medicine, but has never been used in horses. The aims were to establish an equine proANP reference interval by measurement of the total proANP product using PIA and to examine the proANP concentrations in horses with atrial dilatation. Sample...... stability was studied by comparison of storage at -80°C and -20°C. Plasma samples were obtained from 23 healthy horses, 12 horses with moderate or severe valvular regurgitation without atrial dilatation and 42 horses with valvular regurgitation and atrial dilatation. The proANP concentration...

  9. Plasma atrial natriuretic peptide after the Fontan procedure and total cavopulmonary connexion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, M; Shinebourne, E A; Rigby, M L; Carter, N; Jeffery, S; Stanley, P; Smith, A

    1990-05-01

    Plasma atrial natriuretic peptide was measured in 10 children undergoing the Fontan procedure and 3 children undergoing total cavopulmonary connexion. There was no significant difference in pre-operative plasma levels, but post-operative levels were significantly higher 48 hours after cardiopulmonary bypass in the Fontan group. There was no significant difference in plasma arginine vasopressin levels either pre- or post-operatively. Post-operative pleural effusions occurred in only 2 of the 10 patients undergoing the Fontan procedure, but were present in all 3 of those undergoing total cavopulmonary connexion. The release of atrial natriuretic peptide is an appropriate homeostatic response to volume loading and the impairment of this response in the early post-operative period may be of clinical importance.

  10. Membrane cholesterol regulates lysosome-plasma membrane fusion events and modulates Trypanosoma cruzi invasion of host cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Hissa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi are able to invade several types of non-phagocytic cells through a lysosomal dependent mechanism. It has been shown that, during invasion, parasites trigger host cell lysosome exocytosis, which initially occurs at the parasite-host contact site. Acid sphingomyelinase released from lysosomes then induces endocytosis and parasite internalization. Lysosomes continue to fuse with the newly formed parasitophorous vacuole until the parasite is completely enclosed by lysosomal membrane, a process indispensable for a stable infection. Previous work has shown that host membrane cholesterol is also important for the T. cruzi invasion process in both professional (macrophages and non-professional (epithelial phagocytic cells. However, the mechanism by which cholesterol-enriched microdomains participate in this process has remained unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: In the present work we show that cardiomyocytes treated with MβCD, a drug able to sequester cholesterol from cell membranes, leads to a 50% reduction in invasion by T. cruzi trypomastigotes, as well as a decrease in the number of recently internalized parasites co-localizing with lysosomal markers. Cholesterol depletion from host membranes was accompanied by a decrease in the labeling of host membrane lipid rafts, as well as excessive lysosome exocytic events during the earlier stages of treatment. Precocious lysosomal exocytosis in MβCD treated cells led to a change in lysosomal distribution, with a reduction in the number of these organelles at the cell periphery, and probably compromises the intracellular pool of lysosomes necessary for T. cruzi invasion. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Based on these results, we propose that cholesterol depletion leads to unregulated exocytic events, reducing lysosome availability at the cell cortex and consequently compromise T. cruzi entry into host cells. The results also suggest that two different pools of

  11. Spectrophotometric determination of total proteins in blood plasma: a comparative study among dye-binding methods

    OpenAIRE

    Dimas Augusto Morozin Zaia; Fábio Rangel Marques; Cássia Thaïs Bussamra Vieira Zaia

    2005-01-01

    A comparative study between the biuret method (standard method for total proteins) and spectrophotometric methods using dyes (Bradford, 3',3",5',5"-tetrabromophenolphthalein ethyl ester-TBPEE, and erythrosin-B) was carried out for the determination of total proteins in blood plasma from rats. Bradford method showed the highest sensitivity for proteins and biuret method showed the lowest. For all the methods, the absorbance for different proteins (BSA, casein, and egg albumin) was measured and...

  12. Plasma free and total carnitine measured in children by tandem mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    J.H. Osorio; Pourfarzam, M.

    2002-01-01

    Free and total carnitine quantification is important as a complementary test for the diagnosis of unusual metabolic diseases, including fatty acid degradation disorders. The present study reports a new method for the quantification of free and total carnitine in dried plasma specimens by isotope dilution electrospray tandem mass spectrometry with sample derivatization. Carnitine is determined by looking for the precursor of ions of m/z = 103 of N-butylester derivative, and the method is valid...

  13. 2-Heptyl-Formononetin Increases Cholesterol and Induces Hepatic Steatosis in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Andersen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of isoflavones may prevent adiposity, hepatic steatosis, and dyslipidaemia. However, studies in the area are few and primarily with genistein. This study investigated the effects of formononetin and its synthetic analogue, 2-heptyl-formononetin (C7F, on lipid and cholesterol metabolism in C57BL/6J mice. The mice were fed a cholesterol-enriched diet for five weeks to induce hypercholesterolemia and were then fed either the cholesterol-enriched diet or the cholesterol-enriched diet-supplemented formononetin or C7F for three weeks. Body weight and composition, glucose homeostasis, and plasma lipids were compared. In another experiment, mice were fed the above diets for five weeks, and hepatic triglyceride accumulation and gene expression and histology of adipose tissue and liver were examined. Supplementation with C7F increased plasma HDL-cholesterol thereby increasing the plasma level of total cholesterol. Supplementation with formononetin did not affect plasma cholesterol but increased plasma triglycerides levels. Supplementation with formononetin and C7F induced hepatic steatosis. However, formononetin decreased markers of inflammation and liver injury. The development of hepatic steatosis was associated with deregulated expression of hepatic genes involved in lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. In conclusion, supplementation with formononetin and C7F to a cholesterol-enriched diet adversely affected lipid and lipoprotein metabolism in C57BL/6J mice.

  14. 2-Heptyl-Formononetin Increases Cholesterol and Induces Hepatic Steatosis in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Charlotte; Schjoldager, Janne G.; Tortzen, Christian G.; Vegge, Andreas; Hufeldt, Majbritt R.; Skaanild, Mette T.; Vogensen, Finn K.; Kristiansen, Karsten; Hansen, Axel K.; Nielsen, John

    2013-01-01

    Consumption of isoflavones may prevent adiposity, hepatic steatosis, and dyslipidaemia. However, studies in the area are few and primarily with genistein. This study investigated the effects of formononetin and its synthetic analogue, 2-heptyl-formononetin (C7F), on lipid and cholesterol metabolism in C57BL/6J mice. The mice were fed a cholesterol-enriched diet for five weeks to induce hypercholesterolemia and were then fed either the cholesterol-enriched diet or the cholesterol-enriched diet-supplemented formononetin or C7F for three weeks. Body weight and composition, glucose homeostasis, and plasma lipids were compared. In another experiment, mice were fed the above diets for five weeks, and hepatic triglyceride accumulation and gene expression and histology of adipose tissue and liver were examined. Supplementation with C7F increased plasma HDL-cholesterol thereby increasing the plasma level of total cholesterol. Supplementation with formononetin did not affect plasma cholesterol but increased plasma triglycerides levels. Supplementation with formononetin and C7F induced hepatic steatosis. However, formononetin decreased markers of inflammation and liver injury. The development of hepatic steatosis was associated with deregulated expression of hepatic genes involved in lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. In conclusion, supplementation with formononetin and C7F to a cholesterol-enriched diet adversely affected lipid and lipoprotein metabolism in C57BL/6J mice. PMID:23738334

  15. Oral and transdermal estrogens both lower plasma total homocysteine in male-to-female transsexuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giltay, E.J.; Verhoef, P.; Gooren, L.J.G.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Schouten, E.G.; Stehouwer, C.D.A.

    2003-01-01

    Plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) levels are on average lower in women versus men, indicating an estrogenic effect. Oral estrogens (absorbed via the liver) may be hypothesized to have stronger effects on hepatic homocysteine metabolism than transdermal estrogens. We randomly assigned 30 male-to-femal

  16. Comparative effects of three 48-week community-based physical activity and exercise interventions on aerobic capacity, total cholesterol and mean arterial blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Steven; Jimenez, Alfonso; Domone, Sarah; Beedie, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Insufficient research examines the treatment effectiveness of real-world physical activity (PA) interventions. We investigated the effects of 3 interventions on directly measured cardiovascular variables. All treatments and measures were administered in community settings by fitness centre staff. Participants were sedentary individuals receiving no medication to reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk (n=369, age 43 ±5 years). In a semirandomised design, participants were allocated to a structured gym exercise programme (STRUC), unstructured gym exercise (FREE), physical activity counselling (PAC) or a measurement-only control condition (CONT). Measures were: predicted aerobic capacity (VO2: mL kg min), mean arterial blood pressure (MAP: mm Hg) and total cholesterol (TC: mmol/L), and were taken at baseline and 48 weeks. Data analysis indicated a statistically significant deterioration in TC in CONT (0.8%, SD=0.5, p=0.005), and a statistically significant improvement in MAP in STRUC (2.5%, SD=8.3, p=0.004). Following a median split by baseline VO2, paired-sample t tests indicated significant improvements in VO2 among low-fit participants in STRUC (3.5%, SD=4.8, p=0.003), PAC (3.3%, SD=7.7, p=0.050) and FREE (2.6%, SD=4.8, p=0.006), and significant deterioration of VO2 among high-fit participants in FREE (-2.0%, SD=5.6, p=0.037), and PAC (-3.2%, SD=6.4, p=0.031). Several forms of PA may offset increased cholesterol resulting from inactivity. Structured PA (exercise) might be more effective than either unstructured PA or counselling in improving blood pressure, and community-based PA interventions might be more effective in improving VO2 among low-fit than among high-fit participants.

  17. Gel coating of leaves of the water plant, Brasenia schreberi, lowers plasma cholesterol in hamsters on high fat diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    An edible, gelatinous water-insoluble coating surrounds the young leaves of the water plant, Brasenia schreberi. This mucilage is a polysaccharide of galactose, mannose, fucose and other monosaccharides. In order to determine if this edible gel has cholesterol lowering properties, we fed male hams...

  18. Common and Rare Alleles in Apolipoprotein B Contribute to Plasma Levels of LDL Cholesterol in the General Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, M; Stene, MC; Nordestgaard, BG;

    2008-01-01

    demonstrated to affect low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that nonsynonymous SNPs in three important functional domains of APOB and APOB tag SNPs predict levels of LDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B and risk of ischemic heart disease. DESIGN......: This was a prospective study with 25 yr 100% follow up, The Copenhagen City Heart Study. SETTING: The study was conducted in the Danish general population. PARTICIPANTS: Participants included 9185 women and men aged 20-80+ yr. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Levels of LDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B and risk of ischemic......Q (0.09), E4154K (0.17), and N4311S (0.21). SNPs were associated with increases (T71I, Ivs181708g>t, T2488Tc>t, R3611) or decreases (Ivs4+171c>a, A591V, Ivs18+379a>c, P2712L, E4154, N4311S) in LDL cholesterol from -4.7 to +8.2% (-0.28 to 0.30 mmol/liter; P

  19. Dynamic monitoring of total plasma homocysteine in spontaneously hypertensive rats by LC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Lu-Feng; Li, Jun-Wei; Wang, Xian-Qin; Xu, Ren-Ai; Xu, Xue-Gu; Jiang, Hai-Yan; Zhang, Xiu-Hua

    2010-10-01

    Hypertension has been recognized to be closely related to plasma homocysteine levels (tHcy). Spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) are used widely for hypertension research, but it is unclear whether hypertension is related to high levels of tHcy in rat plasma. To test whether hyperhomocysteinemia occurs in SHR we dynamically measured plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) in SHR by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS). This analytical method has good linearity within the range of 1-100 micromol/L for tHcy in rat plasma with a correlation coefficient of R = 0.9975. After dynamic monitoring (12 weeks) on the plasma tHcy in SHR and Wistar-Kyoto rats, we found that there was no significant difference in tHcy level between SHR and Wistar-Kyoto rats, which was 6.98 +/- 1.82 micromol/L and 8.04 +/- 1.64 micromol/L, respectively. And there was no significantly high level of plasma tHcy in SHR.

  20. Hypocholesterolemic Effects of Lactic Acid-Fermented Soymilk on Rats Fed a High Cholesterol Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuru Fukuda

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of fermented soymilk on rats fed a high cholesterol diet was investigated to clarify the cholesterol-lowering function. Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged 7 weeks were fed a control diet (1% cholesterol, high cholesterol diet, high cholesterol diet containing 11.7% fermented soymilk diet (5% soy protein as final concentration, F-5, or high cholesterol diet containing 23.4% fermented soymilk diet (10% soy protein as final concentration, F-10 for 5 weeks. The liver weight and fat mass were decreased by the ingestion of fermented soymilk. The hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol levels in the F-5 and F-10 groups were significantly lowered compared to those in the control group. The plasma total cholesterol level of the F-10 group was significantly decreased. The expression of SREBP-2, a cholesterol synthesis-related gene, was significantly decreased in liver of the F-5 group, but the expression of CYP7a1, a cholesterol catabolism-related gene, was significantly increased. These results suggest that fermented soymilk can modulate the cholesterol metabolism in rats fed a high cholesterol diet.

  1. Investigation of endogenous blood plasma phospholipids, cholesterol and glycerides that contribute to matrix effects in bioanalysis by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismaiel, Omnia A; Zhang, Tianyi; Jenkins, Rand G; Karnes, H Thomas

    2010-12-01

    Matrix effects caused by compounds endogenous to the biological sample are a primary challenge in quantitative LC/MS/MS bioanalysis. Many approaches have been developed to minimize matrix effects such as optimization of sample extraction procedures and use of isotopically labeled internal standards. Unexpected matrix components may still remain undetected, however, because of the selective mass transitions monitored during MS/MS analysis. Glycerophosphocholines are the major phospholipids in plasma that have been widely shown to cause significant matrix effects on electrospray ionization efficiencies for target analytes. The purpose of this work was to investigate potential matrix effects resulting from different endogenous lipid classes, including phospholipids, acylglycerols and cholesterols, in order to establish a library for the relative presence of these components in biological sample extracts obtained by commonly used sample preparation techniques. Thirteen compounds were selected which were representatives of eight phospholipids classes, mono, di, triacylglycerols, cholesterol and cholesterol esters. Post-column infusion experiments were carried out to compare relative ion suppression effects of these compounds. Chlorpheniramine and loratadine were selected as model test analytes. A Concentration Normalized Suppression Factor (%CNSF) was defined to allow comparison of ion suppression effects resulting from different endogenous lipids according to their typical concentrations in human plasma and erythrocytes. A simple LC/MS/MS method was developed to monitor these endogenous components in sample extracts and their extraction recoveries from a plasma pool were compared using protein precipitation, liquid-liquid extraction, supported-liquid extraction, solid phase extraction and Hybrid SPE-precipitation methods. Endogenous lipid components other than GPChos, such as cholesterols and triacylglycerols, may result in significant matrix effects and should be

  2. MD-2 binds cholesterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Soo-Ho; Kim, Jungsu; Gonen, Ayelet; Viriyakosol, Suganya; Miller, Yury I

    2016-02-19

    Cholesterol is a structural component of cellular membranes, which is transported from liver to peripheral cells in the form of cholesterol esters (CE), residing in the hydrophobic core of low-density lipoprotein. Oxidized CE (OxCE) is often found in plasma and in atherosclerotic lesions of subjects with cardiovascular disease. Our earlier studies have demonstrated that OxCE activates inflammatory responses in macrophages via toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4). Here we demonstrate that cholesterol binds to myeloid differentiation-2 (MD-2), a TLR4 ancillary molecule, which is a binding receptor for bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and is indispensable for LPS-induced TLR4 dimerization and signaling. Cholesterol binding to MD-2 was competed by LPS and by OxCE-modified BSA. Furthermore, soluble MD-2 in human plasma and MD-2 in mouse atherosclerotic lesions carried cholesterol, the finding supporting the biological significance of MD-2 cholesterol binding. These results help understand the molecular basis of TLR4 activation by OxCE and mechanisms of chronic inflammation in atherosclerosis.

