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Sample records for plasma theophylline concentrations

  1. Absorption kinetics and steady-state plasma concentrations of theophylline following therapeutic doses of two sustained-release preparations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, O; Nielsen, M K; Eriksen, P B

    1983-01-01

    Ten healthy volunteers received two sustained-release preparations as a single and multiple dose regimen in an open crossover study. Plasma theophylline concentrations were measured by an enzyme immunoassay. The limited fluctuation of the theophylline levels at steady state, with twice daily...... formulation, whereas this was not the case for the other (r = 0.27 and 0.49). The daily dose necessary to keep the plasma concentration within the therapeutic range of 55-110 mumole/liter varied from 7.9 to 22.9 mg/kg. Only mild side effects were recorded, but they were not correlated to the plasma...... theophylline concentration....

  2. [Relation between dose, plasma concentration and therapeutic effect of theophylline in children with sleep apnea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Palomares, C; Ugartechea, J C; Palma-Aguirre, J A; Juárez-Olguín, H; Calderón-Mandujano, B

    1989-12-01

    The plasma concentration of theophylline was determined in twelve children with infantile sleep apnea (average age 48.5 days). The purpose of the study was to correlate concentrations with the dosages given, the therapeutic response and any adverse effects which could arise. In addition, other pharmacokinetic values were found, half-life (t 1/2) and clearance concentrations (Clss). The oral maintenance dose used was 4 mg/kg/24 h. The serum concentration of theophylline was determined by a homogeneous immunoassay enzyme technique (EMIT). A bad correlation was found (r = 0.45) between the oral dosage given and the plasma concentrations found. This was probably due to variations in the clearance of the drug. Yet, plasma concentrations fell between 3.0 and 12.6 micrograms/mL, enough to satisfactorily control apneic episodes in all the children included in the study without undesirable side-effects. Only one patient had some trouble in falling asleep and showed signs of irritability. The half-life was 13.30 +/- 7.46 hours and Clss was 36.64 +/- 12.98 mL/h/kg. In general, our results correlate with those reported in the literature. The accuracy of the pharmacokinetic parameters with two samples is reliable, therefore avoiding the use of multiple sampling in this group of children.

  3. Plasma concentrations of the cyclic nucleotides, adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate and guanosine 3'.5'-monophosphate, in healthy adults treated with theophylline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, M; Eriksen, P B; Andersen, O

    1982-01-01

    Plasma concentrations of cyclic adenosine monophosphate and cyclic guanosine monophosphate were measured in 10 health adults before, during and after periods of theophylline administration. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate concentrations did not change significantly, but cyclic guanosine monophosph...

  4. Control of methylxanthines in the competition horse: pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic studies on caffeine, theobromine and theophylline for the assessment of irrelevant concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machnik, Marc; Kaiser, Simone; Koppe, Sophie; Kietzmann, Manfred; Schenk, Ina; Düe, Michael; Thevis, Mario; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Toutain, Pierre-Louis

    2017-09-01

    Methylxanthines positives in competition samples have challenged doping control laboratories and racing jurisdictions since methylxanthines are naturally occurring prohibited substances and often constituents of feed. For theobromine, an international threshold (renamed in International Residue Limit, IRL) of 2 µg/mL in urine has been established. On the basis of the data presented herein, a threshold or rather an IRL for theobromine in plasma of 0.3 µg/mL was proposed and was thereupon approved by the International Federation of Horseracing Authorities (IFHA). Official recommendations for reporting caffeine and theophylline are still lacking. The aim of the study was to investigate IRLs for theobromine in blood and for caffeine and theophylline in blood and urine. Therefore, a set of six administrations were carried out including both single i.v. and single oral administrations of caffeine, theobromine and theophylline. Plasma and urine concentrations were determined using a validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Applying the Toutain model approach an effective plasma concentration (EPC) of caffeine was estimated at 3.05 µg/mL, irrelevant concentrations in blood (IPC) and urine (IUC) approached 6 and 12 ng/mL, respectively. EPC of theobromine was calculated with 3.80 µg/mL, and irrelevant concentrations of theobromine were determined at 8 ng/mL in plasma and at 142 ng/mL in urine. Toutain modelling of the theophylline data produced an EPC, IPC, and IUC of 3.20 µg/mL, 6 ng/mL, and 75 ng/mL, respectively. The obtained irrelevant concentrations were used to postulate IRLs for theobromine in plasma and for caffeine and theophylline in plasma and urine. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Food interactions with sustained-release theophylline preparations. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonkman, J H

    1989-03-01

    Currently, theophylline is being used predominantly as sustained-release capsules or tablets. In the mid-seventies the first preparations for use with a dosage interval of 12 hours (twice-daily preparations) were introduced. Since 1983, theophylline preparations that can be given with an interval of 24 hours (once-daily preparations) have become available. The release of theophylline from some of these products can be influenced (either increased or decreased) by concomitant intake of food. With some preparations the composition of the meal (especially the fat content) has an influence on the degree of effect. The consequence may be an effect on the rate of absorption or on the amount absorbed, or both simultaneously. This could result in an unexpected shift of the plasma theophylline concentration. Such a shift is therapeutically undesirable, because theophylline has a fairly narrow therapeutic range. A review is given of those food interactions with the sustained-release theophylline preparations, both twice-daily and once-daily products, that are currently on the world market. Special attention is paid to the specific (bio)pharmaceutical characteristics of the different products, and to the influence of the composition and timing of the meals. For each preparation the effect of food on the following pharmacokinetic parameters is discussed: area under the plasma concentration-time curve, peak plasma drug concentration and time to reach this peak. Where possible, the results for both adults and children are discussed. There are indications that children are more susceptible to food-effects than adults. The regulatory aspects are mentioned briefly. Clinically important effects of food have been observed with the following twice-daily products: 'Theo-Dur Sprinkle', 'Theolair SR' (= 'Nuelin SR') and 'Theograd'. Pronounced effects could have an even greater impact with once-daily preparations, as the total daily dose will be given at a single time. A particularly

  6. Pharmacokinetics of theophylline after administration of suppositories formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Basha, L I; Wahman, L F; Hamza, A; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y

    2005-01-01

    Asthma is a public health problem for developed countries. It attacks all age groups but often starts in childhood. Theophylline ethanoate of piperazine in a suppository form is one of the treatments of asthmatic children. The pharmacokinetics of theophylline were evaluated in 24 healthy male subjects after administration of theophylline ethanoate of piperazine suppositories (PR) (Minophylline 500 mg. Alexandria Co.) and single injection intravenous (IV) of theophylline ethanoate of piperazine (Minophylline ampoules 500 mg Alexandria Co.). The theophylline serum levels were determined by an ELISA method. Peak theophylline plasma concentration, Cmax, (mean +/- S.D) was 21.5 +/- 2.10 microg/mL & 14 +/- 0.90 microg/mL; AUC(0-t), values were 80.9 and 67. 4 microg x ml x hr for the reference IV preparation and suppositories, respectively. The median peak time, Tmax, was 0.5 hr for theophylline rectal administration. The above mentioned results demonstrate the possibilities of using theophylline (Minophylline Suppositories--500 mg Alexandria Co.) in asthmatic children in rural and desert areas away from health care personnel.

  7. Efecto del adyuvante vacunal AFCo1 intranasal sobre la concentración plasmática de teofilina en ratas Effect of intranasal vaccine adjuvant AFCo1 on plasma concentration of theophylline in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Batista Duharte

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se evaluó el efecto del adyuvante Finlay cocleato 1 (AFCo1, aplicado 4 veces por vía intranasal en 2 niveles de dosis (50 µg y 100 µg sobre la concentración plasmática de teofilina, administrada a las 24 horas de la última aplicación (5 mg/kg, por vía intraperitoneal en ratas Sprague-Dawley. Se empleó como control positivo de inflamación la aplicación de 2 dosis por vía subcutánea de adyuvante completo de Freund (ACF. Las ratas que recibieron AFCo1 no mostraron cambios significativos en la concentración sérica de teofilina; mientras que las tratadas con ACF desarrollaron inflamación local asociadas a signos de toxicidad a la teofilina y elevación de las cifras de inmunoglobulina G específica, de las concentraciones plasmáticas y el tiempo de vida media de teofilina en suero, en comparación con los grupos restantes. Estos resultados indican que la inmunoestimulación inducida por AFCo1 intranasal no incrementa los parámetros farmacocinéticos ni la toxicidad de la teofilina en el modelo empleado.The effect of the adjuvant Finlay cochleate1 (AFCo1, applied intranasally 4 times in 2 dose levels (50 µg and 100 µg on plasma concentration of theophylline administered 24 hours after the last application (5 mg/kg intraperitoneally in Sprague-Dawley rats was evaluated in this study. Application subcutaneously of 2 doses of Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA was used as positive control of inflammation. Rats receiving AFCo1 had no significant changes in serum theophylline concentration, while those treated with FCA developed local inflammation associated with signs of theophylline toxicity and increased specific G immunoglobulin, plasma concentrations and serum theophylline half-life as compared with the remaining groups. These results show that intranasal AFCo1-induced immunostimulation does not increase pharmacokinetic parameters and theophylline toxicity in the model used.

  8. Adaptive control of theophylline therapy: importance of blood sampling times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Argenio, D Z; Khakmahd, K

    1983-10-01

    A two-observation protocol for estimating theophylline clearance during a constant-rate intravenous infusion is used to examine the importance of blood sampling schedules with regard to the information content of resulting concentration data. Guided by a theory for calculating maximally informative sample times, population simulations are used to assess the effect of specific sampling times on the precision of resulting clearance estimates and subsequent predictions of theophylline plasma concentrations. The simulations incorporated noise terms for intersubject variability, dosing errors, sample collection errors, and assay error. Clearance was estimated using Chiou's method, least squares, and a Bayesian estimation procedure. The results of these simulations suggest that clinically significant estimation and prediction errors may result when using the above two-point protocol for estimating theophylline clearance if the time separating the two blood samples is less than one population mean elimination half-life.

  9. Measurement of theophylline in human serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stetten, O. von; Zech, K.

    1980-01-01

    A radioimmunological (RIA-matsup(R) Theophylline) and a HPLC method for the determination of theophylline concentrations in human serum are compared. HPLC as most specific and precise method is not suitable for greater numbers of analyses due to time needed for chromatography. Theophylline-RIA yields excellent results regarding precision, specificity and recovery with excellent correlation and considerable time savings compared to HPLC. (orig.) [de

  10. The new trends in theophylline therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Mehmedagić

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Sustained-release theophylline pellets formulation for once-daily evening administration significantly improved patients compliance and adjusted serum levels profile of the drug. The patients conversion from i.v. to p.o. therapy is one of the most critical steps in the treatment of asthma according to its chronopathophysiological character. In our study we have examined safety and efficiency of this conversion in twelve hospitalised asthmatic patients who were given the new sustained-release theophylline pellets formulation for once-daily evening administration. The lung function parameters (FEV1, VC, RV, and Rt and serum theophylline concentrations were monitored. So, the values obtained for the last day of i.v. therapy and the fifth day of p.o. therapy were compared. We found that 75% of the patients had no change or improved lung function on the conversion. Our results indicate that this conversion from i.v. to p.o. theophylline therapy is safe and could be efficacious. Also, the maximum theophylline serum levels could safely be predicted by measuring only one serum concentration in p.o. therapy with sustained-release theophylline pellets formulation for once-daily evening administration.

  11. A metabolic and pharmacokinetic comparison of theophylline and aminophylline (theophylline ethylenediamine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monks, T J; Smith, R L; Caldwell, J

    1981-02-01

    The metabolism and pharmacokinetics of intravenously administered theophylline and aminophylline (theophylline ethylenediamine) have been studied in 3 volunteers, using 14C-labelled theophylline. Both compounds were metabolized extensively and 1,3-dimethyluric acid, 1-methyluric acid, 3-methylxanthine and two unknown minor metabolites were excreted in the urine, in addition to theophylline. The elimination of theophylline, 1,3-dimethyluric acid, 1-methyluric acid and the unknown metabolites followed first-order kinetics, but that of 3-methylxanthine followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics. When given as aminophylline, theophylline was metabolized more rapidly and extensively than when given alone. The recovery of 14C in the urine was significantly higher after aminophylline than after theophylline. Abstention from intake of dietary methylxanthines for 7 days resulted in more rapid and extensive metabolism of aminophylline compared with results from the same subjects on their usual diets. The results indicate that, from a metabolic and pharmacokinetic viewpoint, aminophylline and theophylline are not equivalent.

  12. Theophylline enhances glucose recovery after hypoglycemia in healthy man and in type I diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidberg, A; Rasmussen, M H; Christensen, N J

    1994-01-01

    followed by IV infusion of 1 mg/kg/h) was administered from 1 hour before induction of hypoglycemia until the end of the study period. On the other day, NaCl was administered. Plasma glucose before induction of hypoglycemia was equal on the 2 study days. The plasma glucose area under the curve (AUC......). The incremental AUC for cAMP was larger with theophylline for diabetic patients (P = .01). For healthy subjects, cAMP was greater with theophylline 30 minutes after insulin (P = .03). In conclusion, glucose recovery after hypoglycemia is significantly increased when theophylline is administered in an asthma......The principal mediators of glucose counterregulation (glucagon and epinephrine) use intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) to mediate glucose release. Since theophylline increases cAMP (by inhibiting its decomposition), we investigated the effect of theophylline on glucose recovery...

  13. Lack of drug interaction between omeprazole, lansoprazole, pantoprazole and theophylline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilger, Karin; Zheng, Zhichang; Klotz, Ulrich

    1999-01-01

    Aims Theophylline is a model substrate of cytochrome P4501A2. The ability of the proton pump inhibitors (PPI) omeprazole, lansoprazole and pantoprazole to induce cytochrome P4501A2 has not yet been unequivocally resolved. The aim of this comprehensive study was to compare directly the effect of the three PPI on the absorption and disposition of theophylline. Methods Twenty healthy, nonsmoking, male and female volunteers (extensive metabolisers of cytochrome P4502C19 and Helicobacter pylori negative) participated in a randomized, double-blind, four-period, placebo-controlled crossover study. In each of the four periods they received either omeprazole (40 mg), lansoprazole (60 mg), pantoprazole (80 mg) or placebo once daily for 10 days. Sustained release theophylline (350 mg twice daily) was coadministered from day 8–10. Pharmacokinetics of theophylline as well as of all three PPI were determined at steady-state (day 10). Results In all periods, point estimates and 90% confidence intervals of the area under the concentration-time curves (AUC), maximum steady-state concentrations and peak-trough fluctuations of theophylline were not altered by PPI pretreatment and met the required limits for bioequivalence. Point estimates (90% confidence intervals) of the AUC ratios of theophylline plus PPI to theophylline alone were 0.92 (0.87–0.97), 0.90 (0.85–0.95) and 1.00 (0.95–1.06) for omeprazole, lansoprazole and pantoprazole, respectively. Conclusions Concomitant intake of omeprazole, lansoprazole or pantoprazole at high therapeutic doses does not affect the absorption and disposition of theophylline. PMID:10510158

  14. Effect of abiraterone acetate plus prednisone on the pharmacokinetics of dextromethorphan and theophylline in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, K N; Tolcher, A; Lee, P; Rosen, P J; Kollmannsberger, C K; Papadopoulos, K P; Patnaik, A; Molina, A; Jiao, J; Pankras, C; Kaiser, B; Bernard, A; Tran, N; Acharya, M

    2013-01-01

    To assess the effect of abiraterone acetate plus prednisone on the pharmacokinetics of dextromethorphan HBr (CYP2D6 substrate) and theophylline (CYP1A2 substrate) in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Men with progressive metastatic mCRPC who failed gonadotropin-releasing hormone therapy and ≥1 lines of chemotherapy were enrolled. Patients received two doses of dextromethorphan HBr-30 mg (n = 18; group A) or theophylline-100 mg (n = 16; group B) under fasting conditions; one dose on cycle 1, day -8, and the other dose on cycle 1, day 8. Only patients with extensive CYP2D6 metabolizing status were assigned to group A. All patients received continuous daily oral abiraterone acetate (1,000 mg) plus prednisone (10 mg) starting on cycle 1, day 1. Coadministration of abiraterone acetate plus prednisone increased the systemic exposure of dextromethorphan by approximately 100%. Ratios of geometric means for maximum plasma concentration (C(max)) (275.36%) and area under plasma concentration-time curves from time 0 to 24 h (AUC(24h)) (268.14%) of dextromethorphan were outside the bioequivalence limit. The pharmacokinetics of theophylline was unaltered following coadministration of abiraterone acetate plus prednisone. Ratios of geometric means [C(max); 102.36% and AUC(24h); 108.03%] of theophylline exposure parameters were within the bioequivalence limit. The safety profile of abiraterone acetate was consistent with reported toxicities. Abiraterone acetate plus prednisone increased the exposure of dextromethorphan, suggesting a need for caution when coadministrating with known CYP2D6 substrates. The pharmacokinetics of theophylline was unaffected when coadministered with abiraterone acetate plus prednisone.

  15. Effect of Terbinafine on Theophylline Pharmacokinetics in Healthy Volunteers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trépanier, Eric F.; Nafziger, Anne N.; Amsden, Guy W.

    1998-01-01

    Twelve healthy volunteers were enrolled in an open-label, randomized, crossover study. Subjects received single doses of theophylline (5 mg/kg) with and without multiple-dose terbinafine, and 11 blood samples were collected over 24 h. The study phases were separated by a 4-week washout period. Theophylline serum data were modeled via noncompartmental analysis. When the control phase (i.e., no terbinafine) was compared to the treatment phase (terbinafine), theophylline exposure (the area under the serum concentration-time curve from time zero to infinity) increased by 16% (P = 0.03), oral clearance decreased by 14% (P = 0.04), and half-life increased by 24% (P = 0.002). No significant changes in other theophylline pharmacokinetic parameters were evident. PMID:9517954

  16. Compound list: theophylline [Open TG-GATEs

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available theophylline TEO 00096 ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Human.../in_vitro/theophylline.Human.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/i...n_vitro/theophylline.Rat.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vi...vo/Liver/Single/theophylline.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Single.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc

  17. The effect of theophylline on the labelling of nitracellular myocardial calcium with 45Ca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sausen, F.H.

    1973-01-01

    The effect of theophylline of varying concentration on the labelling of intracellular myocardial calcium was investigated by isotope tests with radioactively labelled Ca ( 45 Ca) in isolated, electrically stimulated left auricles of guinea pigs. The preparates were incubated in a 45 Ca solution for 60 minutes, and activity uptake and intracellular Ca concentration were determined. In contrast to earlier investigations, the extracellular Ca was removed after charge by rinsing the resting auricles with inactive, Ca ++ - and Na + -free choline chloride solution. Under controlled conditions, the intercellular Ca was found to be 45 Ca-labelled by about 36% theophylline in 'therapeutical' concentration (5 x 10 -4 g/ml) induced a significant increase of the labelled Ca fraction of 16.9% as compared to the controls. 'Toxic' theophylline concentrations, too, lead to a significantly higher absorption of 45 Ca. The interchangeable intracellular Ca fraction increased by 11.7% and 10.3% as compared to the untreated preparates. The findings are discussed with regard to earlier investigations on the influence of methylxanthines on the Ca metabolism of the heart. The author assumes that the positively inotropic effect of theophylline and the theophylline-induced contracture may be ascribed to a shift in the intracellular Ca distribution towards ionized Ca. This shift could be explained by a suppression of Ca rebinding in intracellular Ca storage places or by Ca release from these structures. (orig./AK) [de

  18. Doxofylline is not just another theophylline!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matera MG

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Maria Gabriella Matera,1 Clive Page,2 Mario Cazzola3 1Department of Experimental Medicine, Unit of Pharmacology, University of Campania ‘Luigi Vanvitelli’, Naples, Italy; 2Sackler Institute of Pulmonary Pharmacology, Institute of Pharmaceutical Science, King’s College London, London, UK; 3Department of Experimental Medicine and Surgery, Chair of Respiratory Medicine, University of Rome ‘Tor Vergata’, Rome, Italy Abstract: Doxofylline, which differs from theophylline in containing the dioxalane group at position 7, has comparable efficacy to theophylline in the treatment of respiratory diseases, but with an improved tolerability profile and a favorable risk-to-benefit ratio. Furthermore, it does not have significant drug–drug interactions as exhibited with theophylline, which make using theophylline more challenging, especially in elderly patients with co-morbidities receiving multiple classes of drug. It is now clear that doxofylline also possesses a distinct pharmacological profile from theophylline (no significant effect on any of the known phosphodiesterase isoforms, no significant adenosine receptor antagonism, no direct effect on histone deacetylases, interaction with β2-adrenoceptors and therefore, should not be considered as just a modified theophylline. Randomized clinical trials of doxofylline to investigate the use of this drug to reduce exacerbations and hospitalizations due to asthma or COPD as an alternative to expensive biologics, and certainly as an alternative to theophylline are to be encouraged. Keywords: doxofylline, theophylline, mechanisms of action, therapeutic effects, adverse effects

  19. Simultaneous determination of caffeine, theophylline and theobromine in human plasma by on-line solid-phase extraction coupled to reversed-phase chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emara, Samy

    2004-10-01

    A reversed-phase liquid chromatographic column switching system was described for the determination of caffeine (CF), theophylline (TH) and theobromine (TB) in human plasma with a direct injection procedure. A short protein-coated mu Bondapak CN silica pre-column (20 x 3 mm, i.d.) was used for enrichment of the drugs and clean up from weakly retained plasma components using phosphate buffer saline pH 7.4. After washing step, the retained drugs were flushed into a reversed-phase column (5 microm TSK gel ODS-80 TM, 150 x 4.6 mm i.d.) with a mobile phase of methanol-0.01 M phosphate buffer, pH 3.5 (30:70, v/v) for the final separation. The eluent was monitored with a UV detector at 275 nm. The resulting chromatograms showed no interference from endogenous plasma components. A linear relationship between the concentration of drug and peak height was confirmed in the range of 0.5-20 microg/mL for all drugs. High extraction recoveries from plasma ranging from 96.12 to 100.32% were achieved. Validation of the method was examined performing intra- and inter-day accuracy and precision and was found to be satisfactory. The coefficients of variation of the three drugs were less than 3% for intra-day and less than 4% for inter-day run assays.

  20. Effect of pH, buffer concentration and buffer composition on the absorption of theophylline from the small intestine of the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaey, C.J. de; Schurgers, N.

    1984-01-01

    The absorption of theophylline from the small intestine of the rat was investigated using buffer solutions of different pH (3.0–9.2), composition and concentration. The technique used, encloses luminal perfusion of an intestinal loop with collection of the blood draining the perfused loop, which

  1. Intercalated theophylline-smectite hybrid for pH-mediated delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Vivek; Nandi, Uttom; Maniruzzaman, Mohammed; Coleman, Nichola J

    2018-01-23

    On the basis of their large specific surface areas, high adsorption and cation exchange capacities, swelling potential and low toxicity, natural smectite clays are attractive substrates for the gastric protection of neutral and cationic drugs. Theophylline is an amphoteric xanthine derivative that is widely used as a bronchodilator in the treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. This study considers the in vitro uptake and release characteristics of the binary theophylline-smectite system. The cationic form of theophylline was readily ion exchanged into smectite clay at pH 1.2 with a maximum uptake of 67 ± 2 mg g -1 . Characterisation of the drug-clay hybrid system by powder X-ray diffraction analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and scanning electron microscopy confirmed that the theophylline had been exclusively intercalated into the clay system in an amorphous form. The drug remained bound within the clay under simulated gastric conditions at pH 1.2; and the prolonged release of approximately 40% of the drug was observed in simulated intestinal fluid at pH 6.8 and 7.4 within a 2-h timeframe. The incomplete reversibility of the intercalation process was attributed to chemisorption of the drug within the clay lattice. These findings indicate that smectite clay is a potentially suitable vehicle for the safe passage of theophylline into the duodenum. Protection from absorption in the stomach and subsequent prolonged release in the small intestine are advantageous in reducing fluctuations in serum concentration which may impact therapeutic effect and toxicity.

  2. Study of theophylline stability on polymer matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, Kiriaki M.S.; Parra, Duclerc F.; Oliveira, Maria Jose A.; Bustillos, Oscar V.; Lugao, Ademar B.

    2007-01-01

    Theophylline is a bronchodilator, commonly known and used as a drug model in the development of pharmaceutical formulations. The stability of the drug and the matrix, scope of this study, was evaluated in the solid formulation. Polymeric matrix based on PHB containing the drug (theophylline) was prepared and submitted to radiation sterilization at different doses of: 5, 10, 20 and 25 kGy using a Cobalt- 60 source. The modified drug release of theophylline sterilized tablets has been studied. Modern techniques of HPLC (High Pressure Liquid Chromatography), DSC (Differential scanning calorimetry) and TGA (Thermogravimetry analysis) were employed. The results have shown the influence of sterilization by radiation process in both the theophylline and the polymeric drug delivery matrix samples. The increasing of polymeric matrix crosslinking under radiation conditions retards the drug release while the theophylline structure is stable under the radiation (author)

  3. Extracorporeal treatment for theophylline poisoning: systematic review and recommendations from the EXTRIP workgroup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghannoum, Marc; Wiegand, Timothy J; Liu, Kathleen D; Calello, Diane P; Godin, Melanie; Lavergne, Valery; Gosselin, Sophie; Nolin, Thomas D; Hoffman, Robert S

    2015-05-01

    The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning workgroup was created to provide evidence-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments (ECTRs) in poisoning. Here, the workgroup presents its systematic review and recommendations for theophylline. After a systematic review of the literature, a subgroup reviewed articles, extracted data, summarized findings, and proposed structured voting statements following a pre-determined format. A two-round modified Delphi method was chosen to reach a consensus on voting statements and the RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method was used to quantify disagreement. Anonymous votes were compiled, returned, and discussed. A second vote determined the final recommendations. 141 articles were included: 6 in vitro studies, 4 animal studies, 101 case reports/case series, 7 descriptive cohorts, 4 observational studies, and 19 pharmacokinetic studies, yielding a low-to-very-low quality of evidence for all recommendations. Data on 143 patients were reviewed, including 10 deaths. The workgroup concluded that theophylline is dialyzable (level of evidence = A) and made the following recommendations: ECTR is recommended in severe theophylline poisoning (1C). Specific recommendations for ECTR include a theophylline concentration [theophylline] > 100 mg/L (555 μmol/L) in acute exposure (1C), the presence of seizures (1D), life-threatening dysrhythmias (1D) or shock (1D), a rising [theophylline] despite optimal therapy (1D), and clinical deterioration despite optimal care (1D). In chronic poisoning, ECTR is suggested if [theophylline] > 60 mg/L (333 μmol/L) (2D) or if the [theophylline] > 50 mg/L (278 μmol/L) and the patient is either less than 6 months of age or older than 60 years of age (2D). ECTR is also suggested if gastrointestinal decontamination cannot be administered (2D). ECTR should be continued until clinical improvement is apparent or the [theophylline] is poisoning is amenable to ECTRs. The workgroup recommended

  4. Anti-fibrotic effects of theophylline on lung fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yano, Yukihiro; Yoshida, Mitsuhiro; Hoshino, Shigenori; Inoue, Koji; Kida, Hiroshi; Yanagita, Masahiko; Takimoto, Takayuki; Hirata, Haruhiko; Kijima, Takashi; Kumagai, Toru; Osaki, Tadashi; Tachibana, Isao; Kawase, Ichiro

    2006-01-01

    Theophylline has been used in the management of bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease for over 50 years. It has not only a bronchodilating effect, but also an anti-inflammatory one conducive to the inhibition of airway remodeling, including subepithelial fibrosis. To date however, whether theophylline has a direct inhibitory effect on airway fibrosis has not been established. To clarify this question, we examined whether theophylline affected the function of lung fibroblasts. Theophylline suppressed TGF-β-induced type I collagen (COL1) mRNA expression in lung fibroblasts and also inhibited fibroblast proliferation stimulated by FBS and TGF-β-induced α-SMA protein. A cAMP analog also inhibited TGF-β-induced COL1 mRNA expression in lung fibroblasts. A PKA inhibitor reduced the inhibitory effect of theophylline on TGF-β-induced COL1 mRNA expression. These results indicate that theophylline exerts anti-fibrotic effects, at least partly, through the cAMP-PKA pathway

  5. Thiolated chitosan nanoparticles enhance anti-inflammatory effects of intranasally delivered theophylline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Won; Shirley, Shawna A; Lockey, Richard F; Mohapatra, Shyam S

    2006-08-24

    Chitosan, a polymer derived from chitin, has been used for nasal drug delivery because of its biocompatibility, biodegradability and bioadhesiveness. Theophylline is a drug that reduces the inflammatory effects of allergic asthma but is difficult to administer at an appropriate dosage without causing adverse side effects. It was hypothesized that adsorption of theophylline to chitosan nanoparticles modified by the addition of thiol groups would improve theophylline absorption by the bronchial epithelium and enhance its anti-inflammatory effects. We sought to develop an improved drug-delivery matrix for theophylline based on thiolated chitosan, and to investigate whether thiolated chitosan nanoparticles (TCNs) can enhance theophylline's capacity to alleviate allergic asthma. A mouse model of allergic asthma was used to test the effects of theophylline in vivo. BALB/c mice were sensitized to ovalbumin (OVA) and OVA-challenged to produce an inflammatory allergic condition. They were then treated intranasally with theophylline alone, chitosan nanoparticles alone or theophylline adsorbed to TCNs. The effects of theophylline on cellular infiltration in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, histopathology of lung sections, and apoptosis of lung cells were investigated to determine the effectiveness of TCNs as a drug-delivery vehicle for theophylline. Theophylline alone exerts a moderate anti-inflammatory effect, as evidenced by the decrease in eosinophils in BAL fluid, the reduction of bronchial damage, inhibition of mucus hypersecretion and increased apoptosis of lung cells. The effects of theophylline were significantly enhanced when the drug was delivered by TCNs. Intranasal delivery of theophylline complexed with TCNs augmented the anti-inflammatory effects of the drug compared to theophylline administered alone in a mouse model of allergic asthma. The beneficial effects of theophylline in treating asthma may be enhanced through the use of this novel drug delivery

  6. Thiolated chitosan nanoparticles enhance anti-inflammatory effects of intranasally delivered theophylline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohapatra Shyam S

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chitosan, a polymer derived from chitin, has been used for nasal drug delivery because of its biocompatibility, biodegradability and bioadhesiveness. Theophylline is a drug that reduces the inflammatory effects of allergic asthma but is difficult to administer at an appropriate dosage without causing adverse side effects. It was hypothesized that adsorption of theophylline to chitosan nanoparticles modified by the addition of thiol groups would improve theophylline absorption by the bronchial epithelium and enhance its anti-inflammatory effects. Objectives We sought to develop an improved drug-delivery matrix for theophylline based on thiolated chitosan, and to investigate whether thiolated chitosan nanoparticles (TCNs can enhance theophylline's capacity to alleviate allergic asthma. Methods A mouse model of allergic asthma was used to test the effects of theophylline in vivo. BALB/c mice were sensitized to ovalbumin (OVA and OVA-challenged to produce an inflammatory allergic condition. They were then treated intranasally with theophylline alone, chitosan nanoparticles alone or theophylline adsorbed to TCNs. The effects of theophylline on cellular infiltration in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid, histopathology of lung sections, and apoptosis of lung cells were investigated to determine the effectiveness of TCNs as a drug-delivery vehicle for theophylline. Results Theophylline alone exerts a moderate anti-inflammatory effect, as evidenced by the decrease in eosinophils in BAL fluid, the reduction of bronchial damage, inhibition of mucus hypersecretion and increased apoptosis of lung cells. The effects of theophylline were significantly enhanced when the drug was delivered by TCNs. Conclusion Intranasal delivery of theophylline complexed with TCNs augmented the anti-inflammatory effects of the drug compared to theophylline administered alone in a mouse model of allergic asthma. The beneficial effects of theophylline in

  7. RNA binding efficacy of theophylline, theobromine and caffeine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, I Maria; Kumar, S G Bhuvan; Malathi, R

    2003-04-01

    The binding of naturally occurring methylxanthines such as theophylline, theobromine and caffeine to nucleic acids are reckoned to be pivotal as they are able to modulate the cellular activities. We explore the interaction of yeast RNA binding efficacy of the above xanthine derivatives by using UV absorption differential spectroscopy and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Both the analyses show discrimination in their binding affinity to RNA. The differential UV-spectrum at P/D 3.3 reveals the greater RNA binding activity for theophylline (85 +/- 5%), whereas moderate and comparatively less binding activity for theobromine (45 +/- 5%) and caffeine (30 +/- 5%) and the binding activity was found to depend on concentration of the drugs. In FTIR analysis we observed changes in the amino group (NH) of RNA complexed by drugs, where the NH band is found to become very broad, indicating hydrogen bonding (H-bonding) with theophylline (3343.4 cm(-1)), theobromine (3379.8 cm(-1)) and caffeine (3343 cm(-1)) as compared to the free RNA (3341.6 cm(-1)). Furthermore in RNA-theophylline complex, it is observed that the carbonyl (C=O) vibration frequency (nu(C=O)) of both drug (nu(C=O)=1718, 1666 cm(-1)) as well as RNA (nu(C=O)=1699, 1658 cm(-1)) disappeared and a new vibration band appeared around 1703 cm(-1), indicating that the C=O and NH groups of drug and RNA are effectively involved in H-bonding. Whereas in RNA-theobromine and RNA-caffeine complexes, we found very little changes in C=O frequency and only broadening of the NH band of RNA due to complexation is observed in these groups. The changes in the vibrations of G-C/A-U bands and other bending frequencies are discussed. Thus the discrimination in the binding affinity of methylxanthines with RNA molecule shows that strong RNA binding drugs like theophylline can selectively be delivered to RNA targets of microbial pathogens having the mechanism of RNA catalysis.

  8. Long-term administration of theophylline and glucose recovery after hypoglycaemia in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidberg, A; Rosenfalck, A; Christensen, N J

    1998-01-01

    .0241) but there were no concomitant significant increases in plasma c-AMP or in endogenous glucose production rate. Whether the increase in glucose recovery is large enough to suggest that chronic theophylline administration will protect against insulin-induced hypoglycaemia remains unsettled....... hormone secretion. In this study we tested the hypothesis that long-term administration of theophylline might augment glucose recovery after insulin-induced hypoglycaemia. Eleven healthy subjects and 8 patients with Type 1 diabetes mellitus were made hypoglycaemic by 60 min insulin infusion (40 mU m(-2...

  9. The effect of theophylline on canine bile flow, biliary excretion and concentration of ioglycamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toetterman, S.

    1982-01-01

    Theophylline (TH), which has been shown in experimental dogs to increase bile-salt-independent bile flow, was studied in its effect on the biliary excretion and concentration of the intravenous contrast medium ioglycamide in cholecystectomized anesthetized dogs equipped with a Thomas cannula through which the common bile duct could be cannulated. One hour after cannulation, i.v. infusion of ioglycamide at the rate of 4 mol/min/kg was started. Two hours later, 10 mg/kg of TH was injected intravenously and the experiment continued for a further 75 minutes. Bile was collected at 15 min, intervals throughout the whole experiment and simultaneous intravenous blood samples were taken. In this study, TH increased bile flow and decreased biliary ioglycamide concentration. Although TH increased bile flow, it had no effect on the biliary excretion of ioglycamide. It may be postulated that the organic anion ioglycamide, and possibly other organic anions, are secreted into the bile by mechanisms, unaffected by drugs which increase bile-salt-independent bile flow in a similar manner to TH. (orig.)

  10. Theophylline and adenosine modulate the inflammatory functions of the human neutrophil by exerting an opposing influence on the stimulus-induced increase in intracellular calcium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmeichel Morley, C.J.

    1988-01-01

    Based on evidence that endogenously-produced adenosine inhibited neutrophil responses, the influence of methylxanthine bronchodilators on neutrophil responses stimulated in vitro by n-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) was examined. At concentrations between 10/sup /minus/5/ M and 10/sup /minus/4/ M, theophylline potentiated lysosomal enzyme release by 30 to 50%, superoxide anion formation by 30 to 60%, and neutrophil aggregation. Theophylline at concentrations >10/sup /minus/4/ M inhibited the same responses by >90%. Adenosine deaminase mimicked, whereas adenosine reversed the theophylline potentiation. A potential role for calcium in the modulation of the neutrophil responses by theophylline and adenosine was explored. Theophylline enhanced by >150% the fMLP-stimulated increase in cytoplasmic calcium concentration ([Ca 2+ ]/sub i/) at time points between 5 and 90 sec as measured by Fura-2. Adenosine deaminase induced a comparable enhancement, whereas 3 /times/ 10/sup /minus/7/ M adenosine and 10/sup /minus/7/ M N-ethylcarboxamideadenosine decreased the [Ca 2+ ]/sub i/ in fMLP-stimulated neutrophils. Extracellular calcium was not required for the opposing influences of theophylline and adenosine and neither compound altered fMLP-stimulated 45 Ca uptake at the early time points

  11. Treatment of theophylline intoxication using continuous venovenous haemofiltration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koeijers, J.J.; Verhoeven, C.L.; Boersma, H.H.; van Mook, W.N.K.A

    2008-01-01

    Theophylline intoxication can cause serious complications such as seizures, cardiac arrhythmias and eventually cardiac arrest. Because of these potentially life-threatening clinical manifestations of theophylline intoxication, treatment methods that rapidly eliminate the drug are essential. These

  12. Interaction of Ketotifen Fumarate with Anhydrous Theophylline in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to investigate interaction between ketotifen fumarate and anhydrous theophylline in aqueous media of various pH. Methods: By using Job's continuous-variation analysis and Ardon's spectrophotomeric methods, the values of stability constants of theophylline with ketotifen ...

  13. Effect of potassium chloride on diffusion of theophylline at T = 298.15 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Cecilia I.A.V., E-mail: cecilia.alves@uah.e [Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Alcala, 28871 Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Lobo, Victor M.M., E-mail: vlobo@ci.uc.p [Department of Chemistry, University of Coimbra, 3004-535 Coimbra (Portugal); Esteso, Miguel A., E-mail: miguel.esteso@uah.e [Departamento de Quimica Fisica, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Alcala, 28871 Alcala de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Ribeiro, Ana C.F., E-mail: anacfrib@ci.uc.p [Department of Chemistry, University of Coimbra, 3004-535 Coimbra (Portugal)

    2011-06-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Mutual diffusion coefficients of theophylline in aqueous dilute solutions. {yields} Influence of the presence of potassium chloride in the aqueous media. {yields} Estimation of the association constant, K, between THP and KCl. - Abstract: Ternary mutual diffusion coefficients measured by Taylor dispersion method (D{sub 11}, D{sub 22}, D{sub 12}, and D{sub 21}) are reported for aqueous solutions of KCl + theophylline (THP) at T = 298.15 K at carrier concentrations from (0.000 to 0.010) mol {center_dot} dm{sup -3}, for each solute. These diffusion coefficients have been measured having in mind a better understanding of the structure of these systems and the thermodynamic behavior of potassium chloride and theophylline in solution. For example, from these data it will be possible to make conclusions about the influence of this electrolyte in diffusion of THP and to estimate some parameters, such as the diffusion coefficient of the aggregate between KCl and THP.

  14. Interaction of Ketotifen Fumarate with Anhydrous Theophylline in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Theophylline in Simulated Gastric and Intestinal Media and Effect on ... However, following theophylline interaction with ketotifen, stability constant was < 1 at gastric pH (0.4 and 2.0) ..... from pH as low as stomach acid (pH 0.4 to 3) to as high ...

  15. Analysis of the impact of cryopreservation and theophylline on motility of sperm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaheh Gorji

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Sperm parameters, particularly motility, decrease during cryopreservation. Theophylline generally enhances sperm motility. We analyzed effects of theophylline and freezing on sperm motility.Design: Experimental study.Setting: Private IVF lab.Setting: IVF lab of Mehrgan Hospital. Method: 22–55 year-old men participated in this study (30 fresh ejaculation and 8 TESE samples. After sperm analysis, we added theophylline (40 mM to half of our samples as case group to compare motility with the remaining samples as control group. Cryopreservation was performed in two groups. After thawing, motility of both groups was recorded. Furthermore, theophylline (40 mM was applied to both groups after thawing again. Result: After adding theophylline, sperm motility improved significantly in all samples. Sperm motility reduced in control group more than the study group after freeze-thaw procedure (P < 0.002, normal morphology <5%. Sperm motility was not enhanced significantly by re-adding of theophylline to the two groups. Interactions between stages and groups were statistically significant in semen and biopsy samples (p < 0.001. Conclusion: Adding theophylline before freezing can preserve motility of sperms in samples with different parameters and even sperms extracted in testicular biopsy. Theophylline may have protective impact on sperms in freezing procedure. Keywords: Sperm motility, Theophylline, Freezing, Morphology, Biopsy

  16. [The antitussive effect of theophylline].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemceková, E; Nosál'ová, G; Rybár, A

    1994-08-01

    Theophylline belongs to a group of medicaments used in asthma therapy. It yields an antiinflammatory effect, reduces allergic reactions, and in respiratory airways it improves the mucociliary clearance and eminently dilates smooth muscles. Therefore, the main aim of our interest is its effect on the cough reflex. Cough was evoked by mechanical irritation of the airways in cats with chronic tracheal cannula. It has been discovered that theophylline, when dosed 10 mg per kg of body weight i.p. achieved a more intensive effect than dextromethorphane, namely in evaluation of cough parameters, but it had a lower suppressive effect than codeine. (Fig. 3, Ref. 13.)

  17. Determination of caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline in standard reference material 2384, baking chocolate, using reversed-phase liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jeanice Brown; Yen, James H; Schantz, Michele M; Porter, Barbara J; Sharpless, Katherine E

    2004-06-02

    A rapid and selective isocratic reversed-phase liquid chromatographic method has been developed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology to simultaneously measure caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline in a food-matrix standard reference material (SRM) 2384, Baking Chocolate. The method uses isocratic elution with a mobile phase composition (volume fractions) of 10% acetronitrile/90% water (pH adjusted to 2.5 using acetic acid) at a flow rate of 1.5 mL/min with ultraviolet absorbance detection (274 nm). Total elution time for these analytes is less than 15 min. Concentration levels of caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline were measured in single 1-g samples taken from each of eight bars of chocolate over an eight-day period. Samples were defatted with hexane, and beta-hydroxyethyltheophylline was added as the internal standard. The repeatability for the caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline measurements was 5.1, 2.3, and 1.9%, respectively. The limit of quantitation for all analytes was theobromine, and theophylline in SRM 2384.

  18. The role of theophylline in prevention of radiocontrast media-induced nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malhis Mahmoud

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Contrast media induced nephropathy (CIN results in significant morbidity and mortality. We therefore investigated whether theophylline (adenosine antagonist reduces the inci-dence of contrast media induced nephropathy. Two hundred and eighty patients were randomly assigned to prophylactic administration of hydration with sodium bicarbonate plus theophylline (either orally or intravenously (n=128 or hydration with sodium bicarbonate only (n=152. Blood Urea, creatinine, and glomerular filtration rate (MDRD were measured before and after administration of contrast media. Both groups were similar in clinical characteristics and amount of contrast used. Theophylline prophylaxis significantly reduced the incidence of CIN (1.6% vs 7.9%; P= 0.015. Compared to low-risk patients, Theophylline prophylaxis significantly reduced the incidence of CIN in moderate and high-risk patients (0% vs 8.8%; P= 0.022 and 9.1% vs 42.1%; P= 0.014 respectively. In conclusion, prophylactic administration of theophylline re-duces the incidence of CIN in moderate and high-risk patients for CIN.

  19. Comparative study of the binding of trypsin to caffeine and theophylline by spectrofluorimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ruiyong, E-mail: wangry@zzu.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); Kang, Xiaohui [Department of Chemistry, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); Wang, Ruiqiang [The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052 (China); Wang, Rui; Dou, Huanjing; Wu, Jing; Song, Chuanjun [Department of Chemistry, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); Chang, Junbiao, E-mail: changjunbiao@zzu.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China)

    2013-06-15

    The interactions between trypsin and caffeine/theophylline were investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy, UV–visible absorption spectroscopy, resonance light scattering and synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy under mimic physiological conditions. The results revealed that the fluorescence quenching of trypsin by caffeine and theophylline was the result of the formed complex of caffeine–trypsin and theophylline–trypsin. The binding constants and thermodynamic parameters at three different temperatures were obtained. The hydrophobic interaction was the predominant intermolecular forces to stabilize the complex. Results showed that caffeine was the stronger quencher and bound to trypsin with higher affinity than theophylline. -- Highlights: ► The fluorescence of trypsin can be quenched by caffeine or theophylline via hydrophobic contacts. ► Caffeine binds to trypsin with higher affinity than theophylline. ► The influence of molecular structure on the binding aspects is reported.

  20. Comparative study of the binding of trypsin to caffeine and theophylline by spectrofluorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Ruiyong; Kang, Xiaohui; Wang, Ruiqiang; Wang, Rui; Dou, Huanjing; Wu, Jing; Song, Chuanjun; Chang, Junbiao

    2013-01-01

    The interactions between trypsin and caffeine/theophylline were investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy, UV–visible absorption spectroscopy, resonance light scattering and synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy under mimic physiological conditions. The results revealed that the fluorescence quenching of trypsin by caffeine and theophylline was the result of the formed complex of caffeine–trypsin and theophylline–trypsin. The binding constants and thermodynamic parameters at three different temperatures were obtained. The hydrophobic interaction was the predominant intermolecular forces to stabilize the complex. Results showed that caffeine was the stronger quencher and bound to trypsin with higher affinity than theophylline. -- Highlights: ► The fluorescence of trypsin can be quenched by caffeine or theophylline via hydrophobic contacts. ► Caffeine binds to trypsin with higher affinity than theophylline. ► The influence of molecular structure on the binding aspects is reported

  1. Molecularly Imprinted Polypyrrole Based Impedimentric Sensor for Theophylline Determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ratautaite, Vilma; Janssens, Stoffel D.; Haenen, Ken; Nesládek, Milos; Ramanaviciene, Almira; Baleviciute, Ieva; Ramanavicius, Arunas

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Sensor based on polypyrrole imprinted by theophylline (MIP) deposited on oxygen terminated boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond was developed. • This structure was applied as impedimetric sensor sensitive for theophylline. • Optimal polymer formation conditions suitable for MIP formation were elaborated. • Some analytical parameters were determined and evaluated. - Abstract: In this study development of impedimetric sensor based on oxygen terminated boron-doped nanocrystalline diamond (B:NCD:O) modified with theophylline imprinted polypyrrole is described. Hydrogen peroxide induced chemical formation of polypyrrole molecularly imprinted by theophylline was applied for the modification of conducting silicon substrate covered by B:NCD:O film. Non-imprinted polypyrrole layer was formed on similar substrate in order to prove efficiency of imprinted polypyrrole. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was applied for the evaluation of analyte-induced changes in electrochemical capacitance/resistance. The impact of polymerization duration on the capacitance of impedimetric sensor was estimated. A different impedance behavior was observed at different ratio of polymerized monomer and template molecule in the polymerization media. The influence of ethanol as additive to polymerization media on registered changes in capacitance/resistance was evaluated. Degradation of sensor stored in buffer solution was evaluated

  2. Determination of Theophylline Binding to Human Serum Proteins by Isotachophoresis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijenga, J.C.; Gaijkema, A.P.M.; Mikkers, F.E.P.

    1984-01-01

    Free theophylline was isolated from human serum by ultrafiltration and analysed in a leading electrolyte of 7.5 mM morpholinoethanesulphoric acid with ammediol as a counter ion at pH 8.90 and -alanine as a terminator. The UV (280 nm) absorbance of the theophylline spike between serine and bicine as

  3. Evaluation of Controlled Release Theophylline Microspheres ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    High drug/polymer ratio, low processing temperature and low HLB value of ... Keywords: Microsphere, Emulsion solvent evaporation, Theophylline, Temperature, ... evaporation, stirring rate, viscosity of ... organic solvent is removed from the.

  4. [Rapid determination of theophylline, theobromine and caffeine in dietary supplements containing guarana by ultra-performance liquid chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Takashi; Takahashi, Kazunaga; Saijo, Masaaki; Ishii, Toshiyasu; Nagata, Tomoko

    2009-12-01

    A rapid and simple method for determination of theophylline, theobromine and caffeine in dietary supplements containing guarana by ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) has been developed. Theophylline, theobromine and caffeine were extracted from finely powdered samples with water in a boiling water bath for 20 min, then the extracts were filtered and the filtrates were subjected to UPLC. Liquid samples were diluted with water and filteres, and the filtrates were subjected to UPLC. UPLC separation was performed on an AQUITY UPLC BEH C18 column (2.1 mm i.d.x50 mm, 1.7 microm, Waters) with 10 mmol/L ammonium acetate buffer (pH 4.0)-acetonitrile gradient and eluates were monitored at 275 nm. The recoveries of theophylline (spiked at 200 microg/g [tablet] and 50 microg/mL [liquid]), theobromine (spiked at 200 microg/g [tablet] and 50 microg/mL [liquid]) and caffeine (spiked at 1,000 microg/g [tablet] and 250 microg/mL [liquid]) were 97.6-98.7%, 97.3-99.7%, 97.1-105.4%, respectively. The quantitation limits of theophylline, theobromine and caffeine were 10 microg/g (seed, seed powder, tablet and capsule) and 2.0 microg/mL (liquid) each. When this analytical method was applied to commercial dietary supplements, theophylline, theobromine and caffeine were found at concentrations of 4.45 mg/tablet, 5.48 mg/tablet, 139 mg/tablet, respectively. Taking 4 tablets of this product according to the directions on the package could be dangerous to consumers because of possible overdosing of these ingredients.

  5. Theophylline is able to partially revert cachexia in tumour-bearing rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivan Mireia

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and aims The aim of the present investigation was to examine the anti-wasting effects of theophylline (a methylxantine present in tea leaves on a rat model of cancer cachexia. Methods The in vitro effects of the nutraceuticals on proteolysis were examined on muscle cell cultures submitted to hyperthermia. Individual muscle weights, muscle gene expression, body composition and cardiac function were measured in rats bearing the Yoshida AH-130 ascites hepatoma, following theophylline treatment. Results Theophylline treatment inhibited proteolysis in C2C12 cell line and resulted in an anti-proteolytic effect on muscle tissue (soleus and heart, which was associated with a decrease in circulating TNF-alpha levels and with a decreased proteolytic systems gene expression. Treatment with the nutraceutical also resulted in an improvement in body composition and cardiac function. Conclusion Theophylline - alone or in combination with drugs - may be a candidate molecule for the treatment of cancer cachexia.

  6. Molecularly imprinted poly(4-amino-5-hydroxy-2,7-naphthalenedisulfonic acid) modified glassy carbon electrode as an electrochemical theophylline sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aswini, K.K.; Vinu Mohan, A.M.; Biju, V.M.

    2016-01-01

    Theophylline is an inexpensive drug employed in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder medications and is toxic at higher concentration. The development of a molecularly imprinted polymer based theophylline electrochemical sensor on glassy carbon electrode by the electropolymerization of 4-amino-5-hydroxy-2,7-naphthalenedisulfonic acid is being discussed in this work. The MIP modification enhances the theophylline recognition ability and the electron transfer kinetics of the bare electrode. The parameters, controlling the performance of the imprinted polymer based sensor, like number of electropolymerization cycles, composition of the pre-polymerization mixture, pH and immersion time were investigated and optimized. The interaction energy and the most stable conformation of the template–monomer complex in the pre-polymerization mixture were determined computationally using ab initio calculations based on density functional theory. The amperometric measurements showed that the developed sensor has a method detection limit of 0.32 μM for the dynamic range of 0.4 to 17 μM, at optimized conditions. The transducer possesses appreciable selectivity in the presence of structurally similar interferents such as theobromine, caffeine and doxofylline. The developed sensor showed remarkable stability and reproducibility and was also successfully employed in theophylline detection from commercially available tablets. - Highlights: • Molecularly imprinted polymer based theophylline sensor was developed. • Imprinted poly(4-amino-5-hydroxy-2,7-naphthalenedisulfonic acid) was electrodeposited. • Most stable template-monomer complex was assigned by computational analysis. • Possessed remarkable selectivity in the presence of structurally similar interferents • Employed for theophylline detection from commercially available tablets

  7. Molecularly imprinted poly(4-amino-5-hydroxy-2,7-naphthalenedisulfonic acid) modified glassy carbon electrode as an electrochemical theophylline sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aswini, K.K., E-mail: aswinikk@ymail.com; Vinu Mohan, A.M.; Biju, V.M., E-mail: vmbiju@ymail.com

    2016-08-01

    Theophylline is an inexpensive drug employed in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder medications and is toxic at higher concentration. The development of a molecularly imprinted polymer based theophylline electrochemical sensor on glassy carbon electrode by the electropolymerization of 4-amino-5-hydroxy-2,7-naphthalenedisulfonic acid is being discussed in this work. The MIP modification enhances the theophylline recognition ability and the electron transfer kinetics of the bare electrode. The parameters, controlling the performance of the imprinted polymer based sensor, like number of electropolymerization cycles, composition of the pre-polymerization mixture, pH and immersion time were investigated and optimized. The interaction energy and the most stable conformation of the template–monomer complex in the pre-polymerization mixture were determined computationally using ab initio calculations based on density functional theory. The amperometric measurements showed that the developed sensor has a method detection limit of 0.32 μM for the dynamic range of 0.4 to 17 μM, at optimized conditions. The transducer possesses appreciable selectivity in the presence of structurally similar interferents such as theobromine, caffeine and doxofylline. The developed sensor showed remarkable stability and reproducibility and was also successfully employed in theophylline detection from commercially available tablets. - Highlights: • Molecularly imprinted polymer based theophylline sensor was developed. • Imprinted poly(4-amino-5-hydroxy-2,7-naphthalenedisulfonic acid) was electrodeposited. • Most stable template-monomer complex was assigned by computational analysis. • Possessed remarkable selectivity in the presence of structurally similar interferents • Employed for theophylline detection from commercially available tablets.

