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Sample records for plasma tissues muscle

  1. Time- and space-resolved spectroscopic characterization of laser-induced swine muscle tissue plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camacho, J.J. [Departamento de Química-Física Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Diaz, L., E-mail: luis.diaz@csic.es [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CFMAC, CSIC, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Martinez-Ramirez, S. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CFMAC, CSIC, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Caceres, J.O. [Departamento de Química Analítica, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Complutense, Cuidad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-09-01

    The spatial-temporal evolution of muscle tissue sample plasma induced by a high-power transversely excited atmospheric (TEA) CO{sub 2} pulsed laser at vacuum conditions (0.1–0.01 Pa) has been investigated using high-resolution optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and imaging methods. The induced plasma shows mainly electronically excited neutral Na, K, C, Mg, H, Ca, N and O atoms, ionized C{sup +}, C{sup 2+}, C{sup 3+}, Mg{sup +}, Mg{sup 2+}, N{sup +}, N{sup 2+}, Ca{sup +}, O{sup +} and O{sup 2+} species and molecular band systems of CN(B{sup 2}Σ{sup +}–X{sup 2}Σ{sup +}), C{sub 2}(d{sup 3}Π{sub g}–a{sup 3}Π{sub u}), CH(B{sup 2}Σ{sup −}–X{sup 2}Π; A{sup 2}Δ–X{sup 2}Π), NH(A{sup 3}Π–X{sup 3}Σ{sup −}), OH(A{sup 2}Σ{sup +}–X{sup 2} Σ{sup +}), and CaOH(B{sup 2}Σ{sup +}–X{sup 2}Σ{sup +}; A{sup 2}Π–X{sup 2}Σ{sup +}). Time-resolved two-dimensional emission spectroscopy is used to study the expanded distribution of different species ejected during ablation. Spatial and temporal variations of different atoms and ionic excited species are reported. Plasma parameters such as electron density and temperature were measured from the spatio-temporal analysis of different species. Average velocities of some plasma species were estimated. - Highlights: • LIBS of swine muscle tissue sample generated by CO{sub 2} laser pulses has been done for the first time. • Average velocities of some plasma species have been calculated from spatial and temporally resolved 2D OES images. • Electron density (~ 9 × 10{sup 17} cm{sup -3}) has been studied with spatial and temporal resolution. • Temporal evolution of the plasma temperature has been calculated by means of Boltzmann plots.

  2. Tissue-specific bioaccumulation of human and veterinary antibiotics in bile, plasma, liver and muscle tissues of wild fish from a highly urbanized region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jian-Liang; Liu, You-Sheng; Liu, Wang-Rong; Jiang, Yu-Xia; Su, Hao-Chang; Zhang, Qian-Qian; Chen, Xiao-Wen; Yang, Yuan-Yuan; Chen, Jun; Liu, Shuang-Shuang; Pan, Chang-Gui; Huang, Guo-Yong; Ying, Guang-Guo

    2015-03-01

    We investigated the bioaccumulation of antibiotics in bile, plasma, liver and muscle tissues of wild fish from four rivers in the Pearl River Delta region. In total, 12 antibiotics were present in at least one type of fish tissues from nine wild fish species in the four rivers. The mean values of log bioaccumulation factors (log BAFs) for the detected antibiotics in fish bile, plasma, liver, and muscle tissues were at the range of 2.06-4.08, 1.85-3.47, 1.41-3.51, and 0.48-2.70, respectively. As the digestion tissues, fish bile, plasma, and liver showed strong bioaccumulation ability for some antibiotics, indicating a different bioaccumulation pattern from hydrophobic organic contaminants. Human health risk assessment based on potential fish consumption indicates that these antibiotics do not appear to pose an appreciable risk to human health. To the best of our knowledge, this is first report of bioaccumulation patterns of antibiotics in wild fish bile and plasma.

  3. Analysis of photobiomodulation associated or not with platelet-rich plasma on repair of muscle tissue by Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Guilherme Akio Tamura; Camargo, Regina Celi Trindade; Koike, Tatiana Emy; Garcia, Thiago Alves; Castoldi, Robson Chacon; Pereira, João Domingos Augusto Dos Santos; Constantino, Carlos José Leopoldo; Camargo Filho, José Carlos Silva

    2016-12-01

    Treatment of muscle injuries usually results in the interruption of sports practice; thus, studies aimed at accelerating the return to activity, with proper tissue repair, are important. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of photobiomodulation (PBM), associated or not with platelet-rich plasma (PRP), on the treatment of muscle injury. Thirty-five animals were used and divided into five groups (n = 7): control (C), control lesion (CL), lesion treated with low-level laser therapy (LLLT) (LLt), lesion treated with PRP (LP), and lesion treated with both techniques, LLLT and PRP (LLtP). Muscle injury was induced by stretching the gastrocnemius muscle, and the animals in the LLtP and LP groups received the application of PRP immediately following the injury. The LLLT was applied daily for 7 days. The animals were euthanized 7 days after the injury. Analysis of the NADH/NAD ratio and collagen was performed by Raman spectroscopy; in addition to which, histological analysis of the gastrocnemius muscle was performed. The LLtP group demonstrated a reduction in the area of injury, regenerating cells and a healthy appearance of muscle fibers. The Raman analyses showed a reduction in the NADH/NAD ratio in the CL group, demonstrating oxidative stress, and the collagen presented a reduction in the CL and LLt groups, when compared with the C group. It is concluded that either PBM or PRP, and the association of both, was able to reduce the oxidative stress promoted by injury and modulate collagen production at the site of the injury. Furthermore, although both treatments individually were effective for repairing the damage caused by muscle injury, the association of both demonstrated a better histological aspect.

  4. Skeletal muscle tissue engineering

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bach, A. D; Beier, J. P; Stern‐Staeter, J; Horch, R. E

    2004-01-01

    The reconstruction of skeletal muscle tissue either lost by traumatic injury or tumor ablation or functional damage due to myopathies is hampered by the lack of availability of functional substitution...

  5. Associations between insulin resistance and TNF-alpha in plasma, skeletal muscle and adipose tissue in humans with and without type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plomgaard, P; Nielsen, A R; Fischer, C P

    2007-01-01

    and subcutaneous adipose tissue in patients with type 2 diabetes (n = 96) and healthy controls matched for age, sex and BMI (n = 103). RESULTS: Patients with type 2 diabetes had higher plasma levels of fasting insulin (p ..., findings on the TNF-alpha protein levels in plasma and skeletal muscle indicate that measurement of TNF mRNA content in adipose or muscle tissue provides no information with regard to the degree of insulin resistance.......) uptake (VO2/kg) in the diabetes group (p adipose or muscle tissue did not differ between the groups, whereas muscle TNF-alpha protein content, evaluated by western blotting, was higher in type 2 diabetic patients. Immunohistochemistry revealed more TNF-alpha protein...

  6. Skeletal muscle connective tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brüggemann, Dagmar Adeline

      The connective tissue content of skeletal muscle is believed to be the major factor responsible for defining the eating quality of different meat cuts, although attempts to correlate quantifications based on traditional histological methods have not as yet been able to prove this relation....... Collagen, being the major protein in connective tissue, has been extensively investigated with regard to its relation to meat tenderness, but the results have been rather conflicting. Meat from older animals is tougher than that from younger animals, and changes in the properties of the collagen due...... that collagen plays a significant role in determining the tenderness of meat. What are we missing? Therefore, fundamental aspects of connective tissue research have been the centre of attention throughout this thesis. A holistic view has been applied, glancing at this complex tissue which has many facets...

  7. Fatty acid profile of plasma, muscle and adipose tissues in Chilota lambs grazing on two different low quality pasture types in Chiloé Archipelago (Chile).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, Maria A; Dannenberger, Dirk; Rivero, Jordana; Pulido, Ruben; Nuernberg, Karin

    2014-11-01

    There is no information about the effect of different pasture types on tissue fatty acid profiles of a native rustic lamb breed of the Chiloe Archipelago, the Chilota. Eight Chilota lambs were grazed on a 'Calafatal' pasture (CP), a typical secondary succession of Chiloé Archipelago (Chile) and eight Chilota lambs were located to graze on naturalized pasture (NP) of Chiloé. Botanical, chemical and lipid composition of the two types of pastures and of different lamb tissues (muscle, subcutaneous - and tail adipose tissues) and plasma were performed. Both pasture types induced high n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and CLAcis-9,trans-11 proportions in Chilota meat. Thus, in muscle, Chilota lambs grazing CP showed higher sum PUFA, sum n-6 PUFA proportion and n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio compared with Chilota lambs grazing NP. In tail fats of Chilota lambs grazing CP significantly higher proportions of 18:3n-3, sum saturated fatty acids, sum PUFA, n-3 and n-6 PUFA were detected compared with Chilota lambs grazing NP. Feeding of different pasture types (CP vs. NP) caused significant differences in fatty acid composition of muscle and the two fat depots in Chilota lambs, but also point to tissue-specific responses of de novo synthesized fatty acid deposition in the tissues. © 2014 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  8. Insulin effects in muscle and adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitriadis, George; Mitrou, Panayota; Lambadiari, Vaia; Maratou, Eirini; Raptis, Sotirios A

    2011-08-01

    The major effects of insulin on muscle and adipose tissue are: (1) Carbohydrate metabolism: (a) it increases the rate of glucose transport across the cell membrane, (b) it increases the rate of glycolysis by increasing hexokinase and 6-phosphofructokinase activity, (c) it stimulates the rate of glycogen synthesis and decreases the rate of glycogen breakdown. (2) Lipid metabolism: (a) it decreases the rate of lipolysis in adipose tissue and hence lowers the plasma fatty acid level, (b) it stimulates fatty acid and triacylglycerol synthesis in tissues, (c) it increases the uptake of triglycerides from the blood into adipose tissue and muscle, (d) it decreases the rate of fatty acid oxidation in muscle and liver. (3) Protein metabolism: (a) it increases the rate of transport of some amino acids into tissues, (b) it increases the rate of protein synthesis in muscle, adipose tissue, liver, and other tissues, (c) it decreases the rate of protein degradation in muscle (and perhaps other tissues). These insulin effects serve to encourage the synthesis of carbohydrate, fat and protein, therefore, insulin can be considered to be an anabolic hormone. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Muscles and connective tissue: histology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delage, J-P

    2012-10-01

    Here, we give some comments about the DVD movies "Muscle Attitudes" from Endovivo productions, the movies up lighting some loss in the attention given to studies on the connective tissue, and especially them into muscles. The main characteristics of the different components in the intra-muscular connective tissue (perimysium, endomysium, epimysium) are shown here with special references to their ordered architecture and special references to their spatial distributions. This connective tissue is abundant into the muscles and is in continuity with the muscles in vicinity, with their tendons and their sheath, sticking the whole on skin. This connective tissue has also very abundant connections on the muscles fibres. It is then assumed that the connective tissue sticks every organs or cells of the locomotion system. Considering the elastic properties of the collagen fibres which are the most abundant component of connective tissue, it is possible to up light a panel of connective tissue associated functions such as the transmission of muscle contractions or the regulation of protein and energetic muscles metabolism.

  10. Engineering vascularized skeletal muscle tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levenberg, Shulamit; Rouwkema, Jeroen; Macdonald, Mara; Garfein, Evan S.; Kohane, Daniel S.; Darland, Diane C.; Marini, Robert; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; Mulligan, Richard C.; D'Amore, Patricia A.; Langer, Robert

    2005-01-01

    One of the major obstacles in engineering thick, complex tissues such as muscle is the need to vascularize the tissue in vitro. Vascularization in vitro could maintain cell viability during tissue growth, induce structural organization and promote vascularization upon implantation. Here we describe

  11. A system model of the effects of exercise on plasma Interleukin-6 dynamics in healthy individuals: Role of skeletal muscle and adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morettini, Micaela; Palumbo, Maria Concetta; Sacchetti, Massimo; Castiglione, Filippo; Mazzà, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) has been recently shown to play a central role in glucose homeostasis, since it stimulates the production and secretion of Glucagon-like Peptide-1 (GLP-1) from intestinal L-cells and pancreas, leading to an enhanced insulin response. In resting conditions, IL-6 is mainly produced by the adipose tissue whereas, during exercise, skeletal muscle contractions stimulate a marked IL-6 secretion as well. Available mathematical models describing the effects of exercise on glucose homeostasis, however, do not account for this IL-6 contribution. This study aimed at developing and validating a system model of exercise's effects on plasma IL-6 dynamics in healthy humans, combining the contributions of both adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. A two-compartment description was adopted to model plasma IL-6 changes in response to oxygen uptake's variation during an exercise bout. The free parameters of the model were estimated by means of a cross-validation procedure performed on four different datasets. A low coefficient of variation (definition of more tailored interventions for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.

  12. Breast muscle tissue characteristics in growing broilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscle cell development in broilers influences growth rate, breast meat yield, and meat quality. The objective of this study was to characterize muscle tissue changes in breast muscles from two commercial lines of broilers from 21 to 56 days of age. The experiment was designed as a 2×2×6 factorial...

  13. Rapid Preparation of a Plasma Membrane Fraction: Western Blot Detection of Translocated Glucose Transporter 4 from Plasma Membrane of Muscle and Adipose Cells and Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Norio; Yamashita, Yoko; Yoshioka, Yasukiyo; Nishiumi, Shin; Ashida, Hitoshi

    2016-08-01

    Membrane proteins account for 70% to 80% of all pharmaceutical targets, indicating their clinical relevance and underscoring the importance of identifying differentially expressed membrane proteins that reflect distinct disease properties. The translocation of proteins from the bulk of the cytosol to the plasma membrane is a critical step in the transfer of information from membrane-embedded receptors or transporters to the cell interior. To understand how membrane proteins work, it is important to separate the membrane fraction of cells. This unit provides a protocol for rapidly obtaining plasma membrane fractions for western blot analysis. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  14. Assessment of penetrating thermal tissue damage/spread associated with PhotonBlade™, Valleylab™ Pencil, Valleylab™ EDGE™ Coated Pencil, PlasmaBlade® 3.0S and PlasmaBlade® 4.0 for intraoperative tissue dissection using the fresh extirpated porcine muscle model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Haydon E.; Taylor, Scott D.; Fugett, James H.; Shrout, Joshua L.; Davison, Paul O.; Ryan, S. Eric; Coad, James E.

    2017-02-01

    Penetrating thermal tissue damage/spread is an important aspect of many electrosurgical devices and correlates with effective tissue cutting, hemostasis, preservation of adjacent critical structures and tissue healing. This study compared the thermal damage/spread associated with the PhotonBlade, Valleylab Pencil, Valleylab EDGE Coated Pencil, PlasmaBlade 3.0S and PlasmaBlade 4.0, when performing a single pass dynamic tissue cut in fresh extirpated porcine longissimus muscle. These devices were used in a fashion that emulated their use in the clinical setting. Each device's thermal damage/spread, at Minimum, Median and Maximum power input settings, was assessed with nitroblue tetrazolium viability staining in the WVU Pathology Laboratory for Translational Medicine. The thermal damage/spread associated with the PhotonBlade was compared with the other devices tested based on the individual treatment results (n=179 cuts combined). In summary, the PhotonBlade overall demonstrated the least penetrating thermal tissue damage/spread, followed by the PlasmaBlade 4.0, then Valleylab Pencil and PlasmaBlade 3.0S and then Valleylab EDGE Coated Pencil in order of increasing thermal damage/spread depths.

  15. Engineering skeletal muscle tissue in bioreactor systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    An Yang; Li Dong

    2014-01-01

    Objective To give a concise review of the current state of the art in tissue engineering (TE) related to skeletal muscle and kinds of bioreactor environment.Data sources The review was based on data obtained from the published articles and guidelines.Study selection A total of 106 articles were selected from several hundred original articles or reviews.The content of selected articles is in accordance with our purpose and the authors are authorized scientists in the study of engineered muscle tissue in bioreactor.Results Skeletal muscle TE is a promising interdisciplinary field which aims at the reconstruction of skeletal muscle loss.Although numerous studies have indicated that engineering skeletal muscle tissue may be of great importance in medicine in the near future,this technique still represents a limited degree of success.Since tissue-engineered muscle constructs require an adequate connection to the vascular system for efficient transport of oxygen,carbon dioxide,nutrients and waste products.Moreover,functional and clinically applicable muscle constructs depend on adequate neuromuscular junctions with neural calls.Third,in order to engineer muscle tissue successfully,it may be beneficial to mimic the in vivo environment of muscle through association with adequate stimuli from bioreactors.Conclusion Vascular system and bioreactors are necessary for development and maintenance of engineered muscle in order to provide circulation within the construct.

  16. [In vitro construction of skeletal muscle tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Yuya; Takeuchi, Shoji

    In conventional culture methods using culture dishes, myotubes formed by fusion of myoblasts adhere to the surface of the culture dishes. Because the adherence causes interruption of myotube contractions and immobilization of myotubes from the culture dishes, the conventional culture methods have limitations to applications of the myotubes into drug developments and medical treatments. In order to avoid their adherence, many researchers have proposed in vitro construction of skeletal muscle tissues which both ends are fixed to anchors. The skeletal muscle tissues achieve their contractions freely according to electrical stimulations or optical stimulations, and transfer of them to other experimental setup by releasing them form the anchors. By combining the skeletal muscle tissues with force sensors, the skeletal muscle tissues are available to drug screening tests based on contractile force as a functional index. Furthermore, survival of the skeletal muscle tissues are demonstrated by implantation of them to animals. Thus, in vitro constructed skeletal muscle tissues is now recognized as attractive tools in medical fields. This review will summarize fabrication methods, properties and medical applicability of the skeletal muscle tissues.

  17. Muscle Tissue Saturation Compared With Muscle Tissue Perfusion During Low Blood Flows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Sisse Anette; Kjærgaard, Benedict; Olsen Alstrup, Aage Kristian

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether changes in muscle tissue perfusion measured with positron emission tomography would be reflected by parallel changes in muscle tissue oxygen saturation (StO2) measured using near-infrared spectroscopy during high and low blood flow levels achieved using...... blood flow of either 47.5 or 35 mL/kg/min was applied for 1 hour followed by a blood flow of 60 mL/kg/min for an additional hour. Regional StO2 was measured continuously by placing a near-infrared spectroscopy electrode on the skin above the gracilis muscle of the noncannulated back leg. Muscle tissue...... systemic ischemia during low CPB blood flow. StO2 remained high until muscle tissue perfusion decreased to about 50%, after which StO2 paralleled the linear decrease in muscle tissue perfusion. CONCLUSION: In an experimental CPB animal model, StO2 was stable until muscle tissue perfusion was reduced...

  18. Zika Attacks Nerves, Muscles, Other Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164010.html Zika Attacks Nerves, Muscles, Other Tissues Monkey study may ... 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Scientists have learned where the Zika virus attacks the body in monkeys. In their ...

  19. Interactions between muscle tissues and bone metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawao, Naoyuki; Kaji, Hiroshi

    2015-05-01

    Sarcopenia and osteoporosis have recently been noted for their relationship with locomotive syndrome and increased number of older people. Sarcopenia is defined by decreased muscle mass and impaired muscle function, which may be associated with frailty. Several clinical data have indicated that increased muscle mass is related to increased bone mass and reduced fracture risk. Genetic, endocrine and mechanical factors as well as inflammatory and nutritional states concurrently affect muscle tissues and bone metabolism. Several genes, including myostatin and α-actinin 3, have been shown in a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to be associated with both sarcopenia and osteoporosis. Vitamin D, growth hormone and testosterone as well as pathological disorders, such as an excess in glucocorticoid and diabetes, affect both muscle and bone. Basic and clinical research of bone metabolism and muscle biology suggests that bone interacts with skeletal muscle via signaling from local and humoral factors in addition to their musculoskeletal function. However, the physiological and pathological mechanisms related to muscle and bone interactions remain unclear. We found that Tmem119 may play a critical role in the commitment of myoprogenitor cells to the osteoblast lineage. We also reported that osteoglycin and FAM5C might be muscle-derived humoral osteogenic factors. Other factors, including myostatin, osteonectin, insulin-like growth factor I, irisin and osteocalcin, may be associated with the interactions between muscle tissues and bone metabolism. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Adipose tissue and skeletal muscle blood flow during mental stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linde, B.; Hjemdahl, P.; Freyschuss, U.; Juhlin-Dannfelt, A.

    1989-01-01

    Mental stress (a modified Stroop color word conflict test (CWT)) increased adipose tissue blood flow (ATBF; 133Xe clearance) by 70% and reduced adipose tissue vascular resistance (ATR) by 25% in healthy male volunteers. The vasculatures of adipose tissue (abdomen as well as thigh), skeletal muscle of the calf (133Xe clearance), and the entire calf (venous occlusion plethysmography) responded similarly. Arterial epinephrine (Epi) and glycerol levels were approximately doubled by stress. Beta-Blockade by metoprolol (beta 1-selective) or propranolol (nonselective) attenuated CWT-induced tachycardia similarly. Metoprolol attenuated stress-induced vasodilation in the calf and tended to do so in adipose tissue. Propranolol abolished vasodilation in the calf and resulted in vasoconstriction during CWT in adipose tissue. Decreases in ATR, but not in skeletal muscle or calf vascular resistances, were correlated to increases in arterial plasma glycerol (r = -0.42, P less than 0.05), whereas decreases in skeletal muscle and calf vascular resistances, but not in ATR, were correlated to increases in arterial Epi levels (r = -0.69, P less than 0.01; and r = -0.43, P less than 0.05, respectively). The results suggest that mental stress increases nutritive blood flow in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle considerably, both through the elevation of perfusion pressure and via vasodilatation. Withdrawal of vasoconstrictor nerve activity, vascular beta 2-adrenoceptor stimulation by circulating Epi, and metabolic mechanisms (in adipose tissue) may contribute to the vasodilatation.

  1. Anisotropic properties of tracheal smooth muscle tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarma, P A; Pidaparti, R M; Meiss, R A

    2003-04-01

    The anisotropic (directional-dependent) properties of contracting tracheal smooth muscle tissue are estimated from a computational model based on the experimental data of length-dependent stiffness. The area changes are obtained at different muscle lengths from experiments in which stimulated muscle undergoes unrestricted shortening. Then, through an interative process, the anisotropic properties are estimated by matching the area changes obtained from the finite element analysis to those derived from the experiments. The results obtained indicate that the anisotropy ratio (longitudinal stiffness to transverse stiffness) is about 4 when the smooth muscle undergoes 70% strain shortening, indicating that the transverse stiffness reduces as the longitudinal stiffness increases. It was found through a sensitivity analysis from the simulation model that the longitudinal stiffness and the in-plane shear modulus are not very sensitive as compared to major Poisson's ratio to the area changes of the muscle tissue. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Determination of vanadium species in sediment, mussel and fish muscle tissue samples by liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colina, Marinela [Universidad del Zulia, Facultad de Ciencias, Departamento de Quimica, Laboratorio de Quimica Ambiental, Maracaibo 4011, Zulia (Venezuela)]. E-mail: M.Colina@shu.ac.uk; Gardiner, P.H.E. [Sheffield Hallam University, Howard Street, Sheffield S1 1WB, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Rivas, Zulay [Instituto para la Conservacion del Lago de Maracaibo (ICLAM), Maracaibo, Plaza de las Banderas (Venezuela); Troncone, Federico [Instituto para la Conservacion del Lago de Maracaibo (ICLAM), Maracaibo, Plaza de las Banderas (Venezuela)

    2005-05-04

    Vanadium is introduced into the environment during the extraction of petrochemical products and in the production of steels and insecticides. In this study, a liquid chromatographic method for the separation of V(IV) and V(V) as ethylenediaminetetra acetic acid (EDTA) complexes was developed using reversed-phase ion-pair liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry detection. A C-8 reversed-phase column, 15 cm long, was used to separate the species. A solution containing ammonium acetate 0.06 M, tetrabutylammonium hydroxide 10 mM, ammonium di-phosphate 10 mM and EDTA 2.5 mM at pH 6 was used as the mobile phase in order to avoid the use of organic solvents that reduce the sensitivity of the determination. To prevent changes in distribution of the vanadium species, samples should be prepared freshly. The method developed was applied to the study the vanadium speciation in sediment, mussel and fish muscle samples collected from Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela. The concentration ranges of V(IV) and V(V) in sediment samples were 0.7-61 and 1.4-2.3 {mu}g g{sup -1}, respectively. The method is simple and has adequate sensitivity for these practical applications.

  3. Plasma and muscle myostatin in relation to type 2 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claus Brandt

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Myostatin is a secreted growth factor expressed in skeletal muscle tissue, which negatively regulates skeletal muscle mass. Recent animal studies suggest a role for myostatin in insulin resistance. We evaluated the possible metabolic role of myostatin in patients with type 2 diabetes and healthy controls. DESIGN: 76 patients with type 2 diabetes and 92 control subjects were included in the study. They were matched for age, gender and BMI. Plasma samples and biopsies from the vastus lateralis muscle were obtained to assess plasma myostatin and expression of myostatin in skeletal muscle. RESULTS: Patients with type 2 diabetes had higher fasting glucose (8.9 versus 5.1 mmol/L, P<0.001, plasma insulin (68.2 versus 47.2 pmol/L, P<0.002 and HOMA2-IR (1.6 versus 0.9, P<0.0001 when compared to controls. Patients with type 2 diabetes had 1.4 (P<0.01 higher levels of muscle myostatin mRNA content than the control subjects. Plasma myostatin concentrations did not differ between patients with type 2 diabetes and controls. In healthy controls, muscle myostatin mRNA correlated with HOMA2-IR (r = 0.30, P<0.01, plasma IL-6 (r = 0.34, P<0.05 and VO2 max (r = -0.26, P<0.05, however, no correlations were observed in patients with type 2 diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: This study supports the idea that myostatin may have a negative effect on metabolism. However, the metabolic effect of myostatin appears to be overruled by other factors in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  4. Muscle and bone, two interconnected tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagliaferri, Camille; Wittrant, Yohann; Davicco, Marie-Jeanne; Walrand, Stéphane; Coxam, Véronique

    2015-05-01

    As bones are levers for skeletal muscle to exert forces, both are complementary and essential for locomotion and individual autonomy. In the past decades, the idea of a bone-muscle unit has emerged. Numerous studies have confirmed this hypothesis from in utero to aging works. Space flight, bed rest as well as osteoporosis and sarcopenia experimentations have allowed to accumulate considerable evidence. Mechanical loading is a key mechanism linking both tissues with a central promoting role of physical activity. Moreover, the skeletal muscle secretome accounts various molecules that affect bone including insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2), interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-15, myostatin, osteoglycin (OGN), FAM5C, Tmem119 and osteoactivin. Even though studies on the potential effects of bone on muscle metabolism are sparse, few osteokines have been identified. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and Wnt3a, which are secreted by osteocytes, osteocalcin (OCN) and IGF-1, which are produced by osteoblasts and sclerostin which is secreted by both cell types, might impact skeletal muscle cells. Cartilage and adipose tissue are also likely to participate to this control loop and should not be set aside. Indeed, chondrocytes are known to secrete Dickkopf-1 (DKK-1) and Indian hedgehog (Ihh) and adipocytes produce leptin, adiponectin and IL-6, which potentially modulate bone and muscle metabolisms. The understanding of this system will enable to define new levers to prevent/treat sarcopenia and osteoporosis at the same time. These strategies might include nutritional interventions and physical exercise. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Tissue engineering skeletal muscle for orthopaedic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payumo, Francis C.; Kim, Hyun D.; Sherling, Michael A.; Smith, Lee P.; Powell, Courtney; Wang, Xiao; Keeping, Hugh S.; Valentini, Robert F.; Vandenburgh, Herman H.

    2002-01-01

    With current technology, tissue-engineered skeletal muscle analogues (bioartificial muscles) generate too little active force to be clinically useful in orthopaedic applications. They have been engineered genetically with numerous transgenes (growth hormone, insulinlike growth factor-1, erythropoietin, vascular endothelial growth factor), and have been shown to deliver these therapeutic proteins either locally or systemically for months in vivo. Bone morphogenetic proteins belonging to the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily are osteoinductive molecules that drive the differentiation pathway of mesenchymal cells toward the chondroblastic or osteoblastic lineage, and stimulate bone formation in vivo. To determine whether skeletal muscle cells endogenously expressing bone morphogenetic proteins might serve as a vehicle for systemic bone morphogenetic protein delivery in vivo, proliferating skeletal myoblasts (C2C12) were transduced with a replication defective retrovirus containing the gene for recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-6 (C2BMP-6). The C2BMP-6 cells constitutively expressed recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-6 and synthesized bioactive recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-6, based on increased alkaline phosphatase activity in coincubated mesenchymal cells. C2BMP-6 cells did not secrete soluble, bioactive recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-6, but retained the bioactivity in the cell layer. Therefore, genetically-engineered skeletal muscle cells might serve as a platform for long-term delivery of osteoinductive bone morphogenetic proteins locally.

  6. Direct plasma interaction with living tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridman, Gregory

    For some time, plasma has been used in medicine to cauterize or cut tissue using heat and mechanical energy. In the recent decade, some researchers around the world have started to investigate how gas jets that pass through thermal plasma can be employed in medicine. This thesis presents the first investigation of biomedical uses of non-thermal plasma discharge which comes in direct contact with living tissue. It is demonstrated that the direct application of non-thermal plasma in air can cause rapid deactivation of bacteria on surfaces of tissues without causing any visible tissue damage. Medical need for such a device is discussed. Construction and operation of various types of non-thermal plasma power supplies and many types of treatment electrodes are presented as well. Application of this plasma to living organisms is shown to be safe from both the electrical perspective and from the biological perspective. Biological safety is revealed through a series of differential skin toxicity trials on human cadaver tissue, live hairless mouse skin tissue, live pig skin tissue, and finally in an open wound model on pigs. Direct non-thermal plasma in air is shown to deactivate bacteria about 100 times faster than indirect application using jets. A series of experiments reveal that this effectiveness is due to the ability of direct discharge to bring charges to tissue surfaces. It is demonstrated that neither ultraviolet (UV) radiation nor neutral active species such as hydroxyl radicals or ozone produced in plasma are responsible for the main effect on bacteria. Although much additional work remains on establishing detailed mechanism by which charges from plasma achieve this effect, the work carried out in this thesis clearly demonstrates that direct application of non-thermal plasma in air can be a very useful tool in medicine.

  7. An Autologous Muscle Tissue Expansion Approach for the Treatment of Volumetric Muscle Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    ORIGINAL RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access An Autologous Muscle Tissue Expansion Approach for the Treatment of Volumetric Muscle Loss Catherine L. Ward...regeneration. But they require ample donor muscle tissue and therefore may be limited in their application for large clinical VML. Here, we tested the...autologous minced grafts for the regeneration of muscle tissue after VML, but indicate the need to identify optimal carrier materials for expansion

  8. Force Transmission between Synergistic Skeletal Muscles through Connective Tissue Linkages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huub Maas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The classic view of skeletal muscle is that force is generated within its muscle fibers and then directly transmitted in-series, usually via tendon, onto the skeleton. In contrast, recent results suggest that muscles are mechanically connected to surrounding structures and cannot be considered as independent actuators. This article will review experiments on mechanical interactions between muscles mediated by such epimuscular myofascial force transmission in physiological and pathological muscle conditions. In a reduced preparation, involving supraphysiological muscle conditions, it is shown that connective tissues surrounding muscles are capable of transmitting substantial force. In more physiologically relevant conditions of intact muscles, however, it appears that the role of this myofascial pathway is small. In addition, it is hypothesized that connective tissues can serve as a safety net for traumatic events in muscle or tendon. Future studies are needed to investigate the importance of intermuscular force transmission during movement in health and disease.

  9. [Progress on cervical muscle strength and soft tissue stiffness testing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ming; Zhang, Shi-min

    2015-08-01

    Biomechanical evaluation of neck muscles has important significance in the diagnosis and treatment for cervical spondylosis, the neck muscle strength and soft tissue stiffness test is two aspects of biomechanical testing. Isometric muscle testing operation is relatively simple, the cost is lower, which can evaluate the muscle force below grade 3. However, isokinetic muscle strength testing can assess the muscle strength of joint motion in any position. It is hard to distinguish stiffness difference in different soft tissues when the load-displacement curve is used to evaluate the local soft tissue stiffness. Elasticity imaging technique can not only show the elastic differences of different tissues by images, but also quantify the elastic modulus of subcutaneous tissues and muscles respectively. Nevertheless, it is difficult to observe the flexibility of the cervical spine by means of the analysis of the whole neck stiffness. In a word, a variety of test method will conduce not only the biomechanical evaluation of neck muscles, but also making an effective biomechanics mathematical model of neck muscles. Besides, isokinetic muscle testing and the elasticity imaging technology still need further validation and optimization before they are better applied to neck muscles biomechanical testing.

  10. Enhanced insulin signaling in human skeletal muscle and adipose tissue following gastric bypass surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albers, Peter H; Bojsen-Møller, Kirstine N; Dirksen, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) leads to increased peripheral insulin sensitivity. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of RYGB on expression and regulation of proteins involved in regulation of peripheral glucose metabolism. Skeletal muscle and adipose tissue biopsies from glucose......-surgery when major weight loss was evident and occurred concomitantly with alterations in plasma adiponectin and in protein expression/signaling in peripheral tissues. In skeletal muscle, protein expression of GLUT4, phosphorylated levels of TBC1D4 as well as insulin-induced changes in phosphorylation of Akt...... 12 months post-surgery. Adipose tissue from glucose tolerant subjects was the most responsive to RYGB compared to type 2 diabetic patients, whereas changes in skeletal muscle were largely similar in these two groups. In conclusion, an improved molecular insulin sensitive phenotype of skeletal muscle...

  11. Functional recovery of completely denervated muscle: implications for innervation of tissue-engineered muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sung-Bum; Olson, Jennifer L; Atala, Anthony; Yoo, James J

    2012-09-01

    Tissue-engineered muscle has been proposed as a solution to repair volumetric muscle defects and to restore muscle function. To achieve functional recovery, engineered muscle tissue requires integration of the host nerve. In this study, we investigated whether denervated muscle, which is analogous to tissue-engineered muscle tissue, can be reinnervated and can recover muscle function using an in vivo model of denervation followed by neurotization. The outcomes of this investigation may provide insights on the ability of tissue-engineered muscle to integrate with the host nerve and acquire normal muscle function. Eighty Lewis rats were classified into three groups: a normal control group (n=16); a denervated group in which sciatic innervations to the gastrocnemius muscle were disrupted (n=32); and a transplantation group in which the denervated gastrocnemius was repaired with a common peroneal nerve graft into the muscle (n=32). Neurofunctional behavior, including extensor postural thrust (EPT), withdrawal reflex latency (WRL), and compound muscle action potential (CMAP), as well as histological evaluations using alpha-bungarotoxin and anti-NF-200 were performed at 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks (n=8) after surgery. We found that EPT was improved by transplantation of the nerve grafts, but the EPT values in the transplanted animals at 12 weeks postsurgery were still significantly lower than those measured for the normal control group at 4 weeks (EPT, 155.0±38.9 vs. 26.3±13.8 g, ptissue is able to regenerate neuromuscular junctions within denervated muscle, and thus the muscle can recover partial function. However, the function of the denervated muscle remains in the subnormal range even at 12 weeks after direct nerve transplantation. These results suggest that tissue-engineered muscle, which is similarly denervated, could be innervated and become functional in vivo if it is properly integrated with the host nerve.

  12. Evidence of active transport (filtration?) of plasma proteins across the capillary walls in muscle and subcutis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noer, Ivan; Lassen, N A

    1978-01-01

    Under slight lymphatic stasis (tilting the body 15 degrees) we measured the arrival of locally injected I-albumin to the plasma pool. From 30 min. to 90 min. after the injection the return rate was zero i.e. local back transport in the two tissues studied viz.muscle and subcutaneous fat is very...

  13. Evidence of active transport (filtration?) of plasma proteins across the capillary walls in muscle and subcutis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noer, Ivan; Lassen, N A

    1979-01-01

    Under slight lymphatic stasis (tilting the body 15 degrees) we measured the arrival of locally injected 131I-albumin in the plasma pool. From 30 min to 90 min after the injection the return rate was zero, i.e. local back transport in the two tissues studied, muscle and subcutaneous fat, is very...

  14. Anisotropic compressive properties of passive porcine muscle tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietsch, Renee; Wheatley, Benjamin B; Haut Donahue, Tammy L; Gilbrech, Ryan; Prabhu, Rajkumar; Liao, Jun; Williams, Lakiesha N

    2014-11-01

    The body has approximately 434 muscles, which makes up 40-50% of the body by weight. Muscle is hierarchical in nature and organized in progressively larger units encased in connective tissue. Like many soft tissues, muscle has nonlinear visco-elastic behavior, but muscle also has unique characteristics of excitability and contractibility. Mechanical testing of muscle has been done for crash models, pressure sore models, back pain, and other disease models. The majority of previous biomechanical studies on muscle have been associated with tensile properties in the longitudinal direction as this is muscle's primary mode of operation under normal physiological conditions. Injury conditions, particularly high rate injuries, can expose muscle to multiple stress states. Compressive stresses can lead to tissue damage, which may not be reversible. In this study, we evaluate the structure-property relationships of porcine muscle tissue under compression, in both the transverse and longitudinal orientations at 0.1 s-1, 0.01 s-1, or 0.001 s-1. Our results show an initial toe region followed by an increase in stress for muscle in both the longitudinal and transverse directions tested to 50% strain. Strain rate dependency was also observed with the higher strain rates showing significantly more stress at 50% strain. Muscle in the transverse orientation was significantly stiffer than in the longitudinal orientation indicating anisotropy. The mean area of fibers in the longitudinal orientation shows an increasing mean fiber area and a decreasing mean fiber area in the transverse orientation. Data obtained in this study can help provide insight on how muscle injuries are caused, ranging from low energy strains to high rate blast events, and can also be used in developing computational injury models.

  15. Myoglobin plasma level related to muscle mass and fiber composition: a clinical marker of muscle wasting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Marc-André; Kinscherf, Ralf; Krakowski-Roosen, Holger; Aulmann, Michael; Renk, Hanna; Künkele, Annette; Edler, Lutz; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Hildebrandt, Wulf

    2007-08-01

    Progressive muscle wasting is a central feature of cancer-related cachexia and has been recognized as a determinant of poor prognosis and quality of life. However, until now, no easily assessable clinical marker exists that allows to predict or to track muscle wasting. The present study evaluated the potential of myoglobin (MG) plasma levels to indicate wasting of large locomotor muscles and, moreover, to reflect the loss of MG-rich fiber types, which are most relevant for daily performance. In 17 cancer-cachectic patients (weight loss 22%) and 27 age- and gender-matched healthy controls, we determined plasma levels of MG and creatine kinase (CK), maximal quadriceps muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) by magnetic resonance imaging, muscle morphology and fiber composition in biopsies from the vastus lateralis muscle, body cell mass (BCM) by impedance technique as well as maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2)max). In cachectic patients, plasma MG, muscle CSA, BCM, and VO(2)max were 30-35% below control levels. MG showed a significant positive correlation to total muscle CSA (r = 0.65, p max as an important functional readout. CK plasma levels appear to be less reliable because prolonged increases are observed in even subclinical myopathies or after exercise. Notably, cancer-related muscle wasting was not associated with increases in plasma MG or CK in this study.

  16. Biochemical composition of muscle tissue of penaeid prawns

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Achuthankutty, C.T.; Parulekar, A

    Biochemical composition of muscle tissue of females belonging to four species of penaeid prawns, viz. Metapenaeus affinis, M. dobsoni, Penaeus merguiensis and Parapenaeopsis stylifera, inhabiting the coastal waters of Goa, India, was estimated...

  17. Current opportunities and challenges in skeletal muscle tissue engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, Merel; Harmsen, Martin C; van Luyn, Marja J A; Werker, Paul M N

    The purpose of this article is to give a concise review of the current state of the art in tissue engineering (TE) of skeletal muscle and the opportunities and challenges for future clinical applicability. The endogenous progenitor cells of skeletal muscle, i.e. satellite cells, show a high

  18. Multiple effects of a short-term dexamethasone treatment in human skeletal muscle and adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viguerie, Nathalie; Picard, Flora; Hul, Gabby; Roussel, Balbine; Barbe, Pierre; Iacovoni, Jason S; Valle, Carine; Langin, Dominique; Saris, Wim H M

    2012-02-01

    Glucocorticoids are frequently prescribed drugs with important side-effects such as glucose intolerance and tissue remodeling. The goal was to explore the molecular basis of the response of skeletal muscle and adipose tissue during a short-term dexamethasone treatment to better understand the induction of side-effects of glucocorticoids on these metabolic tissues. Fifteen healthy male subjects were assigned to a 4-day treatment with dexamethasone at 4 mg/day. The primary outcome measures were changes in gene expression profiling of subcutaneous skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. Urinary cortisol, plasma, and metabolic biochemistry were also assessed. In both tissues the prominent observation was a response to stress and increased inflammatory responses. An upregulation of the serum amyloid A was detected in skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, and plasma, whereas circulating levels of C reactive protein, another acute phase protein, decreased along with a worsened insulin sensitivity index. As tissue-specific features, tissue remodeling was shown in skeletal muscle while the adipose tissue exhibited a decreased energy metabolism. Several limitations might be raised due to the small number of subjects investigated: a possible cross talk with the mineralocorticoid receptor, and a single time point may not identify regulations occurring during longitudinal treatment. In line with the known physiological effect of glucocorticoids the early modulation of stress response genes was observed. An unexpected feature was the upregulation of the inflammatory and immune pathways. The identification of novel impact on two glucocorticoid target tissues provides a molecular basis for the design of more specific glucocorticoids devoid of adverse effects.

  19. Plasma catecholamine and corticosterone and their in vitro effects on lizard skeletal muscle lactate metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleeson, T T; Dalessio, P M; Carr, J A; Wickler, S J; Mazzeo, R S

    1993-09-01

    Lizard skeletal muscles utilize primarily lactate as a gluconeogenic substrate for glycogen replenishment following exercise. To understand the influence of selected hormones on this process, we measured changes in plasma catecholamines and corticosterone resulting from exercise in the lizard Dipsosaurus dorsalis and then investigated the physiological effects of those hormones on skeletal muscle lactate and glucose metabolism in vitro. Plasma epinephrine (Epi), norepinephrine, and corticosterone (Cort) increased 5.8, 10.2, and 2.2 times, respectively, after 5 min of exhaustive exercise. Epi and Cort levels remained elevated after 2 h of recovery. Skeletal muscle fiber bundles isolated from the red and white regions of the iliofibularis muscle were incubated 2 h at 40 degrees C in the presence of postexercise concentrations of [14C]lactate (15 mM) and glucose (8.5 mM) in the presence and absence of Epi or Cort. Red muscle oxidized both substrates at 2-3 times the rate of white muscle, and both red and white fibers oxidized lactate at 5-10 times the rate of glucose oxidation. Epi had a stimulatory effect on lactate oxidation by white muscle. Lactate incorporation into glycogen proceeded at 2-3 times the rate of glucose incorporation in both muscle types, with rates in red muscle again 2-3 times that for white muscle. Epi stimulated lactate carbon incorporation into glycogen by 50-140% in both red and white muscle but had no effect on glucose incorporation into glycogen in either tissue. We interpret these data as evidence that epinephrine stimulates lactate removal by skeletal muscle. Cort had no effect on lactate metabolism in either muscle type.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Methods for the Organogenesis of Skeletal Muscle in Tissue Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenburgh, Herman; Shansky, Janet; DelTatto, Michael; Chromiak, Joseph

    1997-01-01

    Skeletal muscle structure is regulated by many factors, including nutrition, hormones, electrical activity, and tension. The muscle cells are subjected to both passive and active mechanical forces at all stages of development and these forces play important but poorly understood roles in regulating muscle organogenesis and growth. For example, during embryogenesis, the rapidly growing skeleton places large passive mechanical forces on the attached muscle tissue. These forces not only help to organize the proliferating mononucleated myoblasts into the oriented, multinucleated myofibers of a functional muscle but also tightly couple the growth rate of muscle to that of bone. Postnatally, the actively contracting, innervated muscle fibers are subjected to different patterns of active and passive tensions which regulate longitudinal and cross sectional myofiber growth. These mechanically-induced organogenic processes have been difficult to study under normal tissue culture conditions, resulting in the development of numerous methods and specialized equipment to simulate the in vivo mechanical environment.These techniques have led to the "engineering" of bioartificial muscles (organoids) which display many of the characteristics of in vivo muscle including parallel arrays of postmitotic fibers organized into fascicle-like structures with tendon-like ends. They are contractile, express adult isoforms of contractile proteins, perform directed work, and can be maintained in culture for long periods. The in vivo-like characteristics and durability of these muscle organoids make them useful for long term in vitro studies on mechanotransduction mechanisms and on muscle atrophy induced by decreased tension. In this report, we described a simple method for generating muscle organoids from either primary embrionic avain or neonatal rodent myoblasts.

  1. 9 CFR 310.15 - Disposition of thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... laryngeal muscle tissue. 310.15 Section 310.15 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... of thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue. (a) Livestock thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue shall not be used for human food. (b) Livestock thyroid glands and laryngeal muscle tissue may be...

  2. Fundamentals of gas phase plasmas for treatment of human tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushner, Mark J; Babaeva, Natalia Yu

    2011-01-01

    The use of gas phase plasmas for treating human tissue is at the intersection of two disciplines - plasma physics and engineering, and medicine. In this paper, a primer will be provided for the medical practitioner on the fundamentals of generating gas phase plasmas at atmospheric pressure in air for the treatment of human tissue. The mechanisms for gas phase plasmas interacting with tissue and biological fluids will also be discussed using results from computer modeling.

  3. Interleukin-18 in plasma and adipose tissue: effects of obesity, insulin resistance, and weight loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Jens M; Stallknecht, Bente; Helge, Jørn W

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Interleukin (IL)-18 is associated with obesity, insulin resistance, and cardiovascular disease. The present study compared 1) IL-18 in adipocytes versus stromal vascular (SV) cells, 2) IL-18 in plasma and adipose tissue (AT) in obese versus lean subjects, and 3) IL-18 in plasma, AT......, and skeletal muscle (SM) in obese subjects after weight loss. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: At baseline, plasma and AT IL-18 in 23 obese subjects were compared with that in 12 lean subjects. The obese subjects were submitted to a 15-week life-style intervention (hypocaloric diet and daily exercise) after which plasma...

  4. Plasma and tissue pharmacokinetics of marbofloxacin in experimentally infected chickens with Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, H; Wang, L; Shen, X; Gu, X; Zeng, D; Zeng, Z

    2013-10-01

    The plasma and tissue pharmacokinetics of marbofloxacin in chickens experimentally infected with Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Escherichia coli were studied. Marbofloxacin was given to 66 infected chickens by oral administration at a dosage of 5 mg/kg b.w., once a day for three days. Plasma, brain, kidney, liver, lung, muscle and trachea were collected and marbofloxacin concentrations were analyzed by a high performance liquid chromatography method. In the infected chickens, maximal marbofloxacin concentrations in plasma, brain, kidney, liver, lung, muscle and trachea were 1.84, 1.33, 7.35, 5.61, 3.12, 2.98, and 4.51 g/mL (g); the elimination half-lives of marbofloxacin were 6.8, 2.74, 9.31, 8.45, 9.55, 11.53 and 5.46 h for plasma, brain, kidney, liver, lung, muscle and trachea, respectively. AUC were calculated to be 9.68, 8.04, 45.1, 27.03, 20.56, 19.47, and 32.68 μg/mL (g) for plasma, brain, kidney, liver, lung, muscle and trachea, respectively. Marbofloxacin concentration in tissues except for brain exceeded marbofloxacin concentration in plasma, with AUC(tissue) /AUC(plasma) ranging from 2.01 to 4.66 and Peak(tissue) /Peak(plasma) ranging from 1.62 to 3.99. The results showed that a marbofloxacin dosage of 5 mg/kg administered orally at 24 h intervals may provide successful treatment of chicken with MG and E. coli infection.

  5. Plasma carnosine, but not muscle carnosine, attenuates high-fat diet-induced metabolic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegen, Sanne; Stegen, Bram; Aldini, Giancarlo; Altomare, Alessandra; Cannizzaro, Luca; Orioli, Marica; Gerlo, Sarah; Deldicque, Louise; Ramaekers, Monique; Hespel, Peter; Derave, Wim

    2015-09-01

    There is growing in vivo evidence that the dipeptide carnosine has protective effects in metabolic diseases. A critical unanswered question is whether its site of action is tissues or plasma. This was investigated using oral carnosine versus β-alanine supplementation in a high-fat diet rat model. Thirty-six male Sprague-Dawley rats received a control diet (CON), a high-fat diet (HF; 60% of energy from fat), the HF diet with 1.8% carnosine (HFcar), or the HF diet with 1% β-alanine (HFba), as β-alanine can increase muscle carnosine without increasing plasma carnosine. Insulin sensitivity, inflammatory signaling, and lipoxidative stress were determined in skeletal muscle and blood. In a pilot study, urine was collected. The 3 HF groups were significantly heavier than the CON group. Muscle carnosine concentrations increased equally in the HFcar and HFba groups, while elevated plasma carnosine levels and carnosine-4-hydroxy-2-nonenal adducts were detected only in the HFcar group. Elevated plasma and urine N(ε)-(carboxymethyl)lysine in HF rats was reduced by ∼50% in the HFcar group but not in the HFba group. Likewise, inducible nitric oxide synthase mRNA was decreased by 47% (p muscle carnosine, is involved in preventing early-stage lipoxidation in the circulation and inflammatory signaling in the muscle of rats.

  6. Regulation of HSL serine phosphorylation in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Matthew J; Holmes, Anna G; Pinnamaneni, Srijan K; Garnham, Andrew P; Steinberg, Gregory R; Kemp, Bruce E; Febbraio, Mark A

    2006-03-01

    Hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) is important for the degradation of triacylglycerol in adipose and muscle tissue, but the tissue-specific regulation of this enzyme is not fully understood. We investigated the effects of adrenergic stimulation and AMPK activation in vitro and in circumstances where AMPK activity and catecholamines are physiologically elevated in humans in vivo (during physical exercise) on HSL activity and phosphorylation at Ser(563) and Ser(660), the PKA regulatory sites, and Ser(565), the AMPK regulatory site. In human experiments, skeletal muscle, subcutaneous adipose and venous blood samples were obtained before, at 15 and 90 min during, and 120 min after exercise. Skeletal muscle HSL activity was increased by approximately 80% at 15 min compared with rest and returned to resting rates at the cessation of and 120 min after exercise. Consistent with changes in plasma epinephrine, skeletal muscle HSL Ser(563) and Ser(660) phosphorylation were increased by 27% at 15 min (P HSL Ser(565) phosphorylation and AMPK signaling were increased at 90 min during, and after, exercise. Phosphorylation of adipose tissue HSL paralleled changes in skeletal muscle in vivo, except HSL Ser(660) was elevated 80% in adipose compared with 35% in skeletal muscle during exercise. Studies in L6 myotubes and 3T3-L1 adipocytes revealed important tissue differences in the regulation of HSL. AMPK inhibited epinephrine-induced HSL activity in L6 myotubes and was associated with reduced HSL Ser(660) but not Ser(563) phosphorylation. HSL activity was reduced in L6 myotubes expressing constitutively active AMPK, confirming the inhibitory effects of AMPK on HSL activity. Conversely, in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, AMPK activation after epinephrine stimulation did not prevent HSL activity or glycerol release, which coincided with maintenance of HSL Ser(660) phosphorylation. Taken together, these data indicate that HSL activity is maintained in the face of AMPK activation as a result of

  7. Oral administration of lithium increases tissue magnesium contents but not plasma magnesium level in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiełczykowska, Małgorzata; Musik, Irena; Hordyjewska, Anna; Boguszewska, Anna; Lewandowska, Anna; Pasternak, Kazimierz

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the influence of different doses of lithium on magnesium concentration in plasma and tissues of rats. For a period of eight weeks rats had been provided with aqueous solutions of Li(2)CO(3) whose concentrations were established as follows: 0.7; 1.4; 2.6; 3.6; 7.1; 10.7 mmol Li(+)/l. Magnesium concentration was determined in plasma and tissue supernatants. Lithium caused no changes in magnesium concentration in plasma, whereas Mg concentration in tissues was found to be enhanced, although the degree of the increment depended on the studied tissue. In the liver, brain and heart muscle, the increase was statistically insignificant vs. control. In the kidney, the higher Li doses were required to result in the significant Mg enhancement, whereas in femoral muscle all the used doses caused well-marked Mg increase vs. control. Positive correlations between average daily Li intake and tissue Mg concentration in the kidney (r = 0.650) and femoral muscle (r = 0.696) were found. In conclusion, the present study indicates that the different Li doses disturbed tissue homeostasis of magnesium. The increase in Mg tissue concentration, observed in groups receiving higher Li doses can influence nervous-muscular excitability.

  8. A pilot study of muscle plasma protein changes after exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlqvist, Julia R; Voss, Line G; Lauridsen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Creatine kinase (CK) and myoglobin (Mb) do not possess all good qualities as biomarkers of skeletal muscle damage. We investigated the utility of troponin I (TnI) and telethonin (Tcap) as markers and examined their temporal profiles after skeletal muscle damage. METHODS: Plasma...... profiles were measured before and after exercise in 3 groups: subjects affected by either Becker muscular dystrophy or McArdle disease, and healthy subjects. RESULTS: Mb and TnI appeared early in the blood, and the increase of TnI was only observed in patients with muscle disease. The CK increase was more...... delayed in plasma. Tcap was not detectable at any time. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that TnI is a marker of more severe damage signifying sarcomeric damage, and it could therefore be an important supplement to CK and Mb in clinical practice. Tcap is not useful as a marker for skeletal muscle damage....

  9. Experiment K-7-29: Connective Tissue Studies. Part 3; Rodent Tissue Repair: Skeletal Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauber, W.; Fritz, V. K.; Burkovskaya, T. E.; Ilyina-Kakueva, E. I.

    1994-01-01

    Myofiber injury-repair was studied in the rat gastrocnemius following a crush injury to the lower leg prior to flight in order to understand if the regenerative responses of muscles are altered by the lack of gravitational forces during Cosmos 2044 flight. After 14 days of flight, the gastrocnemius muscle was removed from the 5 injured flight rodents and various Earth-based treatment groups for comparison. The Earth-based animals consisted of three groups of five rats with injured muscles from a simulated, tail-suspended, and vivarium as well as an uninjured basal group. The gastrocnemius muscle from each was evaluated by histochemical and immunohistochemical techniques to document myofiber, vascular, and connective tissue alterations following injury. In general the repair process was somewhat similar in all injured muscle samples with regard to extracellular matrix organization and myofiber regeneration. Small and large myofibers were present with a newly organized extracellular matrix indicative of myogenesis and muscle regeneration. In the tail-suspended animals, a more complete repair was observed with no enlarged area of non-muscle cells or matrix material visible. In contrast, the muscle samples from the flight animals were less well differentiated with more macrophages and blood vessels in the repair region but small myofibers and proteoglycans, nevertheless, were in their usual configuration. Thus, myofiber repair did vary in muscles from the different groups, but for the most part, resulted in functional muscle tissue.

  10. Experiment K-7-29: Connective Tissue Studies. Part 3; Rodent Tissue Repair: Skeletal Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauber, W.; Fritz, V. K.; Burkovskaya, T. E.; Ilyina-Kakueva, E. I.

    1994-01-01

    Myofiber injury-repair was studied in the rat gastrocnemius following a crush injury to the lower leg prior to flight in order to understand if the regenerative responses of muscles are altered by the lack of gravitational forces during Cosmos 2044 flight. After 14 days of flight, the gastrocnemius muscle was removed from the 5 injured flight rodents and various Earth-based treatment groups for comparison. The Earth-based animals consisted of three groups of five rats with injured muscles from a simulated, tail-suspended, and vivarium as well as an uninjured basal group. The gastrocnemius muscle from each was evaluated by histochemical and immunohistochemical techniques to document myofiber, vascular, and connective tissue alterations following injury. In general the repair process was somewhat similar in all injured muscle samples with regard to extracellular matrix organization and myofiber regeneration. Small and large myofibers were present with a newly organized extracellular matrix indicative of myogenesis and muscle regeneration. In the tail-suspended animals, a more complete repair was observed with no enlarged area of non-muscle cells or matrix material visible. In contrast, the muscle samples from the flight animals were less well differentiated with more macrophages and blood vessels in the repair region but small myofibers and proteoglycans, nevertheless, were in their usual configuration. Thus, myofiber repair did vary in muscles from the different groups, but for the most part, resulted in functional muscle tissue.

  11. Mechanical stimulation improves tissue-engineered human skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Courtney A.; Smiley, Beth L.; Mills, John; Vandenburgh, Herman H.

    2002-01-01

    Human bioartificial muscles (HBAMs) are tissue engineered by suspending muscle cells in collagen/MATRIGEL, casting in a silicone mold containing end attachment sites, and allowing the cells to differentiate for 8 to 16 days. The resulting HBAMs are representative of skeletal muscle in that they contain parallel arrays of postmitotic myofibers; however, they differ in many other morphological characteristics. To engineer improved HBAMs, i.e., more in vivo-like, we developed Mechanical Cell Stimulator (MCS) hardware to apply in vivo-like forces directly to the engineered tissue. A sensitive force transducer attached to the HBAM measured real-time, internally generated, as well as externally applied, forces. The muscle cells generated increasing internal forces during formation which were inhibitable with a cytoskeleton depolymerizer. Repetitive stretch/relaxation for 8 days increased the HBAM elasticity two- to threefold, mean myofiber diameter 12%, and myofiber area percent 40%. This system allows engineering of improved skeletal muscle analogs as well as a nondestructive method to determine passive force and viscoelastic properties of the resulting tissue.

  12. Mechanical stimulation improves tissue-engineered human skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Courtney A.; Smiley, Beth L.; Mills, John; Vandenburgh, Herman H.

    2002-01-01

    Human bioartificial muscles (HBAMs) are tissue engineered by suspending muscle cells in collagen/MATRIGEL, casting in a silicone mold containing end attachment sites, and allowing the cells to differentiate for 8 to 16 days. The resulting HBAMs are representative of skeletal muscle in that they contain parallel arrays of postmitotic myofibers; however, they differ in many other morphological characteristics. To engineer improved HBAMs, i.e., more in vivo-like, we developed Mechanical Cell Stimulator (MCS) hardware to apply in vivo-like forces directly to the engineered tissue. A sensitive force transducer attached to the HBAM measured real-time, internally generated, as well as externally applied, forces. The muscle cells generated increasing internal forces during formation which were inhibitable with a cytoskeleton depolymerizer. Repetitive stretch/relaxation for 8 days increased the HBAM elasticity two- to threefold, mean myofiber diameter 12%, and myofiber area percent 40%. This system allows engineering of improved skeletal muscle analogs as well as a nondestructive method to determine passive force and viscoelastic properties of the resulting tissue.

  13. Fine-tuning of substrate architecture and surface chemistry promotes muscle tissue development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guex, A G; Kocher, F M; Fortunato, G; Körner, E; Hegemann, D; Carrel, T P; Tevaearai, H T; Giraud, M N

    2012-04-01

    Tissue engineering has been increasingly brought to the scientific spotlight in response to the tremendous demand for regeneration, restoration or substitution of skeletal or cardiac muscle after traumatic injury, tumour ablation or myocardial infarction. In vitro generation of a highly organized and contractile muscle tissue, however, crucially depends on an appropriate design of the cell culture substrate. The present work evaluated the impact of substrate properties, in particular morphology, chemical surface composition and mechanical properties, on muscle cell fate. To this end, aligned and randomly oriented micron (3.3±0.8 μm) or nano (237±98 nm) scaled fibrous poly(ε-caprolactone) non-wovens were processed by electrospinning. A nanometer-thick oxygen functional hydrocarbon coating was deposited by a radio frequency plasma process. C2C12 muscle cells were grown on pure and as-functionalized substrates and analysed for viability, proliferation, spatial orientation, differentiation and contractility. Cell orientation has been shown to depend strongly on substrate architecture, being most pronounced on micron-scaled parallel-oriented fibres. Oxygen functional hydrocarbons, representing stable, non-immunogenic surface groups, were identified as strong triggers for myotube differentiation. Accordingly, the highest myotube density (28±15% of total substrate area), sarcomeric striation and contractility were found on plasma-coated substrates. The current study highlights the manifold material characteristics to be addressed during the substrate design process and provides insight into processes to improve bio-interfaces.

  14. Tissue specific phosphorylation of mitochondrial proteins isolated from rat liver, heart muscle, and skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Steffen; León, Ileana R; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard;

    2013-01-01

    of TiO2 phosphopeptide-enrichment, HILIC fractionation, and LC-MS/MS on isolated mitochondria to investigate the tissue-specific mitochondrial phosphoproteomes of rat liver, heart, and skeletal muscle. In total, we identified 899 phosphorylation sites in 354 different mitochondrial proteins including......Phosphorylation of mitochondrial proteins in a variety of biological processes is increasingly being recognized and may contribute to the differences in function and energy demands observed in mitochondria from different tissues such as liver, heart, and skeletal muscle. Here, we used a combination...

  15. Chitosan-gelatin sheets as scaffolds for muscle tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajiabbas, Maryam; Mashayekhan, Shohreh; Nazaripouya, Amir; Naji, Mohammad; Hunkeler, David; Rajabi Zeleti, Sareh; Sharifiaghdas, Farzaneh

    2015-04-01

    Hydrogels made of natural polymers [chitosan (CS) and gelatin (G)] have been prepared having mechanical properties similar to those of muscle tissues. In this study, the effect of polymer concentration and scaffold stiffness on the behavior of seeded muscle-derived cells (MDCs) on the CS-G hydrogel sheets has been evaluated. Both variables were found to be important in cell viability. Viability was assessed by observation of the cell morphology after 1 day as well as a 14-day MTT assay. The CS-G hydrogels were characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis, which revealed evidences of strong intermolecular interactions between CS and G. Hydrogel samples with intermediate concentration of CS had suitable handling characteristics for surgical purposes as well as similar elasticity to muscle tissues. The sample with intermediate stiffness (22 ± 1kPa) exhibited the greatest attachment, expansion, and proliferation rate. Such CS-G hydrogels with intermediate stiffness may be considered as new candidates for muscle tissue engineering in the reconstructive field of urology.

  16. Optical reflectance in fibrous tissues and skeletal muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranasinghesagara, Janaka C.

    We studied two biological tissues with optically anisotropic structures: high moisture soy protein extrudates and skeletal muscles. High moisture extrusion has been used to produce vegetable meat analogs that resemble real animal meat and have significant health benefits. Since visual and textural properties are key factors for consumer acceptance, assessing fiber formation in the extruded soy protein product is important for quality control purpose. A non-destructive method based on photon migration was developed to measure fiber formation in extruded soy proteins. The measured fiber formation index in intact samples showed good agreement with that obtained from image analysis on peeled samples. By implementing this new method in a fast laser scanning system, we have acquired two dimensional mappings of fiber formation and orientation in the entire sample in real time. In addition to fibrous structures, skeletal muscles have a unique periodic sarcomere structure which produces strong light diffractions. However, inconsistent experimental results have been reported in single fiber diffraction studies. By applying the three-dimensional coupled wave theory in a physical sarcomere model, we found that a variety of experimental observations can be explained if inhomogeneous muscle morphological profiles are considered. We also discovered that the sarcomere structure produced a unique optical reflectance pattern in whole muscle. None of the existing light propagation theories are able to describe this pattern. We developed a Monte Carlo model incorporating the sarcomere diffraction effect. The simulated results quantitatively resemble the unique patterns observed in experiments. We used a set of parameters to quantify the optical reflectance profiles produced by a point incident light in whole muscle. Two parameters, q and B, were obtained by numerically fitting the equi-intensity contours of the reflectance pattern. Two spatial gradients were calculated along the

  17. Cruzipain induces autoimmune response against skeletal muscle and tissue damage in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordanengo, L; Fretes, R; Díaz, H; Cano, R; Bacile, A; Vottero-Cima, E; Gea, S

    2000-09-01

    The goal of the current study was to investigate whether cruzipain, a major Trypanosoma cruzi antigen, is able to induce in mice an autoimmune response and skeletal muscle damage. We demonstrate that immunization with cruzipain triggers immunoglobulin G antibody binding to a 210-kDa antigen from a syngeneic skeletal muscle extract. The absorption of immune sera with purified myosin completely eliminated this reactivity, confirming that the protein identified is really myosin. We also found that spleen cells from immunized mice proliferated in response to a skeletal muscle extract rich in myosin and to purified myosin. Cells from control mice did not proliferate against any of the antigens tested. In addition, we observed an increase in plasma creatine kinase activity, a biochemical marker of muscle damage. Histological studies showed inflammatory infiltrates and myopathic changes in skeletal muscle of immunized animals. Electromyographic studies of these mice revealed changes such as are found in inflammatory or necrotic myopathy. Altogether, our results suggest that this experimental model provides strong evidence for a pathogenic role of anticruzipain immune response in the development of muscle tissue damage.

  18. Common Laundry Detergent Ingredient May Help Preserve Muscle Tissue After Severe Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... historical) Common Laundry Detergent Ingredient May Help Preserve Muscle Tissue After Severe Injury A compound commonly found in household laundry detergents may help preserve muscle tissue after a severe injury, according to research ...

  19. Statistical treatment of oxygenation-related data in muscle tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoofd, Louis; Degens, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Muscle oxygenation is determined not only by the flow and oxygen content of the supplying blood but also by the density of the capillary network, the heterogeneity of the distribution of the capillaries and the properties and distribution of the muscle fibres. The distribution of the capillaries is adequately analysed by the method of capillary domains, which also allows to link capillaries to individual fibres. Thus, capillarisation can be linked to cell properties like fibre cross-sectional surface area and perimeter, and oxygen consumption of the individual muscle fibres. However, in order to meaningfully characterise tissue properties, such linkage has to be done for groups of cells. Since most of the data are not normally distributed - domains are lognormally distributed, but how fibre cross-sectional areas are distributed is unknown - a dedicated statistical analysis is required, particularly since none of the variables is independent.

  20. Cyclic AMP system in muscle tissue during prolonged hypokinesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antipenko, Y. A.; Bubeyev, Y. A.; Korovkin, B. F.; Mikhaleva, N. P.

    1980-01-01

    Components of the cyclic Adenosine-cyclic-35-monophosphate (AMP) system in the muscle tissue of white rats were studied during 70-75 days of hypokinesia, created by placing the animals in small booths which restricted their movements, and during the readaptation period. In the initial period, cyclic AMP levels and the activities of phosphodiesterase and adenylate cyclase in muscle tissue were increased. The values for these indices were roughly equal for controls and experimental animals during the adaptation period, but on the 70th day of the experiment cAMP levels dropped, phosphodiesterase activity increased, and the stimulative effect of epinephrine on the activity of adenylate cyclase decreased. The indices under study normalized during the readaptation period.

  1. A swimming robot actuated by living muscle tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herr Hugh

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Biomechatronics is the integration of biological components with artificial devices, in which the biological component confers a significant functional capability to the system, and the artificial component provides specific cellular and tissue interfaces that promote the maintenance and functional adaptation of the biological component. Based upon functional performance, muscle is potentially an excellent mechanical actuator, but the larger challenge of developing muscle-actuated, biomechatronic devices poses many scientific and engineering challenges. As a demonstratory proof of concept, we designed, built, and characterized a swimming robot actuated by two explanted frog semitendinosus muscles and controlled by an embedded microcontroller. Using open loop stimulation protocols, the robot performed basic swimming maneuvers such as starting, stopping, turning (turning radius ~400 mm and straight-line swimming (max speed >1/3 body lengths/second. A broad spectrum antibiotic/antimycotic ringer solution surrounded the muscle actuators for long term maintenance, ex vivo. The robot swam for a total of 4 hours over a 42 hour lifespan (10% duty cycle before its velocity degraded below 75% of its maximum. The development of functional biomechatronic prototypes with integrated musculoskeletal tissues is the first critical step toward the long term objective of controllable, adaptive and robust biomechatronic robots and prostheses.