  3. Lasofoxifene (CP-336,156) protects against the age-related changes in bone mass, bone strength, and total serum cholesterol in intact aged male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, H Z; Qi, H; Chidsey-Frink, K L; Crawford, D T; Thompson, D D

    2001-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate if long-term (6 months) treatment with lasofoxifene (LAS), a new selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), can protect against age-related changes in bone mass and bone strength in intact aged male rats. Sprague-Dawley male rats at 15 months of age were treated (daily oral gavage) with either vehicle (n = 12) or LAS at 0.01 mg/kg per day (n = 12) or 0.1 mg/kg per day (n = 11) for 6 months. A group of 15 rats was necropsied at 15 months of age and served as basal controls. No significant change was found in body weight between basal and vehicle controls. However, an age-related increase in fat body mass (+42%) and decrease in lean body mass (-8.5%) was observed in controls. Compared with vehicle controls, LAS at both doses significantly decreased body weight and fat body mass but did not affect lean body mass. No significant difference was found in prostate wet weight among all groups. Total serum cholesterol was significantly decreased in all LAS-treated rats compared with both the basal and the vehicle controls. Both doses of LAS treatment completely prevented the age-related increase in serum osteocalcin. Peripheral quantitative computerized tomography (pQCT) analysis at the distal femoral metaphysis indicated that the age-related decrease in total density, trabecular density, and cortical thickness was completely prevented by treatment with LAS at 0.01 mg/kg per day or 0.1 mg/kg per day. Histomorphometric analysis of proximal tibial cancellous bone showed an age-related decrease in trabecular bone volume (TBV; -46%), trabecular number (Tb.N), wall thickness (W.Th), mineral apposition rate, and bone formation rate-tissue area referent. Moreover, an age-related increase in trabecular separation (Tb.Sp) and eroded surface was observed. LAS at 0.01 mg/kg per day or 0.1 mg/kg per day completely prevented these age-related changes in bone mass, bone structure, and bone turnover. Similarly, the age-related decrease in TBV

  4. Plasma total thiol pool in children with asthma: Modulation during montelukast monotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilek, Fatih; Ozkaya, Emin; Kocyigit, Abdurrahim; Yazici, Mebrure; Guler, Eray Metin; Dundaroz, Mehmet Rusen

    2016-03-01

    Inflammation, which is a hallmark of asthma, is one of the main sources of oxidative stress in the human body. Thiols are powerful antioxidants that protect cells against the consequences of oxidative stress. We aimed to investigate whether asthma and montelukast monotherapy affect the total plasma thiol pool in children. A total of 60 children with asthma and 35 healthy controls participated in the study. Group I consisted of newly diagnosed asthmatics who did not have regular anti-asthmatic therapy previously. Group II consisted of patients who had been undertaking montelukast monotherapy regularly for at least 4 months. Plasma total antioxidant status (TAS) and plasma total thiol (PTT) were measured using spectrophotometric methods. Bronchial asthma patients in both groups I and II had decreased median TAS levels compared with the control group (1.59 [interquartile range, 1.04-1.70] and 1.67 [1.50-1.75] vs. 2.98 [2.76-3.16] Trolox equiv./L, respectively; P0.05). In addition, the median TAS and PTT levels for groups I and II were not statistically different (P>0.05). There was a positive correlation between TAS and PTT levels (rho=0.38, Pchildren with asthma. Montelukast monotherapy can limit oxidative stress and thus restore PTT levels but not TAS levels in asthmatic children. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Total physical activity might not be a good measure in the relationship with HDL cholesterol and triglycerides in a multi-ethnic population: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Munter Jeroen SL

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence suggests that physical activity (PA has a beneficial effect on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL and triglycerides. However, observational studies show contrasting results for this association between different ethnic groups. It is unclear whether this is due to differences in the PA composition. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship of the total PA, along with its intensity and duration, with HDL and triglycerides in a multi-ethnic population. Methods The study population was sampled from the SUNSET study and included: 502 European- Dutch, 338 Hindustani-Surinamese, and 596 African-Surinamese participants living in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. We assessed PA with the SQUASH questionnaire. We calculated age-sex-adjusted betas, geometric mean ratios (GMRs, and prevalence ratios (PRs to assess the relationship of PA with HDL and triglycerides. Results In the adjusted models, the highest total PA tertile compared to the lowest tertile was beneficially associated with HDL (beta: 0.08, 95% CI: 0.00, 0.16 and PR low HDL 0.59, 95% CI: 0.39, 0.88 and triglycerides (GMR: 0.93, 95% CI: 0.83, 1.03 and PR: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.29, 1.08 for the African-Surinamese. No statistically significant associations appeared for total PA among the European-Dutch and Hindustani-Surinamese. The adjusted models with the intensity score and HDL showed beneficial associations for the European-Dutch (beta: 0.06, 95% CI: 0.03, 0.10 and African-Surinamese (beta: 0.06, 0.02, 0.10, for log triglycerides for the European-Dutch (beta: -0.08, 95% CI: -0.12, 0.03, Hindustani-Surinamese (beta: -0.06, 95% CI: -0.16, 0.03, and African-Surinamese (beta: -0.04, 95% CI: -0.10, 0.01. Excepting HDL in African-Surinamese, the duration score was unrelated to HDL and triglycerides in any group. Conclusions Activity intensity related beneficially to blood lipids in almost every ethnic group. The activity duration was unrelated to blood lipids, while

  6. Total physical activity might not be a good measure in the relationship with HDL cholesterol and triglycerides in a multi-ethnic population: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests that physical activity (PA) has a beneficial effect on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) and triglycerides. However, observational studies show contrasting results for this association between different ethnic groups. It is unclear whether this is due to differences in the PA composition. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship of the total PA, along with its intensity and duration, with HDL and triglycerides in a multi-ethnic population. Methods The study population was sampled from the SUNSET study and included: 502 European- Dutch, 338 Hindustani-Surinamese, and 596 African-Surinamese participants living in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. We assessed PA with the SQUASH questionnaire. We calculated age-sex-adjusted betas, geometric mean ratios (GMRs), and prevalence ratios (PRs) to assess the relationship of PA with HDL and triglycerides. Results In the adjusted models, the highest total PA tertile compared to the lowest tertile was beneficially associated with HDL (beta: 0.08, 95% CI: 0.00, 0.16 and PR low HDL 0.59, 95% CI: 0.39, 0.88) and triglycerides (GMR: 0.93, 95% CI: 0.83, 1.03 and PR: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.29, 1.08) for the African-Surinamese. No statistically significant associations appeared for total PA among the European-Dutch and Hindustani-Surinamese. The adjusted models with the intensity score and HDL showed beneficial associations for the European-Dutch (beta: 0.06, 95% CI: 0.03, 0.10) and African-Surinamese (beta: 0.06, 0.02, 0.10), for log triglycerides for the European-Dutch (beta: -0.08, 95% CI: -0.12, 0.03), Hindustani-Surinamese (beta: -0.06, 95% CI: -0.16, 0.03), and African-Surinamese (beta: -0.04, 95% CI: -0.10, 0.01). Excepting HDL in African-Surinamese, the duration score was unrelated to HDL and triglycerides in any group. Conclusions Activity intensity related beneficially to blood lipids in almost every ethnic group. The activity duration was unrelated to blood lipids, while the total PA

  7. Total physical activity might not be a good measure in the relationship with HDL cholesterol and triglycerides in a multi-ethnic population: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Munter, Jeroen S L; van Valkengoed, Irene G; Stronks, Karien; Agyemang, Charles

    2011-11-30

    Evidence suggests that physical activity (PA) has a beneficial effect on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) and triglycerides. However, observational studies show contrasting results for this association between different ethnic groups. It is unclear whether this is due to differences in the PA composition. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship of the total PA, along with its intensity and duration, with HDL and triglycerides in a multi-ethnic population. The study population was sampled from the SUNSET study and included: 502 European- Dutch, 338 Hindustani-Surinamese, and 596 African-Surinamese participants living in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. We assessed PA with the SQUASH questionnaire. We calculated age-sex-adjusted betas, geometric mean ratios (GMRs), and prevalence ratios (PRs) to assess the relationship of PA with HDL and triglycerides. In the adjusted models, the highest total PA tertile compared to the lowest tertile was beneficially associated with HDL (beta: 0.08, 95% CI: 0.00, 0.16 and PR low HDL 0.59, 95% CI: 0.39, 0.88) and triglycerides (GMR: 0.93, 95% CI: 0.83, 1.03 and PR: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.29, 1.08) for the African-Surinamese. No statistically significant associations appeared for total PA among the European-Dutch and Hindustani-Surinamese. The adjusted models with the intensity score and HDL showed beneficial associations for the European-Dutch (beta: 0.06, 95% CI: 0.03, 0.10) and African-Surinamese (beta: 0.06, 0.02, 0.10), for log triglycerides for the European-Dutch (beta: -0.08, 95% CI: -0.12, 0.03), Hindustani-Surinamese (beta: -0.06, 95% CI: -0.16, 0.03), and African-Surinamese (beta: -0.04, 95% CI: -0.10, 0.01). Excepting HDL in African-Surinamese, the duration score was unrelated to HDL and triglycerides in any group. Activity intensity related beneficially to blood lipids in almost every ethnic group. The activity duration was unrelated to blood lipids, while the total PA 'summary score' was associated only with

  8. Unrefined and refined black raspberry seed oils significantly lower triglycerides and moderately affect cholesterol metabolism in male Syrian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Mark M; Wolford, Kate A; Carden, Trevor J; Hwang, Keum Taek; Carr, Timothy P

    2011-09-01

    Unrefined and refined black raspberry seed oils (RSOs) were examined for their lipid-modulating effects in male Syrian hamsters fed high-cholesterol (0.12% g/g), high-fat (9% g/g) diets. Hamsters fed the refined and the unrefined RSO diets had equivalently lower plasma total cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol in comparison with the atherogenic coconut oil diet. The unrefined RSO treatment group did not differ in liver total and esterified cholesterol from the coconut oil-fed control animals, but the refined RSO resulted in significantly elevated liver total and esterified cholesterol concentrations. The unrefined RSO diets significantly lowered plasma triglycerides (46%; P=.0126) in comparison with the coconut oil diet, whereas the refined RSO only tended to lower plasma triglyceride (29%; P=.1630). Liver triglyceride concentrations were lower in the unrefined (46%; P=.0002) and refined (36%; P=.0005) RSO-fed animals than the coconut oil group, with the unrefined RSO diet eliciting a lower concentration than the soybean oil diet. Both RSOs demonstrated a null or moderate effect on cholesterol metabolism despite enrichment in linoleic acid, significantly lowering HDL cholesterol but not non-HDL cholesterol. Dramatically, both RSOs significantly reduced hypertriglyceridemia, most likely due to enrichment in α-linolenic acid. As a terrestrial source of α-linolenic acid, black RSOs, both refined and unrefined, provide a promising alternative to fish oil supplementation in management of hypertriglyceridemia, as demonstrated in hamsters fed high levels of dietary triglyceride and cholesterol.

  9. Acute Exercise Increases Plasma Total Antioxidant Status and Antioxidant Enzyme Activities in Untrained Men

    OpenAIRE

    Berzosa, C.; I. Cebrián; Fuentes-Broto, L.; E. Gómez-Trullén; Piedrafita, E.; Martínez-Ballarín, E.; López-Pingarrón, L.; Reiter, R. J.; García, J. J.

    2011-01-01

    Antioxidant defences are essential for cellular redox regulation. Since free-radical production may be enhanced by physical activity, herein, we evaluated the effect of acute exercise on total antioxidant status (TAS) and the plasma activities of catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase and its possible relation to oxidative stress resulting from exercise. Healthy untrained male subjects ( = 3 4 ) performed three cycloergometric tests, including maxi...

  10. Effects of total gastrectomy on plasma silicon and amino acid concentrations in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatara, Marcin R; Krupski, Witold; Szpetnar, Maria; Dąbrowski, Andrzej; Bury, Paweł; Szabelska, Anna; Charuta, Anna; Boguszewska-Czubara, Anna; Maciejewski, Ryszard; Wallner, Grzegorz

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to determine one-year effects of total gastrectomy on plasma silicon and free amino acid concentrations in patients and evaluate changes of volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) in lumbar spine. Eight patients were enrolled to the control (CTR) group. Six patients subjected to total gastrectomy (GX group) were included to the experimental group. vBMD in trabecular and cortical bone was measured in lumbar vertebrae at baseline (before surgery) and one year later using quantitative computed tomography. Plasma concentrations of silicon and free amino acids were determined at baseline and one year later using photometric method and ion-exchange chromatography. Body weights within CTR and GX groups were not different after one-year follow-up when compared to the baseline values (P > 0.05). An average annual decrease of vBMD in the trabecular bone in the gastrectomized patients reached 15.0% in lumbar spine and was significantly different in comparison to the percentage changes observed in CTR group (P = 0.02). One-year percentage change of vBMD in the cortical bone in L1 and L2 has shown significantly decreased values by 10.5 and 9.1% in the GX group when compared to the percentage change observed in the controls (P silicon was significantly lowered by 26.7% one year after the total gastrectomy when compared to the baseline value (P = 0.009). Total gastrectomy in patients has induced severe osteoporotic changes in lumbar spine within one-year period. The observed osteoporotic changes were associated with decreased plasma concentration of silicon indicating importance of exocrine and endocrine functions of stomach for silicon homeostasis maintenance. Gastrectomy-induced bone loss was not related to decreased amino acid concentration in plasma obtained from overnight fasted patients.

  11. Familial resemblance on the Thurstone Activity Scale, systolic blood pressure, and total cholesterol among first degree relatives of subjects with and without coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmelli, D; Rosenman, R

    1985-01-01

    An investigation of the pattern of familial resemblance of three different risk factors assessed in families of coronary heart disease (CHD) patients and controls is presented. The fathers of these families participated in the Western Collaborative Group Study that first established the type A/B behavior pattern as an independent risk factor for CHD. A recently developed methodology, the Structured Exploratory Data Analysis (SEDA), was implemented to examine parental interaction, parent-offspring closeness, asymmetries in transmission, and other differences in the pattern of familial similarities among family members of case and control subjects. The analysis performed revealed pronounced parent-child similarity for total serum cholesterol values in both case and control families; spouse closeness and parent-child resemblance for systolic blood pressure measurements only in control families; and sex asymmetries in the parent-child closeness on pace of activity, which also differed between case and control families. The results of this investigation underscore the value of examining the joint pattern of familial resemblance of a number of risk factors as a means for differentiating between cultural and biological factors affecting familial aggregation of CHD.

  12. Relations Between Atherogenic Index of Plasma, Ratio of Small Dense Low Density Lipoprotein/Lecithin Cholesterol Acyl Transferase and Ratio of Small Dense Low Density Lipoprotein/Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein of Controlled and Uncontrolled Type 2 DM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellis Susanti

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patients with Diabetes Melitus are proven to be prone to atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease, especially type 2 Diabetes Melitus (T2DM patient who have higher risk and mortality for cardiovascular risk factor. The Dyslipidemia condition is very common in T2DM as one of the risk factors. Diabetic dyslipidemia is marked by the increased triglyceride (TG, low HDL cholesterol (HDL-C, and increased small dense LDL and apolipoprotein B. Therefore the aim of this study is to assess the differential and correlation between Atherogenic Index of Plasma (AIP, ratio of small dense low density lipoprotein (sdLDL/lecithin cholesterol acyl transferase (LCAT and ratio of sdLDL/cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP of controlled and uncontrolled T2DM. METHODS: This study was observational with cross sectional design. In total of 72 patients with T2DM consist of 36 controlled and 36 uncontrolled, participated in this study. The serum TG, HDL-C, sdLDL, LCAT and CETP were examined in their relationship with to T2DM risk. RESULTS: The results of the study indicate that the AIP (p<0.001 increase controlled and uncontrolled T2DM and the ratio of sdLDL/CETP (p=0.004, odds ratio of AIP was 4 (95% CI: 1.501-10.658 and odds ratio of sdLDL/CETP ratio was 4 (95% CI: 1.501-10.658 in uncontrolled T2DM. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that the AIP and ratio of small dense LDL/CETP had a significant correlation with the uncontrolled T2DM. The AIP and ratio of small dense LDL/CETP increase was found at the uncontrolled T2DM to be 4 times greater than the controlled T2DM. KEYWORDS: T2DM, atherosclerosis, atherogenic index of plasma, small dense LDL, LCAT, CETP, ratio of sdLDL/LCAT, ratio of sdLDL/CETP.

  13. Good vs. Bad Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Good vs. Bad Cholesterol Updated:Apr 3,2017 Cholesterol can't dissolve ... test . View an animation of cholesterol . LDL (Bad) Cholesterol LDL cholesterol is considered the “bad” cholesterol because ...

  14. High Blood Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. High Blood Cholesterol What is High Blood Cholesterol? What is Cholesterol? Cholesterol is a ... heart disease. If Your Blood Cholesterol Is Too High Too much cholesterol in your blood is called ...

  15. Intracellular transport of cholesterol in mammalian cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brasaemle, D.L.

    1989-01-01

    The erythrocyte was selected as a simple cell for the study of transbilayer movement of cholesterol. Cholesterol oxidase was used to measure the distribution of ({sup 3}H)cholesterol across the erythrocyte membrane. Cholesterol oxidase was also used to estimate the rate of transport of low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol to the plasma membrane of cultured Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) fibroblasts; the half-time of this process was 42 minutes. The rate of transport of LDL cholesterol to the plasma membrane was confirmed by a second procedure using amphotericin B. Amphotericin B was also used to estimate the rate of transport of endogenously synthesized cholesterol to the plasma membrane of CHO cells. New methodology was developed including improvements of the previously published cholesterol oxidase assay for plasma membrane cholesterol. A new method for detecting transport of cholesterol to the plasma membrane in cultured cells was developed using amphotericin B. Preliminary studies investigated the use of fluorescent polyenes, pimaricin and etruscomycin, as probes for plasma membrane cholesterol in transport studies. Finally, a modification of a previously published cell staining protocol yielded a simple, quantitative assay for cell growth.

  16. Role of cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) in nutrigenetics and pharmacogenetics of cholesterol lowering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubacek, Jaroslav A; Bobkova, Dagmar

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between dietary composition/cholesterol-lowering therapy and final plasma lipid levels is to some extent genetically determined. It is clear that these responses are under polygenic control, with multiple variants in many genes participating in the total effect (and with each gene contributing a relatively small effect). Using different experimental approaches, several candidate genes have been analyzed to date.Interesting and consistent results have been published recently regarding the A-204C promoter variant in the cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) gene. CYP7A1 is a rate-limiting enzyme in bile acid synthesis and therefore plays an important role in maintaining cholesterol homeostasis. CYP7A1-204CC homozygotes have the greatest decrease in total cholesterol level in response to dietary changes in different types of dietary intervention studies. In contrast, one study has reported that the effect of statins in lowering low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol levels was slightly greater in -204AA homozygotes. The CYP7A1 A-204C variant accounts for a significant proportion of the genetic predisposition of the response of plasma cholesterol levels.

  17. Plasma total homocysteine increases from day 20 to 40 in breastfed but not formula-fed low-birthweight infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkema, M R; Woltil, H A; van Beusekom, C M; Schaafsma, A; Dijck-Brouwer, D A J; Muskiet, F A J

    2002-01-01

    Homocysteine is an intermediate in the folate cycle and methionine metabolism. This study investigated whether formula-fed infants have different plasma total homocysteine to their breastfed counterparts, and during what period any difference developed. Plasma total homocysteine was determined in 53

  18. Statins and the cholesterol mortality paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, José Pedro L

    2017-02-01

    Large-scale randomised controlled trials, carried out in the context of secondary cardiovascular prevention, have shown that statins are superior to placebo: these drugs were shown to decrease cardiovascular events and total mortality. A further set of clinical trials compared high intensity to low/standard intensity LDL cholesterol lowering in the same setting (using either statins or a statin/ezetimibe association). In this case, a decrease in LDL cholesterol and a concomitant significant reduction in cardiovascular events were seen with intensive therapy, however with no change in total mortality. This phenomenon we may term the LDL cholesterol mortality paradox. It could be due either to the prevention (by high-intensity therapy) of episodes not severe enough to lead to the death of patients, or to high-intensity therapy leading to the death of some patients at the same time as preventing the death of others, with a null aggregate effect. Several types of adverse effects have been seen with statin therapy, such as a possible increased incidence of Diabetes mellitus and of myopathy. The decision to start high-intensity LDL cholesterol lowering (rather than low- or moderate-intensity statin treatment) should be evaluated on a case-by-case basis, taking into consideration the overall aspects of each patient, including the patient's preferences. High-intensity LDL cholesterol lowering, up to the present moment, has failed to produce a change in overall prognosis (total mortality), and should not therefore be mandatory in secondary cardiovascular prevention. It remains to be seen if a similar LDL cholesterol mortality paradox occurs with new drugs targeting plasma lipids.