  8. Theophylline, a methylxanthine drug induces osteopenia and alters calciotropic hormones, and prophylactic vitamin D treatment protects against these changes in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, Subhashis; Khan, Kainat; China, Shyamsundar Pal; Mittal, Monika; Porwal, Konica; Shrivastava, Richa; Taneja, Isha; Hossain, Zakir; Mandalapu, Dhanaraju; Gayen, Jiaur R.; Wahajuddin, Muhammad; Sharma, Vishnu Lal; Trivedi, Arun K.; Sanyal, Sabyasachi; Bhadauria, Smrati; Godbole, Madan M.; Gupta, Sushil K.; Chattopadhyay, Naibedya

    2016-01-01

    The drug, theophylline is frequently used as an additive to medications for people suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD). We studied the effect of theophylline in bone cells, skeleton and parameters related to systemic calcium homeostasis. Theophylline induced osteoblast apoptosis by increasing reactive oxygen species production that was caused by increased cAMP production. Bone marrow levels of theophylline were higher than its serum levels, indicating skeletal accumulation of this drug. When adult Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with theophylline, bone regeneration at fracture site was diminished compared with control. Theophylline treatment resulted in a time-dependent (at 4- and 8 weeks) bone loss. At 8 weeks, a significant loss of bone mass and deterioration of microarchitecture occurred and the severity was comparable to methylprednisone. Theophylline caused formation of hypomineralized osteoid and increased osteoclast number and surface. Serum bone resorption and formation marker were respectively higher and lower in the theophylline group compared with control. Bone strength was reduced by theophylline treatment. After 8 weeks, serum 25-D3 and liver 25-hydroxylases were decreased in theophylline group than control. Further, theophylline treatment reduced serum 1, 25-(OH) 2 vitamin D 3 (1,25-D3), and increased parathyroid hormone and fibroblast growth factor-23. Theophylline treated rats had normal serum calcium and phosphate but displayed calciuria and phosphaturia. Co-administration of 25-D3 with theophylline completely abrogated theophylline-induced osteopenia and alterations in calcium homeostasis. In addition, 1,25-D3 protected osteoblasts from theophylline-induced apoptosis and the attendant oxidative stress. We conclude that theophylline has detrimental effects in bone and prophylactic vitamin D supplementation to subjects taking theophylline could be osteoprotective. - Highlights: • Theophylline induced osteoblast apoptosis

  9. Theophylline, a methylxanthine drug induces osteopenia and alters calciotropic hormones, and prophylactic vitamin D treatment protects against these changes in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal, Subhashis; Khan, Kainat; China, Shyamsundar Pal; Mittal, Monika; Porwal, Konica [Division of Endocrinology and Center for Research in Anabolic Skeletal Target in Health and Illness (ASTHI), Central Drug Research Institute - CDRI, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Lucknow 226021 (India); Shrivastava, Richa [Division of Toxicology, CDRI-CSIR, Lucknow 226021 (India); Taneja, Isha; Hossain, Zakir [Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism Division, CDRI-CSIR, Lucknow 226021 (India); Mandalapu, Dhanaraju [Division of Medicinal and Process Chemistry, CDRI-CSIR, Lucknow 226021 (India); Gayen, Jiaur R.; Wahajuddin, Muhammad [Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism Division, CDRI-CSIR, Lucknow 226021 (India); Sharma, Vishnu Lal [Division of Medicinal and Process Chemistry, CDRI-CSIR, Lucknow 226021 (India); Trivedi, Arun K.; Sanyal, Sabyasachi [Division of Biochemistry, CDRI-CSIR, Lucknow 226021 (India); Bhadauria, Smrati [Division of Toxicology, CDRI-CSIR, Lucknow 226021 (India); Godbole, Madan M.; Gupta, Sushil K. [Department of Medical Endocrinology, Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow 226014 (India); Chattopadhyay, Naibedya, E-mail: n_chattopadhyay@cdri.res.in [Division of Endocrinology and Center for Research in Anabolic Skeletal Target in Health and Illness (ASTHI), Central Drug Research Institute (CDRI), Council of Scientific and Industrial Research - CSIR, Lucknow 226021 (India)

    2016-03-15

    The drug, theophylline is frequently used as an additive to medications for people suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD). We studied the effect of theophylline in bone cells, skeleton and parameters related to systemic calcium homeostasis. Theophylline induced osteoblast apoptosis by increasing reactive oxygen species production that was caused by increased cAMP production. Bone marrow levels of theophylline were higher than its serum levels, indicating skeletal accumulation of this drug. When adult Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with theophylline, bone regeneration at fracture site was diminished compared with control. Theophylline treatment resulted in a time-dependent (at 4- and 8 weeks) bone loss. At 8 weeks, a significant loss of bone mass and deterioration of microarchitecture occurred and the severity was comparable to methylprednisone. Theophylline caused formation of hypomineralized osteoid and increased osteoclast number and surface. Serum bone resorption and formation marker were respectively higher and lower in the theophylline group compared with control. Bone strength was reduced by theophylline treatment. After 8 weeks, serum 25-D3 and liver 25-hydroxylases were decreased in theophylline group than control. Further, theophylline treatment reduced serum 1, 25-(OH){sub 2} vitamin D{sub 3} (1,25-D3), and increased parathyroid hormone and fibroblast growth factor-23. Theophylline treated rats had normal serum calcium and phosphate but displayed calciuria and phosphaturia. Co-administration of 25-D3 with theophylline completely abrogated theophylline-induced osteopenia and alterations in calcium homeostasis. In addition, 1,25-D3 protected osteoblasts from theophylline-induced apoptosis and the attendant oxidative stress. We conclude that theophylline has detrimental effects in bone and prophylactic vitamin D supplementation to subjects taking theophylline could be osteoprotective. - Highlights: • Theophylline induced osteoblast

  10. Protective effect of theophylline on renal functions in experimental pneumoperitoneum model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Sefa Alperen; Ceylan, Cavit; Serel, Tekin Ahmet; Doluoglu, Omer Gokhan; Soyupek, Arap Sedat; Guzel, Ahmet; Özorak, Alper; Uz, Efkan; Savas, Hasan Basri; Baspinar, Sirin

    2015-07-01

    Our objective in this experimental study is to research the effect of the intra-abdominal pressure which rises following pneumoperitoneum and whether Theophylline has a possible protective activity on this situation. In our study, 24 Wistar Albino rats were used. Rats were divided into two groups. The first group was set for only pneumoperitoneum model. The second group was given 15 mg/kg of Theophylline intraperitoneally before setting pneumoperitoneum model. Then urea, creatinine, cystatin-C, tissue and serum total antioxidant capacity, total oxidant capacity and oxidative stress index in two groups were measured and compared with each other. Apoptosis and histopathological conditions in the renal tissues were examined. The differences between the groups were analyzed with the Mann-Whitney U test. Results were considered significant at p OSI values (p > 0.05). The mean value of urea were similar in pneumoperitoneum and pneumoperitoneum + theophylline groups (p = 0.12). The mean cystatin-C value was 2.2 ± 0.3 µg/mL in pneumoperitoneum, 1.74 ± 0.33 µg/mL in pneumoperitoneum + theophylline (p = 0.002). According to our study, lower cystatin-C levels in the group, where Theophylline was given, are suggestive of lower renal injury in this group. However, this opinion is interrogated as there is no difference in terms of tissue and serum TAS, TOS, OSI and urea values between the groups.

  11. Evaluating Suspension Formulations of Theophylline Cocrystals With Artificial Sweeteners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitipamula, Srinivasulu; Wong, Annie B H; Kanaujia, Parijat

    2018-02-01

    Pharmaceutical cocrystals have garnered significant interest as potential solids to address issues associated with formulation development of drug substances. However, studies concerning the understanding of formulation behavior of cocrystals are still at the nascent stage. We present results of our attempts to evaluate suspension formulations of cocrystals of an antiasthmatic drug, theophylline, with 2 artificial sweeteners. Stability, solubility, drug release, and taste of the suspension formulations were evaluated. Suspension that contained cocrystal with acesulfame showed higher drug release rate, while a cocrystal with saccharin showed a significant reduction in drug release rate. The cocrystal with saccharin was found stable in suspension for over 9 weeks at accelerated test condition; in contrast, the cocrystal with acesulfame was found unstable. Taste analysis using an electronic taste-sensing system revealed improved sweetness of the suspension formulations with cocrystals. Theophylline has a narrow therapeutic index with a short half-life which necessitates frequent dosing. This adversely impacts patient compliance and enhances risk of gastrointestinal and cardiovascular adverse effects. The greater thermodynamic stability, sweetness, and sustained drug release of the suspension formulation of theophylline-saccharin could offer an alternative solution to the short half-life of theophylline and make it a promising formulation for treating asthmatic pediatric and geriatric patients. Copyright © 2018 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The effect of increased caffeine intake on the metabolism and pharmacokinetics of theophylline in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monks, T J; Lawrie, C A; Caldwell, J

    1981-01-01

    The metabolism and pharmacokinetics of intravenously administered theophylline (100 mg) have been investigated in three healthy male volunteers who consumed 6 bottles/day of a cola beverage, in addition to their usual intake of methylxanthines, for 7 days prior to and during the study. Five urinary metabolites were detected in addition to unchanged theophylline, that is 3-methylxanthine, 1,3-dimethyluric acid, 1-methyluric acid, and two minor unknown metabolites. The elimination of theophylline, 1,3-dimethyluric acid, 1-methyluric acid, and the two unknowns was described by first-order kinetics, whereas that of 3-methylxanthine was described by Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The results have been compared with those previously obtained in the same volunteers while consuming their usual intake of methylxanthine-containing foods and beverages, and this shows that the addition of extra methylxanthines to the diet does not influence the disposition of theophylline. This is in marked contrast to the effect of deprivation of dietary methylxanthines on theophylline metabolism. The results are discussed in terms of the influence of methylxanthines on theophylline metabolism, and of its possible dose-dependency.

  13. Effect of maintenance oral theophylline on dipyridamole-thallium-201 myocardial imaging using SPECT and dipyridamole-induced hemodynamic changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daley, P.J.; Mahn, T.H.; Zielonka, J.S.; Krubsack, A.J.; Akhtar, R.; Bamrah, V.S.

    1988-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of maintenance oral theophylline therapy on the diagnostic efficacy of dipyridamole-thallium-201 single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging for coronary artery disease, dipyridamole-thallium-201 SPECT imaging was performed in eight men with documented coronary artery disease before initiation of theophylline treatment and repeated while these patients were receiving therapeutic doses of oral theophylline. Before theophylline treatment, intravenous dipyridamole caused a significant increase in heart rate, decrease in blood pressure, angina in seven of eight patients, and ST segment depression in four of eight patients. While they were being treated with theophylline, none of the patients had angina or ST segment depression, and there were no hemodynamic changes with intravenous dipyridamole. Before theophylline treatment, dipyridamole-thallium-201 SPECT imaging showed reversible perfusion defects in myocardial segments supplied by stenotic coronary arteries. With theophylline treatment, dipyridamole-thallium-201 SPECT showed total absence of reversible perfusion defects. Treatment with theophylline markedly reduced the diagnostic accuracy of dipyridamole-thallium-201 imaging for coronary artery disease

  14. PILOT STUDY: An international comparison of mass fraction purity assignment of theophylline: CCQM Pilot Study CCQM-P20.e (Theophylline)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westwood, S.; Josephs, R.; Daireaux, A.; Wielgosz, R.; Davies, S.; Kang, M.; Ting, H.; Phillip, R.; Malz, F.; Shimizu, Y.; Frias, E.; Pérez, M.; Apps, P.; Fernandes-Whaley, M.; DeVos, B.; Wiangnon, K.; Ruangrittinon, N.; Wood, S.; Duewer, D.; Schantz, M.; Bedner, M.; Hancock, D.; Esker, J.

    2009-01-01

    Under the auspices of the Organic Analysis Working Group (OAWG) of the Comité Consultatif pour la Quantité de Matière (CCQM) a laboratory comparison, CCQM-P20.e, was coordinated by the Bureau International de Poids et Mesures (BIPM) in 2006/2007. Nine national measurement institutes, two expert laboratories and the BIPM participated in the comparison. Participants were required to assign the mass fraction of theophylline present as the main component in two separate study samples (CCQM-P20.e.1 and CCQM-P20.e.2). CCQM-P20.e.1 consisted of a high-purity theophylline material obtained from a commercial supplier. CCQM-P20.e.2 consisted of theophylline to which known amounts of the related structure compounds theobromine and caffeine were added in a homogenous, gravimetrically controlled fashion. For the CCQM-P20.e.2 sample it was possible to estimate gravimetric reference values both for the main component and for the two spiked impurities. In addition to assigning the mass fraction content of theophylline for both materials, participants were requested but not obliged to provide mass fraction estimates for the minor components they identified in each sample. The results reported by the study participants for the mass fraction content of theophylline in both materials showed good levels of agreement both with each other and with the gravimetric reference value assigned to the CCQM-P20.e.2 material. There was also satisfactory agreement overall, albeit at higher levels of uncertainty, in the quantification data reported for the minor components present in both samples. In the few cases where a significant deviation was observed from the consensus values reported by the comparison participants or gravimetric reference values where these where available, they appeared to arise from the use of non-optimal chromatographic separation conditions. The results demonstrate the feasibility for laboratories to assign mass fraction content with associated absolute expanded

  15. Two Distinct Pathways for Metabolism of Theophylline and Caffeine Are Coexpressed in Pseudomonas putida CBB5▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Chi Li; Louie, Tai Man; Summers, Ryan; Kale, Yogesh; Gopishetty, Sridhar; Subramanian, Mani

    2009-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida CBB5 was isolated from soil by enrichment on caffeine. This strain used not only caffeine, theobromine, paraxanthine, and 7-methylxanthine as sole carbon and nitrogen sources but also theophylline and 3-methylxanthine. Analyses of metabolites in spent media and resting cell suspensions confirmed that CBB5 initially N demethylated theophylline via a hitherto unreported pathway to 1- and 3-methylxanthines. NAD(P)H-dependent conversion of theophylline to 1- and 3-methylxanthines was also detected in the crude cell extracts of theophylline-grown CBB5. 1-Methylxanthine and 3-methylxanthine were subsequently N demethylated to xanthine. CBB5 also oxidized theophylline and 1- and 3-methylxanthines to 1,3-dimethyluric acid and 1- and 3-methyluric acids, respectively. However, these methyluric acids were not metabolized further. A broad-substrate-range xanthine-oxidizing enzyme was responsible for the formation of these methyluric acids. In contrast, CBB5 metabolized caffeine to theobromine (major metabolite) and paraxanthine (minor metabolite). These dimethylxanthines were further N demethylated to xanthine via 7-methylxanthine. Theobromine-, paraxanthine-, and 7-methylxanthine-grown cells also metabolized all of the methylxanthines mentioned above via the same pathway. Thus, the theophylline and caffeine N-demethylation pathways converged at xanthine via different methylxanthine intermediates. Xanthine was eventually oxidized to uric acid. Enzymes involved in theophylline and caffeine degradation were coexpressed when CBB5 was grown on theophylline or on caffeine or its metabolites. However, 3-methylxanthine-grown CBB5 cells did not metabolize caffeine, whereas theophylline was metabolized at much reduced levels to only methyluric acids. To our knowledge, this is the first report of theophylline N demethylation and coexpression of distinct pathways for caffeine and theophylline degradation in bacteria. PMID:19447909

  16. Effects of excipients on hydrate formation in wet masses containing theophylline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Airaksinen, Sari; Luukkonen, Pirjo; Jørgensen, Anna

    2003-01-01

    its dissolution rate. The aim of this study was to investigate whether excipients, such as alpha-lactose monohydrate or the highly water absorbing silicified microcrystalline cellulose (SMCC) can influence the hydrate formation of theophylline. In particular, the aim was to study if SMCC offers...... protection against the formation of theophylline monohydrate relative to alpha-lactose monohydrate in wet masses after an overnight equilibration and the stability of final granules during controlled storage. In addition, the aim was to study the use of spectroscopic methods to identify hydrate formation...... in the formulations containing excipients. Off-line evaluation of materials was performed using X-ray powder diffractometry, near infrared and Raman spectroscopy. alpha-Lactose monohydrate with minimal water absorbing potential was not able to prevent but enhanced hydrate formation of theophylline. Even though SMCC...

  17. Molecularly imprinted poly(4-amino-5-hydroxy-2,7-naphthalenedisulfonic acid) modified glassy carbon electrode as an electrochemical theophylline sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aswini, K K; Vinu Mohan, A M; Biju, V M

    2016-08-01

    Theophylline is an inexpensive drug employed in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder medications and is toxic at higher concentration. The development of a molecularly imprinted polymer based theophylline electrochemical sensor on glassy carbon electrode by the electropolymerization of 4-amino-5-hydroxy-2,7-naphthalenedisulfonic acid is being discussed in this work. The MIP modification enhances the theophylline recognition ability and the electron transfer kinetics of the bare electrode. The parameters, controlling the performance of the imprinted polymer based sensor, like number of electropolymerization cycles, composition of the pre-polymerization mixture, pH and immersion time were investigated and optimized. The interaction energy and the most stable conformation of the template-monomer complex in the pre-polymerization mixture were determined computationally using ab initio calculations based on density functional theory. The amperometric measurements showed that the developed sensor has a method detection limit of 0.32μM for the dynamic range of 0.4 to 17μM, at optimized conditions. The transducer possesses appreciable selectivity in the presence of structurally similar interferents such as theobromine, caffeine and doxofylline. The developed sensor showed remarkable stability and reproducibility and was also successfully employed in theophylline detection from commercially available tablets. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Theophylline Cocrystals Prepared by Spray Drying: Physicochemical Properties and Aerosolization Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Alhalaweh, Amjad; Kaialy, Waseem; Buckton, Graham; Gill, Hardyal; Nokhodchi, Ali; Velaga, Sitaram P.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to characterize theophylline (THF) cocrystals prepared by spray drying in terms of the physicochemical properties and inhalation performance when aerosolized from a dry powder inhaler. Cocrystals of theophylline with urea (THF-URE), saccharin (THF-SAC) and nicotinamide (THF-NIC) were prepared by spray drying. Milled THF and THF-SAC cocrystals were also used for comparison. The physical purity, particle size, particle morphology and surface energy of the materials ...

  19. Three-dimensional model of a selective theophylline-binding RNA molecule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tung, Chang-Shung; Oprea, T.I.; Hummer, G.; Garcia, A.E.

    1995-07-01

    We propose a three-dimensional (3D) model for an RNA molecule that selectively binds theophylline but not caffeine. This RNA, which was found using SELEX [Jenison, R.D., et al., Science (1994) 263:1425] is 10,000 times more specific for theophylline (Kd=320 nM) than for caffeine (Kd=3.5 mM), although the two ligands are identical except for a methyl group substituted at N7 (present only in caffeine). The binding affinity for ten xanthine-based ligands was used to derive a Comparative Molecular Field Analysis (CoMFA) model (R{sup 2} = 0.93 for 3 components, with cross-validated R{sup 2} of 0.73), using the SYBYL and GOLPE programs. A pharmacophoric map was generated to locate steric and electrostatic interactions between theophylline and the RNA binding site. This information was used to identify putative functional groups of the binding pocket and to generate distance constraints. Based on a model for the secondary structure (Jenison et al., idem), the 3D structure of this RNA was then generated using the following method: each helical region of the RNA molecule was treated as a rigid body; single-stranded loops with specific end-to-end distances were generated. The structures of RNA-xanthine complexes were studied using a modified Monte Carlo algorithm. The detailed structure of an RNA-ligand complex model, as well as possible explanations for the theophylline selectivity will be discussed.

  20. Theophylline-induced respiratory recovery following cervical spinal cord hemisection is augmented by serotonin 2 receptor stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basura, Gregory J; Nantwi, Kwaku D; Goshgarian, Harry G

    2002-11-22

    Cervical spinal cord hemisection leads to a disruption of bulbospinal innervation of phrenic motoneurons resulting in paralysis of the ipsilateral hemidiaphragm. We have previously demonstrated separate therapeutic roles for theophylline, and more recently serotonin (5-HT) as modulators to phrenic nerve motor recovery; mechanisms that likely occur via adenosine A1 and 5-HT2 receptors, respectively. The present study was designed to specifically determine if concurrent stimulation of 5-HT2 receptors may enhance motor recovery induced by theophylline alone. Adult female rats (250-350 g; n=7 per group) received a left cervical (C2) hemisection that resulted in paralysis of the ipsilateral hemidiaphragm. Twenty-four hours later rats were given systemic theophylline (15 mg/kg, i.v.), resulting in burst recovery in the ipsilateral phrenic nerve. Theophylline-induced recovery was enhanced with the 5-HT2A/2C receptor agonist, (+/-)-2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine hydrochloride (DOI; 1.0 mg/kg). DOI-evoked augmentation of theophylline-induced recovery was attenuated following subsequent injection of the 5-HT2 receptor antagonist, ketanserin (2.0 mg/kg). In a separate group, rats were pretreated with ketanserin, which did not prevent subsequent theophylline-induced respiratory recovery. However, pretreatment with ketanserin did prevent DOI-induced augmentation of the theophylline-evoked phrenic nerve burst recovery. Lastly, using immunocytochemistry and in situ hybridization, we showed for the first time a positive co-localization of adenosine A1 receptor mRNA and immunoreactivity with phrenic motoneurons of the cervical ventral horns. Taken together, the results of the present study suggest that theophylline may induce motor recovery likely at adenosine A1 receptors located at the level of the spinal cord, and the concurrent stimulation of converging 5-HT2 receptors may augment the response.

  1. Preparation, Characterization and In vitro Evaluation of Theophylline ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To design and characterize theophylline nanoparticles synthesized with dextran-conjugated soy protein ... However, reports on the synthesis and evaluation of SPI- ... Calcium chloride and all other reagents were of analytical grade.

  2. A monoclinic polymorph of theophylline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Zhang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A monoclinic polymorph of theophylline, C7H8N4O2, has been obtained from a chloroform/methanol mixture by evaporation under ambient conditions. The new polymorph crystallizes with two molecules in the asymmetric unit. The structure features intermolecular N—H...O hydrogen bonds, resulting in the formation of dimers between two crystallographically different molecules; each molecule acts as both donor and acceptor.

  3. Effects of theophylline administration and intracranial abnormalities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine effects of theophylline therapy for recurrent apnoea of prematurity and abnormal early (within the first 24 hours) cranial ultrasound abnormalities on protective neck turning response in preterm infants. Design: A cross sectional descriptive study. Setting: The Neonatal Unit of Hammersmith Hospital, ...

  4. Influence of processing-induced phase transformations on the dissolution of theophylline tablets

    OpenAIRE

    Debnath, Smita; Suryanarayanan, Raj

    2004-01-01

    The object of this investigation was to evaluate the influence of (1) processing-induced decrease in drug crystallinity and (2) phase transformations during dissolution, on the per-formance of theophylline tablet formulations. Anhydrous theophylline underwent multiple transformations (anhydrate »hydrate»anhydrate) during processing. Although the crystallinity of the anhydrate obtained finally was lower than that of the unprocessed drug, it dissolved at a slower rate. This decrease in dissolut...

  5. Effects of caffeine, theophylline and theobromine on scheduled controlled responding in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, J. M.

    1982-01-01

    1 Rats were trained to respond under a variable interval 30 s (VI 30) schedule of food reinforcement. Caffeine (0.32-32 mg/kg), theophylline (1.0-56 mg/kg) and theobromine (10-320 mg/kg) in general produced dose-related decreases in operant responding. At relatively low doses, caffeine (1.0 mg/kg) and theophylline (3.2 mg/kg) produced slight but nonsignificant increases in VI 30 responding. 3 The rank order of potency for producing decreases in responding was caffeine greater than theophylline greater than theobromine. 4 Daily caffeine injections (32 mg/kg, i.p.) resulted in the development of caffeine tolerance. This tolerance was characterized by a 6 fold shift to the right in the caffeine dose-effect curve. Saline substitution for the 32.0 mg/kg caffeine maintenance dose resulted in a substantial decrease in responding. PMID:7066599

  6. Theophylline toxicity leading to suicidal ideation in a patient with no prior psychiatric illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Kapoor

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Suicidal behavior is a common psychiatric emergency and is associated with psychiatric illness and history of prior suicide attempts. Neuropsychiatric manifestations related to theophylline toxicity are well described in literature. We report a case of theophylline toxicity manifesting as suicidal ideation in a patient with no prior psychiatric illness.

  7. Determination of caffeine, theobromine and theophylline in Mate beer and Mate soft drinks by high-performance thin-layer chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oellig, Claudia; Schunck, Jacob; Schwack, Wolfgang

    2018-01-19

    Mate beer and Mate soft drinks are beverages produced from the dried leaves of Ilex paraguariensis (Yerba Mate). In Yerba Mate, the xanthine derivatives caffeine, theobromine and theophylline, also known as methylxanthines, are important active components. The presented method for the determination of caffeine, theobromine and theophylline in Mate beer and Mate soft drinks by high-performance thin-layer chromatography with ultraviolet detection (HPTLC-UV) offers a fully automated and sensitive determination of the three methylxanthines. Filtration of the samples was followed by degassing, dilution with acetonitrile in the case of Mate beers for protein precipitation, and centrifugation before the extracts were analyzed by HPTLC-UV on LiChrospher silica gel plates with fluorescence indicator and acetone/toluene/chloroform (4:3:3, v/v/v) as the mobile phase. For quantitation, the absorbance was scanned at 274nm. Limits of detection and quantitation were 1 and 4ng/zone, respectively, for caffeine, theobromine and theophylline. With recoveries close to 100% and low standard deviations reliable results were guaranteed. Experimental Mate beers as well as Mate beers and Mate soft drinks from the market were analyzed for their concentrations of methylxanthines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A molecular imprint-coated stirrer bar for selective extraction of caffeine, theobromine and theophylline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Quanfei; Ma, Chao; Chen, Huaixia; Wu, Yaqi; Huang, Jianlin

    2014-01-01

    We have prepared a novel caffeine imprinted polymer on a stir bar that can be used for selective extraction of caffeine, theobromine and theophylline from beverages. The polymerization time and quantities of reagents (template, cross-linker, porogenic solvent) were optimized. The morphology of the molecularly imprinted polymer-coating was studied by scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform IR spectroscopy. A rapid and sensitive method was worked out for the extraction of caffeine, theobromine and theophylline from beverages by using the molecularly imprinted stir bar followed by HPLC analysis. The effects of extraction solvent, stirring speed, desorption solvent, adsorption and desorption time were optimized. The method displays a linear response in the 5–150 μg L −1 caffeine concentration range, with a correlation coefficient of >0.9904. The recoveries for three analytes in tea, carbonated and functional beverages were 91–108 %, 90–110 % and 93–109 %, with relative standard deviations ranging from 3.6–5.7 %, 3.5–7.9 % and 3.2–7.9 %, respectively. (author)

  9. Molecular simulations and Markov state modeling reveal the structural diversity and dynamics of a theophylline-binding RNA aptamer in its unbound state.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becka M Warfield

    Full Text Available RNA aptamers are oligonucleotides that bind with high specificity and affinity to target ligands. In the absence of bound ligand, secondary structures of RNA aptamers are generally stable, but single-stranded and loop regions, including ligand binding sites, lack defined structures and exist as ensembles of conformations. For example, the well-characterized theophylline-binding aptamer forms a highly stable binding site when bound to theophylline, but the binding site is unstable and disordered when theophylline is absent. Experimental methods have not revealed at atomic resolution the conformations that the theophylline aptamer explores in its unbound state. Consequently, in the present study we applied 21 microseconds of molecular dynamics simulations to structurally characterize the ensemble of conformations that the aptamer adopts in the absence of theophylline. Moreover, we apply Markov state modeling to predict the kinetics of transitions between unbound conformational states. Our simulation results agree with experimental observations that the theophylline binding site is found in many distinct binding-incompetent states and show that these states lack a binding pocket that can accommodate theophylline. The binding-incompetent states interconvert with binding-competent states through structural rearrangement of the binding site on the nanosecond to microsecond timescale. Moreover, we have simulated the complete theophylline binding pathway. Our binding simulations supplement prior experimental observations of slow theophylline binding kinetics by showing that the binding site must undergo a large conformational rearrangement after the aptamer and theophylline form an initial complex, most notably, a major rearrangement of the C27 base from a buried to solvent-exposed orientation. Theophylline appears to bind by a combination of conformational selection and induced fit mechanisms. Finally, our modeling indicates that when Mg2+ ions are

  10. A liquid chromatographic method for determination of theophylline in serum and capillary blood--a comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartzke, J; Jäger, H; Vins, I

    1991-01-01

    A simple, fast and reliable liquid chromatographic method for the determination of theophylline in serum and capillary blood after a solid phase extraction is described for therapeutic drug monitoring. The employment of capillary blood permits the determination of an individual drug profile and other pharmacokinetic studies in neonates and infants. There were no differences in venous- and capillary-blood levels but these values compared poorly with those in serum. An adjustment of the results by correction of the different volumes of serum and blood by haematocrit was unsuccessful. Differences in the binding of theophylline to erythrocytes could be an explanation for the differences in serum at blood levels of theophylline.

  11. Theophylline prevents NAD+ depletion via PARP-1 inhibition in human pulmonary epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moonen, Harald J.J.; Geraets, Liesbeth; Vaarhorst, Anika; Bast, Aalt; Wouters, Emiel F.M.; Hageman, Geja J.

    2005-01-01

    Oxidative DNA damage, as occurs during exacerbations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), highly activates the nuclear enzyme poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase-1 (PARP-1). This can lead to cellular depletion of its substrate NAD + , resulting in an energy crisis and ultimately in cell death. Inhibition of PARP-1 results in preservation of the intracellular NAD + pool, and of NAD + -dependent cellular processes. In this study, PARP-1 activation by hydrogen peroxide decreased intracellular NAD + levels in human pulmonary epithelial cells, which was found to be prevented in a dose-dependent manner by theophylline, a widely used compound in the treatment of COPD. This enzyme inhibition by theophylline was confirmed in an ELISA using purified human PARP-1 and was found to be competitive by nature. These findings provide new mechanistic insights into the therapeutic effect of theophylline in oxidative stress-induced lung pathologies

  12. Use of Resting Cells of Native Screened Rhodotorula sp. CW03 in Biotransformation of Caffeine to Theophylline and Paraxanthine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ashengroph

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: In recent years, microorganisms have been applied as biocatalysts for making pharmaceutically natural products. Microbial biotransformation of caffeine suggests a dual approach for biodegradation of toxic caffeine from polluted environments and a method for the production of medically and pharmaceutically valuable dimethylxanthines. The present work describes the identification of native yeasts capable of biotransformation of caffeine into theophylline and paraxanthine. Materials & Methods: In this experimental study fourteen yeast strains which were able to de-grade caffeine isolated based on their morphology were selected as biocatalysts for biotrans-formation of caffeine as a low-cost substrate to high value added dimethylxanthines such as theophylline and theobromine. The selected strains were characterized based on phenotypic and genetic tests. Screening was performed by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC analyses. Results: The results obtained using TLC and HPLC analyses suggest formation of two main metabolites of theophylline and paraxanthine from biotransformation of caffeine under resting cells of Rhodotorula sp. CW03 (GenBank accession number KF414531. The results showed that under resting cell conditions a maximum concentration of theophylline 380 mg/l (molar yield of 16.4% and paraxanthine 880 mg/l (molar yield of 37.9% were obtained after 72 h and 120 h of conversion time, respectively. Conclusion: In the current investigation, done for the first time in Iran, we describe the isola-tion and identification of yeast strains with caffeine degradation ability which can be proposed as safe and cost-effective biocatalysts in production of value added dimethylxanthines from caffeine as a low-cost substrate.(Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2015; 22 (2: 83-92

  13. Comparison of Plasma, Saliva, and Hair Levetiracetam Concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaś-Ruszczyk, Katarzyna; Kuczyńska, Julita; Sienkiewicz-Jarosz, Halina; Kurkowska-Jastrzębska, Iwona; Bienkowski, Przemyslaw; Restel, Magdalena; Samochowiec, Jerzy; Mierzejewski, Pawel

    2017-06-01

    Previous findings revealed high correlations between serum/plasma and saliva levetiracetam concentrations, indicating saliva as an alternative matrix for monitoring levetiracetam therapy. Levetiracetam concentration in the hair, which could reflect long-term drug exposure and patients' compliance, has not been systematically tested, as yet. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between plasma, saliva, and hair levetiracetam concentrations in 47 patients with epilepsy. Plasma, saliva, and hair levetiracetam concentrations were measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with positive ionization. Levetiracetam saliva and plasma concentrations were highly correlated (r = 0.93). Plasma concentrations were not influenced by sex, age, and other concomitant antiepileptic drugs. Levetiracetam hair concentrations correlated with plasma concentrations (r = 0.36) but not daily dose (mg/kg). Drug hair concentrations were not influenced by hair color or treatment (dyed). The results tend to indicate that saliva may be a reliable alternative to plasma for monitoring levetiracetam concentrations. Levetiracetam can also be detected in human hair.

  14. Plasma Glutamine Concentrations in Liver Failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnel Helling

    Full Text Available Higher than normal plasma glutamine concentration at admission to an intensive care unit is associated with an unfavorable outcome. Very high plasma glutamine levels are sometimes seen in both acute and chronic liver failure. We aimed to systematically explore the relation between different types of liver failure and plasma glutamine concentrations.Four different groups of patients were studies; chronic liver failure (n = 40, acute on chronic liver failure (n = 20, acute fulminant liver failure (n = 20, and post-hepatectomy liver failure (n = 20. Child-Pugh and Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD scores were assessed as indices of liver function. All groups except the chronic liver failure group were followed longitudinally during hospitalisation. Outcomes were recorded up to 48 months after study inclusion.All groups had individuals with very high plasma glutamine concentrations. In the total group of patients (n = 100, severity of liver failure correlated significantly with plasma glutamine concentration, but the correlation was not strong.Liver failure, regardless of severity and course of illness, may be associated with a high plasma glutamine concentration. Further studies are needed to understand whether high glutamine levels should be regarded as a biomarker or as a contributor to symptomatology in liver failure.

  15. Study on Effectiveness of Low Dose Theophylline as Add-on to Inhaled Corticosteroid for Patients with Sulfur Mustard Induced Bronchiolitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunes Panahi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Theophylline may reverse steroid resistance and decrease inflammation in patients with chronic pulmonary disease and sulfur mustard (SM induced bronchiolitis. This study was designed to assess the effects of low-dose theophylline on improvement of pulmonary function tests (PFTs of SM exposed patients.Methods: In this comparative observational study, a group of SM-exposed victims during the Iraq-Iran war who were treated with oral slow releasing (SR theophylline, salmetrol, fluxitide, omeprazole and NAC (study group were compared to a group of age and gender matched SM-exposed patients who received same medications except oral SR theophylline (historical control group. PFTs were measured at the beginning of the study and after 8 weeks of the treatment.Results: In total, 33 subjects in the study group and 27 subjects in the control group were studied. Mean (SD age of all subjects was 51 (14.1 years. In the study group, on the 8th week post-treatment, PFTs decreased, though the differences of tests between before and after treatment were not significant. In the control group, all the tests decreased in the same period and these reductions were not also significant. However, the changes in PFTs were significantly different between the two groups. The results of most PFTs in the controls decreased in greater extents compared to theophylline treated patients. This shows that despite theophylline was unable to improve the patients; it was partially able to decelerate the reductions in PFTs.Conclusion: Theophylline may not improve PFTs of SM exposed patients but it may decelerate the progress of the underlying respiratory disease. Further studies in this setting with higher doses of theophylline and longer term of evaluation are needed to better understand the pathophysiological mechanism of SM induced bronchiolitis and the effectiveness of the treatment with theophylline.   How to cite this article: Panahi Y, Poursaleh Z, Amini-Harandi A

  16. Plasma fibronectin concentrations in morbidly obese patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dejgaard, A; Andersen, T; Christoffersen, Pernille Yde

    1984-01-01

    Plasma fibronectin concentrations and liver morphology were investigated in 45 morbidly obese subjects (median overweight 88%) and in 42 normal weight controls, matched for sex and age. A significantly (P less than 0.01) raised plasma fibronectin concentration (median 464 mg/l, range 276-862 mg...... in their liver biopsies (r = 0.33, P less than 0.05). Significantly (P less than 0.05) elevated plasma fibronectin concentrations even in obese subjects without hepatic fatty change indicate that liver fat accumulation is no prerequisite of the obesity-related elevation of plasma fibronectin. Raised plasma...

  17. Simultaneous determination of caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bispo, Marcia S; Veloso, Márcia Cristina C; Pinheiro, Heloísa Lúcia C; De Oliveira, Rodolfo F S; Reis, José Oscar N; De Andrade, Jailson B

    2002-01-01

    This work relates the development of an analytical methodology to simultaneously determine three methylxanthines (caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline) in beverages and urine samples based on reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Separation is made with a Bondesil C18 column using methanol-water-acetic acid or ethanol-water-acetic acid (20:75:5, v/v/v) as the mobile phase at 0.7 mL/min. Identification is made by absorbance detection at 273 nm. Under optimized conditions, the detection limit of the HPLC method is 0.1 pg/mL for all three methylxanthines. This method is applied to urine and to 25 different beverage samples, which included coffee, tea, chocolate, and coconut water. The concentration ranges determined in the beverages and urine are: < 0.1 pg/mL to 350 microg/mL and 3.21 microg/mL to 71.2 microg/mL for caffeine; < 0.1 pg/mL to 32 microg mL and < 0.1 pg/mL to 13.2 microg/mL for theobromine; < 0.1 pg/mL to 47 microg/mL and < 0.1 pg/mL to 66.3 microg/mL for theophylline. The method proposed in this study is rapid and suitable for the simultaneous quantitation of methylxanthines in beverages and human urine samples and requires no extraction step or derivatization.

  18. Theophylline as an add-on to thrombolytic therapy in acute ischaemic stroke (TEA-Stroke)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Modrau, Boris; Hjort, Niels; Østergaard, Leif

    2016-01-01

    the collateral supply in acute ischaemic brain tissue and thus facilitate reperfusion despite proximal vessel occlusion. The primary study objective is to evaluate whether theophylline is safe and efficient in acute ischaemic stroke patients as an add-on to thrombolytic therapy.MethodsThe TEA-Stroke Trial...... models, clinical case series and randomized clinical trials are controversial. A Cochrane analysis from 2004 concluded that there was not enough evidence to assess whether theophylline is safe and improves outcomes in patients with acute ischaemic stroke. The TEA-Stroke Trial will clarify whether...

  19. Plasma concentration of acetylcholine in young women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawashima, K.; Oohata, H.; Fujimoto, K.; Suzuki, T.

    1987-01-01

    A sensitive and specific radioimmunoassay was applied to the determination of acetylcholine (ACh) in plasma. The concentration of ACh in plasma sampled from 32 young women was 456.1+-53.1 (mean +-S.E.M.) pg/ml. No significant correlations were observed between plasma concentrations of ACh and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, or gonadal hormones. These data demonstrate that an amount of ACh measurable by radioimmunoassay is present in plasma and plasma ACh is not regulated by AChE activity and the menstrual cycle in young women. The origin and physiological as well as pathophysiological significance of ACh in plasma remain to be clarified. 13 refs. (Author)

  20. Role of excipients in hydrate formation kinetics of theophylline in wet masses studied by near-infrared spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anna C; Airaksinen, Sari; Karjalainen, Milja

    2004-01-01

    . Anhydrous theophylline was chosen as the hydrate-forming model drug compound and two excipients, silicified microcrystalline cellulose (SMCC) and alpha-lactose monohydrate, with different water absorbing properties, were used in formulation. An early stage of wet massing was studied with anhydrous...... theophylline and its 1:1 (w/w) mixtures with alpha-lactose monohydrate and SMCC with 0.1g/g of purified water. The changes in the state of water were monitored using near-infrared spectroscopy, and the conversion of the crystal structure was verified using X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD). SMCC decreased...... the hydrate formation rate by absorbing water, but did not inhibit it. The results suggest that alpha-lactose monohydrate slightly increased the hydrate formation rate in comparison with a mass comprising only anhydrous theophylline....

  1. Simultaneous determination of theophylline and caffeine on novel [Tetra-(5-chloroquinolin-8-yloxy) phthalocyanato] manganese(III)-Carbon nanotubes composite electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koçak, Çağrı Ceylan; Nas, Asiye; Kantekin, Halit; Dursun, Zekerya

    2018-07-01

    This work reports the synthesis of new symmetrically substituted manganese(III) phthalocyanine (2eOHMnPc) (2) containing tetra 5-chloroquinolin-8-yloxy group at the peripheral position for the first time. Manganese(III) phthalocyanine (2) was synthesized by cyclotetramerization of 4-(5-chloroquinolin-8-yloxy)phthalonitrile (1) in the presence of corresponding metal salt (manganese(II) chloride). This peripherally substituted phthalocyanine complex (2) was purified by column chromatography and characterized by several techniques such as IR, mass and UV-Visible spectral data. This novel synthesized phthalocyanine was mixed with multiwalled carbon nanotubes in order to prepare the novel catalytic surface on glassy carbon electrode for theophylline and caffeine detection in acidic medium. The novel composite electrode surfaces were characterized by scanning electron microscopy and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Individual and simultaneous determination of theophylline and caffeine were studied by differential pulse voltammetry. The detection limits were individually calculated for theophylline and caffeine as 6.6 × 10 -9 M and 5.0 × 10 -8 M, respectively. In simultaneous determination, LODs were calculated for theophylline and caffeine as 8.1 × 10 -9 M and 3.0 × 10 -7 M, respectively. The practical applicability of the proposed modified electrode was tested for the determination of theophylline and caffeine in green tea, cola and theophylline serum. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Plasma concentrations of misonidazole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Notter, G; Rylander, U; Turesson, I

    1980-10-01

    The plasma concentrations of misonidazole doses between 0.6 and 2.0 g/m/sup 2/ were analyzed in respect to the variation within the same patient and between different patients. Peak plasma levels were observed after 2 hours. The mean plasma levels of misonidazole only at 3 hours were 23.8, 47.0 and 76.5 ..mu..g/ml after misonidazole doses of 0.6, 1.2 g/m/sup 2/, respectively. The half-life of misonidazole only was found to be 8.2 hours for women and 10.5 for men. Good linearity between plasma levels and drug doses was observed after administration of different single doses to the same patient within the dose range 0.6 to 2.0 g/m/sup 2/.

  3. Plasma magnesium concentration in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotlinska-Hasiec, Edyta; Makara-Studzinska, Marta; Czajkowski, Marek; Rzecki, Ziemowit; Olszewski, Krzysztof; Stadnik, Adam; Pilat, Jacek; Rybojad, Beata; Dabrowski, Wojciech

    2017-05-11

    [b]Introduction[/b]. Magnesium (Mg) plays a crucial role in cell physiology and its deficiency may cause many disorders which often require intensive treatment. The aim of this study was to analyse some factors affecting preoperative plasma Mg concentration in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). [b]Materials and method[/b]. Adult patients scheduled for elective CABG with cardio-pulmonary bypass (CPB) under general anaesthesia were studied. Plasma Mg concentration was analysed before surgery in accordance with age, domicile, profession, tobacco smoking and preoperative Mg supplementation. Blood samples were obtained from the radial artery just before the administration of anaesthesia. [b]Results. [/b]150 patients were studied. Mean preoperative plasma Mg concentration was 0.93 ± 0.17 mmol/L; mean concentration in patients - 1.02 ± 0.16; preoperative Mg supplementation was significantly higher than in patients without such supplementation. Moreover, intellectual workers supplemented Mg more frequently and had higher plasma Mg concentration than physical workers. Plasma Mg concentration decreases in elderly patients. Patients living in cities, on average, had the highest plasma Mg concentration. Smokers had significantly lower plasma Mg concentration than non-smokers. [b]Conclusions. [/b]1. Preoperative magnesium supplementation increases its plasma concentration. 2. Intellectual workers frequently supplement magnesium. 3. Smoking cigarettes decreases plasma magnesium concentration.

  4. Effect of breed on plasma endothelin-1 concentration, plasma renin activity, and serum cortisol concentration in healthy dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höglund, K.; Lequarré, A.-S.; Ljungvall, I.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There are breed differences in several blood variables in healthy dogs. OBJECTIVE: Investigate breed variation in plasma endothelin-1 (ET-1) concentration, plasma renin activity, and serum cortisol concentration. ANIMALS: Five-hundred and thirty-one healthy dogs of 9 breeds examined...... at 5 centers (2-4 breeds/center). METHODS: Prospective observational study. Circulating concentrations of ET-1 and cortisol, and renin activity, were measured using commercially available assays. Absence of organ-related or systemic disease was ensured by thorough clinical investigations, including...

  5. Simultaneous quantification of caffeine and its three primary metabolites in rat plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eu Jin; Bae, Soo Hyeon; Park, Jung Bae; Kwon, Min Jo; Jang, Su Min; Zheng, Yu Fen; Lee, Young Sun; Lee, Su-Jun; Bae, Soo Kyung

    2013-12-01

    A rapid, sensitive, simple and accurate LC-MS/MS method for the simultaneous quantitation of caffeine, and its three primary metabolites, theobromine, paraxanthine, and theophylline, in rat plasma was developed and validated. Chromatographic separation was performed on an Agilent Poroshell 120 EC-C18 column using 1 μg/mL acetaminophen as an internal standard. Each sample was run at 0.5 mL/min for a total run time of 7 min/sample. Detection and quantification were performed using a mass spectrometer in selected reaction-monitoring mode with positive electrospray ionization. The lower limit of quantification was 5 ng/mL for all analytes with linear ranges up to 5000 ng/mL for caffeine and 1000 ng/mL for its metabolites. The coefficient of variation for assay precision was less than 12.6%, with an accuracy of 93.5-114%. The assay was successfully applied to determine plasma concentrations of caffeine, theobromine, paraxanthine, and theophylline in rat administered various energy drinks containing the same caffeine content. Various energy drinks exhibited considerable variability in the pharmacokinetic profiles of caffeine and its three primary metabolites, even containing the same caffeine. Different additives of energy drinks might contribute to these results. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A nanocomplex of Cu(II) with theophylline drug; synthesis, characterization, and anticancer activity against K562 cell line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahlabadi, Maryam; Daryanavard, Marzieh; Hadadzadeh, Hassan; Amirghofran, Zahra

    2018-03-01

    A new mononuclear of copper (II), [Cu(theophylline)2(H2O)3]·2H2O, has been synthesized by reaction of theophylline (1,3-dimethyl-7H-purine-2,6-dione) with copper (II) nitrate in water. Further, its nanocomplex has been prepared through the three different methods including sonication, grinding, and a combination thereof, sonication-grinding. The prepared nanocomplex was characterized using different techniques including FT-IR, UV-Vis, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). Moreover, the anticancer activity of the precursor complex, nanocomplex, free theophylline ligand, and the starting copper salt (Cu(NO3)2·3H2O) was investigated against the K562 cell line. The results show that the nanocomplex is an effective nano metal-based anticancer agent with IC50 = 11.7 μM.

  7. Measurement of plasma adenosine concentration: methodological and physiological considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gewirtz, H.; Brown, P.; Most, A.S.

    1987-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that measurements of plasma adenosine concentration made on samples of blood obtained in dipyridamole and EHNA (i.e., stopping solution) may be falsely elevated as a result of ongoing in vitro production and accumulation of adenosine during sample processing. Studies were performed with samples of anticoagulated blood obtained from anesthesized domestic swine. Adenosine concentration of ultra filtrated plasma was determined by HPLC. The following parameters were evaluated: (i) rate of clearance of [ 3 H]adenosine added to plasma, (ii) endogenous adenosine concentration of matched blood samples obtained in stopping solution alone, stopping solution plus EDTA, and perchloric acid (PCA), (iii) plasma and erythrocyte endogenous adenosine concentration in nonhemolyzed samples, and (iv) plasma adenosine concentration of samples hemolyzed in the presence of stopping solution alone or stopping solution plus EDTA. We observed that (i) greater than or equal to 95% of [ 3 H]adenosine added to plasma is removed from it by formed elements of the blood in less than 20 s, (ii) plasma adenosine concentration of samples obtained in stopping solution alone is generally 10-fold greater than that of matched samples obtained in stopping solution plus EDTA, (iii) deliberate mechanical hemolysis of blood samples obtained in stopping solution alone resulted in substantial augmentation of plasma adenosine levels in comparison with matched nonhemolyzed specimens--addition of EDTA to stopping solution prevented this, and (iv) adenosine content of blood samples obtained in PCA agreed closely with the sum of plasma and erythrocyte adenosine content of samples obtained in stopping solution plus EDTA

  8. Extracorporeal treatment for theophylline poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghannoum, Marc; Wiegand, Timothy J; Liu, Kathleen D

    2015-01-01

    review of the literature, a subgroup reviewed articles, extracted data, summarized findings, and proposed structured voting statements following a pre-determined format. A two-round modified Delphi method was chosen to reach a consensus on voting statements and the RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method...... was used to quantify disagreement. Anonymous votes were compiled, returned, and discussed. A second vote determined the final recommendations. RESULTS: 141 articles were included: 6 in vitro studies, 4 animal studies, 101 case reports/case series, 7 descriptive cohorts, 4 observational studies, and 19...... pharmacokinetic studies, yielding a low-to-very-low quality of evidence for all recommendations. Data on 143 patients were reviewed, including 10 deaths. The workgroup concluded that theophylline is dialyzable (level of evidence = A) and made the following recommendations: ECTR is recommended in severe...

  9. Plasma concentration of ionized calcium in healthy iguanas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, P M; Bennett, R A; Harr, K E; Lock, B A

    2001-08-01

    To measure plasma concentration of ionized calcium in healthy green iguanas. Prospective study. 9 juvenile and 21 (10 male, 11 female) adult iguanas. Blood samples were obtained from each iguana, and plasma calcium, glucose, phosphorus, uric acid, total protein, albumin, globulin, potassium, and ionized calcium concentrations, aspartate transaminase (AST) activity, and pH were measured. Heparinized blood was used for measurement of ionized calcium concentration and blood pH. A CBC was also performed to assess the health of the iguanas. Significant differences were not detected among the 3 groups (juveniles, males, and females) with regard to ionized calcium concentration. Mean ionized calcium concentration measured in blood was 1.47 +/- 0.105 mmol/L. Significant differences were detected between juveniles and adults for values of phosphorus, glucose, total protein, albumin, globulin, and AST activity. Ionized calcium concentration provides a clinical measurement of the physiologically active calcium in circulation. Evaluation of physiologically active calcium in animals with suspected calcium imbalance that have total plasma calcium concentrations within reference range or in gravid animals with considerably increased total plasma calcium concentrations is vital for determining a therapeutic plan. Accurate evaluation of calcium status will provide assistance in the diagnosis of renal disease and seizures and allow for better evaluation of the health status of gravid female iguanas.

  10. Low plasma triiodothyronine concentrations and outcome in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, A; Rennie, J; Baker, B A; Morley, R

    1988-01-01

    A major association has been found between low plasma triiodothyronine concentrations in preterm neonates and their later developmental outcome. Plasma triiodothyronine concentration was measured longitudinally in 280 preterm infants below 1850 g birth weight. Babies whose lowest recorded concentration was less than 0.3 nmol/l had, at 18 months' corrected age, 8.3 and 7.4 point disadvantages in Bayley mental and motor scales and a 8.6 point disadvantage on the academic scale of Developmental Profile II, even after adjusting for a range of antenatal and neonatal factors known to influence later development. Low concentrations of triiodothyronine were strongly associated with infant mortality, but not after adjusting for the presence of respiratory illness. There was no association between plasma triiodothyronine concentrations and somatic growth up to 18 months, and no association with necrotising enterocolitis or later cerebral palsy. Data on postnatal changes in plasma triiodothyronine concentrations are presented for reference purposes. While cited reference ranges for plasma triiodothyronine concentration appear suitable for well infants above 1500 g birth weight, smaller or ill babies often have very low values for many weeks. Our data are relevant to the debate on endocrine 'replacement' treatment in premature babies. PMID:2461683

  11. Lutein supplementation increases breast milk and plasma lutein concentrations in lactating women and infant plasma concentrations but does not affect other carotenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherry, Christina L; Oliver, Jeffery S; Renzi, Lisa M; Marriage, Barbara J

    2014-08-01

    Lutein is a carotenoid that varies in breast milk depending on maternal intake. Data are lacking with regard to the effect of dietary lutein supplementation on breast milk lutein concentration during lactation and subsequent plasma lutein concentration in breast-fed infants. This study was conducted to determine the impact of lutein supplementation in the breast milk and plasma of lactating women and in the plasma of breast-fed infants 2-3 mo postpartum. Lutein is the dominant carotenoid in the infant brain and the major carotenoid found in the retina of the eye. Eighty-nine lactating women 4-6 wk postpartum were randomly assigned to be administered either 0 mg/d of lutein (placebo), 6 mg/d of lutein (low-dose), or 12 mg/d of lutein (high-dose). The supplements were consumed for 6 wk while mothers followed their usual diets. Breast milk carotenoids were measured weekly by HPLC, and maternal plasma carotenoid concentrations were measured at the beginning and end of the study. Infant plasma carotenoid concentrations were assessed at the end of the study. No significant differences were found between dietary lutein + zeaxanthin intake and carotenoid concentrations in breast milk and plasma or body mass index at baseline. Total lutein + zeaxanthin concentrations were greater in the low- and high-dose-supplemented groups than in the placebo group in breast milk (140% and 250%, respectively; P Lutein supplementation did not affect other carotenoids in lactating women or their infants. Lactating women are highly responsive to lutein supplementation, which affects plasma lutein concentrations in the infant. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01747668. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  12. Plasma catecholamine and serum gastrin concentrations during sham feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekker, Carsten; Andersen, D; Kronborg, O

    1983-01-01

    Plasma adrenaline, plasma noradrenaline and serum gastrin concentrations were measured before and after sham feeding in eight patients with duodenal ulcer and in four normal subjects. No significant change in the concentrations was observed after sham feeding. In three patients with duodenal ulce...... groups. It is concluded that sympathetic nervous activity and serum gastrin concentrations are not influenced by sham feeding in contrast to the influence of insulin hypoglycemia....... an insulin test resulted in a 25-fold rise in plasma adrenaline. The ulcer patients showed significantly higher levels of plasma adrenaline and plasma noradrenaline than the normal subjects both before and after sham feeding, and this difference was probably not caused only by age difference in the two...

