Trapped ion mode in toroidally rotating plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Artun, M.; Tang, W.M.; Rewoldt, G.
1995-04-01
The influence of radially sheared toroidal flows on the Trapped Ion Mode (TIM) is investigated using a two-dimensional eigenmode code. These radially extended toroidal microinstabilities could significantly influence the interpretation of confinement scaling trends and associated fluctuation properties observed in recent tokamak experiments. In the present analysis, the electrostatic drift kinetic equation is obtained from the general nonlinear gyrokinetic equation in rotating plasmas. In the long perpendicular wavelength limit k τ ρ bi much-lt 1, where ρ bi is the average trapped-ion banana width, the resulting eigenmode equation becomes a coupled system of second order differential equations nmo for the poloidal harmonics. These equations are solved using finite element methods. Numerical results from the analysis of low and medium toroidal mode number instabilities are presented using representative TFTR L-mode input parameters. To illustrate the effects of mode coupling, a case is presented where the poloidal mode coupling is suppressed. The influence of toroidal rotation on a TFTR L-mode shot is also analyzed by including a beam species with considerable larger temperature. A discussion of the numerical results is presented
A model for the neoclassical toroidal viscosity effect on Edge plasma toroidal rotation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Miron, I.G. [National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Euratom-MEdC Association, Bucharest (Romania)
2013-11-15
A semianalytic expression for the edge plasma angular toroidal rotation frequency that includes the neoclassical toroidal viscosity braking influence is obtained. Based on the model presented in a previous paper [I.G. Miron, Contrib. Plasma Phys. 53, 214 (2013)], the less destabilizing error field spectrum is found in order to minimize the nonlinear effect of the NTV on the toroidal rotation of the edge of the plasma. (copyright 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
The effect of sheared toroidal rotation on pressure driven magnetic islands in toroidal plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hegna, C. C. [Departments of Engineering Physics and Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)
2016-05-15
The impact of sheared toroidal rotation on the evolution of pressure driven magnetic islands in tokamak plasmas is investigated using a resistive magnetohydrodynamics model augmented by a neoclassical Ohm's law. Particular attention is paid to the asymptotic matching data as the Mercier indices are altered in the presence of sheared flow. Analysis of the nonlinear island Grad-Shafranov equation shows that sheared flows tend to amplify the stabilizing pressure/curvature contribution to pressure driven islands in toroidal tokamaks relative to the island bootstrap current contribution. As such, sheared toroidal rotation tends to reduce saturated magnetic island widths.
Stationary magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium of toroidal plasma in rotation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Missiato, O.
1986-01-01
The stationary equations of classical magnetohydrodynamics are utilized to study the toroidal motion of a thermonuclear magnetically - confined plasma with toroidal symmetry (Tokamak). In the present work, we considered a purely toroidal stationary rotation and te problem is reduced to studing a second order partial differencial equation of eliptic type Maschke-Perrin. Assuming that the temperature remains constant on the magnetic surfaces, an analitic solution, valid for low Mach numbers (M ≤ 0 .4), was obtained for the above-mentioned equation by means of a technique developed by Pantuso Sudano. From the solution found, we traced graphs for the quantities which described the equilibrium state of the plasma, namely: mass density, pressure, temperature, electric current density and toroidal magnetic field. Finally we compare this analitical model with others works which utilized differents analitical models and numerical simulations. We conclude that the solutions obtained are in good agreement with the previos results. In addition, however, our model contains the results of Sudano-Goes with the additional advantage of employing much simple analitical expressions. (author) [pt
Measurement of toroidal and poloidal plasma rotation in TCA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duval, B.P.; Joye, B.; Marchal, B.
1991-01-01
With optimal observation geometry we have measured both the toroidal and poloidal rotation velocities in the edge and in the bulk of the TCA plasma. Regular calibration and correction for variations in the spectrometer temperature permitted a measurement with an error of ∼0.5 km/s which is an order of magnitude smaller than the range of measured velocities. In general, changes in the velocities are observed to be stronger and faster in the plasma edge than in the plasma bulk. With increasing density, the toroidal velocity is observed to change sign and follow the plasma density, while the poloidal velocity increases. These two effects lead to an increase in the absolute value of the radial electric field. With very strong gas puffing, the toroidal velocity is observed to again reverse and tend to zero, an effect which is stronger as the gradient of the density ramp is increased. Comparison between gas puffing and high power AWH does not show a significant difference in the radial electric field that could be responsible for the large associated density rise, which still remains unexplained. (author) 4 figs., 2 refs
Poloidal rotation velocity measurement in toroidal plasmas via microwave reflectometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pavlichenko, O.S.; Skibenko, A.I.; Fomin, I.P.; Pinos, I.B.; Ocheretenko, V.L.; Berezhniy, V.L.
2001-01-01
Results of experiment modeling backscattering of microwaves from rotating plasma layer perturbed by fluctuations are presented. It was shown that auto- and crosscorrelation of reflected power have a periodicity equal to rotation period. Such periodicity was observed by microwave reflectometry in experiments on RF plasma production on U-3M torsatron and was used for measurement of plasma poloidal rotation velocity. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chrystal, C. [University of California-San Diego, La Jolla, California 92186-5608 (United States); Burrell, K. H.; Groebner, R. J.; Kaplan, D. H. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Grierson, B. A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543-0451 (United States)
2012-10-15
To improve poloidal rotation measurement capabilities on the DIII-D tokamak, new chords for the charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CER) diagnostic have been installed. CER is a common method for measuring impurity rotation in tokamak plasmas. These new chords make measurements on the high-field side of the plasma. They are designed so that they can measure toroidal rotation without the need for the calculation of atomic physics corrections. Asymmetry between toroidal rotation on the high- and low-field sides of the plasma is used to calculate poloidal rotation. Results for the main impurity in the plasma are shown and compared with a neoclassical calculation of poloidal rotation.
Chrystal, C; Burrell, K H; Grierson, B A; Groebner, R J; Kaplan, D H
2012-10-01
To improve poloidal rotation measurement capabilities on the DIII-D tokamak, new chords for the charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CER) diagnostic have been installed. CER is a common method for measuring impurity rotation in tokamak plasmas. These new chords make measurements on the high-field side of the plasma. They are designed so that they can measure toroidal rotation without the need for the calculation of atomic physics corrections. Asymmetry between toroidal rotation on the high- and low-field sides of the plasma is used to calculate poloidal rotation. Results for the main impurity in the plasma are shown and compared with a neoclassical calculation of poloidal rotation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Narita, Emi; Fukuda, Takeshi; Honda, Mitsuru; Hayashi, Nobuhiko; Urano, Hajime; Ide, Shunsuke
2015-01-01
Tokamak plasmas with an internal transport barrier (ITB) are capable of maintaining improved confinement performance. The ITBs formed in plasmas with the weak magnetic shear and the weak radial electric field shear are often observed to be modest. In these ITB plasmas, it has been found that the electron temperature ITB is steeper when toroidal rotation is in a co-direction with respect to the plasma current than when toroidal rotation is in a counter-direction. To clarify the relationship between the direction of toroidal rotation and heat transport in the ITB region, we examine dominant instabilities using the flux-tube gyrokinetic code GS2. The linear calculations show a difference in the real frequencies; the counter-rotation case has a more trapped electron mode than the co-rotation case. In addition, the nonlinear calculations show that with this difference, the ratio of the electron heat diffusivity χ_e to the ion's χ_i is higher for the counter-rotation case than for the co-rotation case. The difference in χ_e /χ_i agrees with the experiment. We also find that the effect of the difference in the flow shear between the two cases due to the toroidal rotation direction on the linear growth rate is not significant. (author)
Toroidal rotation studies in KSTAR
Lee, S. G.; Lee, H. H.; Yoo, J. W.; Kim, Y. S.; Ko, W. H.; Terzolo, L.; Bitter, M.; Hill, K.; KSTAR Team
2014-10-01
Investigation of the toroidal rotation is one of the most important topics for the magnetically confined fusion plasma researches since it is essential for the stabilization of resistive wall modes and its shear plays an important role to improve plasma confinement by suppressing turbulent transport. The most advantage of KSTAR tokamak for toroidal rotation studies is that it equips two main diagnostics including the high-resolution X-ray imaging crystal spectrometer (XICS) and charge exchange spectroscopy (CES). Simultaneous core toroidal rotation and ion temperature measurements of different impurity species from the XICS and CES have shown in reasonable agreement with various plasma discharges in KSTAR. It has been observed that the toroidal rotation in KSTAR is faster than that of other tokamak devices with similar machine size and momentum input. This may due to an intrinsically low toroidal field ripple and error field of the KSTAR device. A strong braking of the toroidal rotation by the n = 1 non-resonant magnetic perturbations (NRMPs) also indicates these low toroidal field ripple and error field. Recently, it has been found that n = 2 NRMPs can also damp the toroidal rotation in KSTAR. The detail toroidal rotation studies will be presented. Work supported by the Korea Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning under the KSTAR project.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Goumiri, I. R. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Mechanical and Aerospace Dept.; Rowley, C. W. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Mechanical and Aerospace Dept.; Sabbagh, S. A. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics; Gates, D. A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Gerhardt, S. P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Boyer, M. D. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Andre, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Kolemen, E. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Taira, K. [Florida State Univ, Dept Mech Engn, Tallahassee, FL USA.
2016-02-19
A model-based feedback system is presented to control plasma rotation in a magnetically confined toroidal fusion device, to maintain plasma stability for long-pulse operation. This research uses experimental measurements from the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) and is aimed at controlling plasma rotation using two different types of actuation: momentum from injected neutral beams and neoclassical toroidal viscosity generated by three-dimensional applied magnetic fields. Based on the data-driven model obtained, a feedback controller is designed, and predictive simulations using the TRANSP plasma transport code show that the controller is able to attain desired plasma rotation profiles given practical constraints on the actuators and the available measurements of rotation.
An analysis of plasma ion toroidal rotation during large amplitude MHD activity in JET
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Snipes, J.A.; Esch, H.P.L. de; Lazzaro, E.; Stork, D.; Hellermann, M. von; Galvao, R.; Hender, T.C.; Zasche, D.
1989-01-01
A detailed study of plasma ion toroidal rotation in JET during large amplitude MHD activity has revealed a strong viscous force that couples plasma ions to MHD modes. Depending on the MHD modes present, this force can couple across all of the plasma cross section, across only the central region, roughly within the q=1 surface, or across only the outer region outside the q=1.5 surface. The force acts to flatten the ion toroidal rotation frequency profile, measured by the JET active charge exchange spectroscopy diagnostic, across the coupled region of plasma. The frequency of rotation in this region agrees with the MHD oscillation frequency measured by magnetic pick-up coils at the wall. The strength of the force between the ions and modes becomes evident during high power NBI when the mode locks and drags the ion toroidal rotation frequency to zero, within the errors of the measurements. The present theories of plasma rotation either ignore MHD effects entirely, consider only moderate n toroidal field ripple, or low n ripple effects. (author) 7 refs., 3 figs
Observations of core toroidal rotation reversals in Alcator C-Mod ohmic L-mode plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rice, J.E.; Reinke, M.L.; Podpaly, Y.A.; Churchill, R.M.; Cziegler, I.; Dominguez, A.; Ennever, P.C.; Fiore, C.L.; Granetz, R.S.; Greenwald, M.J.; Hubbard, A.E.; Hughes, J.W.; Irby, J.H.; Ma, Y.; Marmar, E.S.; McDermott, R.M.; Porkolab, M.; Duval, B.P.; Bortolon, A.; Diamond, P.H.
2011-01-01
Direction reversals of intrinsic toroidal rotation have been observed in Alcator C-Mod ohmic L-mode plasmas following modest electron density or toroidal magnetic field ramps. The reversal process occurs in the plasma interior, inside of the q = 3/2 surface. For low density plasmas, the rotation is in the co-current direction, and can reverse to the counter-current direction following an increase in the electron density above a certain threshold. Reversals from the co- to counter-current direction are correlated with a sharp decrease in density fluctuations with k R ≥ 2 cm -1 and with frequencies above 70 kHz. The density at which the rotation reverses increases linearly with plasma current, and decreases with increasing magnetic field. There is a strong correlation between the reversal density and the density at which the global ohmic L-mode energy confinement changes from the linear to the saturated regime.
The effect of toroidal plasma rotation on low-frequency reversed shear Alfven eigenmodes in tokamaks
Haverkort, J. W.
2012-01-01
The influence of toroidal plasma rotation on the existence of reversed shear Alfven eigenmodes (RSAEs) near their minimum frequency is investigated analytically. An existence condition is derived showing that a radially decreasing kinetic energy density is unfavourable for the existence of RSAEs.
MHD equilibrium with toroidal rotation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, J.
1987-03-01
The present work attempts to formulate the equilibrium of axisymmetric plasma with purely toroidal flow within ideal MHD theory. In general, the inertial term Rho(v.Del)v caused by plasma flow is so complicated that the equilibrium equation is completely different from the Grad-Shafranov equation. However, in the case of purely toroidal flow the equilibrium equation can be simplified so that it resembles the Grad-Shafranov equation. Generally one arbitrary two-variable functions and two arbitrary single variable functions, instead of only four single-variable functions, are allowed in the new equilibrium equations. Also, the boundary conditions of the rotating (with purely toroidal fluid flow, static - without any fluid flow) equilibrium are the same as those of the static equilibrium. So numerically one can calculate the rotating equilibrium as a static equilibrium. (author)
Analytical modelling of resistive wall mode stabilization by rotation in toroidal tokamak plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ham, C J; Gimblett, C G; Hastie, R J
2011-01-01
Stabilization of the resitive wall mode (RWM) may allow fusion power to be doubled for a given magnetic field in advanced tokamak operation. Experimental evidence from DIII-D and other machines suggests that plasma rotation can stabilize the RWM. Several authors (Finn 1995 Phys. Plasmas 2 3782, Bondeson and Xie 1997 Phys. Plasmas 4 2081) have constructed analytical cylindrical models for the RWM, but these do not deal with toroidal effects. The framework of Connor et al (1988 Phys. Fluids 31 577) is used to develop ideal plasma analytic models with toroidicity included. Stepped pressure profiles and careful ordering of terms are used to simplify the analysis. First, a current driven kink mode model is developed and a dispersion relation for arbitrary current profile is calculated. Second, the external pressure driven kink mode is similarly investigated as the most important RWM arises from this mode. Using this latter model it is found that the RWM is stabilized by Alfven continuum damping with rotation levels similar to those seen in experiments. An expression for the stability of the external kink mode for more general current profiles and a resistive wall is derived in the appendix.
Impurity toroidal rotation and transport in Alcator C-Mod ohmic high confinement mode plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rice, J. E.; Goetz, J. A.; Granetz, R. S.; Greenwald, M. J.; Hubbard, A. E.; Hutchinson, I. H.; Marmar, E. S.; Mossessian, D.; Pedersen, T. Sunn; Snipes, J. A.
2000-01-01
Central toroidal rotation and impurity transport coefficients have been determined in Alcator C-Mod [I. H. Hutchinson et al., Phys. Plasmas 1, 1511 (1994)] Ohmic high confinement mode (H-mode) plasmas from observations of x-ray emission following impurity injection. Rotation velocities up to 3x10 4 m/sec in the co-current direction have been observed in the center of the best Ohmic H-mode plasmas. Purely ohmic H-mode plasmas display many characteristics similar to ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) heated H-mode plasmas, including the scaling of the rotation velocity with plasma parameters and the formation of edge pedestals in the electron density and temperature profiles. Very long impurity confinement times (∼1 sec) are seen in edge localized mode-free (ELM-free) Ohmic H-modes and the inward impurity convection velocity profile has been determined to be close to the calculated neoclassical profile. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics
The effect of toroidal plasma rotation on low-frequency reversed shear Alfvén eigenmodes in tokamaks
J.W. Haverkort (Willem)
2012-01-01
htmlabstractThe influence of toroidal plasma rotation on the existence of reversed shear Alfvén eigenmodes (RSAEs) near their minimum frequency is investigated analytically. An existence condition is derived showing that a radially decreasing kinetic energy density is unfavourable for the existence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bitter, M.; Wong, K.L.; Scott, S.; Hsuan, H.; Grek, B.; Johnson, D.; Tait, G.
1990-01-01
The time history of the central toroidal plasma rotation velocity in Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) experiments [Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 2587 (1985)] with auxiliary heating by neutral deuterium beam injection and major-radius compression has been measured from the Doppler shift of the emitted Ti XXI Kα line radiation. The experiments were conducted for neutral beam powers in the range 2.1--3.8 MW and line-averaged densities in the range 1.8--3.0x10 19 m -2 . The observed rotation velocity increase during compression is consistent with theoretical estimates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu Liqing; Hu Liqun
2015-01-01
Repetitive impurity snake-modes have been observed after H-L mode transitions (high to low confinement modes) in EAST plasmas exhibiting multiple H-L-H transitions. Such snake-modes have been observed to lower the core plasma toroidal rotation. A critical impurity strength factor associated with snake-mode formation has been estimated to be as high as α_Z_,_c =n_Z_,_cZ"2 / n_e ∼0.75. These observations have implications for ITER H-mode sustainability when the heating power is only slightly above the H-mode power threshold. (author)
Neoclassical poloidal and toroidal rotation in tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Y.B.; Diamond, P.H.; Groebner, R.J.
1991-01-01
Explicit expressions for the neoclassical poloidal and toroidal rotation speeds of primary ion and impurity species are derived via the Hirshman and Sigmar moment approach. The rotation speeds of the primary ion can be significantly different from those of impurities in various interesting cases. The rapid increase of impurity poloidal rotation in the edge region of H-mode discharges in tokamaks can be explained by a rapid steepening of the primary ion pressure gradient. Depending on ion collisionality, the poloidal rotation speed of the primary ions at the edge can be quite small and the flow direction may be opposite to that of the impurities. This may cast considerable doubts on current L to H bifurcation models based on primary ion poloidal rotation only. Also, the difference between the toroidal rotation velocities of primary ions and impurities is not negligible in various cases. In Ohmic plasmas, the parallel electric field induces a large impurity toroidal rotation close to the magnetic axis, which seems to agree with experimental observations. In the ion banana and plateau regime, there can be non-negligible disparities between primary ion and impurity toroidal rotation velocities due to the ion density and temperature gradients. Detailed analytic expressions for the primary ion and impurity rotation speeds are presented, and the methodology for generalization to the case of several impurity species is also presented for future numerical evaluation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bitter, M.; Scott, S.; Wong, K.L.
1986-07-01
The time history of the central toroidal plasma rotation velocity in Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) experiments with auxiliary heating by neutral deuterium beam injection and major-radius compression has been measured from the Doppler shift of the emitted TiXXI-Kα line radiation. The experiments were conducted for neutral beam powers in the range from 2.1 to 3.8 MW and line-averaged densities in the range from 1.8 to 3.0 x 10 19 m -2 . The observed rotation velocity increase during compression is in agreement with results from modeling calculations which assume classical slowing-down of the injected fast deuterium ions and momentum damping at the rate established in the precompression plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Canobbio, E.
1981-01-01
This paper reports on the 2nd Joint Grenoble-Varenna International Symposium on Heating in Toroidal Plasmas, held at Como, Italy, from the 3-12 September 1980. Important problems in relation to the different existing processes of heating. The plasma were identified and discussed. Among others, the main processes discussed were: a) neutral beam heating, b) ion-(electron)-cyclotron resonance heating, c) hybrid resonance and low frequency heating
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Knoepfel, H.; Mazzitelli, G.
1984-01-01
The article is a rather detailed report on the highlights in the area of the ''Heating in toroidal plasmas'', as derived from the presentations and discussions at the international symposium with the same name, held in Rome, March 1984. The symposium covered both the physics (experiments and theory) and technology of toroidal fusion plasma heating. Both large fusion devices (either already in operation or near completion) requiring auxiliary heating systems at the level of tens of megawatts, as well as physics of their heating processes and their induced side effects (as studied on smaller devices), received attention. Substantial progress was reported on the broad front of auxiliary plasma heating and Ohmic heating. The presentation of the main conclusions of the symposium is divided under the following topics: neutral-beam heating, Alfven wave heating, ion cyclotron heating, lower hybrid heating, RF current drive, electron cyclotron heating, Ohmic heating and special contributions
Influence of toroidal rotation on resistive tearing modes in tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, S.; Ma, Z. W.
2015-01-01
Influence of toroidal equilibrium plasma rotation on m/n = 2/1 resistive tearing modes is studied numerically using a 3D toroidal MHD code (CLT). It is found that the toroidal rotation with or without shear can suppress the tearing instability and the Coriolis effect in the toroidal geometry plays a dominant role on the rotation induced stabilization. For a high viscosity plasma (τ R /τ V ≫ 1, where τ R and τ V represent resistive and viscous diffusion time, respectively), the effect of the rotation shear combined with the viscosity appears to be stabilizing. For a low viscosity plasmas (τ R /τ V ≪ 1), the rotation shear shows a destabilizing effect when the rotation is large
Influence of toroidal rotation on resistive tearing modes in tokamaks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, S.; Ma, Z. W., E-mail: zwma@zju.edu.cn [Institute for Fusion Theory and Simulation, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)
2015-12-15
Influence of toroidal equilibrium plasma rotation on m/n = 2/1 resistive tearing modes is studied numerically using a 3D toroidal MHD code (CLT). It is found that the toroidal rotation with or without shear can suppress the tearing instability and the Coriolis effect in the toroidal geometry plays a dominant role on the rotation induced stabilization. For a high viscosity plasma (τ{sub R}/τ{sub V} ≫ 1, where τ{sub R} and τ{sub V} represent resistive and viscous diffusion time, respectively), the effect of the rotation shear combined with the viscosity appears to be stabilizing. For a low viscosity plasmas (τ{sub R}/τ{sub V} ≪ 1), the rotation shear shows a destabilizing effect when the rotation is large.
Investigation of intrinsic toroidal rotation scaling in KSTAR
Yoo, J. W.; Lee, S. G.; Ko, S. H.; Seol, J.; Lee, H. H.; Kim, J. H.
2017-07-01
The behaviors of an intrinsic toroidal rotation without any external momentum sources are investigated in KSTAR. In these experiments, pure ohmic discharges with a wide range of plasma parameters are carefully selected and analyzed to speculate an unrevealed origin of toroidal rotation excluding any unnecessary heating sources, magnetic perturbations, and strong magneto-hydrodynamic activities. The measured core toroidal rotation in KSTAR is mostly in the counter-current direction and its magnitude strongly depends on the ion temperature divided by plasma current (Ti/IP). Especially the core toroidal rotation in the steady-state is well fitted by Ti/IP scaling with a slope of ˜-23, and the possible explanation of the scaling is compared with various candidates. As a result, the calculated offset rotation could not explain the measured core toroidal rotation since KSTAR has an extremely low intrinsic error field. For the stability conditions for ion and electron turbulences, it is hard to determine a dominant turbulence mode in this study. In addition, the intrinsic toroidal rotation level in ITER is estimated based on the KSTAR scaling since the intrinsic rotation plays an important role in stabilizing resistive wall modes for future reference.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lakhin, V. P.; Sorokina, E. A., E-mail: sorokina.ekaterina@gmail.com, E-mail: vilkiae@gmail.com; Ilgisonis, V. I. [National Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation); Konovaltseva, L. V. [Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia (Russian Federation)
2015-12-15
A set of reduced linear equations for the description of low-frequency perturbations in toroidally rotating plasma in axisymmetric tokamak is derived in the framework of ideal magnetohydrodynamics. The model suitable for the study of global geodesic acoustic modes (GGAMs) is designed. An example of the use of the developed model for derivation of the integral conditions for GGAM existence and of the corresponding dispersion relation is presented. The paper is dedicated to the memory of academician V.D. Shafranov.
The comparative analysis of the different mechanisms of toroidal rotation in tokamaks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sabot, R [Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d` Etudes Nucleaires de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee; Parail, V [Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)
1994-07-01
The toroidal plasma rotation appears as one the possible mechanism for suppression of plasma turbulence. Several mechanisms are believed to contribute to the toroidal plasma rotation. The results of numerical simulation of the toroidal rotation on JET are presented, where are taken into consideration the following effects: the neoclassical viscosity due to banana and ripple trapped particles, the anomalous viscosity due to plasma turbulence, the momentum input by NBI (neutron beam injection) and ion momentum loss near the separatrix due to prompt ion losses. The NBI appeared to be the principal source of toroidal plasma rotation. 6 refs., 2 figs.
Influence of toroidal rotation on tearing modes
Cai, Huishan; Cao, Jintao; Li, Ding
2017-10-01
Tearing modes stability analysis including toroidal rotation is studied. It is found that rotation affects the stability of tearing modes mainly through the interaction with resistive inner region of tearing mode. The coupling of magnetic curvature with centrifugal force and Coriolis force provides a perturbed perpendicular current, and a return parallel current is induced to affect the stability of tearing modes. Toroidal rotation plays a stable role, which depends on the magnitude of Mach number and adiabatic index Γ, and is independent on the direction of toroidal rotation. For Γ >1, the scaling of growth rate is changed for typical Mach number in present tokamaks. For Γ = 1 , the scaling keeps unchanged, and the effect of toroidal rotation is much less significant, compared with that for Γ >1. National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program and National Science Foundation of China under Grants No. 2014GB106004, No. 2013GB111000, No. 11375189, No. 11075161 and No. 11275260, and Youth Innovation Promotion Association CAS.
Rotating bubble and toroidal nuclei and fragmentation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Royer, G.; Haddad, F.; Jouault, B.
1995-01-01
The energy of rotating bubble and toroidal nuclei predicted to be formed in central heavy-ion collisions at intermediate energies is calculated within the generalized rotating liquid drop model. The potential barriers standing in these exotic deformation paths are compared with the three dimensional and plane fragmentation barriers. In the toroidal deformation path of the heaviest systems exists a large potential pocket localised below the plane fragmentation barriers. This might allow the temporary survival of heavy nuclear toroids before the final clusterization induced by the surface and proximity tension. (author)
Prandtl number of toroidal plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Itoh, K.; Itoh, S.; Fukuyama, A.; Yagi, M.; Azumi, M.
1993-06-01
Theory of the L-mode confinement in toroidal plasmas is developed. The Prandtl number, the ratio between the ion viscosity and the thermal conductivity is obtained for the anomalous transport process which is caused by the self-sustained turbulence in the toroidal plasma. It is found that the Prandtl number is of order unity both for the ballooning mode turbulence in tokamaks and for the interchange mode turbulence in helical system. The influence on the anomalous transport and fluctuation level is evaluated. Hartmann number and magnetic Prandtl number are also discussed. (author)
Onsager relaxation of toroidal plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Samain, A.; Nguyen, F.
1997-01-01
The slow relaxation of isolated toroidal plasmas towards their thermodynamical equilibrium is studied in an Onsager framework based on the entropy metric. The basic tool is a variational principle, equivalent to the kinetic equation, involving the profiles of density, temperature, electric potential, electric current. New minimization procedures are proposed to obtain entropy and entropy production rate functionals. (author)
The residual zonal dynamics in a toroidally rotating tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhou Deng
2015-01-01
Zonal flows, initially driven by ion-temperature-gradient turbulence, may evolve due to the neoclassic polarization in a collisionless tokamak plasma. In this presentation, the form of the residual zonal flow is presented for tokamak plasmas rotating toroidally at arbitrary velocity. The gyro-kinetic equation is analytically solved to give the expression of residual zonal flows with arbitrary rotating velocity. The zonal flow level decreases as the rotating velocity increases. The numerical evaluation is in good agreement with the previous simulation result for high aspect ratio tokamaks. (author)
Analysis of toroidal rotation data for the DIII-D tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
St John, H.; Stroth, U.; Burrell, K.H.; Groebner, R.J.; DeBoo, J.C.; Gohil, P.
1989-01-01
Both poloidal and toroidal rotation are observed during routine neutral beam heating operation of the DIII-D tokamak. Poloidal rotation results and the empirical techniques used to measure toroidal and poloidal rotation speeds are described by Groebner. Here we concentrate on the analysis of recent measurements of toroidal rotation made during diverted, H-mode operation of the DIII-D tokamak during co- and counter-neutral beam injection of hydrogen into deuterium plasmas. Our results are based on numerical inversions using the transport code ONETWO, modified to account for the radial diffusion of toroidal angular momentum. 13 refs., 4 figs
Effects of 3D magnetic perturbations on toroidal plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Callen, J.D.
2011-01-01
Small three-dimensional (3D) magnetic field perturbations have many interesting and possibly useful effects on tokamak and quasi-symmetric stellarator plasmas. Plasma transport equations that include these effects, most notably on diamagnetic-level toroidal plasma flows, have recently been developed. The 3D field perturbations and their plasma effects can be classified according to their toroidal mode number n: low n (say 1-5) resonant (with field line pitch, q = m/n) and non-resonant fields, medium n (∼20, due to toroidal field ripple) and high n (due to microturbulence). Low n non-resonant fields induce a neoclassical toroidal viscosity (NTV) that damps toroidal rotation throughout the plasma towards an offset rotation in the counter-current direction. Recent tokamak experiments have generally confirmed and exploited these predictions by applying external low n non-resonant magnetic perturbations. Medium n toroidal field ripple produces similar effects plus possible ripple-trapping NTV effects and ion direct losses in the edge. A low n (e.g. n = 1) resonant field is mostly shielded by the toroidally rotating plasma at and inside the resonant (rational) surface. If it is large enough it can stop plasma rotation at the rational surface, facilitate magnetic reconnection there and lead to a growing stationary magnetic island (locked mode), which often causes a plasma disruption. Externally applied 3D magnetic perturbations usually have many components. In the plasma their lowest n (e.g. n = 1) externally resonant components can be amplified by kink-type plasma responses, particularly at high β. Low n plasma instabilities (e.g. resistive wall modes, neoclassical tearing modes) cause additional 3D magnetic perturbations in tokamak plasmas. Tearing modes in their nonlinear (Rutherford) regime bifurcate the topology and form magnetic islands. Finally, multiple resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) can, if not shielded by plasma rotation effects, cause local magnetic
Magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium of axisymmetric systems with toroidal rotation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mansur, N.L.P.
1986-01-01
A model for studying magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium of axisymetrically confined plasma with toroidal rotation, extended to the Grad. Shafranov equation is presented. The expression used for the scalar pressure is modifiec, and the influence of toroidal magnetic field is included, The equation for general motion of axisymetrically confined plasma, particularizing for rotation movements is described. Two cases are compared: one supposes the entropy as a function of poloidal magnetic flux and other supposes the temperature as a function of flux. The equations for these two cases obtaining a simplified expression by others approximations are established. The proposed model is compared with Shibata model, which uses density as function of flux, and with the ideal spheromak model. A set of cases taking in account experimental data is studied. (M.C.K.) [pt
Application of plasma focus device to compression of toroidal plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ikuta, Kazunari
1980-01-01
A new concept of compressing a toroidal plasma using a plasma focus device is considered. Maximum compression ratio of toroidal plasma is determined merely by the initial density ratio of the toroidal plasma to a sheet plasma in a focus device because of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. An initiation senario of plasma-linear is also proposed with a possible application of this concepts to the creation of a burning plasma in reversed field configurations, i.e., burning plasma vortex. (author)
Heating of toroidal plasmas by neutral injection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stix, T.H.
1971-08-01
This paper presents a brief review of the physics of ion acceleration, charge exchange and ionization, trajectories for fast ions in toroidal magnetic fields, and fast-ion thermalization. The injection of fast atoms is found to be a highly competitive method both for heating present-day experimental toroidal plasmas and for bringing full-scale toroidal CTR plasmas to low-density ignition. 13 refs., 9 figs
A Dip Structure in the Intrinsic Toroidal Rotation Near the Edge of the Ohmic Plasmas in EAST
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Xu, Guosheng; Naulin, Volker; Wan, Baonian
2011-01-01
and outwards. The radial width of the vt dip was 1 cm to 2 cm, and both the density and electron temperature profiles exhibited steep gradients at this dip position. It was observed in both divertor and limiter configurations. To find out its origin, the toroidal torques induced by neutral friction......, neoclassical viscosity, collisional perpendicular shear viscosity, ion orbit loss and turbulent Reynolds stress were estimated using the measured parameters. Our results indicate that in this particular parameter regime the neutral friction was the dominant damping force. The calculated cocurrent toroidal...
Core and edge toroidal rotation study in JT-60U
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoshida, M.; Sakamoto, Y.; Honda, M.; Kamada, Y.; Takenaga, H.; Oyama, N.; Urano, H.
2012-01-01
The relation between toroidal rotation velocities (V t ) in the core and edge regions is investigated in H-mode plasmas with a small external torque input from the viewpoint of momentum transport. The toroidal rotation velocity in the core region (core-V t ) gradually varies on a timescale of ∼20 ms after a rapid change in the toroidal rotation velocity in the edge region (edge-V t ) at the L–H transition. This timescale of ∼20 ms is consistent with a transport timescale using the momentum diffusivity (χ φ ) and convection velocity (V conv ). In steady state, a linear correlation between the core- and edge-V t is observed in H-mode plasmas when the ion pressure gradient (∇P i ) is small. This relation between core- and edge-V t is also explained by momentum transport. The V t profiles with a large ∇P i are reproduced in the core region of r/a ∼ 0.2–0.7 by adopting a residual stress term 'Π res = α k χ φ ∇P i ' proposed in this paper. Here r/a is the normalized plasma radius and α k1 is a radial constant. Using this formula, V t profiles are reproduced over a wide range of plasma conditions. Parameter dependences of the edge-V t are investigated at a constant ripple loss power, ripple amplitude and plasma current. A reduction in the CTR-rotation is observed with decreasing ion temperature gradient (∇T i ). Here CTR refers to the counter-I P direction.
Effects of 3D Magnetic Perturbations on Toroidal Plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Callen, J.D.
2010-01-01
Full text: To lowest order tokamaks are two-dimensional (2D) axisymmetric magnetic systems. But small 3D magnetic perturbations (both externally applied and from plasma instabilities) have many interesting and useful effects on tokamak (and quasi-symmetric stellarator) plasmas. Plasma transport equations that include these effects, especially on diamagnetic-level toroidal plasma rotation, have recently been developed. The 3D magnetic perturbations and their plasma effects can be classified according to their toroidal mode number n: low n (1 to 5) resonant (q = m/n in plasma) and non-resonant fields, medium n (due to toroidal field ripple), and high n (due to microturbulence). This paper concentrates on low and medium n perturbations. Low n non-resonant magnetic fields induce a neoclassical toroidal viscosity (NTV) that damps toroidal plasma rotation throughout the plasma toward an offset flow in the counter-I p direction; recent tokamak experiments have confirmed and exploited these predictions by applying external low n non-resonant magnetic perturbations. Medium n perturbations have similar effects plus possible ripple trapping and resultant edge ion losses. A low n resonant magnetic field induces a toroidal plasma torque in the vicinity of the rational surface; when large enough it can stop plasma rotation there and lead to a locked mode, which often causes a plasma disruption. Externally applied 3D magnetic perturbations usually have many components; in the plasma their lowest n components are amplified by plasma responses, particularly at high beta. Low n plasma instabilities (e.g., NTMs, RWMs) cause additional 3D magnetic perturbations in tokamak plasmas; tearing modes can bifurcate the topology and form magnetic islands. Finally, multiple resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) can cause local magnetic stochasticity and influence H-mode edge pedestal transport. These various effects of 3D magnetic perturbations can be used to control the toroidal plasma
Analysis of toroidal rotation data for the DIII-D tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
John, H.St.; Burrell, K.H.; Groebner, R.; DeBoo, J.; Gohil, P.
1989-01-01
Both poloidal and toroidal rotation are observed during routine neutral beam heating operation of the DIII-D tokamak. Poloidal rotation results and the empirical techniques used to measure toroidal and poloidal rotation speeds are described by Groebner et al. Here we concentrate on the analysis of recent measurements of toroidal rotation made during diverted, H-mode operation of the DIII-D tokamak during co- and counter-neutral beam injection of hydrogen into deuterium plasmas. Similar studies have been previously reported for Doublet III, ASDEX, TFTR, JET and other tokamaks. (author) 13 refs., 4 figs
Steady state compact toroidal plasma production
Turner, William C.
1986-01-01
Apparatus and method for maintaining steady state compact toroidal plasmas. A compact toroidal plasma is formed by a magnetized coaxial plasma gun and held in close proximity to the gun electrodes by applied magnetic fields or magnetic fields produced by image currents in conducting walls. Voltage supply means maintains a constant potential across the electrodes producing an increasing magnetic helicity which drives the plasma away from a minimum energy state. The plasma globally relaxes to a new minimum energy state, conserving helicity according to Taylor's relaxation hypothesis, and injecting net helicity into the core of the compact toroidal plasma. Controlling the voltage so as to inject net helicity at a predetermined rate based on dissipative processes maintains or increases the compact toroidal plasma in a time averaged steady state mode.
Turbulent and neoclassical toroidal momentum transport in tokamak plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abiteboul, J.
2012-10-01
The goal of magnetic confinement devices such as tokamaks is to produce energy from nuclear fusion reactions in plasmas at low densities and high temperatures. Experimentally, toroidal flows have been found to significantly improve the energy confinement, and therefore the performance of the machine. As extrinsic momentum sources will be limited in future fusion devices such as ITER, an understanding of the physics of toroidal momentum transport and the generation of intrinsic toroidal rotation in tokamaks would be an important step in order to predict the rotation profile in experiments. Among the mechanisms expected to contribute to the generation of toroidal rotation is the transport of momentum by electrostatic turbulence, which governs heat transport in tokamaks. Due to the low collisionality of the plasma, kinetic modeling is mandatory for the study of tokamak turbulence. In principle, this implies the modeling of a six-dimensional distribution function representing the density of particles in position and velocity phase-space, which can be reduced to five dimensions when considering only frequencies below the particle cyclotron frequency. This approximation, relevant for the study of turbulence in tokamaks, leads to the so-called gyrokinetic model and brings the computational cost of the model within the presently available numerical resources. In this work, we study the transport of toroidal momentum in tokamaks in the framework of the gyrokinetic model. First, we show that this reduced model is indeed capable of accurately modeling momentum transport by deriving a local conservation equation of toroidal momentum, and verifying it numerically with the gyrokinetic code GYSELA. Secondly, we show how electrostatic turbulence can break the axisymmetry and generate toroidal rotation, while a strong link between turbulent heat and momentum transport is identified, as both exhibit the same large-scale avalanche-like events. The dynamics of turbulent transport are
Predictive Simulations of ITER Including Neutral Beam Driven Toroidal Rotation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Halpern, Federico D.; Kritz, Arnold H.; Bateman, G.; Pankin, Alexei Y.; Budny, Robert V.; McCune, Douglas C.
2008-01-01
Predictive simulations of ITER [R. Aymar et al., Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 44, 519 2002] discharges are carried out for the 15 MA high confinement mode (H-mode) scenario using PTRANSP, the predictive version of the TRANSP code. The thermal and toroidal momentum transport equations are evolved using turbulent and neoclassical transport models. A predictive model is used to compute the temperature and width of the H-mode pedestal. The ITER simulations are carried out for neutral beam injection (NBI) heated plasmas, for ion cyclotron resonant frequency (ICRF) heated plasmas, and for plasmas heated with a mix of NBI and ICRF. It is shown that neutral beam injection drives toroidal rotation that improves the confinement and fusion power production in ITER. The scaling of fusion power with respect to the input power and to the pedestal temperature is studied. It is observed that, in simulations carried out using the momentum transport diffusivity computed using the GLF23 model [R.Waltz et al., Phys. Plasmas 4, 2482 (1997)], the fusion power increases with increasing injected beam power and central rotation frequency. It is found that the ITER target fusion power of 500 MW is produced with 20 MW of NBI power when the pedesta temperature is 3.5 keV. 2008 American Institute of Physics. [DOI: 10.1063/1.2931037
Anomalous transport in toroidal plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Punjabi, A.
1989-12-01
When the magnetic moment of particle is conserved, there are three mechanisms which cause anomalous transport. These are: variation of magnetic field strength in flux surface, variation of electrostatic potential in flux surface, and destruction of flux surface. The anomalous transport of different groups of particles resulting from each of these mechanisms is different. This fact can be exploited to determine the cause of transport operative in an experimental situation. This approach can give far more information on the transport than the standard confinement time measurements. To implement this approach, we have developed Monte Carlo codes for toroidal geometries. The equations of motion are developed in a set of non-canonical, practical Boozer co-ordinates by means of Jacobian transformations of the particle drift Hamiltonian equations of motion. Effects of collisions are included by appropriate stochastic changes in the constants of motion. Effects of the loop voltage on particle motions are also included. We plan to apply our method to study two problems: the problem of the hot electron tail observed in edge region of ZT-40, and the energy confinement time in TOKAPOLE II. For the ZT-40 problem three situations will be considered: a single mode in the core, a stochastic region that covers half the minor radius, a stochastic region that covers the entire plasma. A turbulent spectrum of perturbations based on the experimental data of TOKAPOLE II will be developed. This will be used to simulate electron transport resulting from ideal instabilities and resistive instabilities in TOKAPOLE II
Anomalous transport in toroidal plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Punjabi, A.
1991-01-01
We have developed a Monte Carlo method to estimate the transport of different groups of particles for plasmas in toroidal geometries. This method can determine the important transport mechanisms driving the anomalous transport by comparing the numerical results with the experimental data. The important groups of particles whose transport can be estimated by this method include runaway electrons, thermal electrons, both passing and trapped diagnostic beam ions etc. The three basic mechanisms driving the anomalous transport are: spatial variation of magnetic field strength, spatial variation of electrostatic potential within the flux surfaces, and the loss of flux surfaces. The equation of motion are obtained from the drift hamiltonian. The equations of motion are developed in the canonical and in the non-canonical, practical co-ordinates as well. The effects of collisions are represented by appropriate stochastic changes in the constants of motion at each time-step. Here we present the results of application of this method to three cases: superathermal alphas in the rippled field of tokamaks, motion in the magnetic turbulence of takapole II, and transport in the stochastic fields of ZT40. This work is supported by DOE OFE and ORAU HBCU program
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Podesta, M; Fredrickson, E D; Gorelenkov, N N; LeBlanc, B P; Heidbrink, W W; Crocker, N A; Kubota, S
2010-08-19
The effects of a sheared toroidal rotation on the dynamics of bursting Toroidicity-induced Alfven eigenmodes are investigated in neutral beam heated plasmas on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) [M. Ono et al., Nucl. Fusion 40 557 (2000)]. The modes have a global character, extending over most of the minor radius. A toroidal rotation shear layer is measured at the location of maximum drive for the modes. Contrary to results from other devices, no clear evidence of increased damping is found. Instead, experiments with simultaneous neutral beam and radio-frequency auxiliary heating show a strong correlation between the dynamics of the modes and the instability drive. It is argued that kinetic effects involving changes in the mode drive and damping mechanisms other than rotation shear, such as continuum damping, are mostly responsible for the bursting dynamics of the modes.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Podesta, M.; Bell, R.E.; Fredrickson, E.D.; Gorelenkov, N.N.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Heidbrink, W.W.; Crocker, N.A.; Kubota, S.; Yuh, H.
2010-01-01
The effects of a sheared toroidal rotation on the dynamics of bursting Toroidicity-induced Alfven eigenmodes are investigated in neutral beam heated plasmas on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) (M. Ono et al., Nucl. Fusion 40 557 (2000)). The modes have a global character, extending over most of the minor radius. A toroidal rotation shear layer is measured at the location of maximum drive for the modes. Contrary to results from other devices, no clear evidence of increased damping is found. Instead, experiments with simultaneous neutral beam and radio-frequency auxiliary heating show a strong correlation between the dynamics of the modes and the instability drive. It is argued that kinetic effects involving changes in the mode drive and damping mechanisms other than rotation shear, such as continuum damping, are mostly responsible for the bursting dynamics of the modes.
Wave propagation near the lower hybrid resonance in toroidal plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ohkubo, K.; Ohasa, K.; Matsuura, K.
1975-10-01
Dielectric tensor and equipotential curves (ray trajectories) of an electrostatic wave near the lower hybrid resonance are investigated for the toroidal plasma with a shear magnetic field. The ray trajectories start from the vicinity of the plasma surface, and rotate in a spiral form around the magnetic axis, and then reach the lower or upper parts of lower hybrid resonance layer. The numerical computations are performed on the parameters of JIPP T-II device with two dimensional inhomogeneity. (auth.)
Mode converter for electron cyclotron resonance heating of toroidal plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Motley, R.W.; Hsuan, H.; Glanz, J.
1980-09-01
A method is proposed for improving the efficiency of cyclotron resonance heating of a toroidal plasma by ordinary mode radiation from the outside of the torus. Radiation not absorbed in the first pass is reflected from the inside of the torus by a corrugated surface which rotates the polarization by 90 0 , so that a secondary source of extraordinary waves is created in the high field, accessible region of the plasma
Rotating liquid blanket for a toroidal fusion reator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moir, R.W.
1987-01-01
A novel blanket concept is presented for toroidal geometry in which many of the limitations imposed by a first wall are avoided by not having a first wall in the usual sense. The blanket consists of a rapidly rotating, low-vapor-pressure liquid that has a sharp boundary with the vacuum region. Nozzles inject ja continuous layer of cool liquid on the inner surface. The noncentricity of the plasma is maintained so that the plasma scrape-off region intersects the rotating liqid in a localized region. This noncentricity allows sufficient space so that the scrape-off plasma layer will not bombard the nozzles, whch penetrate through the rotating liquid. This liquid ''first wall'' is bombarded by the plasma, resulting in heat deposition, sputtering, and evaporation during the short time before the exposed liquid is covered by fresh, cool liquid from the nozzles. The advantages of this reactor concept appear to be very high wall loadings (speculated to be over 10 MW/m 2 ) and long component lifetime, both crucial economic factors. The nozzles are designed for easy replacement. The reactor's disatvantage is its enormous potential for plasma contamination by impurities. (orig.)
Current control necessary for toroidal plasma equilibrium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nagao, S.
1987-01-01
It is shown that a significant amount of dipole current is necessary for the plasma equilibrium of toroidal configurations in general. Through the vector product with the poloidal field, this dipole current force has to balance with the hoop force of plasma pressure itself of the annular shape. The measurement of such a current of dipole type may be interesting for the confirmation of the plasma equilibrium in the toroidal system. Moreover it is certained that there is a new mode of a tokamak operation with such a dipole current component and with smaller vertical field than that based on the classical tokamak theory. (author) [pt
Compression of toroidal plasma by imploding plasma-liner
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ikuta, Kazunari.
1979-07-01
A new concept of compressing a plasma in a closed magnetic configuration by a version of liner implosion flux compression technique is considered. The liner consists of a dense plasma cylinder, i.e. the plasma-liner. Maximum compression ratio of toroidal plasma is determined just by the initial density ratio of the toroidal plasma to the liner plasma because of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. A start-up senario of plasma-liner is also proposed with a possible application of this concept to the creation of a burning plasma in reversed field configurations, i.e. burning plasma vortex. (author)
Observation of plasma toroidal-momentum dissipation by neoclassical toroidal viscosity.
Zhu, W; Sabbagh, S A; Bell, R E; Bialek, J M; Bell, M G; LeBlanc, B P; Kaye, S M; Levinton, F M; Menard, J E; Shaing, K C; Sontag, A C; Yuh, H
2006-06-09
Dissipation of plasma toroidal angular momentum is observed in the National Spherical Torus Experiment due to applied nonaxisymmetric magnetic fields and their plasma-induced increase by resonant field amplification and resistive wall mode destabilization. The measured decrease of the plasma toroidal angular momentum profile is compared to calculations of nonresonant drag torque based on the theory of neoclassical toroidal viscosity. Quantitative agreement between experiment and theory is found when the effect of toroidally trapped particles is included.
Low-n shear Alfven spectra in axisymmetric toroidal plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheng, C.Z.; Chance, M.S.
1985-11-01
In toroidal plasmas, the toroidal magnetic field is nonuniform over a magnetic surface and causes coupling of different poloidal harmonics. It is shown both analytically and numerically that the toroidicity not only breaks up the shear Alfven continuous spectrum, but also creates new, discrete, toroidicity-induced shear Alfven eigenmodes with frequencies inside the continuum gaps. Potential applications of the low-n toroidicity-induced shear Alfven eigenmodes on plasma heating and instabilities are addressed. 17 refs., 4 figs
Plasma Discharge in Toroidal System
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Usada, Widdi; Suryadi; Purwadi, Agus; Kasiyo
1996-01-01
A toroidal discharge apparatus has been made as an initial research in magnetic confinement system. This system consists of a capacitor, a RF source, an igniter system, a primary coil, a torus, and completed by Rogowski probe as a current detector. In this system, the discharge occurs when the minimum voltage is operated at 5 kV. The experiment result shows that the coupling factor is 0.35, it is proved that there is an equality between estimated and measurement results of the primary inductance i.e 8.5 μH
Long-wavelength microinstabilities in toroidal plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tang, W.W.; Rewoldt, G.
1993-01-01
Realistic kinetic toroidal eigenmode calculations have been carried out to support a proper assessment of the influence of long-wavelength microturbulence on transport in tokamak plasmas. In order to efficiently evaluate large-scale kinetic behavior extending over many rational surfaces, significant improvements have been made to a toroidal finite element code used to analyze the fully two-dimensional (r,θ) mode structures of trapped-ion and toroidal ion temperature gradient (ITG) instabilities. It is found that even at very long wavelengths, these eigenmodes exhibit a strong ballooning character with the associated radial structure relatively insensitive to ion Landau damping at the rational surfaces. In contrast to the long-accepted picture that the radial extent of trapped-ion instabilities is characterized by the ion-gyroradius-scale associated with strong localization between adjacent rational surfaces, present results demonstrate that under realistic conditions, the actual scale is governed by the large-scale variations in the equilibrium gradients. Applications to recent measurements of fluctuation properties in TFTR L-mode plasmas indicate that the theoretical trends appear consistent with spectral characteristics as well as rough heuristic estimates of the transport level. Benchmarking calculations in support of the development of a three-dimensional toroidal gyrokinetic code indicate reasonable agreement with respect to both the properties of the eigenfunctions and the magnitude of the eigenvalues during the linear phase of the simulations of toroidal ITG instabilities
Destabilization of a peeling-ballooning mode by a toroidal rotation in tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aiba, N.; Hirota, M.; Tokuda, S.; Furukawa, M.
2009-01-01
Full text: From the viewpoint of the heat load on the divertor, Type-I edge localized mode (ELM) needs to be suppressed or the amplitude of this ELM needs to be reduced. In JT-60U, some experimental results showed that the ELM frequency depends on the toroidal rotation, and the rapid rotation in the counter direction of the plasma current changes from Type-I ELM to Grassy ELM, whose frequency is high and the amplitude is small. Recent experimental and theoretical/numerical studies in a static system have identified that both Type-I and Grassy ELMs are considered ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes destabilizing near the plasma surface, called peeling-ballooning modes. To investigate the mechanism of the change of ELM frequency by a toroidal rotation, theoretical and numerical analyses are important for understanding the toroidal rotation effects on the peeling-ballooning mode. Previous works about the toroidal rotation effect on the edge MHD stability have illustrated that the toroidal rotation with shear can destabilize low/intermediate-n (<50) modes but can stabilize high-n modes, where n is the toroidal mode number. The stabilization of the high-n mode can be understood qualitatively in analogy with the infinite-n ballooning mode case. However, the destabilizing mechanism of the low/intermediate-n mode is not still clarified, and to understand the stability property related to ELM suppression/mitigation, it is important to clarify this destabilizing mechanism. In this paper, we investigate numerically the destabilizing effect of a toroidal rotation on the peeling-ballooning mode with a newly developed code MINERVA, which solves the Frieman-Rotenberg equation. Particularly, we pay attention to the effect of the centrifuged force on not only equilibrium but also change of equation of motion. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ida, Katsumi
2001-01-01
The structure of the radial electric field and toroidal/poloidal flow is discussed for the high temperature plasma in toroidal systems, tokamak and Heliotron type magnetic configurations. The spontaneous toroidal and poloidal flows are observed in the plasma with improved confinement. The radial electric field is mainly determined by the poloidal flow, because the contribution of toroidal flow to the radial electric field is small. The jump of radial electric field and poloidal flow are commonly observed near the plasma edge in the so-called high confinement mode (H-mode) plasmas in tokamaks and electron root plasma in stellarators including Heliotrons. In general the toroidal flow is driven by the momentum input from neutral beam injected toroidally. There is toroidal flow not driven by neutral beam in the plasma and it will be more significant in the plasma with large electric field. The direction of these spontaneous toroidal flows depends on the symmetry of magnetic field. The spontaneous toroidal flow driven by the ion temperature gradient is in the direction to increase the negative radial electric field in tokamak. The direction of spontaneous toroidal flow in Heliotron plasmas is opposite to that in tokamak plasma because of the helicity of symmetry of the magnetic field configuration. (author)
Plasma rotation study in Tore Supra radio frequency heated plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chouli, Bilal
2014-01-01
Toroidal flows are found to improve the performance of the magnetic confinement devices with increase of the plasma stability and confinement. In ITER or future reactors, the torque from NBI should be less important than in present-day tokamaks. Consequently, it is of interest to study other intrinsic mechanisms that can give rise to plasma rotation in order to predict the rotation profile in experiments. Intriguing observations of plasmas rotation have been made in radio frequency (RF) heated plasmas with little or no external momentum injection. Toroidal rotation in both the direction of the plasma current (co-current) and in the opposite direction (counter-current) has been observed depending on the heating schemes and plasma performance. In Tore Supra, most observations in L-mode plasmas have been in the counter-current direction. However, in this thesis, we show that in lower hybrid current drive (LHCD), the core toroidal rotation increment is in co- or counter-current direction depending on the plasma current amplitude. At low plasma current the rotation change is in the co-current direction while at high plasma current, the change is in the counter-current direction. In both low and high plasma current cases, rotation increments are found to increase linearly with the injected LH power. Several mechanisms in competition which can induce co- or counter-current rotation in Tore Supra LHCD plasmas are investigated and typical order of magnitude are discussed in this thesis. (author) [fr
Toroidal and rotating bubble nuclei and the nuclear fragmentation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Royer, G.; Fauchard, C.; Haddad, F.; Jouault, B.
1997-01-01
The energy of rotating bubble and toroidal nuclei predicted to be formed in central heavy ion collisions at intermediate energies is calculated within the generalized rotating liquid drop model. Previously, a one-parameter shape sequence has been defined to describe the path leading to pumpkin-like configurations and toroidal shapes. New analytical expressions for the shape dependent functions have been obtained. The potential barriers standing in these exotic deformation paths are compared with the three-dimensional and plane-fragmentation barriers. Metastable bubble-like minima only appear at very high angular momentum and above the three dimensional fragmentation barriers. In the toroidal deformation path of the heaviest systems exists a large potential pocket localized below the plane-fragmentation barriers. This might allow the temporary survival of heavy nuclear toroids before the final clusterization induced by the surface and proximity tension
Long-wavelength microinstabilities in toroidal plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tang, W.M.; Rewoldt, G.
1993-01-01
Realistic kinetic toroidal eigenmode calculations have been carried out to support a proper assessment of the influence of long-wavelength microturbulence on transport in tokamak plasmas. In order to efficiently evaluate large-scale kinetic behavior extending over many rational surfaces, significant improvements have been made to a toroidal finite element code used to analyze the fully two-dimensional (r,θ) mode structures of trapped-ion and toroidal ion temperature gradient (ITG) instabilities. It is found that even at very long wavelengths, these eigenmodes exhibit a strong ballooning character with the associated radial structure relatively insensitive to ion Landau damping at the rational surfaces. In contrast to the long-accepted picture that the radial extent of trapped-ion instabilities is characterized by the ion-gyroradius-scale associated with strong localization between adjacent rational surfaces, present results demonstrate that under realistic conditions, the actual scale is governed by the large-scale variations in the equilibrium gradients. Applications to recent measurements of fluctuation properties in Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) [Plasma Phys. Controlled Nucl. Fusion Res. (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 1985), Vol. 1, p. 29] L-mode plasmas indicate that the theoretical trends appear consistent with spectral characteristics as well as rough heuristic estimates of the transport level. Benchmarking calculations in support of the development of a three-dimensional toroidal gyrokinetic code indicate reasonable agreement with respect to both the properties of the eigenfunctions and the magnitude of the eigenvalues during the linear phase of the simulations of toroidal ITG instabilities
Microwave produced plasma in a Toroidal Device
Singh, A. K.; Edwards, W. F.; Held, E. D.
2010-11-01
A currentless toroidal plasma device exhibits a large range of interesting basic plasma physics phenomena. Such a device is not in equilibrium in a strict magneto hydrodynamic sense. There are many sources of free energy in the form of gradients in plasma density, temperature, the background magnetic field and the curvature of the magnetic field. These free energy sources excite waves and instabilities which have been the focus of studies in several devices in last two decades. A full understanding of these simple plasmas is far from complete. At Utah State University we have recently designed and installed a microwave plasma generation system on a small tokamak borrowed from the University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Canada. Microwaves are generated at 2.45 GHz in a pulsed dc mode using a magnetron from a commercial kitchen microwave oven. The device is equipped with horizontal and vertical magnetic fields and a transformer to impose a toroidal electric field for current drive. Plasmas can be obtained over a wide range of pressure with and without magnetic fields. We present some preliminary measurements of plasma density and potential profiles. Measurements of plasma temperature at different operating conditions are also presented.