  19. Total plasma proANP increases with atrial dilatation in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Der Vekens, N; Hunter, I; Timm, A; Decloedt, A; De Clercq, D; Deprez, P; Goetze, J P; van Loon, G

    2015-12-19

    Equine atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) plasma concentrations are correlated with left atrial size. However, species-specific assays are lacking and the results from human assays are poorly reproducible. A new methodology called processing independent analysis (PIA) that measures the total proANP product in plasma has proven to be successful in human medicine, but has never been used in horses. The aims were to establish an equine proANP reference interval by measurement of the total proANP product using PIA and to examine the proANP concentrations in horses with atrial dilatation. Sample stability was studied by comparison of storage at -80°C and -20°C. Plasma samples were obtained from 23 healthy horses, 12 horses with moderate or severe valvular regurgitation without atrial dilatation and 42 horses with valvular regurgitation and atrial dilatation. The proANP concentration was significantly (Phorses with atrial dilatation (761.4 (442.1-1859.1) pmol/l) than in healthy horses (491.6 (429.5-765.9) pmol/l; Phorses with cardiac disease but without atrial dilatation (544.4 (457.0-677.6) pmol/l). A cut-off value (573.8 pmol/l) for detection of atrial dilatation was calculated. Sample storage at -80°C did not differ from sample storage at -20°C. The measurement of total proANP in plasma detects atrial dilatation in horses and may be useful for clinical evaluation in equine medicine.

  20. Impaired plasma lipid profiles in acute hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yongzhong

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present study examined plasma lipid profiles in thirty patients suffered from acute viral hepatitis. Patients' blood samples were collected at both the debut and recovery of diseases. Thirty sex and age matched normal subjects were included as controls. Plasma total triglycerides (TG, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, apolipoprotein AI (ApoAI, apolipoprotein B (ApoB, lipoprotein (a (Lp(a, blood coagulation status including prothrombin complex activity and activated partial tromboplastin time (APTT, and hepatic functions were determined by the automatic biochemical analytical instrument. It demonstrated that plasma levels of total cholesterol, HDL-C and apoAI were significantly lower in the patients at the acute phase of hepatitis than those in normal subjects, whereas plasma levels of TG and LDL-C were obviously higher in the patients than in normal subjects (P

  1. How Is High Blood Cholesterol Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for total and HDL cholesterol does not require fasting. If your total cholesterol is 200 mg/dL ... triglyceride level include: Overweight and obesity Lack of physical activity Cigarette smoking Excessive alcohol use A very high ...

  2. The ABCG5/8 Cholesterol Transporter and Myocardial Infarction Versus Gallstone Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stender, Stefan; Frikke-Schmidt, Ruth; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The study sought to test the hypothesis that genetic variation in ABCG5/8, the transporter responsible for intestinal and hepatobiliary cholesterol efflux, may simultaneously influence plasma and biliary cholesterol levels, and hence risk of myocardial infarction (MI) and gallstone...... disease in opposite directions. BACKGROUND: High plasma levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol are a causal risk factor for MI, whereas high levels of biliary cholesterol promote gallstone formation. METHODS: A total of 60,239 subjects from Copenhagen were included, including 5,647 with MI...... and 3,174 with symptomatic gallstone disease. Subjects were genotyped for 6 common, nonsynonymous and functional variants in ABCG5/8, and a combined weighted genotype score was calculated. RESULTS: Combined, weighted genotype scores were associated with stepwise decreases in LDL cholesterol of up to 5...

  3. Determination of total plasma hydroperoxides using a diphenyl-1-pyrenylphosphine fluorescent probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santas, Jonathan; Guardiola, Francesc; Rafecas, Magda; Bou, Ricard

    2013-03-01

    Plasma hydroperoxides (HPs) are widely accepted to be good indicators of oxidative stress. By means of the method proposed here, which uses diphenyl-1-pyrenylphosphine (DPPP) as a fluorescent probe, all types of plasma HP were determined. The limits of detection and quantification of the method were 0.08 and 0.25 nmol of cumene hydroperoxide (CHP) equivalents in 40 μl of plasma, respectively. The method is satisfactory in terms of precision (5.3% for 14.5 μM CHP eq., n=8), and the recoveries were 91% and 92% after standard additions of 26 and 52 μM CHP, respectively. The selectivity of the proposed method is higher than 96%. Moreover, optimization of the reaction conditions and the addition of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) disodium salt and 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol (BHT) prevented the formation of HP artifacts during the analysis. Therefore, the proposed method is useful for simple and quantitative determination of total plasma HPs.

  4. Cholesterol in unusual places

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kucerka, N; Nieh, M P; Marquardt, D; Harroun, T A; Wassail, S R; Katsaras, J, E-mail: John.Katsaras@nrc.gc.ca, E-mail: Norbert.Kucerka@nrc.gc.ca

    2010-11-01

    Cholesterol is an essential component of mammalian cells, and is required for building and maintaining cell membranes, regulating their fluidity, and possibly acting as an antioxidant. Cholesterol has also been implicated in cell signaling processes, where it has been suggested that it triggers the formation of lipid rafts in the plasma membrane. Aside from cholesterol's physiological roles, what is also becoming clear is its poor affinity for lipids with unsaturated fatty acids as opposed to saturated lipids, such as sphingomyelin with which it forms rafts. We previously reported the location of cholesterol in membranes with varying degrees of acyl chain unsaturation as determined by neutron diffraction studies (Harroun et al 2006 Biochemistry 45, 1227; Harroun et al 2008 Biochemistry 47, 7090). In bilayers composed of phosphatidylcholine (PC) molecules with a saturated acyl chain at the sn-1 position or a monounsaturated acyl chain at both sn-1 and sn-2 positions, cholesterol was found in its much-accepted 'upright' position. However, in dipolyunsaturated 1,2-diarachidonyl phosphatidylcholine (20:4-20:4PC) membranes the molecule was found sequestered in the center of the bilayers. In further experiments, mixing l-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl phosphatidylcholine (16:0-18:1 PC) with 20:4-20:4PC resulted in cholesterol reverting to its upright orientation at approximately 40 mol% 16:0-18:1 PC. Interestingly, the same effect was achieved with only 5 mol% 1,2-dimyristoyl phosphatidylchoile (14:0-14:0PC).

  5. Fasting and postprandial remnant-like particle cholesterol concentrations in obese participants are associated with plasma triglycerides, insulin resistance, and body fat distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Hees, Anneke M. J.; Saris, Wim H. M.; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M.;

    2008-01-01

    Elevated plasma concentrations of remnant-like particle cholesterol (RLP-C) are atherogenic. However, factors that determine RLP-C are not fully understood. This study evaluates which factors affect RLP-C in the fasting and postprandial state, using multiple regression analyses in a large cohort...... (n = 613) also participated in a 10-wk weight loss program (-2510 kJ/d), being randomized to either a low-fat or a high-fat diet (20-25 vs. 40-45en% fat). Postprandial RLP-C was associated with fasting RLP-C, waist:hip ratio (WHR), HOMA(IR) (homeostasis model assessment index for insulin resistance......) (P related to fasting RLP-C (P

  6. Acute Exercise Increases Plasma Total Antioxidant Status and Antioxidant Enzyme Activities in Untrained Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Berzosa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant defences are essential for cellular redox regulation. Since free-radical production may be enhanced by physical activity, herein, we evaluated the effect of acute exercise on total antioxidant status (TAS and the plasma activities of catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase and its possible relation to oxidative stress resulting from exercise. Healthy untrained male subjects (=34 performed three cycloergometric tests, including maximal and submaximal episodes. Venous blood samples were collected before and immediately after each different exercise. TAS and enzyme activities were assessed by spectrophotometry. An increase of the antioxidant enzyme activities in plasma was detected after both maximal and submaximal exercise periods. Moreover, under our experimental conditions, exercise also led to an augmentation of TAS levels. These findings are consistent with the idea that acute exercise may play a beneficial role because of its ability to increase antioxidant defense mechanisms through a redox sensitive pathway.

  7. Seminal plasma total antioxidant capacity and vitamin- C levels in asthenozoospermia: a case- control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Bidmeshkipour

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Defective sperm function is now recognized as one of the most important causes of male infertility. Seminal plasma possesses a rich source of different enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants such as vitamin C (ascorbic acid that protect spermatozoa against oxidative stress as one of the mediators of infertility causing sperm dysfunction and low sperm quality. The aim of this study was investigation of seminal total antioxidant capacity and determination of vitamin C effects on sperm motility. "n"nMethods: We designed a case-control study with a total subject of 62 males. Sperm parameters were analyzed according to World Health Organization guidelines (WHO, 1999. Total antioxidant capacity and vitamin C level of seminal plasma were measured in the 32 normozoospermic as the control group and 32 asthenospermic men as the case group using FRAP (Ferric Reducing of Antioxidants Powers and RP-HPLC (Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography methods, respectively. "n"nResults: Our results indicated that total antioxidant capacity levels in the seminal plasma of asthenospermic men were significantly lower than healthy men (p=0.002. In addition, we found a positive correlation between reduced total

  8. Spectrophotometric determination of total proteins in blood plasma: a comparative study among dye-binding methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimas Augusto Morozin Zaia

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study between the biuret method (standard method for total proteins and spectrophotometric methods using dyes (Bradford, 3',3",5',5"-tetrabromophenolphthalein ethyl ester-TBPEE, and erythrosin-B was carried out for the determination of total proteins in blood plasma from rats. Bradford method showed the highest sensitivity for proteins and biuret method showed the lowest. For all the methods, the absorbance for different proteins (BSA, casein, and egg albumin was measured and Bradford method showed the lowest variation of absorbance. The concentration of total protein obtained by using Bradford method was not statistically different (p>0.05 from concentration of total protein obtained by the biuret method. But in regard to erythrosin-B and TBPEE methods the concentrations of total protein were statistically different (pA determinação de proteínas totais em plasma sangüíneo é importante em diversas áreas de pesquisa. Um estudo comparativo entre o método de biureto (método padrão para proteínas totais e diversos métodos que utilizam corantes (Bradford, tetrabromofenolftaleína etil éster-TBPEE, e eritrosina-B foi realizado para a determinação de proteínas totais em plasma sangüíneo de ratos. O método de Bradford mostrou a maior sensibilidade para proteínas e o de biureto a menor. Para todos os métodos, as absorbâncias para diferentes proteínas (BSA, caseína, e ovoalbumina foram medidas e o método de Bradford mostrou a menor variação da absorbância. Utilizando o método de Bradford a concentração de proteínas totais obtida não foi estatisticamente diferente (p>0.05 daquela obtida pelo método do biureto. Porém, para os métodos da eritrosina-B e TBPEE as concentrações de proteínas totais foram estatisticamente diferentes (p<0.05 da obtida pelo método de biureto. Portanto o método de Bradford pode ser utilizado no lugar do método de biureto para a determinação de proteínas totais em plasma sangüíneo.

  9. A genome-wide screen for interactions reveals a new locus on 4p15 modifying the effect of waist-to-hip ratio on total cholesterol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Surakka

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Recent genome-wide association (GWA studies described 95 loci controlling serum lipid levels. These common variants explain ∼25% of the heritability of the phenotypes. To date, no unbiased screen for gene-environment interactions for circulating lipids has been reported. We screened for variants that modify the relationship between known epidemiological risk factors and circulating lipid levels in a meta-analysis of genome-wide association (GWA data from 18 population-based cohorts with European ancestry (maximum N = 32,225. We collected 8 further cohorts (N = 17,102 for replication, and rs6448771 on 4p15 demonstrated genome-wide significant interaction with waist-to-hip-ratio (WHR on total cholesterol (TC with a combined P-value of 4.79×10(-9. There were two potential candidate genes in the region, PCDH7 and CCKAR, with differential expression levels for rs6448771 genotypes in adipose tissue. The effect of WHR on TC was strongest for individuals carrying two copies of G allele, for whom a one standard deviation (sd difference in WHR corresponds to 0.19 sd difference in TC concentration, while for A allele homozygous the difference was 0.12 sd. Our findings may open up possibilities for targeted intervention strategies for people characterized by specific genomic profiles. However, more refined measures of both body-fat distribution and metabolic measures are needed to understand how their joint dynamics are modified by the newly found locus.

  10. Cholesterol deregulation induced by chronic corticosterone (CORT) stress in pectoralis major of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yujing; Fu, Wenyan; Wang, Song; Ni, Yingdong; Zhao, Ruqian

    2014-10-01

    Chronic endogenous glucocorticoid (GC) excess in mammals is associated with metabolic dysfunction and dyslipidemia that are characterized by increased plasma triglyceride and total cholesterol (Tch) levels. However, the effects of chronic GC administration on cholesterol metabolism, particularly in muscle tissues of broiler chickens, are unknown. In this study, broiler chickens were treated chronically with vehicle (CON) or corticosterone (CORT) for 2 weeks. Chronic CORT treatment significantly increased Tch levels in pectoralis major muscle (PMC) (p0.05). Western blot results showed that the levels of total GR (p=0.08) tended to be increased and nuclear GR protein (pchickens by increasing cholesterol synthesis and uptake.

  11. Association analyses of the INSIG2 polymorphism in the obesity and cholesterol levels of Korean populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Hyoung

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While INSIG2 has been reported to be associated with BMI in many populations, conflicting results have prevented consensus over its role. In analyses of mice and cell cultures the gene has been found to be involved in the regulation of cholesterol synthesis; however, no relationship has been found with cholesterol metabolism in human epidemiological research. Therefore, this study attempts to assess the effect of rs7566605 near INSIG2 on both obesity- and cholesterol-related traits in Koreans. Methods The rs7566605 polymorphism was genotyped with 2,364 Koreans, and associations with obesity- and cholesterol-related traits were analyzed statistically via an ANOVA or T-test. Results Replication of an association with BMI, WHR, fat mass, fat percent, and abdominal fat area failed, and the C allele of rs7566605 was not associated significantly with total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, or triglyceride. However, it was found in a meta-analysis of a dominant model that the C allele of rs7566605 appeared to affect the level of the total cholesterol, especially in female subjects. Conclusion We failed to show associations of rs7566605 with cholesterol- and obesity-related phenotypes, although we newly suggest the possible involvement of INSIG2 with the plasma level of the total cholesterol in women.

  12. [Determination of total sulfur in coal by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong-yan; Zhang, Yuan-li

    2002-02-01

    A direct method was reported for the determination of total sulfur in coal by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The dissolution conditions of coal samples as well as interference conditions of hydrochloric acid and matrix were studied. The recommended method not only proved to be simple and rapid than traditional gravimetric method but show satisfying precision and accuracy as well. The results of samples are as same as gravimetry. The recoveries are more than 96%, and the relative standard deviation of six samples are less than 3%.

  13. Characterization of vitamin E and total cholesterol levels in meat of lamb produced in the south of Sonora State, México by HPLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Isabel Cruz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The higher cholesterol content in some meat species has been associated in many scientific papers with degenerative and cardiovascular illness. Nonetheless, there are no specific studies on Sonora’s lamb meat vitamin E and cholesterol content. The use of analytical techniques to determinate meat quality and healthiness are important as routine food analysis. The objective of this work was to characterize cholesterol and vitamin E levels in lamb meat produced in Sonora using high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC as a precise analytical technique. Samples (15 from criollo race Longissimus dorsi muscle, 35-40 kg live weight produced in a stabled system feed with corn was lyophilized to determinate -tocopherol and cholesterol via HPLC. Results shown that the average concentration were 2.3±1.06 mg/mL and 135.62±31.4 mg/mL in 100 g of meat for α-tocopherol and cholesterol, respectively. The characterization of these analites is important to provide the necessary purchase information to consumer, increasing lamb meat added value.

  14. Plasma cholesteryl ester transfer and hepatic lipase activity are related to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in association with insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic and non-diabetic subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riemens, SC; Van Tol, A; Scheek, LM; Dullaart, RPF

    2001-01-01

    We evaluated the: hypothesis that plasma cholesteryl ester transfer (CET) and lipase activities are influenced by insulin sensitivity and contribute to the low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol observed in type 2 diabetic patients and insulin-resistant non-diabetic subjects. Sixteen type 2

  15. ERYTHROCYTE AND PLASMA-CHOLESTEROL ESTER LONG-CHAIN POLYUNSATURATED FATTY-ACIDS OF LOW-BIRTH-WEIGHT BABIES FED PRETERM FORMULA WITH AND WITHOUT RIBONUCLEOTIDES - COMPARISON WITH HUMAN-MILK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WOLTIL, HA; VANBEUSEKOM, CM; SIEMENSMA, AD; POLMAN, HA; MUSKIET, FAJ; OKKEN, A

    1995-01-01

    We investigated whether a regular formula for premature infants (pre) supplemented with ribonucleotides (pre+RN) raises erythrocyte and plasma cholesterol ester (CE) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) of low-birthweight babies (less than or equal to 2.50 kg) compared with their breast-

  16. Plasma cholesteryl ester transfer and hepatic lipase activity are related to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in association with insulin resistance in type 2 diabetic and non-diabetic subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riemens, SC; Van Tol, A; Scheek, LM; Dullaart, RPF

    We evaluated the: hypothesis that plasma cholesteryl ester transfer (CET) and lipase activities are influenced by insulin sensitivity and contribute to the low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol observed in type 2 diabetic patients and insulin-resistant non-diabetic subjects. Sixteen type 2

  17. Oral vitamin B12 supplementation reduces plasma total homocysteine concentration in women in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yajnik, Chittaranjan S; Lubree, Himangi G; Thuse, Nileema V; Ramdas, Lalita V; Deshpande, Swapna S; Deshpande, Vaishali U; Deshpande, Jyoti A; Uradey, Bhagyashree S; Ganpule, Anjali A; Naik, Sadanand S; Joshi, Niranjan P; Farrant, Hannah; Refsum, Helga

    2007-01-01

    People in India have a high prevalence of low vitamin B12 status and high plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations. In a proof of principle trial, we studied the effect of oral vitamin B12 (500 microg) and/or 100 g cooked green leafy vegetables (GLV) every alternate day in a 2x2 factorial design over a 6-week period. Forty-two non-pregnant vegetarian women (age 20-50 years) were randomly allocated to four study groups. Clinical measurements were made at the beginning and at the end of the study, and blood samples were collected before, and 2 and 6 weeks after commencement of intervention. Forty women completed the trial. Twenty-six women had low vitamin B12 status (15 micromol/L). GLV supplementation did not alter plasma folate or tHcy. Vitamin B12 supplementation increased plasma vitamin B12 concentration (125 to 215 pmol/L, p homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations.