  13. Determination of particle concentrations in multitemperature plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richley, E.; Tuma, D.T.

    1982-01-01

    The use of the multitemperature Saha equation (MSE) of Prigogine 1 and Patapov 2 for calculating particle concentrations in plasmas is shown to be an invalid procedure. Errors greater than one order of magnitude in the electron density in high-pressure argon and nitrogen electric arc plasmas can be easily incurred by using the multitemperature Saha equation. The alternative kinetic method for calculating concentrations is shown to be based on firm concepts. Simpliying procedures and computational techniques for calculating concentrations with the kinetic method are illustrated with examples

  14. Decreased maternal plasma apelin concentrations in preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortoff, Katherine D; Qiu, Chunfang; Runyon, Scott; Williams, Michelle A; Maitra, Rangan

    2012-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a hypertensive disorder that complicates 3-7% of pregnancies. The development of preeclampsia has not been completely elucidated and current therapies are not broadly efficacious. The apelinergic system appears to be involved in hypertensive disorders and experimental studies indicate a role of this system in preeclampsia. Thus, an epidemiological evaluation of apelin protein concentration in plasma was conducted in case-control study of pregnant women. Data and maternal plasma samples were collected from pregnant women with confirmed preeclampsia (n = 76) or normotensive controls (n = 79). Concentrations of apelin peptides were blindly measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Data were subjected to statistical analyses. Plasma apelin concentrations, measured at delivery, were lower in preeclampsia cases compared with controls (mean ± standard deviation: 0.66 ± 0.29 vs. 0.78 ± 0.31 ng/mL, p = 0.02). After controlling for confounding by maternal age, smoking status, and pre-pregnancy body mass index, odds of preeclampsia were 48% lower for women with high versus low plasma apelin (≥0.73 vs. preclampsia and other hypertensive maternal disorders.

  15. Reduced plasma concentrations of vitamin B6 and increased ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reduced plasma concentrations of vitamin B6 and increased plasma concentrations of the neurotoxin 3-hydroxykynurenine are associated with nodding syndrome: a case control study in Gulu and Amuru districts, Northern Uganda.

  16. Choline concentrations are lower in postnatal plasma of preterm infants than in cord plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhard, Wolfgang; Raith, Marco; Kunze, Rebecca; Koch, Vera; Heni, Martin; Maas, Christoph; Abele, Harald; Poets, Christian F; Franz, Axel R

    2015-08-01

    Choline is essential to human development, particularly of the brain in the form of phosphatidylcholine, sphingomyelin and acetylcholine, for bile and lipoprotein formation, and as a methyl group donator. Choline is actively transported into the fetus, and maternal supply correlates with cognitive outcome. Interruption of placental supply may therefore impair choline homeostasis in preterm infants. Determination of postnatal plasma concentrations of choline and its derivatives betaine and dimethylglycine (DMG) in preterm infants compared to cord and maternal blood matched for postmenstrual age (PMA). We collected plasma of very low-birth-weight infants undergoing neonatal intensive care (n = 162), cord plasma of term and preterm infants (n = 176, 24-42-week PMA), serum of parturients (n = 36), and plasma of healthy premenopausal women (n = 40). Target metabolites were analyzed with tandem mass spectrometry and reported as median (25th/75th percentiles). Cord plasma choline concentration was 41.4 (31.8-51.2) µmol/L and inversely correlated with PMA. In term but not in preterm infants, cord plasma choline was lower in girls than in boys. Prenatal glucocorticoid treatment did not affect choline levels in cord plasma, whereas betaine was decreased and DMG increased. In parturients and non-pregnant women, choline concentrations were 14.1 (10.3-16.9) and 8.8 (5.7-11.2) µmol/L, respectively, whereas betaine was lowest in parturients. After delivery, preterm infant plasma choline decreased to 20.8 (16.0-27.6) µmol/L within 48 h. Betaine and DMG correlated with plasma choline in all groups. In preterm infants, plasma choline decreases to 50 % of cord plasma concentrations, reflecting choline undernourishment and postnatal metabolic adaptation, and potentially contributing to impaired outcome.

  17. Adenosine A1 receptor mRNA expression and the effects of systemic theophylline administration on respiratory function 4 months after C2 hemisection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nantwi, Kwaku D; Basura, Gregory J; Goshgarian, Harry G

    2003-01-01

    Previous studies from our laboratory have demonstrated that in an animal model of acute cervical spinal cord injury (SCI), respiratory function can be restored by theophylline. We also have shown that respiratory recovery occurs spontaneously after prolonged postinjury survival periods when a hemidiaphragm is paralyzed by an ipsilateral upper cervical (C2) spinal cord hemisection. Theophylline mediates functional recovery by central nervous system adenosine A1 receptor antagonism; however, it is unclear whether adenosine receptors are altered after prolonged postinjury periods and whether theophylline can further enhance restored respiratory function that occurs spontaneously. To assess putative effects of systemic theophylline administration on further enhancing spontaneous respiratory muscle recovery 4 months after C2 hemisection in rats and to determine whether adenosine A1 receptor mRNA expression is altered in these animals. Electrophysiologic assessment of respiratory activity in the phrenic nerves was conducted in C2 hemisected rats 4 months after hemisection under standardized conditions. Immediately thereafter, rats were killed and the cervical spinal cords were prepared for adenosine A1 receptor mRNA expression by in situ hybridization. Spontaneous recovery of respiratory activity in the ipsilateral phrenic nerve was detected in a majority (15/20) of C2 hemisected animals and amounted to 44.06% +/- 2.38% when expressed as a percentage of activity in the homolateral phrenic nerve in noninjured animals. At the optimal dosage used in the acute studies, theophylline (15 mg/kg) did not enhance, but rather unexpectedly blocked, recovered respiratory activity in 4 out of 5 animals tested. At dosages of 5 mg/kg and 2.5 mg/kg, the drug blocked recovered respiratory activity in 3 out of 4 and 3 out of 5 animals tested, respectively. Quantitative analysis of adenosine A1 receptor mRNA expression did not reveal a significant difference between experimental animals

  18. Vibrational spectral investigation on xanthine and its derivatives—theophylline, caffeine and theobromine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunasekaran, S.; Sankari, G.; Ponnusamy, S.

    2005-01-01

    A normal coordinate analysis has been carried out on four compounds having a similar ring structure with different side chain substitutions, which are xanthine, caffeine, theophylline, and theobromine. Xanthine is chemically known as 2,6-dihydroxy purine. Caffeine, theophylline and theobromine are methylated xanthines. Considering the methyl groups as point mass, the number of normal modes of vibrations can be distributed as Γ vib=27 A'+12 A″ based on C s point group symmetry associated with the structures. In the present work 15 A' and 12 A″ normal modes are considered. A new set of orthonormal symmetry co-ordinates have been constructed. Wilson's F- G matrix method has been adopted for the normal coordinate analysis. A satisfactory vibrational band assignment has been made by employing the FTIR and FT Raman spectra of the compounds. The potential energy distribution is calculated with the arrived values of the force constants and hence the agreement of the frequency assignment has been checked.

  19. Vibrational spectral investigation on xanthine and its derivatives--theophylline, caffeine and theobromine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunasekaran, S; Sankari, G; Ponnusamy, S

    2005-01-01

    A normal coordinate analysis has been carried out on four compounds having a similar ring structure with different side chain substitutions, which are xanthine, caffeine, theophylline, and theobromine. Xanthine is chemically known as 2,6-dihydroxy purine. Caffeine, theophylline and theobromine are methylated xanthines. Considering the methyl groups as point mass, the number of normal modes of vibrations can be distributed as Gamma(vib) = 27 A' + 12 A" based on C(s) point group symmetry associated with the structures. In the present work 15 A' and 12 A'' normal modes are considered. A new set of orthonormal symmetry co-ordinates have been constructed. Wilson's F-G matrix method has been adopted for the normal coordinate analysis. A satisfactory vibrational band assignment has been made by employing the FTIR and FT Raman spectra of the compounds. The potential energy distribution is calculated with the arrived values of the force constants and hence the agreement of the frequency assignment has been checked.

  20. Radioimmunoassay of plasma myoglobin concentrations in normal persons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milanov, S.; Milkov, V. (Meditsinska Akademiya, Sofia (Bulgaria). Nauchen Inst. po Rentgenologiya i Radiobiologiya)

    1982-01-01

    Plasma myoglobin concentrations by radioimmunoassay in 53 normal persons (29 women and 24 men) with ages ranging from 19 to 76 years. The average values for myoglobin concentrations in the plasma of 29 women, aged 19 to 76 years, are 4a.09 +- 4.51 ng/ml, while in 24 healthy men, aged 20 to 74 years, they are 54.39 +-4.68 ng/ml. The obtained results for the plasma myoglobin level in men are higher than the ones recorded in women at statistical significance p<0.05. In the group under study the plasma myoglobin values disclose also age-related differences, although lacking statistical significance (p>0.10).

  1. Lutein Supplementation Increases Breast Milk and Plasma Lutein Concentrations in Lactating Women and Infant Plasma Concentrations but Does Not Affect Other Carotenoids123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherry, Christina L.; Oliver, Jeffery S.; Renzi, Lisa M.; Marriage, Barbara J.

    2014-01-01

    Lutein is a carotenoid that varies in breast milk depending on maternal intake. Data are lacking with regard to the effect of dietary lutein supplementation on breast milk lutein concentration during lactation and subsequent plasma lutein concentration in breast-fed infants. This study was conducted to determine the impact of lutein supplementation in the breast milk and plasma of lactating women and in the plasma of breast-fed infants 2–3 mo postpartum. Lutein is the dominant carotenoid in the infant brain and the major carotenoid found in the retina of the eye. Eighty-nine lactating women 4–6 wk postpartum were randomly assigned to be administered either 0 mg/d of lutein (placebo), 6 mg/d of lutein (low-dose), or 12 mg/d of lutein (high-dose). The supplements were consumed for 6 wk while mothers followed their usual diets. Breast milk carotenoids were measured weekly by HPLC, and maternal plasma carotenoid concentrations were measured at the beginning and end of the study. Infant plasma carotenoid concentrations were assessed at the end of the study. No significant differences were found between dietary lutein + zeaxanthin intake and carotenoid concentrations in breast milk and plasma or body mass index at baseline. Total lutein + zeaxanthin concentrations were greater in the low- and high-dose–supplemented groups than in the placebo group in breast milk (140% and 250%, respectively; P Lutein supplementation did not affect other carotenoids in lactating women or their infants. Lactating women are highly responsive to lutein supplementation, which affects plasma lutein concentrations in the infant. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01747668. PMID:24899160

  2. Plasma carnitine concentrations after chronic alcohol intoxication 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Kępka

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Carnitine transports fatty acids from the cytoplasm to the mitochondrial matrix, where the fatty acids are oxidized. Chronic alcohol consumption reduces the concentration of carnitine and interferes with oxidative processes occurring in the cell.Aim: The assessment of carnitine concentrations in plasma of chronically intoxicated alcohol dependent persons in a 49-day abstinence period.Material/Methods: The study included 31 patients (5 women and 27 men aged from 26 to 60 years (44.6± 8.9 and 32 healthy subjects (15 women and 17 men aged 22-60 years (39.8± 9.4. The patients’ alcohol dependence ranged from 2 to 30 years (13.6± 7.5. Examined subjects consumed 75-700 g of ethanol/day (226.9± 151.5. Plasma concentrations of free and total carnitine were measured three times: at the first (T0, 30th (T30 and 49th (T49 day of hospital detoxification. Free (FC and total (TC carnitine were determined by the spectrophotometric method. Plasma acylcarnitine (AC concentration was calculated from the difference between TC and FC; then the AC/FC ratio was calculated. To determine statistically significant differences for related variables, Student’s t-test was used.Results: At T0, alcoholics had significantly lower concentration of FC and TC (p < 0.05 in plasma, as compared to the control group. In comparison to controls, at T30, plasma TC and FC (p < 0.01 as well as AC (p < 0.001 were reduced. The lowest concentration of TC, FC and AC (p < 0.001was found at T49. The ratio of AC/FC at T0 had a tendency to be higher in alcoholics than in the control group (p = 0.05, whereas at T49 it was significantly lower in alcoholics as compared to the control subjects (p < 0.05.Conclusions: Chronic alcohol intoxication causes a plasma deficiency of carnitine. Forty-nine days of abstinence showed a significant decrease in the concentration of TC, FC and AC. Further research is necessary to clarify whether a low level of plasma carnitine

  3. Effects of long-term theophylline exposure on recovery of respiratory function and expression of adenosine A1 mRNA in cervical spinal cord hemisected adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nantwi, Kwaku D; Basura, Gregory J; Goshgarian, Harry G

    2003-07-01

    Our lab has previously shown that when administered acutely, the methylxanthine theophylline can activate a latent respiratory motor pathway to restore function to the hemidiaphragm paralyzed by an ipsilateral C2 spinal cord hemisection. The recovery is mediated by the antagonism of CNS adenosine A1 receptors. The objective of the present study was to assess quantitatively recovery after chronic theophylline administration, the effects of weaning from the drug, and the effects of the drug on adenosine A1 receptor mRNA expression in adult rats subjected to a C2 hemisection. Rats subjected to a left C2 hemisection received theophylline orally for 3, 7, 12, or 30 days and were classified as 3D, 7D, 12D, or 30D respectively. Separate groups of 3D animals were weaned from drug administration for 7, 12, and 30 days before assessment of respiratory recovery. Additional groups of 7D and 12D animals were also weaned from drug administration for 7 and 12 days prior to assessment. Sham-operated controls received theophylline vehicle for similar periods. Quantitative assessment of recovered respiratory activity was conducted under standardized electrophysiologic recording conditions approximately 18 h after each drug application period. Serum theophylline analysis was conducted at the end of electrophysiologic recordings. Adenosine A1 receptor mRNA expression in the phrenic nucleus was assessed with in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. Chronic theophylline induced a dose-dependent effect on respiratory recovery over a serum theophylline range of 1.2-1.9 microg/ml. Recovery was characterized as respiratory-related activity in the left phrenic nerve and expressed as a percentage of activity in the homolateral nerve in noninjured animals under similar recording conditions. Recovered activity was 34.13 +/- 2.07, 55.89 +/- 2.96, 74.78 +/- 1.93, and 79.12 +/- 1.75% respectively in the 3D, 7D, 12D, and 30D groups. Theophylline-induced recovered activity persisted for as

  4. Histophatologic changes of lung in asthmatic male rats treated with hydro-alcoholic extract of Plantago major and theophylline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah Farokhi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Plantago major (P. major is one of the medicinal crops in the world which has therapeutic properties for treatment of respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases. Theophylline is commonly used for the treatment of respiratory diseases. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of P. major on lung in asthmatic male rats. Materials and Methods: 32 male adult rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: The control group (C received normal saline; Asthma (A group received a normal diet; Asthma group treated with Theophylline (200 mg/kg b.w. (T; Asthma group which received p.major (100 mg/kg b.w. (P. Asthma was induced by citric acid, 0.1 mg in form of spraying. The injection of P.major extract and theophylline was administered intraperitoneally for four weeks. At the end of the treatment, all of the rats were sacrificed and lungs were taken out, fixed, and stained with H&E, toluidine blue, and PAS, then histological studies were followed with light microscope. Results: Results showed that, in asthmatic group, the mean number of mast cells was significantly increased (p<0.05. Thickness of alveolar epithelium and accumulation of glycoprotein in airways was increased. Moreover, in some of alveolar sac hemorrhaging was observed. Administration of p.major extract in asthmatic rats restored these changes towards normal group.Conclusion: The present study revealed that P. major compared with theophylline, has a protective effect on lung in asthmatic rats.

  5. Increased plasma fibronectin concentrations in obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, T; Dejgaard, A; Astrup, A

    1987-01-01

    In 23 morbidly obese patients we investigated the influence of a large weight loss (30.6 kg, range 17.5-90.8) on the plasma fibronectin concentrations. Further, changes in plasma fibronectin were related to serum insulin levels and to liver biochemistry. Between the measurements patients had been...... treated with an intermittent very-low-calorie formula diet sufficient in respect to protein, minerals and vitamins. They were investigated in weight-stable states. Before weight reduction, 14 patients (61%, 95% confidence limits 39-80%) had elevated plasma fibronectin levels. Plasma fibronectin decreased...... (medians 1.22 and 0.59 mumol/l before and after weight loss, p less than 0.01) and was after weight loss within the normal range in 14 patients. The change in plasma fibronectin was unassociated with the magnitude of the weight loss as well as with the reduction of overweight. The resulting plasma...

  6. Growth hormone concentrations in mammary secretions and plasma of the periparturient bitch and in plasma of the neonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenmakers, I; Kooistra, H S; Okkens, A C; Hazewinkel, H A; Bevers, M M; Mol, J A

    1997-01-01

    The presence of growth hormone (GH) in mammary secretions of bitches was investigated in relation to plasma GH concentrations at about the time of parturition and during the first weeks of lactation. Plasma GH concentrations in neonates were measured during the first weeks of lactation, to determine whether GH in maternal milk contributes to plasma concentrations of GH in the neonate. Gastrointestinal uptake of GH was studied by measurement of plasma bovine GH (bGH) concentrations after intragastric administration of bGH. High concentrations of GH were found in the mammary secretions of the bitches, particularly before parturition and in colostrum, exceeding maternal plasma concentration up to 100-1000 times. GH concentrations in milk were not not significantly correlated with GH concentrations in plasma of bitches or neonates. Bovine GH could not be detected in neonatal plasma for 4 h after intragastric administration of bGH. The presence of high concentrations of canine GH (cGH) in ante-partum and colostral mammary secretions is consistent with the progesterone-induced mammary biosynthesis of GH. GH in milk is probably not absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract into the blood circulation of the newborn in its intact form.

  7. Risk factors contributing to a low darunavir plasma concentration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daskapan, Alper; Stienstra, Ymkje; Kosterink, Jos G.W.; Bierman, Wouter F.W.; van der Werf, Tjip S.; Touw, Daan J.; Alffenaar, Jan Willem C.

    Darunavir is an efficacious drug; however, pharmacokinetic variability has been reported. The objective of this study was to find predisposing factors for low darunavir plasma concentrations in patients starting the once- or twice-daily dosage. Darunavir plasma concentrations from January 2010 till

  8. Effects of 2-deoxy-D-glucose, oligomycin and theophylline on in vitro glycerol metabolism in rat adipose tissue: response to insulin and epinephrine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dominguez, M C; Herrera, E [Barcelona Univ. (Spain). Catedra de Fisiologia General

    1976-01-01

    The effects of 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG), oligomycin and theophylline on the in vitro production and metabolism of glycerol and its response to insulin and epinephrine were studied in epididymal fat pads from fed rats. 2-DG failed to affect basic or epinephrine-stimulated glycerol production but decreased the uptake of 1-/sup 14/C-glycerol by the tissue and its conversion to glyceride-glycerol. Oligomycin also failed to affect the basic production of glycerol, but it inhibited the affect of epinephrine on this parameter as well as the uptake and utilization of 1-/sup 14/C-glycerol. Theophylline enhanced the production of glycerol by the tissue, and this effect was not further augmented by epinephrine. Theophylline also inhibited the uptake and utilization of 1-/sup 14/C-glycerol; the most pronounced effect of theophylline was observed in the formation of /sup 14/C-fatty acids from 1-/sup 14/C-glycerol in the presence of glucose. Insulin, but not epinephrine, decreased the inhibitory effect of theophylline on glycerol utilization. It is concluded that these compounds affect the ability of adipose tissue to metabolize glycerol more intensely than the ability to release it through lipolysis. The pathway for glycerol utilization in adipose tissue appears to be more sensitive to changes in the availability of ATP than the mechanisms for the release of glycerol from the tissue.

  9. Plasma concentrations of endothelin in patients with abnormal vascular reactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Predel, H.G.; Meyer-Lehnert, H.; Baecker, A.; Stelkens, H.; Kramer, H.J.

    1990-01-01

    We measured circulating concentrations of endothelin in healthy subjects and in patients with abnormal vascular reactivity. Endothelin concentrations were determined by radioimmunoassay after extraction of plasma using Sep-Pak C-18 cartridges in healthy subjects, in patients with diabetes mellitus type I, in patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension and in non-dialyzed patients with stable chronic renal failure. Plasma concentrations were similar in healthy controls, in diabetics and in hypertensive patients averaging 5.0±0.6 pg/ml, 4.7±0.2 pg/ml and 6.5±1.0 pg/ml, respectively. In contrast, plasma concentrations of endothelin were markedly elevated in patients with chronic renal failure averaging 16.6±2.9 pg/ml. No correlations were observed between serum creatinine concentrations ranging from 124 to 850 μmol/l or blood pressure and plasma concentrations of endothelin. Bicycle ergometric exercise in six healthy subjects and an acute modest i.v. saline load of 1,000 ml of 0.45% NaCl administered within 60 min in six patients with mild essential hypertension did not affect plasma concentrations of endothelin

  10. 1H NMR method for simultaneous identification and determination of caffeine and theophylline in human serum and pharmaceutical preparations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talebpour, Z.; Bijanzadeh, H.R.; Haghgoo, S.; Shamsipur, M.

    2004-01-01

    A 1 H NMR method for simultaneous identification and determination of caffeine and theophylline in pharmaceutical preparations and human serum has been developed. 1 H NMR spectrum of caffeine exhibits three sharp singlets at 2.75, 2.93 and 3.4 ppm, while that of theophyline shows two singlet peaks at 2.77 and 2.97 ppm. For the purpose of quantitative analyses of the mixtures of these two alkaloids 1 H NMR spectra of caffeine and theophylline was compared to that of maleic acid as an internal standard at the constant temperature. The suitable peaks were selected and standard deviation and reproducibility of the results were studied applying the full factorial design method. The obtained detection limits are 1.6 μgL - 1 and 1.43 μg L 1 for caffeine and theophylline, respectively. The average recoveries of the studied applying compounds in various samples, pharmaceutical preparations and human serum ranged from 90.2 to 107.5% (author)

  11. Altering plasma sodium concentration rapidly changes blood pressure during haemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckling, Rebecca J; Swift, Pauline A; He, Feng J; Markandu, Nirmala D; MacGregor, Graham A

    2013-08-01

    Plasma sodium is increased following each meal containing salt. There is an increasing interest in the effects of plasma sodium concentration, and it has been suggested that it may have direct effects on blood pressure (BP) and possibly influences endothelial function. Experimental increases of plasma sodium concentration rapidly raise BP even when extracellular volume falls. Ten patients with end-stage renal failure established on haemodialysis were studied during the first 2 h of dialysis without fluid removal during this period. They were randomized to receive haemodialysis with (i) dialysate sodium concentration prescribed to 135 mmol/L and (ii) 145 mmol/L in random order in a prospective, single-blinded crossover study. BP measurements and blood samples were taken every 30 min. Pre-dialysis sitting BP was 137/76 ± 7/3 mmHg. Lower dialysate sodium concentration (135 mmol/L) reduced plasma sodium concentration [139.49 ± 0.67 to 135.94 ± 0.52 mmol/L (P area under the curve (AUC) 15823.50 ± 777.15 (mmHg)min] compared with 145 mmol/L [AUC 17018.20 ± 1102.17 (mmHg)min], mean difference 1194.70 ± 488.41 (mmHg)min, P < 0.05. There was a significant positive relationship between change in plasma sodium concentration and change in systolic BP. This direct relationship suggests that a fall of 1 mmol/L in plasma sodium concentration would be associated with a 1.7 mmHg reduction in systolic BP (P < 0.05). The potential mechanism for the increase in BP seen with salt intake may be through small but significant changes in plasma sodium concentration.

  12. Effects of caffeine and its reactive metabolites theophylline and theobromine on the differentiating testis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, I; Locquet, O; Solvar, A; Magre, S

    2001-01-01

    A previous study in the rat (Pollard et al. 1990) established that caffeine, when administered during pregnancy, significantly inhibited the differentiation of the seminiferous cords and subsequent Leydig cell development in the interstitium. However, that study could not distinguish between the direct effects of caffeine and/or the intermediary secondary toxic effects of metabolites such as theophylline and theobromine. Because the fetus lacks the appropriate enzyme systems, clearance of toxic substances takes place via the placenta and maternal liver. Thus, a suitable in vitro system can effectively differentiate between primary and secondary drug effects. In the present study, 13-day-old fetal testis, at the stage of incipient differentiation, were cultured for 4 days in vitro in the presence of graded doses of caffeine, theophylline or theobromine. It was found that explants exposed to caffeine or theobromine differentiated normally, developing seminiferous cords made up of Sertoli and germ cells, soon followed by the differentiation of functionally active Leydig cells appearing in the newly formed interstitium. However, explants exposed to theophylline failed to develop seminiferous cords and, as a consequence, Leydig cells. In conclusion, insights obtained from different experimental methods, such as organ culture or whole organism studies, are not always identical. It may be prudent, therefore, to take into account that certain experimental techniques, despite providing valuable information, may require confirmation by other test methods in order to obtain an in-depth understanding of mechanisms of action involved.

  13. Ameliorative effect of salicylic acid and theophylline on photosynthetic pigment content in gamma irradiated french bean varieties, using "6"0Co as a source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, Pradeep K.; Vishwakarma, Kapil Kumar; Shukla, Saumya; Sharma, Richa; Ramteke, P.W.; Misra, Pragati

    2017-01-01

    Irradiation of seeds may cause genetic variability that enable plant breeders to select new genotypes with improved qualitative and quantitative characteristics. An experiment was conducted to study the protective role of salicylic acid and theophylline on photosynthetic pigments of gamma exposed french bean. Seeds of four French bean were treated by different doses of gamma radiation using "6"0Co as source. The results showed that the application of salicylic acid and theophylline significantly increased chlorophyll a content, chlorophyll b content, total chlorophyll content and carotenoid content. Salicylic acid was more effective than theophylline in overcoming the radiation effects and therefore, showed more protection to the photosynthetic pigments. (author)

  14. Plasma and skin vitamin E concentrations in canine atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plevnik Kapun, Alja; Salobir, Janez; Levart, Alenka; Tavčar Kalcher, Gabrijela; Nemec Svete, Alenka; Kotnik, Tina

    2013-01-01

    Altered homeostasis of vitamin E has been demonstrated in human atopic dermatitis. Data on plasma and skin vitamin E concentrations in canine atopic dermatitis (CAD) are not available. To determine vitamin E concentrations in plasma and skin of atopic dogs. Vitamin E concentrations in plasma and full-thickness skin biopsies of 15 atopic dogs were related to CAD extent and severity index (CADESI-03) scores and compared to the equivalent concentrations in 17 healthy dogs. Statistically significant differences of measured parameters between the two groups were determined by the nonparametric Mann Whitney U test and correlations between CADESI-03 scores and vitamin E concentrations were evaluated by the Spearman rank test. A value of P vitamin E were significantly lower in atopic dogs than in healthy dogs, with median values of 29.8 and 52.9 μmol/L, respectively. Skin vitamin E values did not differ significantly between patients and healthy controls. The median concentration of skin vitamin E in atopic dogs was higher than that in healthy dogs. No significant correlations were found between CADESI-03 score and plasma vitamin E or skin vitamin E concentrations. Significantly lower plasma vitamin E concentrations in atopic dogs than in healthy controls indicate altered homeostasis of vitamin E in CAD. Further investigation into vitamin E supplementation in CAD is warranted.

  15. Relationship between the concentrations of plasma phospholipid stearic acid and plasma lipoprotein lipids in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D

    2001-01-01

    This study investigated the correlation between the plasma phospholipid (PL) saturated fatty acid (SFA) concentration (as a surrogate marker of SFA intake) and plasma lipid and lipoprotein lipid concentrations in 139 healthy Australian men aged 20-55 years old with widely varying intakes of saturated fat (vegans, n=18; ovolacto vegetarians, n=43; moderate meat eaters, n=60; high meat eaters, n=18). Both the ovolacto vegetarian and vegan groups demonstrated significant decreases in plasma total cholesterol (TC), low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triacylglycerol concentrations compared with both the high-meat-eater and moderate-meat-eater groups. Total SFA and individual SFA [palmitic acid (16:0), stearic acid (18:0) and arachidic acid (20:0)] in the plasma PL were significantly lower in both the ovolacto vegetarian and vegan groups than in both the high- and moderate-meat-eater groups, while myristic acid (14:0) was significantly lower in the vegans than in the high-meat-eaters. Bivariate analysis of the results showed that the plasma PL stearic acid concentration was strongly positively correlated with plasma TC (P<0.0001), LDL-C (P<0.0001) and triacylglycerol (P<0.0001), with r(2) values of 0.655, 0.518 and 0.43 respectively. In multiple linear regression, after controlling for potential confounding factors (such as exercise, dietary group, age, body mass index, plasma PL myristic acid, palmitic acid and arachidic acid, and dietary total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, carbohydrate and fibre intake), the plasma PL stearic acid concentration was still strongly positively correlated with plasma TC (P<0.0001) and LDL-C (P=0.006) concentrations. Based on the present data, it would seem appropriate for the population to reduce their dietary total SFA intake rather than to replace other SFA with stearic acid.

  16. Opioid Concentrations in Oral Fluid and Plasma in Cancer Patients With Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiskanen, Tarja; Langel, Kaarina; Gunnar, Teemu; Lillsunde, Pirjo; Kalso, Eija A

    2015-10-01

    Measuring opioid concentrations in pain treatment is warranted in situations where optimal opioid analgesia is difficult to reach. To assess the usefulness of oral fluid (OFL) as an alternative to plasma in opioid concentration monitoring in cancer patients on chronic opioid therapy. We collected OFL and plasma samples from 64 cancer patients on controlled-release (CR) oral morphine, CR oral oxycodone, or transdermal (TD) fentanyl for pain. Samples were obtained on up to five separate days. A total of 213 OFL and plasma samples were evaluable. All patients had detectable amounts of the CR or TD opioid in both plasma and OFL samples. The plasma concentrations of oxycodone and fentanyl (determination coefficient R(2) = 0.628 and 0.700, respectively), but not morphine (R(2) = 0.292), were moderately well correlated to the daily opioid doses. In contrast to morphine and fentanyl (mean OFL/plasma ratio 2.0 and 3.0, respectively), the OFL oxycodone concentrations were significantly higher than the respective plasma concentrations (mean OFL/plasma ratio 14.9). An active transporter could explain the much higher OFL vs. plasma concentrations of oxycodone compared with morphine and fentanyl. OFL analysis is well suited for detecting the studied opioids. For morphine and fentanyl, an approximation of the plasma opioid concentrations is obtainable, whereas for oxycodone, the OFL/plasma concentration relationship is too variable for reliable approximation results. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Plasma concentrations of midazolam during continuous subcutaneous administration in palliative care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleasel, M D; Peterson, G M; Dunne, P F

    1994-01-01

    We have investigated the steady-state plasma concentrations of midazolam during continuous subcutaneous administration in palliative care. Using a sensitive gas chromatography with electron capture detector assay, plasma concentrations of midazolam were measured in 11 patients (median age 68 years; range 47-82 years; six females) receiving the drug by continuous subcutaneous infusion (median rate 20 mg/day; range 10-60 mg/day). While not significant, the infusion rate tended to decrease with increasing age of the patient (Spearman's p = -0.51; p = 0.11). The steady-state plasma concentration range was 10-147 ng/ml, with a median of 30 ng/ml. Infusion rates and plasma concentrations of midazolam were correlated (Spearman's p = 0.71; p < 0.05). No other significant relationships were found between plasma concentrations and the variables of age, sex and liver function.

  18. Acute redistribution of thyroxine after the administration of univalent anions, salicylate, theophylline and barbiturates in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langer, P; Kokesova, H; Gschwendtova, K [Slovenska Akademia Vied, Bratislava (Czechoslovakia). Ustav Experimentalni Endocrinologie

    1976-01-01

    Rats were injected with (/sup 125/I)L-thyroxine (T/sub 4/) ip 16 h before the experiment and samples of blood were frequently taken from polyethylene tubing inserted into the femoral artery in anaesthetized and heparin-injected animals. In each sample of plasma T/sub 4/ counts per ml were estimated with the acid of paper chromatography. Rapid decrease of circulating T/sub 4/ level was found at 20 min after iv injection of thiocyanate, iodide, fluoroborate, theophylline and salicylate and a dose-response relationship was established between such a decrease and the administered dose of salicylate (5-160 mg/400 g b.w.). A similar decrease was observed at 60 min after ip injection of some general anaesthetics or tranquilizers. An increase of T/sub 4/ fractional disposal rate was found between 120 and 480 min after the administration of some of the anaesthetics and this effect was abolished by the administration of thiocyanate. It was concluded that there are two different effects of drugs on the circulating T/sub 4/ level: 1. the immediate effect resulting apparently from a decreased plasma protein binding. 2. the prolonged effect which presumably results from the increased turnover of T/sub 4/ by peripheral tissues, the metabolic basis of which remains unexplained.

  19. Plasma fibronectin concentrations in patients with liver diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C; Dejgaard, A; Clemmensen, I

    1983-01-01

    age- and sex-matched healthy controls in patients with chronic persistent or chronic active hepatitis (n = 7), primary biliary cirrhosis (n = 8), alcoholic fatty liver (n = 9), alcoholic hepatitis (n = 10), and alcoholic cirrhosis (n = 16). Patients with acute viral hepatitis (type A (n = 2); type B...... (n = 7); type non A, non B (n = 1] had significantly (P less than 0.01) raised plasma fibronectin concentrations (median 506 mg/l (range 339-804] compared to controls (median 399 mg/l (range 304-462]. Morbidly obese patients with fatty liver (n = 11) had significantly (P less than 0.001) raised......Plasma, obtained just prior to diagnostic liver biopsy in 71 patients with various liver diseases, was examined by electroimmunoassay using immunoglobulin against human fibronectin and purified plasma fibronectin as standard. The plasma fibronectin concentration was not significantly different from...

  20. Molecular imprinting polymer electrosensor based on gold nanoparticles for theophylline recognition and determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan, X.; Liu, T.; Zhou, H.; Li, C.; Fang, B.

    2010-01-01

    An electrochemical sensor for theophylline (ThPh) was prepared by electropolymerizing o-phenylenediamine on a glassy carbon electrode in the presence of ThPh via cyclic voltammetry, followed by deposition of gold nanoparticles using a potentiostatic method. The effects of pH, ratio between template molecule and monomer, number of cycles for electropolymerization, and of the solution for extraction were optimized. The current of the electro-active model system hexacyanoferrate(III) and hexacyanoferrate(IV) decreased linearly with successive addition of ThPh in the concentration range between 4. 0 x 10 -7 ∼ 1. 5 x 10 -5 mol.L -1 and 2. 4 x 10 -4 ∼ 3. 4 x 10 -3 mol.L -1 , with a detection limit of 1. 0 x 10 -7 mol.L -1 . The sensor has an excellent recognition capability for ThPh compared to structurally related molecules, can be regenerated and is stable. (author)

  1. Fetal plasma erythropoietin concentration in severe growth retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snijders, R J; Abbas, A; Melby, O; Ireland, R M; Nicolaides, K H

    1993-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether hypoxemia induces an increase in plasma erythropoietin concentration in human fetal life and, if so, whether this response stimulates fetal erythropoiesis. The plasma erythropoietin concentration in blood samples from 33 small-for-gestational-age fetuses at 26 to 38 weeks' gestation was measured. Measurements were compared with the reference range for gestation, and associations with PO2, pH, and erythroblast and erythrocyte counts were examined. The mean plasma erythropoietin concentration in the small-for-gestational-age fetuses was significantly increased, and the degree of increase was significantly associated both with fetal acidemia and, more strongly, with fetal erythroblastosis. Erythropoietin production in response to tissue hypoxia occurs from at least 26 weeks' gestation with measurable physiologic effects on erythropoiesis. Furthermore, more accurate assessment of tissue oxygenation may be obtained by measuring the erythroblast count rather than the blood pH.

  2. Correlation between the Plasma Insulin and Glucose Concentration in Normal Korean Adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jang Kyu; Sung, Ho Kyung; Kim, Jin Eui [Radiological Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1971-09-15

    The correlation between the plasma insulin, and glucose concentration was studied in healthy Korean adults consisting of 20 males and 22 females of 16 to 38 years of age. The blood samples of above subjects were obtained through cubital vein at arbitrary times during their usual working hours. Plasma insulin was assayed by means of double antibody system of radioimmunoassay technics, and blood glucose was determined by means of Van Slyke-Folch method. Results were as follows : 1. There were no differences in the blood sugar levels in relation to the plasma insulin concentration either by sex or age. 2. In the case, when the plasma insulin concentration was within 50 mmuU/ml, the correlation between the insulin, and glucose concentration existed, the ratio of which was expressed as; Plasma glucose concentration (mg/dl)=91.9 + 0.08 X Insulin concentration r=0.62. 3. Insulinogenic index was 12.4%, which was somewhat higher than other reports. 4. It is suggested that the correlation between plasma insulin and glucose concentration could be determined at arbitrary times instead of fasting times.

  3. Histophatologic changes of lung in asthmatic male rats treated with hydro-alcoholic extract of plantago major and theophylline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farah Farokhi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Plantago major (P. major is one of the medicinal crops in the world which has therapeutic properties for treatment of respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases. Theophylline is commonly used for the treatment of respiratory diseases. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of P. majoron lung in asthmatic male rats. Materials and Methods: 32 male adult rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: The control group (C received normal saline; Asthma (A group received a normal diet; Asthma group treated with Theophylline (200 mg/kg b.w. (T; Asthma group which received p.major (100 mg/kg b.w. (P. Asthma was induced by citric acid, 0.1 mg in form of spraying. The injection of P.major extract and theophylline was administered intraperitoneally for four weeks. At the end of the treatment, all of the rats were sacrificed and lungs were taken out, fixed, and stained with H&E, toluidine blue, and PAS, then histological studies were followed with light microscope. Results: Results showed that, in asthmatic group, the mean number of mast cells was significantly increased (p

  4. Plasma procalcitonin concentrations are increased in dogs with sepsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goggs, Robert; Milloway, Matthew; Troia, Roberta; Giunti, Massimo

    2018-01-01

    Sepsis, the life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to infection, is difficult to identify and to prognosticate for. In people with sepsis, procalcitonin (PCT) measurement aids diagnosis, enables therapeutic monitoring and improves prognostic accuracy. This study used a commercial canine PCT assay to measure plasma PCT concentrations in dogs with gastric dilatation volvulus (GDV) syndrome and in dogs with sepsis. It was hypothesised that dogs with GDV syndrome and with sepsis have greater plasma PCT concentrations than healthy dogs and that dogs with sepsis have greater PCT concentrations than dogs with GDV syndrome. Before analysing canine plasma samples, the ability of the assay to identify canine PCT, in addition to assay imprecision and the lower limit of detection were established. The assay had low imprecision with coefficients of variation ≤4.5 per cent. The lower limit of detection was 3.4 pg/ml. Plasma PCT concentrations were measured in 20 dogs with sepsis, in 32 dogs with GDV syndrome and in 52 healthy dogs. Median (IQR) PCT concentration in dogs with sepsis 78.7 pg/ml (39.1–164.7) was significantly greater than in healthy dogs 49.8 pg/ml (36.2–63.7) (P=0.019), but there were no significant differences between PCT concentrations in dogs with GDV syndrome and controls (P=0.072) or between dogs with sepsis and GDV syndrome (P=1.000). Dogs with sepsis have significantly increased plasma PCT concentrations compared with healthy dogs, although considerable overlap between these populations was identified. Future investigations should confirm this finding in other populations and evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic value of PCT in dogs with sepsis. PMID:29682292

  5. Concentration of plasma haptoglobin and symptomatic cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FAN Yi-mu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The relation of plasma haptoglobin concentration to symptomatic cerebral vasospasm (SCVS after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH was investigated. The plasma concentration of haptoglobin was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. SCVS was determined by aggravated headache, deteriorated conscious state a few days after ictus or by new neurologic impairment and new ischemic injuries on repeated CT scans. The mean concentration of plasma haptoglobin in 19 patients with SCVS was (0.29 ± 0.14 g/L, whereas it was (0.78 ± 0.48 g/L in 24 patients without SCVS. These findings may suggest that plasma haptoglobin concentration seems to be associated with the development of SCVS after SAH.

  6. Dimethylglycine accumulates in uremia and predicts elevated plasma homocysteine concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, D O; Dellow, W J; Lever, M; George, P M; Robson, R A; Chambers, S T

    2001-06-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia is a risk factor for atherosclerosis that is common in chronic renal failure (CRF), but its cause is unknown. Homocysteine metabolism is linked to betaine-homocysteine methyl transferase (BHMT), a zinc metalloenzyme that converts glycine betaine (GB) to N,N dimethylglycine (DMG). DMG is a known feedback inhibitor of BHMT. We postulated that DMG might accumulate in CRF and contribute to hyperhomocysteinemia by inhibiting BHMT activity. Plasma and urine concentrations of GB and DMG were measured in 33 dialysis patients (15 continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and 18 hemodialysis), 33 patients with CRF, and 33 age-matched controls. Concentrations of fasting plasma total homocysteine (tHcy), red cell and serum folate, vitamins B(6) and B(12), serum zinc, and routine biochemistry were also measured. Groups were compared, and determinants of plasma tHcy were identified by correlations and stepwise linear regression. Plasma DMG increased as renal function declined and was twofold to threefold elevated in dialysis patients. Plasma GB did not differ between groups. The fractional excretion of GB (FE(GB)) was increased tenfold, and FED(MG) was doubled in CRF patients compared with controls. Plasma tHcy correlated positively with plasma DMG, the plasma DMG:GB ratio, plasma creatinine, and FE(GB) and negatively with serum folate, zinc, and plasma GB. In the multiple regression model, only plasma creatinine, plasma DMG, or the DMG:GB ratio was independent predictors of tHcy. DMG accumulates in CRF and independently predicts plasma tHcy concentrations. These findings suggest that reduced BHMT activity is important in the pathogenesis of hyperhomocysteinemia in CRF.

  7. Comparative pharmacokinetics of caffeine and its primary demethylated metabolites paraxanthine, theobromine and theophylline in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelo, A; Birkett, D J; Robson, R A; Miners, J O

    1986-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of caffeine (CA), paraxanthine (PX), theobromine (TB) and theophylline (TP) were studied in six healthy male volunteers after oral administration of each compound on separate occasions. The total plasma clearances of CA and PX were similar in value (2.07 and 2.20 ml min-1 kg-1, respectively) as were those for TP and TB (0.93 and 1.20 ml min-1 kg-1, respectively). The unbound plasma clearances of CA and PX were also similar in magnitude (3.11 and 4.14 ml min-1 kg-1, respectively) as were those of TP and TB (1.61 and 1.39 ml min-1 kg-1, respectively). The half-lives of TP and TB (6.2 and 7.2 h, respectively) were significantly longer than those of CA and PX (4.1 and 3.1 h, respectively). The volume of distribution at steady state of TP (0.44 l kg-1) was lower than that of the other methylxanthines (0.63-0.72 l kg-1). The unbound volume of distribution of TP (0.77 l kg-1) was however the same as that of TB (0.79 l kg-1) whereas the unbound volume of distribution of PX (1.18 l kg-1) was similar to that of CA (1.06 l kg-1). PMID:3756065

  8. Quantitative capillary electrophoresis and its application in analysis of alkaloids in tea, coffee, coca cola, and theophylline tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengjia; Zhou, Junyi; Gu, Xue; Wang, Yan; Huang, Xiaojing; Yan, Chao

    2009-01-01

    A quantitative CE (qCE) system with high precision has been developed, in which a 4-port nano-valve was isolated from the electric field and served as sample injector. The accurate amount of sample was introduced into the CE system with high reproducibility. Based on this system, consecutive injections and separations were performed without voltage interruption. Reproducibilities in terms of RSD lower than 0.8% for retention time and 1.7% for peak area were achieved. The effectiveness of the system was demonstrated by the quantitative analysis of caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline in real samples, such as tea leaf, roasted coffee, coca cola, and theophylline tablets.

  9. Spectral analysis of naturally occurring methylxanthines (theophylline, theobromine and caffeine) binding with DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Irudayam Maria; Prakash, Halan; Prathiba, Jeyaguru; Raghunathan, Raghavachary; Malathi, Raghunathan

    2012-01-01

    Nucleic acids exist in a dynamic equilibrium with a number of molecules that constantly interact with them and regulate the cellular activities. The inherent nature of the structure and conformational integrity of these macromolecules can lead to altered biological activity through proper targeting of nucleic acids binding ligands or drug molecules. We studied the interaction of naturally occurring methylxanthines such as theophylline, theobromine and caffeine with DNA, using UV absorption and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic methods, and especially monitored their binding affinity in the presence of Mg(2+) and during helix-coil transitions of DNA by temperature (T(m)) or pH melting profiles. The study indicates that all these molecules effectively bind to DNA in a dose dependent manner. The overall binding constants of DNA-theophylline = 3.5×10(3) M(-1), DNA-theobromine = 1.1×10(3) M(-1), and DNA-Caffeine = 3.8×10(3) M(-1). On the other hand T(m)/pH melting profiles showed 24-35% of enhanced binding activity of methylxanthines during helix-coil transitions of DNA rather than to its native double helical structure. The FTIR analysis divulged that theophylline, theobromine and caffeine interact with all the base pairs of DNA (A-T; G-C) and phosphate group through hydrogen bond (H-bond) interaction. In the presence of Mg(2+), methylxanthines altered the structure of DNA from B to A-family. However, the B-family structure of DNA remained unaltered in DNA-methylxanthines complexes or in the absence of Mg(2+). The spectral analyses indicated the order of binding affinity as "caffeine≥theophylline>theobromine" to the native double helical DNA, and "theophylline≥theobromine>caffeine to the denatured form of DNA and in the presence of divalent metal ions.

  10. Spectral analysis of naturally occurring methylxanthines (theophylline, theobromine and caffeine binding with DNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irudayam Maria Johnson

    Full Text Available Nucleic acids exist in a dynamic equilibrium with a number of molecules that constantly interact with them and regulate the cellular activities. The inherent nature of the structure and conformational integrity of these macromolecules can lead to altered biological activity through proper targeting of nucleic acids binding ligands or drug molecules. We studied the interaction of naturally occurring methylxanthines such as theophylline, theobromine and caffeine with DNA, using UV absorption and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopic methods, and especially monitored their binding affinity in the presence of Mg(2+ and during helix-coil transitions of DNA by temperature (T(m or pH melting profiles. The study indicates that all these molecules effectively bind to DNA in a dose dependent manner. The overall binding constants of DNA-theophylline = 3.5×10(3 M(-1, DNA-theobromine = 1.1×10(3 M(-1, and DNA-Caffeine = 3.8×10(3 M(-1. On the other hand T(m/pH melting profiles showed 24-35% of enhanced binding activity of methylxanthines during helix-coil transitions of DNA rather than to its native double helical structure. The FTIR analysis divulged that theophylline, theobromine and caffeine interact with all the base pairs of DNA (A-T; G-C and phosphate group through hydrogen bond (H-bond interaction. In the presence of Mg(2+, methylxanthines altered the structure of DNA from B to A-family. However, the B-family structure of DNA remained unaltered in DNA-methylxanthines complexes or in the absence of Mg(2+. The spectral analyses indicated the order of binding affinity as "caffeine≥theophylline>theobromine" to the native double helical DNA, and "theophylline≥theobromine>caffeine to the denatured form of DNA and in the presence of divalent metal ions.

  11. The laser desorption/laser ionization mass spectra of some methylated xanthines and the laser desorption of caffeine and theophylline from thin layer chromatography plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Kevin; Milnes, John; Gormally, John

    1993-02-01

    Laser desorption/laser ionization time-of-flight mass spectra of caffeine, theophylline, theobromine and xanthine are reported. These mass spectra are compared with published spectra obtained using electron impact ionization. Mass spectra of caffeine and theophylline obtained by IR laser desorption from thin layer chromatography plates are also described. The laser desorption of materials from thin layer chromatography plates is discussed.

  12. Influence of antihypertensive therapy, sodium intake and the concentration of potassium in plasma on concentration of aldosterone and plasma renin activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalić Tijana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Primary aldosteronism (PA is a group of disorders which are characterized by inadequate and non-suppressible production of aldosterone. The prevalence of PA is increasing in hypertensive population. The golden standard of screening for primary aldosteronism, determination of aldosterone/plasma renin activity (ARR, is influenced by numerous exogenous and endogenous factors. Testing cannot always be conducted under optimal conditions. Objective: To determine influence of antihypertensive drugs and concentrations of potassium and sodium in blood and urine on values of aldosterone and plasma renin activity. Methods: In this retrospective study, we analyzed medical reports of patients admitted to Department of thyroid gland disease in the period from 2009 to 2011, with increased risk for primary aldosteronism. Body weight and height, sodium and potassium in serum and urine, plasma aldosterone concentrations and plasma renin activity, data on medicines and comorbidity were analyzed in all patients. In processing data, statistical methods descriptive analysis, Student T test and univariate linear regression were applied. Result: Of 137 patients, there were more patients with resistant hypertension (53,28% than with adrenal tumors (46,72%. Most patients used calcium channel blockers. Treatment with alpha blockers and calcium channel blockers does not influence ARR. Beta blockers and ACE inhibitors can influence ARR and diuretics and vasodilatators have definite influence. Diabetes mellitus can have higher risk of false negative results. Urine sodium excretion is significantly correlated with plasma aldosteron and serum potassium. Plasma aldosteron and PRA are significantly correlated with concentrations of electrolites in urine. Conclusion: Increased prevalence of primary aldosteronism necessitates need for accurate and better diagnostics.

  13. Evaluation of tableting and tablet properties of Kollidon SR: the influence of moisture and mixtures with theophylline monohydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauschild, Karsten; Picker-Freyer, Katharina M

    2006-02-01

    The aim of the study was firstly to investigate the influence of moisture on the tableting and tablet properties of Kollidon SR and secondly to investigate the influence of theophylline monohydrate on the tableting behavior and tablet properties produced from binary mixtures with Kollidon SR. In comparison to Kollidon SR, microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) was used. The glass transition temperature (Tg) of the powder over the whole range of RH (0-90%), and in addition, the Tg of tablets of Kollidon SR were measured. Densities and flowability of the powders were analyzed. The tablets were produced at five different maximum relative densities (rho(rel), max) on an instrumented eccentric tableting machine. They were produced at three different relative humidities (RH), 30%, 45%, and 60% RH for the pure substances and binary mixtures with different ratios of drug and excipient were tableted at 45% RH. The tableting properties were analyzed by 3D modeling, force-displacement profiles, and compactibility plots. First, the Tg of the powder decreased with increasing RH and the Tg of the tablet was 4-8 K lower than the powder. The predominant deformation of Kollidon SR is plastic deformation and Kollidon SR showed a higher compactibility than MCC. The parameters of the 3D model showed an extreme change between 45 and 60% RH, and at higher RH more and more particles deformed elastically. This was confirmed by analysis of force-displacement profiles. At 60% RH, the radial tensile strength of the Kollidon SR tablets was half of the radial tensile strength at 45% RH. The reason is a higher relative energy of plastic deformation than for MCC. This results in a better utilization of the energy to deform the powder into a tablet and the exceeding of the glass transition temperature at higher RH. In conclusion, at 60% RH at the same rho(rel, max), tableting and tablet properties of Kollidon SR are extremely changed since plasticity is significantly higher. In the second part of the

  14. Low plasma adiponectin concentrations do not predict weight gain in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vozarova, Barbora; Stefan, Norbert; Lindsay, Robert S

    2002-01-01

    Low concentrations of plasma adiponectin, the most abundant adipose-specific protein, are observed in obese individuals and predict the development of type 2 diabetes. Administration of adiponectin to rodents prevented diet-induced weight gain, suggesting a potential etiologic role of hypoadipone......Low concentrations of plasma adiponectin, the most abundant adipose-specific protein, are observed in obese individuals and predict the development of type 2 diabetes. Administration of adiponectin to rodents prevented diet-induced weight gain, suggesting a potential etiologic role...... of hypoadiponectinemia in the development of obesity. Our aim was to prospectively examine whether low plasma adiponectin concentrations predict future weight gain in Pima Indians, explaining the predictive effect of adiponectin on the development of type 2 diabetes. We measured plasma adiponectin concentrations in 219...... nondiabetic Pima Indians (112 M/107 F, age 31 +/- 9 years, body weight 96 +/- 20 kg [mean +/- SD]) in whom body weight and height were measured and BMI calculated at baseline and follow-up. Cross-sectionally, plasma adiponectin concentrations were negatively associated with body weight (r = -0.28, P = 0...

  15. Unfiltered coffee increases plasma homocysteine concentrations in healthy volunteers: a randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grubben, M.J.; Boers, G.H.; Blom, H.J.; Broekhuizen, R.; Jong, de R.; Rijt, van L.; Katan, M.B.

    2000-01-01

    Background: An elevated plasma homocysteine concentration is a putative risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Observational studies have reported an association between coffee consumption and plasma homocysteine concentrations. Objective: We studied the effect of coffee consumption on plasma

  16. Unfiltered coffee increases plasma homocysteine concentrations in healthy volunteers: a randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grubben, M. J.; Boers, G. H.; Blom, H. J.; Broekhuizen, R.; de Jong, R.; van Rijt, L.; de Ruijter, E.; Swinkels, D. W.; Nagengast, F. M.; Katan, M. B.