Electrical disruption in toroidal plasma of hydrogen
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roberto, M.; Silva, C.A.B.; Goes, L.C.S.; Sudano, J.P.
1991-01-01
The initial phase of ionization of a toroidal plasma produced in hydrogen was investigated using zero-dimensional model. The model describes the temporal evolution of plasma by spatial medium of particle density and temperature, on whole plasma volume. The energy and particle (electrons and ions) balance equations are considered. The electron loss is due to ambipolar diffusion in the presence of magnetic field. The electron energy loss involves ionization, Coulomb interaction and diffusion. The ohmic heating converter gives the initial voltage necessary to disruption. (M.C.K.)
Observations of toroidal and poloidal rotation in the high beta tokamak Torus II
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kostek, C.A.
1983-01-01
The macroscopic rotation of plasma in a toroidal containment device is an important feature of the equilibrium. Toroidal and poloidal rotation in the high beta tokamak Torus II is measured experimentally by examining the Doppler shift of the 4685.75 A He II line emitted from the plasma. The toroidal flow at an average velocity of 1.6 x 10 6 cm/sec, a small fraction of the ion thermal speed, moves in the same direction as the toroidal plasma current. The poloidal flow follows the ion diamagnetic current direction, also at an average speed of 1.6 x 10 6 cm/sec. In view of certain ordering parameters, the toroidal flow is compared with predictions from neoclassical theory in the collosional, Pfirsch-Schluter regime. The poloidal motion, however results from an E x B drift in a positive radial electric field, approaching a stable ambipolar state. This radial electric field is determined from theory by using the measured poloidal velocity. Mechanisms for the time evolution of rotation are also examined. It appears that the circulation damping is governed by a global decay of the temperature and density gradients which, in turn, may be functions of radiative cooling, loss of equilibrium due to external field decay, or the emergence of a growing instability, occasionally observed in CO 2 interferometry measurements
Toroidal rotation braking with n = 1 magnetic perturbation field on JET
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sun, Y; Liang, Y; Koslowski, H R
2010-01-01
A strong toroidal rotation braking has been observed in plasmas with application of an n = 1 magnetic perturbation field on the JET tokamak. Calculation results from the momentum transport analysis show that the torque induced by the n = 1 perturbation field has a global profile. The maximal value...
Neoclassical impurity transport in the presence of toroidal and poloidal rotation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Feneberg, W.
1988-06-01
This paper presents an extended theory of neoclassical impurity transport, starting from the parameters of bulk plasma toroidal and poloidal rotation. Analytic expressions resulting from the influence of a compressible flow on the perpendicular momentum balance and on the neoclassical Braginskii parallel viscosity are derived. The predicted impurity transport is extensively compared with that in earlier papers. (orig.)
Observation of Cocurrent Toroidal Rotation in the EAST Tokamak with Lower-Hybrid Current Drive
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shi Yuejiang; Xu Guosheng; Wang Fudi; Wang Mao; Fu Jia; Li Yingying; Zhang Wei; Zhang Wei; Chang Jiafeng; Lv Bo; Qian Jinping; Shan Jiafang; Liu Fukun; Ding Siye; Wan Baonian; Lee, Sang-Gon; Bitter, Manfred; Hill, Kenneth
2011-01-01
Lower-hybrid waves have been shown to induce a cocurrent change in toroidal rotation of up to 40 km/s in the L-mode plasma core region and 20 km/s in the edge of the EAST tokamak. This modification of toroidal rotation develops on different time scales. For the edge, the time scale is no more than 100 ms, but for the core the time scale is around 1 s. A simple model based on turbulent equipartition and thermoelectric pinch predicts the experimental results.
Development of compact toroids injector for direct plasma controls
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Azuma, K. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Takasago (Japan); Oda, Y. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Takasago (Japan); Onozuka, M. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Takasago (Japan); Uyama, T. [Himeji Inst. of Tech. (Japan); Nagata, M. [Himeji Inst. of Tech. (Japan); Fukumoto, N. [Himeji Inst. of Tech. (Japan)
1995-12-31
The application of the compact toroids injector for direct plasma controls has been investigated. The compact toroids injection can fuel particles directly into the core of the plasma and modify the plasma profiles at the desired locations. The acceleration tests of the compact toroids have been conducted at Himeji Institute of Technology. The tests showed that the hydrogen compact toroid was accelerated up to 80km/s and the plasma density of the compact toroid was compressed to 1.2 x 10{sup 21}m{sup -3}. (orig.).
Development of compact toroids injector for direct plasma controls
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Azuma, K.; Oda, Y.; Onozuka, M.; Uyama, T.; Nagata, M.; Fukumoto, N.
1995-01-01
The application of the compact toroids injector for direct plasma controls has been investigated. The compact toroids injection can fuel particles directly into the core of the plasma and modify the plasma profiles at the desired locations. The acceleration tests of the compact toroids have been conducted at Himeji Institute of Technology. The tests showed that the hydrogen compact toroid was accelerated up to 80km/s and the plasma density of the compact toroid was compressed to 1.2 x 10 21 m -3 . (orig.)
Generation of toroidal pre-heat plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ikeda, Nagayasu; Tamaru, Ken; Nagata, Akiyoshi.
1979-01-01
The characteristics of toroidal plasma in the initial stage of electric discharge were investigated. A small toroidal-pinch system was used for the present work. A magnetic probe was used to measure the magnetic field. The time of beginning of discharge was determined by observing the variation of the magnetic field. The initial gas pressure dependence of the induced electric field regions, in which electric discharge can be caused, was studied. It is necessary to increase the initial induced electric field for starting discharge. The delay time of large current discharge was measured, and it was about 2 microsecond. Dependences of the electric fields at the beginning of discharge on the charging voltage of capacitors, on the initial gas pressure, and on the discharge frequency were studied. The formation mechanism of plasma column was analyzed. (Kato, T.)
Advanced transport modeling of toroidal plasmas with transport barriers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fukuyama, A.; Murakami, S.; Honda, M.; Izumi, Y.; Yagi, M.; Nakajima, N.; Nakamura, Y.; Ozeki, T.
2005-01-01
Transport modeling of toroidal plasmas is one of the most important issue to predict time evolution of burning plasmas and to develop control schemes in reactor plasmas. In order to describe the plasma rotation and rapid transition self-consistently, we have developed an advanced scheme of transport modeling based on dynamical transport equation and applied it to the analysis of transport barrier formation. First we propose a new transport model and examine its behavior by the use of conventional diffusive transport equation. This model includes the electrostatic toroidal ITG mode and the electromagnetic ballooning mode and successfully describes the formation of internal transport barriers. Then the dynamical transport equation is introduced to describe the plasma rotation and the radial electric field self-consistently. The formation of edge transport barriers is systematically studied and compared with experimental observations. The possibility of kinetic transport modeling in velocity space is also examined. Finally the modular structure of integrated modeling code for tokamaks and helical systems is discussed. (author)
Measurement of toroidal plasma current in RF heated helical plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Besshou, Sakae
1993-01-01
This report describes the measurement of toroidal plasma current by a semiflexible Rogowski coil in a helical vacuum chamber. A Rogowski coil measures the toroidal plasma current with a resolution of 0.1 kA, frequency range of up to 1 kHz and sensitivity of 6.5 x 10 -9 V · s/A. We measured the spontaneous toroidal plasma current (from -1.2 to +1.2 kA) under electron cyclotron resonance heating at 0.94 T toroidal field in the Heliotron-E device. We found that the measured direction of toroidal plasma current changes its sign as in the predicted behavior of a neoclassical diffusion-driven bootstrap current, depending on the horizontal position of the plasma column. We explain the observed plasma currents in terms of the compound phenomenon of an ohmic current and a neoclassical diffusion-driven current. The magnitude of the neoclassical current component is smaller than the value predicted by a collisionless neoclassical theory. (author)
ELM frequency dependence on toroidal rotation in the grassy ELM regime in JT-60U
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oyama, N; Kamada, Y; Isayama, A; Urano, H; Koide, Y; Sakamoto, Y; Takechi, M; Asakura, N
2007-01-01
A systematic study of the effect of the level of toroidal plasma rotation at the top of the ion temperature pedestal ( T i ped ) on the edge localised mode (ELM) characteristics in JT-60U has been performed. The level of toroidal plasma rotation was varied by using different combinations of tangential and perpendicular neutral beam injection (NBI). In the grassy ELM regime at high triangularity (δ) and high safety factor (q), the ELM frequency clearly increased up to 1400 Hz, when counter (ctr) plasma rotation was increased. The response of the ELM frequency was independent of poloidal beta (β p ) in the range 0.84 p 0.53. Even in non-rotating plasma with balanced-NBIs, a high ELM frequency of ∼400 Hz was observed without a large energy loss. When the frequency of the plasma rotation in the co-direction of the plasma current became higher than ∼1 kHz, type I ELMs with a frequency of ∼20 Hz was observed. The achieved pedestal pressure and plasma confinement were similar both in plasmas with type I ELMs and in plasmas with grassy ELMs. The energy loss due to grassy ELMs was evaluated from the reduction in the electron temperature, and the ratio of the energy loss to the pedestal stored energy was less than 1%
Toroidal plasma enhanced CVD of diamond films
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zvanya, John; Cullen, Christopher; Morris, Thomas; Krchnavek, Robert R.; Holber, William; Basnett, Andrew; Basnett, Robert; Hettinger, Jeffrey
2014-01-01
An inductively coupled toroidal plasma source is used as an alternative to microwave plasmas for chemical vapor deposition of diamond films. The source, operating at a frequency of 400 kHz, synthesizes diamond films from a mixture of argon, methane, and hydrogen. The toroidal design has been adapted to create a highly efficient environment for diamond film deposition: high gas temperature and a short distance from the sample to the plasma core. Using a toroidal plasma geometry operating in the medium frequency band allows for efficient (≈90%) coupling of AC line power to the plasma and a scalable path to high-power and large-area operation. In test runs, the source generates a high flux of atomic hydrogen over a large area, which is favorable for diamond film growth. Using a deposition temperature of 900–1050 °C and a source to sample distance of 0.1–2.0 cm, diamond films are deposited onto silicon substrates. The results showed that the deposition rate of the diamond films could be controlled using the sample temperature and source to sample spacing. The results also show the films exhibit good-quality polycrystalline diamond as verified by Raman spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy. The scanning electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction results show that the samples exhibit diamond (111) and diamond (022) crystallites. The Raman results show that the sp 3 peak has a narrow spectral width (FWHM 12 ± 0.5 cm −1 ) and that negligible amounts of the sp 2 band are present, indicating good-quality diamond films
Locked magnetic island chains in toroidally flow damped tokamak plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fitzpatrick, R; Waelbroeck, F L
2010-01-01
The physics of a locked magnetic island chain maintained in the pedestal of an H-mode tokamak plasma by a static, externally generated, multi-harmonic, helical magnetic perturbation is investigated. The non-resonant harmonics of the external perturbation are assumed to give rise to significant toroidal flow damping in the pedestal, in addition to the naturally occurring poloidal flow damping. Furthermore, the flow damping is assumed to be sufficiently strong to relax the pedestal ion toroidal and poloidal fluid velocities to fixed values determined by neoclassical theory. The resulting neoclassical ion flow causes a helical phase-shift to develop between the locked island chain and the resonant harmonic of the external perturbation. Furthermore, when this phase-shift exceeds a critical value, the chain unlocks from the resonant harmonic and starts to rotate, after which it decays away and is replaced by a helical current sheet. The neoclassical flow also generates an ion polarization current in the vicinity of the island chain which either increases or decreases the chain's radial width, depending on the direction of the flow. If the polarization effect is stabilizing, and exceeds a critical amplitude, then the helical island equilibrium becomes unstable, and the chain again decays away. The critical amplitude of the resonant harmonic of the external perturbation at which the island chain either unlocks or becomes unstable is calculated as a function of the pedestal ion pressure, the neoclassical poloidal and toroidal ion velocities and the poloidal and toroidal flow damping rates.
Kinetic global analysis of Alfven eigenmodes in toroidal plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fukuyama, A.
2002-01-01
Systematic study on low to medium n (toroidal mode number) Alfven eigenmodes (AE) in tokamaks and helical systems is presented. Linear stability of AE in the presence of energetic ions was studied using the kinetic full-wave code TASK/WM.We have reproduced the destabilizing effect of toroidal co-rotation on TAE for JT-60U parameters. We have found the existence of reversed-shear-induced Alfven eigenmode (RSAE) which localizes near the q minimum in a reversed magnetic shear configuration. Two kinds of mode structures are identified for energetic particle mode (EPM) below the TAE frequency gap. The coupling to lower-frequency modes such as drift waves and MHD modes as well as the effect of trapped particles are also taken into account. For a helical plasma, the existence of GAE in the central region and TAE in the off-axis region was confirmed. (author)
Efficiency of wave-driven rigid body rotation toroidal confinement
Rax, J. M.; Gueroult, R.; Fisch, N. J.
2017-03-01
The compensation of vertical drifts in toroidal magnetic fields through a wave-driven poloidal rotation is compared with compensation through the wave driven toroidal current generation to support the classical magnetic rotational transform. The advantages and drawbacks associated with the sustainment of a radial electric field are compared with those associated with the sustainment of a poloidal magnetic field both in terms of energy content and power dissipation. The energy content of a radial electric field is found to be smaller than the energy content of a poloidal magnetic field for a similar set of orbits. The wave driven radial electric field generation efficiency is similarly shown, at least in the limit of large aspect ratio, to be larger than the efficiency of wave-driven toroidal current generation.
Linear mode conversion in a toroidal plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hellsten, T.
1980-05-01
Linear mode conversion at the perpendicular ion cyclotron resonance has been treated for an axially symmetric toroidal plasma. The mode conversion appears between a fast electromagnetic wave and a slow-quasi electrostatic wave, due to finite electron inertia. The problem reduces to the Orr-Sommerfeld equation where the coefficients determining the reflectron, transmission and conversion are functions of the arc length along a poloidal intersection of the resonance surface. These coefficients can be determined from eigenfunctions of an ordinary differential equation. (author)
Convective cells and transport in toroidal plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hassam, A.B.; Kulsrud, R.M.
1978-12-01
The properties of convective cells and the diffusion resulting from such cells are significantly influenced by an inhomogeneity in the extermal confining magnetic field, such as that in toroidal plasmas. The convective diffusion in the presence of a field inhomogeneity is estimated. For a thermal background, this diffusion is shown to be substantially smaller than classical collisional diffusion. For a model nonthermal background, the diffusion is estimated, for typical parameters, to be at most of the order of collisional diffusion. The model background employed is based on spectra observed in numerical simulations of drift-wave-driven convective cells
Transport in a toroidally confined pure electron plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Crooks, S.M.; ONeil, T.M.
1996-01-01
O close-quote Neil and Smith [T.M. O close-quote Neil and R.A. Smith, Phys. Plasmas 1, 8 (1994)] have argued that a pure electron plasma can be confined stably in a toroidal magnetic field configuration. This paper shows that the toroidal curvature of the magnetic field of necessity causes slow cross-field transport. The transport mechanism is similar to magnetic pumping and may be understood by considering a single flux tube of plasma. As the flux tube of plasma undergoes poloidal ExB drift rotation about the center of the plasma, the length of the flux tube and the magnetic field strength within the flux tube oscillate, and this produces corresponding oscillations in T parallel and T perpendicular . The collisional relaxation of T parallel toward T perpendicular produces a slow dissipation of electrostatic energy into heat and a consequent expansion (cross-field transport) of the plasma. In the limit where the cross section of the plasma is nearly circular the radial particle flux is given by Γ r =1/2ν perpendicular,parallel T(r/ρ 0 ) 2 n/(-e∂Φ/∂r), where ν perpendicular,parallel is the collisional equipartition rate, ρ 0 is the major radius at the center of the plasma, and r is the minor radius measured from the center of the plasma. The transport flux is first calculated using this simple physical picture and then is calculated by solving the drift-kinetic Boltzmann equation. This latter calculation is not limited to a plasma with a circular cross section. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics
Plasma rotation under a driven radial current in a tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chang, C.S.
1999-01-01
The neoclassical behaviour of plasma rotation under a driven radial electrical current is studied in a tokamak geometry. An ambipolar radial electric field develops instantly in such a way that the driven current is balanced by a return current j p in the plasma. The j p x B torque pushes the plasma into a new rotation state both toroidally and poloidally. An anomalous toroidal viscosity is needed to avoid an extreme toroidal rotation speed. It is shown that the poloidal rotation relaxes to a new equilibrium speed, which is in general smaller than the E x B poloidal speed, and that the timescale for the relaxation of poloidal rotation is the same as that of toroidal rotation generation, which is usually much longer than the ion-ion collision time. (author)
Stabilization of ballooning modes with sheared toroidal rotation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miller, R.L.; Waelbroeck, F.L.; Hassam, A.B.; Waltz, R.E.
1995-01-01
Stabilization of magnetohydrodynamic ballooning modes by sheared toroidal rotation is demonstrated using a shifted circle equilibrium model. A generalized ballooning mode representation is used to eliminate the fast Alfven wave, and an initial value code solves the resulting equations. The s-α diagram (magnetic shear versus pressure gradient) of ballooning mode theory is extended to include rotational shear. In the ballooning representation, the modes shift periodically along the field line to the next point of unfavorable curvature. The shift frequency (dΩ/dq, where Ω is the angular toroidal velocity and q is the safety factor) is proportional to the rotation shear and inversely proportional to the magnetic shear. Stability improves with increasing shift frequency and direct stable access to the second stability regime occurs when this frequency is approximately one-quarter to one-half the Alfven frequency, ω A =V A /qR. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics
Experimental study of high beta toroidal plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kellman, A.G.
1983-09-01
Experiments on the Wisconsin Levitated Toroidal Octupole have produced a wide range of stable high β plasmas with β significantly above single fluid MHD theory predictions. A stable β approx. 8% plasma, twice the fluid limit, is obtained with 5 rho/sub i/ approx. L/sub n/ and tau/sub β/ approx. = 6000 tau/sub Alfven/ = 600 μsec. The enhanced stability is explained with a kinetic treatment that includes the effect of finite ion gyroradius which couples the ballooning mode to an ion drift wave. In a more collisional, large gyroradius (2 rho/sub i/ approx. L/sub n/) regime, a stable β approx. 35% plasma is obtained with a decay time of 1000 Alfven times. Measurement of the equilibrium magnetic field in this regime indicates that the diamagnetic current density is five times smaller than predicted by ideal MHD, probably due to ion gyroviscosity. Particle transport is anomalous and ranges from agreement with the classical diffusion rate at the highest beta, lowest field plasma (B/sub P/ = 200 G), to thirteen times the classical rate in a β=11%, high field plasma (B/sub P/ = 860 G) where the level of enhancement increase with magnetic field. Fluctuations in density, electrostatic potential, and magnetic field have been studied in plasmas with β from 0.1% to 40%
Magnetohydrodynamic Stability of a Toroidal Plasma's Separatrix
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Webster, A. J.; Gimblett, C. G.
2009-01-01
Large tokamaks capable of fusion power production such as ITER, should avoid large edge localized modes (ELMs), thought to be triggered by an ideal magnetohydrodynamic instability due to current at the plasma's separatrix boundary. Unlike analytical work in a cylindrical approximation, numerical work finds the modes are stable. The plasma's separatrix might stabilize modes, but makes analytical and numerical work difficult. We generalize a cylindrical model to toroidal separatrix geometry, finding one parameter Δ ' determines stability. The conformal transformation method is generalized to allow nonzero derivatives of a function on a boundary, and calculation of the equilibrium vacuum field allows Δ ' to be found analytically. As a boundary more closely approximates a separatrix, we find the energy principle indicates instability, but the growth rate asymptotes to zero
Three dimensional transport model for toroidal plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Copenhauer, C.
1980-12-01
A nonlinear MHD model, developed for three-dimensional toroidal geometries (asymmetric) and for high β (β approximately epsilon), is used as a basis for a three-dimensional transport model. Since inertia terms are needed in describing evolving magnetic islands, the model can calculate transport, both in the transient phase before nonlinear saturation of magnetic islands and afterwards on the resistive time scale. In the β approximately epsilon ordering, the plasma does not have sufficient energy to compress the parallel magnetic field, which allows the Alfven wave to be eliminated in the reduced nonlinear equations, and the model then follows the slower time scales. The resulting perpendicular and parallel plasma drift velocities can be identified with those of guiding center theory
The theory of toroidally confined plasmas
White, Roscoe B
2014-01-01
This graduate level textbook develops the theory of magnetically confined plasma, with the aim of bringing the reader to the level of current research in the field of thermonuclear fusion. It begins with the basic concepts of magnetic field description, plasma equilibria and stability, and goes on to derive the equations for guiding center particle motion in an equilibrium field. Topics include linear and nonlinear ideal and resistive modes and particle transport. It is of use to workers in the field of fusion both for its wide-ranging account of tokamak physics and as a kind of handbook or formulary. This edition has been extended in a number of ways. The material on mode-particle interactions has been reformulated and much new information added, including methodology for Monte Carlo implementation of mode destabilization. These results give explicit means of carrying out mode destabilization analysis, in particular for the dangerous fishbone mode. A new chapter on cyclotron motion in toroidal geometry has ...
Low-frequency fluctuations in a pure toroidal magnetized plasma
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
A magnetized, low- plasma in pure toroidal configuration is formed and extensively studied with ion mass as control parameter. Xenon, krypton and argon plasmas are formed at a fixed toroidal magnetic field of 0.024 T, with a peak density of ∼ 1011 cm-3, ∼ 4 × 1010 cm-3 and ∼ 2 × 1010 cm−3 respectively.
Stabilization of ballooning modes with sheared toroidal rotation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miller, R.L.; Waelbroeck, F.W.; Lao, L.L.; Taylor, T.S.
1994-11-01
A new code demonstrates the stabilization of MHD ballooning modes by sheared toroidal rotation. A shifted model is used to elucidate the physics and numerically reconstructed equilibria are used to analyze DIII-D discharges. In the ballooning representation, the modes shift periodically along the field line to the next point of unfavorable curvature. The shift frequency (dΩ/dq where Ω is the angular toroidal velocity and q is the safety factor) is proportional to the rotation shear and inversely proportional to the magnetic shear. Stability improves with increasing shift frequency and, in the shifted circle model, direct stable access to the second stability regime occurs when this frequency is a fraction of the Alfven frequency ω A = V A /qR. Shear stabilization is also demonstrated for an equilibrium reconstruction of a DIII-D VH-mode
Neoclassical rotation velocities in multispecies plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Houlberg, W.A.; Hirshman, S.P.; Shaing, K.C.
1996-01-01
We examine the relationships between the poloidal, toroidal and parallel rotation velocities for typical plasma conditions in existing tokamak experiments. The radial force balance, neoclassical solution to the poloidal flow from the parallel force balance, and anomalous toroidal rotation axe included. A full multispecies formulation of the neoclassical transport theory is implemented in the NCLASS code (which includes arbitrary axisymmetric geometries and plasma collisionalities) to determine the poloidal rotation velocities. Comparisons are made with analytic relationships derived from a single impurity formulation of the problem. The roles of the radial electric field and species density and pressure gradients are evaluated. The determination of the radial electric field using the NCLASS solution for poloidal rotation and a local measurement of the toroidal rotation in conjunction with measured plasma profiles is discussed; it has been used in analysis of TFTR enhanced reverse shear plasmas. The ordering of banana orbit size small relative to local minor radius and gradients (as incorporated into initial versions of NCLASS) are examined for typical negative shear plasmas. We show the degree to which these constraints axe violated and demonstrate that finite orbit corrections axe required for better determination of the bootstrap current, particle fluxes and ion heat fluxes, i.e., the conditions r much-lt Δ b much-lt r n , r T , r E are significantly violated. Progress in relaxing these constraints is discussed
Formation of a compact torus using a toroidal plasma gun
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Levine, M.A.; Pincosy, P.A.
1981-01-01
Myers, Levine and Pincosy earlier reported results using a toroidal plasma gun. The device differs from the usual coaxial plasma gun in the use of a strong toroidal bias current for enhanced efficiency, a pair of disk-like accelerating electrodes for reduced viscosity and a fast pulsed toroidal gas valve for more effective use of the injected gas sample. In addition, a technique is used for generating a toroidal current in the plasma ring. The combination offers an opportunity to deliver a plasma with a large amount of energy and to vary the density and relative toroidal and poloidal magnetic field intensities over a range of values. It is the purpose of this paper to report further experimental results, to project the gun's applications to the formation of a compact torus, and to propose a simple modification of the present apparatus as a test
Toroidal rotation braking with n = 1 magnetic perturbation field on JET
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sun, Y; Liang, Y; Koslowski, H R; Harting, D; Wiegmann, C; Wiesen, S; Jachmich, S; Alfier, A; Asunta, O; Corrigan, G; Giroud, C; Gryaznevich, M P; Hender, T; Nardon, E; Parail, V; Naulin, V; Tala, T
2010-01-01
A strong toroidal rotation braking has been observed in plasmas with application of an n = 1 magnetic perturbation field on the JET tokamak. Calculation results from the momentum transport analysis show that the torque induced by the n = 1 perturbation field has a global profile. The maximal value of this torque is at the plasma core region (ρ - √ν regime in the plasma core, but it is close to the transition between the 1/ν and ν - √ν regimes. The neoclassical toroidal viscosity (NTV) torque in the 1/ν and ν - √ν regimes is calculated. The observed torque is of a magnitude in between that of the NTV torque in the 1/ν and ν - √ν regimes. The NTV torque in the ν - √ν regimes is enhanced using the Lagrangian variation of the magnetic field strength. However, it is still smaller than the observed torque by one order of magnitude.
High beta plasma operation in a toroidal plasma producing device
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Clarke, J.F.
1978-01-01
A high beta plasma is produced in a plasma producing device of toroidal configuration by ohmic heating and auxiliary heating. The plasma pressure is continuously monitored and used in a control system to program the current in the poloidal field windings. Throughout the heating process, magnetic flux is conserved inside the plasma and the distortion of the flux surfaces drives a current in the plasma. As a consequence, the total current increases and the poloidal field windings are driven with an equal and opposing increasing current. The spatial distribution of the current in the poloidal field windings is determined by the plasma pressure. Plasma equilibrium is maintained thereby, and high temperature, high beta operation results
Compact toroidal plasmas: Simulations and theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harned, D.S.; Hewett, D.W.; Lilliequist, C.G.
1983-01-01
Realistic FRC equilibria are calculated and their stability to the n=1 tilting mode is studied. Excluding kinetic effects, configurations ranging from elliptical to racetrack are unstable. Particle simulations of FRCs show that particle loss on open field lines can cause sufficient plasma rotation to drive the n=2 rotational instability. The allowed frequencies of the shear Alfven wave are calculated for use in heating of spheromaks. An expanded spheromak is introduced and its stability properties are studied. Transport calculations of CTs are described. A power balance model shows that many features of gun-generated CT plasmas can be explained by the dominance of impurity radiation. It is shown how the Taylor relaxation theory, applied to gun-generated CT plasmas, leads to the possibility of steady-state current drive. Lastly, applications of accelerated CTs are considered. (author)
Honda, M.; Satake, S.; Suzuki, Y.; Shinohara, K.; Yoshida, M.; Narita, E.; Nakata, M.; Aiba, N.; Shiraishi, J.; Hayashi, N.; Matsunaga, G.; Matsuyama, A.; Ide, S.
2017-11-01
Capabilities of the integrated framework consisting of TOPICS, OFMC, VMEC and FORTEC-3D, have been extended to calculate toroidal rotation in fully non-axisymmetric perturbed magnetic fields for demonstrating operation scenarios in actual tokamak geometry and conditions. The toroidally localized perturbed fields due to the test blanket modules and the tangential neutral beam ports in ITER augment the neoclassical toroidal viscosity (NTV) substantially, while do not significantly influence losses of beam ions and alpha particles in an ITER L-mode discharge. The NTV takes up a large portion of total torque in ITER and fairly decelerates toroidal rotation, but the change in toroidal rotation may have limited effectiveness against turbulent heat transport. The error field correction coils installed in JT-60SA can externally apply the perturbed fields, which may alter the NTV and the resultant toroidal rotation profiles. However, the non-resonant n=18 components of the magnetic fields arising from the toroidal field ripple mainly contribute to the NTV, regardless of the presence of the applied field by the coil current of 10 kA , where n is the toroidal mode number. The theoretical model of the intrinsic torque due to the fluctuation-induced residual stress is calibrated by the JT-60U data. For five JT-60U discharges, the sign of the calibration factor conformed to the gyrokinetic linear stability analysis and a range of the amplitude thereof was revealed. This semi-empirical approach opens up access to an attempt on predicting toroidal rotation in H-mode plasmas.
Chaotic magnetic field line in toroidal plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hatori, Tadatsugu; Abe, Yoshihiko; Urata, Kazuhiro; Irie, Haruyuki.
1989-05-01
This is an introductory review of chaotic magnetic field line in plasmas, together with some new results, with emphasis on the long-time tail and the fractional Brownian motion of the magnetic field line. The chaotic magnetic field line in toroidal plasmas is a typical chaotic phenomena in the Hamiltonian dynamical systems. The onset of stochasticity induced by a major magnetic perturbation is thought to cause a macroscopic rapid phenomena called the current disruption in the tokamak discharges. Numerical simulations on the basis of magnetohydrodynamics reveal in fact the disruptive phenomena. Some dynamical models which include the area-preserving mapping such as the standard mapping, and the two-wave Hamiltonian system can model the stochastic magnetic field. Theoretical results with use of the functional integral representation are given regarding the long-time tail on the basis of the radial twist mapping. It is shown that application of renormalization group technique to chaotic orbit in the two-wave Hamiltonian system proves decay of the velocity autocorrelation function with the power law. Some new numerical results are presented which supports these theoretical results. (author)
Finite toroidal flow generated by unstable tearing mode in a toroidal plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hao, G. Z., E-mail: haogz@swip.ac.cn; Wang, A. K.; Xu, Y. H.; He, H. D.; Xu, M.; Qu, H. P.; Peng, X. D.; Xu, J. Q.; Qiu, X. M. [Southwestern Institute of Physics, P.O. Box 432, Chengdu 610041 (China); Liu, Y. Q. [Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Sun, Y. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academic of Sciences, P.O. Box 1126, Hefei 230031 (China); Cui, S. Y. [School of Mathematics and Statistics Science, Ludong University, Yantai 264025 (China)
2014-12-15
The neoclassical toroidal plasma viscosity torque and electromagnetic torque, generated by tearing mode (TM) in a toroidal plasma, are numerically investigated using the MARS-Q code [Liu et al., Phys. Plasmas 20, 042503 (2013)]. It is found that an initially unstable tearing mode can intrinsically drive a toroidal plasma flow resulting in a steady state solution, in the absence of the external momentum input and external magnetic field perturbation. The saturated flow is in the order of 0.5%ω{sub A} at the q=2 rational surface in the considered case, with q and ω{sub A} being the safety factor and the Alfven frequency at the magnetic axis, respectively. The generation of the toroidal flow is robust, being insensitive to the given amplitude of the perturbation at initial state. On the other hand, the flow amplitude increases with increasing the plasma resistivity. Furthermore, the initially unstable tearing mode is fully stabilized by non-linear interaction with the self-generated toroidal flow.
Equilibrium of rotating and nonrotating plasmas in tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pustovitov, V.D.
2003-01-01
One studied plasma equilibrium in tokamak in case of toroidal rotation. Rotation associated centrifugal force is shown to result in decrease of equilibrium limit as to β. One analyzes unlike opinion and considers its supports. It is shown that in possible case of local improvement of equilibrium conditions associated with special selection of profile of plasma rotation rate, the combined integral effect turns to be negative one. But in case of typical conditions, decrease of equilibrium β caused by plasma rotation is negligible one and one may ignore effect of plasma rotation on its equilibrium for hot plasma [ru
Current drive by asymmetrical heating in a toroidal plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gahl, J.M.
1986-01-01
This report describes the first experimental observation of current generation by asymmetrical heating of ions. A unidirectional fast Alfven wave launched by a slow-wave antenna inside the Texas Tech Tokamak, asymmetrically heated the ions. Measurements of the asymmetry of the toroidal plasma current with probes at the top and bottom of the toroidal plasma column confirmed the current generation indirectly. Current generation, obtained in a one-species, hydrogen plasma, is a phenomenon which had not been predicted previously. Calculations of the dispersion relation for the fast Alfven wave near the fundamental cyclotron resonance in a one-species, hydrogen plasma, using warm plasma theory, support the experimental results
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ida, Katsumi; Miura, Yukitoshi; Itoh, Sanae
1994-10-01
Radial structures of plasma rotation and radial electric field are experimentally studied in tokamak, heliotron/torsatron and stellarator devices. The perpendicular and parallel viscosities are measured. The parallel viscosity, which is dominant in determining the toroidal velocity in heliotron/torsatron and stellarator devices, is found to be neoclassical. On the other hand, the perpendicular viscosity, which is dominant in dictating the toroidal rotation in tokamaks, is anomalous. Even without external momentum input, both a plasma rotation and a radial electric field exist in tokamaks and heliotrons/torsatrons. The observed profiles of the radial electric field do not agree with the theoretical prediction based on neoclassical transport. This is mainly due to the existence of anomalous perpendicular viscosity. The shear of the radial electric field improves particle and heat transport both in bulk and edge plasma regimes of tokamaks. (author) 95 refs
Confinement time exceeding one second for a toroidal electron plasma.
Marler, J P; Stoneking, M R
2008-04-18
Nearly steady-state electron plasmas are trapped in a toroidal magnetic field for the first time. We report the first results from a new toroidal electron plasma experiment, the Lawrence Non-neutral Torus II, in which electron densities on the order of 10(7) cm(-3) are trapped in a 270-degree toroidal arc (670 G toroidal magnetic field) by application of trapping potentials to segments of a conducting shell. The total charge inferred from measurements of the frequency of the m=1 diocotron mode is observed to decay on a 3 s time scale, a time scale that approaches the predicted limit due to magnetic pumping transport. Three seconds represents approximately equal to 10(5) periods of the lowest frequency plasma mode, indicating that nearly steady-state conditions are achieved.
Unstable universal drift eigenmodes in toroidal plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheng, C.Z.; Chen, L.
1979-08-01
The eigenmode equation describing ballooning collisionless drift instabilities is analyzed both analytically and numerically. A new branch of eigenmodes, which corresponds to quasi-bound states due to the finite toroidicity, is shown to be destabilized by electron Landau damping for typical Tokamak parameters. This branch cannot be understood by the strong coupling approximation. However, the slab-like (Pearlstein-Berk type) branch is found to remain stable and experience enhanced shear damping due to finite toroidicity
Rotating field current drive in spherical plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brotherton-Ratcliffe, D.; Storer, R.G.
1988-01-01
The technique of driving a steady Hall current in plasmas using a rotating magnetic field is studied both numerically and analytically in the approximation of negligible ion flow. A spherical plasma bounded by an insulating wall and immersed in a uniform magnetic field which has both a rotating component (for current drive) and a constant ''vertical'' component (for MHD equilibrium) is considered. The problem is formulated in terms of an expansion of field quantities in vector spherical harmonics. The numerical code SPHERE solves the resulting pseudo-harmonic equations by a multiple shooting technique. The results presented, in addition to being relevant to non-inductive current drive generally, have a direct relevance to the rotamak experiments. For the case of no applied vertical field the steady state toroidal current driven by the rotating field per unit volume of plasma is several times less than in the long cylinder limit for a plasma of the same density, resistivity and radius. The application of a vertical field, which for certain parameter regimes gives rise to a compact torus configuration, improves the current drive dramatically and in many cases gives ''better'' current drive than the long cylinder limit. This result is also predicted by a second order perturbation analysis of the pseudo-harmonic equations. A steady state toroidal field is observed which appears consistent with experimental observations in rotamaks regarding magnitude and spatial dependence. This is an advance over previous analytical theory which predicted an oppositely directed toroidal field of undefined magnitude. (author)
Plasma residual poloidal rotation in TCABR tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Severo, J.H.F.; Nascimento, I.C.; Tsypin, V.S.; Galvao, R.M.O.
2003-01-01
This paper reports the first measurement of the radial profiles of plasma poloidal and toroidal rotation performed on the TCABR tokamak for a collisional plasma (Pfirsch-Schluter regime), using Doppler shift of carbon spectral lines, measured with a high precision optical spectrometer. The results for poloidal rotation show a maximum velocity of (4.5±1.0)·10 3 m/s at r ∼ 2/3a, (a - limiter radius), in the direction of the diamagnetic electron drift. Within the error limits, reasonable agreement is obtained with calculations using the neoclassical theory for a collisional plasma, except near the plasma edge, as expected. For toroidal rotation, the radial profile shows that the velocity decreases from a counter-current value of (20 ± 1) · 10 3 m/s for the plasma core to a co-current value of (2.0 ± 1.0) · 10 3 m/s near the limiter. An agreement within a factor 2, for the plasma core rotation, is obtained with calculations using the model proposed by Kim, Diamond and Groebner. (author)
Plasma flow in toroidal systems with a separatrix
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gribkov, V.M.; Morozov, D.Kh.; Pogutse, O.P.
1984-01-01
A hydrodynamic plasma flow in toroidal systems is considered. Rlasma flow lines for various magnetic configurations are calculated. A particular attention is given to studying plasma flow in configurations with two magnetic a axes and a separatrix. The flow picture i the toroidal case is shown to qualita ity to penetrate through the separatrix - the latter becomes ''perforated''. Th he pictkre of these flows is calculated. The plasma diffusion coefficient with account for the separatrix is calculated and is shown not to turn into the infin nity in the toroidal case as well. The plasma flow is analytically considered in the model with distributed current as well as in the model with current conce entrated at the oroidal system axis. In the first case the existence of ''stagnant'' regions near the magnetic axis is established from which the plasma a does not flow out
Investigations of toroidal wave numbers of the kink instabilities in a toroidal pinch plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hamajima, Takataro; Irisawa, Juichi; Tsukada, Tokuaki; Sugito, Osamu; Maruyama, Hideaki
1979-01-01
The axial toroidal wave numbers of the kink instability of toroidal pinch plasma were measured and investigated with a specially designed coil, and the results were compared with the MHD theory. The schematic figure and the particulars of the experimental apparatus are briefly illustrated in the first part. The method of generating theta-Z pinch plasma, the wave form of the magnetic flux density in Z-direction and the plasma current are also explained. The 360 deg stereoscopic framing photographs were taken with an image converter camera at the intervals of 0.5 μs after the initiation of the main electric discharge in Z-circuit. From these photographs, the growth of the kink instability was observed. The measured magnetic field distribution at t = 2 μs is presented. In the second part, the radial displacement of plasma and toroidal wave number were measured from the above framing photographs. Then the spectra of plasma displacement were analyzed by the Fourier analysis. The measured results of toroidal wave number was analyzed by both the skin current model and the diffuse current model. Many new results obtained from the present study were mainly derived from the observation of the framing photographs, and they are summarized in the final part of this paper. (Aoki, K.)
Experimental studies of plasma confinement in toroidal systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bodin, H.A.B.; Keen, B.E.
1977-01-01
In this article the closed-line magnetic field approach to the plasma isolation and confinement problem in toroidal systems is reviewed. The theoretical aspects of closed-line magnetic field systems, indicating that topologically such systems are toroidal, are surveyed under the headings; topology of closed-line systems, equilibrium in different configurations and classification of toroidal devices, MHD stability, non-ideal effects in MHD stability, microscopic stability, and plasma energy loss. A section covering the experimental results of plasma confinement in toroidal geometry considers Stellerators, Tokamaks, toroidal pinch -the reversed-field pinch, screw pinches and high-β Tokamaks, Levitrons and multipoles (internal-ring devices), and miscellaneous toroidal containment devices. Recent achievements and the present position are discussed with reference to the status of Tokamak research, low-β stellerator research and high-β research. It is concluded from the continuing progress made in this research that the criteria for the magnetic containment of plasmas can be met. Further, it is concluded that the construction of a successful and economic fusion reactor is within the scope of advancing science and technology. 250 references. (U.K.)
Experimental studies of plasma confinement in toroidal systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bodin, H A.B.; Keen, B E [UKAEA, Abingdon. Culham Lab.
1977-12-01
In this article the closed-line magnetic field approach to the plasma isolation and confinement problem in toroidal systems is reviewed. The theoretical aspects of closed-line magnetic field systems, indicating that topologically such systems are toroidal, are surveyed under the headings; topology of closed-line systems, equilibrium in different configurations and classification of toroidal devices, MHD stability, non-ideal effects in MHD stability, microscopic stability, and plasma energy loss. A section covering the experimental results of plasma confinement in toroidal geometry considers Stellerators, Tokamaks, toroidal pinch -the reversed-field pinch, screw pinches and high-..beta.. Tokamaks, Levitrons and multipoles (internal-ring devices), and miscellaneous toroidal containment devices. Recent achievements and the present position are discussed with reference to the status of Tokamak research, low-..beta.. stellerator research and high-..beta.. research. It is concluded from the continuing progress made in this research that the criteria for the magnetic containment of plasmas can be met. Further, it is concluded that the construction of a successful and economic fusion reactor is within the scope of advancing science and technology. 250 references.
Plasma rotation and rf heating in DIII-D
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
DeGrassie, J.S.; Baker, D.R.; Burrell, K.H.
1999-05-01
In a variety of discharge conditions on DIII-D it is observed that rf electron heating reduces the toroidal rotation speed and core ion temperature. The rf heating can be with either fast wave or electron cyclotron heating and this effect is insensitive to the details of the launched toroidal wavenumber spectrum. To date all target discharges have rotation first established with co-directed neutral beam injection. A possible cause is enhanced ion momentum and thermal diffusivity due to electron heating effectively creating greater anomalous viscosity. Another is that a counter directed toroidal force is applied to the bulk plasma via rf driven radial current
Plasma rotation and rf heating in DIII-D
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grassie, J. S. de; Baker, D. R.; Burrell, K. H.; Greenfield, C. M.; Lin-Liu, Y. R.; Luce, T. C.; Petty, C. C.; Prater, R.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Rice, B. W.
1999-01-01
In a variety of discharge conditions on DIII-D it is observed that rf electron heating reduces the toroidal rotation speed and core ion temperature. The rf heating can be with either fast wave or electron cyclotron heating and this effect is insensitive to the details of the launched toroidal wavenumber spectrum. To date all target discharges have rotation first established with co-directed neutral beam injection. A possible cause is enhanced ion momentum and thermal diffusivity due to electron heating effectively creating greater anomalous viscosity. Another is that a counter directed toroidal force is applied to the bulk plasma via rf driven radial current. (c) 1999 American Institute of Physics
H-mode regimes and observators of central toroidal rotation in Alcator C-Mod
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Greenwald, M.; Rice, J.; Boivin, R.
1999-01-01
The Enhanced D α or EDA H-mode regime in Alcator C-Mod has been investigated and compared in detail to ELM-free plasmas. (In this paper, ELM-free will refer to discharges with no type I ELMs and with no sign of EDA, though technically, most EDA plasmas are ELM-free as well.) EDA discharges have only slightly lower energy confinement than comparable ELM-free ones, but show markedly reduced impurity confinement. Thus EDA discharges do not accumulate impurities and typically have a lower fraction of radiated power. EDA plasmas are seen to be more likely at low plasma current (q > 3.7 - 4), for moderate plasma shaping (0.35 - 0.55), and for high neutral pressures. No obvious trends were observed with input power or pressure (β). In both H-mode regimes, and in ICRF heated L-modes, central impurity toroidal rotation has been deduced, from the Doppler shifts of argon x-ray lines. Rotation velocities up to 1.3 x 10 5 m/s in the co-current direction have been observed in H-mode discharges that had no direct momentum input. There is a strong correlation between the increase in the central impurity rotation velocity and the increase in the plasma stored energy, induced by ICRF heating. In otherwise similar discharges with the same stored energy increase, plasmas with lower current rotate faster. The ion pressure gradient is an unimportant contributor to the central impurity rotation and the presence of a substantial core radial electric field is inferred during the ICRF pulse. An inward shift of ions induced by ICRF waves could give rise to a non-ambipolar electric field in the plasma core. Comparisons with a neo-classical ion orbit shift model show good agreement with the observations, both in magnitude, and in the scaling with plasma current. (author)
Plasma residual rotation in the TCABR tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Severo, J.H.F.; Nascimento, I.C.; Tsypin, V.S.; Galvao, R.M.O.
2003-01-01
This paper reports the first results on the measurement of the radial profiles of plasma poloidal and toroidal rotation performed on the TCABR tokamak, in the collisional regime (Pfirsch-Schluter), using Doppler shift of carbon spectral lines, measured with a high precision optical spectrometer. The results for poloidal rotation show a maximum velocity of (4.5±1.0) x 10 3 m s -1 at r ∼ 2/3a,(a-limiter radius), in the direction of the diamagnetic electron drift. Within the error limits, reasonable agreement is obtained with calculations using the neoclassical theory for a collisional plasma, except near the plasma edge, as expected. For toroidal rotation, the radial profile shows that the velocity decreases from a counter-current value of (20 ± 1) x 10 3 m s -1 , at the plasma core, to a co-current value of (2.0 ± 0.9) x 10 3 m s -1 near the limiter. An agreement within a factor 2, for the plasma core rotation, is obtained with calculations using the model proposed by Kim, Diamond and Groebner (1991 Phys. Fluids B 3 2050). (author)
First Toroidal Rotation Measurements of Protons and Impurities in the TJ-II Stellarator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rapisarda, D.; Zurro, B.; Baciero, A.
2006-01-01
First absolute toroidal rotation measurements in the TJ-II stellarator, by using passive emission spectroscopy, are presented. The wavelength calibration is performed by using a spectral system which combines the spectra coming from the plasma and from a lamp in real time. Measurements have been made both for protons and some impurity ions (C4+, He+), in discharges created by electron cyclotron resonance heating, and in discharges with neutral beam injection heating. In addition, a description of the systems as well as the calibration procedures an data analysis is addressed. (Author) 10 refs
Response of plasma rotation to resonant magnetic perturbations in J-TEXT tokamak
Yan, W.; Chen, Z. Y.; Huang, D. W.; Hu, Q. M.; Shi, Y. J.; Ding, Y. H.; Cheng, Z. F.; Yang, Z. J.; Pan, X. M.; Lee, S. G.; Tong, R. H.; Wei, Y. N.; Dong, Y. B.; J-TEXT Team
2018-03-01
The response of plasma toroidal rotation to the external resonant magnetic perturbations (RMP) has been investigated in Joint Texas Experimental Tokamak (J-TEXT) ohmic heating plasmas. For the J-TEXT’s plasmas without the application of RMP, the core toroidal rotation is in the counter-current direction while the edge rotation is near zero or slightly in the co-current direction. Both static RMP experiments and rotating RMP experiments have been applied to investigate the plasma toroidal rotation. The core toroidal rotation decreases to lower level with static RMP. At the same time, the edge rotation can spin to more than 20 km s-1 in co-current direction. On the other hand, the core plasma rotation can be slowed down or be accelerated with the rotating RMP. When the rotating RMP frequency is higher than mode frequency, the plasma rotation can be accelerated to the rotating RMP frequency. The plasma confinement is improved with high frequency rotating RMP. The plasma rotation is decelerated to the rotating RMP frequency when the rotating RMP frequency is lower than the mode frequency. The plasma confinement also degrades with low frequency rotating RMP.
Curvature driven instabilities in toroidal plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andersson, P.
1986-11-01
The electromagnetic ballooning mode, the curvature driven trapped electron mode and the toroidally induced ion temperature gradient mode have been studies. Eigenvalue equations have been derived and solved both numerically and analytically. For electromagnetic ballooning modes the effects of convective damping, finite Larmor radius, higher order curvature terms, and temperature gradients have been investigated. A fully toroidal fluid ion model has been developed. It is shown that a necessary and sufficient condition for an instability below the MHD limit is the presence of an ion temperature gradient. Analytical dispersion relations giving results in good agreement with numerical solutions are also presented. The curvature driven trapped electron modes are found to be unstable for virtually all parameters with growth rates of the order of the diamagnetic drift frequency. Studies have been made, using both a gyrokinetic ion description and the fully toroidal ion model. Both analytical and numerical results are presented and are found to be in good agreement. The toroidally induced ion temperature gradients modes are found to have a behavior similar to that of the curvature driven trapped electron modes and can in the electrostatic limit be described by a simple quadratic dispersion equation. (author)
Theory for neoclassical toroidal plasma viscosity in tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shaing, K C; Chu, M S; Hsu, C T; Sabbagh, S A; Seol, Jae Chun; Sun, Y
2012-01-01
Error fields and magnetohydrodynamic modes break toroidal symmetry in tokamaks. The broken symmetry enhances the toroidal plasma viscosity, which results in a steady-state toroidal plasma flow. A theory for neoclassical toroidal plasma viscosity in the low-collisionality regimes is developed. It extends stellarator transport theory to include multiple modes and to allow for |m − nq| ∼ 1. Here, m is the poloidal mode number, n is the toroidal mode number and q is the safety factor. The bounce averaged drift kinetic equation is solved in several asymptotic limits to obtain transport fluxes. These fluxes depend non-linearly on the radial electric field except for those in the 1/ν regime. Here, ν is the collision frequency. The theory is refined to include the effects of the superbanana plateau resonance at the phase space boundary and the finite ∇B drift on the collisional boundary layer fluxes. Analytical expressions that connect all asymptotic limits are constructed and are in good agreement with the numerical results. The flux–force relations that relate transport fluxes to forces are used to illustrate the roles of transport fluxes in the momentum equation. It is shown that the ambipolar state is reached when the momentum equation is relaxed. It is also shown that the origin of the momentum for plasma flow generated without momentum sources is the local unbalance of particles' momenta and is diamagnetic in nature regardless of the details of the theory. (paper)
Linear wave propagation in a hot axisymmetric toroidal plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jaun, A.
1995-03-01
Kinetic effects on the propagation of the Alfven wave are studied for the first time in a toroidal plasma relevant for experiments. This requires the resolution of a set of coupled partial differential equations whose coefficients depend locally on the plasma parameters. For this purpose, a numerical wave propagation code called PENN has been developed using either a bilinear or a bicubic Hermite finite element discretization. It solves Maxwell's equations in toroidal geometry, with a dielectric tensor operator that takes into account the linear response of the plasma. Two different models have been implemented and can be used comparatively to describe the same physical case: the first treats the plasma as resistive fluids and gives results which are in good agreement with toroidal fluid codes. The second is a kinetic model and takes into account the finite size of the Larmor radii; it has successfully been tested against a kinetic plasma model in cylindrical geometry. New results have been obtained when studying kinetic effects in toroidal geometry. Two different conversion mechanisms to the kinetic Alfven wave have been described: one occurs at toroidally coupled resonant surfaces and is the kinetic counterpart of the fluid models' resonance absorption. The other has no such correspondence and results directly from the toroidal coupling between the kinetic Alfven wave and the global wavefield. An analysis of a heating scenario suggests that it might be difficult to heat a plasma with Alfven waves up to temperatures that are relevant for a tokamak reactor. Kinetic effects are studied for three types of global Alfven modes (GAE, TAE, BAE) and a new class of kinetic eigenmodes is described which appear inside the fluid gap: it could be related to recent observations in the JET (Joint European Torus) tokamak. (author) 56 figs., 6 tabs., 58 refs
Linear wave propagation in a hot axisymmetric toroidal plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jaun, A [Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland). Centre de Recherche en Physique des Plasma (CRPP)
1995-03-01
Kinetic effects on the propagation of the Alfven wave are studied for the first time in a toroidal plasma relevant for experiments. This requires the resolution of a set of coupled partial differential equations whose coefficients depend locally on the plasma parameters. For this purpose, a numerical wave propagation code called PENN has been developed using either a bilinear or a bicubic Hermite finite element discretization. It solves Maxwell`s equations in toroidal geometry, with a dielectric tensor operator that takes into account the linear response of the plasma. Two different models have been implemented and can be used comparatively to describe the same physical case: the first treats the plasma as resistive fluids and gives results which are in good agreement with toroidal fluid codes. The second is a kinetic model and takes into account the finite size of the Larmor radii; it has successfully been tested against a kinetic plasma model in cylindrical geometry. New results have been obtained when studying kinetic effects in toroidal geometry. Two different conversion mechanisms to the kinetic Alfven wave have been described: one occurs at toroidally coupled resonant surfaces and is the kinetic counterpart of the fluid models` resonance absorption. The other has no such correspondence and results directly from the toroidal coupling between the kinetic Alfven wave and the global wavefield. An analysis of a heating scenario suggests that it might be difficult to heat a plasma with Alfven waves up to temperatures that are relevant for a tokamak reactor. Kinetic effects are studied for three types of global Alfven modes (GAE, TAE, BAE) and a new class of kinetic eigenmodes is described which appear inside the fluid gap: it could be related to recent observations in the JET (Joint European Torus) tokamak. (author) 56 figs., 6 tabs., 58 refs.
Unstable universal drift eigenmodes in toroidal plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheng, C.Z.; Chen, L.
1980-01-01
The eigenmode equation describing ballooning collisionless drift instabilities is analyzed both analytically and numerically. A new branch of eigenmodes, which corresponds to quasi-bound states due to toroidal coupling effects such as ion delB drifts, is shown to be destabilized by electron Landau damping for typical tokamak parameters. This branch cannot be understood by the strong coupling approximation. However, the slab-like (Pearlstein--Berk-type) branch is found to remain stable and experience enhanced shear damping
Stellarator approach to toroidal plasma confinement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Johnson, J.L.
1981-12-01
An overview is presented of the development and current status of the stellarator approach to controlled thermonuclear confinement. Recent experimental, theoretical, and systems developments have made this concept a viable option for the evolution of the toroidal confinement program. Some experimental study of specific problems associated with departure from two-dimensional symmetry must be undertaken before the full advantages and opportunities of steady-state, net-current-free operation can be realized
Toroidal equilibrium of a non-neutral plasma with toroidal current, inertia and pressure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bhattacharyya, S.N.; Avinash, K.
1992-01-01
Equilibrium of non-neutral clouds in a toroidal vessel with toroidal magnetic field is demonstrated in the presence of a toroidal current, finite mass and finite pressure. With a toroidal current, it is shown that in a large-aspect-ratio conducting torus the equilibrium is governed by competition between forces produced by image charges and image currents. When μ 0 ε 0 E r 2 >B θ 2 (whe re E r and B θ are the self electrostatic and self magnetic fields of the cloud), the confinement is electrostatic and plasma shifts inwards; when μ 0 ε 0 E r 2 θ 2 , the confinement is magnetic and plasma shifts outwards. For μ 0 ε 0 E r 2 = B θ 2 there is no equilibrium. With finite mass or finite pressure, it is shown, in a large-aspect-ratio approximation, that the fluid drift surfaces and equipotential surfaces are displaced with respect to each other. In both cases the fluid drift surfaces are shifted inwards from the equipotential surfaces. (author)
A numerical solution for a toroidal plasma in equilibrium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hintz, E.; Sudano, J.P.
1982-01-01
The iterative techniques alternating direction implicit (ADI), sucessive ove-relaxation (SOR) and Gauss-Seidel are applied to a nonlinear elliptical second order differential equation (Grand-Shafranov). This equation was solve with the free boundary conditions plasma-vacuum interface over a rectangular section in cylindrical coordinates R and Z. The current density profile, plasma pressure profile, magnetic and isobaric surfaces are numerically determined for a toroidal plasma in equilibrium. (L.C.) [pt
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vlases, G.C.; Pietrzyk, Z.A.
1984-11-01
Two older projects associated with very high energy density plasmas, specifically the High Density Field Reversed Configuration and the Liner Plasma Compression Experiment, have been completed. Attention has been turned to compact toroid experiments of more conventional density, and three experiments have been initiated. These include the Coaxial Slow Source Experiment, the Variable Length FRC Experiment, and Variable Angle CthetaP Experiment. In each case, the project was begun in order to provide basic plasma physics information on specific unresolved issues of progammatic importance to the national CT Program
Toroidal Plasma Thruster for Interplanetary and Interstellar Space Flights
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gorelenkov, N.N.; Zakharov, L.E.; Gorelenkova, M.V.
2001-01-01
This work involves a conceptual assessment for using the toroidal fusion reactor for deep space interplanetary and interstellar missions. Toroidal thermonuclear fusion reactors, such as tokamaks and stellarators, are unique for space propulsion, allowing for a design with the magnetic configuration localized inside toroidal magnetic field coils. Plasma energetic ions, including charged fusion products, can escape such a closed configuration at certain conditions, a result of the vertical drift in toroidal rippled magnetic field. Escaping particles can be used for direct propulsion (since toroidal drift is directed one way vertically) or to create and heat externally confined plasma, so that the latter can be used for propulsion. Deuterium-tritium fusion neutrons with an energy of 14.1 MeV also can be used for direct propulsion. A special design allows neutrons to escape the shield and the blanket of the tokamak. This provides a direct (partial) conversion of the fusion energy into the directed motion of the propellant. In contrast to other fusion concepts proposed for space propulsion, this concept utilizes the natural drift motion of charged particles out of the closed magnetic field configuration
Noninductively Driven Tokamak Plasmas at Near-Unity Toroidal Beta
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schlossberg, David J.; Bodner, Grant M.; Bongard, Michael W.; Burke, Marcus G.; Fonck, Raymond J.