  2. A swimming robot actuated by living muscle tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herr, Hugh; Dennis, Robert G

    2004-01-01

    Biomechatronics is the integration of biological components with artificial devices, in which the biological component confers a significant functional capability to the system, and the artificial component provides specific cellular and tissue interfaces that promote the maintenance and functional adaptation of the biological component. Based upon functional performance, muscle is potentially an excellent mechanical actuator, but the larger challenge of developing muscle-actuated, biomechatronic devices poses many scientific and engineering challenges. As a demonstratory proof of concept, we designed, built, and characterized a swimming robot actuated by two explanted frog semitendinosus muscles and controlled by an embedded microcontroller. Using open loop stimulation protocols, the robot performed basic swimming maneuvers such as starting, stopping, turning (turning radius ~400 mm) and straight-line swimming (max speed >1/3 body lengths/second). A broad spectrum antibiotic/antimycotic ringer solution surrounded the muscle actuators for long term maintenance, ex vivo. The robot swam for a total of 4 hours over a 42 hour lifespan (10% duty cycle) before its velocity degraded below 75% of its maximum. The development of functional biomechatronic prototypes with integrated musculoskeletal tissues is the first critical step toward the long term objective of controllable, adaptive and robust biomechatronic robots and prostheses. PMID:15679914

  3. Paretic muscle atrophy and non-contractile tissue content in individual muscles of the post-stroke lower extremity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, John W; Barrance, Peter J; Buchanan, Thomas S; Higginson, Jill S

    2011-11-10

    Muscle atrophy is one of many factors contributing to post-stroke hemiparetic weakness. Since muscle force is a function of muscle size, the amount of muscle atrophy an individual muscle undergoes has implications for its overall force-generating capability post-stroke. In this study, post-stroke atrophy was determined bilaterally in fifteen leg muscles with volumes quantified using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). All muscle volumes were adjusted to exclude non-contractile tissue content, and muscle atrophy was quantified by comparing the volumes between paretic and non-paretic sides. Non-contractile tissue or intramuscular fat was calculated by determining the amount of tissue excluded from the muscle volume measurement. With the exception of the gracilis, all individual paretic muscles examined had smaller volumes in the non-paretic side. The average decrease in volume for these paretic muscles was 23%. The gracilis volume, on the other hand, was approximately 11% larger on the paretic side. The amount of non-contractile tissue was higher in all paretic muscles except the gracilis, where no difference was observed between sides. To compensate for paretic plantar flexor weakness, one idea might be that use of the paretic gracilis actually causes the muscle to increase in size and not develop intramuscular fat. By eliminating non-contractile tissue from our volume calculations, we have presented volume data that more appropriately represents force-generating muscle tissue. Non-uniform muscle atrophy was observed across muscles and may provide important clues when assessing the effect of muscle atrophy on post-stroke gait. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Obscurins: Goliaths and Davids take over non-muscle tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, Maegen A; Shriver, Marey; Perry, Nicole A; Hu, Li-Yen R; Kontrogianni-Konstantopoulos, Aikaterini

    2014-01-01

    Obscurins comprise a family of proteins originally identified in striated muscles, where they play essential roles in myofibrillogenesis, cytoskeletal organization, and Ca(2+) homeostasis. They are encoded by the single OBSCN gene, and are composed of tandem adhesion domains and signaling motifs. To date, two giant obscurin isoforms have been described in detail that differ only at the extreme COOH-terminus; while obscurin-A (∼720 kDa) contains a non-modular COOH-terminus that harbors binding sites for the adaptor proteins ankyrins, obscurin-B (∼870 kDa) contains two COOH-terminal serine-threonine kinase domains preceded by adhesion motifs. Besides the two known giant obscurins, a thorough search of transcript databases suggests that complex alternative splicing of the obscurin transcript results in the generation of additional giant as well as small isoforms with molecular masses ranging between ∼50-970 kDa. These novel isoforms share common domains with the characterized isoforms, but also contain unique regions. Using a panel of highly specific antibodies directed against epitopes spanning the entire length of giant obscurins, we employed western blotting and immunohistochemistry to perform a systematic and comprehensive characterization of the expression profile of obscurins in muscle and non-muscle tissues. Our studies demonstrate for the first time that obscurins are not restricted to striated muscles, but are abundantly expressed in several tissues and organs including brain, skin, kidney, liver, spleen, and lung. While some obscurin isoforms are ubiquitously expressed, others are preferentially present in specific tissues and organs. Moreover, obscurins are present in select structures and cell types where they assume nuclear, cytosolic, and membrane distributions. Given the ubiquitous expression of some obscurins, along with the preferential expression of others, it becomes apparent that obscurins may play common and unique roles, respectively, in

  5. Tissue-Engineered Skeletal Muscle Organoids for Reversible Gene Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenburgh, Herman; DelTatto, Michael; Shansky, Janet; Lemaire, Julie; Chang, Albert; Payumo, Francis; Lee, Peter; Goodyear, Amy; Raven, Latasha

    1996-01-01

    Genetically modified murine skeletal myoblasts were tissue engineered in vitro into organ-like structures (organoids) containing only postmitotic myofibers secreting pharmacological levels of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH). Subcutaneous organoid Implantation under tension led to the rapid and stable appearance of physiological sera levels of rhGH for up to 12 weeks, whereas surgical removal led to its rapid disappearance. Reversible delivery of bioactive compounds from postimtotic cells in tissue engineered organs has several advantages over other forms of muscle gene therapy.

  6. Metabolic effects induced by L-carnitine and propionyl-L-carnitine in human hypoxic muscle tissue during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbucci, G G; Montanari, G; Mancinelli, G; D'Iddio, S

    1990-01-01

    An experimental model was developed to investigate some metabolic effects of strenuous exercise in hypoxic muscle tissue of human volunteers. The incidence of carnitine supplementation was studied, assuming as marker the thiobarbituric acid reaction products analysed in plasma samples collected during the course of the protocol programme. Propionyl-L-carnitine appears to antagonize in a significant degree the damaging effects of muscle fatigue combined with hypoxic status. Under these conditions the detoxifying role played by propionyl-L-carnitine, previously reported in various tissues and in other pathological conditions, appears to be relevant, although further studies are needed to elucidate the pharmacodynamics of this molecule.

  7. Experimental research on plasma destruction of bone tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vdovin O.V.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The main condition in achieving a favorable outcome is surgical treatment of patients with tumor-like diseases and benign bone tumors erosion of neoplasm within the healthy tissues. To reduce the number of recurrences the various chemical and physical methods on resection areas have been performed. The authors have proposed a new method of low temperature plasma treatment of bone tissue with the temperature of 20000°C. Exposing the plasma flow on bone tissue leads to loss of all cellular elements including neoplastic elements with preservation of the mineral bone structure. The direct correlation between the capacity of the plasma flow and intensity of bone destruction has been defined. This allows a differentiated use of plasma destruction in skeletal bones according to anatomy, size and type of bone tissue (spongy or cortical as well as patient's individual condition of the tissue

  8. Enhanced insulin signaling in human skeletal muscle and adipose tissue following gastric bypass surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, Peter H; Bojsen-Møller, Kirstine N; Dirksen, Carsten; Serup, Annette K; Kristensen, Dorte E; Frystyk, Jan; Clausen, Trine R; Kiens, Bente; Richter, Erik A; Madsbad, Sten; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen F P

    2015-09-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) leads to increased peripheral insulin sensitivity. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of RYGB on expression and regulation of proteins involved in regulation of peripheral glucose metabolism. Skeletal muscle and adipose tissue biopsies from glucose-tolerant and type 2 diabetic subjects at fasting and during a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp before as well as 1 wk and 3 and 12 mo after RYGB were analyzed for relevant insulin effector proteins/signaling components. Improvement in peripheral insulin sensitivity mainly occurred at 12 mo postsurgery when major weight loss was evident and occurred concomitantly with alterations in plasma adiponectin and in protein expression/signaling in peripheral tissues. In skeletal muscle, protein expression of GLUT4, phosphorylated levels of TBC1D4, as well as insulin-induced changes in phosphorylation of Akt and glycogen synthase activity were enhanced 12 mo postsurgery. In adipose tissue, protein expression of GLUT4, Akt2, TBC1D4, and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), phosphorylated levels of AMP-activated protein kinase and ACC, as well as insulin-induced changes in phosphorylation of Akt and TBC1D4, were enhanced 12 mo postsurgery. Adipose tissue from glucose-tolerant subjects was the most responsive to RYGB compared with type 2 diabetic patients, whereas changes in skeletal muscle were largely similar in these two groups. In conclusion, an improved molecular insulin-sensitive phenotype of skeletal muscle and adipose tissue appears to contribute to the improved whole body insulin action following a substantial weight loss after RYGB. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Connective tissue regeneration in skeletal muscle after eccentric contraction-induced injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackey, Abigail Louise; Kjaer, Michael

    2016-01-01

    the adaptation throughout this process of both the connective tissue structures surrounding the myofibres, and the fibroblasts, the cells responsible for synthesising this connective tissue. However, the few studies investigating muscle connective tissue remodelling demonstrate a strong response that appears...... when the muscle connective tissue responses are compared, although further work is required to confirm this. Pharmacological agents (growth hormone and angiotensin II type I receptor blockers) are considered in the context of accelerating the muscle connective tissue adaptation to loading. Cautioning...

  10. Plasma 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Is Related to Protein Signaling Involved in Glucose Homeostasis in a Tissue-Specific Manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewan Parker

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D has been suggested to play a role in glucose metabolism. However, previous findings are contradictory and mechanistic pathways remain unclear. We examined the relationship between plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD, insulin sensitivity, and insulin signaling in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. Seventeen healthy adults (Body mass index: 26 ± 4; Age: 30 ± 12 years underwent a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp, and resting skeletal muscle and adipose tissue biopsies. In this cohort, the plasma 25(OHD concentration was not associated with insulin sensitivity (r = 0.19, p = 0.56. However, higher plasma 25(OHD concentrations correlated with lower phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3 αSer21 and βSer9 in skeletal muscle (r = −0.66, p = 0.015 and r = −0.53, p = 0.06, respectively and higher GSK-3 αSer21 and βSer9 phosphorylation in adipose tissue (r = 0.82, p < 0.01 and r = 0.62, p = 0.042, respectively. Furthermore, higher plasma 25(OHD concentrations were associated with greater phosphorylation of both protein kinase-B (AktSer473 (r = 0.78, p < 0.001 and insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1Ser312 (r = 0.71, p = 0.01 in adipose tissue. No associations were found between plasma 25(OHD concentration and IRS-1Tyr612 phosphorylation in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. The divergent findings between muscle and adipose tissue with regard to the association between 25(OHD and insulin signaling proteins may suggest a tissue-specific interaction with varying effects on glucose homeostasis. Further research is required to elucidate the physiological relevance of 25(OHD in each tissue.

  11. Substantial elevation of interleukin-6 concentration in peritendinous tissue, in contrast to muscle, following prolonged exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langberg, Henning; Olesen, Jens; Gemmer, Carsten;

    2002-01-01

    . The present study represents the first attempt to simultaneously measure IL-6 in plasma, skeletal muscle and peritendinous connective tissue in response to prolonged exercise. Six healthy well-trained volunteers completed a 36 km run (flat, 12 km h(-1)). IL-6 was measured before, 2 h post-exercise and 24 h...... of the run (50-fold increase). Using the microdialysis technique, the interstitial concentration of IL-6 was found to increase dramatically from 0 +/- 0 pg ml(-1) to 3618 +/- 1239 pg ml(-1) in the peritendinous tissue in the hours following the exercise. The pattern of changes was similar in plasma...... and peritendinous tissue, although approximately 100-fold higher in the latter. For comparison the interstitial muscle concentration was found to be 465 +/- 176 pg ml(-1) when measured 2 h post-exercise and 223 +/- 113 pg ml(-1) and 198 +/- 96 pg ml(-1) 48 h and 96 h post-exercise, respectively. The present study...

  12. Engineering muscle tissues on microstructured polyelectrolyte multilayer films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge, Claire; Ren, Kefeng; Berton, Kevin; Guillot, Raphael; Peyrade, David; Picart, Catherine

    2012-08-01

    The use of surface coating on biomaterials can render the original substratum with new functionalities that can improve the chemical, physical, and mechanical properties as well as enhance cellular cues such as attachment, proliferation, and differentiation. In this work, we combined biocompatible polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) with a biomimetic polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) film made of poly(L-lysine) and hyaluronic acid (PLL/HA) for skeletal muscle tissue engineering. By microstructuring PDMS in grooves of a different width (5, 10, 30, and 100 μm) and by modulating the stiffness of the (PLL/HA) films, we guided skeletal muscle cell differentiation into myotubes. We found optimal conditions for both the formation of parallel-oriented myotubes and their maturation. Significantly, the myoblasts were collectively prealigned to the grooves before their differentiation. Before fusion, the highest aspect ratio and orientation of nuclei were observed for the 5 and 10 μm wide micropatterns. The formation of myotubes was observed regardless of the size of the micropatterns, and we found that their typical width was 10-12 μm. Their maturation was characterized by the immunolabeling of type II isomyosin. The amount of myosin striation was not affected by the topography, except for the 5 μm wide micropatterns. We highlighted the spatial constraints that led to an important nuclei deformation and further impairment of maturation within the 5 μm grooves. Altogether, our results show that the PEM film combined with PDMS is a powerful tool that is used for skeletal muscle engineering. This work opens perspectives for the development of skeletal muscle tissue in contact with films containing bioactive peptides or growth factors as well as for the study of pathogenic myotubes.

  13. Methods for demonstration of enzyme activity in muscle fibres at the muscle/bone interface in demineralized tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, S; Vilmann, H

    1981-01-01

    A method for demonstration of activity for ATPase and various oxidative enzymes (succinic dehydrogenase, alpha-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase, and lactic dehydrogenase) in muscle/bone sections of fixed and demineralized tissue has been developed. It was found that it is possible to preserve...... with the aid of a mapping of presence of phosphomonoesterases on bone surfaces, the method may be used to study possible biochemical interactions between bone and muscle tissue at the muscle/bone interface....

  14. Skeletal Muscle Tissue Engineering: Methods to Form Skeletal Myotubes and Their Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrovidov, Serge; Hosseini, Vahid; Ahadian, Samad; Fujie, Toshinori; Parthiban, Selvakumar Prakash; Ramalingam, Murugan; Bae, Hojae; Kaji, Hirokazu

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal muscle tissue engineering (SMTE) aims to repair or regenerate defective skeletal muscle tissue lost by traumatic injury, tumor ablation, or muscular disease. However, two decades after the introduction of SMTE, the engineering of functional skeletal muscle in the laboratory still remains a great challenge, and numerous techniques for growing functional muscle tissues are constantly being developed. This article reviews the recent findings regarding the methodology and various technical aspects of SMTE, including cell alignment and differentiation. We describe the structure and organization of muscle and discuss the methods for myoblast alignment cultured in vitro. To better understand muscle formation and to enhance the engineering of skeletal muscle, we also address the molecular basics of myogenesis and discuss different methods to induce myoblast differentiation into myotubes. We then provide an overview of different coculture systems involving skeletal muscle cells, and highlight major applications of engineered skeletal muscle tissues. Finally, potential challenges and future research directions for SMTE are outlined. PMID:24320971

  15. Irisin and Myonectin Regulation in the Insulin Resistant Muscle: Implications to Adipose Tissue: Muscle Crosstalk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Gamas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Myokines are peptides produced and secreted by the skeletal muscle, with autocrine, paracrine, and endocrine actions. Many of them are overexpressed during physical exercise and appear to contribute to the benefits of exercise to metabolic homeostasis. Irisin, resulting from the cleavage of the membrane protein FNDC5, was shown to induce adipocyte browning, with increased lipid oxidation and thermogenesis. Myonectin was only recently discovered and initial studies revealed a role in fatty acid uptake and oxidation in adipose tissue and liver. However, the mechanisms of their regulation by exercise are not entirely established. Impaired secretion and action of myokines, such as irisin and myonectin, may have a role in the establishment of insulin resistance. On the other hand, several studies have shown that insulin resistance in the skeletal muscle may change myokines expression and secretion. This may have consequences on lipid and glucose metabolism in adipose tissue and lead to a vicious cycle between impaired myokines production and insulin resistance. This review summarizes the current knowledge about the influence of skeletal muscle insulin resistance on the secretion of irisin and myonectin, as well as its impact on adipose tissue metabolism.

  16. Plasma-modified and polyethylene glycol-grafted polymers for potential tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svorcík, V; Makajová, Z; Kasálková-Slepicková, N; Kolská, Z; Bacáková, L

    2012-08-01

    Modified and grafted polymers may serve as building blocks for creating artificial bioinspired nanostructured surfaces for tissue engineering. Polyethylene (PE) and polystyrene (PS) were modified by Ar plasma and the surface of the plasma activated polymers was grafted with polyethylene glycol (PEG). The changes in the surface wettability (contact angle) of the modified polymers were examined by goniometry. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) was used to determine the surface roughness and morphology and electrokinetical analysis (Zeta potential) characterized surface chemistry of the modified polymers. Plasma treatment and subsequent PEG grafting lead to dramatic changes in the polymer surface morphology, roughness and wettability. The plasma treated and PEG grafted polymers were seeded with rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and their adhesion and proliferation were studied. Biological tests, performed in vitro, show increased adhesion and proliferation of cells on modified polymers. Grafting with PEG increases cell proliferation, especially on PS. The cell proliferation was shown to be an increasing function of PEG molecular weight.

  17. Relations between antioxidant vitamins in adipose tissue, plasma, and diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kardinaal, A.F.M.; Veer, P. van 't; Brants, H.A.M.; Berg, H. van den; Schoonhoven, J. van; Hermus, R.J.J.

    1995-01-01

    For an evaluation of fat-soluble vitamin concentrations in adipose tissue as biomarkers of intake, estimates of usual intake of β-carotene, total vitamin A, and vitamin E (assessed by food frequency questionnaire) were compared with plasma and adipose tissue concentrations of β-carotene, retinol, an

  18. Relations between antioxidant vitamins in adipose tissue, plasma, and diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kardinaal, A.F.M.; Veer, P. van 't; Brants, H.A.M.; Berg, H. van den; Schoonhoven, J. van; Hermus, R.J.J.

    1995-01-01

    For an evaluation of fat-soluble vitamin concentrations in adipose tissue as biomarkers of intake, estimates of usual intake of β-carotene, total vitamin A, and vitamin E (assessed by food frequency questionnaire) were compared with plasma and adipose tissue concentrations of β-carotene, retinol, an

  19. Functional evaluation of artificial skeletal muscle tissue constructs fabricated by a magnetic force-based tissue engineering technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yasunori; Ito, Akira; Fujita, Hideaki; Nagamori, Eiji; Kawabe, Yoshinori; Kamihira, Masamichi

    2011-01-01

    Skeletal muscle tissue engineering is currently applied in a variety of research fields, including regenerative medicine, drug screening, and bioactuator development, all of which require the fabrication of biomimic and functional skeletal muscle tissues. In the present study, magnetite cationic liposomes were used to magnetically label C2C12 myoblast cells for the construction of three-dimensional artificial skeletal muscle tissues by an applied magnetic force. Skeletal muscle functions, such as biochemical and contractile properties, were evaluated for the artificial tissue constructs. Histological studies revealed that elongated and multinucleated myotubes were observed within the tissue. Expression of muscle-specific markers, such as myogenin, myosin heavy chain and tropomyosin, were detected in the tissue constructs by western blot analysis. Further, creatine kinase activity increased during differentiation. In response to electric pulses, the artificial tissue constructs contracted to generate a physical force (the maximum twitch force, 33.2 μN [1.06 mN/mm2]). Rheobase and chronaxie of the tissue were determined as 4.45 V and 0.72 ms, respectively. These results indicate that the artificial skeletal muscle tissue constructs fabricated in this study were physiologically functional and the data obtained for the evaluation of their functional properties may provide useful information for future skeletal muscle tissue engineering studies.

  20. DETECTION OF LEPTIN IN MUSCLE TISSUES AND ORGANS OF PIGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Kunová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was detection of gene leptin in muscles, liver and kidneys from pigs of breed Large White. Using Real time PRC method, we determined the Ct values of leptim gene in muscle, liver, kidney. The body weight of pigs ranged from 100 kg to 103 kg. The average body weight was 101.6 kg. The thickness of backfat ranged from 10 to 20 mm, average backfat thickness was 16 mm. The minimal Ct value of leptin gene in liver was 24.05 and the maximal value was 25.79. Average Ct value of leptin gene was 24.84. The minimal Ct value of leptin gene in muscle tissue was 25.83 and the maximal value was 27.05. Average Ct value of leptin gene was 26.41. The Ct value of leptin gene in liver ranged from 24.05 to 25.79. Average Ct value of leptin gene was 24.84. Leptin gene is expressed by porcine preadipocytes and leptin gene expression is highly dependent on dexamethasone induced preadipocyte differentiation. Hormonally driven preadipocyte recruitment and subsequent fat cell size may regulate leptin gene expression in the pig.

  1. How to assess the plasma delivery of RONS into tissue fluid and tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jun-Seok; Szili, Endre J.; Gaur, Nishtha; Hong, Sung-Ha; Furuta, Hiroshi; Kurita, Hirofumi; Mizuno, Akira; Hatta, Akimitsu; Short, Robert D.

    2016-08-01

    The efficacy of helium (He) and argon (Ar) plasma jets are being investigated for different healthcare applications including wound and cancer therapy, sterilisation and surface disinfections. Current research points to a potential link between the generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) and outcomes in a range of biological and medical applications. As new data accrue, further strengthening this link, it becomes important to understand the controlled delivery of RONS into solutions, tissue fluids and tissues. This paper investigates the use of He and Ar plasma jets to deliver three RONS (hydrogen peroxide—H2O2, nitrite—\\text{NO}2- and nitrate—\\text{NO}3- ) and molecular oxygen (O2) directly into deionised (DI) water, or indirectly into DI water through an agarose target. The DI water is used in place of tissue fluid and the agarose target serves as a surrogate of tissue. Direct plasma jet treatments deliver more RONS and O2 than the through-agarose treatments for equivalent treatments times. The former only deliver RONS whilst the plasma jets are ignited; the latter continues to deliver RONS into the DI water long after the plasmas are extinguished. The He plasma jet is more effective at delivering H2O2 and \\text{NO}2- directly into DI water, but the Ar plasma jet is more effective at nitrating the DI water in both direct and through-agarose treatments. DI water directly treated with the plasma jets is deoxygenated, with the He plasma jet purging more O2 than the Ar plasma jet. This effect is known as ‘sparging’. In contrast, for through-agarose treatments both jets oxygenated the DI water. These results indicate that in the context of direct and indirect plasma jet treatments of real tissue fluids and tissue, the choice of process gas (He or Ar) could have a profound effect on the concentrations of RONS and O2. Irrespective of operating gas, sparging of tissue fluid (in an open wound) for long prolonged periods during direct plasma

  2. Assessing reproductive status in elasmobranch fishes using steroid hormones extracted from skeletal muscle tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prohaska, Bianca K; Tsang, Paul C W; Driggers, William B; Hoffmayer, Eric R; Wheeler, Carolyn R; Brown, A Christine; Sulikowski, James A

    2013-01-01

    Elasmobranch fishes (sharks, skates, and rays) are particularly susceptible to anthropogenic threats, making a thorough understanding of their life history characteristics essential for proper management. Historically, elasmobranch reproductive data have been collected by lethal sampling, an approach that is problematic for threatened and endangered species. However, recent studies have demonstrated that non-lethal approaches can be as effective as lethal ones for assessment of the reproductive status of an animal. For example, plasma has been used to examine concentrations of steroid hormones. Additionally, skeletal muscle tissue, which can be obtained non-lethally and with minimal stress, can also be used to quantify concentrations of steroid hormones. Skeletal muscle progesterone, testosterone, and estradiol concentrations were determined to be statistically significant indicators of reproductive status in the oviparous Leucoraja erinacea, the yolk-dependent viviparous Squalus acanthias, and the yolk-sac placental viviparous Rhizoprionodon terraenovae. The results of the present study demonstrate that steroid hormones present in non-lethally harvested skeletal muscle tissue can be used as reliable indicators of reproductive status in elasmobranchs.

  3. Non-myogenic Contribution to Muscle Development and Homeostasis: The Role of Connective Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassari, Sonya; Duprez, Delphine; Fournier-Thibault, Claire

    2017-01-01

    Skeletal muscles belong to the musculoskeletal system, which is composed of bone, tendon, ligament and irregular connective tissue, and closely associated with motor nerves and blood vessels. The intrinsic molecular signals regulating myogenesis have been extensively investigated. However, muscle development, homeostasis and regeneration require interactions with surrounding tissues and the cellular and molecular aspects of this dialogue have not been completely elucidated. During development and adult life, myogenic cells are closely associated with the different types of connective tissue. Connective tissues are defined as specialized (bone and cartilage), dense regular (tendon and ligament) and dense irregular connective tissue. The role of connective tissue in muscle morphogenesis has been investigated, thanks to the identification of transcription factors that characterize the different types of connective tissues. Here, we review the development of the various connective tissues in the context of the musculoskeletal system and highlight their important role in delivering information necessary for correct muscle morphogenesis, from the early step of myoblast differentiation to the late stage of muscle maturation. Interactions between muscle and connective tissue are also critical in the adult during muscle regeneration, as impairment of the regenerative potential after injury or in neuromuscular diseases results in the progressive replacement of the muscle mass by fibrotic tissue. We conclude that bi-directional communication between muscle and connective tissue is critical for a correct assembly of the musculoskeletal system during development as well as to maintain its homeostasis in the adult.

  4. Tissue-specific and substrate-specific mitochondrial bioenergetics in feline cardiac and skeletal muscles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Liselotte Bruun; Dela, Flemming; Koch, Jørgen;

    2015-01-01

    No studies have investigated the mitochondrial function in permeabilized muscle fiber from cats. The aim of this study was to investigate tissue-specific and substrate-specific characteristics of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) capacity in feline permeabilized oxidative muscle...

  5. Air plasma treatment of liquid covered tissue: long timescale chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lietz, Amanda M.; Kushner, Mark J.

    2016-10-01

    Atmospheric pressure plasmas have shown great promise for the treatment of wounds and cancerous tumors. In these applications, the sample is usually covered by a thin layer of a biological liquid. The reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) generated by the plasma activate and are processed by the liquid before the plasma produced activation reaches the tissue. The synergy between the plasma and the liquid, including evaporation and the solvation of ions and neutrals, is critical to understanding the outcome of plasma treatment. The atmospheric pressure plasma sources used in these procedures are typically repetitively pulsed. The processes activated by the plasma sources have multiple timescales—from a few ns during the discharge pulse to many minutes for reactions in the liquid. In this paper we discuss results from a computational investigation of plasma-liquid interactions and liquid phase chemistry using a global model with the goal of addressing this large dynamic range in timescales. In modeling air plasmas produced by a dielectric barrier discharge over liquid covered tissue, 5000 voltage pulses were simulated, followed by 5 min of afterglow. Due to the accumulation of long-lived species such as ozone and N x O y , the gas phase dynamics of the 5000th discharge pulse are different from those of the first pulse, particularly with regards to the negative ions. The consequences of applied voltage, gas flow, pulse repetition frequency, and the presence of organic molecules in the liquid on the gas and liquid reactive species are discussed.

  6. Dynamic adaptation of tendon and muscle connective tissue to mechanical loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackey, Abigail; Heinemeier, Katja Maria; Koskinen, Satu Osmi Anneli

    2008-01-01

    The connective tissue of tendon and skeletal muscle is a crucial structure for force transmission. A dynamic adaptive capacity of these tissues in healthy individuals is evident from reports of altered gene expression and protein levels of the fibrillar and network-forming collagens, when subjected...... in this article provide strong evidence for the highly adaptable nature of connective tissue in muscle and tendon....

  7. The effect of exercise intensity on plasma and tissue acyl ghrelin concentrations in fasted rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathi, Rozita; Ghanbari-Niaki, Abbass; Kraemer, Robert R; Talebi-Garakani, Elahe; Saghebjoo, Marziyeh

    2010-12-10

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of exercise training and feeding status on plasma and tissue acyl ghrelin concentrations. Thirty-two, eight-week-old male Wistar rats (185±5g) were randomly assigned to one of four groups: high intensity (HI: 34 m/min ~80-85% VO(2)max), moderate intensity (MI: 28 m/min ~70-75% VO(2)max), low intensity (LI: 20 m/min ~50-55% VO(2)max), and sedentary control (SED) groups. All experimental groups performed a 12-week exercise program consisting of treadmill running on a 0° slope for 1 h/day, 5 days/week at their respective training intensity. Twenty four hours following the last training session the animals completed a 12h fast. Rats were then killed, blood was collected and plasma separated; the fundus and soleus muscle were excised and frozen in liquid nitrogen for later analysis. Fasting levels of circulating acyl ghrelin and acyl ghrelin content in the soleus muscle and fundus, as well as glycogen in the soleus muscle were measured. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA. Results demonstrated that 12 weeks of exercise training combined with a 12h fast significantly increased plasma as well as soleus muscle concentrations of acyl ghrelin in the HI and MI groups (pghrelin concentrations in the fundus (pexercise training enhances fasting plasma acyl ghrelin in an intensity-dependent manner which is accompanied by a significant increase in soleus muscle and reduction in fundus acyl ghrelin levels. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of thyme as a feed additive in broiler chickens on thymol in gut contents, blood plasma, liver and muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haselmeyer, Alexander; Zentek, Jürgen; Chizzola, Remigius

    2015-02-01

    Aromatic herbs as feed additives in animal production are encountering growing interest, but data on the fate of the aromatic compounds from the plant in the animal body are very scarce. In the present study, thyme (Thymus vulgaris) herb consisting of leaves and flowers without stems was used as an ingredient in the diet for broilers. The herb was fed for 35 days to five groups of broilers (0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, and 1% w/w in the diet). Animal performance and the concentrations of the main essential oil component from thyme, thymol, were measured in gut contents, plasma and liver and muscle tissues using solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. There were no differences between the groups in feed intake, daily weight gain, feed conversion and slaughter weight. Thymol was detected in gut contents, plasma and liver and muscle tissues. Increased intestinal thymol concentrations were found in the group with 1% thyme compared with the other groups (P < 0.05). In liver and muscle tissues the thymol levels were close to the limit of quantification. The data do not indicate a positive effect of thyme on animal performance. With high dietary levels of thyme herb, thymol concentrations increased in gut contents and plasma but were very low in edible tissues such as liver and flesh. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Injection-site lesions: incidence, tissue histology, collagen concentration, and muscle tenderness in beef rounds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    George, M. H; Morgan, J. B; Glock, R. D; Tatum, J. D; Schmidt, G. R; Sofos, J. N; Cowman, G. L; Smith, G. C

    1995-01-01

    .... Two additional experiments were conducted to examine the subsequent effects of pharmaceutical administration on tissue histology, soluble and insoluble collagen concentration, and muscle tenderness...

  10. Engineering multi-layered skeletal muscle tissue by using 3D microgrooved collagen scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shangwu; Nakamoto, Tomoko; Kawazoe, Naoki; Chen, Guoping

    2015-12-01

    Preparation of three-dimensional (3D) micropatterned porous scaffolds remains a great challenge for engineering of highly organized tissues such as skeletal muscle tissue and cardiac tissue. Two-dimensional (2D) micropatterned surfaces with periodic features (several nanometers to less than 100 μm) are commonly used to guide the alignment of muscle myoblasts and myotubes and lead to formation of pre-patterned cell sheets. However, cell sheets from 2D patterned surfaces have limited thickness, and harvesting the cell sheets for implantation is inconvenient and can lead to less alignment of myotubes. 3D micropatterned scaffolds can promote cell alignment and muscle tissue formation. In this study, we developed a novel type of 3D porous collagen scaffolds with concave microgrooves that mimic muscle basement membrane to engineer skeletal muscle tissue. Highly aligned and multi-layered muscle bundle tissues were engineered by controlling the size of microgrooves and cell seeding concentration. Myoblasts in the engineered muscle tissue were well-aligned and had high expression of myosin heavy chain and synthesis of muscle extracellular matrix. The microgrooved collagen scaffolds could be used to engineer organized multi-layered muscle tissue for implantation to repair/restore the function of diseased tissues or be used to investigate the cell-cell interaction in 3D microscale topography. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Autologous Minced Muscle Grafts: A Tissue Engineering Therapy for the Volumetric Loss of Skeletal Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    allotted to one of three time points postinjury: 2, 8, or 16 wk. At these times, tissue was collected for histological and molecular analyses. At 8 and 16...from the CyQUANT kit, and read on a SpectraMax M2 plate reader ( Molecular Devices, Sunnyvale, CA) with excitation at 480 nm and emission at 520 nm. DNA...auto-, homo, and hetero-transplantation]. Biologia (Bratislava) 13: 514–522, 1958. 25. Huijing PA, Jaspers RT. Adaptation of muscle size and myofascial

  12. Three-dimensional optical coherence micro-elastography of skeletal muscle tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Lixin; Kennedy, Brendan F; Kennedy, Kelsey M; Wijesinghe, Philip; Pinniger, Gavin J; Terrill, Jessica R; McLaughlin, Robert A; Sampson, David D

    2014-09-01

    In many muscle pathologies, impairment of skeletal muscle function is closely linked to changes in the mechanical properties of the muscle constituents. Optical coherence micro-elastography (OCME) uses optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging of tissue under a quasi-static, compressive mechanical load to map variations in tissue mechanical properties on the micro-scale. We present the first study of OCME on skeletal muscle tissue. We show that this technique can resolve features of muscle tissue including fibers, fascicles and tendon, and can also detect necrotic lesions in skeletal muscle from the mdx mouse model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. In many instances, OCME provides better or additional contrast complementary to that provided by OCT. These results suggest that OCME could provide new understanding and opportunity for assessment of skeletal muscle pathologies.

  13. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP): an adjuvant to hasten hamstring muscle recovery. A randomized controlled trial protocol (ISCRTN66528592)

    OpenAIRE

    A Hamid Mohamad; Mohamed Ali Mohamed; Yusof Ashril; George John

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Muscle injuries are one of the commonest injuries affecting athletes. It often leads to significant pain and disability causing loss of training and competition time. With current treatment, the duration to return-to-play ranges form six weeks to never, depending on injury severity. Recent researches have suggested that autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injection into the injured site may hasten soft tissues healing. To-date, there has been no randomised clinical trial...

  14. The effect of calorie restriction on insulin signaling in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue of Ames dwarf mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesenborn, Denise S; Menon, Vinal; Zhi, Xu; Do, Andrew; Gesing, Adam; Wang, Zhihui; Bartke, Andrzej; Altomare, Deborah A; Masternak, Michal M

    2014-10-01

    Long-living Ames dwarf (df/df) mice are homozygous for a mutation of the Prop1(df) gene. As a result, mice are deficient in growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL) and thyrotropin (TSH). In spite of the hormonal deficiencies, df/df mice live significantly longer and healthier lives compared to their wild type siblings. We studied the effects of calorie restriction (CR) on the expression of insulin signaling genes in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue of normal and df/df mice. The analysis of genes expression showed that CR differentially affects the insulin signaling pathway in these insulin target organs. Moreover, results obtained in both normal and Ames dwarf mice indicate more direct effects of CR on insulin signaling genes in adipose tissue than in skeletal muscle. Interestingly, CR reduced the protein levels of adiponectin in the epididymal adipose tissue of normal and Ames dwarf mice, while elevating adiponectin levels in skeletal muscle and plasma of normal mice only. In conclusion, our findings suggest that both skeletal muscle and adipose tissue are important mediators of insulin effects on longevity. Additionally, the results revealed divergent effects of CR on expression of genes in the insulin signaling pathway of normal and Ames dwarf mice.

  15. Dietary conjugated linoleic acid modify gene expression in liver, muscles, and fat tissues of finishing pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tous, Nuria; Theil, Peter Kappel; Lauridsen, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    in these tissues, except for SM intermuscular fat. Dietary CLA increased PPARγ in LT muscle (P fat. Transcription of genes related to FA synthesis was reduced by CLA in SM muscle and liver (SREBP1......, both P muscle and reduced (P increased (P muscle and intermuscular fat. Saturated FA were increased in all studied tissues (P ... (LPL), delta-6-desaturase (D6D), and stearoyl CoA desaturase (SCD) were determined by real-time PCR in longissimus thoracis (LT) and semimembranosus (SM) muscles, LT subcutaneous and SM intermuscular fat, and in the liver. Fatty acid (FA) composition was analyzed using gas chromatography...

  16. Brown adipose tissue takes up plasma triglycerides mostly after lipolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khedoe, P.P.S.J.; Hoeke, Geerte; Kooijman, Sander; Dijk, Wieneke; Buijs, Jeroen T.; Kersten, Sander; Havekes, Louis M.; Hiemstra, Pieter S.; Berbée, Jimmy F.P.; Boon, Mariëtte R.; Rensen, Patrick C.N.

    2015-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) produces heat by burning TGs that are stored within intracellular lipid droplets and need to be replenished by the uptake of TG-derived FA from plasma. It is currently unclear whether BAT takes up FA via uptake of TG-rich lipoproteins (TRLs), after lipolysis-mediated li

  17. Diabetic Muscle Infarction of the Tibialis Anterior and Extensor Hallucis Longus Muscles Mimicking the Malignant Soft-Tissue Tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimata, Yoshikuni; Sato, Kotaro; Tokunaga, Karen; Tsukimura, Itsuko; Tada, Hiroshi; Doita, Minoru

    2015-01-01

    One of the most common causes of skeletal muscle infarction is diabetic muscle infarction (DMI), a rare complication associated with poorly controlled diabetes. We report an atypical case of DMI localized in the tibialis anterior (TA) and extensor hallucis longus (EHL) muscles of an elderly individual. A 64-year-old man with type 2 diabetes mellitus presented with a 6-month history of a palpable mass in his lower left leg. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed that the mass exhibited heterogeneous signals on T1- and T2-weighted images and slight heterogeneous enhancement within the muscles on fat suppressed T1-weighted images. Because histopathological analysis revealed mostly necrotic muscle tissues but no neoplastic cells, we resected the affected muscles. A typical symptom of DMI is severe abrupt-onset pain in the region of the affected muscles, but the patient did not complain of pain. Therefore, the diagnosis and treatment for DMI were delayed, and widespread irreversible muscle necrosis developed. MRI findings of DMI can be similar to that of a malignant soft-tissue tumor. So, it is necessary to consider the malignant soft-tissue tumor as one of the differential diagnoses of DMI.

  18. Tolerance to low temperatures of Toxocara cati larvae in chicken muscle tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taira, Kensuke; Saitoh, Yasuhide; Okada, Natsuki;

    2012-01-01

    Infectivity of Toxocara cati larvae in muscle tissue of chickens after storage at 4 degrees C and -25 degrees C was assessed in a mouse bioassay to provide information on the risk of meat-borne toxocarosis. Muscle tissue samples of 30-day old T. cati infections were stored at 4 degrees C for 14...

  19. Comparison of prenatal musle tissue expression profiles of two pigs breed differing in muscle characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cagnazzo, M.; Pas, te M.F.W.; Priem, J.; Wit, de A.A.C.; Pool, M.H.; Davoli, R.; Russo, V.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare purebred Duroc and Pietrain prenatal muscle tissue transcriptome expression levels at different stages of prenatal development to gain insight into the differences in muscle tissue development in these pig breeds. Commercial western pig breeds have been sel

  20. Physiological comparisons of plasma and tissue metrics of selected inland and coastal steelhead kelts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penney, Zachary L.; Moffitt, Christine M.; Jones, Bryan; Marston, Brian

    2016-01-01

    The physiological status of migrating steelhead kelts (Oncorhynchus mykiss) from the Situk River, Alaska, and two tributaries of the Clearwater River, Idaho, was evaluated to explore potential differences in post-spawning survival related to energy reserves. Blood plasma samples were analyzed for metrics related to nutritional and osmotic status, and samples of white muscle tissue collected from recent mortalities at weirs were analyzed for proximate constituents. Female kelts from the Situk River had significantly higher plasma cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose and calcium concentrations, all of which suggested higher lipid and energy stores. Additional support for energy limitation in kelts was provided by evaluating the presence of detectable proteins in the plasma. Most all kelts sampled from the Situk River populations had detectable plasma proteins, in contrast to kelts sampled from the Clearwater River tributary populations where 27 % of kelts from one tributary, and 68 % of the second tributary were below the limits of detection. We found proximate constituents of kelt mortalities were similar between the Situk and Clearwater River populations, and the lipid fraction of white muscle averaged 0.1 and 0.2 %. Our findings lend support to the hypothesis that energetic limitations likely affect post-spawn survival in the Clearwater River kelts.

  1. Muscle shortening velocity depends on tissue inertia and level of activation during submaximal contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Stephanie A; Wakeling, James M

    2016-06-01

    In order to perform external work, muscles must do additional internal work to deform their tissue, and in particular, to overcome the inertia due to their internal mass. However, the contribution of the internal mass within a muscle to the mechanical output of that muscle has only rarely been studied. Here, we use a dynamic, multi-element Hill-type muscle model to examine the effects of the inertial mass within muscle on its contractile performance. We find that the maximum strain-rate of muscle is slower for lower activations and larger muscle sizes. As muscle size increases, the ability of the muscle to overcome its inertial load will decrease, as muscle tension is proportional to cross-sectional area and inertial load is proportional to mass. Thus, muscles that are larger in size will have a higher inertial cost to contraction. Similarly, when muscle size and inertial load are held constant, decreasing muscle activation will increase inertial cost to contraction by reducing muscle tension. These results show that inertial loads within muscle contribute to a slowing of muscle contractile velocities (strain-rates), particularly at the submaximal activations that are typical during animal locomotion.

  2. Plasma disposition and tissue residue of Moxifloxacin in Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica) following different routes of administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudah, A; Hasabelnaby, S

    2014-01-01

    The disposition kinetics and the plasma availability of moxifloxacin were investigated in Japanese quails (Coturnix japonica) following different routes of administration at 5 mg/kg body weight. Tissue residue profiles (liver, kidney, lung and muscle) and plasma were also studied after multiple intramuscular and oral administrations of 5 mg/kg body weight, once daily for 5 consecutive days. Following intravenous injection, plasma concentration-time curves were best described by a two-compartment open model. After intramuscular and oral administration of moxifloxacin, the peak plasma concentrations (Cmax) were 2.14 and 1.94 μg/ml and were obtained at 1.40 and 1.87 h (Tmax), post administration, respectively. The systemic bioavailabilities following intramuscular and oral administration, respectively, of moxifloxacin were 92.48 and 87.94%. 6. Tissue concentrations following i.m. and p.o. administration were highest in liver and kidney, respectively, and decreased in the following order: plasma, lung and muscle. No moxifloxacin residues were detected in tissues and plasma after 120 h after i.m. or oral administration.

  3. Effects of obesity, diabetes and exercise on Fndc5 gene expression and irisin release in human skeletal muscle and adipose tissue: in vivo and in vitro studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurdiova, Timea; Balaz, Miroslav; Vician, Marek; Maderova, Denisa; Vlcek, Miroslav; Valkovic, Ladislav; Srbecky, Miroslav; Imrich, Richard; Kyselovicova, Olga; Belan, Vitazoslav; Jelok, Ivan; Wolfrum, Christian; Klimes, Iwar; Krssak, Martin; Zemkova, Erika; Gasperikova, Daniela; Ukropec, Jozef; Ukropcova, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Irisin was identified as a myokine secreted by contracting skeletal muscle, possibly mediating some exercise health benefits via ‘browning’ of white adipose tissue. However, a controversy exists concerning irisin origin, regulation and function in humans. Thus, we have explored Fndc5 gene and irisin protein in two clinical studies: (i) a cross-sectional study (effects of type 2 diabetes (T2D) in drug-naive men) and (ii) an intervention study (exercise effects in sedentary, overweight/obese individuals). Glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity were assessed. Maximal aerobic capacity and muscle strength were measured before and after training. Body composition (magnetic resonance imaging), muscle and liver fat content (1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS)) and in vivo muscle metabolism (32P-MRS) were determined. Skeletal muscle and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue samples were taken in the fasted state and during euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemia (adipose tissue) and before/after exercise training (muscle). We found that muscle Fndc5 mRNA was increased in prediabetes but not T2D. Fndc5 in adipose tissue and irisin in plasma were reduced in T2D by 40% and 50%, respectively. In contrast, T2D-derived myotubes expressed/secreted the highest levels of Fndc5/irisin. Neither hyperinsulinaemia (adipose tissue/plasma) nor exercise (muscle/plasma) affected Fndc5/irisin in vivo. Circulating irisin was positively associated with muscle mass, strength and metabolism and negatively with fasting glycaemia. Glucose and palmitate decreased Fndc5 mRNA in myotubes in vitro. We conclude that distinct patterns of Fndc5/irisin in muscle, adipose tissue and circulation, and concordant in vivo down-regulation in T2D, indicate that irisin might distinguish metabolic health and disease. Moreover, Fndc5/irisin was discordantly regulated in diabetic muscle and myotubes in vitro, suggesting that whole body factors, such as glucose and fatty acids, might be important for irisin

  4. Tuning of shortening speed in coleoid cephalopod muscle: no evidence for tissue-specific muscle myosin heavy chain isoforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Justin F; Kier, William M

    2016-03-01

    The contractile protein myosin II is ubiquitous in muscle. It is widely accepted that animals express tissue-specific myosin isoforms that differ in amino acid sequence and ATPase activity in order to tune muscle contractile velocities. Recent studies, however, suggested that the squid Doryteuthis pealeii might be an exception; members of this species do not express muscle-specific myosin isoforms, but instead alter sarcomeric ultrastructure to adjust contractile velocities. We investigated whether this alternative mechanism of tuning muscle contractile velocity is found in other coleoid cephalopods. We analyzed myosin heavy chain transcript sequences and expression profiles from muscular tissues of a cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, and an octopus, Octopus bimaculoides, in order to determine if these cephalopods express tissue-specific myosin heavy chain isoforms. We identified transcripts of four and six different myosin heavy chain isoforms in S. officinalis and O. bimaculoides muscular tissues, respectively. Transcripts of all isoforms were expressed in all muscular tissues studied, and thus S. officinalis and O. bimaculoides do not appear to express tissue-specific muscle myosin isoforms. We also examined the sarcomeric ultrastructure in the transverse muscle fibers of the arms of O. bimaculoides and the arms and tentacles of S. officinalis using transmission electron microscopy and found that the fast contracting fibers of the prey capture tentacles of S. officinalis have shorter thick filaments than those found in the slower transverse muscle fibers of the arms of both species. It thus appears that coleoid cephalopods, including the cuttlefish and octopus, may use ultrastructural modifications rather than tissue-specific myosin isoforms to adjust contractile velocities.

  5. Tissue-specific induction of Hsp90 mRNA and plasma cortisol response in chinook salmon following heat shock, seawater challenge, and handling challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmisano, Aldo N.; Winton, J.R.; Dickhoff, Walton W.

    2000-01-01

    In studying the whole-body response of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) to various stressors, we found that 5-hour exposure to elevated temperature (mean 21.6??C; + 10.6??C over ambient) induced a marked increase in Hsp90 messenger RNA accumulation in heart, brain, gill, muscle, liver, kidney, and tail fin tissues. The most vital tissues (heart, brain, gill, and muscle) showed the greatest Hsp90-mRNA response, with heart tissue increasing approximately 35-fold, Heat shock induced no increase in plasma cortisol. In contrast, a standard handling challenge induced high plasma cortisol levels, but no elevation in Hsp90 mRNA in any tissue, clearly separating the physiological and cellular stress responses. We saw no increase either in tissue Hsp90 mRNA levels or in plasma cortisol concentrations after exposing the fish to seawater overnight.

  6. A systems biology strategy reveals biological pathways and plasma biomarker candidates for potentially toxic statin-induced changes in muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reijo Laaksonen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Aggressive lipid lowering with high doses of statins increases the risk of statin-induced myopathy. However, the cellular mechanisms leading to muscle damage are not known and sensitive biomarkers are needed to identify patients at risk of developing statin-induced serious side effects. METHODOLOGY: We performed bioinformatics analysis of whole genome expression profiling of muscle specimens and UPLC/MS based lipidomics analyses of plasma samples obtained in an earlier randomized trial from patients either on high dose simvastatin (80 mg, atorvastatin (40 mg, or placebo. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: High dose simvastatin treatment resulted in 111 differentially expressed genes (1.5-fold change and p-value<0.05, while expression of only one and five genes was altered in the placebo and atorvastatin groups, respectively. The Gene Set Enrichment Analysis identified several affected pathways (23 gene lists with False Discovery Rate q-value<0.1 in muscle following high dose simvastatin, including eicosanoid synthesis and Phospholipase C pathways. Using lipidomic analysis we identified previously uncharacterized drug-specific changes in the plasma lipid profile despite similar statin-induced changes in plasma LDL-cholesterol. We also found that the plasma lipidomic changes following simvastatin treatment correlate with the muscle expression of the arachidonate 5-lipoxygenase-activating protein. CONCLUSIONS: High dose simvastatin affects multiple metabolic and signaling pathways in skeletal muscle, including the pro-inflammatory pathways. Thus, our results demonstrate that clinically used high statin dosages may lead to unexpected metabolic effects in non-hepatic tissues. The lipidomic profiles may serve as highly sensitive biomarkers of statin-induced metabolic alterations in muscle and may thus allow us to identify patients who should be treated with a lower dose to prevent a possible toxicity.

  7. Post-exercise skeletal muscle glycogen related to plasma cytokines and muscle IL-6 protein content, but not muscle cytokine mRNA expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Christopher Nieman

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to correlate post-exercise muscle glycogen levels with changes in plasma cytokine, and muscle mRNA cytokine expression and protein content. Methods: Twenty-four male runners (age 36.5±1.8 y, VO2max 60.0±1.5 ml.kg.-1min-1 ran twice (separated by 4 weeks on treadmills to exhaustion at 70% VO2max (average time and distance of 2.24±0.09 h and 24.9±1.1 km. Muscle biopsies from the vastus lateralis and blood samples were collected before and after each run, with IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1 measured in muscle (mRNA and protein and plasma. Data from the two runs were averaged. Results: Participants experienced a 35.3±4.2% decrease (P<0.001 in skeletal muscle glycogen content (67.5±2.8 to 44.3 ±3.7 mmol/kg wet weight. Muscle mRNA expression for IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1 increased 7.34±0.90-, 13.9±2.3-, and 4.10±0.60- fold, respectively (all, P<0.001. Skeletal muscle IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1 protein content increased 35.8±10.6%, 80.6±12.1%, and 105±17.9%, respectively (all P≤0.005. Plasma IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1 increased 47.1±10.0-, 2.6±0.3-, and 1.6±0.1-fold, respectively (all, P<0.001. Post-exercise muscle glycogen concentrations were negatively correlated with run time to exhaustion (r=-0.70, P<0.001, and changes in muscle IL-6 protein content (r=-0.44, P=0.049, plasma IL-6 (r=-0.72, P<0.001, IL-8 (r=-0.60, P=0.002, and MCP-1 (r=-0.589, P=0.002, but not with changes in muscle IL-8 and MCP-1 protein content, or muscle mRNA expression for IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1. Conclusions: Prolonged and intensive running increased muscle mRNA expression, muscle protein content, and plasma levels for IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1, and post-run muscle glycogen levels were most strongly related to plasma cytokine levels.

  8. Treadmill exercise promotes interleukin 15 expression in skeletal muscle and interleukin 15 receptor alpha expression in adipose tissue of high-fat diet rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongtao; Chang, Jinrui; Chen, Wenjia; Zhao, Lei; Qu, Bo; Tang, Chaoshu; Qi, Yongfen; Zhang, Jing

    2013-06-01

    Interleukin 15 (IL-15) has recently been proposed as a myokine involved in regulating lipid metabolism. We investigated the effect of exercise training on IL-15 content in skeletal muscle and expression of IL-15 receptor (IL-15R) in adipose tissue of obese rats. After 12 weeks of a high-fat diet, obese rats underwent treadmill running at 26 m/min (60 min each, 5 days/week for 8 weeks). High-fat diet induced obesity, with increased body weight, body fat, and lipid profile. The level of IL-15 immunoreactivity (IL-15-ir) in plasma and gastrocnemius muscle was lower in obese than control rats, and the mRNA level of IL-15 in gastrocnemius muscle was markedly decreased. The mRNA and protein levels of IL-15R in adipose tissue were markedly lower in obese rats. Compared with sedentary obese rats, treadmill running showed decreased body weight and elevated mRNA expression of IL-15 in muscle and elevated IL-15-ir level in plasma and muscle. The mRNA and protein level of IL-15R were increased in adipose tissue in treadmill running obese rats. Our results showed that exercise training improve obesity and reversed the downregulation of the IL-15 in muscle and IL-15R in adipose tissue induced by high-fat diet.

  9. Monitoring of Physicochemical Changes in Frozen Fish Muscle Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Ježek

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to monitor physicochemical parameters (pH, nitrogen trimethylamine N-TMA, total volatile basic nitrogen TVBN, free fatty acids FFA, peroxide value and thiobarbituric acid assay TBA of postmortal changes in muscle tissue of silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix during a period of storage at -18°C. Fresh silver carp samples and samples aft er three, six, nine and 12 months of storage were tested. The degree of acidification during the experiment was insignificant (P > 0.05. Proteolytic changes were almost stopped and TVBN levels remained unchanged (P > 0.05, while N-TMA levels fluctuated significantly (P < 0.01 between months 3 and 12. The essential were lipid hydrolysis and oxidation, which caused a significant increase in FFA values (5.89 ± 0.99% total lipids as oleic acid, peroxides (9.90 ± 2.83 mekv O2.kg-1 and TBA values (50.76 ± 31.52 mg MDA.kg-1. The shelf life recommended for silver carp was set at three months.

  10. Monitoring of Physicochemical Changes in Frozen Fish Muscle Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Ježek

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to monitor physicochemical parameters (pH, nitrogen trimethylamine N-TMA, total volatile basic nitrogen TVBN, free fatty acids FFA, peroxide value and thiobarbituric acid assay TBA of postmortal changes in muscle tissue of silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix during a period of storage at -18°C. Fresh silver carp samples and samples aft er three, six, nine and 12 months of storage were tested. The degree of acidification during the experiment was insignificant (P > 0.05. Proteolytic changes were almost stopped and TVBN levels remained unchanged (P > 0.05, while N-TMA levels fluctuated significantly (P < 0.01 between months 3 and 12. The essential were lipid hydrolysis and oxidation, which caused a significant increase in FFA values (5.89 ± 0.99% total lipids as oleic acid, peroxides (9.90 ± 2.83 mekv O2.kg-1 and TBA values (50.76 ± 31.52 mg MDA.kg-1. The shelf life recommended for silver carp was set at three months.

  11. An acellular biologic scaffold does not regenerate appreciable de novo muscle tissue in rat models of volumetric muscle loss injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurora, Amit; Roe, Janet L; Corona, Benjamin T; Walters, Thomas J

    2015-10-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) derived scaffolds continue to be investigated for the treatment of volumetric muscle loss (VML) injuries. Clinically, ECM scaffolds have been used for lower extremity VML repair; in particular, MatriStem™, a porcine urinary bladder matrix (UBM), has shown improved functional outcomes and vascularization, but limited myogenesis. However, efficacy of the scaffold for the repair of traumatic muscle injuries has not been examined systematically. In this study, we demonstrate that the porcine UBM scaffold when used to repair a rodent gastrocnemius musculotendinous junction (MTJ) and tibialis anterior (TA) VML injury does not support muscle tissue regeneration. In the MTJ model, the scaffold was completely resorbed without tissue remodeling, suggesting that the scaffold may not be suitable for the clinical repair of muscle-tendon injuries. In the TA VML injury, the scaffold remodeled into a fibrotic tissue and showed functional improvement, but not due to muscle fiber regeneration. The inclusion of physical rehabilitation also did not improve functional response or tissue remodeling. We conclude that the porcine UBM scaffold when used to treat VML injuries may hasten the functional recovery through the mechanism of scaffold mediated functional fibrosis. Thus for appreciable muscle regeneration, repair strategies that incorporate myogenic cells, vasculogenic accelerant and a myoconductive scaffold need to be developed. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Effect of contraction on lymphatic, venous, and tissue electr-lytes and metabolites in rabbit skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibes, U; Haberkorn-Butendeich, E; Hammersen, F

    1977-04-25

    The effect of muscle contraction on lymphatic and plasma [K+], [Na+], [Ca2+], [Mg2+], [Cl-], [Pi], [lactate] ([Lac-]); [creatine] ([Cr]), ideal osmolality (OSM), and [protein] was evaluated in femoral venous blood and lymph specimens sampled from the calf muscles of rabbits before, in the course of, and after contractions. In addition, total [K+], [Na+], [Ca2+], [Mg2+], [Cl-], and [H2O] were analyzed in the muscle tissue. To facilitate lymph sampling both hind limbs were passively flexed and extended, in imitation of natural running movements, by an electrically driven crank. The muscles of one side also performed superimposed rhythmic isotonic contractions. Before contractions, lymphatic [K+], [Na+], [Ca2+], [Mg2+], [Lac-], [Cr], and OSM did not significantly differ from corresponding femoral venous concentrations, [Cl-], and [Pi] were significantly higher, [protein] significantly lower in the lymph than in the plasma. During contractions lymphatic [K+], OSM, [Lac-], and [Pi] were raised significantly more in the lymph compared with the plasma concentrations. [Na+], [Cl-], [Ca2+], and [Mg2+] showed only small changes in the course of contractions and thereafter, and they were altered in a similar way in the lymph and plasma. It was suggested that lymphatic and interstitial concentrations were in equilibrium. Comparing inactive with active muscles, the latter lost K+ but gained Na+, Cl-, and H2O, whereas minimal changes occurred in the [Ca2+] and [Mg2+]. The changes were discussed in connection with the hypothesis that electrolyte shifts might be involved in the activation of the muscular non-proprioceptive interstitial nerve endings which appear to play a role in reflexogenic cardiovascular and respiratory control.

  13. Smooth muscle architecture within cell-dense vascular tissues influences functional contractility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Win, Zaw; Vrla, Geoffrey D; Steucke, Kerianne E; Sevcik, Emily N; Hald, Eric S; Alford, Patrick W

    2014-12-01

    The role of vascular smooth muscle architecture in the function of healthy and dysfunctional vessels is poorly understood. We aimed at determining the relationship between vascular smooth muscle architecture and contractile output using engineered vascular tissues. We utilized microcontact printing and a microfluidic cell seeding technique to provide three different initial seeding conditions, with the aim of influencing the cellular architecture within the tissue. Cells seeded in each condition formed confluent and aligned tissues but within the tissues, the cellular architecture varied. Tissues with a more elongated cellular architecture had significantly elevated basal stress and produced more contractile stress in response to endothelin-1 stimulation. We also found a correlation between the contractile phenotype marker expression and the cellular architecture, contrary to our previous findings in non-confluent tissues. Taken with previous results, these data suggest that within cell-dense vascular tissues, smooth muscle contractility is strongly influenced by cell and tissue architectures.

  14. Multiple Pulses from Plasma Jets onto Liquid Covered Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norberg, Seth; Tian, Wei; Johnsen, Eric; Kushner, Mark J.

    2014-10-01

    Atmospheric pressure plasma jets are being studied in the treatment of biological surfaces that are often covered by a thin layer of liquid. The plume of the plasma jet contains neutral radicals and charged species that solvate into the liquid and eventually form terminal species that reach the tissue below. The contribution of neutral and charged species to reactivity in the liquid is sensitive to whether the active plasma plume touches the liquid. In this paper, we discuss results from modeling the production of the aqueous species formed from the interaction of the plume of plasma jets over multiple pulses with the water layer, and the fluences of the species to the underlying tissue. The model used in this study, nonPDPSIM, solves transport equations for charged and neutral species and electron energy, Poisson's equation for the electric potential, and Navier-Stokes equations for the neutral gas flow. Radiation transport includes photoionization of O2 and H2O in the gas and liquid phases and photodissocation of H2Oaq in the liquid. Multiple pulses when the plasma plume touches and does not touch the liquid will be examined. Two regimes of hydrodynamics will be discussed - low repetition rates where the neutral radicals are blown away before the next discharge pulse, and high repetition rate when the plasma plume interacts with neutral radicals from previous pulses. The density of aqueous ions produced in the liquid layer is strongly dependent on whether the plasma effluent touches or does not touch the water surface. Work supported by DOE Office of Fusion Energy Science and NSF.

  15. Multifidus Muscle Changes After Back Injury Are Characterized by Structural Remodeling of Muscle, Adipose and Connective Tissue, but Not Muscle Atrophy: Molecular and Morphological Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Paul W; James, Gregory; Blomster, Linda; Hall, Leanne; Schmid, Annina; Shu, Cindy; Little, Chris; Melrose, James

    2015-07-15

    Longitudinal case-controlled animal study. To investigate putative cellular mechanisms to explain structural changes in muscle and adipose and connective tissues of the back muscles after intervertebral disc (IVD) injury. Structural back muscle changes are ubiquitous with back pain/injury and considered relevant for outcome, but their exact nature, time course, and cellular mechanisms remain elusive. We used an animal model that produces phenotypic back muscle changes after IVD injury to study these issues at the cellular/molecular level. Multifidus muscle was harvested from both sides of the spine at L1-L2 and L3-L4 IVDs in 27 castrated male sheep at 3 (n = 10) or 6 (n = 17) months after a surgical anterolateral IVD injury at both levels. Ten control sheep underwent no surgery (3 mo, n = 4; 6 mo, n = 6). Tissue was harvested at L4 for histological analysis of cross-sectional area of muscle and adipose and connective tissue (whole muscle), plus immunohistochemistry to identify proportion and cross-sectional area of individual muscle fiber types in the deepest fascicle. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction measured gene expression of typical cytokines/signaling molecules at L2. Contrary to predictions, there was no multifidus muscle atrophy (whole muscle or individual fiber). There was increased adipose and connective tissue (fibrotic proliferation) cross-sectional area and slow-to-fast muscle fiber transition at 6 but not 3 months. Within the multifidus muscle, increases in the expression of several cytokines (tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin-1β) and molecules that signal trophic/atrophic processes for the 3 tissue types (e.g., growth factor pathway [IGF-1, PI3k, Akt1, mTOR], potent tissue modifiers [calcineurin, PCG-1α, and myostatin]) were present. This study provides cellular evidence that refutes the presence of multifidus muscle atrophy accompanying IVD degeneration at this intermediate time point. Instead, adipose/connective tissue increased in

  16. Engineered skeletal muscle tissue for soft robotics: fabrication strategies, current applications, and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Rebecca M; Feinberg, Adam W

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is a scalable actuator system used throughout nature from the millimeter to meter length scales and over a wide range of frequencies and force regimes. This adaptability has spurred interest in using engineered skeletal muscle to power soft robotics devices and in biotechnology and medical applications. However, the challenges to doing this are similar to those facing the tissue engineering and regenerative medicine fields; specifically, how do we translate our understanding of myogenesis in vivo to the engineering of muscle constructs in vitro to achieve functional integration with devices. To do this researchers are developing a number of ways to engineer the cellular microenvironment to guide skeletal muscle tissue formation. This includes understanding the role of substrate stiffness and the mechanical environment, engineering the spatial organization of biochemical and physical cues to guide muscle alignment, and developing bioreactors for mechanical and electrical conditioning. Examples of engineered skeletal muscle that can potentially be used in soft robotics include 2D cantilever-based skeletal muscle actuators and 3D skeletal muscle tissues engineered using scaffolds or directed self-organization. Integration into devices has led to basic muscle-powered devices such as grippers and pumps as well as more sophisticated muscle-powered soft robots that walk and swim. Looking forward, current, and future challenges include identifying the best source of muscle precursor cells to expand and differentiate into myotubes, replacing cardiomyocytes with skeletal muscle tissue as the bio-actuator of choice for soft robots, and vascularization and innervation to enable control and nourishment of larger muscle tissue constructs.

  17. Effects of a combined mechanical stimulation protocol: Value for skeletal muscle tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boonen, Kristel J M; Langelaan, Marloes L P; Polak, Roderick B; van der Schaft, Daisy W J; Baaijens, Frank P T; Post, Mark J

    2010-05-28

    Skeletal muscle is an appealing topic for tissue engineering because of its variety in applications for regenerative medicine, in vitro physiological model systems, and in vitro meat production. Besides conventional biochemical cues to promote muscle tissue maturation in vitro, biophysical stimuli are necessary to reach the desired functionality and texture of the engineered tissue. Stretch, caused by active movements of the body, is an important factor present in the niche of muscle progenitor cells in vivo. We therefore investigated the effects of uniaxial ramp stretch (2%) followed by uniaxial intermittent dynamic stretch (4%) on C2C12 and murine muscle progenitor cells in a 2D and 3D environment and found that stretch negatively influenced maturation in all cases, demonstrated by decreased expression of MRFs and sarcomere proteins at the RNA level and a delay in the formation of cross striations. We therefore conclude that the current protocol is not recommended for skeletal muscle tissue engineering purposes.

  18. Contribution of elastic tissues to the mechanics and energetics of muscle function during movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Thomas J

    2016-01-01

    Muscle force production occurs within an environment of tissues that exhibit spring-like behavior, and this elasticity is a critical determinant of muscle performance during locomotion. Muscle force and power output both depend on the speed of contraction, as described by the isotonic force-velocity curve. By influencing the speed of contractile elements, elastic structures can have a profound effect on muscle force, power and work. In very rapid movements, elastic mechanisms can amplify muscle power by storing the work of muscle contraction slowly and releasing it rapidly. When energy must be dissipated rapidly, such as in landing from a jump, energy stored rapidly in elastic elements can be released more slowly to stretch muscle contractile elements, reducing the power input to muscle and possibly protecting it from damage. Elastic mechanisms identified so far rely primarily on in-series tendons, but many structures within muscles exhibit spring-like properties. Actomyosin cross-bridges, actin and myosin filaments, titin, and the connective tissue scaffolding of the extracellular matrix all have the potential to store and recover elastic energy during muscle contraction. The potential contribution of these elements can be assessed from their stiffness and estimates of the strain they undergo during muscle function. Such calculations provide boundaries for the possible roles these springs might play in locomotion, and may help to direct future studies of the uses of elastic elements in muscle. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  19. Coordinated gene expression between skeletal muscle and intramuscular adipose tissue in growing beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, S L; Lancaster, P A; DeSilva, U; Horn, G W; Krehbiel, C R

    2015-09-01

    Previous research indicates that metabolism and fiber type of skeletal muscle is related to intramuscular lipid content. It is hypothesized that changes in skeletal muscle gene expression influence adipose tissue development. The objective of this study was to determine differences in the metabolism and intercellular signaling of skeletal muscle fibers within the same muscle group that could be responsible for the initiation of intramuscular adipose tissue development and differentiation. Longissimus dorsi muscle samples were collected from steers ( = 12; 385 d of age; 378 kg BW) grazing wheat pasture. Longissimus muscle samples were dissected under magnification and sorted into 3 categories based on visual stage of adipose tissue development: immature intramuscular adipose tissue (MM), intermediate intramuscular adipose tissue (ME), and mature intramuscular adipose tissue (MA). Additionally, muscle fibers lying adjacent to each intramuscular adipose tissue (IM) category and those not associated with IM tissue were collected and stored separately. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to determine relative fold change in genes involved in metabolism, angiogenesis, formation of extracellular matrix, and intercellular signaling pathways in both LM and IM samples. Gene expression data were analyzed using a GLM that included the fixed effect of tissue. Pearson correlation coefficients were also computed between gene expression in LM and IM tissue samples that were at the same stage of development. and γ mRNA expression were 3.56- and 1.97-fold greater ( development categories. Genes associated with metabolism and angiogenesis in LM tissue showed no differences among stages of development. Myostatin expression did not change in LM tissue; however, expression of and mRNA decreased ( tissue had a strong positive correlation ( ≥ 0.69) with angiogenic growth factors in LM associated with MM IM; however, no correlation was observed in ME or MA IM. These data indicate a

  20. Methods for demonstration of enzyme activity in muscle fibres at the muscle/bone interface in demineralized tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, S; Vilmann, H

    1981-01-01

    A method for demonstration of activity for ATPase and various oxidative enzymes (succinic dehydrogenase, alpha-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase, and lactic dehydrogenase) in muscle/bone sections of fixed and demineralized tissue has been developed. It was found that it is possible to preserve...... considerable amounts of the above mentioned enzymes in the muscle fibres at the muscle/bone interfaces. The best results were obtained after 20 min fixation, and 2-3 weeks of storage in MgNa2EDTA containing media. As the same technique previously has been used to describe patterns of resorption and deposition...

  1. Fluorescence of muscle and connective tissue from cod and salmon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Charlotte Møller; Wold, J.P.

    2003-01-01

    Autofluorescence of salmon and cod muscle was measured and compared with autofluorescence of collagen type I and type V. Similarities between fluorescence of fish muscle and collagen were found in that the same peaks were obtained around 390, 430, and 480 nm, These similarities are supported by p...

  2. Liver and Muscle Contribute Differently to the Plasma Acylcarnitine Pool During Fasting and Exercise in Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, G; Hansen, Jakob; Zhao, X J

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Plasma acylcarnitine levels are elevated by physiological conditions such as fasting and exercise but also in states of insulin resistance and obesity. AIM: To elucidate the contribution of liver and skeletal muscle to plasma acylcarnitines in the fasting state and during exercise...... in humans. METHODS: In 2 independent studies, young healthy males were fasted overnight and performed an acute bout of exercise to investigate either acylcarnitines in skeletal muscle biopsies and arterial-to-venous plasma differences over the exercising and resting leg (n = 9) or the flux over the hepato...... in the exercising leg. In plasma and in the exercising muscle, exercise induced an increase of most acylcarnitines followed by a rapid decline to preexercise values during recovery. In contrast, free carnitine was decreased in the exercising muscle and quickly restored thereafter. C8-, C10-, C10:1-, C12-, and C12...

  3. Age-related changes of muscle and plasma amino acids in healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarqvist, Folke; Angsten, Gertrud; Meurling, Staffan; Andersson, Kerstin; Wernerman, Jan

    2010-07-01

    The aim of the study was to explore if changes in muscle and plasma amino acid concentrations developed during growth and differed from levels seen in adults. The gradient and concentrations of free amino acids in muscle and plasma were investigated in relation to age in metabolic healthy children. Plasma and specimens from the abdominal muscle were obtained during elective surgery. The children were grouped into three groups (group 1: amino acids analysed increased with age, namely taurine, aspartate, threonine, alanine, valine, isoleucine, leucine, histidine, as well as the total sums of branched chain amino acids (BCAA), basic amino acids (BAA) and total sum of amino acids (P amino acids correlated with age (P < 0.05). These results indicate that there is an age dependency of the amino acid pattern in skeletal muscle and plasma during growth.