    2000-01-01

    An elevated plasma homocysteine concentration is a putative risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Observational studies have reported an association between coffee consumption and plasma homocysteine concentrations. We studied the effect of coffee consumption on plasma homocysteine in a crossover

  17. Multi-unit dosage formulations of theophylline for controlled release applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhumwangho, Michael U; Okor, Roland S

    2007-01-01

    The study was carried out to investigate the drug release profiles of multi-unit dosage formulations of theophylline consisting of both the fast and slow release components in a unit dose. The fast release component consisted of conventional granules of theophylline formed by mixing the drug powder with starch mucilage (20% w/v) while the slow release component consisted of wax granulations of theophylline formed by triturating the drug powder with a melted Carnauba wax (drug:wax ratio, 4:1). The granules were either filled into capsules or tabletted. In the study design, the drug release characteristics of the individual fast or slow release particles were first determined separately and then mixed in various proportions for the purpose of optimizing the drug release profiles. The evaluating parameters were the prompt release in the first 1 h (mp), the maximum release (m infinity) and the time to attain it (t infinity). Total drug content in each capsule or tablet was 300 mg and two of such were used in dissolution studies. The release kinetics and hence the release mechanism was confirmed by measuring the linear regression coefficient (R2 values) of the release data. The release kinetics was generally most consistent with the Higuchi square root of time relationship (R2 = 0.95). indicating a diffusion-controlled mechanism. The mp (mg) and t infinity (h) values for capsules and tablets of the conventional granules were (420 mg, 3 h) and (348 mg, 5 h), respectively, while for the capsules and tablets of the wax granulations mp and t infinity values were (228 mg, 9 h) and (156 mg, 12 h), respectively, indicating that a combination of wax granulation and tableting markedly retarded drug release. In the multi-unit dose formulations where the conventional and wax granulations were mixed in the ratios 2:1, 1:1 and 1:2 (conventional: matrix), the m infinity and t infinity values for the capsules were (378 mg, 6 h), (326 mg, 6 h) and (272 mg, 7 h), reSpectively. The

  18. Pathogen Inactivated Plasma Concentrated: Preparation and Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-09-01

    of decontamination, porcine parvovirus (PPV) was selected as a model virus; B19 is the form that infects humans. PPV is an interesting pathogen...ultrasound to cold plasma. The ultrasound generates pure ice crystals, which are then removed to leave concentrated plasma. Testing: Porcine parvovirus ...energy to “burn” any proteins that they encounter. Furthermore, as they react, they also produce multiple other reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are

  19. Plasma ascorbic acid concentrations in prevalent patients with end-stage renal disease on hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirover, William D; Liu, Yuguan; Logan, Amanda; Hunter, Krystal; Benz, Robert L; Prasad, Deepali; Avila, Jose; Venkatchalam, Thaliga; Weisberg, Lawrence S; Handelman, Garry J

    2015-05-01

    To determine the prevalence of vitamin C (ascorbic acid [AA]) deficiency in patients with end-stage renal disease, the effect of supplemental AA on plasma AA concentrations, and the extrinsic and intrinsic factors that affect plasma AA concentrations in this patient population. In study 1, we compared the effect of hemodialysis (HD) on plasma AA concentrations between patients with low and high pre-HD AA concentrations. In study 2, we analyzed kinetic and nonkinetic factors for their association with increased plasma AA concentrations in patients on maintenance HD. Study 1 was performed in a single outpatient HD clinic in Cherry Hill, New Jersey. Study 2 was performed in 4 outpatient HD clinics in Southern New Jersey. In study 1, we collected plasma samples from 8 adult patients on maintenance HD at various time points around their HD treatment and assayed them for AA concentration. In study 2, we enrolled 203 adult patients and measured pre-HD plasma AA concentrations. We ascertained supplemental AA use and assessed dietary AA intake. In study 1, plasma AA concentrations were compared during the intradialytic and interdialytic period. In study 2, pre-HD plasma AA concentrations were correlated with supplement use and demographic factors. Study 1 showed that over the course of a single HD treatment, the plasma AA concentration decreased by a mean (±standard deviation) of 60% (±6.6). In study 2, the median pre-HD plasma AA concentration was 15.7 μM (interquartile range, 8.7-66.8) in patients who did not take a supplement and 50.6 μM (interquartile range, 25.1-88.8) in patients who did take a supplement (P HD plasma AA concentration ≥30 μM. HD depletes plasma AA concentrations, and AA supplementation allows patients to achieve higher plasma AA concentrations. Copyright © 2015 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Use of low-dose oral theophylline as an adjunct to inhaled corticosteroids in preventing exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devereux, Graham; Cotton, Seonaidh; Barnes, Peter; Briggs, Andrew; Burns, Graham; Chaudhuri, Rekha; Chrystyn, Henry; Davies, Lisa; De Soyza, Anthony; Fielding, Shona; Gompertz, Simon; Haughney, John; Lee, Amanda J; McCormack, Kirsty; McPherson, Gladys; Morice, Alyn; Norrie, John; Sullivan, Anita; Wilson, Andrew; Price, David

    2015-06-10

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with high morbidity, mortality, and health-care costs. An incomplete response to the anti-inflammatory effects of inhaled corticosteroids is present in COPD. Preclinical work indicates that 'low dose' theophylline improves steroid responsiveness. The Theophylline With Inhaled Corticosteroids (TWICS) trial investigates whether the addition of 'low dose' theophylline to inhaled corticosteroids has clinical and cost-effective benefits in COPD. TWICS is a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial conducted in primary and secondary care sites in the UK. The inclusion criteria are the following: an established predominant respiratory diagnosis of COPD (post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in first second/forced vital capacity [FEV1/FVC] of less than 0.7), age of at least 40 years, smoking history of at least 10 pack-years, current inhaled corticosteroid use, and history of at least two exacerbations requiring treatment with antibiotics or oral corticosteroids in the previous year. A computerised randomisation system will stratify 1424 participants by region and recruitment setting (primary and secondary) and then randomly assign with equal probability to intervention or control arms. Participants will receive either 'low dose' theophylline (Uniphyllin MR 200 mg tablets) or placebo for 52 weeks. Dosing is based on pharmacokinetic modelling to achieve a steady-state serum theophylline of 1-5 mg/l. A dose of theophylline MR 200 mg once daily (or placebo once daily) will be taken by participants who do not smoke or participants who smoke but have an ideal body weight (IBW) of not more than 60 kg. A dose of theophylline MR 200 mg twice daily (or placebo twice daily) will be taken by participants who smoke and have an IBW of more than 60 kg. Participants will be reviewed at recruitment and after 6 and 12 months. The primary outcome is the total number of participant-reported COPD exacerbations requiring

  1. Self-organizing map analysis using multivariate data from theophylline tablets predicted by a thin-plate spline interpolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Akihito; Onuki, Yoshinori; Obata, Yasuko; Yamamoto, Rie; Takayama, Kozo

    2013-01-01

    The "quality by design" concept in pharmaceutical formulation development requires the establishment of a science-based rationale and a design space. We integrated thin-plate spline (TPS) interpolation and Kohonen's self-organizing map (SOM) to visualize the latent structure underlying causal factors and pharmaceutical responses. As a model pharmaceutical product, theophylline tablets were prepared based on a standard formulation. The tensile strength, disintegration time, and stability of these variables were measured as response variables. These responses were predicted quantitatively based on nonlinear TPS. A large amount of data on these tablets was generated and classified into several clusters using an SOM. The experimental values of the responses were predicted with high accuracy, and the data generated for the tablets were classified into several distinct clusters. The SOM feature map allowed us to analyze the global and local correlations between causal factors and tablet characteristics. The results of this study suggest that increasing the proportion of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) improved the tensile strength and the stability of tensile strength of these theophylline tablets. In addition, the proportion of MCC has an optimum value for disintegration time and stability of disintegration. Increasing the proportion of magnesium stearate extended disintegration time. Increasing the compression force improved tensile strength, but degraded the stability of disintegration. This technique provides a better understanding of the relationships between causal factors and pharmaceutical responses in theophylline tablet formulations.

  2. Lutein Supplementation Increases Breast Milk and Plasma Lutein Concentrations in Lactating Women and Infant Plasma Concentrations but Does Not Affect Other Carotenoids 1 2 3

    OpenAIRE

    Sherry, Christina L.; Oliver, Jeffery S.; Renzi, Lisa M.; Marriage, Barbara J.

    2014-01-01

    Lutein is a carotenoid that varies in breast milk depending on maternal intake. Data are lacking with regard to the effect of dietary lutein supplementation on breast milk lutein concentration during lactation and subsequent plasma lutein concentration in breast-fed infants. This study was conducted to determine the impact of lutein supplementation in the breast milk and plasma of lactating women and in the plasma of breast-fed infants 2–3 mo postpartum. Lutein is the dominant carotenoid in t...

  3. Increased plasma proline concentrations are associated with sarcopenia in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoshima, Kenji; Nakamura, Marie; Adachi, Yusuke; Imaizumi, Akira; Hakamada, Tomomi; Abe, Yasuko; Kaneko, Eiji; Takahashi, Soiciro; Shimokado, Kentaro

    2017-01-01

    Metabolome analyses have shown that plasma amino acid profiles reflect various pathological conditions, such as cancer and diabetes mellitus. It remains unclear, however, whether plasma amino acid profiles change in patients with sarcopenia. This study therefore aimed to investigate whether sarcopenia-specific changes occur in plasma amino acid profiles. A total of 153 community-dwelling and seven institutionalized elderly individuals (56 men, 104 women; mean age, 77.7±7.0 years) were recruited for this cross-sectional analysis. We performed a comprehensive geriatric assessment, which included an evaluation of hand grip strength, gait speed, muscle mass and blood chemistry, including the concentration of 18 amino acids. Twenty-eight of the 160 participants met the criteria for sarcopenia established by the Asian Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People. Univariate analysis revealed associations between the presence of sarcopenia and a higher plasma concentration of proline and glutamine, lower concentrations of histidine and tryptophan. Multivariable analysis revealed that a higher concentration of proline was the only variable independently associated with sarcopenia. The plasma concentration of proline may be useful for understanding the underlying pathophysiology of sarcopenia.

  4. Increased plasma proline concentrations are associated with sarcopenia in the elderly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Toyoshima

    Full Text Available Metabolome analyses have shown that plasma amino acid profiles reflect various pathological conditions, such as cancer and diabetes mellitus. It remains unclear, however, whether plasma amino acid profiles change in patients with sarcopenia. This study therefore aimed to investigate whether sarcopenia-specific changes occur in plasma amino acid profiles.A total of 153 community-dwelling and seven institutionalized elderly individuals (56 men, 104 women; mean age, 77.7±7.0 years were recruited for this cross-sectional analysis. We performed a comprehensive geriatric assessment, which included an evaluation of hand grip strength, gait speed, muscle mass and blood chemistry, including the concentration of 18 amino acids.Twenty-eight of the 160 participants met the criteria for sarcopenia established by the Asian Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People. Univariate analysis revealed associations between the presence of sarcopenia and a higher plasma concentration of proline and glutamine, lower concentrations of histidine and tryptophan. Multivariable analysis revealed that a higher concentration of proline was the only variable independently associated with sarcopenia.The plasma concentration of proline may be useful for understanding the underlying pathophysiology of sarcopenia.

  5. Plasma bupivacaine concentrations following orbital injections in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilo-Benjamini, Yael; Pypendop, Bruno H; Newbold, Georgina; Pascoe, Peter J

    2017-01-01

    To determine plasma bupivacaine concentrations after retrobulbar or peribulbar injection of bupivacaine in cats. Randomized, crossover, experimental trial with a 2 week washout period. Six adult healthy cats, aged 1-2 years, weighing 4.6 ± 0.7 kg. Cats were sedated by intramuscular injection of dexmedetomidine (36-56 μg kg -1 ) and were administered a retrobulbar injection of bupivacaine (0.75 mL, 0.5%; 3.75 mg) and iopamidol (0.25 mL), or a peribulbar injection of bupivacaine (1.5 mL, 0.5%; 7.5 mg), iopamidol (0.5 mL) and 0.9% saline (1 mL) via a dorsomedial approach. Blood (2 mL) was collected before and at 5, 10, 15, 22, 30, 45, 60, 120, 240 and 480 minutes after bupivacaine injection. Atipamezole was administered approximately 30 minutes after bupivacaine injection. Plasma bupivacaine and 3-hydroxybupivacaine concentrations were determined using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Bupivacaine maximum plasma concentration (C max ) and time to C max (T max ) were determined from the data. The bupivacaine median (range) C max and T max were 1.4 (0.9-2.5) μg mL -1 and 17 (4-60) minutes, and 1.7 (1.0-2.4) μg mL -1 , and 28 (8-49) minutes, for retrobulbar and peribulbar injections, respectively. In both treatments the 3-hydroxybupivacaine peak concentration was 0.05-0.21 μg mL -1 . In healthy cats, at doses up to 2 mg kg -1 , bupivacaine peak plasma concentrations were approximately half that reported to cause arrhythmias or convulsive electroencephalogram (EEG) activity in cats, and about one-sixth of that required to produce hypotension. Copyright © 2016 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Theophylline cocrystals prepared by spray drying: physicochemical properties and aerosolization performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhalaweh, Amjad; Kaialy, Waseem; Buckton, Graham; Gill, Hardyal; Nokhodchi, Ali; Velaga, Sitaram P

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this work was to characterize theophylline (THF) cocrystals prepared by spray drying in terms of the physicochemical properties and inhalation performance when aerosolized from a dry powder inhaler. Cocrystals of theophylline with urea (THF-URE), saccharin (THF-SAC) and nicotinamide (THF-NIC) were prepared by spray drying. Milled THF and THF-SAC cocrystals were also used for comparison. The physical purity, particle size, particle morphology and surface energy of the materials were determined. The in vitro aerosol performance of the spray-dried cocrystals, drug-alone and a drug-carrier aerosol, was assessed. The spray-dried particles had different size distributions, morphologies and surface energies. The milled samples had higher surface energy than those prepared by spray drying. Good agreement was observed between multi-stage liquid impinger and next-generation impactor in terms of assessing spray-dried THF particles. The fine particle fractions of both formulations were similar for THF, but drug-alone formulations outperformed drug-carrier formulations for the THF cocrystals. The aerosolization performance of different THF cocrystals was within the following rank order as obtained from both drug-alone and drug-carrier formulations: THF-NIC>THF-URE>THF-SAC. It was proposed that micromeritic properties dominate over particle surface energy in terms of determining the aerosol performance of THF cocrystals. Spray drying could be a potential technique for preparing cocrystals with modified physical properties.

  7. Plasma leptin concentration in donkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez, E; López, I; Pérez, C; Pineda, C; Aguilera-Tejero, E

    2012-01-01

    Donkeys appear to be more predisposed than large breed horses to suffer from hyperlipemia. The reason for that predisposition is unknown but anorexia is a consistent feature of the disease. Leptin, a protein synthesized in fat tissue, is one of the major inhibitors of appetite in mammals. We hypothesized that donkeys could have elevated plasma leptin concentrations compared to horses. Blood samples were obtained from 50 donkeys for measurement of leptin, triglycerides (TGs), glucose, and insulin. Glucose/insulin ratio, modified insulin to glucose ratio, and reciprocal of the square root of insulin were calculated. Based on their body condition score (BCS), donkeys were classified as lean (n = 18), normal (n = 16), or overweight (n = 16). The results were compared with reference values from our laboratory and with a group of horses (n = 25) used as an internal control. Values of both leptin and TGs in donkeys were above the horse reference range and also significantly higher than those of the control horses: leptin (11.2 ± 1.7 versus 5.8 ± 0.5 µg/L, p donkeys had leptin (19.3 ± 2.9 µg/L) and TG (1.3 ± 0.2 mmol/L) concentrations that were significantly (p donkeys. A significant positive correlation (p Donkeys have higher plasma leptin concentrations than horses and leptin is correlated with BCS.

  8. [Plasma prolactin concentration and the effect of metergoline in pseudopregnant Afghan hounds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okkens, A C; Dieleman, S J; Kooistra, H S; Bevers, M M

    2000-02-01

    The effects of metergoline, a 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotinin) antagonist, on the plasma concentrations of prolactin in overtly pseudopregnant Afghan hounds and on the clinical symptoms of overt pseudopregnancy were studied. Plasma concentrations of prolactin and progesterone were determined in six Afghan hounds with signs of overt pseudopregnancy for 2-3 weeks and in three Afghan hounds that were not pseudopregnant at the time of blood sampling. In the overtly pseudopregnant bitches the plasma concentrations of prolactin before treatment (35.5 +/- 8.5 micrograms l-1) were significantly higher than the plasma concentrations of prolactin of the three bitches that were not pseudopregnant (6.3 +/- 0.5 micrograms l-1); the latter values were similar to those of non-psueodopregnant beagle bitches during the total luteal phase. The six pseudopregnant Afghan hounds were treated for 10 days with the antiserotoninergic drug metergoline. At 2 h after the onset of treatment with metergoline, the mean plasma concentration of prolactin had decreased to 10.8 +/- 2.9 micrograms l-1. The plasma concentrations of prolactin continued to decline to 5.4 +/- 1.0 micrograms l-1 at 4 h and to 1.0 +/- 0.1 microgram l-1 during treatment days 3-10. Signs of pseudopregnancy, such as swelling of the mammary glands and digging, decreased during the treatment period. The treatment was associated with mild behavioural side effects such as whimpering and aggressiveness. These side effects are probably not related to suppression of prolactin but are due to a direct effect on serotoninergic pathways in the brain. It is concluded that high plasma concentrations of prolactin are associated with the development and maintenance of pseudopregnancy. The serotonin antagonist metergoline strongly suppresses plasma concentration of prolactine in pseudopregnant dogs and decreases the clinical signs of pseudopregnancy.

  9. Plasma brain natriuretic peptide concentrations in patients with valvular heart disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Ralph A; Lee, Mildred; Gabriel, Ruvin; Van Pelt, Niels; Newby, David E; Kerr, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    Objective Plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) concentrations predict prognosis in patients with valvular heart disease (VHD), but it is unclear whether this directly relates to disease severity. We assessed the relationship between BNP and echocardiographic measures of disease severity in patients with VHD. Methods Plasma BNP concentrations were measured in patients with normal left ventricular (LV) systolic function and isolated VHD (mitral regurgitation (MR), n=33; aortic regurgitation (AR), n=39; aortic stenosis (AS), n=34; mitral stenosis (MS), n=30), and age-matched and sex-matched controls (n=39) immediately prior to exercise stress echocardiography. Results Compared with controls, patients with VHD had elevated plasma BNP concentrations (MR median 35 (IQR 23–52), AR 34 (22–45), AS 31 (22–60), MS 58 (34–90); controls 24 (16–33) pg/mL; p<0.01 for all). LV end diastolic volume index varied by valve lesion; (MR (mean 77±14), AR (91±28), AS (50±17), MS (43±11), controls (52±13) mL/m2; p<0.0001). There were no associations between LV volume and BNP. Left atrial (LA) area index varied (MR (18±4 cm2/m2), AR (12±2), AS (11±3), MS (19±6), controls (11±2); p<0.0001), but correlated with plasma BNP concentrations: MR (r=0.42, p=0.02), MS (r=0.86, p<0.0001), AR (r=0.53, p=0.001), AS (r=0.52, p=0.002). Higher plasma BNP concentrations were associated with increased pulmonary artery pressure and reduced exercise capacity. Despite adverse cardiac remodelling, 81 (60%) patients had a BNP concentration within the normal range. Conclusions Despite LV remodelling, plasma BNP concentrations are often normal in patients with VHD. Conversely, mild elevations of BNP occur with LA dilatation in the presence of normal LV. Plasma BNP concentrations should be interpreted with caution when assessing patients with VHD. PMID:27175283

  10. Population pharmacokinetics of caffeine and its metabolites theobromine, paraxanthine and theophylline after inhalation in combination with diacetylmorphine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandvliet, Anthe S; Huitema, Alwin D R; de Jonge, Milly E; den Hoed, Rob; Sparidans, Rolf W; Hendriks, Vincent M; van den Brink, Wim; van Ree, Jan M; Beijnen, Jos H

    2005-01-01

    The stimulant effect of caffeine, as an additive in diacetylmorphine preparations for study purposes, may interfere with the pharmacodynamic effects of diacetylmorphine. In order to obtain insight into the pharmacology of caffeine after inhalation in heroin users, the pharmacokinetics of caffeine and its dimethylxanthine metabolites were studied. The objectives were to establish the population pharmacokinetics under these exceptional circumstances and to compare the results to published data regarding intravenous and oral administration in healthy volunteers. Diacetylmorphine preparations containing 100 mg of caffeine were used by 10 persons by inhalation. Plasma concentrations of caffeine, theobromine, paraxanthine and theophylline were measured by high performance liquid chromatography. Non-linear mixed effects modelling was used to estimate population pharmacokinetic parameters. The model was evaluated by the jack-knife procedure. Caffeine was rapidly and effectively absorbed after inhalation. Population pharmacokinetics of caffeine and its dimethylxanthine metabolites could adequately and simultaneously be described by a linear multi-compartment model. The volume of distribution for the central compartment was estimated to be 45.7 l and the apparent elimination rate constant of caffeine at 8 hr after inhalation was 0.150 hr(-1) for a typical individual. The bioavailability was approximately 60%. The presented model adequately describes the population pharmacokinetics of caffeine and its dimethylxanthine metabolites after inhalation of the caffeine sublimate of a 100 mg tablet. Validation proved the stability of the model. Pharmacokinetics of caffeine after inhalation and intravenous administration are to a large extent similar. The bioavailability of inhaled caffeine is approximately 60% in experienced smokers.

  11. Simultaneous HPLC determination of caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline in food, drinks, and herbal products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srdjenovic, Branislava; Djordjevic-Milic, Vukosava; Grujic, Nevena; Injac, Rade; Lepojevic, Zika

    2008-02-01

    A rapid and selective high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method is developed for the separation and determination of caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline. The chromatography is performed on a Zorbax Eclipse XDB-C8 column (4.6x150 mm i.d., 5-microm particle size) at 25 degrees C, with a mobile phase of water-THF (0.1% THF in water, pH 8)-acetonitrile (90:10, v/v). The flow rate is 0.8 mL/min, and detection is by UV at 273 nm. This method permits the simultaneous determination of caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline in food, drinks, and herbal products with detection limits of 0.07-0.2 mg/L and recoveries of 100.20-100.42%. Correlation coefficients, for the calibration curves in the linear range of 0.2-100 mg/L, are greater than 0.9999 for all compounds. The within- and between-day precision is determined for both retention times and peak area. The data suggests that the proposed HPLC method can be used for routine quality control of food, drinks, and herbal products.

  12. Do plasma concentrations of apelin predict prognosis in patients with advanced heart failure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalzell, Jonathan R; Jackson, Colette E; Chong, Kwok S; McDonagh, Theresa A; Gardner, Roy S

    2014-01-01

    Apelin is an endogenous vasodilator and inotrope, plasma concentrations of which are reduced in advanced heart failure (HF). We determined the prognostic significance of plasma concentrations of apelin in advanced HF. Plasma concentrations of apelin were measured in 182 patients with advanced HF secondary to left ventricular systolic dysfunction. The predictive value of apelin for the primary end point of all-cause mortality was assessed over a median follow-up period of 544 (IQR: 196-923) days. In total, 30 patients (17%) reached the primary end point. Of those patients with a plasma apelin concentration above the median, 14 (16%) reached the primary end point compared with 16 (17%) of those with plasma apelin levels below the median (p = NS). NT-proBNP was the most powerful prognostic marker in this population (log rank statistic: 10.37; p = 0.001). Plasma apelin concentrations do not predict medium to long-term prognosis in patients with advanced HF secondary to left ventricular systolic dysfunction.

  13. Synthesis, biological and physicochemical properties of Zinc(II) salicylate and 5-chlorosalicylate complexes with theophylline and urea

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bujdošová, Z.; Gyoryova, K.; Kovářová, Jana; Hudecová, D.; Halás, L.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 98, č. 1 (2009), s. 151-159 ISSN 1388-6150 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : zinc(II) salicylate * theophylline * urea Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.587, year: 2009

  14. [Determination of six main components in compound theophylline tablet by convolution curve method after prior separation by column partition chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S. Y.; Wang, G. F.; Wu, Y. T.; Baldwin, K. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    On a partition chromatographic column in which the support is Kieselguhr and the stationary phase is sulfuric acid solution (2 mol/L), three components of compound theophylline tablet were simultaneously eluted by chloroform and three other components were simultaneously eluted by ammonia-saturated chloroform. The two mixtures were determined by computer-aided convolution curve method separately. The corresponding average recovery and relative standard deviation of the six components were as follows: 101.6, 1.46% for caffeine; 99.7, 0.10% for phenacetin; 100.9, 1.31% for phenobarbitone; 100.2, 0.81% for theophylline; 99.9, 0.81% for theobromine and 100.8, 0.48% for aminopyrine.

  15. Concentration of platelets and growth factors in platelet-rich plasma from Goettingen minipigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungbluth, Pascal; Grassmann, Jan-Peter; Thelen, Simon; Wild, Michael; Sager, Martin; Windolf, Joachim; Hakimi, Mohssen

    2014-01-01

    In minipigs little is known about the concentration of growth factors in plasma, despite their major role in several patho-physiological processes such as healing of fractures. This prompted us to study the concentration of platelets and selected growth factors in plasma and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) preparation of sixteen Goettingen minipigs. Platelet concentrations increased significantly in PRP in comparison to native blood plasma. Generally, significant increase in the concentration of all growth factors tested was observed in the PRP in comparison to the corresponding plasma or serum. Five of the plasma samples examined contained detectable levels of bone morphogenic protein 2 (BMP-2) whereas eleven of the plasma or serum samples contained minimal amounts of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-bb) respectively. On the other hand variable concentrations of bone morphogenic protein 7 (BMP-7) and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) were measured in all plasma samples. In contrast, all PRP samples contained significantly increased amounts of growth factors. The level of BMP-2, BMP-7, TGF-β1, VEGF and PDGF-bb increased by 17.6, 1.5, 7.1, 7.2 and 103.3 fold, in comparison to the corresponding non-enriched preparations. Moreover significant positive correlations were found between platelet count and the concentrations of BMP-2 (r=0.62, pplatelet-rich plasma of minipigs which might thus serve as a source of autologous growth factors.

  16. Influence of inulin on plasma isoflavone concentrations in healthy postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, Cateno; Privitera, Maria Giovanna; Melilli, Barbara; Incognito, Tiziana; Marano, Maria Rosa; Leggio, Gian Marco; Roxas, Matilde Amico; Drago, Filippo

    2007-09-01

    Bacterial intestinal glucosidases exert an important role in isoflavone absorption. Insoluble dietary fibers such as inulin may stimulate the growth of these bacteria in the colon and, hence, stimulate the absorption of these substances in subjects who may need isoflavone supplementation. The objective was to assess the influence of inulin on plasma isoflavone concentrations after intake of soybean isoflavones in healthy postmenopausal women. Twelve healthy postmenopausal women participated in a randomized, double-blind, crossover study. They consumed 40 mg of a conjugated form of soybean isoflavones (6 mg daidzein and 18 mg genistein as free form) with or without 3.66 g inulin twice daily in two 21-d experimental phases. Blood samples were collected 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 10, 12, and 24 h after intake of isoflavones with breakfast and dinner at the end of each 21-d experimental phase. Plasma concentrations of isoflavones were assessed by HPLC with an electrochemical detector. Plasma 24-h areas under the curve indicated that the intake of soybean isoflavones with inulin for 21 d was followed by higher plasma concentrations of daidzein and genistein (38% and 91%, respectively) compared with the formulation without inulin. Furthermore, the time for the maximum concentration of daidzein and genistein appeared to be lower after the 21-d intake of soybean isoflavones, with or without inulin. However, the time for the maximum concentration of daidzein and genistein after supplementation with the inulin-containing formulation on day 21 was not significantly different from that after supplementation with the formulation without inulin. Inulin may increase the apparent plasma concentrations of the soybean isoflavones daidzein and genistein in postmenopausal women. The higher plasma concentrations of the 2 isoflavones suggests that the absorption of each was facilitated by the presence of inulin.

  17. Treatment with cinacalcet increases plasma sclerostin concentration in hemodialysis patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuczera, Piotr; Adamczak, Marcin; Więcek, Andrzej

    2016-11-15

    Sclerostin is a paracrine acting factor, which is expressed in the osteocytes and articular chondrocytes. Sclerostin decreases the osteoblast-related bone formation through the inhibition of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Osteocytes also express the Calcium sensing receptor which is a target for cinacalcet. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of six-month cinacalcet treatment on plasma sclerostin concentration in hemodialysed patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism (sHPT). In 58 hemodialysed patients with sHPT (PTH > 300 pg/ml) plasma sclerostin and serum PTH, calcium and phosphate concentrations were assessed before the first dose of cinacalcet and after 3 and 6 months of treatment. Serum PTH concentration decreased after 3 and 6 month of treatment from 1138 (931-1345) pg/ml to 772 (551-992) pg/ml and to 635 (430-839) pg/ml, respectively. Mean serum calcium and phosphate concentrations remained stable. Plasma sclerostin concentration increased after 3 and 6 months of treatment from 1.66 (1.35-1.96) ng/ml, to 1.77 (1.43-2.12) ng/ml and to 1.87 (1.50-2.25) ng/ml, respectively. In 42 patients with cinacalcet induced serum PTH decrease plasma sclerostin concentration increased after 3 and 6 months of treatment from 1.51 (1.19-1.84) ng/ml to 1.59 (1.29-1.89) ng/ml and to 1.75 (1.42-2.01) ng/ml, respectively. Contrary, in the 16 patients without cinacalcet induced serum PTH decrease plasma sclerostin concentration was stable. Plasma sclerostin concentrations correlated inversely with serum PTH concentrations at the baseline and also after 6 months of treatment. 1. In hemodialysed patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism treatment with cinacalcet increases plasma sclerostin concentration 2. This effect seems to be related to decrease of serum PTH concentration.

  18. Plasma lactate concentrations in free-ranging moose (Alces alces) immobilized with etorphine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haga, Henning A; Wenger, Sandra; Hvarnes, Silje; Os, Oystein; Rolandsen, Christer M; Solberg, Erling J

    2009-11-01

    To investigate plasma lactate concentrations of etorphine-immobilized moose in relation to environmental, temporal and physiological parameters. Prospective clinical study. Fourteen female and five male moose (Alces alces), estimated age range 1-7 years. The moose were darted from a helicopter with 7.5 mg etorphine per animal using projectile syringes and a dart gun. Once immobilized, the moose were approached, a venous blood sample was obtained and vital signs including pulse oximetry were recorded. Diprenorphine was administered to reverse the effects of etorphine. Timing of events, ambient temperature and snow depth were recorded. Blood samples were cooled and centrifuged before plasma was harvested and frozen. The plasma was thawed later and lactate analysed. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and regression analysis. All animals recovered uneventfully and were alive 12 weeks after immobilization. Mean +/- SD plasma lactate was found to be 9.2 +/- 2.1 mmol L(-1). Plasma lactate concentrations were related positively to snow depth and negatively to time from induction of immobilization to blood sampling. The model that best described the variability in plasma lactate concentrations used induction time (time from firing the dart to the moose being immobilized). The second best model included induction time and snow depth. Plasma lactate concentrations in these etorphine-immobilized moose were in the range reported for other immobilized wild ruminants. Decreasing induction time, which may be related to a more profound etorphine effect, and increasing snow depth possibly may increase plasma lactate concentrations in etorphine-immobilized moose.

  19. [Synthesis, biotransformation and pharmacodynamics of a new theophylline derivative].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelschläger, H; Harsche, C; Engel, J

    1991-09-01

    7-[(RS)2-((S)-1-Methyl-2-phenyl-ethylamino)propyl]-theophylline (3) was not described until now. This fenetylline analogue is available by reaction of 7 with an excess of 2 at 150 degrees C. If 2 reacts with 4, an E2-elimination overwhelms SN-nucleophilic displacement yielding compound 5. In vivo studies with male White-Wistar rats, comparing biotransformation of 3 and 1, demonstrate, that the amount of 2 is decreased from 4.7% of (RS)-2 to 1%, probably due to steric hindrance of the attacking monooxygenases by the methyl group at C-11 of 3. Pharmacodynamic studies of 3, tested with mice, gave similar results to those obtained with 1.

  20. Effect of Postural Change on Plasma Insulin Concentration in Normal Volunteer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, Ho Kyung; Koh, Joo Whan; Joo, Jong Koo; Kim, Jin Yong; Lee, Jang Kyu [Korea Atomic Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1974-03-15

    The concentrations of some blood constituents are known to be influenced by the postural change. The blood glucose and insulin concentrations were measured, first, in the supine, and then (30 minutes later) in the erect positions under the fasting state. The effects of a duretic, furose-mide, were also studied under the same condition for 5 consecutive days. The materials were 5 healthy volunteers aging 20-29 years old with out any diabetic past, or family histories. The blood glucose was measured by the Nelson's method, and plasma insulin by the radioimmunoassay method. Following are the results; 1) The plasma insulin concentration in the erect position is slightly higher than in the supine position, however, the increase is statistically insignificant because of the notable individual variations in the values of the supine position. 2) Four out of 5 cases show the increase of about 80% of plasma insulin in the erect position, which is statistically significant if analyzed on the basis of frequency distribution. 3) The blood glucose concentration showed no postural changes. 4) The increase of the plasma insulin concentration in the erect position seems to the result of limited extra vasation of insulin in the lower extremities.

  1. Impact of Annexin A 7 Deficiency on FGF23 Plasma Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja T. Umbach

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The release of fibroblast growth factor FGF23, a powerful regulator of 1,25(OH2D3 formation and mineral metabolism, is stimulated by store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE, which is accomplished by the pore forming Ca2+ release activated channel protein Orai1. Regulators of Orai1 and thus FGF23 release include serum & glucocorticoid inducible kinase SGK1, a kinase up-regulated by glucocorticosteroids. Some effects of glucocorticoids require the presence of annexin A7, such as suppression of prostaglandin E2 in gastric glands. The present study thus explored whether annexin A7 impacts on FGF23 plasma levels. Methods: Comparisons were made between gene targeted mice lacking functional annexin A7 (Anx7-/- and their wild type littermates (Anx7+/+. Serum C-terminal-FGF23, intact FGF23, 1,25(OH2D3 and PTH concentrations were measured by ELISA or EIA. The serum and urinary phosphate concentrations were measured by colorimetry, the serum Ca2+ concentration and the urinary Ca2+ concentration by flame photometry. Results: Serum C-terminal FGF23 levels and corticosterone levels were significantly higher and serum 1,25(OH2 D3 and PTH levels were significantly lower in Anx7-/- than in Anx7+/+ mice. Water intake was slightly but significantly higher in Anx7-/- mice than in Anx7+/+ mice. No significant difference was observed between Anx7-/- and Anx7+/+ mice in urinary fluid excretion, plasma Ca2+ concentration, plasma phosphate concentration and urinary Ca2+ output. The urinary phosphate output was significantly lower in Anx7-/- mice than in Anx7+/+ mice. Conclusion: Annexin A7 deficiency upregulates FGF23 plasma levels, an effect paralleled by increased corticosterone plasma levels, as well as decreased 1,25(OH2 D3 and PTH plasma levels.

  2. Reduced plasma aldosterone concentrations in randomly selected patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cronin, C C

    2012-02-03

    Abnormalities of the renin-angiotensin system have been reported in patients with diabetes mellitus and with diabetic complications. In this study, plasma concentrations of prorenin, renin, and aldosterone were measured in a stratified random sample of 110 insulin-dependent (Type 1) diabetic patients attending our outpatient clinic. Fifty-four age- and sex-matched control subjects were also examined. Plasma prorenin concentration was higher in patients without complications than in control subjects when upright (geometric mean (95% confidence intervals (CI): 75.9 (55.0-105.6) vs 45.1 (31.6-64.3) mU I-1, p < 0.05). There was no difference in plasma prorenin concentration between patients without and with microalbuminuria and between patients without and with background retinopathy. Plasma renin concentration, both when supine and upright, was similar in control subjects, in patients without complications, and in patients with varying degrees of diabetic microangiopathy. Plasma aldosterone was suppressed in patients without complications in comparison to control subjects (74 (58-95) vs 167 (140-199) ng I-1, p < 0.001) and was also suppressed in patients with microvascular disease. Plasma potassium was significantly higher in patients than in control subjects (mean +\\/- standard deviation: 4.10 +\\/- 0.36 vs 3.89 +\\/- 0.26 mmol I-1; p < 0.001) and plasma sodium was significantly lower (138 +\\/- 4 vs 140 +\\/- 2 mmol I-1; p < 0.001). We conclude that plasma prorenin is not a useful early marker for diabetic microvascular disease. Despite apparently normal plasma renin concentrations, plasma aldosterone is suppressed in insulin-dependent diabetic patients.

  3. Simultaneous determination of caffeine, theophylline and theobromine in food samples by a kinetic spectrophotometric method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Zhenzhen; Ni, Yongnian; Kokot, Serge

    2013-12-15

    A novel kinetic spectrophotometric method was developed for the simultaneous determination of caffeine, theobromine and theophylline in food samples. This method was based on the different kinetic characteristics between the reactions of analytes with cerium sulphate in sulphuric acid and the associated change in absorbance at 320 nm. Experimental conditions, the effects of sulphuric acid, cerium sulphate and temperature, were optimised. Linear ranges (0.4-8.4 μg mL(-1)) for all three analytes were established, and the limits of detection were: 0.30 μg mL(-1) (caffeine), 0.33 μg mL(-1) (theobromine) and 0.16 μg mL(-1) (theophylline). The recorded data were processed by partial least squares and artificial neural network, and the developed mathematical models were then used for prediction. The proposed, novel method was applied to determine the analytes in commercial food samples, and there were no significant differences between the results from the proposed method and those obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Plasma carotenoid concentrations in relation to acute respiratory infections in elderly people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graat, J.M.; Kok, F.J.; Schouten, E.G.

    2004-01-01

    A high plasma carotenoid concentration could improve the immune response and result in decreased risk of infectious diseases. However, data on the relationship of plasma carotenoid concentration with acute respiratory infections, which occur frequently in elderly people, are scarce. We investigated,

  5. Differential Responses of Plasma Adropin Concentrations To Dietary Glucose or Fructose Consumption In Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Andrew A; St-Onge, Marie-Pierre; Siebert, Emily A; Medici, Valentina; Stanhope, Kimber L; Havel, Peter J

    2015-10-05

    Adropin is a peptide hormone encoded by the Energy Homeostasis Associated (ENHO) gene whose physiological role in humans remains incompletely defined. Here we investigated the impact of dietary interventions that affect systemic glucose and lipid metabolism on plasma adropin concentrations in humans. Consumption of glucose or fructose as 25% of daily energy requirements (E) differentially affected plasma adropin concentrations (P Glucose consumption reduced plasma adropin from 3.55 ± 0.26 to 3.28 ± 0.23 ng/ml (N = 42). Fructose consumption increased plasma adropin from 3.63 ± 0.29 to 3.93 ± 0.34 ng/ml (N = 45). Consumption of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) as 25% E had no effect (3.43 ± 0.32 versus 3.39 ± 0.24 ng/ml, N = 26). Overall, the effect of glucose, HFCS and fructose on circulating adropin concentrations were similar to those observed on postprandial plasma triglyceride concentrations. Furthermore, increases in plasma adropin levels with fructose intake were most robust in individuals exhibiting hypertriglyceridemia. Individuals with low plasma adropin concentrations also exhibited rapid increases in plasma levels following consumption of breakfasts supplemented with lipids. These are the first results linking plasma adropin levels with dietary sugar intake in humans, with the impact of fructose consumption linked to systemic triglyceride metabolism. In addition, dietary fat intake may also increase circulating adropin concentrations.

  6. Low plasma taurine concentration in Newfoundland dogs is associated with low plasma methionine and cyst(e)ine concentrations and low taurine synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backus, Robert C; Ko, Kwang Suk; Fascetti, Andrea J; Kittleson, Mark D; Macdonald, Kristin A; Maggs, David J; Berg, John R; Rogers, Quinton R

    2006-10-01

    Although taurine is not dietarily essential for dogs, taurine deficiency and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) are sporadically reported in large-breed dogs. Taurine status and husbandry were examined in 216 privately owned Newfoundlands, a giant dog breed with high incidence of idiopathic DCM (1.3-2.5%). Plasma taurine concentration was positively correlated (P ine (r = 0.37) and methionine (r = 0.35) concentrations and was similar across age, sex, neutering status, body weight, and body-condition scores. Plasma taurine concentration was low (ine, tryptophan, and alpha-amino-n-butyric acid concentrations than the other dogs (P ine and blood glutathione, lower (P < 0.01) de novo taurine synthesis (59 +/- 15 vs. 124 +/- 27 mg x kg(-0.75) x d(-1)), and greater (P < 0.05) fecal bile acid excretion (1.7 +/- 0.2 vs. 1.4 +/- 0.2 micromol/g). Newfoundlands would appear to have a higher dietary sulfur amino acid requirement than Beagles, a model breed used in nutrient requirement determinations.

  7. Energy conversion and concentration in a high-current gaseous discharge: Dense plasma spheromak in plasma focus experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukushkin, A.B.; Rantsev-Kartinov, V.A.; Terentiev, A.R.

    1995-01-01

    Experimental results are presented which verify the possibility of the self-generated transformation of the magnetic field in plasma focus discharges to give a closed, spheromak-like magnetic configuration (SLMC). The energy conversion mechanism suggests a possibility of further concentrating the plasma power density by means of natural compressing the SLMC-trapped plasma by the residual magnetic field of the plasma focus discharge

  8. Changes in plasma potassium concentration during carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perner, A; Bugge, K; Lyng, K M

    1999-01-01

    Hyperkalaemia with ECG changes had been noted during prolonged carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum in pigs. We have compared plasma potassium concentrations during surgery in 11 patients allocated randomly to undergo either laparoscopic or open appendectomy and in another 17 patients allocated randomly...... to either carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum or abdominal wall lifting for laparoscopic colectomy. Despite an increasing metabolic acidosis, prolonged carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum resulted in only a slight increase in plasma potassium concentrations, which was both statistically and clinically insignificant....... Thus hyperkalaemia is unlikely to develop in patients with normal renal function undergoing carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopic surgery....

  9. Monkey liver cytochrome P450 2C9 is involved in caffeine 7-N-demethylation to form theophylline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utoh, Masahiro; Murayama, Norie; Uno, Yasuhiro; Onose, Yui; Hosaka, Shinya; Fujino, Hideki; Shimizu, Makiko; Iwasaki, Kazuhide; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2013-12-01

    Caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine) is a phenotyping substrate for human cytochrome P450 1A2. 3-N-Demethylation of caffeine is the main human metabolic pathway, whereas monkeys extensively mediate the 7-N-demethylation of caffeine to form pharmacological active theophylline. Roles of monkey P450 enzymes in theophylline formation from caffeine were investigated using individual monkey liver microsomes and 14 recombinantly expressed monkey P450 enzymes, and the results were compared with those for human P450 enzymes. Caffeine 7-N-demethylation activity in microsomes from 20 monkey livers was not strongly inhibited by α-naphthoflavone, quinidine or ketoconazole, and was roughly correlated with diclofenac 4'-hydroxylation activities. Monkey P450 2C9 had the highest activity for caffeine 7-N-demethylation. Kinetic analysis revealed that monkey P450 2C9 had a high Vmax/Km value for caffeine 7-N-demethylation, comparable to low Km value for monkey liver microsomes. Caffeine could dock favorably with monkey P450 2C9 modeled for 7-N-demethylation and with human P450 1A2 for 3-N-demethylation. The primary metabolite theophylline was oxidized to 8-hydroxytheophylline in similar ways by liver microsomes and by recombinant P450s in both humans and monkeys. These results collectively suggest a high activity for monkey liver P450 2C9 toward caffeine 7-N-demethylation, whereas, in humans, P450 1A2-mediated caffeine 3-N-demethylation is dominant.

  10. Plasma 8-iso-Prostaglandin F2α concentrations and outcomes after acute intracerebral hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Quan; Yu, Wen-Hua; Dong, Xiao-Qiao; Yang, Ding-Bo; Shen, Yong-Feng; Wang, Hao; Jiang, Li; Du, Yuan-Feng; Zhang, Zu-Yong; Zhu, Qiang; Che, Zhi-Hao; Liu, Qun-Jie

    2014-11-01

    Higher plasma 8-iso-Prostaglandin F2α concentrations have been associated with poor outcome of severe traumatic brain injury. We further investigated the relationships between plasma 8-iso-Prostaglandin F2α concentrations and clinical outcomes in patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhage. Plasma 8-iso-Prostaglandin F2α concentrations of 128 consecutive patients and 128 sex- and gender-matched healthy subjects were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We assessed their relationships with disease severity and clinical outcomes including 1-week mortality, 6-month mortality and unfavorable outcome (modified Rankin Scale score>2). Plasma 8-iso-Prostaglandin F2α concentrations were substantially higher in patients than in healthy controls. Plasma 8-iso-Prostaglandin F2α concentrations were positively associated with National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores and hematoma volume using a multivariate linear regression. It emerged as an independent predictor for clinical outcomes of patients using a forward stepwise logistic regression. ROC curves identified the predictive values of plasma 8-iso-Prostaglandin F2α concentrations, and found its predictive value was similar to NIHSS scores and hematoma volumes. However, it just numerically added the predictive values of NIHSS score and hematoma volume. Increased plasma 8-iso-Prostaglandin F2α concentrations are associated with disease severity and clinical outcome after acute intracerebral hemorrhage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. High fetal plasma adenosine concentration: a role for the fetus in preeclampsia?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Espinoza, Jimmy

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: Clinical observations suggest a role for the fetus in the maternal manifestations of preeclampsia, but the possible signaling mechanisms remain unclear. This study compares the fetal plasma concentrations of adenosine from normal pregnancies with those from preeclampsia. STUDY DESIGN: This secondary data analysis included normal pregnancies (n = 27) and patients with preeclampsia (n = 39). Patients with preeclampsia were subclassified into patients with (n = 25) and without (n = 14) abnormal uterine artery Doppler velocimetry (UADV). RESULTS: Fetal plasma concentrations of adenosine were significantly higher in patients with preeclampsia (1.35 +\\/- 0.09 mumol\\/L) than in normal pregnancies (0.52 +\\/- 0.06 mumol\\/L; P < .0001). Fetal plasma concentrations of adenosine in patients with preeclampsia with abnormal UADV (1.78 +\\/- 0.15 mumol\\/L), but not with normal UADV (0.58 +\\/- 0.14 mumol\\/L), were significantly higher than in normal pregnancies (P < .0001). CONCLUSION: Patients with preeclampsia with sonographic evidence of chronic uteroplacental ischemia have high fetal plasma concentrations of adenosine.

  12. Plasma digoxin concentrations and urinary excretion during a 'simpler' regimen of infant digitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, M O; Hibble, A G; Pickering, D

    1975-01-01

    We have measured the plasma concentrations in sick neonates and infants being administered digoxin by a safer regimen. In the presence of normal renal function the plasma concentrations appear to be satisfactory. PMID:1103751

  13. Design and statistical optimization of an effervescent floating drug delivery system of theophylline using response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srikanth Meka Venkata

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to formulate effervescent floating drug delivery systems of theophylline using different release retarding polymers such as ethyl cellulose, Eudragit® L100, xanthan gum and polyethylene oxide (PEO N12K. Sodium bicarbonate was used as a gas generating agent. Direct compression was used to formulate floating tablets and the tablets were evaluated for their physicochemical and dissolution characteristics. PEO based formulations produced better drug release properties than other formulations. Hence, it was further optimized by central composite design. Further subjects of research were the effect of formulation variables on floating lag time and the percentage of drug released at the seventh hour (D7h. The optimum quantities of PEO and sodium bicarbonate, which had the highest desirability close to 1.0, were chosen as the statistically optimized formulation. No interaction was found between theophylline and PEO by Fourier Transformation Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC studies.

  14. Endostatin concentration in plasma of healthy human volunteers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, I.; Malik, M.O.; Khan, M.J.; Fatima, S.; Habib, S.H.

    2017-01-01

    Angiogenesis is involved in many cardiovascular and cancerous diseases, including atherosclerosis and is controlled by a fine balance between angiogenic and angiostatic mediators. Endostatin is one of the main angiostatic mediators, and inhibits angiogenesis and prevents progression of atherosclerosis. The available literature shows a broad range of concentrations in relatively small samples of healthy controls and is calculated by using different techniques. This study was aimed to determine the basal endostatin concentration in plasma of healthy volunteers, to fully understand its physiological role. Methods: Fifty healthy adult volunteers were recruited to the study. Participants were advised not to participate in any physical activity on the day before the blood sampling. The volunteers' physical activity, height, weight, heart rate and blood pressure were recorded. The samples were analysed for plasma endostatin concentration, using ELISA. The participants were divided by gender and ethnic groups to calculate any difference. Results: Endostatin and other variables were normally distributed. Most of the participants had a moderate level of physical activity with no gender related difference (p=0.370). The mean value for plasma endostatin in all samples was 105+-12 ng/ml with range of 81-132 ng/ml. For males, it was 107+-13 ng/ml, while for females; 102+-12 ng/ml. There were no significant gender or ethnicity related differences in endostatin concentration. Moreover, endostatin was not significantly related with any anthropometric and physical variable. Conclusion: This study gives endostatin levels in normal healthy people and show no gender and ethnicity related differences in endostatin levels. Endostatin was not related with any anthropometric and physical variable. (author)

  15. Plasma concentrations of prolactin in overtly pseudopregnant Afghan hounds and the effect of metergoline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okkens, A C; Dieleman, S J; Kooistra, H S; Bevers, M M

    1997-01-01

    The effect of metergoline, a 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) antagonist, on the plasma concentrations of prolactin in overtly pseudopregnant Afghan hounds and on the clinical symptoms of overt pseudopregnancy were studied. Plasma concentrations of prolactin and progesterone were determined in six Afghan hounds with signs of overt pseudopregnancy for 2-3 weeks and in three Afghan hounds that were not pseudopregnant at the time of blood sampling. In the overtly pseudopregnant bitches the plasma concentrations of prolactin before treatment (35.5 +/- 8.5 micrograms l-1) were significantly higher than the plasma concentrations of prolactin of the three bitches that were not pseudopregnant (6.3 +/- 0.5 micrograms l-1); the latter values were similar to those of non-pseudopregnant beagle bitches during the total luteal phase. The six pseudopregnant Afghan hounds were treated for 10 days with the antiserotoninergic drug metergoline. At 2 h after the onset of treatment with metergoline, the mean plasma concentration of prolactin had decreased to 10.8 +/- 2.9 micrograms l-1. The plasma concentrations of prolactin continued to decline to 5.4 +/- 1.0 micrograms l-1 at 4 h and to 1.0 +/- 0.1 microgram l-1 during treatment days 3-10. Signs of pseudopregnancy, such as swelling of the mammary glands and digging, decreased during the treatment period. The treatment was associated with mild behavioural side effects such as whimpering and aggressiveness. These side effects are probably not related to suppression of prolactin but are due to a direct effect on serotoninergic pathways in the brain. It is concluded that high plasma concentrations of prolactin are associated with the development and maintenance of pseudopregnancy. The serotonin antagonist metergoline strongly suppresses plasma concentrations of prolactin in pseudopregnant dogs and decreases the clinical signs of pseudopregnancy.

  16. Measurement of plasma homovanillic acid concentrations in schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminski, R; Powchick, P; Warne, P A; Goldstein, M; McQueeney, R T; Davidson, M

    1990-01-01

    1. Several lines of evidence suggest that abnormalities of central dopaminergic transmission may be involved in the expression of some schizophrenic symptoms. However, elucidation of the role of dopamine (DA) in schizophrenia has eluded investigative efforts partially because no accurate and easily repeatable measure of brain DA activity exists. 2. The development of a technique to measure homovanillic acid in plasma has offered the possibility of performing serial measurements of this major DA metabolite. 3. Assuming that plasma homovanillic acid (PHVA) concentrations is an index of brain DA activity, measurement of PHVA can play a role in elucidating the DA abnormality in schizophrenia. 4. Results to date suggest that plasma homovanillic acid concentrations are lower in chronic schizophrenic patients compared to normal controls, and that PHVA values correlate with schizophrenic symptom severity. 5. In addition, PHVA levels were shown to initially rise and subsequently decline during chronic neuroleptic administration in treatment responsive but not in treatment refractory schizophrenic patients.

  17. Conjoint regulation of glucagon concentrations via plasma insulin and glucose in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrin, M; Wellnitz, O; Bruckmaier, R M

    2015-04-01

    Insulin and glucagon are glucoregulatory hormones that contribute to glucose homeostasis. Plasma insulin is elevated during normoglycemia or hyperglycemia and acts as a suppressor of glucagon secretion. We have investigated if and how insulin and glucose contribute to the regulation of glucagon secretion through long term (48 h) elevated insulin concentrations during simultaneous hypoglycemia or euglycemia in mid-lactating dairy cows. Nineteen Holstein dairy cows were randomly assigned to 3 treatment groups: an intravenous insulin infusion (HypoG, n = 5) to decrease plasma glucose concentrations (2.5 mmol/L), a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp to study effects of insulin at simultaneously normal glucose concentrations (EuG, n = 6) and a 0.9% saline infusion (NaCl, n = 8). Plasma glucose was measured at 5-min intervals, and insulin and glucose infusion rates were adjusted accordingly. Area under the curve of hourly glucose, insulin, and glucagon concentrations on day 2 of infusion was evaluated by analysis of variance with treatments as fixed effect. Insulin infusion caused an increase of plasma insulin area under the curve (AUC)/h in HypoG (41.9 ± 8.1 mU/L) and EuG (57.8 ± 7.8 mU/L) compared with NaCl (13.9 ± 1.1 mU/L; P insulin infusion induces elevated glucagon concentrations during hypoglycemia, although the same insulin infusion reduces glucagon concentrations at simultaneously normal glucose concentrations. Thus, insulin does not generally have an inhibitory effect on glucagon concentrations. If simultaneously glucose is low and insulin is high, glucagon is upregulated to increase glucose availability. Therefore, insulin and glucose are conjoint regulatory factors of glucagon concentrations in dairy cows, and the plasma glucose status is the key factor to decide if its concentrations are increased or decreased. This regulatory effect can be important for the maintenance of glucose homeostasis if insulin secretion is upregulated by other factors than high

  18. Laser system for measuring small changes in plasma tracer concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaesner, J W; Pou, N A; Parker, R E; Galloway, R L; Roselli, R J

    1996-01-01

    The authors developed a laser-diode system that can be used for on-line optical concentration measurements in physiologic systems. Previous optical systems applied to whole blood have been hampered by artifacts introduced by red blood cells (RBCs). The system introduced here uses a commercially available filter cartridge to separate RBCs from plasma before plasma concentration measurements are made at a single wavelength. The filtering characteristics of the Cellco filter cartridge (#4007-10, German-town, MD) were adequate for use in the on-line measurement system. The response time of the filter cartridge was less than 40 seconds, and the sieving characteristics of the filter for macromolecules were excellent, with filtrate-to-plasma albumin ratios of 0.98 +/- 0.11 for studies in sheep and 0.94 +/- 0.15 for studies in dogs. The 635-nm laser diode system developed was shown to be more sensitive than the spectrophotometer used in previous studies (Klaesner et al., Annals of Biomedical Engineering, 1994; 22, 660-73). The new system was used to measure the product of filtration coefficient (Kfc) and reflection coefficient for albumin (delta f) in an isolated canine lung preparation. The delta fKfc values [mL/(cmH2O.min.100 g dry lung weight)] measured with the laser diode system (0.33 +/- 0.22) compared favorably with the delta fKfc obtained using a spectrophotometer (0.27 +/- 0.20) and with the Kfc obtained using the blood-corrected gravimetric method (0.32 +/- 0.23). Thus, this new optical system was shown to accurately measure plasma concentration changes in whole blood for physiologic levels of Kfc. The same system can be used with different optical tracers and different source wavelengths to make optical plasma concentration measurements for other physiologic applications.