2017-01-01
Access to and characterization of sustained, toroidally confined plasmas with a very high plasma-to-magnetic pressure ratio (β t ), low internal inductance, high elongation, and nonsolenoidal current drive is a central goal of present tokamak plasma research. Stable access to this desirable parameter space is demonstrated in plasmas with ultralow aspect ratio and high elongation. Local helicity injection provides nonsolenoidal sustainment, low internal inductance, and ion heating. Equilibrium analyses indicate β t up to ~100% with a minimum |B| well spanning up to ~50% of the plasma volume.
The problem of evolution of toroidal plasma equilibrium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kostomarov, D.; Zaitsev, F.; Shishkin, A.
1999-03-01
This paper is devoted to an advanced mathematical model for a self-consistent description of the evolution of free boundary toroidal plasmas, with a description of numerical algorithms for the solution of the appropriate non-linear system of integro-differential equations, and discussion of some results from the model. (author)
On nonlinear MHD-stability of toroidal magnetized plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ilgisonis, V.I.; Pastukhov, V.P.
1994-01-01
The variational approach to analyze the nonlinear MHD stability of ideal plasma in toroidal magnetic field is proposed. The potential energy functional to be used is expressed in terms of complete set of independent Lagrangian invariants, that allows to take strictly into account all the restrictions inherent in the varied functions due to MHD dynamic equations. (author). 3 refs
Plasma Heating and Losses in Toroidal Multipole Fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Armentrout, C. J.; Barter, J. D.; Breun, R. A.; Cavallo, A. J.; Drake, J. R.; Etzweiler,; Greenwood, J. R.
1974-01-01
The heating and loss of plasmas have been studied in three pulsed, toroidal multipole devices: a large levitated octupole, a small supported octupole and a very small supported quadrupole. Plasmas are produced by gun injection and heated by electron and ion cyclotron resonance heating and ohmic heating. Electron cyclotron heating rates have been measured over a wide range of parameters, and the results are in quantitative agreement with stochastic heating theory. Electron cyclotron resonance heating produces ions with energies larger than predicted by theory. With the addition of a toroidal field, ohmic heating gives densities as high as 10 13 cm -3 in the toroidal quadrupole and 10 12 cm -3 in the small octupole. Plasma losses for n=5 x 10 9 cm -3 plasmas are inferred from Langmuir probe and Fabry-Perot interferometer measurements, and measured with special striped collectors on the wall and rings. The loss to a levitated ring is measured using a modulated light beam telemeter. The confinement is better than Bohm but considerably worse than classical. Low frequency convective cells which are fixed in space are observed. These cells around the ring are diminished when a weak toroidal field is added, and loss collectors show a vastly reduced flux to the rings. Analysis of the spatial density profile shows features of B-independent diffusion. The confinement is sensitive to some kinds of dc field errors, but surprisingly insensitive to perturbations of the ac confining field
Effect of neoclassical toroidal viscosity on error-field penetration thresholds in tokamak plasmas.
Cole, A J; Hegna, C C; Callen, J D
2007-08-10
A model for field-error penetration is developed that includes nonresonant as well as the usual resonant field-error effects. The nonresonant components cause a neoclassical toroidal viscous torque that keeps the plasma rotating at a rate comparable to the ion diamagnetic frequency. The new theory is used to examine resonant error-field penetration threshold scaling in Ohmic tokamak plasmas. Compared to previous theoretical results, we find the plasma is less susceptible to error-field penetration and locking, by a factor that depends on the nonresonant error-field amplitude.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McKee, G.; Gohil, P.; Schlossberg, D.; Boedo, J.; Burrell, K.; deGrassie, J.; Groebner, R.; Makowski, M.; Moyer, R.; Petty, C.; Rhodes, T.; Schmitz, L.; Shafer, M.; Solomon, W.; Umansky, M.; Wang, G.; White, A.; Xu, X.
2008-01-01
The injected power required to induce a transition from L-mode to H-mode plasmas is found to depend strongly on the injected neutral beam torque and consequent plasma toroidal rotation. Edge turbulence and flows, measured near the outboard midplane of the plasma (0.85 < r/a < 1.0) on DIII-D with the high-sensitivity 2D beam emission spectroscopy (BES) system, likewise vary with rotation and suggest a causative connection. The L-H power threshold in plasmas with the ion (del)B drift away from the X-point decreases from 4-6 MW with co-current beam injection, to 2-3 MW with near zero net injected torque, and to <2 MW with counter injection. Plasmas with the ion (del)B drift towards the X-point exhibit a qualitatively similar though less pronounced power threshold dependence on rotation. 2D edge turbulence measurements with BES show an increasing poloidal flow shear as the L-H transition is approached in all conditions. At low rotation, the poloidal flow of turbulent eddies near the edge reverses prior to the L-H transition, generating a significant poloidal flow shear that exceeds the measured turbulence decorrelation rate. This increased poloidal turbulence velocity shear may facilitate the L-H transition. No such reversal is observed in high rotation plasmas. The poloidal turbulence velocity spectrum exhibits a transition from a Geodesic Acoustic Mode zonal flow to a higher-power, lower frequency, zero-mean-frequency zonal flow as rotation varies from co-current to balanced during a torque scan at constant injected neutral beam power, perhaps also facilitating the L-H transition. This reduced power threshold at lower toroidal rotation may benefit inherently low-rotation plasmas such as ITER
Studies on limiter confined toroidal plasma in BETA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bera, D.; Reddy, C.; Jayakumar, R.; Kaw, P.K.
1984-01-01
Plasma equilibrium and stability in the presence of a toroidal magnetic field and a poloidal limiter is being studied experimentally in the BETA experiment. In a simple toroidal magnetic field, plasma cannot be in equilibrium because of the effect of the magnetic field curvature, which tends to expand the plasma. The electric field, which causes this expansion, is short circuited if a poloidal conducting limiter is placed and this brings about a quasi-equilibrium. In the model the charge separation current flows on the surface of the plasma and closes the path by flowing parallel to the magnetic field away from the limiter and transverse to the field at the limiter. For such an equilibrium, the vertical pressure profile is expected to be uniform, while the radial pressure profile is determined by transport. Such a profile is unstable to Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities, if the magnetic field gradient and the pressure gradient have the same sense
Modelling of density limit phenomena in toroidal helical plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Itoh, Kimitaka; Itoh, Sanae-I.
2001-01-01
The physics of density limit phenomena in toroidal helical plasmas based on an analytic point model of toroidal plasmas is discussed. The combined mechanism of the transport and radiation loss of energy is analyzed, and the achievable density is derived. A scaling law of the density limit is discussed. The dependence of the critical density on the heating power, magnetic field, plasma size and safety factor in the case of L-mode energy confinement is explained. The dynamic evolution of the plasma energy and radiation loss is discussed. Assuming a simple model of density evolution, of a sudden loss of density if the temperature becomes lower than critical value, then a limit cycle oscillation is shown to occur. A condition that divides the limit cycle oscillation and the complete radiation collapse is discussed. This model seems to explain the density limit oscillation that has been observed on the Wendelstein 7-AS (W7-AS) stellarator. (author)
Modelling of density limit phenomena in toroidal helical plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Itoh, K.; Itoh, S.-I.
2000-03-01
The physics of density limit phenomena in toroidal helical plasmas based on an analytic point model of toroidal plasmas is discussed. The combined mechanism of the transport and radiation loss of energy is analyzed, and the achievable density is derived. A scaling law of the density limit is discussed. The dependence of the critical density on the heating power, magnetic field, plasma size and safety factor in the case of L-mode energy confinement is explained. The dynamic evolution of the plasma energy and radiation loss is discussed. Assuming a simple model of density evolution, of a sudden loss of density if the temperature becomes lower than critical value, then a limit cycle oscillation is shown to occur. A condition that divides the limit cycle oscillation and the complete radiation collapse is discussed. This model seems to explain the density limit oscillation that has been observed on the W7-AS stellarator. (author)
Stationary shear flows in CGL anisotropic toroidal plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pastukhov, V.P.; Ilgisonis, V.I.
1996-01-01
Recently a general structure of stationary shear flows in toroidal plasmas was obtained in the frame of ideal isotropic-pressure MHD model. The structure of the stationary plasma flows was shown to be determined by a hidden symmetry of MHD equations inherent in the toroidal systems with nested magnetic surfaces. However, the characteristic frequencies of the stationary plasma motion can considerably exceed the collisional frequencies in real plasma experiments. In this case the CGL collisionless MHD model seems to be more adequate than the simplified isotropic-pressure MHD model to describe the stationary plasma flows. In this paper we have generalized our approach to analyze the stationary plasma flows in the frame of the collisionless CGL model. We have found again that the hidden symmetry inherent in the toroidal topology results in two integral invariants which depend on two independent surface functions. The structure of stationary flows for CGL model is still the same as for isotropic MHD, however, the pressure tensor components satisfy a appreciably modifies the steady state force-balance equation. These results are applied to analyze the generalized equilibrium in axisymmetric (tokamak-like) magnetic confinement systems
Tomography of a simply magnetized toroidal plasma
Ruggero, BARNI; Stefano, CALDIROLA; Luca, FATTORINI; Claudia, RICCARDI
2018-02-01
Optical emission spectroscopy is a passive diagnostic technique, which does not perturb the plasma state. In particular, in a hydrogen plasma, Balmer-alpha (H α ) emission can be easily measured in the visible range along a line of sight from outside the plasma vessel. Other emission lines in the visible spectral range from hydrogen atoms and molecules can be exploited too, in order to gather complementary pieces of information on the plasma state. Tomography allows us to capture bi-dimensional structures. We propose to adopt an emission spectroscopy tomography for studying the transverse profiles of magnetized plasmas when Abel inversion is not exploitable. An experimental campaign was carried out at the Thorello device, a simple magnetized torus. The characteristics of the profile extraction method, which we implemented for this purpose are discussed, together with a few results concerning the plasma profiles in a simply magnetized torus configuration.
A method for determining poloidal rotation from poloidal asymmetry in toroidal rotation (invited)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chrystal, C., E-mail: chrystal@fusion.gat.com [Department of Physics, University of California-San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Burrell, K. H.; Lao, L. L.; Pace, D. C. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Grierson, B. A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)
2014-11-15
A new diagnostic has been developed on DIII-D that determines the impurity poloidal rotation from the poloidal asymmetry in the toroidal angular rotation velocity. This asymmetry is measured with recently added tangential charge exchange viewchords on the high-field side of the tokamak midplane. Measurements are made on co- and counter-current neutral beams, allowing the charge exchange cross section effect to be measured and eliminating the need for atomic physics calculations. The diagnostic implementation on DIII-D restricts the measurement range to the core (r/a < 0.6) where, relative to measurements made with the vertical charge exchange system, the spatial resolution is improved. Significant physics results have been obtained with this new diagnostic; for example, poloidal rotation measurements that significantly exceed neoclassical predictions.
Multispecies transport theory for axisymmetric rotating plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tessarotto, M.; White, R.B.
1992-01-01
A reduced gyrokinetic equation is derived for a multi-species toroidal axisymmetric plasma with arbitrary toroidal differential rotation speeds and in the presence of a finite induced electric field. The kinetic equation obtained, extending previous results obtained by Hinton and Wong and by Catto, Bernstein and Tessarotto, has a form suited for transport applications, via variational techniques; in particular it exhibits the feature that all source terms, including the Spitzer source term, carrying the contribution due to the inductive electric field, appear to be acted upon by the collision operator. Moreover, the equation displays a new contribution due to ''explicit'' velocity perturbations, here proven to be consistent with transport ordering, whose evaluation appears relevant for transport calculations. In addition, general expressions are obtained for the neoclassical fluxes in terms of a variational principle, as well as for the classical ones, retaining, in both cases, the contributions due to the Spitzer's inductive terms
Neoclassical current and plasma rotation in helical systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakajima, N.; Okamoto, M.
1991-01-01
In order to clarify geometrical effects of the magnetic field on the neoclassical theory in general toroidal systems, the neoclassical parallel particle flow, heat flux, current and plasma rotation of a multispecies plasma are examined using the moment approach on the basis of the original papers under the assumptions of no fluctuations, no external sources and losses except for a fast ion beam and an external inductive electric field, steady state, and |u a | Ta where u a and v Ta are the macro and thermal velocity of species a, respectively. Hence, we might have a point of view of unifying understanding the neoclassical theory in general toroidal systems. Three collisionality regimes, i.e., the 1/ν (in non-axisymmetric toroidal systems) or banana (in axisymmetric toroidal systems), plateau, and Pfirsch-Schlueter collisionality regimes are examined separately. (author) 8 refs
Minimum dissipative relaxed states in toroidal plasmas
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
organised equi- librium in RFP and tokamak by a deterministic approach to incompressible dissipative magnetohydrodynamics. In an earlier work Kondoh [8] formulated an energy principle including the edge plasma effects for a slightly resistive MHD ...
Current relaxation time scales in toroidal plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mikkelsen, D.R.
1987-02-01
An approximate normal mode analysis of plasma current diffusion in tokamaks is presented. The work is based on numerical solutions of the current diffusion equation in cylindrical geometry. Eigenvalues and eigenfunctions are shown for a broad range of plasma conductivity profile shapes. Three classes of solutions are considered which correspond to three types of tokamak operation. Convenient approximations to the three lowest eigenvalues in each class are presented and simple formulae for the current relaxation time scales are given
Physics of electron internal transport barrier in toroidal helical plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Itoh, K.; Toda, S.; Fujisawa, A.; Ida, K.; Itoh, S.-I.; Yagi, M.; Fukuyama, A.; Diamond, P.H.
2006-10-01
The role of zonal flows in the formation of the transport barrier in the helical plasmas is analyzed using the transport code. A set of one-dimensional transport equations is analyzed, including the effect of zonal flows. The turbulent transport coefficient is shown to be suppressed when the plasma state changes from the weak negative radial electric field to the strong positive one. This bifurcation of the turbulent transport is newly caused by the change of the damping rate of zonal flows. It is theoretically demonstrated that the damping rate of zonal flows governs the global confinement in toroidal plasmas. (author)
On the parametric cyclotron heating of a toroidal plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Golovanivsky, K.C.; Punithavelu, A.M.
1976-01-01
The possibility of heating the ionic component of a dense plasma at the parametric cyclotron resonance, using a section of the conducting toroidal chamber of a large scale Tokamak as a resonance cavity, is considered. It is suggested to use the mode TE 011 to overcome the difficulties with the penetration of HF fields into such a dense plasma. The experimental investigation of parametric cyclotron heating of electrons in a overdense plasma (n/nsub(cut off)=10 2 ) on such a model has given hopeful results
Nonlinear neoclassical transport in toroidal edge plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fueloep, T.; Helander, P.
2001-01-01
In conventional neoclassical theory, the density and temperature gradients are not allowed to be as steep as frequently observed in the tokamak edge. In this paper the theory of neoclassical transport in a collisional, impure plasma is extended to allow for steeper profiles than normally assumed. The dynamics of highly charged impurity ions then becomes nonlinear, which affects the transport of all species. As earlier found in the banana regime, when the bulk plasma gradients are large the impurity ions undergo a poloidal redistribution, which reduces their parallel friction with the bulk ions and suppresses the neoclassical ion particle flux. The neoclassical confinement is thus improved in regions with large radial gradients. When the plasma is collisional and the gradients are large, the impurities accumulate on the inboard side of the torus
Kinetic Modifications to MHD Phenomena in Toroidal Plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheng, C.Z.; Gorelenkov, N.N.; Kramer, G.J.; Fredrickson, E.
2004-01-01
Particle kinetic effects involving small spatial and fast temporal scales can strongly affect MHD phenomena and the long time behavior of plasmas. In particular, kinetic effects such as finite ion gyroradii, trapped particle dynamics, and wave-particle resonances have been shown to greatly modify the stability of MHD modes. Here, the kinetic effects of trapped electron dynamics and finite ion gyroradii are shown to have a large stabilizing effect on kinetic ballooning modes in low aspect ratio toroidal plasmas such as NSTX [National Spherical Torus Experiment]. We also present the analysis of Toroidicity-induced Alfven Eigenmodes (TAEs) destabilized by fast neutral-beam injected ions in NSTX experiments and TAE stability in ITER due to alpha-particles and MeV negatively charged neutral beam injected ions
MHD equilibrium of toroidal fusion plasma with stationary flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Galkowski, A.
1994-01-01
Non-linear ideal MHD equilibria in axisymmetric system with flows are examined, both in 1st and 2nd ellipticity regions. Evidence of the bifurcation of solutions is provided and numerical solutions of several problems in a tokamak geometry are given, exhibiting bifurcation phenomena. Relaxation of plasma in the presence of zero-order flows is studied in a realistic toroidal geometry. The field aligned flow allows equilibria with finite pressure gradient but with homogeneous temperature distribution. Numerical calculations have been performed for the 1st and 2nd ellipticity regimes of the extended Grad-Shafranov-Schlueter equation. Numerical technique, alternative to the well-known Grad's ADM methods has been proposed to deal with slow adiabatic evolution of toroidal plasma with flows. The equilibrium problem with prescribed adiabatic constraints may be solved by simultaneous calculations of flux surface geometry and original profile functions. (author). 178 refs, 37 figs, 5 tabs
Nonlinear neoclassical transport in toroidal edge plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fueloep, T.
2002-01-01
Edge plasma processes play a critical role for the global confinement of the plasma in a tokamak. In the edge region, where impurity ions are abundant and the temperature and density gradients are large, the assumptions of standard neoclassical theory break down. This paper reviews recent extensions of neoclassical theory to treat this problem, in particular our own work, which focuses on the nonlinear aspects of transport in a plasma with heavy impurity ions. In this theory, the pressure and temperature gradients are allowed to be steeper than in conventional theory neoclassical theory, so that the friction force between the bulk ions and heavy impurities is comparable to the parallel impurity pressure gradient. The impurity ions are then found to undergo a spontaneous rearrangement on each flux surface. This reduces their parallel friction with the bulk ions and causes the neoclassical ion flux to become a non-monotonic function of the gradients for plasma parameters typical of the tokamak edge. Thus, the neoclassical confinement is improved in regions where the gradients are large, such as in the edge pedestal. (orig.)
Nonlinear neoclassical theory for toroidal edge plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fueloep, T.; Helander, P.
2001-01-01
Edge plasma processes play a critical role for the global confinement of the plasma. In the edge region, where impurity ions are abundant and the temperature and density gradients are large, the assumptions of the standard neoclassical theory break down. We have extended the theory of neoclassical transport in an impure plasma with arbitrary cross section and aspect ratio to allow for steeper pressure and temperature gradients than are usually considered in the conventional theory. The gradients are allowed to be so large that the friction force between the bulk ions and heavy impurities is comparable to the parallel impurity pressure gradient. In this case the impurity ions are found to undergo a spontaneous rearrangement on each flux surface. This reduces their parallel friction with the bulk ions and causes the neoclassical ion flux to become a non-monotonic function of the gradients for plasma parameters typical of the tokamak edge. Thus, the neoclassical confinement is improved in regions where the gradients are large, such as in the edge pedestal. The theoretical predictions are compared with experimental data from several tokamaks. (orig.)
Goya - an MHD equilibrium code for toroidal plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scheffel, J.
1984-09-01
A description of the GOYA free-boundary equilibrium code is given. The non-linear Grad-Shafranov equation of ideal MHD is solved in a toroidal geometry for plasmas with purely poloidal magnetic fields. The code is based on a field line-tracing procedure, making storage of a large amount of information on a grid unnecessary. Usage of the code is demonstrated by computations of equi/libria for the EXTRAP-T1 device. (Author)
Longitudinal permittivity of a toroidal plasma near rational surfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nekrasov, F.M.
1990-01-01
A quite simple analytical formula for longitudinal permittivity, suitable for numerical processing on a computer, is determined. On the basis of a Fourier representation a poloidal angle a compact expression for the imaginary part of longitudinal permittivity near rational surfaces (m+nq=0) at an arbitrary relation between the bounce frequency and excited wave frequency is determined. A strongly magnetized collisionless plasma in the weak toroidality approximation is considered
Wave trajectory and electron cyclotron heating in toroidal plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maekawa, T.; Tanaka, S.; Terumichi, Y.; Hamada, Y.
1977-12-01
Wave trajectories propagating obliquely to magnetic field in toroidal plasmas are studied theoretically. Results show that the ordinary wave at appropriate incident angle is mode-converted to the extraordinary wave at first turning point and is further converted to the electron Bernstein wave during passing a loop or a hooked nail curve near second turning point and is cyclotron-damped away, resulting in local electron heating, before arriving at cyclotron resonance layer. (auth.)
Comparison of Theory with Rotation Measurements in JET ICRH Plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
R.V. Budny; C.S. Chang; C. Giroud; R.J. Goldston; D. McCune; J. Ongena; F.W. Perkins; R.B. White; K.-D. Zastrow; and contributors to the EFDA-JET work programme
2001-01-01
Plasma rotation appears to improve plasma performance by increasing the E x B flow shearing rate, thus decreasing radial correlations in the microturbulence. Also, plasma rotation can increase the stability to resistive MHD modes. In the Joint European Torus (JET), toroidal rotation rates omega (subscript ''tor'') with high Mach numbers are generally measured in NBI-heated plasmas (since the neutral beams aim in the co-plasma current direction). They are considerably lower with only ICRH (and Ohmic) heating, but still surprisingly large considering that ICRH appears to inject relatively small amounts of angular momentum. Either the applied torques are larger than naively expected, or the anomalous transport of angular momentum is smaller than expected. Since ICRH is one of the main candidates for heating next-step tokamaks, and for creating burning plasmas in future tokamak reactors, this paper attempts to understand ICRH-induced plasma rotation
A toroidal plasma MHD equilibrium code 'EQUCIR version 1'
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ninomiya, Hiromasa; Shinya, Kichiro; Kameari, Akihisa.
1980-10-01
A new free-boundary toroidal MHD equilibrium code ''EQUCIR version 1'' has been developed. The central problems approached by this code is as follows: 1) The magnetic flux distribution of a plasma at equilibrium is determined in the given external field. 2) A set of circuit equations between the plasma and the external conductors are constructed. These circuit equations and the Grad-Shafranov equation are solved self-consistently and the time evolutions of plasma equilibria and currents in external conductors are determined at the same time. 3) The currents in the external conductors are determined so that the plasma cross-section and plasma parameters are to be maintained with desired ones. It is shown that this code is very useful for study of the tokamak plasma equilibria, for design of the poloidal coil system and for investigation of experimental results. (author)
Toroidal plasma reactor with low external magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beklemishev, A.D.; Khayrutdinov, R.R.; Petviashvili, V.I.; Tajima, T.; Gordin, V.A.; Tajima, T.
1991-01-01
A toroidal pinch configuration with safety factor q < 0.5 decreasing from the center to periphery without field reversal is proposed. This is capable of containing high pressure plasma with only small toroidal external magnetic field. Sufficient conditions for magnetohydrodynamic stability are fulfilled in this configuration. The stability is studied by constructing the Lyapunov functional and investigating its extrema both analytically and numerically. Comparison of the Lyapunov stability conditions with the conventional linear theory is carried out. Stable configurations are found with average β near 15%, with magnetic field associated mainly with plasma current. The β value calculated with the external magnetic field can be over 100%. Fast charged particles produced by fusion reactions are asymmetrically confined by the poloidal magnetic field (and due to the lack of strong toroidal field). They thus generate a current in the noncentral part of plasma to reinforce the poloidal field. This current drive can sustain the monotonic decrease of q with radius. 20 refs., 9 figs
Toroidal magnetic confinement of non-neutral plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoshida, Zensho; Ogawa, Yuichi; Morikawa, Junji; Himura, Haruhiko; Kondo, Shigeo; Nakashima, Chihiro; Kakuno, Shuichi; Iqbal, Muhamad; Volponi, Francesco; Shibayama, Norihisa; Tahara, Shigeru
1999-01-01
A new method of toroidal non-neutral plasma trap has been developed with applying the chaos-induced radial transport of particles near a magnetic null point. A pure electron plasma is produced by injecting an electron beam. The poloidal gyroradius of an electron at the energy of 1 keV is of order 10 mm, which determines the length scale of the chaotic region. Amongst various applications of toroidal non-neutral plasmas, a possibility of producing very high-β plasma, which is suitable for advanced fusion, has been examined. The self-electric field of a non-neutral plasma can generate a strong shear flow. When the flow velocity is comparable to the Alfven speed (which is smaller than the ion sound speed, if β>1), a high-β equilibrium can be produced in which the plasma pressure is primarily balanced by the dynamic pressure of the flow. This configuration is described by a generalized Bernoulli law
On steady poloidal and toroidal flows in tokamak plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McClements, K. G.; Hole, M. J.
2010-01-01
The effects of poloidal and toroidal flows on tokamak plasma equilibria are examined in the magnetohydrodynamic limit. ''Transonic'' poloidal flows of the order of the sound speed multiplied by the ratio of poloidal magnetic field to total field B θ /B can cause the (normally elliptic) Grad-Shafranov (GS) equation to become hyperbolic in part of the solution domain. It is pointed out that the range of poloidal flows for which the GS equation is hyperbolic increases with plasma beta and B θ /B, thereby complicating the problem of determining spherical tokamak plasma equilibria with transonic poloidal flows. It is demonstrated that the calculation of the hyperbolicity criterion can be easily modified when the assumption of isentropic flux surfaces is replaced with the more tokamak-relevant one of isothermal flux surfaces. On the basis of the latter assumption, a simple expression is obtained for the variation of density on a flux surface when poloidal and toroidal flows are simultaneously present. Combined with Thomson scattering measurements of density and temperature, this expression could be used to infer information on poloidal and toroidal flows on the high field side of a tokamak plasma, where direct measurements of flows are not generally possible. It is demonstrated that there are four possible solutions of the Bernoulli relation for the plasma density when the flux surfaces are assumed to be isothermal, corresponding to four distinct poloidal flow regimes. Finally, observations and first principles-based theoretical modeling of poloidal flows in tokamak plasmas are briefly reviewed and it is concluded that there is no clear evidence for the occurrence of supersonic poloidal flows.
Influence of external toroidal flux on low-aspect-ratio toroidal plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ikuno, S.; Natori, M.; Kamitani, A.
1999-01-01
In the HIST device, the external flux is generated by two kinds of currents: the current I s flowing along the symmetry axis and the bias coil current I D . The influence of the external flux on the MHD equilibrium and stability of the low-aspect-ratio toroidal plasma in the HIST device is investigated numerically. Equilibrium configurations of the low-aspect-ratio toroidal plasma in the HIST device are numerically determined by means of the combination of FDM and BEM. The influence of I s and I D on their stability is also investigated by using the Mercier criterion. The results of computations show that the Mercier limit decreases to zero with increasing I s and with decreasing I D . Moreover, either a further increase in I s or a further decrease in I D raises the Mercier limit considerably. Besides, the equilibrium configuration in the HIST device changes its state from spheromak through ultra-low q to tokamak with increasing I s and with decreasing I D . (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Feng; Liu, J. Y. [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Fu, G. Y.; Breslau, J. A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Tritz, Kevin [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States)
2013-07-15
Plasmas in spherical and conventional tokamaks, with weakly reversed shear q profile and minimum q above but close to unity, are susceptible to an non-resonant (m,n) = (1,1) internal kink mode. This mode can saturate and persist and can induce a (2,1) seed island for Neoclassical Tearing Mode. [Breslau et al. Nucl. Fusion 51, 063027 (2011)]. The mode can also lead to large energetic particle transport and significant broadening of beam-driven current. Motivated by these important effects, we have carried out extensive nonlinear simulations of the mode with finite toroidal rotation using parameters and profiles of an NTSX plasma with a weakly reversed shear profile. The numerical results show that, at the experimental level, plasma rotation has little effect on either equilibrium or linear stability. However, rotation can significantly influence the nonlinear dynamics of the (1,1) mode and the induced (2,1) magnetic island. The simulation results show that a rotating helical equilibrium is formed and maintained in the nonlinear phase at finite plasma rotation. In contrast, for non-rotating cases, the nonlinear evolution exhibits dynamic oscillations between a quasi-2D state and a helical state. Furthermore, the effects of rotation are found to greatly suppress the (2,1) magnetic island even at a low level.
Theory and application of maximum magnetic energy in toroidal plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chu, T.K.
1992-02-01
The magnetic energy in an inductively driven steady-state toroidal plasma is a maximum for a given rate of dissipation of energy (Poynting flux). A purely resistive steady state of the piecewise force-free configuration, however, cannot exist, as the periodic removal of the excess poloidal flux and pressure, due to heating, ruptures the static equilibrium of the partitioning rational surfaces intermittently. The rupture necessitates a plasma with a negative q'/q (as in reverse field pinches and spheromaks) to have the same α in all its force-free regions and with a positive q'/q (as in tokamaks) to have centrally peaked α's
Formation of plasma and gaseous toroidal vortices in air
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yusupaliev, U.; Yusupaliev, P. U.; Shuteev, S. A.
2007-01-01
The mechanism for the formation of high-temperature (plasma) vortices and low-temperature vortex rings produced by ejecting pulsed subsonic plasma/gas jets into air was investigated experimentally. A toroidal vortex forms due to the interaction between a pulsed jet with the flow induced by this jet in the ambient medium. By analyzing the experimental data and conservation laws, an equation is derived that allows one to determine the initial propagation velocity of the vortex as a function of the characteristics of the vortex generator and the ambient medium. The results obtained by solving this equation agree well with the experimental data
Classical impurity ion confinement in a toroidal magnetized fusion plasma.
Kumar, S T A; Den Hartog, D J; Caspary, K J; Magee, R M; Mirnov, V V; Chapman, B E; Craig, D; Fiksel, G; Sarff, J S
2012-03-23
High-resolution measurements of impurity ion dynamics provide first-time evidence of classical ion confinement in a toroidal, magnetically confined plasma. The density profile evolution of fully stripped carbon is measured in MST reversed-field pinch plasmas with reduced magnetic turbulence to assess Coulomb-collisional transport without the neoclassical enhancement from particle drift effects. The impurity density profile evolves to a hollow shape, consistent with the temperature screening mechanism of classical transport. Corroborating methane pellet injection experiments expose the sensitivity of the impurity particle confinement time to the residual magnetic fluctuation amplitude.
Investigation on the Characteristics of Pellet Ablation in a Toroidal Plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sato, K.N.; Sakakita, H.; Fujita, H.
2003-01-01
Characteristics of a cloud ablated from an ice pellet has been investigated in detail in the JIPP T-IIU tokamak plasma by utilizing a new scheme of pellet injection system, 'the injection-angle controllable system'. A long 'helical tail' of ablation light has been observed using CCD cameras and a high speed framing photograph in the case of on-axis and off-axis injection with the injection angle smaller than a certain value. The direction of the helical tail is found to be independent to that of the total magnetic field lines of the torus. From the experiments with the combination of two toroidal filed directions and two plasma current directions, it is considered that the tail seems to rotate, in most cases, to the electron diamagnetic direction poloidally, and to the opposite to the plasma current direction toroidally. Consideration on various cross sections including charge exchange, ionization and elastic collisions leads us to the conclusion that the tail-shaped phenomena may come from the situation of charge exchange equilibrium of hydrogen ions and neutrals at extremely high density regime in the cloud. The relation of ablation behavior with plasma potential and rotation has also been studied. Potential measurements of pellet-injected plasmas using heavy ion beam probe (HIBP) method were carried out for the first time. In the case of an injection angle to be anti-parallel to the electron diamagnetic direction in the poloidal plane, the result shows that the direction of potential change is negative, and consequently the potential after the injection should be negative because it has been measured to be negative in usual ohmic plasmas without pellet injection. Thus, the direction of the 'tail' structure seems to be consistent to that of the plasma potential measured, if it is considered that tail structure may be caused by the effect of the plasma potential and the rotation
Curvature-induced electrostatic drift modes in a toroidal plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Venema, M.
1985-01-01
This thesis deals with a number of problems in the theory of linear stability of a hot, fully ionized plasma immersed in a strong magnetic field. The most widely used system to magnetically confine a plasma is the tokamak. This is a toroidal, current carrying device with a strong, externally imposed, magnetic field. The author discusses the linear theory of unstable, low-frequency waves in the gradient region, restricted to electrostatic waves. In that case the resulting radial fluxes of particles and energy are due to electric cross-field drifts. In the presence of magnetic fluctuations and small-scale reconnection phenomena, radial transport could also be predominantly along field lines. At present, it is not clear which of the two mechanisms is the dominant feature of the observed anomalous transport. First, the author introduces the theory of drift waves in toroidal geometry. Next, the electrostratic drift modes in toroidal geometry (weakly collisional regime), the equations for low-frequency waves in the strongly collisional regime and the electrostatic drift modes (strongly collisional regime) are discussed. (Auth.)
Observation of plasma rotation driven by static nonaxisymmetric magnetic fields in a tokamak.
Garofalo, A M; Burrell, K H; DeBoo, J C; deGrassie, J S; Jackson, G L; Lanctot, M; Reimerdes, H; Schaffer, M J; Solomon, W M; Strait, E J
2008-11-07
We present the first evidence for the existence of a neoclassical toroidal rotation driven in a direction counter to the plasma current by nonaxisymmetric, nonresonant magnetic fields. At high beta and with large injected neutral beam momentum, the nonresonant field torque slows down the plasma toward the neoclassical "offset" rotation rate. With small injected neutral beam momentum, the toroidal rotation is accelerated toward the offset rotation, with resulting improvement in the global energy confinement time. The observed magnitude, direction, and radial profile of the offset rotation are consistent with neoclassical theory predictions.
Lyapunov stability analysis of magnetohydrodynamic plasma equilibria with axisymmetric toroidal flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Almaguer, J.A.; Hameiri, E.; Herrera, J.; Holm, D.D.
1988-01-01
Lyapunov stability conditions for ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) plasmas with mass flow in axisymmetric toroidal geometry are determined in the Eulerian representation. Axisymmetric equilibrium solutions of ideal MHD are associated to critical points of a nonlinearly conserved Lyapunov functional consisting of the sum of the total energy and the following flux-weighted quantities: the circulation along field lines, the angular momentum, the toroidal flux, and the mass content within each flux tube. Conditions sufficient for Lyapunov stability of these equilibria against axisymmetric perturbations are found by taking advantage of the Hamiltonian formalism for ideal MHD. In particular [see Eq. (60)], it is sufficient for Lyapunov stability under linearized dynamics that an axisymmetric equilibrium be subsonic in the appropriate rotating frame, lie in the first elliptic regime of the Bernoulli--Grad--Shafranov (BGS) system of equations, and satisfy one additional, more complicated, condition. Effects of boundary conditions, nonlinearity, and three-dimensionality on MHD stability are also discussed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1974-11-01
The lectures of a Varenna Summer School about the theme Instabilities and Confinement in toroidal Plasmas are given. The topics included are: high-beta toroidal pinches, non-MHD instabilities and anomalous transport, analogy between turbulent transfer in velocity space and plasma collisioned transport in real space, the magnetohydrodynamic approach of plasma confinement in closed magnetic configurations, properties of isodynamical equilibrium configurations and their generalization, transport theory for toroidal plasmas, plasma physics, low-β toroidal machines, the neoclassical theory of transit time magnetic pumping, radio frequency heating of toroidal plasmas, plasma heating at lower hybrid frequency, RF-plasma heating with L-structures, numerical simulation, dynamical stabilization of low frequency waves in inhomogeneous plasmas, dynamic and feedback stabilization of plasmas and problems with nuclear fusion reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Camenen, Y.; Peeters, A. G.; Casson, F. J.; Hornsby, W. A.; Snodin, A. P.; Szepesi, G.; Bortolon, A.; Duval, B. P.; Federspiel, L.; Karpushov, A. N.; Piras, F.; Sauter, O.
2010-01-01
The first experimental evidence of parallel momentum transport generated by the up-down asymmetry of a toroidal plasma is reported. The experiments, conducted in the Tokamak a Configuration Variable, were motivated by the recent theoretical discovery of ion-scale turbulent momentum transport induced by an up-down asymmetry in the magnetic equilibrium. The toroidal rotation gradient is observed to depend on the asymmetry in the outer part of the plasma leading to a variation of the central rotation by a factor of 1.5-2. The direction of the effect and its magnitude are in agreement with theoretical predictions for the eight possible combinations of plasma asymmetry, current, and magnetic field.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tobias, B.; Grierson, B. A.; Okabayashi, M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Chen, M.; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C.; Muscatello, C. M. [University of California at Davis, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Classen, I. G. J. [Dutch Institute for Fundamental Fusion Energy Research, DIFFER, Rhinjuizen (Netherlands); Fitzpatrick, R. [University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78705 (United States); Olofsson, K. E. J.; Paz-Soldan, C. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92121 (United States)
2016-05-15
The electromagnetic coupling of helical modes, even those having different toroidal mode numbers, modifies the distribution of toroidal angular momentum in tokamak discharges. This can have deleterious effects on other transport channels as well as on magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability and disruptivity. At low levels of externally injected momentum, the coupling of core-localized modes initiates a chain of events, whereby flattening of the core rotation profile inside successive rational surfaces leads to the onset of a large m/n = 2/1 tearing mode and locked-mode disruption. With increased torque from neutral beam injection, neoclassical tearing modes in the core may phase-lock to each other without locking to external fields or structures that are stationary in the laboratory frame. The dynamic processes observed in these cases are in general agreement with theory, and detailed diagnosis allows for momentum transport analysis to be performed, revealing a significant torque density that peaks near the 2/1 rational surface. However, as the coupled rational surfaces are brought closer together by reducing q{sub 95}, additional momentum transport in excess of that required to attain a phase-locked state is sometimes observed. Rather than maintaining zero differential rotation (as is predicted to be dynamically stable by single-fluid, resistive MHD theory), these discharges develop hollow toroidal plasma fluid rotation profiles with reversed plasma flow shear in the region between the m/n = 3/2 and 2/1 islands. The additional forces expressed in this state are not readily accounted for, and therefore, analysis of these data highlights the impact of mode coupling on torque balance and the challenges associated with predicting the rotation dynamics of a fusion reactor—a key issue for ITER.
Turbulence simulations of blob formation and radial propagation in toroidally magnetized plasmas
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Garcia, O.E.; Naulin, V.; Nielsen, A.H.
2006-01-01
the presence of long- range correlations in the particle density fluctuations. Finally, conditional statistics of the particle flux demonstrates the intermittency of the turbulent plasma transport and the quasi-periodic apparency of blob structures due to bursting in the global turbulence level....... of particles and heat, which is coupled to a scrape-off layer with linear damping terms for all dependent variables corresponding to transport along open magnetic field lines. The formation of blob structures is related to profile variations caused by bursting in the global turbulence level, which is due...... to a dynamical regulation by self- sustained differential rotation of the plasma layer. Radial propagation of the blob structures follows from a vertical charge polarization due to magnetic guiding centre drifts in the toroidally magnetized plasma. Statistical analysis of the particle density, radial electric...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sonnino, Giorgio, E-mail: gsonnino@ulb.ac.be [Department of Physics, Université Libre de Bruxelles (U.L.B.), Campus de la Plaine C.P. 231-Bvd du Triomphe, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Royal Military Academy (RMA), Laboratory for Plasma Physics, Avenue de la Renaissance, 30, 1000 Brussels (Belgium); Cardinali, Alessandro; Zonca, Fulvio [EURATOM-ENEA Fusion Association, Via E.Fermi 45, C.P. 65-00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Sonnino, Alberto [Université Catholique de Louvain (UCL), Ecole Polytechnique de Louvain (EPL), Rue Archimède, 1 bte L6.11.01, 1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Nardone, Pasquale [Department of Physics, Université Libre de Bruxelles (U.L.B.), Campus de la Plaine C.P. 231-Bvd du Triomphe, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Steinbrecher, György [EURATOM-MEdC Fusion Association, University of Craiova, Faculty of Exact Sciences, Str.A.I.Cuza Street 13, 200585 Craiova (Romania)
2014-03-15
Rotation of tokamak-plasmas, not at the mechanical equilibrium, is investigated using the Prigogine thermodynamic theorem. This theorem establishes that, for systems confined in rectangular boxes, the global motion of the system with barycentric velocity does not contribute to dissipation. This result, suitably applied to toroidally confined plasmas, suggests that the global barycentric rotations of the plasma, in the toroidal and poloidal directions, are pure reversible processes. In case of negligible viscosity and by supposing the validity of the balance equation for the internal forces, we show that the plasma, even not in the mechanical equilibrium, may freely rotate in the toroidal direction with an angular frequency, which may be higher than the neoclassical estimation. In addition, its toroidal rotation may cause the plasma to rotate globally in the poloidal direction at a speed faster than the expression found by the neoclassical theory. The eventual configuration is attained when the toroidal and poloidal angular frequencies reaches the values that minimize dissipation. The physical interpretation able to explain the reason why some layers of plasma may freely rotate in one direction while, at the same time, others may freely rotate in the opposite direction, is also provided. Invariance properties, herein studied, suggest that the dynamic phase equation might be of the second order in time. We then conclude that a deep and exhaustive study of the invariance properties of the dynamical and thermodynamic equations is the most correct and appropriate way for understanding the triggering mechanism leading to intrinsic plasma-rotation in toroidal magnetic configurations.
Sonnino, Giorgio; Cardinali, Alessandro; Sonnino, Alberto; Nardone, Pasquale; Steinbrecher, György; Zonca, Fulvio
2014-03-01
Rotation of tokamak-plasmas, not at the mechanical equilibrium, is investigated using the Prigogine thermodynamic theorem. This theorem establishes that, for systems confined in rectangular boxes, the global motion of the system with barycentric velocity does not contribute to dissipation. This result, suitably applied to toroidally confined plasmas, suggests that the global barycentric rotations of the plasma, in the toroidal and poloidal directions, are pure reversible processes. In case of negligible viscosity and by supposing the validity of the balance equation for the internal forces, we show that the plasma, even not in the mechanical equilibrium, may freely rotate in the toroidal direction with an angular frequency, which may be higher than the neoclassical estimation. In addition, its toroidal rotation may cause the plasma to rotate globally in the poloidal direction at a speed faster than the expression found by the neoclassical theory. The eventual configuration is attained when the toroidal and poloidal angular frequencies reaches the values that minimize dissipation. The physical interpretation able to explain the reason why some layers of plasma may freely rotate in one direction while, at the same time, others may freely rotate in the opposite direction, is also provided. Invariance properties, herein studied, suggest that the dynamic phase equation might be of the second order in time. We then conclude that a deep and exhaustive study of the invariance properties of the dynamical and thermodynamic equations is the most correct and appropriate way for understanding the triggering mechanism leading to intrinsic plasma-rotation in toroidal magnetic configurations.
Structural responses to plasma disruptions in toroidal shells
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tillack, M.S.; Kazimi, M.S.; Lidsky, L.M.
1985-01-01
The induced pressures, stresses and strains in unrestrained axisymmetric toroidal shells are studied to scope the behavior of tokamak first walls during plasma disruptions. The modeling includes a circuit analog representation of the shell to solve for induced currents and pressures, and a separate quasi-static 1-D finite element solution for the mechanical response. This work demonstrates that the stresses in tokamkak first walls due to plasma disruption may be large, but to first order will not cause failure in the bulk structure. However, stress concentrations at structural supports and discontinuities together with resonant effects can result in large enhancements of the stresses, which could contribute to plastic deformation or failure when added to the already large steady state thermal and pressure loading of the first wall
Interplay between intrinsic plasma rotation and magnetic island evolution in disruptive discharges
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ronchi, G.; Severo, J. H. F. [Universidade de São Paulo, Instituto de Física (Brazil); Salzedas, F. [Universidade do Porto, Faculdade de Engenharia (Portugal); Galvão, R. M. O., E-mail: rgalvao@if.usp.br; Sanada, E. K. [Universidade de São Paulo, Instituto de Física (Brazil)
2016-05-15
The behavior of the intrinsic toroidal rotation of the plasma column during the growth and eventual saturation of m/n = 2/1 magnetic islands, triggered by programmed density rise, has been carefully investigated in disruptive discharges in TCABR. The results show that, as the island starts to grow and rotate at a speed larger than that of the plasma column, the angular frequency of the intrinsic toroidal rotation increases and that of the island decreases, following the expectation of synchronization. As the island saturates at a large size, just before a major disruption, the angular speed of the intrinsic rotation decreases quite rapidly, even though the island keeps still rotating at a reduced speed. This decrease of the toroidal rotation is quite reproducible and can be considered as an indicative of disruption.
A dissipative model of plasma equilibrium in toroidal systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wobig, H.
1985-10-01
In order to describe a steady-state plasma equilibrium in tokamaks, stellarators or other non-axisymmetric configurations, the model of ideal MHD with isotropic plasma pressure is widely used. The ideal MHD - model of a toroidal plasma equilibrium requires the existence of closed magnetic surfaces. Several numerical codes have been developed in the past to solve the three-dimensional equilibrium problem, but so far no existence theorem for a solution has been proved. Another difficulty is the formation of magnetic islands and field line ergodisation, which can only be described in terms of ideal MHD if the plasma pressure is constant in the ergodic region. In order to describe the formation of magnetic islands and ergodisation of surfaces properly, additional dissipative terms have to be incorporated to allow decoupling of the plasma and magnetic field. In a collisional plasma viscosity and inelastic collisions introduce such dissipative processes. In the model used a friction term proportional to the velocity v vector of the plasma is included. Such a term originates from charge exchange interaction of the plasma with a nuetral background. With these modifications, the equilibrium problem reduces to a set of quasilinear elliptic equations for the pressure, the electric potential and the magnetic field. The paper deals with an existence theorem based on the Fixed - Point method of Schauder. It can be shown that a self-consistent and unique equilibrium exists if the friction term is large and the plasma pressure is sufficiently low. The essential role of the dissipative terms is to remove the singularities of the ideal MHD model on rational magnetic surfaces. The problem has a strong similarity to Benard cell convection, and consequently similar behaviour such as bifurcation and exchange of stability are expected. (orig./GG)
Kinetic extensions of magnetohydrodynamic models for axisymmetric toroidal plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheng, C.Z.
1989-04-01
A nonvariational kinetic-MHD stability code (NOVA-K) has been developed to integrate a set of non-Hermitian integro-differential eigenmode equations due to energetic particles for axisymmetric toroidal plasmas in a general flux coordinate system with an arbitrary Jacobian. The NOVA-K code employs the Galerkin method involving Fourier expansions in the generalized poloidal angle θ and generalized toroidal angle /zeta/ directions, and cubic-B spline finite elements in the radial /Psi/ direction. Extensive comparisons with the existing variational ideal MHD codes show that the ideal MHD version of the NOVA-K code converges faster and gives more accurate results. The NOVA-K code is employed to study the effects of energetic particles on MHD-type modes: the stabilization of ideal MHD internal kink modes and the excitation of ''fishbone'' internal kink modes; and the alpha particle destabilization of toroidicity-induced Alfven eigenmodes (TAE) via transit resonances. Analytical theories are also presented to help explain the NOVA-K results. For energetic trapped particles generated by neutral beam injection (NBI) or ion cyclotron resonant heating (ICRH), a stability window for the n = 1 internal kink mode in the hot particle beta space exists even in the absence of the core ion finite Larmor radius effect. On the other hand, the trapped alpha particles are found to have negligible effects on the stability of the n = 1 internal kink mode, but the circulating alpha particles can strongly destabilize TAE modes via inverse Landau damping associated with the spatial gradient of the alpha particle pressure. 60 refs., 24 figs., 1 tab
Shear-Alfven dynamics of toroidally confined plasmas. Part A
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hazeltine, R.D.; Meiss, J.D.
1984-08-01
Recent developments in the stability theory of toroidally confined plasmas are reviewed, with the intention of providing a picture comprehensible to non-specialists. The review considers a class of low-frequency, electromagnetic disturbances that seem especially pertinent to modern high-temperature confinement experiments. It is shown that such disturbances are best unified and understood through consideration of a single, exact fluid moment: the shear-Alfven law. Appropriate versions of this law and its corresponding closure relations are derived - essentially from first principles - and applied in a variety of mostly, but not exclusively, linear contexts. Among the specific topics considered are: flux coordinates (including Hamada coordinates), the Newcomb solubility condition. Shafranov geometry, magnetic island evolution, reduced MHD and its generalizations, drift-kinetic electron response, classical tearing, twisting, and kink instabilities, pressure-modified tearing instability (Δ-critical), collisionless and semi-collisional tearing modes, the ballooning representation in general geometry, ideal ballooning instability, Mercier criterion, near-axis expansions, the second stability region, and resistive and kinetic ballooning modes. The fundamental importance of toroidal topology and curvature is stressed
Investigation on the Characteristics of Pellet Ablation in a Toroidal Plasma
Sato, K. N.; Sakakita, H.; Fujita, H.
2003-06-01
Characteristics of a cloud ablated from an ice pellet has been investigated in detail in the JIPP T-IIU tokamak plasma by utilizing a new scheme of pellet injection system, "the injection-angle controllable system". A long "helical tail" of ablation light has been observed using CCD cameras and a high speed framing photograph in the case of on-axis and off-axis injection with the injection angle smaller than a certain value. The direction of the helical tail is found to be independent to that of the total magnetic field lines of the torus. From the experiments with the combination of two toroildal filed directions and two plasma current directions, it is considered that the tail seems to rotate, in most cases, to the electron diamagnetic direction poloidally, and to the opposite to the plasma current direction toroidally. Consideration on various cross sections including charge exchange, ionization and elastic collisions leads us to the conclusion that the tail-shaped phenomena may come from the situation of charge exchange equilibrium of hydrogen ions and neutrals at extremely high density regime in the cloud. The relation of ablation behavior with plasma potential and rotation has also been studied. Potential measurements of pellet-injected plasmas using heavy ion beam probe (HIBP) method were carried out for the first time. In the case of an injection angle to be anti-parallel to the electron diamagnetic direction in the poloidal plane, the result shows that the direction of potential change is negative, and consequently the potential after the injection should be negative because it has been measured to be negative in usual ohmic plasmas without pellet injection. Thus, the direction of the "tail" structure seems to be consistent to that of the plasma potential measured, if it is considered that tail structure may be caused by the effect of the plasma potential and the rotation.
Structure of parallel-velocity-shear-driven mode in toroidal plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dong, J.Q.; Xu, W.B.; Zhang, Y.Z.; Horton, W.
1998-01-01
It is shown that the Fourier-ballooning representation is appropriate for the study of short-wavelength drift-like perturbation in toroidal plasmas with a parallel velocity shear (PVS). The radial structure of the mode driven by a PVS is investigated in a torus. The Reynolds stress created by PVS turbulence, and proposed as one of the sources for a sheared poloidal plasma rotation, is analyzed. It is demonstrated that a finite ion temperature may strongly enhance the Reynolds stress creation ability from PVS-driven turbulence. The correlation of this observation with the requirement that ion heating power be higher than a threshold value for the formation of an internal transport barrier is discussed. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics
Abdoli-Arani, A.; Ramezani-Arani, R.
2012-11-01
The dielectric permittivity tensor elements of a rotating cold collisionless plasma spheroid in an external magnetic field with toroidal and axial components are obtained. The effects of inhomogeneity in the densities of charged particles and the initial toroidal velocity on the dielectric permittivity tensor and field equations are investigated. The field components in terms of their toroidal components are calculated and it is shown that the toroidal components of the electric and magnetic fields are coupled by two differential equations. The influence of thermal and collisional effects on the dielectric tensor and field equations in the rotating plasma spheroid are also investigated. In the limiting spherical case, the dielectric tensor of a stationary magnetized collisionless cold plasma sphere is presented.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takase, Haruhiko; Senda, Ikuo
1999-01-01
A Toroidally Symmetric Plasma Simulation (TSPS) code has been developed for investigating the position and shape control on tokamak plasmas. The analyses of three-dimensional eddy currents on the conducting components around the plasma and the two-dimensional magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) equilibrium are taken into account in this code. The code can analyze the plasma position and shape control during the minor disruption in which the deformation of plasma is not negligible. Using the ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) parameters, some examples of calculations are shown in this paper. (author)
Rotational discontinuities in anisotropic plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Omidi, N.
1992-01-01
The kinetic structure of rotational discontinuities (RDs) in anisotropic plasmas with T perpendicular /T parallel > 1 is investigated by using a one-dimensional electromagnetic hybrid code. To form the RD, a new approach is used where the plasma is injected from one boundary and reflected from the other, resulting in the generation of a traveling fast shock and an RD. Unlike the previously used methods, no a priori assumptions are made regarding the initial structure (i.e. width or sense of rotation) of the rotational discontinuity. The results show that across the RD both the magnetic field strength and direction, as well as the plasma density change. Given that such a change can also be associated with an intermediate shock, the Rankine-Hugoniot relations are used to confirm that the observed structures are indeed RDs. It is found that the thickness of RDs is a few ion inertial lengths and is independent of the rotation angle. Also, the preferred sense of rotation is in the electron sense; however, RDs with a rotation angle larger than 180 degree are found to be unstable, changing their rotation to a stable ion sense
Electrostatic instabilities and turbulence in a toroidal magnetized plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Poli, F. M.
2007-06-01
This Thesis aims at characterizing the linear properties of electrostatic drift instabilities arising in a toroidal plasma and the mechanisms leading to their development into turbulence. The experiments are performed on the TORoidal Plasma EXperiment (TORPEX) at CRPP-EPFL, Lausanne. The first part of the Thesis focuses on the identification of the nature of the instabilities observed in TORPEX, using a set of electrostatic probes, designed and built for this purpose. The global features of fluctuations, analyzed for different values of control parameters such as the magnetic field, the neutral gas pressure and the injected microwave power, are qualitatively similar in different experimental scenarios. The maximum of fluctuations is observed on the low field side, where the pressure gradient and the gradient of the magnetic field are co-linear, indicating that the curvature of the magnetic field lines has an important role in the destabilization of the waves. The power spectrum is dominated by electrostatic fluctuations with frequencies much lower than the ion cyclotron frequency. Taking advantage of the extended diagnostics coverage, the spectral properties of fluctuations are measured over the whole poloidal cross-section. Both drift and interchange instabilities develop and propagate on TORPEX, with the stability of both being affected by the curvature of the magnetic field. It is shown that modes of different nature are driven at separate locations over the plasma cross-section and that the wavenumber and frequency spectra, narrow at the location where the instabilities are generated, broaden during convection, suggesting an increase in the degree of turbulence. The transition from coherent to turbulent spectral features and the role of nonlinear coupling between modes in the development of turbulence are treated in the second part of this work. It is found that nonlinear mode-mode coupling is responsible for the redistribution of spectral energy from the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aiba, N.; Tokuda, S.; Oyama, N.; Ozeki, T.; Furukawa, M.
2009-01-01
Effects of a sheared toroidal rotation are investigated numerically on the stability of the MHD modes in the tokamak edge pedestal, which relate to the type-I edge-localized mode. A linear MHD stability code MINERVA is newly developed for solving the Frieman-Rotenberg equation that is the linear ideal MHD equation with flow. Numerical stability analyses with this code reveal that the sheared toroidal rotation destabilizes edge localized MHD modes for rotation frequencies which are experimentally achievable, though the ballooning mode stability changes little by rotation. This rotation effect on the edge MHD stability becomes stronger as the toroidal mode number of the unstable MHD mode increases when the stability analysis was performed for MHD modes with toroidal mode numbers smaller than 40. The toroidal mode number of the unstable MHD mode depends on the stabilization of the current-driven mode and the ballooning mode by increasing the safety factor. This dependence of the toroidal mode number of the unstable mode on the safety factor is considered to be the reason that the destabilization by toroidal rotation is stronger for smaller edge safety factors.
Effects of density asymmetries on heavy-impurity transport in a rotating tokamak-plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Romanelli, M.; Ottaviani, M.
1997-12-01
The transport equations of heavy trace-impurities in a Tokamak plasma with strong toroidal rotation have been studied analytically in the collisional regime. It is found that the poloidal asymmetry of the impurity-density, which occurs because of the rotation, brings about a large enhancement of the diffusivity and indeed of the pinch velocity above the conventional Pfirsh-Schlueter values. (author)
Flow shear stabilization of rotating plasmas due to the Coriolis effect
Haverkort, J. W.; de Blank, H. J.