  4. Tissue temperature transients in resting contra-lateral leg muscle tissue during isolated knee extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Glen P; Reardon, Frank D; Ducharme, Michel B; Reardon, Mark L; Zaleski, Wytek

    2002-12-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the role of non-active tissue in the retention and dissipation of heat during and following intense isolated muscle activity. Six subjects performed an incremental isotonic test (constant angular velocity, increases in force output) on a KIN-COM isokinetic apparatus to determine their maximal oxygen consumption during single knee extensions (VO2sp). In a subsequent session, a thin wire multi-sensor temperature probe was inserted into the left vastus medialis under ultrasound guidance at a specific internal marker. The deepest temperature sensor (tip, Tmu10) was located approximately 10 mm from the femur and deep femoral artery with 2 additional sensors located at 15 (Tmu25) and 30 (Tmu40) mm from the tip. Implant site was midway between and medial to a line joining the anterior superior iliac spine and base of patella. Esophageal temperature (Tes) temperature was measured as an index of core temperature. Subjects rested in a supine position for 60 min followed by 30 min of seated rest in an ambient condition of 22 degree C. Subjects then performed 15 min of isolated single right knee extensions against a dynamic resistance on a KIN COM corresponding to 60% of VO2sp at 60 degree x sec(-1). Exercise was followed by 60 min of seated rest. Resting Tes was 37 degree C while Tmu10, Tmu25, and Tmu40 were 36.58, 36.55 and 36.45 degree C, respectively. Exercise resulted in a Tes increase of 0.31 C above pre-exercise resting. Tmu of the non-exercising leg increased 0.23, 0.19 and 0.09 degree C for Tmu10, Tmu25, and Tmu40, respectively. While Tes decreased to baseline values within approximately 15 min of end-exercise, Tmu10 reached resting values following approximately 40 min of recovery. These results suggest that during isolated muscle activity, convective heat transfer by the blood to non-active muscle tissue may have a significant role in maintaining resting core temperature.

  5. Attenuation of skeletal muscle wasting with recombinant human growth hormone secreted from a tissue-engineered bioartificial muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenburgh, H.; Del Tatto, M.; Shansky, J.; Goldstein, L.; Russell, K.; Genes, N.; Chromiak, J.; Yamada, S.

    1998-01-01

    Skeletal muscle wasting is a significant problem in elderly and debilitated patients. Growth hormone (GH) is an anabolic growth factor for skeletal muscle but is difficult to deliver in a therapeutic manner by injection owing to its in vivo instability. A novel method is presented for the sustained secretion of recombinant human GH (rhGH) from genetically modified skeletal muscle implants, which reduces host muscle wasting. Proliferating murine C2C12 skeletal myoblasts stably transduced with the rhGH gene were tissue engineered in vitro into bioartificial muscles (C2-BAMs) containing organized postmitotic myofibers secreting 3-5 microg of rhGH/day in vitro. When implanted subcutaneously into syngeneic mice, C2-BAMs delivered a sustained physiologic dose of 2.5 to 11.3 ng of rhGH per milliliter of serum. rhGH synthesized and secreted by the myofibers was in the 22-kDa monomeric form and was biologically active, based on downregulation of a GH-sensitive protein synthesized in the liver. Skeletal muscle disuse atrophy was induced in mice by hindlimb unloading, causing the fast plantaris and slow soleus muscles to atrophy by 21 to 35% ( muscle-wasting disorders.

  6. Attenuation of skeletal muscle wasting with recombinant human growth hormone secreted from a tissue-engineered bioartificial muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenburgh, H.; Del Tatto, M.; Shansky, J.; Goldstein, L.; Russell, K.; Genes, N.; Chromiak, J.; Yamada, S.

    1998-01-01

    Skeletal muscle wasting is a significant problem in elderly and debilitated patients. Growth hormone (GH) is an anabolic growth factor for skeletal muscle but is difficult to deliver in a therapeutic manner by injection owing to its in vivo instability. A novel method is presented for the sustained secretion of recombinant human GH (rhGH) from genetically modified skeletal muscle implants, which reduces host muscle wasting. Proliferating murine C2C12 skeletal myoblasts stably transduced with the rhGH gene were tissue engineered in vitro into bioartificial muscles (C2-BAMs) containing organized postmitotic myofibers secreting 3-5 microg of rhGH/day in vitro. When implanted subcutaneously into syngeneic mice, C2-BAMs delivered a sustained physiologic dose of 2.5 to 11.3 ng of rhGH per milliliter of serum. rhGH synthesized and secreted by the myofibers was in the 22-kDa monomeric form and was biologically active, based on downregulation of a GH-sensitive protein synthesized in the liver. Skeletal muscle disuse atrophy was induced in mice by hindlimb unloading, causing the fast plantaris and slow soleus muscles to atrophy by 21 to 35% ( muscle-wasting disorders.

  7. Rules of tissue packing involving different cell types: human muscle organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Gutiérrez, Daniel; Sáez, Aurora; Gómez-Gálvez, Pedro; Paradas, Carmen; Escudero, Luis M

    2017-01-10

    Natural packed tissues are assembled as tessellations of polygonal cells. These include skeletal muscles and epithelial sheets. Skeletal muscles appear as a mosaic composed of two different types of cells: the "slow" and "fast" fibres. Their relative distribution is important for the muscle function but little is known about how the fibre arrangement is established and maintained. In this work we capture the organizational pattern in two different healthy muscles: biceps brachii and quadriceps. Here we show that the biceps brachii muscle presents a particular arrangement, based on the different sizes of slow and fast fibres. By contrast, in the quadriceps muscle an unbiased distribution exists. Our results indicate that the relative size of each cellular type imposes an intrinsic organization into natural tessellations. These findings establish a new framework for the analysis of any packed tissue where two or more cell types exist.

  8. Magnetization Transfer MR Imaging to Monitor Muscle Tissue Formation during Myogenic in Vivo Differentiation of Muscle Precursor Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottmar, Markus; Haralampieva, Deana; Salemi, Souzan; Eberhardt, Christian; Wurnig, Moritz C; Boss, Andreas; Eberli, Daniel

    2016-11-01

    Purpose To determine whether magnetization transfer (MT) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging may serve as a quantitative measure of the degree of fiber formation during differentiation of muscle precursor cells into engineered muscle tissue as a potential noninvasive monitoring tool in mice. Materials and Methods The study was approved by the local ethics committee (no. StV 01/2008) and the local Veterinary Office (license no. 99/2013). Human muscle progenitor cells (hMPCs) derived from rectus abdominis muscles were subcutaneously injected into CD-1 nude mice (CD-1 nude mice, Crl:CD1-Foxn1(nu); Charles River Laboratories, Wilmington, Mass) for development of muscle tissue. The mice underwent MR imaging examinations at 4.7 T at days 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 after cell transplantation by using a gradient-echo sequence with an MT prepulse and systematic variation of the off-resonance frequency (50-37 500 Hz) at an amplitude of 800°. Direct saturation was estimated from a Bloch equation simulation. The MT ratio (MTR) was correlated to immunohistochemistry findings, Western blot results, and results of myography. Data were analyzed by using one-way or two-way analysis of variance with the Sidak or Tukey multiple comparisons test. Results In the reference skeletal muscle, highest MT was found for 2500 Hz off-resonance frequency with an MTR ± standard deviation of 57.5% ± 3.5. The developing muscle tissue exhibited increasing MT values during the 28 days of myogenic in vivo differentiation and did not reach the values of native skeletal muscle. Mean values of MTR (2500 Hz) for hMPCs were 27.6% ± 6.3 (day 1), 24.7% ± 8.7 (day 3), 28.2% ± 5.7 (day 7), 35.9% ± 5.0 (day 14), 37.0% ± 7.9 (day 21), and 39.9% ± 8.1 (day 28). The results from MT MR imaging correlated qualitatively well with muscle tissue expression of specific skeletal markers, as well as muscle contractility. Conclusion MT MR imaging may be used to noninvasively monitor the process of myogenic in vivo

  9. Interdigitated array of Pt electrodes for electrical stimulation and engineering of aligned muscle tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahadian, Samad; Ramón-Azcón, Javier; Ostrovidov, Serge; Camci-Unal, Gulden; Hosseini, Vahid; Kaji, Hirokazu; Ino, Kosuke; Shiku, Hitoshi; Khademhosseini, Ali; Matsue, Tomokazu

    2012-09-21

    Engineered skeletal muscle tissues could be useful for applications in tissue engineering, drug screening, and bio-robotics. It is well-known that skeletal muscle cells are able to differentiate under electrical stimulation (ES), with an increase in myosin production, along with the formation of myofibers and contractile proteins. In this study, we describe the use of an interdigitated array of electrodes as a novel platform to electrically stimulate engineered muscle tissues. The resulting muscle myofibers were analyzed and quantified in terms of their myotube characteristics and gene expression. The engineered muscle tissues stimulated through the interdigitated array of electrodes demonstrated superior performance and maturation compared to the corresponding tissues stimulated through a conventional setup (i.e., through Pt wires in close proximity to the muscle tissue). In particular, the ES of muscle tissue (voltage 6 V, frequency 1 Hz and duration 10 ms for 1 day) through the interdigitated array of electrodes resulted in a higher degree of C2C12 myotube alignment (∼80%) as compared to ES using Pt wires (∼65%). In addition, higher amounts of C2C12 myotube coverage area, myotube length, muscle transcription factors and protein biomarkers were found for myotubes stimulated through the interdigitated array of electrodes compared to those stimulated using the Pt wires. Due to the wide array of potential applications of ES for two- and three-dimensional (2D and 3D) engineered tissues, the suggested platform could be employed for a variety of cell and tissue structures to more efficiently investigate their response to electrical fields.

  10. Calprotectin is released from human skeletal muscle tissue during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Ole Hartvig; Andersen, Kasper; Fischer, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Skeletal muscle has been identified as a secretory organ. We hypothesized that IL-6, a cytokine secreted from skeletal muscle during exercise, could induce production of other secreted factors in skeletal muscle. IL-6 was infused for 3 h into healthy young males (n = 7) and muscle biopsies obtained...... at time points 0, 3 and 6 h in these individuals and in resting controls. Affymetrix microarray analysis of gene expression changes in skeletal muscle biopsies identified a small set of genes changed by IL-6 infusion. RT-PCR validation confirmed that S100A8 and S100A9 mRNA were up-regulated 3-fold...... in skeletal muscle following IL-6 infusion compared to controls. Furthermore, S100A8 and S100A9 mRNA levels were up-regulated 5-fold in human skeletal muscle following cycle ergometer exercise for 3 h at approximately 60% of in young healthy males (n = 8). S100A8 and S100A9 form calprotectin, which is known...

  11. p53 increases caspase-6 expression and activation in muscle tissue expressing mutant huntingtin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ehrnhoefer, Dagmar E; Skotte, Niels H; Ladha, Safia

    2014-01-01

    a role in the peripheral phenotypes, such as muscle wasting observed in HD. We assessed skeletal muscle tissue from HD patients and well-characterized mouse models of HD. Cleavage of the caspase-6 specific substrate lamin A is significantly increased in skeletal muscle obtained from HD patients as well...... as in muscle tissues from two different HD mouse models. p53, a transcriptional activator of caspase-6, is upregulated in neuronal cells and tissues expressing mutant huntingtin. Activation of p53 leads to a dramatic increase in levels of caspase-6 mRNA, caspase-6 activity and cleavage of lamin A. Using mouse......-6 expression and activation is exacerbated in cells and tissues of both neuronal and peripheral origin expressing mutant huntingtin (Htt). These findings suggest that the presence of the mutant Htt protein enhances p53 activity and lowers the apoptotic threshold, which activates caspase-6...

  12. Maternal nutrient restriction in early gestation upregulates myogenic genes in cattle fetal muscle tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prenatal myogenesis is a critical factor in determining the muscle growth potential of cattle. We hypothesized that maternal nutrient restriction during early gestation would alter the transcriptome of fetal primordial muscle tissue in cattle. A total of 14 Angus-cross heifers were estrus synchroniz...

  13. A Simplified Method for Tissue Engineering Skeletal Muscle Organoids in Vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shansky, Janet; DelTatto, Michael; Chromiak, Joseph; Vandenburgh, Herman

    1996-01-01

    Tissue-engineered three dimensional skeletal muscle organ-like structures have been formed in vitro from primary myoblasts by several different techniques. This report describes a simplified method for generating large numbers of muscle organoids from either primary embryonic avian or neonatal rodent myoblasts, which avoids the requirements for stretching and other mechanical stimulation.

  14. Study of the response of the penile corporal tissue and cavernosus muscles to micturition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Sibai Olfat

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The reaction of the corpora cavernosa (CC, the corpus spongiosum (CS, the bulbocavernosus (BCM and ischiocavernosus (ICM muscles to passage of urine through the urethra during micturition is not known. We investigated the hypothesis that the passage of urine through the urethra stimulates the corporal tissue and cavernosus muscles. Methods In 30 healthy men (mean age 42.8 ± 11.7 years, the electromyographic activity (EMG of the CC, CS, BCM, and ICM were recorded before and during micturition, and on interruption of and straining during micturition. These tests were repeated after individual anesthetization of urethra, corporal tissue, and cavernosus muscles. Results During micturition, the slow wave variables (frequency, amplitude, conduction velocity of the CC and CS decreased while the motor unit action potentials of the BCM and ICM increased; these EMG changes were mild and returned to the basal values on interruption or termination of micturition. Micturition after individual anesthetization of urethra, corporal tissue and cavernosal muscles did not effect significant EMG changes in these structures, while saline administration produced changes similar to those occurring before saline administration. Conclusion The decrease of sinusoidal and increase of cavernosus muscles' EMG activity during micturition apparently denotes sinusoidal relaxation and cavernosus muscles contraction. Sinusoidal muscle relaxation and cavernosus muscles contraction upon micturition are suggested to be mediated through a 'urethro-corporocavernosal reflex'. These sinusoidal and cavernosus muscle changes appear to produce a mild degree of penile tumescence and stretch which might assist in urinary flow during micturition.

  15. The potential of adeno-associated viral vectors for gene delivery to muscle tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Zhong, Li; Nahid, M Abu; Gao, Guangping

    2014-03-01

    Muscle-directed gene therapy is rapidly gaining attention primarily because muscle is an easily accessible target tissue and is also associated with various severe genetic disorders. Localized and systemic delivery of recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors of several serotypes results in very efficient transduction of skeletal and cardiac muscles, which has been achieved in both small and large animals, as well as in humans. Muscle is the target tissue in gene therapy for many muscular dystrophy diseases, and may also be exploited as a biofactory to produce secretory factors for systemic disorders. Current limitations of using rAAVs for muscle gene transfer include vector size restriction, potential safety concerns such as off-target toxicity and the immunological barrier composing of pre-existing neutralizing antibodies and CD8(+) T-cell response against AAV capsid in humans. In this article, we will discuss basic AAV vector biology and its application in muscle-directed gene delivery, as well as potential strategies to overcome the aforementioned limitations of rAAV for further clinical application. Delivering therapeutic genes to large muscle mass in humans is arguably the most urgent unmet demand in treating diseases affecting muscle tissues throughout the whole body. Muscle-directed, rAAV-mediated gene transfer for expressing antibodies is a promising strategy to combat deadly infectious diseases. Developing strategies to circumvent the immune response following rAAV administration in humans will facilitate clinical application.

  16. Seasonal variations of metal concentrations in muscle tissue of tench (Tinca tinca), water and sediment in Beysehir Lake (Turkey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktumsek, A; Gezgin, S

    2011-10-01

    Concentrations of 10 metals (Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) in muscle tissue of tench (Tinca tinca), water and sediment in Beysehir Lake were analysed using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrophotometry (ICP-AES). Tench is one of the most abundant fish species in Beysehir Lake. Metal levels were analysed in only the muscle tissue of the fish, because this provides information on the potential risk to the fish themselves and to consumers of these edible portions of the fish. The Cu concentration was the highest in all the samples of the lake's sediments and waters, studied in all seasons, and ranged between 24.01 microg g(-1) (in spring) and 90.30 microg g(-1) (in summer), but Cu concentrations in T. tinca were low: 0.03 microg g(-1) (in summer) to 0.21 microg g(-1) (in spring). Metal concentrations in sediments, waters and tench varied seasonally. All metal concentrations in sediments were higher than those in water and fish. However, all metal concentrations, except Zn, were lowest in fish muscle tissue.

  17. Active and passive behaviors of soft tissues: Pelvic floor muscles

    OpenAIRE

    Areias, P.; Pato, M. P. M.

    2010-01-01

    A new active-contraction visco-elastic numerical model of the pelvic floor (skeletal) muscle is presented. Our model includes all elements that represent the muscle constitutive behavior, contraction and relaxation. In contrast with the previous models, the activation function can be null. The complete equations are shown and exactly linearized. Small verification and validation tests are performed and the pelvis is modeled using the data from the intra-abdominal pressure tests.

  18. Biomaterials based strategies for skeletal muscle tissue engineering: existing technologies and future trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qazi, Taimoor H; Mooney, David J; Pumberger, Matthias; Geissler, Sven; Duda, Georg N

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscles have a robust capacity to regenerate, but under compromised conditions, such as severe trauma, the loss of muscle functionality is inevitable. Research carried out in the field of skeletal muscle tissue engineering has elucidated multiple intrinsic mechanisms of skeletal muscle repair, and has thus sought to identify various types of cells and bioactive factors which play an important role during regeneration. In order to maximize the potential therapeutic effects of cells and growth factors, several biomaterial based strategies have been developed and successfully implemented in animal muscle injury models. A suitable biomaterial can be utilized as a template to guide tissue reorganization, as a matrix that provides optimum micro-environmental conditions to cells, as a delivery vehicle to carry bioactive factors which can be released in a controlled manner, and as local niches to orchestrate in situ tissue regeneration. A myriad of biomaterials, varying in geometrical structure, physical form, chemical properties, and biofunctionality have been investigated for skeletal muscle tissue engineering applications. In the current review, we present a detailed summary of studies where the use of biomaterials favorably influenced muscle repair. Biomaterials in the form of porous three-dimensional scaffolds, hydrogels, fibrous meshes, and patterned substrates with defined topographies, have each displayed unique benefits, and are discussed herein. Additionally, several biomaterial based approaches aimed specifically at stimulating vascularization, innervation, and inducing contractility in regenerating muscle tissues are also discussed. Finally, we outline promising future trends in the field of muscle regeneration involving a deeper understanding of the endogenous healing cascades and utilization of this knowledge for the development of multifunctional, hybrid, biomaterials which support and enable muscle regeneration under compromised conditions.

  19. In situ regeneration of skeletal muscle tissue through host cell recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Young Min; Atala, Anthony; Yoo, James J; Lee, Sang Jin

    2014-10-01

    Standard reconstructive procedures for restoring normal function after skeletal muscle defects involve the use of existing host tissues such as muscular flaps. In many instances, this approach is not feasible and delays the rehabilitation process and restoration of tissue function. Currently, cell-based tissue engineering strategies have been used for reconstruction; however, donor tissue biopsy and ex vivo cell manipulation are required prior to implantation. The present study aimed to overcome these limitations by demonstrating mobilization of muscle cells into a target-specific site for in situ muscle regeneration. First, we investigated whether host muscle cells could be mobilized into an implanted scaffold. Poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) scaffolds were implanted in the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle of rats, and the retrieved scaffolds were characterized by examining host cell infiltration in the scaffolds. The host cell infiltrates, including Pax7+ cells, gradually increased with time. Second, we demonstrated that host muscle cells could be enriched by a myogenic factor released from the scaffolds. Gelatin-based scaffolds containing a myogenic factor were implanted in the TA muscle of rats, and the Pax7+ cell infiltration and newly formed muscle fibers were examined. By the second week after implantation, the Pax7+ cell infiltrates and muscle formation were significantly accelerated within the scaffolds containing insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). Our data suggest an ability of host stem cells to be recruited into the scaffolds with the capability of differentiating to muscle cells. In addition, the myogenic factor effectively promoted host cell recruitment, which resulted in accelerating muscle regeneration in situ.

  20. Regeneration of the skin and muscle tissue in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) following mechanical injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Hans-Christian; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht

    Mechanical injury induced by needles penetrating the skin and underlying muscle tissue in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was used as a model to study the initial phase(s) of tissue regeneration. Tissue regeneration in humans is characterised by four phases; hemostatis, inflammation......, proliferation and remodelling. We investigated the expression of genes traditionally being important in these processes untill 7 days after the tissue damage in order to find inducible genetic markers following mechanical injury....

  1. Regeneration of the skin and muscle tissue in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) following mechanical injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Hans-Christian; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht

    Mechanical injury induced by needles penetrating the skin and underlying muscle tissue in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was used as a model to study the initial phase(s) of tissue regeneration. Tissue regeneration in humans is characterised by four phases; hemostatis, inflammation......, proliferation and remodelling. We investigated the expression of genes traditionally being important in these processes untill 7 days after the tissue damage in order to find inducible genetic markers following mechanical injury....

  2. A novel plasma source for sterilization of living tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martines, E; Zuin, M; Cavazzana, R; Gazza, E; Serianni, G; Spagnolo, S; Spolaore, M [Consorzio RFX, Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla Fusione, Padova (Italy); Leonardi, A; Deligianni, V [Department of Neuroscience, Ophthalmology Unit, University of Padova (Italy); Brun, P; Aragona, M [Department of Histology, Microbiology and Medical Biotechnology, Histology Unit, University of Padova (Italy); Castagliuolo, I; Brun, P [Department of Histology, Microbiology and Medical Biotechnology, Microbiology Unit, University of Padova (Italy)], E-mail: emilio.martines@igi.cnr.it

    2009-11-15

    A source for the production of low-power plasmas at atmospheric pressure, to be used for the nondamaging sterilization of living tissues, is presented. The source, powered by radiofrequency and working with a helium flow, has a specific configuration, studied to prevent the formation of electric arcs dangerous to living matter. It is capable of killing different types of bacteria with a decimal reduction time of 1-2 min; on the contrary, human cells such as conjunctival fibroblasts were found to be almost unharmed by the plasma. A high concentration of OH radicals, likely to be the origin of the sterilizing effect, is detected through their UV emission lines. The effect of the UV and the OH radicals on the fibroblasts was analysed and no significant effects were detected.

  3. Enhancement of glucose uptake in skeletal muscle L6 cells and insulin secretion in pancreatic hamster-insulinoma-transfected cells by application of non-thermal plasma jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Naresh; Kaushik, Nagendra K.; Park, Gyungsoon; Choi, Eun H.; Uhm, Han S.

    2013-11-01

    Type-II diabetes Mellitus is characterized by defects in insulin action on peripheral tissues, such as skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, and liver and pancreatic beta cells. Since the skeletal muscle accounts for approximately 75% of insulin-stimulated glucose-uptake in our body, impaired insulin secretion from defected beta cell plays a major role in the afflicted glucose homoeostasis. It was shown that the intracellular reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide level was increased by non-thermal-plasma treatment in ambient air. These increased intracellular reactive species may enhance glucose uptake and insulin secretion through the activation of intracellular calcium (Ca+) and cAMP production.

  4. Influence of platelet-derived growth factor-AB on tissue development in autologous platelet-rich plasma gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirz, Simone; Dietrich, Maren; Flanagan, Thomas C; Bokermann, Gudrun; Wagner, Wolfgang; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas; Jockenhoevel, Stefan

    2011-07-01

    Fibrin-based scaffolds are widely used in tissue engineering. We postulated that the use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in contrast to platelet-poor plasma and pure fibrinogen as the basic material leads to an increased release of autologous platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-AB, which may have a consequent positive effect on tissue development. Therefore, we evaluated the release of PDGF-AB during the production process and the course of PDGF release during cultivation of plasma gels with and w/o platelets. The influence of PDGF-AB on the proliferation rate of human umbilical cord artery smooth muscle cells (HUASMCs) was studied using XTT assay. The synthesis of extracellular matrix by HUASMCs in plasma- and fibrin gels was measured using hydroxyproline assay. The use of PRP led to an increase in autologous PDGF-AB release. Further, the platelet-containing plasma gels showed a prolonged release of growth factor during cultivation. Both PRP and platelet-poor plasma gels had a positive effect on the production of collagen. However, PDGF-AB as a supplement in medium and in pure fibrin gel had neither an effect on cell proliferation nor on the collagen synthesis rate. This observation may be due to an absence of PDGF receptors in HUASMCs as determined by flow cytometry. In conclusion, although the prolonged autologous production of PDGF-AB in PRP gels is possible, the enhanced tissue development by HUASMCs within such gels is not PDGF related.

  5. OCT Study of Optical Clearing of Muscle Tissue in vitro with 40% Glucose Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genina, E. A.; Bashkatov, A. N.; Kozintseva, M. D.; Tuchin, V. V.

    2016-01-01

    The technique of -optical clearing of biological tissues- is aimed at improving the quality of visualization of structures hidden deep in tissue. In this study, we measured the diffusion coefficient of glucose in bovine skeletal muscle tissue by optical coherence tomography (OCT) in vitro and determined changes that took place in the imaging contrast of muscle fibers, the optical depth of coherent probing, and detection under the influence of aqueous 40% solution of glucose. It was shown that, within 90 min, when the depth of coherent probing increased by 14%, the contrast of OCT images increased fourfold and the depth of coherent detection of structural elements of the tissue increased by 2.4 times. The diffusion coefficient of glucose in the muscle tissue was (2.98 ± 0.94) × 10-6 cm2/s.

  6. Efficacy of Tissue Tolerable Plasma (TTP against Ixodes ricinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bender, Claudia

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available [english] The efficacy of Tissue Tolerable Plasma (TTP against ticks was tested, as data from the literature has demonstrated its efficacy against other acari.The study was carried out by using the KINPen09 (Argon as carrier gas on (n=24. Treatment times of 1 and 3 minutes led to a reversible inactivation of the ticks. After 5 min of treatment, they died.Thanks to the acaricidal effect of TPP, a new treatment strategy using the KINPen09 for tick-infested pets is now available.

  7. Quantitative ultrasound tissue characterization in shoulder and thigh muscles – a new approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, P.K.; Jensen, B.R.; Darvann, Tron Andre

    2006-01-01

    Background: The echogenicity patterns of ultrasound scans contain information of tissue composition in muscles. The aim was: ( 1) to develop a quantitative ultrasound image analysis to characterize tissue composition in terms of intensity and structure of the ultrasound images, and ( 2) to use...... the method for characterization of ultrasound images of the supraspinatus muscle, and the vastus lateralis muscle. Methods: Computerized texture analyses employing first-order and higher-order grey-scale statistics were developed to objectively characterize ultrasound images of m. supraspinatus and m. vastus...... lateralis from 9 healthy participants. Results: The mean grey-scale intensity was higher in the vastus lateralis muscle ( p muscle ( average value of middle measuring site 51.4 compared to 35.0). Furthermore, the number of spatially connected and homogeneous regions ( blobs...

  8. Interstitial and plasma adenosine stimulate nitric oxide and prostacyclin formation in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyberg, Michael Permin; Mortensen, Stefan Peter; Thaning, Pia;

    2010-01-01

    One major unresolved issue in muscle blood flow regulation is that of the role of circulating versus interstitial vasodilatory compounds. The present study determined adenosine-induced formation of NO and prostacyclin in the human muscle interstitium versus in femoral venous plasma to elucidate....... In young healthy humans, microdialysate was collected at rest, during arterial infusion of adenosine, and during interstitial infusion of adenosine through microdialysis probes inserted into musculus vastus lateralis. Muscle interstitial NO and prostacyclin increased with arterial and interstitial infusion...... levels. These findings provide novel insight into the role of adenosine in skeletal muscle blood flow regulation and vascular function by revealing that both interstitial and plasma adenosine have a stimulatory effect on NO and prostacyclin formation. In addition, both skeletal muscle and microvascular...

  9. Connective tissue growth factor is overexpressed in muscles of human muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guilian; Haginoya, Kazuhiro; Wu, Yanling; Chiba, Yoko; Nakanishi, Tohru; Onuma, Akira; Sato, Yuko; Takigawa, Masaharu; Iinuma, Kazuie; Tsuchiya, Shigeru

    2008-04-15

    The detailed process of how dystrophic muscles are replaced by fibrotic tissues is unknown. In the present study, the immunolocalization and mRNA expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in muscles from normal and dystrophic human muscles were examined with the goal of elucidating the pathophysiological function of CTGF in muscular dystrophy. Biopsies of frozen muscle from patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), Becker muscular dystrophy, congenital muscular dystrophy, spinal muscular atrophy, congenital myopathy were analyzed using anti-CTGF polyclonal antibody. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was also performed to evaluate the expression of CTGF mRNA in dystrophic muscles. In normal muscle, neuromuscular junctions and vessels were CTGF-immunopositive, which suggests a physiological role for CTGF in these sites. In dystrophic muscle, CTGF immunoreactivity was localized to muscle fiber basal lamina, regenerating fibers, and the interstitium. Triple immunolabeling revealed that activated fibroblasts were immunopositive for CTGF and transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1). RT-PCR analysis revealed increased levels of CTGF mRNA in the muscles of DMD patients. Co-localization of TGF-beta1 and CTGF in activated fibroblasts suggests that CTGF expression is regulated by TGF-beta1 through a paracrine/autocrine mechanism. In conclusion, TGF-beta1-CTGF pathway may play a role in the fibrosis that is commonly observed in muscular dystrophy.

  10. Total mercury in liver and muscle tissue of two coastal sharks from the northwest of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado-Banda, Rocío; Gomez-Alvarez, Agustín; Márquez-Farías, J Fernando; Cordoba-Figueroa, Marcial; Navarro-García, Gerardo; Medina-Juárez, Luis Angel

    2012-06-01

    Total mercury (THg) in liver and muscle of three costal sharks from Mexico were evaluated. The highest concentrations of THg in muscle tissue of juveniles were found in Sphyrna lewini (0.82 ± 0.33 mg kg(-1) wet basis). Rhizoprionodon longurio adults had the highest concentrations (0.92 ± 1.03 mg kg(-1)). THg concentrations in liver were low compared to those found in muscle tissue; higher levels were found in liver of juvenile S. lewini (0.250 ± 0.07 mg kg(-1)). Results showed that 35 % of muscle tissue samples are above the precautionary limit (0.50 mg kg(-1) of THg) and a 7 % exceeded the maximum limit for human consumption (1 mg kg(-1)).

  11. Blood flow and oxygenation in peritendinous tissue and calf muscle during dynamic exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boushel, Robert Christopher; Langberg, H; Green, Sara Marie Ehrenreich

    2000-01-01

    1. Circulation around tendons may act as a shunt for muscle during exercise. The perfusion and oxygenation of Achilles' peritendinous tissue was measured in parallel with that of calf muscle during exercise to determine (1) whether blood flow is restricted in peritendinous tissue during exercise...... with a rise in leg vascular conductance and microvascular haemoglobin volume, despite elevated systemic vascular resistance. 4. The parallel rise in calf muscle and peritendinous blood flow and fall in O2 saturation during exercise indicate that blood flow is coupled to oxidative metabolism in both tissue...... by dye dilution, arterial pressure by an arterial catheter-transducer, and muscle and peritendinous O2 saturation by spatially resolved spectroscopy (SRS). 3. Calf blood flow rose 20-fold with exercise, reaching 44 +/- 7 ml (100 g)-1 min-1 (mean +/- s.e.m. ) at 9 W, while Achilles' peritendinous flow...

  12. Sterilizing tissue-materials using pulsed power plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidarkhan Tehrani, Ashkan; Davari, Pooya; Singh, Sanjleena; Oloyede, Adekunle

    2014-04-01

    This paper investigates the potential of pulsed power to sterilize hard and soft tissues and its impact on their physico-mechanical properties. It hypothesizes that pulsed plasma can sterilize both vascular and avascular tissues and the transitive layers in between without deleterious effects on their functional characteristics. Cartilage/bone laminate was chosen as a model to demonstrate the concept, treated at low temperature, at atmospheric pressure, in short durations and in buffered environment using a purposed-built pulsed power unit. Input voltage and time of exposure were assigned as controlling parameters in a full factorial design of experiment to determine physical and mechanical alteration pre- and post-treatment. The results demonstrated that, discharges of 11 kV sterilized samples in 45 s, reducing intrinsic elastic modules from 1.4 ± 0.9 to 0.9 ± 0.6 MPa. There was a decrease of 14.1 % in stiffness and 27.8 % in elastic-strain energy for the top quartile. Mechanical impairment was directly proportional to input voltage (P value connective tissues with varying level of loss in mechanical robustness which we argue to be acceptable in certain medical and tissue engineering application.

  13. Relationships of mercury concentrations across tissue types, muscle regions and fins for two shark species

    KAUST Repository

    O'Bryhim, Jason R.

    2017-01-31

    Mercury (Hg) exposure poses a threat to both fish and human health. Sharks are known to bioaccumulate Hg, however, little is known regarding how Hg is distributed between different tissue groups (e.g. muscle regions, organs). Here we evaluated total mercury (THg) concentrations from eight muscle regions, four fins (first dorsal, left and right pectorals, caudal-from both the inner core and trailing margin of each fin), and five internal organs (liver, kidney, spleen, heart, epigonal organ) from two different shark species, bonnethead (Sphyrna tiburo) and silky shark (Carcharhinus falciformis) to determine the relationships of THg concentrations between and within tissue groups. Total Hg concentrations were highest in the eight muscle regions with no significant differences in THg concentrations between the different muscle regions and muscle types (red and white). Results from tissue collected from any muscle region would be representative of all muscle sample locations. Total Hg concentrations were lowest in samples taken from the fin inner core of the first dorsal, pectoral, and caudal (lower lobe) fins. Mercury concentrations for samples taken from the trailing margin of the dorsal, pectoral, and caudal fins (upper and lower lobe) were also not significantly different from each other for both species. Significant relationships were found between THg concentrations in dorsal axial muscle tissue and the fin inner core, liver, kidney, spleen and heart for both species as well as the THg concentrations between the dorsal fin trailing margin and the heart for the silky shark and all other sampled tissue types for the bonnethead shark. Our results suggest that biopsy sampling of dorsal muscle can provide data that can effectively estimate THg concentrations in specific organs without using more invasive, or lethal methods.

  14. Erythropoietin improves functional and histological recovery of traumatized skeletal muscle tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotter, Robert; Menshykova, Marija; Winkler, Tobias; Matziolis, Georg; Stratos, Ioannis; Schoen, Matthias; Bittorf, Thomas; Mittlmeier, Thomas; Vollmar, Brigitte

    2008-12-01

    Apart from its hematopoietic effect, erythropoietin (EPO) is known as pleiotropic cytokine with anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties. Here, we evaluated for the first time the EPO-dependent regeneration capacity in an in vivo rat model of skeletal muscle trauma. A myoblast cell line was used to study the effect of EPO on serum deprivation-induced cell apoptosis in vitro. A crush injury was performed to the left soleus muscle in 80 rats treated with either EPO or saline. Muscle recovery was assessed by analysis of contraction capacities. Intravital microscopy, BrdU/laminin double immunohistochemistry and cleaved caspase-3 immunohistochemistry of muscle tissue on days 1, 7, 14, and 42 posttrauma served for assessment of local microcirculation, tissue integrity, and cell proliferation. Serum deprivation-induced myoblast apoptosis of 23.9 +/- 1.5% was reduced by EPO to 17.2 +/- 0.8%. Contraction force analysis in the EPO-treated animals revealed significantly improved muscle strength with 10-20% higher values of twitch and tetanic forces over the 42-day observation period. EPO-treated muscle tissue displayed improved functional capillary density as well as reduced leukocytic response and consecutively macromolecular leakage over day 14. Concomitantly, muscle histology showed significantly increased numbers of BrdU-positive satellite cells and interstitial cells as well as slightly lower counts of cleaved caspase-3-positive interstitial cells. EPO results in faster and better regeneration of skeletal muscle tissue after severe trauma and goes along with improved microcirculation. Thus, EPO, a compound established as clinically safe, may represent a promising therapeutic option to optimize the posttraumatic course of muscle tissue healing.

  15. Relationships of mercury concentrations across tissue types, muscle regions and fins for two shark species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Bryhim, Jason R; Adams, Douglas H; Spaet, Julia L Y; Mills, Gary; Lance, Stacey L

    2017-04-01

    Mercury (Hg) exposure poses a threat to both fish and human health. Sharks are known to bioaccumulate Hg, however, little is known regarding how Hg is distributed between different tissue groups (e.g. muscle regions, organs). Here we evaluated total mercury (THg) concentrations from eight muscle regions, four fins (first dorsal, left and right pectorals, caudal-from both the inner core and trailing margin of each fin), and five internal organs (liver, kidney, spleen, heart, epigonal organ) from two different shark species, bonnethead (Sphyrna tiburo) and silky shark (Carcharhinus falciformis) to determine the relationships of THg concentrations between and within tissue groups. Total Hg concentrations were highest in the eight muscle regions with no significant differences in THg concentrations between the different muscle regions and muscle types (red and white). Results from tissue collected from any muscle region would be representative of all muscle sample locations. Total Hg concentrations were lowest in samples taken from the fin inner core of the first dorsal, pectoral, and caudal (lower lobe) fins. Mercury concentrations for samples taken from the trailing margin of the dorsal, pectoral, and caudal fins (upper and lower lobe) were also not significantly different from each other for both species. Significant relationships were found between THg concentrations in dorsal axial muscle tissue and the fin inner core, liver, kidney, spleen and heart for both species as well as the THg concentrations between the dorsal fin trailing margin and the heart for the silky shark and all other sampled tissue types for the bonnethead shark. Our results suggest that biopsy sampling of dorsal muscle can provide data that can effectively estimate THg concentrations in specific organs without using more invasive, or lethal methods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Microscopic and macroscopic volume conduction in skeletal muscle tissue, applied to simulation of single-fibre action potentials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alberts, B.A.; Rutten, Wim; Wallinga, W.; Boom, H.B.K.

    1988-01-01

    Extracellular action potentials of a single active muscle fibre in a surrounding of passive muscle tissue were calculated, using a microscopic volume conductor model which accounts for the travelling aspect of the source, the structure of skeletal muscle tissue and the electrical properties at the

  17. Muscle Tissue Engineering Using Gingival Mesenchymal Stem Cells Encapsulated in Alginate Hydrogels Containing Multiple Growth Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Sahar; Chen, Chider; Xu, Xingtian; Annabi, Nasim; Zadeh, Homayoun H; Wu, Benjamin M; Khademhosseini, Ali; Shi, Songtao; Moshaverinia, Alireza

    2016-06-01

    Repair and regeneration of muscle tissue following traumatic injuries or muscle diseases often presents a challenging clinical situation. If a significant amount of tissue is lost the native regenerative potential of skeletal muscle will not be able to grow to fill the defect site completely. Dental-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in combination with appropriate scaffold material, present an advantageous alternative therapeutic option for muscle tissue engineering in comparison to current treatment modalities available. To date, there has been no report on application of gingival mesenchymal stem cells (GMSCs) in three-dimensional scaffolds for muscle tissue engineering. The objectives of the current study were to develop an injectable 3D RGD-coupled alginate scaffold with multiple growth factor delivery capacity for encapsulating GMSCs, and to evaluate the capacity of encapsulated GMSCs to differentiate into myogenic tissue in vitro and in vivo where encapsulated GMSCs were transplanted subcutaneously into immunocompromised mice. The results demonstrate that after 4 weeks of differentiation in vitro, GMSCs as well as the positive control human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMMSCs) exhibited muscle cell-like morphology with high levels of mRNA expression for gene markers related to muscle regeneration (MyoD, Myf5, and MyoG) via qPCR measurement. Our quantitative PCR analyzes revealed that the stiffness of the RGD-coupled alginate regulates the myogenic differentiation of encapsulated GMSCs. Histological and immunohistochemical/fluorescence staining for protein markers specific for myogenic tissue confirmed muscle regeneration in subcutaneous transplantation in our in vivo animal model. GMSCs showed significantly greater capacity for myogenic regeneration in comparison to hBMMSCs (p engineering.

  18. Measuring parvalbumin levels in fish muscle tissue: relevance of muscle locations and storage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Poi-Wah; Nordlee, Julie A; Koppelman, Stef J; Baumert, Joseph L; Taylor, Steve L

    2012-11-15

    Fish is an allergenic food capable of provoking severe anaphylactic reactions. Parvalbumin is the major allergen identified in fish and frog muscles. Antibodies against fish and frog parvalbumin have been used to quantify parvalbumin levels from fish. However, these antibodies react variably with parvalbumin from different fish species. Several factors might be responsible for this variation including instability of parvalbumin in fish muscle as a result of frozen storage and differential parvalbumin expression in muscles from various locations within the whole fish. We aimed to investigate whether these factors contribute to the previously observed variable immunoreactivity of the anti-parvalbumin antibodies. Results showed the detection of parvalbumin by these antibodies was unaffected by frozen storage of muscles for 112 days. However, the parvalbumin content decreased in fish muscles from anterior to posterior positions. This factor may partially explain for the inconsistent reactivity of anti-parvalbumin antibodies to different fish species. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Muscle fatigue experienced during maximal eccentric exercise is predictive of the plasma creatine kinase (CK) response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hody, S; Rogister, B; Leprince, P; Wang, F; Croisier, J-L

    2013-08-01

    Unaccustomed eccentric exercise may cause skeletal muscle damage with an increase in plasma creatine kinase (CK) activity. Although the wide variability among individuals in CK response to standardized lengthening contractions has been well described, the reasons underlying this phenomenon have not yet been understood. Therefore, this study investigated a possible correlation of the changes in muscle damage indirect markers after an eccentric exercise with the decline in muscle performance during the exercise. Twenty-seven healthy untrained male subjects performed three sets of 30 maximal isokinetic eccentric contractions of the knee extensors. The muscular work was recorded using an isokinetic dynamometer to assess muscle fatigue by means of various fatigue indices. Plasma CK activity, muscle soreness, and stiffness were measured before (pre) and one day after (post) exercise. The eccentric exercise bout induced significant changes of the three muscle damage indirect markers. Large inter-subject variability was observed for all criteria measured. More interestingly, the log (CK(post) /CK(pre)) and muscle stiffness appeared to be closely correlated with the relative work decrease (r = 0.84, r(2)  = 0.70 and r = 0.75, r(2)  = 0.56, respectively). This is the first study to propose that the muscle fatigue profile during maximal eccentric protocol could predict the magnitude of the symptoms associated with muscle damage in humans.

  20. Infectivity of Trichinella spp. recovered from decaying mouse and fox muscle tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Von Koller, J.; Kapel, C.M.O.; Enemark, Heidi L.;

    2001-01-01

    The tolerance to degradation processes in meat of nine Trichinella genotypes was studied in mouse and fox tissue, respectively. Minced muscle tissue with Trichinella larvae of different age was stored at room temperature at 100 % relative humidity. During storage weekly sub samples of the minced...

  1. Connective tissue growth factor induces extracellular matrix in asthmatic airway smooth muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnson, Peter R A; Burgess, Janette K; Ge, Qi; Poniris, Maree; Boustany, Sarah; Twigg, Stephen M; Black, Judith L

    2006-01-01

    Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta and connective tissue growth factor may be implicated in extracellular matrix protein deposition in asthma. We have recently reported that TGF-beta increased connective tissue growth factor expression in airway smooth muscle cells isolated from patients with ast

  2. Infectivity of Trichinella spp. recovered from decaying mouse and fox muscle tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Von Koller, J.; Kapel, C.M.O.; Enemark, Heidi L.

    2001-01-01

    The tolerance to degradation processes in meat of nine Trichinella genotypes was studied in mouse and fox tissue, respectively. Minced muscle tissue with Trichinella larvae of different age was stored at room temperature at 100 % relative humidity. During storage weekly sub samples of the minced...

  3. Injection of duck recombinant follistatin fusion protein into duck muscle tissues stimulates satellite cell proliferation and muscle fiber hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, He-he; Wang, Ji-wen; Yu, Hai-yue; Zhang, Rong-ping; Chen, Xi; Jin, Hai-bo; Dai, Fei; Li, Liang; Xu, Feng

    2012-06-01

    Follistatin (FST) can inhibit the expression of myostatin, which is a predominant inhibitor of muscle development. The potential application of myostatin-based technology has been prompted in different ways in agriculture. We previously constructed an expression vector of duck FST and isolated the FST fusion protein. After the protein was purified and refolded, it was added to the medium of duck myoblasts cultured in vitro. The results show that the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide value of the myoblasts in the duck FST treatment group is higher than that in the control group, which indicates that the duck FST fusion protein exhibits the biological activities that can accelerate myoblast proliferation. To further investigate the roles of duck FST on muscle development, we injected the protein into the duck muscle tissues in vivo. The results show that both the duck muscle fiber cross-sectional area and the satellite cell activation frequency are influenced more in the FST treatment group than they are in the control group. In addition to these phenomena, expression of MyoD and Myf5 were increased, and the expression of myostatin was decreased. Together, these results suggest the potential for using duck FST fusion protein to inhibit myostatin activity and subsequently to enhance muscle growth in vivo. The mechanism by which FST regulates muscle development in the duck is similar to that in mammals and fishes.

  4. Dietary conjugated linoleic acid modify gene expression in liver, muscles, and fat tissues of finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tous, N; Theil, P K; Lauridsen, C; Lizardo, R; Vilà, B; Esteve-Garcia, E

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate underlying mechanisms of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on lipid metabolism in various tissues of pigs. Sixteen gilts (73 ± 3 kg) were fed a control (containing sunflower oil) or an experimental diet in which 4% of sunflower oil was replaced by CLA, and slaughtered at an average BW of 117 ± 4.9 kg. Transcription of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ), fatty acid synthase (FAS), sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP1), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), delta-6-desaturase (D6D), and stearoyl CoA desaturase (SCD) were determined by real-time PCR in longissimus thoracis (LT) and semimembranosus (SM) muscles, LT subcutaneous and SM intermuscular fat, and in the liver. Fatty acid (FA) composition was analyzed using gas chromatography in these tissues, except for SM intermuscular fat. Dietary CLA increased PPARγ in LT muscle (P tissues studied (P muscle and liver (SREBP1, both P muscle and reduced (P muscle and intermuscular fat. Saturated FA were increased in all studied tissues (P tissue-specific way by CLA. It was concluded that dietary CLA affected transcription of genes and fat metabolism in a tissue-specific manner.

  5. Passive muscle stiffness may be influenced by active contractility of intramuscular connective tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleip, Robert; Naylor, Ian L; Ursu, Daniel; Melzer, Werner; Zorn, Adjo; Wilke, Hans-Joachim; Lehmann-Horn, Frank; Klingler, Werner

    2006-01-01

    The article introduces the hypothesis that intramuscular connective tissue, in particular the fascial layer known as the perimysium, may be capable of active contraction and consequently influence passive muscle stiffness, especially in tonic muscles. Passive muscle stiffness is also referred to as passive elasticity, passive muscular compliance, passive extensibility, resting tension, or passive muscle tone. Evidence for the hypothesis is based on five indications: (1) tonic muscles contain more perimysium and are therefore stiffer than phasic muscles; (2) the specific collagen arrangement of the perimysium is designed to fit a load-bearing function; (3) morphological considerations as well as histological observations in our laboratory suggest that the perimysium is characterized by a high density of myofibroblasts, a class of fibroblasts with smooth muscle-like contractile kinetics; (4) in vitro contraction tests with fascia have demonstrated that fascia, due to the presence of myofibroblasts, is able to actively contract, and that the resulting contraction forces may be strong enough to influence musculoskeletal dynamics; (5) the pronounced increase of the perimysium in muscle immobilization and in the surgical treatment of distraction osteogenesis indicates that perimysial stiffness adapts to mechanical stimulation and hence influences passive muscle stiffness. In conclusion, the perimysium seems capable of response to mechanostimulation with a myofibroblast facilitated active tissue contraction, thereby adapting passive muscle stiffness to increased tensional demands, especially in tonic musculature. If verified, this new concept may lead to novel pharmaceutical or mechanical approaches to complement existing treatments of pathologies which are accompanied by an increase or decrease of passive muscle stiffness (e.g., muscle fibroses such as torticollis, peri-partum pelvic pain due to pelvic instability, and many others). Methods for testing this new concept

  6. Histological Evaluation of Decellularized Skeletal Muscle Tissue Using Two Different Decellularization Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Hrebíková

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine effect of two decellularized agents, sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS and Triton X-100, to the skeletal muscle tissue. Final scaffold was evaluated by several histological techniques to analyse preservation of essential structures including collagen and elastic fibres, basement membranes, glycosaminoglycans and also to confirm elimination of nuclear and cytoplasmic components which are redundant in effectively prepared decellularized scaffolds. Comparison of tissue scaffolds processed with different detergents proved that SDS is superior to Triton X-100 as it can effectively decellularize muscle tissue.

  7. In vitro terahertz monitoring of muscle tissue dehydration under the action of hyperosmotic agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolesnikov, A S; Kolesnikova, E A; Popov, A P; Tuchin, V V [N.G. Chernyshevsky Saratov State University, Saratov (Russian Federation); Nazarov, M M [Institute on Laser and Information Technologies, Russian Academy of Sciences, Shatura, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Shkurinov, A P [International Laser Center, M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-31

    Dehydration of muscle tissue in vitro under the action of biologically compatible hyperosmotic agents is studied using a laser terahertz spectrometer in the frequency range from 0.25 to 2.5 THz. Broadband terahertz absorption and reflection spectra of the bovine skeletal muscle tissue were obtained under the action of glycerol, polyethylene glycol with the molecular weight 600 (PEG-600), and propylene glycol. The presented results are proposed for application in developing the methods of image contrast enhancement and increasing the depth of biological tissue probing with terahertz radiation. (laser biophotonics)

  8. Muscle and tendon connective tissue adaptation to unloading, exercise and NSAID.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dideriksen, Kasper

    2014-04-01

    The extracellular matrix network of skeletal muscle and tendon connective tissue is primarily composed of collagen and connects the muscle contractile protein to the bones in the human body. The mechanical properties of the connective tissue are important for the effectiveness of which the muscle force is transformed into movement. Periods of unloading and exercise affect the synthesis rate of connective tissue collagen protein, whereas only sparse information exits regarding collagen protein degradation. It is likely, though, that changes in both collagen protein synthesis and degradation are required for remodeling of the connective tissue internal structure that ultimately results in altered mechanical properties of the connective tissue. Both unloading and exercise lead to increased production of growth factors and inflammatory mediators that are involved in connective tissue remodeling. Despite the fact that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs seem to inhibit the healing process of connective tissue and the stimulating effect of exercise on connective tissue protein synthesis, these drugs are often consumed in relation to connective tissue injury and soreness. However, the potential effect of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on connective tissue needs further investigation.

  9. Regulation of tissue crosstalk by skeletal muscle-derived myonectin and other myokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seldin, Marcus M; Wong, G William

    2012-10-01

    The integrated control of animal physiology requires intimate tissue crosstalk, a vital task mediated by circulating humoral factors. As one type of these factors, adipose tissue-derived adipokines have recently garnered attention as important regulators of systemic insulin sensitivity and metabolic homeostasis. However, the realization that skeletal muscle also secretes a variety of biologically and metabolically active polypeptide factors (collectively called myokines) has provided a new conceptual framework to understand the critical role skeletal muscle plays in coordinating whole-body energy balance. Here, we highlight recent progress made in the myokine field and discuss possible roles of myonectin, which we have recently identified as a potential postprandial signal derived from skeletal muscle to integrate metabolic processes in other tissues, such as adipose and liver; one of its roles is to promote fatty acid uptake into cells. Myonectin is also likely an important mediator in inter-tissue crosstalk.

  10. Attenuation of skeletal muscle wasting with recombinant human growth hormone secreted from a tissue-engineered bioartificial muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenburgh, H.; Del Tatto, M.; Shansky, J.; Goldstein, L.; Russell, K.; Genes, N.; Chromiak, J.; Yamada, S.

    1998-01-01

    Skeletal muscle wasting is a significant problem in elderly and debilitated patients. Growth hormone (GH) is an anabolic growth factor for skeletal muscle but is difficult to deliver in a therapeutic manner by injection owing to its in vivo instability. A novel method is presented for the sustained secretion of recombinant human GH (rhGH) from genetically modified skeletal muscle implants, which reduces host muscle wasting. Proliferating murine C2C12 skeletal myoblasts stably transduced with the rhGH gene were tissue engineered in vitro into bioartificial muscles (C2-BAMs) containing organized postmitotic myofibers secreting 3-5 microg of rhGH/day in vitro. When implanted subcutaneously into syngeneic mice, C2-BAMs delivered a sustained physiologic dose of 2.5 to 11.3 ng of rhGH per milliliter of serum. rhGH synthesized and secreted by the myofibers was in the 22-kDa monomeric form and was biologically active, based on downregulation of a GH-sensitive protein synthesized in the liver. Skeletal muscle disuse atrophy was induced in mice by hindlimb unloading, causing the fast plantaris and slow soleus muscles to atrophy by 21 to 35% ( < 0.02). This atrophy was significantly attenuated 41 to 55% (p < 0.02) in animals that received C2-BAM implants, but not in animals receiving daily injections of purified rhGH (1 mg/kg/day). These data support the concept that delivery of rhGH from BAMs may be efficacious in treating muscle-wasting disorders.

  11. Skeletal muscle and plasma lipidomic signatures of insulin resistance and overweight/obesity in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonks, Katherine T; Coster, Adelle Cf; Christopher, Michael J; Chaudhuri, Rima; Xu, Aimin; Gagnon-Bartsch, Johann; Chisholm, Donald J; James, David E; Meikle, Peter J; Greenfield, Jerry R; Samocha-Bonet, Dorit

    2016-04-01

    Alterations in lipids in muscle and plasma have been documented in insulin-resistant people with obesity. Whether these lipid alterations are a reflection of insulin resistance or obesity remains unclear. Nondiabetic sedentary individuals not treated with lipid-lowering medications were studied (n = 51). Subjects with body mass index (BMI) > 25 kg/m(2) (n = 28) were stratified based on median glucose infusion rate during a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp into insulin-sensitive and insulin-resistant groups (above and below median, obesity/insulin-sensitive and obesity/insulin-resistant, respectively). Lean individuals (n = 23) served as a reference group. Lipidomics was performed in muscle and plasma by liquid chromatography electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. Pathway analysis of gene array in muscle was performed in a subset (n = 35). In muscle, insulin resistance was characterized by higher levels of C18:0 sphingolipids, while in plasma, higher levels of diacylglycerol and cholesterol ester, and lower levels of lysophosphatidylcholine and lysoalkylphosphatidylcholine, indicated insulin resistance, irrespective of overweight/obesity. The sphingolipid metabolism gene pathway was upregulated in muscle in insulin resistance independent of obesity. An overweight/obesity lipidomic signature was only apparent in plasma, predominated by higher triacylglycerol and lower plasmalogen species. Muscle C18:0 sphingolipids may play a role in insulin resistance independent of excess adiposity. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  12. Histone deacetylase 8 regulates cortactin deacetylation and contraction in smooth muscle tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Chen, Shu; Cleary, Rachel A; Wang, Ruping; Gannon, Olivia J; Seto, Edward; Tang, Dale D

    2014-08-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are a family of enzymes that mediate nucleosomal histone deacetylation and gene expression. Some members of the HDAC family have also been implicated in nonhistone protein deacetylation, which modulates cell-cycle control, differentiation, and cell migration. However, the role of HDACs in smooth muscle contraction is largely unknown. Here, HDAC8 was localized both in the cytoplasm and the nucleus of mouse and human smooth muscle cells. Knockdown of HDAC8 by lentivirus-encoding HDAC8 shRNA inhibited force development in response to acetylcholine. Treatment of smooth muscle tissues with HDAC8 inhibitor XXIV (OSU-HDAC-44) induced relaxation of precontracted smooth muscle tissues. In addition, cortactin is an actin-regulatory protein that undergoes deacetylation during migration of NIH 3T3 cells. In this study, acetylcholine stimulation induced cortactin deacetylation in mouse and human smooth muscle tissues, as evidenced by immunoblot analysis using antibody against acetylated lysine. Knockdown of HDAC8 by RNAi or treatment with the inhibitor attenuated cortactin deacetylation and actin polymerization without affecting myosin activation. Furthermore, expression of a charge-neutralizing cortactin mutant inhibited contraction and actin dynamics during contractile activation. These results suggest a novel mechanism for the regulation of smooth muscle contraction. In response to contractile stimulation, HDAC8 may mediate cortactin deacetylation, which subsequently promotes actin filament polymerization and smooth muscle contraction.

  13. Myostatin inhibition in muscle, but not adipose tissue, decreases fat mass and improves insulin sensitivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingqing Guo

    Full Text Available Myostatin (Mstn is a secreted growth factor expressed in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue that negatively regulates skeletal muscle mass. Mstn(-/- mice have a dramatic increase in muscle mass, reduction in fat mass, and resistance to diet-induced and genetic obesity. To determine how Mstn deletion causes reduced adiposity and resistance to obesity, we analyzed substrate utilization and insulin sensitivity in Mstn(-/- mice fed a standard chow. Despite reduced lipid oxidation in skeletal muscle, Mstn(-/- mice had no change in the rate of whole body lipid oxidation. In contrast, Mstn(-/- mice had increased glucose utilization and insulin sensitivity as measured by indirect calorimetry, glucose and insulin tolerance tests, and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. To determine whether these metabolic effects were due primarily to the loss of myostatin signaling in muscle or adipose tissue, we compared two transgenic mouse lines carrying a dominant negative activin IIB receptor expressed specifically in adipocytes or skeletal muscle. We found that inhibition of myostatin signaling in adipose tissue had no effect on body composition, weight gain, or glucose and insulin tolerance in mice fed a standard diet or a high-fat diet. In contrast, inhibition of myostatin signaling in skeletal muscle, like Mstn deletion, resulted in increased lean mass, decreased fat mass, improved glucose metabolism on standard and high-fat diets, and resistance to diet-induced obesity. Our results demonstrate that Mstn(-/- mice have an increase in insulin sensitivity and glucose uptake, and that the reduction in adipose tissue mass in Mstn(-/- mice is an indirect result of metabolic changes in skeletal muscle. These data suggest that increasing muscle mass by administration of myostatin antagonists may be a promising therapeutic target for treating patients with obesity or diabetes.

  14. Engineering skeletal muscle tissues from murine myoblast progenitor cells and application of electrical stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Schaft, Daisy W J; van Spreeuwel, Ariane C C; Boonen, Kristel J M; Langelaan, Marloes L P; Bouten, Carlijn V C; Baaijens, Frank P T

    2013-03-19

    Engineered muscle tissues can be used for several different purposes, which include the production of tissues for use as a disease model in vitro, e.g. to study pressure ulcers, for regenerative medicine and as a meat alternative (1). The first reported 3D muscle constructs have been made many years ago and pioneers in the field are Vandenburgh and colleagues (2,3). Advances made in muscle tissue engineering are not only the result from the vast gain in knowledge of biochemical factors, stem cells and progenitor cells, but are in particular based on insights gained by researchers that physical factors play essential roles in the control of cell behavior and tissue development. State-of-the-art engineered muscle constructs currently consist of cell-populated hydrogel constructs. In our lab these generally consist of murine myoblast progenitor cells, isolated from murine hind limb muscles or a murine myoblast cell line C2C12, mixed with a mixture of collagen/Matrigel and plated between two anchoring points, mimicking the muscle ligaments. Other cells may be considered as well, e.g. alternative cell lines such as L6 rat myoblasts (4), neonatal muscle derived progenitor cells (5), cells derived from adult muscle tissues from other species such as human (6) or even induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells) (7). Cell contractility causes alignment of the cells along the long axis of the construct (8,9) and differentiation of the muscle progenitor cells after approximately one week of culture. Moreover, the application of electrical stimulation can enhance the process of differentiation to some extent (8). Because of its limited size (8 x 2 x 0.5 mm) the complete tissue can be analyzed using confocal microscopy to monitor e.g. viability, differentiation and cell alignment. Depending on the specific application the requirements for the engineered muscle tissue will vary; e.g. use for regenerative medicine requires the up scaling of tissue size and vascularization, while

  15. Smooth muscle-like tissue constructs with circumferentially oriented cells formed by the cell fiber technology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Y Hsiao

    Full Text Available The proper functioning of many organs and tissues containing smooth muscles greatly depends on the intricate organization of the smooth muscle cells oriented in appropriate directions. Consequently controlling the cellular orientation in three-dimensional (3D cellular constructs is an important issue in engineering tissues of smooth muscles. However, the ability to precisely control the cellular orientation at the microscale cannot be achieved by various commonly used 3D tissue engineering building blocks such as spheroids. This paper presents the formation of coiled spring-shaped 3D cellular constructs containing circumferentially oriented smooth muscle-like cells differentiated from dedifferentiated fat (DFAT cells. By using the cell fiber technology, DFAT cells suspended in a mixture of extracellular proteins possessing an optimized stiffness were encapsulated in the core region of alginate shell microfibers and uniformly aligned to the longitudinal direction. Upon differentiation induction to the smooth muscle lineage, DFAT cell fibers self-assembled to coiled spring structures where the cells became circumferentially oriented. By changing the initial core-shell microfiber diameter, we demonstrated that the spring pitch and diameter could be controlled. 21 days after differentiation induction, the cell fibers contained high percentages of ASMA-positive and calponin-positive cells. Our technology to create these smooth muscle-like spring constructs enabled precise control of cellular alignment and orientation in 3D. These constructs can further serve as tissue engineering building blocks for larger organs and cellular implants used in clinical treatments.

  16. Smooth muscle-like tissue constructs with circumferentially oriented cells formed by the cell fiber technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Amy Y; Okitsu, Teru; Onoe, Hiroaki; Kiyosawa, Mahiro; Teramae, Hiroki; Iwanaga, Shintaroh; Kazama, Tomohiko; Matsumoto, Taro; Takeuchi, Shoji

    2015-01-01

    The proper functioning of many organs and tissues containing smooth muscles greatly depends on the intricate organization of the smooth muscle cells oriented in appropriate directions. Consequently controlling the cellular orientation in three-dimensional (3D) cellular constructs is an important issue in engineering tissues of smooth muscles. However, the ability to precisely control the cellular orientation at the microscale cannot be achieved by various commonly used 3D tissue engineering building blocks such as spheroids. This paper presents the formation of coiled spring-shaped 3D cellular constructs containing circumferentially oriented smooth muscle-like cells differentiated from dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells. By using the cell fiber technology, DFAT cells suspended in a mixture of extracellular proteins possessing an optimized stiffness were encapsulated in the core region of alginate shell microfibers and uniformly aligned to the longitudinal direction. Upon differentiation induction to the smooth muscle lineage, DFAT cell fibers self-assembled to coiled spring structures where the cells became circumferentially oriented. By changing the initial core-shell microfiber diameter, we demonstrated that the spring pitch and diameter could be controlled. 21 days after differentiation induction, the cell fibers contained high percentages of ASMA-positive and calponin-positive cells. Our technology to create these smooth muscle-like spring constructs enabled precise control of cellular alignment and orientation in 3D. These constructs can further serve as tissue engineering building blocks for larger organs and cellular implants used in clinical treatments.

  17. Leucine Supplementation Accelerates Connective Tissue Repair of Injured Tibialis Anterior Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo G. Pereira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of leucine supplementation on the skeletal muscle regenerative process, focusing on the remodeling of connective tissue of the fast twitch muscle tibialis anterior (TA. Young male Wistar rats were supplemented with leucine (1.35 g/kg per day; then, TA muscles from the left hind limb were cryolesioned and examined after 10 days. Although leucine supplementation induced increased protein synthesis, it was not sufficient to promote an increase in the cross-sectional area (CSA of regenerating myofibers (p > 0.05 from TA muscles. However, leucine supplementation reduced the amount of collagen and the activation of phosphorylated transforming growth factor-β receptor type I (TβR-I and Smad2/3 in regenerating muscles (p < 0.05. Leucine also reduced neonatal myosin heavy chain (MyHC-n (p < 0.05, increased adult MyHC-II expression (p < 0.05 and prevented the decrease in maximum tetanic strength in regenerating TA muscles (p < 0.05. Our results suggest that leucine supplementation accelerates connective tissue repair and consequent function of regenerating TA through the attenuation of TβR-I and Smad2/3 activation. Therefore, future studies are warranted to investigate leucine supplementation as a nutritional strategy to prevent or attenuate muscle fibrosis in patients with several muscle diseases.

  18. Leucine Supplementation Accelerates Connective Tissue Repair of Injured Tibialis Anterior Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Marcelo G.; Silva, Meiricris T.; Carlassara, Eduardo O. C.; Gonçalves, Dawit A.; Abrahamsohn, Paulo A.; Kettelhut, Isis C.; Moriscot, Anselmo S.; Aoki, Marcelo S.; Miyabara, Elen H.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of leucine supplementation on the skeletal muscle regenerative process, focusing on the remodeling of connective tissue of the fast twitch muscle tibialis anterior (TA). Young male Wistar rats were supplemented with leucine (1.35 g/kg per day); then, TA muscles from the left hind limb were cryolesioned and examined after 10 days. Although leucine supplementation induced increased protein synthesis, it was not sufficient to promote an increase in the cross-sectional area (CSA) of regenerating myofibers (p > 0.05) from TA muscles. However, leucine supplementation reduced the amount of collagen and the activation of phosphorylated transforming growth factor-β receptor type I (TβR-I) and Smad2/3 in regenerating muscles (p muscles (p tissue repair and consequent function of regenerating TA through the attenuation of TβR-I and Smad2/3 activation. Therefore, future studies are warranted to investigate leucine supplementation as a nutritional strategy to prevent or attenuate muscle fibrosis in patients with several muscle diseases. PMID:25268835

  19. Correlation of tissue-plasma partition coefficients between normal tissues and subcutaneous xenografts of human tumor cell lines in mouse as a prediction tool of drug penetration in tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulin, Patrick; Hop, Cornelis Eca; Salphati, Laurent; Liederer, Bianca M

    2013-04-01

    Understanding drug distribution and accumulation in tumors would be informative in the assessment of efficacy in targeted therapy; however, existing methods for predicting tissue drug distribution focus on normal tissues and do not incorporate tumors. The main objective of this study was to describe the relationships between tissue-plasma concentration ratios (Kp ) of normal tissues and those of subcutaneous xenograft tumors under nonsteady-state conditions, and establish regression equations that could potentially be used for the prediction of drug levels in several human tumor xenografts in mouse, based solely on a Kp value determined in a normal tissue (e.g., muscle). A dataset of 17 compounds was collected from the literature and from Genentech. Tissue and plasma concentration data in mouse were obtained following oral gavage or intraperitoneal administration. Linear regression analyses were performed between Kp values in several normal tissues (muscle, lung, liver, or brain) and those in human tumor xenografts (CL6, EBC-1, HT-29, PC3, U-87, MCF-7-neo-Her2, or BT474M1.1). The tissue-plasma ratios in normal tissues reasonably correlated with the tumor-plasma ratios in CL6, EBC-1, HT-29, U-87, BT474M1.1, and MCF-7-neo-Her2 xenografts (r(2) in the range 0.62-1) but not with the PC3 xenograft. In general, muscle and lung exhibited the strongest correlation with tumor xenografts, followed by liver. Regression coefficients from brain were low, except between brain and the glioblastoma U-87 xenograft (r(2) in the range 0.62-0.94). Furthermore, reasonably strong correlations were observed between muscle and lung and between muscle and liver (r(2) in the range 0.67-0.96). The slopes of the regressions differed depending on the class of drug (strong vs. weak base) and type of tissue (brain vs. other tissues and tumors). Overall, this study will contribute to our understanding of tissue-plasma partition coefficients for tumors and facilitate the use of physiologically

  20. Adipose tissue and muscle attenuation as novel biomarkers predicting mortality in patients with extremity sarcomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veld, Joyce; Vossen, Josephina A.; Torriani, Martin; Bredella, Miriam A. [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Division of Musculoskeletal Imaging and Intervention, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); De Amorim Bernstein, Karen [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Department of Radiation Oncology, Francis H Burr Proton Therapy Center, Boston, MA (United States); Halpern, Elkan F. [Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Institute of Technology Assessment, Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-12-15

    To assess CT-attenuation of abdominal adipose tissue and psoas muscle as predictors of mortality in patients with sarcomas of the extremities. Our study was IRB approved and HIPAA compliant. The study group comprised 135 patients with history of extremity sarcoma (mean age: 53 ± 17 years) who underwent whole body PET/CT. Abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), and psoas muscle attenuation (HU) was assessed on non-contrast, attenuation-correction CT. Clinical information including survival, tumour stage, sarcoma type, therapy and pre-existing comorbidities were recorded. Cox proportional hazard models were used to determine longitudinal associations between adipose tissue and muscle attenuation and mortality. There were 47 deaths over a mean follow-up period of 20 ± 17 months. Higher SAT and lower psoas attenuation were associated with increased mortality (p = 0.03 and p = 0.005, respectively), which remained significant after adjustment for age, BMI, sex, tumor stage, therapy, and comorbidities (p = 0.002 and p = 0.02, respectively). VAT attenuation was not associated with mortality. Attenuation of SAT and psoas muscle, assessed on non-contrast CT, are predictors of mortality in patients with extremity sarcomas, independent of other established prognostic factors, suggesting that adipose tissue and muscle attenuation could serve as novel biomarkers for mortality in patients with sarcomas. (orig.)