  18. Seasonal foraging patterns of forest-grazing Japanese Black heifers with increased plasma total antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haga, Satoshi; Nakano, Miwa; Nakao, Seiji; Hirano, Kiyoshi; Yamamoto, Yoshito; Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Ishizaki, Hiroshi

    2016-02-01

    Forest-grazing enables the intake of high total antioxidant capacity (TAC) plants that might be beneficial for the TAC status of cattle. This study evaluated the relation between the seasonal foraging patterns of forest-grazing Japanese Black (JB) heifers or the TAC levels in shrubs and trees and the changes of plasma TAC. We examined 12 JB heifers, four each of which were allocated to forest-grazing (F), pasture-grazing, and pen-housed groups. The plasma TAC level in F heifers on July 26, August 13, 30 and September 17 were significantly higher than those on April 27 and June 4 (P < 0.05). In F group, the mean rates of foraging frequency (FF) of shrubs and trees during July 5-8 and September 13-16 were much higher than that during May 31-June 3 (P < 0.05). The rate of FF of grass significantly decreased later in the season (P < 0.05). The mean TAC levels in these shrubs and trees were higher than those in grasses, concentrates, and timothy hay. Results suggest that an important factor in the increase of plasma TAC in forest-grazing cattle might be the increased foraging of TAC-rich shrubs and trees during summer-fall.

  19. Comparative performance of lab tests and blood testing device to monitor glucose, total cholesterol and triacylglycerol in type 2 diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaldo Zubioli

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The performance of lab tests (LT and blood testing devices (BTD to monitor glycemia vs. glycated hemoglobin A1c (A1c were compared. In addition, the performance of blood glucose, total cholesterol (TC and triacylglycerol measured by LT and BDT were compared. All parameters were measured based on the same blood samples from overnight fasted type 2 diabetic patients (T2DP. Linear regression analysis was used for all comparisons. The results showed that A1c correlated better with LT-glucose (r = 0.58 than BTD-glucose (r = 0.42. Moreover, LT vs. BTD showed r values of 0.90, 0.82 and 0.92 for glucose, TC and triacylglycerol, respectively. It was concluded that the performance of LT-glucose was better than BDT-glucose. Moreover, since triacylycerol and TC measured by BTD correlated better with LT compared to BDT-glucose vs. LT-glucose, the inclusion of BTD-TC and BTD-triacylglycerol for detecting and monitoring hyperlipidemia in T2DP should be considered.Comparou-se a performance de avaliação da glicemia através de dosagens laboratoriais (DL ou dispositivo para teste de sangue capilar (DTSC vs. hemoglobina glicada A1c (A1c. Comparou-se ainda a performance de avaliação da glicemia, colesterol total (CT e triacilglicerol (DL vs. DTSC. Avaliou-se estes parametros a partir das mesmas amostras de sangue coletadas em pacientes diabéticos tipo 2 (PDT2 em jejum noturno, sendo as comparações realizadas através de análise de regressão linear. A A1c correlacionou-se melhor com a glicemia-DL (r = 0,58 em relação a glicemia-DTSC (r = 0,42. Comparou-se DL vs. DTSC obtendo se r = 0,90, 0,82 e 0,92 para glicemia, CT e triacilglicerol, respectivamente. Concluiu-se que houve melhor performance da glicose-DL em relação a glicose-DTSC. Além disso, considerando que o triacilglicerol e TC avaliado através de DTSC correlaciona-se melhor com DL em comparação a DTSC-glicose vs. DL-glicose, a inclusão de DTSC-TC e DTSC-triacilglicerol visando detectar e

  20. Serial changes in plasma total cortisol, plasma free cortisol, and tissue cortisol activity in patients with septic shock: an observational study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cohen, Jeremy; Smith, Melissa Lassig; Deans, Renae V; Pretorius, Carel J; Ungerer, Jacobus P J; Tan, Terrence; Jones, Mark; Venkatesh, Bala

    2012-01-01

    Published data on adrenocortical function in septic shock have enrolled patients at various stages of critical illness and predominantly used plasma total cortisol, with minimal information on serial changes...

  1. Plasma free and total carnitine measured in children by tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, J H; Pourfarzam, M

    2002-11-01

    Free and total carnitine quantification is important as a complementary test for the diagnosis of unusual metabolic diseases, including fatty acid degradation disorders. The present study reports a new method for the quantification of free and total carnitine in dried plasma specimens by isotope dilution electrospray tandem mass spectrometry with sample derivatization. Carnitine is determined by looking for the precursor of ions of m/z = 103 of N-butylester derivative, and the method is validated by comparison with radioenzymatic assay. We obtained an inter- and intra-day assay coefficient of variation of 4.3 and 2.3, respectively. Free and total carnitine was analyzed in 309 dried plasma spot samples from children ranging in age from newborn to 14 years using the new method, which was found to be suitable for calculating reference age-related values for free and total carnitine (less than one month: 19.3 +/- 2.4 and 23.5 +/- 2.9; one to twelve months: 28.8 +/- 10.2 and 35.9 +/- 11.4; one to seven years: 30.7 +/- 10.3 and 38.1 +/- 11.9; seven to 14 years: 33.7 +/- 11.6, and 43.1 +/- 13.8 micro M, respectively). No difference was found between males and females. A significant difference was observed between neonates and the other age groups. We compare our data with reference values in the literature, most of them obtained by radioenzymatic assay. However, this method is laborious and time consuming. The electrospray tandem mass spectrometry method presented here is a reliable, rapid and automated procedure for carnitine quantitation.

  2. Plasma free and total carnitine measured in children by tandem mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.H. Osorio

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Free and total carnitine quantification is important as a complementary test for the diagnosis of unusual metabolic diseases, including fatty acid degradation disorders. The present study reports a new method for the quantification of free and total carnitine in dried plasma specimens by isotope dilution electrospray tandem mass spectrometry with sample derivatization. Carnitine is determined by looking for the precursor of ions of m/z = 103 of N-butylester derivative, and the method is validated by comparison with radioenzymatic assay. We obtained an inter- and intra-day assay coefficient of variation of 4.3 and 2.3, respectively. Free and total carnitine was analyzed in 309 dried plasma spot samples from children ranging in age from newborn to 14 years using the new method, which was found to be suitable for calculating reference age-related values for free and total carnitine (less than one month: 19.3 ± 2.4 and 23.5 ± 2.9; one to twelve months: 28.8 ± 10.2 and 35.9 ± 11.4; one to seven years: 30.7 ± 10.3 and 38.1 ± 11.9; seven to 14 years: 33.7 ± 11.6, and 43.1 ± 13.8 µM, respectively. No difference was found between males and females. A significant difference was observed between neonates and the other age groups. We compare our data with reference values in the literature, most of them obtained by radioenzymatic assay. However, this method is laborious and time consuming. The electrospray tandem mass spectrometry method presented here is a reliable, rapid and automated procedure for carnitine quantitation.

  3. Total Extracellular Small RNA Profiles from Plasma, Saliva, and Urine of Healthy Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeri, Ashish; Courtright, Amanda; Reiman, Rebecca; Carlson, Elizabeth; Beecroft, Taylor; Janss, Alex; Siniard, Ashley; Richholt, Ryan; Balak, Chris; Rozowsky, Joel; Kitchen, Robert; Hutchins, Elizabeth; Winarta, Joseph; McCoy, Roger; Anastasi, Matthew; Kim, Seungchan; Huentelman, Matthew; Van Keuren-Jensen, Kendall

    2017-01-01

    Interest in circulating RNAs for monitoring and diagnosing human health has grown significantly. There are few datasets describing baseline expression levels for total cell-free circulating RNA from healthy control subjects. In this study, total extracellular RNA (exRNA) was isolated and sequenced from 183 plasma samples, 204 urine samples and 46 saliva samples from 55 male college athletes ages 18–25 years. Many participants provided more than one sample, allowing us to investigate variability in an individual’s exRNA expression levels over time. Here we provide a systematic analysis of small exRNAs present in each biofluid, as well as an analysis of exogenous RNAs. The small RNA profile of each biofluid is distinct. We find that a large number of RNA fragments in plasma (63%) and urine (54%) have sequences that are assigned to YRNA and tRNA fragments respectively. Surprisingly, while many miRNAs can be detected, there are few miRNAs that are consistently detected in all samples from a single biofluid, and profiles of miRNA are different for each biofluid. Not unexpectedly, saliva samples have high levels of exogenous sequence that can be traced to bacteria. These data significantly contribute to the current number of sequenced exRNA samples from normal healthy individuals. PMID:28303895

  4. Correlation between plasma component levels of cultured fish and resistance to bacterial infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maita, M.; Satoh, K.-I.; Fukuda, Y.; Lee, H.-K.; Winton, J.R.; Okamoto, N.

    1998-01-01

    Mortalities of yellowtail Seriola quinqueradiata artificially infected with Lactococcus garvieae and of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss artificially infected with Vibrio anguillarum were compared with the levels of plasma components measured prior to challenge. The levels of plasma total cholesterol, free cholesterol and phospholipid of fish surviving infection were significantly higher in both yellowtail and rainbow trout than those of fish which died during the challenge test. Mortality of yellowtail with plasma total cholesterol levels lower than 250 mg/100 ml was significantly higher than that of fish which had cholesterol levels higher than 275 mg/100 ml (p < 0.05). Rainbow trout whose cholesterol was lower than 520 mg/100 ml suffered a significantly higher mortality due to vibriosis than fish having cholesterol levels higher than 560 mg/100 ml (p < 0.005). These results indicate that low levels of plasma lipid components may be an indicator of lowered disease resistance in cultured fish.

  5. High Blood Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Cholesterol? To understand high blood cholesterol (ko-LES-ter- ... cholesterol from your body. What Is High Blood Cholesterol? High blood cholesterol is a condition in which ...

  6. Betaine as a determinant of postmethionine load total plasma homocysteine before and after B-vitamin supplementation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holm, P.I.; Bleie, O.; Ueland, P.M.; Lien, E.A.; Refsum, H.; Nordrehaug, J.E.; Nygard, O.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Betaine is a substrate in the betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase reaction, converting homocysteine to methionine. There are only sparse data on plasma betaine as a determinant of the plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) concentration. METHODS AND RESULTS: Ninety patients undergoing corona

  7. Early-Life Determinants of Total and HDL Cholesterol Concentrations in 8-Year-Old Children; The PIAMA Birth Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, Marga B. M.; Brunekreef, Bert; Smit, Henriette A.; Kerkhof, Marjan; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Oldenwening, Marieke; Wijga, Alet H.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Adult cholesterol concentrations might be influenced by early-life factors, such as breastfeeding and birth weight, referred to as "early programming". How such early factors exert their influence over the life course is still poorly understood. Evidence from studies in children and

  8. Early-Life Determinants of Total and HDL Cholesterol Concentrations in 8-Year-Old Children; The PIAMA Birth Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, Marga B. M.; Brunekreef, Bert; Smit, Henriette A.; Kerkhof, Marjan; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Oldenwening, Marieke; Wijga, Alet H.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Adult cholesterol concentrations might be influenced by early-life factors, such as breastfeeding and birth weight, referred to as "early programming". How such early factors exert their influence over the life course is still poorly understood. Evidence from studies in children and adol

  9. Total physical activity might not be a good measure in the relationship with HDL cholesterol and triglycerides in a multi-ethnic population: a cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Munter, J.S.L.; van Valkengoed, I.G.; Stronks, K.; Agyemang, C.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that physical activity (PA) has a beneficial effect on high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL) and triglycerides. However, observational studies show contrasting results for this association between different ethnic groups. It is unclear whether this is due

  10. Association between plasma triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and microvascular kidney disease and retinopathy in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a global case-control study in 13 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, Frank M; Hermans, Michel P; Fioretto, Paola; Valensi, Paul; Davis, Timothy; Horton, Edward; Wanner, Christoph; Al-Rubeaan, Khalid; Aronson, Ronnie; Barzon, Isabella; Bishop, Louise; Bonora, Enzo; Bunnag, Pongamorn; Chuang, Lee-Ming; Deerochanawong, Chaicharn; Goldenberg, Ronald; Harshfield, Benjamin; Hernández, Cristina; Herzlinger-Botein, Susan; Itoh, Hiroshi; Jia, Weiping; Jiang, Yi-Der; Kadowaki, Takashi; Laranjo, Nancy; Leiter, Lawrence; Miwa, Takashi; Odawara, Masato; Ohashi, Ken; Ohno, Atsushi; Pan, Changyu; Pan, Jiemin; Pedro-Botet, Juan; Reiner, Zeljko; Rotella, Carlo Maria; Simo, Rafael; Tanaka, Masami; Tedeschi-Reiner, Eugenia; Twum-Barima, David; Zoppini, Giacomo; Carey, Vincent J

    2014-03-04

    Microvascular renal and retinal diseases are common major complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The relation between plasma lipids and microvascular disease is not well established. The case subjects were 2535 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with an average duration of 14 years, 1891 of whom had kidney disease and 1218 with retinopathy. The case subjects were matched for diabetes mellitus duration, age, sex, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol to 3683 control subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus who did not have kidney disease or retinopathy. The study was conducted in 24 sites in 13 countries. The primary analysis included kidney disease and retinopathy cases. Matched analysis was performed by use of site-specific conditional logistic regression in multivariable models that adjusted for hemoglobin A1c, hypertension, and statin treatment. Mean low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration was 2.3 mmol/L. The microvascular disease odds ratio increased by a factor of 1.16 (95% confidence interval, 1.11-1.22) for every 0.5 mmol/L (≈1 quintile) increase in triglycerides or decreased by a factor of 0.92 (0.88-0.96) for every 0.2 mmol/L (≈1 quintile) increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. For kidney disease, the odds ratio increased by 1.23 (1.16-1.31) with triglycerides and decreased by 0.86 (0.82-0.91) with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Retinopathy was associated with triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in matched analysis but not significantly after additional adjustment. Diabetic kidney disease is associated worldwide with higher levels of plasma triglycerides and lower levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol among patients with good control of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Retinopathy was less robustly associated with these lipids. These results strengthen the rationale for studying dyslipidemia treatment to prevent diabetic microvascular disease.