2012-01-01
A radially decreasing toroidal rotation frequency can have a stabilizing effect on nonaxisymmetric magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities. We show that this is a consequence of the Coriolis effect that induces a restoring pressure gradient force when plasma is perturbed radially. In a rotating
Statistical properties of turbulence in a toroidal magnetized ECR plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yu Yi; Lu Ronghua; Wang Zhijiang; Wen Yizhi; Yu Changxuan; Wan Shude; Liu, Wandong
2008-01-01
The statistical analyses of fluctuation data measured by electrostatic-probe arrays clearly show that the self-organized criticality (SOC) avalanches are not the dominant behaviors in a toroidal ECR plasma in the SMT (Simple Magnetic Torus) mode of KT-5D device. The f -1 index region in the auto-correlation spectra of the floating potential V f and the ion saturation current I s , which is a fingerprint of a SOC system, ranges only in a narrow frequency band. By investigating the Hurst exponents at increasingly coarse grained time series, we find that at a time scale of τ>100 μs, there exists no or a very weak long-range correlation over two decades in τ. The difference between the PDFs of I s and V f clearly shows a more global nature of the latter. The transport flux induced by the turbulence suggests that the natural intermittency of turbulent transport maybe independent of the avalanche induced by near criticality. The drift instability is dominant in a SMT plasma generated by means of ECR discharges
MHD simulation study of compact toroid injection into magnetized plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suzuki, Yoshio; Kishimoto, Yasuaki
2000-01-01
To understand the fuelling process in a fusion device by a compact toroid (CT) plasmoid injection method, we have carried out MHD numerical simulations where a spheromak-like CT (SCT) is injected into a magnetized target plasma region. So far, we revealed that the penetration depth of the SCT plasma becomes shorter than that estimated from the conducting sphere (CS) model, because in the simulation the Lorentz force of the target magnetic field sequentially decelerates the injected SCT while in the CS model only the magnetic pressure force acts as the deceleration mechanism. In this study, we represent the new theoretical model where the injected SCT is decelerated by both the magnetic pressure force and the magnetic tension force (we call it the non-slipping sphere (NS) model) and investigate in detail the deceleration mechanism of the SCT by comparison with simulation results. As a result, it is found that the decrease of the SCT kinetic energy in the simulation coincides with that in the NS model more than in the CS model. It means that not only the magnetic pressure force but also the magnetic tension force acts as the deceleration mechanism of the SCT. Furthermore, it is revealed that magnetic reconnection between the SCT magnetic field and the target magnetic field plays a role to relax the SCT deceleration. (author)
External kinks in plasmas with helical boundary deformation and net toroidal current
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ardelea, A. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland). Centre de Recherche en Physique des Plasma (CRPP)
1997-11-01
The investigation of the global ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability of plasmas with helical boundary shape and nonvanishing toroidal plasma current constitutes the principal aim of this work. Global external modes with small values of m,n (typically n = 1,2,3 and m = n+1) are studied, where m and n are the poloidal and toroidal mode numbers, respectively. The first and main part of the work concentrates on fixed boundary equilibria generated by systematically varying parameters such as the type and the magnitude of the boundary deformation, the number of equilibrium field periods N{sub per}, the aspect ratio, the toroidal current density profile, {beta} and the pressure profile. Due to the periodicity of the equilibrium, couplings between Fourier perturbation components with different toroidal mode numbers n occur and lead to the apparition of families of modes. The study of a particular (m,n) mode has to take into account all (m{sub l}, n{sub l}) perturbation components with n{sub 1} belonging to the same family as n. The stability analysis is carried out in the parameter region where the inverse rotational transform (the safety factor in the traditional tokamak notation) q{<=}2.0 and {beta}{<=}2%. A particular property of the configurations investigated is that equilibrium Fourier components (m{sub e}, N{sub per}n{sub e}) which are involved in the couplings between the (m,n) mode studied and the (m{sub k},n{sub k}) perturbation components with m{sub k}>n{sub k}>n that exhibit resonances in the q>1 region are very small. As a consequence, the contributions of the (m,n)x(m{sub k},n{sub k}) couplings to the potential energy are very weak. It is shown that a helical boundary deformation can stabilize the n=1,2,3 external modes; if {delta} is a measure of the plasma boundary deformation, then windows of stability [{delta}{sub min}, {delta}{sub max}] may exist for a large variety of equilibrium parameters. (author) figs., tabs., 44 refs.
A rotating arc plasma invertor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reusch, M.F.; Jayaram, K.
1987-02-01
A device is described for the inversion of direct current to alternating current. The main feature is the use of a rotating plasma arc in crossed electric and magnetic fields as a switch. This device may provide an economic alternative to other inversion methods in some circumstances
Impurity transport in a collision-dominated rotating tokamak plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eriksson, G.; Liljegren, A.
1981-04-01
The flux of heavy impurities is an axisymmetric, toroidal plasma with all particles in the collision-dominated regime is considered. Plasma rotation and charge-exchange with neutrals are taken into account. A hydrodynamic model employing Braginskii's transport equations is used. The theorry is extended to higher collision freqencies as compared to previous treatments. It is found that the Pfirsch-Schlueter flux is significantly reduced as compared to the value given by Rutherford and that it is of the same order of magnitude, or less, than the classical flux in all regimes considered. It is also shown that the impurity flux can be influenced by charge-exchange with neutrals. (author)
Stabilization of external kink modes in a tokamak with rotating plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mikhailovskii, A.B.; Kuvshinov, B.N.
1995-01-01
An analytical theory of stabilization of external kink modes in a tokamak with rotating plasma is developed, which is of interest in connection with experiments on the DIII-D tokamak demonstrating such a stabilization. It is assumed that, in addition to the main poloidal harmonic, the mode includes one or more side-band poloidal harmonics with singular points lying inside the plasma. Near these singular points, plasma inertia and related toroidal effects, the compressible part of plasma pressure and longitudinal viscosity, are allowed for. These effects are described kinetically taking into account the toroidal trapping of the resonant ions, which is essential if the toroidal velocity is small compared to the ion thermal velocity. Thereby, the theory presented includes both ion Landau damping and its weakening due to toroidal trapping. Near the singular points high-beta effects, which result in the finiteness of the Mercier index s, are allowed for. It is shown that the influence of plasma rotation on the external kink modes is most significant in the case of s<0, i.e., when the development of the instability in a non-rotating plasma is most highly favored. In this case, the plasma rotation plays a stabilizing role, even when the ion Landau damping is neglected. The analysis presented also confirms the hypothesis of Bondeson and Ward on the stabilizing effect of ion Landau damping if this damping is not too small
Resistive wall mode stabilization in slowly rotating high beta plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Reimerdes, H [Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Garofalo, A M [Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Okabayashi, M [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543-0451 (United States); Strait, E J [General Atomics, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Betti, R [University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States); Chu, M S [General Atomics, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Hu, B [University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States); In, Y [FAR-TECH, Inc., San Diego, CA 92121 (United States); Jackson, G L [General Atomics, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); La Haye, R J [General Atomics, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Lanctot, M J [Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Liu, Y Q [Chalmers University of Technology, S-412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden); Navratil, G A [Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Solomon, W M [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543-0451 (United States); Takahashi, H [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543-0451 (United States); Groebner, R J [General Atomics, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States)
2007-12-15
DIII-D experiments show that the resistive wall mode (RWM) can remain stable in high {beta} scenarios despite a low net torque from nearly balanced neutral beam injection heating. The minimization of magnetic field asymmetries is essential for operation at the resulting low plasma rotation of less than 20 krad s{sup -1} (measured with charge exchange recombination spectroscopy using C VI emission) corresponding to less than 1% of the Alfven velocity or less than 10% of the ion thermal velocity. In the presence of n = 1 field asymmetries the rotation required for stability is significantly higher and depends on the torque input and momentum confinement, which suggests that a loss of torque-balance can lead to an effective rotation threshold above the linear RWM stability threshold. Without an externally applied field the measured rotation can be too low to neglect the diamagnetic rotation. A comparison of the instability onset in plasmas rotating with and against the direction of the plasma current indicates the importance of the toroidal flow driven by the radial electric field in the stabilization process. Observed rotation thresholds are compared with predictions for the semi-kinetic damping model, which generally underestimates the rotation required for stability. A more detailed modeling of kinetic damping including diamagnetic and precession drift frequencies can lead to stability without plasma rotation. However, even with corrected error fields and fast plasma rotation, plasma generated perturbations, such as edge localized modes, can nonlinearly destabilize the RWM. In these cases feedback control can increase the damping of the magnetic perturbation and is effective in extending the duration of high {beta} discharges.
Generation of stable mixed-compact-toroid rings by inducing plasma currents in strong E rings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jayakumar, R.; Taggart, D.P.; Parker, M.R.; Fleischmann, H.H.
1989-01-01
In the RECE-Christa device, hybrid-type compact toroid rings are generated by inducing large toroidal plasma currents I rho in strong electron rings using a thin induction coil positioned along the ring axis. Starting from field-reversal values δ ο = 50 - 120 percent of the original pure fast-electron ring, the induced plasma current I rho raises δ to a maximum value of up to 240 percent with I rho contributing more than 50 percent of the total ring current. Quite interestingly, the generated hybrid compact toroid configurations appear gross-stable during the full I rho pulse length (half-amplitude width about 100 μs)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Datlov, J.; Klima, R.; Kopecky, V.; Musil, J.; Zacek, F.
1977-01-01
An invention is described concerning high-frequency plasma heating and confinement in toroidal magnetic vessels. Microwave energy is applied to the plasma via one or more slowing-down structures exciting low phase velocity waves whose energy may be efficiently absorbed by plasma electrons. The wave momentum transfer results in a toroidal electrical current whose magnetic field together with an external magnetic field ensure plasma confinement. The low-frequency modulation of microwave energy may also be used for heating the ion plasma component. (J.U.)
Effects of orbit squeezing on neoclassical toroidal plasma viscosity in tokamaks
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Shaing, K.C.; Sabbagh, S.A.; Chu, M.S.; Bécoulet, M.; Cahyna, Pavel
2008-01-01
Roč. 15, č. 8 (2008), 082505-1-082505-8 ISSN 1070-664X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : plasma boundary layers * plasma instability * plasma magnetohydrodynamics * plasma toroidal confinement * plasma transport processes * Tokamak devices Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.427, year: 2008 http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.2965146
Development of coaxial rotating-plasma gun
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ikehata, Takashi; Tanabe, Toshio; Mase, Hiroshi
1985-01-01
A rotating-plasma gun has been devised to produce plasma streams with higher rotational velocities. The working mechanism of the gun and the results of a preliminary experiment have been described. (author)
Collisional boundary layer analysis for neoclassical toroidal plasma viscosity in tokamaks
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Shaing, K.C.; Cahyna, Pavel; Bécoulet, M.; Park, J.-K.; Sabbagh, S.A.; Chu, M.S.
2008-01-01
Roč. 15, č. 8 (2008), 082506-1-7 ISSN 1070-664X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : plasma boundary layers * plasma toroidal confinement * Tokamak devices Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.427, year: 2008 http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.2969434
Theory of the m=1 kink mode in toroidal plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blank, J.H. de.
1990-01-01
The work in this thesis addresses the stability problems arising in tokamak experiments. In part I of this thesis the internal m=1 kink instability in tokamak plasmas is considered within the confines of ideal magnetohydrodynamics (ideal MHD), in which model the pressure is considered to be isotropic, while state is assumed. Because irreversible processes are disregarded, there is an energy principle. By extremizing the energy associated with infinitesimal perturbations of the plasma, a normal mode is obtained. The m=n=1 mode is resonant at the q=1 surface, and therefore, equilibria with a broad region where q#approx = # 1 are expected to be particularly unstable. The m=1 instability is computed for these q profiles. In Part II of this thesis, the internal m=1 kink instability is considered in a stationary rotating tokamak plasma, in which the particle velocity distribution is allowed to be non-thermal. In a tokamak plasma that is intensely heated by neutron beams or radiofrequent waves, these features, which cannot be described with ideal MHD, may become important, especially in the cases with high m=1 growth rates found in Part I. The energy principle of a generalized fluid theory is applied in these cases, without specifying the equation of state of the plasma. Therefore the resulting energy functional for the m=1 mode is incomplete and not direct applicable, however, the result makes clear that a kinetic description of the plasma is required only to a first approximation, and can therefore be applied analytically. The guiding center approximation is applied, which neglects finite gyroradius effects and collisions. Application of the dispersion relation, that is obtained from kinetic theory, shows that compared to the ideal MHD case, growth rates are strongly reduced due to Landau damping while the stability boundaries are not changed. (author). 72 refs.; 11 figs
Effect of toroidal plasma flow and flow shear on global MHD modes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chu, M.S.; Greene, J.M.; Jensen, T.H.; Miller, R.L.; Bondeson, A.; Johnson, R.W.; Mauel, M.E.
1995-01-01
The effect of a subsonic toroidal flow on the linear magnetohydrodynamic stability of a tokamak plasma surrounded by an external resistive wall is studied. A complex non-self-adjoint eigenvalue problem for the stability of general kink and tearing modes is formulated, solved numerically, and applied to high β tokamaks. Results indicate that toroidal plasma flow, in conjunction with dissipation in the plasma, can open a window of stability for the position of the external wall. In this window, stable plasma beta values can significantly exceed those predicted by the Troyon scaling law with no wall. Computations utilizing experimental data indicate good agreement with observations
Electron current generated in a toroidal plasma on injection of high-energy neutrals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kolesnichenko, Ya.I.; Reznik, S.N.
1981-01-01
Problem of generation of electron current in toroidal plasma with a high-energy ion beam produced during neutral injection has been considered. The analysis was performed on the assumption that plasma is in the regime of rare collisions (banana regime) and ion beam velocity is considerably lower than thermal velocity of plasma ions. Formulae establishing the relation between beam current and electron current have been derived. It follows from them that toroidal affect considerably plasma current generated with the beam and under certain conditions result in changing this current direction in an area remoted from magne-- tic axis [ru
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McGann, M.; Hudson, S.R.; Dewar, R.L.; Nessi, G. von
2010-01-01
The vanishing of the divergence of the total stress tensor (magnetic plus kinetic) in a neighborhood of an equilibrium plasma containing a toroidal surface of discontinuity gives boundary and jump conditions that strongly constrain allowable continuations of the magnetic field across the surface. The boundary conditions allow the magnetic fields on either side of the discontinuity surface to be described by surface magnetic potentials, reducing the continuation problem to that of solving a Hamilton-Jacobi equation. The characteristics of this equation obey Hamiltonian equations of motion, and a necessary condition for the existence of a continued field across a general toroidal surface is that there exist invariant tori in the phase space of this Hamiltonian system. It is argued from the Birkhoff theorem that existence of such an invariant torus is also, in general, sufficient for continuation to be possible. An important corollary is that the rotational transform of the continued field on a surface of discontinuity must, generically, be irrational.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rapisarda, D.; Zurro, B.; Baciero, A.
2006-07-01
First absolute toroidal rotation measurements in the TJ-II stellarator, by using passive emission spectroscopy, are presented. The wavelength calibration is performed by using a spectral system which combines the spectra coming from the plasma and from a lamp in real time. Measurements have been made both for protons and some impurity ions (C4+, He+), in discharges created by electron cyclotron resonance heating, and in discharges with neutral beam injection heating. In addition, a description of the systems as well as the calibration procedures an data analysis is addressed. (Author) 10 refs.
Plasma rotation in coaxial discharges
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Masoud, M.M.; Soliman, H.M.; Elkhalafawy, T.A.
1985-01-01
Plasma rotation has been observed near the breech of the coaxial electrodes, which propagates inside the coaxial gun and moreover this has been detected in the expansion chamber. Azimuthal component of plasma current has been detected. The measuring of the axial magnetic field distribution in time along the expansion chamber-axis shows a single maximum peak for all position. Azimuthal component of electric field exists along the axis of the expansion chamber and results for two angular positions (0 0 , 180 0 ) at r 2.5 cm has been presented. Thus it is obvious that the whole plasma bulk moves in a screw configuration before and after the focus position. 9 fig
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gilman, Peter A., E-mail: gilman@ucar.edu [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, 3080 Center Green, Boulder, CO 80307-3000 (United States)
2017-06-20
We present results from an MHD model for baroclinic instability in the solar tachocline that includes rotation, effective gravity, and toroidal field that vary continuously with height. We solve the perturbation equations using a shooting method. Without toroidal fields but with an effective gravity declining linearly from a maximum at the bottom to much smaller values at the top, we find instability at all latitudes except at the poles, at the equator, and where the vertical rotation gradient vanishes (32.°3) for longitude wavenumbers m from 1 to >10. High latitudes are much more unstable than low latitudes, but both have e -folding times that are much shorter than a sunspot cycle. The higher the m and the steeper the decline in effective gravity, the closer the unstable mode peak to the top boundary, where the energy available to drive instability is greatest. The effect of the toroidal field is always stabilizing, shrinking the latitude ranges of instability as the toroidal field is increased. The larger the toroidal field, the smaller the longitudinal wavenumber of the most unstable disturbance. All latitudes become stable for a toroidal field exceeding about 4 kG. The results imply that baroclinic instability should occur in the tachocline at latitudes where the toroidal field is weak or is changing sign, but not where the field is strong.
Reduced, three-dimensional, nonlinear equations for high-β plasmas including toroidal effects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schmalz, R.
1980-11-01
The resistive MHD equations for toroidal plasma configurations are reduced by expanding to the second order in epsilon, the inverse aspect ratio, allowing for high β = μsub(o)p/B 2 of order epsilon. The result is a closed system of nonlinear, three-dimensional equations where the fast magnetohydrodynamic time scale is eliminated. In particular, the equation for the toroidal velocity remains decoupled. (orig.)
Inward transport of a toroidally confined plasma subject to strong radial electric fields
Roth, J. R.; Krawczonek, W. M.; Powers, E. J.; Hong, J.; Kim, Y.
1977-01-01
The paper aims at showing that the density and confinement time of a toroidal plasma can be enhanced by radial electric fields far stronger than the ambipolar values, and that, if such electric fields point into the plasma, radially inward transport can result. The investigation deals with low-frequency fluctuation-induced transport using digitally implemented spectral analysis techniques and with the role of strong applied radial electric fields and weak vertical magnetic fields on plasma density and particle confinement times in a Bumpy Torus geometry. Results indicate that application of sufficiently strong radially inward electric fields results in radially inward fluctuation-induced transport into the toroidal electrostatic potential well; this inward transport gives rise to higher average electron densities and longer particle confinement times in the toroidal plasma.
The role of fluctuation-induced transport in a toroidal plasma with strong radial electric fields
Roth, J. R.; Krawczonek, W. M.; Powers, E. J.; Hong, J. Y.; Kim, Y. C.
1981-01-01
Previous work employing digitally implemented spectral analysis techniques is extended to demonstrate that radial fluctuation-induced transport is the dominant ion transport mechanism in an electric field dominated toroidal plasma. Such transport can be made to occur against a density gradient, and hence may have a very beneficial effect on confinement in toroidal plasmas of fusion interest. It is shown that Bohm or classical diffusion down a density gradient, the collisional Pedersen-current mechanism, and the collisionless electric field gradient mechanism described by Cole (1976) all played a minor role, if any, in the radial transport of this plasma.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakajima, Noriyoshi; Okamoto, Masao.
1992-05-01
Effects of external momentum sources, i.e., fast ions produced by the neutral beam injection and an external inductive electric field, on the neoclassical ion parallel flow, current, and rotation are analytically investigated for a simple plasma in general toroidal systems. It is shown that the contribution of the external sources to the ion parallel flow becomes large as the collision frequency of thermal ions increases because of the momentum conservation of Coulomb collisions and sharply decreasing viscosity coefficients, with collision frequency. As a result, the beam-driven parallel flow of thermal ions becomes comparable to that of electrons in the Pfirsh-Schluter collisionality regime, whereas in the 1/μ or banana regime it is smaller than that of electrons by the order of √(m e /m i ) (m e and m i are electron and ion masses). This beam-driven ion parallel flow can not produce a large beam-driven current because of the cancellation with electron parallel flow, but produces a large toroidal rotation of ions. As both electrons and ions approach the Pfirsh-Schluter collisionality regime the contribution of thermodynamical forces becomes negligibly small and the large toroidal rotation of ions is predominated by the beam-driven component in the non-axisymmetric configuration with large helical ripples. (author)
Measurement of Resistive Wall Mode stability in rotating high beta plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reimerdes, H.; Bialek, J.; Garofalo, A.M.; Navratil, G.A.; Chance, M.S.; Menard, J.E.; Okabayashi, M.; Takahashi, H.; Chu, M.S.; Gohil, P.; Jackson, G.L.; Jensen, T.H.; La Haye, R.J.; Scoville, J.T.; Strait, E.J.; Jayakumar, R.J.; Liu, Y.Q.
2005-01-01
Toroidal plasma rotation in the order of a few percent of the Alfven velocity can stabilize the resistive wall mode and extend the operating regime of tokamaks from the conventional, ideal MHD no-wall limit up to the ideal MHD ideal wall limit. The stabilizing effect has been measured passively by measuring the critical plasma rotation required for stability and actively by probing the plasma with externally applied resonant magnetic fields. These measurements are compared to predictions of rotational stabilization of the sound wave damping and of the kinetic damping model using the MARS code. (author)
Equilibrium and stability of a toroidal-sector plasma discharge in an EXTRAP configuration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Drake, J.R.
1982-02-01
Experimental studies of the equilibrium and stability of a sector of a toroidal EXTRAP plasma discharge have been studied. The high β plasma discharge, which had an Alfven transit time about 0.5 μsec, could be positioned in a stable equilibrium for the 300μsec time scale of the experiment. (author)
2D full wave simulation on electromagnetic wave propagation in toroidal plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hojo, Hitoshi; Uruta, Go; Nakayama, Kazunori; Mase, Atsushi
2002-01-01
Global full-wave simulation on electromagnetic wave propagation in toroidal plasma with an external magnetic field imaging a tokamak configuration is performed in two dimensions. The temporal behavior of an electromagnetic wave launched into plasma from a wave-guiding region is obtained. (author)
Flow shear stabilization of rotating plasmas due to the Coriolis effect
J.W. Haverkort (Willem); H.J. de Blank
2012-01-01
htmlabstractA radially decreasing toroidal rotation frequency can have a stabilizing effect on nonaxisymmetric magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities. We show that this is a consequence of the Coriolis effect that induces a restoring pressure gradient force when plasma is perturbed radially. In a
Isotope separation by rotating plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nicoli, C.
1982-02-01
A steady-state model of a fully ionized plasma column in a concentric cylindrical electrodes structures is proposed to study the plasma separation properties of its singly ionized ionic species, composed of two isotopes of the element. In this model (a one-fluid model) rotation is imparted to the plasma column through the J (vector) x B (vector) interaction. Radial pressure balance is mainly between the radial component of the J (vector) x B (vector) force and the pressure gradient plus centrifugal force and the azimutal component of the J (vector) x B (vector) force is balanced purely by viscous force. A pressure tensor 31 describes the viscoys effect and the heat balance provides an equation for temperature. A uranium gas with is two main isotopes (U 235 and U 238 ) was used for the ionic component of the plasma. The computing code to solve the resulting, system of equations in tems of density, temperature, and velocity as functions of the radial independent variable was set up to yield solutions satisfying null velocity conditions on both boundaries (inner and outer electrodes). (M.A.F.) [pt
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
ArchMiller, M. C.; Cianciosa, M. R.; Ennis, D. A.; Hanson, J. D.; Hartwell, G. J.; Hebert, J. D.; Herfindal, J. L.; Knowlton, S. F.; Ma, X.; Maurer, D. A.; Pandya, M. D.; Traverso, P.
2014-01-01
The passive stability of vertically elongated current-carrying toroidal plasmas has been investigated in the Compact Toroidal Hybrid, a stellarator/tokamak hybrid device. In this experiment, the fractional transform f, defined as the ratio of the imposed external rotational transform from stellarator coils to the total rotational transform, was varied from 0.04 to 0.50, and the elongation κ was varied from 1.4 to 2.2. Plasmas that were vertically unstable were evidenced by motion of the plasma in the vertical direction. Vertical drifts are measured with a set of poloidal field pickup coils. A three chord horizontally viewing interferometer and a soft X-ray diode array confirmed the drifts. Plasmas with low fractional transform and high elongation are the most susceptible to vertical instability, consistent with analytic predictions that the vertical mode in elongated plasmas can be stabilized by the poloidal field of a relatively weak stellarator equilibrium
Air core poloidal magnetic field system for a toroidal plasma producing device
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Marcus, F.B.
1978-01-01
A poloidal magnetics system for a plasma producing device of toroidal configuration is provided that reduces both the total volt-seconds requirement and the magnitude of the field change at the toroidal field coils. The system utilizes an air core transformer wound between the toroidal field (TF) coils and the major axis outside the TF coils. Electric current in the primary windings of this transformer is distributed and the magnetic flux returned by air core windings wrapped outside the toroidal field coils. A shield winding that is closely coupled to the plasma carries a current equal and opposite to the plasma current. This winding provides the shielding function and in addition serves in a fashion similar to a driven conducting shell to provide the equilibrium vertical field for the plasma. The shield winding is in series with a power supply and a decoupling coil located outside the TF coil at the primary winding locations. The present invention requires much less energy than the usual air core transformer and is capable of substantially shielding the toroidal field coils from poloidal field flux
System and method for generating steady state confining current for a toroidal plasma fusion reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fisch, N.J.
1981-01-01
A system for generating steady state confining current for a toroidal plasma fusion reactor providing steady-state generation of the thermonuclear power. A dense, hot toroidal plasma is initially prepared with a confining magnetic field with toroidal and poloidal components. Continuous wave rf energy is injected into said plasma to establish a spectrum of traveling waves in the plasma, where the traveling waves have momentum components substantially either all parallel, or all anti-parallel to the confining magnetic field. The injected rf energy is phased to couple to said traveling waves with both a phase velocity component and a wave momentum component in the direction of the plasma traveling wave components. The injected rf energy has a predetermined spectrum selected so that said traveling waves couple to plasma electrons having velocities in a predetermined range delta . The velocities in the range are substantially greater than the thermal electron velocity of the plasma. In addition, the range is sufficiently broad to produce a raised plateau having width delta in the plasma electron velocity distribution so that the plateau electrons provide steady-state current to generate a poloidal magnetic field component sufficient for confining the plasma. In steady state operation of the fusion reactor, the fusion power density in the plasma exceeds the power dissipated in the plasma
System and method for generating steady state confining current for a toroidal plasma fusion reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bers, A.
1981-01-01
A system for generating steady state confining current for a toroidal plasma fusion reactor providing steady-state generation of the thermonuclear power. A dense, hot toroidal plasma is initially prepared with a confining magnetic field with toroidal and poloidal components. Continuous wave rf energy is injected into said plasma to estalish a spectrum of traveling waves in the plasma, where the traveling waves have momentum components substantially either all parallel, or all anti-parallel to the confining magnetic field. The injected rf energy is phased to couple to said traveling waves with both a phase velocity component and a wave momentum component in the direction of the plasma traveling wave components. The injected rf energy has a predetermined spectrum selected so that said traveling waves couple to plasma electrons having velocities in a predetermined range delta . The velocities in the range are substantially greater than the thermal electron velocity of the plasma. In addition, the range is sufficiently broad to produce a raised plateau having width delta in the plasma electron velocity distribution so that the plateau electrons provide steady-state current to generate a poloidal magnetic field component sufficient for confining the plasma. In steady state operation of the fusion reactor, the fusion power density in the plasma exceeds the power dissipated inthe plasma
Anomalous Ion Heating, Intrinsic and Induced Rotation in the Pegasus Toroidal Experiment
Burke, M. G.; Barr, J. L.; Bongard, M. W.; Fonck, R. J.; Hinson, E. T.; Perry, J. M.; Redd, A. J.; Thome, K. E.
2014-10-01
Pegasus plasmas are initiated through either standard, MHD stable, inductive current drive or non-solenoidal local helicity injection (LHI) current drive with strong reconnection activity, providing a rich environment to study ion dynamics. During LHI discharges, a large amount of anomalous impurity ion heating has been observed, with Ti ~ 800 eV but Te < 100 eV. The ion heating is hypothesized to be a result of large-scale magnetic reconnection activity, as the amount of heating scales with increasing fluctuation amplitude of the dominant, edge localized, n = 1 MHD mode. Chordal Ti spatial profiles indicate centrally peaked temperatures, suggesting a region of good confinement near the plasma core surrounded by a stochastic region. LHI plasmas are observed to rotate, perhaps due to an inward radial current generated by the stochastization of the plasma edge by the injected current streams. H-mode plasmas are initiated using a combination of high-field side fueling and Ohmic current drive. This regime shows a significant increase in rotation shear compared to L-mode plasmas. In addition, these plasmas have been observed to rotate in the counter-Ip direction without any external momentum sources. The intrinsic rotation direction is consistent with predictions from the saturated Ohmic confinement regime. Work supported by US DOE Grant DE-FG02-96ER54375.
Hydrogen transport in a toroidal plasma using multigroup discrete-ordinates methodology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wienke, B.R.; Miller, W.F. Jr.; Seed, T.J.
1979-01-01
Neutral hydrogen transport in a fully ionized two-dimensional tokamak plasma was examined using discrete ordinates and contrasted with earlier analyses. In particular, curvature effects induced by toroidal geometries and ray effects caused by possible source localization were investigated. From an overview of the multigroup discrete-ordinates approximation, methodology in two-dimensional cylindrical geometry is detailed, mesh and plasma zoning procedures are sketched, and the piecewise polynomial solution algorithm on a triangular domain is obtained. Toroidal effects and comparisons as related to reaction rates and perticle spectra are examined for various model and source configurations
Improved plasma confinement by modulated toroidal current on HT-7 superconducting tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mao Jianshan; Zhao Junyu; Shen Biao; Luo Jiarong
2004-01-01
The improved confinement phase was observed during modulating toroidal current on the Hefei superconducting Tokamak-7 (HT-7). This improved plasma confinement phase is characterized by suppressing magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities effectively, thus increased the central line averaged electron density and the central electron temperature about 33%, out-put steeper density profiles, and reduced hydrogen radiation from the edge as well. The global energy confinement time was increased by 27%-45%; The impurity radiation was reduced by modulation of plasma toroidal current; particle confinement time was increased about two times; a stronger radial negative electric field formed inside the limiter. The radial electric field during modulating current was calculated and disscused. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mazzucato, E.
2000-01-01
The next step in the demonstration of the scientific feasibility of a tokamak fusion reactor is a DT burning plasma experiment for the study and control of self-heated plasmas. In this paper, the authors examine the role of the toroidal magnetic field on the confinement of a tokamak plasma in the ELMy H-mode regime--the operational regime foreseen for ITER
Eigenvalues of relaxed toroidal plasmas of arbitrary sharp edged cross sections. Vol. 2
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Khalil, Sh M [Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion Department, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo, (Egypt)
1996-03-01
Relaxed (force-free) toroidal plasmas described by the equations cur 1 B={mu}B, and grad {mu}=O (B is the magnetic field) induces interest in nuclear fusion. Its solution is perceived to describe the gross of the reversed field pinch (RFP), spheromak configuration, current limitation in toroidal plasmas, and others. The parameter {mu} plays an important roll in relaxed states. It cannot exceed the smallest eigenvalue {mu} (min), and that for a toroidal discharge there is a maximum toroidal current which is connected to this value. The values of{mu} were calculated numerically, using the methods of collocation points, for toroids of arbitrary aspect ratio {alpha} ({alpha} = R/a, ratio of major/minor radii of tokamak) and arbitrary curved cross-sections (circle, ellipse, cassini, and D-shaped). The aim of present work is to prove the applicability of the numerical methods for calculating the eigenvalues for toroidal plasmas having sharp edged cross sections and arbitrary aspect ratio. The lowest eigenvalue {mu} (min), satisfy the boundary condition {beta} .n = O (or RB. = O) for which the toroidal flux are calculated. These are the zero field eigenvalues of the equation cur 1 b={mu}B. The poloidal magnetic field lines corresponding to different cross sections are shown by plotting the boundary condition B.n=O. The plots showed good fulfillment of the boundary condition along the whole boundaries of different cross sections. Dependence of eigenvalues {mu}a on aspect ratio {alpha} is also obtained. Several runs of the programme with various wave numbers K showed that {mu}a is very insensitive to the choice of K. 8 figs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ito, A.; Nakajima, N.
2010-11-01
Effects of flow, finite ion temperature and pressure anisotropy on equilibrium and stability of a high-beta toroidal plasma are studied in the framework of reduced magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). A set of reduced equilibrium equations for high-beta tokamaks with toroidal and poloidal flow comparable to the poloidal sound velocity is derived in a unified form of single-fluid and Hall MHD models and a two-fluid MHD model with ion finite Larmor radius (FLR) terms. Pressure anisotropy is introduced with equations for the parallel heat flux which are closed by a fluid closure model. It is solved analytically for the single-fluid model and the solutions shows complicated characteristics in the region around the poloidal sound velocity due to pressure anisotropy and the parallel heat flux. Numerical solutions are found by using the finite element method for the two-fluid model with FLR effects in the case of isotropic, adiabatic pressure and indicate the following features of two-fluid equilibria: the isosurfaces of the magnetic flux, the pressure and the ion stream function do not coincide with each other, and the solutions depend on the sign of the radial electric field. Reduced single-fluid MHD equations with time evolution that are consistent with the above equilibria are also derived in order to study their stability. They conserve the energy up to the order required by the equilibria. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lazzaro, Enzo
2009-01-01
Established results of neoclassical kinetic theory are used in a fluid model to show that in low collisionality regimes (ν and 1/ν) the propagation velocity of Neoclassical Tearing Modes (NTM) magnetic islands of sufficient width is determined self-consistently by the Neoclassical Toroidal Viscosity (NTV) appearing because of broken symmetry. The NTV effect on bulk plasma rotation, may also explain recent observations on momentum transport. At the same time this affects the role of the neoclassical ion polarization current on neoclassical tearing modes (NTM) stability.
Turbulence induced radial transport of toroidal momentum in boundary plasma of EAST tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhao, N.; Yan, N.; Xu, G. S.; Wang, H. Q.; Wang, L.; Ding, S. Y.; Chen, R.; Chen, L.; Zhang, W.; Hu, G. H.; Shao, L. M.; Wang, Z. X.
2016-01-01
Turbulence induced toroidal momentum transport in boundary plasma is investigated in H-mode discharge using Langmuir-Mach probes on EAST. The Reynolds stress is found to drive an inward toroidal momentum transport, while the outflow of particles convects the toroidal momentum outwards in the edge plasma. The Reynolds stress driven momentum transport dominates over the passive momentum transport carried by particle flux, which potentially provides a momentum source for the edge plasma. The outflow of particles delivers a momentum flux into the scrape-off layer (SOL) region, contributing as a momentum source for the SOL flows. At the L-H transitions, the outward momentum transport suddenly decreases due to the suppression of edge turbulence and associated particle transport. The SOL flows start to decelerate as plasma entering into H-mode. The contributions from turbulent Reynolds stress and particle transport for the toroidal momentum transport are identified. These results shed lights on the understanding of edge plasma accelerating at L-H transitions.
About the Toroidal Magnetic Field of a Tokamak Burning Plasma Experiment with Superconducting Coils
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mazzucato, E.
2002-01-01
In tokamaks, the strong dependence on the toroidal magnetic field of both plasma pressure and energy confinement is what makes possible the construction of small and relatively inexpensive burning plasma experiments using high-field resistive coils. On the other hand, the toroidal magnetic field of tokamaks using superconducting coils is limited by the critical field of superconductivity. In this article, we examine the relative merit of raising the magnetic field of a tokamak plasma by increasing its aspect ratio at a constant value of the peak field in the toroidal magnet. Taking ITER-FEAT as an example, we find that it is possible to reach thermonuclear ignition using an aspect ratio of approximately 4.5 and a toroidal magnetic field of 7.3 T. Under these conditions, fusion power density and neutron wall loading are the same as in ITER [International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor], but the normalized plasma beta is substantially smaller. Furthermore, such a tokamak would be able to reach an energy gain of approximately 15 even with the deterioration in plasma confinement that is known to occur near the density limit where ITER is forced to operate
Toroidal confinement of non-neutral plasma - A new approach to high-beta equilibrium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoshida, Z.; Ogawa, Y.; Morikawa, J.
2001-01-01
Departure from the quasi-neutral condition allows us to apply significant two-fluid effects that impart a new freedom to the design of high-performance fusion plasma. The self-electric field in a non-neutralized plasma induces a strong ExB-drift flow. A fast flow produces a large hydrodynamic pressure that can balance with the thermal pressure of the plasma. Basic concepts to produce a toroidal non-neutral plasma have been examined on the internal-conductor toroidal confinement device Proto-RT. A magnetic separatrix determines the boundary of the confinement region. Electrons describe chaotic orbits in the neighborhood of the magnetic null point on the separatrix. The chaos yields collisionless diffusion of electrons from the particle source (electron gun) towards the confinement region. Collisionless heating also occurs in the magnetic null region, which can be applied to produce a plasma. (author)
Pandya, M. D.; Ennis, D. A.; Hartwell, G. J.; Maurer, D. A.
2015-11-01
Low edge safety factor operation at a value less than two (q (a) = 1 /ttot (a) routine on the Compact Toroidal Hybrid device. Presently, the operational space of this current carrying stellarator extends down to q (a) = 1 . 2 without significant n = 1 kink mode activity after the initial plasma current rise of the discharge. The disruption dynamics of these low q (a) plasmas depend upon the fraction of rotational transform produced by external stellarator coils to that generated by the plasma current. We observe that when about 10% of the total rotational transform is supplied by the stellarator coils, low q (a) disruptions are passively suppressed and avoided even though q (a) disrupt, the instability precursors measured and implicated as the cause are internal tearing modes with poloidal, m, and toroidal, n, mode numbers of m / n = 3 / 2 and 4 / 3 observed by external magnetic sensors, and m / n = 1 / 1 activity observed by core soft x-ray emissivity measurements. Even though q (a) passes through and becomes much less than two, external n = 1 kink mode activity does not appear to play a significant role in the observed disruption phenomenology. This work is supported by US Department of Energy Grant No. DE-FG02-00ER54610.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stacey, W. M. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Bae, C. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejoen (Korea, Republic of)
2015-06-15
A systematic formalism for the calculation of rotation in non-axisymmetric tokamaks with 3D magnetic fields is described. The Braginskii Ωτ-ordered viscous stress tensor formalism, generalized to accommodate non-axisymmetric 3D magnetic fields in general toroidal flux surface geometry, and the resulting fluid moment equations provide a systematic formalism for the calculation of toroidal and poloidal rotation and radial ion flow in tokamaks in the presence of various non-axisymmetric “neoclassical toroidal viscosity” mechanisms. The relation among rotation velocities, radial ion particle flux, ion orbit loss, and radial electric field is discussed, and the possibility of controlling these quantities by producing externally controllable toroidal and/or poloidal currents in the edge plasma for this purpose is suggested for future investigation.
Equilibrium and stability of a rotating plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Janssen, P.A.E.M.
1979-01-01
The author considers the equilibrium and stability of a rotating plasma. The kinetic equations for ions and electrons supplemented with the Maxwell equations and the appropriate boundary conditions are used. Two different models for the rotating plasma are considered: the equilibrium of a 'fast' rotating plasma (Magneto Hydrodynamic ordering) and the stability of a slowly rotating, 'weakly' unstable plasma (Finite Larmor Radius ordering). A striking difference between these orderings is the fact that, regarding the stability of the plasma, for a F.L.R. plasma viscosity effects due to the finite Larmor radius are important, whereas in a M.H.D. plasma they are negligible (at least to the required order). (Auth.)
Formation of compact toroidal configurations for magnetic confinement of high temperature plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fuentes, N.O.; Rodrigo, A.B.
1986-01-01
The formation stage of inverted magnetic field toroidal configurations (FRC) for hot plasmas confinement using a low energy linear theta pinch is studied. The diagnostic techniques used are based on optical spectroscopy, ultrarapid photography, magnetic probes and excluded flux compensated bonds. The generalities of the present research program, the used diagnostic techniques and the results obtained are discussed. (Author)
Aurora T: a Monte Carlo code for transportation of neutral atoms in a toroidal plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bignami, A.; Chiorrini, R.
1982-01-01
This paper contains a short description of Aurora code. This code have been developed at Princeton with Monte Carlo method for calculating neutral gas in cylindrical plasma. In this work subroutines such one can take in account toroidal geometry are developed
Rotation influence on the plasma helical instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gutkin, T.I.; Tsypin, V.S.; Boleslavskaya, G.I.
1980-01-01
The influence of the rotation on helical instability of a plasma with the fixed boundaries (HIFB) is investigated taking into account the compressibility. A case of infinitely long cylinder with distributed current is considered. Cases when a rotating plasma is confined by current magnetic field are analytically considered. It is shown that in the case of the fixed boundary taking into account the compressibility in the HIFB increment increases and the picture of the rotation influence on HIFB considerably changes. Besides, it is shown that in the case of high plasma pressures HIFB can stabilize as a result of the rotation
Severo, J H F; Nascimento, I C; Kuznetov, Yu K; Tsypin, V S; Galvão, R M O; Tendler, M
2007-04-01
The method for plasma rotation measurement in the tokamak TCABR is reported in this article. During a discharge, an optical spectrometer is used to scan sequentially spectral lines of plasma impurities and spectral lines of a calibration lamp. Knowing the scanning velocity of the diffraction grating of the spectrometer with adequate precision, the Doppler shifts of impurity lines are determined. The photomultiplier output voltage signals are recorded with adequate sampling rate. With this method the residual poloidal and toroidal plasma rotation velocities were determined, assuming that they are the same as those of the impurity ions. The results show reasonable agreement with the neoclassical theory and with results from similar tokamaks.
Plasma confinement of Nagoya high-beta toroidal-pinch experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hirano, K.; Kitagawa, S.; Wakatani, M.; Kita, Y.; Yamada, S.; Yamaguchi, S.; Sato, K.; Aizawa, T.; Osanai, Y.; Noda, N.
1977-01-01
Two different types of high-β toroidal pinch experiments, STP [1] and CCT [2,3], have been done to study the confinement of the plasma produced by a theta-pinch. The STP is an axisymmetric toroidal pinch of high-β tokamak type, while the CCT consists of multiply connected periodic toroidal traps. Internal current-carrying copper rings are essential to the CCT. Since both apparatuses use the same fast capacitor bank system, they produce rather similar plasma temperatures and densities. The observed laser scattering temperature and density is about 50 eV and 4x10 15 cm -3 , respectively, when the filling pressure is 5 mtorr. In the STP experiment, strong correlations are found between the βsub(p) value and the amplitude of m=2 mode. It has a minimum around the value of βsub(p) of 0.8. The disruptive instability is observed to expand the pinched plasma column without lowering the plasma temperature. Just before the disruption begins, the q value around the magnetic axis becomes far less than 1 and an increase of the amplitude of m=2 mode is seen. The CCT also shows rapid plasma expansion just before the magnetic field reaches its maximum. Then the trap is filled up with the plasma by this irreversible expansion and stable plasma confinement is achieved. The energy confinement time of the CCT is found to be about 35 μs. (author)
Zocco, A.; Xanthopoulos, P.; Doerk, H.; Connor, J. W.; Helander, P.
2018-02-01
The threshold for the resonant destabilisation of ion-temperature-gradient (ITG) driven instabilities that render the modes ubiquitous in both tokamaks and stellarators is investigated. We discover remarkably similar results for both confinement concepts if care is taken in the analysis of the effect of the global shear . We revisit, analytically and by means of gyrokinetic simulations, accepted tokamak results and discover inadequacies of some aspects of their theoretical interpretation. In particular, for standard tokamak configurations, we find that global shear effects on the critical gradient cannot be attributed to the wave-particle resonance destabilising mechanism of Hahm & Tang (Phys. Plasmas, vol. 1, 1989, pp. 1185-1192), but are consistent with a stabilising contribution predicted by Biglari et al. (Phys. Plasmas, vol. 1, 1989, pp. 109-118). Extensive analytical and numerical investigations show that virtually no previous tokamak theoretical predictions capture the temperature dependence of the mode frequency at marginality, thus leading to incorrect instability thresholds. In the asymptotic limit , where is the rotational transform, and such a threshold should be solely determined by the resonant toroidal branch of the ITG mode, we discover a family of unstable solutions below the previously known threshold of instability. This is true for a tokamak case described by a local local equilibrium, and for the stellarator Wendelstein 7-X, where these unstable solutions are present even for configurations with a small trapped-particle population. We conjecture they are of the Floquet type and derive their properties from the Fourier analysis of toroidal drift modes of Connor & Taylor (Phys. Fluids, vol. 30, 1987, pp. 3180-3185), and to Hill's theory of the motion of the lunar perigee (Acta Math., vol. 8, 1886, pp. 1-36). The temperature dependence of the newly determined threshold is given for both confinement concepts. In the first case, the new temperature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beer, M.A.; Chance, M.S.; Hahm, T.S.; Lin, Z.; Rewoldt, G.; Tang, W.M.
1997-01-01
Sheared rotation dynamics are widely believed to have signficant influence on experimentally observed confinement transitions in advanced operating modes in major tokamak experiments, such as the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) [D.J. Grove and D.M. Meade, Nuclear Fusion 25, 1167 (1985)], with reversed magnetic shear regions in the plasma interior. The high-n toroidal drift modes destabilized by the combined effects of ion temperature gradients and trapped particles in toroidal geometry can be strongly affected by radially sheared toroidal and poloidal plasma rotation. In previous work with the FULL linear microinstability code, a simplified rotation model including only toroidal rotation was employed, and results were obtained. Here, a more complete rotation model, that includes contributions from toroidal and poloidal rotation and the ion pressure gradient to the total radial electric field, is used for a proper self-consistent treatment of this key problem. Relevant advanced operating mode cases for TFTR are presented. In addition, the complementary problem of the dynamics of fluctuation-driven E x B flow is investigated by an integrated program of gyrokinetic simulation in annulus geometry and gyrofluid simulation in flux tube geometry
Equations for the non linear evolution of the resistive tearing modes in toroidal plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Edery, D.; Pellat, R.; Soule, J.L.
1979-09-01
Following the tokamak ordering, we simplify the resistive MHD equations in toroidal geometry. We obtain a closed system of non linear equations for two scalar potentials of the magnetic and velocity fields and for plasma density and temperature. If we expand these equations in the inverse of aspect ratio they are exact to the two first orders. Our formalism should correctly describe the mode coupling by curvature effects /1/ and the toroidal displacement of magnetic surfaces /2/. It provides a natural extension of the well known cylindrical model /3/ and is now being solved on computer
Self-organized profile relaxation by ion temperature gradient instability in toroidal plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kishimoto, Y.; Tajima, T.; LeBrun, M.J.; Gray, M.G.; Kim, J.Y.; Horton, W.
1993-02-01
Toroidal effects on the ion-temperature gradient mode are found to dictate the temperature evolution and the subsequent relaxed profile realization according to our toroidal particle simulation. Both in the strongly unstable fluid regime as well as in the near-marginal kinetic regime we observe that the plasma maintains an exponential temperature profile and forces the heat flux to be radially independent. The self-organized critical relaxed state is sustained slightly above the marginal stability, where the weak wave growth balances the wave decorrelation
PROGRESS IN THE PEELING-BALLOONING MODEL OF ELMS: TOROIDAL ROTATION AND 3D NONLINEAR DYNAMICS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
SNYDER, P.B.; WILSON, H.R.; XU, X.Q.; WEBSTER, A.J.
2004-01-01
Understanding the physics of the H-Mode pedestal and edge localized modes (ELMs) is very important to next-step fusion devices for two primary reasons: (1) The pressure at the top of the edge barrier (''pedestal height'') strongly impacts global confinement and fusion performance, and (2) large ELMs lead to localized transient heat loads on material surfaces that may constrain component lifetimes. The development of the peeling-ballooning model has shed light on these issues by positing a mechanism for ELM onset and constraints on the pedestal height. The mechanism involves instability of ideal coupled ''peeling-ballooning'' modes driven by the sharp pressure gradient and consequent large bootstrap current in the H-mode edge. It was first investigated in the local, high-n limit [1], and later quantified for non-local, finite-n modes in general toroidal geometry [2,3]. Important aspects are that a range of wavelengths may potentially be unstable, with intermediate n's (n ∼ 3-30) generally limiting in high performance regimes, and that stability bounds are strongly sensitive to shape [Fig l(a)], and to collisionality (i.e. temperature and density) [4] through the bootstrap current. The development of efficient MHD stability codes such as ELITE [3,2] and MISHKA [5] has allowed detailed quantification of peeling-ballooning stability bounds (e.g. [6]) and extensive and largely successful comparisons with observation (e.g. [2,6-9]). These previous calculations are ideal, static, and linear. Here we extend this work to incorporate the impact of sheared toroidal rotation, and the non-ideal, nonlinear dynamics which must be studied to quantify ELM size and heat deposition on material surfaces
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ha, B. N.; Stoneking,, M. R.; Marler, Joan
2009-01-01
Measurements of the image charge induced on electrodes provide the primary means of diagnosing plasmas in the Lawrence Non-neutral Torus II (LNT II) [Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 155001 (2008)]. Therefore, it is necessary to develop techniques that determine characteristics of the electron plasma from......, as in the cylindrical case. In the toroidal case, additional information about the m=1 motion of the plasma can be obtained by analysis of the image charge signal amplitude and shape. Finally, results from the numerical simulations are compared to experimental data from the LNT II and plasma characteristics...
Fast mega pixels video imaging of a toroidal plasma in KT5D device
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu Min; Wang Zhijiang; Lu Ronghua; Sun Xiang; Wen Yizhi; Yu Changxuan; Wan Shude; Liu Wandong; Wang Jun; Xiao Delong; Yu Yi; Zhu Zhenghua; Hu Linyin
2005-01-01
A direct imaging system, viewing visible light emission from plasmas tangentially or perpendicularly, has been set up on the KT5D toroidal device to monitor the real two-dimensional profiles of purely ECR generated plasmas. This system has a typical spatial resolution of 0.2 mm (1280x1024 pixels) when imaging the whole cross section. Interesting features of ECR plasmas have been found. Different from what classical theories have expected, a resonance layer with two or three bright spots, rather than an even vertical band, has been observed. In addition, images also indicate an intermittent splitting and drifting character of the plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Turner, W.C.; Goldenbaum, G.C.; Granneman, E.H.A.; Hartman, C.W.; Prono, D.S.; Taska, J.; Smith, A.C. Jr.
1980-01-01
Initial results are reported on the formation of compact toroidal plasmas in an oblate shaped metallic flux conserver. A schematic of the experimental apparatus is shown. The plasma injector is a coaxial plasma gun with solenoid coils wound on the inner and outer electrodes. The electrode length is 100 cm, the diameter of the inner (outer) electrode is 19.3 cm (32.4 cm). Deuterium gas is puffed into the region between electrodes by eight pulsed valves located on the outer electrode 50 cm from the end of the gun. The gun injects into a cylindrically symmetrical copper shell (wall thickness = 1.6 mm) which acts as a flux conserver for the time scale of experiments reported here. The copper shell consists of a transition cylinder 30 cm long, 34 cm in diameter, a cylindrical oblate pill box 40 cm long, 75 cm in diameter and a downstream cylinder 30 cm long, 30 cm in diameter. The gap between the gun and transition cylinder is 6 cm. An axial array of coils outside the vacuum chamber can be used to establish an initial uniform bias field
Generation and Sustainment of Plasma Rotation by ICRF Heating
Perkins, F. W.
2000-10-01
When tokamak plasmas are heated by the fundamental minority ion-cyclotron process, they are observed to rotate toroidally, even though this heating process introduces negligable angular momentum. This work proposes and evaluates a physics mechanism which resolves this apparent conflict. The argument has two elements. First, it is assumed that angular momentum transport is governed by a diffusion equation with a v_tor = 0 boundary condition at the plasma surface and a torque-density source. When the source consists of separated regions of positive and negative torque density, a finite central rotation velocity results, even though the volume integrated torque density - the angular momentum input - vanishes. Secondly, ions energized by the ICRF process can generate separated regions of positive and negative torque density. Heating increases their banana widths which leads to radial energetic-particle transport that must be balanced by neutralizing radial currents and a j_rB_pR torque density in the bulk plasma. Additional, comparable torque density results from collisional transfer of mechanical angular momentum from energetic particles to the bulk plasma and particle loss through banana particles impacting the wall. Monte-Carlo calculations utilizing the ORBIT code evaluate all sources of torque density and rigorously assure that no net angular momentum is introduced. Two models of ICRF heating, diffusive and instantaneous, give similar results. When the resonance location is on the LFS, the calculated rotation has the magnitude, profile, and co-current sense of Alcator C-Mod observations. For HFS resonance locations, the model predicts counter-current rotation. Scans of rotational profiles vs. resonance location, initial energy, particle loss, pitch, and qm will be presented as will the location of the velocity shear layer its scaling to a reactor.
Dual-function magnetic structure for toroidal plasma devices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brown, R.L.
1978-01-01
This invention relates to a support system wherein the iron core and yoke of the plasma current system of a tokamak plasma containment device is redesigned to support the forces of the magnet coils. The containment rings, which occupy very valuable space around the magnet coils, are utilized to serve as yokes for the core such that the conventional yoke is eliminated. The overall result is an improved aspect ratio, reduction in structure, smaller overall size, and improved access to the plasma ring
Plasma rotation and radial electric field with a density ramp in an ohmically heated tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duval, B.P.; Joye, B.; Marchal, B.
1991-10-01
Measurements of toroidal and poloidal rotation of the TCA plasma with Alfven Wave Heating and different levels of gas feed are reported. The temporal evolution of the rotation was inferred from intrinsic spectral lines of CV, CIII and, using injected helium gas, from HeII. The light collection optics and line intensity permitted the evolution of the plasma rotation to be measured with a time resolution of 2ms. The rotation velocities were used to deduce the radial electric field. With Alfven heating there was no observable change of this electric field that could have been responsible for the density rise which is characteristic of the RF experiments on TCA. The behaviour of the plasma rotation with different plasma density ramp rates was investigated. The toroidal rotation was observed to decrease with increasing plasma density. The poloidal rotation was observed to follow the value of the plasma density. With hard gas puffing, changes in the deduced radial electric field were found to coincide with changes in the peaking of the plasma density profile. Finally, with frozen pellet injection, the expected increase in the radial electric field due to the increased plasma density was not observed, which may explain the poorer confinement of the injected particles. Even in an ohmically heated tokamak, the measurement of the plasma rotation and the radial electric field are shown to be strongly related to the confinement. A thorough statistical analysis of the systematic errors is presented and a new and significant source of uncertainty in the experimental technique is identified. (author) 18 figs., 18 refs
Reusch, Joshua
2017-10-01
A major goal of the spherical tokamak research program is accessing a state of low internal inductance li, high elongation κ, high toroidal and normalized beta (βt and βN) , and low collisionality without solenoidal current drive. A new local helicity injection (LHI) system in the lower divertor region of the ultra-low aspect ratio Pegasus ST provides non-solenoidally driven plasmas that exhibit most of these characteristics. LHI utilizes compact, edge-localized current sources (Ainj 4 cm2, Iinj 8 kA, Vinj 1.5 kV) for plasma startup and sustainment, and can sustain more than 200 kA of plasma current. Plasma growth via LHI is enhanced by a transition from a regime of high kink-like MHD activity to one of reduced MHD activity at higher frequencies and presumably shorter wavelengths. The strong edge current drive provided by LHI results in a hollow current density profile with low li. The low aspect ratio (R0 / a 1.2) of Pegasus allows ready access to high κ and MHD stable operation at very high normalized plasma currents (IN =Ip /aBT> 15). Thomson scattering measurements indicate Te 100 eV and ne 1 ×19 m-3. The impurity Ti evolution is correlated in time with high frequency magnetic fluctuations, implying substantial reconnection ion heating is driven by the applied helicity injection. Doppler spectroscopy indicates Ti >=Te and that the anomalous ion heating scales consistently with two fluid reconnection theory. Taken together, these features provide access to very high βt plasmas. Equilibrium analyses indicate βt up to 100% and βN 6.5 is achieved. At increasingly low BT, the discharge disrupts at the no-wall ideal stability limit. In these high βt discharges, a minimum |B| well forms over 50% of the plasma volume. This unique magnetic configuration may be of interest for testing predictions of stabilizing drift wave turbulence and/or improving energetic particle confinement. This work supported by US DOE Grants DE-FG02-96ER54375 and DE-SC0006928.
Possible accuracy of the Cotton-Mouton polarimetry in a sheared toroidal plasma conversion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kravtsov, Y.A.; Chrzanowski, J.
2011-01-01
The Cotton-Mouton effect in the sheared plasma with helical magnetic lines is studied, using the equation for the complex amplitude ratio (CAR). A simple model for helical magnetic lines in plasma of toroidal configuration is suggested. Equation for CAR is solved perturbatively, treating the shear angle variations as a small perturbation, caused by the spiral form of the magnetic lines. It is shown that the uncertainty of the polarization measurements in the toroidal plasma with a spiral form of the magnetic lines does not exceed 1.0-2.0%, which determines the limiting accuracy of the Cotton-Mouton polarimetry. It is furthermore pointed out that the method of a priori subtraction of the '' sheared '' term may significantly improve the accuracy of the Cotton-Mouton polarimetry. (authors)
He, Zhang-Ming; Zhang, Xiao-Fei; Kato, Masaya; Han, Wei; Saito, Hiroki
2018-06-01
We consider a pseudospin-1/2 Bose-Einstein condensate with Rashba spin-orbit coupling in a two-dimensional toroidal trap. By solving the damped Gross-Pitaevskii equations for this system, we show that the system exhibits a rich variety of stationary states, such as vehicle wheel and flower-petal stripe patterns. These stationary states are stable against perturbation with thermal energy and can survive for a long time. In the presence of rotation, our results show that the rotating systems have exotic vortex configurations. These phenomenon originates from the interplay among spin-orbit coupling, trap geometry, and rotation.