  19. Lapatinib Plasma and Tumor Concentrations and Effects on HER Receptor Phosphorylation in Tumor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil L Spector

    Full Text Available The paradigm shift in cancer treatment from cytotoxic drugs to tumor targeted therapies poses new challenges, including optimization of dose and schedule based on a biologically effective dose, rather than the historical maximum tolerated dose. Optimal dosing is currently determined using concentrations of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in plasma as a surrogate for tumor concentrations. To examine this plasma-tumor relationship, we explored the association between lapatinib levels in tumor and plasma in mice and humans, and those effects on phosphorylation of human epidermal growth factor receptors (HER in human tumors.Mice bearing BT474 HER2+ human breast cancer xenografts were dosed once or twice daily (BID with lapatinib. Drug concentrations were measured in blood, tumor, liver, and kidney. In a randomized phase I clinical trial, 28 treatment-naïve female patients with early stage HER2+ breast cancer received lapatinib 1000 or 1500 mg once daily (QD or 500 mg BID before evaluating steady-state lapatinib levels in plasma and tumor.In mice, lapatinib levels were 4-fold higher in tumor than blood with a 4-fold longer half-life. Tumor concentrations exceeded the in vitro IC90 (~ 900 nM or 500 ng/mL for inhibition of HER2 phosphorylation throughout the 12-hour dosing interval. In patients, tumor levels were 6- and 10-fold higher with QD and BID dosing, respectively, compared to plasma trough levels. The relationship between tumor and plasma concentration was complex, indicating multiple determinants. HER receptor phosphorylation varied depending upon lapatinib tumor concentrations, suggestive of changes in the repertoire of HER homo- and heterodimers.Plasma lapatinib concentrations underestimated tumor drug levels, suggesting that optimal dosing should be focused on the site of action to avoid to inappropriate dose escalation. Larger clinical trials are required to determine optimal dose and schedule to achieve tumor concentrations that maximally

  20. Clinical significance of 2 h plasma concentrations of first-line anti-tuberculosis drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prahl, Julie B; Johansen, Isik S; Cohen, Arieh S

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study 2 h plasma concentrations of the first-line tuberculosis drugs isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol and pyrazinamide in a cohort of patients with tuberculosis in Denmark and to determine the relationship between the concentrations and the clinical outcome. METHODS: After 6......-207 days of treatment (median 34 days) 2 h blood samples were collected from 32 patients with active tuberculosis and from three patients receiving prophylactic treatment. Plasma concentrations were determined using LC-MS/MS. Normal ranges were obtained from the literature. Clinical charts were reviewed...... failure occurred more frequently when the concentrations of isoniazid and rifampicin were both below the normal ranges (P = 0.013) and even more frequently when they were below the median 2 h drug concentrations obtained in the study (P = 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: At 2 h, plasma concentrations of isoniazid...

  1. Development of concentric equipotential surfaces in bumpy torus plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takasugi, Keiichi; Iguchi, Harukazu; Fujiwara, Masami; Ikegami, Hideo

    1983-01-01

    Radial profiles of the plasma space potential are measured in Nagoya Bumpy Torus (NBT-1) by the use of a heavy ion beam probe. Asymmetric potential profiles owing to toroidal drift are observed in high pressure operation (C-mode). As the pressure is decreased, toroidal plasma is effectively heated (T-mode), poloidal precessional frequency overcomes the electron collision frequency and the equipotential surfaces becomes concentric inside the hot electron ring. (author)

  2. Development of theophylline sustained release dosage form based on Kollidon SR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reza, Md Selim; Quadir, Mohiuddin Abdul; Haider, Syed Shabbir

    2002-01-01

    Sustained release theophylline matrix tablets constituting Kollidon SR (Polyvinyl acetate and povidone based matrix retarding polymer) were developed in this study in an attempt to design a dosage form that manifests desirable release profile and thorough adherence to official monographs. Four matrix tablet formulations were prepared by dry blending and direct compression of Kollidon SR and HPMC-15cps (hydroxypropylmethylcellulose) in varying proportion with fixed percentage of theophylline. Tablets containing only Kollidon SR with the active ingredient demonstrated a rapid rate of drug release with an initial burst effect. Incorporation of HPMC-15cps in the matrix tablet prolonged the release of drug with subsequent minimization of burst effect as confirmed by mean dissolution time, T50 and Higuchi release rate data. Among the batches containing HPMC-15 cps, a direct relationship was obtained between release rate and the percentage of HPMC used. A suitable controlled release profile was obtained with the matrix tablets containing 20% Kollidon SR and 30% HPMC-15cps. The formulation showed close resemblance to commercial products and compliance with USP specification. The results were explored and explained by the difference of physico-chemical property and hydration characteristics of the polymers. In addition to this result, the exponential model was applied to characterize the drug release behaviour from polymeric systems. It was found that, Fickian release is predominant in tablets containing Kollidon SR alone and non-Fickian mechanism plays an important role in the release of drug from HPMC containing tablets with a trend towards zero-order or case II release. In vitro release profile of two commercial brands were also undertaken for comparison and modulation of the experimental batches.

  3. The influence of a cooked meat meal on creatinine plasma concentration and creatinine clearance.

    OpenAIRE

    Mayersohn, M; Conrad, K A; Achari, R

    1983-01-01

    1 The influence of a meal containing cooked meat (225 g) on creatinine plasma concentration, creatinine urinary excretion and creatinine clearance was determined in six healthy male subjects. 2 The meat meal produced an average 52% increase in creatinine plasma concentration within 1.5 to 3.5 h after ingestion. The 24 h area under the creatinine plasma concentration-time curve increased by about 19%. Urinary creatinine excretion during 24 h increased by an average of 13%. Creatinine clearance...

  4. Use of refractometry for determination of psittacine plasma protein concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cray, Carolyn; Rodriguez, Marilyn; Arheart, Kristopher L

    2008-12-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated both poor and good correlation of total protein concentrations in various avian species using refractometry and biuret methodologies. The purpose of the current study was to compare these 2 techniques of total protein determination using plasma samples from several psittacine species and to determine the effect of cholesterol and other solutes on refractometry results. Total protein concentration in heparinized plasma samples without visible lipemia was analyzed by refractometry and an automated biuret method on a dry reagent analyzer (Ortho 250). Cholesterol, glucose, and uric acid concentrations were measured using the same analyzer. Results were compared using Deming regression analysis, Bland-Altman bias plots, and Spearman's rank correlation. Correlation coefficients (r) for total protein results by refractometry and biuret methods were 0.49 in African grey parrots (n=28), 0.77 in Amazon parrots (20), 0.57 in cockatiels (20), 0.73 in cockatoos (36), 0.86 in conures (20), and 0.93 in macaws (38) (Prefractometry in Amazon parrots, conures, and macaws (n=25 each, PRefractometry can be used to accurately measure total protein concentration in nonlipemic plasma samples from some psittacine species. Method and species-specific reference intervals should be used in the interpretation of total protein values.

  5. [Effects of dietary wheat gluten level on decreasing plasma homocysteine concentration in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yiqun; Han, Feng; Sun, Licui; Lu, Jiaxi; Sugiyama, Kimio; Huang, Zhenwu

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the effects of different level of casein and wheat gluten on decreasing plasma homocysteine concentration in rats. 48 rats of the Wistar were fed with different level of casein (12.5%, 25% and 50%) and wheat gluten (14.5%, 29% and 58%) diets for 14 days, and they were killed by decapitation to obtain blood and livers was subject to analysis the concentration of homocysteine, cysteine and other amino acids, as well as BHMT and CBS activities. Body weight gain in rats fed wheat gluten dietary was significantly less than casein dietary, but food intake was significantly decreased in wheat gluten group with increasing of the protein content. The plasma homocysteine concentration in rats fed wheat gluten was marketly less than casein, however plasma cysteine concentration in wheat gluten was higher than casein group. The effects of wheat gluten on plasma homocysteine concentration are mainly depends on the low contents of methionine and high cysteine content, but the low contents of lyscine and threonine are not ignored. The mainly mechanism is that the increased cysteine concentration promot enzyme activities of homocystein metabolism, and increase the consumption of homocysteine.

  6. Plasma oxytocin concentrations during late pregnancy and parturition in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klarenbeek, M; Okkens, A C; Kooistra, H S; Mol, J A; M M Bevers; Taverne, M A M

    2007-11-01

    While oxytocin is widely used in the treatment of dystocia in dogs, there is little information about its secretion before and during normal unassisted whelping. We therefore measured plasma oxytocin concentrations during late pregnancy and the expulsive stage of parturition. Blood samples were collected from eight dogs at 3-min intervals during a 42-min period between the 2nd and 14th day before whelping and during parturition after the birth of 1-3 pups. The litters consisted of 5-15 pups and the progression of the expulsive stage was linear and nearly parallel in the eight bitches. The overall mean (+/-S.D.) plasma oxytocin concentration during late pregnancy was 3.6+/-2.1pg/ml. Mean values in individual dogs ranged from 1.2 to 7.4 pg/ml, but the intra-animal variation was rather small. During the expulsive stage the overall mean (+/-S.D.) plasma oxytocin concentration was 12.9+/-13.9 pg/ml, with mean values in individual dogs ranging from 3.5 to 46 pg/ml. The mean area under the oxytocin curve for parturient dogs was significantly higher (Pdogs. During the expulsive stage, the peak plasma oxytocin level in individual dogs ranged between 10 and 117 pg/ml. In six of the eight dogs a pup was born during blood collection and in five of these animals the plasma oxytocin concentration increased temporarily during periods of abdominal straining and expulsion. However, straining efforts and expulsion were not consistently associated with a rise in the circulating oxytocin level. It is concluded that in the dog plasma oxytocin levels are higher and more variable during the expulsive stage of parturition than during late pregnancy. Interrelationships between the secretion pattern of oxytocin, the level of uterine contractility, and the progress of fetal expulsion in dogs need further exploration.

  7. Effect of Diuresis on Plasma Renin Activity and Aldosterone Concentration in Normal and Toxemic Pregnancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, H. K.; Lee, H. S.; Cho, S. S.; Koh, J. H.; Lee, J. K.; Kim, H. S. [Korea Atomic Emergy Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1973-03-15

    The changes of plasma renin activity, aldosterone concentration, serum sodium, and potassium levels were studied before and after the water loading followed by diuretics injection. The materials were: 13 non-, 11 normal-, and 11 toxemic pregnancy cases. The plasma renin activity and aldosterone concentration of the cord and postpartum blood were also measured. Following were the results: 1. The plasma renin activity was elevated significantly in normal pregnancy, and slightly in toxemic pregnancy. The serum sodium levels were decreased in pregnancy. 2. The plasma aldosterone concentration was slightly decreased in normal pregnancy, and slightly increased in toxemic pregnancy, however, statistically insignificant. 3. The plasma renin activity of the cord and postpartum blood were lower than those of pregnancy cases. 4. The changes of plasma renin activity after the diuretic administration showed an initial increase, which recovered within 2 hours. These changes were the least in normal pregnancy, and the most in toxemic pregnancy. 5. The changes of plasma aldosterone concentration after the diuretic administration were similar to those of plasma renin activity, although the variations were not so wide.

  8. Effect of Diuresis on Plasma Renin Activity and Aldosterone Concentration in Normal and Toxemic Pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, H. K.; Lee, H. S.; Cho, S. S.; Koh, J. H.; Lee, J. K.; Kim, H. S.

    1973-01-01

    The changes of plasma renin activity, aldosterone concentration, serum sodium, and potassium levels were studied before and after the water loading followed by diuretics injection. The materials were: 13 non-, 11 normal-, and 11 toxemic pregnancy cases. The plasma renin activity and aldosterone concentration of the cord and postpartum blood were also measured. Following were the results: 1. The plasma renin activity was elevated significantly in normal pregnancy, and slightly in toxemic pregnancy. The serum sodium levels were decreased in pregnancy. 2. The plasma aldosterone concentration was slightly decreased in normal pregnancy, and slightly increased in toxemic pregnancy, however, statistically insignificant. 3. The plasma renin activity of the cord and postpartum blood were lower than those of pregnancy cases. 4. The changes of plasma renin activity after the diuretic administration showed an initial increase, which recovered within 2 hours. These changes were the least in normal pregnancy, and the most in toxemic pregnancy. 5. The changes of plasma aldosterone concentration after the diuretic administration were similar to those of plasma renin activity, although the variations were not so wide.

  9. Thermochemical parameters of caffeine, theophylline, and xanthine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ngo Tuan Cuong; Truong Ba Tai [Department of Chemistry, and Mathematical Modeling and Computational Science Center (LMCC), Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Vu Thi Thu Ha [Institute of Chemistry, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Minh Tho Nguyen, E-mail: minh.nguyen@chem.kuleuven.b [Department of Chemistry, and Mathematical Modeling and Computational Science Center (LMCC), Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2010-04-15

    Thermochemical parameters of caffeine 1, theophylline 2, xanthine 3, uracil, and imidazole derivatives are determined by quantum chemical calculations. Using the composite G3B3 method, the standard heat of formation of caffeine in the gaseous phase amounts to DELTA{sub f}H{sub g}{sup 0}(1)=-243+-8kJ.mol{sup -1}, which lends a support for the recent experimental value of -237.0 +- 2.5 kcal . mol{sup -1}. We also obtain DELTA{sub f}H{sub g}{sup 0}(2)=-232+-8kJ.mol{sup -1}andDELTA{sub f}H{sub g}{sup 0}(3)=-209+-8kJ.mol{sup -1}. The adiabatic ionization energies are IE{sub a}(1) = 7.9 eV, IE{sub a}(2) = 8.1 eV, and IE{sub a}(3) = 8.5 eV using B3LYP calculations. The enhanced ability of caffeine to eject electron, as compared to the parent compounds and cyclic components, is of interest with regard to its potential use as a corrosion inhibitor.

  10. Plasma fibrinogen and factor VII concentrations in adults after prenatal exposure to famine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roseboom, T. J.; van der Meulen, J. H.; Ravelli, A. C.; Osmond, C.; Barker, D. J.; Bleker, O. P.

    2000-01-01

    To assess the effect of maternal malnutrition during different stages of gestation on plasma concentrations of fibrinogen and factor VII, we investigated 725 people, aged 50 years, born around the time of the Dutch famine 1944-5. After adjustment for sex, plasma fibrinogen concentrations differed by

  11. Plasma N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide concentrations in dogs with pulmonic stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Keiya; Hori, Yasutomo; Chimura, Syuuichi

    2014-06-01

    The detailed information between plasma N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) concentrations and dogs with pulmonic stenosis (PS) is still unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the clinical utility of measuring plasma NT-proBNP concentrations in dogs with PS and to determine whether plasma NT-proBNP concentration could be used to assess disease severity. This retrospective study enrolled 30 client-owned, untreated dogs with PS (asymptomatic [n=23] and symptomatic [n=7]) and 11 healthy laboratory beagles. Results of physical examination, thoracic radiography and echocardiography were recorded. Plasma NT-proBNP concentrations were measured using commercial laboratories. Compared to the healthy control dogs, cardiothoracic ratio was significantly increased in dogs with both asymptomatic and symptomatic PS. Similarly, the ratio of the main pulmonary artery to aorta was significantly decreased in dogs with both asymptomatic and symptomatic PS. The pulmonic pressure gradient in the symptomatic PS dogs was significantly higher than that in the asymptomatic PS dogs. Plasma NT-proBNP concentration was significantly elevated in the symptomatic PS dogs compared to the healthy control dogs and the asymptomatic PS dogs. Furthermore, the Doppler-derived pulmonic pressure gradient was significantly correlated with the plasma NT-proBNP concentration (r=0.78, r(2)=0.61, P764 pmol/l to identify severe PS had a sensitivity of 76.2% and specificity of 81.8%. The plasma NT-proBNP concentration increased by spontaneous PS, i.e. right-sided pressure overload and can be used as an additional method to assess the severity of PS in dogs.

  12. effects of artemether on the plasma and urine concentrations of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Komolafe

    2011-05-16

    May 16, 2011 ... degeneration of the renal tissue of rats, inability of the damaged kidneys to concentrate urine, which manifested as excessive water loss and electrolyte depletion. Key words: Artemether, electrolytes in plasma, urine concentrations, rats. INTRODUCTION. Artemether, one of the derivatives of artemisinin, is.

  13. Processing-independent proANP measurement for low concentrations in plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Peter D; Hunter, Ingrid; Terzic, Dijana

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Decreased concentrations of pro-atrial-derived natriuretic peptides (proABP) in plasma have been associated with obesity and suggested as a predictor of type 2 diabetes. However, assays for measuring proANP are generally aimed to quantitate higher concentrations of proANP associated...

  14. Variation in absorption and half-life of hydrocortisone influence plasma cortisol concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindmarsh, Peter C; Charmandari, Evangelia

    2015-04-01

    Hydrocortisone therapy should be individualized in congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) patients to avoid over and under replacement. We have assessed how differences in absorption and half-life of cortisol influence glucocorticoid exposure. Forty-eight patients (21 M) aged between 6·1 and 20·3 years with CAH due to CYP21A2 deficiency were studied. Each patient underwent a 24-h plasma cortisol profile with the morning dose used to calculate absorption parameters along with an intravenous (IV) hydrocortisone (15 mg/m(2) body surface area) bolus assessment of half-life. Parameters derived were maximum plasma concentration (Cmax ), time of maximum plasma concentration (tmax ), time to attaining plasma cortisol concentration cortisol. Mean half-life was 76·5 ± 5·2 (range 40-225·3) min, Cmax 780·7 ± 61·6 nmol/l and tmax 66·7 (range 20-118) min. Time taken to a plasma cortisol concentration less than 100 nmol/l was 289 (range 140-540) min. Those with a fast half-life and slow tmax took longest to reach a plasma cortisol concentration less than 100 nmol/l (380 ± 34·6 min), compared to those with a slow half-life and fast tmax (298 ± 34·8 min) and those with a fast half-life and fast tmax (249·5 ± 14·4 min) (One-way anovaF = 4·52; P = 0·009). Both rate of absorption and half-life of cortisol in the circulation play important roles in determining overall exposure to oral glucocorticoid. Dose regimens need to incorporate estimates of these parameters into determining the optimum dosing schedule for individuals. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Control of exogenous factors affecting plasma homovanillic acid concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, M; Giordani, A B; Mohs, R C; Mykytyn, V V; Platt, S; Aryan, Z S; Davis, K L

    1987-04-01

    Measurements of plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) concentrations appear to be a valid research strategy in psychiatric disorders in which a central dopamine (DA) abnormality has been implicated. This study provides guidance about the control of some of the exogenous factors affecting pHVA concentrations. Fasting for 14 hours eliminates the dietary effects on pHVA in healthy human subjects. Changing position, walking for 30 minutes, or smoking two cigarettes has no effect on pHVA concentrations.

  16. In vitro studies of theophylline-induced changes in Na, K and Cl transport in hen (Gallus domesticus) colon suggesting bidirectional, basolateral NaK2Cl cotransport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Vibeke; Munck, B G; Munck, L K

    1990-01-01

    1. In isolated mucosa from a NaCl-loaded hen theophylline stimulates both unidirectional chloride fluxes (JmsCl and JsmCl). Conductive and electroneutral exchange processes, besides a bumetanide-sensitive, rheogenic process contribute. 2. The bumetanide-sensitive fraction of the theophylline......-induced delta JcmCl is sodium-dependent. 3. Incubation in nominally K(+)-free solutions reduces the bumetanide-sensitive fraction delta JsmCl more than treatment with ouabain. 4. With respect to chloride the bumetanide-sensitive fraction of delta JsmCl has a Hill coefficient of 1.93 +/- 0.03, a Jmax of 12...

  17. Evaluation of automated enzyme immunoassays for five anticonvulsants and theophylline adapted to a centrifugal analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urquhart, N; Godolphin, W; Campbell, D J

    1979-05-01

    We report a clinical evaluation of the enzyme immunoassay (EMIT) performed with the GEMSAEC centrifugal analyzer as compared to gas-liquid and liquid chromatography for anticonvulsant drugs and theophylline, respectively. A good correlation was obtained for all drugs, although some difficulties were experienced with one lot of reagent for ethosuximide. The analyzer has an economic advantage if many samples are being analyzed for few drugs in each sample.

  18. Effect of physiological determinants and cardiac disease on plasma adiponectin concentrations in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damoiseaux, C; Merveille, A-C; Krafft, E; Da Costa, A M; Gomart, S; Jespers, P; Michaux, C; Clercx, C; Verhoeven, C; Mc Entee, K

    2014-01-01

    In humans, a high concentration of adiponectin is associated with a favorable cardiovascular risk profile whereas, in patients with heart failure (HF), a high concentration of adiponectin is associated with a less favorable prognosis. To evaluate the physiological determinants of plasma adiponectin concentration in dogs and the influence of heart disease, myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD), and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). One hundred and fourteen client-owned dogs and 9 Beagles from the research colony of the Clinical Veterinary Unit of the University of Liège. We prospectively measured circulating adiponectin concentration in healthy control dogs (n = 77), dogs with MMVD (n = 22) and dogs with DCM (n = 15) of various degrees of severity. Diagnosis was confirmed by Doppler echocardiography. Plasma adiponectin concentration was measured by a canine-specific sandwich ELISA kit. An analysis of covariance showed an association between adiponectin concentration and age, neuter status, and heart disease. No association between adiponectin concentration and class of HF, sex, body condition score, body weight, circadian rhythm, or feeding was found. Plasma adiponectin concentration was negatively correlated with age (P = .001). Adiponectin was lower in neutered (P = .008) compared to intact dogs. Circulating adiponectin concentration was increased in dogs with DCM compared to healthy dogs (P = .018) and to dogs with MMVD (P = .014). Age and neutering negatively influence circulating adiponectin concentration. Plasma adiponectin concentration increased in dogs with DCM. Additional research is required to investigate if this hormone is implicated in the pathophysiology of DCM and associated with clinical outcome. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  19. Platelet concentration of plateletrich plasma from dogs, obtained through three centrifugation speeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Couto de Magalhães Ferraz

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The platelets release at least 4 growth factors (Platelet Derived Growth Factor. ²1 and ²2 Transforming Growth Factors and Insulin-like Growth Factor which are responsible for the migration and activation of cells that will start the reparation of soft tissues and bones. The Platelet Rich Plasma is an autogenous source for Growth Factors, obtained by platelet concentration by centrifuging total blood. This study aimed the comparison of platelet concentrations in plasma centrifuged in three different centrifugation speeds (1300, 1600 e 3200rpm, for the production of platelet rich plasma. Blood was drowned from 15 dogs, 40ml of each, and these were divided into four groups and centrifuged at 800rpm. Then the first group was centrifuged at 1300rpm, the second at 1600rpm, the third at 3200rpm and the last was used as control, named plasma. The mean percentage increase in the platelet concentration for each technique was: 1300 - 183%, 1600 - 210% and 3200 - 222%. But in centrifugation at 3200 rpm, platelets presented altered morphology and different sizes in every sample studied, which was understood as severe cell damage. It was concluded that the best technique for the preparation of the platelet rich plasma in dogs consisted of the previous centrifugation of the blood at 800rpm for ten minutes, and then the plasma should be separated. This plasma is then submitted to a second centrifugation of 1600rpm for 10 minutes, and the platelet poor plasma is separated and discharged.

  20. Identification of a Hemolysis Threshold That Increases Plasma and Serum Zinc Concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killilea, David W; Rohner, Fabian; Ghosh, Shibani; Otoo, Gloria E; Smith, Lauren; Siekmann, Jonathan H; King, Janet C

    2017-06-01

    Background: Plasma or serum zinc concentration (PZC or SZC) is the primary measure of zinc status, but accurate sampling requires controlling for hemolysis to prevent leakage of zinc from erythrocytes. It is not established how much hemolysis can occur without changing PZC/SZC concentrations. Objective: This study determines a guideline for the level of hemolysis that can significantly elevate PZC/SZC. Methods: The effect of hemolysis on PZC/SZC was estimated by using standard hematologic variables and mineral content. The calculated hemolysis threshold was then compared with results from an in vitro study and a population survey. Hemolysis was assessed by hemoglobin and iron concentrations, direct spectrophotometry, and visual assessment of the plasma or serum. Zinc and iron concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma spectrometry. Results: A 5% increase in PZC/SZC was calculated to result from the lysis of 1.15% of the erythrocytes in whole blood, corresponding to ∼1 g hemoglobin/L added into the plasma or serum. Similarly, the addition of simulated hemolysate to control plasma in vitro caused a 5% increase in PZC when hemoglobin concentrations reached 1.18 ± 0.10 g/L. In addition, serum samples from a population nutritional survey were scored for hemolysis and analyzed for changes in SZC; samples with hemolysis in the range of 1-2.5 g hemoglobin/L showed an estimated increase in SZC of 6% compared with nonhemolyzed samples. Each approach indicated that a 5% increase in PZC/SZC occurs at ∼1 g hemoglobin/L in plasma or serum. This concentration of hemoglobin can be readily identified directly by chemical hemoglobin assays or indirectly by direct spectrophotometry or matching to a color scale. Conclusions: A threshold of 1 g hemoglobin/L is recommended for PZC/SZC measurements to avoid increases in zinc caused by hemolysis. The use of this threshold may improve zinc assessment for monitoring zinc status and nutritional interventions.

  1. Limited sampling strategy for determining metformin area under the plasma concentration-time curve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santoro, Ana Beatriz; Stage, Tore Bjerregaard; Struchiner, Claudio José

    2016-01-01

    AIM: The aim was to develop and validate limited sampling strategy (LSS) models to predict the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) for metformin. METHODS: Metformin plasma concentrations (n = 627) at 0-24 h after a single 500 mg dose were used for LSS development, based on all su...

  2. Variable aromatase inhibitor plasma concentrations do not correlate with circulating estrogen concentrations in post-menopausal breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertz, Daniel L; Speth, Kelly A; Kidwell, Kelley M; Gersch, Christina L; Desta, Zeruesenay; Storniolo, Anna Maria; Stearns, Vered; Skaar, Todd C; Hayes, Daniel F; Henry, N Lynn; Rae, James M

    2017-10-01

    The aromatase inhibitors (AI) exemestane (EXE), letrozole (LET), and anastrozole suppress estrogen biosynthesis, and are effective treatments for estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer. Prior work suggests that anastrozole blood concentrations are associated with the magnitude of estrogen suppression. The objective of this study was to determine whether the magnitude of estrogen suppression, as determined by plasma estradiol (E2) concentrations, in EXE or LET treated patients is associated with plasma AI concentrations. Five hundred post-menopausal women with ER-positive breast cancer were enrolled in the prospective Exemestane and Letrozole Pharmacogenetic (ELPh) Study conducted by the COnsortium on BReast cancer phArmacogomics (COBRA) and randomly assigned to either drug. Estrogen concentrations were measured at baseline and after 3 months of AI treatment and drug concentrations were measured after 1 or 3 months. EXE or LET concentrations were compared with 3-month E2 concentration or the change from baseline to 3 months using several complementary statistical procedures. Four-hundred patients with on-treatment E2 and AI concentrations were evaluable (EXE n = 200, LET n = 200). Thirty (7.6%) patients (EXE n = 13, LET n = 17) had 3-month E2 concentrations above the lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) (median: 4.75; range: 1.42-63.8 pg/mL). EXE and LET concentrations were not associated with on-treatment E2 concentrations or changes in E2 concentrations from baseline (all p > 0.05). Steady-state plasma AI concentrations do not explain variability in E2 suppression in post-menopausal women receiving EXE or LET therapy, in contrast with prior evidence in anastrozole treated patients.

  3. Plasma heme oxygenase-1 concentration is elevated in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Bao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Circulating concentrations of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 have been recently reported to be elevated in several chronic disorders. However, no study has ever examined the association between circulating HO-1 concentrations and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. METHODS AND FINDINGS: 581 cases with newly-diagnosed T2DM (New-T2DM and 611 comparison controls were recruited in this two-phase case-control study, comprising 420 cases and 429 controls collected in the first phase study and 161 cases and 182 controls in the second phase replication study. Analyses, using both separated data and combined data from the two-phase studies, show that plasma HO-1 concentrations were significantly increased in New-T2DM cases compared to controls (P<0.001. Plasma HO-1 concentrations were significantly correlated with plasma glucose concentrations, HOMA-beta and HOMA-IR (P<0.001. After adjustment for age, sex, BMI and family history of diabetes, the ORs for New-T2DM in the highest quartile of plasma HO-1 concentrations, compared with the lowest, was 8.23 (95% CI 5.55-12.21; P for trend <0.001. The trend remained significant after additional adjustment for fasting plasma glucose/insulin, HOMA-beta/HOMA-IR, TC/TG, smoking, drinking and history of hypertension, and even in further stratification analysis by age, sex, BMI, smoking, drinking and history of hypertension. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated plasma HO-1 concentrations are associated with higher ORs for New-T2DM, which add more knowledge regarding the important role of oxidative stress in T2DM. More consequent studies were warranted to confirm the clinical utility of plasma HO-1, especially in diagnosis and prognosis of T2DM and its complications.

  4. Correlation between Behavioural and Psychological Symptoms of Alzheimer Type Dementia and Plasma Homocysteine Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanjie Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between plasma homocysteine and behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD has not been specifically investigated in previous research. In this study, we compared plasma homocysteine (Hcy among 40 Alzheimer’s disease (AD patients with BPSD, 37 AD patients without BPSD, and 39 healthy controls. Our results evidenced that the plasma homocysteine levels in AD patients with BPSD and without BPSD were higher than healthy controls and that the plasma homocysteine concentration in AD patients with BPSD was the highest among the three groups. Significant correlation between plasma homocysteine concentration and cognitive decline and duration of dementia was observed, but there was no correlation between BPSD and cognitive dysfunction or duration of dementia. In conclusion, this study showed for the first time that BPSD were associated with plasma homocysteine concentration in Alzheimer's dementia, and the results supported that hyperhomocysteine may take part in the pathogenesis of BPSD.

  5. Plasma lactate concentration as a prognostic biomarker in dogs with gastric dilation and volvulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, Erin; Raw, Cameron; Hughes, Dez

    2014-09-01

    Initial and serial plasma lactate concentrations can be used to guide decision making in individual dogs with GDV but care is necessary in phrasing conversations with owners. Published data suggests that survival is more likely and the chance of complications less in dogs with an initial plasma lactate of 6 mmol/L makes gastric necrosis and greater expense more likely. However, because of the overlap between groups and the good overall survival rates, exploratory laparotomy should always be recommended irrespective of the plasma lactate concentration. Falls in plasma lactate of greater than ~40% after fluid resuscitation are likely to indicate better survival. If the initial plasma lactate concentration is moderately to severely increased (5->10 mmol/L) and a sustained increase in plasma lactate occurs after fluid resuscitation, the cause should be aggressively pursued. Many dogs with persistent hyperlactatemia over 24-48 hours do not survive. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Plasma Aluminum Concentrations in Pediatric Patients Receiving Long-Term Parenteral Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtney-Martin, Glenda; Kosar, Christina; Campbell, Alison; Avitzur, Yaron; Wales, Paul W; Steinberg, Karen; Harrison, Debra; Chambers, Kathryn

    2015-07-01

    Patients receiving long-term parenteral nutrition (PN) are at increased risk of aluminium (Al) toxicity because of bypass of the gastrointestinal tract during PN infusion. Complications of Al toxicity include metabolic bone disease (MBD), Al-associated encephalopathy in adults, and impaired neurological development in preterm infants. Unlike the United States, there are no regulations regarding Al content of large- and small-volume parenterals in Canada. We, therefore, aimed to present our data on plasma Al concentration and Al intake from our cohort of pediatric patients receiving long-term PN. Plasma Al concentration was retrospectively gathered from the patient charts of all 27 patients with intestinal failure (IF) receiving long-term PN at The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada, and compared with age- and sex-matched controls recruited for comparison. In addition, Al concentration was measured in PN samples collected from 10 randomly selected patients with IF and used to determine their Al intake. The plasma Al concentration of patients with IF receiving long-term PN was significantly higher than that of control participants (1195 ± 710 vs 142 ± 63 nmol/L; P Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  7. Synthesis and investigation of the physicochemical properties of 2-(5-((theophylline-7'-ylmethyl-4-phenyl-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-ylthio-acetic acid salts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Gotsulya

    2014-02-01

    ,01 mol of sodium hydroxide and 50 ml of water heated up to boiling during 2 hours, cooled and added to the filtrate 2 ml of concentrated hydrochloric acid. Output - 84%. Tm. > 270 º C. 2-((5-((theophylline-7'-ylmethyle-4-phenyle-4Н-1,2,4-triazole-3-ilthioacetate acid. In a round, heat-resistant flack heated 0,01 mol of 7-((5-mercapto-4-phenyl-4H-1 ,2,4-triazoles-3-yl methyltheophylline, 0,02 mol NaOH and 0,01 mol monochloracetate acid. Heated up to boiling for 1 h. Cooled. Neutralized by acetic acid. Output - 71%. Tm. = 227-230 º C. Salts of 2-(5-((theophylline-7'-ilmethyle-4-phenyle-4Н-1,2,4-triazole-3-il-tiоacetate acid. A compound: 0.01 mole of acetic acid, 35 ml of ethanol and 0.01 mol of corresponding base (monoethanolammonium, dyethylammonium, dyetanolammonium, monoetanolammonium, threebutylammonium, morpholine, piperidine, piperazine heated for 1 hour in a water bath, the solvent is evaporated. Getting white crystalline substances soluble in water, soluble in diethyl ether and chloroform. For analysis compounds recrystallized from ethanol. Potassium, sodium salts of 2-(5-((theophylline-7'-ilmethyle-4-phenyle -4Н-1,2,4-triazole -3-iltioacetate acid. A compound - 0.01 mole of acetic acid and 0.01 mole of potassium or sodium hydroxide in 30 ml of water evaporated in a water bath. The dry residuum crystallized from ethanol. Getting white crystalline substances, difficulty soluble in organic solvents. For analysis compounds recrystallized from water. Magnesium , calcium, zinc , copper (II and iron (II salts of 2-(5-((teophylline-7'-ylmethyle-4-phenyle-4Н-1,2,4-triazole-3-iltioacetate acid. A compound of 0.02 mole acetic acid, 25 ml of water and accordingly 0.01 mol of magnesium oxide , calcium carbonate , zinc sulfate, copper ( II sulfate or iron ( II chloride is heated till the dissolution of precipitate , filtered , the filtrate evaporated. Received white, light blue , brown crystals with sharp melting points, little soluble in water, hardly soluble in organic

  8. Effect of sampling site, repeated sampling, pH, and PCO2 on plasma lactate concentration in healthy dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, D; Rozanski, E R; Shofer, F S; Laster, L L; Drobatz, K J

    1999-04-01

    To characterize the variation in plasma lactate concentration among samples from commonly used blood sampling sites in conscious, healthy dogs. 60 healthy dogs. Cross-sectional study using a replicated Latin square design. Each dog was assigned to 1 of 6 groups (n = 10) representing all possible orders for 3 sites (cephalic vein, jugular vein, and femoral artery) used to obtain blood. Samples were analyzed immediately, by use of direct amperometry for pH, PO2, Pco2, glucose, and lactate concentration. Significant differences in plasma lactate concentrations were detected among blood samples from the cephalic vein (highest), femoral artery, and jugular vein (lowest). Mean plasma lactate concentration in the first sample obtained, irrespective of sampling site, was lower than in subsequent samples. Covariation was identified among plasma lactate concentration, pH, and PCO2, but correlation coefficients were low. Plasma lactate concentrations differed among blood samples from various sites. A reference range for plasma lactate concentration was 0.3 to 2.5 mmol/L. Differences in plasma lactate concentrations among samples from various sites and with repeated sampling, in healthy dogs, are small. Use of the reference range may facilitate the clinical use of plasma lactate concentration in dogs.

  9. Plasma concentrations of fentanyl with subcutaneous infusion in palliative care patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, R S; Peterson, G M; Abbott, F; Maddocks, I; Parker, D; McLean, S

    1995-01-01

    1. Plasma concentrations of fentanyl were measured by g.c. in 20 patients (median age: 75 years and range: 54-86 years; eight females) in palliative care receiving the drug by continuous s.c. infusion (median rate: 1200 micrograms day-1 and range: 100-5000 micrograms day-1). 2. The infusion rate was significantly related to the duration of therapy (Spearman rho = 0.56, P < 0.05). The total steady-state plasma concentrations of fentanyl ranged between 0.1 and 9 ng ml-1, with a median of 1 ng m...

  10. Forced swimming and imipramine modify plasma and brain amino acid concentrations in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Tatsuro; Yamane, Haruka; Tomonaga, Shozo; Furuse, Mitsuhiro

    2009-01-05

    The relationships between monoamine metabolism and forced swimming or antidepressants have been well studied, however information is lacking regarding amino acid metabolism under these conditions. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of forced swimming and imipramine on amino acid concentrations in plasma, the cerebral cortex and the hypothalamus in mice. Forced swimming caused cerebral cortex concentrations of L-glutamine, L-alanine, and taurine to be increased, while imipramine treatment caused decreased concentrations of L-glutamate, L-alanine, L-tyrosine, L-methionine, and L-ornithine. In the hypothalamus, forced swimming decreased the concentration of L-serine while imipramine treatment caused increased concentration of beta-alanine. Forced swimming caused increased plasma concentration of taurine, while concentrations of L-serine, L-asparagine, L-glutamine and beta-alanine were decreased. Imipramine treatment caused increased plasma concentration of all amino acid, except for L-aspartate and taurine. In conclusion, forced swimming and imipramine treatment modify central and peripheral amino acid metabolism. These results may aid in the identification of amino acids that have antidepressant-like effects, or may help to refine the dosages of antidepressant drugs.

  11. Stress at birth: plasma noradrenaline concentrations of women in labour and in cord blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messow-Zahn, K; Sarafoff, M; Riegel, K P

    1978-03-15

    Radioenzymatically measured plasma noradrenaline concentrations, present at birth in umbilical veins of 19 healthy, 17 acutely asphyxiated, and 9 chronically distressed newborn infants were found to be elevated above maternal values proportional to the degree of distress and to plasma H ion concentrations.

  12. Impact of Ficoll density gradient centrifugation on major and trace element concentrations in erythrocytes and blood plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ying; Ahmed, Sultan; Harari, Florencia; Vahter, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Ficoll density gradient centrifugation is widely used to separate cellular components of human blood. We evaluated the suitability to use erythrocytes and blood plasma obtained from Ficoll centrifugation for assessment of elemental concentrations. We determined 22 elements (from Li to U) in erythrocytes and blood plasma separated by direct or Ficoll density gradient centrifugation, using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Compared with erythrocytes and blood plasma separated by direct centrifugation, those separated by Ficoll had highly elevated iodine and Ba concentration, due to the contamination from the Ficoll-Paque medium, and about twice as high concentrations of Sr and Mo in erythrocytes. On the other hand, the concentrations of Ca in erythrocytes and plasma were markedly reduced by the Ficoll separation, to some extent also Li, Co, Cu, and U. The reduced concentrations were probably due to EDTA, a chelator present in the Ficoll medium. Arsenic concentrations seemed to be lowered by Ficoll, probably in a species-specific manner. The concentrations of Mg, P, S, K, Fe, Zn, Se, Rb, and Cs were not affected in the erythrocytes, but decreased in plasma. Concentrations of Mn, Cd, and Pb were not affected in erythrocytes, but in plasma affected by EDTA and/or pre-analytical contamination. Ficoll separation changed the concentrations of Li, Ca, Co, Cu, As, Mo, I, Ba, and U in erythrocytes and blood plasma, Sr in erythrocytes, and Mg, P, S, K, Fe, Zn, Se, Rb and Cs in blood plasma, to an extent that will invalidate evaluation of deficiencies or excess intakes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Concentrations of Nicotinamide in Plasma by RP-HPLC With Fluorescence Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Zhipeng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to establish a new method for detecting nicotinamide concentration in plasma. In the experiment, the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method was used, with a fluorescence detector. The nicotinamide in the plasma was first converted to N1- methylnicotinamide, then reacted with acetophenone under certain conditions to produce fluorescent derivatives for testing. The method is a kind of highly sensitive detection, of which the lower limit is 10 ng/mL, the recovery rate is between 92.75% and 105.13%, and the relative standard deviation (RSD is between 3.76% and 4.43%. The results showed that this measurement method is accurate, sensitive and rapid. It meets the requirements of the experiment, and applies to the detection of nicotinamide concentration in plasma.

  14. The plasma leptin concentration is closely associated with the body fat mass in nondiabetic uremic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, P; Nielsen, P K; Olgaard, K

    1999-01-01

    filtration rate seemed to have a limited influence on the plasma leptin concentration in nondiabetic uremic subjects matched by body fat mass to controls. The plasma leptin concentration was closely associated with the body fat mass, and the leptin level might, therefore, be useful as an indicator of the fat......Plasma leptin is associated with the body mass index and, more precisely, with the body fat mass. Plasma leptin has been found to be elevated in uremic patients. This study aimed at investigating the plasma leptin concentration and associations between plasma leptin, body fat mass, and glomerular.......4 (3.1-59.5) ng/ml versus 5.4 (1.6-47.5) ng/ml (median and range in parentheses; p

  15. Aging effect on plasma metabolites and hormones concentrations in riding horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kawasumi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Age effects on plasma metabolites, hormone concentrations, and enzyme activities related to energy metabolism were investigated in 20 riding horses. Animals were divided into two groups: Young (3-8 years and aged (11-18 years. They were clinically healthy, and not obese. Plasma adiponectin (ADN concentrations in aged horses were significantly lower than those in young horses (mean±SE, 6.5±1.3 μg mL-1 vs, 10.9±1.7 μg mL-1, Mann-Whitney U test, respectively; P=0.0233. Plasma non-esterified fatty acid levels and Insulin and malondialdehyde concentrations in aged group tended to increase compared to those in young group although there were not significant differences statistically. In aged group, malate dehydrogenase/lactate dehydrogenase (M/L ratio, which is considered an energy metabolic indicator, did not change significantly compared to that in young group. Present data suggest that aging may negatively affect nutrition metabolism, but not induce remarkable changes in M/L ratio in riding horses.

  16. Theophylline-assisted, eco-friendly synthesis of PtAu nanospheres at reduced graphene oxide with enhanced catalytic activity towards Cr(VI) reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ling-Ya; Chen, Li-Xian; Liu, Meng-Ting; Wang, Ai-Jun; Wu, Lan-Ju; Feng, Jiu-Ju

    2017-05-01

    Theophylline as a naturally alkaloid is commonly employed to treat asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder. Herein, a facile theophylline-assisted green approach was firstly developed for synthesis of PtAu nanospheres/reduced graphene oxide (PtAu NSs/rGO), without any surfactant, polymer, or seed involved. The obtained nanocomposites were applied for the catalytic reduction and removal of highly toxic chromium (VI) using formic acid as a model reductant at 50°C, showing the significantly enhanced catalytic activity and improved recyclability when compared with commercial Pt/C (50%) and home-made Au nanocrystals supported rGO (Au NCs/rGO). It demonstrates great potential applications of the catalyst in wastewater treatment and environmental protection. The eco-friendly route provides a new platform to fabricate other catalysts with enhanced catalytic activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Power law relation between particle concentrations and their sizes in the blood plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirichenko, M N; Chaikov, L L; Zaritskii, A R

    2016-01-01

    This work is devoted to the investigation of sizes and concentrations of particles in blood plasma by dynamic light scattering (DLS). Blood plasma contains many different proteins and their aggregates, microparticles and vesicles. Their sizes, concentrations and shapes can give information about donor's health. Our DLS study of blood plasma reveals unexpected dependence: with increasing of the particle sizes r (from 1 nm up to 1 μm), their concentrations decrease as r -4 (almost by 12 orders). We found also that such dependence was repeated for model solution of fibrinogen and thrombin with power coefficient is -3,6. We believe that this relation is a fundamental law of nature that shows interaction of proteins (and other substances) in biological liquids. (paper)

  18. Plasma intermedin concentration in patients with chronic heart faliure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Xiaohua; Du Xingbang; Zhu Yunhe; Luo Lei; Zhao Changjun; Liu Yongfeng; Ren Liangping; Ren Yongsheng

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical significance of determination of changes of plasma levels of intermedin (IMD), BNP and CRP in patients with chronic heart failure. Methods: Plasma IMD, BNP (with RIA) and CRP (with immuno-turbidity) levels were determined in 46 patients with chronic heart failure of various grades (grade I-II n=31, grade III-IV, n=15) and 42 normal controls. Results: Compared with the control group,the plasma IMD level in patients with chronic heart failure was decreased 53.2% (P<0.01), the BNP and CRP were increased 1658.5% and 80.5% respectively (each P<0.001). Compared with the grade I-II group, the plasma IMD level in grade III-IV was decreased 34.7% (P<0.05), the BNP and CRP levels in grade III-IV were increased 257.8% and 76% (all P<0.001) individually. Conclusion: Plasma intermedin concentration was significantly decreased in patients with chronic heart failure, which suggests that they play an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic heart failure. (authors)

  19. Effects of betaine intake on plasma homocysteine concentrations and consequences for health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthof, Margreet R.; Verhoef, P.

    High plasma concentrations of homocysteine may increase risk of cardiovascular disease. Folic acid lowers plasma homocysteine by 25% maximally, because 5-methyltetrahydrofolate is a methyl donor in the remethylation of homocysteine to methionine. Betaine (trimethylglycine) is also a methyl donor in

  20. Effects of Betaine Intake on Plasma Homocysteine Concentrations and Consequences for Health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthof, M.R.; Verhoef, P.

    2005-01-01

    High plasma concentrations of homocysteine may increase risk of cardiovascular disease. Folic acid lowers plasma homocysteine by 25% maximally, because 5-methyltetrahydrofolate is a methyl donor in the remethylation of homocysteine to methionine. Betaine (trimethylglycine) is also a methyl donor in

  1. Dissociation between plasma concentrations of thyroxine and insulin-like growth factor-I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauncey, M J; Morovat, A; Rudd, B T; Shakespear, R A

    1990-09-01

    The relation between plasma concentrations of thyroxine (T4) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) has been examined in young, growing pigs under controlled conditions of energy intake. Compared with euthyroid controls, plasma levels of IGF-I were significantly elevated (P less than 0.005) both in hypothyroid animals on the same food intake and in hyperthyroid animals on double the food intake. There was however no increase in IGF-I in a hyperthyroid group on the control level of intake. Contrary to previous reports in which energy intake was not controlled, it is concluded that there is no simple correlation between plasma concentrations of T4 and IGF-I.

  2. Plasma aldosterone concentrations and plasma renin activity in healthy dogs and dogs with hyperadrenocorticism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Javadi, S; Mol, JA; Boer, P; Boer, WH; Runberk, A

    2003-01-01

    The mean (se) basal plasma aldosterone concentrations were significantly lower in 31 dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (PDH) (75 [9] pmol/litre) than in 12 healthy dogs (118 [14] pmol/litre), whereas in five dogs with hyperadrenocorticism due to an adrenocortical tumour they were

  3. Concentration of perfluorinated compounds and cotinine in human foetal organs, placenta, and maternal plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mamsen, Linn Salto; Jönsson, Bo A.G.; Lindh, Christian H.

    2017-01-01

    levels. Foetal exposure has previously been estimated from umbilical cord plasma, but the actual concentration in foetal organs has never been measured. Objectives The concentrations of 5 PFASs and cotinine – the primary metabolite of nicotine – were measured in human foetuses, placentas, and maternal...... plasma to evaluate to what extent these compounds were transferred from mother to foetus and to determine if the PFAS concentrations were associated with maternal cigarette smoking. Methods Thirty-nine Danish women who underwent legal termination of pregnancy before gestational week 12 were included; 24...... ratio for all five PFASs and cotinine. Smokers presented 99 ng/g cotinine in plasma, 108 ng/g in placenta, and 61 ng/g in foetal organs. No correlation between the maternal cotinine concentrations and PFAS concentrations was found. Conclusions PFASs were transferred from mother to foetus, however...

  4. Plasma concentrations of fentanyl with subcutaneous infusion in palliative care patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R S; Peterson, G M; Abbott, F; Maddocks, I; Parker, D; McLean, S

    1995-12-01

    1. Plasma concentrations of fentanyl were measured by g.c. in 20 patients (median age: 75 years and range: 54-86 years; eight females) in palliative care receiving the drug by continuous s.c. infusion (median rate: 1200 micrograms day-1 and range: 100-5000 micrograms day-1). 2. The infusion rate was significantly related to the duration of therapy (Spearman rho = 0.56, P Infusion rates and both total and unbound plasma concentrations of fentanyl were correlated (Spearman rho = 0.92, P infusion in the palliative care setting, which necessitates careful titration of dosage according to individual clinical response.

  5. Intake of whole grains and vegetables determines the plasma enterolactone concentration of Danish women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, Nina F; Hausner, Helene; Olsen, Anja; Tetens, Inge; Christensen, Jane; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne

    2004-10-01

    The mammalian lignan enterolactone (ENL), which is produced from dietary plant-lignan precursors by the intestinal microflora, may protect against breast cancer and other hormone-dependent cancers. This cross-sectional study examined which variables related to diet and lifestyle were associated with high plasma concentrations of ENL in Danish postmenopausal women. Plasma ENL was measured by time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay in 857 Danish women aged 50-64 y who participated in a prospective cohort study. Diet was assessed using a semiquantitative FFQ, and background information on lifestyle was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Multiple analyses of covariance were completed in two steps. The median plasma ENL concentration was 27 nmol/L (range 0-455 nmol/L). In covariance analyses, positive associations were found between consumption of cereals, vegetables, and beverages and plasma ENL concentration. When analyzing subgroups of these food groups, the associations were confined to whole-grain products, cabbage, leafy vegetables, and coffee. For fat and the nondietary variables, negative associations between BMI, smoking, and frequency of bowel movements and plasma ENL concentration were observed. These data show that foods high in ENL precursors are associated with high concentrations of ENL. Furthermore, smoking, frequent bowel movements, and consumption of fat seems to have a negative affect on the ENL concentration. In conclusion, whole grains and vegetables are the most important dietary providers of plant lignans for the concentration of ENL in Danish postmenopausal women, and if ENL is found to protect against cancer or heart disease, the intake of whole grains and vegetables should be increased.