  1. Monitoring temporal microstructural variations of skeletal muscle tissues by multispectral Mueller matrix polarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yang; He, Honghui; He, Chao; Ma, Hui

    2017-02-01

    Mueller matrix polarimetry is a powerful tool for detecting microscopic structures, therefore can be used to monitor physiological changes of tissue samples. Meanwhile, spectral features of scattered light can also provide abundant microstructural information of tissues. In this paper, we take the 2D multispectral backscattering Mueller matrix images of bovine skeletal muscle tissues, and analyze their temporal variation behavior using multispectral Mueller matrix parameters. The 2D images of the Mueller matrix elements are reduced to the multispectral frequency distribution histograms (mFDHs) to reveal the dominant structural features of the muscle samples more clearly. For quantitative analysis, the multispectral Mueller matrix transformation (MMT) parameters are calculated to characterize the microstructural variations during the rigor mortis and proteolysis processes of the skeletal muscle tissue samples. The experimental results indicate that the multispectral MMT parameters can be used to judge different physiological stages for bovine skeletal muscle tissues in 24 hours, and combining with the multispectral technique, the Mueller matrix polarimetry and FDH analysis can monitor the microstructural variation features of skeletal muscle samples. The techniques may be used for quick assessment and quantitative monitoring of meat qualities in food industry.

  2. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) for acute muscle injury: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Mohamad Shariff A; Yusof, Ashril; Mohamed Ali, Mohamed Razif

    2014-01-01

    Acute muscle injury is one of the commonest injuries that often result in loss of training and competition time. The best management for muscle injury has not been identified. Sports medicine practitioners used several approaches in attempt to accelerate time to recovery from muscle injury. More recently growing interest focussed on autologous blood product injection. A literature search was conducted systematically using OvidMEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, SPORTDiscus and CINAHL databases to retrieve articles published until December 2012. Controlled trials and controlled laboratory studies comparing different strategies to promote early recovery of muscle injury were included. The methodological quality of studies was assessed. There are limited studies on the effects of PRP therapy for muscle injury. Three in vivo laboratory studies and one pilot human study were reviewed. The laboratory studies reported histological evidence on significant acceleration of muscle healing in animals treated with autologous conditioned serum (ACS), platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and platelet rich fibrin matrix (PRFM). A pilot human study found athletes treated with repeated ACS injection recovers significantly faster than retrospective controls. Several in vivo laboratory studies suggest beneficial effects of ACS, PRP and PRFM in accelerating muscle recovery. Evidence to suggest similar effects on humans is however limited, as valuable information from robust human controlled trials is still not available at this moment. Hence, more studies of satisfactory methodological quality with platelet-rich plasma interventions on muscle injury are justified.

  3. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP for acute muscle injury: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Shariff A Hamid

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Acute muscle injury is one of the commonest injuries that often result in loss of training and competition time. The best management for muscle injury has not been identified. Sports medicine practitioners used several approaches in attempt to accelerate time to recovery from muscle injury. More recently growing interest focussed on autologous blood product injection. METHODS: A literature search was conducted systematically using OvidMEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, SPORTDiscus and CINAHL databases to retrieve articles published until December 2012. Controlled trials and controlled laboratory studies comparing different strategies to promote early recovery of muscle injury were included. The methodological quality of studies was assessed. RESULTS: There are limited studies on the effects of PRP therapy for muscle injury. Three in vivo laboratory studies and one pilot human study were reviewed. The laboratory studies reported histological evidence on significant acceleration of muscle healing in animals treated with autologous conditioned serum (ACS, platelet-rich plasma (PRP and platelet rich fibrin matrix (PRFM. A pilot human study found athletes treated with repeated ACS injection recovers significantly faster than retrospective controls. CONCLUSION: Several in vivo laboratory studies suggest beneficial effects of ACS, PRP and PRFM in accelerating muscle recovery. Evidence to suggest similar effects on humans is however limited, as valuable information from robust human controlled trials is still not available at this moment. Hence, more studies of satisfactory methodological quality with platelet-rich plasma interventions on muscle injury are justified.

  4. Stem Cells and Tissue Niche: Two Faces of the Same Coin of Muscle Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scicchitano, Bianca Maria; Sica, Gigliola; Musarò, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Capacity of adult muscle to regenerate in response to injury stimuli represents an important homeostatic process. Regeneration is a highly coordinated program that partially recapitulates the embryonic developmental program. However, muscle regeneration is severely compromised in several pathological conditions. It is likely that the restricted tissue repair program under pathological conditions is due to either progressive loss of stem cell populations or to missing signals that limit the damaged tissues to efficiently activate a regenerative program. It is therefore plausible that loss of control over these cell fates might lead to a pathological cell transdifferentiation, limiting the ability of a pathological muscle to sustain an efficient regenerative process. The critical role of microenvironment on stem cells activity and muscle regeneration is discussed. PMID:28078070

  5. Stem cells and tissue niche: two faces of the same coin of muscle regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Maria Scicchitano

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Capacity of adult muscle to regenerate in response to injury stimuli represents an important homeostatic process. Regeneration is a highly coordinated program that partially recapitulates the embryonic developmental program. However, muscle regeneration is severely compromised in several pathological conditions. It is likely that the restricted tissue repair program under pathological conditions is due to either progressive loss of stem cell populations or to missing signals that limit the damaged tissues to efficiently activate a regenerative program. It is therefore plausible that loss of control over these cell fates might lead to a pathological cell transdifferentiation, limiting the ability of a pathological muscle to sustain an efficient regenerative process. The critical role of microenvironment on stem cells activity and muscle regeneration is discussed.

  6. Skeletal Muscle Derived IL-6 in Liver and Adipose Tissue Metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Jakob Grunnet

    Summary Physical activity can lead to metabolic disease and treatment of several metabolic diseases include exercise training. Skeletal muscle has, due to its central role in glucose and fat metabolism at rest and during exercise been studied in detail with regard to exercise training. The role...... and adipose tissue metabolism is unknown. It has been suggested that myokines, such as IL-6, released from skeletal muscle affects liver and adipose tissue and are involved in the regulation of exercise training adaptations. Thus, the aim of this thesis was to investigate the role of skeletal muscle derived...... indicate that during 1h of exercise the liver utilizes carbohydrates for oxidation rather than gluconeogenesis and that gluconeogenic activity during 1h of exercise is not regulated through increases in protein content. The aim of study III was to investigate the role of skeletal muscle derived IL-6...

  7. Plasma mediated ablation of biological tissues with ultrashort laser pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oraevsky, A.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)]|[Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; DaSilva, L.B.; Feit, M.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-03-08

    Plasma mediated ablation of collagen gels and porcine cornea was studied at various laser pulse durations in the range from 350 fs to 1 ns at 1,053 nm wavelength. A time resolved stress detection technique was employed to measure transient stress profiles and amplitudes. Optical microscopy was used to characterize ablation craters qualitatively, while a wide band acoustic transducer helped to quantify tissue mechanical response and the ablation threshold. The ablation threshold was measured as a function of laser pulse duration and linear absorption coefficient. For nanosecond pulses the ablation threshold was found to have a strong dependence on the linear absorption coefficient of the material. As the pulse length decreased into the subpicosecond regime the ablation threshold became insensitive to the linear absorption coefficient. The ablation efficiency was found to be insensitive to both the laser pulse duration and the linear absorption coefficient. High quality ablation craters with no thermal or mechanical damage to surrounding material were obtained with 350 fs laser pulses. The mechanism of optical breakdown at the tissue surface was theoretically investigated. In the nanosecond regime, optical breakdown proceeds as an electron collisional avalanche ionization initiated by thermal seed electrons. These seed electrons are created by heating of the tissue by linear absorption. In the ultrashort pulse range, optical breakdown is initiated by the multiphoton ionization of the irradiated medium (6 photons in case of tissue irradiated at 1,053 nm wavelength), and becomes less sensitive to the linear absorption coefficient. The energy deposition profile is insensitive to both the laser pulse duration and the linear absorption coefficient.

  8. Effects of Dexamethasone on Satellite Cells and Tissue Engineered Skeletal Muscle Units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syverud, Brian C; VanDusen, Keith W; Larkin, Lisa M

    2016-03-01

    Tissue engineered skeletal muscle has potential for application as a graft source for repairing soft tissue injuries, a model for testing pharmaceuticals, and a biomechanical actuator system for soft robots. However, engineered muscle to date has not produced forces comparable to native muscle, limiting its potential for repair and for use as an in vitro model for pharmaceutical testing. In this study, we examined the trophic effects of dexamethasone (DEX), a glucocorticoid that stimulates myoblast differentiation and fusion into myotubes, on our tissue engineered three-dimensional skeletal muscle units (SMUs). Using our established SMU fabrication protocol, muscle isolates were cultured with three experimental DEX concentrations (5, 10, and 25 nM) and compared to untreated controls. Following seeding onto a laminin-coated Sylgard substrate, the administration of DEX was initiated on day 0 or day 6 in growth medium or on day 9 after the switch to differentiation medium and was sustained until the completion of SMU fabrication. During this process, total cell proliferation was measured with a BrdU assay, and myogenesis and structural advancement of muscle cells were observed through immunostaining for MyoD, myogenin, desmin, and α-actinin. After SMU formation, isometric tetanic force production was measured to quantify function. The histological and functional assessment of the SMU showed that the administration of 10 nM DEX beginning on either day 0 or day 6 yielded optimal SMUs. These optimized SMUs exhibited formation of advanced sarcomeric structure and significant increases in myotube diameter and myotube fusion index, compared with untreated controls. Additionally, the optimized SMUs matured functionally, as indicated by a fivefold rise in force production. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that the addition of DEX to our process of engineering skeletal muscle tissue improves myogenesis, advances muscle structure, and increases force production in the

  9. Isolation of Endothelial Cells and Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells from Internal Mammary Artery Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Stephanie C.; Bates, Michael; Parrino, Patrick E.; Woods, T. Cooper

    2007-01-01

    Analyses of vascular smooth muscle cell and endothelial cell function through tissue culture techniques are often employed to investigate the underlying mechanisms regulating cardiovascular disease. As diseases such as diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease increase a patient's risk of cardiovascular disease, the development of methods for examining the effects of these diseases on vascular smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells is needed. Commercial sources of endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells generally provide minimal donor information and are in limited supply. This study was designed to determine if vascular smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells could be isolated from human internal mammary arteries obtained from donors undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery. As coronary artery bypass graft surgery is a commonly performed procedure, this method would provide a new source for these cells that when combined with the donor's medical history will greatly enhance our studies of the effects of complicating diseases on vascular biology. Internal mammary artery tissue was obtained from patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Through a simple method employing two separate tissue digestions, vascular smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells were isolated and characterized. The isolated vascular smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells exhibited the expected morphology and were able to be passaged for further analysis. The vascular smooth muscle cells exhibited positive staining for α-smooth muscle actin and the endothelial cells exhibited positive staining for CD31. The overall purity of the isolations was > 95%. This method allows for the isolation of endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells from internal mammary arteries, providing a new tool for investigations into the interplay of vascular diseases and complicating diseases such as diabetes and kidney disease. PMID:21603530

  10. Contribution of skeletal muscle and adipose tissue to adrenaline-induced thermogenesis in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, L; Stallknecht, Bente; Bülow, J

    1993-01-01

    Elevated plasma adrenaline is known to increase whole body energy expenditure. We studied the thermogenic effect and the effects on substrate utilization in man during infusion of adrenaline. Two series were performed: in one series skeletal muscle metabolism was investigated and in another series......% of the whole body adrenaline-induced thermogenesis....

  11. Contribution of skeletal muscle and adipose tissue to adrenaline-induced thermogenesis in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, L; Stallknecht, B; Bülow, J

    1993-01-01

    Elevated plasma adrenaline is known to increase whole body energy expenditure. We studied the thermogenic effect and the effects on substrate utilization in man during infusion of adrenaline. Two series were performed: in one series skeletal muscle metabolism was investigated and in another series......% of the whole body adrenaline-induced thermogenesis....

  12. Residues of the lampricides 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol and niclosamide in muscle tissue of rainbow trout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, T.D.; Bernardy, J.A.; Vue, C.; Dawson, V.K.; Boogaard, M.A.; Schreier, T.M.; Gingerich, W.H.

    2005-01-01

    Rainbow trout (Oncorhyncus mykiss) were exposed to the 14C- labeled lampricide 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) (2.1 mg/L) or niclosamide (0.055 mg/L) in an aerated static water bath for 24 h. Fish were sacrificed immediately after exposure. Subsamples of skin-on muscle tissue were analyzed for residues of the lampricides. The primary residues in muscle tissue from fish exposed to TFM were parent TFM (1.08 ?? 0.82 nmol/g) and TFM-glucuronide (0.44 ?? 0.24 nmol/g). Muscle tissue from fish exposed to niclosamide contained niclosamide (1.42 ?? 0.51 nmol/g), niclosamide-glucuronide (0.0644 ?? 0.0276 nmol/g), and a metabolite not previously reported, niclosamide sulfate ester (1.12 ?? 0.33 nmol/g).

  13. Osteogenic Differentiation Capacity of In Vitro Cultured Human Skeletal Muscle for Expedited Bone Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunlei Miao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Expedited bone tissue engineering employs the biological stimuli to harness the intrinsic regenerative potential of skeletal muscle to trigger the reparative process in situ to improve or replace biological functions. When genetically modified with adenovirus mediated BMP2 gene transfer, muscle biopsies from animals have demonstrated success in regenerating bone within rat bony defects. However, it is uncertain whether the human adult skeletal muscle displays an osteogenic potential in vitro when a suitable biological trigger is applied. In present study, human skeletal muscle cultured in a standard osteogenic medium supplemented with dexamethasone demonstrated significant increase in alkaline phosphatase activity approximately 24-fold over control at 2-week time point. More interestingly, measurement of mRNA levels revealed the dramatic results for osteoblast transcripts of alkaline phosphatase, bone sialoproteins, transcription factor CBFA1, collagen type I, and osteocalcin. Calcified mineral deposits were demonstrated on superficial layers of muscle discs after an extended 8-week osteogenic induction. Taken together, these are the first data supporting human skeletal muscle tissue as a promising potential target for expedited bone regeneration, which of the technologies is a valuable method for tissue repair, being not only effective but also inexpensive and clinically expeditious.

  14. Osteogenic Differentiation Capacity of In Vitro Cultured Human Skeletal Muscle for Expedited Bone Tissue Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Chunlei; Zhou, Lulu; Tian, Lufeng; Zhang, Yingjie; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Fanghong; Liu, Tianyi

    2017-01-01

    Expedited bone tissue engineering employs the biological stimuli to harness the intrinsic regenerative potential of skeletal muscle to trigger the reparative process in situ to improve or replace biological functions. When genetically modified with adenovirus mediated BMP2 gene transfer, muscle biopsies from animals have demonstrated success in regenerating bone within rat bony defects. However, it is uncertain whether the human adult skeletal muscle displays an osteogenic potential in vitro when a suitable biological trigger is applied. In present study, human skeletal muscle cultured in a standard osteogenic medium supplemented with dexamethasone demonstrated significant increase in alkaline phosphatase activity approximately 24-fold over control at 2-week time point. More interestingly, measurement of mRNA levels revealed the dramatic results for osteoblast transcripts of alkaline phosphatase, bone sialoproteins, transcription factor CBFA1, collagen type I, and osteocalcin. Calcified mineral deposits were demonstrated on superficial layers of muscle discs after an extended 8-week osteogenic induction. Taken together, these are the first data supporting human skeletal muscle tissue as a promising potential target for expedited bone regeneration, which of the technologies is a valuable method for tissue repair, being not only effective but also inexpensive and clinically expeditious. PMID:28210626

  15. Resistance exercise-induced fluid shifts: change in active muscle size and plasma volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.; Convertino, V. A.; Dudley, G. A.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that the reduction in plasma volume (PV) induced by resistance exercise reflects fluid loss to the extravascular space and subsequently selective increase in cross-sectional area (CSA) of active but not inactive skeletal muscle. We compared changes in active and inactive muscle CSA and PV after barbell squat exercise. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to quantify muscle involvement in exercise and to determine CSA of muscle groups or individual muscles [vasti (VS), adductor (Add), hamstring (Ham), and rectus femoris (RF)]. Muscle involvement in exercise was determined using exercise-induced contrast shift in spin-spin relaxation time (T2)-weighted MR images immediately postexercise. Alterations in muscle size were based on the mean CSA of individual slices. Hematocrit, hemoglobin, and Evans blue dye were used to estimate changes in PV. Muscle CSA and PV data were obtained preexercise and immediately postexercise and 15 and 45 min thereafter. A hierarchy of muscle involvement in exercise was found such that VS > Add > Ham > RF, with the Ham and RF showing essentially no involvement. CSA of the VS and Add muscle groups were increased 10 and 5%, respectively, immediately after exercise in each thigh with no changes in Ham and RF CSA. PV was decreased 22% immediately following exercise. The absolute loss of PV was correlated (r2 = 0.75) with absolute increase in muscle CSA immediately postexercise, supporting the notion that increased muscle size after resistance exercise reflects primarily fluid movement from the vascular space into active but not inactive muscle.

  16. Muscle repair: platelet-rich plasma derivates as a bridge from spontaneity to intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Mikel; Anitua, Eduardo; Delgado, Diego; Sánchez, Pello; Orive, Gorka; Padilla, Sabino

    2014-10-01

    Muscle injuries account for between 10% and 55% of all sporting injuries. Although the skeletal muscle is a plastic organ capable of responding efficiently to environmental changes, the appropriate treatment of muscle injuries remains a daunting clinical challenge in sports medicine. There is considerable evidence to indicate that growth factors, such as transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) or insulin-like growth factor (IGF), and fibrin matrix are key in cellular events required for muscle repair and regeneration, namely myogenesis, angiogenesis and fibrogenesis. An innovative biological approach to the treatment of muscle injuries is the application of Plasma Rich in Growth Factors (PRGF) in intramuscular infiltrations. PRGF delivers growth factors, cytokines and adhesive proteins present in platelets and plasma, as well as other biologically-active proteins conveyed by the plasma, such as fibrinogen, prothrombin and fibronectin. This autologous, mimetic biomaterial embedded with a pool of growth factors acts as a smart dynamic scaffold, and should be applied taking into account a biological approach. A clinical trial is required to assess the functional repair outcome of PRGF infiltrations in muscle injuries.

  17. The influence of prior hamstring injury on lengthening muscle tissue mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silder, Amy; Reeder, Scott B; Thelen, Darryl G

    2010-08-26

    Hamstring strain injuries often occur near the proximal musculotendon junction (MTJ) of the biceps femoris. Post-injury remodeling can involve scar tissue formation, which may alter contraction mechanics and influence re-injury risk. The purpose of this study was to assess the affect of prior hamstring strain injury on muscle tissue displacements and strains during active lengthening contractions. Eleven healthy and eight subjects with prior biceps femoris injuries were tested. All previously injured subjects had since returned to sport and exhibited evidence of residual scarring along the proximal aponeurosis. Subjects performed cyclic knee flexion-extension on an MRI-compatible device using elastic and inertial loads, which induced active shortening and lengthening contractions, respectively. CINE phase-contrast imaging was used to measure tissue velocities within the biceps femoris during these tasks. Numerical integration of the velocity information was used to estimate two-dimensional tissue displacement and strain fields during muscle lengthening. The largest tissue motion was observed along the distal MTJ, with the active lengthening muscle exhibiting significantly greater and more homogeneous tissue displacements. First principal strain magnitudes were largest along the proximal MTJ for both loading conditions. The previously injured subjects exhibited less tissue motion and significantly greater strains near the proximal MTJ. We conclude that localized regions of high tissue strains during active lengthening contractions may predispose the proximal biceps femoris to injury. Furthermore, post-injury remodeling may alter the in-series stiffness seen by muscle tissue and contribute to the relatively larger localized tissue strains near the proximal MTJ, as was observed in this study. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism analysis of fat and muscle tissues in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, J D; Li, M Z; Zhou, S L; Zhou, C W; Li, X W

    2012-09-26

    DNA methylation may be involved in regulating the expression of protein-coding genes, resulting in different fat and muscle phenotypes. Using a methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism approach, we obtained 7423 bands by selective amplification of genomic DNA from six different fat depots and two heterogeneous muscle types from Duroc/Landrace/Yorkshire cross-bred pigs. The degrees of DNA methylation, determined by the percentages of hemi- and fully methylated sites relative to the total number of CCGG sites, were similar in male and female pigs for each specific tissue [χ(2) test; P (two-tailed) > 0.05]. Gender bias was therefore ignored. There were significant differences in the degree of DNA methylation among the eight tissue types [χ(2) test; P(total) (two-tailed) = 0.009]. However, similar degrees of methylation were observed among the six fat depots [χ(2) test; P(fat) (two-tailed) = 0.24 > 0.05]and between the two muscle types [χ(2) test; P(muscle) (two-tailed) = 0.76 > 0.05]. We conclude that the degree of DNA methylation differs between porcine fat and muscle tissue, but that the methylation status of a particular tissue type is similar, despite being deposited at different body sites.

  19. Changes in joint angle, muscle-tendon complex length, muscle contractile tissue displacement, and modulation of EMG activity during acute whole-body vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Darryl J; Loram, Ian D; Stannard, Stephen R; Rittweger, Jörn

    2009-09-01

    It has been suggested that vibration causes small changes in muscle length, but to the best of our knowledge, these have yet to be demonstrated during whole-body vibration (WBV). This was an observational study to determine whether acute WBV would result in muscle lengthening. We hypothesized that acute WBV would increase electromyography (EMG) activity concurrently with measurable changes in muscle contractile length. Nine healthy males performed two conditions on a Galileo vibration machine for 15 s at 0 HZ (resting) and 6 HZ at a set knee angle of 18 degrees. Muscle tendon complex length, contractile tissue displacement of the medial gastrocnemius muscle, and EMG of soleus, tibialis anterior, and vastus lateralis muscles were measured. At 6 HZ the medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscle tendon complex (MTC) amplitude (375 microm) was significantly greater (P EMG modulation were found for all muscles during the 6 HZ compared to the 0 HZ condition. The major finding was that approximately 50% of the elongation occurred within the muscle itself and was associated with preceding changes in EMG. This indicates muscle lengthening may be a prerequisite for eliciting stretch reflexes. In conclusion, there is a temporal association between EMG activity and muscle contractile tissue displacement where low-frequency WBV results in small muscle length changes and increases muscle activation.

  20. Cocaine residue in plasma, cardiac and tracheal tissues of chronic cocaine-treated guinea-pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malinee Wongnawa

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Supersensitivity of adrenoceptors to catecholamines is one of the mechanisms of cocaine-related cardiac complication. The precise mechanism of cocaine enhancing supersensitivity of adrenoceptors is unconcluded. The aim of this study was todetermine the levels of cocaine in plasma, cardiac and tracheal tissues in order to correlate with the supersensitivity ofadrenoceptors to catecholamines. In this study, two groups of ten guinea-pigs each were injected with 2.5 mg/kg cocaine or normal saline solution intraperitoneally twice daily for 14 days. After 24 hours of cocaine cessation, the cocaine levels in plasma, cardiac and tracheal tissues were determined using high performance liquid chromatography. The results showed that the cocaine levels in plasma and tracheal smooth muscle were 5.08±0.63 ng/ml and 2.8±0.41 ng/mg, respectively, while those in atria and ventricle were lower than 17.5 ng/g and 3.8 ng/g, respectively. These levels were less than the level that had been reported to block norepinephrine uptake (more than 30.34 ng/ml. Moreover, it had been demonstrated that cocainetreatment in the same condition as the present study produced supersensitivity to norepinephrine and epinephrine in isolatedguinea-pig atria as well as in trachea which is almost entirely not innervated by the adrenergic nerves. In addition, supersensitivityto oxymetazoline, isoproterenol and salbutamol which are not the substrates of neuronal reuptake were also demonstrated. All these data support the postsynaptic mechanism of cocaine enhancing supersensitivity which might be correlated with cardiac complication in chronic cocaine use.

  1. Fatty acid composition of muscle and adipose tissue of beef cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Jurić

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The fatty acid (FA composition of muscle and adipose tissue was investigated in intensively fed beef cattle. Heifers had more intramuscular fat with higher proportion of monounsaturated FA, while bulls had higher proportion of polyunsaturated FA (PUFA. The same was found in adipose tissue accompanied by higher proportion of saturated FA (SFA in bulls. The PUFA/SFA ratio was close to recommendation for human diet only in bulls’ muscle, while n-6/n-3 PUFA ratios were generally higher than recommended. The observed FA variability between sexes was due to the differences in fatness. To improve the nutritional value, the n-3 PUFA in beef should be increased.

  2. Change in refractive index of muscle tissue during laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Na; Chen, Meimei; Liu, Shupeng; Guo, Qiang; Chen, Zhenyi; Wang, Tingyun

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a long-period fiber-grating (LPG) based Michelson interferometric refractometry to monitor the change in refractive index of porcine muscle during laser-induced interstitial thermotherapy (LITT). As the wavelength of RI interferometer alters with the change in refractive index around the probe, the LPG based refractometry is combined with LITT system to measure the change in refractive index of porcine muscle when irradiated by laser. The experimental results show the denaturation of tissue alters the refractive index significantly and the LPG sensor can be applied to monitor the tissue state during the LITT.

  3. Fish fins as non-lethal surrogates for muscle tissues in freshwater food web studies using stable isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hette Tronquart, Nicolas; Mazeas, Laurent; Reuilly-Manenti, Liana; Zahm, Amandine; Belliard, Jérôme

    2012-07-30

    Dorsal white muscle is the standard tissue analysed in fish trophic studies using stable isotope analyses. However, sampling white muscle often implies the sacrifice of fish. Thus, we examined whether the non-lethal sampling of fin tissue can substitute muscle sampling in food web studies. Analysing muscle and fin δ(15)N and δ(13)C values of 466 European freshwater fish (14 species) with an elemental analyser coupled with an isotope ratio mass spectrometer, we compared the isotope values of the two tissues. Correlations between fin and muscle isotope ratios were examined for all fish together and specifically for 12 species. We further proposed four methods of assessing muscle from fin isotope ratios and estimated the errors made using these muscle surrogates. Despite significant differences between isotope values of the two tissues, fin and muscle isotopic signals are strongly correlated. Muscle values, estimated with raw fin isotope ratios (1st method), induce an error of ca. 1‰ for both isotopes. In comparison, specific (2nd method) or general (3rd method) correlations provide meaningful corrections of fin isotope ratios (errors muscle estimates (errors >0.8‰). There is little chance that a global model can be created. However, the 2nd and 3rd methods of estimating muscle values from fin isotope ratios should provide an acceptable level of error for the studies of European freshwater food web. We thus recommend that future studies use fin tissue as a non-lethal surrogate for muscle. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Comparative transcriptome profiling of longissimus muscle tissues from Qianhua Mutton Merino and Small Tail Han sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Limin; Bai, Man; Xiang, Lujie; Zhang, Guishan; Ma, Wei; Jiang, Huaizhi

    2016-09-20

    The Qianhua Mutton Merino (QHMM) is a new sheep (Ovis aries) variety with better meat performance compared with the traditional local variety Small Tail Han (STH) sheep. We aimed to evaluate the transcriptome regulators associated with muscle growth and development between the QHMM and STH. We used RNA-Seq to obtain the transcriptome profiles of the longissimus muscle from the QHMM and STH. The results showed that 960 genes were differentially expressed (405 were up-regulated and 555 were down-regulated). Among these, 463 differently expressed genes (DEGs) were probably associated with muscle growth and development and were involved in biological processes such as skeletal muscle tissue development and muscle cell differentiation; molecular functions such as catalytic activity and oxidoreductase activity; cellular components such as mitochondrion and sarcoplasmic reticulum; and pathways such as metabolic pathways and citrate cycle. From the potential genes, a gene-act-network and co-expression-network closely related to muscle growth and development were identified and established. Finally, the expressions of nine genes were validated by real-time PCR. The results suggested that some DEGs, including MRFs, GXP1 and STAC3, play crucial roles in muscle growth and development processes. This genome-wide transcriptome analysis of QHMM and STH muscle is reported for the first time.

  5. Automated segmentation of muscle and adipose tissue on CT images for human body composition analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Howard; Cobzas, Dana; Birdsell, Laura; Lieffers, Jessica; Baracos, Vickie

    2009-02-01

    The ability to compute body composition in cancer patients lends itself to determining the specific clinical outcomes associated with fat and lean tissue stores. For example, a wasting syndrome of advanced disease associates with shortened survival. Moreover, certain tissue compartments represent sites for drug distribution and are likely determinants of chemotherapy efficacy and toxicity. CT images are abundant, but these cannot be fully exploited unless there exist practical and fast approaches for tissue quantification. Here we propose a fully automated method for segmenting muscle, visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues, taking the approach of shape modeling for the analysis of skeletal muscle. Muscle shape is represented using PCA encoded Free Form Deformations with respect to a mean shape. The shape model is learned from manually segmented images and used in conjunction with a tissue appearance prior. VAT and SAT are segmented based on the final deformed muscle shape. In comparing the automatic and manual methods, coefficients of variation (COV) (1 - 2%), were similar to or smaller than inter- and intra-observer COVs reported for manual segmentation.

  6. Diet and exercise reduce low-grade inflammation and macrophage infiltration in adipose tissue but not in skeletal muscle in severely obese subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Jens M; Helge, Jørn W; Richelsen, Bjørn

    2006-01-01

    Obesity is associated with low-grade inflammation, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. This study investigated the effect of a 15-wk lifestyle intervention (hypocaloric diet and daily exercise) on inflammatory markers in plasma, adipose tissue (AT), and skeletal muscle...... (SM) in 27 severely obese subjects (mean body mass index: 45.8 kg/m2). Plasma samples, subcutaneous abdominal AT biopsies, and vastus lateralis SM biopsies were obtained before and after the intervention and analyzed by ELISA and RT-PCR. The intervention reduced body weight (P

  7. Melatonin increases intracellular calcium in the liver, muscle, white adipose tissues and pancreas of diabetic obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agil, A; Elmahallawy, E K; Rodríguez-Ferrer, J M; Adem, A; Bastaki, S M; Al-Abbadi, I; Fino Solano, Y A; Navarro-Alarcón, M

    2015-08-01

    Melatonin, a widespread substance with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, has been found to act as an antidiabetic agent in animal models, regulating the release and action of insulin. However, the molecular bases of this antidiabetic action are unknown, limiting its application in humans. Several studies have recently shown that melatonin can modify calcium (Ca(2+)) in diabetic animals, and Ca(2+) has been reported to be involved in glucose homeostasis. The objective of the present study was to assess whether the antidiabetic effect of chronic melatonin at pharmacological doses is established via Ca(2+) regulation in different tissues in an animal model of obesity-related type 2 diabetes, using Zücker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats and their lean littermates, Zücker lean (ZL) rats. After the treatments, flame atomic absorption spectrometry was used to determine Ca(2+) levels in the liver, muscle, main types of internal white adipose tissue, subcutaneous lumbar fat, pancreas, brain, and plasma. This study reports for the first time that chronic melatonin administration (10 mg per kg body weight per day for 6 weeks) increases Ca(2+) levels in muscle, liver, different adipose tissues, and pancreas in ZDF rats, although there were no significant changes in their brain or plasma Ca(2+) levels. We propose that this additional peripheral dual action mechanism underlies the improvement in insulin sensitivity and secretion previously documented in samples from the same animals. According to these results, indoleamine may be a potential candidate for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus associated with obesity.

  8. The contribution of different adipose tissue depots to plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Sunelle A; Pieters, Marlien; De Lange, Zelda

    2016-11-01

    Increased plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) level is considered a mechanistic pathway through which obesity contributes to increased cardiovascular disease risk. Abdominal adipose tissue specifically, is a major PAI-1 source with visceral adipose tissue (VAT), an ectopic fat depot, generally considered to produce more PAI-1 than subcutaneous adipose tissue. However, this does not necessarily lead to increased plasma PAI-1 levels. This review provides an overview of studies investigating the association between body fat distribution and plasma PAI-1 levels. It discusses factors that influence this relationship and also considers the contribution of other tissue to plasma PAI-1 levels, placing the relative contribution of adipose tissue into perspective. In conclusion, the relationship between VAT and plasma PAI-1 levels is not fixed but can be modulated by a number of factors such as the size of the subcutaneous adipose tissue depot, ethnicity, possibly genetics and other obesity-related metabolic abnormalities.

  9. Post-exercise adipose tissue and skeletal muscle lipid metabolism in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulla, N A; Simonsen, L; Bülow, J

    2000-01-01

    , a subcutaneous abdominal vein and a femoral vein. Adipose tissue metabolism and skeletal muscle (leg) metabolism were measured using Fick's principle. The results show that the lipolytic rate in adipose tissue during exercise was the same in each experiment. Post-exercise, there was a very fast decrease......One purpose of the present experiments was to examine whether the relative workload or the absolute work performed is the major determinant of the lipid mobilization from adipose tissue during exercise. A second purpose was to determine the co-ordination of skeletal muscle and adipose tissue lipid...... in lipolysis, but it began to increase about 1 h post-exercise and remained elevated for the following 2 h. The increase in post-exercise non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) mobilization was greater after 60% exercise than after 40 % exercise. It is concluded that the lipolytic rate in abdominal subcutaneous...

  10. Effects of training and detraining on adiponectin plasma concentration and muscle sensitivity in lean and overweight men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastebois, Caroline; Villars, Clément; Drai, Jocelyne; Canet-Soulas, Emmanuelle; Blanc, Stéphane; Bergouignan, Audrey; Lefai, Etienne; Simon, Chantal

    2016-12-01

    To delineate the direct effect of physical activity on adiponectin metabolism, we investigated the impact of contrasted physical activity changes, independent of body mass changes, on adiponectin plasma concentration and muscle sensitivity in lean and overweight adult males. Eleven physically active lean men (70.6 ± 2.1 kg) were subjected to 1-month detraining; 9 sedentary lean men (73.1 ± 3.3 kg); and 11 sedentary overweight men (97.5 ± 3.0 kg) participated in a 2-month aerobic-exercise training program. Diet was controlled to maintain stable energy balance. Body composition, VO2peak, circulating adiponectin, adipose and muscle tissue adiponectin, muscle adiponectin receptors, and APPL1 mRNAs were measured before and after the interventions. At baseline, plasma high-molecular-weight adiponectin concentration was lower in both active lean (5.44 ± 0.58 µg/mL) and sedentary overweight (5.30 ± 1.06 µg/mL) than in sedentary lean participants (7.44 ± 1.06 µg/mL; both p adiponectin concentrations by, respectively, -32 and -42 % in sedentary lean, and -26 and -35 % in sedentary overweight, while detraining increased them by +25 and +27 % in active lean participants. Total and high-molecular-weight adiponectin changes were inversely correlated with VO2peak changes (respectively, R (2) = 0.45, R (2) = 0.59; both p adiponectin mRNA did not differ between groups and with interventions. Muscle AdipoR2 and APPL1 mRNAs were lower in sedentary groups compared with the active group; and were positively associated with VO2peak and inversely with fasting plasma insulin concentration. Plasma adiponectin concentration is inversely correlated with aerobic capacity. Future investigations will need to confirm the contribution of changes in muscle adiponectin sensitivity.

  11. Hypoxia Promotes Proliferation of Human Myogenic Satellite Cells : A Potential Benefactor in Tissue Engineering of Skeletal Muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, Merel; Werker, Paul M. N.; van Luyn, Marja J. A.; Harmsen, Martin C.

    2011-01-01

    Facial paralysis is a physically, psychologically, and socially disabling condition. Innovative treatment strategies based on regenerative medicine, in particular tissue engineering of skeletal muscle, are promising for treatment of patients with facial paralysis. The natural source for tissue-engin

  12. Tissue-specific changes in fatty acid oxidation in hypoxic heart and skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morash, Andrea J; Kotwica, Aleksandra O; Murray, Andrew J

    2013-09-01

    Exposure to hypobaric hypoxia is sufficient to decrease cardiac PCr/ATP and alters skeletal muscle energetics in humans. Cellular mechanisms underlying the different metabolic responses of these tissues and the time-dependent nature of these changes are currently unknown, but altered substrate utilization and mitochondrial function may be a contributory factor. We therefore sought to investigate the effects of acute (1 day) and more sustained (7 days) hypoxia (13% O₂) on the transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) and its targets in mouse cardiac and skeletal muscle. In the heart, PPARα expression was 40% higher than in normoxia after 1 and 7 days of hypoxia. Activities of carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) I and β-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (HOAD) were 75% and 35% lower, respectively, after 1 day of hypoxia, returning to normoxic levels after 7 days. Oxidative phosphorylation respiration rates using palmitoyl-carnitine followed a similar pattern, while respiration using pyruvate decreased. In skeletal muscle, PPARα expression and CPT I activity were 20% and 65% lower, respectively, after 1 day of hypoxia, remaining at this level after 7 days with no change in HOAD activity. Oxidative phosphorylation respiration rates using palmitoyl-carnitine were lower in skeletal muscle throughout hypoxia, while respiration using pyruvate remained unchanged. The rate of CO₂ production from palmitate oxidation was significantly lower in both tissues throughout hypoxia. Thus cardiac muscle may remain reliant on fatty acids during sustained hypoxia, while skeletal muscle decreases fatty acid oxidation and maintains pyruvate oxidation.

  13. Roles of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 in fibrogenic/adipogenic differentiation in skeletal muscle tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Shiho; Nakano, Shin-Ichi; Nakamura, Katsuyuki; Ozoe, Atsufumi; Chien, Peggie; Yoshihara, Hidehito; Hakuno, Fumihiko; Matsuwaki, Takashi; Saeki, Yasushi; Takahashi, Shin-Ichiro; Yamanouchi, Keitaro; Nishihara, Masugi

    2016-10-01

    Intramuscular adipose tissue and fibrous tissue are observed in some skeletal muscle pathologies such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy and sarcopenia, and affect muscle strength and myogenesis. They originate from common fibrogenic/adipogenic cells in the skeletal muscle. Thus, elucidating the regulatory mechanisms underlying fibrogenic/adipogenic cell differentiation is an important step toward the mediation of these disorders. Previously, we established a highly adipogenic progenitor clone, 2G11, from rat skeletal muscle and showed that basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) is pro-adipogenic in these cells. Here, we demonstrated that 2G11 cells give rise to fibroblasts upon transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 stimulation, indicating that they possess mesenchymal progenitor cells (MPC)-like characteristics. The previously reported MPC marker PDGFRα is expressed in other cell populations. Accordingly, we produced monoclonal antibodies that specifically bind to 2G11 cell surface antigens and identified chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4) as a potential MPC marker. Based on an RNA interference analysis, we found that CSPG4 is involved in both the pro-adipogenic effect of bFGF and in TGF-β-induced alpha smooth muscle actin expression and stress fiber formation. By establishing an additional marker for MPC detection and characterizing its role in fibrogenic/adipogenic differentiation, these results will facilitate the development of effective treatments for skeletal muscle pathologies.

  14. Tissue-specific effects of hypothyroidism on postnatal muscle development in the barnacle goose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deaton, K E; Bishop, C M; Butler, P J

    1998-03-01

    The hypothesis that tissue-specific levels of thyroid hormones may be required for normal locomotor muscle development was investigated in the barnacle goose Branta leucopsis. Hypothyroidism was induced in goslings by treatment with methimazole from either 3 days or 2 weeks of age, and birds were killed at 7 weeks of age. The masses of the pectoralis, iliofibularis, semimembranosus and cardiac ventricle muscles were measured, and samples from these tissues were analysed for the mass-specific activity of the mitochondrial enzyme citrate synthase (CS). An ultrastructural electron micrograph analysis of the pectoralis was also carried out. No significant differences were found between the two hypothyroid groups except for the effect on the relative mass of the iliofibularis muscle. Developmental responses to hypothyroidism were found to be tissue-specific. Hypothyroidism resulted in a significantly lower relative cardiac ventricle mass (by 17 %) and CS activity of the leg muscles (by 34 %), while absolute leg muscle mass was not affected. The relative mass of the pectoralis was significantly lower (by 57 %) in hypothyroid birds and showed a significant, uniformly lower CS activity (by 60-83 %) as a result of a lower mitochondrial fractional volume. Haematocrit and capillary-to-fibre ratio in the pectoralis were also significantly lower in hypothyroid birds, and skeletal growth and plumage development were affected.

  15. Treadmill exercise induces neutrophil recruitment into muscle tissue in a reactive oxygen species-dependent manner. An intravital microscopy study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albená Nunes-Silva

    Full Text Available Intense exercise is a physiological stress capable of inducing the interaction of neutrophils with muscle endothelial cells and their transmigration into tissue. Mechanisms driving this physiological inflammatory response are not known. Here, we investigate whether production of reactive oxygen species is relevant for neutrophil interaction with endothelial cells and recruitment into the quadriceps muscle in mice subjected to the treadmill fatiguing exercise protocol. Mice exercised until fatigue by running for 56.3±6.8 min on an electric treadmill. Skeletal muscle was evaluated by intravital microscopy at different time points after exercise, and then removed to assess local oxidative stress and histopathological analysis. We observed an increase in plasma lactate and creatine kinase (CK concentrations after exercise. The numbers of monocytes, neutrophils, and lymphocytes in blood increased 12 and 24 hours after the exercise. Numbers of rolling and adherent leukocytes increased 3, 6, 12, and 24 hours post-exercise, as assessed by intravital microscopy. Using LysM-eGFP mice and confocal intravital microscopy technology, we show that the number of transmigrating neutrophils increased 12 hours post-exercise. Mutant gp91phox-/- (non-functional NADPH oxidase mice and mice treated with apocynin showed diminished neutrophil recruitment. SOD treatment promoted further adhesion and transmigration of leukocytes 12 hours after the exercise. These findings confirm our hypothesis that treadmill exercise increases the recruitment of leukocytes to the postcapillary venules, and NADPH oxidase-induced ROS plays an important role in this process.

  16. Blood flow and oxygenation in peritendinous tissue and calf muscle during dynamic exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boushel, R; Langberg, Henning; Green, Stefan Mathias;

    2000-01-01

    1. Circulation around tendons may act as a shunt for muscle during exercise. The perfusion and oxygenation of Achilles' peritendinous tissue was measured in parallel with that of calf muscle during exercise to determine (1) whether blood flow is restricted in peritendinous tissue during exercise......, and (2) whether blood flow is coupled to oxidative metabolism. 2. Seven individuals performed dynamic plantar flexion from 1 to 9 W. Radial artery and popliteal venous blood were sampled for O2, peritendinous blood flow was determined by 133Xe-washout, calf blood flow by plethysmography, cardiac output...... by dye dilution, arterial pressure by an arterial catheter-transducer, and muscle and peritendinous O2 saturation by spatially resolved spectroscopy (SRS). 3. Calf blood flow rose 20-fold with exercise, reaching 44 +/- 7 ml (100 g)-1 min-1 (mean +/- s.e.m. ) at 9 W, while Achilles' peritendinous flow...

  17. Short-term immobilization and recovery affect skeletal muscle but not collagen tissue turnover in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Britt; Dyrberg, Eva; Aagaard, Per

    2008-01-01

    of 6% (5,413 to 5,077 mm(2)) in cross-sectional area (CSA) of the triceps surae muscles and a mean decrease of 9% (261 to 238 N.m) in strength of the immobilized calf muscles. Two weeks of recovery resulted in a 6% increased in CSA (to 5,367 mm(2)), whereas strength remained suppressed (240 N...... muscle size and strength, while tendon size and collagen turnover were unchanged. While recovery resulted in an increase in muscle size, strength was unchanged. No significant difference in tendon size could be detected between the two legs after 2 wk of recovery, although collagen synthesis......Not much is known about the effects of immobilization and subsequent recovery on tendon connective tissue. In the present study, healthy young men had their nondominant leg immobilized for a 2-wk period, followed by a recovery period of the same length. Immobilization resulted in a mean decrease...

  18. Evaluation of tissue and urinary survivin expression in non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sharaf

    2012-12-01

    Conclusion: Urinary survivin is a useful marker for non-invasive detection of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer recurrence. Its detection is better using ELISA technique than WB and there is no correlation between its expression in tissue and urine.

  19. Cloning and analysis of differentially expressed ESTs in swine muscle tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Chongsheng; CHEN; Yaosheng; WANG; Chong; LI; Jiaqi

    2006-01-01

    The obvious difference in muscle growth and meat quality traits exists between Chinese indigenous pig and exotic pigs. In order to study the reason of these phenotypic differences and search the potential gene related to growth and meat quality traits, silver-stained mRNA differential display technique was used to detect the difference with mRNA of loin-eye muscle tissue from maturity pigs of Lantang in Guangdong Province and Large Yorkshire. One of the newly discovered expressed sequence tag (ESTsp3) was analyzed by using bioinformatic technique. The results showed: (1) nearly 2000 cDNA fragments were detected with 30 primer pairs, and 6 differentially expressed ESTs in the loin-eye muscle tissues from the two breeds were isolated and obtained. The differential fragments were cloned and sequenced. The all sequences were recorded in the GenBank. (2) The 786 bp fragment of ESTsp3 was obtained with in silico elongation system, the ORF analysis revealed that it existed as an 83 aa complete open reading frame, and the elongation sequences were verified by RT-PCR. The analysis of in silico expression profile showed that ESTsp3 is expressed in various growth stages and in most tissues and organs, such as soft tissue, skin, skeletal muscle and kidney, but with variant expression quantity.

  20. Quantitatively differentiating microstructural variations of skeletal muscle tissues by multispectral Mueller matrix imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yang; He, Honghui; He, Chao; Ma, Hui

    2016-10-01

    Polarized light is sensitive to the microstructures of biological tissues and can be used to detect physiological changes. Meanwhile, spectral features of the scattered light can also provide abundant microstructural information of tissues. In this paper, we take the backscattering polarization Mueller matrix images of bovine skeletal muscle tissues during the 24-hour experimental time, and analyze their multispectral behavior using quantitative Mueller matrix parameters. In the processes of rigor mortis and proteolysis of muscle samples, multispectral frequency distribution histograms (FDHs) of the Mueller matrix elements can reveal rich qualitative structural information. In addition, we analyze the temporal variations of the sample using the multispectral Mueller matrix transformation (MMT) parameters. The experimental results indicate that the different stages of rigor mortis and proteolysis for bovine skeletal muscle samples can be judged by these MMT parameters. The results presented in this work show that combining with the multispectral technique, the FDHs and MMT parameters can characterize the microstructural variation features of skeletal muscle tissues. The techniques have the potential to be used as tools for quantitative assessment of meat qualities in food industry.

  1. Model of electrical conductivity of skeletal muscle based on tissue structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielen, F.L.H.; Cruts, H.E.P.; Alberts, B.A.; Boon, K.L.; Wallinga, W.; Boom, H.B.K.

    1986-01-01

    Recent experiments carried out in our laboratory with the four-electrode method showed that the electrical conductivity of skeletal muscle tissue depends on the frequency of the injected current and the distance between the current electrodes. A model is proposed in order to study these effects. The

  2. Metallomics investigations on potential binding partners of methylmercury in tuna fish muscle tissue using complementary mass spectrometric techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutscher, Daniel J; Sanz-Medel, Alfredo; Bettmer, Jörg

    2012-08-01

    In this study, the binding behaviour of methylmercury (MeHg(+)) towards proteins is investigated. Free sulfhydryl groups in cysteine residues are known to be the most likely binding partners, due to the high affinity of mercury to sulphur. However, detailed knowledge about discrete binding sites in living organisms has been so far scarce. A metallomics approach using different methods like size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) and liquid chromatography (LC) coupled to inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) as well as complementary mass spectrometric techniques (electrospray ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry, ESI-MS/MS) are combined to sequence and identify possible target proteins or peptides after enzymatic digestion. Potential targets for MeHg(+) in tuna fish muscle tissue are investigated using the certified reference material CRM464 as a model tissue. Different extraction procedures appropriate for the extraction of proteins are evaluated for their efficiency using isotope dilution analysis for the determination of total Hg in the extracts. Due to the high chemical stability of the mercury-sulphur bond, the bioconjugate can be quantitatively extracted with a combination of tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane (TRIS) and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS). Using different separation techniques such as SEC and SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) it can be shown that major binding occurs to a high-molecular weight protein (M(w) > 200 kDa). A potential target protein, skeletal muscle myosin heavy chain, could be identified after tryptic digestion and capillary LC-ESI-MS/MS.

  3. [Plasma and tissue lipids in rats after a flight on the Kosmos-936 biosatellite].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlers, J; Tigranian, R A; Praslická, M

    1982-01-01

    The content of triglycerides, total cholesterol, phospholipids and nonesterified fatty acids was measured in plasma and tissues of rats flown for 18.5 days on Cosmos-936 in the weightless and centrifuged state. The weightlessness exposure increased lipid fractions in plasma and tissues, and artificial gravity produced a beneficial effect.

  4. Catecholamine-induced lipolysis in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jocken, Johan W E; Blaak, Ellen E

    2008-05-23

    Increased fat storage in adipose and non-adipose tissue (e.g. skeletal muscle) characterizes the obese insulin resistant state. Disturbances in pathways of lipolysis may play a role in the development and maintenance of these increased fat stores. A reduced catecholamine-induced lipolysis may contribute to the development and maintenance of increased adipose tissue stores. To data, a reduced hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) expression is the best characterized defect contributing to this catecholamine resistance. The recently discovered adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) seems not to be involved in the catecholamine resistance of lipolysis observed in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue of obese subjects, which contrasts with findings in mice studies. So far, little is known on the regulation of skeletal muscle lipolysis. There is evidence of both HSL and ATGL activity and/or expression in skeletal muscle. A blunted fasting and/or catecholamine-induced lipolysis has been reported in skeletal muscle, but data require confirmation. It is tempting to speculate that an imbalance between ATGL and HSL expression results in incomplete lipolysis and increased accumulation of lipid intermediates in skeletal muscle of obese insulin resistant subjects. The latter may inhibit insulin signalling and play a role in the development of type 2 diabetes. This review summarizes the current knowledge on (intracellular) adipose tissue and skeletal muscle lipolysis in obesity, discusses the underlying mechanisms of these disturbances and will finally address the question whether disturbances in the lipolytic pathways may be primary factors in the etiology of obesity or adaptational responses to the obese insulin resistant state.

  5. Effects of DC bias voltages on the RF-excited plasma-tissue interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Aijun; Liu, Dingxin; Wang, Xiaohua; Li, Jiafeng; Chen, Chen; Rong, Mingzhe; Kong, Michael G.

    2016-10-01

    We present in this study how DC bias voltage impacts on the fluxes of reactive species on the skin tissue by means of a plasma-tissue interaction model. The DC bias voltage inputs less than 2% of the total discharge power, and hence it has little influence on the whole plasma characteritics including the volume-averaged densities of reactive species and the heating effect. However, it pushes the plasma bulk towards the skin surface, which significantly changes the local plasma characteristics in the vicinity of the skin surface, and in consequence remarkably enhances the flux densities of reactive species on the skin tissue. With the consideration of plasma dosage and heat damage on the skin tissue, DC bias voltage is a better approach compared with the common approach of increasing the plasma power. Since the DC voltage is easy to apply on the human body, it is a promising approach for use in clincial applications.

  6. Evaluation of several techniques to modify denatured muscle tissue to obtain a scaffold for peripheral nerve regeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meek, MF; den Dunnen, WFA; Schakenraad, JM; Robinson, PH

    The aim of this study was to (1) evaluate the effect of several preparation techniques of denatured muscle tissue to obtain an open three-dimensional structure, and (2) test if this scaffold is suitable for peripheral nerve regeneration. Four samples (A-D) of muscle tissue specimens were evaluated

  7. Evaluation of several techniques to modify denatured muscle tissue to obtain a scaffold for peripheral nerve regeneration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meek, MF; den Dunnen, WFA; Schakenraad, JM; Robinson, PH

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to (1) evaluate the effect of several preparation techniques of denatured muscle tissue to obtain an open three-dimensional structure, and (2) test if this scaffold is suitable for peripheral nerve regeneration. Four samples (A-D) of muscle tissue specimens were evaluated u

  8. Tissue-engineered human bioartificial muscles expressing a foreign recombinant protein for gene therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, C.; Shansky, J.; Del Tatto, M.; Forman, D. E.; Hennessey, J.; Sullivan, K.; Zielinski, B. A.; Vandenburgh, H. H.

    1999-01-01

    Murine skeletal muscle cells transduced with foreign genes and tissue engineered in vitro into bioartificial muscles (BAMs) are capable of long-term delivery of soluble growth factors when implanted into syngeneic mice (Vandenburgh et al., 1996b). With the goal of developing a therapeutic cell-based protein delivery system for humans, similar genetic tissue-engineering techniques were designed for human skeletal muscle stem cells. Stem cell myoblasts were isolated, cloned, and expanded in vitro from biopsied healthy adult (mean age, 42 +/- 2 years), and elderly congestive heart failure patient (mean age, 76 +/- 1 years) skeletal muscle. Total cell yield varied widely between biopsies (50 to 672 per 100 mg of tissue, N = 10), but was not significantly different between the two patient groups. Percent myoblasts per biopsy (73 +/- 6%), number of myoblast doublings prior to senescence in vitro (37 +/- 2), and myoblast doubling time (27 +/- 1 hr) were also not significantly different between the two patient groups. Fusion kinetics of the myoblasts were similar for the two groups after 20-22 doublings (74 +/- 2% myoblast fusion) when the biopsy samples had been expanded to 1 to 2 billion muscle cells, a number acceptable for human gene therapy use. The myoblasts from the two groups could be equally transduced ex vivo with replication-deficient retroviral expression vectors to secrete 0.5 to 2 microg of a foreign protein (recombinant human growth hormone, rhGH)/10(6) cells/day, and tissue engineered into human BAMs containing parallel arrays of differentiated, postmitotic myofibers. This work suggests that autologous human skeletal myoblasts from a potential patient population can be isolated, genetically modified to secrete foreign proteins, and tissue engineered into implantable living protein secretory devices for therapeutic use.

  9. Tissue-engineered human bioartificial muscles expressing a foreign recombinant protein for gene therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, C.; Shansky, J.; Del Tatto, M.; Forman, D. E.; Hennessey, J.; Sullivan, K.; Zielinski, B. A.; Vandenburgh, H. H.

    1999-01-01

    Murine skeletal muscle cells transduced with foreign genes and tissue engineered in vitro into bioartificial muscles (BAMs) are capable of long-term delivery of soluble growth factors when implanted into syngeneic mice (Vandenburgh et al., 1996b). With the goal of developing a therapeutic cell-based protein delivery system for humans, similar genetic tissue-engineering techniques were designed for human skeletal muscle stem cells. Stem cell myoblasts were isolated, cloned, and expanded in vitro from biopsied healthy adult (mean age, 42 +/- 2 years), and elderly congestive heart failure patient (mean age, 76 +/- 1 years) skeletal muscle. Total cell yield varied widely between biopsies (50 to 672 per 100 mg of tissue, N = 10), but was not significantly different between the two patient groups. Percent myoblasts per biopsy (73 +/- 6%), number of myoblast doublings prior to senescence in vitro (37 +/- 2), and myoblast doubling time (27 +/- 1 hr) were also not significantly different between the two patient groups. Fusion kinetics of the myoblasts were similar for the two groups after 20-22 doublings (74 +/- 2% myoblast fusion) when the biopsy samples had been expanded to 1 to 2 billion muscle cells, a number acceptable for human gene therapy use. The myoblasts from the two groups could be equally transduced ex vivo with replication-deficient retroviral expression vectors to secrete 0.5 to 2 microg of a foreign protein (recombinant human growth hormone, rhGH)/10(6) cells/day, and tissue engineered into human BAMs containing parallel arrays of differentiated, postmitotic myofibers. This work suggests that autologous human skeletal myoblasts from a potential patient population can be isolated, genetically modified to secrete foreign proteins, and tissue engineered into implantable living protein secretory devices for therapeutic use.

  10. Phosphatidic acid phosphatase and phospholipdase A activities in plasma membranes from fusing muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, C; Vagelos, P R

    1976-06-17

    Plasma membrane from fusing embryonic muscle cells were assayed for phospholipase A activity to determine if this enzyme plays a role in cell fusion. The membranes were assayed under a variety of conditions with phosphatidylcholine as the substrate and no phospholipase A activity was found. The plasma membranes did contain a phosphatidic acid phosphatase which was optimally active in the presence of Triton X-100 and glycerol. The enzyme activity was constant from pH 5.2 to 7.0, and did not require divalent cations. Over 97% of the phosphatidic acid phosphatase activity was in the particulate fraction. The subcellular distribution of the phosphatidic acid phosphatase was the same as the distributions of the plasma membrane markers, (Na+ + k+)-ATPase and the acetylcholine receptor, which indicates that this phosphatase is located exclusively in the plasma membranes. There was no detectable difference in the phosphatidic acid phosphatase activities of plasma membranes from fusing and non-fusing cells.

  11. Oxidative stress and DNA damage signalling in skeletal muscle in pressure-induced deep tissue injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Thomas K; Pei, Xiao M; Teng, Bee T; Tam, Eric W; Yung, Benjamin Y; Siu, Parco M

    2013-02-01

    The molecular mechanisms that contribute to the pathogenesis of pressure-induced deep tissue injury are largely unknown. This study tested the hypothesis that oxidative stress and DNA damage signalling mechanism in skeletal muscle are involved in deep tissue injury. Adult Sprague Dawley rats were subject to an experimental protocol to induce deep tissue injury. Two compression cycles with a static pressure of 100 mmHg was applied to an area of 1.5 cm(2) over the mid-tibialis region of right limb of the rats. The left uncompressed limb served as intra-animal control. Muscle tissues underneath compression region were collected for examination. Our analyses indicated that pathohistological characteristics including rounding contour of myofibres and extensive nuclei accumulation were apparently shown in compressed muscles. The elevation of 8OHdG immunopositively stained nuclei indicated the presence of oxidative DNA damage. Increase in oxidative stress was revealed by showing significant elevation of 4HNE and decreases in mRNA abundance of SOD1, catalase and GPx, and protein content of SOD2 in compressed muscles relative to control muscles. Increase in nitrosative stress was demonstrated by significant elevation of nitrotyrosine and NOS2 mRNA content. The activation of tumor suppressor p53 signalling was indicated by the remarkable increases in protein contents of total p53 and serine-15 phosphorylated p53. The transcript expression of the DNA-repairing enzyme, Rad23A, was significantly suppressed in compressed muscles. Our time-course study indicated that increased oxidative/nitrosative stress and proapoptotic signalling were maintained in muscles receiving increasing amount of compression cycles and post-compression time. Furthermore, resveratrol was found to attenuate the histological damage, oxidative/nitrosative stress and proapoptotic signalling in response to prolonged moderate compression. In conclusion, our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that

  12. A DIC Based Technique to Measure the Contraction of a Skeletal Muscle Engineered Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Rizzuto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tissue engineering is a multidisciplinary science based on the application of engineering approaches to biologic tissue formation. Engineered tissue internal organization represents a key aspect to increase biofunctionality before transplant and, as regarding skeletal muscles, the potential of generating contractile forces is dependent on the internal fiber organization and is reflected by some macroscopic parameters, such as the spontaneous contraction. Here we propose the application of digital image correlation (DIC as an independent tool for an accurate and noninvasive measurement of engineered muscle tissue spontaneous contraction. To validate the proposed technique we referred to the X-MET, a promising 3-dimensional model of skeletal muscle. The images acquired through a high speed camera were correlated with a custom-made algorithm and the longitudinal strain predictions were employed for measuring the spontaneous contraction. The spontaneous contraction reference values were obtained by studying the force response. The relative error between the spontaneous contraction frequencies computed in both ways was always lower than 0.15%. In conclusion, the use of a DIC based system allows for an accurate and noninvasive measurement of biological tissues’ spontaneous contraction, in addition to the measurement of tissue strain field on any desired region of interest during electrical stimulation.

  13. Cardiac Meets Skeletal: What’s New in Microfluidic Models for Muscle Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Visone

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In the last few years microfluidics and microfabrication technique principles have been extensively exploited for biomedical applications. In this framework, organs-on-a-chip represent promising tools to reproduce key features of functional tissue units within microscale culture chambers. These systems offer the possibility to investigate the effects of biochemical, mechanical, and electrical stimulations, which are usually applied to enhance the functionality of the engineered tissues. Since the functionality of muscle tissues relies on the 3D organization and on the perfect coupling between electrochemical stimulation and mechanical contraction, great efforts have been devoted to generate biomimetic skeletal and cardiac systems to allow high-throughput pathophysiological studies and drug screening. This review critically analyzes microfluidic platforms that were designed for skeletal and cardiac muscle tissue engineering. Our aim is to highlight which specific features of the engineered systems promoted a typical reorganization of the engineered construct and to discuss how promising design solutions exploited for skeletal muscle models could be applied to improve cardiac tissue models and vice versa.

  14. Interaction of viscoelastic tissue compliance with lumbar muscles during passive cyclic flexion-extension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Michael W; Li, Li; Solomonow, Moshe

    2009-02-01

    Human and animal models using electromyography (EMG) based methods have hypothesized that viscoelastic tissue properties becomes compromised by prolonged repetitive cyclic trunk flexion-extension which in turn influences muscular activation including the flexion-relaxation phenomenon. Empirical evidence to support this hypothesis, especially the development of viscoelastic tension-relaxation and its associated muscular response in passive cyclic activity in humans, is incomplete. The objective of this study was to examine the response of lumbar muscles to tension-relaxation development of the viscoelastic tissue during prolonged passive cyclic trunk flexion-extension. Activity of the lumbar muscles remained low and steady during the passive exercise session. Tension supplied by the posterior viscoelastic tissues decreased over time without corresponding changes in muscular activity. Active flexion, following the passive flexion session, elicited significant increase in paraspinal muscles EMG together with increase in the median frequency. It was concluded that reduction of tension in the lumbar viscoelastic tissues of humans occurs during cyclic flexion-extension and is compensated by increased activity of the musculature in order to maintain stability. It was also concluded that the ligamento-muscular reflex is inhibited during passive activities but becomes hyperactive following active cyclic flexion, indicating that moment requirements are the controlling variable. It is conceived that prolonged routine exposure to cyclic flexion minimizes the function of the viscoelastic tissues and places increasing demands on the neuromuscular system which over time may lead to a disorder and possible exposure to injury.

  15. Low-level lasers affect uncoupling protein gene expression in skin and skeletal muscle tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canuto, K. S.; Sergio, L. P. S.; Paoli, F.; Mencalha, A. L.; Fonseca, A. S.

    2016-03-01

    Wavelength, frequency, power, fluence, and emission mode determine the photophysical, photochemical, and photobiological responses of biological tissues to low-level lasers. Free radicals are involved in these responses acting as second messengers in intracellular signaling processes. Irradiated cells present defenses against these chemical species to avoid unwanted effects, such as uncoupling proteins (UCPs), which are part of protective mechanisms and minimize the effects of free radical generation in mitochondria. In this work UCP2 and UCP3 mRNA gene relative expression in the skin and skeletal muscle tissues of Wistar rats exposed to low-level red and infrared lasers was evaluated. Samples of the skin and skeletal muscle tissue of Wistar rats exposed to low-level red and infrared lasers were withdrawn for total RNA extraction, cDNA synthesis, and the evaluation of gene expression by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. UCP2 and UCP3 mRNA expression was differently altered in skin and skeletal muscle tissues exposed to lasers in a wavelength-dependent effect, with the UCP3 mRNA expression dose-dependent. Alteration on UCP gene expression could be part of the biostimulation effect and is necessary to make cells exposed to red and infrared low-level lasers more resistant or capable of adapting in damaged tissues or diseases.

  16. Leucine elicits myotube hypertrophy and enhances maximal contractile force in tissue engineered skeletal muscle in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Neil R W; Turner, Mark C; Farrington, Robert; Player, Darren J; Lewis, Mark P

    2017-10-01

    The amino acid leucine is thought to be important for skeletal muscle growth by virtue of its ability to acutely activate mTORC1 and enhance muscle protein synthesis, yet little data exist regarding its impact on skeletal muscle size and its ability to produce force. We utilized a tissue engineering approach in order to test whether supplementing culture medium with leucine could enhance mTORC1 signaling, myotube growth, and muscle function. Phosphorylation of the mTORC1 target proteins 4EBP-1 and rpS6 and myotube hypertrophy appeared to occur in a dose dependent manner, with 5 and 20 mM of leucine inducing similar effects, which were greater than those seen with 1 mM. Maximal contractile force was also elevated with leucine supplementation; however, although this did not appear to be enhanced with increasing leucine doses, this effect was completely ablated by co-incubation with the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin, showing that the augmented force production in the presence of leucine was mTOR sensitive. Finally, by using electrical stimulation to induce chronic (24 hr) contraction of engineered skeletal muscle constructs, we were able to show that the effects of leucine and muscle contraction are additive, since the two stimuli had cumulative effects on maximal contractile force production. These results extend our current knowledge of the efficacy of leucine as an anabolic nutritional aid showing for the first time that leucine supplementation may augment skeletal muscle functional capacity, and furthermore validates the use of engineered skeletal muscle for highly-controlled investigations into nutritional regulation of muscle physiology. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cellular Physiology Published by wiley periodicals, Inc.

  17. Mechanic effect of pulsed focused ultrasound in tumor and muscle tissue evaluated by MRI, histology, and microarray analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hundt, Walter, E-mail: walter.hundt@web.de [Lucas MRS Research Center, Department of Radiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, 94305-5488 (United States); Department of Radiology, Philipps University Marburg (Germany); Yuh, Esther L. [Lucas MRS Research Center, Department of Radiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, 94305-5488 (United States); Steinbach, Silke [Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Technical University of Dresden (Germany); Bednarski, Mark D.; Guccione, Samira [Lucas MRS Research Center, Department of Radiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, 94305-5488 (United States)

    2010-11-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of pulsed high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) to tumor and muscle tissue. Pulsed HIFU was applied to tumor and muscle tissue in C3H/Km mice. Three hours after HIFU treatment pre- and post-contrast T1-wt, T2-wt images and a diffusion-wt STEAM-sequence were obtained. After MR imaging, the animals were euthenized and the treated tumor and muscle was taken out for histology and functional genomic analysis. In the tumor tissue a slight increase of the diffusion coefficient could be found. In the muscle tissue T2 images showed increased signal intensity and post-contrast T1 showed a decreased contrast uptake in the center and a severe contrast uptake in the surrounding muscle tissue. A significant increase of the diffusion coefficient was found. Gene expression analysis revealed profound changes in the expression levels of 29 genes being up-regulated and 3 genes being down-regulated in the muscle tissue and 31 genes being up-regulated and 15 genes being down-regulated in the SCCVII tumor tissue. Seven genes were up-regulated in both tissue types. The highest up-regulated gene in the tumor and muscle tissue encoded for Mouse histone H2A.1 gene (FC = 13.2 {+-} 20.6) and Apolipoprotein E (FC = 12.8 {+-} 27.4) respectively MHC class III (FC = 83.7 {+-} 67.4) and hsp70 (FC = 75.3 {+-} 85.0). Immunoblot confirmed the presence of HSP70 protein in the muscle tissue. Pulsed HIFU treatment on tumor and muscle tissue results in dramatic changes in gene expression, indicating that the effect of pulsed HIFU is in some regard dependent and also independent of the tissue type.

  18. Prediction of peak forces for a shortening smooth muscle tissue subjected to vibration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pidaparti, Ramana M; Dhanaraj, Nandhini; Meiss, Richard A

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to investigate the peak forces for a tracheal smooth muscle tissue subjected to an applied longitudinal vibration following isotonic shortening. A non-linear finite element analysis was carried out to simulate the vibratory response under experimental conditions that corresponds to forced length oscillations at 33 Hz for 1 second. The stiffness change and hysteresis estimated from the experimental data was used in the analysis. The finite element results of peak forces are compared to the experimental data obtained. The comparison of results indicate that the approach and the vibratory response obtained may be useful for describing the cross-bridge de-attachments within the cells as well as connective tissue connections characteristic of tracheal smooth muscle tissue.

  19. Selection, processing and clinical application of muscle-skeletal tissue; Seleccion, Procesamiento y Aplicacion Clinica de Tejido Musculo-Esqueletico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luna Z, D.; Reyes F, M.L.; Lavalley E, C.; Castaneda J, G. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: dlz@nuclear.inin. mx

    2007-07-01

    Due to the increase in the average of the world population's life, people die each time to more age, this makes that the tissues of support of the human body, as those muscle-skeletal tissues, when increasing the individual's age go weakening, this in turn leads to the increment of the illnesses like the osteoporosis and the arthritis, that undoubtedly gives as a result more injure of the muscle-skeletal tissues joined a greater number of traffic accidents where particularly these tissues are affected, for that the demand of tissues muscle-skeletal for transplant every day will be bigger. The production of these tissues in the Bank of Radio sterilized Tissues, besides helping people to improve its quality of life saved foreign currencies because most of the muscle-skeletal tissues transplanted in Mexico are of import. The use of the irradiation to sterilize tissues for transplant has shown to be one of the best techniques with that purpose for what the International Atomic Energy Agency believes a Technical cooperation program to establish banks of tissues using the nuclear energy, helping mainly to countries in development. In this work the stages that follows the bank of radio sterilized tissues of the National Institute of Nuclear Research for the cadaverous donor's of muscle-skeletal tissue selection are described, as well as the processing and the clinical application of these tissues. (Author)

  20. Bioreactor perfusion system for the long-term maintenance of tissue-engineered skeletal muscle organoids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chromiak, J. A.; Shansky, J.; Perrone, C.; Vandenburgh, H. H.