Ballooning modes or Fourier modes in a toroidal plasma?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Connor, J.W.; Taylor, J.B.
1987-01-01
The relationship between two different descriptions of eigenmodes in a torus is investigated. In one the eigenmodes are similar to Fourier modes in a cylinder and are highly localized near a particular rational surface. In the other they are the so-called ballooning modes that extend over many rational surfaces. Using a model that represents both drift waves and resistive interchanges the transition from one of these structures to the other is investigated. In this simplified model the transition depends on a single parameter which embodies the competition between toroidal coupling of Fourier modes (which enhances ballooning) and variation in frequency of Fourier modes from one rational surface to another (which diminishes ballooning). As the coupling is increased each Fourier mode acquires a sideband on an adjacent rational surface and these sidebands then expand across the radius to form the extended mode described by the conventional ballooning mode approximation. This analysis shows that the ballooning approximation is appropriate for drift waves in a tokamak but not for resistive interchanges in a pinch. In the latter the conventional ballooning effect is negligible but they may nevertheless show a ballooning feature. This is localized near the same rational surface as the primary Fourier mode and so does not lead to a radially extended structure
A 3-MA compact-toroid-plasma-flow-switched plasma focus demonstration experiment on Shiva Star
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kiuttu, G F; Degnan, J H [Phillips Lab., Kirtland AFB, NM (United States). High Energy Sources Div.; Graham, J D [Maxwell Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); and others
1997-12-31
A novel dense plasma focus experiment using the Shiva Star capacitor bank is described. The experiment uses a compact toroid (CT) magnetized plasma flow switch (PFS) to initiate the focus implosion. The CT armature stably and reproducibly translates up to 3 MA from the vacuum feed region through coaxial electrodes to the gas puff central load. The inertia of the 1 mg CT and the work that must be done in compressing the internal magnetic fields during the translation provide a delay in current delivery to the pinch of 5 - 10 {mu}s, which matches the bank quarter cycle time relatively well. Effectiveness of the current delivery was monitored primarily by inductive probes in the PFS region, fast photography of the focus, and x-ray and neutron measurements of the pinch. K shell x-ray yields using neon gas were as high as 1 kJ, and 10{sup 8} neutrons were produced in a deuterium gas focus. (author). 4 figs., 10 refs.
A 3-MA compact-toroid-plasma-flow-switched plasma focus demonstration experiment on Shiva Star
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kiuttu, G.F.; Degnan, J.H.
1996-01-01
A novel dense plasma focus experiment using the Shiva Star capacitor bank is described. The experiment uses a compact toroid (CT) magnetized plasma flow switch (PFS) to initiate the focus implosion. The CT armature stably and reproducibly translates up to 3 MA from the vacuum feed region through coaxial electrodes to the gas puff central load. The inertia of the 1 mg CT and the work that must be done in compressing the internal magnetic fields during the translation provide a delay in current delivery to the pinch of 5 - 10 μs, which matches the bank quarter cycle time relatively well. Effectiveness of the current delivery was monitored primarily by inductive probes in the PFS region, fast photography of the focus, and x-ray and neutron measurements of the pinch. K shell x-ray yields using neon gas were as high as 1 kJ, and 10 8 neutrons were produced in a deuterium gas focus. (author). 4 figs., 10 refs
Current sustaining by RF travelling field in a collisional toroidal plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fukuda, Masaji; Matsuura, Kiyokata.
1977-06-01
The relation between the current generation by RF travelling field and the accompanied power absorption is studied in a collisional toroidal plasma, parameters being phase velocity and filling gas pressure or electron collision frequency. It is observed at a low magnetic field that the current is proportional to the plasma conductivity and an effective electromotive force, which is a new concept introduced on the basis of fluid model; the electromotive force is proportional to the absorbed RF power and inversely proportional to the plasma density and the phase velocity of the travelling field. (auth.)
Current sustaining by RF travelling field in a collisional toroidal plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fukuda, Masaji; Matsuura, Kiyokata
1978-01-01
The relation between the current generated by RF travelling field and the absorbed power is studied in a collisional toroidal plasma, parameters being phase velocity and filling gap pressure or electron collision frequency. It is observed at a low magnetic field that the current is proportional to the plasma conductivity and an effective electromotive force, which is a new concept introduced on the basis of fluid model; the electromotive force is proportional to the absorbed RF power and inversely proportional to the plasma density and the phase velocity of the travelling field. (author)
Current drive by neutral beams, rotating magnetic fields and helicity injection in compact toroids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Farengo, R.
2002-01-01
A Monte-Carlo code is used to study neutral beam current drive in Spheromaks. The exact particle trajectories are followed in the self-consistent equilibria calculated including the beam current. Reducing Z(eff) does not increase the current drive efficiency because the reduction of the stopping cross section is compensated by an increase in the electron canceling current. Significant changes in the safety factor profile can be produced with relatively low beam currents. Minimum dissipation states of a flux core spheromak sustained by helicity injection are presented. Helicity balance is used as a constraint and the resistivity is considered to be non-uniform. Two types of relaxed states are found; one has a central core of open flux surrounded by a toroidal region of closed flux surfaces and the other has the open flux wrapped around the closed flux surfaces. Non-uniform resistivity effects can be very important due to the changes they produce in the safety factor profile. A hybrid, fluid electrons particle ions, code is employed to study ion dynamics in FRCs sustained by rotating magnetic fields. (author)
Rotation characteristics of main ions and impurity ions in H-mode tokamak plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, J.; Burrell, K.H.; Gohil, P.; Groebner, R.J.; Kim, Y.; St. John, H.E.; Seraydarian, R.P.; Wade, M.R.
1994-01-01
Poloidal and toroidal rotation of the main ions (He 2+ ) and the impurity ions (C 6+ and B 5+ ) in H-mode helium plasmas have been measured via charge exchange recombination spectroscopy in the DIII-D tokamak. It was discovered that the main ion poloidal rotation is in the ion diamagnetic drift direction while the impurity ion rotation is in the electron diamagnetic drift direction, in qualitative agreement with the neoclassical theory. The deduced radial electric field in the edge is of the same negative-well shape regardless of which ion species is used, validating the fundamental nature of the electric field in L-H transition phenomenology
Acoustic rotation modes in complex plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bai Dongxue; Wang Zhengxiong; Wang Xiaogang
2004-01-01
Acoustic rotation modes in complex plasmas are investigated in a cylindrical system with an axial symmetry. The linear mode solution is derived. The mode in an infinite area is reduced to a classical dust acoustic wave in the region away from the centre. When the dusty plasma is confined in a finite region, the breathing and rotating-void behaviour are observed. Vivid structures of different mode number solutions are illustrated
Interaction of a spheromak-like compact toroid with a high beta spherical tokamak plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hwang, D.Q.; McLean, H.S.; Baker, K.L.; Evans, R.W.; Horton, R.D.; Terry, S.D.; Howard, S.; Schmidt, G.L.
2000-01-01
Recent experiments using accelerated spheromak-like compact toroids (SCTs) to fuel tokamak plasmas have quantified the penetration mechanism in the low beta regime; i.e. external magnetic field pressure dominates plasma thermal pressure. However, fusion reactor designs require high beta plasma and, more importantly, the proper plasma pressure profile. Here, the effect of the plasma pressure profile on SCT penetration, specifically, the effect of diamagnetism, is addressed. It is estimated that magnetic field pressure dominates penetration even up to 50% local beta. The combination of the diamagnetic effect on the toroidal magnetic field and the strong poloidal field at the outer major radius of a spherical tokamak will result in a diamagnetic well in the total magnetic field. Therefore, the spherical tokamak is a good candidate to test the potential trapping of an SCT in a high beta diamagnetic well. The diamagnetic effects of a high beta spherical tokamak discharge (low aspect ratio) are computed. To test the penetration of an SCT into such a diamagnetic well, experiments have been conducted of SCT injection into a vacuum field structure which simulates the diamagnetic field effect of a high beta tokamak. The diamagnetic field gradient length is substantially shorter than that of the toroidal field of the tokamak, and the results show that it can still improve the penetration of the SCT. Finally, analytic results have been used to estimate the effect of plasma pressure on penetration, and the effect of plasma pressure was found to be small in comparison with the magnetic field pressure. The penetration condition for a vacuum field only is reported. To study the diamagnetic effect in a high beta plasma, additional experiments need to be carried out on a high beta spherical tokamak. (author)
Measurements of beat wave accelerated electrons in a toroidal plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rogers, J.H.
1992-06-01
Electrons are accelerated by large amplitude electron plasma waves driven by counter-propagating microwaves with a difference frequency approximately equal to the electron plasma frequency. Energetic electrons are observed only when the phase velocity of the wave is in the range 3v e ph e (v ph was varied 2v e ph e ), where v e is the electron thermal velocity, (kT e /m e ) 1/2 . As the phase velocity increases, fewer electrons are accelerated to higher velocities. The measured current contained in these accelerated electrons has the power dependence predicted by theory, but the magnitude is lower than predicted
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Galkowski, A. [Institute of Atomic Energy, Otwock-Swierk (Poland)
1994-12-31
Non-linear ideal MHD equilibria in axisymmetric system with flows are examined, both in 1st and 2nd ellipticity regions. Evidence of the bifurcation of solutions is provided and numerical solutions of several problems in a tokamak geometry are given, exhibiting bifurcation phenomena. Relaxation of plasma in the presence of zero-order flows is studied in a realistic toroidal geometry. The field aligned flow allows equilibria with finite pressure gradient but with homogeneous temperature distribution. Numerical calculations have been performed for the 1st and 2nd ellipticity regimes of the extended Grad-Shafranov-Schlueter equation. Numerical technique, alternative to the well-known Grad`s ADM methods has been proposed to deal with slow adiabatic evolution of toroidal plasma with flows. The equilibrium problem with prescribed adiabatic constraints may be solved by simultaneous calculations of flux surface geometry and original profile functions. (author). 178 refs, 37 figs, 5 tabs.
The vacuum-arc plasma motion in a toroidal magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Timoshenko, A.I.; Gnybida, M.V.; Taran, V.S.; Tereshin, V.I.; Chechelnitskij, O.G.
2005-01-01
The separation of the vacuum-arc plasma from macro-particles in the curvilinear plasma filters allows obtaining coatings with especially high characteristics. However, inside such filters the significant plasma losses also have been occurred. At the same time, increasing in the filter's efficiency is a difficult task without an effective mathematical model that really would describe the vacuum-arc plasma motion in a toroidal magnetic field. The description based on the flax-tube model was in fact only the first approximation in the decision of this problem. According to detailed flax-tube analysis of ions passage through the quarter torus plasma guide, the efficiency of the filter should grow up to 85% as the positive potential U, applied to the body of the plasma guide, is on the increase. However, the experiment showed that maximum of transparency reach up to ∼ 12%, at potential about of +18 Volts, and comes down under the further increase in potential. Such big digression from experiment does not justify the use of flux-tube model for designing of curvilinear plasma filters. We offer the new approach to the description of the vacuum-arc plasma motion in a toroidal magnetic field based on the solutions of steady-state (∂/∂t=0) Vlasov-Maxwell equations for the long plasma column aligned parallel to a constant axial magnetic field. The relations for the self-consistent electric polarization fields, which appear due to displacement of the electron component from ionic one on the curvilinear part of motion, were derived within a framework of the drift approximation. The dynamics of the central part of the plasma flow in the electric polarization fields was considered in detail. The displacement of the plasma flow at the output of the plasma guide was calculated for the carbon and titanium plasmas. The good agreement with the experimental data was obtained. (author)
Theory of anomalous transport in toroidal helical plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Itoh, K.; Itoh, S.; Fukuyama, A.
1992-03-01
Theoretical model of the anomalous transport in Torsatron/Heliotron plasmas is developed, based on the current-diffusive interchange instability which is destabilized due to the averaged magnetic hill near edge. Analytic formula of transport coefficient is derived. This model explains the high edge transport, the power degradation and energy confinement scaling law and the enhanced heat-pulse thermal conduction. (author)
Low frequency RF heating of plasmas in a toroidal stellarator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Golovato, S.N.
1977-01-01
Studies of transit-time magnetic pumping and Alfven wave heating have been done in the Proto-Cleo stellarator. Both plasma heating and plasma confinement have been investigated. A traveling wave was launched around the Proto-Cleo l = 2, 6 field period stellarator to attempt transit-time magnetic pumping of a pulsed electron beam moving along the magnetic field lines. An apparent loss of the beam was seen when the transit-time magnetic pumping was applied. A random walk diffusion of the beam electrons with a step size determined by the radial EXB drift due to the poloidal electric field agrees well with the experimental results. Alfven wave heating was applied to plasmas in the Proto-Cleo l = 3, 7 field period stellarator. Global excitation of Alfven waves was accomplished by exciting an electrostatically shielded helical winding corresponding to a q = 3 rational field line with a pulsed, high-power RF source. Theoretical analysis of this helical wave launcher predicted effective energy absorption in the Proto-Cleo gun-produced plasma
On transport and the bootstrap current in toroidal plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Connor, J.W.; Taylor, J.B.
1987-01-01
The recently reported observation of the bootstrap current in a tokamak plasma highlights the problem of reconciling this neoclassical effect with the anomalous (i.e., non-neoclassical) electron thermal transport. This Comment reviews the bootstrap current and considers the implications of a self-consistent modification of neoclassical theory based on an enhanced electron-electron interaction. (author)
Trapped Electron Mode Turbulence Driven Intrinsic Rotation in Tokamak Plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, W.X.; Hahm, T.S.; Ethier, S.; Zakharov, L.E.
2011-01-01
Recent progress from global gyrokinetic simulations in understanding the origin of intrinsic rotation in toroidal plasmas is reported with emphasis on electron thermal transport dominated regimes. The turbulence driven intrinsic torque associated with nonlinear residual stress generation by the fluctuation intensity and the intensity gradient in the presence of zonal flow shear induced asymmetry in the parallel wavenumber spectrum is shown to scale close to linearly with plasma gradients and the inverse of the plasma current. These results qualitatively reproduce empirical scalings of intrinsic rotation observed in various experiments. The origin of current scaling is found to be due to enhanced kll symmetry breaking induced by the increased radial variation of the safety factor as the current decreases. The physics origin for the linear dependence of intrinsic torque on pressure gradient is that both turbulence intensity and the zonal flow shear, which are two key ingredients for driving residual stress, increase with the strength of turbulence drive, which is R0/LTe and R0/Lne for the trapped electron mode.
Toroidal modeling of plasma response and resonant magnetic perturbation field penetration
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Liu, Y.Q.; Kirk, A.; Sun, Y.; Cahyna, Pavel; Chapman, I.T.; Denner, P.; Fishpool, G.; Garofalo, A.M.; Harrison, J.R.; Nardon, E.
2012-01-01
Roč. 54, č. 12 (2012), s. 124013-124013 ISSN 0741-3335 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : tokamak * resonant magnetic perturbation * neoclassical toroidal viscosity Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 2.369, year: 2012 http://iopscience.iop.org/0741-3335/54/12/124013/pdf/0741-3335_54_12_124013.pdf
WKB theory for high-n modes in axisymmetric toroidal plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dewar, R.L.; Chance, M.S.; Glasser, A.H.; Greene, J.M.; Frieman, E.A.
1979-09-01
It is demonstrated that the low-frequency, k/sub parallel//k/sub perpendicular/ approx. = 0 normal modes of an axisymmetric plasma, at large but finite toroidal mode number n, can be obtained by solving a novel WKB problem involving an infinite number of branches. Formulae for the frequencies of periodic normal modes are derived. The analysis is performed in the context of an ideal MHD model, and comparison is made with numerical ballooning mode results
A versatile ray-tracing code for studying rf wave propagation in toroidal magnetized plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peysson, Y; Decker, J; Morini, L
2012-01-01
A new ray-tracing code named C3PO has been developed to study the propagation of arbitrary electromagnetic radio-frequency (rf) waves in magnetized toroidal plasmas. Its structure is designed for maximum flexibility regarding the choice of coordinate system and dielectric model. The versatility of this code makes it particularly suitable for integrated modeling systems. Using a coordinate system that reflects the nested structure of magnetic flux surfaces in tokamaks, fast and accurate calculations inside the plasma separatrix can be performed using analytical derivatives of a spline-Fourier interpolation of the axisymmetric toroidal MHD equilibrium. Applications to reverse field pinch magnetic configuration are also included. The effects of 3D perturbations of the axisymmetric toroidal MHD equilibrium, due to the discreteness of the magnetic coil system or plasma fluctuations in an original quasi-optical approach, are also studied. Using a Runge–Kutta–Fehlberg method for solving the set of ordinary differential equations, the ray-tracing code is extensively benchmarked against analytical models and other codes for lower hybrid and electron cyclotron waves. (paper)
Alpha Channeling in a Rotating Plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abraham J. Fetterman; Nathaniel J. Fisch
2008-01-01
The wave-particle α-channeling effect is generalized to include rotating plasma. Specifically, radio frequency waves can resonate with α particles in a mirror machine with E x B rotation to diffuse the α particles along constrained paths in phase space. Of major interest is that the α-particle energy, in addition to amplifying the RF waves, can directly enhance the rotation energy which in turn provides additional plasma confinement in centrifugal fusion reactors. An ancillary benefit is the rapid removal of alpha particles, which increases the fusion reactivity
α Channeling in a Rotating Plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fetterman, Abraham J.; Fisch, Nathaniel J.
2008-01-01
The wave-particle α-channeling effect is generalized to include rotating plasma. Specifically, radio frequency waves can resonate with α particles in a mirror machine with ExB rotation to diffuse the α particles along constrained paths in phase space. Of major interest is that the α-particle energy, in addition to amplifying the rf waves, can directly enhance the rotation energy which in turn provides additional plasma confinement in centrifugal fusion reactors. An ancillary benefit is the rapid removal of alpha particles, which increases the fusion reactivity
Simulation Study of an Extended Density DC Glow Toroidal Plasma Source
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Granda-Gutierrez, E. E.; Piedad-Beneitez, A. de la; Lopez-Callejas, R.; Godoy-Cabrera, O. G.; Benitez-Read, J. S.; Pacheco-Sotelo, J. O.; Pena-Eguiluz, R.; Mercado-Cabrera, A.; Valencia A, R.; Barocio, S. R.
2006-01-01
Conventional wisdom assigns the DC glow discharge regime to plasma currents below ∼500 mA values, beyond which the discharge falls into the anomalous glow and the turbulent arc regimes. However, we have found evidence that, during toroidal discharges, this barrier can be ostensibly extended up to 800 mA. Thus, a computer simulation has been applied to the evolution of the main electrical characteristics of such a glow discharge plasma in a toroidal vessel in order to design and construct a respective voltage/current controlled source. This should be able to generate a DC plasma in the glow regime with which currents in the range 10-3-100 A can be experimented and 109-1010 cm-3 plasma densities can be achieved to PIII optimization purposes. The plasma is modelled as a voltage-controlled current source able to be turned on whenever the breakdown voltage is reached across the gap between the anode and the vessel wall. The simulation outcome fits well our experimental measurements showing that the plasma current obeys power laws that are dependent on the power current and other control variables such as the gas pressure
Guided propagation of Alfven waves in a toroidal plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Borg, G.G.; Brennan, M.H.; Cross, R.C.; Giannone, L.; Donnelly, I.J.
1985-01-01
Experimental results are presented which show that the Alfven wave is strongly guided by magnetic fields. The experiment was conducted in a Tokamak plasma using a small dipole loop antenna to generate a localised Alfven ray. The ray was observed, with magnetic probes, to propagate as a localised disturbance along the curved lines of the steady magnetic field without significant refraction due to the effects of finite frequency, resistivity or magnetic field gradients. These results agree with theoretical predictions and demonstrate that a localised Alfven wave may be excited, and may propagate, independently of the fast wave, as expected. The implication of these results for the Alfven wave heating scheme is discussed. (author)
Guided propagation of Alfven waves in a toroidal plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Borg, G G; Brennan, M H; Cross, R C; Giannone, L.; Donnelly, I J
1985-10-01
Experimental results are presented which show that the Alfven wave is strongly guided by magnetic fields. The experiment was conducted in a Tokamak plasma using a small dipole loop antenna to generate a localised Alfven ray. The ray was observed, with magnetic probes, to propagate as a localised disturbance along the curved lines of the steady magnetic field without significant refraction due to the effects of finite frequency, resistivity or magnetic field gradients. These results agree with theoretical predictions and demonstrate that a localised Alfven wave may be excited, and may propagate, independently of the fast wave, as expected. The implication of these results for the Alfven wave heating scheme is discussed.
The viscous dynamics of a rotating plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
James, B.W.; Simpson, S.W.
1978-01-01
The rotational velocity of a high-density, partially-ionized neon plasma has been calculated as a function of time using a dynamical model in which J x B and viscous forces act on the plasma. The calculation of appropriate transport coefficients is discussed in detail. The model is used to predict measured voltages in a plasma centrifuge experiment. Observations of neon isotope separation in this experiment have been reported in a previous paper (James and Simpson 1976). (author)
Isotopic separation in a rotating neon plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cairns, J.B.S.
1976-01-01
The background to the use of rotating plasma as element and isotope separators is briefly reviewed. The principles of the process are outlined. The rotation in a plasma centrifuge is produced by passing a radial current across an axial magnetic field. The different mass spheres, if under the influence of azimuthal forces, may be separated by crossing the field. Details are given of the Vortex II experiment in which 22 Ne is separated from neon in a fully ionized rotating plasma. It was demonstrated that 22 Ne enrichments of approximately 15% could be achieved with the possibility of higher values when the design and operation of the plasma centrifuge have been optimised. (U.K.)
Observation of plasma hole in a rotating plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nagaoka, Kenichi; Ishihara, Tatsuzo; Okamoto, Atsushi; Yoshimura, Shinji; Tanaka, Masayoshi Y.
2001-01-01
Plasma hole, a cylindrical density cavity, formed in a rotating plasma has been investigated experimentally. The plasma hole is characterized by large aspect ratio (length/radius ≥ 30), steep boundary layer between the hole and the ambient plasma (10 ion Larmor radius), and extremely high positive potential (130 V). The flow velocity field associated with plasma hole structure has been measured, and is found to have interesting features: (1) plasma rotates in azimuthal direction at a maximum velocity of order of ion sound speed, (2) plasma flows radially inward across the magnetic field line, (3) there present an axial flow reversal between core and peripheral region. It is found that the flow pattern of the plasma hole is very similar to the that of well-developed typhoon with core. (author)
Critical β of a D-shaped toroidal plasma with sharp boundary
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kito, M.
1981-01-01
Under the cap-cyclide coordinate system, the marginal stability of a sharp boundary toroidal plasma whose cross section is D shaped is examined using the energy principle. The analytical results are valid for arbitrary b, arbitrary aspect ratio, and arbitrary elongation of the plasma. There exists a maximum elongation for a given aspect ratio. The critical beta b/sub c/ is computed for several aspect ratios and elongations. For given aspect ratio, b/sub c/ increases as long as the elongation increases
Self-sustained turbulence and L-mode confinement in toroidal plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Itoh, K.; Itoh, S.; Fukuyama, A.; Yagi, M.; Azumi, M.
1993-04-01
Theory of the L-mode confinement in toroidal plasmas is developed. The quantitative effect of the anomalous transport, which is caused by microscopic fluctuations, on the pressure-gradient- driven modes is analyzed. The ExB nonlinearity is renormalized in a form of the transport coefficient such as the thermal diffusivity, the ion viscosity and the current diffusivity. The destabilization by the current-diffusivity and the stabilization by the thermal transport and ion viscosity are analyzed. By use of the mean-field approximations, the nonlinear dispersion relation is solved. Growth rate and stability condition are expressed in terms of the renormalized transport coefficients. The transport coefficients in the steady state are obtained by the marginal stability condition for the least stable mode. This method is applied to the microscopic ballooning mode for the toroidal plasma with the magnetic well (such as tokamak). The comparison with experimental observations are made. A good agreement is found in a various aspects of the L-mode plasmas; The typical wavenumber and level of the fluctuations for the self-sustained turbulence is also obtained. The analysis is also made for the plasma with magnetic hill and shear (such as torsatron/Heliotron devices). This method is applied to the interchange modes. Formula of the anomalous transport is obtained. Also investigated is the case of the magnetic well and low magnetic shear (conventional stellarator). The roles of the pressure gradient and the collisionless skin depth in determining the anomalous transport are found to be generic in toroidal plasmas. The difference in the magnetic configuration affects the transport coefficient. These formula explain major experimental observations. (J.P.N.)
Liu, Yueqiang
2016-10-01
The type-I edge localized mode (ELM), bursting at low frequency and with large amplitude, can channel a substantial amount of the plasma thermal energy into the surrounding plasma-facing components in tokamak devices operating at the high-confinement mode, potentially causing severe material damages. Learning effective ways of controlling this instability is thus an urgent issue in fusion research, in particular in view of the next generation large devices such as ITER and DEMO. Among other means, externally applied, three-dimensional resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) fields have been experimentally demonstrated to be successful in mitigating or suppressing the type-I ELM, in multiple existing devices. In this work, we shall report results of a comparative study of ELM control using RMPs. Comparison is made between the modelled plasma response to the 3D external fields and the observed change of the ELM behaviour on multiple devices, including MAST, ASDEX Upgrade, EAST, DIII-D, JET, and KSTAR. We show that toroidal modelling of the plasma response, based on linear and quasi-linear magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) models, provides essential insights that are useful in interpreting and guiding the ELM control experiments. In particular, linear toroidal modelling results, using the MARS-F code, reveal the crucial role of the edge localized peeling-tearing mode response during ELM mitigation/suppression on all these devices. Such response often leads to strong peaking of the plasma surface displacement near the region of weak equilibrium poloidal field (e.g. the X-point), and this provides an alternative practical criterion for ELM control, as opposed to the vacuum field based Chirikov criteria. Quasi-linear modelling using MARS-Q provides quantitative interpretation of the side effects due to the ELM control coils, on the plasma toroidal momentum and particle confinements. The particular role of the momentum and particle fluxes, associated with the neoclassical toroidal
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Glasser, A.H.; Swanson, D.G.; Wersinger, J.M.
1982-01-01
The continuation of a program of theoretical studies of the heating of toroidal plasmas with radio frequency (RF) electromagnetic radiation is proposed. Funding for this project first began on September 3, 1981, and will expire on April 2, 1982. A summary of the principal accomplishments of the first five months of the project is presented. These include the acquisition of computer terminals and modems, the implementation of existing codes on the MFECC C Cray Computer, the extension of the LHTOR lower hybrid toroidal ray tracing code to the full electromagnetic dispersion relation, the implementation of graphic output from the code, the beginning of extensive parameter studies, the beginning of an analytical treatment of the mode conversion layer associated with singular harmonic absorption, and the introduction of a graduate student into the program
Three-dimensional simulation study of compact toroid injection into magnetized plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoshio Suzuki; Tomohiko Watanabe; Tetsuya Sato; Takaya Hayashi
1999-01-01
Three-dimensional dynamics of a compact toroid (CT), which is injected into a magnetized target plasma modeling a part of a fusion device is investigated by using magnetohydrodynamic numerical simulations. It is found that the injected CT penetrates into the device region, suffering from a tilting instability. In this process, magnetic reconnection between the CT magnetic field and the device magnetic field takes place, which disrupts the magnetic configuration of the CT. As a result, the high density plasma confined in the CT magnetic field is locally supplied in the device region. Furthermore, the authors examine the penetration depth of the CT high density plasma. And it is revealed that the CT high density plasma is decelerated by the device magnetic field through the compressional heating
Propagation and damping of mode converted ion-Bernstein waves in toroidal plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ram, A.K.; Bers, A.
1991-01-01
In the heating of tokamak plasmas by waves in the ion-cyclotron range of frequencies, the fast Alfven waves launched at the plasma edge can mode convert to the ion-Bernstein waves (IBW). The propagation and damping of these mode converted waves was studied using a ray tracing code that follows the fast phase and the amplitude of the electromagnetic field along the IBW ray trajectories in a toroidal plasma. A simple analytical model is developed that describes the numerically observed features of propagation and damping of the IBW's. It is found that along the ray trajectory of the IBW there is an upshift of the poloidal mode numbers, which can lead to the electron Landau damping of the wave. This damping is dependent on the strength of the toroidal plasma current. From the properties of the upshift of the poloidal mode numbers, it is concluded that the mode converted ion-Bernstein waves are not suitable candidates for electron current drive
Momentum transfer to rotating magnetized plasma from gun plasma injection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shamim, Imran; Hassam, A. B.; Ellis, R. F.; Witherspoon, F. D.; Phillips, M. W.
2006-01-01
Numerical simulations are carried out to investigate the penetration and momentum coupling of a gun-injected plasma slug into a rotating magnetized plasma. An experiment along these lines is envisioned for the Maryland Centrifugal Experiment (MCX) [R. F. Ellis et al., Phys. Plasmas 8, 2057 (2001)] using a coaxial plasma accelerator gun developed by HyperV Technologies Corp. [F. D. Witherspoon et al., Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 50, LP1 87 (2005)]. The plasma gun would be located in the axial midplane and fired off-axis into the rotating MCX plasma annulus. The numerical simulation is set up so that the initial momentum in the injected plasma slug is of the order of the initial momentum of the target plasma. Several numerical firings are done into the cylindrical rotating plasma. Axial symmetry is assumed. The slug is seen to penetrate readily and deform into a mushroom, characteristic of interchange deformations. It is found that up to 25% of the momentum in the slug can be transferred to the background plasma in one pass across a cylindrical chord. For the same initial momentum, a high-speed low density slug gives more momentum transfer than a low-speed high density slug. Details of the numerical simulations and a scaling study are presented
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ardela, A.; Cooper, W.A.
1996-01-01
In this paper we resume a numerical study of the global stability of plasma with helical boundary deformation and non null net toroidal current. The aim was to see whether external modes with n=1,2 (n toroidal mode number) can be stabilized at values of β inaccessible to the tokamak. L=2,3 configurations with several aspect ratios and different numbers of equilibrium field periods are considered. A large variety of toroidal current densities and different pressure profiles are taken into account. Mercier stability is also investigated. (author) 4 figs., 6 refs
Dipolar vortex structures in magnetized rotating plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu Jixing
1990-01-01
Dipolar solitary vortices of both electrostatic and electromagnetic character in low-β, in homogeneous rotating plasma confined in a constant external magnetic field were systematically presented. The main stimulus to this investigation is the expectation to apply this coherent structure as a candidate constituent of plasma turbulance to understand the anomalous transport phenomena in confined plasma. The electrostatic vortices have similar structure and properties as the Rossby vortices in rotating fluids, the electromagnetic vortices obtained here have no analogy in hydrodynamics and hence are intrinsic to magnetized plasma. It is valuably remarked that the intrinsic electromagnetic vortices presented here have no discontinuity of perturbed magnetic field δB and parallel current j(parallel) on the border of vortex core. The existence region of the new type of vortex is found much narrower than the Rossby type one. (M.T.)
Investigation of diocotron modes in toroidally trapped electron plasmas using non-destructive method
Lachhvani, Lavkesh; Pahari, Sambaran; Sengupta, Sudip; Yeole, Yogesh G.; Bajpai, Manu; Chattopadhyay, P. K.
2017-10-01
Experiments with trapped electron plasmas in a SMall Aspect Ratio Toroidal device (SMARTEX-C) have demonstrated a flute-like mode represented by oscillations on capacitive (wall) probes. Although analogous to diocotron mode observed in linear electron traps, the mode evolution in toroids can have interesting consequences due to the presence of in-homogeneous magnetic field. In SMARTEX-C, the probe signals are observed to undergo transition from small, near-sinusoidal oscillations to large amplitude, non-linear "double-peaked" oscillations. To interpret the wall probe signal and bring forth the dynamics, an expression for the induced current on the probe for an oscillating charge is derived, utilizing Green's Reciprocation Theorem. Equilibrium position, poloidal velocity of the charge cloud, and charge content of the cloud, required to compute the induced current, are estimated from the experiments. Signal through capacitive probes is thereby computed numerically for possible charge cloud trajectories. In order to correlate with experiments, starting with an intuitive guess of the trajectory, the model is evolved and tweaked to arrive at a signal consistent with experimentally observed probe signals. A possible vortex like dynamics is predicted, hitherto unexplored in toroidal geometries, for a limited set of experimental observations from SMARTEX-C. Though heuristic, a useful interpretation of capacitive probe data in terms of charge cloud dynamics is obtained.
A full wave code for ion cyclotron waves in toroidal plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brambilla, M.
1996-02-01
The code TORIC solves the finite Larmor radius wave equations in the ion cyclotron frequency range in arbitrary axisymmetric toroidal geometry. The model used describes the compressional and torsional Alfven waves (or, depending on the parallel phase velocity, the kinetic counterpart of the latter), and ion Bernstein waves excited by mode conversion near the first ion cyclotron harmonic. In the ion response the broadening of the absorption regions due to the finite width of the cyclotron resonance of individual ions in toroidal geometry is taken into account. The parallel component of the wave electric field is evaluated on the same footing as the transverse ones; the response of the electrons includes Landau damping, Transit Time damping and the mixed term. The numerical approach uses a spectral representation of the solution in the poloidal angle θ, and cubic finite elements in the radial variable ψ. Great flexibility is provided in the way ion Bernstein waves excited by mode conversion are damped when their wavelength becomes comparable with the ion Larmor radius, in the regularization of Alfven resonances, and in the treatment of the outer plasma layers. As an option, we have also implemented the Order Reduction Algorithm, which provides a particularly fast, yet accurate evaluation of the power deposition profiles in toroidal geometry. Thee present report describes the model and its numerical implementation, and provides the information needed to use the code. A few examples illustrating applications of TORIC are also included. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ikeda, Nagayasu; Tamaru, Ken; Nagata, Akiyoshi.
1979-01-01
Formation of toroidal pre-heat plasma was studied. The pre-heat plasma without residual magnetic field was made by chopping the current for pre-heat, A small toroidal-pinch system was used for the experiment. The magnetic field was measured with a magnetic probe. One turn loop was used for the measurement of the toroidal one-turn electric field. A pair of Rogoski coil was used for the measurement of plasma current. The dependence of residual magnetic field on chopping time was measured. By fast chopping of the primary current in the pre-heating circuit, the poloidal magnetic field was reduced to several percent within 5 microsecond. After chopping, no instability was observed in the principal discharge plasma produced within several microsecond. As the conclusion, it can be said that the control of residual field can be made by current chopping. (Kato, T.)
Basic physics of Alfven instabilities driven by energetic particles in toroidally confined plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heidbrink, W. W.
2008-01-01
Superthermal energetic particles (EP) often drive shear Alfven waves unstable in magnetically confined plasmas. These instabilities constitute a fascinating nonlinear system where fluid and kinetic nonlinearities can appear on an equal footing. In addition to basic science, Alfven instabilities are of practical importance, as the expulsion of energetic particles can damage the walls of a confinement device. Because of rapid dispersion, shear Alfven waves that are part of the continuous spectrum are rarely destabilized. However, because the index of refraction is periodic in toroidally confined plasmas, gaps appear in the continuous spectrum. At spatial locations where the radial group velocity vanishes, weakly damped discrete modes appear in these gaps. These eigenmodes are of two types. One type is associated with frequency crossings of counterpropagating waves; the toroidal Alfven eigenmode is a prominent example. The second type is associated with an extremum of the continuous spectrum; the reversed shear Alfven eigenmode is an example of this type. In addition to these normal modes of the background plasma, when the energetic particle pressure is very large, energetic particle modes that adopt the frequency of the energetic particle population occur. Alfven instabilities of all three types occur in every toroidal magnetic confinement device with an intense energetic particle population. The energetic particles are most conveniently described by their constants of motion. Resonances occur between the orbital frequencies of the energetic particles and the wave phase velocity. If the wave resonance with the energetic particle population occurs where the gradient with respect to a constant of motion is inverted, the particles transfer energy to the wave, promoting instability. In a tokamak, the spatial gradient drive associated with inversion of the toroidal canonical angular momentum P ζ is most important. Once a mode is driven unstable, a wide variety of
Global Hybrid Simulations of Energetic Particle-driven Modes in Toroidal Plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fu, G.Y.; Breslau, J.; Fredrickson, E.; Park, W.; Strauss, H.R.
2004-01-01
Global hybrid simulations of energetic particle-driven MHD modes have been carried out for tokamaks and spherical tokamaks using the hybrid code M3D. The numerical results for the National Spherical Tokamak Experiments (NSTX) show that Toroidal Alfven Eigenmodes are excited by beam ions with their frequencies consistent with the experimental observations. Nonlinear simulations indicate that the n=2 mode frequency chirps down as the mode moves out radially. For ITER, it is shown that the alpha-particle effects are strongly stabilizing for internal kink mode when central safety factor q(0) is sufficiently close to unity. However, the elongation of ITER plasma shape reduces the stabilization significantly
Turbulence and transport characteristics of a barrier in a toroidal plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fujisawa, A; Shimizu, A; Nakano, H; Ohsima, S; Itoh, K; Iguchi, H; Yoshimura, Y; Minami, T; Nagaoka, K; Takahashi, C; Kojima, M; Nishimura, S; Isobe, M; Suzuki, C; Akiyama, T; Nagashima, Y; Ida, K; Toi, K; Ido, T; Itoh, S-I; Matsuoka, K; Okamura, S; Diamond, P H
2006-01-01
Turbulence and zonal flow at a transport barrier are studied with twin heavy ion beam probes in a toroidal helical plasma. A wavelet analysis is used to extract turbulence properties, e.g. spectra of both density and potential fluctuations, the coherence and the phase between them and the dispersion relation. Particle transport estimated from the fundamental characteristics is found to clearly rise with their intermittent activities after the barrier is broken down. Time-dependent analysis reveals that the intermittency of turbulence is correlated with the evolution of the stationary zonal flow
Turbulence and transport characteristics of a barrier in a toroidal plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fujisawa, A.; Shimizu, A.; Nakano, H.
2005-10-01
Turbulence and zonal flow at a transport barrier are studied with twin heavy ion beam probes in a toroidal helical plasma. A wavelet analysis is used to extract turbulence properties, e.g., spectra of both density and potential fluctuations, coherence and phase between them, and the dispersion relation. Particle transport estimated from the fundamental characteristics is found to clearly rise with their intermittent activities after the barrier is broken down. The time-dependent analysis reveals that intermittency of turbulence is correlated with evolution of stationary zonal flow. (author)
Waltz, R. E.; Waelbroeck, F. L.
2012-03-01
Static external resonant magnetic field perturbations (RMPs) have been added to the gyrokinetic code GYRO [J. Candy and R. E. Waltz, J. Comp. Phys. 186, 545 (2003)]. This allows nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations of the nonambipolar radial current flow jr, and the corresponding j→×B→ plasma torque (density) R[jrBp/c], induced by magnetic islands that break the toroidal symmetry of a tokamak. This extends the previous GYRO formulation for the transport of toroidal angular momentum (TAM) [R. E. Waltz, G. M. Staebler, J. Candy, and F. L. Hinton, Phys. Plasmas 14, 122507 (2007); errata 16, 079902 (2009)]. The focus is on electrostatic full torus radial slice simulations of externally induced q =m/n=6/3 islands with widths 5% of the minor radius or about 20 ion gyroradii. Up to moderately strong E ×B rotation, the island torque scales with the radial electric field at the resonant surface Er, the island width w, and the intensity I of the high-n micro-turbulence, as Erw√I . The radial current inside the island is carried (entirely in the n =3 component) and almost entirely by the ion E ×B flux, since the electron E ×B and magnetic flutter particle fluxes are cancelled. The net island torque is null at zero Er rather than at zero toroidal rotation. This means that while the expected magnetic braking of the toroidal plasma rotation occurs at strong co- and counter-current rotation, at null toroidal rotation, there is a small co-directed magnetic acceleration up to the small diamagnetic (ion pressure gradient driven) co-rotation corresponding to the zero Er and null torque. This could be called the residual stress from an externally induced island. At zero Er, the only effect is the expected partial flattening of the electron temperature gradient within the island. Finite-beta GYRO simulations demonstrate almost complete RMP field screening and n =3 mode unlocking at strong Er.
Two and three dimensional imaging of compact toroid plasmas using fast photography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Englert, S.E.; Bell, D.E.; Coffey, S.K.
1992-01-01
As is discussed in a companion paper, Degnan el al, fast photography is used as a visual diagnostic tool for high energy plasma research at the Phillips Laboratory. Both, two dimensional and three dimensional images, are gathered by using nanosecond and microsecond range fast photography techniques. A set of microchannel plate cameras and a fast framing camera are used to record images of a compact toroid plasma during formation and acceleration stages. These images are subsequently digitized and enhanced to bring out detailed information of interest. This spatial information is combined with other diagnostic results as well as theoretical models in order to build a more complete picture of the fundamental physics associated with high-energy plasmas
Stable confinement of toroidal electron plasma in an internal conductor device Prototype-Ring Trap
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saitoh, H.; Yoshida, Z.; Watanabe, S.
2005-01-01
A pure electron plasma has been produced in an internal conductor device Prototype-Ring Trap (Proto-RT). The temporal evolution of the electron plasma was investigated by the measurement of electrostatic fluctuations. Stable confinement was realized when the potential profile adjusted to match the magnetic surfaces. The confinement time varies as a function of the magnetic field strength and the neutral gas pressure, and is comparable to the diffusion time of electrons determined by the classical collisions with neutral gas. Although the addition of a toroidal magnetic field stabilized the electrostatic fluctuation of the plasma, the effects of the magnetic shear shortened the stable confinement time, possibly because of the obstacles of coil support structures
Hydrogen Pellet-Rotating Plasma Interaction
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jørgensen, L. W.; Sillesen, Alfred Hegaard; Øster, Flemming
1977-01-01
Spectroscopic measurements on the interaction between solid hydrogen pellets and rotating plasmas are reported. It was found that the light emitted is specific to the pellet material, and that the velocity of the ablated H-atoms is of the order of l0^4 m/s. The investigation was carried out...
Nonmodal phenomena in differentially rotating dusty plasmas
Poedts, Stefaan; Rogava, Andria D.
2000-10-01
In this paper the foundation is layed for the nonmodal investigation of velocity shear induced phenomena in a differentially rotating flow of a dusty plasma. The simplest case of nonmagnetized flow is considered. It is shown that, together with the innate properties of the dusty plasma, the presence of differential rotation, Coriolis forces, and self-gravity casts a considerable richness on the nonmodal dynamics of linear perturbations in the flow. In particular: (i) dust-acoustic waves acquire the ability to extract energy from the mean flow and (ii) shear-induced, nonperiodic modes of collective plasma behavior-shear-dust-acoustic vortices-are generated. The presence of self-gravity and the nonzero Coriolis parameter (``epicyclic shaking'') makes these collective modes transiently unstable. .
Nonmodal phenomena in differentially rotating dusty plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Poedts, Stefaan; Rogava, Andria D.
2000-01-01
In this paper the foundation is layed for the nonmodal investigation of velocity shear induced phenomena in a differentially rotating flow of a dusty plasma. The simplest case of nonmagnetized flow is considered. It is shown that, together with the innate properties of the dusty plasma, the presence of differential rotation, Coriolis forces, and self-gravity casts a considerable richness on the nonmodal dynamics of linear perturbations in the flow. In particular: (i) dust-acoustic waves acquire the ability to extract energy from the mean flow and (ii) shear-induced, nonperiodic modes of collective plasma behavior--shear-dust-acoustic vortices--are generated. The presence of self-gravity and the nonzero Coriolis parameter ('epicyclic shaking') makes these collective modes transiently unstable
Magnetohydrodynamic Waves and Instabilities in Rotating Tokamak Plasmas
J.W. Haverkort (Willem)
2013-01-01
htmlabstractOne of the most promising ways to achieve controlled nuclear fusion for the commercial production of energy is the tokamak design. In such a device, a hot plasma is confined in a toroidal geometry using magnetic fields. The present generation of tokamaks shows significant plasma
Plasma edge physics in the TEXTOR tokamak with poloidal and toroidal limiters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Samm, U.; Bogen, P.; Hartwig, H.; Hintz, E.; Hoethker, K.; Lie, Y.T.; Pospieszczyk, A.; Rusbueldt, D.; Schweer, B.; Yu, Y.J.
1989-01-01
Investigations of the plasma edge in TEXTOR are presented on the one hand by comparing results obtained with poloidal and toroidal limiters and on the other hand by discussing general problems of plasma edge physics which are independent of the limiter configuration. The characteristic properties of plasma flow to the different limiters are analyzed and show e.g. that the fraction of total ion flow to the limiter is much larger in the case of a toroidal limiter (80%). Density and heat flux profiles are presented which demonstrate that for both types of limiters a significant steepening of the scrape-off layer (SOL) occurs close to the limiter, leading to a small heat load e-folding length of 5-8 mm. The velocity distribution of recycled neutral hydrogen at a main limiter has been determined from the Doppler broadening of the H α line. The data clearly show that a large fraction of particles (30-50%) is reflected at the limiter surface having energies of about the sheath potential. Significant isotopic effects (H/D) concerning the plasma edge properties and the plasma core are presented and their relation to enhanced particle and energy transport in hydrogen compared to deuterium is discussed. A decrease of the cross field diffusion coefficient with increasing density can be deduced from density profile measurements in the SOL and a comparison with density fluctuations is given. The role of oxygen for impurity release is demonstrated. A new type of wall conditioning - boronization - is described, with two major improvements for quasi stationary conditions: reduction of oxygen and better density control. Best results with ICRH have been obtained under these conditions. (orig.)
Radial thermal diffusivity of toroidal plasma affected by resonant magnetic perturbations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kanno, Ryutaro; Nunami, Masanori; Satake, Shinsuke; Takamaru, Hisanori; Okamoto, Masao
2012-04-01
We investigate how the radial thermal diffusivity of an axisymmetric toroidal plasma is modified by effect of resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs), using a drift kinetic simulation code for calculating the thermal diffusivity in the perturbed region. The perturbed region is assumed to be generated on and around the resonance surfaces, and is wedged in between the regular closed magnetic surfaces. It has been found that the radial thermal diffusivity χ r in the perturbed region is represented as χ r = χ r (0) {1 + c r parallel 2 >}. Here r parallel 2 > 1/2 is the strength of the RMPs in the radial directions, means the flux surface average defined by the unperturbed (i.e., original) magnetic field, χ r (0) is the neoclassical thermal diffusivity, and c is a positive coefficient. In this paper, dependence of the coefficient c on parameters of the toroidal plasma is studied in results given by the δ f simulation code solving the drift kinetic equation under an assumption of zero electric field. We find that the dependence of c is given as c ∝ ω b /ν eff m in the low collisionality regime ν eff b , where ν eff is the effective collision frequency, ω b is the bounce frequency and m is the particle mass. In case of ν eff > ω b , the thermal diffusivity χ r evaluated by the simulations becomes close to the neoclassical thermal diffusivity χ r (0) . (author)
The Stability of Magnetized Rotating Plasmas with Superthermal Fields
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pessah, Martin Elias; Psaltis, Dimitrios
2005-01-01
be taken fully into account. We demonstrate that the presence of a strong toroidal component in the magnetic field plays a non-trivial role. When strong fields are considered, the strength of the toroidal magnetic field not only modifies the growth rates of the unstable modes but also determines which...... modes are subject to instabilities. We find that, for rotating configurations with Keplerian laws, the magnetorotational instability is stabilized at low wavenumbers for toroidal Alfven speeds exceeding the geometric mean of the sound speed and the rotational speed. We discuss the significance of our......During the last decade it has become evident that the magnetorotational instability is at the heart of the enhanced angular momentum transport in weakly magnetized accretion disks around neutron stars and black holes. In this paper, we investigate the local linear stability of differentially...
Ion confinement and transport in a toroidal plasma with externally imposed radial electric fields
Roth, J. R.; Krawczonek, W. M.; Powers, E. J.; Kim, Y. C.; Hong, H. Y.
1979-01-01
Strong electric fields were imposed along the minor radius of the toroidal plasma by biasing it with electrodes maintained at kilovolt potentials. Coherent, low-frequency disturbances characteristic of various magnetohydrodynamic instabilities were absent in the high-density, well-confined regime. High, direct-current radial electric fields with magnitudes up to 135 volts per centimeter penetrated inward to at least one-half the plasma radius. When the electric field pointed radially toward, the ion transport was inward against a strong local density gradient; and the plasma density and confinement time were significantly enhanced. The radial transport along the electric field appeared to be consistent with fluctuation-induced transport. With negative electrode polarity the particle confinement was consistent with a balance of two processes: a radial infusion of ions, in those sectors of the plasma not containing electrodes, that resulted from the radially inward fields; and ion losses to the electrodes, each of the which acted as a sink and drew ions out of the plasma. A simple model of particle confinement was proposed in which the particle confinement time is proportional to the plasma volume. The scaling predicted by this model was consistent with experimental measurements.
First experimental result of toroidal confinement of non-neutral plasma on Proto-RT
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Himura, H.; Yoshida, Z.; Morikawa, J.
1999-01-01
Recently, an internal-ring device named Proto-RT (Prototype Ring Trap) was constructed at University of Tokyo, and experiments on the device have been just initiated. The goal of Proto-RT is to explore an innovative way which has a possibility to attain a plasma equilibrium with extremely high-β (β>1) in a toroidal geometry using non-neutral condition. At the first series of the experiments, pure electron plasma (n e ∼10 12 m -3 ) is successfully confined inside a separatrix. No disruption is so far observed. The confinement time of the electron plasma is the order of 1 sec. A shear effect of magnetic fields seems to result in longer confinement. The non-neutrality of Δn e ∼10 12 m -3 is already beyond the value required to produce an enough self-electric field E in plasma, causing a strong ExB flow thoroughly all over the plasma where the hydrodynamic pressure of the flow is predicted to balance with the thermal pressure of the plasma. (author)
Equilibrium, stability and heating of plasmas in linear and toroidal Extrap pinches
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bonnevier, B.; Drake, J.R.; Dalhed, H.E.
1983-01-01
The Extrap scheme consists of a Z-pinch immersed in an octupole field. The total magnetic field has no component along the pinch axis. Globally stable Z-pinch equilibria with a distributed plasma current density and a duration of about 100 Alfven transit times have been observed in linear and toroidal sector experiments. Theoretical studies indicate that this stability can be the result of constraints introduced by the octupole field and the resulting separatrix of the total field, in combination with finite-Larmor-radius effects. A scheme for ICRF heating of the plasma in configurations with a magnetic neutral line, being applicable to Extrap and FRC, is analysed. Wave propagation arises owing to the Hall effect. Particle resonances are responsible for the absorption, owing to a high parallel wavenumber and a weak magnetic field. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jassby, D.L.; Sheffield, G.V.; Towner, H.H.; Weissenburger, D.W.
1976-10-01
The neutral-beam energy required for adequate penetration of tokamak plasmas of high opacity can be reduced by a large factor if the beam is injected vertically into a region of large TF (toroidal-field) ripple. Energetic ions are trapped in local magnetic wells and drift vertically toward the midplane (z = 0). If the ripple is made very small on the opposite side of the midplane, drifting ions are detrapped and thermalized in the central plasma region. This paper discusses design considerations for establishing the required vertically asymmetric ripple. Examples are given of special TF-coil configurations, and of the use of auxiliary coil windings to create the prescribed ripple profiles
Electromagnetic torque on the toroidal plasma and the error-field induced torque
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pustovitov, V. D.
2007-01-01
The electromagnetic torque on the toroidal plasma is calculated assuming a linear plasma response to the applied perturbation, which may be the error field or the field created by the correction coils, or both. The result is compared with recently published expressions for the error field induced torque (Zheng et al 2006 Nucl. Fusion 46 L9, Zheng and Kotschenreuther 2006 Phys. Rev. Lett. 97 165001), and the conclusions of these papers are revised. We resolve the problem of the torque resonance raised there. It is shown that the strong increase in the torque due to the static error field must occur at the resistive wall mode stability limit and not at the no-wall stability limit
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liu, Wei [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hsu, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Li, Hui [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2009-01-01
We present results from three-dimensional ideal magnetohydrodynamic simulations of low {beta} compact toroid (CT) injection into a hot strongly magnetized plasma, with the aim of providing insight into CT fueling of a tokamak with parameters relevant for ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor). A regime is identified in terms of CT injection speed and CT-to-background magnetic field ratio that appears promising for precise core fueling. Shock-dominated regimes, which are probably unfavorable for tokamak fueling, are also identified. The CT penetration depth is proportional to the CT injection speed and density. The entire CT evolution can be divided into three stages: (1) initial penetration, (2) compression in the direction of propagation and reconnection, and (3) coming to rest and spreading in the direction perpendicular to injection. Tilting of the CT is not observed due to the fast transit time of the CT across the background plasma.
On the interplay between neoclassical tearing modes and nonlocal transport in toroidal plasmas
Ji, X. Q.; Xu, Y.; Hidalgo, C.; Diamond, P. H.; Liu, Yi; Pan, O.; Shi, Z. B.; Yu, D. L.
2016-09-01
This Letter presents the first observation on the interplay between nonlocal transport and neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs) during transient nonlocal heat transport events in the HL-2A tokamak. The nonlocality is triggered by edge cooling and large-scale, inward propagating avalanches. These lead to a locally enhanced pressure gradient at the q = 3/2 (or 2/1) rational surface and hence the onset of the NTM in relatively low β plasmas (βN < 1). The NTM, in return, regulates the nonlocal transport by truncation of avalanches by local sheared toroidal flows which develop near the magnetic island. These findings have direct implications for understanding the dynamic interaction between turbulence and large-scale mode structures in fusion plasmas.
Equilibrium and stability of theta-pinch plasma in modified toroidal multiple mirror field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shiina, S.; Saito, K.; Osanai, Y.; Itagaki, T.; Karakizawa, T.; Gesso, H.; Todoroki, J.; Kawakami, I.; Yoshimura, H.
1976-01-01
To confine a high-beta plasma a new toroidal magnetic configuration with closed lines of force has been proposed [1]. The configuration is an appropriate superposition of l = 0, l = +- 1, l = +- 2,sup(...), helical fields. In this experiment, it is generated by modifying the multiple mirror field by enclosing the discharge tube in a copper shell which has longitudinal gap. This configuration is preferred for the wall stabilizing effect to that with the separated helical windings. The characteristics of the equilibrium conditions are examined based on the near-axis approximation theory and compared with the experimental results. The stability of plasma in the configurations with l = 0 field and with superposition of l = 0, l = +- 2 fields is investigated in linear geometry. (author)
Ideal MHD equilibrium of a weakly toroidal plasma column with elongated cross-section
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heesch, E.J.M. van; Schuurman, W.
1980-07-01
Solutions are obtained of the ideal MHD equations describing the equilibrium of a weakly toroidal plasma with an elliptic cross-section surrounded by a force-free magnetic field with constant ratio between current density and magnetic field strength. The force-free field parameter causes the stagnation points to recede along the major axis of the ellipse. Above a certain value of the force-free field parameter, stagnation points do not exist, so that the compression ratio of the plasma column is no longer limited. The analysis was carried out to first order in the force-free field parameter as well as to second order for an estimate of the error
Magnetic field profiles during turbulent heating in a toroidal hydrogen plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kalfsbeek, H.W.
1978-12-01
A description is given of the measurements of both poloidal and toroidal magnetic field components as functions of radius and time in a small turbulently heated tokamak. These measurements have been carried out with an array of miniature pick-up coils, enclosed in a quartz tube which is inserted into the plasma. The electric fields inside the plasma, as well as the parallel resistivity profiles are deduced from the measured magnetic fields. The ohmically dissipated energy is determined from the field distributions and compared with the total input energy. The experimental results are compared with the outcome of a numerical model. The consistency with information obtained from other diagnostic measurements is checked. (Auth.)
Observations of plasma rotation in the high-beta tokamak Torus II
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kostek, C.; Marshall, T.C.
1982-01-01
Toroidal and poloidal plasma rotation are measured in a high Beta tokamak device by studying the Doppler shift of the 4686 A He II line. The toroidal flow motion is in the same direction as the plasma current at an average velocity of 1.6 x 10 6 cm/sec, a small fraction of the ion thermal speed. The poloidal flow follows the ion diamagnetic direction, also at an average speed of 1.6 x 10 6 cm/sec. In view of certain ordering parameters, the toroidal flow is compared with the predictions of neoclassical transport theory in the collisional regime. For the poloidal motion, however, it appears that an (E/sub r/ x B)/B 2 drift in a positive radial electric field, approaching a stable ambipolar state (STRINGER, 1970) is responsible. Mechanisms for the time evolution of the rotation are also examined. The radial electric field responsible for the (E/sub r/ x B)/B 2 drift is determined from the theory using the measured poloidal velocity
Heat loads on poloidal and toroidal edges of castellated plasma-facing components in COMPASS
Dejarnac, R.; Corre, Y.; Vondracek, P.; Gaspar, J.; Gauthier, E.; Gunn, J. P.; Komm, M.; Gardarein, J.-L.; Horacek, J.; Hron, M.; Matejicek, J.; Pitts, R. A.; Panek, R.