  6. Plasma polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations and immune function in postmenopausal women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spector, June T., E-mail: spectj@uw.edu [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Washington, 4225 Roosevelt Way NE, Seattle, WA 98105 (United States); Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); De Roos, Anneclaire J., E-mail: ajd335@drexel.edu [Epidemiology Program, Public Health Sciences Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 1100 Fairview Avenue N, P.O. Box 19024, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Ulrich, Cornelia M., E-mail: neli.ulrich@nct-heidelberg.de [Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Cancer Prevention Program, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 1100 Fairview Avenue N, P.O. Box 19024, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); National Center for Tumor Diseases and German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Sheppard, Lianne, E-mail: sheppard@uw.edu [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Washington, 4225 Roosevelt Way NE, Seattle, WA 98105 (United States); Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Sjoedin, Andreas, E-mail: asjodin@cdc.gov [National Center for Environmental Health, CDC, 4770 Buford Highway NE, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States); Wener, Mark H., E-mail: wener@u.washington.edu [Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Wood, Brent, E-mail: woodbl@u.washington.edu [Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); and others

    2014-05-01

    Background: Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure has been associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma in several studies, and the immune system is a potential mediator. Objectives: We analyzed associations of plasma PCBs with immune function measures. We hypothesized that higher plasma PCB concentrations are associated with lower immune function cross-sectionally, and that increases in PCB concentrations over a one year period are associated with decreases in immune function. Methods: Plasma PCB concentrations and immune function [natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity and PHA-induced T-lymphocyte proliferation (PHA-TLP)] were measured at baseline and one year in 109 postmenopausal overweight women participating in an exercise intervention study in the Seattle, Washington (USA) area. Mixed models, with adjustment for body mass index and other potential confounders, were used to estimate associations of PCBs with immune function cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Results: Associations of PCBs with immune function measures differed across groups of PCBs (e.g., medium- and high-chlorinated and dioxin-like [mono-ortho-substituted]) and by the time frame for the comparison (cross-sectional vs. longitudinal). Higher concentrations of medium- and high-chlorinated PCBs were associated with higher PHA-TLP cross-sectionally but not longitudinally. The mean decrease in 0.5 µg/mL PHA-TLP/50.0 pmol/g-lipid increase in dioxin-like PCBs over one year was 51.6 (95% confidence interval 2.7, 100.5; P=0.039). There was no association between plasma PCBs and NK cytotoxicity. Conclusions: These results do not provide strong evidence of impaired cellular immunity from PCB exposure. Larger longitudinal studies with greater variability in PCB exposures are needed to further examine temporal associations of PCBs with immune function. - Highlights: • Plasma PCBs and immune function were measured in 109 women at baseline and one year. • Immune measures included T lymphocyte proliferation

  7. Plasma polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations and immune function in postmenopausal women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spector, June T.; De Roos, Anneclaire J.; Ulrich, Cornelia M.; Sheppard, Lianne; Sjoedin, Andreas; Wener, Mark H.; Wood, Brent

    2014-01-01

    Background: Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure has been associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma in several studies, and the immune system is a potential mediator. Objectives: We analyzed associations of plasma PCBs with immune function measures. We hypothesized that higher plasma PCB concentrations are associated with lower immune function cross-sectionally, and that increases in PCB concentrations over a one year period are associated with decreases in immune function. Methods: Plasma PCB concentrations and immune function [natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity and PHA-induced T-lymphocyte proliferation (PHA-TLP)] were measured at baseline and one year in 109 postmenopausal overweight women participating in an exercise intervention study in the Seattle, Washington (USA) area. Mixed models, with adjustment for body mass index and other potential confounders, were used to estimate associations of PCBs with immune function cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Results: Associations of PCBs with immune function measures differed across groups of PCBs (e.g., medium- and high-chlorinated and dioxin-like [mono-ortho-substituted]) and by the time frame for the comparison (cross-sectional vs. longitudinal). Higher concentrations of medium- and high-chlorinated PCBs were associated with higher PHA-TLP cross-sectionally but not longitudinally. The mean decrease in 0.5 µg/mL PHA-TLP/50.0 pmol/g-lipid increase in dioxin-like PCBs over one year was 51.6 (95% confidence interval 2.7, 100.5; P=0.039). There was no association between plasma PCBs and NK cytotoxicity. Conclusions: These results do not provide strong evidence of impaired cellular immunity from PCB exposure. Larger longitudinal studies with greater variability in PCB exposures are needed to further examine temporal associations of PCBs with immune function. - Highlights: • Plasma PCBs and immune function were measured in 109 women at baseline and one year. • Immune measures included T lymphocyte proliferation

  8. Retinol, carotenoids, and tocopherols in the milk of lactating adolescents and relationships with plasma concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Azeredo, Vilma B; Trugo, Nadia M F

    2008-02-01

    We determined the concentrations of retinol, carotenoids, and tocopherols in breast milk of adolescents and evaluated their associations with plasma levels and with maternal characteristics (period of lactation, body mass index, age of menarche, and years postmenarche). This was a single cross-sectional survey of retinol, carotenoid, and tocopherol composition of milk and plasma of lactating adolescent mothers (n = 72; 30-120 d postpartum) attending public daycare clinics in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Milk and plasma components were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Nutrient concentrations (micromoles per liter, mean +/- SE) in plasma and milk were, respectively, retinol 2.1 +/- 0.5 and 0.62 +/- 0.44, beta-carotene 0.18 +/- 0.19 and 0.016 +/- 0.017, alpha-carotene 0.05 +/- 0.04 and 0.0035 +/- 0.002, lutein plus zeaxanthin 0.15 +/- 0.11 and 0.025 +/- 0.024, lycopene 0.1 +/- 0.11 and 0.016 +/- 0.025, alpha-tocopherol 10.8 +/- 5.3 and 2.7 +/- 1.8, gamma-tocopherol 2.6 +/- 2.3 and 0.37 +/- 0.15. The milk/plasma molar ratios of retinol and tocopherols were two times higher than those of carotenoids. Significant correlations (P milk and plasma nutrient levels were observed for beta-carotene (r = 0.41), alpha-carotene (r = 0.60), and lutein plus zeaxanthin (r = 0.57), but not for lycopene, retinol, and tocopherols. Nutrient concentrations in plasma and in milk were not associated with the maternal characteristics investigated. Concentrations of the nutrients studied, especially retinol and alpha-tocopherol, in mature milk of lactating adolescents were, in general, lower than in milk of adult lactating women. Milk concentrations were associated with plasma concentrations only for beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, and lutein plus zeaxanthin.

  9. The plasma and peritoneal fluid concentrations of matrix metalloproteinase-9 are elevated in patients with endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haiping; Wang, Jianye; Wang, Haiyu; Tang, Ning; Li, Yunfei; Zhang, Yan; Hao, Tianyu

    2016-09-01

    Enzyme matrix metalloproteinase-9 is a member of the matrix metalloproteinase family, which is critical to normal tissue remodelling during embryogenesis and wound healing. In patients with endometriosis, increased expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinase-9 have been observed in ectopic endometrium, but the plasma and peritoneal fluid concentrations of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in patients with endometriosis and their relation to disease severity have not been clear. The aim of the study was to investigate the concentrations of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in plasma and peritoneal fluid of patients with endometriosis. A prospective case-control study was conducted in Jinan Military General Hospital between January 2010 and December 2013. Fifty patients with proven endometriosis and 26 endometriosis-free controls were enrolled in this study. Patients with endometriosis were evaluated and divided into moderate/severe endometriosis group (stage I-II, n = 26) and minimal/mild endometriosis group (stage III-IV, n = 24) according to the revised criteria of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Blood samples and peritoneal fluid were obtained from both patients and controls. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in plasma and peritoneal fluid. The concentration of matrix metalloproteinase-9 between different groups was compared and its correlation to disease severity was analysed. Plasma and peritoneal fluid concentrations of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in patients with endometriosis were higher than that in controls. In addition, those patients with moderate/severe endometriosis had significantly higher plasma and peritoneal fluid concentrations of matrix metalloproteinase-9 compared to those with minimal/mild endometriosis. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 concentrations in plasma and peritoneal fluid were both positively correlated with severity of endometriosis and plasma matrix metalloproteinase-9

  10. Correlations between plasma noradrenaline concentrations, antioxidants, and neutrophil counts after submaximal resistance exercise in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramel, A; Wagner, K; Elmadfa, I

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate noradrenaline concentrations, neutrophil counts, plasma antioxidants, and lipid oxidation products before and after acute resistance exercise. Methods: 17 male participants undertook a submaximal resistance exercise circuit (10 exercises; 75% of the one repetition maximum; mean (SD) exercise time, 18.6 (1.1) minutes). Blood samples were taken before and immediately after exercise and analysed for plasma antioxidants, noradrenaline, neutrophils, and lipid oxidation products. Wilcoxon's signed-rank test and Pearson's correlation coefficient were used for calculations. Results: Neutrophils, noradrenaline, fat soluble antioxidants, and lipid oxidation products increased after exercise. Noradrenaline concentrations were associated with higher antioxidant concentrations. Neutrophils were related to higher concentrations of conjugated dienes. Conclusions: Submaximal resistance exercise increases plasma antioxidants. This might reflect enhanced antioxidant defence in response to the oxidative stress of exercise, though this is not efficient for inhibiting lipid oxidation. The correlation between noradrenaline concentrations and plasma antioxidants suggests a modulating role of the stress hormone. Neutrophils are a possible source of oxidative stress after resistance exercise. PMID:15388566

  11. EFFECTS OF CIGARETTE SMOKING ON ERYTHROCYTE ANTIOXIDATIVE ENZYME ACTIVITIES AND PLASMA CONCENTRATIONS OF THEIR COFACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zahraie

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco smoke contains numerous compounds, many ‎of which are oxidants and capable of producing free radical and enhancing ‎the oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cigarette smoking on the erythrocyte antioxidative enzyme activities and the plasmaconcentration of their cofactors. ‎Sixty eight healthy men were enrolled, 32 of whom had never smoked and 36 had smoked at least 10 cigarettes per day for ‎at least one year. Hemolysate superoxide dismutase (Cu-Zn SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px and ‎catalase (CAT activities were measured using spectrophotometer. Plasma copper, zinc and selenium concentrations were determined ‎using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Plasma iron concentration was determined by colorimetric ‎method. We found that erythrocyte Cu-Zn SOD activity was significantly higher in tobacco smokers ‎compared with non-smokers (1294 ± 206.7 U/gHb in smokers vs. 1121.6 ± 237.8 U/gHb in non-‎smokers, P < 0.01. While plasma selenium concentration was significantly lower in tobacco ‎smokers (62.7±14.8 μg/L in smokers vs. 92.1 ± 17.5 μg/L in non-smokers, P < 0.01, there were no significant ‎differences in erythrocyte GSH-Px and CAT activities and plasma copper, zinc and iron concentrations between the two groups. ‎It seems that cigarette smoking can alter antioxidative enzymes activity and plasma concentration of some trace elements.

  12. Decreased plasma concentrations of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in patients with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podfigurna-Stopa, Agnieszka; Casarosa, Elena; Luisi, Michele; Czyzyk, Adam; Meczekalski, Blazej; Genazzani, Andrea Riccardo

    2013-09-01

    Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (FHA) is a non organic, secondary amenorrhea related to gonadotropin-releasing hormone pulsatile secretion impairment. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a member of the neurotrophin family of survival-promoting molecules, plays an important role in the growth, development, maintenance and function of several neuronal systems. The aim of the study was the evaluation of plasma BDNF concentrations in patients with the diagnosis of FHA. We studied 85 subjects diagnosed with FHA who were compared with 10 healthy, eumenorrheic controls with normal body mass index. Plasma BDNF and serum luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone and estradiol (E2) concentrations were measured by immunoenzymatic method (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). Significantly lower concentration of plasma BDNF was found in FHA patients (196.31 ± 35.26 pg/ml) in comparison to healthy controls (407.20 ± 25.71 pg/ml; p < 0.0001). In the control group, there was a strong positive correlation between plasma BDNF and serum E2 concentrations (r = 0.92, p = 0.0001) but in FHA group it was not found. Role of BDNF in FHA is not yet fully understood. There could be found studies concerning plasma BDNF concentrations in humans and animals in the literature. However, our study is one of the first projects which describes decreased plasma BDNF concentration in patients with diagnosed FHA. Therefore, further studies on BDNF in FHA should clarify the role of this peptide.

  13. Isoniazid concentrations in hair and plasma area-under-the-curve exposure among children with tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidya Mave

    Full Text Available We measured hair and plasma concentrations of isoniazid among sixteen children with tuberculosis who underwent personal or video-assisted directly observed therapy and thus had 100% adherence. This study therefore defined typical isoniazid exposure parameters after two months of treatment among fully-adherent patients in both hair and plasma (plasma area under the concentration-time curve, AUC, estimated using pharmacokinetic data collected 0, 2, 4, and 6 hours after drug administration. We found that INH levels in hair among highly-adherent individuals did not correlate well with plasma AUC or trough concentrations, suggesting that each measure may provide incremental and complementary information regarding drug exposure in the context of TB treatment.

  14. Reliability of basal plasma vasopressin concentrations in healthy male adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, Daniel S; Westlye, Lars T; Smerud, Knut T; Mahmoud, Ramy A; Djupesland, Per G; Andreassen, Ole A

    2017-10-01

    The neuropeptides oxytocin (OT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) play important and interrelated roles in modulating mammalian social behaviour. While the OT system has received considerable research attention for its potential to treat psychiatric symptoms, comparatively little is known about the role of the AVP system in human social behaviour. To better understand the intraindividual stability of basal AVP, the present study assessed the reproducibility of basal plasma AVP concentrations. Basal plasma AVP was assessed at four sampling points separated by 8 days, on average, in 16 healthy adult males. Only one out of six comparisons revealed strong evidence for reproducibility of basal AVP concentrations (visit 2 vs. visit 4: r=0.8, p0.1). The concordance correlation coefficient [0.15, 95% CI (-0.55, 0.73)] also revealed poor overall reproducibility. Poor reliability of basal AVP concentrations suggests future work covarying AVP with trait markers should proceed with careful consideration of intraindividual fluctuations.

  15. Influence of meal composition on postprandial peripheral plasma concentrations of vasoactive peptides in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen-Bjergaard, U; Høst, U; Kelbaek, H

    1996-01-01

    In a randomized cross-over study healthy non-obese male human subjects received standardized isocaloric, isovolumetric meals consisting of either carbohydrate, protein or fat and a non-caloric control meal consisting of an equal volume of water. Peripheral venous plasma concentrations of calcitonin...... that the postprandial peripheral plasma concentrations of CGRP, VIP and PYY are dependent on the caloric meal composition. The VIP, but not the CGRP and PYY concentrations seem to be influenced by gastric distension. The physiological significance of the postprandial alterations in peripheral concentrations...

  16. Serial changes in plasma K concentration during storage of irradiation blood products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Togashi, Kazue; Yamada, Keiko; Otake, Sachiko; Saito, Yukiko; Sugimura, Kazuhito; Takahashi, Hoyu

    1996-01-01

    Irradiation of blood products is highly effective in the prevention of transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). In order to assess the safe storage period of irradiated blood products, serial changes in plasma K, red cell 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) and lactic acid concentrations of whole blood and M·A·P-added red cell concentrate (RC-M·A·P) during storage at 5degC were measured after irradiation with 137 Cs by IBL 437C (CIS bio international). Plasma K concentration did not change immediately after irradiation, but increased more rapidly and in a radiation dose-dependent manner in the irradiated products than nonirradiated products. The changes in red cell 2,3-DPG and lactic acid concentrations were not affected by irradiation but were rather dependent on the storage period after blood collection. Plasma K concentrations of whole blood and RC-M·A·P irradiated with 25 Gy increased at 5 and 3 days, respectively, to the K levels observed after the storage of nonirradiated products for 21 days. It is therefore recommended that whole blood be used within 5 days and RC-M·A·P within 3 days when stored after irradiation with 25 Gy. (author)

  17. Effect of low-fat diets on plasma high-density lipoprotein concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katan, M.B.

    1998-01-01

    Low concentrations of HDLs in plasma are a strong predictor of risk for coronary as well as other cardiovascular diseases. There is increasing evidence that this relation is causal and that interventions that change HDL concentrations also change risk. One such intervention is exchanging fat and

  18. Homocyst(e)ine-lowering therapy does not affect plasma asymmetrical dimethylarginine concentrations in patients with peripheral artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Sophie; Mittermayer, Friedrich; Plank, Christina; Minar, Erich; Wolzt, Michael; Schernthaner, Gerit-Holger

    2005-04-01

    Elevated plasma asymmetrical dimethylarginine (ADMA) is suggested to contribute to hyperhomocyst(e)ine-related vascular dysfunction in patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD). The present trial investigated whether homocyst(e)ine (Hcy)-lowering therapy with vitamin-B (vit-B) and folic acid affects plasma concentrations of ADMA in patients with PAD and hyperhomocyst(e)inemia. Forty-nine subjects (15 women, 34 men) with PAD and fasting plasma total Hcy concentrations greater than 15 micromol/liter were randomized to receive either oral vit-B and folic acid therapy (n = 27) or placebo (n = 22) for 6 wk. Fasting venous blood samples were monitored for plasma total Hcy, vit-B12 and folate, ADMA, symmetric dimethylarginine, L-arginine, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein. After 6 wk, plasma Hcy concentrations were decreased, and concentrations of vit-B12 and folate were elevated in patients with vitamin supplementation (all P < 0.05 vs. baseline) and unchanged in the placebo group. Dimethylarginine plasma concentrations were not affected by treatment. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein correlated with ADMA plasma concentrations (r = 0.29; P < 0.01). The lack of vit-B and folic acid therapy on plasma concentrations of ADMA renders a role of extracellular methylarginines unlikely to be involved in the pathophysiology of hyperhomocyst(e)inemia and its complications.

  19. Plasma galanin concentrations in obese, normal weight and anorectic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Invitti, C; Brunani, A; Pasqualinotto, L; Dubini, A; Bendinelli, P; Maroni, P; Cavagnini, F

    1995-05-01

    Galanin is believed to play a role in the control of eating behavior. No information is available on its concentrations in the biological fluids in human obesity, and this study aimed to clarify this. We measured plasma galanin and serum insulin levels in 30 obese, 35 normal weight and 11 anorectic women. Mean galanin values were quite similar in obese and control subjects (76.8 +/- 3.20 vs 76.1 +/- 2.33 pg/ml) and only slightly reduced in anorectic patients (67.9 +/- 2.30 pg/ml). Insulin levels were significantly increased and decreased in obese and anorectic patients, respectively, compared to controls. Insulin correlated positively with BMI in the whole group of subjects studied (r = 0.72, P < 0.0001) and in the obese subgroup (r = 0.56, P < 0.02). No correlations could be detected between WH ratio, insulin and galanin concentrations and between galanin and BMI. In conclusion, plasma galanin concentrations appear to be comparable in obese, normal weight and anorectic subjects. This does not exclude a role of galanin in the regulation of eating behavior since variations of the peptide in discrete brain areas may not be detectable in general circulation and peripheral sources of the peptide may contribute to its plasma levels. Also, our data suggest that galanin does not play a major role in the regulation of insulin secretion in humans.

  20. Hepatitis C virus infection influences the S-methadone metabolite plasma concentration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiow-Ling Wu

    Full Text Available Heroin-dependent patients typically contract hepatitis C virus (HCV at a disproportionately high level due to needle exchange. The liver is the primary target organ of HCV infection and also the main organ responsible for drug metabolism. Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT is a major treatment regimen for opioid dependence. HCV infection may affect methadone metabolism but this has rarely been studied. In our current study, we aimed to test the hypothesis that HCV may influence the methadone dosage and its plasma metabolite concentrations in a MMT cohort from Taiwan.A total of 366 MMT patients were recruited. The levels of plasma hepatitis B virus (HBV, HCV, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV antibodies (Ab, liver aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT, as well as methadone and its metabolite 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP were measured along with the urine morphine concentration and amphetamine screening.Of the 352 subjects in our cohort with HCV test records, 95% were found to be positive for plasma anti-HCV antibody. The liver functional parameters of AST (Wilcoxon Rank-Sum test, P = 0.02 and ALT (Wilcoxon Rank-Sum test, P = 0.04, the plasma methadone concentrations (Wilcoxon Rank-Sum test, P = 0.043 and the R-enantiomer of methadone concentrations (Wilcoxon Rank-Sum test, P = 0.032 were significantly higher in the HCV antibody-positive subjects than in the HCV antibody-negative patients, but not the S-EDDP/methadone dose ratio. The HCV levels correlated with the methadone dose (β= 14.65 and 14.13; P = 0.029 and 0.03 and the S-EDDP/methadone dose ratio (β= -0.41 and -0.40; P = 0.00084 and 0.002 in both univariate and multivariate regression analyses.We conclude that HCV may influence the methadone dose and plasma S-EDDP/methadone dose ratio in MMT patients in this preliminary study.

  1. Safflower oil consumption does not increase plasma conjugated linoleic acid concentrations in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbel, B K; McGuire, M K; McGuire, M A; Shultz, T D

    1998-02-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is a mixture of positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid (LA) with conjugated double bonds. CLA has anticarcinogenic properties and has been identified in human tissues, dairy products, meats, and certain vegetable oils. A variety of animal products are good sources of CLA, but plant oils contain much less. However, plant oils are a rich source of LA, which may be isomerized to CLA by intestinal microorganisms in humans. To investigate the effect of triacylglycerol-esterified LA consumption on plasma concentrations of esterified CLA in total lipids, a dietary intervention (6 wk) was conducted with six men and six women. During the intervention period a salad dressing containing 21 g safflower oil providing 16 g LA/d was added to the subjects' daily diets. Three-day diet records and fasting blood were obtained initially and during dietary and postdietary intervention periods. Although LA intake increased significantly during the dietary intervention, plasma CLA concentrations were not affected. Plasma total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol concentrations were significantly lower after addition of safflower oil to the diet. In summary, consumption of triacylglycerol-esterified LA in safflower oil did not increase plasma concentrations of esterified CLA in total lipids.

  2. Large-scale production and properties of human plasma-derived activated Factor VII concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomokiyo, K; Yano, H; Imamura, M; Nakano, Y; Nakagaki, T; Ogata, Y; Terano, T; Miyamoto, S; Funatsu, A

    2003-01-01

    An activated Factor VII (FVIIa) concentrate, prepared from human plasma on a large scale, has to date not been available for clinical use for haemophiliacs with antibodies against FVIII and FIX. In the present study, we attempted to establish a large-scale manufacturing process to obtain plasma-derived FVIIa concentrate with high recovery and safety, and to characterize its biochemical and biological properties. FVII was purified from human cryoprecipitate-poor plasma, by a combination of anion exchange and immunoaffinity chromatography, using Ca2+-dependent anti-FVII monoclonal antibody. To activate FVII, a FVII preparation that was nanofiltered using a Bemberg Microporous Membrane-15 nm was partially converted to FVIIa by autoactivation on an anion-exchange resin. The residual FVII in the FVII and FVIIa mixture was completely activated by further incubating the mixture in the presence of Ca2+ for 18 h at 10 degrees C, without any additional activators. For preparation of the FVIIa concentrate, after dialysis of FVIIa against 20 mm citrate, pH 6.9, containing 13 mm glycine and 240 mm NaCl, the FVIIa preparation was supplemented with 2.5% human albumin (which was first pasteurized at 60 degrees C for 10 h) and lyophilized in vials. To inactivate viruses contaminating the FVIIa concentrate, the lyophilized product was further heated at 65 degrees C for 96 h in a water bath. Total recovery of FVII from 15 000 l of plasma was approximately 40%, and the FVII preparation was fully converted to FVIIa with trace amounts of degraded products (FVIIabeta and FVIIagamma). The specific activity of the FVIIa was approximately 40 U/ micro g. Furthermore, virus-spiking tests demonstrated that immunoaffinity chromatography, nanofiltration and dry-heating effectively removed and inactivated the spiked viruses in the FVIIa. These results indicated that the FVIIa concentrate had both high specific activity and safety. We established a large-scale manufacturing process of human plasma

  3. Plasma concentrations, behavioural and physiological effects following intravenous and intramuscular detomidine in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mama, K R; Grimsrud, K; Snell, T; Stanley, S

    2009-11-01

    Detomidine hydrochloride is used to provide sedation, muscle relaxation and analgesia in horses, but a lack of information pertaining to plasma concentration has limited the ability to correlate drug concentration with effect. To build on previous information and assess detomidine for i.v. and i.m. use in horses by simultaneously assessing plasma drug concentrations, physiological parameters and behavioural characteristics. Systemic effects would be seen following i.m. and i.v. detomidine administration and these effects would be positively correlated with plasma drug concentrations. Behavioural (e.g. head position) and physiological (e.g. heart rate) responses were recorded at fixed time points from 4 min to 24 h after i.m. or i.v. detomidine (30 microg/kg bwt) administration to 8 horses. Route of administration was assigned using a balanced crossover design. Blood was sampled at predetermined time points from 0.5 min to 48 h post administration for subsequent detomidine concentration measurements using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Data were summarised as mean +/- s.d. for subsequent analysis of variance for repeated measures. Plasma detomidine concentration peaked earlier (1.5 min vs. 1.5 h) and was significantly higher (105.4 +/- 71.6 ng/ml vs. 6.9 +/- 1.4 ng/ml) after i.v. vs. i.m. administration. Physiological and behavioural changes were of a greater magnitude and observed at earlier time points for i.v. vs. i.m. groups. For example, head position decreased from an average of 116 cm in both groups to a low value 35 +/- 23 cm from the ground 10 min following i.v. detomidine and to 64 +/- 24 cm 60 min after i.m. detomidine. Changes in heart rate followed a similar pattern; low value of 17 beats/min 10 min after i.v. administration and 29 beats/min 30 min after i.m. administration. Plasma drug concentration and measured effects were correlated positively and varied with route of administration following a single dose of detomidine. Results support a

  4. Determination of theobromine, theophylline, and caffeine in by-products of cupuacu and cacao seeds by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Coco, F; Lanuzza, F; Micali, G; Cappellano, G

    2007-01-01

    Theobromine, theophylline, and caffeine are determined simultaneously by a rapid and selective reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with UV detection in by-products of cupuacu and cacao seeds. The determination is carried out in the raw and roasted ground cupuacu seeds and in the corresponding powders obtained after pressure treatment. The by-products of both cupuacu seeds and cacao seeds are obtained under the same technological conditions. The HPLC method uses isocratic elution with a mobile phase of methanol-water-acetic acid (80:19:1) (v/v) at a flow rate of 1 mL/min and UV absorbance detection at 275 nm. Total elution time for these analytes is less than 10 min, and the detection limit for all analytes is 0.1 mg/g. The amounts of theobromine and caffeine found in all the cupuacu samples are one or more orders of magnitude lower than those from cacao. Theophylline is found in all cacao samples except for the roasted ground paste, and it is only found in the roasted ground paste in the cupuacu samples.

  5. Increased concentrations of plasma IL-18 in patients with hepatic dysfunction after hepatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, M; Hirota, M; Nozawa, F; Okabe, A; Kurimoto, M; Ogawa, M

    2000-10-01

    We investigated the dynamic aspects of circulatory IL-18 and other inflammatory cytokines in patients who underwent a hepatectomy. In patients with post-operative hepatic dysfunction, plasma concentrations of these cytokines increased, reflecting severe surgical trauma. IL-6, IL-10 and IFN-gamma increased in the early phase, while IL-18 increased in the later phase after 1 week. Interestingly, the increase in the plasma IL-18 concentration was correlated with that in serum bilirubin levels in hepatectomized patients. Hence, the decrease in the hepatic metabolism of IL-18 may cause the plasma accumulation of IL-18. This mechanism was confirmed using rat experiments. Intravenously administered human IL-18 was excreted into bile. Furthermore, the plasma clearance of human IL-18 was prolonged in bile duct-ligated rats. These results suggest that IL-18 is metabolized in the liver and excreted into bile, and an increase in plasma IL-18 in patients with hepatic dysfunction reflects the decreased metabolism in the liver. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  6. PFAS concentrations in plasma samples from Danish school children and their mothers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørck, Thit A; Nielsen, Flemming; Nielsen, Jeanette K S

    2015-01-01

    an association between plasma levels and the age of the mothers and higher levels of plasma PFASs in mothers with low parity. There were no associations between PFAS concentrations and residential area, dietary habits of the participants or with respect to the birth order of the children. The levels...

  7. Plasma firocoxib concentrations after intra-articular injection of autologous conditioned serum prepared from firocoxib positive horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortved, K F; Goodale, M B; Ober, C; Maylin, G A; Fortier, L A

    2017-12-01

    Orthobiologics such as autologous conditioned serum (ACS) are often used to treat joint disease in horses. Because ACS is generated from the horse's own blood, any medication administered at the time of preparation would likely be present in stored ACS, which could lead to an inadvertent positive drug test following intra-articular (IA) injection. The main objective of this study was to determine if ACS prepared from firocoxib positive horses could result in detectable plasma concentrations of the drug following IA injection. Firocoxib was administered to six horses at 0.1mg/kg PO twice at a 24h interval. Blood was obtained at 4h following the second dose and transferred to a separate syringe (Arthrex IRAP II) for ACS preparation. Plasma and ACS concentrations of firocoxib were analysed by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). When horses were confirmed firocoxib negative, 7.5mL of ACS was injected into both tarsocrural joints. Blood samples were collected at 0, 4, 8, 12, 24, and 48h, and firocoxib concentration was measured. Mean (±standard error of the mean, SEM) plasma concentration of firocoxib 4h following the second dose was 33.3±4.72ng/mL. Mean (±SEM) firocoxib concentration in ACS was 35.4±4.47ng/mL. Fourteen days following the second and last dose of firocoxib, mean plasma concentration was below the lower limit of detection (LOD=1ng/mL) in all horses. Following IA injection of ACS, plasma concentrations of firocoxib remained below LOD at all times in all horses. ACS generated from horses with therapeutic plasma concentrations of firocoxib did not contain sufficient firocoxib to lead to a positive plasma drug test following IA administration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparison of digoxin concentration in plastic serum tubes with clot activator and heparinized plasma tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukić, Lora; Simundić, Ana-Maria; Malogorski, Davorin

    2014-01-01

    Sample type recommended by the manufacturer for the digoxin Abbott assay is either serum collected in glass tubes or plasma (sodium heparin, lithium heparin, citrate, EDTA or oxalate as anticoagulant) collected in plastic tubes. In our hospital samples are collected in plastic tubes. Our hypothesis was that the serum sample collected in plastic serum tube can be used interchangeably with plasma sample for measurement of digoxin concentration. Our aim was verification of plastic serum tubes for determination of digoxin concentration. Concentration of digoxin was determined simultaneously in 26 venous blood plasma (plastic Vacuette, LH Lithium heparin) and serum (plastic Vacuette, Z Serum Clot activator; both Greiner Bio-One GmbH, Kremsmünster, Austria) samples, on Abbott AxSYM analyzer using the original Abbott Digoxin III assay (Abbott, Wiesbaden, Germany). Tube comparability was assessed using the Passing Bablok regression and Bland-Altman plot. Serum and plasma digoxin concentrations are comparable. Passing Bablok intercept (0.08 [95% CI = -0.10 to 0.20]) and slope (0.99 [95% CI = 0.92 to 1.11]) showed there is no constant or proportional error. Blood samples drawn in plastic serum tubes and plastic plasma tubes can be interchangeably used for determination of digoxin concentration.

  9. Fever and changes in plasma zinc and iron concentrations in the goat: The role of leukocytic pyrogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheijden, J.H.M.; Miert, A. S. J. P. A. M. Van; Duin, C.T.M. van; Schotman, A.J.H.; Nieuwenhuis, J.

    1984-01-01

    In goats with trypanosomiasis (T. vivax or T. congolense) no marked fall in plasma zinc concentration was seen despite high temperature peaks, whereas plasma concentrations of iron tended to undergo some decline. In goats infected with Ehrlichia phagocytophila, there was a marked decline in plasma

  10. Plasma methylphenidate concentrations in youths treated with high-dose osmotic release oral system formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Jonathan R; George, Robert A; Fusillo, Steven; Stern, Theodore A; Wilens, Timothy E

    2010-02-01

    Children and adolescents are being treated increasingly for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with a variety of stimulants in higher than Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved doses and in combination with other medications. We sought to determine methylphenidate (MPH) concentrations in children and adolescents treated with high-dose, extended-release osmotic release oral system (OROS) MPH plus concomitant medications, and to examine MPH concentrations with respect to the safety and tolerability of treatment. Plasma MPH concentrations were measured by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry 4-5 hours after administration of medication in a sample of youths diagnosed with ADHD. These youths were treated naturalistically with higher than FDA-approved doses of OROS MPH in addition to their concomitant medications. Markers of safety and tolerability (e.g., measures of blood pressure and heart rate) were also examined. Among the 17 patients (with a mean age of 16.2 +/- 2 years and a mean number of concurrent medications of 2.23 +/- 0.94), the mean plasma MPH concentration was 28 +/- 9.1 ng/mL, despite a mean daily dose of OROS MPH of 169 +/- 5 mg (3.0 +/- 0.8 mg/kg per day). No patient had a plasma MPH level >or=50 ng/mL or clinical signs of stimulant toxicity. No correlation was found between plasma MPH concentrations and OROS MPH dose or changes in vital signs. High-dose OROS MPH, used in combination with other medications, was not associated with either unusually elevated plasma MPH concentrations or with clinically meaningful changes in vital signs. Study limitations include a single time-point sampling of MPH concentrations, a small sample size, and a lack of outcome measures to address treatment effectiveness.

  11. Hemostatic variables, plasma lactate concentration, and inflammatory biomarkers in dogs with gastric dilatation-volvulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschoof, J; Moritz, A; Kramer, M; Bauer, N

    2015-01-01

    Prospective characterization of hemostastatic variables, plasma lactate concentration, and inflammatory biomarkers in dogs with gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV). Coagulation variables (platelets, prothrombin time [PT], activated partial thromboplastin time [aPTT], fibrinogen, antithrombin [AT], protein C [PC], protein S [PS], D-dimers), plasma lactate concentration and inflammatory biomarkers (C-reactive protein, white blood cell [WBC] count, lymphocyte and neutrophil numbers) were assessed in 20 dogs with GDV presented between 2011 and 2012. Blood was taken preoperatively and at days 1 and 3 postoperatively. The prognostic value of these variables before and after surgery was evaluated as well as the behavior of variables during the study. Overall, 7/20 (35%) dogs did not survive; two dogs (29%) were euthanized during surgery due to severe gastric necrosis and 5 (71%) dogs after surgery due to sepsis and disseminated intravascular coagulopathy. Prior to surgery, median plasma lactate concentration was significantly (p = 0.01) lower in survivors (6.2 mmol/l, range 1.9-9.7 mmol/l) when compared to non-survivors (11.8 mmol/l, range 7.5-16.2 mmol/l). In dogs dying after surgery, significantly higher plasma lactate concentration, coagulation times and D-dimer concentration were present as well as lower fibrinogen concentration and activity of PC and AT compared to survivors. At discharge, activity of AT, PC and PS were markedly below the reference interval in 6/13 (46%), 11/13 (85%), and 8/13 (62%) dogs, respectively. Only lactate plasma concentration was of preoperative prognostic value. After surgery, severe abnormalities of coagulation variables, especially the endogenous anticoagulants were present in most of the dogs. The severity of the abnormalities was associated with survival.

  12. Clinical significance of determination of plasma ADM concentrations in hyperthyroid patients complicated with pulmonary hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Kaiqin; Zhang Jing

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the plasma adrenomedullin (ADM) concentrations in hyperthyroid patients with or without pulmonary hypertension. Methods: Plasma ADM levels were measured with RIA in: (1) 30 hyperthyroid patients without pulmonary hypertension, (2) 27 hyperthyroid patients with pulmonary, hypertension, and (3) 32 controls. Results: (1) In this study, 27 of the 57 hyperthyroid patients were complicated with pulmonary hypertension (47.37%), (2) Plasma ADM concentrations in the patients with pulmonary hypertension were significantly higher than those in patients without pulmonary hypertension and controls (P 3 , T 4 (thyroid hormones) were positively correlated with those of ADM while there were no correlations in controls. Conclusion: Plasma ADM concentrations increased in hyperthyroid patients, especially in those complicated with pulmonary hypertension. The clinicians should look for pulmonary hypertension in hyperthyroid patients with substantially elevated levels of ADM. (authors)

  13. Effect of intravenous injection of galanin on plasma concentrations ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-10-06

    Oct 6, 2008 ... The goal of this study was to determine whether intravenously galanin injection effect on plasma concentrations of growth hormone (GH), thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3) and milk production in the. Saanen goats. Fifteen Saanen goats were randomly divided into 5 groups (n = 3 in each group). Each.

  14. Can Saliva and Plasma Methadone Concentrations Be Used for Enantioselective Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Studies in Patients With Advanced Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Rani; Haywood, Alison; Good, Phillip; Hennig, Stefanie; Khan, Sohil; Norris, Ross; Hardy, Janet

    2017-09-01

    Methadone is a potent analgesic used to treat refractory cancer pain. It is administered as a racemic mixture, with the l-enantiomer being primarily a μ-receptor agonist, whereas the d-enantiomer is an N-methyl-d-aspartate antagonist and inhibits serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake. Dose requirements vary greatly among patients to achieve optimal pain control and to avoid the risk of adverse effects. The relationship between plasma and saliva methadone enantiomer concentrations was investigated to determine if saliva could be a substitute for plasma in pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic studies for clinical monitoring and dose optimization of methadone in patients with advanced cancer. Patients with advanced cancer who were prescribed varying doses of oral methadone for pain management were recruited to obtain paired plasma and saliva samples. Pain scores were recorded at the time of sampling. The total and unbound plasma and saliva concentrations of the l- and d-enantiomers of methadone were quantified by using an HPLC-MS/MS method. The relationship between plasma (total and unbound) and saliva concentrations were compared. The saliva-to-plasma concentration ratio was compared versus the dose administered and the time after dosing for both enantiomers. The association of methadone concentrations with reported pain scores was compared by using a Mann-Whitney U test for significance. Fifty patients receiving a mean dose of 11mg/d of methadone provided 151 paired plasma and saliva samples. The median age of the population was 61 years with an interquartile range of 53-71 years with total body weight ranging from 59-88 kg. Median (interquartile) total plasma concentrations for l- and d-methadone were 50.78 ng/mL (30.6-113.0 ng/mL) and 62.0 ng/mL (28.7-116.0 ng/mL), respectively. Median (interquartile range) saliva concentrations for l- and d-methadone were 81.5 ng/mL (28.0-203.2 ng/mL) and 44.2 (16.2-149.7 ng/mL). No relationship could be established between

  15. Negative symptoms in nondeficit syndrome respond to neuroleptic treatment with changes in plasma homovanillic acid concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, E; Kanba, S; Koshikawa, H; Nibuya, M; Yagi, G; Asai, M

    1996-05-01

    Deficit syndrome (DS) in schizophrenia is characterized by serious, chronic, and primary negative symptoms. We investigated differences in response to neuroleptic treatment between 8 DS patients and 6 nondeficit syndrome (NDS) patients who had the selective dopamine-D2 receptor blocker bromperidol added to their neuroleptic regimens. First, 9 mg/d was administered for 4 weeks, followed by 18 mg/d for another 4 weeks. Plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) and plasma bromperidol concentrations were measured, and psychiatric symptoms were scored. In the NDS patients, both positive and negative symptoms improved. However, only the positive symptom scores changed in the DS patients. On day 4, pHVA concentrations of the NDS patients alone were significantly elevated. Plasma bromperidol concentrations did not differ between the groups. These results suggest that bromperidol exerts different effects on negative symptoms and pHVA concentrations between NDS and DS patients, effects that are unrelated to plasma bromperidol concentrations.

  16. Self-organizing map analysis using multivariate data from theophylline powders predicted by a thin-plate spline interpolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Akihito; Onuki, Yoshinori; Kikuchi, Shingo; Takayama, Kozo

    2010-11-01

    The quality by design concept in pharmaceutical formulation development requires establishment of a science-based rationale and a design space. We integrated thin-plate spline (TPS) interpolation and Kohonen's self-organizing map (SOM) to visualize the latent structure underlying causal factors and pharmaceutical responses. As a model pharmaceutical product, theophylline powders were prepared based on the standard formulation. The angle of repose, compressibility, cohesion, and dispersibility were measured as the response variables. These responses were predicted quantitatively on the basis of a nonlinear TPS. A large amount of data on these powders was generated and classified into several clusters using an SOM. The experimental values of the responses were predicted with high accuracy, and the data generated for the powders could be classified into several distinctive clusters. The SOM feature map allowed us to analyze the global and local correlations between causal factors and powder characteristics. For instance, the quantities of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) and magnesium stearate (Mg-St) were classified distinctly into each cluster, indicating that the quantities of MCC and Mg-St were crucial for determining the powder characteristics. This technique provides a better understanding of the relationships between causal factors and pharmaceutical responses in theophylline powder formulations. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association

  17. Plasma lactate concentration as a predictor of gastric necrosis and survival among dogs with gastric dilatation-volvulus: 102 cases (1995-1998).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Papp, E; Drobatz, K J; Hughes, D

    1999-07-01

    To determine relationships between plasma lactate concentration and gastric necrosis and between plasma lactate concentration and outcome for dogs with gastric dilatation-volvulus. Retrospective study. 102 dogs. Information on signalment, history, plasma lactate concentration, medical and surgical treatment, cost of hospitalization, and outcome was retrieved from medical records. 69 of 70 (99%) dogs with plasma lactate concentration dogs with plasma lactate concentration > 6.0 mmol/L (1 dog euthanatized for economic reasons was not included). Gastric necrosis was identified in 38 (37%) dogs. Median plasma lactate concentration in dogs with gastric necrosis (6.6 mmol/L) was significantly higher than concentration in dogs without gastric necrosis (3.3 mmol/L). Specificity and sensitivity of using plasma lactate concentration (with a cutoff of 6.0 mmol/L) to predict which dogs had gastric necrosis were 88 and 61%, respectively. Sixty-two of 63 (98%) dogs without gastric necrosis survived, compared with 25 of 38 (66%) dogs with gastric necrosis. Preoperative plasma lactate concentration was a good predictor of gastric necrosis and outcome for dogs with GDV. Preoperative measurement of plasma lactate concentration may assist in determining prognosis of dogs with GDV.

  18. Treatment failure of nelfinavir-containing triple therapy can largely be explained by low nelfinavir plasma concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burger, David M.; Hugen, Patricia W. H.; Aarnoutse, Rob E.; Hoetelmans, Richard M. W.; Jambroes, Marielle; Nieuwkerk, Pythia T.; Schreij, Gerrit; Schneider, Margriet M. E.; van der Ende, Marchina E.; Lange, Joep M. A.

    2003-01-01

    The relationship between plasma concentrations of nelfinavir and virologic treatment failure was investigated to determine the minimum effective concentration of nelfinavir. Plasma samples were prospectively collected from treatment-naive patients who began taking nelfinavir, 1,250 mg BID + two

  19. Plasma pharmacokinetics and synovial concentrations of S-flurbiprofen plaster in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yataba, Ikuko; Otsuka, Noboru; Matsushita, Isao; Kamezawa, Miho; Yamada, Ichimaro; Sasaki, Sigeru; Uebaba, Kazuo; Matsumoto, Hideo; Hoshino, Yuichi

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the pharmacokinetics and deep tissue penetration capability of the newly developed S-flurbiprofen plaster (SFPP) in humans. Study 1: SFPP tape-type patch (2-60 mg) was applied to the lower back for 24 h in healthy adult volunteers. S-flurbiprofen (SFP) plasma concentration was measured over time to examine SFP pharmacokinetics. Study 2: SFPP (20 mg) was applied for 12 h to the affected knee of osteoarthritis (OA) patients who were scheduled for total knee arthroplasty. Deep tissues (synovial tissue and synovial fluid) were collected during surgery to compare SFP concentrations after application of SFPP or a commercially available flurbiprofen (FP) gel-type patch. Study 1: The plasma concentration of SFP was sustained during 24-h topical application of the SFPP, showing a high percutaneous absorption ratio of 51.4-72.2 %. Cmax and AUC0-∞ were dose-proportional. Study 2: After application of the SFPP for 12 h, SFP concentrations in the synovial tissue and synovial fluid were 14.8-fold (p = 0.002) and 32.7-fold (p < 0.001) higher, respectively, than those achieved by the FP patch. Sustained plasma concentration of SFP and high percutaneous absorption ratio was observed after 24-h topical application of the SFPP. Compared to the FP patch, the SFPP showed superior percutaneous absorption and greater tissue penetration of SFP into the synovial tissue. Greater tissue penetration of the SFPP seemed to be primarily due to its formulation. Thus, SFPP is expected to show higher efficacy for the treatment of knee OA.

  20. Stability of BDNF in Human Samples Stored Up to 6 Months and Correlations of Serum and EDTA-Plasma Concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyakova, Maryna; Schlögl, Haiko; Sacher, Julia; Schmidt-Kassow, Maren; Kaiser, Jochen; Stumvoll, Michael; Kratzsch, Jürgen; Schroeter, Matthias L

    2017-06-03

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), an important neural growth factor, has gained growing interest in neuroscience, but many influencing physiological and analytical aspects still remain unclear. In this study we assessed the impact of storage time at room temperature, repeated freeze/thaw cycles, and storage at -80 °C up to 6 months on serum and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)-plasma BDNF. Furthermore, we assessed correlations of serum and plasma BDNF concentrations in two independent sets of samples. Coefficients of variations (CVs) for serum BDNF concentrations were significantly lower than CVs of plasma concentrations ( n = 245, p = 0.006). Mean serum and plasma concentrations at all analyzed time points remained within the acceptable change limit of the inter-assay precision as declared by the manufacturer. Serum and plasma BDNF concentrations correlated positively in both sets of samples and at all analyzed time points of the stability assessment ( r = 0.455 to r s = 0.596; p plasma up to 6 months. Due to a higher reliability, we suggest favoring serum over EDTA-plasma for future experiments assessing peripheral BDNF concentrations.

  1. Relationship between physical activity and plasma fibrinogen concentrations in adults without chronic diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel A Gomez-Marcos

    Full Text Available To analyze the relationship between regular physical activity, as assessed by accelerometer and 7-day physical activity recall (PAR, and plasma fibrinogen concentrations.A cross-sectional study in a previously established cohort of healthy subjects was performed. This study analyzed 1284 subjects who were included in the EVIDENT study (mean age 55.0±13.6 years; 60.90% women. Fibrinogen concentrations were measured in blood plasma. Physical activity was assessed with a 7-day PAR (metabolic equivalents (METs/hour/week and GT3X ActiGraph accelerometer (counts/minute for 7 days.Physical exercise, which was evaluated with both an accelerometer (Median: 237.28 counts/minute and 7-day PAR (Median: 8 METs/hour/week. Physical activity was negatively correlated with plasma fibrinogen concentrations, which was evaluated by counts/min (r = -0.100; p<0.001 and METs/hour/week (r = -0.162; p<0.001. In a multiple linear regression analysis, fibrinogen concentrations of the subjects who performed more physical activity (third tertile of count/minute and METs/hour/week respect to subjects who performed less (first tertile, maintained statistical significance after adjustments for age and others confounders (β = -0.03; p = 0.046 and β = -0.06; p<0.001, respectively.Physical activity, as assessed by accelerometer and 7-day PAR, was negatively associated with plasma fibrinogen concentrations. This relation is maintained in subjects who performed more exercise even after adjusting for age and other confounders.

  2. Association of plasma PCB levels and HbA1c concentration in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftekhari, Sahar; Aminian, Omid; Moinfar, Zeinab; Schettgen, Thomas; Kaifie, Andrea; Felten, Michael; Kraus, Thomas; Esser, André

    2018-01-01

    The rapid increase in prevalence of diabetes mellitus over the last decades warrants more attention to the effects of environmental and occupational exposures on glucose metabolism. Our study aimed to assess the association between the plasma levels of various congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and the serum concentration of glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c). Our study population consisted of 140 Iranian adults from seven different occupational groups and a group of non-occupationally exposed female participants. The plasma concentration of PCBs were determined at the laboratory of occupational toxicology at RWTH Aachen University, Germany. We considered an HbA1c concentration of 5.7% and more as indicating a disturbed glucose metabolism. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between quartiles of concentrations of PCB congeners and serum HbA1c. Participants with an increased HbA1c value had higher plasma levels of PCB 138, 153, 180 and the PCB sum, although this association was statistically not significant. There was no significant difference between the levels of PCB 138, 153, 180, the sum of these congeners, and PCB 118 in their quartiles when comparing with HbA1c concentrations. For our cohort, we could not demonstrate a significant association between PCB and HbA1c concentrations indicating a disturbance of glucose metabolism.

  3. Salivary pH as a marker of plasma adiponectin concentrations in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay, Monique; Loucif, Yacine; Methot, Julie; Brisson, Diane; Gaudet, Daniel

    2012-02-03

    Plasma adiponectin is a significant correlate of the pro-inflammatory cardiometabolic risk profile associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. Salivary pH is influenced by several cardiometabolic risk components such as inflammation, oxidation and numerous oral and systemic health modulators, including the menopausal status. This study aimed to assess the association between plasma adiponectin concentrations and salivary pH in women according to the menopausal status. Unstimulated saliva collection was performed in 151 Caucasian women of French-Canadian origin (53 premenopausal women (PMW) and 98 menopausal women (MW)). Student's t test, ANOVA and linear regression models were used to assess the association between plasma adiponectin concentrations and salivary pH. Plasma adiponectin levels increased as a function of salivary pH in the whole sample and among MW (r = 0.29 and r = 0.36, p salivary pH (R2) was 10.8% (p salivary pH quartiles (p = 0.005). These results suggest that salivary pH is a significant correlate of plasma adiponectin levels in women. With the increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes and obesity, new technologies should be developed to more easily monitor health status, disease onset and progression. Salivary pH, a simple, inexpensive and non-invasive measure, could be a very promising avenue.

  4. Salivary pH as a marker of plasma adiponectin concentrations in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tremblay Monique

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasma adiponectin is a significant correlate of the pro-inflammatory cardiometabolic risk profile associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. Salivary pH is influenced by several cardiometabolic risk components such as inflammation, oxidation and numerous oral and systemic health modulators, including the menopausal status. This study aimed to assess the association between plasma adiponectin concentrations and salivary pH in women according to the menopausal status. Method Unstimulated saliva collection was performed in 151 Caucasian women of French-Canadian origin (53 premenopausal women (PMW and 98 menopausal women (MW. Student's t test, ANOVA and linear regression models were used to assess the association between plasma adiponectin concentrations and salivary pH. Results Plasma adiponectin levels increased as a function of salivary pH in the whole sample and among MW (r = 0.29 and r = 0.36, p 2 was 10.8% (p Conclusions These results suggest that salivary pH is a significant correlate of plasma adiponectin levels in women. With the increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes and obesity, new technologies should be developed to more easily monitor health status, disease onset and progression. Salivary pH, a simple, inexpensive and non-invasive measure, could be a very promising avenue.

  5. Semen quality and concentration of soluble proteins in the seminal plasma of Alpine bucks Semen quality and concentration of soluble proteins in the seminal plasma of Alpine bucks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Eliza Facione Guimarães

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available It was aimed to study the in vitro seminal quality analyzed by complementary tests and to compare them with physical, morphological and biochemical aspects of male goat semen of the Alpine breed. This experiment took place at the Federal University of Viçosa, situated at 20º45’ S latitude and 42º51’ W longitude, Southwest of Brazil. It was done during the summer months of January and February, and three adult male goats of the Alpine breed were used in intensive conditions. The semen was collected by artificial vagina method. In all semen samples (45 ejaculates, after the physical and morphological analysis, the hiposmotic test was done. In 24 ejaculates, it were done thermo-resistance test, and in 21 ejaculates it were determined the concentration of total soluble proteins in seminal plasma. The male goats presented difference in the semen physical and morphological aspects, in the hiposmotic test and thermo-resistance test, but they did not presented difference in total soluble proteins concentration in seminal plasma. Results of the slow thermo-resistance test and hiposmotic test were positively correlated (r = 0.60. It was concluded, according to our results, that the concentration of total soluble proteins in seminal plasma can not be used as a parameter to predict the seminal quality of Alpine bucks.It was aimed to study the in vitro seminal quality analyzed by complementary tests and to compare them with physical, morphological and biochemical aspects of male goat semen of the Alpine breed. This experiment took place at the Federal University of Viçosa, situated at 20º45’ S latitude and 42º51’ W longitude, Southwest of Brazil. It was done during the summer months of January and February, and three adult male goats of the Alpine breed were used in intensive conditions. The semen was collected by artificial vagina method. In all semen samples (45 ejaculates, after the physical and morphological analysis, the hiposmotic test

  6. Plasma dispositions and concentrations of ivermectin in eggs following treatment of laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirak, V Y; Aksit, D; Cihan, H; Gokbulut, C

    2018-05-01

    To determine the plasma disposition and concentrations of ivermectin (IVM) in eggs produced by laying hens following S/C, oral and I/V administration. Twenty-four laying hens, aged 37 weeks and weighing 1.73 (SD 0.12) kg were allocated to three groups of eight birds. The injectable formulation of IVM was administered either orally, S/C, or I/V, at a dose of 0.2 mg/kg liveweight, following dilution (1:5, v/v) with propylene glycol. Heparinised blood samples were collected at various times between 0.25 hours and 20 days after drug administration. Eggs produced by hens were also collected daily throughout the study period. Samples of plasma and homogenised egg were analysed using HPLC. Maximum concentrations of IVM in plasma and mean residence time of IVM were lower after oral (10.2 (SD 7.2) ng/mL and 0.38 (SD 0.14) days, respectively) than after S/C (82.9 (SD 12.4) ng/mL and 1.05 (SD 0.24) days, respectively) administration (pV administration, and until 15 days after S/C administration. Peak concentrations of IVM were 15.7, 23.3 and 1.9 µg/kg, observed 2, 5 and 4 days after I/V, S/C and oral administration, respectively. The low plasma bioavailability of IVM observed after oral administration in laying hens could result in lower efficacy or subtherapeutic plasma concentrations, which may promote the development of parasitic drug resistance. Due to high IVM residues in eggs compared to the maximum residue limits for other food-producing animal species, a withdrawal period should be necessary for eggs after IVM treatment in laying hens.

  7. About the 'enlightenment' of nonideal hydrogen-oxygen plasma at a electron concentration Ne19 cm-3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorovich, O.A.

    2013-01-01

    The results of experimental determination of the emissivity of the hydrogen-oxygen plasma pulsed discharge in water and their comparison with calculations. It is shown that when concentrations nonideal plasma N e >3 centre dot 10 18 cm -3 , is observed 'enlightenment' of plasma. The reduction of a emitting ability . can be more order in the N e =3 centre dot 10 19 cm -3 and increases with increasing electron concentration.

  8. HEMOFILTRATION AND COUPLED PLASMA FILTRATION ADSORPTION IMPACT ON TACROLIMUS BLOOD CONCENTRATION IN RENAL TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Vatazin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the effect of hemofi ltration and coupled plasma fi ltration adsorption on tacrolimus blood concentration in renal transplant recipients.Methods and results. The study included 8 renal transplant recipients. In these patients immediately after the operation was performed the coupled plasma fi ltration adsorption with hemofiltration using a cartridge Mediasorb to reduce the severity of reperfusion injury. We have found that during this extracorporeal blood correction procedure there was statistically not signifi cant decrease of tacrolimus blood concentration. However, concentration of tacrolimus remained in the therapeutic range even after the procedure and it was not signifi cantly different from the control point С0.Conclusion. Coupled plasma fi ltration adsorption is safe in renal transplant recipients and has no signifi cant impact on tacrolimus blood concentration. However, the downward trend in the concentration of tacrolimus in the course of these procedures, especially in continuous or semicontinuous mode, as well as in patients with low hematocrit and hypoalbuminemia, requires individual monitoring.