    1998-01-01

    Three-dimensional skeletal muscle organ-like structures (organoids) formed in tissue culture by fusion of proliferating myoblasts into parallel networks of long, unbranched myofibers provide an in vivo-like model for examining the effects of growth factors, tension, and space flight on muscle cell growth and metabolism. To determine the feasibility of maintaining either avian or mammalian muscle organoids in a commercial perfusion bioreactor system, we measured metabolism, protein turnover. and autocrine/paracrine growth factor release rates. Medium glucose was metabolized at a constant rate in both low-serum- and serum-free media for up to 30 d. Total organoid noncollagenous protein and DNA content decreased approximately 22-28% (P muscle growth factors prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF2alpha) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) could be measured accurately in collected media fractions, even after storage at 37 degrees C for up to 10 d. In contrast, creatine kinase activity (a marker of cell damage) in collected media fractions was unreliable. These results provide initial benchmarks for long-term ex vivo studies of tissue-engineered skeletal muscle.

  1. Gene expression profiling of muscle tissue in Brahman steers during nutritional restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, K A; Wang, Y H; Lehnert, S A; Harper, G S; McWilliam, S M; Bruce, H L; Reverter, A

    2005-01-01

    Expression profiling using microarrays allows for the detailed characterization of the gene networks that regulate an animal's response to environmental stresses. During nutritional restriction, processes such as protein turnover, connective tissue remodeling, and muscle atrophy take place in the skeletal muscle of the animal. These processes and their regulation are of interest in the context of managing livestock for optimal production efficiency and product quality. Here we expand on recent research applying complementary DNA (cDNA) microarray technology to the study of the effect of nutritional restriction on bovine skeletal muscle. Using a custom cDNA microarray of 9,274 probes from cattle muscle and s.c. fat libraries, we examined the differential gene expression profile of the LM from 10 Brahman steers under three different dietary treatments. The statistical approach was based on mixed-model ANOVA and model-based clustering of the BLUP solutions for the gene x diet interaction effect. From the results, we defined a transcript profile of 156 differentially expressed array elements between the weight loss and weight gain diet substrates. After sequence and annotation analyses, the 57 upregulated elements represented 29 unique genes, and the 99 downregulated elements represented 28 unique genes. Most of these co-regulated genes cluster into groups with distinct biological function related to protein turnover and cytoskeletal metabolism and contribute to our mechanistic understanding of the processes associated with remodeling of muscle tissue in response to nutritional stress.

  2. Chemical elements in the muscle tissues of European eel (Anguilla anguilla) from selected lakes in Latvia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudovica, Vita; Bartkevics, Vadims

    2015-10-01

    Fish is a significant source of essential nutrients, as well as toxic elements in the human diet. Concentration of 17 elements was determined in muscles of eels (Anguilla anguilla) collected from five fishing lakes in the territory of Latvia. The concentration of main elements determined in muscle tissues varied within the following ranges: for Pb, 0.019-0.047; Cd, 0.0051-0.011; Hg, 0.13-0.36; Cu, 0.76-0.92; Zn, 28-42; and As, 0.13-0.23 mg kg(-1) wet weight. A positive correlation was revealed between the concentration of Hg in muscles and fish length in inland lakes. Concentration of metals in muscle tissues of eels from brackish coastal and inland lakes was without statistically significant difference. This research demonstrated that the elemental content of Cd and Pb in muscles of the examined fish was lower than the maximum allowed threshold set by the European Union legislation. Mercury content was over the threshold limit for all the analyzed eels if to compare with the Water Framework Directive Environmental Quality Standards. On other side, only 7% of analyzed fish have indicated values that are over threshold limits for mercury established by the European Union food legislation. The current study contributes to the implementation of Water Framework Directive in Latvia by collection of information necessary for the further protection measures of waters. To our knowledge, this study provides the first data on multielemental bioaccumulation in muscle tissues of European eels collected from fishing lakes of Latvia.

  3. Insulin action in hyperthyroidism: a focus on muscle and adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrou, Panayota; Raptis, Sotirios A; Dimitriadis, George

    2010-10-01

    Hyperthyroidism leads to an enhanced demand for glucose, which is primarily provided by increased rates of hepatic glucose production due to increased gluconeogenesis (in the fasting state) and increased Cori cycle activity (in the late postprandial and fasting state). Adipose tissue lipolysis is increased in the fasting state, resulting in increased production of glycerol and nonesterified fatty acids. Under these conditions, increased glycerol generated by lipolysis and increased amino acids generated by proteolysis are used as substrates for gluconeogenesis. Increased nonesterified fatty acid levels are necessary to stimulate gluconeogenesis and provide substrate for oxidation in other tissues (such as muscle). In the postprandial period, insulin-stimulated glucose uptake by the skeletal muscle has been found to be normal or increased, mainly due to increased blood flow. Under hyperthyroid conditions, insulin-stimulated rates of glycogen synthesis in skeletal muscle are decreased, whereas there is a preferential increase in the rates of lactate formation vs. glucose oxidation leading to increased Cori cycle activity. In hyperthyroidism, the Cori cycle could be considered as a large substrate cycle; by maintaining a high flux through it, a dynamic buffer of glucose and lactate is provided, which can be used by other tissues as required. Moreover, lipolysis is rapidly suppressed to normal after the meal to facilitate the disposal of glucose by the insulin-resistant muscle. This ensures the preferential use of glucose when available and helps to preserve fat stores.

  4. Association between plasma metabolites and gene expression profiles in five porcine endocrine tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassols Anna

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endocrine tissues play a fundamental role in maintaining homeostasis of plasma metabolites such as non-esterified fatty acids and glucose, the levels of which reflect the energy balance or the health status of animals. However, the relationship between the transcriptome of endocrine tissues and plasma metabolites has been poorly studied. Methods We determined the blood levels of 12 plasma metabolites in 27 pigs belonging to five breeds, each breed consisting of both females and males. The transcriptome of five endocrine tissues i.e. hypothalamus, adenohypophysis, thyroid gland, gonads and backfat tissues from 16 out of the 27 pigs was also determined. Sex and breed effects on the 12 plasma metabolites were investigated and associations between genes expressed in the five endocrine tissues and the 12 plasma metabolites measured were analyzed. A probeset was defined as a quantitative trait transcript (QTT when its association with a particular metabolic trait achieved a nominal P value Results A larger than expected number of QTT was found for non-esterified fatty acids and alanine aminotransferase in at least two tissues. The associations were highly tissue-specific. The QTT within the tissues were divided into co-expression network modules enriched for genes in Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes or gene ontology categories that are related to the physiological functions of the corresponding tissues. We also explored a multi-tissue co-expression network using QTT for non-esterified fatty acids from the five tissues and found that a module, enriched in hypothalamus QTT, was positioned at the centre of the entire multi-tissue network. Conclusions These results emphasize the relationships between endocrine tissues and plasma metabolites in terms of gene expression. Highly tissue-specific association patterns suggest that candidate genes or gene pathways should be investigated in the context of specific tissues.

  5. In Vivo Imaging of Far-red Fluorescent Proteins after DNA Electrotransfer to Muscle Tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hojman, Pernille; Eriksen, Jens; Gehl, Julie

    2009-01-01

    DNA electrotransfer to muscle tissue yields long-term, high levels of gene expression; showing great promise for future gene therapy. We want to characterize the novel far-red fluorescent protein Katushka as a marker for gene expression using time domain fluorescence in vivo imaging. Highly...... weeks. Depth and 3D analysis proved that the expression was located in the target muscle. In vivo bio-imaging using the novel Katushka fluorescent protein enables excellent evaluation of the transfection efficacy, and spatial distribution, but lacks long-term stability....

  6. Meat Science and Muscle Biology Symposium: manipulating meat tenderness by increasing the turnover of intramuscular connective tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purslow, P P; Archile-Contreras, A C; Cha, M C

    2012-03-01

    Controlled reduction of the connective tissue contribution to cooked meat toughness is an objective that would have considerable financial impact in terms of added product value. The amount of intramuscular connective tissue in a muscle appears connected to its in vivo function, so reduction of the overall connective tissue content is not thought to be a viable target. However, manipulation of the state of maturity of the collagenous component is a biologically viable target; by increasing connective tissue turnover, less mature structures can be produced that are functional in vivo but more easily broken down on cooking at temperatures above 60°C, thus improving cooked meat tenderness. Recent work using cell culture models of fibroblasts derived from muscle and myoblasts has identified a range of factors that alter the activity of the principal enzymes responsible for connective tissue turnover, the matrix metalloproteinases (MMP). Fibroblasts cultured from 3 different skeletal muscles from the same animal show different cell proliferation and MMP activity, which may relate to the different connective tissue content and architecture in functionally different muscles. Expression of MMP by fibroblasts is increased by vitamins that can counter the negative effects of oxidative stress on new collagen synthesis. Preliminary work using in situ zymography of myotubes in culture also indicates increased MMP activity in the presence of epinephrine and reactive oxidative species. Comparison of the relative changes in MMP expression from muscle cells vs. fibroblasts shows that myoblasts are more responsive to a range of stimuli. Muscle cells are likely to produce more of the total MMP in muscle tissue as a whole, and the expression of latent forms of the enzymes (i.e., pro-MMP) may vary between oxidative and glycolytic muscle fibers within the same muscle. The implication is that the different muscle fiber composition of different muscles eaten as meat may influence the

  7. Mechanical Characterization and Shape Optimization of Fascicle-Like 3D Skeletal Muscle Tissues Contracted with Electrical and Optical Stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neal, Devin; Sakar, Mahmut Selman; Bashir, Rashid; Chan, Vincent; Asada, Haruhiko Harry

    2015-06-01

    In this study, we present a quantitative approach to construct effective 3D muscle tissues through shape optimization and load impedance matching with electrical and optical stimulation. We have constructed long, thin, fascicle-like skeletal muscle tissue and optimized its form factor through mechanical characterization. A new apparatus was designed and built, which allowed us to measure force-displacement characteristics with diverse load stiffnesses. We have found that (1) there is an optimal form factor that maximizes the muscle stress, (2) the energy transmitted to the load can be maximized with matched load stiffness, and (3) optical stimulation using channelrhodopsin2 in the muscle tissue can generate a twitch force as large as its electrical counterpart for well-developed muscle tissue. Using our tissue construct method, we found that an optimal initial diameter of 500 μm outperformed tissues using 250 μm by more than 60% and tissues using 760 μm by 105%. Using optimal load stiffness, our tissues have generated 12 pJ of energy per twitch at a peak generated stress of 1.28 kPa. Additionally, the difference in optically stimulated twitch performance versus electrically stimulated is a function of how well the overall tissue performs, with average or better performing strips having less than 10% difference. The unique mechanical characterization method used is generalizable to diverse load conditions and will be used to match load impedance to muscle tissue impedance for a wide variety of applications.

  8. Differential expression profile of miRNAs in porcine muscle and adipose tissue during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Qi, Renli; Wang, Jing; Huang, Wenming; Wu, Yongjiang; Huang, Xiaofeng; Yang, Feiyun; Huang, Jinxiu

    2017-06-30

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of non-coding RNAs that play a crucial regulatory role in many biological processes. Previous studies have reported miRNAs that are associated with the growth, differentiation, and proliferation of myocytes and adipocytes in pigs. However, differences in the miRNA expression profiles between muscle and adipose tissues during porcine development are unknown. Muscle and adipose tissues are the two major organs that are crucial for dynamic energy balance in the development and metabolism. Identification of differential expression profile of miRNAs will be useful for understanding the regulatory role of miRNAs in growth, development and evolution of these two tissues, and the research results will provide theoretical basis to improve meat quality. Therefore, we applied Hiseq sequencing to profile miRNAs in muscle and adipose tissues during four development stage at 1, 30, 90 and 240-day-old to explore their regulatory patterns at critical growth stages of pigs. We slaughtered 6 pigs at each developmental stages (24 pigs in total), respectively, RNA of three individual pigs were pooled and duplicate samples at each time point were given to sequence. We obtained a total of 96 million clean reads, and identified 329 known miRNAs and 157 novel miRNAs from all the libraries. We detected 37 miRNAs that were differentially expressed between porcine muscle and adipose tissues; 17 miRNAs which differentially expressed at 30, 90 and 240-day-old were considered as core differentially expressed miRNAs, among them, three miRNAs (ssc-miR-128, -133a-5p, -489) were differentially expressed at all four stages. KEGG analysis revealed the target genes of 17 core differentially expressed miRNAs were involved in 27 significantly enriched pathways (Pmuscle and adipose tissues, respectively, of 30, 90, and 240-day-old pigs compared with the tissues of 1-day-old pigs. We selected five miRNAs from 17 core differentially expressed miRNAs to validate the mi

  9. Fetuses of lean and obese swine in late gestation: body composition, plasma hormones and muscle development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, E C; Wangsness, P J; Hagen, D R; Etherton, T D

    1983-09-01

    The development of obesity in porcine fetuses was investigated using a lean and obese strain of pigs at 80, 90, 100 and 110 d of gestation. In absolute terms, fetuses of obese gilts (FO) generally had lower carcass weight and contained less total protein, dry matter and ash than fetuses of lean gilts (FL). In relative terms (percentage of wet carcass weight) FO, compared with FL, generally had decreased percentages of water and increased percentages of protein and lipid. Comparisons based on absolute terms revealed body composition of the strains to be different at 90 d, indicating that factors responsible for obese-type growth were active before that time. Both body composition and hormone concentration differences were most pronounced at later gestation ages. Depressed growth hormone, elevated cortisol, and a tendency toward elevated insulin concentrations in fetal plasma were apparent in late gestation for FO compared with FL. These hormonal patterns are consistent with onset of obesity in FO in late gestation. Greater weights of semitendinosus and longissimus muscles were observed in FL vs FO at 90, 100 and 110 d of gestation (P less than .05). These greater muscle weights were generally accompanied by greater contents of RNA, DNA and protein in FL muscles at these same ages. However, at 80 d, FL had greater absolute DNA content in semitendinosus muscle whereas muscle weight was similar between the strains. This suggests that greater muscle weights for FL than FO were caused by more nuclei in muscle of FL. In general, indices of hypertrophy (protein/DNA) and protein synthetic capacity (RNA/DNA) of muscle were usually similar for both strains at all gestation ages. It is concluded that decreased muscle growth in late gestation of FO compared with FL is more related to fewer total nuclei and perhaps fewer myofibers than to an impaired cellular capacity for protein synthesis.

  10. Enhancing tissue permeability with MRI guided preclinical focused ultrasound system in rabbit muscle: From normal tissue to VX2 tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yao; Xiong, Xiaobing; Pandya, Darpan; Jung, Youngkyoo; Mintz, Akiva; Hayasaka, Satoru; Wadas, Thaddeus J; Li, King C P

    2017-06-28

    High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) is an emerging noninvasive, nonionizing physical energy based modality to ablate solid tumors with high power, or increase local permeability in tissues/tumors in pulsed mode with relatively low power. Compared with traditional ablative HIFU, nondestructive pulsed HIFU (pHIFU) is present in the majority of novel applications recently developed for enhancing the delivery of drugs and genes. Previous studies have demonstrated the capability of pHIFU to change tissue local permeability for enhanced drug delivery in both mouse tumors and mouse muscle. Further study based on bulk tissues in large animals and clinical HIFU system revealed correlation between therapeutic effect and thermal parameters, which was absent in the previous mouse studies. In this study, we further investigated the relation between the therapeutic effect of pHIFU and thermal parameters in bulky normal muscle tissues based on a rabbit model and a preclinical HIFU system. Correlation between therapeutic effect and thermal parameters was confirmed in our study on the same bulk tissues although different HIFU systems were used. Following the study in bulky normal muscle tissues, we further created bulky tumor model with VX2 tumors implanted on both hind limbs of rabbits and investigated the feasibility to enhance tumor permeability in bulky VX2 tumors in a rabbit model using pHIFU technique. A radiolabeled peptidomimetic integrin antagonist, (111)In-DOTA-IA, was used following pHIFU treatment in our study to target VX2 tumor and serve as the radiotracer for follow-up single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scanning. The results have shown significantly elevated uptake of (111)In-DOTA-IA in the area of VX2 tumors pretreated by pHIFU compared with the control VX2 tumors not being pretreated by pHIFU, and statistical analysis revealed averaged 34.5% enhancement 24h after systematic delivery of (111)In-DOTA-IA in VX2 tumors pretreated by pHIFU compared

  11. Histopathological changes in supraspinous ligaments, ligamentum flava and paraspinal muscle tissues of patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Xu, Hongfei; Hu, Xu; Zhang, Chao; Chu, Tongwei; Zhou, Yue

    2016-04-01

    To examine the histopathological changes in spinal tissues of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients. Tissue samples from 10 AS patients and 10 control subjects were obtained. Hematoxylin and eosin, picrosirius, Masson and van Gieson stainings were utilized to determine the pathological changes in tissues. Ultrastructural alterations were examined by electronic microscopy. Proteoglycan levels were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). Matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Our results demonstrate that the density of collagen fibrils was reduced in the supraspinous ligaments of AS tissue and fibrils were loosely and irregularly organized as compared to a regular distribution of collagen fibrils in controls. In ligamentum flava from AS patients, activated fibroblasts with enlarged nuclei were detected, while the number of elastic fibers was greatly decreased. Paraspinal muscle tissues of AS patients exhibited increased collagen fibril accumulation and atrophy. Significantly decreased proteoglycan and elevated MMP-3 levels were found in supraspinous ligament samples from AS patients (P muscle tissues of AS patients were increased (P muscle between control and AS patients (P > 0.05). Our findings reveal histopathological changes that occur in certain spinal tissues of AS patients and suggest that increased levels of MMP-3 and TGF-β1 may contribute to the pathogenesis of AS. © 2014 The Authors. International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases published by Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  12. Development and Validation of an Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) Method for Quantitative Analysis of Platinum in Plasma, Urine, and Tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ti; Cai, Shuang; Forrest, Wai Chee; Mohr, Eva; Yang, Qiuhong; Forrest, M Laird

    2016-09-01

    Cisplatin, a platinum chemotherapeutic, is one of the most commonly used chemotherapeutic agents for many solid tumors. In this work, we developed and validated an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) method for quantitative determination of platinum levels in rat urine, plasma, and tissue matrices including liver, brain, lungs, kidney, muscle, heart, spleen, bladder, and lymph nodes. The tissues were processed using a microwave accelerated reaction system (MARS) system prior to analysis on an Agilent 7500 ICP-MS. According to the Food and Drug Administration guidance for industry, bioanalytical validation parameters of the method, such as selectivity, accuracy, precision, recovery, and stability were evaluated in rat biological samples. Our data suggested that the method was selective for platinum without interferences caused by other presenting elements, and the lower limit of quantification was 0.5 ppb. The accuracy and precision of the method were within 15% variation and the recoveries of platinum for all tissue matrices examined were determined to be 85-115% of the theoretical values. The stability of the platinum-containing solutions, including calibration standards, stock solutions, and processed samples in rat biological matrices was investigated. Results indicated that the samples were stable after three cycles of freeze-thaw and for up to three months. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Post-mortem stability of RNA in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue and the tissue-specific expression of myostatin, perilipin and associated factors in the horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Philippa K; Bing, Chen; Harris, Patricia A; Maltin, Charlotte A; Grove-White, Dai; Argo, Caroline McG

    2014-01-01

    Obesity, a major concern for equine welfare, is highly prevalent in the leisure horse population. Skeletal-muscle and adipose tissues are important determinants of maintenance energy requirements. The myostatin and perilipin pathways play key roles in the regulation of muscle mass and lipolysis respectively and have both been associated with obesity predisposition in other mammalian species. High quality samples, suitable for molecular biology, are an essential prerequisite for detailed investigations of gene and protein expression. Hence, this study has evaluated a) the post-mortem stability of RNA extracted from skeletal-muscle and adipose-tissues collected under commercial conditions and b) the tissue-specific presence of myostatin, the moystatin receptor (activin receptor IIB, ActRIIB), follistatin and perilipin, genes and proteins across a range of equine tissues. Objectives were addressed using tissues from 7 Thoroughbred horses presented for slaughter at a commercial abattoir; a) samples were collected at 7 time-points from Masseter muscle and perirenal adipose from 5 minutes to 6 hours post-mortem. Extracted RN was appraised by Optical Density analysis and agarose-gel electrophoresis. b) Quantitative real time PCR and Western Blotting were used to evaluate gene and protein expression in anatomically-defined samples collected from 17 tissues (6 organs, 4 skeletal muscles and 7 discrete adipose depots). The results indicate that, under the present collection conditions, intact, good quality RNA could be extracted from skeletal-muscle for up to 2 hours post-mortem. However, RNA from adipose tissue may be more susceptible to degradation/contamination and samples should be collected no later than 30 minutes post-mortem. The data also show that myostatin and ActRIIB genes and proteins were almost exclusively expressed in skeletal muscle. The follistatin gene showed a more diverse gene expression profile, with expression evident in several organs, adipose tissue

  14. LOCALISED MUSCLE TISSUE OXYGENATION DURING DYNAMIC EXERCISE WITH WHOLE BODY VIBRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Robbins

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite increasing use of whole body vibration during exercise an understanding of the exact role of vibration and the supporting physiological mechanisms is still limited. An important aspect of exercise analysis is the utilisation of oxygen, however, there have been limited studies considering tissue oxygenation parameters, particularly during dynamic whole body vibration (WBV exercise. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of adding WBV during heel raise exercises and assessing changes in tissue oxygenation parameters of the lateral gastrocnemius using Near Infra Red Spectroscopy (NIRS. Twenty healthy subjects completed ten alternating sets of 15 heel raises (vibration vs. no vibration. Synchronous oxygenation and motion data were captured prior to exercise to determine baseline levels, for the duration of the exercise and 20 sec post exercise for the recovery period. Both vibration and no vibration conditions elicited a characteristic increase in deoxyhaemoglobin and decreases in oxyhaemoglobin, total haemoglobin, tissue oxygenation index and normalised tissue haemoglobin index which are indicative of local tissue hypoxia. However, the addition of vibration elicited significantly lower (p < 0. 001 depletions in oxyhaemoglobin, total haemoglobin, normalised tissue haemoglobin index but no significant differences in deoxyhaemoglobin. These findings suggest that addition of vibration to exercise does not increase the cost of the exercise for the lateral gastrocnemius muscle, but does decrease the reduction in local muscle oxygenation parameters, potentially resulting from increased blood flow to the calf or a vasospastic response in the feet. However, further studies are needed to establish the mechanisms underlying these findings

  15. Reduced plasma FFA availability increases net triacylglycerol degradation, but not GPAT or HSL activity, in human skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Matthew J; Holmes, Anna G; Steinberg, Gregory R; Mesa, Jose L; Kemp, Bruce E; Febbraio, Mark A

    2004-07-01

    Intramuscular triacylglycerols (IMTG) are proposed to be an important metabolic substrate for contracting muscle, although this remains controversial. To test the hypothesis that reduced plasma free fatty acid (FFA) availability would increase IMTG degradation during exercise, seven active men cycled for 180 min at 60% peak pulmonary O(2) uptake either without (CON) or with (NA) prior ingestion of nicotinic acid to suppress adipose tissue lipolysis. Skeletal muscle and adipose tissue biopsy samples were obtained before and at 90 and 180 min of exercise. NA ingestion decreased (P HSL) activity (CON: 13.9 +/- 2.5, NA: 9.1 +/- 3.0 nmol.min(-1).mg protein(-1)). NA ingestion resulted in decreased whole body fat oxidation and increased carbohydrate oxidation. Despite the decreased whole body fat oxidation, net IMTG degradation was greater in NA compared with CON (net change: CON, 2.3 +/- 0.8; NA, 6.3 +/- 1.2 mmol/kg dry mass). The increased IMTG degradation did not appear to be due to reduced fatty acid esterification, because glycerol 3-phosphate activity was not different between trials and was unaffected by exercise (rest: 0.21 +/- 0.07; 180 min: 0.17 +/- 0.04 nmol.min(-1).mg protein(-1)). HSL activity was not increased from resting rates during exercise in either trial despite elevated plasma epinephrine, decreased plasma insulin, and increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)alpha1 activity was not affected by exercise or NA, whereas AMPKalpha2 activity was increased (P < 0.05) from rest during exercise in NA and was greater (P < 0.05) than in CON at 180 min. These data suggest that plasma FFA availability is an important mediator of net IMTG degradation, and in the absence of plasma FFA, IMTG degradation cannot maintain total fat oxidation. These changes in IMTG degradation appear to disassociate, however, from the activity of the key enzymes responsible for synthesis and degradation of this substrate.

  16. Ultrasonic tissue characterization of the upper trapezius muscle in patients with myofascial pain syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turo, Diego; Otto, Paul; Shah, Jay P; Heimur, Juliana; Gebreab, Tadesse; Armstrong, Katherine; Gerber, Lynn H; Sikdar, Siddhartha

    2012-01-01

    Myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) are palpable, tender nodules in skeletal muscle that produce symptomatic referred pain when palpated. MTrPs are characteristic findings in myofascial pain syndrome (MPS). The role of MTrPs in the pathophysiology of MPS is unknown. Objective characterization and quantitative measurement of the properties of MTrPs can improve their localization and diagnosis, as well as lead to clinical outcome measures. MTrPs associated with soft tissue neck pain are often found in the upper trapezius muscle. We have previously demonstrated that MTrPs can be visualized using ultrasound imaging. The goal of this study was to evaluate whether texture-based image analysis can differentiate structural heterogeneity of symptomatic MTrPs and normal muscle.

  17. Effects of nanosized lithium carbonate particles on intact muscle tissue and tumor growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bgatova, N P; Borodin, Yu I; Makarova, V V; Pozhidaeva, A A; Rachkovskaya, L N; Konenkov, V I

    2014-05-01

    The effects of nanosized lithium carbonate particles on muscle tissue structure and development of experimental hepatocarcinoma-29 transplanted into the hip were studied in CBA mice. Necrotic changes in all structural components of the muscle were detected after intramuscular injection of nanosized lithium carbonate particles to intact animals. Regeneration of the muscle fibers after lithium carbonate treatment was associated with a significant increase in macrophage count, number of microvessels, activation of fibroblasts, and complete recovery of the organ structure. Injection of lithium carbonate nanoparticles at the periphery of tumor growth caused tumor cell necrosis, destruction of the vascular bed, and attraction of neutrophils and macrophages to the tumor focus. After the preparation was discontinued, the tumor developed with lesser number of vessels, smaller tumor cells, and lesser deformation of the cell nuclei structure.

  18. [Viscoelastic properties of isolated papillary muscle: contributions of connective tissue skeleton and intracellular matrix].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protsenko, Iu L; Kobelev, A V; Lukin, O N; Balakin, A A; Smoliuk, L T

    2009-07-01

    Peculiarities of viscoelastic behavior of rabbit papillary muscle in passive state are studied by transversal versus longitudinal deformation curves, stress-strain and hysteresis curves, and stress relaxation curves under ramp stretching. The papillary muscle was chosen because of mostly longitudinal orientation of fibers and its elongated shape, which both make it as an appropriate model for uniaxial tests. The problem of evaluation of connective tissue protein structures and intracellular matrix contribution into the properties under consideration is solved by using the maceration method to remove intracellular structures. The different contribution of intracellular and extracellular protein features into total properties of a papillary muscle leads to nonlinearity of myocardial viscoelastic properties, such as the increase of differential elastic module and relaxation time with deformation.

  19. Relationship between plasma and tissue corticosterone in laying hens (Gallus gallus domesticus): implications for stress physiology and animal welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralph, C R; Hemsworth, P H; Leury, B J; Tilbrook, A J

    2015-01-01

    This study directly compared the dynamics of change in plasma corticosterone concentration with the dynamics of change in tissue corticosterone concentration in laying hens. In concert, we measured the rate of gluconeogenesis, glycogenesis, and glycolysis in the liver, kidney, skeletal muscle, and heart. We evaluated these changes acutely, over 3 h in response to an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) injection, and chronically, over 24 h in response to food and water deprivation. In response to ACTH injection, there was a significant (P physiology under acute and chronic conditions. Our data suggest that extending our evaluation of stress to the site of corticosterone action, that is, the target tissue, may enhance our ability to evaluate stress and the welfare of laying hens.

  20. Histomorphological Evaluation of Fresh Ovarian Tissue Transplanted Into Back Muscles of Balb/C Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Amiri

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available & objectives: Today, different methods for maintaining reproductive capability in young women with cancer are being considered. One of the most prominent of these methods is ovarian tissue transplant. Despite the relative success of this method, the appropriate location and methods of transplantation is still a matter of discussion. The present study evaluated the histomorphology of fresh ovarian tissue transplantation by two methods, inter muscular and intra muscular, in Balb/C mice. Methods & Materials: The study was conducted at Hamedan University of Medical Sciences in 2009. Fresh ovarian tissues from 12-14 day old Balb/C mice were transplanted into back muscles of ovarectomized 6 week old Balb/C mice both intermuscularly and intramuscularly. All transplanted mice received intra-peritoneal injections of a unit of rFSH for 4 weeks, every other day. At the end of the tenth week, all transplant recipient mice were killed and the transplanted ovarian tissues were removed. All samples were assessed for the angiogenesis and viability of follicles. Data were analyzed using SPSS software, using independent t- test. Results: In intermuscular transplanted group, the transplanted tissues were rejected in two cases. In the sections prepared from the other cases, in spite of the presence of some small necrotic areas, the majority of ovarian tissues had a healthy appearance within the primordial, primary, secondary and antral follicles. Apart from a significant reduction in the number of follicles and smaller size of follicles in the transplanted tissue in comparison with control group, no other major differences in morphology, histology, and the process of maturation of ovarian follicles were observed between the transplanted and control groups. Conclusion: Fresh ovarian tissue transplantation into muscles of the back area without basic vascular pedicle has new angiogenesis capabilities, appropriate survival and development of primordial follicles and

  1. Adipose tissue extracts plasma ammonia after sprint exercise in women and men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjörnsson, Mona; Bülow, Jens; Norman, Barbara;

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluates a possible contribution of adipose tissue to the elimination of plasma ammonia (NH(3)) after high-intensity sprint exercise. In 14 healthy men and women, repeated blood samples for plasma NH(3) analyses were obtained from brachial artery and from a subcutaneous abdominal vein...... before and after three repeated 30-s cycle sprints separated by 20 min of recovery. Biopsies from subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue were obtained and analyzed for glutamine and glutamate content. After exercise, both arterial and abdominal venous plasma NH(3) concentrations were lower in women than...... in men (P adipose tissue. However, the fractional extraction (a...

  2. The effect of high-intensity training on mitochondrial fat oxidation in skeletal muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, S; Danielsen, J H; Søndergård, S D; Søgaard, D; Vigelsoe, A; Dybboe, R; Skaaby, S; Dela, F; Helge, J W

    2015-02-01

    High-intensity interval training (HIT) is known to increase mitochondrial content in a similar way as endurance training [60-90% of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2peak)]. Whether HIT increases the mitochondria's ability to oxidize lipids is currently debated. We investigated the effect of HIT on mitochondrial fat oxidation in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. Mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) capacity, mitochondrial substrate sensitivity (K(m)(app)), and mitochondrial content were measured in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue in healthy overweight subjects before and after 6 weeks of HIT (three times per week at 298 ± 21 W). HIT significantly increased VO2peak from 2.9 ± 0.2 to 3.1 ± 0.2 L/min. No differences were seen in maximal fat oxidation in either skeletal muscle or adipose tissue. K(m)(app) for octanoyl carnitine or palmitoyl carnitine were similar after training in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. Maximal OXPHOS capacity with complex I- and II-linked substrates was increased after training in skeletal muscle but not in adipose tissue. In conclusion, 6 weeks of HIT increased VO2peak. Mitochondrial content and mitochondrial OXPHOS capacity were increased in skeletal muscle, but not in adipose tissue. Furthermore, mitochondrial fat oxidation was not improved in either skeletal muscle or adipose tissue.

  3. Intramuscular Connective Tissue Differences in Spastic and Control Muscle: A Mechanical and Histological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruin, Marije; Smeulders, Mark J.; Kreulen, Michiel; Huijing, Peter A.; Jaspers, Richard T

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) of the spastic type is a neurological disorder characterized by a velocity-dependent increase in tonic stretch reflexes with exaggerated tendon jerks. Secondary to the spasticity, muscle adaptation is presumed to contribute to limitations in the passive range of joint motion. However, the mechanisms underlying these limitations are unknown. Using biopsies, we compared mechanical as well as histological properties of flexor carpi ulnaris muscle (FCU) from CP patients (n = 29) and healthy controls (n = 10). The sarcomere slack length (mean 2.5 µm, SEM 0.05) and slope of the normalized sarcomere length-tension characteristics of spastic fascicle segments and single myofibre segments were not different from those of control muscle. Fibre type distribution also showed no significant differences. Fibre size was significantly smaller (1933 µm2, SEM 190) in spastic muscle than in controls (2572 µm2, SEM 322). However, our statistical analyses indicate that the latter difference is likely to be explained by age, rather than by the affliction. Quantities of endomysial and perimysial networks within biopsies of control and spastic muscle were unchanged with one exception: a significant thickening of the tertiary perimysium (3-fold), i.e. the connective tissue reinforcement of neurovascular tissues penetrating the muscle. Note that this thickening in tertiary perimysium was shown in the majority of CP patients, however a small number of patients (n = 4 out of 23) did not have this feature. These results are taken as indications that enhanced myofascial loads on FCU is one among several factors contributing in a major way to the aetiology of limitation of movement at the wrist in CP and the characteristic wrist position of such patients. PMID:24977410

  4. Intramuscular connective tissue differences in spastic and control muscle: a mechanical and histological study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marije de Bruin

    Full Text Available Cerebral palsy (CP of the spastic type is a neurological disorder characterized by a velocity-dependent increase in tonic stretch reflexes with exaggerated tendon jerks. Secondary to the spasticity, muscle adaptation is presumed to contribute to limitations in the passive range of joint motion. However, the mechanisms underlying these limitations are unknown. Using biopsies, we compared mechanical as well as histological properties of flexor carpi ulnaris muscle (FCU from CP patients (n = 29 and healthy controls (n = 10. The sarcomere slack length (mean 2.5 µm, SEM 0.05 and slope of the normalized sarcomere length-tension characteristics of spastic fascicle segments and single myofibre segments were not different from those of control muscle. Fibre type distribution also showed no significant differences. Fibre size was significantly smaller (1933 µm2, SEM 190 in spastic muscle than in controls (2572 µm2, SEM 322. However, our statistical analyses indicate that the latter difference is likely to be explained by age, rather than by the affliction. Quantities of endomysial and perimysial networks within biopsies of control and spastic muscle were unchanged with one exception: a significant thickening of the tertiary perimysium (3-fold, i.e. the connective tissue reinforcement of neurovascular tissues penetrating the muscle. Note that this thickening in tertiary perimysium was shown in the majority of CP patients, however a small number of patients (n = 4 out of 23 did not have this feature. These results are taken as indications that enhanced myofascial loads on FCU is one among several factors contributing in a major way to the aetiology of limitation of movement at the wrist in CP and the characteristic wrist position of such patients.

  5. Intramuscular connective tissue differences in spastic and control muscle: a mechanical and histological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruin, Marije; Smeulders, Mark J; Kreulen, Michiel; Huijing, Peter A; Jaspers, Richard T

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) of the spastic type is a neurological disorder characterized by a velocity-dependent increase in tonic stretch reflexes with exaggerated tendon jerks. Secondary to the spasticity, muscle adaptation is presumed to contribute to limitations in the passive range of joint motion. However, the mechanisms underlying these limitations are unknown. Using biopsies, we compared mechanical as well as histological properties of flexor carpi ulnaris muscle (FCU) from CP patients (n = 29) and healthy controls (n = 10). The sarcomere slack length (mean 2.5 µm, SEM 0.05) and slope of the normalized sarcomere length-tension characteristics of spastic fascicle segments and single myofibre segments were not different from those of control muscle. Fibre type distribution also showed no significant differences. Fibre size was significantly smaller (1933 µm2, SEM 190) in spastic muscle than in controls (2572 µm2, SEM 322). However, our statistical analyses indicate that the latter difference is likely to be explained by age, rather than by the affliction. Quantities of endomysial and perimysial networks within biopsies of control and spastic muscle were unchanged with one exception: a significant thickening of the tertiary perimysium (3-fold), i.e. the connective tissue reinforcement of neurovascular tissues penetrating the muscle. Note that this thickening in tertiary perimysium was shown in the majority of CP patients, however a small number of patients (n = 4 out of 23) did not have this feature. These results are taken as indications that enhanced myofascial loads on FCU is one among several factors contributing in a major way to the aetiology of limitation of movement at the wrist in CP and the characteristic wrist position of such patients.

  6. In vitro construction and in vivo regeneration of esophageal bilamellar muscle tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Lei; Gong, Changfeng; Zhu, Yabin

    2016-04-01

    In order to induce esophageal muscle cells' orientation, the silicon wafer with prototype 1 and prototype 2 was designed. Prototype 1 has micro-channels of 200 µm width and 30 µm depth with 30 µm wide wall as the interval. Prototype 2 has channels of 100 µm width and 30 µm depth with a discontinuous wall which has 30 µm gap for each 100 µm channel. The poly(ester urethane) scaffolds with pattern prototype 1 and prototype 2 were fabricated using solution casting method and abbreviated as PU1 and PU2, respectively. Silk fibroin was grafted individually on PU1 and PU2 surface (PU1-SF, PU2-SF) using our previous protocol, aiming at improving scaffolds' biocompatibility. The primary esophageal smooth muscle cell was seeded to evaluate the scaffolds' cytocompatibility in vitro. Characterizations like MTT assay, immunocytochemistry, scanning electron microscope, and Western blotting were applied. After that, poly(ester urethane) scaffolds with double patterns, prototype 1 on the exterior, and prototype 2 in the lumen were implanted into the rabbit esophagous to test the regeneration of the muscle tissue. Results from these preliminary tests showed that the growth and differentiation of primary smooth muscle cells were promoted, but also the muscle tissue with endocircular and exolongitudinal architecture was in regenerating, against non-constitution in the animals without the patterned scaffold or with poly(ester urethane) plane membrane at the defaulted sites. This micro-channel pattern together with silk fibroin grafting and vascular endothelial growth factor coating greatly promoted the regeneration of esophageal muscle with normal histological structure.

  7. Role of O2 in regulating tissue respiration in dog muscle working in situ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, M. C.; Arthur, P. G.; Bebout, D. E.; Hochachka, P. W.; Wagner, P. D.

    1992-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the role of tissue oxygenation in some of the factors that are thought to regulate muscle respiration and metabolism. Tissue oxygenation was altered by reductions in O2 delivery (muscle blood flow x arterial O2 content), induced by decreases in arterial PO2 (PaO2). O2 uptake (VO2) was measured in isolated in situ canine gastrocnemius at rest and while working at two stimulation intensities (isometric tetanic contractions at 0.5 and 1 contractions/s) on three separate occasions, with only the level of PaO2 (78, 30, and 21 Torr) being different for each occasion. Muscle blood flow was held constant (pump perfusion) at each work intensity for the three different levels of PaO2. Muscle biopsies were obtained at the end of each rest and work period. Muscle VO2 was significantly less (P less than 0.05) at both stimulation intensities for the hypoxemic conditions, whereas [ATP] was reduced only during the highest work intensity during both hypoxemic conditions (31% reduction at 21 Torr PaO2 and 17% at 30 Torr). For each level of PaO2, the relationships between the changes that occurred in VO2 and levels of phosphocreatine, ADP, and ATP/ADP.P(i) as the stimulation intensity was increased were significantly correlated; however, the slopes and intercepts of these lines were significantly different for each PaO2. Thus a greater change in any of the proposed regulators of tissue respiration (e.g., phosphocreatine, ADP) was required to achieve a given VO2 as PaO2 was decreased.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  8. Role of O2 in regulating tissue respiration in dog muscle working in situ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, M. C.; Arthur, P. G.; Bebout, D. E.; Hochachka, P. W.; Wagner, P. D.

    1992-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the role of tissue oxygenation in some of the factors that are thought to regulate muscle respiration and metabolism. Tissue oxygenation was altered by reductions in O2 delivery (muscle blood flow x arterial O2 content), induced by decreases in arterial PO2 (PaO2). O2 uptake (VO2) was measured in isolated in situ canine gastrocnemius at rest and while working at two stimulation intensities (isometric tetanic contractions at 0.5 and 1 contractions/s) on three separate occasions, with only the level of PaO2 (78, 30, and 21 Torr) being different for each occasion. Muscle blood flow was held constant (pump perfusion) at each work intensity for the three different levels of PaO2. Muscle biopsies were obtained at the end of each rest and work period. Muscle VO2 was significantly less (P less than 0.05) at both stimulation intensities for the hypoxemic conditions, whereas [ATP] was reduced only during the highest work intensity during both hypoxemic conditions (31% reduction at 21 Torr PaO2 and 17% at 30 Torr). For each level of PaO2, the relationships between the changes that occurred in VO2 and levels of phosphocreatine, ADP, and ATP/ADP.P(i) as the stimulation intensity was increased were significantly correlated; however, the slopes and intercepts of these lines were significantly different for each PaO2. Thus a greater change in any of the proposed regulators of tissue respiration (e.g., phosphocreatine, ADP) was required to achieve a given VO2 as PaO2 was decreased.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  9. Electrical Resistance as A Measure of Soft Tissue Injuryfrom Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Timothy Hui; Jerrold Petrofsky; Iman Akef Khowailed

    2014-01-01

    Assessment of muscle damage relies commonly on subjective sensation of pain. The purpose of this research was to test thevalidity of microcurrent conductance on skin over injured tissue to quantify soft tissue injury and recovery following heavy exercisecompared to other indexes of muscle soreness. A randomized, controlled, single-blinded, 1-week trial on 60 subjects.Setting-University Interventions: Subjects did 3 sets of squats for 5 min each. There were 3 groups of 20 subjects. One did nothing andone had heat applied for 8 h post exercise. The final group had heat 24 h after exercise. Tissue resistance and muscle strength force tomove the knee, analog visual pain scale. In the control group, microcurrent continually decreased, eventually decreasing 32% by thethird day post exercise. When heat was given immediately following exercise, microcurrent was 26% greater (P 〈 0.001). The painscale rose to 3.1/10 as opposed to 5.4/10 for controls. Strength and muscle elasticity stayed mostly constant after heat as opposed to a28% decrease in strength and increase in stiffness in the control subjects. For 24 h delayed heat, microcurrent was 14% greater(P 〈 0.02), and was unchanged for the first 24 h when no therapy was given. Pain scale rose to 4.8/10. Stiffness was unchanged whilemuscle strength decreased the same as controls. Microcurrent shows agreement with loss of strength, and stiffness from DOMS but notthe subjective pain measure. It appears that microcurrent is a good measure of muscle damage.

  10. Correlation between the distribution of smooth muscle or non muscle myosins and alpha-smooth muscle actin in normal and pathological soft tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzonana, G; Skalli, O; Gabbiani, G

    1988-01-01

    The distribution of smooth muscle (SM) and non muscle myosins was compared with that of alpha-SM actin in various normal and pathological tissues and in cultured cells by means of indirect immunofluorescence using a monoclonal antibody specific for alpha-SM actin [anti-alpha sm-1, Skalli et al., 1986b] and two polyclonal antibodies raised against bovine aortic myosin (ABAM) and human platelet myosin (AHPM), respectively. In normal tissues ABAM stained vascular and parenchymal smooth muscle cells (SMC), myoepithelial cells and myoid cells of the testis in a pattern similar to that reported by other authors with antisera raised against non vascular SM myosin. Cells stained with ABAM were always positive for anti-alpha sm-1. In human and experimental atheromatous plaques, most cells were positive for AHPM; a variable proportion was also stained for ABAM plus anti-alpha sm-1. Myofibroblasts from rat granulation tissue, Dupuytren's nodule and stroma from breast carcinoma were constantly positive for AHPM and negative for ABAM; however, myofibroblasts from Dupuytren's nodule and breast carcinoma were anti-alpha sm-1 positive. Early primary cultures of rat aortic SMC were positive for ABAM and anti-alpha sm-1 and became negative for ABAM and positive for AHPM after a few days in culture. They remained positive for AHPM and anti-alpha sm-1 after passages; the staining of AHPM and anti-alpha sm-1 appeared to be colocalized along the same stress fibers. These results may be relevant for the understanding of SMC function and adaptation, and show that in non malignant SMC proliferation, alpha-SM actin represents a more general marker of SM origin than SM myosin.

  11. Hypoxia affects tissue oxygenation differently in the thigh and calf muscles during incremental running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osawa, Takuya; Arimitsu, Takuma; Takahashi, Hideyuki

    2017-08-17

    The present study was performed to determine the impact of hypoxia on working muscle oxygenation during incremental running, and to compare tissue oxygenation between the thigh and calf muscles. Nine distance runners and triathletes performed incremental running tests to exhaustion under normoxic and hypoxic conditions (fraction of inspired oxygen = 0.15). Peak pulmonary oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]) and tissue oxygen saturation (StO2) were measured simultaneously in both the vastus lateralis and medial gastrocnemius. Hypoxia significantly decreased peak running speed and [Formula: see text] (p incremental running, StO2 in the vastus lateralis decreased almost linearly, and the rate of decrease from warm-up (180 m min(-1)) to [Formula: see text] was significantly greater than in the medial gastrocnemius under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions (p incremental running.

  12. Skeletal Muscle Regeneration on Protein-Grafted and Microchannel-Patterned Scaffold for Hypopharyngeal Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhisen Shen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the field of tissue engineering, polymeric materials with high biocompatibility like polylactic acid and polyglycolic acid have been widely used for fabricating living constructs. For hypopharynx tissue engineering, skeletal muscle is one important functional part of the whole organ, which assembles the unidirectionally aligned myotubes. In this study, a polyurethane (PU scaffold with microchannel patterns was used to provide aligning guidance for the seeded human myoblasts. Due to the low hydrophilicity of PU, the scaffold was grafted with silk fibroin (PU-SF or gelatin (PU-Gel to improve its cell adhesion properties. Scaffolds were observed to degrade slowly over time, and their mechanical properties and hydrophilicities were improved through the surface grafting. Also, the myoblasts seeded on PU-SF had the higher proliferative rate and better differentiation compared with those on the control or PU-Gel. Our results demonstrate that polyurethane scaffolds seeded with myoblasts hold promise to guide hypopharynx muscle regeneration.

  13. Skeletal muscle regeneration on protein-grafted and microchannel-patterned scaffold for hypopharyngeal tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zhisen; Guo, Shanshan; Ye, Dong; Chen, Jingjing; Kang, Cheng; Qiu, Shejie; Lu, Dakai; Li, Qun; Xu, Kunjie; Lv, Jingjing; Zhu, Yabin

    2013-01-01

    In the field of tissue engineering, polymeric materials with high biocompatibility like polylactic acid and polyglycolic acid have been widely used for fabricating living constructs. For hypopharynx tissue engineering, skeletal muscle is one important functional part of the whole organ, which assembles the unidirectionally aligned myotubes. In this study, a polyurethane (PU) scaffold with microchannel patterns was used to provide aligning guidance for the seeded human myoblasts. Due to the low hydrophilicity of PU, the scaffold was grafted with silk fibroin (PU-SF) or gelatin (PU-Gel) to improve its cell adhesion properties. Scaffolds were observed to degrade slowly over time, and their mechanical properties and hydrophilicities were improved through the surface grafting. Also, the myoblasts seeded on PU-SF had the higher proliferative rate and better differentiation compared with those on the control or PU-Gel. Our results demonstrate that polyurethane scaffolds seeded with myoblasts hold promise to guide hypopharynx muscle regeneration.

  14. A simple protocol for the subcellular fractionation of skeletal muscle cells and tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimauro Ivan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We describe a method for subcellular fractionation of mouse skeletal muscle, myoblast and myotubes to obtain relatively pure fractions of nuclear, cytosolic and mitochondrial compartments. Fractionation allows the analysis of a protein of interest (or other cellular component based on its subcellular compartmental distribution and can also generate molecular information about the state of a cell and/or tissue and how the distribution of a protein may differ between different cellular compartments, tissues or cell types, in response to treatments or ageing. Findings The described method was specifically developed for skeletal muscle and proliferating/differentiated muscle cells. The purity of the different fractions, representing the cytoplasmic, mitochondrial and nuclear subcellular compartments was validated by western blot analysis of “house-keeper” marker proteins specific for each cellular compartment. Conclusion This low cost method allowed the mitochondrial, cytoplasmic and nuclear subcellular compartments from the same starting muscle samples to be rapidly and simultaneously isolated with good purity and without the use of an ultracentrifuge. This method permits samples to be frozen at −80°C for future analysis and/or additional processing at a later date.

  15. FGF signaling supports Drosophila fertility by regulating development of ovarian muscle tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irizarry, Jihyun; Stathopoulos, Angelike

    2015-08-01

    The thisbe (ths) gene encodes a Drosophila fibroblast growth factor (FGF), and mutant females are viable but sterile suggesting a link between FGF signaling and fertility. Ovaries exhibit abnormal morphology including lack of epithelial sheaths and muscle tissues that surround ovarioles. Here we investigated how FGF influences Drosophila ovary morphogenesis and identified several roles. Heartless (Htl) FGF receptor was found to be expressed within somatic cells at the larval and pupal stages, and phenotypes were uncovered using RNAi. Differentiation of terminal filament cells was affected, but this effect did not alter the ovariole number. In addition, proliferation of epithelial sheath progenitors, the apical cells, was decreased in both htl and ths mutants, while ectopic expression of the Ths ligand led to these cells' over-proliferation suggesting that FGF signaling supports ovarian muscle sheath formation by controlling apical cell number in the developing gonad. Additionally, live imaging of adult ovaries was used to show that htl RNAi mutants, hypomorphic mutants in which epithelial sheaths are present, exhibit abnormal muscle contractions. Collectively, our results demonstrate that proper formation of ovarian muscle tissues is regulated by FGF signaling in the larval and pupal stages through control of apical cell proliferation and is required to support fertility.

  16. Potential role of growth hormone in impairment of insulin signaling in skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, and liver of rats chronically treated with arginine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro Barbosa, Thais; de Carvalho, José Edgar Nicoletti; Poyares, Leonice Lourenço; Bordin, Silvana; Machado, Ubiratan Fabres; Nunes, Maria Tereza

    2009-05-01

    We have shown that rats chronically treated with Arginine (Arg), although normoglycemic, exhibit hyperinsulinemia and decreased blood glucose disappearance rate after an insulin challenge. Attempting to investigate the processes underlying these alterations, male Wistar rats were treated with Arg (35 mg/d), in drinking water, for 4 wk. Rats were then acutely stimulated with insulin, and the soleus and extensorum digitalis longus muscles, white adipose tissue (WAT), and liver were excised for total and/or phosphorylated insulin receptor (IR), IR substrate 1/2, Akt, Janus kinase 2, signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 1/3/5, and p85alpha/55alpha determination. Muscles and WAT were also used for plasma membrane (PM) and microsome evaluation of glucose transporter (GLUT) 4 content. Pituitary GH mRNA, GH, and liver IGF-I mRNA expression were estimated. It was shown that Arg treatment: 1) did not affect phosphotyrosine-IR, whereas it decreased phosphotyrosine-IR substrate 1/2 and phosphoserine-Akt content in all tissues studied, indicating that insulin signaling is impaired at post-receptor level; 2) decreased PM GLUT4 content in both muscles and WAT; 3) increased the pituitary GH mRNA, GH, and liver IGF-I mRNA expression, the levels of phosphotyrosine-STAT5 in both muscles, phosphotyrosine-Janus kinase 2 in extensorum digitalis longus, phosphotyrosine-STAT3 in liver, and WAT as well as total p85alpha in soleus, indicating that GH signaling is enhanced in these tissues; and 4) increased p55alpha total content in muscles, WAT, and liver. The present findings provide the molecular mechanisms by which insulin resistance and, by extension, reduced GLUT4 content in PM of muscles and WAT take place after chronic administration of Arg, and further suggest a putative role for GH in its genesis, considering its diabetogenic effect.

  17. Cadmium accumulation in gill, liver, kidney and muscle tissues of common carp, Cyprinus carpio, and Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeşilbudak, Burcu; Erdem, Cahit

    2014-05-01

    Accumulation of cadmium in gill, liver, muscle and kidney tissues of Cyprinus carpio and Oreochromis niloticus were investigated in fish exposed to 0.5 ppm cadmium over 1, 15 and 30 days under controlled laboratory conditions. Tissue accumulation of the metal was measured using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometric techniques. Cadmium accumulation in gill, liver, kidney and muscle, tissues of C. carpio and O. niloticus exposed to metal for 1, 15 and 30 days increased significantly compared with the control group (p muscle tissue of O. niloticus. A general increase was observed in Cd accumulation with increasing exposure periods. Highest metal accumulation was observed in kidney followed by liver, gill and muscle tissues in both species. Liver accumulation of Cd was higher in C. carpio than O. niloticus, whereas kidney accumulation of the metal was higher in O. niloticus than C. carpio.

  18. CT evaluation of soft tissue and muscle infection and inflammation: A systematic compartmental approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beauchamp, N.J. Jr. [Dept. of Radiology, and Radiological Science, The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD (United States); Scott, W.W. Jr. [Dept. of Radiology, and Radiological Science, The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD (United States); Gottlieb, L.M. [Dept. of Surgery, The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD (United States); Fishman, E.K. [Dept. of Surgery, The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    1995-07-01

    This essay presents a systematic approach to the evaluation of soft tissue and muscle infection by defining the various pathologic processes and then illustrating them through a series of CT studies with corresponding schematic diagrams. The specific processes discussed are cellulitis, lymphangitis/lymphedema, necrotizing fascitis, myositis/myonecrosis, and abscess. Key points in the differential diagnosis of these entities are discussed and illustrated. The clinical management of the specific pathologic processes is also discussed. (orig./MG)

  19. Ice recrystallization in a model system and in frozen muscle tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, M N; Zaritzky, N E

    1989-04-01

    Recrystallization produces modifications on ice crystal sizes during storage and transport of frozen foods, reducing the advantages obtained by quick freezing and inducing physicochemical changes which alter their quality and shorten their shelf life. This process involves the growth of the larger crystals at the expense of the smaller ones, being the interfacial energy, the driving force of the phenomenon. In the present work recrystallization was analyzed using direct microscopic observation of ice crystals in a model solution (0.28 N NaCl) and indirect observation of frozen muscle tissue. The model solution allowed visualization of the interface behavior; from the analysis of the ice crystal frequency distributions, relationships between shape and size of the grains were established. A kinetic model based on the average system curvature was proposed obtaining a satisfactory fitness of the experimental data. Values of the kinetic constants determined at different temperatures allowed the estimation of the process activation energy. In muscle tissues isothermal freeze-substitution was used to observe the holes left by the ice in frozen semitendinous beef muscle stored at -5, -10, -15, and -20 degrees C during long periods of time. A different evolution of the mean ice crystal diameter was observed with respect to the model system. In meat samples, at long storage times, a limit diameter value was reached; this situation has been proved to be independent of temperature and initial size (freezing rate); a theoretical expression based on tissue characteristic parameters was proposed for its evaluation. Activation energy for recrystallization in muscle tissue was also determined, being comparable to values for protein denaturation and quality losses.

  20. Tissue-specific changes in fatty acid oxidation in hypoxic heart and skeletal muscle

    OpenAIRE

    Morash, Andrea J.; Kotwica, Aleksandra O; Murray, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to hypobaric hypoxia is sufficient to decrease cardiac PCr/ATP and alters skeletal muscle energetics in humans. Cellular mechanisms underlying the different metabolic responses of these tissues and the time-dependent nature of these changes are currently unknown, but altered substrate utilization and mitochondrial function may be a contributory factor. We therefore sought to investigate the effects of acute (1 day) and more sustained (7 days) hypoxia (13% O2) on the transcription fac...

  1. Identification of Genes Related to Growth and Lipid Deposition from Transcriptome Profiles of Pig Muscle Tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhixiu Wang

    Full Text Available Transcriptome profiles established using high-throughput sequencing can be effectively used for screening genome-wide differentially expressed genes (DEGs. RNA sequences (from RNA-seq and microRNA sequences (from miRNA-seq from the tissues of longissimus dorsi muscle of two indigenous Chinese pig breeds (Diannan Small-ear pig [DSP] and Tibetan pig [TP] and two introduced pig breeds (Landrace [LL] and Yorkshire [YY] were examined using HiSeq 2000 to identify and compare the differential expression of functional genes related to muscle growth and lipid deposition. We obtained 27.18 G clean data through the RNA-seq and detected that 18,208 genes were positively expressed and 14,633 of them were co-expressed in the muscle tissues of the four samples. In all, 315 DEGs were found between the Chinese pig group and the introduced pig group, 240 of which were enriched with functional annotations from the David database and significantly enriched in 27 Gene Ontology (GO terms that were mainly associated with muscle fiber contraction, cadmium ion binding, response to organic substance and contractile fiber part. Based on functional annotation, we identified 85 DEGs related to growth traits that were mainly involved in muscle tissue development, muscle system process, regulation of cell development, and growth factor binding, and 27 DEGs related to lipid deposition that were mainly involved in lipid metabolic process and fatty acid biosynthetic process. With miRNA-seq, we obtained 23.78 M reads and 320 positively expressed miRNAs from muscle tissues, including 271 known pig miRNAs and 49 novel miRNAs. In those 271 known miRNAs, 20 were higher and 10 lower expressed in DSP-TP than in LL-YY. The target genes of the 30 miRNAs were mainly participated in MAPK, GnRH, insulin and Calcium signaling pathway and others involved cell development, growth and proliferation, etc. Combining the DEGs and the differentially expressed (DE miRNAs, we drafted a network of 46

  2. Enantioselective gas chromatographic separation of methylsulfonyl PCBs in seal blubber, pelican muscle and human adipose tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karasek, L.; Rosmus, J. [Veterinary Institute Prague (Czech Republic). Dept. of Chemistry; Hajslova, J. [Institute of Chemical Technology (Czech Republic). Dept. of Food Chemistry and Analysis; Huehnerfuss, H. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Organische Chemie

    2004-09-15

    Methyl sulfone derivatives are known to represent primary metabolic products of PCBs (MeSO2- CB) and DDE (MeSO2-DDE). These metabolites are formed via mercapturic acid pathway and belong to persistent, lipophilic compounds which accumulate in the adipose, lung, liver and kidney tissues of mammals exposed to PCBs. In 1976 Jenssen and Jansson reported the identification of PCB methyl sulfones as metabolites of PCBs in Baltic grey seal blubber. Methyl sulfones are moderately polar compounds that are only slightly less hydrophobic than the parent PCBs, and their partition coefficients fulfill the requirements for bioaccumulation. The highest concentrations have been found in kidney and lung tissues of seals, otters, beluga whales, polar bears, fishes and in human tissues. In the present investigation two samples of seal blubber, two pelican muscles and eleven human adipose tissue samples were analysed with regard to their concentrations of PCB parent compounds as well as to the respective chiral methylsulfonyl metabolites.

  3. Metabolic Disturbance in PCOS: Clinical and Molecular Effects on Skeletal Muscle Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Silva Dantas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome is a complex hormonal disorder affecting the reproductive and metabolic systems with signs and symptoms related to anovulation, infertility, menstrual irregularity and hirsutism. Skeletal muscle plays a vital role in the peripheral glucose uptake. Since PCOS is associated with defects in the activation and pancreatic dysfunction of β-cell insulin, it is important to understand the molecular mechanisms of insulin resistance in PCOS. Studies of muscle tissue in patients with PCOS reveal defects in insulin signaling. Muscle biopsies performed during euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp showed a significant reduction in glucose uptake, and insulin-mediated IRS-2 increased significantly in skeletal muscle. It is recognized that the etiology of insulin resistance in PCOS is likely to be as complicated as in type 2 diabetes and it has an important role in metabolic and reproductive phenotypes of this syndrome. Thus, further evidence regarding the effect of nonpharmacological approaches (e.g., physical exercise in skeletal muscle of women with PCOS is required for a better therapeutic approach in the management of various metabolic and reproductive problems caused by this syndrome.

  4. Morphological changes in muscle tissue of patients with infantile Pompe's disease receiving enzyme replacement therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkel, Léon P F; Kamphoven, Joep H J; van den Hout, Hannerieke J M P; Severijnen, Lies A; van Doorn, Pieter A; Reuser, Arnold J J; van der Ploeg, Ans T

    2003-06-01

    Pompe's disease (glycogen storage disease type II) is an autosomal recessive myopathy caused by lysosomal alpha-glucosidase deficiency. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) is currently under development for this disease. We evaluated the morphological changes in muscle tissue of four children with infantile Pompe's disease who received recombinant human alpha-glucosidase from rabbit milk for 72 weeks. The patients were 2.5-8 months of age at entry. Prior to treatment, all patients showed lysosomal glycogen storage in skeletal and smooth muscle cells, vascular endothelium, Schwann cells, and perineurium. The first response to treatment was noticed in vascular endothelium and in peripheral nerves after 12 weeks of treatment at an enzyme dose of 15-20 mg/kg. Increasing the dose to 40 mg/kg led, after 72 weeks of treatment, to a reduction of glycogen storage and substantial improvement of muscle architecture in the least affected patient. Not all patients responded equally well, possibly due to differences in degree of glycogen storage and concomitant muscle pathology at the start of treatment. We conclude that intravenous administration of recombinant human alpha-glucosidase from rabbit milk can improve muscle morphology in classic infantile Pompe's disease when treatment is started before irreversible damage has occurred.

  5. Effects of acute static, ballistic, and PNF stretching exercise on the muscle and tendon tissue properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad, A; Stafilidis, S; Tilp, M

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of a single static, ballistic, or proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching exercise on the various muscle-tendon parameters of the lower leg and to detect possible differences in the effects between the methods. Volunteers (n = 122) were randomly divided into static, ballistic, and PNF stretching groups and a control group. Before and after the 4 × 30 s stretching intervention, we determined the maximum dorsiflexion range of motion (RoM) with the corresponding fascicle length and pennation angle of the gastrocnemius medialis. Passive resistive torque (PRT) and maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) were measured with a dynamometer. Observation of muscle-tendon junction (MTJ) displacement with ultrasound allowed us to determine the length changes in the tendon and muscle, respectively, and hence to calculate stiffness. Although RoM increased (static: +4.3%, ballistic: +4.5%, PNF: +3.5%), PRT (static: -11.4%, ballistic: -11.5%, PNF: -13,7%), muscle stiffness (static: -13.1%, ballistic: -20.3%, PNF: -20.2%), and muscle-tendon stiffness (static: -11.3%, ballistic: -10.5%, PNF: -13.7%) decreased significantly in all the stretching groups. Only in the PNF stretching group, the pennation angle in the stretched position (-4.2%) and plantar flexor MVC (-4.6%) decreased significantly. Multivariate analysis showed no clinically relevant difference between the stretching groups. The increase in RoM and the decrease in PRT and muscle-tendon stiffness could be explained by more compliant muscle tissue following a single static, ballistic, or PNF stretching exercise. © 2017 The Authors Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science In Sports Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Co-electrospun dual scaffolding system with potential for muscle-tendon junction tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladd, Mitchell R; Lee, Sang Jin; Stitzel, Joel D; Atala, Anthony; Yoo, James J

    2011-02-01

    Tissue engineering has had successes developing single tissue types, but there is a need for methods that will allow development of composite tissues. For instance, muscle-tendon junctions (MTJ) require a seamless interface to allow force transfer from muscle to tendon. One challenge in engineering MTJs is designing a continuous scaffold suitable for both tissue types. We aimed to create a dual scaffold that exhibits regional mechanical property differences that mimic the trends seen in native MTJ. Poly(ε-caprolactone)/collagen and poly(l-lactide)/collagen were co-electrospun onto opposite ends of a mandrel to create a scaffold with 3 regions. Scaffolds were characterized with scanning electron microscopy, tensile testing (uniaxial, cyclic, and video strain), for cytocompatibility using MTS, and seeded with C2C12 myoblasts and NIH3T3 fibroblasts. Native porcine diaphragm MTJs were also analyzed with video strain for comparison. Integrated scaffolds were created with fiber diameters from 452-549 nm. Scaffolds exhibited regional variations in mechanical properties with moduli from 4.490-27.62 MPa and generally withstood cyclic testing, although with hysteresis. Video analysis showed scaffold strain profiles exhibited similar trends to native MTJ. The scaffolds were cytocompatible and accommodated cell attachment and myotube formation. The properties engineered into these scaffolds make them attractive candidates for tissue engineering of MTJs. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Protein analysis through Western blot of cells excised individually from human brain and muscle tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koob, A O; Bruns, L; Prassler, C; Masliah, E; Klopstock, T; Bender, A

    2012-06-15

    Comparing protein levels from single cells in tissue has not been achieved through Western blot. Laser capture microdissection allows for the ability to excise single cells from sectioned tissue and compile an aggregate of cells in lysis buffer. In this study we analyzed proteins from cells excised individually from brain and muscle tissue through Western blot. After we excised individual neurons from the substantia nigra of the brain, the accumulated surface area of the individual cells was 120,000, 24,000, 360,000, 480,000, 600,000 μm2. We used an optimized Western blot protocol to probe for tyrosine hydroxylase in this cell pool. We also took 360,000 μm2 of astrocytes (1700 cells) and analyzed the specificity of the method. In muscle we were able to analyze the proteins of the five complexes of the electron transport chain through Western blot from 200 human cells. With this method, we demonstrate the ability to compare cell-specific protein levels in the brain and muscle and describe for the first time how to visualize proteins through Western blot from cells captured individually. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Determination and Difference Analysis of DNA Methylation Content Both in Blood and Muscle Tissue of Pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In this experiment, DNA samples from parental lines Large White, Landrace, and Meishan pigs, and their hybrids Large White×Landrace, Landrace×Large White, Large White×Meishan, and Meishan×Large White pigs were used for the determination of DNA methylation content in both blood and muscle tissue. The differences about DNA methylation content between parental lines and their hybrids were analyzed. These will offer theoretical support from molecular level for heterosis. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was firstly used to detect DNA methylation content. The average DNA methylation content in 163 DNA samples of muscle tissue was 16.92%, whereas, the average DNA methylation content in 182 samples of blood was 6.49%, the difference between which was especially prominent (P 0.05); and the differences between reciprocal cross hybrids in both hybrid systems were not significant (P > 0.05), but between different hybrid systems, the hybrids had a significant difference (P<0.05). The average methylation content in muscle samples was higher than that in blood samples, and the methylation in different tissues was different.

  9. Simulation of muscle and adipose tissue deformation in the passive human pharynx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrigy, Nicholas B; Carey, Jason P; Martin, Andrew R; Remmers, John E; Zareian, Ali; Topor, Zbigniew; Grosse, Joshua; Noga, Michelle; Finlay, Warren H

    2016-01-01

    Quantifying the contribution of passive mechanical deformation in the human pharynx to upper airway collapse is fundamental to understanding the competing biomechanical processes that maintain airway patency. This study uses finite element analysis to examine deformation in the passive human pharynx using an intricate 3D anatomical model based on computed tomography scan images. Linear elastic properties are assigned to bone, cartilage, ligament, tendon, and membrane structures based on a survey of values reported in the literature. Velopharyngeal and oropharyngeal cross-sectional area versus airway pressure slopes are determined as functions of Young's moduli of muscle and adipose tissue. In vivo pharyngeal mechanics for small deformations near atmospheric pressure are matched by altering Young's moduli of muscle and adipose tissue. The results indicate that Young's moduli ranging from 0.33 to 14 kPa for muscle and adipose tissue matched the in vivo range of area versus pressure slopes. The developed anatomical model and determined Young's moduli range are expected to be useful as a starting point for more complex simulations of human upper airway collapse and obstructive sleep apnea therapy.

  10. Transcriptomic profiling in muscle and adipose tissue identifies genes related to growth and lipid deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Xuan; Liang, Yan; Yang, Xuemei; Pang, Jianhui; Zhong, Zhijun; Chen, Xiaohui; Yang, Yuekui; Zeng, Kai; Kang, Runming; Lei, Yunfeng; Ying, Sancheng; Gong, Jianjun; Gu, Yiren; Lv, Xuebin

    2017-01-01

    Growth performance and meat quality are important traits for the pig industry and consumers. Adipose tissue is the main site at which fat storage and fatty acid synthesis occur. Therefore, we combined high-throughput transcriptomic sequencing in adipose and muscle tissues with the quantification of corresponding phenotypic features using seven Chinese indigenous pig breeds and one Western commercial breed (Yorkshire). We obtained data on 101 phenotypic traits, from which principal component analysis distinguished two groups: one associated with the Chinese breeds and one with Yorkshire. The numbers of differentially expressed genes between all Chinese breeds and Yorkshire were shown to be 673 and 1056 in adipose and muscle tissues, respectively. Functional enrichment analysis revealed that these genes are associated with biological functions and canonical pathways related to oxidoreductase activity, immune response, and metabolic process. Weighted gene coexpression network analysis found more coexpression modules significantly correlated with the measured phenotypic traits in adipose than in muscle, indicating that adipose regulates meat and carcass quality. Using the combination of differential expression, QTL information, gene significance, and module hub genes, we identified a large number of candidate genes potentially related to economically important traits in pig, which should help us improve meat production and quality.