2018-06-01
Dedicated experiments have been performed in the COMPASS tokamak to thoroughly study the power deposition processes occurring on poloidal and toroidal edges of castellated plasma-facing components in tokamaks during steady-state L-mode conditions. Surface temperatures measured by a high resolution infra-red camera are compared with reconstructed synthetic data from a 2D thermal model using heat flux profiles derived from both the optical approximation and 2D particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. In the case of poloidal leading edges, when the contribution from local radiation is taken into account, the parallel heat flux deduced from unperturbed, upstream measurements is fully consistent with the observed temperature increase at the leading edges of various heights, respecting power balance assuming simple projection of the parallel flux density. Smoothing of the heat flux deposition profile due to finite ion Larmor radius predicted by the PIC simulations is found to be weak and the power deposition on misaligned poloidal edges is better described by the optical approximation. This is consistent with an electron-dominated regime associated with a non-ambipolar parallel current flow. In the case of toroidal gap edges, the different contributions of the total incoming flux along the gap have been observed experimentally for the first time. They confirm the results of recent numerical studies performed for ITER showing that in specific cases the heat deposition does not necessarily follow the optical approximation. Indeed, ions can spiral onto the magnetically shadowed toroidal edge. Particle-in-cell simulations emphasize again the role played by local non-ambipolarity in the deposition pattern.
On the theory of the electrical field and the plasma rotation in the stellarator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Coronado-Gallardo, M.
1984-01-01
In the context of neoclassical transport theory, the macroscopic torque equations for several liquids in toroidal plasmas are used with general geometry. In order to examine plasma rotation and the electrical field in equilibrium and the effect of sources of particles and pulses, the continuity and pulse balance equations are dealt with. In order to use them on the WVII-A stellarator in the Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, existing formulae are expanded and the viscosity tensor is calculated in the CGL form in the plateau range. General expressions for plasma speed, electrical field, plasma diffusion and current are obtained, in which the effect of the sources occurs explicitly. The theory is applied to the WVII-A stellarator, in which neutral particle injection represents one pulse source. (orig.) [de
Plasma rotation in plasma centrifuge with an annular gap
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, H.Y.; Hong, S.H.
1982-01-01
The steady-state rotation of plasma centrifuge is theoretically analyzed to understand the physics of rotating plasma and its feasibility for isotope separation. The centriguge system under consideration consists of an annular gap between coaxial cylindrical anode and cathod in the presence of an externally-applied axial magnetic field. A problem for coupled partial differential equations describing centrifuge fields is formulated on the basis of the magnetohydrodynamic equations. Two-dimensional solutions are found analytically in the form of Fourier-Bessel series. The current density and velocity distributions are discussed in terms of the Hartmann number and the geometrical parameter of the system. At typical conditions, rotational speeds of the plasma up to the order of 10 4 m/sec are achievable, and increase either with increasing Hartmann number, or with increasing ratio of the axial length to the inner radius of the cylinder. In view of much higher speeds of rotation which can be achieved in plasma centrifuge, it is expected that its efficiency is superior to mechanically driven gas centrifuges. (Author)
Ion heating at the cyclotron resonance in plasmas magnetically confined in a toroidal octupole field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barter, J.D.
1976-01-01
Ion temperatures as high as 600 eV have been produced using rf wave heating at the ion cyclotron resonance frequency in a toroidal octupole magnetic field. Rf is coupled to the plasma with an externally driven ''fifth'' hoop which forms the inductive leg of an oscillator tank circuit. Power levels up to 1 MW at 1 to 3 MHz have been applied for periods up to 2 msec. Plasmas produced either by ECRH or by gun injection are simulated with a computer program in which known particle and energy production and loss mechanisms are used to predict the spatially averaged time behaviour of the plasma in the presence of the applied ion heating. The program can be used to calculate the consequences of the heating model in the presence of many cooling mechanisms which may each have a separate dependence on instantaneous plasma parameters. Experimental quantities compared to computer predictions include density, ion temperature, and loading of the hoop by the plasma, both resistive and reactive, and neutral reflux from the wall by electron and ion impact. Wave penetration to the resonance zone is good up to the highest densities available (6 x 10 12 cm -3 by gun injection) in good agreement with theory. Neutral reflux from the walls and the large charge exchange cooling which results is the dominant loss mechanism at the higher hoop voltages
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sato, K.N.; Sakakita, H.; Liang, R.; Hamada, Y.; Ida, K.; Kano, Y.; Sakamoto, M.
1994-01-01
The interaction of an ice pellet and a toroidal plasma has been studied in the JIPP T-IIU tokamak by using an injection-angle controllable system. In order to carry out various basic experiments by varying the pellet deposition profile within a plasma, anew technique for an ice pellet injection system with controllability of the injection angle has been developed and installed with the JIPP t-IIU tokamak. Injection angle can be varied easily and successfully during an interval of two plasma shots in the course of an experiment. The injection angle has been varied poloidally from 6 to 6 degree by changing the angle of the last stage drift tube, and this makes possible for pellets to aim at from about r = -2 a/3 to r = 2 a/3 of the plasma. From two dimensional observations by CCD cameras, details of the pellet ablation structures with various injections angles have been studied, and a couple of interesting phenomena have been found. In the case of an injection angle (θ) larger than a certain value (θ ≥ 4 0 ), a pellet penetrates straightly through the plasma with a trace of straight ablation cloud, which has been expected from usual theoretical consideration. On the other hand, a long helical tail of ablation light has been observed in the case of the angle smaller than the certain value (θ ≤ 4 0 ). The direction of helical rotation (tail) is independent to that of the total magnetic field lines of the torus. In order to examine the tail direction, further experiments have been carried out as to four conditions of the combination with two (clockwise and counter-clockwise) toroidal field directions and with two plasma current directions. The results show that it seems to rotate to the electron diamagnetic direction poloidally, and to the opposite to the plasma current direction toroidally. Consideration on various cross sections including charge exchange, ionization and elastic collisions leads us to the conclusion that the tail-shaped phenomena may come from
Three-dimensional simulation study of compact toroid plasmoid injection into magnetized plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suzuki, Y.; Watanabe, T.-H.; Sato, T.; Hayashi, T.
1999-04-01
Three-dimensional dynamics of a compact toroid (CT) plasmoid, which is injected into a magnetized target plasma region is investigated by using magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) numerical simulations. It is found that the process of the CT penetration into this region is much more complicated than what has been analyzed so far by using a conducting sphere (CS) model. The injected CT suffers from a tilting instability, which grows with the similar time scale as the CT penetration. The instability is accompanied by magnetic reconnection between the CT magnetic field and the target magnetic field, which disrupts the magnetic configuration of the CT. Magnetic reconnection plays a role to supply the high density plasma initially confined in the CT magnetic field into the target region. Also, the penetration depth of the CT high density plasma is examined. It is shown to be shorter than that estimated from the CS model. The CT high density plasma is decelerated mainly by the Lorentz force of the target magnetic field, which includes not only the magnetic pressure force but also the magnetic tension force. Furthermore, by comparing the CT plasmoid injection with the bare plasmoid injection, magnetic reconnection is considered to relax the magnetic tension force, that is the deceleration of the CT plasmoid. (author)
Effects of toroidal field ripple on suprathermal ions in tokamak plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goldston, R.J.; Towner, H.H.
1980-02-01
Analytic calculations of three important effects of toroidal field ripple on suprathermal ions in tokamak plasmas are presented. In the first process, collisional ripple-trapping, beam ions become trapped in local magnetic wells near their banana tips due to pitch-angle scattering as they traverse the ripple on barely unripple-trapped orbits. In the second process, collisionless ripple-trapping, near-perpendicular untrapped ions are captured (again near a banana tip) due to their finite orbits, which carry them out into regions of higher ripple. In the third process, banana-drift diffusion, fast-ion banana orbits fail to close precisely, due to a ripple-induced variable lingering period near the banana tips. These three mechanisms lead to substantial radial transport of banana-trapped, neutral-beam-injected ions when the quantity α* identical with epsilon/sin theta/Nqdelta is of order unity or smaller
Effects of toroidal field ripple on suprathermal ions in tokamak plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goldston, R.J.; Towner, H.H.
1981-01-01
Analytic calculations of three important effects of toroidal field ripple on suprathermal ions in tokamak plasmas are presented. In the first process, collisional ripple-trapping, ions become trapped in local magnetic wells near their banana tips owing to pitch-angle scattering as they traverse the ripple on barely unripple-trapped orbits. In the second process, collisionless ripple-trapping, ions are captured (again near a banana tip) owing to their finite orbits, which carry them out into regions of higher ripple. In the third process, banana-drift diffusion, fast-ion banana orbits fail to close precisely, due to a ripple-induced 'variable lingering period' near the banana tips. These three mechanisms lead to substantial radial transport of banana-trapped, neutral-beam-injected ions when the quantity α* is identical with epsilonsinthetaNqdelta is of order unity or smaller. (author)
Neoclassical and anomalous transport in axisymmetric toroidal plasmas with electrostatic turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sugama, H.; Horton, W.
1995-05-01
Neoclassical and anomalous transport fluxes are determined for axisymmetric toroidal plasmas with weak electrostatic fluctuations. The neoclassical and anomalous fluxes are defined based on the ensemble-averaged kinetic equation with the statistically averaged nonlinear term. The anomalous forces derived from that quasilinear term induce the anomalous particle and heat fluxes. The neoclassical banana-plateau particle and heat fluxes and the bootstrap current are also affected by the fluctuations through the parallel anomalous forces and the modified parallel viscosities. The quasilinear term, the anomalous forces, and the anomalous particle and heat fluxes are evaluated from the fluctuating part of the drift kinetic equation. The averaged drift kinetic equation with the quasilinear term is solved for the plateau regime to derive the parallel viscosities modified by the fluctuations. The entropy production rate due to the anomalous transport processes is formulated and used to identify conjugate pairs of the anomalous fluxes and forces, which are connected by the matrix with the Onsager symmetry. (author)
Electromagnetic solitary vortices in rotating plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, J.; Horton, W.
1985-12-01
The nonlinear equations describing drift-Alfven solitary vortices in a low β, rotating plasma are derived. Two types of solitary vortex solutions along with their corresponding nonlinear dispersion relations are obtained. Both solutions have the localized coherent dilopar structure. The first type of solution belongs to the family of the usual Rossby or drift wave vortex, while the second type of solution is intrinsic to the electromagnetic perturbation in a magnetized plasma and is a complicated structure. While the first type of vortex is a solution to a second order differential equation the second one is the solution of a fourth order differential equation intrinsic to the electromagnetic problem. The fourth order vortex solution has two intrinsic space scales in contrast to the single space scale of the previous drift vortex solution. With the second short scale length the parallel current density at the vortex interface becomes continuous. As special cases the rotational electron drift vortex and the rotational ballooning vortex also are given. 10 refs
Rotation and toroidal magnetic field effects on the stability of two-component jets
Millas, Dimitrios; Keppens, Rony; Meliani, Zakaria
2017-09-01
Several observations of astrophysical jets show evidence of a structure in the direction perpendicular to the jet axis, leading to the development of 'spine and sheath' models of jets. Most studies focus on a two-component jet consisting of a highly relativistic inner jet and a slower - but still relativistic - outer jet surrounded by an unmagnetized environment. These jets are believed to be susceptible to a relativistic Rayleigh-Taylor-type instability, depending on the effective inertia ratio of the two components. We extend previous studies by taking into account the presence of a non-zero toroidal magnetic field. Different values of magnetization are examined to detect possible differences in the evolution and stability of the jet. We find that the toroidal field, above a certain level of magnetization σ, roughly equal to 0.01, can stabilize the jet against the previously mentioned instabilities and that there is a clear trend in the behaviour of the average Lorentz factor and the effective radius of the jet when we continuously increase the magnetization. The simulations are performed using the relativistic MHD module from the open source, parallel, grid adaptive, mpi-amrvac code.
Interaction of supra-thermal ions with turbulence in a magnetized toroidal plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Plyushchev, G.
2009-01-01
This thesis addresses the interaction of a supra-thermal ion beam with turbulence in the simple magnetized toroidal plasma of TORPEX. The first part of the Thesis deals with the ohmic assisted discharges on TORPEX. The aim of these discharges is the investigation of the open to closed magnetic field line transition. The relevant magnetic diagnostics were developed. Ohmic assisted discharges with a maximum plasma current up to 1 kA are routinely obtained. The equilibrium conditions on the vacuum magnetic field configuration were investigated. In the second part of the Thesis, the design of the fast ion source and detector are discussed. The accelerating electric field needed for the fast ion source was optimized. The fast ion source was constructed and commissioned. To detect the fast ions a specially designed gridded energy analyzer was used. The electron energy distribution function was obtained to demonstrate the efficiency of the detector. The experiments with the fast ion beam were conducted in different plasma regions of TORPEX. In the third part of the Thesis, numerical simulations are used to interpret the measured fast ion beam behavior. It is shown that a simple single particle equation of motion explains the beam behavior in the experiments in the absence of plasma. To explain the fast ion beam experiments with the plasma a turbulent electric field must be used. The model that takes into account this turbulent electrical field qualitatively explains the shape of the fast ion current density profile in the different plasma regions of TORPEX. The vertically elongated fast ion current density profiles are explained by a spread in the fast ion velocity distribution. The theoretically predicted radial fast ion beam spreading due to the turbulent electric field was observed in the experiment. (author)
The Brunt–Väisälä frequency of rotating tokamak plasmas
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Haverkort, J.W.; Blank, H.J. de; Koren, B.
2012-01-01
The continuous spectrum of analytical toroidally rotating magnetically confined plasma equilibria is investigated analytically and numerically. In the presence of purely toroidal flow, the ideal magnetohydrodynamic equations leave the freedom to specify which thermodynamic quantity is constant on the magnetic surfaces. Introducing a general parametrization of this quantity, analytical equilibrium solutions are derived that still posses this freedom. These equilibria and their spectral properties are shown to be ideally suited for testing numerical equilibrium and stability codes including toroidal rotation. Analytical expressions are derived for the low-frequency continuous Alfvén spectrum. These expressions still allow one to choose which quantity is constant on the magnetic surfaces of the equilibrium, thereby generalizing previous results. The centrifugal convective effect is shown to modify the lowest Alfvén continuum branch to a buoyancy frequency, or Brunt–Väisälä frequency. A comparison with numerical results for the case that the specific entropy, the temperature, or the density is constant on the magnetic surfaces yields excellent agreement, showing the usefulness of the derived expressions for the validation of numerical codes.
Constructing the spectral web of rotating plasmas
Goedbloed, Hans
2012-10-01
Rotating plasmas are ubiquitous in nature. The theory of MHD stability of such plasmas, initiated a long time ago, has severely suffered from the wide spread misunderstanding that it necessarily involves non-self-adjoint operators. It has been shown (J.P. Goedbloed, PPCF 16, 074001, 2011; Goedbloed, Keppens and Poedts, Advanced Magnetohydrodynamics, Cambridge, 2010) that, on the contrary, spectral theory of moving plasmas can be constructed entirely on the basis of energy conservation and self-adjointness of the occurring operators. The spectral web is a further development along this line. It involves the construction of a network of curves in the complex omega-plane associated with the complex complementary energy, which is the energy needed to maintain harmonic time dependence in an open system. Vanishing of that energy, at the intersections of the mentioned curves, yields the eigenvalues of the closed system. This permits to consider the enormous diversity of MHD instabilities of rotating tokamaks, accretion disks about compact objects, and jets emitted from those objects, from a single view point. This will be illustrated with results obtained with a new spectral code (ROC).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jhang, Hogun
2008-01-01
A study is conducted on the feedback stabilization of resistive wall modes (RWMs) in a tokamak plasma using a toroidal shell model. An analytically tractable form of the RWM dispersion relation is derived in the presence of a set of discrete feedback coil currents. A parametric study is carried out to optimize the feedback system configuration. It is shown that the total toroidal angle of a resistive wall spanned by the feedback coils and the poloidal angular extent of a feedback coil are crucial parameters to determine the efficacy of the feedback system
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Romadanov, I.V.; Ryzhkov, S.V., E-mail: ryzhkov@power.bmstu.ru
2014-12-15
Highlights: • Compact torus formation method with high level of magnetic flux is proposed. • A compact torus is produced in a theta-pinch-coil with pulse mode of operation. • Key feature is a pulse of current in an axial direction. • We report a level of linked magnetic flux is higher than theta-pinch results. - Abstract: The present work reports on compact toroid hydrogen plasma creation by means of a specially designed discharge system and results of magnetic fields introduction. Experiments in the compact toroid challenge (CTC) device at P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute (FIAN) have been conducted since 2005. The CTC device differs from the conventional theta-pinch formation in the use of an axial current for enhanced efficiency. We have used a novel technique to maximize the flux linked to the plasma. The purpose of this method is to increase the energy input into the plasma and the level of trapped magnetic flux using an additional toroidal magnetic field. A study of compact torus formation with axial and toroidal currents was done and a new method is proposed and implemented.
Isotopic separation by centrifugation. Rotating plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Perello, M.; Vigon, M. A.
1972-01-01
The motion of a gas simultaneously submitted to an electric discharge and magnetic field has been studied in order to analyze the possibility of producing isotopes separation by rotation of a plasma. Some experimental results obtained under different discharge conditions are also given. Differences of pressure up to 15 mm oil between both electrodes has been attained. No definite conclusion on separation factors could be reached because of the low reproducibility of results, probably due to the short duration of the discharge with a new chamber designed to support stronger thermal shocks more reliable data can be expected. (Author) 16 refs
Remapping HELENA to incompressible plasma rotation parallel to the magnetic field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Poulipoulis, G.; Throumoulopoulos, G. N. [Physics Department, University of Ioannina, Ioannina 451 10 (Greece); Konz, C. [Max-Planck Institut für Plasma Physics, 85748 Garching bei München (Germany)
2016-07-15
Plasma rotation in connection to both zonal and mean (equilibrium) flows can play a role in the transitions to the advanced confinement regimes in tokamaks, as the L-H transition and the formation of internal transport barriers (ITBs). For incompressible rotation, the equilibrium is governed by a generalised Grad-Shafranov (GGS) equation and a decoupled Bernoulli-type equation for the pressure. For parallel flow, the GGS equation can be transformed to one identical in form with the usual Grad-Shafranov equation. In the present study on the basis of the latter equation, we have extended HELENA, an equilibrium fixed boundary solver. The extended code solves the GGS equation for a variety of the two free-surface-function terms involved for arbitrary Alfvén Mach number and density functions. We have constructed diverted-boundary equilibria pertinent to ITER and examined their characteristics, in particular, as concerns the impact of rotation on certain equilibrium quantities. It turns out that the rotation and its shear affect noticeably the pressure and toroidal current density with the impact on the current density being stronger in the parallel direction than in the toroidal one.
Divertor experiments in a toroidal plasma, with E x B drift due to an applied radial electric field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Strait, E.J.
1979-09-01
It is proposed that the E x B drift arising from an externally applied electric field could be used in a tokamak or other toroidal magnetic plasma confinement device to remove plasma and impurities from the region near the wall and reduce the amount of plasma striking the wall. This could either augment or replace a conventional magnetic field divertor. Among the possible advantages of this scheme are easy external control over the rate of removal of plasma, more rapid removal than the naturally occurring rate in a magnetic divertor, and simplification of construction if the magnetic divertor is eliminated. Results of several related experiments performed in the Wisconsin Levitated Octupole are presented
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stoschus, Henning
2011-01-01
relative rotation indications for a magnetic island acting as locally confining sub-volumes are found. (4) For high relative rotation, the entire measured edge plasma structure is shifted by π/2 toroidally with respect to the position modeled in vacuum approximation. The latter two experimental findings are compatible with modeling results of the underlying magnetic topology including plasma response obtained by a 4-field drift fluid transport model. (5) A smaller shift is measured in front of the RMP coils. This gives direct experimental evidence that the near field plasma structure is governed by the competition between the RMP near field and the local plasma structure at the next inward rational flux surface. The results obtained are essential input for benchmarking models, which include plasma response, in order to extrapolate the RMP imposed 3D plasma structure toward the next step fusion experiment ITER. The measurements of the plasma structure presented indicate that the underlying magnetic topology is rotation dependent and may therefore stimulate direct measurements of the components of the magnetic field in future. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stoschus, Henning
2011-10-13
along open magnetic field lines to the wall components. For high relative rotation indications for a magnetic island acting as locally confining sub-volumes are found. (4) For high relative rotation, the entire measured edge plasma structure is shifted by {pi}/2 toroidally with respect to the position modeled in vacuum approximation. The latter two experimental findings are compatible with modeling results of the underlying magnetic topology including plasma response obtained by a 4-field drift fluid transport model. (5) A smaller shift is measured in front of the RMP coils. This gives direct experimental evidence that the near field plasma structure is governed by the competition between the RMP near field and the local plasma structure at the next inward rational flux surface. The results obtained are essential input for benchmarking models, which include plasma response, in order to extrapolate the RMP imposed 3D plasma structure toward the next step fusion experiment ITER. The measurements of the plasma structure presented indicate that the underlying magnetic topology is rotation dependent and may therefore stimulate direct measurements of the components of the magnetic field in future. (orig.)
Nonlinear interaction of fast particles with Alfven waves in toroidal plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Candy, J.; Borba, D.; Huysmans, G.T.A.; Kerner, W.; Berk, H.L.
1996-01-01
A numerical algorithm to study the nonlinear, resonant interaction of fast particles with Alfven waves in tokamak geometry has been developed. The scope of the formalism is wide enough to describe the nonlinear evolution of fishbone modes, toroidicity-induced Alfven eigenmodes and ellipticity-induced Alfven eigenmodes, driven by both passing and trapped fast ions. When the instability is sufficiently weak, it is known that the wave-particle trapping nonlinearity will lead to mode saturation before wave-wave nonlinearities are appreciable. The spectrum of linear modes can thus be calculated using a magnetohydrodynamic normal-mode code, then nonlinearly evolved in time in an efficient way according to a two-time-scale Lagrangian dynamical wave model. The fast particle kinetic equation, including the effect of orbit nonlinearity arising from the mode perturbation, is simultaneously solved of the deviation, δf = f - f 0 , from an initial analytic distribution f 0 . High statistical resolution allows linear growth rates, frequency shifts, resonance broadening effects, and nonlinear saturation to be calculated quickly and precisely. The results have been applied to an ITER instability scenario. Results show that weakly-damped core-localized modes alone cause negligible alpha transport in ITER-like plasmas--even with growth rates one order of magnitude higher than expected values. However, the possibility of significant transport in reactor-type plasmas due to weakly unstable global modes remains an open question
Tokamak with liquid metal toroidal field coil
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ohkawa, T.; Schaffer, M.J.
1981-01-01
Tokamak apparatus includes a pressure vessel for defining a reservoir and confining liquid therein. A toroidal liner disposed within the pressure vessel defines a toroidal space within the liner. Liquid metal fills the reservoir outside said liner. Electric current is passed through the liquid metal over a conductive path linking the toroidal space to produce a toroidal magnetic field within the toroidal space about the major axis thereof. Toroidal plasma is developed within the toroidal space about the major axis thereof
Isotope separation in a rotational plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tomimura, A.; Nicoli, C.
1985-03-01
The model of a steady cascade in a plasma confined between two cylindrical electrodes and immersed in a homogenous and axial magnetic field is constructed in order to study the separation properties of the elements that make up its mono-ionised ionic species. Rotation is imposed over a column of plasma through the interaction J x B and sufficiently balanced by viscous friction. In the radial direction the pinch effect, due to the radial component of the J x B interaction, counterbalances the pressure gradient which is bigger than the centrifugal force. A uranium gas with its two principal isotopes (U 235 and U 238 ) constitutes an ionic species of plasma. The numerical scheme designed to resolve the system of equations containing variables of density, temperature and velocity as a function of the radius promises solutions that satisfy null contour conditions for velocity in the two contours (external and internal electrodes). Maximum typical values of velocity and separation factor at temperatures and densities (in the internal electrode) of the order of 60 000 K and 5 x 10 15 cm -3 are, for example, 11.8 km/s and 1.4 respectively. Bigger values can be obtained, depending on the values of the free parameters in the internal electrode
Current drive by neutral beams, rotating magnetic fields and helicity injection in compact toroids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Farengo, R.; Arista, N.R.; Lifschitz, A.F.; Clemente, R.A.
2003-01-01
The use of neutral beams (NB) for current drive and heating in spheromaks, the relaxed states of flux core spheromaks (FCS) sustained by helicity injection and the effect of ion dynamics on rotating magnetic field (RMF) current drive in spherical tokamaks (ST) are studied. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pasqualini, D.; Martin, P.; Koguchi, H.; Yagi, Y.; Hirano, Y.; Sakakita, H.; Spizzo, G.
2006-01-01
The MHD instabilities that sustain the reversed-field pinch (RFP) configuration tend to phase-lock together and also to wall-lock, forming a bulging of the plasma column, called 'locked mode'. This phenomenon is of particular interest, since the locked mode causes a larger plasma resistivity, plasma cooling, and, in some cases, anomalous discharge termination. Up to now, studies of the locked mode have been focused on m=1 modes (being m the poloidal mode number). In this Letter we show that m=0 modes also play a role, based on the cross-check between magnetic spectra and toroidally resolved D α array measurements. (author)
On the existence and uniqueness of dissipative plasma equilibria in a toroidal domain
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spada, M.; Wobig, H.
1991-06-01
A one-fluid, dissipative magnetohydrodynamic model of plasma equilibrium in a torus is considered. The equations include inertial forces, finte resistivity and viscosity, and a particle source which sustains the pressure gradient in the plasma; viscosity is described by the Braginskii operator. Plasma density, resistivity and viscosity coefficients are assumed to be uniform. A boundary-value problem in a general toroidal domain is formulated, no further assumption on the domain being made besides a sufficient regularity of its boundary. The system of equations is reduced to a problem with unknowns p, v, B (p denotes the scalar pressure, v the flow velocity, B the magnetic field). A functional setting of the equations is established and, generalizing the classical mathematical techniques adopted in the theory of viscous incompressible flow to investigate the solvability of the steady-state Navier-Stokes equations, a problem for weak solutions is formulated which is shown to be equivalent to solving a nonlinear equation in a separable Hilbert space. Then, by analysing the Braginskii viscosity in the established functional framework, we find properties which allow to write the above equation as a fixed-point equation. Main results of our analysis are the following: (i) We prove the existence of at least one weak solution if the source is sufficiently small, or viscosity and resistivity sufficiently large; (ii) We obtain an estimate of the solution(s); (iii) We prove that, under a condition of the same kind as that for existence, but more stringent, there exists only one solution; (iv) The well known existence and uniqueness results for the steady-state Navier-Stokes problem are recovered when the magnetic field is set equal to zero. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nowak, S.; Bruschi, A.; Ramponi, G.; Cirant, S.; Lazzaro, E.; Verhoeven, A.G.A.; Zohm, H.
2003-01-01
A beam-tracing code is used for extensive beam-tracing, ECCD and ECRH profile calculations in ideal JET-like plasmas with the main aim of specifying such crucial parameters for the ECRH launcher as the poloidal and toroidal steering ranges, the permitted error in the various launching angles and the optimal shape of the last mirrors reflecting surfaces. In order to be fusion-relevant, the calculations are performed on ideal target plasmas and equilibrium configurations scaled from real JET shots, selected by the JET-EP ECRH Physics Integration Project. The launching scheme is fully compliant with a launcher designed under the geometric constraints of JET, which consists of 6 to 8 beams arranged in pairs, with four end mirrors steerable both in the poloidal and in the toroidal directions. It is shown that with this arrangement all launching configurations requested by the physics goals of ECRH in a JET-like device are feasible. (authors)
Stochastic layers of magnetic field lines and formation of ITB in a toroidal plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Volkov, E.D.; Bererzhnyi, V.L.; Bondarenko, V.N.
2003-01-01
The results of local measurements of RF discharge plasma parameters in the process of ITB formation in the vicinity of rational magnetic surfaces in the Uragan-3M torsatron are presented. The next phenomena were observed in the process of ITB formation: the widening of the radial density distribution, the formation of pedestals on radial density and electron temperature distributions, the formation of regions with high shear of poloidal plasma rotation velocity and radial electric field in the vicinity of stochastic layers of magnetic field lines, the decrease of density fluctuations and their radial correlation length, the decorrelation of density fluctuations, the increase of the bootstrap current. After the ITB formation, the transition to the improved plasma confinement regime takes place. The transition moves to the beginning of the discharge with the increase of heating power. The possible mechanism of ITB formation near rational surfaces is discussed. (orig.)
Neoclassical and anomalous transport in axisymmetric toroidal plasmas with electrostatic turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sugama, H.; Horton, W.
1995-01-01
Neoclassical and anomalous transport fluxes are determined for axisymmetric toroidal plasmas with weak electrostatic fluctuations. The neoclassical and anomalous fluxes are defined based on the ensemble-averaged kinetic equation with the statistically averaged nonlinear term. The anomalous forces derived from that quasilinear term induce the anomalous particle and heat fluxes. The neoclassical banana-plateau particle and heat fluxes and the bootstrap current are also affected by the fluctuations through the parallel anomalous forces and the modified parallel viscosities. The quasilinear term, the anomalous forces, and the anomalous particle and heat fluxes are evaluated from the fluctuating part of the drift kinetic equation. The averaged drift kinetic equation with the quasilinear term is solved for the plateau regime to derive the parallel viscosities modified by the fluctuations. The entropy production rate due to the anomalous transport processes is formulated and used to identify conjugate pairs of the anomalous fluxes and forces, which are connected by the matrix with the Onsager symmetry. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics
Neoclassical and anomalous transport in toroidal plasmas with drift-ordered turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sugama, H.; Horton, W.
1996-01-01
Neoclassical and anomalous transport fluxes are determined for axisymmetric toroidal plasmas with weak electromagnetic drift wave fluctuations. The neoclassical and anomalous fluxes are defined based on the ensemble-averaged kinetic equation with the statistically averaged nonlinear wave-particle interactions. The anomalous forces derived from that quasilinear term induce the anomalous particle and heat fluxes. For the microscale fluctuations k perpendicular ρ i ∼ 1 the parallel neoclassical fluxes remain invariant. For mesoscale fluctuations the mixing length fluctuation level with broken symmetry from (weak) shear flows the neoclassical banana-plateau fluxes are affected by the fluctuations through the parallel anomalous forces and the modified parallel viscosities. The entropy production rate due to the anomalous transport processes is formulated and used to identify conjugate pairs of the anomalous fluxes and forces, which are connected by the matrix with the Onsager symmetry. The proof of the Onsager symmetry is carried out by splitting the response function up into the even and odd parts under the (t, B) → (-t,-B) transformation and using the self-adjointness of the linearized Landau collision operator and the quasilinear formalism. An explicit calculation of the symmetric transport coefficients is possible when the Krook collision model replaces the Landau collision operator. The importance of low aspect ratio tokamaks and helical systems for experimental investigations of the Onsager symmetries is emphasized
On Current Drive and Wave Induced Bootstrap Current in Toroidal Plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hellsten, T.; Johnson, T.
2008-01-01
A comprehensive treatment of wave-particle interactions in toroidal plasmas including collisional relaxation, applicable to heating or anomalous wave induced transport, has been obtained by using Monte Carlo operators satisfying quasi-neutrality. This approach enables a self-consistent treatment of wave-particle interactions applicable to the banana regime in the neoclassical theory. It allows an extension into a regime with large temperature and density gradients, losses and transport of particles by wave-particle interactions making the method applicable to transport barriers. It is found that at large gradients the relationship between radial electric field, parallel velocity, temperature and density gradient in the neoclassical theory is modified such that coefficient in front of the logarithmic ion temperature gradient, which in the standard neoclassical theory is small and counteracts the electric field caused by the density gradient, now changes sign and contributes to the built up of the radial electric field. The possibility to drive current by absorbing the waves on trapped particles has been studied and how the wave-particle interactions affect the bootstrap current. Two new current drive mechanisms are studied: current drive by wave induced bootstrap current and selective detrapping into passing orbits by directed waves.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stoschus, H.; Schmitz, O.; Frerichs, H.; Reiser, D.; Unterberg, B.; Lehnen, M.; Reiter, D.; Samm, U.; Jakubowski, M.W.
2012-01-01
Rotating resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) fields impose a characteristic modulation to the edge electron density n e (r, t) and temperature T e (r, t) fields, which depends on the relative rotation f rel between external RMP field and plasma fluid. The n e (r, t) and T e (r, t) fields measured in the edge (r/a = 0.9–1.05) of TEXTOR L-mode plasmas are in close correlation with the local magnetic vacuum topology for low relative rotation f rel = −0.2 kHz. In comparison with the 3D neutral and plasma transport code EMC3-Eirene, this provides substantial experimental evidence that for low relative rotation level and high resonant field amplitudes (normalized radial field strength B r 4/1 /B t =2×10 -3 ), a stochastic edge with a remnant island chain dominated by diffusive transport exists. Radially outside a helical scrape-off layer, the so-called laminar zone embedded into a stochastic domain is found to exist. In contrast for high relative rotation of f rel = 1.8 kHz, the measured modulation of n e is shifted by π/2 toroidally with respect to the modelled vacuum topology. A pronounced flattening in T e (r) and a reduction in n e (r) is measured at the resonant flux surface and represents a clear signature for a magnetic island, which is phase shifted with respect to the vacuum island position. A correlated shift of the laminar zone radially outwards at the very plasma edge is observed suggesting that the actual near-field structure at the perturbation source is determined by the plasma response as well. (paper)
Orbit effects on impurity transport in a rotating tokamak plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wong, K.L.; Cheng, C.Z.
1988-05-01
Particle orbits in a rotating tokamak plasma are calculated from the equation of motion in the frame that rotates with the plasma. It is found that heavy particles in a rotating plasma can drift away from magnetic surfaces significantly faster with a higher bounce frequency, resulting in a diffusion coefficient much larger than that for a stationary plasma. Particle orbits near the surface of a rotating tokamak are also analyzed. Orbit effects indicate that more impurities can penetrate into a plasma rotating with counter-beam injection. Particle simulation is carried out with realistic experimental parameters and the results are in qualitative agreement with some experimental observations in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). 19 refs., 15 figs
Influence of a cylindrical column of rotating plasma on stability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rossato, L.C.
1975-01-01
The kink instability of a cylindrical column of rotating plasma, liable to a perturbation of the form f (r) exp [i(m -kz) + wt], under a condition kr<< m, was studied. It was concluded that as we increase the rotation, the interval of possible instabilities decreases. When the speed of rotation in the outlines of the plasma is equal to the speed of Alfven we will surely have stability. (author)
Generation of plasma rotation by ICRH in tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chang, C.; Phillips, C.K.; White, R.B.; Zweben, S.; Bonoli, P.T.; Rice, J.; Greenwald, M.; Grassie, J.S. de
2001-01-01
A physical mechanism to generate plasma rotation by ICRH is presented in a tokamak geometry. By breaking the omnigenity of resonant ion orbits, ICRH can induce a non-ambipolar minor-radial flow of resonant ions. This induces a return current j p r in the plasma, which then drives plasma rotation through the j p r xB force. It is estimated that the fast-wave power in the present-day tokamak experiments can be strong enough to give a significant modification to plasma rotation. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Valeo, E.J.; Phillips, C.K.; Bonoli, P.T.; Wright, J.C.; Brambilla, M.
2007-01-01
The generation of energetic tails in the electron distribution function is intrinsic to lower-hybrid (LH) heating and current drive in weakly collisional magnetically confined plasma. The effects of these deformations on the RF deposition profile have previously been examined within the ray approximation. Recently, the calculation of full-wave propagation of LH waves in a thermal plasma has been accomplished using an adaptation of the TORIC code. Here, initial results are presented from TORIC simulations of LH propagation in a toroidal plasma with non-thermal electrons. The required efficient computation of the hot plasma dielectric tensor is accomplished using a technique previously demonstrated in full-wave simulations of ICRF propagation in plasma with non-thermal ions
Shielding of External Magnetic Perturbations By Torque In Rotating Tokamak Plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Park, Jong-Kyu; Boozer, Allen H.; Menard, Jonathan E.; Gerhardt, Stefan P.; Sabbagh, Steve A.
2009-01-01
The imposition of a nonaxisymmetric magnetic perturbation on a rotating tokamak plasma requires energy and toroidal torque. Fundamental electrodynamics implies that the torque is essentially limited and must be consistent with the external response of a plasma equilibrium (rvec f) = (rvec j) x (rvec B). Here magnetic measurements on National Spherical Torus eXperiment (NSTX) device are used to derive the energy and the torque, and these empirical evaluations are compared with theoretical calculations based on perturbed scalar pressure equilibria (rvec f) = (rvec (del))p coupled with the theory of nonambipolar transport. The measurement and the theory are consistent within acceptable uncertainties, but can be largely inconsistent when the torque is comparable to the energy. This is expected since the currents associated with the torque are ignored in scalar pressure equilibria, but these currents tend to shield the perturbation.
Orbit effects on impurity transport in a rotating plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wong, K.L.; Cheng, C.Z.
1988-01-01
In 1985, very high ion temperature plasmas were first produced in TFTR with co-injecting neutral beams in low current, low density plasmas. This mode of operation is called the energetic ion mode in which the plasma rotates at very high speed. It was found that heavy impurities injected into these plasmas diffused out very quickly. In this paper, the authors calculate the impurity ion orbits in a rotating tokamak plasma based on the equation of motion in the frame that rotates with the plasma. It is shown that heavy particles in a rotating plasma can drift away from magnetic surfaces significantly faster. Particle orbits near the surface of a rotating tokamak are also analyzed. During impurity injection experiments, freshly ionized impurities near the plasma surface are essentially stationary in the laboratory frame and they are counter-rotating in the plasma frame with co-beam injection. The results are substantiated by numeral particle simulation. The computer code follows the impurity guiding center positions by integrating the equation of motion with the second order predictor-corrector method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yada, K.; Matsui, N.; Ohno, N.; Kajita, S.; Takamura, S.; Takagi, M.
2009-01-01
Detached deuterium recombining plasma has been generated in the toroidal divertor simulator. The electron temperature (0.1-0.4 eV) and density (∼10 18 m -3 ) in the detached plasmas were evaluated with a spectroscopic method using a series of deuterium Balmer line emission from highly excited levels and the Stark broadening of D(2-12). We have investigated the role of volume plasma recombination through Electron-Ion Recombination (EIR) and Molecular Activated Recombination (MAR) processes. Moreover, the carbon erosion in the detached deuterium plasma has been studied with a weight loss method. It is found that deuterium neutrals generated by EIR process could have strong influence on the carbon chemical erosion.
Turbulent transport stabilization by ICRH minority fast ions in low rotating JET ILW L-mode plasmas
Bonanomi, N.; Mantica, P.; Di Siena, A.; Delabie, E.; Giroud, C.; Johnson, T.; Lerche, E.; Menmuir, S.; Tsalas, M.; Van Eester, D.; Contributors, JET
2018-05-01
The first experimental demonstration that fast ion induced stabilization of thermal turbulent transport takes place also at low values of plasma toroidal rotation has been obtained in JET ILW (ITER-like wall) L-mode plasmas with high (3He)-D ICRH (ion cyclotron resonance heating) power. A reduction of the gyro-Bohm normalized ion heat flux and higher values of the normalized ion temperature gradient have been observed at high ICRH power and low NBI (neutral beam injection) power and plasma rotation. Gyrokinetic simulations indicate that ITG (ion temperature gradient) turbulence stabilization induced by the presence of high-energetic 3He ions is the key mechanism in order to explain the experimental observations. Two main mechanisms have been identified to be responsible for the turbulence stabilization: a linear electrostatic wave-fast particle resonance mechanism and a nonlinear electromagnetic mechanism. The dependence of the stabilization on the 3He distribution function has also been studied.
Pandya, M. D.; ArchMiller, M. C.; Cianciosa, M. R.; Ennis, D. A.; Hanson, J. D.; Hartwell, G. J.; Hebert, J. D.; Herfindal, J. L.; Knowlton, S. F.; Ma, X.; Massidda, S.; Maurer, D. A.; Roberds, N. A.; Traverso, P. J.
2015-11-01
Low edge safety factor operation at a value less than two ( q (a )=1 /ι̷tot(a )routine on the Compact Toroidal Hybrid device with the addition of sufficient external rotational transform. Presently, the operational space of this current carrying stellarator extends down to q (a )=1.2 without significant n = 1 kink mode activity after the initial plasma current rise phase of the discharge. The disruption dynamics of these low edge safety factor plasmas depend upon the fraction of helical field rotational transform from external stellarator coils to that generated by the plasma current. We observe that with approximately 10% of the total rotational transform supplied by the stellarator coils, low edge q disruptions are passively suppressed and avoided even though q(a) disrupt, the instability precursors measured and implicated as the cause are internal tearing modes with poloidal, m, and toroidal, n, helical mode numbers of m /n =3 /2 and 4/3 observed on external magnetic sensors and m /n =1 /1 activity observed on core soft x-ray emissivity measurements. Even though the edge safety factor passes through and becomes much less than q(a) disruption phenomenology observed.
Investigation of compact toroid penetration for fuelling spherical tokamak plasmas on CPD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fukumoto, N.; Hanada, K.; Kawakami, S.
2008-10-01
In previous Compact Toroid (CT) injection experiments on several tokamaks, although CT fuelling had been successfully demonstrated, the CT fuelling process has been not clear yet. We have thus conducted CT injection into simple toroidal or vertical vacuum magnetic fields to investigate quantitatively dynamics of CT plasmoid in the penetration process on a spherical tokamak (ST) device. Understanding the process allows us to address appropriately one of the critical issues for practical application of CT injection on reactor-grade tokamaks. In the experiment, the CT shift amount of about 0.26 m in a vertical magnetic field has been observed by using a fast camera. In addition to toroidal magnetic field, vertical one appears to affect CT trajectory in not conventional tokamak but ST devices operated at rather low toroidal fields. We have also observed CT attacks on the target plate with an IR camera. The IR image has indicated that CT shifts 39 mm at the toroidal field of 261 G. From the calorimetric measurement, an input energy due to CT impact in vacuum without magnetic fields is also estimated to be 530 J, which agrees with the initial CT kinetic energy. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sosenko, P.; Pierre, Th.; Zagorodny, A.
2004-01-01
The linear and non-linear properties of global low-frequency oscillations in cylindrical weakly ionized magnetized plasmas are investigated analytically for the conditions of equilibrium plasma rotation. The theoretical results are compared with the experimental observations of rotating plasmas in laboratory devices, such as Mistral and Mirabelle in France, and KIWI in Germany. (authors)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Reynolds, J. M.; Lopez-Bruna, D.
2009-10-12
In this report we continue with the description of a newly developed numerical method to solve the drift kinetic equation for ions and electrons in toroidal plasmas. Several numerical aspects, already outlined in a previous report [Informes Tecnicos Ciemat 1165, mayo 2009], will be treated now in more detail. Aside from discussing the method in the context of other existing codes, various aspects will be now explained from the viewpoint of numerical methods: the way to solve convection equations, the adopted boundary conditions, the real-space meshing procedures along with a new software developed to build them, and some additional questions related with the parallelization and the numerical integration. (Author) 16 refs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ikuta, Kazunari; Miyahara, Akira.
1983-06-01
The concept of the limiter-divertor proposed by Mirnov is extended to a toroidal limiter-divertor (which we call moving toroidal limiter) using the stream of ferromagnetic balls coated with a low Z materials such as plastics, graphite and ceramics. An important advantage of the use of the ferromagnetic materials would be possible soft landing of the balls on a catcher, provided that the temperature of the balls is below Curie point. Moreover, moving toroidal limiter would work as a protector of the first wall not only against the vertical movement of plasma ring but also against the violent inward motion driven by major disruption because the orbit of the ball in the case of moving toroidal limiter distributes over the small major radius side of the toroidal plasma. (author)
Equilibrium and linear analysis of rotating plasmas: fluid and guiding center results
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iacono, R.
1990-06-01
This work is devoted to the equilibrium and stability of rotating plasmas. Apart from its theoretical interest, this subject has become of practical importance in fusion research, due to the use in recent tokamak experiments of auxiliary heating methods such as neutral-beam injection, which can produce large plasma flows. Flow velocities up to the ion sound speed have been measured on different machines and new phenomena associated with the flow, such as distorsions of the plasma equilibrium profiles, have been observed. As a consequence, flows must be included in the macroscopic description of plasma equilibrium, which is the basis for the analysis and the design of magnetic confinement machines, and the stability properties of equilibria with flows need to be investigated. Here, attention is centered on toroidal confinement machines and in particular on tokamaks. However, some of the results to be presented may be of interest also for other domains (strong mass flows also occur in astrophysical and geophysical contexts such as in the Jovian magnetosphere or in the Earth's magnetopause and plasmapause. It should be noted that equilibrium and, in particular, stability with flows are poorly understood at present. Therefore, many of the questions we will consider are of quite a general nature. We are not yet at the point where quantitative comparisons with specific experiments can be made. Even the choice of a convenient model to study plasma flow is far from being evident. So far most of the theoretical investigations have used the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model, which is one of the simplest descriptions of a plasma. In this work, however, it will be shown that, for rotating plasmas, the 'simple' MHD model can give very complicated and physically meaningless results, while more 'complicated' models can provide a simpler and more realistic description of the plasma behaviour. 65 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs
Teodorescu, C; Young, W C; Swan, G W S; Ellis, R F; Hassam, A B; Romero-Talamas, C A
2010-08-20
Interferometric density measurements in plasmas rotating in shaped, open magnetic fields demonstrate strong confinement of plasma parallel to the magnetic field, with density drops of more than a factor of 10. Taken together with spectroscopic measurements of supersonic E × B rotation of sonic Mach 2, these measurements are in agreement with ideal MHD theory which predicts large parallel pressure drops balanced by centrifugal forces in supersonically rotating plasmas.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reynolds, J. M.; Lopez-Bruna, D.
2009-01-01
In this report we continue with the description of a newly developed numerical method to solve the drift kinetic equation for ions and electrons in toroidal plasmas. Several numerical aspects, already outlined in a previous report [Informes Tecnicos Ciemat 1165, mayo 2009], will be treated now in more detail. Aside from discussing the method in the context of other existing codes, various aspects will be now explained from the viewpoint of numerical methods: the way to solve convection equations, the adopted boundary conditions, the real-space meshing procedures along with a new software developed to build them, and some additional questions related with the parallelization and the numerical integration. (Author) 16 refs
Effect of continuous eigenvalue spectrum on plasma transport in toroidal systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yamagishi, Tomejiro
1993-03-01
The effect of the continuous eigenvalue of the Vlasov equation on the cross field ion thermal flux is investigated. The continuum contribution due to the toroidal drift resonance is found to play an important role in ion transport particularly near the edge, which may apply to the interpretation of the sharp increase of ion heat conductivity near the periphery observed in large tokamaks. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Reynolds, J. M.; Lopez-Bruna, D.
2009-12-11
This report is the third of a series [Informes Tecnicos Ciemat 1165 y 1172] devoted to the development of a new numerical code to solve the guiding center equation for electrons and ions in toroidal plasmas. Two calculation meshes corresponding to axisymmetric tokamaks are now prepared and the kinetic equation is expanded so the standard terms of neoclassical theory --fi rst order terms in the Larmor radius expansion-- can be identified, restricting the calculations correspondingly. Using model density and temperature profiles for the plasma, several convergence test are performed depending on the calculation meshes and the expansions of the distribution function; then the results are compared with the theory [Hinton and Hazeltine, Rev. Mod. Phys. (1976)]. (Author) 18 refs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Romanelli, M.
1999-09-01
The poloidal variation of impurity densities over magnetic surfaces brings about an enhancement of neoclassical transport coefficients, as shown by Romanelli and Ottaviani for impurities in the Pfirsch Schlueter regime and by Helander for particles in the banana-plateau regime, both in a large aspect ratio tokamak. The same effect will occur in a finite aspect ratio tokamak and therefore it is considered to be relevant for inclusion in transport codes for comparison with the experimental measurements of impurity transport. Here an expression for the impurity-density poloidal-variation generated by the fast toroidal rotation of the plasma column is presented in general coordinates. (author)
Faraday rotation applied to the hot plasmas diagnosis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cojocaru, E.
1980-01-01
In many circumstances it is of theoretical or practical interest to know the electric and magnetic fields in the hot plasmas. A method for the determination of the magnetic field in the hot plasmas is the Faraday rotation measurement. The aim of this paper is to point out the principle and application of this rarely used optical method. (author)
Measurement of plasma conductivity using faraday rotation of submillimeter waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuzmenko, P.J.; Self, S.A.
1983-01-01
This paper examines the application of Faraday rotation to the measurement of electron combustion MHD plasmas. Details on the design of a working system are given, including the selection of operating wavelength. A theoretical comparison between the Faraday rotation technique and two-path interferometry shows Faraday rotation in its simplest form to be somewhat less sensitive to changes in electron concentration. This deficit can be balanced against greater immunity to vibration and thermal drift. Improved techniques of measuring the rotation angle promise greater sensitivity. A preliminary experiment has verified the technique
Instabilities responsible for magnetic turbulence in laboratory rotating plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mikhailovskii, A.B.; Lominadze, J.G.; Churikov, A.P.; Erokhin, N.N.; Pustovitov, V.D.; Konovalov, S.V.
2008-01-01
Instabilities responsible for magnetic turbulence in laboratory rotating plasma are investigated. It is shown that the plasma compressibility gives a new driving mechanism in addition to the known Velikhov effect due to the negative rotation frequency gradient. This new mechanism is related to the perpendicular plasma pressure gradient, while the density gradient gives an additional drive depending also on the pressure gradient. It is shown that these new effects can manifest themselves even in the absence of the equilibrium magnetic field, which corresponds to nonmagnetic instabilities
Resistive mode in rotating plasma columns including the hall current
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Galvao, R.M.O.
1983-01-01
A new resistive mode is shown to exist in rotating plasma columns. The mode is localized in the neighbourhood of the radius where the angular velocity of the bulk plasma is equal to minus half the local angular velocity of the ions. This singular point is caused by the Hall term in the generalized Ohm law. The growth rate of the mode scales with eta sup(1/2), where eta is the plasma resistivity. (Author) [pt
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Youngmin Oh
2018-02-01
Full Text Available We propose a phenomenological yet general model in a form of extended complex Ginzburg-Landau equation to understand edge-localized modes (ELMs, a class of quasi-periodic fluid instabilities in the boundary of toroidal magnetized high-temperature plasmas. The model reproduces key dynamical features of the ELMs (except the final explosive relaxation stage observed in the high-confinement state plasmas on the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research: quasi-steady states characterized by field-aligned filamentary eigenmodes, transitions between different quasi-steady eigenmodes, and rapid transition to non-modal filamentary structure prior to the relaxation. It is found that the inclusion of time-varying perpendicular sheared flow is crucial for reproducing all of the observed dynamical features.
NOVA: a nonvariational code for solving MHD stability of axisymmetric toroidal plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheng, C.Z.; Chance, M.S.
1986-04-01
A nonvariational approach for determining the ideal MHD stability of axisymmetric toroidal confinement systems is presented. The code (NOVA) employs cubic B-spline finite elements and Fourier expansion in a general flux coordinate (psi, theta, zeta) system. Better accuracy and faster convergence were obtained in comparison with the variational PEST and ERATO codes. The nonvariational approach can be extended to problems having non-Hermitian eigenmode equations where variational energy principles cannot be obtained
Effect of toroidal field ripple on the formation of internal transport barriers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vries, P C de; Hawkes, N C; Challis, C D; Andrew, Y; Beurskens, M; Brix, M; Giroud, C; Zastrow, K-D [EURATOM/UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Joffrin, E [EFDA-JET CSU, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Litaudon, X [Association EURATOM-CEA, DSM/DFRC, CEA Cadarache, 13108, St Paul lez Durance (France); Brzozowski, J; Johnson, T [Association EURATOM-VR, Fusion Plasma Physics, EES, KTH, Stockholm (Sweden); Crombe, K [Department of Applied Physics, Ghent University, Ghent (Belgium); Hobirk, J [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Euratom Association, 85748 Garching (Germany); Loennroth, J; Salmi, A [Association Euratom-Tekes, Helsinki University of Technology, PO Box 4100, 02015 TKK (Finland); Tala, T [Association Euratom-Tekes, VTT, PO Box 1000, 02044 VTT (Finland); Yavorskij, V [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Association EURATOM-OEAW, University of Innsbruck (Austria)], E-mail: Peter.de.Vries@jet.uk
2008-06-15
The effect of a toroidal field (TF) ripple on the formation and performance of internal transport barriers (ITBs) has been studied in JET. It was found that the TF ripple had a profound effect on the toroidal plasma rotation. An increased TF ripple up to {delta} = 1% led to a lower rotation and reduced the rotational shear in the region where the ITBs were formed. ITB triggering events were observed in all cases and it is thought that the rotational shear may be less important for this process than, for example, the q-profile. However, the increase in the pressure gradient following the ITB trigger was reduced in discharges with a larger TF ripple and consequently a lower rotational shear. This suggests that toroidal rotation and its shear play a role in the growth of the ITB once it has been triggered.
Rotation and transport in Alcator C-Mod ITB plasmas
Fiore, C. L.; Rice, J. E.; Podpaly, Y.; Bespamyatnov, I. O.; Rowan, W. L.; Hughes, J. W.; Reinke, M.
2010-06-01
Internal transport barriers (ITBs) are seen under a number of conditions in Alcator C-Mod plasmas. Most typically, radio frequency power in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRFs) is injected with the second harmonic of the resonant frequency for minority hydrogen ions positioned off-axis at r/a > 0.5 to initiate the ITBs. They can also arise spontaneously in ohmic H-mode plasmas. These ITBs typically persist tens of energy confinement times until the plasma terminates in radiative collapse or a disruption occurs. All C-Mod core barriers exhibit strongly peaked density and pressure profiles, static or peaking temperature profiles, peaking impurity density profiles and thermal transport coefficients that approach neoclassical values in the core. The strongly co-current intrinsic central plasma rotation that is observed following the H-mode transition has a profile that is peaked in the centre of the plasma and decreases towards the edge if the ICRF power deposition is in the plasma centre. When the ICRF resonance is placed off-axis, the rotation develops a well in the core region. The central rotation continues to decrease as long as the central density peaks when an ITB develops. This rotation profile is flat in the centre (0 ITB density profile is observed (0.5 ITB foot that is sufficiently large to stabilize ion temperature gradient instabilities that dominate transport in C-Mod high density plasmas.
Scaling relations for plasma production and acceleration of rotating plasma flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ikehata, Takashi; Tanabe, Toshio; Mase, Hiroshi; Sekine, Ryusuke; Hasegawa, Kazuyuki.
1989-01-01
Scaling relations are investigated theoretically and experimentally of the plasma production and acceleration in the rotating plasma gun which has been developed as a new means of plasma centrifuge. Two operational modes: the gas-discharge mode for gaseous elements and the vacuum-discharge mode for solid elements are studied. Relations of the plasma density and velocities to the discharge current and the magnetic field are derived. The agreement between experiment and theory is quite well. It is found that fully-ionized rotating plasmas produced in the gas-discharge mode is most advantageous to realize efficient plasma centrifuge. (author)
Linear instability and nonlinear motion of rotating plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, J.
1985-01-01
Two coupled nonlinear equations describing the flute dynamics of the magnetically confined low-β collisionless rotating plasma are derived. The linear instability and nonlinear dynamics of the rotating column are analyzed theoretically. In the linear stability analysis, a new sufficient condition of stability is obtained. From the exact solution of eigenvalue equation for Gaussian density profile and uniform rotation of the plasma, the stability of the system strongly depends on the direction of plasma rotation, FLR effect and the location of the conducting wall. An analytic expression showing the finite wall effect on different normal modes is obtained and it explains the different behavior of (1,0) normal mode from other modes. The sheared rotation driven instability is investigated by using three model equilibrium profiles, and the analytic expressions of eigenvalues which includes the wall effect are obtained. The analogy between shear rotation driven instability and the instability driven by sheared plane parallel flow in the inviscid fluid is analyzed. Applying the linear analysis to the central cell of tandem mirror system, the trapped particle instability with only passing electronics is analyzed. For uniform rotation and Gaussian density profile, an analytic expression that determines the stability boundary is found. The nonlinear analysis shows that the nonlinear equations have a solitary vortex solution which is very similar to the vortex solution of nonlinear Rossby wave equation
Rotation of dust plasma crystals in an axial magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheung, F.; Prior, N.; Mitchell, L.