  11. Common and Rare Alleles in Apolipoprotein B Contribute to Plasma Levels of LDL Cholesterol in the General Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, M; Stene, MC; Nordestgaard, BG

    2008-01-01

    heart disease and myocardial infarction were measured. The hypothesis was formulated before genotyping. RESULTS: We genotyped 9185 individuals for APOB T71I (minor allele frequency: 0.33), Ivs4+171c>a (0.14), A591V (0.47), Ivs18+379a>c (0.30), Ivs18+1708g>t (0.45), T2488Tc>t (0.48), P2712L (0.21), R3611......Q (0.09), E4154K (0.17), and N4311S (0.21). SNPs were associated with increases (T71I, Ivs181708g>t, T2488Tc>t, R3611) or decreases (Ivs4+171c>a, A591V, Ivs18+379a>c, P2712L, E4154, N4311S) in LDL cholesterol from -4.7 to +8.2% (-0.28 to 0.30 mmol/liter; P

  12. A nutraceutical approach (Armolipid Plus) to reduce total and LDL cholesterol in individuals with mild to moderate dyslipidemia: Review of the clinical evidence.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Barrios, Vivencio

    2017-02-01

    Compelling evidence supports the effectiveness of the reduction of total and LDL cholesterol (TC and LDL-C) in primarily preventing cardiovascular events, within the framework of life-long prevention programs mainly consisting in lifestyle changes. Pharmacological treatment should be introduced when lifestyle changes, including use of nutraceuticals, have failed. ESC\\/EAS guidelines list a number of nutraceutical compounds and functional foods which have been individually studied in randomized, controlled clinical trials (RCTs). To date only a proprietary formulation of three naturally occurring substances with putative complementary lipid-lowering properties - red yeast rice, policosanol and berberine - combined with folic acid, astaxanthin, and coenzyme Q10 (Armolipid Plus(®)) has been extensively investigated in several RCTs, 7 of which were placebo-controlled, 2 were ezetimibe comparators and 4 were "real life" studies comparing diet and Armolipid Plus to diet alone. The trials included mostly patients with mild to moderate dyslipidemia, treated for 6-48 weeks. The trials also included special populations and patients in whom statins were contraindicated or who could not tolerate them. Armolipid Plus has proved to be able to achieve significant reductions in TC (11-21%) and in LDL-C (15-31%) levels, which is equivalent to expectations from low dose statins. In patients intolerant to statins, who do not achieve their therapeutic target with ezetimibe, Armolipid Plus can achieve a further 10% improvement in TC and LDL-C. The safety and tolerability of Armolipid Plus were excellent, thought likely due to the intentional combination of low doses of its active ingredients: low enough not to be associated with untoward effects, but high enough to exert therapeutic effects in combination with other complementary substances. Consequently, in the event of intolerance to statins, Armolipid Plus offers an effective alternative, which is devoid of the safety risks

  13. A nutraceutical approach (Armolipid Plus) to reduce total and LDL cholesterol in individuals with mild to moderate dyslipidemia: Review of the clinical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, Vivencio; Escobar, Carlos; Cicero, Arrigo Francesco Giuseppe; Burke, David; Fasching, Peter; Banach, Maciej; Bruckert, Eric

    2017-02-01

    Compelling evidence supports the effectiveness of the reduction of total and LDL cholesterol (TC and LDL-C) in primarily preventing cardiovascular events, within the framework of life-long prevention programs mainly consisting in lifestyle changes. Pharmacological treatment should be introduced when lifestyle changes, including use of nutraceuticals, have failed. ESC/EAS guidelines list a number of nutraceutical compounds and functional foods which have been individually studied in randomized, controlled clinical trials (RCTs). To date only a proprietary formulation of three naturally occurring substances with putative complementary lipid-lowering properties - red yeast rice, policosanol and berberine - combined with folic acid, astaxanthin, and coenzyme Q10 (Armolipid Plus(®)) has been extensively investigated in several RCTs, 7 of which were placebo-controlled, 2 were ezetimibe comparators and 4 were "real life" studies comparing diet and Armolipid Plus to diet alone. The trials included mostly patients with mild to moderate dyslipidemia, treated for 6-48 weeks. The trials also included special populations and patients in whom statins were contraindicated or who could not tolerate them. Armolipid Plus has proved to be able to achieve significant reductions in TC (11-21%) and in LDL-C (15-31%) levels, which is equivalent to expectations from low dose statins. In patients intolerant to statins, who do not achieve their therapeutic target with ezetimibe, Armolipid Plus can achieve a further 10% improvement in TC and LDL-C. The safety and tolerability of Armolipid Plus were excellent, thought likely due to the intentional combination of low doses of its active ingredients: low enough not to be associated with untoward effects, but high enough to exert therapeutic effects in combination with other complementary substances. Consequently, in the event of intolerance to statins, Armolipid Plus offers an effective alternative, which is devoid of the safety risks

  14. rs7903146 Polymorphism at Transcription Factor 7 Like 2 Gene Is Associated with Total Cholesterol and Lipoprotein Profile in HIV/Hepatitis C Virus-Coinfected Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda-Tenor, Daniel; Berenguer, Juan; Jiménez-Sousa, María A.; Carrero, Ana; García-Álvarez, Mónica; Aldámiz-Echevarria, Teresa; García-Broncano, Pilar; Diez, Cristina; Guzmán-Fulgencio, María; Fernández-Rodríguez, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Transcription factor 7 like 2 (TCF7L2) rs7903146 polymorphism has been associated with metabolic disturbance and cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to analyze the association between TCF7L2 rs7903146 polymorphism and potential disturbances on the lipid profile in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/hepatitis C virus (HCV)-coinfected patients. We performed a cross-sectional study on 263 HIV/HVC-coinfected patients. TCF7L2 polymorphism was genotyped by GoldenGate assay. The analysis was performed by linear and logistic regression under a dominant model of inheritance. The variables analyzed were total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C), non-HDL-C, and triglycerides. Patients harboring the rs7903146 TT/TC genotype showed a diminished concentration of TC (p=0.003), LDL-C (p=0.004), HDL-C (p=0.012), and non-HDL-C (p=0.013), a lower percentage of TC≥200 mg/dl (p=0.038), and a higher percentage of HDL≤40 mg/dl (p=0.023). In addition, we observed that rs7903146 was differently related to fasting serum lipid levels according to the HCV-genotype (HCV-GT). With regard to HCV-GT1 patients, the rs7903146 TT/TC genotype was associated with lower levels of HDL-C [adjusted arithmetic mean ratio (aAMR)=0.91; p=0.049] and an elevated percentage of patients with HDL-C≤40 mg/dl [adjusted odds ratio (aOR)=3.26; p=0.003]. For HCV-GT3 patients, the rs7903146 TT/TC genotype was associated with lower serum values of TC (aAMR=0.81; p=0.037), LDL-C (aAMR=0.67; p=0.001), and non-HDL-C (aAMR=0.75; p=0.002) and a reduced percentage of TC≥200 mg/dl (aOR=0.089; p=0.037). In conclusion, the TCF7L2 rs7903146 TT/TC genotype was associated with lower levels of TC, LDL, and HDL in HCV-GT3 patients, and lower levels of HDL-C in HCV-GT1 patients, suggesting a role in cardiovascular disease and a potential use as a biomarker in HIV/HCV-coinfected patients. PMID:25353718

  15. Empagliflozin, via Switching Metabolism Toward Lipid Utilization, Moderately Increases LDL Cholesterol Levels Through Reduced LDL Catabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briand, François; Mayoux, Eric; Brousseau, Emmanuel; Burr, Noémie; Urbain, Isabelle; Costard, Clément; Mark, Michael; Sulpice, Thierry

    2016-07-01

    In clinical trials, a small increase in LDL cholesterol has been reported with sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors. The mechanisms by which the SGLT2 inhibitor empagliflozin increases LDL cholesterol levels were investigated in hamsters with diet-induced dyslipidemia. Compared with vehicle, empagliflozin 30 mg/kg/day for 2 weeks significantly reduced fasting blood glucose by 18%, with significant increase in fasting plasma LDL cholesterol, free fatty acids, and total ketone bodies by 25, 49, and 116%, respectively. In fasting conditions, glycogen hepatic levels were further reduced by 84% with empagliflozin, while 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase activity and total cholesterol hepatic levels were 31 and 10% higher, respectively (both P catabolism of (3)H-cholesteryl oleate-labeled LDL injected intravenously by 20%, indicating that empagliflozin raises LDL levels through reduced catabolism. Unexpectedly, empagliflozin also reduced intestinal cholesterol absorption in vivo, which led to a significant increase in LDL- and macrophage-derived cholesterol fecal excretion (both P < 0.05 vs. vehicle). These data suggest that empagliflozin, by switching energy metabolism from carbohydrate to lipid utilization, moderately increases ketone production and LDL cholesterol levels. Interestingly, empagliflozin also reduces intestinal cholesterol absorption, which in turn promotes LDL- and macrophage-derived cholesterol fecal excretion.

  16. Plasmas pour valorisation totale ou partielle des gaz contenant de l'H2S Plasmas for Total Or Partial Upgrading of H2s Containing Gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czernichowski A.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Des procédés par plasmas alternatifs au procédé Claus sont proposés pour produire de l'hydrogène et récupérer du soufre à partir des gaz contenant une forte teneur en H2S. Quand la teneur en H2S est moins importante, des techniques plasma peuvent également être utiles pour assister certains étages du procédé classique Claus ou réaliser ce procédé pour des gaz non conventionnels. Les tests allant jusqu'à l'échelle industrielle sont menés dans divers réacteurs à plasmas et les résultats encourageants rapportés de la littérature et de la recherche propre laissent envisager des prochaines applications. Plasma assisted processes are proposed to act as an alternative to the Claus process in order to recover hydrogen and sulphur from high H2S gases. For less concentrated gases plasma techniques may also be inserted into classical Claus plant or may allow treatment of non conventional gases. Up to industrial scale tests are performed using different plasma reactors. The literature-based results as well as our own ones make the future applications quite optimistic.

  17. Macrophage cholesterol efflux correlates with lipoprotein subclass distribution and risk of obstructive coronary artery disease in patients undergoing coronary angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kremer Werner

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies in patients with low HDL have suggested that impaired cellular cholesterol efflux is a heritable phenotype increasing atherosclerosis risk. Less is known about the association of macrophage cholesterol efflux with lipid profiles and CAD risk in normolipidemic subjects. We have therefore measured macrophage cholesterol efflux in142 normolipidemic subjects undergoing coronary angiography. Methods Monocytes isolated from blood samples of patients scheduled for cardiac catheterization were differentiated into macrophages over seven days. Isotopic cholesterol efflux to exogenously added apolipoprotein A-I and HDL2 was measured. Quantitative cholesterol efflux from macrophages was correlated with lipoprotein subclass distribution in plasma from the same individuals measured by NMR-spectroscopy of lipids and with the extent of coronary artery disease seen on coronary angiography. Results Macrophage cholesterol efflux was positively correlated with particle concentration of smaller HDL and LDL particles but not with total plasma concentrations of HDL or LDL-cholesterol. We observed an inverse relationship between macrophage cholesterol efflux and the concntration of larger and triglyceride rich particles (VLDL, chylomicrons. Subjects with significant stenosis on coronary angiography had lower cholesterol efflux from macrophages compared to individuals without significant stenosis (adjusted p = 0.02. Conclusion Macrophage cholesterol efflux is inversely correlated with lipoprotein particle size and risk of CAD.

  18. Use of plasma triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio to identify increased cardio-metabolic risk in young, healthy South Asians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, Elena; Molina, César; Mathur, Ashish; Reaven, Gerald M

    2015-01-01

    Prevalence of insulin resistance and associated dyslipidaemia [high triglyceride (TG) and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations] are increased in South Asian individuals; likely contributing to their increased risk of type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The plasma concentration ratio of TG/HDL-C has been proposed as a simple way to identify apparently healthy individuals at high cardio-metabolic risk. This study was carried out to compare the cardio-metabolic risk profiles of high-risk South Asian individuals identified by an elevated TG/HDL-C ratio versus those with a diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome. Body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, and fasting plasma glucose, insulin, TG, and HDL-C concentrations were determined in apparently healthy men (n=498) and women (n=526). The cardio-metabolic risk profile of "high risk" individuals identified by TG/HDL-C ratios in men (≥ 3.5) and women (≥2.5) was compared to those identified by a diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome. More concentrations of all cardio-metabolic risk factors were significantly higher in "high risk" groups, identified by either the TG/HDL-C ratio or a diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome. TG, HDL-C, and insulin concentrations were not significantly different in "high risk" groups identified by either criterion, whereas plasma glucose and blood pressure were higher in those with the metabolic syndrome. Apparently healthy South Asian individuals at high cardio-metabolic risk can be identified using either the TG/HDL-C ratio or the metabolic syndrome criteria. The TG/HDL-C ratio may be used as a simple marker to identify such individuals.

  19. Chitosan oligosaccharides promote reverse cholesterol transport and expression of scavenger receptor BI and CYP7A1 in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Chuanlong; Yu, Yang; Song, Guohua; Luo, Tian; Li, Luqin; Wang, Xinnong; Qin, Shucun

    2012-02-01

    Chitosan oligosaccharides (COS) are beneficial in improving plasma lipids and diminishing atherosclerotic risks. In this study, we examined the effects of COS on reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) in C57BL/6 mice. (3)H-cholesterol-laden macrophages were injected intraperitoneally into mice fed with various dosage of COS (250, 500, 1000 mg/kg mouse weight, respectively) or vehicle by gastric gavages. Plasma lipid level was determined and (3)H-cholesterol was traced in plasma, liver, bile and feces. The effects of COS on hepatic cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) and scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI) expression were also investigated. COS administration led to a significant decrease in plasma total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and a significant increase in peritoneal macrophage-derived (3)H-cholesterol in liver and bile as well as in feces. Liver protein expressions of CYP7A1, SR-BI and LDL receptor (LDL-R) were improved in a dosage-dependent manner in COS-administered mice. Our findings provide the first in vivo demonstration of a positive role for COS in RCT pathway and hepatic CYP7A1 and SR-BI expression in mice. Additionally, the LDL cholesterol lowering effect might be relative to hepatic LDL-R expression stimulated by COS in mice.

  20. Cholesterol and Lipoprotein Dynamics in a Hibernating Mammal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otis, Jessica P.; Sahoo, Daisy; Drover, Victor A.; Yen, Chi-Liang Eric; Carey, Hannah V.

    2011-01-01

    Hibernating mammals cease feeding during the winter and rely primarily on stored lipids to fuel alternating periods of torpor and arousal. How hibernators manage large fluxes of lipids and sterols over the annual hibernation cycle is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate lipid and cholesterol transport and storage in ground squirrels studied in spring, summer, and several hibernation states. Cholesterol levels in total plasma, HDL and LDL particles were elevated in hibernators compared with spring or summer squirrels. Hibernation increased plasma apolipoprotein A-I expression and HDL particle size. Expression of cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase was 13-fold lower in hibernators than in active season squirrels. Plasma triglycerides were reduced by fasting in spring but not summer squirrels. In hibernators plasma β-hydroxybutyrate was elevated during torpor whereas triglycerides were low relative to normothermic states. We conclude that the switch to a lipid-based metabolism during winter, coupled with reduced capacity to excrete cholesterol creates a closed system in which efficient use of lipoproteins is essential for survival. PMID:22195001

  1. Pectin penta-oligogalacturonide reduces cholesterol accumulation by promoting bile acid biosynthesis and excretion in high-cholesterol-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ru-Gang; Sun, Yan-Di; Hou, Yu-Ting; Fan, Jun-Gang; Chen, Gang; Li, Tuo-Ping

    2017-06-25

    Haw pectin penta-oligogalacturonide (HPPS) has important role in improving cholesterol metabolism and promoting the conversion of cholesterol to bile acids (BA) in mice fed high-cholesterol diet (HCD). However, the mechanism is not clear. This study aims to investigate the effects of HPPS on cholesterol accumulation and the regulation of hepatic BA synthesis and transport in HCD-fed mice. Results showed that HPPS significantly decreased plasma and hepatic TC levels but increased plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) levels, compared to HCD. BA analysis showed that HPPS markedly decreased hepatic and small intestine BA levels but increased the gallbladder BA levels, and finally decreased the total BA pool size, compared to HCD. Studies of molecular mechanism revealed that HPPS promoted hepatic ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), ATP-binding cassette transporter G1 (ABCG1), and scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI) expression but did not affect ATB binding cassette transporter G5/G8 (ABCG5/8) expression. HPPS inactivated hepatic farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and target genes expression, which resulted in significant increase of cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase 1 (CYP7A1) and sterol 12α-hydroxylase (CYP8B1) expression, with up-regulations of 204.2% and 33.5% for mRNA levels, respectively, compared with HCD. In addition, HPPS markedly enhanced bile salt export pump (BSEP) expression but didn't affect the sodium/taurocholate co-transporting polypeptide (NTCP) expression. In conclusion, the study revealed that HPPS reduced cholesterol accumulation by promoting BA synthesis in the liver and excretion in the feces, and might promote macrophage-to-liver reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) but did not liver-to-fecal RCT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Emerging roles of the intestine in control of cholesterol metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Janine K Kruit; Albert K Groen; Theo J van Berkel; Folkert Kuipers

    2006-01-01

    The liver is considered the major "control center" for maintenance of whole body cholesterol homeostasis. This organ is the main site for de novo cholesterol synthesis,clears cholesterol-containing chylomicron remnants and low density lipoprotein particles from plasma and is the major contributor to high density lipoprotein (HDL; good cholesterol) formation. The liver has a central position in the classical definition of the reverse cholesterol transport pathway by taking up peripheryderived cholesterol from lipoprotein particles followed by conversion into bile acids or its direct secretion into bile for eventual removal via the feces. During the past couple of years, however, an additional important role of the intestine in maintenance of cholesterol homeostasis and regulation of plasma cholesterol levels has become apparent. Firstly, molecular mechanisms of cholesterol absorption have been elucidated and novel pharmacological compounds have been identified that interfere with the process and positively impact plasma cholesterol levels. Secondly, it is now evident that the intestine itself contributes to fecal neutral sterol loss as a cholesterol-secreting organ. Finally, very recent work has unequivocally demonstrated that the intestine contributes significantly to plasma HDL cholesterol levels.Thus, the intestine is a potential target for novel antiatherosclerotic treatment strategies that, in addition to interference with cholesterol absorption, modulate direct cholesterol excretion and plasma HDL cholesterol levels.

  3. Statins increase hepatic cholesterol synthesis and stimulate fecal cholesterol elimination in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schonewille, Marleen; de Boer, Jan Freark; Mele, Laura; Wolters, Henk; Bloks, Vincent W.; Wolters, Justina C.; Kuivenhoven, Jan A.; Tietge, Uwe J. F.; Brufau, Gemma; Groen, Albert K.

    2016-01-01

    Statins are competitive inhibitors of HMG-CoA reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme of cholesterol synthesis. Statins reduce plasma cholesterol levels, but whether this is actually caused by inhibition of de novo cholesterol synthesis has not been clearly established. Using three different statins, we

  4. Statins increase hepatic cholesterol synthesis and stimulate fecal cholesterol elimination in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schonewille, Marleen; de Boer, Jan Freark; Mele, Laura; Wolters, Henk; Bloks, Vincent W; Wolters, Justina C; Kuivenhoven, Jan Albert; Tietge, Uwe J.F.; Brufau Dones, Gemma; Groen, Albert K

    2016-01-01

    Statins are competitive inhibitors of HMG-CoA reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme of cholesterol synthesis. Statins reduce plasma cholesterol levels, but whether this is actually caused by inhibition of de novo cholesterol synthesis has not been clearly established. Using three different statins we

  5. Statins increase hepatic cholesterol synthesis and stimulate fecal cholesterol elimination in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schonewille, Marleen; de Boer, Jan Freark; Mele, Laura; Wolters, Henk; Bloks, Vincent W.; Wolters, Justina C.; Kuivenhoven, Jan A.; Tietge, Uwe J. F.; Brufau, Gemma; Groen, Albert K.