  9. Childhood obesity treatment; Effects on BMI SDS, body composition, and fasting plasma lipid concentrations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tenna Ruest Haarmark Nielsen

    Full Text Available The body mass index (BMI standard deviation score (SDS may not adequately reflect changes in fat mass during childhood obesity treatment. This study aimed to investigate associations between BMI SDS, body composition, and fasting plasma lipid concentrations at baseline and during childhood obesity treatment.876 children and adolescents (498 girls with overweight/obesity, median age 11.2 years (range 1.6-21.7, and median BMI SDS 2.8 (range 1.3-5.7 were enrolled in a multidisciplinary outpatient treatment program and followed for a median of 1.8 years (range 0.4-7.4. Height and weight, body composition measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and fasting plasma lipid concentrations were assessed at baseline and at follow-up. Lipid concentrations (total cholesterol (TC, low-density lipoprotein (LDL, high-density lipoprotein (HDL, non-HDL, and triglycerides (TG were available in 469 individuals (264 girls. Linear regressions were performed to investigate the associations between BMI SDS, body composition indices, and lipid concentrations.At baseline, BMI SDS was negatively associated with concentrations of HDL (p = 6.7*10-4 and positively with TG (p = 9.7*10-6. Reductions in BMI SDS were associated with reductions in total body fat percentage (p<2*10-16 and percent truncal body fat (p<2*10-16. Furthermore, reductions in BMI SDS were associated with improvements in concentrations of TC, LDL, HDL, non-HDL, LDL/HDL-ratio, and TG (all p <0.0001. Changes in body fat percentage seemed to mediate the changes in plasma concentrations of TC, LDL, and non-HDL, but could not alone explain the changes in HDL, LDL/HDL-ratio or TG. Among 81 individuals with available lipid concentrations, who increased their BMI SDS, 61% improved their body composition, and 80% improved their lipid concentrations.Reductions in the degree of obesity during multidisciplinary childhood obesity treatment are accompanied by improvements in body composition and fasting plasma

  10. Moringa Oleifera leaf extract increases plasma antioxidant status associated with reduced plasma malondialdehyde concentration without hypoglycemia in fasting healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngamukote, Sathaporn; Khannongpho, Teerawat; Siriwatanapaiboon, Marent; Sirikwanpong, Sukrit; Dahlan, Winai; Adisakwattana, Sirichai

    2016-12-29

    To investigate the effect of Moringa Oleifera leaf extract (MOLE) on plasma glucose concentration and antioxidant status in healthy volunteers. A randomized crossover design was used in this study. Healthy volunteers were randomly assigned to receive either 200 mL of warm water (10 cases) or 200 mL of MOLE (500 mg dried extract, 10 cases). Blood samples were drawn at 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min for measuring fasting plasma glucose (FPG), ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) and malondialdehyde (MDA). FPG concentration was not signifificantly different between warm water and MOLE. The consumption of MOLE acutely improved both FRAP and TEAC, with increases after 30 min of 30 μmol/L FeSO 4 equivalents and 0.18 μmol/L Trolox equivalents, respectively. The change in MDA level from baseline was signifificantly lowered after the ingestion of MOLE at 30, 60, and 90 min. In addition, FRAP level was negatively correlated with plasma MDA level after an intake of MOLE. MOLE increased plasma antioxidant capacity without hypoglycemia in human. The consumption of MOLE may reduce the risk factors associated with chronic degenerative diseases.

  11. Plasma concentrations of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone are elevated in patients on chronic haemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airaghi, L; Garofalo, L; Cutuli, M G; Delgado, R; Carlin, A; Demitri, M T; Badalamenti, S; Graziani, G; Lipton, J M; Catania, A

    2000-08-01

    Clinical and/or laboratory signs of systemic inflammation occur frequently in patients undergoing long-term haemodialysis. It is likely, therefore, that a compensatory release of endogenous anti-inflammatory molecules occurs to limit host reactions. The aim of the present research was to determine if the potent anti-inflammatory peptide alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH), a pro-opiomelanocortin derivative, is increased in plasma of haemodialysis patients. Because endotoxin and cytokines induce alpha-MSH in vivo and in vitro, we also measured plasma concentrations of endotoxin, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), and the two circulating products of activated monocytes, nitric oxide (NO) and neopterin. Thirty-five chronic haemodialysis patients, 20 patients with chronic renal failure not yet on dialysis, and 35 normal controls were included in the study. In the haemodialysis group, blood samples were obtained before and at the end of a dialysis session. Plasma alpha-MSH was measured using a double antibody radioimmunoassay, and IL-6, TNF-alpha, and neopterin using specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Plasma nitrites were determined by a colorimetric method, and endotoxin with the quantitative chromogenic LAL (limulus amoebocyte lysate) method. Mean plasma alpha-MSH was higher in haemodialysis patients than in control subjects, with the peptide concentrations being particularly elevated in dialysed patients with detectable endotoxin. High alpha-MSH concentrations were observed in the pre-dialysis samples, with no substantial change at the end of the dialysis session. Plasma concentrations of IL-6, TNF-alpha, neopterin, and NO were generally elevated in chronic haemodialysis patients and there was a negative correlation between circulating alpha-MSH and IL-6. In patients with renal failure not yet on dialysis, mean plasma alpha-MSH was similar to that of normal subjects. alpha-MSH is increased in the circulation of

  12. Fasting plasma chenodeoxycholic acid and cholic acid concentrations are inversely correlated with insulin sensitivity in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laville Martine

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accumulating data suggest a novel role for bile acids (BAs in modulating metabolic homeostasis. BA treatment has been shown to improve glucose tolerance and to increase energy expenditure in mice. Here, we investigated the relationship between fasting plasma BAs concentrations and metabolic parameters in humans. Findings Fasting plasma glucose, insulin and lipid profile were measured in 14 healthy volunteers, 20 patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D, and 22 non-diabetic abdominally obese subjects. Insulin sensitivity was also assessed by the determination of the glucose infusion rate (GIR during a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp in a subgroup of patients (9 healthy and 16 T2D subjects. Energy expenditure was measured by indirect calorimetry. Plasma cholic acid (CA, chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA and deoxycholic acid (DCA concentrations were analyzed by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry. In univariable analysis, a positive association was found between HOMA-IR and plasma CDCA (β = 0.09, p = 0.001, CA (β = 0.03, p = 0.09 and DCA concentrations (β = 0.07, p Conclusions Both plasma CDCA, CA and DCA concentrations were negatively associated with insulin sensitivity in a wide range of subjects.

  13. Relation of plasma tryptophan concentrations during pregnancy to maternal sleep and mental well-being: The GUSTO cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lee, Linde; Cai, Shirong; Loy, See Ling; Tham, Elaine K H; Yap, Fabian K P; Godfrey, Keith M; Gluckman, Peter D; Shek, Lynette P C; Teoh, Oon Hoe; Goh, Daniel Y T; Tan, Kok Hian; Chong, Yap Seng; Meaney, Michael J; Chen, Helen; Broekman, Birit F P; Chong, Mary F F

    2018-01-01

    Evidence suggests a relation between plasma tryptophan concentrations and sleep and mental well-being. As no studies have been performed in pregnant women, we studied the relation of plasma tryptophan concentrations during pregnancy with sleep quality, and mood during and after pregnancy. Pregnant women (n = 572) from the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes study completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) at 26-28 weeks gestation and three months post-delivery. Plasma tryptophan concentrations were measured at 26-28 weeks gestation. Poisson regressions estimated prevalence ratios (PR) for the association between tryptophan and poor sleep quality (PSQI global score > 5), probable antenatal depression (EPDS ≥ 15) and probable anxiety (STAI-state ≥ 41) were calculated adjusting for covariates. Mean plasma tryptophan concentrations was 48.0µmol/L (SD: 8.09). Higher plasma tryptophan concentrations were associated with a lower prevalence of antenatal poor sleep quality adjusting for covariates [PR: 0.88 (95% CI 0.80, 0.97) per 10µmol/L], especially in those participants who also suffered from anxiety symptoms [PR: 0.80 (95% CI 0.67, 0.95)]. No associations were observed between tryptophan concentrations during pregnancy and postnatal sleep quality or mental well-being. Subjective measures were used to assess sleep and mental well-being. We observed that higher plasma tryptophan concentrations were associated with a 12% lower prevalence of poor sleep quality during pregnancy, in particular among those with anxiety symptoms. These findings suggest the importance of having adequate tryptophan concentrations during pregnancy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Elevated circulating plasma endothelin-1 concentrations in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Emmeluth, C; Henriksen, Jens Henrik

    1993-01-01

    veins on the one hand and the femoral artery on the other (P > 0.1), indicating no major net elimination or release in the liver, kidney or lower limb. A significant negative correlation was found between systolic and diastolic blood pressures on the one hand and circulating ET-1 on the other (r = -0.......70, P vein catheterization (n = 8), no significant differences were found in ET-1 plasma concentration between the liver, renal, or femoral...

  15. The association of plasma gamma-aminobutyric acid concentration with postoperative delirium in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshitaka, Shiho; Egi, Moritoki; Kanazawa, Tomoyuki; Toda, Yuichiro; Morita, Kiyoshi

    2014-12-01

    Delirium is a common complication in postoperative, critically ill patients. The mechanism of postoperative delirium is not well understood but many studies have shown significant associations between benzodiazepine use, alcohol withdrawal and cirrhosis, and an increased risk of delirium. We aimed to investigate a possible link with alterations of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) activity. A prospective observational investigation of 40 patients > 20 years old who had undergone elective surgery with general anaesthesia and were expected to need postoperative intensive care for more than 48 hours. We assessed postoperative delirium using the confusion assessment method in the intensive care unit at 1 hour after the operation and on postoperative Day (POD) 1 and POD 2. We collected blood samples for measurement of plasma GABA concentrations before the operation and on POD 1 and 2. Postoperative delirium and perioperative plasma GABA concentrations in patients with and without delirium. Postoperative delirium occurred in 13 of the patients. Patients with delirium had significantly higher Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II scores than patients without delirium. The mean plasma GABA concentration on POD 2 was significantly lower in patients with delirium than in those without delirium. After adjustment of relevant variables, plasma GABA concentration on POD 2 was independently associated with postoperative delirium. Plasma GABA level on POD 2 has a significant independent association with postoperative delirium.

  16. Magnetic Solid-phase Extraction with Fe₃O₄/Molecularly Imprinted Polymers Modified by Deep Eutectic Solvents and Ionic Liquids for the Rapid Purification of Alkaloid Isomers (Theobromine and Theophylline) from Green Tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guizhen; Wang, Xiaoqin; Row, Kyung Ho

    2017-06-25

    Different kinds of deep eutectic solvents (DES) based on choline chloride (ChCl) and ionic liquids (ILs) based on 1-methylimidazole were used to modify Fe3O4/molecularly imprinted polymers (Fe3O4/MIPs), and the resulting materials were applied for the rapid purification of alkaloid isomers (theobromine and theophylline) from green tea with magnetic solid-phase extraction (M-SPE). The M-SPE procedure was optimized using the response surface methodology (RSM) to analyze the maximum conditions. The materials were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FI-IR) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). Compared to the ILs-Fe3O4/MIPs, the DESs-Fe3O4/MIPs were developed for the stronger recognition and higher recoveries of the isomers (theophylline and theobromine) from green tea, particularly DES-7-Fe3O4/MIPs. With RSM, the optimal recovery condition for theobromine and theophylline in the M-SPE were observed with ratio of methanol (80%) as the washing solution, methanol/acetic acid (HAc) (8:2) as the eluent at pH 3, and an eluent volume of 4 mL. The practical recoveries of theobromine and theophylline in green tea were 92.27% and 87.51%, respectively, with a corresponding actual extraction amount of 4.87 mg•g-1 and 5.07 mg•g-1. Overall, the proposed approach with the high affinity of Fe3O4/MIPs might offer a novel method for the purification of complex isomer samples.

  17. A method for estimation of plasma albumin concentration from the buffering properties of whole blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rees, Stephen Edward; Diemer, Tue; Kristensen, Søren Risom

    2012-01-01

    measurements of acid-base and oxygenation status. This article presents and evaluates a new method for doing so. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The mathematical method for estimating plasma albumin concentration is described. To evaluate the method at numerous albumin concentrations, blood from 19 healthy subjects......PURPOSE: Hypoalbuminemia is strongly associated with poor clinical outcome. Albumin is usually measured at the central laboratory rather than point of care, but in principle, information exists in the buffering properties of whole blood to estimate plasma albumin concentration from point of care...

  18. Plasma adiponectin concentrations are associated with dietary glycemic index in Malaysian patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Beng-In; Sathyasuryan, Daniel Robert; Mohamed, Hamid Jan Jan

    2013-01-01

    Adiponectin, an adipocyte-derived hormone has been implicated in the control of blood glucose and chronic inflammation in type 2 diabetes. However, limited studies have evaluated dietary factors on plasma adiponectin levels, especially among type 2 diabetic patients in Malaysia. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of dietary glycemic index on plasma adiponectin concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 305 type 2 diabetic patients aged 19-75 years from the Penang General Hospital, Malaysia. Socio-demographic information was collected using a standard questionnaire while dietary details were determined by using a pre-validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Anthropometry measurement included weight, height, BMI and waist circumference. Plasma adiponectin concentrations were measured using a commercial ELISA kit. Data were analyzed using multiple linear regression. After multivariate adjustment, dietary glycemic index was inversely associated with plasma adiponectin concentrations (β =-0.272, 95% CI -0.262, - 0.094; pfoods containing high dietary glycemic index that plasma adiponectin level reduced by 0.3 μg/mL. Thirty two percent (31.9%) of the variation in adiponectin concentrations was explained by age, sex, race, smoking status, BMI, waist circumference, HDL-C, triglycerides, magnesium, fiber and dietary glycemic index according to the multiple linear regression model (R2=0.319). These results support the hypothesis that dietary glycemic index influences plasma adiponectin concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes. Controlled clinical trials are required to confirm our findings and to elucidate the underlying mechanism.

  19. Plasma oxytocin concentrations are lower in depressed vs. healthy control women and are independent of cortisol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Kaeli W; Garner, Joseph P; Carson, Dean S; Keller, Jennifer; Lembke, Anna; Hyde, Shellie A; Kenna, Heather A; Tennakoon, Lakshika; Schatzberg, Alan F; Parker, Karen J

    2014-04-01

    The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) promotes social behavior and attenuates stress responsivity in mammals. Recent clinical evidence suggests OT concentrations may be dysregulated in major depression. This study extends previous research by testing whether: 1) OT concentrations vary systematically in depressive disorders with and without hypercortisolemia, 2) gender differences in OT concentrations are observed in depressed vs. healthy control participants, and 3) OT concentrations are predictive of clinical phenotypes. Plasma OT concentrations of psychotic major depressive (PMD; n = 14: 10 female, 4 male), non-psychotic major depressive (NPMD; n = 17: 12 female, 5 male), and non-depressed, healthy control (n = 19: 11 female, 8 male) participants were assayed at 2000, 2400, 0400, and 0800 h. Plasma cortisol concentrations were quantified at 2300 h, and clinical phenotypes were determined. As expected, PMD participants, compared to NPMD and healthy control participants, showed higher plasma cortisol concentrations. Although both depressed groups showed similar OT concentrations, a significant interaction effect between group and gender was observed. Specifically, depressed females exhibited lower mean OT concentrations than depressed males. Further, depressed vs. healthy control female participants exhibited lower mean OT concentrations, whereas depressed vs. healthy control male participants showed a trend in the opposite direction. OT concentrations were also predictive of desirability, drug dependence, and compulsivity scores as measured by the Million Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III. All findings were independent of cortisol. These data suggest that OT signaling may provide a mechanism by which to better understand female-biased risk to develop depressive disorders and that plasma OT concentrations may be a useful biomarker of certain clinical phenotypes. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Plasma Drug Concentrations of Orally Administered Rosuvastatin in Hispaniolan Amazon Parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaufrère, Hugues; Papich, Mark G; Brandão, João; Nevarez, Javier; Tully, Thomas N

    2015-03-01

    Atherosclerotic diseases are common in pet psittacine birds, in particular Amazon parrots. While hypercholesterolemia and dyslipidemia have not definitely been associated with increased susceptibility to atherosclerosis in parrots, these are important and well-known risk factors in humans. Therefore statin drugs such as rosuvastatin constitute the mainstay of human treatment of dyslipidemia and the prevention of atherosclerosis. No pharmacologic studies have been performed in psittacine birds despite the high prevalence of atherosclerosis in captivity. Thirteen Hispaniolan Amazon parrots were used to test a single oral dose of 10 mg/kg of rosuvastatin with blood sampling performed according to a balanced incomplete block design over 36 hours. Because low plasma concentrations were produced in the first study, a subsequent pilot study using a dose of 25 mg/kg in 2 Amazon parrots was performed. Most plasma samples for the 10 mg/kg dose and all samples for the 25 mg/kg dose had rosuvastatin concentration below the limits of quantitation. For the 10 mg/kg study, the median peak plasma concentration and time to peak plasma concentration were 0.032 μg/mL and 2 hours, respectively. Our results indicate that rosuvastatin does not appear suitable in Amazon parrots as compounded and used at the dose in this study. Pharmacodynamic studies investigating lipid-lowering effects of statins rather than pharmacokinetic studies may be more practical and cost effective in future studies to screen for a statin with more ideal properties for potential use in psittacine dyslipidemia and atherosclerotic diseases.

  1. Dyslipidemia and reference values for fasting plasma lipid concentrations in Danish/North-European White children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tenna Ruest Haarmark; Lausten-Thomsen, Ulrik; Fonvig, Cilius Esmann

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dyslipidemia is reported in 27 - 43% of children and adolescents with overweight/obesity and tracks into adulthood, increasing the risk of cardiovascular morbidity. Cut-off values for fasting plasma lipid concentrations are typically set at fixed levels throughout childhood. The objec......BACKGROUND: Dyslipidemia is reported in 27 - 43% of children and adolescents with overweight/obesity and tracks into adulthood, increasing the risk of cardiovascular morbidity. Cut-off values for fasting plasma lipid concentrations are typically set at fixed levels throughout childhood....... The objective of this cross-sectional study was to generate fasting plasma lipid references for a Danish/North-European White population-based cohort of children and adolescents, and investigate the prevalence of dyslipidemia in this cohort as well as in a cohort with overweight/obesity. METHODS: A population......, and fasting plasma lipid concentrations were measured on all participants. Smoothed reference curves and percentiles were generated using the Generalized Additive Models for Location Scale and Shape package in the statistical software R. RESULTS: In the population-based cohort, plasma concentrations of total...

  2. Plasma capric acid concentrations in healthy subjects determined by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Rojeet; Hui, Shu-Ping; Imai, Hiromitsu; Hashimoto, Satoru; Uemura, Naoto; Takeda, Seiji; Fuda, Hirotoshi; Suzuki, Akira; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Hirano, Ken-Ichi; Chiba, Hitoshi

    2015-09-01

    Capric acid (FA10:0, decanoic acid) is a medium-chain fatty acid abundant in tropical oils such as coconut oil, whereas small amounts are present in milk of goat, cow, and human. Orally ingested FA10:0 is transported to the liver and quickly burnt within it. Only few reports are available for FA10:0 concentrations in human plasma. Fasting (n = 5, male/female = 3/2, age 31 ± 9.3 years old) and non-fasting (n = 106, male/female = 44/62, age 21.9 ± 3.2 years old) blood samples were collected from apparently healthy Japanese volunteers. The total FA10:0 in the plasma were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography after derivatization with 2-nitrophenylhydrazine followed by UV detection. Inter and intra-assay coefficient of variation of FA10:0 assay at three different concentrations ranged in 1.7-3.9 and 1.3-5.4%, respectively, with an analytical recovery of 95.2-104.0%. FA10:0 concentration was below detection limit (0.1 µmol/L) in each fasting human plasma. FA10:0 was not detected in 50 (47.2%) of 106 non-fasting blood samples, while 29 (27.4%) plasma samples contained FA10:0 less than or equal to 0.5 µmol/L (0.4 ± 0.1), and 27 (25.5%) contained it at more than 0.5 µmol/L (0.9 ± 0.3). A half of the non-fasting plasma samples contained detectable FA10:0. This simple, precise, and accurate high-performance liquid chromatography method might be useful for monitoring plasma FA10:0 during medium-chain triglycerides therapy. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Dietary modulation of plasma angiopoietin-like protein 4 concentrations in healthy volunteers and in patients with type 2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, Jacqueline T.; Smit, Johannes W. A.; Hammer, Sebastiaan; Snel, Marieke; van der Meer, Rutger W.; Lamb, Hildo J.; Mattijssen, Frits; Mudde, Karin; Jazet, Ingrid M.; Dekkers, Olaf M.; de Roos, Albert; Romijn, Johannes A.; Kersten, Sander; Rensen, Patrick C. N.

    2013-01-01

    Angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) has been identified as an inhibitor of lipoprotein lipase. Preliminary data suggest that plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) raise plasma ANGPTL4 concentrations in humans. The objective was to assess plasma ANGPTL4 concentrations after various nutritional

  4. Dietary modulation of plasma angiopoietin-like protein 4 concentrations in healthy volunteers and in patients with type 2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, J.T.; Smit, J.W.A.; Hammer, S.; Snel, M.; Meer, R.W. van der; Lamb, H.J.; Mattijssen, F.; Mudde, K.; Jazet, I.M.; Dekkers, O.M.; Roos, A. de; Romijn, J.A.; Kersten, S.; Rensen, P.C.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) has been identified as an inhibitor of lipoprotein lipase. Preliminary data suggest that plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) raise plasma ANGPTL4 concentrations in humans. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to assess plasma ANGPTL4 concentrations

  5. Dietary modulation of plasma angiopoietin-like protein 4 concentrations in healthy volunteers and in patients with type 2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, J.T.; Smit, J.W.A.; Hammer, S.; Snel, M.; Meer, van der R.; Lamb, H.J.; Mattijssen, F.B.J.; Mudde, C.M.; Jazet, I.M.; Dekkers, O.M.; Roos, de A.; Romijn, J.A.; Kersten, A.H.; Rensen, P.C.N.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) has been identified as an inhibitor of lipoprotein lipase. Preliminary data suggest that plasma nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs) raise plasma ANGPTL4 concentrations in humans. Objective: The objective was to assess plasma ANGPTL4 concentrations

  6. Anti-tumor Effects of Plasma Activated Media and Correlation with Hydrogen Peroxide Concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laroussi, Mounir; Mohades, Soheila; Barekzi, Nazir; Maruthamuthu, Venkat; Razavi, Hamid

    2016-09-01

    Plasma activated media (PAM) can induce death in cancer cells. In our research, PAM is produced by exposing liquid culture medium to a helium plasma pencil. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in the aqueous state are known factors in anti-tumor effects of PAM. The duration of plasma exposure determines the concentrations of reactive species produced in PAM. Stability of the plasma generated reactive species and their lifetime depend on parameters such as the chemical composition of the medium. Here, a complete cell culture medium was employed to make PAM. Later, PAM was used to treat SCaBER cancer cells either as an immediate PAM (right after exposure) or as an aged-PAM (after storage). SCaBER (ATCC®HTB-3™) is an epithelial cell line from a human bladder with the squamous carcinoma disease. A normal epithelial cell line from a kidney tissue of a dog - MDCK (ATCC®CCL-34™) - was used to analyze the selective effect of PAM. Correspondingly, we measured the concentration of hydrogen peroxide- as a stable species with biological impact on cell viability- in both immediate PAM and aged-PAM. In addition, we report on the effect of serum supplemented in PAM on the H2O2 concentration measured by Amplex red assay kit. Finally, we evaluate the effects of PAM on growth and morphological changes in MDCK cells using fluorescence microscopy.

  7. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plasma concentration in patients diagnosed with premature ovarian insufficiency (POI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czyzyk, Adam; Filipowicz, Dorota; Podfigurna, Agnieszka; Ptas, Paula; Piestrzynska, Malgorzata; Smolarczyk, Roman; Genazzani, Andrea R; Meczekalski, Blazej

    2017-05-01

    Premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) is defined as a cessation of function of ovaries in women younger than 40 years old. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a protein critically involved in neuronal growth and metabolism. BDNF also has been shown to be important regulator of oocyte maturation. Recent data show that BDNF can be potentially involved in POI pathology. The aim of the study was to assess the BDNF plasma concentrations in patients diagnosed with idiopathic POI. 23 women diagnosed with POI (age 31 ± 7 years) and 18 (age 31 ± 3) controls were included to the study, matched according to age and body mass index. The BDNF concentrations were measured using competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Hormonal and metabolic parameters were measured in all individuals, in controls in late follicular phase. The POI group demonstrated lower mean plasma concentrations of BDNF (429.25 ± 65.52 pg/ml) in comparison to healthy controls (479.75 ± 34.75 pg/ml, p = 0.0345). The BDNF plasma concentration correlated negatively (R = -0.79, p BDNF and progesterone in controls. In conclusion, POI patients show significantly lower BDNF plasma concentration and it correlates with the duration of amenorrhea. This observation brings important potential insights to the pathology of POI.

  8. Lead and zinc concentrations in plasma, erythrocytes, and urine in relation to ALA-D activity after intravenous infusion of Ca-EDTA.

    OpenAIRE

    Ishihara, N; Shiojima, S; Hasegawa, K

    1984-01-01

    Lead and zinc concentrations in plasma, erythrocytes, and urine, urinary ALA concentration, and ALA-D activity in blood were studied for four hours in two male lead workers during and after a one hour infusion of Ca-EDTA 2Na. Urinary and plasma lead concentrations increased as a result of administering Ca-EDTA 2Na, and the ratios of lead concentrations in plasma to those in urine were greatly increased. The increase of plasma lead concentration was not due to the haemolytic effect of Ca-EDTA ...

  9. Childhood obesity treatment; Effects on BMI SDS, body composition, and fasting plasma lipid concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Tenna Ruest Haarmark; Fonvig, Cilius Esmann; Dahl, Maria; Mollerup, Pernille Maria; Lausten-Thomsen, Ulrik; Pedersen, Oluf; Hansen, Torben; Holm, Jens-Christian

    2018-01-01

    The body mass index (BMI) standard deviation score (SDS) may not adequately reflect changes in fat mass during childhood obesity treatment. This study aimed to investigate associations between BMI SDS, body composition, and fasting plasma lipid concentrations at baseline and during childhood obesity treatment. 876 children and adolescents (498 girls) with overweight/obesity, median age 11.2 years (range 1.6-21.7), and median BMI SDS 2.8 (range 1.3-5.7) were enrolled in a multidisciplinary outpatient treatment program and followed for a median of 1.8 years (range 0.4-7.4). Height and weight, body composition measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and fasting plasma lipid concentrations were assessed at baseline and at follow-up. Lipid concentrations (total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), non-HDL, and triglycerides (TG)) were available in 469 individuals (264 girls). Linear regressions were performed to investigate the associations between BMI SDS, body composition indices, and lipid concentrations. At baseline, BMI SDS was negatively associated with concentrations of HDL (p = 6.7*10-4) and positively with TG (p = 9.7*10-6). Reductions in BMI SDS were associated with reductions in total body fat percentage (pobesity during multidisciplinary childhood obesity treatment are accompanied by improvements in body composition and fasting plasma lipid concentrations. Even in individuals increasing their BMI SDS, body composition and lipid concentrations may improve.

  10. Plasma concentrations of blood coagulation factor VII measured by immunochemical and amidolytic methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladbjerg, E-M; Gram, J; Jespersen, J

    2000-01-01

    Ever since the coagulant activity of blood coagulation factor VII (FVII:C) was identified as a risk indicator of cardiac death, a large number of studies have measured FVII protein concentrations in plasma. FVII protein concentrations are either measured immunologically with an ELISA method (FVII...

  11. EXTENDED STORAGE OF BUFFY-COAT PLATELET CONCENTRATES IN PLASMA OR A PLATELET ADDITIVE SOLUTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slichter, Sherrill J.; Bolgiano, Doug; Corson, Jill; Jones, Mary Kay; Christoffel, Todd; Bailey, S. Lawrence; Pellham, Esther

    2014-01-01

    Background Platelet concentrates prepared from whole blood in the U.S. are made using the platelet-rich-plasma (PRP) method. The platelet concentrates must be made within 8 hours of blood collection and stored for only 5 days. In Europe and Canada, platelet concentrates are made using the buffy-coat (BC) method from whole blood held overnight at 22°C and storage times may be up to 7 days. Our studies were designed to determine how long BC platelets can be stored in plasma or Plasmalyte while meeting the FDA’s post-storage viability criteria. Study Design, Materials, And Methods Normal subjects donated whole blood that was stored at 22°C for 22 ± 2 hours prior to preparation of BC platelets. Platelets were stored for 5 to 8 days in either plasma or Plasmalyte concentrations of 65% or 80%. Radiolabeled autologous stored versus fresh platelet recoveries and survivals were assessed as well as post-storage in vitro assays. Results BC platelets stored in either plasma or 65% Plasmalyte met FDA post-storage platelet recovery criteria for 7 days but survivals for only 6 days, while storage in 80% Plasmalyte gave very poor results. Both stored platelet recoveries and survivals correlated with the same donor’s fresh results, but the correlation was much stronger between recoveries than survivals. In vitro measures of extent of shape change, morphology score, and pH best predicted post-storage platelet recoveries, while annexin V binding best predicted platelet survivals. Conclusion BC platelets stored in either plasma or 65% Plasmalyte meet FDA’s post-storage viability criteria for 6 days. PMID:24673482

  12. Plasma carotenoid concentrations of infants are increased by feeding a milk-based infant formula supplemented with carotenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackey, Amy D; Albrecht, Daniel; Oliver, Jeffery; Williams, Timberly; Long, Amy C; Price, Pamela T

    2013-06-01

    Human milk is the gold standard of infant nutrition and is a source of important substances, including carotenoids. Infant formulas are designed to mimic the composition and/or performance of human milk, although currently carotenoids are not routinely added to US infant formulas. The aim of this study was to assess plasma concentrations of β-carotene, lutein and lycopene 56 days after feeding infants milk-based infant formula without (CTRL) or with different concentrations of added carotenoids (L1 and L2). Plasma carotenoid concentrations increased in infants fed carotenoid-supplemented formulas as compared with the control formula with no added carotenoids. At study day 56, infants fed the supplemented formulas (L1 and L2) had mean plasma lutein, β-carotene and lycopene concentrations that were within the range of a concurrent group of human milk-fed infants (HM). Anthropometric measurements were comparable among all study groups. Plasma carotenoid concentrations of infants fed the supplemented formulas were within the range of the HM group and are consistent with reported plasma carotenoid ranges in human milk-fed infants. The experimental formulas were well tolerated and anthropometric measurements were comparable among all study groups. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Frequency of soup intake and amount of dietary fiber intake are inversely associated with plasma leptin concentrations in Japanese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Motonaka; Ohta, Masanori; Okufuji, Tatsuya; Takigami, Chieko; Eguchi, Masafumi; Hayabuchi, Hitomi; Ikeda, Masaharu

    2010-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that the intake of soup negatively correlates with the body mass index (BMI), suggesting that soup intake reduces the risk of obesity. In this study, to clarify the association of the intake of soup and various nutrients with plasma leptin concentration, a cross-sectional study on 504 Japanese adults aged 20-76 years (103 men and 401 women) was performed. The intake of soup and various nutrients was investigated by food frequency questionnaires. Plasma leptin concentration was measured in fasting blood by radioimmunoassay. The correlation was analyzed by multiple regression analysis. The average frequency of soup intake was 7.6 times/week. The average plasma leptin concentration was 7.76 ng/ml. After adjusting the confounding factors, the frequency of soup intake has a significant inverse association with plasma leptin concentration. Among the macronutrients, only dietary fiber intake negatively correlated with plasma leptin concentration after the adjustment for potential confounding factors. These results suggest that the intakes of soup and dietary fiber were negatively correlated with plasma leptin concentration in Japanese adults. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of hemodialysis on leflunomide plasma concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaman, Jasmine M; Hackett, L Peter; Luxton, Grant; Illett, Kenneth F

    2002-01-01

    To report on the influence of hemodialysis on the disposition of leflunomide in a woman with end-stage renal disease. A 65-year-old white woman with a history of diabetes, end-stage renal disease, rheumatoid arthritis, vasculitis, and leg ulcers was admitted to the hospital with a flare in the symptoms of joint pain and vasculitis. Prior to admission, she had been treated for rheumatoid arthritis with methotrexate 7.5 mg once a week. Due to adverse effects from methotrexate and continuing painful joints, leflunomide was considered as a therapeutic alternative. A loading dose of 100 mg was followed two days later by a daily dose of 10 mg. The active metabolite of leflunomide (A771726) was measured before and after hemodialysis and between hemodialysis sessions over a period of 80 days. Pre- and post-hemodialysis concentrations were compared for 17 sessions during this time. Based on the initial measured concentrations, the leflunomide dose was increased to 20 mg/d for several weeks before being reduced to 15 mg due to elevated liver enzymes. Although renal pathways are responsible in part for excretion of A771726, the concentrations achieved in this patient at doses of 10-20 mg/d were at the low end of the range reported in the literature. It was shown that pre- and post-hemodialysis concentrations of A771726 did not differ significantly. Thus, the low concentrations of A771726 were not a result of the hemodialysis. Steady-state concentrations of A771726 in plasma were not affected by hemodialysis or renal impairment. Reduction of the dose of leflunomide in patients with chronic renal failure undergoing hemodialysis does not appear to be required.

  15. Correlation of plasma and peritoneal diasylate clomipramine concentration with hemodynamic recovery after intralipid infusion in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Martyn; Cave, Grant; Hoggett, Kerry

    2009-02-01

    Drug sequestration to an expanded plasma lipid phase has been proposed as a potential mechanism of action for lipid emulsions in lipophilic cardiotoxin overdose. The authors set out to document plasma and peritoneal diasylate clomipramine concentration after resuscitation with lipid emulsion in a rabbit model of clomipramine-induced hypotension. Twenty sedated mechanically ventilated New Zealand White rabbits were allocated to receive either 12 mL/kg 20% Intralipid or 12 mL/kg saline solution, following clomipramine infusion to 50% baseline mean arterial pressure (MAP). Hemodynamic parameters and serum clomipramine concentration were determined to 59 minutes. Peritoneal dialysis with 20% Intralipid or saline solution was evaluated for clomipramine concentration. Mean arterial pressure was greater in lipid-treated animals as assessed by repeated-measures analysis of variance (F[1,14] = 6.84; p = 0.020). Lipid infusion was associated with elevated plasma clomipramine concentration and reduced initial volume of distribution (Vd; 5.7 [+/-1.6] L/kg lipid vs. 15.9 [+/-7.2] L/kg saline; p = 0.0001). Peritoneal diasylate clomipramine concentration was greater in lipid-treated animals (366.2 [+/-186.2] microg/L lipid vs. 37.7 [+/-13.8] microg/L saline; p = 0.002). Amelioration of clomipramine-induced hypotension with lipid infusion is associated with reduced initial Vd and elevated plasma clomipramine concentration consistent with intravascular drug-lipid sequestration. Concomitant peritoneal dialysis with lipid emulsion enhances clomipramine extraction.

  16. Seminal Plasma HIV-1 RNA Concentration Is Strongly Associated with Altered Levels of Seminal Plasma Interferon-γ, Interleukin-17, and Interleukin-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Jennifer C.; Anton, Peter A.; Baldwin, Gayle Cocita; Elliott, Julie; Anisman-Posner, Deborah; Tanner, Karen; Grogan, Tristan; Elashoff, David; Sugar, Catherine; Yang, Otto O.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA level is an important determinant of the risk of HIV-1 sexual transmission. We investigated potential associations between seminal plasma cytokine levels and viral concentration in the seminal plasma of HIV-1-infected men. This was a prospective, observational study of paired blood and semen samples from 18 HIV-1 chronically infected men off antiretroviral therapy. HIV-1 RNA levels and cytokine levels in seminal plasma and blood plasma were measured and analyzed using simple linear regressions to screen for associations between cytokines and seminal plasma HIV-1 levels. Forward stepwise regression was performed to construct the final multivariate model. The median HIV-1 RNA concentrations were 4.42 log10 copies/ml (IQR 2.98, 4.70) and 2.96 log10 copies/ml (IQR 2, 4.18) in blood and seminal plasma, respectively. In stepwise multivariate linear regression analysis, blood HIV-1 RNA level (pplasma HIV-1 RNA level. After controlling for blood HIV-1 RNA level, seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA level was positively associated with interferon (IFN)-γ (p=0.03) and interleukin (IL)-17 (p=0.03) and negatively associated with IL-5 (p=0.0007) in seminal plasma. In addition to blood HIV-1 RNA level, cytokine profiles in the male genital tract are associated with HIV-1 RNA levels in semen. The Th1 and Th17 cytokines IFN-γ and IL-17 are associated with increased seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA, while the Th2 cytokine IL-5 is associated with decreased seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA. These results support the importance of genital tract immunomodulation in HIV-1 transmission. PMID:25209674

  17. Citalopram and escitalopram plasma drug and metabolite concentrations: genome-wide associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yuan; Schaid, Daniel J; Desta, Zeruesenay; Kubo, Michiaki; Batzler, Anthony J; Snyder, Karen; Mushiroda, Taisei; Kamatani, Naoyuki; Ogburn, Evan; Hall-Flavin, Daniel; Flockhart, David; Nakamura, Yusuke; Mrazek, David A; Weinshilboum, Richard M

    2014-08-01

    Citalopram (CT) and escitalopram (S-CT) are among the most widely prescribed selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors used to treat major depressive disorder (MDD). We applied a genome-wide association study to identify genetic factors that contribute to variation in plasma concentrations of CT or S-CT and their metabolites in MDD patients treated with CT or S-CT. Our genome-wide association study was performed using samples from 435 MDD patients. Linear mixed models were used to account for within-subject correlations of longitudinal measures of plasma drug/metabolite concentrations (4 and 8 weeks after the initiation of drug therapy), and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were modelled as additive allelic effects. Genome-wide significant associations were observed for S-CT concentration with SNPs in or near the CYP2C19 gene on chromosome 10 (rs1074145, P = 4.1 × 10(-9) ) and with S-didesmethylcitalopram concentration for SNPs near the CYP2D6 locus on chromosome 22 (rs1065852, P = 2.0 × 10(-16) ), supporting the important role of these cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes in biotransformation of citalopram. After adjustment for the effect of CYP2C19 functional alleles, the analyses also identified novel loci that will require future replication and functional validation. In vitro and in vivo studies have suggested that the biotransformation of CT to monodesmethylcitalopram and didesmethylcitalopram is mediated by CYP isozymes. The results of our genome-wide association study performed in MDD patients treated with CT or S-CT have confirmed those observations but also identified novel genomic loci that might play a role in variation in plasma levels of CT or its metabolites during the treatment of MDD patients with these selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  18. Effect of pregnancy on plasma phenobarbital concentrations in rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Moriyama, Masahiro; Domoto, Haruyo; Yamashita, Syoichi; Furuno, Katsushi; Oishi, Ryozo; Kawasaki, Hiromu; Gomita, Yutaka

    1995-01-01

    We examined the pharmacokinetics of phenobarbital before and during pregnancy in rats. Animals were divided into four groups: (a) control, (b) pregnant, (c) phenobarbital-treated, and (d) phenobarbital-treated pregnant groups. The increase in body weight of nonpregnant or pregnant rats was not influenced by long-term phenobarbital treatment. Plasma phenobarbital concentrations during the period of long-term phenobarbital treatment with a fixed dosage by body weight were not significantly affe...

  19. Determination of deuterium concentrations in JET plasmas from fusion reaction rate measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarvis, O.N.; Balet, B.; Cordey, J.G.; Morgan, P.D.; Sadler, G.; Belle, P. van; Conroy, S.; Elevant, T.

    1989-01-01

    The concentration of deuterium in the central regions of JET plasmas, expressed as a fraction of the electron concentration (n d /n e ), has been determined using four different methods involving neutron detection. These measurements are found to be consistent and agree within experimental errors with values deduced from Z eff measurements using visible bremsstrahlung radiation. (author) 11 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  20. Effects of acute exposure to increased plasma branched-chain amino acid concentrations on insulin-mediated plasma glucose turnover in healthy young subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everman, Sarah; Mandarino, Lawrence J; Carroll, Chad C; Katsanos, Christos S

    2015-01-01

    Plasma branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) are inversely related to insulin sensitivity of glucose metabolism in humans. However, currently, it is not known whether there is a cause-and-effect relationship between increased plasma BCAA concentrations and decreased insulin sensitivity. To determine the effects of acute exposure to increased plasma BCAA concentrations on insulin-mediated plasma glucose turnover in humans. Ten healthy subjects were randomly assigned to an experiment where insulin was infused at 40 mU/m2/min (40U) during the second half of a 6-hour intravenous infusion of a BCAA mixture (i.e., BCAA; N = 5) to stimulate plasma glucose turnover or under the same conditions without BCAA infusion (Control; N = 5). In a separate experiment, seven healthy subjects were randomly assigned to receive insulin infusion at 80 mU/m2/min (80U) in association with the above BCAA infusion (N = 4) or under the same conditions without BCAA infusion (N = 3). Plasma glucose turnover was measured prior to and during insulin infusion. Insulin infusion completely suppressed the endogenous glucose production (EGP) across all groups. The percent suppression of EGP was not different between Control and BCAA in either the 40U or 80U experiments (P > 0.05). Insulin infusion stimulated whole-body glucose disposal rate (GDR) across all groups. However, the increase (%) in GDR was not different [median (1st quartile - 3rd quartile)] between Control and BCAA in either the 40U ([199 (167-278) vs. 186 (94-308)] or 80 U ([491 (414-548) vs. 478 (409-857)] experiments (P > 0.05). Likewise, insulin stimulated the glucose metabolic clearance in all experiments (P BCAA in either of the experiments (P > 0.05). Short-term exposure of young healthy subjects to increased plasma BCAA concentrations does not alter the insulin sensitivity of glucose metabolism.

  1. Effects of acute exposure to increased plasma branched-chain amino acid concentrations on insulin-mediated plasma glucose turnover in healthy young subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Everman

    Full Text Available Plasma branched-chain amino acids (BCAA are inversely related to insulin sensitivity of glucose metabolism in humans. However, currently, it is not known whether there is a cause-and-effect relationship between increased plasma BCAA concentrations and decreased insulin sensitivity.To determine the effects of acute exposure to increased plasma BCAA concentrations on insulin-mediated plasma glucose turnover in humans.Ten healthy subjects were randomly assigned to an experiment where insulin was infused at 40 mU/m2/min (40U during the second half of a 6-hour intravenous infusion of a BCAA mixture (i.e., BCAA; N = 5 to stimulate plasma glucose turnover or under the same conditions without BCAA infusion (Control; N = 5. In a separate experiment, seven healthy subjects were randomly assigned to receive insulin infusion at 80 mU/m2/min (80U in association with the above BCAA infusion (N = 4 or under the same conditions without BCAA infusion (N = 3. Plasma glucose turnover was measured prior to and during insulin infusion.Insulin infusion completely suppressed the endogenous glucose production (EGP across all groups. The percent suppression of EGP was not different between Control and BCAA in either the 40U or 80U experiments (P > 0.05. Insulin infusion stimulated whole-body glucose disposal rate (GDR across all groups. However, the increase (% in GDR was not different [median (1st quartile - 3rd quartile] between Control and BCAA in either the 40U ([199 (167-278 vs. 186 (94-308] or 80 U ([491 (414-548 vs. 478 (409-857] experiments (P > 0.05. Likewise, insulin stimulated the glucose metabolic clearance in all experiments (P 0.05.Short-term exposure of young healthy subjects to increased plasma BCAA concentrations does not alter the insulin sensitivity of glucose metabolism.

  2. Plasma D-dimer concentration in patients with systemic sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montagnana Martina

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systemic sclerosis (SSc is an autoimmune disorder of the connective tissue characterized by widespread vascular lesions and fibrosis. Little is known so far on the activation of the hemostatic and fibrinolytic systems in SSc, and most preliminary evidences are discordant. Methods To verify whether SSc patients might display a prothrombotic condition, plasma D-dimer was assessed in 28 consecutive SSc patients and in 33 control subjects, matched for age, sex and environmental habit. Results and discussion When compared to healthy controls, geometric mean and 95% confidence interval (IC95% of plasma D-dimer were significantly increased in SSc patients (362 ng/mL, IC 95%: 361–363 ng/mL vs 229 ng/mL, IC95%: 228–231 ng/mL, p = 0.005. After stratifying SSc patients according to disease subset, no significant differences were observed between those with limited cutaneous pattern and controls, whereas patients with diffuse cutaneous pattern displayed substantially increased values. No correlation was found between plasma D-dimer concentration and age, sex, autoantibody pattern, serum creatinine, erythrosedimentation rate, nailfold videocapillaroscopic pattern and pulmonary involvement. Conclusion We demonstrated that SSc patients with diffuse subset are characterized by increased plasma D-dimer values, reflecting a potential activation of both the hemostatic and fibrinolytic cascades, which might finally predispose these patients to thrombotic complications.

  3. Nitrate-Rich Vegetables Increase Plasma Nitrate and Nitrite Concentrations and Lower Blood Pressure in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonvik, Kristin L; Nyakayiru, Jean; Pinckaers, Philippe Jm; Senden, Joan Mg; van Loon, Luc Jc; Verdijk, Lex B

    2016-05-01

    Dietary nitrate is receiving increased attention due to its reported ergogenic and cardioprotective properties. The extent to which ingestion of various nitrate-rich vegetables increases postprandial plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations and lowers blood pressure is currently unknown. We aimed to assess the impact of ingesting different nitrate-rich vegetables on subsequent plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations and resting blood pressure in healthy normotensive individuals. With the use of a semirandomized crossover design, 11 men and 7 women [mean ± SEM age: 28 ± 1 y; mean ± SEM body mass index (BMI, in kg/m(2)): 23 ± 1; exercise: 1-10 h/wk] ingested 4 different beverages, each containing 800 mg (∼12.9 mmol) nitrate: sodium nitrate (NaNO3), concentrated beetroot juice, a rocket salad beverage, and a spinach beverage. Plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations and blood pressure were determined before and up to 300 min after beverage ingestion. Data were analyzed using repeated-measures ANOVA. Plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations increased after ingestion of all 4 beverages (P nitrate concentrations were similar for all treatments (all values presented as means ± SEMs: NaNO3: 583 ± 29 μmol/L; beetroot juice: 597 ± 23 μmol/L; rocket salad beverage: 584 ± 24 μmol/L; spinach beverage: 584 ± 23 μmol/L). Peak plasma nitrite concentrations were different between treatments (NaNO3: 580 ± 58 nmol/L; beetroot juice: 557 ± 57 nmol/L; rocket salad beverage: 643 ± 63 nmol/L; spinach beverage: 980 ± 160 nmol/L; P = 0.016). When compared with baseline, systolic blood pressure declined 150 min after ingestion of beetroot juice (from 118 ± 2 to 113 ± 2 mm Hg; P nitrate-rich beetroot juice, rocket salad beverage, and spinach beverage effectively increases plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations and lowers blood pressure to a greater extent than sodium nitrate. These findings show that nitrate-rich vegetables can be used as dietary nitrate

  4. Acute phase response and plasma carotenoid concentrations in older women: findings from the nun study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boosalis, M G; Snowdon, D A; Tully, C L; Gross, M D

    1996-01-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated whether the acute phase response was associated with suppressed circulating levels of antioxidants in a population of 85 Catholic sisters (nuns) ages 77-99 y. Fasting blood was drawn to determine the presence of an acute phase response, as defined by an elevation in the serum concentration of C-reactive protein. Serum concentrations of albumin, thyroxine-binding prealbumin, zinc, copper, and fibrinogen were determined as were plasma concentrations of carotenoids and alpha tocopherol. Results showed that the presence of an acute phase response was associated with (1) an expected significant decrease in the serum concentrations of albumin (p < 0.001) and thyroxine-binding prealbumin (p < 0.001); (2) an expected significant increase in copper (p < 0.001) and fibrinogen (p = 0.003); and (3) a significant decrease in the plasma concentrations of lycopene (p = 0.03), alpha carotene (p = 0.02), beta carotene (p = 0.02), and total carotenoids (p = 0.01). The acute phase response was associated with decreased plasma levels of the antioxidants lycopene, alpha carotene, and beta carotene. This decrease in circulating antioxidants may further compromise antioxidant status and increase oxidative stress and damage in elders.

  5. Kinetic and Related Determinants of Plasma Triglyceride Concentration in Abdominal Obesity: Multicenter Tracer Kinetic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borén, Jan; Watts, Gerald F; Adiels, Martin; Söderlund, Sanni; Chan, Dick C; Hakkarainen, Antti; Lundbom, Nina; Matikainen, Niina; Kahri, Juhani; Vergès, Bruno; Barrett, P Hugh R; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta

    2015-10-01

    Patients with obesity and diabetes mellitus have increased risk of cardiovascular disease. A major cause is an atherogenic dyslipidemia related primarily to elevated plasma concentrations of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. The aim of this study was to clarify determinants of plasma triglyceride concentration. We focused on factors that predict the kinetics of very-low density lipoprotein 1 (VLDL1) triglycerides. A multicenter study using dual stable isotopes (deuterated leucine and glycerol) and multicompartmental modeling was performed to elucidate the kinetics of triglycerides and apoB in VLDL1 in 46 subjects with abdominal obesity and additional cardiometabolic risk factors. Results showed that plasma triglyceride concentrations were dependent on both the secretion rate (r=0.44, Ptriglycerides and VLDL1-apoB. Liver fat mass was independently and directly associated with secretion rates of VLDL1-triglycerides (r=0.56, Ptriglycerides (r=0.48, Ptriglyceride concentrations in abdominal obesity are determined by the kinetics of VLDL1 subspecies, catabolism being mainly dependent on apoC-III concentration and secretion on liver fat content. Reduction in liver fat and targeting apoC-III may be an effective approach for correcting triglyceride metabolism atherogenic dyslipidemia in obesity. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. Magnetic Solid-phase Extraction with Fe3O4/Molecularly Imprinted Polymers Modified by Deep Eutectic Solvents and Ionic Liquids for the Rapid Purification of Alkaloid Isomers (Theobromine and Theophylline from Green Tea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guizhen Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Different kinds of deep eutectic solvents (DES based on choline chloride (ChCl and ionic liquids (ILs based on 1-methylimidazole were used to modify Fe3O4/molecularly imprinted polymers (Fe3O4/MIPs, and the resulting materials were applied for the rapid purification of alkaloid isomers (theobromine and theophylline from green tea with magnetic solid-phase extraction (M-SPE. The M-SPE procedure was optimized using the response surface methodology (RSM to analyze the maximum conditions. The materials were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FI-IR and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM. Compared to the ILs-Fe3O4/MIPs, the DESs-Fe3O4/MIPs were developed for the stronger recognition and higher recoveries of the isomers (theophylline and theobromine from green tea, particularly DES-7-Fe3O4/MIPs. With RSM, the optimal recovery condition for theobromine and theophylline in the M-SPE were observed with ratio of methanol (80% as the washing solution, methanol/acetic acid (HAc (8:2 as the eluent at pH 3, and an eluent volume of 4 mL. The practical recoveries of theobromine and theophylline in green tea were 92.27% and 87.51%, respectively, with a corresponding actual extraction amount of 4.87 mg•g−1 and 5.07 mg•g−1. Overall, the proposed approach with the high affinity of Fe3O4/MIPs might offer a novel method for the purification of complex isomer samples.

  7. Effect of serotonin infusions on the mean plasma concentrations of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Milk samples were assayed for protein, fat and lactose constituents. The daily amounts of milk were determined throughout the experiment. Infusions of 1 ng 5HT did not change the plasma concentrations of the T3, T4 and GH throughout the experiment period. Infusions of 4 and 8 ng 5HT significantly (p<0.01) increased the ...

  8. Plasma glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, and glycerol concentrations in the postmature rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlow, A C; Roux, J F; Shapiro, M I

    1980-02-15

    Plasma cholesterol, triglycerides, glycerol, and glucose concentrations were measured in term and postmature rabbits. The data show that the term and postmature mothers have significantly higher glycemia than their fetuses. However, triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations are lower in the postmature mother than in her fetus. Postmature fetuses are characterized by very high plasma triglyceride and cholesterol concentrations. The results demonstrate that postmaturity is accompanied by maternal and fetal lipid metabolic changes related to a decrease in the transfer of maternal fatty acids through the placenta and to a diminution in fetal liver glucose utilization. The postmature fetus is then in a relative state of fasting and must rely on its own supply of fuel (glycogen and lipids) to provide cells for growth and survival. The maternal metabolic changes can possibly be explained by a decreased utilization of maternal substrates by the fetus, the placenta becoming insufficient. The close interrelationship of fetal and maternal lipid metabolism with the activity of the placenta suggests that an accurate knowledge of the metabolic changes taking place in the fetus during alteration of the maternal environment is indispensable to the understanding of the short- and long-term effects of maternal disease on the fetus.

  9. The influence of environmental variables on platelet concentration in horse platelet-rich plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinnovati, Riccardo; Romagnoli, Noemi; Gentilini, Fabio; Lambertini, Carlotta; Spadari, Alessandro

    2016-07-04

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) commonly refers to blood products which contain a higher platelet (PLT) concentration as compared to normal plasma. Autologous PRP has been shown to be safe and effective in promoting the natural processes of soft tissue healing or reconstruction in humans and horses. Variability in PLT concentration has been observed in practice between PRP preparations from different patients or from the same individual under different conditions. A change in PLT concentration could modify PRP efficacy in routine applications. The aim of this study was to test the influence of environmental, individual and agonistic variables on the PLT concentration of PRP in horses. Six healthy Standardbred mares were exposed to six different variables with a one-week washout period between variables, and PRP was subsequently obtained from each horse. The variables were time of withdrawal during the day (morning/evening), hydration status (overhydration/dehydration) treatment with anti-inflammatory drugs and training periods on a treadmill. The platelet concentration was significantly higher in horses treated with a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (P = 0.03). The leukocyte concentration increased 2-9 fold with respect to whole blood in the PRP which was obtained after exposure to all the variable considered. Environmental variation in platelet concentration should be taken into consideration during PRP preparation.

  10. Plasma concentrations resulting from florfenicol preparations given to pigs in their drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, L; Vargas, D; Ocampo, L; Sumano, H; Martinez, R; Tapia, G

    2011-09-01

    Florfenicol administered through the drinking water has been recommended as a metaphylactic antibacterial drug to control outbreaks of respiratory diseases in pigs caused by strains of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Pasteurella multocida, yet it is difficult to pinpoint in practice when the drug is given metaphylactically or therapeutically. Further, pigs are likely to reject florfenicol-medicated water, and plasma concentrations of the drug are likely to be marginal for diseases caused by Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus aureus. The reported minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values for these organisms show a breakpoint of 2 to 3 μg/mL. An experiment was conducted during September and October 2009. One hundred twenty healthy crossbred pigs (Landrace-Yorkshire), weighing 23 ± 6.2 kg, were used in this trial. They were randomly assigned to 5 groups, with 3 replicates of 8 animals/group. Two commercial preparations of florfenicol were administered through the drinking water at 2 concentrations (0.01 and 0.015%). Water intake was measured before and after medication, and plasma concentrations of florfenicol were determined by HPLC. Considerable rejection of florfenicol-medicated water was observed. However, plasma florfenicol concentrations were of a range sufficient for a methaphylaxis approach to preventing disease by bacteria, with MIC breakpoints of ≤ 0.25 μg/mL. Decreased efficacy as a metaphylactic medication should be expected for bacteria with MIC >0.25 μg/mL, considering the reported existence of bacteria resistant to florfenicol and the natural resistance of Streptococcus suis or E. coli to this drug.