  11. Bladder Smooth Muscle Cells Differentiation from Dental Pulp Stem Cells: Future Potential for Bladder Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Song

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs are multipotent cells capable of differentiating into multiple cell lines, thus providing an alternative source of cell for tissue engineering. Smooth muscle cell (SMC regeneration is a crucial step in tissue engineering of the urinary bladder. It is known that DPSCs have the potential to differentiate into a smooth muscle phenotype in vitro with differentiation agents. However, most of these studies are focused on the vascular SMCs. The optimal approaches to induce human DPSCs to differentiate into bladder SMCs are still under investigation. We demonstrate in this study the ability of human DPSCs to differentiate into bladder SMCs in a growth environment containing bladder SMCs-conditioned medium with the addition of the transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1. After 14 days of exposure to this medium, the gene and protein expression of SMC-specific marker (α-SMA, desmin, and calponin increased over time. In particular, myosin was present in differentiated cells after 11 days of induction, which indicated that the cells differentiated into the mature SMCs. These data suggested that human DPSCs could be used as an alternative and less invasive source of stem cells for smooth muscle regeneration, a technology that has applications for bladder tissue engineering.

  12. Cadmium accumulation in soil, fodder, grain, organs and muscle tissue of cattle in West Siberia (Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirill Nikolaevich Narozhnykh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The content of cadmium in the soil, fodder, grain, organs and muscle tissue of animals from two ecological zones of the Novosibirsk Region, marked by different prevalent breeds of cattle – Hereford breed (beef cattle and Black-and-White breed (dairy cattle – was studied. The concentrations of elements in the soil, fodder, and grain were measured by flame atomic absorption, using Kvant-2A spectrometer, and expressed on a dry weight basis. The cadmium content in soil, fodder, and grain did not exceed maximum permissible concentrations (MPC. The chemical composition of organs and muscle tissue was analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry, using Shimadzu AA-7000 spectrometer. Average cadmium content in liver, kidneys, spleen, heart, lungs and muscle tissue over the populations was determined for Hereford and Black-and-White cattle. The cadmium levels in forage and soil from the first and second zones were not different. Maximal cadmium content was observed in kidneys of the animals of the studied breeds, whereas minimal content was observed in heart. Interbreed differences in cadmium content in lungs, liver, spleen, and heart were determined. The West Siberia territories are suitable for yielding ecologically safe production, concerning the content of cadmium in the soil, fodder, grain, meat and by-products of cattle.

  13. Skeletal muscle regeneration via engineered tissue culture over electrospun nanofibrous chitosan/PVA scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kheradmandi, Mahsa; Vasheghani-Farahani, Ebrahim; Ghiaseddin, Ali; Ganji, Fariba

    2016-07-01

    Skeletal muscle tissue shows a remarkable potential in regeneration of injured tissue. However, in some of chronic and volumetric muscle damages, the native tissue is incapable to repair and remodeling the trauma. In the same condition, stem-cell therapy increased regeneration in situations of deficient muscle repair, but the major problem seems to be the lack of ability to attachment and survive of injected cells on the exact location. In this study, chitosan/poly(vinyl alcohol) nanofibrous scaffold was studied to promote cell attachment and provide mechanical support during regeneration. Scaffold was characterized using scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, and tensile test. Degradation and swelling behavior of scaffold were studied for 20 days. The cell-scaffold interaction was characterized by MTT assay for 10 days and in vivo biocompatibility of scaffold in a rabbit model was evaluated. Results showed that cells had a good viability, adhesion, growth, and spread on the scaffold, which make this mat a desirable engineered muscular graft. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 104A: 1720-1727, 2016.

  14. Human umbilical cord stem cell encapsulation in novel macroporous and injectable fibrin for muscle tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Xu, Hockin H.K.; Zhou, Hongzhi; Weir, Michael D.; Chen, Qianming; Trotman, Carroll Ann

    2012-01-01

    There has been little research on the seeding of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) in three-dimensional scaffolds for muscle tissue engineering. The objectives of this study were: (i) to seed hUCMSCs in a fibrin hydrogel containing fast-degradable microbeads (dMBs) to create macropores to enhance cell viability; and (ii) to investigate the encapsulated cell proliferation and myogenic differentiation for muscle tissue engineering. Mass fractions of 0–80% of dMBs were tested, and 35% of dMBs in fibrin was shown to avoid fibrin shrinkage while creating macropores and promoting cell viability. This construct was referred to as “dMB35”. Fibrin without dMBs was termed “dMB0”. Microbead degradation created macropores in fibrin and improved cell viability. The percentage of live cells in dMB35 reached 91% at 16 days, higher than the 81% in dMB0 (p muscle tissue engineering applications. PMID:22902812

  15. Controlling the contractile strength of engineered cardiac muscle by hierarchal tissue architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Adam W; Alford, Patrick W; Jin, Hongwei; Ripplinger, Crystal M; Werdich, Andreas A; Sheehy, Sean P; Grosberg, Anna; Parker, Kevin Kit

    2012-08-01

    The heart is a muscular organ with a wrapping, laminar structure embedded with neural and vascular networks, collagen fibrils, fibroblasts, and cardiac myocytes that facilitate contraction. We hypothesized that these non-muscle components may have functional benefit, serving as important structural alignment cues in inter- and intra-cellular organization of cardiac myocytes. Previous studies have demonstrated that alignment of engineered myocardium enhances calcium handling, but how this impacts actual force generation remains unclear. Quantitative assays are needed to determine the effect of alignment on contractile function and muscle physiology. To test this, micropatterned surfaces were used to build 2-dimensional myocardium from neonatal rat ventricular myocytes with distinct architectures: confluent isotropic (serving as the unaligned control), confluent anisotropic, and 20 μm spaced, parallel arrays of multicellular myocardial fibers. We combined image analysis of sarcomere orientation with muscular thin film contractile force assays in order to calculate the peak sarcomere-generated stress as a function of tissue architecture. Here we report that increasing peak systolic stress in engineered cardiac tissues corresponds with increasing sarcomere alignment. This change is larger than would be anticipated from enhanced calcium handling and increased uniaxial alignment alone. These results suggest that boundary conditions (heterogeneities) encoded in the extracellular space can regulate muscle tissue function, and that structural organization and cytoskeletal alignment are critically important for maximizing peak force generation.

  16. [Actomyosin ATPase activity of skeletal muscles and the markers of tissue damage in the blood of rats under prolonged chronic alcoholization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseĭslier, Iu V; Podpalova, O M; Nuryshchenko, N Ie; Martyniuk, V S

    2014-01-01

    The activity of creatine kinase and indices of lipid metabolism in the blood and also actomyosin ATPase activity of skeletal muscles of rats under chronic 8-month alcohol abuse were investigated. It is shown that actomyosin K+-ATPase activity of skeletal muscles increases from two months of ethanol use, but actomyosin Mg2+-ATPase activity decreases during 6-8 months of alcoholization. From two months of ethanol use the creatine kinase activity, as an enzyme marker of muscle tissue damage, statistically significantly increases during all the period of the animals alcoholization. The level of total lipid increases after two months of alcohol consumption (in blood plasma by 30% and in erythrocyte mass by 65%). For longer periods of alcoholization (4-8 months) the level of lipids remains almost the same, whereas in erythrocyte mass it does not differ from control values. The level of diene conjugates in the blood plasma reduces and the amount of ketone derivatives of fatty acid residues increases that points to the inhibition of some components of the antioxidant system that control detoxification of hydroperoxides of fatty acids and also to activation of free radical damage of tissues. There were no significant changes of lipid peroxidation level in erythrocyte mass at any stage of alcoholization.

  17. A HPLC-MS/MS method for determination of 6'''-feruloylspinosin in rat plasma and tissues: Pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Longdong; Liu, Yan; Chen, Xiaoyan; Xie, Junbo; Zhang, Yanqing; Yang, Ke; Zhou, Hongjian; Duan, Yayun; Zheng, Wei; Xie, Wenlin

    2016-03-20

    A sensitive, reliable and accurate HPLC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the quantification of 6'''-feruloylspinosin in rat plasma and tissues with puerarin as the internal standard. The separation was performed on a Proshell 120 EC-C18 column (4.6×150 mm, 2.7 μm) with a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid (20:80, v/v) at 0.3 mL/min. The quantification was performed by MRM with m/z [M-H](-) 783.3→427.2 for 6'''-feruloylspinosin and m/z [M-H](-) 415.4→295.4 for the internal standard, respectively. The calibration curves covered over a concentration range of 20-2000 ng/mL in plasma and various tissues samples (heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, stomach, intestine, muscle, cerebrum and cerebellum) with good linearity (r(2)≥0.9914). Both the intra- and inter-day precisions were less than 14.70%, and the accuracy (RE%) ranged from -5.80% to 4.93%. The extraction recoveries were within 75.21-92.96%, and the matrix effect ranged from 87.21% to 113.44%. Compared with spinosin, 6'''-feruloylspinosin was distributed in rats faster whereas more slowly eliminated from the plasma. 6'''-Feruloylspinosin could be distributed rapidly and widely in various tissues, and transfer across the blood-brain barrier. In addition, both 6'''-feruloylspinosin and spinosin could enhance the expression of GABAAα1, GABAAα5, GABABR1 mRNA in rat hippocampal neurons significantly, indicating the bioactivity mechanism of 6'''-feruloylspinosin was involved in the GABA receptors.

  18. Tissue Deformation Index as a Reliable Measure of Lateral Abdominal Muscle Activation on M-Mode Sonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biały, Maciej; Adamczyk, Wacław; Gnat, Rafael; Stranc, Tomasz

    2017-03-24

    The aim of this article is to present a novel method of evaluating the activity of lateral abdominal muscles using M-mode sonography. The method leads to calculation of the tissue deformation index, representing the percent change in lateral abdominal muscle thickness over time. The objectives of this study were as follows: (1) to establish the mean tissue deformation index values for individual lateral abdominal muscles; and (2) to establish the reliability of the tissue deformation index. In a group of 34 healthy young volunteers (mean age, 24.03 years; body mass, 68.89 kg; body height, 174.25 cm), the reflex response of the lateral abdominal muscles to postural perturbation in the form of rapid arm abduction was recorded in 2 series, with 6 repetitions each, and the tissue deformation index was calculated. The mean tissue deformation index values formed a gradient, increasing from deep to superficial lateral abdominal muscles: 0.06%/ms for transversus abdominis, 0.11%/ms for oblique internal, and 0.16 for oblique external muscles. The tissue deformation index values differed significantly among individual lateral abdominal muscles (all paired comparisons, P  0.8).

  19. Sex-specific differences in transcriptome profiles of brain and muscle tissue of the tropical gar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cribbin, Kayla M; Quackenbush, Corey R; Taylor, Kyle; Arias-Rodriguez, Lenin; Kelley, Joanna L

    2017-04-07

    The tropical gar (Atractosteus tropicus) is the southernmost species of the seven extant species of gar fishes in the world. In Mexico and Central America, the species is an important food source due to its nutritional quality and low price. Despite its regional importance and increasing concerns about overexploitation and habitat degradation, basic genetic information on the tropical gar is lacking. Determining genetic information on the tropical gar is important for the sustainable management of wild populations, implementation of best practices in aquaculture settings, evolutionary studies of ancient lineages, and an understanding of sex-specific gene expression. In this study, the transcriptome of the tropical gar was sequenced and assembled de novo using tissues from three males and three females using Illumina sequencing technology. Sex-specific and highly differentially expressed transcripts in brain and muscle tissues between adult males and females were subsequently identified. The transcriptome was assembled de novo resulting in 80,611 transcripts with a contig N50 of 3,355 base pairs and over 168 kilobases in total length. Male muscle, brain, and gonad as well as female muscle and brain were included in the assembly. The assembled transcriptome was annotated to identify the putative function of expressed transcripts using Trinotate and SwissProt, a database of well-annotated proteins. The brain and muscle datasets were then aligned to the assembled transcriptome to identify transcripts that were differentially expressed between males and females. The contrast between male and female brain identified 109 transcripts from 106 genes that were significantly differentially expressed. In the muscle comparison, 82 transcripts from 80 genes were identified with evidence for significant differential expression. Almost all genes identified as differentially expressed were sex-specific. The differentially expressed transcripts were enriched for genes involved in

  20. A pilot study using Tissue Velocity Ultrasound Imaging (TVI to assess muscle activity pattern in patients with chronic trapezius myalgia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brodin Lars-Åke

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Different research techniques indicate alterations in muscle tissue and in neuromuscular control of aching muscles in patients with chronic localized pain. Ultrasound can be used for analysis of muscle tissue dynamics in clinical practice. Aim This study introduces a new muscle tissue sensitive ultrasound technique in order to provide a new methodology for providing a description of local muscle changes. This method is applied to investigate trapezius muscle tissue response – especially with respect to specific regional deformation and deformation rates – during concentric shoulder elevation in patients with chronic trapezius myalgia and healthy controls before and after pain provocation. Methods Patients with trapezius myalgia and healthy controls were analyzed using an ultrasound system equipped with tissue velocity imaging (TVI. The patients performed a standardized 3-cm concentric shoulder elevation before and after pain provocation/exercise at a standardized elevation tempo (30 bpm. A standardized region of interest (ROI, an ellipsis with a size that captures the upper and lower fascia of the trapezius muscle (4 cm width at rest, was placed in the first frame of the loop registration of the elevation. The ROI was re-anchored frame by frame following the same anatomical landmark in the basal fascia during all frames of the concentric phase. In cardiac measurement, tissue velocities are measured in the axial projection towards and against the probe where red colour represents shortening and red lengthening. In the case of measuring the trapezius muscle, tissue deformation measurements are made orthogonally, thus, indirectly. Based on the assumption of muscle volume incompressibility, blue represents tissue contraction and red relaxation. Within the ROI, two variables were calculated as a function of time: deformation and deformation rate. Hereafter, max, mean, and quadratic mean values (RMS of each variable were

  1. Smooth muscle myosin regulation by serum and cell density in cultured rat lung connective tissue cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babij, P; Zhao, J; White, S; Woodcock-Mitchell, J; Mitchell, J; Absher, M; Baldor, L; Periasamy, M; Low, R B

    1993-08-01

    RNA and protein analyses were used to detect expression of SM1 and SM2 smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (MHC) in cultured adult rat lung connective tissue cells (RL-90). Smooth muscle MHC mRNA expression in confluent cells grown in 10% serum was approximately 50% of the level in adult stomach. Similar results were obtained in cells cultured at low density (25% confluency) in 1% serum. However, in low-density cultures transferred to 10% serum for 24 h, the level of MHC mRNA decreased to approximately 20% of that in adult stomach. Smooth muscle alpha-actin showed a pattern of expression similar to that for smooth muscle MHC. Expression of nonmuscle MHC-A mRNA was higher in all culture conditions compared to stomach. MHC-A mRNA expression was less in low-density cultures in low serum and increased when low-density cultures were transferred to 10% serum for 24 h. MHC-B mRNA expression was less in low- vs. high-density cultures. In contrast to MHC-A, however, MHC-B mRNA expression in low-density cultures was higher in low serum. Immunofluorescence and immunoblotting with SM1-specific antibody demonstrated the presence of the SM1 protein isoform as well as reactivity to a protein band migrating slightly faster than SM2. These results demonstrate that cultured rat lung connective tissue cells express smooth muscle MHC and that expression is modulated by culture conditions.

  2. Grb10 deletion enhances muscle cell proliferation, differentiation and GLUT4 plasma membrane translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokbel, Nancy; Hoffman, Nolan J; Girgis, Christian M; Small, Lewin; Turner, Nigel; Daly, Roger J; Cooney, Gregory J; Holt, Lowenna J

    2014-11-01

    Grb10 is an intracellular adaptor protein which binds directly to several growth factor receptors, including those for insulin and insulin-like growth factor receptor-1 (IGF-1), and negatively regulates their actions. Grb10-ablated (Grb10(-/-) ) mice exhibit improved whole body glucose homeostasis and an increase in muscle mass associated specifically with an increase in myofiber number. This suggests that Grb10 may act as a negative regulator of myogenesis. In this study, we investigated in vitro, the molecular mechanisms underlying the increase in muscle mass and the improved glucose metabolism. Primary muscle cells isolated from Grb10(-/-) mice exhibited increased rates of proliferation and differentiation compared to primary cells isolated from wild-type mice. The improved proliferation capacity was associated with an enhanced phosphorylation of Akt and ERK in the basal state and changes in the expression of key cell cycle progression markers involved in regulating transition of cells from the G1 to S phase (e.g., retinoblastoma (Rb) and p21). The absence of Grb10 also promoted a faster transition to a myogenin positive, differentiated state. Glucose uptake was higher in Grb10(-/-) primary myotubes in the basal state and was associated with enhanced insulin signaling and an increase in GLUT4 translocation to the plasma membrane. These data demonstrate an important role for Grb10 as a link between muscle growth and metabolism with therapeutic implications for diseases, such as muscle wasting and type 2 diabetes.

  3. Perfluorooctane Sulfonate Plasma Half-Life Determination and Long-Term Tissue Distribution in Beef Cattle (Bos taurus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupton, Sara J; Dearfield, Kerry L; Johnston, John J; Wagner, Sarah; Huwe, Janice K

    2015-12-30

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is used in consumer products as a surfactant and is found in industrial and consumer waste, which ends up in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). PFOS does not breakdown during WWTP processes and accumulates in the biosolids. Common practices include application of biosolids to pastures and croplands used for feed, and as a result, animals such as beef cattle are exposed to PFOS. To determine plasma and tissue depletion kinetics in cattle, 2 steers and 4 heifers were dosed with PFOS at 0.098 mg/kg body weight and 9.1 mg/kg, respectively. Plasma depletion half-lives for steers and heifers were 120 ± 4.1 and 106 ± 23.1 days, respectively. Specific tissue depletion half-lives ranged from 36 to 385 days for intraperitoneal fat, back fat, muscle, liver, bone, and kidney. These data indicate that PFOS in beef cattle has a sufficiently long depletion half-life to permit accumulation in edible tissues.

  4. Influence of oxidative stress, diaphragm fatigue, and inspiratory muscle training on the plasma cytokine response to maximum sustainable voluntary ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Dean E; Johnson, Michael A; McPhilimey, Martin J; Williams, Neil C; Gonzalez, Javier T; Barnett, Yvonne A; Sharpe, Graham R

    2014-04-15

    The influence of oxidative stress, diaphragm fatigue, and inspiratory muscle training (IMT) on the cytokine response to maximum sustainable voluntary ventilation (MSVV) is unknown. Twelve healthy males were divided equally into an IMT or placebo (PLA) group, and before and after a 6-wk intervention they undertook, on separate days, 1 h of (1) passive rest and (2) MSVV, whereby participants undertook volitional hyperpnea at rest that mimicked the breathing and respiratory muscle recruitment patterns commensurate with heavy cycling exercise. Plasma cytokines remained unchanged during passive rest. There was a main effect of time (P ventilation and increases in plasma IL-6 concentration. In conclusion, increases in plasma IL-1β and IL-6 concentrations during MSVV were not due to diaphragm fatigue or DNA damage in PBMC. Increases in plasma IL-6 concentration during MSVV are attenuated following IMT, and the plasma IL-6 response is dependent upon the level of respiratory muscle work and minute ventilation.

  5. Levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 in plasma and urine frompatients with bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holten Andersen, MN; Brunner, N; Nielsen, HJ;

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To assess the potential use of plasma and urine levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP-1) in urothelial cancer. Methods: TIMP-1 levels were determined in urine and plasma from healthy donors (n=26), patients with bacterial bladder infection (n=24), urothelial bladder adenoma...

  6. Levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 in plasma and urine from patients with cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holten-Andersen, Mads Nikolaj; Brünner, Nils; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen;

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To assess the potential use of plasma and urine levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP-1) in urothelial cancer. METHODS: TIMP-1 levels were determined in urine and plasma from healthy donors (n=26), patients with bacterial bladder infection (n=24), urothelial bladder adenoma...

  7. Levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 in plasma and urine from patients with cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holten-Andersen, Mads Nikolaj; Brünner, Nils; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To assess the potential use of plasma and urine levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP-1) in urothelial cancer. METHODS: TIMP-1 levels were determined in urine and plasma from healthy donors (n=26), patients with bacterial bladder infection (n=24), urothelial bladder adenoma...

  8. Exercise-induced increase in interstitial bradykinin and adenosine concentrations in skeletal muscle and peritendinous tissue in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langberg, H; Bjørn, C; Boushel, Robert Christopher

    2002-01-01

    increased both in muscle (from 0.48 +/- 0.07 micromol l(-1) to 1.59 +/- 0.35 micromol l(-1); P muscular activity increases the interstitial concentrations...... of bradykinin and adenosine in both skeletal muscle and the connective tissue around its adjacent tendon. These findings support a role for bradykinin and adenosine in exercise-induced hyperaemia in skeletal muscle and suggest that bradykinin and adenosine are potential regulators of blood flow in peritendinous...

  9. ALK5-mediated transforming growth factor β signaling in neural crest cells controls craniofacial muscle development via tissue-tissue interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Arum; Zhao, Hu; Li, Jingyuan; Pelikan, Richard; Chai, Yang

    2014-08-01

    The development of the craniofacial muscles requires reciprocal interactions with surrounding craniofacial tissues that originate from cranial neural crest cells (CNCCs). However, the molecular mechanism involved in the tissue-tissue interactions between CNCCs and muscle progenitors during craniofacial muscle development is largely unknown. In the current study, we address how CNCCs regulate the development of the tongue and other craniofacial muscles using Wnt1-Cre; Alk5(fl/fl) mice, in which loss of Alk5 in CNCCs results in severely disrupted muscle formation. We found that Bmp4 is responsible for reduced proliferation of the myogenic progenitor cells in Wnt1-Cre; Alk5(fl/fl) mice during early myogenesis. In addition, Fgf4 and Fgf6 ligands were reduced in Wnt1-Cre; Alk5(fl/fl) mice and are critical for differentiation of the myogenic cells. Addition of Bmp4 or Fgf ligands rescues the proliferation and differentiation defects in the craniofacial muscles of Alk5 mutant mice in vitro. Taken together, our results indicate that CNCCs play critical roles in controlling craniofacial myogenic proliferation and differentiation through tissue-tissue interactions. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  10. Glucagon-like peptide-1 elicits vasodilation in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmar, Ali; Asmar, Meena; Simonsen, Lene; Madsbad, Sten; Holst, Jens J; Hartmann, Bolette; Sorensen, Charlotte M; Bülow, Jens

    2017-02-01

    In healthy subjects, we recently demonstrated that during acute administration of GLP-1, cardiac output increased significantly, whereas renal blood flow remained constant. We therefore hypothesize that GLP-1 induces vasodilation in other organs, for example, adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and/or splanchnic tissues. Nine healthy men were examined twice in random order during a 2-hour infusion of either GLP-1 (1.5 pmol kg(-1) min(-1)) or saline. Cardiac output was continuously estimated noninvasively concomitantly with measurement of intra-arterial blood pressure. Subcutaneous, abdominal adipose tissue blood flow (ATBF) was measured by the (133)Xenon clearance technique. Leg and splanchnic blood flow were measured by Fick's Principle, using indocyanine green as indicator. In the GLP-1 study, cardiac output increased significantly together with a significant increase in arterial pulse pressure and heart rate compared with the saline study. Subcutaneous, abdominal ATBF and leg blood flow increased significantly during the GLP-1 infusion compared with saline, whereas splanchnic blood flow response did not differ between the studies. We conclude that in healthy subjects, GLP-1 increases cardiac output acutely due to a GLP-1-induced vasodilation in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle together with an increase in cardiac work.

  11. Insulin action in morbid obesity: a focus on muscle and adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrou, Panayota; Raptis, Sotirios A; Dimitriadis, George

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this review is to summarize the mechanisms underlying insulin resistance in morbid obesity. Glucose regulation by insulin depends on the suppression of endogenous glucose production and stimulation of glucose disposal. In morbid obesity, glucose production by the liver is increased. Moreover, the sensitivity of glucose metabolism to insulin is impaired both in muscle (due to defects in insulin-stimulated glucose utilization and decreased blood flow) and in adipose tissue (due to decreased blood flow). However, recent studies suggest that expanded total fat mass becomes a major consumer of glucose providing a sink for glucose and compensating for insulin resistance. Metabolism and immunity are closely linked. Bearing in mind the crosstalk between inflammatory pathways and the insulin signaling cascade, adipose tissue derived cytokines may represent a link between inflammation and metabolic signals and mediate, at least in part, insulin resistance. Adipose tissue plays a crucial role by buffering daily influx of dietary fat, suppressing the release of non-esterified fatty acids into the circulation and increasing triacylglycerol clearance. However, in morbid obesity there is an impairment of the normal ability of adipose tissue to buffer fatty acids, despite hyperinsulinemia. Lipotoxicity gradually impairs insulin action in the liver and muscle, aggravating insulin resistance.

  12. Muscle Tissue Damage Induced by the Venom of Bothrops asper: Identification of Early and Late Pathological Events through Proteomic Analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Herrera, Cristina; Macêdo, Jéssica Kele A; Feoli, Andrés; Escalante, Teresa; Rucavado, Alexandra; Gutiérrez, José María; Fox, Jay W

    2016-01-01

    The time-course of the pathological effects induced by the venom of the snake Bothrops asper in muscle tissue was investigated by a combination of histology, proteomic analysis of exudates collected...

  13. Perivascular adipose tissue control of insulin-induced vasoreactivity in muscle is impaired in db/db mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meijer, Rick I; Bakker, Wineke; Alta, Caro-Lynn A F

    2013-01-01

    Microvascular recruitment in muscle is a determinant of insulin sensitivity. Whether perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) is involved in disturbed insulin-induced vasoreactivity is unknown, as are the underlying mechanisms. This study investigates whether PVAT regulates insulin-induced vasodilation...

  14. A comparative study of accumulated total mercury among white muscle, red muscle and liver tissues of common carp and silver carp from the Sanandaj Gheshlagh Reservoir in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshnamvand, Mehdi; Kaboodvandpour, Shahram; Ghiasi, Farzad

    2013-01-01

    The Sanandaj Gheshlagh Reservoir (SGR) is a mercury polluted lake that is located in the West of Iran. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) are the most abundant fishes in the SGR. A total of 48 common and silver carps (24 each) were captured randomly, using 50×6 m gill net (mesh size: 5×5 cm) during July to December 2009. Each month, the levels of accumulated total mercury (T-Hg) in white muscle, red muscle and liver tissues of these fishes were measured using an Advanced Mercury Analyzer (Model; Leco 254 AMA, USA) on the dry weight basis. There were no statistically significant differences between T-Hg concentrations in white muscle, red muscle and liver in common carp in comparison with similar tissues in silver carp (P>0.05). The content of T-Hg in liver tissue of both species was lower than of white and red muscle tissues. Higher levels of accumulated T-Hg were observed during summer. Results showed that T-Hg concentrations in common and silver carps target tissues were strongly dependent on age, length and weight (Ptissues of all samples with weights of over 850 g were greater than those limits established by WHO and FAO (500 ng g(-1)). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparison of Metabolic Network between Muscle and Intramuscular Adipose Tissues in Hanwoo Beef Cattle Using a Systems Biology Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun-Jeong; Park, Hye-Sun; Kim, Woonsu; Yoon, Duhak; Seo, Seongwon

    2014-01-01

    The interrelationship between muscle and adipose tissues plays a major role in determining the quality of carcass traits. The objective of this study was to compare metabolic differences between muscle and intramuscular adipose (IMA) tissues in the longissimus dorsi (LD) of Hanwoo (Bos taurus coreanae) using the RNA-seq technology and a systems biology approach. The LD sections between the 6th and 7th ribs were removed from nine (each of three cows, steers, and bulls) Hanwoo beef cattle (carcass weight of 430.2 ± 40.66 kg) immediately after slaughter. The total mRNA from muscle, IMA, and subcutaneous adipose and omental adipose tissues were isolated and sequenced. The reads that passed quality control were mapped onto the bovine reference genome (build bosTau6), and differentially expressed genes across tissues were identified. The KEGG pathway enrichment tests revealed the opposite direction of metabolic regulation between muscle and IMA. Metabolic gene network analysis clearly indicated that oxidative metabolism was upregulated in muscle and downregulated in IMA. Interestingly, pathways for regulating cell adhesion, structure, and integrity and chemokine signaling pathway were upregulated in IMA and downregulated in muscle. It is thus inferred that IMA may play an important role in the regulation of development and structure of the LD tissues and muscle/adipose communication.

  16. Validation of Continuously Tagged MRI for the Measurement of Dynamic 3D Skeletal Muscle Tissue Deformation

    CERN Document Server

    Moerman, Kevin M; Simms, Ciaran K; Lamerichs, Rolf M; Stoker, Jaap; Nederveen, Aart J

    2016-01-01

    A SPAMM tagged MRI methodology is presented allowing continuous (3.3-3.6 Hz) sampling of 3D dynamic soft tissue deformation using non-segmented 3D acquisitions. The 3D deformation is reconstructed by the combination of 3 mutually orthogonal tagging directions, thus requiring only 3 repeated motion cycles. In addition a fully automatic post-processing framework is presented employing Gabor scale-space and filter-bank analysis for tag extrema segmentation and triangulated surface fitting aided by Gabor filter bank derived surface normals. Deformation is derived following tracking of tag surface triplet triangle intersections. The dynamic deformation measurements were validated using indentation tests (~20 mm deep at 12 mm/s) on a silicone gel soft tissue phantom containing contrasting markers which provide a reference measure of deformation. In addition, the techniques were evaluated in-vivo for dynamic skeletal muscle tissue deformation measurement during indentation of the biceps region of the upper arm in a ...

  17. THE CONTENT OF SOME COMPONENTS OF METABOLISM IN MUSCLE TISSUE OF BREAM ABRAMIS BRAMA (L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Flerova

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Physiological condition is one of the most important characteristic used for evaluating single individuals, populations and fish stocks in general. The data on a number of physiological indicators of bream the Gorky water reservoir were presented. Amount of moisture, dry matter in the muscular tissue was determined of using two-stage determination of total moisture. Simple lipids were determined by extraction with petroleum-ether. The analysis of the results suggests that the indices of water, dry matter and simple lipids content in muscular tissue of mature males, females and juvenile individuals of bream were close. Decrease of water amount in the muscle tissue, increase of dry matter end lipids takes place along with bream ageing.

  18. Communication channel modeling of human forearm with muscle fiber tissue characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shuang; Pun, Sio Hang; Mak, Peng Un; Qin, Yu-Ping; Liu, Yi-He; Vai, Mang I

    2016-09-14

    Human-Body Communication (HBC) is a wireless communication method using the human body tissue as a transmission medium for signals. This paper on the basis of human muscle fiber tissues' characteristics, it is first proposed to establish the analytical model of galvanic coupling human-body communication channel. In this model, the parallel and the transverse electrical characteristics of muscular tissue are fully considered, and the model accurately presents the transmission mechanism of galvanic coupling human-body communication signals in the channel. At last, through compare with the experimental results and calculation results, the maximum error of the model is 22.4% and the average error is 14.2% within the frequency range.

  19. Influence of estrogen on markers of muscle tissue damage following eccentric exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, A; Dobridge, J; Hackney, A C

    2001-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that estrogen levels of women influences the development of a muscle-tissue damage (creatine kinase, CK) marker and delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) following eccentric exercise. Seventeen oral contraceptive (OC) users and ten eumenorrheic (EU) subjects completed a 30-min downhill running bout at approximately 60% VO2max. The OC completed the exercise during the mid-luteal phase (day 22.9 +/- 1.5; high estrogen) while the EU did their exercise in the mid-follicular phase (day 9.6 +/- 4.4; low estrogen) of the menstrual cycle, respectively. The CK activity and DOMS were assessed pre-exercise, immediately post-, 24, 48 and 72 h post-exercise. ANOVA results indicated that there was a significant increase in CK activity in response to the downhill run (p exercise than did the EU group. Pre-exercise estrogen levels correlated with the overall mean CK (r = -0.43, p Exercise caused an increase in DOMS in both groups (p estrogen levels have a protective effect on muscle tissue following eccentric exercise. The mechanism of this protective effect is unclear but may be related to the anti-oxidant characteristics and membrane stability properties associated with estrogen and its derivatives.

  20. Gene Expression and DNA Methylation of PPARGC1A in Muscle and Adipose Tissue From Adult Offspring of Women With Diabetes in Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelstrup, Louise; Hjort, Line; Houshmand-Oeregaard, Azadeh; Clausen, Tine D; Hansen, Ninna S; Broholm, Christa; Borch-Johnsen, Liv; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R; Vaag, Allan A; Damm, Peter

    2016-10-01

    Prenatal exposure to maternal hyperglycemia is associated with an increased risk of later adverse metabolic health. Changes in the regulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PPARGC1A) in skeletal muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) is suggested to play a role in the developmental programming of dysmetabolism based on studies of human subjects exposed to an abnormal intrauterine environment (e.g., individuals with a low birth weight). We studied 206 adult offspring of women with gestational diabetes mellitus (O-GDM) or type 1 diabetes (O-T1D) and of women from the background population (O-BP) using a clinical examination, oral glucose tolerance test, and gene expression and DNA methylation of PPARGC1A in skeletal muscle and SAT. Plasma glucose was significantly higher for both O-GDM and O-T1D compared with O-BP (P expression in muscle was lower in O-GDM compared with O-BP (P = 0.0003), whereas no differences were found between O-T1D and O-BP in either tissue. PPARGC1A DNA methylation percentages in muscle and SAT were similar among all groups. Decreased PPARGC1A gene expression in muscle has previously been associated with abnormal insulin function and may thus contribute to the increased risk of metabolic disease in O-GDM. The unaltered PPARGC1A gene expression in muscle of O-T1D suggests that factors other than intrauterine hyperglycemia may contribute to the decreased PPARGC1A expression in O-GDM. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association.

  1. Differential regulation of oxytocin receptor in various adipose tissue depots and skeletal muscle types in obese Zucker rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajdosechova, L; Krskova, K; Olszanecki, R; Zorad, S

    2015-07-01

    Multifunctional peptide oxytocin currently undergoes intensive research due to its proposed anti-obesity properties. Until now, little is known about regulation of oxytocin receptor in metabolically active tissues in obesity. The aim of the present study was to measure expression of oxytocin receptor upon obese phenotype with respect to the variety among adipose tissue and skeletal muscles with distinct anatomical localisation. Total homogenates were prepared from epididymal, retroperitoneal and inguinal adipose tissues as well as quadriceps and soleus muscle from lean and obese Zucker rats. Oxytocin receptor protein was determined by immunoblot. Interestingly, elevated oxytocin receptor was observed in epididymal adipose tissue of obese rats in contrast to its downregulation in subcutaneous and no change in retroperitoneal fat. In lean animals, oxytocin receptor protein was expressed at similar levels in all adipose depots. This uniformity was not observed in the case of skeletal muscle in which fibre type composition seems to be determinant of oxytocin receptor expression. Quadriceps muscle with the predominance of glycolytic fibres exhibits higher oxytocin receptor expression than almost exclusively oxidative soleus muscle. Oxytocin receptor protein levels were decreased in both skeletal muscles analysed upon obese phenotype. The present work demonstrates that even under identical endocrine circumstances, oxytocin receptor is differentially regulated in adipose tissue of obese rats depending on fat depot localisation. These results also imply which tissues may be preferentially targeted by oxytocin treatment in metabolic disease.

  2. Incorporation of conjugated linoleic acid and vaccenic acid into lipids from rat tissues and plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Pia; Sejrsen, Kristen; Straarup, Ellen Marie

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the incorporation of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) into triacylglycerols (TAG) and phospholipids (PL) of tissues and plasma, and to interpret the role of dietary-derived vaccenic acid (VA) in increasing the tissue content of CLA (c9,t11) and the influ...

  3. DETECTION AND CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF THROMBOMODULIN IN BOTH PLASMA AND TISSUE EXTRACTS OF CANCER PATIENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许晓华; 卢兴国; 徐根波; 朱蕾; 黄连生

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of thrombomodulin (TM) in both plasma and tissue extracts of cancer patients for evaluating its clinical significance. Methods: Plasma TM levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in both plasma of 188 cancer patients and 24 cancer tissue extracts including their adjacent non-cancer tissues. Results: The plasma TM levels both in cancer patients and in metastasis patients were significantly higher than that in controls [(33.47±14.25)μg/L, (41.68±16.96)μg/L, vs(20.40±7.22)μg/L,P0.05). The TM levels in cancer tissue extracts were significantly lower than that in their adjacent non-cancer tissue extracts [(647.71±317.51)μg/L vs (1455.63±772.22)μg/L, P<0.01]. On the contrary, the plasma TM levels in these cancers were significantly higher than that in controls. Conclusion: The rise of plasma TM levels in cancer patients was associated with metastasis and diffusion of cancers. The TM levels can be served as an sensitive index for judging progression and metastasis of cancers.

  4. Rational use of plasma protein and tissue binding data in drug design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xingrong; Wright, Matthew; Hop, Cornelis E C A

    2014-10-23

    It is a commonly accepted assumption that only unbound drug molecules are available to interact with their targets. Therefore, one of the objectives in drug design is to optimize the compound structure to increase in vivo unbound drug concentration. In this review, theoretical analyses and experimental observations are presented to illustrate that low plasma protein binding does not necessarily lead to high in vivo unbound plasma concentration. Similarly, low brain tissue binding does not lead to high in vivo unbound brain tissue concentration. Instead, low intrinsic clearance leads to high in vivo unbound plasma concentration, and low efflux transport activity at the blood-brain barrier leads to high unbound brain concentration. Plasma protein and brain tissue binding are very important parameters in understanding pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and toxicities of drugs, but these parameters should not be targeted for optimization in drug design.

  5. Bone tissue response to plasma-nitrided titanium implant surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Prado FERRAZ

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A current goal of dental implant research is the development of titanium (Ti surfaces to improve osseointegration. Plasma nitriding treatments generate surfaces that favor osteoblast differentiation, a key event to the process of osteogenesis. Based on this, it is possible to hypothesize that plasma-nitrided Ti implants may positively impact osseointegration. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vivo bone response to Ti surfaces modified by plasma-nitriding treatments. Material and Methods Surface treatments consisted of 20% N2 and 80% H2, 450°C and 1.5 mbar during 1 h for planar and 3 h for hollow cathode. Untreated surface was used as control. Ten implants of each surface were placed into rabbit tibiae and 6 weeks post-implantation they were harvested for histological and histomorphometric analyses. Results Bone formation was observed in contact with all implants without statistically significant differences among the evaluated surfaces in terms of bone-to-implant contact, bone area between threads, and bone area within the mirror area. Conclusion Our results indicate that plasma nitriding treatments generate Ti implants that induce similar bone response to the untreated ones. Thus, as these treatments improve the physico-chemical properties of Ti without affecting its biocompatibility, they could be combined with modifications that favor bone formation in order to develop new implant surfaces.

  6. Bone tissue response to plasma-nitrided titanium implant surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, Emanuela Prado; Sverzut, Alexander Tadeu; Freitas, Gileade Pereira; Sá, Juliana Carvalho; Alves, Clodomiro; Beloti, Marcio Mateus; Rosa, Adalberto Luiz

    2015-01-01

    A current goal of dental implant research is the development of titanium (Ti) surfaces to improve osseointegration. Plasma nitriding treatments generate surfaces that favor osteoblast differentiation, a key event to the process of osteogenesis. Based on this, it is possible to hypothesize that plasma-nitrided Ti implants may positively impact osseointegration. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vivo bone response to Ti surfaces modified by plasma-nitriding treatments. Material and Methods Surface treatments consisted of 20% N2 and 80% H2, 450°C and 1.5 mbar during 1 h for planar and 3 h for hollow cathode. Untreated surface was used as control. Ten implants of each surface were placed into rabbit tibiae and 6 weeks post-implantation they were harvested for histological and histomorphometric analyses. Results Bone formation was observed in contact with all implants without statistically significant differences among the evaluated surfaces in terms of bone-to-implant contact, bone area between threads, and bone area within the mirror area. Conclusion Our results indicate that plasma nitriding treatments generate Ti implants that induce similar bone response to the untreated ones. Thus, as these treatments improve the physico-chemical properties of Ti without affecting its biocompatibility, they could be combined with modifications that favor bone formation in order to develop new implant surfaces.

  7. In Vivo Imaging of Far-red Fluorescent Proteins after DNA Electrotransfer to Muscle Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojman Pernille

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract DNA electrotransfer to muscle tissue yields long-term, high levels of gene expression; showing great promise for future gene therapy. We want to characterize the novel far-red fluorescent protein Katushka as a marker for gene expression using time domain fluorescence in vivo imaging. Highly efficient transgenic expression was observed after DNA electrotransfer with 100-fold increase in fluorescent intensity. The fluorescent signal peaked 1 week after transfection and returned to background level within 4 weeks. Katushka expression was not as stable as GFP expression, which was detectable for 8 weeks. Depth and 3D analysis proved that the expression was located in the target muscle. In vivo bio-imaging using the novel Katushka fluorescent protein enables excellent evaluation of the transfection efficacy, and spatial distribution, but lacks long-term stability.

  8. The effect of artificial gravity on plasma and tissue lipids in rats: The Cosmos 936 experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlers, I.; Praslička, M.; Tigranyan, R. A.

    Plasma and tissue lipids in male SPF Wistar rats flown for 18.5 days aboard the Cosmos 936 biosatellite were analyzed. One group of rats was subjected to artificial gravity by use of a centrifuge during the flight. An experiment simulating known space flight factors other than weightlessness was done on Earth. An increase of total cholesterol in plasma, of nonesterified fatty acids in plasma and brown adipose tissue, of triacylglycerols in plasma, liver, thymus and bone marrow was noted several hours after biosatellite landing. Smaller changes were observed in the terrestrial control experiment. With the exception of triacylglycerol accumulation in bone marrow, these increases disappeared 25 days after biosatellite landing. Exposing the rats aboard the biosatellite to artificial gravity was beneficial in the sense that such exposure inhibited the phospholipid and triacylglycerol increase in plasma and inhibited the increase of triacylglycerol in liver and especially in bone marrow.

  9. Adipose, bone and muscle tissues as new endocrine organs: role of reciprocal regulation for osteoporosis and obesity development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliaccio, Silvia; Greco, Emanuela A; Wannenes, Francesca; Donini, Lorenzo M; Lenzi, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    The belief that obesity is protective against osteoporosis has recently been revised. In fact, the latest epidemiologic and clinical studies show that a high level of fat mass, but also reduced muscle mass, might be a risk factor for osteoporosis and fragility fractures. Furthermore, increasing evidence seems to indicate that different components such as myokines, adipokines and growth factors, released by both fat and muscle tissues, could play a key role in the regulation of skeletal health and in low bone mineral density and, thus, in osteoporosis development. This review considers old and recent data in the literature to further evaluate the relationship between fat, bone and muscle tissue.

  10. Biocompatible, Biodegradable, and Electroactive Polyurethane-Urea Elastomers with Tunable Hydrophilicity for Skeletal Muscle Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Dong, Ruonan; Ge, Juan; Guo, Baolin; Ma, Peter X

    2015-12-30

    It remains a challenge to develop electroactive and elastic biomaterials to mimic the elasticity of soft tissue and to regulate the cell behavior during tissue regeneration. We designed and synthesized a series of novel electroactive and biodegradable polyurethane-urea (PUU) copolymers with elastomeric property by combining the properties of polyurethanes and conducting polymers. The electroactive PUU copolymers were synthesized from amine capped aniline trimer (ACAT), dimethylol propionic acid (DMPA), polylactide, and hexamethylene diisocyanate. The electroactivity of the PUU copolymers were studied by UV-vis spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. Elasticity and Young's modulus were tailored by the polylactide segment length and ACAT content. Hydrophilicity of the copolymer films was tuned by changing DMPA content and doping of the copolymer. Cytotoxicity of the PUU copolymers was evaluated by mouse C2C12 myoblast cells. The myogenic differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts on copolymer films was also studied by analyzing the morphology of myotubes and relative gene expression during myogenic differentiation. The chemical structure, thermal properties, surface morphology, and processability of the PUU copolymers were characterized by NMR, FT-IR, gel permeation chromatography (GPC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and solubility testing, respectively. Those biodegradable electroactive elastic PUU copolymers are promising materials for repair of soft tissues such as skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, and nerve.

  11. Insulin action in muscle and adipose tissue in type 2diabetes: The significance of blood flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Under normal metabolic conditions insulin stimulatesmicrovascular perfusion (capillary recruitment) ofskeletal muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue andthus increases blood flow mainly after meal ingestionor physical exercise. This helps the delivery of insulinitself but also that of substrates and of other signallingmolecules to multiple tissues beds and facilitatesglucose disposal and lipid kinetics. This effect is impairedin insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes early in thedevelopment of metabolic dysregulation and reflectsearly-onset endothelial dysfunction. Failure of insulinto increase muscle and adipose tissue blood flowresults in decreased glucose handling. In fat depots, ablunted postprandial blood flow response will result inan insufficient suppression of lipolysis and an increasedspill over of fatty acids in the circulation, leading toa more pronounced insulin resistant state in skeletalmuscle. This defect in blood flow response is apparenteven in the prediabetic state, implying that it is afacet of insulin resistance and exists long before overthyperglycaemia develops. The following review intendsto summarize the contribution of blood flow impairmentto the development of the atherogenic dysglycemia anddyslipidaemia.

  12. Changes of orbital tissue volumes and proptosis in patients with thyroid extraocular muscle swelling after methylprednisolone pulse therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashiyama, Tomoaki; Nishida, Yasuhiro; Ohji, Masahito

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the changes of orbital tissue volumes and proptosis after methylprednisolone pulse therapy in thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO). The cross-sectional areas of orbital tissues and proptosis were measured with magnetic resonance imaging in 40 orbits of 20 patients with TAO before and after methylprednisolone pulse therapy. The volumes of the whole orbit, orbital fatty tissue, and extraocular muscles were calculated. The volumes and proptosis were compared before and after treatment using a paired t test. Before treatment, the mean volumes were 33.0 ± 4.8 cm(3) in the whole orbit, 19.9 ± 4.1 cm(3) in the orbital fatty tissue, and 4.6 ± 1.2 cm(3) in the total extraocular muscles. After treatment, the mean volumes were 32.5 ± 4.4 cm(3) in the whole orbit, 19.9 ± 3.7 cm(3) in the orbital fatty tissue, and 4.0 ± 1.0 cm(3) in the total extraocular muscles. The mean volumes of the whole orbit (P = 0.17) and orbital fatty tissue (P = 0.82) were not significantly decreased after treatment, while the mean volume of total extraocular muscles was significantly decreased (P tissue seemed to be unchanged after methylprednisolone pulse therapy while that of total extraocular muscles was decreased. The proptosis value seemed to be unchanged after treatment.

  13. Systemic effects of locally injected platelet rich plasma in a rat model: an analysis on muscle and bloodstream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrione, P; Grasso, L; Racca, S; Abbadessa, G; Carriero, V; Fagnani, F; Quaranta, F; Pigozzi, F

    2015-01-01

    Abundant evidence suggests that growth factors, contained in platelets alpha granules, may play a key role in the early stages of the muscle healing process with particular regard to the inflammatory phase. Although the contents of the platelet-rich plasma preparations have been extensively studied, the biological mechanisms involved as well as the systemic effects and the related potential doping implications of this approach are still largely unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether local platelet-rich plasma administration may modify the levels of specific cytokines and growth factors both in treated muscle and bloodstream in rats. An additional aim was to investigate more deeply whether the local platelet-rich plasma administration may exert systemic effects by analyzing contralateral lesioned but untreated muscles. The results showed that platelet-rich plasma treatment induced a modification of certain cytokines and growth factor levels in muscle but not in the bloodstream, suggesting that local platelet-rich plasma treatment influenced directly or, more plausibly, indirectly the synthesis or recruitment of cytokines and growth factors at the site of injury. Moreover, the observed modifications of cytokine and growth factor levels in contralateral injured but not treated muscles, strongly suggested a systemic effect of locally injected platelet-rich plasma.

  14. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP): an adjuvant to hasten hamstring muscle recovery. A randomized controlled trial protocol (ISCRTN66528592).

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Hamid, Mohamad Shariff; Mohamed Ali, Mohamed Razif; Yusof, Ashril; George, John

    2012-08-06

    Muscle injuries are one of the commonest injuries affecting athletes. It often leads to significant pain and disability causing loss of training and competition time. With current treatment, the duration to return-to-play ranges form six weeks to never, depending on injury severity. Recent researches have suggested that autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injection into the injured site may hasten soft tissues healing. To-date, there has been no randomised clinical trials to evaluate the effects of PRP on muscle healing. The aim of this study is to examine the effects of autologous PRP on duration to return-to-play after muscle injury. A randomised, single blind controlled trial will be conducted. Twenty-eight patients aged 18 years and above with a recent grade-2 hamstring injury will be invited to take part. Participants will be randomised to receive either autologous PRP injection with rehabilitation programme, or rehabilitation programme only. Participants will be followed up at day three of study and then weekly for 16 weeks. At each follow up visit, participants will be assessed on readiness to return-to-play using a set of criteria. The primary end-point is when participants have fulfilled the return-to-play criteria or end of 16 weeks.The main outcome measure of this study is the duration to return-to-play after injury. This study protocol proposes a rigorous and potential significant evaluation of PRP use for grade-2 hamstring injury. If proven effective such findings could be of great benefit for patients with similar injuries. Current Controlled Trials ISCRTN66528592.

  15. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP: an adjuvant to hasten hamstring muscle recovery. A randomized controlled trial protocol (ISCRTN66528592

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Hamid Mohamad

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Muscle injuries are one of the commonest injuries affecting athletes. It often leads to significant pain and disability causing loss of training and competition time. With current treatment, the duration to return-to-play ranges form six weeks to never, depending on injury severity. Recent researches have suggested that autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP injection into the injured site may hasten soft tissues healing. To-date, there has been no randomised clinical trials to evaluate the effects of PRP on muscle healing. The aim of this study is to examine the effects of autologous PRP on duration to return-to-play after muscle injury. Methods and design A randomised, single blind controlled trial will be conducted. Twenty-eight patients aged 18 years and above with a recent grade-2 hamstring injury will be invited to take part. Participants will be randomised to receive either autologous PRP injection with rehabilitation programme, or rehabilitation programme only. Participants will be followed up at day three of study and then weekly for 16 weeks. At each follow up visit, participants will be assessed on readiness to return-to-play using a set of criteria. The primary end-point is when participants have fulfilled the return-to-play criteria or end of 16 weeks. The main outcome measure of this study is the duration to return-to-play after injury. Conclusion This study protocol proposes a rigorous and potential significant evaluation of PRP use for grade-2 hamstring injury. If proven effective such findings could be of great benefit for patients with similar injuries. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISCRTN66528592

  16. Engineering muscle tissue for the fetus: getting ready for a strong life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Joseph Christ

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Congenital malformations frequently involve either skeletal, smooth or cardiac tissues. When large parts of those tissues are damaged, the repair of the malformations is challenged by the fact that so much autologous tissue is missing. Current treatments require the use of prostheses or other therapies and are associated with a significant morbidity and mortality. Nonetheless, affected children have generally good survival rates and mostly normal schooling. As such, new therapeutic modalities need to represent significant improvements with clear safety profiles. Regenerative medicine and tissue engineering technologies have the potential to dramatically improve the treatment of any disease or disorder involving a lack of viable tissue. With respect to congenital soft tissue anomalies, the development of, for example, implantable muscle constructs would provide not only the usual desired elasticity and contractile proprieties, but should also be able to grow with the fetus and/or in the postnatal life. Such an approach would eliminate the need for multiple surgeries. However, the more widespread clinical applications of regenerative medicine and tissue engineering technologies require identification of the optimal indications, as well as further elucidation of the precise mechanisms and best methods (cells, scaffolds/biomaterials for achieving large functional tissue regeneration in those clinical indications. In short, despite some amazing scientific progress, significant safety and efficacy hurdles remain. However, the rapid preclinical advances in the field bode well for future applications. As such, translational researchers and clinicians alike need be informed and prepared to utilize these new techniques for the benefit of their patients, as soon as they are available. To this end, we review herein, the clinical need(s, potential applications, and the relevant preclinical studies that are currently guiding the field toward novel

  17. Mercury and selenium concentrations in muscle tissue of different species of predatory freshwater fish and correlation between these elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strapáč, Imrich; Sokol, Jozef; Žatko, Daniel; Baranová, Mária

    2012-01-01

    Concentrations of total mercury and selenium were determined in 49 and 42 muscle tissue samples, respectively, of six species of predatory freshwater fish, dace (Leuciscus leuciscus), pike perch (Sander lucioperca), pike (Esox lucius), European catfish (Silurus glanis), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and asp (Aspius aspius). Muscle selenium concentration did not correlate with the corresponding total mercury concentration (R² < 0.198) in all examined predatory fish species. There was an inverse correlation between the ratio Se/Hg content and the total mercury content in the muscle tissues of dace, pike perch, pike, European catfish and asp. The muscle tissue of rainbow trout exhibits a linear correlation between the ratio Se/Hg content and the total mercury content. The total mercury concentration of all examined samples did not exceed the hygienic limit for Hg for predatory fish.

  18. Ubiquitous expression of selenoprotein N transcripts in chicken tissues and early developmental expression pattern in skeletal muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiuli; Li, Jinlong; Zhang, Ziwei; Sun, Bo; Wang, Rihua; Jiang, Zhihui; Li, Shu; Xu, Shiwen

    2012-05-01

    Previous results revealed a ubiquitous expression pattern of selenoprotein N (SelN, SEPN1) in humans, zebrafish, and mouse, suggesting that it plays a potential role during the embryogenesis of these species. However, no information is known about the tissue distribution of SelN and mRNA expression analysis in the muscle tissues during development in birds. We analyzed the mRNA expression of SelN in 26 different tissues of 90-day-old chickens and the expression of SelN in the muscle tissues of 12-day-old chicken embryos and 15-month-old adult chickens by quantitative real-time PCR. The results showed that SelN transcripts were expressed widely in the chicken tissues. Moreover, the expression of SelN mRNA in skeletal muscles was present at a high level in whole embryos and at a lower level in postnatal stages. However, the expression of SelN mRNA in cardiac muscle showed a different expression pattern compared with skeletal muscles. Our data indicate that the expression of the SelN gene in chicken is ubiquitous, suggesting a role of SelN in the development of chick embryo skeletal muscles.

  19. Tissue depletion of taurine accelerates skeletal muscle senescence and leads to early death in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Ito

    Full Text Available Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid is found in milimolar concentrations in mammalian tissues. One of its main functions is osmoregulation; however, it also exhibits cytoprotective activity by diminishing injury caused by stress and disease. Taurine depletion is associated with several defects, many of which are found in the aging animal, suggesting that taurine might exert anti-aging actions. Therefore, in the present study, we examined the hypothesis that taurine depletion accelerates aging by reducing longevity and accelerating aging-associated tissue damage. Tissue taurine depletion in taurine transporter knockout (TauTKO mouse was found to shorten lifespan and accelerate skeletal muscle histological and functional defects, including an increase in central nuclei containing myotubes, a reduction in mitochondrial complex 1 activity and an induction in an aging biomarker, Cyclin-dependent kinase 4 inhibitor A (p16INK4a. Tissue taurine depletion also enhances unfolded protein response (UPR, which may be associated with an improvement in protein folding by taurine. Our data reveal that tissue taurine depletion affects longevity and cellular senescence; an effect possibly linked to a disturbance in protein folding.

  20. Plasma volume substitution does not inhibit plasma noradrenaline and muscle nerve sympathetic responses to insulin-induced hypoglycaemia in healthy humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Berne, C; Fagius, J;

    1989-01-01

    underly the sympathetic activation. To study the effect of prevention of plasma volume reduction during hypoglycaemia, saline containing albumin was infused intravenously in healthy adult volunteers during hypoglycaemia. Hypoglycaemia was induced by an intravenous injection of soluble insulin in a dose...... of 0.15 IU/kg body weight. Peripheral venous plasma noradrenaline concentrations were identical in experiments without and with plasma volume substitution. Muscle nerve sympathetic activity increased to the same extent during hypoglycaemia with and without plasma volume substitution. It is concluded...

  1. Optimizing seeding and culture methods to engineer smooth muscle tissue on biodegradable polymer matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, B S; Putnam, A J; Kulik, T J; Mooney, D J

    1998-01-05

    The engineering of functional smooth muscle (SM) tissue is critical if one hopes to successfully replace the large number of tissues containing an SM component with engineered equivalents. This study reports on the effects of SM cell (SMC) seeding and culture conditions on the cellularity and composition of SM tissues engineered using biodegradable matrices (5 x 5 mm, 2-mm thick) of polyglycolic acid (PGA) fibers. Cells were seeded by injecting a cell suspension into polymer matrices in tissue culture dishes (static seeding), by stirring polymer matrices and a cell suspension in spinner flasks (stirred seeding), or by agitating polymer matrices and a cell suspension in tubes with an orbital shaker (agitated seeding). The density of SMCs adherent to these matrices was a function of cell concentration in the seeding solution, but under all conditions a larger number (approximately 1 order of magnitude) and more uniform distribution of SMCs adherent to the matrices were obtained with dynamic versus static seeding methods. The dynamic seeding methods, as compared to the static method, also ultimately resulted in new tissues that had a higher cellularity, more uniform cell distribution, and greater elastin deposition. The effects of culture conditions were next studied by culturing cell-polymer constructs in a stirred bioreactor versus static culture conditions. The stirred culture of SMC-seeded polymer matrices resulted in tissues with a cell density of 6.4 +/- 0.8 x 10(8) cells/cm3 after 5 weeks, compared to 2.0 +/- 1.1 x 10(8) cells/cm3 with static culture. The elastin and collagen synthesis rates and deposition within the engineered tissues were also increased by culture in the bioreactors. The elastin content after 5-week culture in the stirred bioreactor was 24 +/- 3%, and both the elastin content and the cellularity of these tissues are comparable to those of native SM tissue. New tissues were also created in vivo when dynamically seeded polymer matrices were

  2. Physical activity opposes the age-related increase in skeletal muscle and plasma endothelin-1 levels and normalizes plasma endothelin-1 levels in individuals with essential hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyberg, Michael Permin; Mortensen, Stefan Peter; Hellsten, Ylva

    2013-01-01

    AIMS: Endothelin-1 has potent constrictor and proliferative activity in vascular smooth muscle, and essential hypertension and aging are associated with increased endothelin-1-mediated vasoconstrictor tone. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of physical activity, hypertension...... performed lifelong physical activity had similar plasma and muscle endothelin-1 levels as the young controls and had higher ET(A) receptor levels. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that aerobic exercise training opposes the age-related increase in skeletal muscle and plasma endothelin-1 levels and normalizes...... plasma endothelin-1 levels in individuals with essential hypertension. This effect may explain some of the beneficial effects of training on the cardiovascular system in older and hypertensive subjects....

  3. Contrasting cellularity on fat deposition in the subcutaneous adipose tissue and longissimus lumborum muscle from lean and fat pigs under dietary protein reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, P A; Costa, A S H; Costa, P; Pires, V M R; Madeira, M S; Achega, F; Pinto, R M A; Prates, J A M

    2014-04-01

    The production of pork with high amounts of intramuscular fat (IMF) without an increase in subcutaneous fat is highly desirable for the pig industry and consumers. Herein, we question the impact of dietary protein reduction (18% v. 13%) on fat deposition in the subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and longissimus lumborum (LL) muscle using genetically diverse pigs for body fatness (lean v. fat). A clear effect of genotype was observed on plasma insulin (P=0.004) and leptin (Pfat pigs having higher values. Accordingly, IMF was higher in the fat pigs, when compared with their lean counterparts (P=0.003), which was supported by enlarged adipocytes (Pincreased in pigs fed reduced protein diets, regardless of genotype, which is consistent with higher levels of plasma triacylglycerols (P=0.002). The gene-expression pattern of lipogenic factors in the SAT was distinct from the LL muscle. In the SAT, PPARG expression was similar among genotypes (P>0.05), whereas in the LL muscle it was higher in the lean pigs (P=0.023), especially when fed on low protein diet (P=0.057). The CEBPA and FABP4 mRNA levels were increased in the SAT of fat pigs (Pmuscle (P>0.05). The influence of diet on FABP4 expression in the SAT was dependent on pig's genetic background (P=0.005). In conclusion, fat deposition was clearly influenced by genotype and, to a lesser extent, by dietary protein level, the SAT being more sensitive than the LL muscle. One can speculate that the pathways involved in lipid metabolism are downregulated in intramuscular adipocytes when compared with SAT fat cells. This result might be a direct consequence of the relatively low proportion of adipocytes found in the LL muscle.

  4. Plasma tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 as a biological marker?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomholt, Anne F.; Frederiksen, Camilla B.; Christensen, Ib J.;

    2007-01-01

    Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) may be a valuable biological marker in Colorectal Cancer (CRC). However, prospective validation of TIMP-1 as a biological marker should include a series of pre-analytical considerations. TIMP-1 is stored in platelets, which may degranulate during ...

  5. Fatty Acid Composition of Muscle, Adipose Tissue and Liver from Muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) Living in West Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Susana P; Raundrup, Katrine; Cabo, Ângelo; Bessa, Rui J B; Almeida, André M

    2015-01-01

    Information about lipid content and fatty acid (FA) composition of muskoxen (Ovibos moschatos) edible tissues is very limited in comparison to other meat sources. Thus, this work aims to present the first in-depth characterization of the FA profile of meat, subcutaneous adipose tissue and liver of muskoxen living in West Greenland. Furthermore, we aim to evaluate the effect of sex in the FA composition of these edible tissues. Samples from muscle (Longissimus dorsi), subcutaneous adipose tissue and liver were collected from female and male muskoxen, which were delivered at the butchery in Kangerlussuaq (West Greenland) during the winter hunting season. The lipid content of muscle, adipose tissue and liver averaged 284, 846 and 173 mg/g of dry tissue, respectively. This large lipid contents confirms that in late winter, when forage availability is scarce, muskoxen from West Greenland still have high fat reserves, demonstrating that they are well adapted to seasonal feed restriction. A detailed characterization of FA and dimethylacetal composition of muskoxen muscle, subcutaneous adipose tissue and liver showed that there are little differences on FA composition between sexes. Nevertheless, the 18:1cis-9 was the most abundant FA in muscle and adipose tissue, reaching 43% of total FA in muscle. The high content of 18:1cis-9 suggests that it can be selectively stored in muskoxen tissues. Regarding the nutritional composition of muskoxen edible tissues, they are not a good source of polyunsaturated FA; however, they may contribute to a higher fat intake. Information about the FA composition of muskoxen meat and liver is scarce, so this work can contribute to the characterization of the nutritional fat properties of muskoxen edible tissues and can be also useful to update food composition databases.

  6. Biochemical and biomolecular aspects of oxidative stress due to acute and severe hypoxia in human muscle tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbucci, G G; Sessego, R; Velluti, C; Salvi, M

    1995-01-01

    Mitochondrial oxidative stress was investigated in severe and acute hypoxia and in reperfusion applied to human muscle tissues. The biochemical and biomolecular relationship between the response of the respiratory-chain enzymic complexes and the metabolism of specific hypoxia stress proteins (HSP) suggest an adaptive mechanism which antagonizes the oxidative damage due to acute and severe tissue hypoxia.

  7. Comparison of the stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic values of gill and white muscle tissue of fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Svensson, E.; Freitas, V.; Schouten, S.; Middelburg, J.J.; van der Veer, H.W.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2014-01-01

    The potential use of stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios (δ13C, δ15N) of fish gills for studies on fish feeding ecology was evaluated by comparing the δ13C and δ15N of gill tissue with the more commonly used white muscle tissue. To account for the effect of lipid content on the δ13C

  8. Comparison of the stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic values of gill and white muscle tissue of fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Svensson, E.; Freitas, V.; Schouten, S.; Middelburg, J.J.; van der Veer, H.W.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2014-01-01

    The potential use of stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios (d13C, d15N) of fish gills for studies on fish feeding ecology was evaluated by comparing the d13C and d15N of gill tissue with the more commonly used white muscle tissue. To account for the effect of lipid content on the d13C

  9. Determination of nifursol metabolites in poultry muscle and liver tissue. Development and validation of a confirmatory method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, P.P.J.; Zuidema, T.; Keestra, N.G.M.; Kooij, P.J.F.; Elbers, I.J.W.; Rhijn, J.A. van

    2005-01-01

    A method is described for the identification and quantitative determination of 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid hydrazide (DSH), the marker residue of nifursol metabolites in poultry (turkey, broiler) muscle and liver tissue. The method is based on the acid-catalysed hydrolysis of tissue-bound metabolites

  10. Comparison of the stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic values of gill and white muscle tissue of fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Svensson, E.; Freitas, V.; Schouten, S.; Middelburg, J.J.; van der Veer, H.W.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2014-01-01

    The potential use of stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios (δ13C, δ15N) of fish gills for studies on fish feeding ecology was evaluated by comparing the δ13C and δ15N of gill tissue with the more commonly used white muscle tissue. To account for the effect of lipid content on the δ13C signatures

  11. Comparison of the stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic values of gill and white muscle tissue of fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Svensson, E.; Freitas, V.; Schouten, S.; Middelburg, J.J.; van der Veer, H.W.; Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.

    2014-01-01

    The potential use of stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios (d13C, d15N) of fish gills for studies on fish feeding ecology was evaluated by comparing the d13C and d15N of gill tissue with the more commonly used white muscle tissue. To account for the effect of lipid content on the d13C signatures

  12. Atmospheric pressure plasma jets interacting with liquid covered tissue: touching and not-touching the liquid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norberg, Seth A.; Tian, Wei; Johnsen, Eric; Kushner, Mark J.

    2014-11-01

    In the use of atmospheric pressure plasma jets in biological applications, the plasma-produced charged and neutral species in the plume of the jet often interact with a thin layer of liquid covering the tissue being treated. The plasma-produced reactivity must then penetrate through the liquid layer to reach the tissue. In this computational investigation, a plasma jet created by a single discharge pulse at three different voltages was directed onto a 200 µm water layer covering tissue followed by a 10 s afterglow. The magnitude of the voltage and its pulse length determined if the ionization wave producing the plasma plume reached the surface of the liquid. When the ionization wave touches the surface, significantly more charged species were created in the water layer with H3O+aq, O3-aq, and O2-aq being the dominant terminal species. More aqueous OHaq, H2O2aq, and O3aq were also formed when the plasma plume touches the surface. The single pulse examined here corresponds to a low repetition rate plasma jet where reactive species would be blown out of the volume between pulses and there is not recirculation of flow or turbulence. For these conditions, NxOy species do not accumulate in the volume. As a result, aqueous nitrites, nitrates, and peroxynitrite, and the HNO3aq and HOONOaq, which trace their origin to solvated NxOy, have low densities.

  13. Glucagon-like peptide-1 elicits vasodilation in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle in healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmar, Ali; Asmar, Meena; Simonsen, Lene

    2017-01-01

    In healthy subjects, we recently demonstrated that during acute administration of GLP-1, cardiac output increased significantly, whereas renal blood flow remained constant. We therefore hypothesize that GLP-1 induces vasodilation in other organs, for example, adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and....../or splanchnic tissues. Nine healthy men were examined twice in random order during a 2-hour infusion of either GLP-1 (1.5 pmol kg(-1) min(-1)) or saline. Cardiac output was continuously estimated noninvasively concomitantly with measurement of intra-arterial blood pressure. Subcutaneous, abdominal adipose...... and heart rate compared with the saline study. Subcutaneous, abdominal ATBF and leg blood flow increased significantly during the GLP-1 infusion compared with saline, whereas splanchnic blood flow response did not differ between the studies. We conclude that in healthy subjects, GLP-1 increases cardiac...

  14. Regulation and function of FTO mRNA expression in human skeletal muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunnet, Louise G; Nilsson, Emma; Ling, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    and adipose tissue, and their influence on in vivo glucose and fat metabolism. Research Design and Methods. The FTO rs9939609 polymorphism was genotyped in two twin cohorts: 1) 298 elderly twins aged 62-83 years with glucose tolerance ranging from normal to type 2 diabetes and 2) 196 young (25-32 years...... expression was not influenced by FTO rs9939609 genotype. FTO mRNA expression in skeletal muscle was regulated by age and sex, whereas age and BMI were predictors of adipose tissue FTO mRNA expression. FTO mRNA expression in adipose tissue was associated with an atherogenic lipid profile. In skeletal muscle...

  15. The Effects of Environmental Factors on Smooth Muscle Cells Differentiation from Adipose-Derived Stem Cells and Esophagus Tissues Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Fang

    Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) are increasingly being used for regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. Smooth muscle cells (SMCs) can be differentiated from ASCs. Oxygen is a key factor influencing the stem cell differentiation. Tissue engineered esophagus has been a preferred solution...... of esophagus was studied. Our results showed that both SMCs and ASCs could attach on the porcine esophageal acellular matrix (EAM) scaffold in vitro after 24 hours and survive until 7 days. Thus ASCs might be a substitute for SMCs in the construction of tissue engineered esophageal muscle layer....