    Statins are competitive inhibitors of HMG-CoA reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme of cholesterol synthesis. Statins reduce plasma cholesterol levels, but whether this is actually caused by inhibition of de novo cholesterol synthesis has not been clearly established. Using three different statins, we

  6. Endothelial dysfunction correlates with plasma fibrinogen and HDL cholesterol in type 2 diabetic patients with coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosevski, M; Borozanov, V; Peovska, I; Georgievska-Ismail, L

    2007-01-01

    Assessment of endothelial dysfunction (ED) in type 2 diabetic patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and estimation of correlation of ED with metabolic parameters: low HDL, hypertriglyceridemia, obesity, systolic blood pressure and with inflammatory-hemostatic parameters: CRP and fibrinogen. 42 patients (age 60.0 +/- 8.5 years) with diagnosed type 2 diabetes and CAD were randomly included in a cross sectional study. B-mode ultrasound system with a linear transducer 7.5 MHz was used for evaluation of flow mediated vasodilation in brachial artery (FMV). FMV was presented as the percentage increase in brachial artery diameter, within 30 s after limb ischemia, previously provoked by cuff inflation. Percentage value up to 10% was defined as ED. Bivariate linear correlation model presented significant correlation between plasma fibrinogen and FMV percentage, with r -0.47, p HDL HDL (OR 5.16, 95% CI 0.53-60.39) as factors correlated with the presence of endothelial dysfunction. These results presented plasma fibrinogen level and low HDL diabetic patients with coronary artery disease (Tab. 8, Fig. 1, Ref. 25). Full Text (Free, PDF) www.bmj.sk.

  7. Low HDL cholesterol, aggression and altered central serotonergic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buydens-Branchey, L; Branchey, M; Hudson, J; Fergeson, P

    2000-03-01

    Many studies support a significant relation between low cholesterol levels and poor impulse, aggression and mood control. Evidence exists also for a causal link between low brain serotonin (5-HT) activity and these behaviors. Mechanisms linking cholesterol and hostile or self-destructive behavior are unknown, but it has been suggested that low cholesterol influences 5-HT function. This study was designed to explore the relationship between plasma cholesterol, measures of impulsivity and aggression, and indices of 5-HT function in personality disordered cocaine addicts. Thirty-eight hospitalized male patients (age 36.8+/-7.1) were assessed with the DSM-III-R, the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory (BDHI), the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS) and the Brown-Goodwin Assessment for Life History of Aggression. Fasting basal cholesterol (total, LDL and HDL) was determined 2 weeks after cocaine discontinuation. On the same day 5-HT function was assessed by neuroendocrine (cortisol and prolactin) and psychological (NIMH and 'high' self-rating scales) responses following meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (m-CPP) challenges. Reduced neuroendocrine responses, 'high' feelings and increased 'activation-euphoria' following m-CPP have been interpreted as indicating 5-HT alterations in a variety of psychiatric conditions. Significantly lower levels of HDL cholesterol were found in patients who had a history of aggression (P=0.005). Lower levels of HDL cholesterol were also found to be significantly associated with more intense 'high' and 'activation-euphoria' responses as well as with blunted cortisol responses to m-CPP (P=0.033, P=0.025 and P=0.018, respectively). This study gives further support to existing evidence indicating that in some individuals, the probability of exhibiting impulsive and violent behaviors may be increased when cholesterol is low. It also suggests that low cholesterol and alterations in 5-HT activity may be causally related.

  8. Lipoprotein metabolism and insulin sensitivity are distinctly modulated in healthy subjects with high and low plasma HDL-cholesterol concentration

    OpenAIRE

    Camila Canteiro Leança

    2012-01-01

    A síndrome metabólica (SM) e o diabete melito (DM) caracterizam-se por uma série de alterações no metabolismo de lipoproteínas, entre elas a hipertrigliceridemia e a redução nas concentrações de HDL-colesterol (HDL-C). Em estudo prévio demonstramos que indivíduos saudáveis, não obesos, com concentração de HDL-C abaixo de 40mg/dL, quando comparados àqueles com concentração de HDL-C acima de 60mg/dL, apresentam, no plasma, esteróis marcadores de absorção intestinal de colesterol alimentar dimin...

  9. Active membrane cholesterol as a physiological effector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Yvonne; Steck, Theodore L

    2016-09-01

    Sterols associate preferentially with plasma membrane sphingolipids and saturated phospholipids to form stoichiometric complexes. Cholesterol in molar excess of the capacity of these polar bilayer lipids has a high accessibility and fugacity; we call this fraction active cholesterol. This review first considers how active cholesterol serves as an upstream regulator of cellular sterol homeostasis. The mechanism appears to utilize the redistribution of active cholesterol down its diffusional gradient to the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria, where it binds multiple effectors and directs their feedback activity. We have also reviewed a broad literature in search of a role for active cholesterol (as opposed to bulk cholesterol or lipid domains such as rafts) in the activity of diverse membrane proteins. Several systems provide such evidence, implicating, in particular, caveolin-1, various kinds of ABC-type cholesterol transporters, solute transporters, receptors and ion channels. We suggest that this larger role for active cholesterol warrants close attention and can be tested easily.

  10. Efficacy of rosuvastatin in achieving target HDL, LDL, triglycerides and total cholesterol levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with newly diagnosed dyslipidaemia: an open label, nonrandomised, non-interventional and observational study in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Siddharth N; Arneja, Jaspal

    2013-10-01

    Asian Indians with dyslipidaemia should be treated as aggressively as if they had a CHD risk equivalent-similar to the treatment of patients with diabetes or heart disease. To evaluate efficacy of Rosuvastatin in achieving target HDL, LDL, triglycerides and total cholesterol levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients with newly diagnosed dyslipidaemia, but without known coronary artery disease. The study was an open label, nonrandomised, non-interventional, observational study in India involving T2DM patients who require statin therapy to control dyslipidaemia. Data were collected at baseline, interim (8 weeks) and subsequently at 16 weeks of Rosuvastatin (10 and 20 mg) therapy. Efficacy of the treatment was assessed by evaluating whether subjects reached target LDL and total cholesterol levels according to NCEP ATP III guidelines. Four thousand three hundred and sixty-nine patients completed the study. Out of 4369, 1115 (25.52%) have achieved a target LDL level of cholesterol target and 50.06% achieved triglyceride target. The adverse events reported were generally mild. On the basis of the above results, it can be concluded that Rosuvastatin safely and beneficially alters the entire spectrum of lipoproteins in Indian patients.

  11. Effects of storage time on total protein and globulin concentrations in bovine fresh frozen plasma obtained for transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proverbio, D; Spada, E; Baggiani, L; Bagnagatti De Giorgi, G; Roggero, N; Belloli, A; Pravettoni, D; Perego, R

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of storage conditions on total protein (TP) and globulin fractions in fresh frozen bovine plasma units prepared and stored for transfusion, TP and globulin fractions were evaluated in fresh plasma and at 1 month and 6 and 12 months after blood collection in plasma stored at -20°C. Significant differences in concentrations were found in the median concentration of total protein (P=0.0336), between 0 months and 1 month (P=0.0108), 0 and 6 months (P=0.0023), and 0 and 12 months (P=0.0027), in mean concentration (g/dL) of albumin (P=0.0394), between 0 months and 1 month (P=0.0131), 0 and 6 months (P=0.0035), and 0 and 12 months (P=0.0038), and beta-2 fraction (P=0.0401), between 0 and 6 months (P=0.0401) and 0 and 12 months (P=0.0230). This study suggests that total gamma globulin concentration in bovine frozen plasma is stable for 12 months at -20°C. Total protein, ALB, and beta-2 fraction have significantly different concentrations (g/dL) when compared to prestorage. This study has shown IgG protein fraction stability in bovine fresh frozen plasma collected for transfusion; therefore, bovine fresh frozen plasma seems to be suitable for the treatment of hypogammaglobulinemia (failure of passive transfer) in calves when stored for 12 months at -20°C.

  12. Effects of dietary palmitoleic acid on plasma lipoprotein profile and aortic cholesterol accumulation are similar to those of other unsaturated fatty acids in the F1B golden Syrian hamster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthan, Nirupa R; Dillard, Alice; Lecker, Jaime L; Ip, Blanche; Lichtenstein, Alice H

    2009-02-01

    The lower susceptibility of palmitoleic acid (16:1) to oxidation compared to PUFA may confer functional advantages with respect to finding acceptable alternatives to partially hydrogenated fats, but limited data are available on its effect on cardiovascular risk factors. This study investigated the effect of diets (10% fat, 0.1% cholesterol, wt:wt) enriched with macadamia [monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA)16:1], palm (SFA,16:0), canola (MUFA,18:1), or safflower (PUFA,18:2) oils on lipoprotein profiles and aortic cholesterol accumulation in F1B Golden Syrian hamsters (n = 16/group). After 12 wk, 8 hamsters in each group were killed (phase 1). The remaining hamsters fed palm oil were changed to a diet containing coconut oil, while hamsters in the other diet groups continued on their original diets for an additional 6 wk (phase 2). With minor exceptions, the time course and dietary SFA source did not alter the study outcomes. Macadamia oil-fed hamsters had lower non-HDL cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations compared with the palm and coconut oil-fed hamsters and higher HDL-cholesterol compared with the coconut, canola, and safflower oil-fed hamsters. The aortic cholesterol concentration was not affected by dietary fat type. The hepatic cholesterol concentration was higher in the unsaturated compared with the saturated oil-fed hamsters. RBC membrane and aortic cholesteryl ester, triglyceride, and phospholipid fatty acid profiles reflected that of the dietary oil. These data suggest that an oil relatively high in palmitoleic acid does not adversely affect plasma lipoprotein profiles or aortic cholesterol accumulation and was similar to other unsaturated fatty acid-rich oils.

  13. Plasma lipid concentrations for some Brazilian lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillett, M P; Lima, V L; Costa, J C; Sibrian, A M

    1979-01-01

    1. Plasma concentrations of cholesterol, cholesteryl esters, phospholipids and triglycerides were determined for ten species of Brazilian lizards, Iguana iguana, Tropidurus torquatos and T. semitaeniatus (Iguanidae), Tupinambis teguixin, Ameiva ameiva and Cnemidophorus ocellifer (Teiidae), Mabuya maculata (Scincidae), Hemidactylus mabouia (Gekkonidae), Amphisbaenia vermicularis and Leposternon polystegum (Amphisbaenidae). 2. Considerable inter- and intra-species variations in plasma lipid concentrations were observed. 3. The percentage of total cholesterol esterified and the individual phospholipid composition of plasma were relatively constant for each species. 4. Over 60% of the cholesteryl esters present in plasma from three species each of iguanid and teiid lizards were polyenoic.

  14. [Nicotinic acid increases cellular transport of high density lipoprotein cholesterol in patients with hypoalphalipoproteinemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Catalina; Droppelmann, Katherine; Quiñones, Verónica; Amigo, Ludwig; Mendoza, Camila; Serrano, Valentina; Véjar, Margarita; Maiz, Alberto; Rigotti, Attilio

    2015-09-01

    Plasma high density lipoproteins (HDL) are involved in reverse cholesterol transport mediated by the scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI). Nicotinic acid increases HDL cholesterol levels, even though its specific impact on SR-BI dependent-cellular cholesterol transport remains unknown. To determine the effect of nicotinic acid on HDL particle functionality in cholesterol efflux and uptake mediated by SR-BI in cultured cells in hypoalphalipoproteinemic patients. In a pilot study, eight patients with low HDL (≤ 40 mg/dL) were treated with extended release nicotinic acid. HDL cholesterol and phospholipid levels, HDL2 and HDL3 fractions and HDL particle sizes were measured at baseline and post-therapy. Before and after nicotinic acid treatment, HDL particles were used for cholesterol transport studies in cells transfected with SR-BI. Nicotinic acid treatment raised total HDL cholesterol and phospholipids, HDL2 levels as well as HDL particle size. Nicotinic acid significantly increased HDL cholesterol efflux and uptake capacity mediated by SR-BI in cultured cells. Nicotinic acid therapy increases SR-BI-dependent HDL cholesterol transport in cultured cells, establishing a new cellular mechanism by which this lipid-lowering drug appears to modulate HDL metabolism in patients with hypoalphalipoproteinemia.

  15. Plasma and erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activity, serum selenium concentration, and plasma total antioxidant capacity in cats with IRIS stages I-IV chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krofič Žel, M; Tozon, N; Nemec Svete, A

    2014-01-01

    Serum selenium concentrations and the activity of plasma glutathione peroxidase (GPx) decrease with the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in human patients. Selenium is considered a limiting factor for plasma GPx synthesis. Plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) is decreased in CKD cats in comparison to healthy cats. Serum selenium concentrations and plasma and erythrocyte GPx activity in cats with CKD are lower than in healthy cats. Serum selenium concentrations, the activity of enzymes, and plasma TAC progressively decrease with the progression of kidney disease according to IRIS (International Renal Interest Society) classification. Twenty-six client-owned cats in IRIS stages I-IV of CKD were compared with 19 client-owned healthy cats. A CBC, serum biochemical profile, urinalysis, plasma and erythrocyte GPx activity, serum selenium concentration, and plasma TAC were measured in each cat. Cats in IRIS stage IV CKD had a significantly higher (P = .025) activity of plasma GPx (23.44 ± 6.28 U/mL) than cats in the control group (17.51 ± 3.75 U/mL). There were no significant differences in erythrocyte GPx, serum selenium concentration, and plasma TAC, either among IRIS stages I-IV CKD cats or between CKD cats and healthy cats. Erythrocyte GPx activity, serum selenium concentration, and plasma TAC do not change in CKD cats compared with healthy cats. Selenium is not a limiting factor in feline CKD. Increased plasma GPx activity in cats with stage IV CKD suggests induction of antioxidant defense mechanisms. Antioxidant defense systems might not be exhausted in CKD in cats. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  16. Plasma zinc antioxidant vitamins, glutathione levels and total antioxidant activity in oral leukoplakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhash Chandra Bose

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leukoplakia is a common, potentially premalignant lesion with malignant transformation rate from 1 to 17% with highest transformation rate for the lesions on the floor of the mouth, soft palate and tongue. One of the main etiological factors is consuming areca nut and its commercial preparations which generate high levels of reactive oxygen species during their metabolism. So the aim of this present study is to evaluate the plasma levels of antioxidant vitamins, antioxidant mineral zinc, glutathione and total antioxidant status (TAS in leukoplakia patients. Materials and Methods: For this cross-sectional study, we selected 23 newly diagnosed oral leukoplakia patients of both sexes within the age group 28-40 years and the same number of age and sex matched healthy individuals without having history of any systemic illness were selected as control group. In both the groups, we measured plasma antioxidant vitamins A, C, E, antioxidant mineral zinc, GSH and TAS. Student′s t test was applied and the P value <0.001 was considered as statistically significant. Results: We observed very low levels of antioxidant vitamins A, C, E, antioxidant mineral zinc and antioxidant metabolite GSH (P<0.001 and at the same time we also observed very poor (TAS (P<0.001 in leukoplakia patients when compared to patients in control group. Conclusion: The consumption of tobacco or areca quid which contains high copper levels creates an oxidative stress like environment during their metabolism, might play a major role in causation and propagation of oral leukoplakia.

  17. The Structural Basis of Cholesterol Activity in Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Brett N.; Bielska, Agata; Lee, Tiffany; Daily, Michael D.; Covey, Douglas F.; Schlesinger, Paul H.; Baker, Nathan A.; Ory, Daniel S.

    2013-10-15

    Although the majority of free cellular cholesterol is present in the plasma membrane, cholesterol homeostasis is principally regulated through sterol-sensing proteins that reside in the cholesterol-poor endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In response to acute cholesterol loading or depletion, there is rapid equilibration between the ER and plasma membrane cholesterol pools, suggesting a biophysical model in which the availability of plasma membrane cholesterol for trafficking to internal membranes modulates ER membrane behavior. Previous studies have predominantly examined cholesterol availability in terms of binding to extramembrane acceptors, but have provided limited insight into the structural changes underlying cholesterol activation. In this study, we use both molecular dynamics simulations and experimental membrane systems to examine the behavior of cholesterol in membrane bilayers. We find that cholesterol depth within the bilayer provides a reasonable structural metric for cholesterol availability and that this is correlated with cholesterol-acceptor binding. Further, the distribution of cholesterol availability in our simulations is continuous rather than divided into distinct available and unavailable pools. This data provide support for a revised cholesterol activation model in which activation is driven not by saturation of membrane-cholesterol interactions but rather by bulk membrane remodeling that reduces membrane-cholesterol affinity.

  18. The cis-9,trans-11 isomer of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) lowers plasma triglyceride and raises HDL cholesterol concentrations but does not suppress aortic atherosclerosis in diabetic apoE-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestel, Paul; Fujii, Akihiko; Allen, Terri

    2006-12-01

    Reduction in atherosclerosis has been reported in experimental animals fed mixtures of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). In this study, the major naturally occurring CLA isomer (cis-9,trans-11) was tested in an atherosclerosis-prone mouse model. In a model of insulin deficient apoE deficient mice, 16 animals were fed for 20 weeks with supplemental CLA (09.%, w/w) and compared with a similar number of mice of this phenotype. A control comparison was made of metabolic changes in non-diabetic apoE deficient mice that develop little atherosclerosis over 20 weeks. At 20 weeks, plasma lipids were measured and aortic atherosclerosis quantified by Sudan staining in the arch, thoracic and abdominal segments. The diabetic apoE deficient mice developed marked dyslipidemia, primarily as cholesterol-enriched chylomicron and VLDL-sized lipoproteins and atherosclerosis in the aortic arch. However, there were no significant differences between CLA fed and non-CLA fed mice in either phenotype in plasma cholesterol concentration (in diabetic: 29.4+/-7.7 and 29.5+/-5.9 mmol/L, respectively) or in the area of aortic arch atherosclerosis (in diabetic: 24.8+/-10.3 and 27.6+/-7.7%, respectively). However, among diabetic mice the triglyceride concentration in triglyceride-rich lipoproteins was significantly lower in those fed CLA (for plasma 2.2+/-0.8 to 1.1+/-0.3 mmol/L; Pdiabetic mice in which HDL cholesterol increased significantly with CLA (0.35+/-0.12-0.56+/-0.15 mmol/L). In this atherosclerosis-prone model, the diabetic apoE deficient mouse, supplemental 0.9% CLA (cis-9,trans-11) failed to reduce the severity of aortic atherosclerosis, although plasma triglyceride concentration was substantially lowered and HDL cholesterol raised.