2000-01-01
Full text: Micron-sized melamine formaldehyde particles were introduced into argon plasma. As a result, the particles were negatively charged due to collision with the electrons within the plasma. With the right conditions, these particles formed a stable macroscopic crystal lattice, known as dust plasma crystal. In our experiment we conduct at Flinders University, we apply an external axial magnetic field to various configurations of dust plasma crystal. These configurations include small crystal lattices consisting of one to several particles, and large crystal lattices with many hundreds of particles. The magnetic field strength ranged from 0-32G and was uniform over the extent of the crystal. The crystals were observed to be rotating collectively in the left-handed direction under the influence of the axial magnetic field. In the case of the large crystals, the angular velocity was about 2 complete rotations per minute and was proportional to the applied magnetic field. The angular velocity changes only slightly depending on the plasma conditions. Neither radial variance in the angular velocity nor shear velocity in the vertical direction was observed in the crystal's rotational motion. In the case of the small crystals, we managed to rotate 2-6 particles (whether they are planar, 2 layers or tetrahedral). We discovered that the ease and the uniformity of the rotation of the different crystals increase as its rotational symmetry increases. Also an increase in the magnetic field strength will correspond to an increase in the angular velocity. Crystals in the shape of an annulus were also tested for theoretical reasons. The poster presentation will contain the experimental procedures, a detailed analysis and an explanation for such dust plasma crystal rotational motion
Plasma-liquid system with rotational gliding discharge with liquid electrode
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nedybaliuk, O.A.; Solomenko, O.V; Martysh, E.V.; Fedirchuk, I.I.
2014-01-01
Plasma-liquid system based on rotational gliding discharge with one liquid electrode was developed. Emission spectra of plasma of rotational gliding discharge with one liquid electrode were investigated. Discovered effective mechanism of controlling non-isothermal level of plasma in dynamic plasma-liquid systems. Major mechanism of expulsion of metal anode material from plasma-liquid systems with rotational discharges was shown.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dumont, R.J.; Phillips, C.K.; Smithe, D.N.
2003-01-01
Auxiliary heating supplied by externally launched electromagnetic waves is commonly used in toroidal magnetically confined fusion experiments for profile control via localized heating, current drive and perhaps flow shear. In these experiments, the confined plasma is often characterized by the presence of a significant population of non-thermal species arising from neutral beam injection, from acceleration of the particles by the applied waves, or from copious fusion reactions in future devices. Such non-thermal species may alter the wave propagation as well as the wave absorption dynamics in the plasma. Previous studies have treated the corresponding velocity distributions as either equivalent Maxwellians, or else have included realistic distributions only in the finite Larmor radius limit. In this work, the hot plasma dielectric response of the plasma has been generalized to treat arbitrary distribution functions in the non-relativistic limit. The generalized dielectric tensor has been incorporated into a one-dimensional full wave all-orders kinetic field code. Initial comparative studies of ion cyclotron range of frequency wave propagation and heating in plasmas with nonthermal species, represented by realistic distribution functions or by appropriately defined equivalent Maxwellians, have been completed for some specific experiments and are presented
Impurity transport and plasma rotation in the ISX-B tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Isler, R.C.; Murray, L.E.; Crume, E.C.
1983-01-01
Recent calculations have shown that when external momentum sources and plasma rotation are included in the neoclassical theory, the standard results for impurity transport can be strongly altered. Under appropriate conditions, inward convection is reduced by co-injection and enhanced by counter-injection. In order to examine the theoretical predictions, several observations of impurity transport have been made in the ISX-B tokamak during neutral-beam injection for comparison with the transport seen with Ohmic heating alone. Both intrinsic contaminants and deliberately introduced test impurities display a behaviour that is in qualitative agreement with the predicted beam-driven effects. These correlations are particularly noticeable when the comparisons are made for deuterium when the impurity transport in the Ohmically heated discharges exhibits neoclassical-like characteristics, i.e. accumulation and long confinement times. Similar but smaller effects are observed in beam-heated hydrogen discharges; neoclassical-like behaviour is not seen in Ohmically heated hydrogen sequences. Emphasis has been placed on measuring toroidal plasma rotation, and semiquantitative comparisons with the theories of beam-induced impurity transport have been made. It is possible that radial electric fields other than those associated with momentum transfer and increased anomalous processes during injection could also play a role. (author)
Scaling laws for the rotational velocity of a J x B driven rotating plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Igarashi, Yasuhito; Kataoka, Tomohiro; Ikehata, Takashi; Sato, Naoyuki; Tanabe, Toshio; Mase, Hiroshi
1994-01-01
Rapidly rotating plasmas of helium and argon have been extracted from a coaxial plasma gun operated in pulsed glow mode. The rotational velocity and its parametric dependence have been analyzed systematically by means of visible - emission spectroscopy. The plasma is observed to rotate rigidly inside the diameter of the gun anode while outside the velocity decreases rapidly ; furthermore, different ions are found to rotate at different angular frequencies as ω (Ar + ) = 0.5 x 10 6 rad/sec, ω (Ar 2+ ) = 1.1 x 10 6 rad/sec, ω (C 2+ ) = 1.8 x 10 6 rad/sec, ω (N + ) = 1.2 x 10 6 rad/sec. The plasma density and rotational velocity have been measured as a function of the discharge current and magnetic field to derive experimental scaling laws. They are summarized as : 1. Ion density is proportional to the square of discharge current. 2. Rotational and axial velocities are proportional to the driving force per ion. These results are confirmed to agree well with a theoretical prediction. (author)
Nonlinear electromagnetic gyrokinetic equations for rotating axisymmetric plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Artun, M.; Tang, W.M.
1994-03-01
The influence of sheared equilibrium flows on the confinement properties of tokamak plasmas is a topic of much current interest. A proper theoretical foundation for the systematic kinetic analysis of this important problem has been provided here by presented the derivation of a set of nonlinear electromagnetic gyrokinetic equations applicable to low frequency microinstabilities in a rotating axisymmetric plasma. The subsonic rotation velocity considered is in the direction of symmetry with the angular rotation frequency being a function of the equilibrium magnetic flux surface. In accordance with experimental observations, the rotation profile is chosen to scale with the ion temperature. The results obtained represent the shear flow generalization of the earlier analysis by Frieman and Chen where such flows were not taken into account. In order to make it readily applicable to gyrokinetic particle simulations, this set of equations is cast in a phase-space-conserving continuity equation form
Bao, J.; Liu, D.; Lin, Z.
2017-10-01
A conservative scheme of drift kinetic electrons for gyrokinetic simulations of kinetic-magnetohydrodynamic processes in toroidal plasmas has been formulated and verified. Both vector potential and electron perturbed distribution function are decomposed into adiabatic part with analytic solution and non-adiabatic part solved numerically. The adiabatic parallel electric field is solved directly from the electron adiabatic response, resulting in a high degree of accuracy. The consistency between electrostatic potential and parallel vector potential is enforced by using the electron continuity equation. Since particles are only used to calculate the non-adiabatic response, which is used to calculate the non-adiabatic vector potential through Ohm's law, the conservative scheme minimizes the electron particle noise and mitigates the cancellation problem. Linear dispersion relations of the kinetic Alfvén wave and the collisionless tearing mode in cylindrical geometry have been verified in gyrokinetic toroidal code simulations, which show that the perpendicular grid size can be larger than the electron collisionless skin depth when the mode wavelength is longer than the electron skin depth.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Matsumoto, T., E-mail: cstd14003@g.nihon-u.ac.jp; Sekiguchi, J.; Asai, T. [College of Science and Technology, Nihon University, 1-8-14 Kanda, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 1018308 (Japan); Gota, H.; Garate, E.; Allfrey, I.; Valentine, T.; Morehouse, M.; Roche, T.; Kinley, J.; Aefsky, S.; Cordero, M.; Waggoner, W.; Binderbauer, M. [Tri Alpha Energy, Inc., P.O. Box 7010 Rancho Santa Margarita, California 92688 (United States); Tajima, T. [Tri Alpha Energy, Inc., P.O. Box 7010 Rancho Santa Margarita, California 92688 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States)
2016-05-15
A compact toroid (CT) injector was developed for the C-2 device, primarily for refueling of field-reversed configurations. The CTs are formed by a magnetized coaxial plasma gun (MCPG), which consists of coaxial cylindrical electrodes and a bias coil for creating a magnetic field. First, a plasma ring is generated by a discharge between the electrodes and is accelerated by Lorenz self-force. Then, the plasma ring is captured by an interlinkage flux (poloidal flux). Finally, the fully formed CT is ejected from the MCPG. The MCPG described herein has two gas injection ports that are arranged tangentially on the outer electrode. A tungsten-coated inner electrode has a head which can be replaced with a longer one to extend the length of the acceleration region for the CT. The developed MCPG has achieved supersonic CT velocities of ∼100 km/s. Plasma parameters for electron density, electron temperature, and the number of particles are ∼5 × 10{sup 21} m{sup −3}, ∼40 eV, and 0.5–1.0 × 10{sup 19}, respectively.
Non-inductively driven tokamak plasmas at near-unity βt in the Pegasus toroidal experiment
Reusch, J. A.; Bodner, G. M.; Bongard, M. W.; Burke, M. G.; Fonck, R. J.; Pachicano, J. L.; Perry, J. M.; Pierren, C.; Rhodes, A. T.; Richner, N. J.; Rodriguez Sanchez, C.; Schlossberg, D. J.; Weberski, J. D.
2018-05-01
A major goal of the spherical tokamak (ST) research program is accessing a state of low internal inductance ℓi, high elongation κ, and high toroidal and normalized beta ( βt and βN) without solenoidal current drive. Local helicity injection (LHI) in the Pegasus ST [Garstka et al., Nucl. Fusion 46, S603 (2006)] provides non-solenoidally driven plasmas that exhibit these characteristics. LHI utilizes compact, edge-localized current sources for plasma startup and sustainment. It results in hollow current density profiles with low ℓi. The low aspect ratio ( R0/a ˜1.2 ) of Pegasus allows access to high κ and high normalized plasma currents ( IN=Ip/a BT>14 ). Magnetic reconnection during LHI provides auxiliary ion heating. Together, these features provide access to very high βt plasmas. Equilibrium analyses indicate that βt up to ˜100% is achieved. These high βt discharges disrupt at the ideal no-wall β limit at βN˜7.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shaing, K. C.
2007-01-01
In Part I [Phys. Fluids B 2, 1190 (1990)] and Part II [Phys. Plasmas 12, 082508 (2005)], it was emphasized that the equilibrium plasma viscous forces when applied for the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes are only rigorously valid at the mode rational surface where m-nq=0. Here, m is the poloidal mode number, n is the toroidal mode number, and q is the safety factor. This important fact has been demonstrated explicitly by calculating the viscous forces in the plateau regime in Parts I and II. Here, the effective viscous forces in the banana regime are calculated for MHD modes by solving the linear drift kinetic equation that is driven by the plasma flows first derived in Part I. At the mode rational surface, the equilibrium plasma viscous forces are reproduced. However, it is found that away from the mode rational surface, the viscous forces for MHD modes decrease, a behavior similar to that observed in the viscous forces for the plateau regime. The proper form of the momentum equation that is appropriate for the modeling of the MHD modes is also discussed
Matsumoto, T; Sekiguchi, J; Asai, T; Gota, H; Garate, E; Allfrey, I; Valentine, T; Morehouse, M; Roche, T; Kinley, J; Aefsky, S; Cordero, M; Waggoner, W; Binderbauer, M; Tajima, T
2016-05-01
A compact toroid (CT) injector was developed for the C-2 device, primarily for refueling of field-reversed configurations. The CTs are formed by a magnetized coaxial plasma gun (MCPG), which consists of coaxial cylindrical electrodes and a bias coil for creating a magnetic field. First, a plasma ring is generated by a discharge between the electrodes and is accelerated by Lorenz self-force. Then, the plasma ring is captured by an interlinkage flux (poloidal flux). Finally, the fully formed CT is ejected from the MCPG. The MCPG described herein has two gas injection ports that are arranged tangentially on the outer electrode. A tungsten-coated inner electrode has a head which can be replaced with a longer one to extend the length of the acceleration region for the CT. The developed MCPG has achieved supersonic CT velocities of ∼100 km/s. Plasma parameters for electron density, electron temperature, and the number of particles are ∼5 × 10(21) m(-3), ∼40 eV, and 0.5-1.0 × 10(19), respectively.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matsumoto, T.; Sekiguchi, J.; Asai, T.; Gota, H.; Garate, E.; Allfrey, I.; Valentine, T.; Morehouse, M.; Roche, T.; Kinley, J.; Aefsky, S.; Cordero, M.; Waggoner, W.; Binderbauer, M.; Tajima, T.
2016-01-01
A compact toroid (CT) injector was developed for the C-2 device, primarily for refueling of field-reversed configurations. The CTs are formed by a magnetized coaxial plasma gun (MCPG), which consists of coaxial cylindrical electrodes and a bias coil for creating a magnetic field. First, a plasma ring is generated by a discharge between the electrodes and is accelerated by Lorenz self-force. Then, the plasma ring is captured by an interlinkage flux (poloidal flux). Finally, the fully formed CT is ejected from the MCPG. The MCPG described herein has two gas injection ports that are arranged tangentially on the outer electrode. A tungsten-coated inner electrode has a head which can be replaced with a longer one to extend the length of the acceleration region for the CT. The developed MCPG has achieved supersonic CT velocities of ∼100 km/s. Plasma parameters for electron density, electron temperature, and the number of particles are ∼5 × 10"2"1 m"−"3, ∼40 eV, and 0.5–1.0 × 10"1"9, respectively.
Rotation of a single vortex in dusty plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yan Jia; Feng Fan; Liu Fu-Cheng; He Ya-Feng
2017-01-01
A single vortex is obtained in radio-frequency capacitive discharge in argon gas. The dust subsystem is confined in the horizontal plane with an asymmetrical saw structure placed on the lower electrode. The vortex rotates as a whole along the long side of the saw-teeth. Asymmetry of the saw structure plays an important role in the rotation of the vortex. Nonzero curl of the total force resulting from the local ion flow and the electric field in the plasma sheath could be attributed to the persistent rotation of vortex. (paper)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Reynolds, J. M.; Lopez-Bruna, D.
2009-12-11
This report is the first of a series dedicated to the numerical calculation of the evolution of fusion plasmas in general toroidal geometry, including TJ-II plasmas. A kinetic treatment has been chosen: the evolution equation of the distribution function of one or several plasma species is solved in guiding center coordinates. The distribution function is written as a Maxwellian one modulated by polynomial series in the kinetic coordinates with no other approximations than those of the guiding center itself and the computation capabilities. The code allows also for the inclusion of the three-dimensional electrostatic potential in a self-consistent manner, but the initial objective has been set to solving only the neoclassical transport. A high order conservative method (Spectral Difference Method) has been chosen in order to discretized the equation for its numerical solution. In this first report, in addition to justifying the work, the evolution equation and its approximations are described, as well as the baseline of the numerical procedures. (Author) 28 refs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stober, J.; Hobirk, J.; Lunt, T.; Jackson, G.L.; Hyatt, A.W.; Luce, T.; Ascasibar, E.; Cappa, A.; Bae, Y.-S.; Joung, M.; Bucalossi, J.; Casper, T.; Gribov, Y.; Cho, M.-H.; Jeong, J.-H.; Namkung, W.; Park, S.-I.; Granucci, G.; Hanada, K.; Ide, S.
2011-01-01
Electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH)-assisted plasma breakdown is foreseen with full and half magnetic field in ITER. As reported earlier, the corresponding O1- and X2-schemes have been successfully used to assist pre-ionization and breakdown in present-day devices. This contribution reports on common experiments studying the effect of toroidal inclination of the ECR beam, which is ≥20 0 in ITER. All devices could demonstrate successful breakdown assistance for this case also, although in some experiments the necessary power was almost a factor of 2 higher compared with perpendicular launch. Differences between the devices with regard to the required power and vertical field are discussed and analysed. In contrast to most of these experiments, ITER will build up loop voltage prior to the formation of the field null due to the strong shielding by the vessel. Possible consequences of this difference are discussed.
Production of a rapidly rotating plasma by cross-field injection of gun-produced plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ohzu, Akira; Ikehata, Takashi; Tanabe, Toshio; Mase, Hiroshi
1984-01-01
Cross-field plasma injection with use of a JxB plasma gun is described as a method to produce rapidly rotating plasma in a crossed electric and magnetic field system. The rotational velocity of the plasma is seriously limited by neutrals surrounding the plasma through strong interactions at the boundary layer. The concentration of neutrals can be reduced by the injection of fully or partially ionized plasma into the discharge volume instead of filling the volume with an operating gas. With use of this method, it is observed that the rotational velocity increases by a factor of 2 to 3 when compared with the conventional method of stationary gas-filling. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reynolds, J. M.; Lopez-Bruna, D.
2009-01-01
This report is the first of a series dedicated to the numerical calculation of the evolution of fusion plasmas in general toroidal geometry, including TJ-II plasmas. A kinetic treatment has been chosen: the evolution equation of the distribution function of one or several plasma species is solved in guiding center coordinates. The distribution function is written as a Maxwellian one modulated by polynomial series in the kinetic coordinates with no other approximations than those of the guiding center itself and the computation capabilities. The code allows also for the inclusion of the three-dimensional electrostatic potential in a self-consistent manner, but the initial objective has been set to solving only the neoclassical transport. A high order conservative method (Spectral Difference Method) has been chosen in order to discretized the equation for its numerical solution. In this first report, in addition to justifying the work, the evolution equation and its approximations are described, as well as the baseline of the numerical procedures. (Author) 28 refs
Code improvements and applications of a two-dimensional edge plasma model for toroidal devices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baelmans, M.
1994-03-01
This thesis focuses mainly on plasma behaviour in boundary layers of magnetically confined plasmas. Increasing emphasis has been put on edge studies during the last decade, as it became evident that some aspects of Tokamak operations are largely controlled, or even dominated, by edge processes. Therefore, the motivation for this research is to improve understanding of plasma behaviour in general, and edge plasma behaviour in particular, firstly in present experiments, and also to predict edge plasma conditions in future nuclear fusion devices. In a first section some fundamental concepts and principles of controlled fusion are described. Two different types of plasma confinement concepts which have promising features with regard to the above mentioned goal are outlined in a next section, 1.2. In section 1.3 an introduction to plasma edge phenomena is given. In a last section, 1.4, the outline of the thesis is described. (orig.)
Ion heating due to rotation and collision in magnetized plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anderegg, F.; Stern, R.A.; Skiff, F.; Hammel, B.A.; Tran, M.Q.; Paris, P.J.; Kohler, P.
1986-01-01
The E x B rotation and associated collisional ion heating of noble-gas magnetized plasmas are investigated with high resolution by means of laser-induced fluorescence and electrical probes. Plasma rotation results from a radial potential gradient which can be controlled by biasing of the discharge electrodes. The time and space evolution of the potential, the rotation velocity v/sub t//sub h//sub e//sub t//sub a/, and the ion perpendicular temperature indicate that heating is due to the randomization of v/sub t//sub h//sub e//sub t//sub a/ by ion-neutral collisions, and leads to temperature increases as high as a factor of 50 over initial values
Neoclassical offset toroidal velocity and auxiliary ion heating in tokamaks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lazzaro, E., E-mail: lazzaro@ifp.cnr.it [Istituto di Fisica del Plasma CNR (Italy)
2016-05-15
In conditions of ideal axisymmetry, for a magnetized plasma in a generic bounded domain, necessarily toroidal, the uniform absorption of external energy (e.g., RF or any isotropic auxiliary heating) cannot give rise to net forces or torques. Experimental evidence on contemporary tokamaks shows that the near central absorption of RF heating power (ICH and ECH) and current drive in presence of MHD activity drives a bulk plasma rotation in the co-I{sub p} direction, opposite to the initial one. Also the appearance of classical or neoclassical tearing modes provides a nonlinear magnetic braking that tends to clamp the rotation profile at the q-rational surfaces. The physical origin of the torque associated with P{sub RF} absorption could be due the effects of asymmetry in the equilibrium configuration or in power deposition, but here we point out also an effect of the response of the so-called neoclassical offset velocity to the power dependent heat flow increment. The neoclassical toroidal viscosity due to internal magnetic kink or tearing modes tends to relax the plasma rotation to this asymptotic speed, which in absence of auxiliary heating is of the order of the ion diamagnetic velocity. It can be shown by kinetic and fluid calculations, that the absorption of auxiliary power by ions modifies this offset proportionally to the injected power thereby forcing the plasma rotation in a direction opposite to the initial, to large values. The problem is discussed in the frame of the theoretical models of neoclassical toroidal viscosity.
Effects of neutrals on plasma rotation in DIII-D
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Monier-Garbet, P.; Burrell, K.H.; Hinton, F.L.; Kim, J.; Garbet, X.; Groebner, R.J.
1997-01-01
Friction due to charge exchange with cold neutral atoms in the edge is investigated as a candidate to govern the poloidal rotation in the edge of a tokamak plasma. The Hirshman and Sigmar neoclassical moment approach is used to determine the rotation velocities of the main plasma ions and of one impurity species, when charge exchange friction is included. It is found that the poloidal rotation of the main plasma ions is controlled by charge exchange friction with neutrals. The impurity ion poloidal rotation is governed by the balance between the impurity viscous force and the main-ion-impurity-ion friction force. The results of the calculation are compared with the measurements obtained in the edge of a DIII-D high (H) mode plasma, using charge exchange recombination (CER) spectroscopy. It is found that the measured main ion poloidal rotation can be accurately predicted by the neoclassical theory including the effect of neutrals, assuming a neutral density n > = 3 x 10 17 m -3 at the separatrix, decreasing exponentially inside the plasma with an e-folding length of 0.012 m, and peaking near the X point region with a poloidal peaking parameter y ≡ n > 2 >/ n B 2 > = 1.5. However, for the impurity ions, the neoclassical theory including a single impurity charge state, and regardless of the effect of the neutrals, gives a prediction that has the correct sign, but whose value is a factor of 5 or 6 different from the experimental value. (author). 12 refs, 7 figs, 1 tab
Transport Bifurcation in a Rotating Tokamak Plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Highcock, E. G.; Barnes, M.; Schekochihin, A. A.; Parra, F. I.; Roach, C. M.; Cowley, S. C.
2010-01-01
The effect of flow shear on turbulent transport in tokamaks is studied numerically in the experimentally relevant limit of zero magnetic shear. It is found that the plasma is linearly stable for all nonzero flow shear values, but that subcritical turbulence can be sustained nonlinearly at a wide range of temperature gradients. Flow shear increases the nonlinear temperature gradient threshold for turbulence but also increases the sensitivity of the heat flux to changes in the temperature gradient, except over a small range near the threshold where the sensitivity is decreased. A bifurcation in the equilibrium gradients is found: for a given input of heat, it is possible, by varying the applied torque, to trigger a transition to significantly higher temperature and flow gradients.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scheffel, J.
1982-04-01
Ideal MHD-equilibria for the toroidal EXTRAP configuration have been computed with an equilibrium code. The free-boundary prob- lem is solved by using the condition that the current density is proportional to r on a flux surface. It is found that the toroidal Z-pinch, initially induced in the central zero-field region of a transverse octupole field, drifts radially outwards producing an inverse -D shaped cross-section. The plasma current of this high- beta equilibrium may be increased if the plasma is pushed back by altering the external confining magnetic field as demonstrated. (Author)
Toroidal current asymmetry in tokamak disruptions
Strauss, H. R.
2014-10-01
It was discovered on JET that disruptions were accompanied by toroidal asymmetry of the toroidal plasma current I ϕ. It was found that the toroidal current asymmetry was proportional to the vertical current moment asymmetry with positive sign for an upward vertical displacement event (VDE) and negative sign for a downward VDE. It was observed that greater displacement leads to greater measured I ϕ asymmetry. Here, it is shown that this is essentially a kinematic effect produced by a VDE interacting with three dimensional MHD perturbations. The relation of toroidal current asymmetry and vertical current moment is calculated analytically and is verified by numerical simulations. It is shown analytically that the toroidal variation of the toroidal plasma current is accompanied by an equal and opposite variation of the toroidal current flowing in a thin wall surrounding the plasma. These currents are connected by 3D halo current, which is π/2 radians out of phase with the n = 1 toroidal current variations.
Baltzer, M.; Craig, D.; den Hartog, D. J.; Nornberg, M. D.; Munaretto, S.
2015-11-01
An Ion Doppler Spectrometer (IDS) is used on MST for high time-resolution passive and active measurements of impurity ion emission. Absolutely calibrated measurements of flow are difficult because the spectrometer records data within 0.3 nm of the C+5 line of interest, and commercial calibration lamps do not produce lines in this narrow range . A novel optical system was designed to absolutely calibrate the IDS. The device uses an UV LED to produce a broad emission curve in the desired region. A Fabry-Perot etalon filters this light, cutting transmittance peaks into the pattern of the LED emission. An optical train of fused silica lenses focuses the light into the IDS with f/4. A holographic diffuser blurs the light cone to increase homogeneity. Using this light source, the absolute Doppler shift of ion emissions can be measured in MST plasmas. In combination with charge exchange recombination spectroscopy, localized ion velocities can now be measured. Previously, a time-averaged measurement along the chord bisecting the poloidal plane was used to calibrate the IDS; the quality of these central chord calibrations can be characterized with our absolute calibration. Calibration errors may also be quantified and minimized by optimizing the curve-fitting process. Preliminary measurements of toroidal velocity in locked and rotating plasmas will be shown. This work has been supported by the US DOE.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fenstermacher, M.E., E-mail: fenstermacher@fusion.gat.co [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Evans, T.E.; Osborne, T.H.; Schaffer, M.J.; DeGrassie, J.S.; Gohil, P.; Groebner, R.J. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Moyer, R.A. [University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, California 92093 (United States)
2009-06-15
Large Type-I edge localized modes (ELMs) were suppressed by n = 3 resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) from a set of internal coils in plasmas with an ITER similar shape at the ITER pedestal collisionality, nu{sub e}*approx0.1 and low edge safety factor (q{sub 95} approx 3.6), with either a single toroidal row of the internal RMP coils or two poloidally separated rows of coils. ELM suppression with a single row of internal coils was achieved at approximately the same q{sub 95} surface-averaged perturbation field as with two rows of coils, but required higher current per coil. Maintaining complete suppression of ELMs using n = 3 RMPs from a single toroidal row of internal coils was less robust to variations in input neutral beam injection torque than previous ELM suppression cases using both rows of internal coils. With either configuration of RMP coils, maximum ELM size is correlated with the width of the edge region having good overlap of the magnetic islands from vacuum field calculations.
A steady-state axisymmetric toroidal system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hirano, K.
1984-01-01
Conditions for achieving a steady state in an axisymmetric toroidal system are studied with emphasis on a very-high-beta field-reversed configuration. The analysis is carried out for the electromotive force produced by the Ohkawa current that is induced by neutral-beam injection. It turns out that, since the perpendicular component of the current j-vectorsub(perpendicular) to the magnetic field can be generated automatically by the diamagnetic effect, only the parallel component j-vectorsub(parallel) must be driven by the electromotive force. The drive of j-vectorsub(parallel) generates shear in the field line so that the pure toroidal field on the magnetic axis is rotated towards the plasma boundary and matched to the external field lines. This matching condition determines the necessary amount of injection beam current and power. It is demonstrated that a very-high-beta field-reversed configuration requires only a small amount of current-driving beam power because almost all the toroidal current except that close to the magnetic axis is carried by the diamagnetic current due to high beta. A low-beta tokamak, on the other hand, needs very high current-driving power since most of the toroidal current is composed of j-vectorsub(parallel) which must be driven by the beam. (author)
Modeling the Compression of Merged Compact Toroids by Multiple Plasma Jets
Thio, Y. C. Francis; Knapp, Charles E.; Kirkpatrick, Ron; Rodgers, Stephen L. (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
A fusion propulsion scheme has been proposed that makes use of the merging of a spherical distribution of plasma jets to dynamically form a gaseous liner. The gaseous liner is used to implode a magnetized target to produce the fusion reaction in a standoff manner. In this paper, the merging of the plasma jets to form the gaseous liner is investigated numerically. The Los Alamos SPHINX code, based on the smoothed particle hydrodynamics method is used to model the interaction of the jets. 2-D and 3-D simulations have been performed to study the characteristics of the resulting flow when these jets collide. The results show that the jets merge to form a plasma liner that converge radially which may be used to compress the central plasma to fusion conditions. Details of the computational model and the SPH numerical methods will be presented together with the numerical results.
Large-scale structuring of a rotating plasma due to plasma macroinstabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kikuchi, Toshinori; Ikehata, Takashi; Sato, Naoyuki; Watahiki, Takeshi; Tanabe, Toshio; Mase, Hiroshi
1995-01-01
The formation of coherent structures during plasma macroinstabilities have been of interest in view of the nonlinear plasma physics. In the present paper, we have investigated in detail, the mechanism and specific features of large-scale structuring of a rotating plasma. In the case of weak magnetic field, the plasma ejected from a plasma gun has a high beta value (β > 1) so that it expands rapidly across the magnetic field excluding a magnetic flux from its interior. Then, the boundary between the expanding plasma and the magnetic field becomes unstable against Rayleigh-Taylor instability. This instability has the higher growth rate at the shorter wavelength and the mode appears as flute. These features of the instability are confirmed by the observation of radial plasma jets with the azimuthal mode number m=20-40 in the early time of the plasma expansion. In the case of strong magnetic field, on the other hand, the plasma little expands and rotates at two times the ion sound speed. Especially, we observe spiral jets of m=2 instead of short-wavelength radial jets. This mode appears only when a glass target is installed or a dense neutral gas is introduced around the plasma to give the plasma a frictional force. From these results and with reference to the theory of plasma instabilities, the centrifugal instability caused by a combination of the velocity shear and centrifugal force is concluded to be responsible for the formation of spiral jets. (author)
Quantum chaos theory and the spectrum of ideal-MHD instabilities in toroidal plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dewar, Robert L.; Carolin, Nuehrenberg; Tatsuno, Tomoya
2004-01-01
In a fully 3-D system such as a stellarator, the toroidal mode number n ceases to be a good quantum number - all ns within a given mode family being coupled. It is found that the discrete spectrum of unstable ideal MHD (magnetohydrodynamic) instabilities ceases to exist unless MHD is modified (regularized) by introducing a short-perpendicular-wavelength cutoff. Attempts to use ray tracing to estimate the regularized MHD spectrum fail due to the occurrence of chaotic ray trajectories. In quantum chaos theory, strong chaos in the semiclassical limit leads to eigenvalue statistics the same as those of a suitable ensemble of random matrices. For instance, the probability distribution function for the separation between neighboring eigenvalues is as derived from random matrix theory and goes to zero at zero separation. This contrasts with the Poissonian distribution found in separable systems, showing that a signature of quantum chaos is level repulsion. In order to determine whether eigenvalues of the regularized MHD problem obey the same statistics as those of the Schroedinger equation in both the separable 1-D case and the chaotic 3-D cases, we have assembled data sets of ideal MHD eigenvalues for a Suydam-unstable cylindrical (1-D) equilibrium using Mathematica and a Mercier-unstable (3-D) equilibrium using the CAS3D code. In the 1-D case, we find that the unregularized Suydam-approximation spectrum has an anomalous peak at zero eigenvalue separation. On the other hand, regularization by restricting the domain of κsub(perpendicular) recovers the expected Poissonian distribution. In the 3-D case we find strong evidence of level repulsion within mode families, but mixing mode families produces Poissonian statistics. (author)
Experimental demonstration of an up-down asymmetry effect on intrinsic rotation in the TCV tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Camenen, Y; Peeters, A G; Casson, F J; Hornsby, W A; Snodin, A P; Szepesi, G; Bortolon, A; Duval, B P; Federspiel, L; Karpushov, A N; Piras, F; Sauter, O
2010-01-01
A new mechanism has recently been proposed that generates a radial flux of parallel momentum in toroidal plasmas. Namely, by considering up-down asymmetric flux surfaces, the symmetry following the magnetic field can be broken and an additional contribution to the turbulent momentum flux arises, potentially changing the intrinsic rotation profile. These predictions are tested with specific experiments on TCV. The intrinsic toroidal rotation is observed to change by roughly a factor of two when changing the up-down asymmetry of the plasma. More precisely, the toroidal rotation gradient changes in the outer part of the plasma, where the flux surface asymmetry is the highest. The experiments were performed for all combinations of the toroidal magnetic field and plasma current directions, that affect the sign of the predicted up-down asymmetry flux. In each case the variation of the intrinsic rotation profile with the up-down asymmetry is observed in the direction predicted by the theory.
Data on rotating plasma operation in Tornado traps
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lehnert, B.
1976-01-01
Rotating plasma operation in spiral coil 'Tornado' traps provides a unique combination of confinement and heating properties. Such a system consists of a closed and compact magnetic bottle to which the crossed-field technique can be applied, in absence of end insulators and their critical velocity limitation effect. This should make possible the generation and heating of fully ionized plasmas by simple means, within a large range of ion densities, temperatures, and rotational velocities. Provided that stable operation becomes possible at high temperatures, it is likely that Tornado traps can be used as strong neutron sources of moderately large dimensions and technically realizable parameter values. Some detailed data and operation ranges are given for the 'Tornado 650' device in Leningrad, and for a somewhat larger device to be operated as neutron source. (Auth.)
Data on rotating plasma operation in Tornado traps
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lehnert, B.
1977-01-01
Rotating plasma operation in spiral coil 'Tornado' traps provides a unique combination of confinement and heating properties. Such a system consists of a closed and compact magnetic bottle to which the crossed-field technique can be applied, in absence of end insulators and their critical velocity limitation effect. This is expected to lead to the generation and heating of fully ionized plasmas within a large range of ion densities, temperatures, and rotational velocities. Provided that stable operation becomes possible at high temperatures and the effects due to the asymmetries of the spiral coil structure can be neglected, it is likely that Tornado traps can be used as strong neutron sources of moderately large dimensions and technically realizable parameter values. Some detailed data and operation ranges are outlined for the 'Tornado 650' device in Leningrad, and for a somewhat larger device which may be operated as a neutron source. (Auth.)
Coupled tearing modes in plasmas with differential rotation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dewar, R.L.; Persson, M.
1993-08-01
The global asymptotic matching equations for multiple coupled resistive modes of arbitrary parity in a cylindrical plasma are derived. Three different variational principles are given for the outer region matching data, while the inner-region analysis features a careful treatment of the symmetry-breaking effect of a gradient in the equilibrium current for a zero-β slab model. It is concluded that the usual constant-ψ result remains valid and constrains the matrix matching formalism. The dispersion relation is compared with initial value calculations of a double tearing mode when there are small relative rotation velocities between the rational surfaces. In treating differential rotation within the asymptotic matching formalism, flow is ignored in the outer region and is assumed to affect the inner response solely through a Doppler shift. It is shown that the relative rotation can have a strong stabilizing effect by making all but one rational surface effectively ideal. 40 refs., 6 figs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Uckan, T.; Hidalgo, C.; Bell, J.D.; Harris, J.H.; Dunlap, J.L.; Dyer, G.R.; Mioduszewski, P.K.; Wilgen, J.B.; Ritz, C.P.; Wootton, A.J.; Rhodes, T.L.; Carter, K.
1990-01-01
Electrostatic turbulence on the edge of the Advanced Torodial Facility (ATF) torsatron is investigated experimentally with a fast reciprocating Langmuir probe (FRLP) array. Initial measurements of plasma electron density n e and temperature T e and fluctuations in density (n e ) and plasma floating potential (φ f ) are made in ECH plasmas at 1 T. At the last closed flux surface (LCFS, r/bar a ∼1), T e ∼ 20--40 eV and n e ∼ 10 12 cm -3 for a line-averaged electron density bar n e = (3--6) x 10 12 cm -3 . Relative fluctuation levels, as the FRLP is moved into core plasma where T e > 20 eV, are n e /n e ∼ 5%, and e φ f /T e ∼ 2n e /n e about 2 cm inside the LCFS. The observed fluctuation spectra are broadband (40--300 kHz) with bar kρ s ≤ 0.1, where bar k is the wavenumber of the fluctuations and ρ s is the ion Larmor radius at the sound speed. The propagation direction of the fluctuations reverses to the electron diamagnetic direction around r/bar a ph ∼ v de ). The fluctuation-induced particle flux is comparable to fluxes estimated from the particle balance using the H α spectroscopic measurements. Many of the features seen in these experiments resemble the features of ohmically heated plasmas in the Texas Experimental Tokamak (TEXT). 17 refs., 10 figs
A MHD equilibrium code 'EQUCIR version 2' applicable to up-down asymmetric toroidal plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shinya, Kichiro; Ninomiya, Hiromasa
1981-01-01
Computer code EQUCIR version 2, which can analyse tokamak plasma equilibrium without assuming up-down symmetry with respect to the mid-plane, has been developed. This code is essentially the same as EQUCIR version 1 which has already been reported and can deal with only symmetrical plasma with respect to the mid-plane. Because data input stream is slightly different from version 1 physical background of the change and the method of calculation are explained. Data input manual for the different points is also summarized. The code has been applied to the analysis of INTOR single-null divertor plasmas and to the design of hybrid poloidal coils resulting in useful and powerful means for the design. (author)
Toroidal drift magnetic pumping
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Canobbio, E.
1977-01-01
A set of azimuthal coils which carry properly dephased rf-currents in the KHz frequency range can be used to heat toroidal plasmas by perpendicular Landau damping of subsonic Alfven waves. The heating mechanism and the rf-field structure are discussed in some detail
Multiscale gyrokinetics for rotating tokamak plasmas: fluctuations, transport and energy flows.
Abel, I G; Plunk, G G; Wang, E; Barnes, M; Cowley, S C; Dorland, W; Schekochihin, A A
2013-11-01
This paper presents a complete theoretical framework for studying turbulence and transport in rapidly rotating tokamak plasmas. The fundamental scale separations present in plasma turbulence are codified as an asymptotic expansion in the ratio ε = ρi/α of the gyroradius to the equilibrium scale length. Proceeding order by order in this expansion, a set of coupled multiscale equations is developed. They describe an instantaneous equilibrium, the fluctuations driven by gradients in the equilibrium quantities, and the transport-timescale evolution of mean profiles of these quantities driven by the interplay between the equilibrium and the fluctuations. The equilibrium distribution functions are local Maxwellians with each flux surface rotating toroidally as a rigid body. The magnetic equilibrium is obtained from the generalized Grad-Shafranov equation for a rotating plasma, determining the magnetic flux function from the mean pressure and velocity profiles of the plasma. The slow (resistive-timescale) evolution of the magnetic field is given by an evolution equation for the safety factor q. Large-scale deviations of the distribution function from a Maxwellian are given by neoclassical theory. The fluctuations are determined by the 'high-flow' gyrokinetic equation, from which we derive the governing principle for gyrokinetic turbulence in tokamaks: the conservation and local (in space) cascade of the free energy of the fluctuations (i.e. there is no turbulence spreading). Transport equations for the evolution of the mean density, temperature and flow velocity profiles are derived. These transport equations show how the neoclassical and fluctuating corrections to the equilibrium Maxwellian act back upon the mean profiles through fluxes and heating. The energy and entropy conservation laws for the mean profiles are derived from the transport equations. Total energy, thermal, kinetic and magnetic, is conserved and there is no net turbulent heating. Entropy is produced
Excitation and propagation of modified fluctuation in a toroidal plasma in KT-5C device
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sun Xuan; Wang Zhijiang; Lu Ronghua; Wen Yizhi; Wan Shude; Yu Changxuan; Liu Wandong; Wang Cheng; Pan Gesheng; Wang Wenhao; Wang Jun
2002-01-01
Understanding the propagation of the turbulent perturbation in the tokamak edge plasma is an important issue to actively modify or control the turbulence, reduce the anomalous transport and improve plasma confinement. To realize active modification of the edge perturbation, a high dynamic output, broad-band, low-cost power amplifier is set up, and used to drive the active probes in the experiments on KT-5C Tokamak. By using small-size magnetic probes together with Langmiur probes. It is observed that the modified perturbation by the active probes with sufficiently driving power may spread with electrostatic mode, and electromagnetic mode as well
Design and construction of small magnetic probes for a toroidal plasma machine
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McLeod, R.
1975-01-01
A number of probes were built with consideration given to the problems of heating, caused by bombardment by the hot plasma, interaction of the probe on the plasma, stray pick up by inaccurate alignment and accidental damage to the delicate coils. These problems were resolved by the following design criteria: 1. Heat resistant materials and thermocouple attached. 2. Dimensions kept to a minimum size. 3. Double layer coils wound back on themselfes and lead tightly twisted together. 4. Coils accurately aligned. 5. Protective covering over coils. (author)
Characteristics of Atmospheric Pressure Rotating Gliding Arc Plasmas
Zhang, Hao; Zhu, Fengsen; Tu, Xin; Bo, Zheng; Cen, Kefa; Li, Xiaodong
2016-05-01
In this work, a novel direct current (DC) atmospheric pressure rotating gliding arc (RGA) plasma reactor has been developed for plasma-assisted chemical reactions. The influence of the gas composition and the gas flow rate on the arc dynamic behaviour and the formation of reactive species in the N2 and air gliding arc plasmas has been investigated by means of electrical signals, high speed photography, and optical emission spectroscopic diagnostics. Compared to conventional gliding arc reactors with knife-shaped electrodes which generally require a high flow rate (e.g., 10-20 L/min) to maintain a long arc length and reasonable plasma discharge zone, in this RGA system, a lower gas flow rate (e.g., 2 L/min) can also generate a larger effective plasma reaction zone with a longer arc length for chemical reactions. Two different motion patterns can be clearly observed in the N2 and air RGA plasmas. The time-resolved arc voltage signals show that three different arc dynamic modes, the arc restrike mode, takeover mode, and combined modes, can be clearly identified in the RGA plasmas. The occurrence of different motion and arc dynamic modes is strongly dependent on the composition of the working gas and gas flow rate. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51576174), the Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education of China (No. 20120101110099) and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (No. 2015FZA4011)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goes, L.C.S.
1978-08-01
It is assumed that the plasma is governed by the static - equilibrium equations of magnetohydrodynamics. An analytical study is described for the equilibrium of an axially symmetric plasma configuration in the form of a toroid, with non-circular cross-section, carrying a longitudinal current. A class of exact solutions, for two different current distributions, with a fixed toroidal boundary, is described. The main features o these solutions are: it remains valid for an arbitrary aspect ratio, in the neighbourhood of the magnetic axis, the magnetic surfaces are ellipses of known eccentricities, there is, far from the magnetic axis, a hyperbolic point of a separatrix, at the origin of the coordinate system. The equilibrium found is suitable for calculations of a future fusion reactor. (Author) [pt
Equilibrium and stability of high-beta plasma in a finite l=+-1 toroidal system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shiina, S.; Saito, K.; Todoroki, J.; Hamada, S.; Gesso, H.; Nogi, Y.; Osanai, Y.; Yoshimura, H.
1983-01-01
The equilibrium and stability are theoretically and experimentally investigated of high-beta plasma in the Modified Bumpy Torus, which is an asymmetric closed-line system with fairly large l=0 and l=+-1 field components. The finiteness of the l=+-1 component induces significant stabilizing effects due both to self formation of a magnetic well and to the conducting wall. (author)
Centrifugal mass separation in rotating plasmas produced by a coaxial plasma gun
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ikehata, T.; Suzuki, M.; Tanabe, T.; Mase, H.
1989-01-01
Rotating Cu/Zn plasmas produced by a coaxial plasma gun have been applied to plasma centrifuge. A separation factor of up to 10 is measured over a radius of 4 cm when a current of 13 kA and an axial magnetic field of 2.5 kG are applied. Plasma parameters are: rotation frequency ω=1.1x10 6 rad/s, density n∼10 15 cm -3 , and ion temperature T i =10 eV. The separation factor of 2 is attained even in the plasma core where the density is higher than one-half of the peak value. This is attributed to the fact that a strong centrifugal force forms a hollow density profile which gives the density peak at a radius of 2 cm
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bondeson, A.; Xie, H.X.
1996-01-01
The stabilization of cylindrical plasmas by resistive walls combined with plasma rotation is analyzed. Perturbations with a single mode rational surface q=m/n in a finitely conducting plasma are treated by the resistive kink dispersion relation of Coppi. The possibilities for stabilization of ideal and resistive instabilities are explored systematically in different regions of parameter space. The study confirms that an ideal instability can be stabilized by a close-fitting wall and a rotation velocity of the order of resistive growth rate. However, the region in parameter space where such stabilization occurs is very small and appears to be difficult to exploit in experiments. The overall conclusion from the cylindrical plasma model is that resistive modes can readily be wall stabilized, whereas complete wall stabilization is hard to achieve for plasmas that are ideally unstable with the wall at infinity. 26 refs, 5 figs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Swanson, D.G.; Wersinger, J.M.
1985-01-01
The program of theoretical studies of the heating of toroidal plasmas with radio frequency electromagnetic radiation has continued in three directions. A summary of principal accomplishments of the first nine months of this year's contract is presented. These include: (1) The development of a numerical program for complex ray tracing with focusing. (2) Several developments in mode conversion theory. and (3) several developments in Nonlinear Wave Energy Absorption
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takizawa, Teruhiro; Shizuoka, Yoshihide.
1982-01-01
Purpose: To reduce the shielding capacity of a current breaker for a current transformer coil and to facilitate the manufacture and the assembly of the current transformer coil. Constitution: A first current transformer coil is provided between a vacuum container for enclosing a plasma and a toroidal magnetic field coil, and a secon current transformer coil is provided outside the toroidal magnetic field coil. The rise of the plasma current is performed by the variation in the current of the coil of the first transformer having high electromagnetic coupling with the plasma current, and the variation in the magnetic flux necessary for maintaining the plasma is performed by the variation in the current of the second transformer coil. In this manner, the current shielding capacity of the first transformer coil can be reduced to decrease the number of coil turns, thereby facilitating the manufacture and assembly. (Seki, T.)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thrysøe, Alexander Simon; Løiten, M.; Madsen, J.
2018-01-01
The conditions in the edge and scrape-off layer (SOL) of magnetically confined plasmas determine the overall performance of the device, and it is of great importance to study and understand the mechanics that drive transport in those regions. If a significant amount of neutral molecules and atoms...... is present in the edge and SOL regions, those will influence the plasma parameters and thus the plasma confinement. In this paper, it is displayed how neutrals, described by a fluid model, introduce source terms in a plasma drift-fluid model due to inelastic collisions. The resulting source terms...... are included in a four-field drift fluid model, and it is shown how an increasing neutral particle density in the edge and SOL regions influences the plasma particle transport across the lastclosed-flux-surface. It is found that an appropriate gas puffing rate allows for the edge density in the simulation...
2009-01-01
three axis fluxgate magnetometer , CMOS sun and star sensors, and a Kalman filter. The work and tasks that have been accomplished on the TOROID... magnetometer . The problem was found to be a missing ferrite bead which connects the 12V power supply to the op-amps which are used to appropriately...establish an overall operational timeline for TOROID. Testing and calibration was performed on the three-axis magnetometer which is primary attitude
Rotation of a magnesium plasma column in a background gas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bosco, E. Del; Dallaqua, R.S.
1993-01-01
Measurements of the angular velocity of a plasma column in a surrounding gas atmosphere are presented. The plasma is produced by a pulsed, high current arc discharge in the presence of an axial magnetic field. The angular velocity is measured using the cross correlation technique applied to the floating potential signals measured by two Langmuir probes. The main result is that when gas is added to the discharge the angular velocity is always lower than the case when there is no gas, this effect been more pronounced in the beginning of the discharge. For pressures higher than ∼ 2 x 10 -2 Pa there is a effect of the gas on the plasma column rotation and the angular velocity diminishes even at the end of discharge. (author)
Optimization of confinement in a toroidal plasma subject to strong radial electric fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roth, J.R.
1977-01-01
A preliminary report on the identification and optimization of independent variables which affect the ion density and confinement time in a bumpy torus plasma is presented. The independent variables include the polarity, position, and number of the midplane electrode rings, the method of gas injection, and the polarity and strength of a weak vertical magnetic field. Some characteristic data taken under condition when most of the independent variables were optimized are presented. The highest value of the electron number density on the plasma axis is 3.2 x 10 to the 12th power/cc, the highest ion heating efficiency is 47 percent, and the longest particle containment time is 2.0 milliseconds
Resistive ballooning modes in an axisymmetric toroidal plasma with long mean-free path
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Connor, J.W.; Chen, L.
1984-08-01
Tokamak devices normally operate at such high temperatures that the resistive fluid description is inappropriate. In particular, the collision frequency may be low enough for trapped particles to exist. However, on account of the high conductivity of such plasmas, one can identify two separate scale lengths when discussing resistive ballooning modes. By describing plasma motion on one of these, the connection length, in terms of kinetic theory the dynamics of trapped particles can be incorporated. On the resistive scale length, this leads to a description in terms of modified fluid equations in which trapped particle effects appear. The resulting equations are analyzed and the presence of trapped particles is found to modify the stability properties qualitatively
Modelling of ion thermal transport in ergodic region of collisionless toroidal plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kanno, Ryutaro; Nunami, Masanori; Satake, Shinsuke; Ohyabu, Nobuyoshi; Takamaru, Hisanori; Okamoto, Masao
2009-09-01
In recent tokamak experiments it has been found that so-called diffusion theory based on the 'diffusion of magnetic field lines' overestimates the radial energy transport in the ergodic region of the collisionless plasma affected by resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs), though the RMPs induce chaotic behavior of the magnetic field lines. The result implies that the modelling of the transport should be reconsidered for low collisionality cases. A computer simulation study of transport in the ergodic region is required for understanding fundamental properties of collisionless ergodized-plasmas, estimating the transport coefficients, and reconstructing the modelling of the transport. In this paper, we report the simulation study of thermal transport in the ergodic region under the assumption of neglecting effects of an electric field, impurities and neutrals. Because of the simulations neglecting interactions with different particle-species and saving the computational time, we treat ions (protons) in our numerical-study of the transport. We find that the thermal diffusivity in the ergodic region is extremely small compared to the one predicted by the theory of field-line diffusion and that the diffusivity depends on both the collision frequency and the strength of RMPs even for the collisionless ergodized-plasma. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matsuyama, Shoichiro; Shinohara, Shunjiro
2001-01-01
A large density profile modification was successfully obtained by voltage biasing to electrodes inserted in a RF (radio frequency) produced, magnetized plasma, and formation of strong shear of azimuthal plasma rotation velocity in a supersonic regime was found. For the case of biasing to an electrode near the central plasma region, two types of density transitions were observed in the outer plasma region: one was an oscillatory transition between two states, and the other was a transition from high to low density states with a large reduction of density fluctuations. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Matsuyama, Shoichiro; Shinohara, Shunjiro [Kyushu Univ., Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, Fukuoka (Japan)
2001-07-01
A large density profile modification was successfully obtained by voltage biasing to electrodes inserted in a RF (radio frequency) produced, magnetized plasma, and formation of strong shear of azimuthal plasma rotation velocity in a supersonic regime was found. For the case of biasing to an electrode near the central plasma region, two types of density transitions were observed in the outer plasma region: one was an oscillatory transition between two states, and the other was a transition from high to low density states with a large reduction of density fluctuations. (author)
Hybrid simulation of toroidal Alfvén eigenmode on the National Spherical Torus Experiment
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liu, D., E-mail: deyongl@uci.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Fu, G. Y.; Podestà, M.; Breslau, J. A.; Fredrickson, E. D. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Crocker, N. A.; Kubota, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angles, California 90095 (United States)
2015-04-15
Energetic particle modes and Alfvén eigenmodes driven by super-Alfvénic fast ions are routinely observed in neutral beam heated plasmas on the National Spherical Torus eXperiment (NSTX). These modes can significantly impact fast ion transport and thus cause fast ion redistribution or loss. Self-consistent linear simulations of Toroidal Alfvén Eigenmodes (TAEs) in NSTX plasmas have been carried out with the kinetic/magnetohydrodynamic hybrid code M3D-K using experimental plasma parameters and profiles including plasma toroidal rotation. The simulations show that unstable TAEs with n=3,4, or 5 can be excited by the fast ions from neutral beam injection. The simulated mode frequency, mode radial structure, and phase shift are consistent with measurements from a multi-channel microwave reflectometer diagnostic. A sensitivity study on plasma toroidal rotation, safety factor q profile, and initial fast ion distribution is performed. The simulations show that rotation can have a significant destabilizing effect when the rotation is comparable or larger than the experimental level. The mode growth rate is sensitive to q profile and fast ion distribution. Although mode structure and peak position depend somewhat on q profile and plasma rotation, the variation of synthetic reflectometer response is within experimental uncertainty and it is not sensitive enough to see the difference clearly.
Schlossberg, D. J.; Bodner, G. M.; Bongard, M. W.; Fonck, R. J.; Winz, G. R.
2014-10-01
A multipoint Thomson scattering diagnostic has recently been installed on the Pegasus ST. The system utilizes a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser (λ0 ~ 532 nm), spectrometers with volume phase holographic gratings, and a gated, intensified CCD camera. It provides measurements of Te and ne at 8 spatial locations for each spectrometer once per discharge. A new multiple aperture and beam dump system has been implemented to mitigate interference from stray light. This system has provided initial measurements in the core region of plasmas initiated by local helicity injection (LHI), as well as conventional Ohmic L- and H-mode discharges. Multi-shot averages of low-density (ne ~ 3 ×1018 m-3) , Ip ~ 0 . 1 MA LHI discharges show central Te ~ 75 eV at the end of the helicity injection phase. Ip ~ 0 . 13 MA Ohmic plasmas at moderate densities (ne ~ 2 ×1019 m-3) have core Te ~ 150 eV in L-mode. Generally, these plasmas do not reach transport equilibrium in the short 25 ms pulse length available. After an L-H transition, strong spectral broadening indicates increasing Te, to values above the range of the present spectrometer system with a high-dispersion VPH grating. Near-term system upgrades will focus on deploying a second spectrometer, with a lower-dispersion grating capable of measuring the 0.1-1.0 keV range. The second spectrometer system will also increase the available number of spatial channels, enabling study of H-mode pedestal structure. Work supported by US DOE Grant DE-FG02-96ER54375.
Collisional boundary layer analysis for neoclassical toroidal plasma viscosity in tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shaing, K. C.; Cahyna, P.; Becoulet, M.; Park, J.-K.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Chu, M. S.
2008-01-01
It is demonstrated that the pitch angle integrals in the transport fluxes in the ν regime calculated in K. C. Shang [Phys. Plasmas 10, 1443 (2003)] are divergent as the trapped-circulating boundary is approached. Here, ν is the collision frequency. The origin of this divergence results from the logarithmic dependence in the bounce averaged radial drift velocity. A collisional boundary layer analysis is developed to remove the singularity. The resultant pitch angle integrals now include not only the original physics of the ν regime but also the boundary layer physics. The transport fluxes, caused by the particles inside the boundary layer, scale as √(ν)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barbosa, Luis Filipe F.P.W.; Bosco, Edson del.
1994-01-01
This report presents the project and analysis of the circuit for production of the toroidal magnetic field in the Tokamak ETE (Spherical Tokamak Experiment). The ETE is a Tokamak with a small-aspect-ratio parameter to be used for studying the plasma physics for the research on thermonuclear fusion. This machine is being constructed at the Laboratorio Associado de Plasma (LAP) of the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE) in Sao Jose dos Campos, SP, Brazil. (author). 20 refs., 39 figs., 4 tabs
Generation and sustainment of plasma rotation by ICRF heating
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Perkins, F.W.; White, R.; Bonoli, P.T.; Chan, V.S.
2001-01-01
A mechanism is proposed and evaluated for driving rotation in tokamak plasmas by minority ion-cyclotron heating, even though this process introduces negligible angular momentum. The mechanism has two elements: First, angular momentum transport is governed by a diffusion equation with a non-slip boundary condition at the separatrix. Second, Monte-Carlo calculations show that energized particles will provide a torque density source which has a zero volume integral but separated positive and negative regions. With such a source, a solution of the diffusion equation predicts the on-axis rotation frequency Ω to be Ω=(4q max WJ*)eBR 3 a 2 n e (2π) 2 ) -1 (τ M /τ E ) where vertical bar J* vertical bar ∼ 5-10 is a non-dimensional rotation frequency calculated by the Monte-Carlo ORBIT code. Overall, agreement with experiment is good, when the resonance is on the low-field-side of the magnetic axis. The rotation becomes more counter-current and reverses sign on the high field side for a no-slip boundary. The velocity shear layer position is controllable and of sufficient magnitude to affect microinstabilities. (author)
Thrysøe, A. S.; Løiten, M.; Madsen, J.; Naulin, V.; Nielsen, A. H.; Rasmussen, J. Juul
2018-03-01
The conditions in the edge and scrape-off layer (SOL) of magnetically confined plasmas determine the overall performance of the device, and it is of great importance to study and understand the mechanics that drive transport in those regions. If a significant amount of neutral molecules and atoms is present in the edge and SOL regions, those will influence the plasma parameters and thus the plasma confinement. In this paper, it is displayed how neutrals, described by a fluid model, introduce source terms in a plasma drift-fluid model due to inelastic collisions. The resulting source terms are included in a four-field drift-fluid model, and it is shown how an increasing neutral particle density in the edge and SOL regions influences the plasma particle transport across the last-closed-flux-surface. It is found that an appropriate gas puffing rate allows for the edge density in the simulation to be self-consistently maintained due to ionization of neutrals in the confined region.