  16. Long-term stability of RNA in post-mortem bovine skeletal muscle, liver and subcutaneous adipose tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt Olaf

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recovering high quality intact RNA from post-mortem tissue is of major concern for gene expression studies in animals and humans. Since the availability of post-mortem tissue is often associated with substantial delay, it is important that we understand the temporal variation in the stability of total RNA and of individual gene transcripts so as to be able to appropriately interpret the data generated from such studies. Hence, the objective of this experiment was to qualitatively and quantitatively assess the integrity of total and messenger RNA extracted from bovine skeletal muscle, subcutaneous adipose tissue and liver stored at 4°C at a range of time points up to 22 days post-mortem. These conditions were designed to mimic the environment prevailing during the transport of beef from the abattoir to retail outlets. Results The 28S and 18S rRNA molecules of total RNA were intact for up to 24 h post-mortem in liver and adipose tissues and up to 8 days post-mortem in skeletal muscle. The mRNA of housekeeping genes (GAPDH and ACTB and two diet-related genes (RBP5 and SCD were detectable up to 22 days post-mortem in skeletal muscle. While the mRNA stability of the two housekeeping genes was different in skeletal muscle and liver, they were similar to each other in adipose tissue. After 22 days post-mortem, the relative abundance of RBP5 gene was increased in skeletal muscle and in adipose tissue and decreased in liver. During this period, the relative abundance of SCD gene also increased in skeletal muscle whereas it decreased in both adipose tissue and liver. Conclusion Stability of RNA in three tissues (skeletal muscle, subcutaneous adipose tissue and liver subjected to long-term post-mortem storage at refrigeration temperature indicated that skeletal muscle can be a suitable tissue for recovering biologically useful RNA for gene expression studies even if the tissue is subjected to post-mortem storage for weeks, whereas

  17. Discordant gene expression in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue of patients with type 2 diabetes: effect of interleukin-6 infusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carey, A.; Wolsk, Emil; Bruce, C.;

    2006-01-01

    was to determine the effect of Interleukin-6 (IL6) infusion on circulating adipokines and on gene expression in human adipose tissue. To do this we used real-time RT-PCR. Methods  Both diabetic and control subjects underwent basal skeletal muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies. A subset...... (PPARGC1A), carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1B and solute carrier family 2 (facilitated glucose transporter), member 4 (formerly known as glucose transporter 4/GLUT4), was higher in adipose tissue, but lower in skeletal muscle of diabetic patients than in that of control subjects. In addition, uncoupling...

  18. Development and initial evaluation of a novel method for assessing tissue-specific plasma free fatty acid utilization in vivo using (R)-2-bromopalmitate tracer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakes, N D; Kjellstedt, A; Forsberg, G B; Clementz, T; Camejo, G; Furler, S M; Kraegen, E W; Olwegård-Halvarsson, M; Jenkins, A B; Ljung, B

    1999-06-01

    We describe a method for assessing tissue-specific plasma free fatty acid (FFA) utilization in vivo using a non-beta-oxidizable FFA analog, [9,10-3H]-(R)-2-bromopalmitate (3H-R-BrP). Ideally 3H-R-BrP would be transported in plasma, taken up by tissues and activated by the enzyme acyl-CoA synthetase (ACS) like native FFA, but then 3H-labeled metabolites would be trapped. In vitro we found that 2-bromopalmitate and palmitate compete equivalently for the same ligand binding sites on albumin and intestinal fatty acid binding protein, and activation by ACS was stereoselective for the R-isomer. In vivo, oxidative and non-oxidative FFA metabolism was assessed in anesthetized Wistar rats by infusing, over 4 min, a mixture of 3H-R-BrP and [U-14C] palmitate (14C-palmitate). Indices of total FFA utilization (R*f) and incorporation into storage products (Rfs') were defined, based on tissue concentrations of 3H and 14C, respectively, 16 min after the start of tracer infusion. R*f, but not Rfs', was substantially increased in contracting (sciatic nerve stimulated) hindlimb muscles compared with contralateral non-contracting muscles. The contraction-induced increases in R*f were completely prevented by blockade of beta-oxidation with etomoxir. These results verify that 3H-R-BrP traces local total FFA utilization, including oxidative and non-oxidative metabolism. Separate estimates of the rates of loss of 3H activity indicated effective 3H metabolite retention in most tissues over a 16-min period, but appeared less effective in liver and heart. In conclusion, simultaneous use of 3H-R-BrP and [14C]palmitate tracers provides a new useful tool for in vivo studies of tissue-specific FFA transport, utilization and metabolic fate, especially in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue.

  19. Mechanically relevant consequences of the composite laminate-like design of the abdominal wall muscles and connective tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Stephen H M

    2012-05-01

    Together, three abdominal wall muscles (external oblique, internal oblique and transversus abdominis) form a tightly bound muscular sheet that has been likened to a composite-laminate structure. Previous work has demonstrated the ability of force generated by these three muscles to be passed between one another through connective tissue linkages. Muscle fibres in each muscle are obliquely oriented with respect to its neighbouring muscles. It is proposed here is that this unique morphology of the abdominal wall muscles functions, through the application of constraining forces amongst the muscles, to increase force- and stiffness-generating capabilities. This paper presents a mathematical formulation of the stress-strain relationship for a transversely isotropic fibrous composite, and establishes a strengthening and stiffening effect when stress can be transferred between the fibrous layers. Application of empirical mechanical properties to this formulation demonstrates this effect for the abdominal wall muscles and, in greater proportion, for the anterior aponeurosis of the abdominal wall. This has implications for increasing the stiffness and passive load bearing ability of the abdominal wall muscles, and has the potential to modulate the whole muscle force-length and force-velocity relationships during contraction.

  20. Staphylococcus aureus Panton-Valentine leukocidin contributes to inflammation and muscle tissue injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching Wen Tseng

    Full Text Available Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA threatens public health worldwide, and epidemiologic data suggest that the Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (PVL expressed by most CA-MRSA strains could contribute to severe human infections, particularly in young and immunocompetent hosts. PVL is proposed to induce cytolysis or apoptosis of phagocytes. However, recent comparisons of isogenic CA-MRSA strains with or without PVL have revealed no differences in human PMN cytolytic activity. Furthermore, many of the mouse studies performed to date have failed to demonstrate a virulence role for PVL, thereby provoking the question: does PVL have a mechanistic role in human infection? In this report, we evaluated the contribution of PVL to severe skin and soft tissue infection. We generated PVL mutants in CA-MRSA strains isolated from patients with necrotizing fasciitis and used these tools to evaluate the pathogenic role of PVL in vivo. In a model of necrotizing soft tissue infection, we found PVL caused significant damage of muscle but not the skin. Muscle injury was linked to induction of pro-inflammatory chemokines KC, MIP-2, and RANTES, and recruitment of neutrophils. Tissue damage was most prominent in young mice and in those strains of mice that more effectively cleared S. aureus, and was not significant in older mice and mouse strains that had a more limited immune response to the pathogen. PVL mediated injury could be blocked by pretreatment with anti-PVL antibodies. Our data provide new insights into CA-MRSA pathogenesis, epidemiology and therapeutics. PVL could contribute to the increased incidence of myositis in CA-MRSA infection, and the toxin could mediate tissue injury by mechanisms other than direct killing of phagocytes.

  1. Low plasma vitamin D levels and muscle-related adverse effects in statin users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, Alon; Lev, Eli; Iakobishvilli, Zaza; Porter, Avital; Brosh, David; Hasdai, David; Mager, Aviv

    2014-01-01

    Treatment with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) is often complicated by muscle-related adverse effects (MAEs). Studies of the association between low plasma vitamin D levels and MAEs have yielded conflicting results. To determine if low plasma vitamin D level is a risk factorfor MAEs in statin users. Plasma levels of 25(OH) vitamin D were measured as part of the routine evaluation of unselected statin-treated patients attending the coronary and lipid clinics at our hospital during the period 2007-2010. Medical data on muscle complaints and statin use were retrieved from the medical files. Creatine kinase (CK) levels were derived from the hospital laboratory database. The sample included 272 patients (141 men) aged 33-89 years. Mean vitamin D level was 48.04 nmol/L. Levels were higher in men (51.0 +/- 20.5 versus 44.7 +/- 18.9 nmol/L, P = 0.001) and were unaffected by age. MAEs were observed in 106 patients (39%): myalgia in 95 (35%) and CK elevation in 20 (7%); 9 patients (3%) had both. There was no difference in plasma vitamin D levels between patients with and without myalgia (46.3 +/- 17.7 versus 48.9 +/- 21.0 nmol/L, P = 0.31), with and without CK elevation (50.2 +/- 14.6 versus 47.8 +/- 20.3 nmol/L, P = 0.60), or with or without any MAE (50.4 +/- 15.0 versus 47.8 +/- 10.2 nmol/L, P = 0.27). These findings were consistent when analyzed by patient gender and presence/absence of coronary artery disease, and when using a lower vitamin D cutoff (statin users.

  2. The effect of exercise training on hormone-sensitive lipase in rat intra-abdominal adipose tissue and muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, L H; Stallknecht, B; Langfort, J

    2001-01-01

    1. Adrenaline-stimulated lipolysis in adipose tissue may increase with training. The rate-limiting step in adipose tissue lipolysis is catalysed by the enzyme hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL). We studied the effect of exercise training on the activity of the total and the activated form of HSL......, referred to as HSL (DG) and HSL (TG), respectively, and on the concentration of HSL protein in retroperitoneal (RE) and mesenteric (ME) adipose tissue, and in the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and soleus muscles in rats. 2. Rats (weighing 96 +/- 1 g, mean +/- S.E.M.) were either swim trained (T, 18 weeks......, n = 12) or sedentary (S, n = 12). Then RE and ME adipose tissue and the EDL and soleus muscles were incubated for 20 min with 4.4 microM adrenaline. 3. HSL enzyme activities in adipose tissue were higher in T compared with S rats. Furthermore, in RE adipose tissue, training also doubled HSL protein...

  3. Stem Cell Differentiation Toward the Myogenic Lineage for Muscle Tissue Regeneration: A Focus on Muscular Dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrovidov, Serge; Shi, Xuetao; Sadeghian, Ramin Banan; Salehi, Sahar; Fujie, Toshinori; Bae, Hojae; Ramalingam, Murugan; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2015-12-01

    Skeletal muscle tissue engineering is one of the important ways for regenerating functionally defective muscles. Among the myopathies, the Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a progressive disease due to mutations of the dystrophin gene leading to progressive myofiber degeneration with severe symptoms. Although current therapies in muscular dystrophy are still very challenging, important progress has been made in materials science and in cellular technologies with the use of stem cells. It is therefore useful to review these advances and the results obtained in a clinical point of view. This article focuses on the differentiation of stem cells into myoblasts, and their application in muscular dystrophy. After an overview of the different stem cells that can be induced to differentiate into the myogenic lineage, we introduce scaffolding materials used for muscular tissue engineering. We then described some widely used methods to differentiate different types of stem cell into myoblasts. We highlight recent insights obtained in therapies for muscular dystrophy. Finally, we conclude with a discussion on stem cell technology. We discussed in parallel the benefits brought by the evolution of the materials and by the expansion of cell sources which can differentiate into myoblasts. We also discussed on future challenges for clinical applications and how to accelerate the translation from the research to the clinic in the frame of DMD.

  4. Design, fabrication and characterization of oxidized alginate-gelatin hydrogels for muscle tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baniasadi, Hossein; Mashayekhan, Shohreh; Fadaoddini, Samira; Haghirsharifzamini, Yasamin

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we reported the preparation of self cross-linked oxidized alginate-gelatin hydrogels for muscle tissue engineering. The effect of oxidation degree (OD) and oxidized alginate/gelatin (OA/GEL) weight ratio were examined and the results showed that in the constant OA/GEL weight ratio, both cross-linking density and Young's modulus enhanced by increasing OD due to increment of aldehyde groups. Furthermore, the degradation rate was increased with increasing OD probably due to decrement in alginate molecular weight during oxidation reaction facilitated degradation of alginate chains. MTT cytotoxicity assays performed on Wharton's Jelly-derived umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells cultured on hydrogels with OD of 30% showed that the highest rate of cell proliferation belong to hydrogel with OA/GEL weight ratio of 30/70. Overall, it can be concluded from all obtained results that the prepared hydrogel with OA/GEL weight ratio and OD of 30/70 and 30%, respectively, could be proper candidate for use in muscle tissue engineering. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. The effects of dynamic stretching on plantar flexor muscle-tendon tissue properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samukawa, Mina; Hattori, Masaki; Sugama, Naoko; Takeda, Naoki

    2011-12-01

    Dynamic stretching is commonly used in warm-up routines for athletic activities. Even though several positive effects of dynamic stretching on athletic performance have been reported, the effects on the muscle-tendon unit (MTU) itself are still unclear. The objective of this study is to determine the effects of dynamic stretching on the ankle plantar flexor muscle-tendon properties by use of ultrasonography. Twenty healthy male subjects participated in the present study. The subjects were asked to engage in dynamic stretching of plantar flexors for 30 s and to repeat for 5 sets. Ankle dorsiflexion ROM was measured before and after the dynamic stretching. Changes in the displacement of the myotendinous junction (MTJ), pennation angle, and fascicle length were also determined by using ultrasonography. Ankle dorsiflexion ROM increased significantly after the dynamic stretching (p MTJ was observed until the second stretching set (p MTJ was found, indicating some change in the tendon tissues. Therefore, dynamic stretching of the plantar flexors was considered an effective means of lengthening the tendon tissues. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Tissue to plasma capillary permeability of 131I-albumin in the perfused rabbit ear

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bent-Hansen, L; Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup

    1991-01-01

    The tissue to plasma transfer of 131I-albumin was recorded in perfused rabbit ears (n = 6) following equilibration for 24 hr. 125I-fibrinogen served as the plasma marker, and was introduced intravenously 15 min before clamping. The ears were rollerpump perfused with isotonic diluted plasma...... at a constant rate of (mean +/- SD) 5.1 +/- 1.5 ml (min.100 g)-1. The mean extravascular albumin distribution volume was 12.4 +/- 1.1 ml.100 g-1, and the fibrinogen volume (plasma volume in tissue) was 3.1 +/- 0.4 ml.100 g-1 as determined from biopsies of the contralateral ear. The initial transfer of albumin...

  7. Fatty acid composition of muscle and adipose tissues of organic and conventional Blanca Andaluza suckling kids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. De la Vega

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Interest in the preservation of autochthonous breeds such as the Blanca Andaluza goat (meat breed, raised under grazing-based management, has recently increased among Spanish farmers. A study of the possibilities of transformation to organic production needs to analyze the quality of their products. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fatty acid (FA composition of muscle and adipose tissues of Blanca Andaluza goat kids under organic and conventional grazing–based management system. Twenty-four twin kids (12 males, 12 females were selected from each system. The FA profile was determined in the longissimus thoracis muscle, kidney and pelvic fat. The percentages of C17:0, C17:1, C20:1, C20:4 n-6, C22:2 and several n-3 FAs were higher in organic meat; C12:0, C18:1 trans-11, CLA and C20:5 n-3 were lower in organic meat. The fat depots from the conventional kids showed lower percentages of C12:0, C14:0, C15:0, C17:0, C17:1, C18:3 n-3 and atherogenicity index, and higher percentage of C18:0. In the pelvic fat, the conventional kids displayed lower percentages of C16:0, C18:2 n-6 cis, PUFA, n-3 and n-6 FAs, and greater percentages of C18:1 n-9 cis and MUFA. The conventional kids displayed a major n6:n3 ratio in the kidney fat. No gender differences were observed. Significant differences were found only in some FA percentages of muscle and adipose tissues of suckling kids raised in organic and conventional livestock production systems, and due to this reason conventional grazing–based management farms could easily be transformed into organic production.

  8. Genome-wide association analyses for fatty acid composition in porcine muscle and abdominal fat tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Yang

    Full Text Available Fatty acid composition is an important phenotypic trait in pigs as it affects nutritional, technical and sensory quality of pork. Here, we reported a genome-wide association study (GWAS for fatty acid composition in the longissimus muscle and abdominal fat tissues of 591 White Duroc×Erhualian F2 animals and in muscle samples of 282 Chinese Sutai pigs. A total of 46 loci surpassing the suggestive significance level were identified on 15 pig chromosomes (SSC for 12 fatty acids, revealing the complex genetic architecture of fatty acid composition in pigs. Of the 46 loci, 15 on SSC5, 7, 14 and 16 reached the genome-wide significance level. The two most significant SNPs were ss131535508 (P = 2.48×10(-25 at 41.39 Mb on SSC16 for C20∶0 in abdominal fat and ss478935891 (P = 3.29×10(-13 at 121.31 Mb on SSC14 for muscle C18∶0. A meta-analysis of GWAS identified 4 novel loci and enhanced the association strength at 6 loci compared to those evidenced in a single population, suggesting the presence of common underlying variants. The longissimus muscle and abdominal fat showed consistent association profiles at most of the identified loci and distinct association signals at several loci. All loci have specific effects on fatty acid composition, except for two loci on SSC4 and SSC7 affecting multiple fatness traits. Several promising candidate genes were found in the neighboring regions of the lead SNPs at the genome-wide significant loci, such as SCD for C18∶0 and C16∶1 on SSC14 and ELOVL7 for C20∶0 on SSC16. The findings provide insights into the molecular basis of fatty acid composition in pigs, and would benefit the final identification of the underlying mutations.

  9. Digital image analysis of striated skeletal muscle tissue injury during reperfusion after induced ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosero Salazar, Doris Haydee; Salazar Monsalve, Liliana

    2015-01-01

    Conditions such as surgical procedures or vascular diseases produce arterial ischemia and reperfusion injuries, which generate changes in peripheral tissues and organs, for instance, in striated skeletal muscle. To determine such changes, we conducted an experimental method in which 42 male Wistar rat were selected, to be undergone to tourniquet application on the right forelimb and left hind limb, to induce ischemia during one and three hours, followed by reperfusion periods starting at one hour and it was prolonged up to 32 days. Extensor carpi radialis longus and soleus respectively, were obtained to be processed for histochemical and morphometric analysis. By means of image processing and detection of regions of interest, variations of areas occupied by muscle fibers and intramuscular extracellular matrix (IM-ECM) throughout reperfusion were observed. In extensor carpi radialis longus, results shown reduction in the area occupied by muscle fibers; this change is significant between one hour and three hours ischemia followed by 16 hours, 48 hours and 32 days reperfusión (p˂0.005). To compare only periods of reperfusión that continued to three hours ischemia, were found significant differences, as well. For area occupied by IM-ECM, were identified increments in extensor carpi radialis longus by three hours ischemia and eight to 16 days reperfusion; in soleus, was observed difference by one hour ischemia with 42 hours reperfusion, and three hours ischemia followed by four days reperfusion (p˂0.005). Skeletal muscle develops adaptive changes in longer reperfusion, to deal with induced injury. Descriptions beyond 32 days reperfusion, can determine recovering normal pattern.

  10. Monitoring late radiation damage in normal muscle tissue with electrical impedance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterman, Kendra Sunshine

    During radiation treatment for cancer, normal tissue will be exposed to radiation and it is the response of this tissue and the risk of complications that limits the prescribed dose and the efficacy of treatment. The response to radiation exposure is dose, time and tissue-type dependent and has been studied extensively in animal and human systems. However, there remains significant heterogeneity among individuals. Systematic and quantitative monitoring of tissue response with electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) might providing insight into early warning signs of late effects which could be used to alter the course of therapy on an individual patient basis. The implementation of EIS in three clinically relevant radiation settings is described. A kilovolt unit (orthovoltage, x-ray), a linear accelerator (x-ray), and an implantable radionuclide source (high dose rate, iridium-192 seed) were employed for the irradiation of muscle in the hind leg of rats. Doses of 70 Gy, 90 Gy, and 150 Gy were delivered with orthovoltage, nominal doses of 70 and 90 Gy which translate to doses of approximately 50 and 63 Gy at a 5mm distance from the center were employed with the linear accelerator, and doses of 26 and 52 Gy, at 5mm, were employed with the HDR system. The responses were monitored from 1--4 months post-irradiation. In all cases, EIS was capable of detecting a dose and time response, suggesting that EIS may indeed have a role to play in three of the most common irradiation procedures.

  11. Modelling the effect of repositioning on the evolution of skeletal muscle damage in deep tissue injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demol, Jan; Deun, Dorien Van; Haex, Bart; Oosterwyck, Hans Van; Sloten, Jos Vander

    2013-04-01

    Deep tissue injury (DTI) is a localized area of tissue necrosis that originates in the subcutaneous layers under an intact skin and tends to develop when soft tissue is compressed for a prolonged period of time. In clinical practice, DTI is particularly common in bedridden patients and remains a serious issue in todays health care. Repositioning is generally considered to be an effective preventive measure of pressure ulcers. However, limited experimental research and no computational studies have been undertaken on this method. In this study, a methodology was developed to evaluate the influence of different repositioning intervals on the location, size and severity of DTI in bedridden patients. The spatiotemporal evolution of compressive stresses and skeletal muscle viability during the first 48 h of DTI onset was simulated for repositioning schemes in which a patient is turned every 2, 3, 4 or 6 h. The model was able to reproduce important experimental findings, including the morphology and location of DTI in human patients as well as the discrepancy between the internal tissue loads and the contact pressure at the interface with the environment. In addition, the model indicated that the severity and size of DTI were reduced by shortening the repositioning intervals. In conclusion, the computational framework presented in this study provides a promising modelling approach that can help to objectively select the appropriate repositioning scheme that is effective and efficient in the prevention of DTI.

  12. [Plasma and tissue lipids in rats after a flight on the Kosmos-1129 biosatellite].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlers, J; Tigranian, R A; D'jatelinka, J; Smajda, B; Toropila, M

    1982-01-01

    Concentrations of triglycerides, total cholesterol, lipid phosphorus and nonesterified fatty acids were measured in blood plasma, liver, thymus, bone marrow and adipose tissues of rats flown for 18.5 days onboard the biosatellite Cosmos-1129. This exposure was accompanied by increases in lipomobilization, content of total cholesterol and lipid phosphorus in plasma, and triglycerides in the thymus and bone marrow. The postflight exposure to repeated stresses demonstrated changes in the lipid content in all animal groups, especially in flight rats.

  13. Dietary L-arginine supplementation differentially regulates expression of lipid-metabolic genes in porcine adipose tissue and skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Bie; Yin, Yulong; Liu, Zhiqiang; Tang, Wenjie; Xu, Haijun; Kong, Xiangfeng; Li, Xinguo; Yao, Kang; Gu, Wanting; Smith, Stephen B; Wu, Guoyao

    2011-05-01

    Obesity is a major health crisis worldwide and new treatments are needed to fight this epidemic. Using the swine model, we recently reported that dietary L-arginine (Arg) supplementation promotes muscle gain and reduces body-fat accretion. The present study tested the hypothesis that Arg regulates expression of key genes involved in lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle and white adipose tissue. Sixteen 110-day-old barrows were fed for 60 days a corn- and soybean-meal-based diet supplemented with 1.0% Arg or 2.05% L-alanine (isonitrogenous control). Blood samples, longissimus dorsi muscle and overlying subcutaneous adipose tissue were obtained from 170-day-old pigs for biochemical studies. Serum concentrations of leptin, alanine and glutamine were lower, but those for Arg and proline were higher in Arg-supplemented pigs than in control pigs. The percentage of oleic acid was higher but that of stearic acid and linoleic acid was lower in muscle of Arg-supplemented pigs, compared with control pigs. Dietary Arg supplementation increased mRNA levels for fatty acid synthase in muscle, while decreasing those for lipoprotein lipase, glucose transporter-4, and acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase-α in adipose tissue. Additionally, mRNA levels for hormone sensitive lipase were higher in adipose tissue of Arg-supplemented pigs compared with control pigs. These results indicate that Arg differentially regulates expression of fat-metabolic genes in skeletal muscle and white adipose tissue, therefore favoring lipogenesis in muscle but lipolysis in adipose tissue. Our novel findings provide a biochemical basis for explaining the beneficial effect of Arg in improving the metabolic profile in mammals (including obese humans). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Changes and Significance of Matrix Metalloproteinase and Its Tissue Inhibitor in Plasma and Cardiac Muscle of Rats with Chronic Cardiac Failure Induced by Volume Overload%基质金属蛋白酶及其抑制物在容量过负荷致慢性心力衰竭大鼠血浆及心肌组织中的变化及意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张超英; 李晓惠; 伏瑾; 崔小岱

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察容量过负荷致慢性心力衰竭大鼠血浆及心肌组织基质金属蛋白酶-8(MMP-8)及其抑制物-1(TIMP-1)的表达变化,探讨其在慢性心力衰竭发病中的病理生理作用.方法 雄性SD大鼠17只,随机分为分流组(n=9)和对照组(n=8).分流组通过腹主动脉下腔静脉穿刺术建立容量过负荷致慢性充血性心力衰竭动物模型,对照组大鼠除不做穿刺外,余操作过程同分流组.分别测定2组大鼠心功能及血流动力学指标,检测血浆MMP-8及TIMP-1水平,实时荧光定量PCR测定大鼠左心室、右心室MMP-8 mRNA、TIMP-1 mRNA的表达.结果 术后8周,分流组大鼠左心室收缩压、左心室舒张压、左心室内压差、左心室内压最大上升速率及最大下降速率较对照组明显降低(Pa<0.05,0.01);左心室舒张末压较对照组明显升高(P<0.05).分流组大鼠血浆MMP-8、TIMP-1水平均较对照组明显升高(Pa<0.05).与对照组相比,分流组大鼠左心室心肌组织MMP-8 mRNA及左、右心室心肌组织TIMP-1 mRNA水平均有升高趋势,右心室MMP-8 mRNA水平有下降趋势,但2组比较差异均无统计学意义(Pa>0.05);左心室和右心室心肌组织中MMP-8/TIMP-1明显降低,右心室较左心室下降更明显.结论 MMP-8与TIMP-1通过影响胶原代谢,参与容量过负荷致慢性充血性心力衰竭的病理生理过程.%Objective To observe the changes of matrix metalloproteinase - 8 ( MMP - 8 ) and its tissue inhibitors of metallopreteinase -1 ( TIMP - 1 ) in plasma and cardiac muscle of rats with chronic cardiac failure induced by volume overload, and to explore those roles in physiology of chronic cardiac failure. Methods Seventeen male SD rats were randomly divided into 2 groups as follows:9 shunt rat models were established by abdominal aorta and inferior vena cava shunt operation and 8 rats after sham operation served as controls. Hemodynamic and echocardiographic measurements were obtained 8 weeks

  15. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy for delayed onset muscle soreness and closed soft tissue injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, M; Best, T M; Babul, S; Taunton, J; Lepawsky, M

    2005-10-19

    Soft tissue injuries (including muscle damage after unaccustomed exercise) are common and are often associated with athletic activity. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is the therapeutic administration of 100% oxygen at environmental pressures greater than one atmosphere. To assess the benefits and harms of HBOT for treating soft tissue injury, including delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). We searched the following in July 2004: CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, DORCTIHM and reference lists from relevant articles. Relevant journals were handsearched and researchers in the field contacted. Randomised trials comparing the effect on closed soft tissue injury (including DOMS) of therapeutic regimens which include HBOT with those that exclude HBOT (with or without sham therapy). Four reviewers independently evaluated study quality and extracted data. Most of the data presented in the review were extracted from graphs in the trial reports. Nine small trials involving 219 participants were included. Two trials compared HBOT versus sham therapy on acute closed soft tissue injuries (ankle sprain and medial collateral knee ligament injury respectively). The other seven trials examined the effect of HBOT on DOMS following eccentric exercise in unconditioned volunteers. All 32 participants of the ankle sprain trial returned to their normal activities. There were no significant differences between the two groups in time to recovery, functional outcomes, pain, or swelling. There was no difference between the two groups in knee function scores in the second acute injury trial; however, intention-to-treat analysis was not possible for this trial. Pooling of data from the seven DOMS trials showed significantly and consistently higher pain at 48 and 72 hours in the HBOT group (mean difference in pain score at 48 hours [0 to 10 worst pain] 0.88, 95% CI 0.09 to 1.67, P = 0.03) in trials where HBOT was started immediately. There were no differences between the two groups in longer

  16. alpha-Smooth muscle actin-expressing cells and lubricin in periprosthetic tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funakoshi, Tadanao; Martin, Scott D; Wolf, Bryce T; Schmid, Thomas M; Thornhill, Thomas S; Spector, Myron

    2010-05-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the distributions of (1) cells expressing the contractile actin isoform, alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) and (2) a lubricating and antiadhesion glycoprotein, lubricin, in the tissue around loose joint replacement prostheses in human subjects. Periprostehtic tissue resected at revision arthroplasty of noncemented glenoid components of total shoulder arthroplasties was obtained from 10 patients. Samples of periprosthetic tissue were stained with monoclonal antibodies to alpha-SMA and lubricin. alpha-SMA was found in cells, principally of fibroblast morphology, in many of the fields of view (FOVs) in samples from all patients. Moderate correlations were observed between the percentage of FOVs containing alpha-SMA-expressing cells and the percentages of FOVs containing polyethylene (R(2) = 0.79) and metallic (R(2) = 0.75) particles. Lubricin was identified (1) as a discrete layer on the surface, (2) within the extracellular matrix, and (3) intracellularly. These lubricin-positive features were found in samples from all patients. Strong correlations were noted between the percentages of FOVs with matrix and intracellular lubricin staining (R(2) = 0.97) and between the percentages of FOVs with surface and matrix staining for lubricin (R(2) = 0.96). Having established the presence of alpha-SMA and lubricin in periprosthetic tissue, hypotheses regarding their role in the development and persistence of periprosthetic tissue can be synthesized for future study: for example, alpha-SMA-enabled contracture of the fibrous periprosthetic tissue results in its densification, and lubricin-coated surfaces interfere with integrative repair processes necessary for resorption and remodeling.

  17. Gene Expression and Correlation of Pten and Fabp4 in Liver, Muscle, and Adipose Tissues of Type 2 Diabetes Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Di; Zhang, Chuan-Ling; Gao, Ying-Chun; Liu, Xiao-Ying; Li, Cai-Ping; Huangfu, Jian; Xiao, Rui

    2015-11-22

    The aim of this work was to study the Fabp4 and Pten gene expression and correlation in the liver, muscle, and adipose tissues of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) rats. Male Wistar rats (8 weeks old) were randomly divided into 2 groups (n=12/group): a control group fed a normal diet for 8 weeks and an experimental group fed a high-fat, high-sugar diet for 8 weeks and that received 25 mg/kg streptozotocin by intraperitoneal injection to induce T2DM. The random blood glucose, fasting blood glucose, and fasting insulin levels were measured. The expression of Pten and Fabp4 in the liver, muscle, and epididymal adipose tissues was estimated by real-time quantitative PCR. Pearson correlation coefficient analysis was used to investigate the expression correlation between Pten and Fabp4 in T2DM rats. The gene expressions of Pten and Fabp4 in the liver, muscle, and adipose tissues of T2DM rats were all significantly higher than those in the control group (Pmuscles and Fabp4 was highly expressed in muscle and adipose tissues. Furthermore, expressions of Fabp4 and Pten in the muscle and adipose tissues of T2DM rats were positively correlated (Pmuscles of T2DM rats may play an important role in the insulin resistance of T2DM. However, the mechanism by which these 2 genes function in T2DM needs further study.

  18. The effect of high-intensity training on mitochondrial fat oxidation in skeletal muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Steen; Danielsen, J H; Søndergård, Stine Dam

    2015-01-01

    of HIT (three times per week at 298 ± 21 W). HIT significantly increased VO2peak from 2.9 ± 0.2 to 3.1 ± 0.2 L/min. No differences were seen in maximal fat oxidation in either skeletal muscle or adipose tissue. Km (app) for octanoyl carnitine or palmitoyl carnitine were similar after training in skeletal...... on mitochondrial fat oxidation in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. Mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) capacity, mitochondrial substrate sensitivity (Km (app) ), and mitochondrial content were measured in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue in healthy overweight subjects before and after 6 weeks...... muscle and adipose tissue. Maximal OXPHOS capacity with complex I- and II-linked substrates was increased after training in skeletal muscle but not in adipose tissue. In conclusion, 6 weeks of HIT increased VO2peak . Mitochondrial content and mitochondrial OXPHOS capacity were increased in skeletal...

  19. Arginine-deficient diets alter plasma and tissue amino acids in young and aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, K L; Hartman, W J; Ronnenberg, A; Prior, R L

    1991-10-01

    Blood and urine metabolites were measured in two experiments for young (2-mo-old) and aged (20-mo-old) male Sprague-Dawley rats fed arginine-devoid diets made isonitrogenous to a control 1.12% arginine diet by adding alanine or glycine. Diet, fed for 7 or 13 d, had little effect on urinary or plasma ammonia and urea. Urinary orotate excretion was more than 40-fold higher in rats fed the arginine-deficient diets (P less than 0.01) in both experiments. Source of nonessential N (alanine or glycine) in the arginine-deficient diets did not alter orotic acid excretion or plasma or urine ammonia or urea. Changes in plasma arginine, alanine and glycine concentrations reflected the levels of these amino acids in the diet. Tissue ornithine levels reflected dietary arginine level, but tissue citrulline was unaffected by dietary arginine. Glutamate and glutamine were greater in the plasma and liver of rats fed arginine-deficient diets. Plasma concentrations of glutamate and glutamine were positively correlated with urinary orotic acid excretion (P less than 0.05) and ornithine and arginine were negatively correlated with orotic acid excretion (P less than 0.01). Increased tissue glutamine may be related to the greater orotate excretion in rats fed arginine-devoid diets. The metabolic responses to dietary arginine deficiency were similar in young and aged rats. In general, concentrations of amino acids in plasma, liver and spleen were higher in aged rats.

  20. In situ cross-linked electrospun fiber scaffold of collagen for fabricating cell-dense muscle tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Naoya; Tamura, Kenichi; Mineguchi, Ryo; Ishikawa, Yumiko; Haraguchi, Yuji; Shimizu, Tatsuya; Hara, Yusuke

    2016-06-01

    Engineered muscle tissues used as transplant tissues in regenerative medicine should have a three-dimensional and cell-dense structure like native tissue. For fabricating a 3D cell-dense muscle tissue from myoblasts, we proposed the electrospun type I collagen microfiber scaffold of the string-shape like a harp. The microfibers were oriented in the same direction to allow the myoblasts to align, and were strung at low density with micrometer intervals to create space for the cells to occupy. To realize this shape of the scaffold, we employed in situ cross-linking during electrospinning process for the first time to collagen fibers. The collagen microfibers in situ cross-linked with glutaraldehyde stably existed in the aqueous media and completely retained the original shape to save the spaces between the fibers for over 14 days. On the contrary, the conventional cross-linking method by exposure to a glutaraldehyde aqueous solution vapor partially dissolved and damaged the fiber to lose a low-density shape of the scaffold. Myoblasts could penetrate into the interior of the in situ cross-linked string-shaped scaffold and form the cell-dense muscle tissues. Histochemical analysis showed the total area occupied by the cells in the cross section of the tissue was approximately 73 %. Furthermore, the resulting muscle tissue fabricated from primary myoblasts showed typical sarcomeric cross-striations and the entire tissue continuously pulsated by autonomous contraction. Together with the in situ cross-linking, the string-shaped scaffold provides an efficient methodology to fabricate a cell-dense 3D muscle tissue, which could be applied in regenerative medicine in future.

  1. Plasma and tissue levels of lipids, fatty acids and plasma carnitine in neonates receiving a new fat emulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnusson, G; Boberg, M; Cederblad, G; Meurling, S

    1997-06-01

    This study was undertaken to compare Intralipid with a new fat emulsion containing gamma-linolenic acid and carnitine, named Pediatric Fat Emulsion 4501, in neonates with regard to lipid and carnitine metabolism over a short period of total parenteral nutrition. There were 10 neonates in each group and they tolerated the total parenteral nutrition well. In spite of the gamma-linolenic acid supplementation in the new emulsion, arachidonic acid decreased significantly in plasma lipid esters and adipose tissue in both groups after 5 d of treatment. Also, there was a decrease in plasma docosahexaenoic acid which was more pronounced in the treatment group. The relative percentage values of linoleic and linolenic acids in adipose tissue were increased, indicating that newborns have a rapid accretion of fatty acids. Plasma-triglycerides were effectively cleared during the periods without fat infusion. In the group that received Pediatric Fat Emulsion 4501 the means of both free and total plasma carnitine concentrations increased significantly, whereas they tended to decrease in the Intralipid group.

  2. Pharmacokinetic study of arctigenin in rat plasma and organ tissue by RP-HPLC method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Fan; Dou, De-Qiang; Hou, Qiang; Sun, Yu; Kang, Ting-Guo

    2013-01-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique was developed for the determination of arctigenin in plasma and various organs of rats after the oral administration of 30, 50 and 70 mgkg(-1) of arctigenin to the Sprague-Dawley rats. Results showed that the validated HPLC method was simple, fast, reproducible and suitable to the determination of arctigenin in rat plasma and organ tissue and one-compartmental model with zero-order absorption process can well describe the changes of arctigenin concentration in the plasma. The concentration of compound was highest in the spleen, less in the liver and the least in the lung.

  3. Impact of plasma fibrinogen levels in benign and malignant soft tissue tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asanuma, Kunihiro; Matsumine, Akihiko; Nakamura, Tomoki; Matsubara, Takao; Asanuma, Yumiko; Oi, Toru; Goto, Mikinobu; Okuno, Kazuma; Kakimoto, Takuya; Yada, Yuuki; Sudo, Akihiro

    2016-01-01

    Fibrinogen, a 340 kDa glycoprotein synthesized in the liver, is known to be involved in tumor angiogenesis, enlargement, and metastasis. Elevated plasma fibrinogen levels are associated with tumor progression in many cancer patients. However, there are no reports about differences in fibrinogen levels between benign and malignant soft tissue tumors. The purpose of this study was to clarify whether preoperative plasma fibrinogen levels can be used for differential diagnosis of benign or malignant soft tissue tumors. The plasma fibrinogen levels from 102 primary soft tissue tumor patients were measured before biopsy or treatment. Fibrinogen levels were analyzed and compared to various clinical parameters. According to receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, a threshold of serum fibrinogen of 315 mg/dL identified malignant patients with 60.9% sensitivity and 87.5% specificity. The diagnostic accuracy was evaluated by area under the curve (AUC: 0.805). Over 315 mg/dL of fibrinogen was associated with a significantly increased risk of malignancy by multiple logistic regression analysis (OR: 6.452, p= 0.0004). We demonstrated that plasma fibrinogen levels have a relationship with tumor malignancy of soft tissue tumors. High fibrinogen levels can be a helpful subsidiary tool for the prediction of malignant soft tissue tumors with other diagnostic tools.

  4. Disposition of ampicillin trihydrate in plasma, uterine tissue, lochial fluid, and milk of postpartum dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Credille, B C; Giguère, S; Vickroy, T W; Fishman, H J; Jones, A L; Mason, M E; DiPietro, R O; Ensley, D T

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the disposition of ampicillin in plasma, uterine tissue, lochial fluid, and milk of postpartum dairy cattle. Ampicillin trihydrate was administered by intramuscular (i.m.) injection at a dose of 11 mg/kg of body weight every 24 h (n = 6, total of 3 doses) or every 12 h (n = 6, total of 5 doses) for 3 days. Concentrations of ampicillin were measured in plasma, uterine tissue, lochial fluid, and milk using HPLC with ultraviolet absorption. Quantifiable ampicillin concentrations were found in plasma, milk, and lochial fluid of all cattle within 30 min, 4 h, and 4 h of administration of ampicillin trihydrate, respectively. There was no significant effect of dosing interval (every 12 vs. every 24 h) and no significant interactions between dosing interval and sampling site on the pharmacokinetic variable measured or calculated. Median peak ampicillin concentration at steady-state was significantly higher in lochial fluid (5.27 μg/mL after q 24 h dosing) than other body fluids or tissues and significantly higher in plasma (3.11 μg/mL) compared to milk (0.49 μg/mL) or endometrial tissue (1.55 μg/mL). Ampicillin trihydrate administered once daily by the i.m. route at the label dose of 11 mg/kg of body weight achieves therapeutic concentrations in the milk, lochial fluid, and endometrial tissue of healthy postpartum dairy cattle.

  5. Tofogliflozin Improves Insulin Resistance in Skeletal Muscle and Accelerates Lipolysis in Adipose Tissue in Male Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obata, Atsushi; Kubota, Naoto; Kubota, Tetsuya; Iwamoto, Masahiko; Sato, Hiroyuki; Sakurai, Yoshitaka; Takamoto, Iseki; Katsuyama, Hisayuki; Suzuki, Yoshiyuki; Fukazawa, Masanori; Ikeda, Sachiya; Iwayama, Kaito; Tokuyama, Kumpei; Ueki, Kohjiro; Kadowaki, Takashi

    2016-03-01

    Sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors have attracted attention as they exert antidiabetic and antiobesity effects. In this study, we investigated the effects of tofogliflozin on glucose homeostasis and its metabolic consequences and clarified the underlying molecular mechanisms. C57BL/6 mice were fed normal chow containing tofogliflozin (0.005%) for 20 weeks or a high-fat diet containing tofogliflozin (0.005%) for 8 weeks ad libitum. In addition, the animals were pair-fed in relation to controls to exclude the influence of increased food intake. Tofogliflozin reduced the body weight gain, mainly because of fat mass reduction associated with a diminished adipocyte size. Glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity were ameliorated. The serum levels of nonesterified fatty acid and ketone bodies were increased and the respiratory quotient was decreased in the tofogliflozin-treated mice, suggesting the acceleration of lipolysis in the white adipose tissue and hepatic β-oxidation. In fact, the phosphorylation of hormone-sensitive lipase and the adipose triglyceride lipase protein levels in the white adipose tissue as well as the gene expressions related to β-oxidation, such as Cpt1α in the liver, were significantly increased. The hepatic triglyceride contents and the expression levels of lipogenic genes were decreased. Pair-fed mice exhibited almost the same results as mice fed an high-fat diet ad libitum. Moreover, a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp revealed that tofogliflozin improved insulin resistance by increasing glucose uptake, especially in the skeletal muscle, in pair-fed mice. Taken together, these results suggest tofogliflozin ameliorates insulin resistance and obesity by increasing glucose uptake in skeletal muscle and lipolysis in adipose tissue.

  6. Passive mechanical properties of rat abdominal wall muscles suggest an important role of the extracellular connective tissue matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Stephen H M; Carr, John Austin; Ward, Samuel R; Lieber, Richard L

    2012-08-01

    Abdominal wall muscles have a unique morphology suggesting a complex role in generating and transferring force to the spinal column. Studying passive mechanical properties of these muscles may provide insights into their ability to transfer force among structures. Biopsies from rectus abdominis (RA), external oblique (EO), internal oblique (IO), and transverse abdominis (TrA) were harvested from male Sprague-Dawley rats, and single muscle fibers and fiber bundles (4-8 fibers ensheathed in their connective tissue matrix) were isolated and mechanically stretched in a passive state. Slack sarcomere lengths were measured and elastic moduli were calculated from stress-strain data. Titin molecular mass was also measured from single muscle fibers. No significant differences were found among the four abdominal wall muscles in terms of slack sarcomere length or elastic modulus. Interestingly, across all four muscles, slack sarcomere lengths were quite long in individual muscle fibers (>2.4 µm), and demonstrated a significantly longer slack length in comparison to fiber bundles (p muscle lengths. Titin molecular mass was significantly less in TrA compared to each of the other three muscles (p < 0.0009), but this difference did not correspond to hypothesized differences in stiffness.

  7. Noninvasive assessment of the activity of the shoulder girdle muscles using ultrasound real-time tissue elastography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Hiroaki; Muraki, Takayuki; Sekiguchi, Yusuke; Ishijima, Takahiro; Morise, Shuhei; Yamamoto, Nobuyuki; Itoi, Eiji; Izumi, Shin-Ichi

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify whether the activity of the shoulder girdle muscles could be estimated by measuring the elasticity of these muscles under several levels of muscle contraction through ultrasound real-time tissue elastography (RTE). Ten healthy men performed submaximal voluntary contractions (MVC) in each manual muscle testing position for the middle deltoid, upper trapezius, supraspinatus, levator scapulae, and rhomboid major. The elasticity of these muscles was measured using ultrasound RTE during the task. The strain ratio of the muscle to an acoustic coupler was calculated as an assessment index of the muscle elasticity. Higher strain ratio values imply lower elasticity. In addition, the electromyographic activity was recorded from surface electrodes attached only to the middle deltoid and upper trapezius. The strain ratios were negatively correlated with the normalized root mean square values for the middle deltoid (r=-0.659, pmuscles decreased with an increase from 10% MVC force to 30% MVC force. Ultrasound RTE may be useful for noninvasively assessing the activity of the shoulder girdle muscles at certain shoulder positions with low levels of muscle contraction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Unaccustomed Eccentric Contractions Impair Plasma K+ Regulation in the Absence of Changes in Muscle Na+,K+-ATPase Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Craig A.; Bennie, Jason A.; Leikis, Murray J.; McKenna, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    The Na+,K+-ATPase (NKA) plays a fundamental role in the regulation of skeletal muscle membrane Na+ and K+ gradients, excitability and fatigue during repeated intense contractions. Many studies have investigated the effects of acute concentric exercise on K+ regulation and skeletal muscle NKA, but almost nothing is known about the effects of repeated eccentric contractions. We therefore investigated the effects of unaccustomed maximal eccentric knee extensor contractions on K+ regulation during exercise, peak knee extensor muscle torque, and vastus lateralis muscle NKA content and 3-O-MFPase activity. Torque measurements, muscle biopsies, and venous blood samples were taken before, during and up to 7 days following the contractions in six healthy adults. Eccentric contractions reduced peak isometric muscle torque immediately post-exercise by 26±11% and serum creatine kinase concentration peaked 24 h post-exercise at 339±90 IU/L. During eccentric contractions, plasma [K+] rose during Set 1 and remained elevated at ∼4.9 mM during sets 4–10; this was despite a decline in work output by Set 4, which fell by 18.9% at set 10. The rise in plasma [K+].work−1 ratio was elevated over Set 2 from Set 4– Set 10. Eccentric contractions had no effect on muscle NKA content or maximal in-vitro 3-O-MFPase activity immediately post- or up to 7 d post-exercise. The sustained elevation in plasma [K+] despite a decrease in work performed by the knee extensor muscles suggests an impairment in K+ regulation during maximal eccentric contractions, possibly due to increased plasma membrane permeability or to excitation-contraction uncoupling. PMID:24959836

  9. Unaccustomed eccentric contractions impair plasma K+ regulation in the absence of changes in muscle Na+,K+-ATPase content.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig A Goodman

    Full Text Available The Na+,K+-ATPase (NKA plays a fundamental role in the regulation of skeletal muscle membrane Na+ and K+ gradients, excitability and fatigue during repeated intense contractions. Many studies have investigated the effects of acute concentric exercise on K+ regulation and skeletal muscle NKA, but almost nothing is known about the effects of repeated eccentric contractions. We therefore investigated the effects of unaccustomed maximal eccentric knee extensor contractions on K+ regulation during exercise, peak knee extensor muscle torque, and vastus lateralis muscle NKA content and 3-O-MFPase activity. Torque measurements, muscle biopsies, and venous blood samples were taken before, during and up to 7 days following the contractions in six healthy adults. Eccentric contractions reduced peak isometric muscle torque immediately post-exercise by 26±11% and serum creatine kinase concentration peaked 24 h post-exercise at 339±90 IU/L. During eccentric contractions, plasma [K+] rose during Set 1 and remained elevated at ∼4.9 mM during sets 4-10; this was despite a decline in work output by Set 4, which fell by 18.9% at set 10. The rise in plasma [K+] x work(-1 ratio was elevated over Set 2 from Set 4- Set 10. Eccentric contractions had no effect on muscle NKA content or maximal in-vitro 3-O-MFPase activity immediately post- or up to 7 d post-exercise. The sustained elevation in plasma [K+] despite a decrease in work performed by the knee extensor muscles suggests an impairment in K+ regulation during maximal eccentric contractions, possibly due to increased plasma membrane permeability or to excitation-contraction uncoupling.

  10. Unaccustomed eccentric contractions impair plasma K+ regulation in the absence of changes in muscle Na+,K+-ATPase content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Craig A; Bennie, Jason A; Leikis, Murray J; McKenna, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    The Na+,K+-ATPase (NKA) plays a fundamental role in the regulation of skeletal muscle membrane Na+ and K+ gradients, excitability and fatigue during repeated intense contractions. Many studies have investigated the effects of acute concentric exercise on K+ regulation and skeletal muscle NKA, but almost nothing is known about the effects of repeated eccentric contractions. We therefore investigated the effects of unaccustomed maximal eccentric knee extensor contractions on K+ regulation during exercise, peak knee extensor muscle torque, and vastus lateralis muscle NKA content and 3-O-MFPase activity. Torque measurements, muscle biopsies, and venous blood samples were taken before, during and up to 7 days following the contractions in six healthy adults. Eccentric contractions reduced peak isometric muscle torque immediately post-exercise by 26±11% and serum creatine kinase concentration peaked 24 h post-exercise at 339±90 IU/L. During eccentric contractions, plasma [K+] rose during Set 1 and remained elevated at ∼4.9 mM during sets 4-10; this was despite a decline in work output by Set 4, which fell by 18.9% at set 10. The rise in plasma [K+] x work(-1) ratio was elevated over Set 2 from Set 4- Set 10. Eccentric contractions had no effect on muscle NKA content or maximal in-vitro 3-O-MFPase activity immediately post- or up to 7 d post-exercise. The sustained elevation in plasma [K+] despite a decrease in work performed by the knee extensor muscles suggests an impairment in K+ regulation during maximal eccentric contractions, possibly due to increased plasma membrane permeability or to excitation-contraction uncoupling.

  11. Insulin-resistant subjects have normal angiogenic response to aerobic exercise training in skeletal muscle, but not in adipose tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Walton, R. Grace; Finlin, Brian S.; Mula, Jyothi; Long, Douglas E.; Zhu, Beibei; Fry, Christopher S; Westgate, Philip M.; Lee, Jonah D.; Bennett, Tamara; Kern, Philip A.; Peterson, Charlotte A.

    2015-01-01

    Reduced vessel density in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle is associated with obesity and may result in decreased perfusion, decreased oxygen consumption, and insulin resistance. In the presence of VEGFA, Angiopoietin-2 (Angpt2) and Angiopoietin-1 (Angpt1) are central determinants of angiogenesis, with greater Angpt2:Angpt1 ratios promoting angiogenesis. In skeletal muscle, exercise training stimulates angiogenesis and modulates transcription of VEGFA, Angpt1, and Angpt2. However, it remain...

  12. Plasma effects in electromagnetic field interaction with biological tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, R. P.; Batra, Karuna; Excell, Peter S.

    2011-02-01

    Theoretical analysis is presented of the nonlinear behavior of charge carriers in biological tissue under the influence of varying low-intensity electromagnetic (EM) field. The interaction occurs because of the nonlinear force arising due to the gradient of the EM field intensity acting on free electrons in the conduction band of proteins in metabolically active biological cell membrane receptors leading to a redistribution of charge carriers. Field dependence of the resulting dielectric constant is investigated by a suitable modification to include an additional electronic contribution term to the three-term Debye model. The exogenous EM field propagating in this nonlinear cellular medium satisfies the nonlinear Schrödinger equation and can be affected significantly. Resulting field effect can be substantially augmented and effective rectification/demodulation can occur. Possible implications of this modification on biological processes in white and grey matter are discussed.

  13. Integrated data mining of transcriptomic and proteomic datasets to predict the secretome of adipose tissue and muscle in ruminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, M; Tournayre, J; Cassar-Malek, I

    2016-08-16

    Adipose tissue and muscle are endocrine organs releasing signalling and mediator proteins termed adipokines and myokines, enabling functioning of the organism and its adaption to a wide range of different challenges such as starvation, overfeeding, stress and diseases. They also contribute to the "adipose-muscular" cross-talk for an integrated control of body mass composition. This article integrates transcriptomic and proteomic data available in ruminant species (mainly in bovine, and when available in ovine and caprine) to computationally predict the large-scale secretome of adipose tissues and muscles. For this purpose predictive bioinformatics algorithms were employed to identify proteins putatively secreted by tissues thanks to a signal peptide. We predicted 1749 secreted proteins that were found from adipose tissues and muscles, more than a half of them being already declared as secreted proteins in public repositories. We also identified 188 and 357 proteins in the predictive secretome of adipose tissues and muscles respectively, only a minor part (3-11%) of them being reported in the overlap of public repositories used for comparison. Functional analysis of these proteins highlights their involvement in biological pathways known to sustain tissue growth and functioning. This strategy allowed us to identify some known and putative novel adipomyokines, adipokines and myokines. However their role and their expression signature depending on rearing practices remain largely to be explored.

  14. Comparative RNA-Seq analysis reveals pervasive tissue-specific alternative polyadenylation in Caenorhabditis elegans intestine and muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazie, Stephen M; Babb, Cody; Wilky, Henry; Rawls, Alan; Park, Jin G; Mangone, Marco

    2015-01-20

    Tissue-specific RNA plasticity broadly impacts the development, tissue identity and adaptability of all organisms, but changes in composition, expression levels and its impact on gene regulation in different somatic tissues are largely unknown. Here we developed a new method, polyA-tagging and sequencing (PAT-Seq) to isolate high-quality tissue-specific mRNA from Caenorhabditis elegans intestine, pharynx and body muscle tissues and study changes in their tissue-specific transcriptomes and 3'UTRomes. We have identified thousands of novel genes and isoforms differentially expressed between these three tissues. The intestine transcriptome is expansive, expressing over 30% of C. elegans mRNAs, while muscle transcriptomes are smaller but contain characteristic unique gene signatures. Active promoter regions in all three tissues reveal both known and novel enriched tissue-specific elements, along with putative transcription factors, suggesting novel tissue-specific modes of transcription initiation. We have precisely mapped approximately 20,000 tissue-specific polyadenylation sites and discovered that about 30% of transcripts in somatic cells use alternative polyadenylation in a tissue-specific manner, with their 3'UTR isoforms significantly enriched with microRNA targets. For the first time, PAT-Seq allowed us to directly study tissue specific gene expression changes in an in vivo setting and compare these changes between three somatic tissues from the same organism at single-base resolution within the same experiment. We pinpoint precise tissue-specific transcriptome rearrangements and for the first time link tissue-specific alternative polyadenylation to miRNA regulation, suggesting novel and unexplored tissue-specific post-transcriptional regulatory networks in somatic cells.

  15. Plasma kinetics, tissue distribution, and cerebrocortical sources of reverse triiodothyronine in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obregon, M.J.; Larsen, P.R.; Silva, J.E.

    1985-06-01

    Studies in vitro have shown that rT3 is a potent and competitive inhibitor of T4 5'-deiodination (5'D). Recent studies in vivo have shown that cerebrocortical (Cx) T4 5'D-type II (5'D-II) activity (propylthiouracil (PTU) insensitive pathway), is reduced by T4 and rT3, the latter being more potent than T3 in Cx 5'D-II suppression. Some other reports had described rT3 production in rat brain as a very active pathway of thyroid hormone metabolism. To examine the possibility that rT3 plays a physiological role in regulating Cx 5'D-II, we have explored rT3 plasma kinetics, plasma to tissue exchange, and uptake by tissues in the rat, as well as the metabolic routes of degradation and the sources of rT3 in cerebral cortex (Cx). Plasma and tissue levels were assessed with tracer (/sup 125/I)rT3. Two main compartments were defined by plasma disappearance curves in euthyroid rats (K/sub 1/ = -6.2 h-1 and K/sub 2/ = -0.75 h-1). In Cx of euthyroid rats, (/sup 125/I)rT3 peaked 10 min after iv injection, tissue to plasma ratio being 0.016 +/- 0.004 (SE). In thyroidectomized rats, plasma and tissue (/sup 125/I)rT3 concentrations were higher than in euthyroid rats, except for the Cx that did not change. PTU caused further increases in all the tissues studied, except for the Cx and the pituitaries of thyroidectomized rats. From the effect of blocking 5'D-I with PTU or reducing its activity by making the animals hypothyroid, we concluded that 5'D-I accounts for most of the rT3 clearance from plasma. In contrast, in Cx and pituitary the levels of rT3 seem largely affected by 5'D-II activity. Since the latter results suggest that plasma rT3 does not play a major role in determining rT3 levels in these tissues, we explored the sources of rT3 in Cx using (/sup 125/I)T4. The (/sup 125/I)rT3 (T4) to (/sup 125/I)T4 ratio remained constant at 0.03 from 1 up to 5 h after injection of (/sup 125/I)T4.

  16. GLUT4 expression at the plasma membrane is related to fibre volume in human skeletal muscle fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaster, M; Vach, W; Beck-Nielsen, H

    2002-01-01

    In this study we examined the relationship between GLUT4 expression at the plasma membrane and muscle fibre size in fibre-typed human muscle fibres by immunocytochemistry and morphometry in order to gain further insight into the regulation of GLUT4 expression. At the site of the plasma membrane......, GLUT4 was more abundantly expressed in slow as compared to fast fibres at the same fibre diameter (p diabetic and obese was reduced...... compared to control subjects at the same diameter (p diabetic subjects expressed a fibre-volume-dependent GLUT4 expression (p diabetic p = 0.06). Our results show that increasing...

  17. Ultrastructural effects on gill, muscle, and gonadal tissues induced in zebrafish (Danio rerio) by a waterborne uranium exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barillet, Sabrina, E-mail: sabrina.barillet@free.fr [Laboratory of Radioecology and Ecotoxicology, IRSN (Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety), DEI/SECRE/LRE, Cadarache, Bat 186, BP 3, 13115 St-Paul-Lez-Durance cedex (France); Larno, Valerie, E-mail: valerie.larno@irsn.fr [Laboratory of Radioecology and Ecotoxicology, IRSN (Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety), DEI/SECRE/LRE, Cadarache, Bat 186, BP 3, 13115 St-Paul-Lez-Durance cedex (France); Floriani, Magali, E-mail: magali.floriani@irsn.fr [Laboratory of Radioecology and Ecotoxicology, IRSN (Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety), DEI/SECRE/LRE, Cadarache, Bat 186, BP 3, 13115 St-Paul-Lez-Durance cedex (France); Devaux, Alain, E-mail: alain.devaux@entpe.fr [INRA, EFPA Department, 54280, Champenoux and Environmental Science Laboratory, ENTPE, 69518 Vaulx en Velin cedex (France); Adam-Guillermin, Christelle, E-mail: christelle.adam-guillermin@irsn.fr [Laboratory of Radioecology and Ecotoxicology, IRSN (Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety), DEI/SECRE/LRE, Cadarache, Bat 186, BP 3, 13115 St-Paul-Lez-Durance cedex (France)

    2010-11-01

    Experiments on adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) were conducted to assess histopathological effects induced on gill, muscle, and gonadal tissues after waterborne uranium exposure. Although histopathology is often employed as a tool for the detection and assessment of xenobiotic-mediated effects in aquatic organisms, few studies have been dedicated to the investigation of histopathological consequences of uranium exposure in fish. Results showed that gill tissue architecture was markedly disrupted. Major symptoms were alterations of the secondary lamellae epithelium (from extensive oedema to desquamation), hyperplasia of chloride cells, and breakdown of the pillar cell system. Muscle histology was also affected. Degeneration and disorganization of myofibrillar sarcomeric pattern as well as abnormal localization of mitochondria within muscle and altered endomysial sheaths were observed. Morphological alterations of spermatozoa within the gonadal tissue were also noticed. This study demonstrated that uranium exposure induced a variety of histological impairments in fish, supporting environmental concerns when uranium contaminates aquatic systems.

  18. Gene Expression Profile of Human Skeletal Muscle and Adipose Tissue of Chinese Han Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN-LI YANG; RUO-LAN XIANG; CHANG YANG; XIAO-JUN LIU; WEN-JUN SHEN; JIN ZUO; YONG-SHENG CHANG; FU-DE FANG

    2009-01-01

    Objective To study the differential patterns of gene expression in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue between type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients and healthy subjects using DNA microarray analysis. Methods T2DM patiens were divided into female group, young male group and old male group. DNA microarray analysis and quantitative real-time PCR were carried out to analyze the relation between gene expressions and T2DM. Results The mRNA expression of 298, 578, and 350 genes was changed in the skeletal muscle of diabetes mellitus patients compared with control subjects. The 1320, 1143, and 2847 genes were modified in adipose tissue of the three groups. Among the genes surveyed, the change of 25 and 39 gene transcripts in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue was ≥2 folds. These differentially expressed genes were classified into 15 categories according to their functions. Conclusion New genes are found and T2DM can be prevented or cured.

  19. Lipidomic analysis of skeletal muscle tissues of p53 knockout mice by nUPLC-ESI-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Se Mi; Byeon, Seul Kee; Lee, Hojun; Sung, Hyerim; Kim, Il Yong; Seong, Je Kyung; Moon, Myeong Hee

    2017-06-12

    Tumour suppressor p53 is known to be associated with the maintenance of mitochondrial functional properties in the skeletal muscles. As deactivation or mutation of p53 can affect the synthesis of lipids, investigating the relationship between p53-related energy generation metabolism and perturbation of lipid profile is critical. In this study, 329 lipid species (among 412 identified species) in two different skeletal muscle tissues (the gastrocnemius and soleus) from p53 knockout (KO) mice were quantitatively analysed using nanoflow ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (nUPLC-MS/MS). Overall, lipids from the soleus tissues were more affected by p53 KO than those from the gastrocnemius in most lipid profiles. In p53 KO, lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC), lysophosphatidylserine (LPS), phosphatidic acid (PA), sphingomyelin (SM), and triacylglycerol (TAG), including 6 TAG (44:2, 46:0, 58:5, 58:8, 58:9, and 50:0), were significantly increased (p muscle tissues.

  20. Three dimensional multi-cellular muscle-like tissue engineering in perfusion-based bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerino, Giulia; Gaudiello, Emanuele; Grussenmeyer, Thomas; Melly, Ludovic; Massai, Diana; Banfi, Andrea; Martin, Ivan; Eckstein, Friedrich; Grapow, Martin; Marsano, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Conventional tissue engineering strategies often rely on the use of a single progenitor cell source to engineer in vitro biological models; however, multi-cellular environments can better resemble the complexity of native tissues. Previous described co-culture models used skeletal myoblasts, as parenchymal cell source, and mesenchymal or endothelial cells, as stromal component. Here, we propose instead the use of adipose tissue-derived stromal vascular fraction cells, which include both mesenchymal and endothelial cells, to better resemble the native stroma. Percentage of serum supplementation is one of the crucial parameters to steer skeletal myoblasts toward either proliferation (20%) or differentiation (5%) in two-dimensional culture conditions. On the contrary, three-dimensional (3D) skeletal myoblast culture often simply adopts the serum content used in monolayer, without taking into account the new cell environment. When considering 3D cultures of mm-thick engineered tissues, homogeneous and sufficient oxygen supply is paramount to avoid formation of necrotic cores. Perfusion-based bioreactor culture can significantly improve the oxygen access to the cells, enhancing the viability and the contractility of the engineered tissues. In this study, we first investigated the influence of different serum supplementations on the skeletal myoblast ability to proliferate and differentiate during 3D perfusion-based culture. We tested percentages of serum promoting monolayer skeletal myoblast-proliferation (20%) and differentiation (5%) and suitable for stromal cell culture (10%) with a view to identify the most suitable condition for the subsequent co-culture. The 10% serum medium composition resulted in the highest number of mature myotubes and construct functionality. Co-culture with stromal vascular fraction cells at 10% serum also supported the skeletal myoblast differentiation and maturation, hence providing a functional engineered 3D muscle model that resembles

  1. New method for determining total calcium content in tissue applied to skeletal muscle with and without calsequestrin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamboley, Cédric R.H.; Kake Guena, Sandrine A.; Touré, Fatou; Hébert, Camille; Yaddaden, Louiza; Nadeau, Stephanie; Bouchard, Patrice; Wei-LaPierre, Lan; Lainé, Jean; Rousseau, Eric C.; Frenette, Jérôme; Protasi, Feliciano; Dirksen, Robert T.

    2015-01-01

    We describe a new method for determining the concentration of total Ca in whole skeletal muscle samples ([CaT]WM in units of mmoles/kg wet weight) using the Ca-dependent UV absorbance spectra of the Ca chelator BAPTA (1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N′,N′-tetraacetic acid). Muscle tissue was homogenized in a solution containing 0.15 mM BAPTA and 0.5% sodium dodecyl sulfate (to permeabilize membranes and denature proteins) and then centrifuged. The solution volume was adjusted so that BAPTA captured essentially all of the Ca. [CaT]WM was obtained with Beer’s law from the absorbance change produced by adding 1 mM EGTA to capture Ca from BAPTA. Results from mouse, rat, and frog muscles were reasonably consistent with results obtained using other methods for estimating total [Ca] in whole muscles and in single muscle fibers. Results with external Ca removed before determining [CaT]WM indicate that most of the Ca was intracellular, indicative of a lack of bound Ca in the extracellular space. In both fast-twitch (extensor digitorum longus, EDL) and slow-twitch (soleus) muscles from mice, [CaT]WM increased approximately linearly with decreasing muscle weight, increasing approximately twofold with a twofold decrease in muscle weight. This suggests that the Ca concentration of smaller muscles might be increased relative to that in larger muscles, thereby increasing the specific force to compensate for the smaller mass. Knocking out the high capacity Ca-binding protein calsequestrin (CSQ) did not significantly reduce [CaT]WM in mouse EDL or soleus muscle. However, in EDL muscles lacking CSQ, muscle weights were significantly lower than in wild-type (WT) muscles and the values of [CaT]WM were, on average, about half the expected WT values, taking into account the above [CaT]WM versus muscle weight relationship. Because greater reductions in [CaT]WM would be predicted in both muscle types, we hypothesize that there is a substantial increase in Ca bound to other sites

  2. New method for determining total calcium content in tissue applied to skeletal muscle with and without calsequestrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamboley, Cédric R H; Kake Guena, Sandrine A; Touré, Fatou; Hébert, Camille; Yaddaden, Louiza; Nadeau, Stephanie; Bouchard, Patrice; Wei-LaPierre, Lan; Lainé, Jean; Rousseau, Eric C; Frenette, Jérôme; Protasi, Feliciano; Dirksen, Robert T; Pape, Paul C

    2015-02-01

    We describe a new method for determining the concentration of total Ca in whole skeletal muscle samples ([CaT]WM in units of mmoles/kg wet weight) using the Ca-dependent UV absorbance spectra of the Ca chelator BAPTA (1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid). Muscle tissue was homogenized in a solution containing 0.15 mM BAPTA and 0.5% sodium dodecyl sulfate (to permeabilize membranes and denature proteins) and then centrifuged. The solution volume was adjusted so that BAPTA captured essentially all of the Ca. [CaT]WM was obtained with Beer's law from the absorbance change produced by adding 1 mM EGTA to capture Ca from BAPTA. Results from mouse, rat, and frog muscles were reasonably consistent with results obtained using other methods for estimating total [Ca] in whole muscles and in single muscle fibers. Results with external Ca removed before determining [CaT]WM indicate that most of the Ca was intracellular, indicative of a lack of bound Ca in the extracellular space. In both fast-twitch (extensor digitorum longus, EDL) and slow-twitch (soleus) muscles from mice, [CaT]WM increased approximately linearly with decreasing muscle weight, increasing approximately twofold with a twofold decrease in muscle weight. This suggests that the Ca concentration of smaller muscles might be increased relative to that in larger muscles, thereby increasing the specific force to compensate for the smaller mass. Knocking out the high capacity Ca-binding protein calsequestrin (CSQ) did not significantly reduce [CaT]WM in mouse EDL or soleus muscle. However, in EDL muscles lacking CSQ, muscle weights were significantly lower than in wild-type (WT) muscles and the values of [CaT]WM were, on average, about half the expected WT values, taking into account the above [CaT]WM versus muscle weight relationship. Because greater reductions in [CaT]WM would be predicted in both muscle types, we hypothesize that there is a substantial increase in Ca bound to other sites in the

  3. Platelet-rich plasma and skeletal muscle healing: a molecular analysis of the early phases of the regeneration process in an experimental animal model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Dimauro

    Full Text Available Platelet-rich plasma (PRP has received increasing interest in applied medicine, being widely used in clinical practice with the aim of stimulating tissue healing. Despite the reported clinical success, there is still a lack of knowledge when considering the biological mechanisms at the base of the activity of PRP during the process of muscle healing. The aim of the present study was to verify whether the local delivery of PRP modulates specific molecular events involved in the early stages of the muscle regeneration process. The right flexor sublimis muscle of anesthetized Wistar rats was mechanically injured and either treated with PRP or received no treatment. At day 2 and 5 after surgery, the animals were sacrificed and the muscle samples evaluated at molecular levels. PRP treatment increased significantly the mRNA level of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, and TGF-β1. This phenomenon induced an increased expression at mRNA and/or protein levels of several myogenic regulatory factors such as MyoD1, Myf5 and Pax7, as well as the muscular isoform of insulin-like growth factor1 (IGF-1Eb. No effect was detected with respect to VEGF-A expression. In addition, PRP application modulated the expression of miR-133a together with its known target serum response factor (SRF; increased the phosphorylation of αB-cristallin, with a significant improvement in several apoptotic parameters (NF-κB-p65 and caspase 3, indexes of augmented cell survival. The results of the present study indicates that the effect of PRP in skeletal muscle injury repair is due both to the modulation of the molecular mediators of the inflammatory and myogenic pathways, and to the control of secondary pathways such as those regulated by myomiRNAs and heat shock proteins, which contribute to proper and effective tissue regeneration.