  19. Women and Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Women and Cholesterol Updated:Apr 1,2016 The female sex hormone ... 2014. Related Sites Nutrition Center My Life Check Cholesterol • Home • About Cholesterol • Why Cholesterol Matters • Understand Your ...

  20. HDL Cholesterol Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities HDL Cholesterol Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ... HDL; HDL-C Formal name: High-density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Related tests: Cholesterol ; LDL Cholesterol ; Triglycerides ; Lipid Profile ; ...

  1. Cholesterol IQ Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Cholesterol IQ Quiz Updated:Feb 2,2015 Begin the quiz Cholesterol • Home • About Cholesterol Introduction Good vs. Bad Cholesterol ...

  2. Cholesterol and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Cholesterol and Your Child KidsHealth > For Parents > Cholesterol and ... child's risk of developing heart disease later. About Cholesterol Cholesterol is a waxy substance produced by the ...

  3. Lifestyle Changes and Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Lifestyle Changes and Cholesterol Updated:Sep 26,2016 As part of a ... to the Terms and Conditions and Privacy Policy Cholesterol • Home • About Cholesterol • Why Cholesterol Matters • Understand Your ...

  4. Common Misconceptions about Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Common Misconceptions about Cholesterol Updated:Apr 3,2017 Cholesterol can be both ... misconceptions about cholesterol. Click on each misconception about cholesterol to see the truth: My choices about diet ...

  5. Regulation of reverse cholesterol transport - a comprehensive appraisal of available animal studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annema, Wijtske; Tietge, Uwe J. F.

    2012-01-01

    Plasma levels of high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol are strongly inversely correlated to the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. A major recognized functional property of HDL particles is to elicit cholesterol efflux and consequently mediate reverse cholesterol transport (RCT). T

  6. The effect of whisky and wine consumption on total phenol content and antioxidant capacity of plasma from healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duthie, GG; Pedersen, M W; PC, Morrice

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess whether consumption of 100 ml of whisky or red wine by healthy male subjects increasedplasma total phenol content and antioxidant capacity. DESIGN: A Latin square arrangement to eliminate ordering effectswhereby, after an overnight fast, nine volunteers consumed 100 ml of red....... RESULTS: Within 30 min of consumption of the wine and whisky, there was a similar andsignificant increase in plasma total phenol content and antioxidant capacity as determined by the ferric reducing capacityof plasma (FRAP). No changes were observed following consumption of 'new make' spirit. CONCLUSIONS......:Consumption of phenolic-containing alcoholic beverages transiently raises total phenol concentration and enhances theantioxidant capacity of plasma. This is compatible with suggestions that moderate alcohol usage and increasedantioxidant intake decrease the risk of coronary heart disease....

  7. Increased Hepatic Expression of Endothelial Lipase Inhibits Cholesterol Diet-Induced Hypercholesterolemia and Atherosclerosis in Transgenic Rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuan; Nishijima, Kazutoshi; Kitajima, Shuji; Niimi, Manabu; Yan, Haizhao; Chen, Yajie; Ning, Bo; Matsuhisa, Fumikazu; Liu, Enqi; Zhang, Jifeng; Chen, Y Eugene; Fan, Jianglin

    2017-07-01

    Endothelial lipase (EL) is a key determinant in plasma high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. However, functional roles of EL on the development of atherosclerosis have not been clarified. We investigated whether hepatic expression of EL affects plasma lipoprotein metabolism and cholesterol diet-induced atherosclerosis. We generated transgenic (Tg) rabbits expressing the human EL gene in the liver and then examined the effects of EL expression on plasma lipids and lipoproteins and compared the susceptibility of Tg rabbits with cholesterol diet-induced atherosclerosis with non-Tg littermates. On a chow diet, hepatic expression of human EL in Tg rabbits led to remarkable reductions in plasma levels of total cholesterol, phospholipids, and high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol compared with non-Tg controls. On a cholesterol-rich diet for 16 weeks, Tg rabbits exhibited significantly lower hypercholesterolemia and less atherosclerosis than non-Tg littermates. In Tg rabbits, gross lesion area of aortic atherosclerosis was reduced by 52%, and the lesions were characterized by fewer macrophages and smooth muscle cells compared with non-Tg littermates. Increased hepatic expression of EL attenuates cholesterol diet-induced hypercholesterolemia and protects against atherosclerosis. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Total plasma homocysteine and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T polymorphism in patients with colorectal carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sandra Battistelli; Aurelio Vittoria; Massimo Stefanoni; Camilla Bing; Franco Roviello

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the behaviour of total plasma homocysteine (tHcy) and its most common genetic determinant defect, the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T (C677TMTHFR) polymorphism in patients with early stage colorectal carcinoma.METHODS: tHcy was quantified by Abbott IMx immunoassay; screening for C677TMTHFR substitution was performed by PCR and restriction analysis.RESULTS: The frequency of the C/T and T/T genotypes of the C677TMTHFR gene polymorphism did not differ between the groups. The mean tHcy was statistically higher in cancer patients than in control subjects carrying the same C/C or C/T genotype, whereas there was no difference in the T/T homozygous carriers of the two groups. tHcy was significantly higher in the T/T homozygous carriers than in C/C and C/T genotype carriers.CONCLUSION: The statistically significant increase of tHcy observed in C/C and C/T genotype carriers among our cancer patients is related to substrate consumption dependent on the tumor cell proliferation rate, whereas the tHcy increase observed in T/T genotype carriers of both groups probably depends on the enzymatic deficit of the homocysteine conversion to methionine and/or on the folate deficiency.

  9. Proteomic analysis of plasma from rats following total parenteral nutrition-induced liver injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jai-Jen; Kuo, Hsing-Chun; Lee, Kam-Fai; Tsai, Tung-Hu

    2015-11-01

    Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) is provided as the primary nitrogen source to manage patients with intestinal failure who were not able to sustain themselves on enteral feeds. The most common complication of long-term TPN use is hepatitis. A proteomic approach was used to identify proteins that are differentially expressed in the plasma of rats following TPN-related acute liver injury. Six male rats were randomly assigned to either the saline infusion control group or the TPN infusion group. Our results demonstrate that TPN infusion in rats resulted in hepatic dysfunction and hepatocyte apoptosis. Five proteins that were differentially expressed between TPN infusion and normal rats were determined and validated in vivo. Fascinatingly, the proteomic differential displays, downregulated proteins included peroxiredoxin 2 (PRDX2), alpha-1-antiproteinase (A1AT), and fibrinogen gamma chain (FIBG), which were involved in oxidative stress, inflammatory respondence and cells apoptosis. After TPN infusion, two protein spots showed increased expression, namely, the glucagon receptor (GLR) protein and apolipoprotein A-1 (APOA1), which may mediate the effects of TPN administration on glycogen and lipid metabolism. In this study, proteomic analysis suggested TPN-related acute liver injury could be involved in limiting cellular protection mechanisms against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. On the basis of the results, we also give molecular evidences replying TPN-related hepatitis.

  10. Restoring Mitochondrial Function: A Small Molecule-mediated Approach to Enhance Glucose Stimulated Insulin Secretion in Cholesterol Accumulated Pancreatic beta cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asalla, Suman; Girada, Shravan Babu; Kuna, Ramya S.; Chowdhury, Debabrata; Kandagatla, Bhaskar; Oruganti, Srinivas; Bhadra, Utpal; Bhadra, Manika Pal; Kalivendi, Shasi Vardhan; Rao, Swetha Pavani; Row, Anupama; Ibrahim, A.; Ghosh, Partha Pratim; Mitra, Prasenjit

    2016-06-01

    Dyslipidemia, particularly the elevated serum cholesterol levels, aggravate the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes. In the present study we explored the relationship between fasting blood sugar and serum lipid parameters in human volunteers which revealed a significant linear effect of serum cholesterol on fasting blood glucose. Short term feeding of cholesterol enriched diet to rodent model resulted in elevated serum cholesterol levels, cholesterol accumulation in pancreatic islets and hyperinsulinemia with modest increase in plasma glucose level. To explore the mechanism, we treated cultured BRIN-BD11 pancreatic beta cells with soluble cholesterol. Our data shows that cholesterol treatment of cultured pancreatic beta cells enhances total cellular cholesterol. While one hour cholesterol exposure enhances insulin exocytosis, overnight cholesterol accumulation in cultured pancreatic beta cells affects cellular respiration, and inhibits Glucose stimulated insulin secretion. We further report that (E)-4-Chloro-2-(1-(2-(2,4,6-trichlorophenyl) hydrazono) ethyl) phenol (small molecule M1) prevents the cholesterol mediated blunting of cellular respiration and potentiates Glucose stimulated insulin secretion which was abolished in pancreatic beta cells on cholesterol accumulation.

  11. Twenty four hour insulin infusion impairs the ability of plasma from healthy subjects and Type 2 diabetic patients to promote cellular cholesterol efflux

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dullaart, RPF; van Tol, A

    Removal of cholesterol from peripheral cells by high density lipoproteins (HDL) is regarded as an important defence mechanism against atherosclerosis development. PLTP is involved in the generation of pre beta -HDL that can act as initial accepters of cellular cholesterol. Exogenous

  12. Familial combined hyperlipidemia is associated with alterations in the cholesterol synthesis pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCH) is a common familial lipid disorder characterized by increases in plasma total cholesterol, triglyceride, and apolipoprotein B-100 levels. In light of prior metabolic and genetic research, our purpose was to ascertain whether FCH cases had significant abnormali...

  13. Increase in plasma total antioxidant capacity of grazing Japanese Black heifers and cows in forestland in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haga, Satoshi; Ishizaki, Hiroshi; Nakano, Miwa; Nakao, Seiji; Hirano, Kiyoshi; Yamamoto, Yoshito; Kitagawa, Miya; Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Kariya, Yoshihiro

    2014-02-01

    Blood total antioxidant capacity (TAC) has become a key bio-marker for animal health. Forest-grazing cattle are known to forage various native plants that have high TAC. This study evaluated differences of plasma TAC between forest-grazing (FG) and pasture-grazing cattle (PG). Experiment 1 monitored the plasma TAC levels of 32 Japanese Black cattle. The level in PG did not change throughout the grazing period. However, that in FG, which increased from summer, was significantly higher than that in PG through fall (P antioxidant parameters and the TAC in plants that the cattle consumed in late June and September. The plasma TAC levels in FG were significantly higher than those in PG in both periods (P pasture grasses. Results of this study show that plasma TAC of grazing Japanese Black cattle in forestland increase from summer through fall.

  14. Total plasma clearance versus urinary plasma clearance of (51)Cr-EDTA in patients with cirrhosis with and without fluid retention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Ulrik Lütken; Hansen, Hanne B; Ring-Larsen, Helmer

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background and aim. In patients with fluid retention, the total plasma clearance of (51)Cr-EDTA (ClP) may overestimate the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). The present study was therefore undertaken in order to compare ClP with the urinary plasma clearance of (51)Cr-EDTA (ClU) in patients...... with cirrhosis with and without fluid retention. Material and methods. A total of 136 patients with cirrhosis (24 without fluid retention, 112 with ascites) received a quantitative intravenous injection of (51)Cr-EDTA followed by plasma and quantitative urinary samples for 5 hours. ClP was determined from...... the injected dose relative to the plasma concentration-time area, extrapolated to infinity. ClU was determined as urinary excretion relative to the plasma concentration-time area up to voiding. Results. In patients without fluid retention, the difference between ClP and ClU (ClP - ClU = ClΔ) was mean 4.5 m...

  15. Cholesterol-Lowering Activity of Tartary Buckwheat Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chengnan; Zhang, Rui; Li, Yuk Man; Liang, Ning; Zhao, Yimin; Zhu, Hanyue; He, Zouyan; Liu, Jianhui; Hao, Wangjun; Jiao, Rui; Ma, Ka Ying; Chen, Zhen-Yu

    2017-03-08

    Previous research has shown that Tartary buckwheat flour is capable of reducing plasma cholesterol. The present study was to examine the effect of rutin and Tartary buckwheat protein on plasma total cholesterol (TC) in hypercholesterolemia hamsters. In the first animal experiment, 40 male hamsters were divided into four groups fed either the control diet or one of the three experimental diets containing 8.2 mmol rutin, 8.2 mmol quercetin, or 2.5 g kg(-1) cholestyramine, respectively. Results showed that only cholestyramine but not rutin and its aglycone quercetin decreased plasma TC, which suggested that rutin was not the active ingredient responsible for plasma TC-lowering activity of Tartary buckwheat flour. In the second animal experiment, 45 male hamsters were divided into five groups fed either the control diet or one of the four experimental diets containing 24% Tartary buckwheat protein, 24% rice protein, 24% wheat protein, or 5 g kg(-1) cholestyramine, respectively. Tartary buckwheat protein reduced plasma TC more effectively than cholestyramine (45% versus 37%), while rice and wheat proteins only reduced plasma TC by 10-13%. Tartary buckwheat protein caused 108% increase in the fecal excretion of total neutral sterols and 263% increase in the fecal excretion of total acidic sterols. real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting analyses showed that Tartary buckwheat protein affected the gene expression of intestinal Niemann-Pick C1-like protein 1 (NPC1L1), acyl CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase 2 (ACAT2), and ATP binding cassette transporters 5 and 8 (ABCG5/8) in a down trend, whereas it increased the gene expression of hepatic cholesterol-7α -hydroxylase (CYP7A1). It was concluded that Tartary buckwheat protein was at least one of the active ingredients in Tartary buckwheat flour to lower plasma TC, mainly mediated by enhancing the excretion of bile acids via up-regulation of hepatic CYP7A1 and also by inhibiting the absorption of dietary

  16. X-ray plasma diagnostics for totally and partially photoionized plasmas such as warm absorbers in agn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Porquet

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Gracias a la nueva generaci on de satelites de rayos-X, como Chandra y XMM, se pueden obtener espectros de alta sensibilidad y resoluci on. En particular, se pueden separar las tres l neas m as intensas (resonantes, de intercombinaci on y prohibidas de iones de baja carga (baja Z como el He, en plasmas no solares. Basados en estas tres l neas, presentamos diagn osticos para densidad, procesos de ionizaci on y temperatura totalmente o parcialmente ionizados por fotoionizaci on. Estos poderosos diagn osticos pueden ser usados en plasmas calientes como los de AGN, galaxias con brotes de formaci on estelar, binarias de rayos-X, etc. En parti- cular, pueden ser usados en los absorbedores tibios que se ven en AGN (Porquet & Dubau 2000, que son herramientas importantes para entender las regiones centrales de diferentes tipos de AGN (Seyferts 1 y 2 y cuasares de bajo y alto corrimiento al rojo.

  17. Lp(a-cholesterol is associated with HDL-cholesterol in overweight and obese African American children and is not an independent risk factor for CVD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Sushma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of Lipoprotein (a cholesterol {Lp(a-C}as an additional and/or independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD is not clear. We evaluated the associations between Lp(a-C and other CVD risk factors including plasma lipoprotein concentrations and body fatness in overweight and obese African American children. Methods A cross-sectional analysis was carried out using data from a sample of 121 African American children aged 9-11 years with Body Mass Index (BMI's greater than the 85th percentile. Body height, weight and waist circumference (WC were measured. Fasting plasma concentrations of Lp(a-C, Total cholesterol (TC, High density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, Very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C, Intermediate density lipoprotein cholesterol (IDL-C, Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, and Triacylglycerides (TAG were analyzed using the vertical auto profile (VAP cholesterol method. Results After adjusting for child age, gender, and pubertal status, Lp(a-C was positively associated with both HDL-C and TC, and negatively associated with VLDL-C and TAG. Including BMIz and WC as additional covariates did not alter the direction of the relationships between Lp(a-C and the other lipoproteins. Finally, after adjusting for the other plasma lipoproteins, Lp(a-C remained strongly associated with HDL-C, whereas the associations of Lp(a-C with the other lipoproteins were not significant when HDL-C was simultaneously included in the regression models. Conclusions Lp(a-C was positively associated with HDL-C and this association is not influenced by other lipoprotein subclasses or by the degree of obesity. We conclude that Lp(a cholesterol is not an independent risk factor for CVD in African American children.

  18. Herpesvirus infection accelerates cholesterol redistribution from plasma to tissue compartment in C57BL mice%疱疹病毒感染促进C57BL小鼠体内胆固醇重新分布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾蓓; 唐任宽; 赵蕾; 叶强; 梅玫; 陈亚西; 黄爱龙; 阮雄中

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate whether virus infection fundamentally modified cholesterol homeostasis by changing expression of cholesterol sensor SCAP and its targeting gene LDL receptor.Method:C57BL mice on high cholesterol diet were treated with murine herpesvirus-68 (MHV-68) by abdominal injection for 14 weeks.Lipid profile in plasma was measured.TC,free cholesterol,and LDL cholesterol in liver and vessels were examined by enzymatic assay and Oil Red O staining.The mRNA expression of LDL receptor,SREBP2 and SCAP were quantified by real-time reverse-transcriptase PCR.The protein levels were examined by western blotting and immunohistochemistry.Result:Persisted viral infection in mice on high cholesterol diet resulted in markedly decreased LDL cholesterol levels in plasma but increased level in liver.Furthermore,frozen sectioning of aorta roots demonstrated the formation of fatty streak.Real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry assay revealed the elevated mRNA and protein expression from the genes including LDL receptor,SCAP and SREBP2.Conclusion:MHV-68 infection causes cholesterol redistribution from plasma to tissue compartment which may be a new pathway for lipid-mediated tissue injuries.The plasma cholesterol levels may not reflect the lipid burden of tissues and organs.%目的:探讨疱疹病毒感染是否通过与胆固醇代谢负反馈途径中的固醇调节元件结合蛋白(SREBP)、SREBP切割激活蛋白(SCAP)及其靶基因LDL受体的相互作用而改变胆固醇代谢的平衡.方法:以高脂饮食喂养C57BL小鼠联合腹腔注射小鼠疱疹病毒(MHV-68)14周后,检测血清脂质的变化,对小鼠主动脉行冷冻切片油红O染色,并检测胆固醇负反馈途径各基因的mRNA转录和表达情况.结果:与单纯高脂饮食喂养的小鼠比较,在MHV-68感染联合高脂饮食喂养的C57BL小鼠中,血清脂质水平显著下降,而肝脏组织胆固醇水平显著升高,油红O染色发现脂质条纹的形成,荧光定量RT-PCR结果

  19. Measurement of Intestinal and Peripheral Cholesterol Fluxes by a Dual-Tracer Balance Method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ronda, Onne A H O; van Dijk, Theo H; Verkade, H J; Groen, Albert K

    2016-01-01

    Long-term elevated plasma cholesterol levels put individuals at risk for developing atherosclerosis. Plasma cholesterol levels are determined by the balance between cholesterol input and output fluxes. Here we describe in detail the methodology to determine the different cholesterol fluxes in mice.