Eigenvalue problem and nonlinear evolution of kink modes in a toroidal plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ogino, T.; Takeda, S.; Sanuki, H.; Kamimura, T.
1979-04-01
The internal kink modes of a cylindrical plasma are investigated by a linear eigen value problem and their nonlinear evolution is studied by 3-dimensional MHD simulation based on the rectangular column model under the fixed boundary condition. The growth rates in two cases, namely uniform and diffused current profiles are analyzed in detail, which agree with the analytical estimation by Shafranov. The time evolution of the m = 1 mode showed that q > 1 is satisfied at the relaxation time (q safety factor), a stable configuration like a horse shoe (a new equilibrium) was formed. Also, the time evolution of the pressure p for the m = 2 mode showed that a stable configuration like a pair of anchors was formed. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koide, Yoshihiko; Ishida, Shin-ichi; Sakasai, Akira
1991-03-01
A particular role of integer-mode rational surfaces on the formation of peaked T i (r) and V t (r) is observed. In the case of JT-60 hot-ion regime, the plasma spontaneously changes its peaking region from the inside of q=2 surface to that of broader q=3 surface. (author)
Viscous damping of toroidal angular momentum in tokamaks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stacey, W. M. [Georgia Tech Fusion Research Center, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States)
2014-09-15
The Braginskii viscous stress tensor formalism was generalized to accommodate non-axisymmetric 3D magnetic fields in general toroidal flux surface geometry in order to provide a representation for the viscous damping of toroidal rotation in tokamaks arising from various “neoclassical toroidal viscosity” mechanisms. In the process, it was verified that the parallel viscosity contribution to damping toroidal angular momentum still vanishes even in the presence of toroidal asymmetries, unless there are 3D radial magnetic fields.
Jeans instability of rotating magnetized quantum plasma: Influence of radiation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Joshi, H., E-mail: hjoshi8525@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Mewar University, Chittorgarh (Raj.) India (India); Pensia, R. K. [Department of Physics, Govt. Girls College, Neemuch (M.P.) India (India)
2015-07-31
The effect of radiative heat-loss function and rotation on the Jeans instability of quantum plasma is investigated. The basic set of equations for this problem is constructed by considering quantum magnetohydrodynamic (QMHD) model. Using normal mode analysis, the general dispersion relation is obtained. This dispersion relation is studied in both, longitudinal and transverse direction of propagations. In both case of longitudinal and transverse direction of propagation, the Jeans instability criterion is modified due to presence of radiative heat-loss function and quantum correction.
Sharapov, S. E.; Garcia-Munoz, M.; Van Zeeland, M. A.; Bobkov, B.; Classen, I. G. J.; Ferreira, J.; Figueiredo, A.; Fitzgerald, M.; Galdon-Quiroga, J.; Gallart, D.; Geiger, B.; Gonzalez-Martin, J.; Johnson, T.; Lauber, P.; Mantsinen, M.; Nabais, F.; Nikolaeva, V.; Rodriguez-Ramos, M.; Sanchis-Sanchez, L.; Schneider, P. A.; Snicker, A.; Vallejos, P.; the AUG Team; the EUROfusion MST1 Team
2018-01-01
Dedicated studies performed for toroidal Alfvén eigenmodes (TAEs) in ASDEX-Upgrade (AUG) discharges with monotonic q-profiles have shown that electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) can make TAEs more unstable. In these AUG discharges, energetic ions driving TAEs were obtained by ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH). It was found that off-axis ECRH facilitated TAE instability, with TAEs appearing and disappearing on timescales of a few milliseconds when the ECRH power was switched on and off. On-axis ECRH had a much weaker effect on TAEs, and in AUG discharges performed with co- and counter-current electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD), the effects of ECCD were found to be similar to those of ECRH. Fast ion distributions produced by ICRH were computed with the PION and SELFO codes. A significant increase in T e caused by ECRH applied off-axis is found to increase the fast ion slowing-down time and fast ion pressure causing a significant increase in the TAE drive by ICRH-accelerated ions. TAE stability calculations show that the rise in T e causes also an increase in TAE radiative damping and thermal ion Landau damping, but to a lesser extent than the fast ion drive. As a result of the competition between larger drive and damping effects caused by ECRH, TAEs become more unstable. It is concluded, that although ECRH effects on AE stability in present-day experiments may be quite significant, they are determined by the changes in the plasma profiles and are not particularly ECRH specific.
Kinetic theory of instabilities responsible for magnetic turbulence in laboratory rotating plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mikhailovskii, A.B.; Lominadze, J.G.; Churikov, A.P.; Pustovitov, V.D.; Erokhin, N.N.; Konovalov, S.V.
2008-01-01
The problem of instabilities responsible for magnetic turbulence in collisionless laboratory rotating plasma is investigated. It is shown that the standard mechanism of driving the magnetorotational instability (MRI), due to negative rotation frequency gradient, disappears in such a plasma. Instead of it, a new driving mechanism due to plasma pressure gradient is predicted
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kostenko, A.I.; Kravchenko, M.Yu.; Monoszon, N.A.; Trokhachev, G.V.
1979-01-01
The method and calculation results of stability of a superconducting coil of the toroidal magnetic field in the T-10M installation to plasma current breakaway are presented. The calculations were performed for two values of the magnetic field induction in the centre of the plasma cross section: 3.5 and 5 T. The calculation of energy losses and heating of the superconducting coil was performed assuming the plasma current in case of breakaway decreases to zero with an infinite rate, so that the estimations obtained are maxiaum. It is shown that in case of 3.5 T induction the superconducting coil exhibits resistance to plasma current breakaways, and in case of 5 T it is necessary to use electromagnetic screening to provide stability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, Yang
2012-01-01
At Colorado University-Boulder the primary task is to extend our gyrokinetic Particle-in-Cell simulation of tokamak micro-turbulence and transport to the area of energetic particle physics. We have implemented a gyrokinetic ion/massless fluid electron hybrid model in the global δf-PIC code GEM, and benchmarked the code with analytic results on the thermal ion radiative damping rate of Toroidal Alfven Eigenmodes (TAE) and with mode frequency and spatial structure from eigenmode analysis. We also performed nonlinear simulations of both a single-n mode (n is the toroidal mode number) and multiple-n modes, and in the case of single-n, benchmarked the code on the saturation amplitude vs. particle collision rate with analytical theory. Most simulations use the f method for both ions species, but we have explored the full-f method for energetic particles in cases where the burst amplitude of the excited instabilities is large as to cause significant re-distribution or loss of the energetic particles. We used the hybrid model to study the stability of high-n TAEs in ITER. Our simulations show that the most unstable modes in ITER lie in the rage of 10 α (0) = 0.7% for the fully shaped ITER equilibrium. We also carried nonlinear simulations of the most unstable n = 15 mode and found that the saturation amplitude for the nominal ITER discharge is too low to cause large redistribution or loss of alpha particles. To include kinetic electron effects in the hybrid model we have studied a kinetic electron closure scheme for the fluid electron model. The most important element of the closure scheme is a complete Ohm's law for the parallel electric field E || , derived by combining the quasi-neutrality condition, the Ampere's equation and the v || moment of the gyrokinetic equations. A discretization method for the closure scheme is studied in detail for a three-dimensional shear-less slab plasma. It is found that for long-wavelength shear Alfven waves the kinetic closure scheme
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuznetsov, Yu.K.; Pinos, I.B.; Tyupa, V.I.
1999-01-01
With formulas for averaging over magnetic surfaces general analytical expressions are here deduced to determine the rotational transform angles in stellarator systems having different plasma pressure profiles
Electrodeless plasma acceleration system using rotating magnetic field method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T. Furukawa
2017-11-01
Full Text Available We have proposed Rotating Magnetic Field (RMF acceleration method as one of electrodeless plasma accelerations. In our experimental scheme, plasma generated by an rf (radio frequency antenna, is accelerated by RMF antennas, which consist of two-pair, opposed, facing coils, and these antennas are outside of a discharge tube. Therefore, there is no wear of electrodes, degrading the propulsion performance. Here, we will introduce our RMF acceleration system developed, including the experimental device, e.g., external antennas, a tapered quartz tube, a vacuum chamber, external magnets, and a pumping system. In addition, we can change RMF operation parameters (RMF applied current IRMF and RMF current phase difference ϕ, focusing on RMF current frequency fRMF by adjusting matching conditions of RMF, and investigate the dependencies on plasma parameters (electron density ne and ion velocity vi; e.g., higher increases of ne and vi (∼360 % and 55 %, respectively than previous experimental results were obtained by decreasing fRMF from 5 MHz to 0.7 MHz, whose RMF penetration condition was better according to Milroy’s expression. Moreover, time-varying component of RMF has been measured directly to survey the penetration condition experimentally.
Spectroscopic studies of a high Mach-number rotating plasma flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ando, Akira; Ashino, Masashi; Sagi, Yukiko; Inutake, Masaaki; Hattori, Kunihiko; Yoshinuma, Mikirou; Imasaki, Atsushi; Tobari, Hiroyuki; Yagai, Tsuyoshi
2001-01-01
Characteristics of an axially-magnetized rotating plasma are investigated by spectroscopy in the HITOP device of Tohoku University. A He plasma flows our axially and rotates azimuthally near the muzzle region of the MPD arcjet. Flow and rotational velocities and temperature of He ions and atoms are measured by Doppler shift and broadening of the HeII (γ=468.58 nm) and HeI (γ=587.56 nm) lines. Rotational velocity increases with the increase of axially-applied magnetic field strength and discharge current. As discharge current increases and mass flow rate decreases, the plasma flow velocity increases and T i increases. Ion acoustic Mach number of the plasma flow also increases, but tends to saturate at near 1. Radial profile of space potential is calculated from the obtained rotational velocity. The potential profile in the core region is parabolic corresponding to the observed rigid-body rotation of the core plasma. (author)
Spectroscopic studies of a high Mach-number rotating plasma flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ando, Akira; Ashino, Masashi; Sagi, Yukiko; Inutake, Masaaki; Hattori, Kunihiko; Yoshinuma, Mikirou; Imasaki, Atsushi; Tobari, Hiroyuki; Yagai, Tsuyoshi [Tohoku Univ., Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Sendai, Miyagi (Japan)
2001-07-01
Characteristics of an axially-magnetized rotating plasma are investigated by spectroscopy in the HITOP device of Tohoku University. A He plasma flows our axially and rotates azimuthally near the muzzle region of the MPD arcjet. Flow and rotational velocities and temperature of He ions and atoms are measured by Doppler shift and broadening of the HeII ({gamma}=468.58 nm) and HeI ({gamma}=587.56 nm) lines. Rotational velocity increases with the increase of axially-applied magnetic field strength and discharge current. As discharge current increases and mass flow rate decreases, the plasma flow velocity increases and T{sub i} increases. Ion acoustic Mach number of the plasma flow also increases, but tends to saturate at near 1. Radial profile of space potential is calculated from the obtained rotational velocity. The potential profile in the core region is parabolic corresponding to the observed rigid-body rotation of the core plasma. (author)
Toroidal field ripple effects in large tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Uckan, N.A.; Tsang, K.T.; Callen, J.D.
1975-01-01
In an experimental power reactor, the ripple produced by the finite number of toroidal field coils destroys the ideal axisymmetry of the configuration and is responsible for additional particle trapping, loss regions and plasma transport. The effects of toroidal field ripple on the plasma transport coefficient, the loss of alpha particles and energetic injection ions, and the relaxation of toroidal flows are investigated in a new and systematic way. The relevant results are applied to the ORNL-EPR reference design; the maximum ripple there of about 2.2 percent at the outer edge of the plasma column is found to be tolerable from plasma physics considerations
Rotation Rate of Saturn's Magnetosphere using CAPS Plasma Measurements
Sittler, E.; Cooper, J.; Simpson, D.; Paterson, W.
2012-01-01
We present the present status of an investigation of the rotation rate of Saturn 's magnetosphere using a 3D velocity moment technique being developed at Goddard which is similar to the 2D version used by Sittler et al. (2005) [1] for SOI and similar to that used by Thomsen et al. (2010). This technique allows one to nearly cover the full energy range of the CAPS IMS from 1 V less than or equal to E/Q less than 50 kV. Since our technique maps the observations into a local inertial frame, it does work during roll manoeuvres. We have made comparisons with Wilson et al. (2008) [2] (2005-358 and 2005-284) who performs a bi-Maxwellian fit to the ion singles data and our results are nearly identical. We will also make comparisons with results by Thomsen et al. (2010) [3]. Our analysis uses ion composition data to weight the non-compositional data, referred to as singles data, to separate H+, H2+ and water group ions (W+) from each other. The ion data set is especially valuable for measuring flow velocities for protons, which are more difficult to derive using singles data within the inner magnetosphere, where the signal is dominated by heavy ions (i.e., proton peak merges with W+ peak as low energy shoulder). Our technique uses a flux function, which is zero in the proper plasma flow frame, to estimate fluid parameter uncertainties. The comparisons investigate the experimental errors and potential for systematic errors in the analyses, including ours. The rolls provide the best data set when it comes to getting 4PI coverage of the plasma but are more susceptible to time aliasing effects. Since our analysis is a velocity moments technique it will work within the inner magnetosphere where pickup ions are important and velocity distributions are non-Maxwellian. So, we will present results inside Enceladus' L shell and determine if mass loading is important. In the future we plan to make comparisons with magnetic field observations, use Saturn ionosphere conductivities as
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barbosa, Luis Filipe F.P.W.; Bosco, Edson del
1994-12-31
This report presents the project and analysis of the circuit for production of the toroidal magnetic field in the Tokamak ETE (Spherical Tokamak Experiment). The ETE is a Tokamak with a small-aspect-ratio parameter to be used for studying the plasma physics for the research on thermonuclear fusion. This machine is being constructed at the Laboratorio Associado de Plasma (LAP) of the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE) in Sao Jose dos Campos, SP, Brazil. (author). 20 refs., 39 figs., 4 tabs.
Tokamak rotation and charge exchange
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hazeltine, R.D.; Rowan, W.L.; Solano, E.R.; Valanju, P.M.
1991-01-01
In the absence of momentum input, tokamak toroidal rotation rates are typically small - no larger in particular than poloidal rotation - even when the radial electric field is strong, as near the plasma edge. This circumstance, contradicting conventional neoclassical theory, is commonly attributed to the rotation damping effect of charge exchange, although a detailed comparison between charge-exchange damping theory and experiment is apparently unavailable. Such a comparison is attempted here in the context of recent TEXT experiments, which compare rotation rates, both poloidal and toroidal, in helium and hydrogen discharges. The helium discharges provide useful data because they are nearly free of ion-neutral charge exchange; they have been found to rotate toroidally in reasonable agreement with neoclassical predictions. The hydrogen experiments show much smaller toroidal motion as usual. The theoretical calculation uses the full charge-exchange operator and assumes plateau collisionality, roughly consistent with the experimental conditions. The authors calculate the ion flow as a function of v cx /v c , where v cx is the charge exchange rate and v c the Coulomb collision frequency. The results are in reasonable accord with the observations. 1 ref
Observations of rotation in JET plasmas with electron heating by ion cyclotron resonance heating
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hellsten, T.; Johnson, T. J.; Van Eester, D.
2012-01-01
The rotation of L-mode plasmas in the JET tokamak heated by waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) damped on electrons, is reported. The plasma in the core is found to rotate in the counter-current direction with a high shear and in the outer part of the plasma with an almost......, electron absorption of the fast magnetosonic wave by transit time magnetic pumping and electron Landau damping (TTMP/ELD) is the dominating absorption mechanism. Inverted mode conversion is done in (He-3)-H plasmas where the mode converted waves are essentially absorbed by electron Landau damping. Similar...... rotation profiles are seen when heating at the second harmonic cyclotron frequency of He-3 and with mode conversion at high concentrations of He-3. The magnitude of the counter-rotation is found to decrease with an increasing plasma current. The correlation of the rotation with the electron temperature...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reynolds, J. M.; Lopez-Bruna, D.
2009-01-01
This report is the third of a series [Informes Tecnicos Ciemat 1165 y 1172] devoted to the development of a new numerical code to solve the guiding center equation for electrons and ions in toroidal plasmas. Two calculation meshes corresponding to axisymmetric tokamaks are now prepared and the kinetic equation is expanded so the standard terms of neoclassical theory --fi rst order terms in the Larmor radius expansion-- can be identified, restricting the calculations correspondingly. Using model density and temperature profiles for the plasma, several convergence test are performed depending on the calculation meshes and the expansions of the distribution function; then the results are compared with the theory [Hinton and Hazeltine, Rev. Mod. Phys. (1976)]. (Author) 18 refs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Graf, A; Howard, S; Horton, R; Hwang, D; May, M; Beiersdorfer, P; McLean, H; Terry, J
2006-05-15
A novel Doppler spectrometer is currently being used for ion or neutral velocity and temperature measurements on the Alcator C-Mod Tokamak. The spectrometer has an f/No. of {approx}3.1 and is appropriate for visible light (3500-6700 {angstrom}). The full width at half maximum from a line emitting calibration source has been measured to be as small as 0.4 {angstrom}. The ultimate time resolution is line brightness light limited and on the order of ms. A new photon efficient detector is being used for the setup at C-Mod. Time resolution is achieved by moving the camera during a plasma discharge in a perpendicular direction through the dispersion plane of the spectrometer causing a vertical streaking across the camera face. Initial results from C-Mod as well as previous measurements from the Compact Toroid Injection Experiment (CTIX) and the Sustained Spheromak Plasma Experiment (SSPX) are presented.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ivanov, A. A.; Martynov, A. A.; Medvedev, S. Yu.; Poshekhonov, Yu. Yu.
2015-01-01
In the MHD tokamak plasma theory, the plasma pressure is usually assumed to be isotropic. However, plasma heating by neutral beam injection and RF heating can lead to a strong anisotropy of plasma parameters and rotation of the plasma. The development of MHD equilibrium theory taking into account the plasma inertia and anisotropic pressure began a long time ago, but until now it has not been consistently applied in computational codes for engineering calculations of the plasma equilibrium and evolution in tokamak. This paper contains a detailed derivation of the axisymmetric plasma equilibrium equation in the most general form (with arbitrary rotation and anisotropic pressure) and description of the specialized version of the SPIDER code. The original method of calculation of the equilibrium with an anisotropic pressure and a prescribed rotational transform profile is proposed. Examples of calculations and discussion of the results are also presented
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fitzgerald, M.; Hole, M.J.; Appel, L.C.
2013-01-01
A new force balance model for the EFIT magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium technique for tokamaks is presented which includes the full toroidal flow and anisotropy changes to the Grad–Shafranov equation. The free functions are poloidal flux functions and all non-linear contributions to the toroidal current density are treated iteratively. The parallel heat flow approximation chosen for the model is that parallel temperature is a flux function and that both parallel and perpendicular pressures may be described using parallel and perpendicular temperatures. This choice for the fluid thermodynamics has been shown elsewhere to be the same as a guiding-centre kinetic solution of the same problem under the same assumptions. The model reduces identically to the static and isotropic Grad–Shafranov equation in the appropriate limit as different flux functions are set to zero. An analytical solution based on a modified Soloviev solution for non-zero toroidal flow and anisotropy is also presented. The force balance model has been demonstrated in the code EFIT TENSOR, a branch of the existing code EFIT++. Benchmark results for EFIT TENSOR are presented and the more complicated force balance model is found to converge to force balance similarly to the usual EFIT model and with comparable speed. (paper)
Bulk plasma rotation in the presence of waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eriksson, L.G.; Noterdaeme, J.M.; Kirov, K.
2003-01-01
Experiments with directed ICRF waves have for the first time in JET demonstrated the influence of absorbed wave momentum on bulk plasma rotation. Resonating fast ions acted as an intermediary in this process, and the experiments therefore provided evidence for the effect of fast ions on the plasma rotation. Results from these experiments are reviewed together with results from ICRF heated plasmas with symmetric spectra in JET and Tore Supra. The relevance of different theoretical models is briefly considered. (author)
Effect of rotating electric field on 3D complex (dusty) plasma
Wörner, L.; Nosenko, V.; Ivlev, A. V.; Zhdanov, S. K.; Thomas, H. M.; Morfill, G. E.; Kroll, M.; Schablinski, J.; Block, D.
2011-06-01
The effect of rotating electric field on 3D particle clusters suspended in rf plasma was studied experimentally. Spheroidal clusters were suspended inside a glass box mounted on the lower horizontal rf electrode, with gravity partially balanced by thermophoretic force. Clusters rotated in the horizontal plane, in response to rotating electric field that was created inside the box using conducting coating on its inner surfaces ("rotating wall" technique). Cluster rotation was always in the direction of applied field and had a shear in the vertical direction. The angular speed of rotation was 104-107 times lower than applied frequency. The experiment is compared to a recent theory.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yambe, Kiyoyuki; Inomoto, Michiaki; Okada, Shigefumi; Kobayashi, Yuka; Asai, Tomohiko
2008-01-01
The effects of an internal structure on the equilibrium of a field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasma sustained by rotating magnetic field is investigated by using detailed electrostatic probe measurements in the FRC Injection Experiment apparatus [S. Okada, et al., Nucl. Fusion. 45, 1094 (2005)]. An internal structure installed axially on the geometrical axis, which simulates Ohmic transformer or external toroidal field coils on the FRC device, brings about substantial changes in plasma density profile. The internal structure generates steep density-gradients not only on the inner side but on the outer side of the torus. The radial electric field is observed to sustain the ion thermal pressure-gradient in the FRC without the internal structure; however, the radial electric field is not sufficient to sustain the increased ion thermal pressure-gradient in the FRC with the internal structure. Spontaneously driven azimuthal ion flow will be accountable for the imbalance of the radial pressure which is modified by the internal structure.
An Edge Rotation and Temperature Diagnostic on NSTX
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Biewer, T.M.; Bell, R.E.; Feder, R.; Johnson, D.W.; Palladino, R.W.
2003-01-01
A new diagnostic for the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is described whose function is to measure ion rotation and temperature at the plasma edge. The diagnostic is sensitive to C III, C IV, and He II intrinsic emission, covering a radial region of 15 cm at the extreme edge of the outboard midplane. Thirteen chords are distributed between toroidal and poloidal views, allowing the toroidal and poloidal rotation and temperature of the plasma edge to be simultaneously measured with 10 ms resolution. Combined with the local pressure gradient and the EFIT code reconstructed magnetic field profile, the edge flow gives a measure of the local radial electric field
Field-reversed experiments (FRX) on compact toroids
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Armstrong, W.T.; Linford, R.K.; Lipson, J.; Platts, D.A.; Sherwood, E.G.
1981-11-01
Equilibrium, stability, and confinement properties of compact toroids produced in field-reversed theta-pinch experiments (FRX) are reported. Two experimental facilities, FRX-A and FRX-B, have been used to study highly elongated compact toroid plasmas confined in a purely poloidal field geometry. Spatial scans and fill pressure scaling of the equilibrium plasma parameters are presented. Plasma conditions range from T/sub e/approx.150 eV, T/sub i/approx.800 eV, n/sub m/approx.1 x 10/sup 15/ cm/sup -3/ to T/sub e/approx.100 eV, T/sub i/approx.150 eV, n/sub m/approx.4 x 10/sup 15/ cm/sup -3/. Typical confined plasma dimensions are: major radius Rapprox.4 cm, minor radius aapprox.2 cm, and total length 35--50 cm. The plasma configuration remains in a stable equilibrium for up to 50 ..mu..sec followed by the destructive n = 2 rotational instability. The stable period prior to the onset of the rotational mode is up to one hundred times greater than characteristic Alfven transit times of the plasma. This stable period increases and the mode growth rate decreases with increased a/rho/sub i/ (where rho/sub i/ is the ion gyroradius). Agreement of experimental and theoretical mode frequencies for the instability is observed. Preferential particle loss has been proposed as a likely cause of rotation. The particle inventory at the onset of the instability is consistent with this hypothesis. The particle loss rate is also consistent with the predicted anomalous transport near the separatrix. Contributions to rotational instability from diffusion, end-shorting, equipartition, and compression are also discussed.
Field-reversed experiments (FRX) on compact toroids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Armstrong, W.T.; Linford, R.K.; Lipson, J.; Platts, D.A.; Sherwood, E.G.
1981-01-01
Equilibrium, stability, and confinement properties of compact toroids produced in field-reversed theta-pinch experiments (FRX) are reported. Two experimental facilities, FRX-A and FRX-B, have been used to study highly elongated compact toroid plasmas confined in a purely poloidal field geometry. Spatial scans and fill pressure scaling of the equilibrium plasma parameters are presented. Plasma conditions range from T/sub e/approx.150 eV, T/sub i/approx.800 eV, n/sub m/approx.1 x 10 15 cm -3 to T/sub e/approx.100 eV, T/sub i/approx.150 eV, n/sub m/approx.4 x 10 15 cm -3 . Typical confined plasma dimensions are: major radius Rapprox.4 cm, minor radius aapprox.2 cm, and total length 35--50 cm. The plasma configuration remains in a stable equilibrium for up to 50 μsec followed by the destructive n = 2 rotational instability. The stable period prior to the onset of the rotational mode is up to one hundred times greater than characteristic Alfven transit times of the plasma. This stable period increases and the mode growth rate decreases with increased a/rho/sub i/ (where rho/sub i/ is the ion gyroradius). Agreement of experimental and theoretical mode frequencies for the instability is observed. Preferential particle loss has been proposed as a likely cause of rotation. The particle inventory at the onset of the instability is consistent with this hypothesis. The particle loss rate is also consistent with the predicted anomalous transport near the separatrix. Contributions to rotational instability from diffusion, end-shorting, equipartition, and compression are also discussed
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Perello, M; Vigon, M A
1972-07-01
The motion of a gas simultaneously submitted to an electric discharge and magnetic field has been studied in order to analyze the possibility of producing isotopes separation by rotation of a plasma. Some experimental results obtained under different discharge conditions are also given. Differences of pressure up to 15 mm oil between both electrodes has been attained. No definite conclusion on separation factors could be reached because of the low reproducibility of results, probably due to the short duration of the discharge with a new chamber designed to support stronger thermal shocks more reliable data can be expected. (Author) 16 refs.
Feedback control of resistive wall modes in toroidal devices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, Y.Q.
2002-01-01
Active feedback of resistive wall modes is investigated using cylindrical theory and toroidal calculations. For tokamaks, good performance is obtained by using active coils with one set of coils in the poloidal direction and sensors detecting the poloidal field inside the first wall, located at the outboard mid-plane. With suitable width of the feedback coil such a system can give robust control with respect to variations in plasma current, pressure and rotation. Calculations are shown for ITER-like geometry with a double wall. The voltages and currents in the active coils are well within the design limits for ITER. Calculations for RFP's are presented for a finite number of coils both in the poloidal and toroidal directions. With 4 coils in the poloidal and 24 coils in the toroidal direction, all non-resonant modes can be stabilized both at high and low theta. Several types of sensors, including radial and internal poloidal or toroidal sensors, can stabilize the RWM, but poloidal sensors give the most robust performance. (author)
Kinetic theory of interaction of high frequency waves with a rotating plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chiu, S. C.; Chan, V. S.; Chu, M. S.; Lin-Liu, Y. R.
2000-01-01
The equations of motion of charged particles of a strongly magnetized flowing plasma under the influence of high frequency waves are derived in the guiding center approximation. A quasilinear theory of the interactions of waves with rotating plasmas is formulated. This is applied to investigate the effect of radio frequency waves on a rotating tokamak plasma with a heated minority species. The angular momentum drive is mainly due to the rf-induced radial minority current. The return current by the bulk plasma gives an equal and opposite rotation drive on the bulk. Using moment equations and a small banana width approximation, the JxB drive was evaluated for the bulk plasma. Quite remarkably, although collisions are included, the net rotation drive is due to a term which can be obtained by neglecting collisions. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics
Numerical simulation of feedback stabilization of the tearing mode in a rotating plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Speranskii, N.N.
1991-01-01
The suppression of the tearing mode by means of feedback is studied in a rotating plasma cylinder. The feedback is produced by a coil whose winding is specified by cos var-phi, var-phi = mθ - kz. It is shown that when a resonant surface is present in the rotating plasma the current in the feedback winding generates a magnetic flux in the plasma with cos var-phi and sin var-phi angular dependence. The processes of particle capture is explained. The rotational instability which arises because of the repulsion between the feedback and tearing-mode currents, which interferes with suppression of the tearing mode, is absent when the plasma rotates sufficiently rapidly. In this feedback dependence the form of the plasma current profile determines whether there can be an instability in the induced current resulting from the presence of the feedback
Reimerdes, H; Garofalo, A M; Jackson, G L; Okabayashi, M; Strait, E J; Chu, M S; In, Y; La Haye, R J; Lanctot, M J; Liu, Y Q; Navratil, G A; Solomon, W M; Takahashi, H; Groebner, R J
2007-02-02
Recent DIII-D experiments with reduced neutral beam torque and minimum nonaxisymmetric perturbations of the magnetic field show a significant reduction of the toroidal plasma rotation required for the stabilization of the resistive-wall mode (RWM) below the threshold values observed in experiments that apply nonaxisymmetric magnetic fields to slow the plasma rotation. A toroidal rotation frequency of less than 10 krad/s at the q=2 surface (measured with charge exchange recombination spectroscopy using C VI) corresponding to 0.3% of the inverse of the toroidal Alfvén time is sufficient to sustain the plasma pressure above the ideal MHD no-wall stability limit. The low-rotation threshold is found to be consistent with predictions by a kinetic model of RWM damping.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1980-07-01
The purpose of the Workshop was to identify the most important physics issues that need to be addressed in the near term in order to assure the optimal design and timely interpretation of Compact Toroid (CT) experiments. The Panel was also asked to assess the levels of effort required to obtain priority information on appropriate time scales compatible with DOE plans to design a CT proof-of-principle experiment. The fiscal year cost anticipated for the effort recommended by the Workshop Panel (excluding costs for computing) is estimated to be approximately $5.7M. CT theory is currently funded at a level of approximately $2.0M per year
Quiescent H-mode plasmas with strong edge rotation in the cocurrent direction.
Burrell, K H; Osborne, T H; Snyder, P B; West, W P; Fenstermacher, M E; Groebner, R J; Gohil, P; Leonard, A W; Solomon, W M
2009-04-17
For the first time in any tokamak, quiescent H-mode (QH-mode) plasmas have been created with strong edge rotation in the direction of the plasma current. This confirms the theoretical prediction that the QH mode should exist with either sign of the edge rotation provided the magnitude of the shear in the edge rotation is sufficiently large and demonstrates that counterinjection and counteredge rotation are not essential for the QH mode. Accordingly, the present work demonstrates a substantial broadening of the QH-mode operating space and represents a significant confirmation of the theory.
Poloidal plasma rotation in the presence of RF waves in tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weyssow, B.; Liu, Caigen
2001-01-01
It is well known that one of the consequences of strong RF heating is the deformation of the equilibrium distribution function that induces a change in plasma transport and plasma rotation. The poloidal plasma rotation during RF wave heating in tokamaks is investigated using a moment approach. A set of closed, self-consistent transport and rotation equations is derived and reduced to a single equation for the poloidal particle flux. The formulas are sufficiently general to apply to heating schemes that can be represented by a quasilinear operator. (author)
Time evolution of the bootstrap current profile in LHD plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakamura, Yuji; Kawaoto, K.; Watanabe, K.Y.
2008-10-01
The direction of the bootstrap current is inverted in the outward shifted plasmas of the Large Helical Device (LHD). In order to verify the reliability of the theoretical models of the bootstrap current in helical plasmas, the rotational transform profiles are observed by the Motional Stark Effect measurement in the bootstrap current carrying plasmas of the LHD, and they are compared with the numerical simulations of the toroidal current profile including the bootstrap current. Since the toroidal current profile is not in the steady state in these plasmas, taking care of the inversely induced component of the toroidal current and finite duration of the resistive diffusion of the toroidal current are important in the numerical simulations. Reasonable agreement can be obtained between the rotational transform profiles measured in the experiments and those calculated in the numerical simulations. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoshinaga, T.; Uchida, M.; Tanaka, H.; Maekawa, T.
2007-01-01
An estimation model of plasma current density distribution for the start-up phase of toroidal plasmas generated by electron cyclotron heating (ECH) in the low aspect ratio torus experiment device is presented. The model assumes a power law parabolic current profile having seven fitting parameters. Its position, extent and broadness (or steepness) are fitted by adjusting these parameters to the observed magnetic flux signals. The adequacy of the model has been examined and confirmed by comparisons of the reconstructed current profiles and the resultant poloidal flux surfaces with the plasma images at visible light range at various stages of start-up discharges, including both the initial open field phase, the subsequent closed field phase, the current decay phase after ECH is turned off and also by a current-profile limiting experiment. This method may be useful for the study of non-inductive start-up experiments by ECH, where there is no appropriate MHD constraint on the current distribution as that in the full tokamak discharge plasmas
Particle simulations in toroidal geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aydemir, A.Y.
1992-09-01
A computational tool to be used in kinetic simulations of toroidal plasmas is being developed. The initial goal of the project is to develop an electrostatic gyrokinetic model for studying transport and stability problems in tokamaks. In this brief report, preliminary results from the early stages of this effort are presented
Alpha Channeling in Rotating Plasma with Stationary Waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fetterman, A.; Fisch, N.J.
2010-01-01
An extension of the alpha channeling effect to supersonically rotating mirrors shows that the rotation itself can be driven using alpha particle energy. Alpha channeling uses radiofrequency waves to remove alpha particles collisionlessly at low energy. We show that stationary magnetic fields with high n θ can be used for this purpose, and simulations show that a large fraction of the alpha energy can be converted to rotation energy.
Poloidal rotation induced by injecting lower hybrid waves in tokamak plasma edge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jiao Yiming; Gao Qingdi; Shi Bingren
2001-01-01
The poloidal rotation of the magnetized edge plasma in tokamak driven by the ponderomotive force which is generated by injecting lower hybrid wave (LHW) electric field has been studied. The LHW is launched from a waveguide in the plasma edge, and by Brambilla's grill theory, analytic expressions for the wave electric field in the slab model of an inhomogeneous cold plasma have been derived. It is shown that a strong wave electric field will be generated in the plasma edge by injecting LH wave of the power in MW magnitude, and this electric field will induce a poloidal rotation with a sheared poloidal velocity
Axisymmetric toroidal equilibrium with flow and anisotropic pressure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iacono, R.; Bondeson, A.; Troyon, F.; Gruber, R.
1989-10-01
Axisymmetric toroidal plasma equilibria with mass flows and anisotropic pressure are investigated. The equilibrium system is derived for a general functional form of the pressures, which includes both fluid models, such as the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) and the double-adiabatic models, and Grad's guiding centre model. This allows for detailed comparisons between the models and clarifies how the 'first hyperbolic region', occurring in the fluid theory when the poloidal flow is of the order of the poloidal sound speed, can be eliminated in guiding centre theory. In the case of a pure toroidal rotation, macroscopic equations of state are derived from the guiding centre model, characterized by a parallel temperature that is constant on each magnetic surface and a perpendicular temperature that varies with the magnetic field. The outward centrifugal shifts of the magnetic axis and of the mass density profile, due to toroidal rotation, are increased by anisotropy. The guiding centre model shows that poloidal flow produces an inward shift of the density profile, in contrast with the MHD result. (author) 1 fig., 1 tab., 17 refs
Evidence of Inward Toroidal Momentum Convection in the JET Tokamak
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tala, T.; Zastrow, K.-D.; Ferreira, J.
2009-01-01
Experiments have been carried out on the Joint European Torus tokamak to determine the diffusive and convective momentum transport. Torque, injected by neutral beams, was modulated to create a periodic perturbation in the toroidal rotation velocity. Novel transport analysis shows the magnitude...... and profile shape of the momentum diffusivity are similar to those of the ion heat diffusivity. A significant inward momentum pinch, up to 20 m/s, has been found. Both results are consistent with gyrokinetic simulations. This evidence is complemented in plasmas with internal transport barriers....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jiquan Li; Kishimoto, Y.; Tuda, T.
2000-01-01
The separate structure of two branches of the sheared slab η i mode near the minimum-q magnetic surface is analysed and the effects of plasma rotation shears are considered in the weak magnetic shear region. Results show that the separation condition depends on the non-monotonous q profile and the deviation of rational surface from the minimum-q surface. Furthermore, it is found that the diamagnetic rotation shear may suppress the perturbation of the sheared slab η i mode at one side of the minimum-q surface, the poloidal rotation shear from the sheared E-vector x B-vector flow has a similar role to the slab mode structure when it possesses a direction same as the diamagnetic shear. A plausible interrelation between the separate structures of the two branches of the sheared slab mode and the discontinuity or gap of the radially global structure of the drift wave near the minimum-q surface observed in the toroidal particle simulation (Kishimoto Y et al 1998 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 40 A663) is discussed. It seems to support such a viewpoint: the double or/and global branches of the sheared slab η i mode near the minimum-q surface may become a bridge to connect the radially global structures of the drift wave at two sides of the minimum-q surface and the discontinuity may originate from the separate structures of these slab modes for a flatter q profile. (author)
Compact toroid refueling of reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gouge, M.J.; Hogan, J.T.; Milora, S.L.; Thomas, C.E.
1988-04-01
The feasibility of refueling fusion reactors and devices such as the International Thermonuclear Engineering Reactor (ITER) with high-velocity compact toroids is investigated. For reactors with reasonable limits on recirculating power, it is concluded that the concept is not economically feasible. For typical ITER designs, the compact toroid fueling requires about 15 MW of electrical power, with about 5 MW of thermal power deposited in the plasma. At these power levels, ideal ignition (Q = ∞) is not possible, even for short-pulse burns. The pulsed power requirements for this technology are substantial. 6 ref., 1 figs
Faraday rotation in an electron-positron plasma containing a fraction of ions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hall, J.O.; Shukla, P.K.
2005-01-01
The Faraday rotation in a magnetized electron-positron plasma containing a fraction of ions is investigated by using a multifluid description. It is shown that the Faraday rotation for circularly polarized electromagnetic waves with frequencies much larger than the electron/positron plasma and electron gyrofrequencies is proportional to the ion number density and the magnitude of the ambient magnetic-field strength. The results are relevant for astrophysical observations and diagnostics of laboratory electron-positron-ion magnetoplasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Johnson, R.L.
1985-01-01
The Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF) is a new magnetic confinement plasma device under construction at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) that will lead to improvements in toroidal magnetic fusion reactors. The ATF is a type of stellerator, known as a ''torsatron'' which theoretically has the capability to operate at greater than or equal to8% beta in steady state. The ATF plasma has a major radius of 2.1 m, an average minor radius of 0.3 m, and a field of 2 T for a 2 s duration or 1 T steady state. The ATF device consists of a helical field (HF) coil set, a set of poloidal field (PF) coils, an exterior shell structure to support the coils, and a thin, helically contoured vacuum vessel inside the coils. The ATF replaces the Impurities Studies Experiment (ISX-B) tokamak at ORNL and will use the ISX-B auxiliary systems including 4 MW of electron cyclotron heating. The ATF is scheduled to start operation in late 1986. An overview of the ATF device is presented, including details of the construction process envisioned. 9 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs
Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thompson, P.B.
1985-01-01
The Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF) is a new magnetic plasma confinement device, under construction at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), which will lead to improvements in toroidal magnetic fusion reactors. ATF is a type of stellarator known as a torsatron which theoretically has the capability at greater than or equal to8% beta in steady state. The ATF plasma has a major radius of 2.1 m, an average minor radius of 0.3 m, and a field of 2 T for a 5-s duration or 1 T steady state. The ATF device consists of a helical field (HF) coil set, a set of poloidal field (PF) coils, an exterior shell structure to support the coils, and a thin helically contoured vacuum vessel inside the coils. The ATF replaces the ISX-B tokamak at ORNL and will use the ISX-B auxiliary systems including 4 MW of neutral injection heating and 0.2 MW of electron cyclotron heating. ATF device is scheduled to start operation in the fall of 1986. An overview of the ATF device is presented including details of the construction process envisioned
Radial electric field and rotation of the ensemble of plasma particles in tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sorokina, E. A.; Ilgisonis, V. I.
2012-01-01
The velocity of macroscopic rotation of an ensemble of charged particles in a tokamak in the presence of an electric field has been calculated in a collisionless approximation. It is shown that the velocity of toroidal rotation does not reduce to a local velocity of electric drift and has opposite directions on the inner and outer sides of the torus. This result is supplemented by an analysis of the trajectories of motion of individual particles in the ensemble, which shows that the passing and trapped particles of the ensemble acquire in the electric field, on the average, different toroidal velocities. For the trapped particles, this velocity is equal to that of electric drift in the poloidal magnetic field, while the velocity of passing particles is significantly different. It is shown that, although the electric-field-induced shift of the boundaries between trapped and passing particles in the phase space depends on the particle mass and charge and is, in the general case, asymmetric, this does not lead to current generation.
Numerical determination of axisymmetric toroidal magnetohydrodynamic equilibria
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Johnson, J.L.; Dalhed, H.E.; Greene, J.M.
1978-07-01
Numerical schemes for the determination of stationary axisymmetric toroidal equilibria appropriate for modeling real experimental devices are given. Iterative schemes are used to solve the elliptic nonlinear partial differential equation for the poloidal flux function psi. The principal emphasis is on solving the free boundary (plasma-vacuum interface) equilibrium problem where external current-carrying toroidal coils support the plasma column, but fixed boundary (e.g., conducting shell) cases are also included. The toroidal current distribution is given by specifying the pressure and either the poloidal current or the safety factor profiles as functions of psi. Examples of the application of the codes to tokamak design at PPPL are given
Passing particle toroidal precession induced by electric field in a tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andreev, V. V.; Ilgisonis, V. I.; Sorokina, E. A.
2013-01-01
Characteristics of a rotation of passing particles in a tokamak with radial electric field are calculated. The expression for time-averaged toroidal velocity of the passing particle induced by the electric field is derived. The electric-field-induced additive to the toroidal velocity of the passing particle appears to be much smaller than the velocity of the electric drift calculated for the poloidal magnetic field typical for the trapped particle. This quantity can even have the different sign depending on the azimuthal position of the particle starting point. The unified approach for the calculation of the bounce period and of the time-averaged toroidal velocity of both trapped and passing particles in the whole volume of plasma column is presented. The results are obtained analytically and are confirmed by 3D numerical calculations of the trajectories of charged particles
Passing particle toroidal precession induced by electric field in a tokamak
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Andreev, V. V. [Peoples' Friendship University of Russia, Ordzhonikidze St. 3, Moscow 117198 (Russian Federation); Ilgisonis, V. I.; Sorokina, E. A. [Peoples' Friendship University of Russia, Ordzhonikidze St. 3, Moscow 117198 (Russian Federation); NRC “Kurchatov Institute”, Kurchatov Sq. 1, Moscow 123182 (Russian Federation)
2013-12-15
Characteristics of a rotation of passing particles in a tokamak with radial electric field are calculated. The expression for time-averaged toroidal velocity of the passing particle induced by the electric field is derived. The electric-field-induced additive to the toroidal velocity of the passing particle appears to be much smaller than the velocity of the electric drift calculated for the poloidal magnetic field typical for the trapped particle. This quantity can even have the different sign depending on the azimuthal position of the particle starting point. The unified approach for the calculation of the bounce period and of the time-averaged toroidal velocity of both trapped and passing particles in the whole volume of plasma column is presented. The results are obtained analytically and are confirmed by 3D numerical calculations of the trajectories of charged particles.
Measurements of plasma rotation in an axially magnetized MPD arc-jet
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tobari, Hiroyuki; Ashino, Masashi; Yoshino, Kyohei; Sagi, Yukiko; Yoshinuma, Mikirou; Hattori, Kunihiko; Ando, Akira; Inutake, Masaaki [Department of Electrical Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi (Japan)
2001-01-24
Characteristics of an axially magnetized MPD (magneto-plasma-dynamic) arcjet plasma are investigated by spectroscopy on the HITOP (High density of Tohoku Plasma) device in Tohoku University. Plasma flow and rotational velocity and temperature of He ion and atom near the muzzle region of MPD arcjet are measured by Doppler shift and broadening of the HeI ({lambda}=578.56 nm) and HeII ({lambda}=468.58 nm) lines. From the measured radial profile of rotational velocity and temperature of He ion, the radial profiles of electrical field and space potential are calculated and it has been found that the potential profile in the core region is parabolic, which shows the plasma rotates as a rigid body. (author)
Toroidal Trivelpiece-Gould modes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stoessel, F.P.
1979-01-01
Electron plasma waves are treated in quasi-electrostatic approximation in a toroidal cavity of rectangular cross-section in an infinitely strong azimuthal magnetic field. The differential equation for the electrostatic potential, derived from fluid equations, can be separated using cylindrical coordinates. The eigenvalue problem for the radial dependence is solved numerically by a shooting method. Eigenvalues are given for different aspect ratios. Comparison with appropriate modes of the straight geometry shows that the toroidal frequencies generally lie some percent above those for the straight case. Plots of the eigenfunctions demonstrate clearly the influence of toroidicity. The deviation from symmetry (which should appear for straight geometry) depends not only on the aspect ratio but also strongly on the mode numbers. (author)
Treatment of Partial Rotator Cuff Tear with Ultrasound-guided Platelet-rich Plasma
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vetrivel Chezian Sengodan
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Background: The treatment of symptomatic partial rotator cuff tear has presented substantial challenge to orthopaedic surgeons as it can vary from conservative to surgical repair. Researches have established the influence of platelet rich plasma in healing damaged tissue. Currently very few data are available regarding the evidence of clinical and radiological outcome of partial rotator cuff tear treated with ultrasound guided platelet rich plasma injection in English literature. Materials and Methods: 20 patients with symptomatic partial rotator cuff tears were treated with ultrasound guided platelet rich plasma injection. Before and after the injection of platelet rich plasma scoring was done with visual analogue score, Constant shoulder score, and UCLA shoulder score at 8 weeks and third month. A review ultrasound was performed 8 weeks after platelet rich plasma injection to assess the rotator cuff status. Results: Our study showed statistically significant improvements in 17 patients in VAS pain score, constant shoulder score and UCLA shoulder score. No significant changes in ROM were noted when matched to the contra-lateral side (P < 0.001 at the 3 month follow-up. The study also showed good healing on radiological evaluation with ultrasonogram 8 weeks after platelet rich plasma injection. Conclusion: Ultrasound guided platelet rich plasma injection for partial rotator cuff tears is an effective procedure that leads to significant decrease in pain, improvement in shoulder functions, much cost-effective and less problematic compared to a surgical treatment.
Simultaneous Feedback Control of Plasma Rotation and Stored Energy on the DIII-D Tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scoville, J.T.; Ferron, J.R.; Humphreys, D.A.; Walker, M.L.
2006-01-01
One of the major modifications made to the DIII-D tokamak during the 2005 Long Torus Opening was the rotation of one of the four two-source neutral beam injection systems. Prior to this modification, all beams injected power with a component in the same direction as the usual plasma current ('' co-injection ''). Starting in early 2006, two of the seven beams inject with a component in the opposite direction ('' counter-injection ''). This new capability allows, for the first time, a partial decoupling of the injected energy and momentum during neutral beam heating experiments. An immediate advantage of mixed co- and counter-injection beams is the capability to control the plasma rotation velocity. High beta plasmas can now be studied over a wide range of the plasma rotation velocity. The stabilizing effect of rotation on the resistive wall mode (RWM), for example, can be directly compared to the stabilization achieved by external feedback coils. This is an advantage over previous techniques to control plasma rotation, such as magnetic braking, which have had only limited success. We describe development and implementation of a model-based control algorithm for simultaneous regulation of plasma rotation and beta. The model includes the two relevant plasma states (plasma rotation and stored energy), and describes the dynamic effects of the relevant actuators on those states. The actuators include the applied beam torque and beam power, which depend on the amount of co and counter-injected beams. Implementation of the model-based control within the plasma control system (PCS) [B.G. Penaflor, et al, '' Current Status of DIII-D Plasma Control System Computer Upgrades,'' Fusion Eng. and Design 71 (2004) 47] requires real-time measurements of the plasma rotation, obtained from the charge exchange recombination (CER) diagnostic, and stored energy calculated by the real-time EFIT equilibrium reconstruction. Details of this model and its development, and a comparison with
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pustovitov, V.D.
2001-01-01
Restrictions on magnetic diagnostics are discussed. Being related to the integral nature of the measurable quantities, these follow from the fundamental laws of electromagnetism. A series of examples demonstrating the strength of these restrictions is analysed. The general rule is emphasized that information obtained from external magnetic measurements is insufficient for reliable evaluation of plasma current and pressure profiles in tokamaks and in stellarators. The underlying reason is that outside the plasma the self-field of the equilibrium plasma currents is determined by the boundary conditions on the plasma surface alone. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pustovitov, V.D.
2000-04-01
The restrictions of the magnetic diagnostics are discussed. Being related to the integral nature of the measurable quantities, they follow from the fundamental laws of electromagnetism. A series of particular examples demonstrating the strength of these restrictions is given and analyzed. A general rule is emphasized that the information obtained from external magnetic measurements is obviously insufficient for the reliable evaluation of plasma current and pressure profiles in tokamaks or in stellarators. The underlying reason is that outside the plasma the own field of the equilibrium plasma currents is determined by the boundary conditions on the plasma surface only. (author)
Influence of plasma rotation on tearing mode stability on the ASDEX upgrade tokamak
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fietz, Sina Marie Ariane
2013-12-16
Neoclassical tearing modes (NTM) are one of the most serious performance limiting instabilities in next-step fusion devices like ITER. NTMs are destabilised as a consequence of a seed perturbation (trigger) and are driven by a loss of helical bootstrap current inside the island. The appearance of these instabilities is accompanied with a loss of confined plasma energy. Additionally, these modes can stop the plasma rotation, lock to the vessel wall, flush out all plasma energy and terminate a discharge via a disruption. In ITER the confinement reduction will limit the achievable fusion power, whereas a disruption is likely to damage the vessel wall. In order to mitigate and control NTMs in ITER, extrapolations based on the present understanding and observations must be made. One key issue is the rotation dependence of NTMs, especially at the NTM onset. ITER will be operated at low plasma rotation, which is different from most present day experiments. No theory is currently available to describe this dependence. Experiments are therefore required to provide a basis for the theory to describe the physics. Additionally from the experiments scalings can be developed and extrapolated in order to predict the NTM behaviour in the parameter range relevant for ITER. Another important issue is the influence of externally applied magnetic perturbation (MP) fields on the NTM stability and frequency. These fields will be used in ITER primarily for the mitigation of edge instabilities. As a side effect they can slow down an NTM and the plasma rotation, which supports the appearance of locked modes. Additionally, they can also influence the stability of an NTM. This interaction has to be predicted for ITER, based on models validated at present day devices. In this work the influence of plasma rotation on the NTM onset at the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak (AUG) is investigated. An onset database has been created in which the different trigger mechanisms have been identified. Based on this
Influence of plasma rotation on tearing mode stability on the ASDEX upgrade tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fietz, Sina Marie Ariane
2013-01-01
Neoclassical tearing modes (NTM) are one of the most serious performance limiting instabilities in next-step fusion devices like ITER. NTMs are destabilised as a consequence of a seed perturbation (trigger) and are driven by a loss of helical bootstrap current inside the island. The appearance of these instabilities is accompanied with a loss of confined plasma energy. Additionally, these modes can stop the plasma rotation, lock to the vessel wall, flush out all plasma energy and terminate a discharge via a disruption. In ITER the confinement reduction will limit the achievable fusion power, whereas a disruption is likely to damage the vessel wall. In order to mitigate and control NTMs in ITER, extrapolations based on the present understanding and observations must be made. One key issue is the rotation dependence of NTMs, especially at the NTM onset. ITER will be operated at low plasma rotation, which is different from most present day experiments. No theory is currently available to describe this dependence. Experiments are therefore required to provide a basis for the theory to describe the physics. Additionally from the experiments scalings can be developed and extrapolated in order to predict the NTM behaviour in the parameter range relevant for ITER. Another important issue is the influence of externally applied magnetic perturbation (MP) fields on the NTM stability and frequency. These fields will be used in ITER primarily for the mitigation of edge instabilities. As a side effect they can slow down an NTM and the plasma rotation, which supports the appearance of locked modes. Additionally, they can also influence the stability of an NTM. This interaction has to be predicted for ITER, based on models validated at present day devices. In this work the influence of plasma rotation on the NTM onset at the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak (AUG) is investigated. An onset database has been created in which the different trigger mechanisms have been identified. Based on this
Self-gravitational instability of dense degenerate viscous anisotropic plasma with rotation
Sharma, Prerana; Patidar, Archana
2017-12-01
The influence of finite Larmor radius correction, tensor viscosity and uniform rotation on self-gravitational and firehose instabilities is discussed in the framework of the quantum magnetohydrodynamic and Chew-Goldberger-Low (CGL) fluid models. The general dispersion relation is obtained for transverse and longitudinal modes of propagation. In both the modes of propagation the dispersion relation is further analysed with respect to the direction of the rotational axis. In the analytical discussion the axis of rotation is considered in parallel and in the perpendicular direction to the magnetic field. (i) In the transverse mode of propagation, when rotation is parallel to the direction of the magnetic field, the Jeans instability criterion is affected by the rotation, finite Larmor radius (FLR) and quantum parameter but remains unaffected due to the presence of tensor viscosity. The calculated critical Jeans masses for rotating and non-rotating dense degenerate plasma systems are \\odot $ and \\odot $ respectively. It is clear that the presence of rotation enhances the threshold mass of the considered system. (ii) In the case of longitudinal mode of propagation when rotation is parallel to the direction of the magnetic field, Alfvén and viscous self-gravitating modes are obtained. The Alfvén mode is modified by FLR corrections and rotation. The analytical as well as graphical results show that the presence of FLR and rotation play significant roles in stabilizing the growth rate of the firehose instability by suppressing the parallel anisotropic pressure. The viscous self-gravitating mode is significantly affected by tensor viscosity, anisotropic pressure and the quantum parameter while it remains free from rotation and FLR corrections. When the direction of rotation is perpendicular to the magnetic field, the rotation of the considered system coupled the Alfvén and viscous self-gravitating modes to each other. The finding of the present work is applicable to
Three-dimensional rotational plasma flows near solid surfaces in an axial magnetic field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gorshunov, N. M., E-mail: gorshunov-nm@nrcki.ru; Potanin, E. P., E-mail: potanin45@yandex.ru [National Research Center Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)
2016-11-15
A rotational flow of a conducting viscous medium near an extended dielectric disk in a uniform axial magnetic field is analyzed in the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) approach. An analytical solution to the system of nonlinear differential MHD equations of motion in the boundary layer for the general case of different rotation velocities of the disk and medium is obtained using a modified Slezkin–Targ method. A particular case of a medium rotating near a stationary disk imitating the end surface of a laboratory device is considered. The characteristics of a hydrodynamic flow near the disk surface are calculated within the model of a finite-thickness boundary layer. The influence of the magnetic field on the intensity of the secondary flow is studied. Calculations are performed for a weakly ionized dense plasma flow without allowance for the Hall effect and plasma compressibility. An MHD flow in a rotating cylinder bounded from above by a retarding cap is considered. The results obtained can be used to estimate the influence of the end surfaces on the main azimuthal flow, as well as the intensities of circulating flows in various devices with rotating plasmas, in particular, in plasma centrifuges and laboratory devices designed to study instabilities of rotating plasmas.
Poloidal rotation driven by electron cyclotron resonance wave in tokamak plasmas
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qing Zhou
2017-10-01
Full Text Available The poloidal electric filed, which is the drive field of poloidal rotation, has been observed and increases obviously after the injection of electron cyclotron resonance wave in HL-2A experiment, and the amplitude of the poloidal electric field is in the order of 103 V/m. Through theoretical analysis using Stringer rotation model, the observed poloidal electric field is of the same order as the theoretical calculation value. In addition, the magnetic pump damping which would damp the poloidal rotation is calculated numerically and the calculation results show that the closer to the core plasmas, the stronger the magnetic pump damping will be. Meanwhile, according to the value of the calculated magnetic pump damping, the threshold of the poloidal electric field which could overcome magnetic pump damping and drive poloidal rotation in tokamak plasmas is given out. Finally, the poloidal rotation velocity over time at different minor radius is studied theoretically.
Steady state behavior of rotating plasmas in a vacuum-arc centrifuge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bittencourt, J.A.; Ludwig, G.O.
1987-01-01
The steady state behaviour of the fully ionized, multiple species, rotating, magnetized plasma in a vacuum-arc plasma centrifuge is described in detail. The analysis is based on a multiple species fluid model which includes electromagnetic, pressure gradient, centrifugal and collisional forces, for each species, in cylindrical geometry. It is shown that there is a family of theoretically possible dynamical equilibrium configurations, which can be achieved by different combinations of ion rotation velocity, radial ion density distribution and radial dependence of internal electric potential. The parametric dependences of the various plasma parameters under equilibrium conditions, including the ion separation factor, are presented for a nickel-copper plasma. The numerical results are analysed and discussed in light of experimentally measured plasma characteristics in a vacuum-arc plasma centrifuge. (author)