  4. Platelet-rich plasma and skeletal muscle healing: a molecular analysis of the early phases of the regeneration process in an experimental animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimauro, Ivan; Grasso, Loredana; Fittipaldi, Simona; Fantini, Cristina; Mercatelli, Neri; Racca, Silvia; Geuna, Stefano; Di Gianfrancesco, Alessia; Caporossi, Daniela; Pigozzi, Fabio; Borrione, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has received increasing interest in applied medicine, being widely used in clinical practice with the aim of stimulating tissue healing. Despite the reported clinical success, there is still a lack of knowledge when considering the biological mechanisms at the base of the activity of PRP during the process of muscle healing. The aim of the present study was to verify whether the local delivery of PRP modulates specific molecular events involved in the early stages of the muscle regeneration process. The right flexor sublimis muscle of anesthetized Wistar rats was mechanically injured and either treated with PRP or received no treatment. At day 2 and 5 after surgery, the animals were sacrificed and the muscle samples evaluated at molecular levels. PRP treatment increased significantly the mRNA level of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, and TGF-β1. This phenomenon induced an increased expression at mRNA and/or protein levels of several myogenic regulatory factors such as MyoD1, Myf5 and Pax7, as well as the muscular isoform of insulin-like growth factor1 (IGF-1Eb). No effect was detected with respect to VEGF-A expression. In addition, PRP application modulated the expression of miR-133a together with its known target serum response factor (SRF); increased the phosphorylation of αB-cristallin, with a significant improvement in several apoptotic parameters (NF-κB-p65 and caspase 3), indexes of augmented cell survival. The results of the present study indicates that the effect of PRP in skeletal muscle injury repair is due both to the modulation of the molecular mediators of the inflammatory and myogenic pathways, and to the control of secondary pathways such as those regulated by myomiRNAs and heat shock proteins, which contribute to proper and effective tissue regeneration.

  5. β2-Adrenoceptor is involved in connective tissue remodeling in regenerating muscles by decreasing the activity of MMP-9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Meiricris T; Nascimento, Tábata L; Pereira, Marcelo G; Siqueira, Adriane S; Brum, Patrícia C; Jaeger, Ruy G; Miyabara, Elen H

    2016-07-01

    We investigated the role of β2-adrenoceptors in the connective tissue remodeling of regenerating muscles from β2-adrenoceptor knockout (β2KO) mice. Tibialis anterior muscles from β2KO mice were cryolesioned and analyzed after 3, 10, and 21 days. Regenerating muscles from β2KO mice showed a significant increase in the area density of the connective tissue and in the amount of collagen at 10 days compared with wild-type (WT) mice. A greater increase occurred in the expression levels of collagen I, III, and IV in regenerating muscles from β2KO mice evaluated at 10 days compared with WT mice; this increase continued at 21 days, except for collagen III. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2) activity increased to a similar extent in regenerating muscles from both β2KO and WT mice at 3 and 10 days. This was also the case for MMP-9 activity in regenerating muscles from both β2KO and WT mice at 3 days; however, at 10 days post-cryolesion, this activity returned to baseline levels only in WT mice. MMP-3 activity was unaltered in regenerating muscles at 10 days. mRNA levels of tumor necrosis factor-α increased in regenerating muscles from WT and β2KO mice at 3 days and, at 10 days post-cryolesion, returned to baseline only in WT mice. mRNA levels of interleukin-6 increased in muscles from WT mice at 3 days post-cryolesion and returned to baseline at 10 days post-cryolesion but were unchanged in β2KO mice. Our results suggest that the β2-adrenoceptor contributes to collagen remodeling during muscle regeneration by decreasing MMP-9 activity.

  6. Novel muscle and connective tissue design enables high extensibility and controls engulfment volume in lunge-feeding rorqual whales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadwick, Robert E; Goldbogen, Jeremy A; Potvin, Jean; Pyenson, Nicholas D; Vogl, A Wayne

    2013-07-15

    Muscle serves a wide variety of mechanical functions during animal feeding and locomotion, but the performance of this tissue is limited by how far it can be extended. In rorqual whales, feeding and locomotion are integrated in a dynamic process called lunge feeding, where an enormous volume of prey-laden water is engulfed into a capacious ventral oropharyngeal cavity that is bounded superficially by skeletal muscle and ventral groove blubber (VGB). The great expansion of the cavity wall presents a mechanical challenge for the physiological limits of skeletal muscle, yet its role is considered fundamental in controlling the flux of water into the mouth. Our analyses of the functional properties and mechanical behaviour of VGB muscles revealed a crimped microstructure in an unstrained, non-feeding state that is arranged in parallel with dense and straight elastin fibres. This allows the muscles to accommodate large tissue deformations of the VGB yet still operate within the known strain limits of vertebrate skeletal muscle. VGB transverse strains in routine-feeding rorquals were substantially less than those observed in dead ones, where decomposition gas stretched the VGB to its elastic limit, evidence supporting the idea that eccentric muscle contraction modulates the rate of expansion and ultimate size of the ventral cavity during engulfment.

  7. Large-scale inference of protein tissue origin in gram-positive sepsis plasma using quantitative targeted proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmström, Erik; Kilsgård, Ola; Hauri, Simon; Smeds, Emanuel; Herwald, Heiko; Malmström, Lars; Malmström, Johan

    2016-01-06

    The plasma proteome is highly dynamic and variable, composed of proteins derived from surrounding tissues and cells. To investigate the complex processes that control the composition of the plasma proteome, we developed a mass spectrometry-based proteomics strategy to infer the origin of proteins detected in murine plasma. The strategy relies on the construction of a comprehensive protein tissue atlas from cells and highly vascularized organs using shotgun mass spectrometry. The protein tissue atlas was transformed to a spectral library for highly reproducible quantification of tissue-specific proteins directly in plasma using SWATH-like data-independent mass spectrometry analysis. We show that the method can determine drastic changes of tissue-specific protein profiles in blood plasma from mouse animal models with sepsis. The strategy can be extended to several other species advancing our understanding of the complex processes that contribute to the plasma proteome dynamics.

  8. Concentrations of danofloxacin 18% solution in plasma, milk and tissues after subcutaneous injection in dairy cows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mestorino, N. [Pharmacology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, CC 296, 1900 La Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina)], E-mail: nmestorino@yahoo.com; Marchetti, M.L.; Turic, E.; Pesoa, J.; Errecalde, J. [Pharmacology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, CC 296, 1900 La Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2009-04-01

    Danofloxacin is a fluoroquinolone developed for use in veterinary medicine. Its concentrations and pharmacokinetic profile in plasma, milk and tissues of lactating dairy cows were determined, and its milk withdrawal time (WT) calculated. Twenty-one dairy cows received a single subcutaneous administration of 18% mesylate danofloxacin salt (6 mg kg{sup -1}). Plasma and milk samples were obtained at different times until 48 h. Groups of three animals were sacrificed at different post-administration times and tissue samples (mammary gland, uterus, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, colon and mesenteric lymph nodes) obtained. Danofloxacin concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The milk WT was calculated by the Time to Safe Concentration method (Software WTM 1.4, EMEA). Danofloxacin was rapidly absorbed and its distribution from plasma to all sampled tissues and milk was extensive. Milk and tissues concentrations were several times above those found in plasma. Plasma area under the curve (AUCp) was 9.69 {mu}g h mL{sup -1} and its elimination half life (T{sub {beta}}{sup 1/2}) was 12.53 h. AUC values for the various tissues and milk greatly exceeded AUCp. T{sub {beta}}{sup 1/2} from milk and tissues ranged between 4.57 and 21.91 h and the milk withdrawal time was 73.48 h. The reported results support the potential use of danofloxacin in the treatment of mastitis and other infections in milk cows with 3 days of withdrawal.

  9. Resistin in dairy cows: plasma concentrations during early lactation, expression and potential role in adipose tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxime Reverchon

    Full Text Available Resistin is an adipokine that has been implicated in energy metabolism regulation in rodents but has been little studied in dairy cows. We determined plasma resistin concentrations in early lactation in dairy cows and investigated the levels of resistin mRNA and protein in adipose tissue and the phosphorylation of several components of insulin signaling pathways one week post partum (1 WPP and at five months of gestation (5 MG. We detected resistin in mature bovine adipocytes and investigated the effect of recombinant bovine resistin on lipolysis in bovine adipose tissue explants. ELISA showed that plasma resistin concentration was low before calving, subsequently increasing and reaching a peak at 1 WPP, decreasing steadily thereafter to reach pre-calving levels at 6 WPP. Plasma resistin concentration was significantly positively correlated with plasma non esterified fatty acid (NEFA levels and negatively with milk yield, dry matter intake and energy balance between WPP1 to WPP22. We showed, by quantitative RT-PCR and western blotting, that resistin mRNA and protein levels in adipose tissue were higher at WPP1 than at 5 MG. The level of phosphorylation of several early and downstream insulin signaling components (IRβ, IRS-1, IRS-2, Akt, MAPK ERK1/2, P70S6K and S6 in adipose tissue was also lower at 1 WPP than at 5 MG. Finally, we showed that recombinant bovine resistin increased the release of glycerol and mRNA levels for ATGL (adipose triglyceride lipase and HSL (hormone-sensitive lipase in adipose tissue explants. Overall, resistin levels were high in the plasma and adipose tissue and were positively correlated with NEFA levels after calving. Resistin is expressed in bovine mature adipocytes and promotes lipid mobilization in adipose explants in vitro.

  10. Testosterone differentially regulates targets of lipid and glucose metabolism in liver, muscle and adipose tissues of the testicular feminised mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Daniel M; Akhtar, Samia; Sellers, Donna J; Muraleedharan, Vakkat; Channer, Kevin S; Jones, T Hugh

    2016-11-01

    Testosterone deficiency is commonly associated with obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and their clinical consequences-hepatic steatosis and atherosclerosis. The testicular feminised mouse (non-functional androgen receptor and low testosterone) develops fatty liver and aortic lipid streaks on a high-fat diet, whereas androgen-replete XY littermate controls do not. Testosterone treatment ameliorates these effects, although the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. We compared the influence of testosterone on the expression of regulatory targets of glucose, cholesterol and lipid metabolism in muscle, liver, abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue. Testicular feminised mice displayed significantly reduced GLUT4 in muscle and glycolytic enzymes in muscle, liver and abdominal subcutaneous but not visceral adipose tissue. Lipoprotein lipase required for fatty acid uptake was only reduced in subcutaneous adipose tissue; enzymes of fatty acid synthesis were increased in liver and subcutaneous tissue. Stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 that catalyses oleic acid synthesis and is associated with insulin resistance was increased in visceral adipose tissue and cholesterol efflux components (ABCA1, apoE) were decreased in subcutaneous and liver tissue. Master regulator nuclear receptors involved in metabolism-Liver X receptor expression was suppressed in all tissues except visceral adipose tissue, whereas PPARγ was lower in abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue and PPARα only in abdominal subcutaneous. Testosterone treatment improved the expression (androgen receptor independent) of some targets but not all. These exploratory data suggest that androgen deficiency may reduce the buffering capability for glucose uptake and utilisation in abdominal subcutaneous and muscle and fatty acids in abdominal subcutaneous. This would lead to an overspill and uptake of excess glucose and triglycerides into visceral adipose tissue, liver and arterial walls.

  11. Single dose of intra-muscular platelet rich plasma reverses the increase in plasma iron levels in exercise-induced muscle damage:A pilot study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zekine Punduk; Onur Oral; Nadir Ozkayin; Khalid Rahman; Rana Varol

    2016-01-01

    Background: Platelet rich plasma (PRP) therapy is widely used in enhancing the recovery of skeletal muscle from injury. However, the impact of intramuscular delivery of PRP on hematologic and biochemical responses has not been fully elucidated in exercise-induced muscle damage. The purpose of this investigation the effects of intramuscular delivery of PRP on hematologic and biochemical responses and recovery strategy muscle damage induced by high intensity muscle exercise (exercise-induced muscle damage, EIMD). Methods: Moderately active male volunteers participated in this study and were assigned to a control group (control, n=6) and PRP administration group (PRP, n=6). The subjects performed exercise with a load of 80%one repetition maximum (1RM) maximal voluntary contraction of the elbow flexors until point of exhaustion of the non-dominant arm was reached. The arms were treated with saline or autologous PRP post-24 h EIMD. Venous blood samples were obtained in the morning to establish a baseline value and 1–4 days post-exercise and were analyzed for serum ferritin, iron, iron binding capacity (IBC), creatinine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Results: The baseline levels of plasma iron, ferritin, IBC, CK, LDH, AST, and ALT were similar in both the control and PRP groups. However, 24-h following exercise a significant increase in these parameters was observed in both groups between 1 and 4 days during the recovery period. Interestingly, PRP administration decreased plasma iron levels compared to the control on the second day post-exercise. Plasma IBC increased in PRP group from Days 2 to 4 post-exercise compared to the control group whilst PRP administration had no effect on plasma ferritin, CK, AST, ALT, or LDH. Conclusion: Acute exhaustive exercise increased muscle damage markers, including plasma iron, IBC, and ferritin levels, indicating muscle damage induced by exercise. PRP

  12. Exercise-induced increase in glucose transport, GLUT-4, and VAMP-2 in plasma membrane from human muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, S; Hargreaves, Mark; Richter, Erik

    1996-01-01

    contractions may induce trafficking of GLUT-4-containing vesicles via a mechanism similar to neurotransmitter release. Our results demonstrate for the first time exercise-induced translocation of GLUT-4 and VAMP-2 to the plasma membrane of human muscle and increased sarcolemmal glucose transport.......A major effect of muscle contractions is an increase in sarcolemmal glucose transport. We have used a recently developed technique to produce sarcolemmal giant vesicles from human muscle biopsy samples obtained before and after exercise. Six men exercised for 10 min at 50% maximal O2 uptake (Vo2max...

  13. Evaluation of the infectivity and the persistence of Trichinella patagoniensis in muscle tissue of decomposing guinea pig (Cavia porcellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fariña, F; Pasqualetti, M; Ilgová, J; Cardillo, N; Ercole, M; Aronowicz, T; Krivokapich, S; Kašný, M; Ribicich, M

    2017-01-01

    Trichinella patagoniensis, a new species of Trichinella, is widespread in Argentina. The success of parasite transmission depends, among other factors, on the resistance of L1 larvae present in the muscle tissue (ML) of dead hosts undergoing the decomposition process in different environmental conditions. The aim of the present work was to study the infectivity of T. patagoniensis muscle larvae in Cavia porcellus and the capability of the parasite to survive in decomposed muscle tissue of guinea pigs subjected to different environmental conditions. Thirty-two female Ssi:AL guinea pigs were orally inoculated with 2000 ML of T. patagoniensis (ISS2311). All the animals were sacrificed 42 days post-infection. Twenty-six animals were eviscerated, and carcasses were placed on the surface of soil inside plastic boxes that were exposed to environmental conditions in the summer 2014-2015 and autumn of 2015 in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Carcasses from six animals were placed into a plastic box inside the refrigerator at a temperature of 4 °C. The muscle tissue samples from the carcasses were examined weekly for the presence of larvae, and the infectivity of recovered ML was tested in BALB/c mice. Our results showed for the first time the ability of T. patagoniensis to complete its life cycle in guinea pigs, thus serving as a potential natural host. Also, larvae of T. patagoniensis remained infective in muscle tissue for several weeks while undergoing decomposition under different environmental conditions.

  14. cav-p60 expression in rat muscle tissues. Distribution of caveolar proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voldstedlund, M.; Vinten, Jørgen; Tranum-Jensen, Jørgen

    2001-01-01

    Caveolae, Caveolin, muscle, endothel, electron microscopy, immunofluorescence microscopy, rat (Wistar)......Caveolae, Caveolin, muscle, endothel, electron microscopy, immunofluorescence microscopy, rat (Wistar)...

  15. FUNCTIONAL REHABILITATION AND PHYSICAL TREATMENT OF MUSCLE TISSUE INJURIES OF FOOTBALL PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukosav Joksimović

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available activities which more often cause injuries of muscles. On account of “generousness” of the muscle tissue and according to the knowledge of complete regeneration of the muscle tissue without any complications, process of curing demands the knowledge and great pratical experience. The aim of this work is to show the most common localisations and sorts of injuries and also the methods of curing and rehabilitation of football players inferiority of fast returning to the sport fields and achieving high results.Materials and methods: this work included 1537 football players with injuries of muscle tissues, who have been treated in outpatient clinics of Football Club “Red Star” from Belgrade and Football Club “Berane” from Berane for two years. All of the patients were male, divided into two groups – under 18 and over 18 years – the seniors. The patients were chosen from their clubs by the same criteria. Results: among 1184 patients in the outpatient clinic of the Football Club “Red Star”, 614 (51.81% had light injuries, 488 (41.29% had medium injuries and 82 patients (6.9% had heavy injuries. In the same time, in the outpatients clinic of FC “Berane” 353 were overseen, 177 (50.1% had light injuries 140 (39.6% had medium injuries and 36 (10.3% were heavily injured. Comparing the sorts of injuries in both clubs, we found the contusion injuries without hematoma in 582 (37.8%, the contusion injuries with hematoma in 279 (19.5% patients, the distensional injuries in (29.2% patients, partial ruptures in 125 (8.1%, the total ruptures (2.3% and painful cramps in 133 (60.2% patients. The injuries were during trainings 612 (39.8%, during the game (on the field 962 (60.2% of injuries. Mainly, the injuries were localised in the area of the upper knee 997 (63.5%, lower knee 332 (22.6%, pelric and abdominal area 96 (8.2%, chest injuries 80 (5.2% and in the area of the head and 56 (3.6%. After intensive treatment, immediately after injuries

  16. A plasma scalpel: comparison of tissue damage and wound healing with electrosurgical and steel scalpels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, W J; Incropera, F P; Glover, J L

    1976-04-01

    We have been evaluating a plasma scalpel (the term has no relation to blood plasma) for four years that, with the generation of a small, hot gas jet (3,000 C), can cut tissue and simultaneously cauterize blood vessels of 3 mm in diameter. Twenty-nine plasma scalpel hepatectomies in dogs and comparative skin wound healing (with steel and electrosurgical scalpels) in 90 mice showed that bleeding was reduced, and the thermal insult in liver tissue was limited to 2 mm from the incision; both liver and mouse skin incisions healed without complication. The completion of epithelization of mouse skin wounds occurred at 2 to 6, 6 to 14, and 6 to 18 days, and the average scar width was 0.8, 1.4, and 2.1 mm for the steel, electrosurgical, and plasma scalpels, respectively. The plasma scalpel effectively cauterizes blood vessels as it cuts, leaving limited damaged tissue. We have recently begun human trials, and the device shows promise as a clinical tool.

  17. Effect of administration of oral contraceptives in vivo on collagen synthesis in tendon and muscle connective tissue in young women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M; Miller, B F; Holm, Lars

    2009-01-01

    concentrations of estradiol and progesterone (control, n = 12). Subjects performed 1 h of one-legged kicking exercise. The next day collagen fractional synthesis rates (FSR) in tendon and muscle connective tissue were measured after a flooding dose of [(13)C]proline followed by biopsies from the patellar tendon...... bioavailability of IGF-I in OC. In conclusion, synthetic female sex hormones administered as OC had an inhibiting effect on collagen synthesis in tendon, bone, and muscle connective tissue, which may be related to a lower bioavailability of IGF-I....

  18. Effect of GFR on plasma N-terminal connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) concentrations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, K.G.; Abrahams, A.C.; Peters, H.P.E.; Nguyen, T.Q.; Koeners, M.P.; Hoedt, C.H. den; Dendooven, A.; Dorpel, M.A. van den; Blankestijn, P.J.; Wetzels, J.F.M.; Joles, J.A.; Goldschmeding, R.; Kok, R.J.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) has a key role in the pathogenesis of renal and cardiac fibrosis. Its amino-terminal fragment (N-CTGF), the predominant form of CTGF detected in plasma, has a molecular weight in the middle molecular range (18 kDa). However, it is unknown whether N-

  19. Assessment of the biological variation of plasma tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) measurements in plasma may be useful for the early detection and prognosis of colorectal cancer (CRC). Data on analytical performance and normal intra- and interindividual biological variation are required in order to interpret the uti...

  20. Molecular Cloning, Structural Analysis and Tissue Expression of Protein Phosphatase 3 Catalytic Subunit Alpha Isoform (PPP3CA Gene in Tianfu Goat Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Wan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Calcineurin, a Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase, plays a critical role in controlling skeletal muscle fiber type. However, little information is available concerning the expression of calcineurin in goat. Therefore, protein phosphatase 3 catalytic subunit alpha isoform (PPP3CA gene, also called calcineurin Aα, was cloned and its expression characterized in Tianfu goat muscle. Real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR analyses revealed that Tianfu goat PPP3CA was detected in cardiac muscle, biceps femoris muscle, abdominal muscle, longissimus dors muscle, and soleus muscle. High expression levels were found in biceps femoris muscle, longissimus muscle and abdominal muscle (p < 0.01, and low expression levels were seen in cardiac muscle and soleus muscle (p > 0.05. In addition, the spatial-temporal mRNA expression levels showed different variation trends in different muscles with the age of the goats. Western blotting further revealed that PPP3CA protein was expressed in the above-mentioned tissues, with the highest level in biceps femoris muscle, and the lowest level in soleus muscle. In this study, we isolated the full-length coding sequence of Tianfu goat PPP3CA gene, analyzed its structure, and investigated its expression in different muscle tissues from different age stages. These results provide a foundation for understanding the function of the PPP3CA gene in goats.

  1. Molecular cloning, structural analysis and tissue expression of protein phosphatase 3 catalytic subunit alpha isoform (PPP3CA) gene in Tianfu goat muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Lu; Ma, Jisi; Xu, Gangyi; Wang, Daihua; Wang, Nianlu

    2014-02-07

    Calcineurin, a Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase, plays a critical role in controlling skeletal muscle fiber type. However, little information is available concerning the expression of calcineurin in goat. Therefore, protein phosphatase 3 catalytic subunit alpha isoform (PPP3CA) gene, also called calcineurin Aα, was cloned and its expression characterized in Tianfu goat muscle. Real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) analyses revealed that Tianfu goat PPP3CA was detected in cardiac muscle, biceps femoris muscle, abdominal muscle, longissimus dors muscle, and soleus muscle. High expression levels were found in biceps femoris muscle, longissimus muscle and abdominal muscle (p muscle and soleus muscle (p > 0.05). In addition, the spatial-temporal mRNA expression levels showed different variation trends in different muscles with the age of the goats. Western blotting further revealed that PPP3CA protein was expressed in the above-mentioned tissues, with the highest level in biceps femoris muscle, and the lowest level in soleus muscle. In this study, we isolated the full-length coding sequence of Tianfu goat PPP3CA gene, analyzed its structure, and investigated its expression in different muscle tissues from different age stages. These results provide a foundation for understanding the function of the PPP3CA gene in goats.

  2. Peripheral effects of the endocannabinoid system in energy homeostasis: adipose tissue, liver and skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestri, Cristoforo; Ligresti, Alessia; Di Marzo, Vincenzo

    2011-09-01

    The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is composed of lipid signalling ligands, their G-protein coupled receptors and the enzymes involved in ligand generation and metabolism. Increasingly, the ECS is emerging as a critical agent of energy metabolism regulation through its ability to modulate caloric intake centrally as well as nutrient transport, cellular metabolism and energy storage peripherally. Visceral obesity has been associated with an upregulation of ECS activity in several systems and inhibition of the ECS, either pharmacologically or genetically, results in decreased energy intake and increased metabolic output. This review aims to summarize the recent advances that have been made regarding our understanding of the role the ECS plays in crucial peripheral systems pertaining to energy homeostasis: adipose tissues, the liver and skeletal muscle.

  3. The role of matrix metalloproteinases in muscle and adipose tissue development and meat quality: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Sara; Purslow, Peter P

    2016-09-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a group of enzymes that degrade extracellular matrix components but are also important signaling molecules that regulate many biological processes including muscle, adipose and connective tissue development. Most recently it has been discovered that MMPs act as intracellular signaling molecules inducing gene expression and altering related proteins in the nucleus. Several single nucleotide polymorphisms of MMPs and their inhibitors are known to exist and most of the research on MMPs to date has focused on their activity in relation to human health and disease. Nevertheless there is a growing body of evidence identifying important roles of MMPs as regulators of myogenesis, fibrogenesis and adipogenesis. The aim of this review is to highlight the currently known functions of the MMPs that have a direct bearing on the deposition of meat components and their relationship with meat quality. Some central pathways by which these enzymes can affect the tenderness, the amount and type of fatty acids are highlighted.

  4. Concentration of fish serum albumin (FSA) in the aqueous extract of Indonesian Perciformes fishes' muscle tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Januar, Hedi Indra; Fajarningsih, Nurrahmi Dewi; Zilda, Dewi Seswita; Bramandito, Aditya; Wright, Anthony D

    2015-01-01

    Fish serum albumin (FSA) is an aquatic resource that has potential to be developed as nutraceutical. Therefore, research was undertaken to assess albumin levels in the aqueous extract of muscle tissue of several Perciformes commonly available at a local fish market in Indonesia. Three random replicates for each of 17 Perciformes species were collected and assessed for their FSA content by application of a reversed-phase (C4) HPLC analytical method. Results of these analyses showed that the albumin concentration of the extracts was in the range 3.49-12.61 g/L, and that they varied significantly (P fishes from the family Scrombidae showed the highest concentration (12.61 g/L) of FSA, they would likely have the most value as a source for production of albumin-based nutritional and/or clinical products.

  5. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy of human smooth muscle cells in bioengineered tissue scaffolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackmann, Christian; Esguerra, Maricris; Olausson, Daniel; Delbro, Dick; Krettek, Alexandra; Gatenholm, Paul; Enejder, Annika

    2011-02-01

    The integration of living, human smooth muscle cells in biosynthesized cellulose scaffolds was monitored by nonlinear microscopy toward contractile artificial blood vessels. Combined coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) and second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy was applied for studies of the cell interaction with the biopolymer network. CARS microscopy probing CH2-groups at 2845 cm-1 permitted three-dimensional imaging of the cells with high contrast for lipid-rich intracellular structures. SHG microscopy visualized the fibers of the cellulose scaffold, together with a small signal obtained from the cytoplasmic myosin of the muscle cells. From the overlay images we conclude a close interaction between cells and cellulose fibers. We followed the cell migration into the three-dimensional structure, illustrating that while the cells submerge into the scaffold they extrude filopodia on top of the surface. A comparison between compact and porous scaffolds reveals a migration depth of porous type shows cells further submerged into the cellulose. Thus, the scaffold architecture determines the degree of cell integration. We conclude that the unique ability of nonlinear microscopy to visualize the three-dimensional composition of living, soft matter makes it an ideal instrument within tissue engineering.

  6. [Response mechanisms of the airway smooth muscle tissue in experimental bronchial spasm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zashikhin, A L; Agafonov, Iu V; Barmina, A O

    2009-01-01

    This investigation was aimed at the complex evaluation of the reactivity mechanisms of bronchial smooth muscle tissue (SMT) in experimental bronchial spasm. Morphometric, cytospectrophotometric and electron microscopical analysis demonstrated the presence of three types of smooth muscle cells (SMC) within the bronchial SMT (small, medium, large), that differed in their linear and metabolic parameters. The findings of this study indicate that under the conditions of experimental bronchial spasm development, the ratios of SMC in bronchial SMT are changed with the increase in proportion of small SMC and the elimination of large SMC. In the dynamics of experimental bronchial spasm development, the activation of cytoplasmic synthesis as well as of DNA synthesis was detected mainly in group of small SMC. The reactive-dystrophic changes were marked at the subcellular level, that were most often identified in large SMC resulting in their elimination from population in the dynamics of an experiment. The data obtained suggest that one of the important mechanisms of airway SMT adaptation to the bronchial spasm development is a dynamic reorganization of SMC population.

  7. Evaluation of muscle tissue growth in Young Mediterranean Buffaloes slaughtered at different weights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.B. Pardo

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated muscle, adipose and bone tissue growth in young Mediterranean buffaloes slaughtered with different weights. Twenty eight non-castrated males, approximately 14 months old and 330 kilos, were distributed in four experimental and one control groups. Received the same diet during a non-fixed period and when reached the pre-established weights (450 kg, 480 kg, 510 kg, 540 kg were fasted for 16 hours and slaughtered. NRC 1996, level 2, ruminal simulation program for non-castrated animals with a daily weight gain of 1.40 kg determined percentage composition of experimental diet (dry matter: coast cross hay (20.6%, corn silage (7.8%, cotton seed (8.2%, humid corn silage (46% and commercial mineral concentrate (17.4%, representing 13% of crude protein and 2,68% of metabolizable energy (Mcal/kg. Feed was offered ad libitum twice daily. Slaughter of control group occurred after 30 days of an adaptation period. The other ones were weighted each 28 days until reached pre-established weight. Carcasses were chilled for 18 hours under -5oC. Ninth, 10o and 11o ribs of the half left carcass were submitted to HH section and according to the statistical regression analysis (SAS, 1996, allometric coefficient value was negative (b<1 demonstrating the early growth of muscle in relation to empty carcass weight.

  8. YKL-40 tissue expression and plasma levels in patients with ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgdall, Estrid V S; Ringsholt, Merete; Høgdall, Claus K;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: YKL-40 (chitinase-3-like-1) is a member of "mammalian chitinase-like proteins". The protein is expressed in many types of cancer cells and the highest plasma YKL-40 levels have been found in patients with metastatic disease, short recurrence/progression-free intervals, and short overall...... survival. The aim of the study was to determine the expression of YKL-40 in tumor tissue and plasma in patients with borderline ovarian tumor or epithelial ovarian cancer (OC), and investigate prognostic value of this marker. METHODS: YKL-40 protein expression was determined by immunohistochemistry...... in tissue arrays from 181 borderline tumors and 473 OC. Plasma YKL-40 was determined by ELISA in preoperative samples from 19 patients with borderline tumor and 76 OC patients. RESULTS: YKL-40 protein expression was found in cancer cells, tumor associated macrophages, neutrophils and mast cells. The tumor...

  9. Multiscale models of skeletal muscle reveal the complex effects of muscular dystrophy on tissue mechanics and damage susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virgilio, Kelley M; Martin, Kyle S; Peirce, Shayn M; Blemker, Silvia S

    2015-04-06

    Computational models have been increasingly used to study the tissue-level constitutive properties of muscle microstructure; however, these models were not created to study or incorporate the influence of disease-associated modifications in muscle. The purpose of this paper was to develop a novel multiscale muscle modelling framework to elucidate the relationship between microstructural disease adaptations and modifications in both mechanical properties of muscle and strain in the cell membrane. We used an agent-based model to randomly generate new muscle fibre geometries and mapped them into a finite-element model representing a cross section of a muscle fascicle. The framework enabled us to explore variability in the shape and arrangement of fibres, as well as to incorporate disease-related changes. We applied this method to reveal the trade-offs between mechanical properties and damage susceptibility in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). DMD is a fatal genetic disease caused by a lack of the transmembrane protein dystrophin, leading to muscle wasting and death due to cardiac or pulmonary complications. The most prevalent microstructural variations in DMD include: lack of transmembrane proteins, fibrosis, fatty infiltration and variation in fibre cross-sectional area. A parameter analysis of these variations and case study of DMD revealed that the nature of fibrosis and density of transmembrane proteins strongly affected the stiffness of the muscle and susceptibility to membrane damage.

  10. SHARE AND QUALITY OF MUSCLE TISSUE IN CARCASSES OF PIGS PRODUCED ON FAMILY FARM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antun Petričević

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 60 pig carcasses were included, divided in 2 groups according to breed (1st=SLxGL; 2nd=SL, and within groups according to sex (gilts F1=15 and F2=14; male castrates M1=17 and M2=14. Pigs were produced on family farm and fattened in same conditions. Primary processed and cooled carcasses were cut according to “Kulmbach” method (CAC/79. The main parts of the carcasses were dissected on tissues (muscle, fat and bones and share of lean meat was determined for carcasses and for individual cuts. Muscle tissue share in the carcasses was higher in gilts from 1st and 2nd group (F1=53.93%; F2=51.77% than in male castrates from both groups (M1=50.13%; M2=49.90% and regardless the sex it was higher in SL x GL crossbreds (1st group than in SL breed (2nd group. Statisticaly significant differences (P<0.05 were found only in case of loins between gilts and castrates from 1st group (F1=9.58%; M1=8.30% and between castrates of the 1st group and gilts from 2nd group (M1=8.30% i F2=9.57%. Mean values of meat quality indicators were mainly within normal boundaries; the only statistically significant difference (P<0.05 was established for meat color between F1 and F2 group.

  11. Glucose predictability, blood capillary permeability, and glucose utilization rate in subcutaneous, skeletal muscle, and visceral fat tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutny, Tomas

    2013-11-01

    This study suggests an approach for the comparison and evaluation of particular compartments with modest experimental setup costs. A glucose level prediction model was used to evaluate the compartment's glucose transport rate across the blood capillary membrane and the glucose utilization rate by the cells. The glucose levels of the blood, subcutaneous tissue, skeletal muscle tissue, and visceral fat were obtained in experiments conducted on hereditary hypertriglyceridemic rats. After the blood glucose level had undergone a rapid change, the experimenter attempted to reach a steady blood glucose level by manually correcting the glucose infusion rate and maintaining a constant insulin infusion rate. The interstitial fluid glucose levels of subcutaneous tissue, skeletal muscle tissue, and visceral fat were evaluated to determine the reaction delay compared with the change in the blood glucose level, the interstitial fluid glucose level predictability, the blood capillary permeability, the effect of the concentration gradient, and the glucose utilization rate. Based on these data, the glucose transport rate across the capillary membrane and the utilization rate in a particular tissue were determined. The rates obtained were successfully verified against positron emission tomography experiments. The subcutaneous tissue exhibits the lowest and the most predictable glucose utilization rate, whereas the skeletal muscle tissue has the greatest glucose utilization rate. In contrast, the visceral fat is the least predictable and has the shortest reaction delay compared with the change in the blood glucose level. The reaction delays obtained for the subcutaneous tissue and skeletal muscle tissue were found to be approximately equal using a metric based on the time required to reach half of the increase in the interstitial fluid glucose level. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Effect of resistance exercise training on expression of Hsp70 and inflammatory cytokines in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue of STZ-induced diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molanouri Shamsi, M; Mahdavi, M; Quinn, L S; Gharakhanlou, R; Isanegad, A

    2016-09-01

    Impairment of adipose tissue and skeletal muscles accrued following type 1 diabetes is associated with protein misfolding and loss of adipose mass and skeletal muscle atrophy. Resistance training can maintain muscle mass by changing both inflammatory cytokines and stress factors in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a 5-week ladder climbing resistance training program on the expression of Hsp70 and inflammatory cytokines in adipose tissue and fast-twitch flexor hallucis longus (FHL) and slow-twitch soleus muscles in healthy and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Induction of diabetes reduced body mass, while resistance training preserved FHL muscle weight in diabetic rats without any changes in body mass. Diabetes increased Hsp70 protein content in skeletal muscles, adipose tissue, and serum. Hsp70 protein levels were decreased in normal and diabetic rats by resistance training in the FHL, but not soleus muscle. Furthermore, resistance training decreased inflammatory cytokines in FHL skeletal muscle. On the other hand, Hsp70 and inflammatory cytokine protein levels were increased by training in adipose tissue. Also, significant positive correlations between inflammatory cytokines in adipose tissue and skeletal muscles with Hsp70 protein levels were observed. In conclusion, we found that in diabetic rats, resistance training decreased inflammatory cytokines and Hsp70 protein levels in fast skeletal muscle, increased adipose tissue inflammatory cytokines and Hsp70, and preserved FHL muscle mass. These results suggest that resistance training can maintain skeletal muscle mass in diabetes by changing inflammatory cytokines and stress factors such as Hsp70 in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue.

  13. Effects of Biowastes Released by Mechanically Damaged Muscle Cells on the Propagation of Deep Tissue Injury: A Multiphysics Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yifei; Da Ong, Lucas Xian; Li, Xiaotong; Wan, Kinlun; Mak, Arthur F T

    2017-03-01

    Deep tissue injuries occur in muscle tissues around bony prominences under mechanical loading leading to severe pressure ulcers. Tissue compression can potentially compromise lymphatic transport and cause accumulation of metabolic biowastes, which may cause further cell damage under continuous mechanical loading. In this study, we hypothesized that biowastes released by mechanically damaged muscle cells could be toxic to the surrounding muscle cells and could compromise the capability of the surrounding muscle cells to withstand further mechanical loadings. In vitro, we applied prolonged low compressive stress (PLCS) and short-term high compressive stress to myoblasts to cause cell damage and collected the biowastes released by the damaged cells under the respective loading scenarios. In silico, we used COMSOL to simulate the compressive stress distribution and the diffusion of biowastes in a semi-3D buttock finite element model. In vitro results showed that biowastes collected from cells damaged under PLCS were more toxic and could compromise the capability of normal myoblasts to resist compressive damage. In silico results showed that higher biowastes diffusion coefficient, higher biowastes release rate, lower biowastes tolerance threshold and earlier timeline of releasing biowastes would cause faster propagation of tissue damage. This study highlighted the importance of biowastes in the development of deep tissue injury to clinical pressure ulcers under prolonged skeletal compression.

  14. Tissue Engineering of Tendons: A Comparison of Muscle-Derived Cells, Tenocytes, and Dermal Fibroblasts as Cell Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bo; Ding, Jinping; Zhang, Wenjie; Zhou, Guangdong; Cao, Yilin; Liu, Wei; Wang, Bin

    2016-03-01

    The rapid development of tendon tissue-engineering technology may offer an alternative graft for reconstruction of severe tendon losses. One critical factor for tendon tissue engineering is the optimization of seed cells. Little is known about the optimal cell source for engineered tendons. The aim of this study was to compare mouse muscle-derived cells, dermal fibroblasts, and tenocytes and determine the optimal cell source for tendon tissue engineering. Mouse muscle-derived cells, dermal fibroblasts, and tenocytes were isolated and cultured in vitro. At passage 1, cellular morphology, cell proliferation, and tenogenic marker expression were evaluated. After seeding on the polyglycolic acid scaffolds for 2 weeks in vitro and 12 weeks in vivo, histologic qualities, ultrastructure, and biomechanical characteristics were evaluated. Proliferation and cellular morphology were similar for dermal fibroblasts and tenocytes, whereas muscle-derived cells proliferated faster than the other two groups. With regard to the phenotype difference between them, muscle-derived cells and tenocytes shared the gene expression of SCX, TNMD, GDF-8, and Col-I, but with MyoD gene expression only in muscle-derived cells. In contrast to dermal fibroblast and tenocyte constructed tendons, neotendon with muscle-derived cells exhibited better aligned collagen fibers, more mature collagen fibril structure, and stronger mechanical properties, whereas no significant difference in the dermal fibroblast and tenocyte groups was observed. Although dermal fibroblasts are candidates for tendon tissue engineering because they are similar to tenocytes in proliferation and neotendon formation, muscle-derived cells appear to be the most suitable cells for further study and development of engineered tendon.

  15. A Novel Human Tissue-Engineered 3-D Functional Vascularized Cardiac Muscle Construct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valarmathi, Mani T.; Fuseler, John W.; Davis, Jeffrey M.; Price, Robert L.

    2017-01-01

    Organ tissue engineering, including cardiovascular tissues, has been an area of intense investigation. The major challenge to these approaches has been the inability to vascularize and perfuse the in vitro engineered tissue constructs. Attempts to provide oxygen and nutrients to the cells contained in the biomaterial constructs have had varying degrees of success. The aim of this current study is to develop a three-dimensional (3-D) model of vascularized cardiac tissue to examine the concurrent temporal and spatial regulation of cardiomyogenesis in the context of postnatal de novo vasculogenesis during stem cell cardiac regeneration. In order to achieve the above aim, we have developed an in vitro 3-D functional vascularized cardiac muscle construct using human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived embryonic cardiac myocytes (hiPSC-ECMs) and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). First, to generate the prevascularized scaffold, human cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (hCMVECs) and hMSCs were co-cultured onto a 3-D collagen cell carrier (CCC) for 7 days under vasculogenic culture conditions. In this milieu, hCMVECs/hMSCs underwent maturation, differentiation, and morphogenesis characteristic of microvessels, and formed extensive plexuses of vascular networks. Next, the hiPSC-ECMs and hMSCs were co-cultured onto this generated prevascularized CCCs for further 7 or 14 days in myogenic culture conditions. Finally, the vascular and cardiac phenotypic inductions were analyzed at the morphological, immunological, biochemical, molecular, and functional levels. Expression and functional analyses of the differentiated cells revealed neo-angiogenesis and neo-cardiomyogenesis. Thus, our unique 3-D co-culture system provided us the apt in vitro functional vascularized 3-D cardiac patch that can be utilized for cellular cardiomyoplasty. PMID:28194397

  16. Expression and localization of augmenter of liver regeneration in human muscle tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polimeno, Lorenzo; Pesetti, Barbara; Giorgio, Floriana; Moretti, Biagio; Resta, Leonardo; Rossi, Roberta; Annoscia, Emanuele; Patella, Vittorio; Notarnicola, Angela; Mallamaci, Rosanna; Francavilla, Antonio

    2009-08-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mt-DNA) disorders and abnormal regulation of nuclear-derived proteins devoted to the cross-talk between the two cellular genomes have recently interested researchers in the field of neuromuscular diseases. We have identified, isolated and sequenced a new gene, augmenter of liver regeneration (ALR) that stimulates in vivo hepatocyte proliferation and up-regulates mt-DNA expression and ATP production. ALR protein (Alrp) is mainly located, in rat, in the mitochondrial inter-membrane space and its mRNA is particularly abundant in brain, muscle, testis and liver, tissues whose activity is mostly dependent on mitochondrial metabolism. Studies on rat Alrp sequence revealed the presence of homologous amino-acid sections into proteins derived from mouse, human, Drosophyla, plants and even DNA viruses. In this article, we evaluated ALR expression in normal human muscular tissues, both as protein and as mRNA. The data, obtained by molecular biology, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy, demonstrated that: (i) Alrp and ALR mRNA are present in human muscular tissue; (ii) Alrp is particularly expressed in muscular fibres rich in mitochondria; (iii) Alrp is localized in the mitochondrial inter-membrane space or associated to mitochondrial cristae; and (iv) in subjects younger then 35 years of age, ALR mRNA expression is different between male and female subjects. In conclusion, the present data set Alrp, as a factor associated with mitochondria also in human tissue, call for future studies aimed at establishing Alrp as an important factor involved in the molecular events that trigger neuromuscular diseases.

  17. The Use of Platelet-Rich and Platelet-Poor Plasma to Enhance Differentiation of Skeletal Myoblasts: Implications for the Use of Autologous Blood Products for Muscle Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miroshnychenko, Olga; Chang, Wen-Teh; Dragoo, Jason L

    2017-03-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been used to augment tissue repair and regeneration after musculoskeletal injury. However, there is increasing clinical evidence that PRP does not show a consistent clinical effect. Purpose/Hypothesis: This study aimed to compare the effects of the following non-neutrophil-containing (leukocyte-poor) plasma fractions on human skeletal muscle myoblast (HSMM) differentiation: (1) PRP, (2) modified PRP (Mod-PRP), in which transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) and myostatin (MSTN) were depleted, and (3) platelet-poor plasma (PPP). The hypothesis was that leukocyte-poor PRP would lead to myoblast proliferation (not differentiation), whereas certain modifications of PRP preparations would increase myoblast differentiation, which is necessary for skeletal muscle regeneration. Controlled laboratory study. Blood from 7 human donors was individually processed to simultaneously create leukocyte-poor fractions: PRP, Mod-PRP, PPP, and secondarily spun PRP and Mod-PRP (PRPss and Mod-PRPss, respectively). Mod-PRP was produced by removing TGF-β1 and MSTN from PRP using antibodies attached to sterile beads, while a second-stage centrifugal spin of PRP was performed to remove platelets. The biologics were individually added to cell culture groups. Analysis for induction into myoblast differentiation pathways included Western blot analysis, reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, and immunohistochemistry, as well as confocal microscopy to assess polynucleated myotubule formation. HSMMs cultured with PRP showed an increase in proliferation but no evidence of differentiation. Western blot analysis confirmed that MSTN and TGF-β1 could be decreased in Mod-PRP using antibody-coated beads, but this modification mildly improved myoblast differentiation. However, cell culture with PPP, PRPss, and Mod-PRPss led to a decreased proliferation rate but a significant induction of myoblast differentiation verified by increased multinucleated myotubule

  18. Shear wave vibrometry evaluation in transverse isotropic tissue mimicking phantoms and skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aristizabal, Sara; Amador, Carolina; Qiang, Bo; Kinnick, Randall R; Nenadic, Ivan Z; Greenleaf, James F; Urban, Matthew W

    2014-12-21

    Ultrasound radiation force-based methods can quantitatively evaluate tissue viscoelastic material properties. One of the limitations of the current methods is neglecting the inherent anisotropy nature of certain tissues. To explore the phenomenon of anisotropy in a laboratory setting, we created two phantom designs incorporating fibrous and fishing line material with preferential orientations. Four phantoms were made in a cube-shaped mold; both designs were arranged in multiple layers and embedded in porcine gelatin using two different concentrations (8%, 14%). An excised sample of pork tenderloin was also studied. Measurements were made in the phantoms and the pork muscle at different angles by rotating the phantom with respect to the transducer, where 0° and 180° were defined along the fibers, and 90° and 270° across the fibers. Shear waves were generated and measured by a Verasonics ultrasound system equipped with a linear array transducer. For the fibrous phantom, the mean and standard deviations of the shear wave speeds along (0°) and across the fibers (90°) with 8% gelatin were 3.60  ±  0.03 and 3.18  ±  0.12 m s(-1) and with 14% gelatin were 4.10  ±  0.11 and 3.90  ±  0.02 m s(-1). For the fishing line material phantom, the mean and standard deviations of the shear wave speeds along (0°) and across the fibers (90°) with 8% gelatin were 2.86  ±  0.20 and 2.44  ±  0.24 m s(-1) and with 14% gelatin were 3.40  ±  0.09 and 2.84  ±  0.14 m s(-1). For the pork muscle, the mean and standard deviations of the shear wave speeds along the fibers (0°) at two different locations were 3.83  ±  0.16 and 3.86  ±  0.12 m s(-1) and across the fibers (90°) were 2.73  ±  0.18 and 2.70  ±  0.16 m s(-1), respectively. The fibrous and fishing line gelatin-based phantoms exhibited anisotropy that resembles that observed in the pork muscle.

  19. Monitoring gene expression in muscle tissue of macaca fascicularis under the influence of testosterone and SARM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, Martina; Tichopad, Ales; Riedmaier, Irmgard; Pfaffl, Michael W; Meyer, Heinrich H D

    2010-01-01

    The focus of this study was to evaluate data on the gene expression profiles induced by testosterone and a selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM, TAP Pharmaceutical Products Inc., Lake Forest, IL, USA) in androgen sensitive muscle tissue to obtain a better understanding on the molecular mechanisms of action and to identify biomarkers for SARM function in primate organs. A total of 24 male cyomolgus monkeys were divided into four groups: testosterone group, SARM1 group, SARM10 group, and control group, each consisting of six animals. The testosterone group was treated i.m. with 3.0 mg/kg Testostoviron®-depot-250 (Schering, Berlin, Germany) every 2 weeks, the SARM1 and SARM10 groups with 1 mg/kg or 10 mg/kg SARM LGD2941 daily, and the control group was not treated. Muscle biopsies from musculus quadriceps and musculus triceps were collected at three time points: baseline time point before SARM application (control), on day 16, and on day 90 of treatment. A total of 30 candidate genes were selected according to their functionality by screening the actual literature and were composed to the following functional groups: cell cycle, endocrine factors, energy metabolism, muscle fiber proteins, muscle specific transcription factors, protein metabolism, and satellite cell biology. Biomarkers were identified as genes regulated from baseline in any of the three treatment groups at day 16 or day 90 using analysis of variance with baseline defined as the contrast group. Out of 23 tested candidate genes, 3 were significantly regulated in m. quadriceps after 90 days treatment; in m. triceps no significant differences were identified. Cathepsin L, calpain 3, and insulin like growth factor binding protein 3 could be identified as first biomarkers, and first physiological differences between control and treatment samples were determined. Both testosterone and SARM LGD2941 appear to have similar effects after 90 days treatment, and thus a longer-term therapy with these

  20. Effect of the type of dietary triacylglycerol fatty acids on α-tocopherol concentration in plasma and tissues of growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prévéraud, D P; Devillard, E; Rouffineau, F; Borel, P

    2014-11-01

    A study was performed in growing pigs to evaluate the efficacy of α-tocopherol (Tol) concentration in plasma, muscle, liver, and adipose tissue following dietary supplementation with vitamin E (VE) and various sources of fat. The trial involved 96 piglets weaned at an average of 28 d of age. Piglets were fed for 2 wk a semipurified diet not supplemented with VE. Piglets were then randomly assigned to 5 isoenergetic semipurified diets with 100 IU/kg VE as dl-α-tocopheryl acetate: a control (CTRL) diet (with no added fat) and 4 other diets containing either 3% linseed oil (LIN), 3% hydrogenated coconut oil (COC), 3% olive oil (OLI), or 3% safflower oil (SAF) representing diets rich in n-3 PUFA, SFA, MUFA, and n-6 PUFA, respectively. After 49 d of treatment, pigs were killed and blood, muscle (longissimus dorsi), adipose tissue, and whole liver (without gallbladder) were collected and analyzed for their Tol concentrations. For all tissues, LIN and SAF diets led to lower (P 0.78). These results show that supplementation with PUFA markedly decreases Tol concentration in blood and tissues of growing pigs, whereas SFA increase Tol content in blood, liver, and adipose tissue. Monounsaturated fatty acids only increase liver Tol concentrations. Therefore, increasing the amount of fat in the diet (from dietary fatty acids supplemented with VE are key factors with regards to VE concentration in plasma and tissue. The Tol:PUFA needs to be carefully considered to meet the VE pigs requirement and to ensure an optimal Tol meat enrichment.

  1. Evolution of the plasma and tissue kallikreins, and their alternative splicing isoforms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vassiliki Lila Koumandou

    Full Text Available Kallikreins are secreted serine proteases with important roles in human physiology. Human plasma kallikrein, encoded by the KLKB1 gene on locus 4q34-35, functions in the blood coagulation pathway, and in regulating blood pressure. The human tissue kallikrein and kallikrein-related peptidases (KLKs have diverse expression patterns and physiological roles, including cancer-related processes such as cell growth regulation, angiogenesis, invasion, and metastasis. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA, the product of the KLK3 gene, is the most widely used biomarker in clinical practice today. A total of 15 KLKs are encoded by the largest contiguous cluster of protease genes in the human genome (19q13.3-13.4, which makes them ideal for evolutionary analysis of gene duplication events. Previous studies on the evolution of KLKs have traced mammalian homologs as well as a probable early origin of the family in aves, amphibia and reptilia. The aim of this study was to address the evolutionary and functional relationships between tissue KLKs and plasma kallikrein, and to examine the evolution of alternative splicing isoforms. Sequences of plasma and tissue kallikreins and their alternative transcripts were collected from the NCBI and Ensembl databases, and comprehensive phylogenetic analysis was performed by Bayesian as well as maximum likelihood methods. Plasma and tissue kallikreins exhibit high sequence similarity in the trypsin domain (>50%. Phylogenetic analysis indicates an early divergence of KLKB1, which groups closely with plasminogen, chymotrypsin, and complement factor D (CFD, in a monophyletic group distinct from trypsin and the tissue KLKs. Reconstruction of the earliest events leading to the diversification of the tissue KLKs is not well resolved, indicating rapid expansion in mammals. Alternative transcripts of each KLK gene show species-specific divergence, while examination of sequence conservation indicates that many annotated human KLK isoforms

  2. Effects of experimentally increased protein supply to postpartum dairy cows on plasma protein synthesis, rumen tissue proliferation, and immune homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mogens; Røntved, Christine Maria; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2017-01-01

    enrichment in arterial plasma free Phe, total plasma proteins, and albumin after 3, 5, and 7 h of jugular ring[13C]Phe infusion. Plasma volume was determined at +4 and +29 DRTC by dilution of a [125I]BSA dose. Synthesis rate of tissue protein in biopsied rumen papillae was determined by measuring [13C...

  3. Viscous dietary fiber reduces adiposity and plasma leptin and increases muscle expression of fat oxidation genes in rats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Islam, Ajmila; Civitarese, Anthony E; Hesslink, Robert L; Gallaher, Daniel D

    2012-01-01

    .... Body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and fat pad weight. Plasma adipokines, AMP kinase activation, and enzyme and mRNA analysis of key regulators of energetics in liver and soleus muscle were measured...

  4. Overexpression of Rad in muscle worsens diet-induced insulin resistance and glucose intolerance and lowers plasma triglyceride level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilany, Jacob; Bilan, Philip J.; Kapur, Sonia; Caldwell, James S.; Patti, Mary-Elizabeth; Marette, Andre; Kahn, C. Ronald

    2006-03-01

    Rad is a low molecular weight GTPase that is overexpressed in skeletal muscle of some patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and/or obesity. Overexpression of Rad in adipocytes and muscle cells in culture results in diminished insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. To further elucidate the potential role of Rad in vivo, we have generated transgenic (tg) mice that overexpress Rad in muscle using the muscle creatine kinase (MCK) promoter-enhancer. Rad tg mice have a 6- to 12-fold increase in Rad expression in muscle as compared to wild-type littermates. Rad tg mice grow normally and have normal glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, but have reduced plasma triglyceride levels. On a high-fat diet, Rad tg mice develop more severe glucose intolerance than the wild-type mice; this is due to increased insulin resistance in muscle, as exemplified by a rightward shift in the dose-response curve for insulin stimulated 2-deoxyglucose uptake. There is also a unexpected further reduction of the plasma triglyceride levels that is associated with increased levels of lipoprotein lipase in the Rad tg mice. These results demonstrate a potential synergistic interaction between increased expression of Rad and high-fat diet in creation of insulin resistance and altered lipid metabolism present in type 2 diabetes. diabetes mellitus | glucose transport | RGK GTPase | transgenic mouse

  5. Adipose tissue extracts plasma ammonia after sprint exercise in women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbjörnsson, Mona; Bülow, Jens; Norman, Barbara; Simonsen, Lene; Nowak, Jacek; Rooyackers, Olav; Kaijser, Lennart; Jansson, Eva

    2006-12-01

    This study evaluates a possible contribution of adipose tissue to the elimination of plasma ammonia (NH(3)) after high-intensity sprint exercise. In 14 healthy men and women, repeated blood samples for plasma NH(3) analyses were obtained from brachial artery and from a subcutaneous abdominal vein before and after three repeated 30-s cycle sprints separated by 20 min of recovery. Biopsies from subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue were obtained and analyzed for glutamine and glutamate content. After exercise, both arterial and abdominal venous plasma NH(3) concentrations were lower in women than in men (P women than in men (P sprint exercise (2.2 +/- 0.7 and 1.6 +/- 0.8, respectively) compared with the value at rest (1.2 +/- 0.6), suggesting a reaction of the extracted NH(3) with glutamate resulting in its conversion to glutamine. Adipose tissue may thus play an important physiological role in eliminating plasma NH(3) and thereby reducing the risk of NH(3) intoxication after high-intensity exercise.

  6. Muscle tissue as an endocrine organ: comparative secretome profiling of slow-oxidative and fast-glycolytic rat muscle explants and its variation with exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca-Rivada, Arturo; Al-Massadi, Omar; Castelao, Cecilia; Senín, Lucía L; Alonso, Jana; Seoane, Luisa María; García-Caballero, Tomás; Casanueva, Felipe F; Pardo, María

    2012-09-18

    The notion that skeletal muscle is a secretory organ capable to release proteins that can act locally in an autocrine/paracrine manner or even in an endocrine manner to communicate with distant tissues has now been recognized. Under this context, a new paradigm has arisen implicating the muscle in metabolism regulation. Considering the evidences that give exercise a protective role against illnesses associated to physical inactivity, it becomes of especial relevance to characterize muscle secreted proteins. In the present study we show for the first time the secretome characterization and the comparative 2-DE secretome analysis among fast-glycolytic (gastrocnemius) and slow-oxidative (soleus) rat muscle explants and its variation after exercise intervention. We have identified 19 differently secreted proteins when comparing soleus and gastrocnemius secretomes, and 10 in gastrocnemius and 17 in soleus distinctive secreted proteins after 1 week of endurance exercise training. Among identified proteins, DJ-1 was found to be more abundant in fast-glycolytic fiber secretomes. On the contrary, FABP-3 was elevated in slow-oxidative fiber secretomes, although its secretion from gastrocnemius muscle increased in exercised animals. These and other secreted proteins identified in this work may be considered as potential myokines. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Neck muscle atrophy and soft-tissue fibrosis after neck dissection and postoperative radiotherapy for oral cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jinu; Shin, Eun Seow; Kim, Jeong Eon; Yoon, Sang Pil [Jeju National University School of Medicine, Jeju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Suk [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Jeju National University Hospital, Jeju National University School of Medicine, Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Late complications of head and neck cancer survivors include neck muscle atrophy and soft-tissue fibrosis. We present an autopsy case of neck muscle atrophy and soft-tissue fibrosis (sternocleidomastoid, omohyoid, digastric, sternohyoid, sternothyroid, and platysma muscles) within the radiation field after modified radical neck dissection type I and postoperative radiotherapy for floor of mouth cancer. A 70-year-old man underwent primary tumor resection of the left floor of mouth, left marginal mandibulectomy, left modified radical neck dissection type I, and reconstruction with a radial forearm free flap. The patient received adjuvant radiotherapy. The dose to the primary tumor bed and involved neck nodes was 63 Gy in 35 fractions over 7 weeks. Areas of subclinical disease (left lower neck) received 50 Gy in 25 fractions over 5 weeks. Adjuvant chemotherapy was not administered.

  8. [Preliminary study of the expression of connective tissue growth factor in papillary muscles of the patients with rheumatic heart disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y N; Li, T; Gu, J R; Yu, B Y

    2016-04-19

    To investigate the expression and the effect of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) on rheumatic myocardial fibrosis of rheumatic heart disease (RHD). The papillary muscles samples were obtained from patients with RHD during mitral valve replacement.The expression of TGF-β1, CTGF mRNA and CTGF protein were detected with semiquantitative RT-PCR technique and immunohistochemistry technologyin the papillary muscles cell from 41RHD patients and 20 normal papillary muscles samples.The area of myocardial fibrosis was measured by imaging analysis system. SPSS package was used to analyze the relationship between the expression of CTGF and the area of myocardial fibrosis. Compared with normal controls (PU 2.4±0.9), the mean level of CTGF protein expression in the papillary muscles samples of the RHD patients (PU 44.7±6.0) was significantly increased(Pfibrosis (r=0.856, Pfibrosis of RHD.

  9. Metabolic aspects of cardiac and skeletal muscle tissues in the condition of hypoxia, ischaemia and reperfusion induced by extracorporeal circulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbucci, G G; Menichetti, A; Cogliati, A; Ruvolo, C

    1995-01-01

    Extracorporeal circulation (ECC) during aortopulmonary bypass surgery allows the investigation of the metabolic and biochemical effects of hypoxia (skeletal muscle), ischaemia (cardiac muscle) and reperfusion (skeletal and cardiac muscle) in homogeneous groups of patients. In this study we examined the mitochondrial enzymic response to oxidative stress in 40 subjects, and analysis was carried out on heart and skeletal-muscle biopsies taken before, during and after aortic clamping and 115 min of ECC. The results obtained constitute a clinical and biochemical picture characterized by some peculiar adaptive changes of enzymic activities which thus antagonize the oxidative damage due to acute hypoxia, ischaemia and reperfusion. Consequently it seems that this cellular protective mechanism plays a crucial role in the reversibility of oxidative damage in hypoxic and ischaemic tissues.

  10. Matrix factorization reveals aging-specific co-expression gene modules in the fat and muscle tissues in nonhuman primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongcui; Zhao, Weiling; Zhou, Xiaobo

    2016-10-01

    Accurate identification of coherent transcriptional modules (subnetworks) in adipose and muscle tissues is important for revealing the related mechanisms and co-regulated pathways involved in the development of aging-related diseases. Here, we proposed a systematically computational approach, called ICEGM, to Identify the Co-Expression Gene Modules through a novel mathematical framework of Higher-Order Generalized Singular Value Decomposition (HO-GSVD). ICEGM was applied on the adipose, and heart and skeletal muscle tissues in old and young female African green vervet monkeys. The genes associated with the development of inflammation, cardiovascular and skeletal disorder diseases, and cancer were revealed by the ICEGM. Meanwhile, genes in the ICEGM modules were also enriched in the adipocytes, smooth muscle cells, cardiac myocytes, and immune cells. Comprehensive disease annotation and canonical pathway analysis indicated that immune cells, adipocytes, cardiomyocytes, and smooth muscle cells played a synergistic role in cardiac and physical functions in the aged monkeys by regulation of the biological processes associated with metabolism, inflammation, and atherosclerosis. In conclusion, the ICEGM provides an efficiently systematic framework for decoding the co-expression gene modules in multiple tissues. Analysis of genes in the ICEGM module yielded important insights on the cooperative role of multiple tissues in the development of diseases.

  11. Discordant gene expression in skeletal muscle and adipose tissue of patients with type 2 diabetes: effect of interleukin-6 infusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carey, A.; Wolsk, Emil; Bruce, C.

    2006-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis  We compared metabolic gene expression in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle from patients with type 2 diabetes and from well-matched healthy control subjects. We hypothesised that gene expression would be discordantly regulated when comparing the two groups. Our secondary aim was...

  12. Assessment of Caudal Fin Clips as a Non-lethal Technique for Predicting Muscle Tissue Mercury Concentrations in Largeouth Bass

    Science.gov (United States)

    The statistical relationship between total mercury (Hg) concentration in clips from the caudal fin and muscle tissue of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) from 26 freshwater sites in Rhode Island, USA was developed and evaluated to determine the utility of fin clip analysis ...

  13. Lead and cadmium levels in cattle muscle and edible tissues collected from a slaughter slab in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adetunji, V O; Famakin, I O; Chen, J

    2014-01-01

    Contamination levels of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in muscles, liver and kidney of 50 randomly selected, freshly slaughtered cattle in Ogun State, Nigeria were assessed using an official procedure and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results showed that Pb and Cd were present in all of the tested samples. Mean Pb concentrations were 0.721 ± 0.180 mg kg(-1), 0.809 ± 0.220 mg kg(-1) and 0.908 ± 0.422 mg kg(-1) in muscle, liver and kidney tissues, respectively. Mean Cd concentrations were 0.157 ± 0.049 mg kg(-1), 0.172 ± 0.071 mg kg(-1) and 0.197 ± 0.070 mg kg(-1) in muscle, liver and kidney tissues, respectively. Pb and Cd levels in muscle versus kidney tissues and also in liver versus kidney samples were significantly different (p tissues were significantly higher than the International Standards while the mean Cd concentrations in liver and kidney samples were within the limits of these standards.

  14. Soy isoflavones modulate adipokines and myokines to regulate lipid metabolism in adipose tissue, skeletal muscle and liver of male Huanjiang mini-pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huansheng; Li, Fengna; Xiong, Xia; Kong, Xiangfeng; Zhang, Bin; Yuan, Xiaoxue; Fan, Juexin; Duan, Yefei; Geng, Meimei; Li, Lili; Yin, Yulong

    2013-01-05

    Although a growing body of evidence suggests that soy isoflavones help regulate lipid metabolism, the underlying mechanism has not yet been thoroughly clarified. The present study was undertaken to determine the effects of soy isoflavones on the expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism in different adipose tissue depots, skeletal muscle and liver of male Huanjiang mini-pigs, as well as the expression of adipokines and myokines. A total of 36 male Huanjiang mini-pigs were fed basal diet (control, Con), low-dose soy isoflavones (LSI) and high-dose soy isoflavones (HSI). The results showed that LSI and HSI regulated the expression of genes involved in the anabolism and catabolism of fatty acids in dorsal subcutaneous (DSA), abdominal subcutaneous (ASA) and perirenal (PRA) adipose tissue depots, as well as longissimus dorsi muscle (LDM) and liver. LSI and HSI also regulated the expression of adipokines in DSA, ASA and PRA, and the expression of myokines in LDM in male Huanjiang mini-pigs. In addition, soy isoflavones regulated plasma glucose, leptin and adiponectin contents after treatment for two months. Our results indicate that soy isoflavones, by regulating the expression of adipokines and myokines, may regulate the metabolism of lipids and could have potential therapeutic applications in lipid abnormalities.

  15. Insulin-resistant subjects have normal angiogenic response to aerobic exercise training in skeletal muscle, but not in adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, R Grace; Finlin, Brian S; Mula, Jyothi; Long, Douglas E; Zhu, Beibei; Fry, Christopher S; Westgate, Philip M; Lee, Jonah D; Bennett, Tamara; Kern, Philip A; Peterson, Charlotte A

    2015-06-01

    Reduced vessel density in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle is associated with obesity and may result in decreased perfusion, decreased oxygen consumption, and insulin resistance. In the presence of VEGFA, Angiopoietin-2 (Angpt2) and Angiopoietin-1 (Angpt1) are central determinants of angiogenesis, with greater Angpt2:Angpt1 ratios promoting angiogenesis. In skeletal muscle, exercise training stimulates angiogenesis and modulates transcription of VEGFA, Angpt1, and Angpt2. However, it remains unknown whether exercise training stimulates vessel growth in human adipose tissue, and it remains unknown whether adipose angiogenesis is mediated by angiopoietin signaling. We sought to determine whether insulin-resistant subjects would display an impaired angiogenic response to aerobic exercise training. Insulin-sensitive (IS, N = 12) and insulin-resistant (IR, N = 14) subjects had subcutaneous adipose and muscle (vastus lateralis) biopsies before and after 12 weeks of cycle ergometer training. In both tissues, we measured vessels and expression of pro-angiogenic genes. Exercise training did not increase insulin sensitivity in IR Subjects. In skeletal muscle, training resulted in increased vessels/muscle fiber and increased Angpt2:Angpt1 ratio in both IR and IS subjects. However, in adipose, exercise training only induced angiogenesis in IS subjects, likely due to chronic suppression of VEGFA expression in IR subjects. These results indicate that skeletal muscle of IR subjects exhibits a normal angiogenic response to exercise training. However, the same training regimen is insufficient to induce angiogenesis in adipose tissue of IR subjects, which may help to explain why we did not observe improved insulin sensitivity following aerobic training.

  16. The myogenic electric organ of Sternopygus macrurus: a non-contractile tissue with a skeletal muscle transcriptome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Manoj P.; Chaidez, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    In most electric fish species, the electric organ (EO) derives from striated muscle cells that suppress many muscle properties. In the gymnotiform Sternopygus macrurus, mature electrocytes, the current-producing cells of the EO, do not contain sarcomeres, yet they continue to make some cytoskeletal and sarcomeric proteins and the muscle transcription factors (MTFs) that induce their expression. In order to more comprehensively examine the transcriptional regulation of genes associated with the formation and maintenance of the contractile sarcomere complex, results from expression analysis using qRT-PCR were informed by deep RNA sequencing of transcriptomes and miRNA compositions of muscle and EO tissues from adult S. macrurus. Our data show that: (1) components associated with the homeostasis of the sarcomere and sarcomere-sarcolemma linkage were transcribed in EO at levels similar to those in muscle; (2) MTF families associated with activation of the skeletal muscle program were not differentially expressed between these tissues; and (3) a set of microRNAs that are implicated in regulation of the muscle phenotype are enriched in EO. These data support the development of a unique and highly specialized non-contractile electrogenic cell that emerges from a striated phenotype and further differentiates with little modification in its transcript composition. This comprehensive analysis of parallel mRNA and miRNA profiles is not only a foundation for functional studies aimed at identifying mechanisms underlying the transcription-independent myogenic program in S. macrurus EO, but also has important implications to many vertebrate cell types that independently activate or suppress specific features of the skeletal muscle program. PMID:27114860

  17. Effect of continuous high intensity focused ultrasound in a squamous cell carcinoma tumor model compared to muscle tissue evaluated by MRI, histology, and gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundt, Walter; Yuh, Esther L; Steinbach, Silke; Bednarski, Mark D

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the continuous mode of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) in a mouse head and neck cancer model (SCCVII) compared to muscle tissue. HIFU was applied to SCCVII tumors and to muscle tissue in C3H/Km mice using a dual ultrasound system (imaging 6 MHz/therapeutic 1 MHz). A continuous HIFU mode (total time 20 sec, intensity 6730.6 W/cm(2)) was applied. Three hours after HIFU treatment pre- and post-contrast T1-wt, T2-wt images, and a diffusion-wt STEAM sequence were obtained. After MR imaging, the animals were euthenized and the treated tumor and muscle tissue was taken out for histology and functional genomic analysis. T2 images showed increased signal intensity, post-contrast T1 showed a decreased contrast uptake in the central parts in the tumor tissue as well as in the muscle tissue. In addition a significant higher diffusion coefficient was found in both tissue types. Histological evaluation (H&E, Immunohistochemistry) of the tumors and the muscle tissue revealed areas of significant necrosis. In the tumor tissue 23 genes were up-regulated (> 2 fold change) and 4 genes were down-regulated (muscle tissue 29 genes were up-regulated and 17 genes down-regulated. Thirteen genes were up-regulated in both tissue types, 8 genes only in the SCCVII tissue, and 11 genes only in the muscle tissue. The use of HIFU treatment on tumor and muscle tissue results in dramatic changes in gene expression. The expression of some genes are tissue specific, the expression of other genes are independent of the tissue type.

  18. Insulin sensitivity is independent of lipid binding protein trafficking at the plasma membrane in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jordy, Andreas Børsting; Serup, Annette Karen; Karstoft, Kristian

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate lipid-induced r