  20. IFCC reference measurement procedure for substance concentration determination of total carbon dioxide in blood, plasma or serum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burnett, RW; Covington, AK; Fogh-Andersen, N; Kulpmann, WR; Lewenstam, A; Mas, AHJ; VanKessel, AL; Zijlstra, WG

    2001-01-01

    A reference measurement procedure for substance concentration determination of total CO, in blood, plasma (the anticoagulant is usually heparin) or serum is described. The document covers the principle of the method, the materials and equipment needed and essential aspects of the procedure. The subs

  1. Plasma nitrite levels, total antioxidant status, total oxidant status, and oxidative stress index in patients with tension-type headache and fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neyal, Munife; Yimenicioglu, Fatih; Aydeniz, Ali; Taskin, Abdullah; Saglam, Sadullah; Cekmen, Mustafa; Neyal, Abdurrahman; Gursoy, Savas; Erel, Ozcan; Balat, Ayse

    2013-06-01

    Tension-type headache (TTH) and fibromyalgia syndrome (FM) are worldwide seen chronic pain syndromes of unknown etiology. Despite the growing body of data on pathophysiology and generation mechanisms of pain; our knowledge on pain mechanisms in both FM and TTH is yet to be limited. We investigated the plasma nitrite levels, total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS), and oxidative stress index (OSI) in 35 TTH, 33 FM patients and 31 healthy controls. The mean plasma nitrite levels and TAS levels were significantly low and OSI was found to be significantly high in TTH and FM groups compared to the control group (p=0.001, p=0.001, p=0.001 and p=0.001, respectively). The mean serum TOS levels were also significantly higher in FM group according to the control group (p=0.034), but there was not a significant difference between TTH and control groups (p=0.066). These results indicated that; FM and TTH patients revealed higher oxidative stress index and lower total nitrite levels than healthy controls. We conclude that oxidative stress may have a role in the pathophysiological mechanisms of TTH and FM, although, whether it is the cause or the consequence, is not clear. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Cholesterol metabolism and colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broitman, S A; Cerda, S; Wilkinson, J

    1993-01-01

    While epidemiologic and concordant experimental data indicate a direct relationship between dietary fat (and presumably caloric) intake and the development of colon cancer, the effect of dietary cholesterol on this disease is still not clear. However, there appears to be a developing literature concerning an inverse relationship between serum and plasma cholesterol levels, and the risk for colon cancer. Findings that low serum cholesterol levels are apparent as early as ten years prior to the detection of colon cancer implies that sub clinical disease is probably not involved initially in this process. The possibility of low serum cholesterol as a bio-marker was considered in epidemiologic studies which focused upon obese men with lower than normal serum cholesterol levels who were found to be at increased risk to colon cancer. While the relationship between low serum cholesterol and colonic or intestinal cholesterol metabolism is presently not understood, current genetic studies provide a promising though as yet unexplored potential association. Alterations which occur during the developmental progression of colonic cancer include changes in chromosome 5, which also carries two genes vital to the biosynthesis and regulation of systemic and cellular cholesterol metabolism, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A synthase, and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGCoA R). Regulation of cholesterol metabolism in intestinal cells in vivo and in vitro varies from that seen in normal fibroblasts or hepatocytes in terms of exogenous sources of cholesterol and how these sources regulate internal synthesis. Colonic cancer cells have been used to assess small bowel enterocyte cholesterol metabolism, which has been possible because of their ability to differentiate in culture, however information regarding true colonic enterocyte cholesterol metabolism is relatively scarce. Colonic cancer cells have been shown to possess a diminished or nonexistent ability to use

  3. Studies on PCSK9 in the regulation of cholesterol metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Persson, Lena

    2011-01-01

    Elevated levels of plasma cholesterol, mainly in low density lipoproteins (LDL), are a major risk factor for coronary heart disease. The level of plasma LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) is largely dependent on the number of hepatic LDL receptors (LDLRs). Increased number of LDLRs leads to higher uptake of LDL particles and lower concentration of plasma LDL-C. Proprotein convertase subtilisin Kexin Type 9 (PCSK9) is a novel key regulator in cholesterol metabolism. PCSK9 reduces the numbe...

  4. Cholesterol-lowering activity of sesamin is associated with down-regulation on genes of sterol transporters involved in cholesterol absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yin Tong; Chen, Jingnan; Jiao, Rui; Peng, Cheng; Zuo, Yuanyuan; Lei, Lin; Liu, Yuwei; Wang, Xiaobo; Ma, Ka Ying; Huang, Yu; Chen, Zhen-Yu

    2015-03-25

    Sesame seed is rich in sesamin. The present study was to (i) investigate the plasma cholesterol-lowering activity of dietary sesamin and (ii) examine the interaction of dietary sesamin with the gene expression of sterol transporters, enzymes, receptors, and proteins involved in cholesterol metabolism. Thirty hamsters were divided into three groups fed the control diet (CON) or one of two experimental diets containing 0.2% (SL) and 0.5% (SH) sesamin, respectively, for 6 weeks. Plasma total cholesterol (TC) levels in hamsters given the CON, SL, and SH diets were 6.62 ± 0.40, 5.32 ± 0.40, and 5.00 ± 0.44 mmol/L, respectively, indicating dietary sesamin could reduce plasma TC in a dose-dependent manner. Similarly, the excretion of total fecal neutral sterols was dose-dependently increased with the amounts of sesamin in diets (CON, 2.65 ± 0.57; SL, 4.30 ± 0.65; and SH, 5.84 ± 1.27 μmol/day). Addition of sesamin into diets was associated with down-regulation of mRNA of intestinal Niemann-Pick C1 like 1 protein (NPC1L1), acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase 2 (ACAT2), microsomal triacylglycerol transport protein (MTP), and ATP-binding cassette transporters subfamily G members 5 and 8 (ABCG5 and ABCG8). Results also showed that dietary sesamin could up-regulate hepatic cholesterol-7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), whereas it down-regulated hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase and liver X receptor alpha (LXRα). It was concluded that the cholesterol-lowering activity of sesamin was mediated by promoting the fecal excretion of sterols and modulating the genes involved in cholesterol absorption and metabolism.

  5. Total plasma homocysteine is associated with hypertension in Type I diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neugebauer, S; Tarnow, L; Stehouwer, C D

    2002-01-01

    between plasma homocysteine concentrations, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene polymorphism, hypertension, diabetic microvascular and macrovascular complications associated with kidney function. METHODS: Vascular complications, hypertension, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase genotype (RFLP....../l in patients with normal GFR are not related to vascular complications, but to hypertension (8.6-11.3 micro mol/l: OR 1.9; >11.3 micro mol/l: OR 3.7). The risk for coronary heart disease (CHD) was also enhanced by a plasma homocysteine concentration greater than 11.3 micro mol/l (OR 5.9). Although the T allele...... was an independent determinant of plasma homocysteine, the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene polymorphism was neither associated with diabetic vascular complications nor with hypertension. CONCLUSION/INTERPRETATION: Increased plasma homocysteine concentrations but not the T allele per se, enhance the risk...

  6. Effect of Nicardipine on Fasting Plasma Lipids and Apolipoproteins in Male New Zealand White Rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    Kamsiah, Jaarin; Nafeeza, MI

    1999-01-01

    The effect of nicardipine on fasting plasma lipid profiles was studied in rabbits given a 2% cholesterol diet. Twenty four New Zealand White rabbits (2.2 – 2.8 kg) were divided into 3 groups. Group 1 (control) was fed a normal diet, group II (HC) was fed a 2% cholesterol diet and group III (HC+NICA) was fed a 2% cholesterol diet with nicardipine treatment (0.5mg kg−1 body weight twice daily intramuscularly for 10 weeks). The following parameters which included fasting plasma total cholesterol...

  7. Investigation of de novo cholesterol synthetic capacity in the gonads of goldfish (Carassius auratus) exposed to the phytosterol beta-sitosterol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Rainie L; Drolet, Melissa; MacLatchy, Deborah L

    2006-11-21

    Total and intra-mitochondrial gonadal cholesterol concentrations are decreased in fish exposed to the phytoestrogen beta-sitosterol (beta-sit). The present study examined the potential for beta-sit to disrupt de novo cholesterol synthesis in the gonads of goldfish exposed to 200 microgram/g beta-sit and 10 microgram/g 17beta-estradiol (E2; estrogenic control) by intra-peritoneal Silastic implants for 21 days. The de novo cholesterol synthetic capacity was estimated by incubating gonadal tissue with 14C-acetate for a period of 18 hours, followed by chloroform/methanol lipid extraction and thin layer chromatography (TLC) lipid separation. Lipid classes were confirmed using infrared spectroscopy. Plasma testosterone (T) and total cholesterol concentration were measured and gonadosomatic index (GSI) was calculated. Plasma T was significantly reduced in male beta-sit-treated fish compared to control and E2-treated fish (p fatty acids (FFA). FFA incorporation was significantly higher in male control fish than either beta-sit or E2 treatments (p = 0.005). Plasma cholesterol concentration was significantly increased in the male beta-sit treatment group compared to controls (p = 0.027). These results indicate gonadal de novo cholesterol biosynthetic capacity is not disrupted by beta-sit or E2 treatment in early recrudescing male or female goldfish, while plasma cholesterol and steroid concentrations are sensitive to beta-sit exposure.

  8. Prenatal detection of the cholesterol biosynthetic defect in the Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome by the analysis of amniotic fluid sterols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuelo, D N; Tint, G S; Kelley, R; Batta, A K; Shefer, S; Salen, G

    1995-04-10

    The Smith-Lemli-Opitz (SLO or RSH) syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by a recognizable pattern of minor facial anomalies, congenital anomalies of many organs, failure to thrive, and mental retardation. Its cause is a defect in cholesterol biosynthesis characterized by abnormally low plasma cholesterol levels and concentrations of the cholesterol precursor 7-dehydrocholesterol (7DHC) elevated up to several thousand-fold above normal. We used capillary column gas-chromatography to quantify sterols in amniotic fluid, amniotic cells, plasma, placenta, and breast milk from a heterozygous mother who had previously given birth to an affected son and in cord blood and plasma from her affected newborn daughter. The cholesterol concentration in amniotic fluid at 16 weeks gestation was normal, but 7DHC, normally undetectable, was greatly elevated. In cultured amniocytes, the level of 7DHC was 11% of total cholesterol, similar to cultured fibroblasts from patients with SLO syndrome. At 38 weeks, a girl with phenotype consistent with the syndrome was born. Cholesterol concentrations were abnormally low in cord blood and in the baby's plasma at 12 weeks, while levels of 7DHC were grossly elevated, confirming the prenatal diagnosis. The mother's plasma cholesterol increased steadily during gestation but remained below the lower 95% limit reported for normal control women. We conclude that it is now possible to detect the SLO syndrome at 16 weeks gestation by analyzing amniotic fluid sterols.

  9. Pediatric reference intervals for plasma free and total metanephrines established with a parametric approach: relevance to the diagnosis of neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franscini, Laura Crosazzo; Vazquez-Montes, Maria; Buclin, Thierry; Perera, Rafael; Dunand, Marielle; Grouzmann, Eric; Beck-Popovic, Maja

    2015-04-01

    Urine catecholamines, vanillylmandelic, and homovanillic acid are recognized biomarkers for the diagnosis and follow-up of neuroblastoma. Plasma free (f) and total (t) normetanephrine (NMN), metanephrine (MN) and methoxytyramine (MT) could represent a convenient alternative to those urine markers. The primary objective of this study was to establish pediatric centile charts for plasma metanephrines. Secondarily, we explored their diagnostic performance in 10 patients with neuroblastoma. We recruited 191 children (69 females) free of neuroendocrine disease to establish reference intervals for plasma metanephrines, reported as centile curves for a given age and sex based on a parametric method using fractional polynomials models. Urine markers and plasma metanephrines were measured in 10 children with neuroblastoma at diagnosis. Plasma total metanephrines were measured by HPLC with coulometric detection and plasma free metanephrines by tandem LC-MS. We observed a significant age-dependence for tNMN, fNMN, and fMN, and a gender and age-dependence for tMN, fNMN, and fMN. Free MT was below the lower limit of quantification in 94% of the children. All patients with neuroblastoma at diagnosis were above the 97.5th percentile for tMT, tNMN, fNMN, and fMT, whereas their fMN and tMN were mostly within the normal range. As expected, urine assays were inconstantly predictive of the disease. A continuous model incorporating all data for a given analyte represents an appealing alternative to arbitrary partitioning of reference intervals across age categories. Plasma metanephrines are promising biomarkers for neuroblastoma, and their performances need to be confirmed in a prospective study on a large cohort of patients. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Acute phase response of selenium status and glutathione peroxidase activity in blood plasma before and after total knee arthroplasty surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defi, Irma Ruslina; Yamazaki, Chiho; Kameo, Satomi; Kobayashi, Kenji; Nakazawa, Minato; Shinya, Yanagisawa; Sato, Naoki; Wada, Naoki; Shirakura, Kenji; Koyama, Hiroshi

    2011-12-01

    Several studies show the consistent results of the decrease in plasma or serum selenium (Se) after surgery, and the change is suggested to be a negative acute phase response of Se to the surgical inflammation. Plasma glutathione peroxidase (GPx), which is included in the acute phase response proteins, is a selenoenzyme. However, previous studies failed to show any changes in GPx activity before and after surgery. In the present study, we investigated the Se- and selenoenzyme responses that accompany the acute inflammatory reactions during and following major surgery. Patients who underwent elective total knee arthroplasty surgery due to knee osteoarthritis at the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery at Gunma University Hospital in Japan were studied. The plasma Se concentration was determined, and the activity of plasma GPx was measured. C-reactive protein (CRP), albumin, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and white blood cell (WBC) count were also analysed. Increases in the inflammatory biomarkers of CRP and WBC showed inflammatory reactions with the surgery. A significant increase in plasma GPx activity (p production of other series of acute phase proteins, the present results suggest that there is a redistribution of plasma Se to GPx that occurs as an acute phase response, and the source of Se for GPx could be, at least partly, from albumin.

  11. The effects of exposure to warm environments on bovine plasma lipid composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, R C; Mabon, R M; Jenkinson, D M

    1976-07-01

    The concentrations of total fatty acids and free cholesterol in the plasma of Ayrshire calves decreased following, but not during, short-term exposure to heat. Lower concentrations of total fatty acids and free cholesterol were maintained on prolonged heat exposure. Blood and plasma volumes were little affected by either short-term or prolonged heat exposure. Haematocrit rose during short-term heat stress and on prolonged heat exposure there was a decrease in erythrocyte fragility.

  12. [Plasma and tissue lipids in rats after a flight on the Kosmos-1129 biosatellite].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlers, J; Tigranian, R A; D'jatelinka, J; Smajda, B; Toropila, M

    1982-01-01

    Concentrations of triglycerides, total cholesterol, lipid phosphorus and nonesterified fatty acids were measured in blood plasma, liver, thymus, bone marrow and adipose tissues of rats flown for 18.5 days onboard the biosatellite Cosmos-1129. This exposure was accompanied by increases in lipomobilization, content of total cholesterol and lipid phosphorus in plasma, and triglycerides in the thymus and bone marrow. The postflight exposure to repeated stresses demonstrated changes in the lipid content in all animal groups, especially in flight rats.

  13. Pantethine, a derivative of vitamin B5, favorably alters total, LDL and non-HDL cholesterol in low to moderate cardiovascular risk subjects eligible for statin therapy: a triple-blinded placebo and diet-controlled investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans M

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Malkanthi Evans,1 John A Rumberger,2 Isao Azumano,3 Joseph J Napolitano,4 Danielle Citrolo,5 Toshikazu Kamiya5 1KGK Synergize Inc, London, ON, Canada; 2The Princeton Longevity Center, Princeton, NJ, USA; 3Daiichi Fine Chemical Co, Ltd, Toyama, Japan; 4Independent Consultant, Allentown, PA, USA; 5Kyowa Hakko USA, New York, NY, USA Abstract: High serum concentration of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C is a major risk factor for coronary heart disease. The efficacy of pantethine treatment on cardiovascular risk markers was investigated in a randomized, triple-blinded, placebo-controlled study, in a low to moderate cardiovascular disease (CVD risk North American population eligible for statin therapy, using the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP guidelines. A total of 32 subjects were randomized to pantethine (600 mg/day from weeks 1 to 8 and 900 mg/day from weeks 9 to16 or placebo. Compared with placebo, the participants on pantethine showed a significant decrease in total cholesterol at 16 weeks (P=0.040 and LDL-C at 8 and 16 weeks (P=0.020 and P=0.006, respectively, and decreasing trends in non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol at week 8 and week 12 (P=0.102 and P=0.145, respectively that reached significance by week 16 (P=0.042. An 11% decrease in LDL-C from baseline was seen in participants on pantethine, at weeks 4, 8, 12, and 16, while participants on placebo showed a 3% increase at week 16. This decrease was significant between groups at weeks 8 (P=0.027 and 16 (P=0.010. The homocysteine levels for both groups did not change significantly from baseline to week 16. Coenzyme Q10 significantly increased from baseline to week 4 and remained elevated until week 16, in both the pantethine and placebo groups. After 16 weeks, the participants on pl