  11. Plasma ATP concentration and venous oxygen content in the forearm during dynamic handgrip exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Askew Christopher D

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been proposed that adenosine triphosphate (ATP released from red blood cells (RBCs may contribute to the tight coupling between blood flow and oxygen demand in contracting skeletal muscle. To determine whether ATP may contribute to the vasodilatory response to exercise in the forearm, we measured arterialised and venous plasma ATP concentration and venous oxygen content in 10 healthy young males at rest, and at 30 and 180 seconds during dynamic handgrip exercise at 45% of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC. Results Venous plasma ATP concentration was elevated above rest after 30 seconds of exercise (P Conclusions Collectively these results indicate that ATP in the plasma originated from the muscle microcirculation, and are consistent with the notion that deoxygenation of the blood perfusing the muscle acts as a stimulus for ATP release. That ATP concentration was elevated just 30 seconds after the onset of exercise also suggests that ATP may be a contributing factor to the blood flow response in the transition from rest to steady state exercise.

  12. Chronic effects assessment and plasma concentrations of the {beta}-blocker propranolol in fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giltrow, Emma [Institute for the Environment, Brunel University, Uxbridge, Middlesex UB8 3PH (United Kingdom); Eccles, Paul D. [Institute for the Environment, Brunel University, Uxbridge, Middlesex UB8 3PH (United Kingdom); Biosciences, School of Health Sciences and Social Care, Brunel University, Uxbridge, Middlesex UB8 3PH (United Kingdom); Winter, Matthew J.; McCormack, Paul J. [AstraZeneca Safety, Health and Environment, Brixham Environmental Laboratory, Freshwater Quarry, Brixham, Devon TQ5 8BA (United Kingdom); Rand-Weaver, Mariann [Biosciences, School of Health Sciences and Social Care, Brunel University, Uxbridge, Middlesex UB8 3PH (United Kingdom); Hutchinson, Thomas H. [Natural Environmental Research Council, Plymouth Marine Laboratory, Prospect Place, The Hoe, Plymouth PL1 3DH (United Kingdom); Sumpter, John P., E-mail: john.sumpter@brunel.ac.uk [Institute for the Environment, Brunel University, Uxbridge, Middlesex UB8 3PH (United Kingdom)

    2009-11-27

    The presence of many human pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment is now a worldwide concern, yet little is known of the chronic effects that these bioactive substances may be having on aquatic organisms. Propranolol, a non-specific beta adrenoreceptor blocker ({beta}-blocker), is used to treat high blood pressure and heart disease in humans. Propranolol has been found in surface waters worldwide at concentrations ranging from 12 to 590 ng/L. To test the potential for ecologically relevant effects in fish in receiving waters, short-term (21 days) adult reproduction studies were conducted, in which fathead minnows were exposed to nominal concentrations of propranolol hydrochloride [CAS number 318-98-9] ranging from 0.001 to 10 mg/L (measured concentrations typically from 78 to 130%). Exposure of fish to 3.4 mg/L (measured) over 3 days caused 100% mortality or severe toxicity requiring euthanasia. The most sensitive endpoints from the studies were a decrease in hatchability (with regard to the number of days to hatch) and a concentration-related increase in female gonadal somatic index (GSI), giving LOEC{sup hatchability} and LOEC{sup female} {sup GSI} values of 0.1 mg/L. Concentration-related decreases in weights of male fish were also observed, with LOEC{sup m}ale wet weight value of 1.0 mg/L, and the LOEC{sup r}eproduction value was 1.0 mg/L. Collectively, these data do not suggest that propranolol was acting as a reproductive toxin. Plasma concentrations of propranolol in male fish exposed to nominal concentrations of 0.1 and 1.0 mg/L were 0.34 and 15.00 mg/L, respectively, which constitutes 436 and 1546% of measured water concentrations. These compare with predicted concentrations of 0.07 and 0.84 mg/L, and thus to a degree support the use of partition coefficient models for predicting concentrations in plasma in fish. In addition, propranolol plasma concentrations in fish exposed to water concentrations of 0.1 and 1.0 mg/L were greater than the human

  13. Chronic effects assessment and plasma concentrations of the β-blocker propranolol in fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giltrow, Emma; Eccles, Paul D.; Winter, Matthew J.; McCormack, Paul J.; Rand-Weaver, Mariann; Hutchinson, Thomas H.; Sumpter, John P.

    2009-01-01

    The presence of many human pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment is now a worldwide concern, yet little is known of the chronic effects that these bioactive substances may be having on aquatic organisms. Propranolol, a non-specific beta adrenoreceptor blocker (β-blocker), is used to treat high blood pressure and heart disease in humans. Propranolol has been found in surface waters worldwide at concentrations ranging from 12 to 590 ng/L. To test the potential for ecologically relevant effects in fish in receiving waters, short-term (21 days) adult reproduction studies were conducted, in which fathead minnows were exposed to nominal concentrations of propranolol hydrochloride [CAS number 318-98-9] ranging from 0.001 to 10 mg/L (measured concentrations typically from 78 to 130%). Exposure of fish to 3.4 mg/L (measured) over 3 days caused 100% mortality or severe toxicity requiring euthanasia. The most sensitive endpoints from the studies were a decrease in hatchability (with regard to the number of days to hatch) and a concentration-related increase in female gonadal somatic index (GSI), giving LOEC hatchability and LOEC female GSI values of 0.1 mg/L. Concentration-related decreases in weights of male fish were also observed, with LOEC m ale wet weight value of 1.0 mg/L, and the LOEC r eproduction value was 1.0 mg/L. Collectively, these data do not suggest that propranolol was acting as a reproductive toxin. Plasma concentrations of propranolol in male fish exposed to nominal concentrations of 0.1 and 1.0 mg/L were 0.34 and 15.00 mg/L, respectively, which constitutes 436 and 1546% of measured water concentrations. These compare with predicted concentrations of 0.07 and 0.84 mg/L, and thus to a degree support the use of partition coefficient models for predicting concentrations in plasma in fish. In addition, propranolol plasma concentrations in fish exposed to water concentrations of 0.1 and 1.0 mg/L were greater than the human therapeutic plasma concentration

  14. Ion mobility spectrometry as a simple and rapid method to measure the plasma propofol concentrations for intravenous anaesthesia monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Zhou, Qinghua; Jiang, Dandan; Gong, Yulei; Li, Enyou; Li, Haiyang

    2016-11-01

    The plasma propofol concentration is important information for anaesthetists to monitor and adjust the anaesthesia depth for patients during a surgery operation. In this paper, a stand-alone ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) was constructed for the rapid measurement of the plasma propofol concentrations. Without any sample pre-treatment, the plasma samples were dropped on a piece of glass microfiber paper and then introduced into the IMS cell by the thermal desorption directly. Each individual measurement could be accomplished within 1 min. For the plasma propofol concentrations from 1 to 12 μg mL-1, the IMS response was linear with a correlation coefficient R2 of 0.998, while the limit of detection was evaluated to be 0.1 μg mL-1. These measurement results did meet the clinical application requirements. Furthermore, other clinically-often-used drugs, including remifentanil, flurbiprofen and atracurium, were found no significant interference with the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the plasma propofol. The plasma propofol concentrations measured by IMS were correlated well with those measured by the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results confirmed an excellent agreement between these two methods. Finally, this method was applied to monitor the plasma propofol concentrations for a patient undergoing surgery, demonstrating its capability of anaesthesia monitoring in real clinical environments.

  15. Plasma concentrations of zonulin are elevated in obese men with fatty liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim AS

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A-Sol Kim,1,2 Hae-Jin Ko1,3 1Department of Family Medicine, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, South Korea; 2Department of Family Medicine, Kyungpook National University Chilgok Hospital, Daegu, South Korea; 3Department of Family Medicine, Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu, South Korea Purpose: Zonulin is considered as a biomarker of increased intestinal permeability. The relationship between intestinal permeability and obesity is known, and many studies have investigated the relationship between intestinal permeability and liver disease. Thus, we aimed to investigate the potential association between plasma zonulin concentrations and fatty liver in obese men. Patients and methods: A total of 140 obese men without inflammatory bowel diseases, autoimmune diseases, and severe liver diseases were included. The subjects were divided into three groups: normal, mild fatty liver, and moderate-to-severe fatty liver, according to abdominal ultrasonography findings. We subdivided the subjects into two subgroups based on the amount of alcohol consumption (appropriate drinking and hazardous drinking, and subgroup analyses were performed. Results: The mean plasma zonulin concentrations (ng/mL in the normal, mild fatty liver, and moderate-to-severe fatty liver groups were 0.618, 2.143, and 5.815, respectively (P<0.001. A multivariate multinomial logistic regression analysis revealed an odds ratio (OR of 1.77 (P=0.015 in the moderate-to-severe fatty liver group. The median plasma zonulin concentrations (ng/mL in the appropriate drinking subgroup of the fatty liver groups were 0.002, 0.500, and 6.550, respectively (P-trend<0.001, and in the hazardous drinking subgroup were 0.002, 0.590, and 5.800, respectively (P-trend=0.001. The ORs for moderate-to-severe fatty liver were 1.91 (P=0.039 in the appropriate drinking group and 1.56 (P=0.045 in the hazardous drinking group. Conclusion: Plasma zonulin concentrations were elevated

  16. Effects of total gastrectomy on plasma silicon and amino acid concentrations in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatara, Marcin R; Krupski, Witold; Szpetnar, Maria; Dąbrowski, Andrzej; Bury, Paweł; Szabelska, Anna; Charuta, Anna; Boguszewska-Czubara, Anna; Maciejewski, Ryszard; Wallner, Grzegorz

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to determine one-year effects of total gastrectomy on plasma silicon and free amino acid concentrations in patients and evaluate changes of volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) in lumbar spine. Eight patients were enrolled to the control (CTR) group. Six patients subjected to total gastrectomy (GX group) were included to the experimental group. vBMD in trabecular and cortical bone was measured in lumbar vertebrae at baseline (before surgery) and one year later using quantitative computed tomography. Plasma concentrations of silicon and free amino acids were determined at baseline and one year later using photometric method and ion-exchange chromatography. Body weights within CTR and GX groups were not different after one-year follow-up when compared to the baseline values (P > 0.05). An average annual decrease of vBMD in the trabecular bone in the gastrectomized patients reached 15.0% in lumbar spine and was significantly different in comparison to the percentage changes observed in CTR group (P = 0.02). One-year percentage change of vBMD in the cortical bone in L1 and L2 has shown significantly decreased values by 10.5 and 9.1% in the GX group when compared to the percentage change observed in the controls (P silicon was significantly lowered by 26.7% one year after the total gastrectomy when compared to the baseline value (P = 0.009). Total gastrectomy in patients has induced severe osteoporotic changes in lumbar spine within one-year period. The observed osteoporotic changes were associated with decreased plasma concentration of silicon indicating importance of exocrine and endocrine functions of stomach for silicon homeostasis maintenance. Gastrectomy-induced bone loss was not related to decreased amino acid concentration in plasma obtained from overnight fasted patients. © 2015 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  17. Phenylbutyrate reduces plasma leucine concentrations without affecting the flux of leucine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phenylbutyrate (PB) has been used as an alternative pathway to excrete nitrogen in urea cycle disorder patients for the last 20 years. PB, after oxidation to phenylacetate, is conjugated with glutamine and excreted in the urine. A reduction in the plasma concentration of branched amino acids (BCAA) ...

  18. Relationship between plasma dabigatran concentration and activated partial thromboplastin time in Japanese patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiki Shimomura

    2015-08-01

    Conclusions: There was a significant correlation between plasma dabigatran concentrations and aPTT. Additionally, in daily clinical practice in Japan, plasma dabigatran concentrations and aPTT reached a peak in the 4-h post administration range. Considering the pharmacokinetics of dabigatran, aPTT can be used as an index for risk screening for excess dabigatran concentrations in Japanese patients with NVAF.

  19. Sigma-1 receptor concentration in plasma of patients with late-life depression: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimizu H

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Hideyuki Shimizu,1 Minoru Takebayashi,2 Masayuki Tani,1 Hiroaki Tanaka,1 Bun Yamagata,1 Kenzo Kurosawa,1 Hiroki Yamada,1 Mitsugu Hachisu,3 Kazue Hisaoka-Nakashima,2 Mami Okada-Tsuchioka,2 Masaru Mimura,4 Akira Iwanami11Department of Neuropsychiatry, Showa University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Psychiatry and Institute for Clinical Research, National Hospital Organization Kure Medical Center, Kure, Japan; 3Department of Clinical Psychopharmacy, Pharmacy School, Showa University, Tokyo, Japan; 4Department of Neuropsychiatry, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, JapanBackground: Recently, the sigma-1 receptor has been shown to play a significant role in the neural transmission of mood by regulating N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. Additionally, the sigma-1 receptor has been reported to influence cognitive functions including learning and memory. In this study, we measured plasma sigma-1 receptor concentrations before and after antidepressant treatment in patients with late-life major depressive disorder (MDD and explored whether changes in depressive status are related to sigma-1 receptor concentrations.Methods: The study participants were 12 subjects with late-life MDD diagnosed according to the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. All of the participants were over 60 years old. Immediately prior to and 8 weeks after the start of treatment, sigma-1 receptor concentration and mental status, including depressive symptoms (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale; HAM-D, were measured. Treatment for depression was performed according to a developed algorithm based on the choice of treatments. We examined the association between changes in sigma-1 receptor concentration and HAM-D scores during antidepressant treatment. For the measurement of plasma sigma-1 receptor concentration, blood plasma samples were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Western

  20. Plasma corticosterone and thyroxine concentrations during chronic ingestion of crude oil in mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, B.A.; Eastin, W.C.

    1981-01-01

    1. Blood samples were collected from mallard ducks after 6, 12, and 18 weeks of dietary exposure to mash containing 0.015%, 0.150%, and 1.500% crude oil.2. Plasma corticosterone concentrations in ducks fed mash containing 0.150% or 1.500% Alaskan Prudhoe Bay crude oil were uniformly depressed when compared to values in untreated control birds.3. Plasma thyroxine concentration was not altered in ducks chronically exposed to crude oil.4. The observed alteration in corticosterone concentration could reduce tolerance to temperature and dietary fluctuations in the environment.

  1. Impaired psychomotor function and plasma methadone and levo-alpha-acetylmethadol (LAAM) concentrations in opioid-substitution patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcombe, David A L; Somogyi, Andrew A; Bochner, Felix; White, Jason M

    2017-06-01

    Tolerance to the psychomotor impairing effects of opioid drugs is expected to develop with repeated dosing, but may be incomplete. The relationship between plasma opioid concentration and psychomotor function in opioid-dependent patients was examined to determine whether impairment was more likely at the time of highest plasma drug concentration. Sixteen patients participating in a cross-over trial comparing methadone and LAAM completed a tracking task (OSPAT) 11 times over the dosing-interval for methadone (24-hrs) and LAAM (48-hrs). Venous blood was collected for the quantification of plasma (R)-(-)-methadone, LAAM, and nor-LAAM concentrations. The Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST) and Trail-Making Test were administered at the time of peak plasma concentration. Ten healthy controls (HCs) also participated. OSPAT scores (obtained for 15 patients) fluctuated significantly across the dosing-interval for both drugs and were lower in patients than HCs at the times of peak concentrations of (R)-(-)-methadone (1 hr: (mean difference; 95% CI) (2.13; 0.18-4.08); 2 hrs: (2.38; 0.48-4.28) postdosing) and LAAM (2 hrs: (1.81; 0.09-3.53), and 4 hrs (1.90: 0.9-3.71) postdosing). Within-participant analysis of the peak-change from baseline for OSPAT scores found that 10 of the 15 patients could be categorized as impaired on methadone and 9 on LAAM. No HCs were impaired. Patients performed worse on the DSST and Trails-A than HCs, but not on Trails-B. Results suggest that some patients receiving opioids long term may exhibit impairment at the time of highest plasma drug concentration. These patients should be made aware that their ability to undertake complex tasks may be affected. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Elevated GM3 plasma concentration in idiopathic Parkinson's disease: A lipidomic analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin B Chan

    Full Text Available Parkinson's disease (PD is a common neurodegenerative disease whose pathological hallmark is the accumulation of intracellular α-synuclein aggregates in Lewy bodies. Lipid metabolism dysregulation may play a significant role in PD pathogenesis; however, large plasma lipidomic studies in PD are lacking. In the current study, we analyzed the lipidomic profile of plasma obtained from 150 idiopathic PD patients and 100 controls, taken from the 'Spot' study at Columbia University Medical Center in New York. Our mass spectrometry based analytical panel consisted of 520 lipid species from 39 lipid subclasses including all major classes of glycerophospholipids, sphingolipids, glycerolipids and sterols. Each lipid species was analyzed using a logistic regression model. The plasma concentrations of two lipid subclasses, triglycerides and monosialodihexosylganglioside (GM3, were different between PD and control participants. GM3 ganglioside concentration had the most significant difference between PD and controls (1.531±0.037 pmol/μl versus 1.337±0.040 pmol/μl respectively; p-value = 5.96E-04; q-value = 0.048; when normalized to total lipid: p-value = 2.890E-05; q-value = 2.933E-03. Next, we used a collection of 20 GM3 and glucosylceramide (GlcCer species concentrations normalized to total lipid to perform a ROC curve analysis, and found that these lipids compare favorably with biomarkers reported in previous studies (AUC = 0.742 for males, AUC = 0.644 for females. Our results suggest that higher plasma GM3 levels are associated with PD. GM3 lies in the same glycosphingolipid metabolic pathway as GlcCer, a substrate of the enzyme glucocerebrosidase, which has been associated with PD. These findings are consistent with previous reports implicating lower glucocerebrosidase activity with PD risk.

  3. Concentrations of danofloxacin 18% solution in plasma, milk and tissues after subcutaneous injection in dairy cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mestorino, N.; Marchetti, M.L.; Turic, E.; Pesoa, J.; Errecalde, J.

    2009-01-01

    Danofloxacin is a fluoroquinolone developed for use in veterinary medicine. Its concentrations and pharmacokinetic profile in plasma, milk and tissues of lactating dairy cows were determined, and its milk withdrawal time (WT) calculated. Twenty-one dairy cows received a single subcutaneous administration of 18% mesylate danofloxacin salt (6 mg kg -1 ). Plasma and milk samples were obtained at different times until 48 h. Groups of three animals were sacrificed at different post-administration times and tissue samples (mammary gland, uterus, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, colon and mesenteric lymph nodes) obtained. Danofloxacin concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The milk WT was calculated by the Time to Safe Concentration method (Software WTM 1.4, EMEA). Danofloxacin was rapidly absorbed and its distribution from plasma to all sampled tissues and milk was extensive. Milk and tissues concentrations were several times above those found in plasma. Plasma area under the curve (AUCp) was 9.69 μg h mL -1 and its elimination half life (T β 1/2 ) was 12.53 h. AUC values for the various tissues and milk greatly exceeded AUCp. T β 1/2 from milk and tissues ranged between 4.57 and 21.91 h and the milk withdrawal time was 73.48 h. The reported results support the potential use of danofloxacin in the treatment of mastitis and other infections in milk cows with 3 days of withdrawal

  4. Laser-Based Optical System for Reactive Radical Concentration Measurements in Plasmas and Flames

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fridman, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    Defense University Research Instrumentation Program (DURIP) funding was used to assemble a multi-purpose optical diagnostic system for in-situ radical concentration measurements in plasma and combustion systems...

  5. Postprandial changes in plasma acylcarnitine concentrations as markers of fatty acid flux in overweight and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Roman, Maria A; Sweetman, Lawrence; Valdez, Maressa J; Parks, Elizabeth J

    2012-02-01

    This study determined whether reductions in postprandial plasma nonesterified fatty acid (FFA) flux would lead to reductions in plasma acylcarnitine (AC) concentrations. Plasma AC was measured by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry in the fasting state and over 6 hours after a high-fat (50% energy) meal was fed to 16 overweight and obese subjects with a wide range of insulin sensitivities. Body composition was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; insulin sensitivity by insulin-modified, frequently sampled intravenous glucose tolerance test; substrate oxidation by indirect calorimetry; blood metabolite and hormone concentrations biochemically; and fatty acid flux by using stable isotope tracers. Lean body mass and fasting fat oxidation correlated positively (r > 0.522, P 0.515, P Conditions that impact fatty acid flux contribute to the control of postprandial plasma AC concentrations. These data underscore the need for a better understanding of postprandial fatty acid oxidation and dietary fat delivery in the setting of adipose insulin resistance to determine how postprandial lipemia contributes to chronic disease risk. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. High plasma concentrations of asymmetric dimethylarginine inhibit ischemic cardioprotection in hypercholesterolemic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landim, M.B.P.; Dourado, P.M.M.; Casella-Filho, A.; Chagas, A.C.P.; Luz, P.L. da

    2013-01-01

    A low concentration of nitric oxide associated with a high concentration of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) can explain the lack of ischemic cardioprotection observed in the presence of hypercholesterolemia. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of hypercholesterolemia on ischemic pre- and postconditioning and its correlation with plasma concentrations of ADMA. Male Wistar rats (6-8 weeks old) fed a 2% cholesterol diet (n = 21) for 8 weeks were compared to controls (n = 25) and were subjected to experimental myocardial infarction and reperfusion, with ischemic pre- and postconditioning. Total cholesterol and ADMA were measured in plasma before the experimental infarct and the infarct area was quantified. Weight, total cholesterol and plasma ADMA (means ± SE; 1.20 ± 0.06, 1.27 ± 0.08 and 1.20 ± 0.08 vs 0.97 ± 0.04, 0.93 ± 0.05 and 0.97 ± 0.04 µM) were higher in animals on the hypercholesterolemic diet than in controls, respectively. Cardioprotection did not reduce infarct size in the hypercholesterolemic animals (pre: 13.55% and post: 8% compared to 7.95% observed in the group subjected only to ischemia and reperfusion), whereas infarct size was reduced in the animals on a normocholesterolemic diet (pre: 8.25% and post: 6.10% compared to 12.31%). Hypercholesterolemia elevated ADMA and eliminated the cardioprotective effects of ischemic pre- and postconditioning in rats

  7. High plasma concentrations of asymmetric dimethylarginine inhibit ischemic cardioprotection in hypercholesterolemic rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landim, M.B.P.; Dourado, P.M.M.; Casella-Filho, A.; Chagas, A.C.P.; Luz, P.L. da [Unidade de Aterosclerose, Instituto do Coração, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-05-10

    A low concentration of nitric oxide associated with a high concentration of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) can explain the lack of ischemic cardioprotection observed in the presence of hypercholesterolemia. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of hypercholesterolemia on ischemic pre- and postconditioning and its correlation with plasma concentrations of ADMA. Male Wistar rats (6-8 weeks old) fed a 2% cholesterol diet (n = 21) for 8 weeks were compared to controls (n = 25) and were subjected to experimental myocardial infarction and reperfusion, with ischemic pre- and postconditioning. Total cholesterol and ADMA were measured in plasma before the experimental infarct and the infarct area was quantified. Weight, total cholesterol and plasma ADMA (means ± SE; 1.20 ± 0.06, 1.27 ± 0.08 and 1.20 ± 0.08 vs 0.97 ± 0.04, 0.93 ± 0.05 and 0.97 ± 0.04 µM) were higher in animals on the hypercholesterolemic diet than in controls, respectively. Cardioprotection did not reduce infarct size in the hypercholesterolemic animals (pre: 13.55% and post: 8% compared to 7.95% observed in the group subjected only to ischemia and reperfusion), whereas infarct size was reduced in the animals on a normocholesterolemic diet (pre: 8.25% and post: 6.10% compared to 12.31%). Hypercholesterolemia elevated ADMA and eliminated the cardioprotective effects of ischemic pre- and postconditioning in rats.

  8. Lipid-based nutrient supplements do not affect efavirenz but lower plasma nevirapine concentrations in Ethiopian adult HIV patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdissa, A; Olsen, Mette Frahm; Yilma, D

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNSs) are increasingly used in HIV programmes in resource-limited settings. However, the possible effects of LNSs on the plasma concentrations of antiretroviral drugs have not been assessed. Here, we aimed to assess the effects of LNSs on plasma...... efavirenz and nevirapine trough concentrations in Ethiopian adult HIV-infected patients. METHODS: The effects of LNSs were studied in adults initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) in a randomized trial. Patients with body mass index (BMI) > 17 kg/m(2) (n = 282) received daily supplementation of an LNS.......9; -0.9 μg/mL; P = 0.01), respectively, compared with the group not receiving supplements. There were no differences between groups with respect to efavirenz plasma concentrations. The CYP2B6 516 G>T polymorphism was associated with a 5 μg/mL higher plasma efavirenz concentration compared with the wild...

  9. Correlation between lamivudine plasma concentrations and patient self-reported adherence to antiretroviral treatment in experienced HIV patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minzi OM

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available OM Minzi1, V Mugoyela2, LL Gustafsson31Unit of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 2Department of Medicinal Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania; 3Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, Stockholm, SwedenBackground: Adherence to antiretroviral treatment (ART is important to achieve treatment success in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-infected patients. Most HIV clinics apply the patient self-report (PSR method. However, the reliability of this method in experienced HIV patients remains questionable.Purpose: To validate the PSR method for measuring adherence to ART using lamivudine (3TC plasma concentrations in experienced HIV patients.Methods: The study was conducted in Dar Es Salaam and involved 220 patients who were receiving ART services at HIV clinics for more than 12 months. Self-reported adherence information to ART was obtained on the day of HIV clinic visit. The patients were asked to mention the number of doses missed within the past 7 days. In addition, blood samples (2 mL were collected from each patient on the same day. The blood samples were determined for 3TC plasma concentrations. The target 3TC plasma concentration as indicator concentration for adherent patients was determined in 20 patients who took their evening dose of antiretrovirals under supervision. The blood from these patients was drawn 3 hours after drug administration.Results: Complete drug levels of 3TC and self-reported adherence data was obtained in 200 treatment-experienced HIV patients. Lamivudine plasma concentrations obtained in these patients ranged between 0.02–17.36 µg/mL. The mean time from dose administration to blood drawing was 3.1 ± 1.2 hours with coefficient of variation >39%. The mean 3TC plasma concentration obtained in 20 patients who took their antiretroviral dose under supervision was

  10. Depolarization Rayleigh scattering as a means of molecular concentration determination in plasmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenbroeks, R.F.G.; Schram, D.C.; Jaegers, L.J.M.; Sanden, van de M.C.M.

    1992-01-01

    The difference in polarization for Rayleigh scattered radiation on spherically and nonspherically symmetric scattering objects has been used to obtain molecular species concentrations in plasmas of simple composition. Using a Rayleigh scattering diagnostic, the depolarized component of the scattered

  11. Statin therapy and plasma vitamin E concentrations: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Simental-Mendía, Luis E; Ferretti, Gianna; Bacchetti, Tiziana; Golledge, Jonathan

    2015-12-01

    Vitamin E is one of the most important natural antioxidants, and its plasma levels are inversely associated with the progression of atherosclerosis. There have been reports suggesting a potential negative effect of statin therapy on plasma vitamin E levels. The aim of this meta-analysis was to determine the impact of statin therapy on plasma vitamin E concentrations. PubMed-Medline, SCOPUS, Web of Science and Google Scholar databases were searched to identify randomized placebo-controlled trials evaluating the impact of statins on plasma vitamin E concentrations from inception to February 27, 2015. A systematic assessment of bias in the included studies was performed using the Cochrane criteria. A random-effects model (using DerSimonian-Laird method) and the generic inverse variance method were used to examine the effect of statins on plasma vitamin E concentrations. Heterogeneity was quantitatively assessed using the I(2) index. Sensitivity analysis was conducted using the leave-one-out method. A meta-analysis of data from 8 randomized treatment arms including 504 participants indicated a significant reduction in plasma vitamin E concentrations following statin treatment (WMD: -16.30%, 95% CI: -16.93, -15.98, p statin therapy (WMD: 29.35%, 95% CI: 24.98, 33.72, p Statin therapy was not associated with any significant alteration in LDL vitamin E content (SMD: 0.003, 95% CI: -0.90, 0.90, p = 0.995). Findings of the present study suggest that statin therapy has no negative impact on plasma vitamin E concentrations or LDL vitamin E content. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Absence of a relation between efavirenz plasma concentrations and toxicity-driven efavirenz discontinuations in the EuroSIDA study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Luin, Matthijs; Bannister, Wendy P; Mocroft, Amanda

    2009-01-01

    plasma concentrations were measured from patients in the EuroSIDA study starting EFV after 1 January 1999. Patients with a plasma concentration available were divided into those that discontinued EFV because of any toxicity or by the choice of the patient or physician within 2 years (TOXPC group...

  13. Correlation between glucose concentrations in serum, plasma, and whole blood measured by a point-of-care glucometer and serum glucose concentration measured by an automated biochemical analyzer for canine and feline blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauk, Barbara S; Drobatz, Kenneth J; Wallace, Koranda A; Hess, Rebecka S

    2015-06-15

    To investigate the correlation between glucose concentrations in serum, plasma, and whole blood measured by a point-of-care glucometer (POCG) and serum glucose concentration measured by a biochemical analyzer. Prospective clinical study. 96 blood samples from 80 dogs and 90 blood samples from 65 cats. Serum, plasma, and whole blood were obtained from each blood sample. The glucose concentrations in serum, plasma, and whole blood measured by a POCG were compared with the serum glucose concentration measured by a biochemical analyzer by use of the Lin concordance correlation coefficient (ρc) and Bland-Altman plots. For both canine and feline samples, glucose concentrations in serum and plasma measured by the POCG were more strongly correlated with the serum glucose concentration measured by the biochemical analyzer (ρc, 0.98 for both canine serum and plasma; ρc, 0.99 for both feline serum and plasma) than was that in whole blood (ρc, 0.62 for canine samples; ρc, 0.90 for feline samples). The mean difference between the glucose concentrations determined by the biochemical analyzer and the POCG in serum, plasma, and whole blood was 0.4, 0.3, and 31 mg/dL, respectively, for canine samples and 7, 6, and 32 mg/dL, respectively, for feline samples. Results indicated that use of a POCG to measure glucose concentrations in serum or plasma may increase the accuracy and reliability of diagnostic and treatment decisions associated with glucose homeostasis disorders in dogs and cats.

  14. Low plasma selenium concentrations in critically ill children: the interaction effect between inflammation and selenium deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Low plasma selenium concentrations are frequent in critically ill patients. However, whether this is due to systemic inflammation, a deficient nutritional state or both is still not clear. We aimed to determine the factors associated with low plasma selenium in critically ill children while considering the inflammatory response and nutritional status. Method A prospective study was conducted in 173 children (median age 34 months) with systemic inflammatory response who had plasma selenium concentrations assessed 48 hours after admission and on the 5th day of ICU stay. The normal reference range was 0.58 μmol/L to 1.6 μmol/L. The outcome variable was ‘low plasma selenium’, which was defined as plasma selenium values below the distribution median during this period. The main explanatory variables were age, malnutrition, sepsis, C-reactive protein (CRP), and clinical severity scores. The data were analyzed using a Binomial Generalized Estimating Equations model, which includes the correlation between admission and 5th day responses. Results Malnutrition and CRP were associated with low plasma selenium. The interaction effect between these two variables was significant. When CRP values were less than or equal to 40 mg/L, malnutrition was associated with low plasma selenium levels (odds ratio (OR) = 3.25, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.39 to 7.63, P = 0.007; OR = 2.98, 95% CI 1.26 to 7.06, P = 0.013; OR = 2.49, 95% CI 1.01 to 6.17, P = 0.049, for CRP = 10, 20 and 40 mg/L, respectively). This effect decreased as CRP concentrations increased and there was loose significance when CRP values were >40 mg/L. Similarly, the effect of CRP on low plasma selenium was significant for well-nourished patients (OR = 1.13; 95% CI 1.06 to 1.22, P selenium. This interaction should be considered when interpreting plasma concentrations as an index of selenium status in patients with systemic inflammation as well as in the decision

  15. Glucose-stimulated insulin response in pregnant sheep following acute suppression of plasma non-esterified fatty acid concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriskandarajah Nadarajah

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Elevated non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA concentrations in non-pregnant animals have been reported to decrease pancreatic responsiveness. As ovine gestation advances, maternal insulin concentrations fall and NEFA concentrations increase. Experiments were designed to examine if the pregnancy-associated rise in NEFA concentration is associated with a reduced pancreatic sensitivity to glucose in vivo. We investigated the possible relationship of NEFA concentrations in regulating maternal insulin concentrations during ovine pregnancy at three physiological states, non-pregnant, non-lactating (NPNL, 105 and 135 days gestational age (dGA, term 147+/- 3 days. Methods The plasma concentrations of insulin, growth hormone (GH and ovine placental lactogen (oPL were determined by double antibody radioimmunoassay. Insulin responsiveness to glucose was measured using bolus injection and hyperglycaemic clamp techniques in 15 non-pregnant, non-lactating ewes and in nine pregnant ewes at 105 dGA and near term at 135 dGA. Plasma samples were also collected for hormone determination. In addition to bolus injection glucose and insulin Area Under Curve calculations, the Mean Plasma Glucose Increment, Glucose Infusion Rate and Mean Plasma Insulin Increment and Area Under Curve were determined for the hyperglycaemic clamp procedures. Statistical analysis of data was conducted with Students t-tests, repeated measures ANOVA and 2-way ANOVA. Results Maternal growth hormone, placental lactogen and NEFA concentrations increased, while basal glucose and insulin concentrations declined with advancing gestation. At 135 dGA following bolus glucose injections, peak insulin concentrations and insulin area under curve (AUC profiles were significantly reduced in pregnant ewes compared with NPNL control ewes (p Conclusions Results suggest that despite an acute suppression of circulating NEFA concentrations during pregnancy, the associated steroids and hormones

  16. Changes in plasma concentrations of interleukin-6 and interleukin-1 receptor antagonists in response to adrenaline infusion in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, S R; Ostrowski, K.; Ullum, H

    2000-01-01

    To investigate the possible role of adrenaline in the response of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1 receptor antagonists (ra) to extreme physiological conditions such as trauma and exercise, we examined the concentrations in the plasma of these cytokines during an adrenaline infusion. Given the fact...... that HIV infected patients have elevated levels of IL-6 in plasma, 12 HIV seropositive subjects and 6 HIV seronegative control subjects received a 1-h adrenaline infusion. Baseline concentrations of IL-6 and IL-1ra were higher in the HIV patients compared with the controls (P...), being most pronounced in the untreated subgroup of HIV infected patients (n = 6). The plasma concentration of adrenaline had increased 24-fold after 15 min of adrenaline infusion. The plasma concentration of IL-6 had increased by two- to threefold after 45 min of adrenaline infusion (P

  17. Plasma leptin determination in ruminants: effect of nutritional status and body fatness on plasma leptin concentration assessed by a specific RIA in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delavaud, C; Bocquier, F; Chilliard, Y; Keisler, D H; Gertler, A; Kann, G

    2000-05-01

    A specific leptin RIA was developed to assess concentrations of leptin in ovine plasma, and was shown to be efficient with bovine and caprine plasma. A specific, high-affinity antibody was generated against recombinant ovine leptin which, when used in a competitive leptin RIA, provided valid estimates of linearity (r=+0.989-0.998), recovery (102%), repeatability (13%) and limit of sensitivity (0.83 ng/ml for 100 microl sample size). Serial dilutions of five ovine, bovine or caprine plasma samples showed good linearity and parallelism with the recombinant ovine leptin standard curve. A comparison of this RIA was made with a commercial 'multi-species' RIA kit using 56 ovine plasma samples. Major differences were found in assay sensitivity. Non-lactating, non-pregnant, ovariectomized ewes were fed a ration for 65 days which provided 90+/-9% (control; n=12) or 39+/-2% of maintenance energy requirements (underfed; n=16) in order to analyse the respective effects of body fatness (estimated by either an in vivo dilution technique or body condition scoring) and of nutritional status on plasma leptin concentration. There was a significant positive correlation between body fatness or body condition score and plasma leptin levels (r=+0.68, Pnutritional status (17%).

  18. Measurement of cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration in Saccharomyces cerevisiae induced by air cold plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaoyu, DONG

    2018-03-01

    In this study, a novel approach to measure the absolute cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]cyt) using the Ca2+ indicator fluo-3 AM was established. The parameters associated with the probe fluo-3 AM were optimized to accurately determine fluorescence intensity from the Ca2+-bound probe. Using three optimized parameters (final concentration of 6 mM probe, incubation time of 135 min, loading probe before plasma treatment), the maximum fluorescence intensity (F max = 527.8 a.u.) and the minimum fluorescence intensity (F min = 63.8 a.u.) were obtained in a saturated Ca2+ solution or a solution of lacking Ca2+. Correspondingly, the maximum [Ca2+]cyt induced by cold plasma was 1232.5 nM. Therefore, the Ca2+ indicator fluo-3 AM was successfully applied to measure the absolute [Ca2+]cyt in Saccharomyces cerevisiae stimulated by cold plasma at atmospheric air pressure.

  19. Perioperative plasma concentrations of stable nitric oxide products are predictive of cognitive dysfunction after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Iohom, G

    2012-02-03

    In this study our objectives were to determine the incidence of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) after laparoscopic cholecystectomy under sevoflurane anesthesia in patients aged >40 and <85 yr and to examine the associations between plasma concentrations of i) S-100beta protein and ii) stable nitric oxide (NO) products and POCD in this clinical setting. Neuropsychological tests were performed on 42 ASA physical status I-II patients the day before, and 4 days and 6 wk after surgery. Patient spouses (n = 13) were studied as controls. Cognitive dysfunction was defined as deficit in one or more cognitive domain(s). Serial measurements of serum concentrations of S-100beta protein and plasma concentrations of stable NO products (nitrate\\/nitrite, NOx) were performed perioperatively. Four days after surgery, new cognitive deficit was present in 16 (40%) patients and in 1 (7%) control subject (P = 0.01). Six weeks postoperatively, new cognitive deficit was present in 21 (53%) patients and 3 (23%) control subjects (P = 0.03). Compared with the "no deficit" group, patients who demonstrated a new cognitive deficit 4 days postoperatively had larger plasma NOx at each perioperative time point (P < 0.05 for each time point). Serum S-100beta protein concentrations were similar in the 2 groups. In conclusion, preoperative (and postoperative) plasma concentrations of stable NO products (but not S-100beta) are associated with early POCD. The former represents a potential biochemical predictor of POCD.

  20. Plasma concentrations of lipids and lipoproteins in newborn kids and female Baladi goats during late pregnancy and onset of lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, S A; Azab, M E

    1998-01-01

    Concentrations of blood lipids and some lipoproteins were investigated in normal female Baladi goats during late pregnancy, parturition and onset of lactation as well as in their newborn kids during the first two weeks of life. A total number of 60 herparinized blood samples was collected from does at 4, 3, 2 and 1 weeks pre-partum, day of parturition and at 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks postpartum. In addition, blood samples were also collected from their newborn kids during the first two weeks of life (day of birth, 1 and 2 weeks of age). Plasma was separated and analyzed for concentration of total lipid, total cholesterol, triacylglycerols, phospholipids, non esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and some lipoproteins as high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). The obtained results revealed that there was a significant decrease in plasma level of total lipids at one week after parturition. Plasma level of triaclyglycerols was significantly higher at 4, 3 and 2 weeks before parturition. This increase became very highly significant at one week before parturition. Meanwhile, plasma phospholipid concentrations showed a significant decrease at 3 weeks before parturition, followed by an significant increase at 2 and 3 weeks after parturition and highly significant increase at 4 weeks after parturition. The concentration of plasma NEFA showed a significant increase at 4 weeks before parturition followed by a very highly significant increase at 2 and 1 week before parturition. On the other hand plasma NEFA was non detected at 2, 3 and 4 weeks post-partum when compared with the value reported at day of parturition. Regarding plasma lipoprotein concentrations the obtained results showed that there was a significant increase in plasma HDL-C level at 2 and 3 weeks after parturition, followed by a very highly significant decrease at the fourth week post-partum. However, plasma LDL-C level showed a significant decrease at 3, 2 and 1 weeks

  1. Short-term folic acid supplementation induces variable and paradoxical changes in plasma homocyst(e)ine concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinow, M R; Duell, P B; Williams, M A; Kruger, W D; Evans, A A; Anderson, P H; Block, P C; Hess, D L; Upson, B M; Graf, E E; Irvin-Jones, A; Wang, L

    2001-01-01

    Folic acid is presently the mainstay of treatment for most subjects with elevated plasma homocyst(e)ine concentrations [Plasma or serum homocyst(e)ine, or total homocysteine, refers to the sum of the sulfhydryl amino acid homocysteine and the homocysteinyl moieties of the disulfides homocystine and homocystein-cysteine, whether free or bound to plasma proteins.] Changes in homocyst(e)ine in response to folic acid supplementation are characterized by considerable interindividual variation. The purpose of this study was to identify factors that contribute to heterogeneity in short-term responses to folic acid supplementation. The effects of folic acid supplementation (1 or 2 mg per day) for 3 wk on plasma homocyst(e)ine concentrations were assessed in 304 men and women. Overall, folic acid supplementation increased mean plasma folate 31.5 +/- 98.0 nmol/L and decreased mean plasma homocyst(e)ine concentrations 1.2 +/- 2.4 micromol/L. There was evidence of substantial interindividual variation in the homocyst(e)ine response from -18.5 to +7.1 micromol/L, including an increase in homocyst(e)ine in 20% of subjects (mean increase 1.5 +/- 1.4 micromol/L). Basal homocyst(e)ine, age, male gender, cigarette smoking, use of multivitamins, methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase, and cystathionine beta-synthase polymorphisms accounted for 47.6% of the interindividual variability in the change in homocyst(e)ine after folic acid supplementation, but about 50% of variability in response to folic acid was not explained by the variables we studied.

  2. Evaluation of ethylcellulose and its pseudolatex (Surelease in preparation of matrix pellets of theophylline using extrusion-spheronization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Afrasiabi Garekani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: This study evaluates the effect of substitution of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC with ethylcellulose (EC on mechanical and release characteristics of theophylline pellets. Materials and Methods: The effect of addition of EC was investigated on characteristics of pellets with varying drug content prepared by extrusion-spheronization. Also the effect of type of granulating liquid (water or Surelease was investigated on characteristics of selected pellets. The pellets were characterized for particle size (sieve analysis, mechanical strength, morphology (microscopy, thermal (DSC and dissolution behaviors. Results: The exrtudability of the wet mass was reduced upon inclusion of EC so that complete replacement of MCC was not possible. Increase in EC percentage led to lower production yield and formation of pellets with larger diameter and slightly rough surfaces. Inclusion of EC also affected the mechanical properties of pellets but had negligible effect on drug release profile. The surface of selected pellets became smoother and their production yield increased upon the use of Surelease as granulating liquid. In addition the rate of drug release decreased to some extent when Surelease was used. Conclusion: Preparation of theophylline pellets with EC alone was not possible in process of extrusion-spheronization. Partial replacement of MCC with EC changed physicomechanical properties of pellets but hardly affected drug release. Although the use of Surelease as granulation liquid slightly decreased the rate of drug release, desirable matrix pellets with sustained drug release could not be produced. Despite this outcome however, these pellets could benefit from reduced coating thickness for drug release control.

  3. Methodological issues in assessing plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration in newborn infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Sina; Comeau, Kathryn; Agellon, Sherry; Vanstone, Catherine; Sharma, Atul; Jones, Glenville; L'abbé, Mary; Khamessan, Ali; Weiler, Hope; Rodd, Celia

    2014-04-01

    Although no gold standard exists, liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) is a precise and accurate method for the analysis of plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D). Immunoassays are more readily available and require small volume sampling, ideal for infant testing. The objective was to compare two commercially available immunoassays for measuring circulating 25(OH)D concentration in infant plasma against LC-MS/MS. Capillary blood samples from 103 infants were analyzed for plasma 25(OH)D using an enzyme immunoassay (EIA, Octeia, IDS Ltd.) and radioimmunoassay (RIA, DiaSorin). Plasma 25(OH)D(3), C-3 epimer of 25(OH)D(3) (3-epi-25(OH)D(3)) and 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (24,25(OH)(2)D(3)) were measured on the same samples using LC-MS/MS. To establish whether plasma 24,25(OH)(2)D(3) or 3-epi-25(OH)D(3) interferes with these immunoassay results, the zero 25(OH)D calibrator from each assay kit was spiked with increasing amounts of 24,25(OH)(2)D(3) or 3-epi-25(OH)D(3). Classifying infants below the common vitamin D status targets of 50 nmol/L and 75 nmol/L respectively, 58% and 99% fell below using the RIA, 19% and 56% with the EIA and 31% and 76% with LC-MS/MS. Compared to LC-MS/MS, both immunoassays showed poor Bland-Altman limits of agreement for 25(OH)D concentrations (RIA: limits of agreement -27 to +13%; EIA: -12 to +41%), and mountain plots (folded cumulative distribution) depicted significant skew and bias. Spiked 24,25(OH)2D3 concentrations, but not 3-epi-25(OH)D3, appeared as >100% of known values on the EIA but not on the RIA thus, suggesting that the EIA may cross-react with 24,25(OH)(2)D(3) to a greater extent than 3-epi-25(OH)D(3). Two common immunoassays resulted in very different classifications of vitamin D status possibly related to the interference of other vitamin D metabolites. Based on these data, LC-MS/MS assessment of vitamin D status is recommended in young infants (4-6 weeks of age). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights

  4. Plasma potassium concentration and content changes after banana ingestion in exercised men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kevin C

    2012-01-01

    Individuals prone to exercise-associated muscle cramps (EAMCs) are instructed to eat bananas because of their high potassium (K(+)) concentration and carbohydrate content and the perception that K(+) imbalances and fatigue contribute to the genesis of EAMCs. No data exist about the effect of bananas on plasma K(+) concentration ([K(+)](p)) or plasma glucose concentration ([glucose](p)) after exercise in the heat. To determine whether ingesting 0, 1, or 2 servings of bananas after 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous exercise in the heat alters [K(+)](p) or [glucose](p) and whether changes in [K(+)](p) result from hypotonic fluid effluxes or K(+) ion changes. Crossover study. Laboratory. Nine euhydrated men (age = 27 ± 4 years, height = 180.3 ± 8.4 cm, mass = 84.9 ± 26.1 kg, urine specific gravity ≤ 1.006) without EAMCs volunteered. On 3 separate days, participants completed 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous cycling (temperature = 36.4°C ± 1.1°C, relative humidity = 19.4% ± 2.5%) and then ate 0 g (0 servings), 150 g (1 serving), or 300 g (2 servings) of bananas. Blood samples were collected at 3, 5, 15, 30, and 60 minutes postingestion. The [K(+)](p), changes in plasma K(+) content, plasma volume changes, and [glucose](p). The [K(+)](p) differed between conditions at 60 minutes; 2 servings (4.6 ± 0.3 mmol/L [conventional unit = 4.6 ± 0.3 mEq/L]) was greater than 1 serving (4.5 ± 0.2 mmol/L [conventional unit = 4.5 ± 0.2 mEq/L]) and 0 servings (4.4 ± 0.3 mmol/L [conventional unit = 4.4 ± 0.3 mEq/L]) (P banana ingestion on EAMCs is unknown; however, these data suggested bananas are unlikely to relieve EAMCs by increasing extracellular [K(+)] or [glucose](p). The increases in [K(+)](p) were marginal and within normal clinical values. The changes in [K(+)](p), plasma K(+) content, and [glucose](p) do not occur quickly enough to treat acute EAMCs, especially if they develop near the end of competition.

  5. Influence of storage conditions on in vitro stability of atrial natriuretic peptide and of anesthesia on plasma atrial natriuretic peptide concentration in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heishima, Yasuhiro; Hori, Yasutomo; Chikazawa, Seishiro; Kanai, Kazutaka; Hoshi, Fumio; Itoh, Naoyuki

    2016-08-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the in vitro stability of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) in plasma samples under various storage conditions and the influence of anesthesia on plasma ANP concentration in cats. ANIMALS 1 cat with congestive heart failure and 5 healthy adult mixed-breed cats. PROCEDURES A plasma sample from the cat with heart failure was serially diluted, and dilutional parallelism of ANP concentration was evaluated. Plasma samples containing aprotinin or serum samples from the 5 healthy cats were kept at room temperature (27°C) for ≤ 12 hours. Plasma samples from the same healthy cats were stored at -70°, -20°, or 4°C for ≤ 14 days. Plasma samples were obtained from the healthy cats before and during isoflurane anesthesia. Plasma ANP concentrations were measured at a commercial laboratory by use of a human ANP chemiluminescence assay. RESULTS Intra- and interassay coefficients of variation were 1.5% and 2.5%, respectively, and dilutional parallelism was established. Although ANP concentration decreased by 82.4 ± 13.6% (mean ± SD) after sample storage for 12 hours at room temperature, this decrease was prevented by aprotinin. Plasma ANP concentrations were stable for 7 days at -20°C and for 14 days at -70°C. However, concentrations decreased markedly to 57.6 ± 6.9% at -20°C and to 18.0 ± 3.0% at 4°C after 14 days. Plasma ANP concentration decreased significantly in cats during anesthesia and was correlated with blood pressure. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that aprotinin should be added routinely in preparation of plasma samples from cats for measurement of ANP concentration, and those samples, if stored, should be frozen immediately at ≤ -20°C. General anesthesia or systemic blood pressure may affect plasma ANP concentration in cats.

  6. Concentration of vanadium in crude oil and water using inductively-coupled plasma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, Y.M.; Hassan, M.A.; Junkin, K.; Mahat, R.H.; Raphie, B.

    1991-01-01

    Vanadium is a trace element that is usually associated to crude oil and its products. In this study the concentration of vanadium in a few samples of local crude oil, sea and river water were determined using inductively-coupled plasma spectrometry (ICP). It is hoped that the concentration of vanadium in water can be used to indicate the possible extent of oil contamination

  7. Plasma urea nitrogen and progesterone concentrations and follicular dynamics in ewes fed proteins of different degradability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Bianchi Lazarin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of overfeeding with protein of different degradability on body condition, plasma urea nitrogen and progesterone concentrations, ovulation number and follicular dynamics were assessed in Santa Ines ewes. Twelve ewes were assigned to a randomized block design according to body weight and received overfeeding with soybean meal or with corn gluten meal or maintenance diet for 28 days before ovulation and during the next estrous cycle. Blood samples were taken on days 7, 14, 21, and 28 after the beginning of treatments for analysis of plasma urea nitrogen and on days 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 into the estrous cycle for analysis of plasma urea nitrogen and progesterone. Follicular dynamics was monitored daily by ultrasound during one estrous cycle. Dry matter and crude protein intake, weight gain, plasma urea nitrogen concentration before ovulation, number of ovulations, diameter of the largest follicle of the 1st and of the 2nd waves and the growth rate of the largest follicle of the 1st wave were higher in the ewes that received overfeeding. The growth rate of the largest follicle of the 3rd wave was higher in the ewes fed maintenance diet. The back fat thickness, plasma urea nitrogen before ovulation and progesterone concentrations, diameter of the largest follicle of the 2nd wave and growth rate of the largest follicle of the 3rd wave were higher in ewes that received overfeeding with soybean meal. The growth rate of the largest follicle of the 1st wave was higher in ewes that received overfeeding with corn gluten meal. Overfeeding with protein-rich feeds may increase the ovulation number and with soybean meal, it may be effective in increasing plasma progesterone concentration in ewes.

  8. Decreased coenzyme Q10 concentration in plasma of children with cystic fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudshoorn, J.H.; Lecluse, A.L.Y.; Berg, R. van den; Vaes, W.H.J.; Laag, J. van der; Houwen, R.H.J.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is an effective lipophilic antioxidant and protects against lipid peroxidation by scavenging radicals. Patients with cystic fibrosis generally have fat malabsorption; thus, we hypothesized that overall plasma CoQ10 concentration in pediatric patients with cystic

  9. Binding of caffeine, theophylline, and theobromine with human serum albumin: A spectroscopic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-Mei; Chen, Ting-Ting; Zhou, Qiu-Hua; Wang, Yan-Qing

    2009-12-01

    The interaction between three purine alkaloids (caffeine, theophylline, and theobromine) and human serum albumin (HSA) was investigated using UV/vis absorption, circular dichroism (CD), fluorescence, synchronous fluorescence, and three-dimensional fluorescence spectra techniques. The results revealed that three alkaloids caused the fluorescence quenching of HSA by the formation of alkaloid-HSA complex. The binding site number n and apparent binding constant KA, corresponding thermodynamic parameters the free energy change (Δ G), enthalpy change (Δ H), and entropy change (Δ S) at different temperatures were calculated. The hydrophobic interaction plays a major role in stabilizing the complex. The distance r between donor (HSA) and acceptor (alkaloids) was obtained according to fluorescence resonance energy transfer. The effect of alkaloids on the conformation of HSA was analyzed using circular dichroism (CD), UV/vis absorption, synchronous fluorescence and three-dimensional fluorescence spectra techniques.

  10. Plasma L-tryptophan concentration in major depressive disorder: new data and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Shintaro; Fujii, Takashi; Koga, Norie; Hori, Hiroaki; Teraishi, Toshiya; Hattori, Kotaro; Noda, Takamasa; Higuchi, Teruhiko; Motohashi, Nobutaka; Kunugi, Hiroshi

    2014-09-01

    Tryptophan, an essential amino acid, is the precursor to serotonin and is metabolized mainly by the kynurenine pathway. Both serotonin and kynurenine have been implicated in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). However, plasma tryptophan concentration in patients with MDD has not unequivocally been reported to be decreased, which prompted us to perform a meta-analysis on previous studies and our own data. We searched the PubMed database for case-control studies published until August 31, 2013, using the search terms plasma AND tryptophan AND synonyms for MDD. An additional search was performed for the term amino acid instead of tryptophan. We obtained our own data in 66 patients with MDD (DSM-IV) and 82 controls who were recruited from March 2011 to July 2012. The majority of the patients were medicated (N = 53). Total plasma tryptophan concentrations were measured by the liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry method. We scrutinized 160 studies for eligibility. Original articles that were written in English and documented plasma tryptophan values in patients and controls were selected. We included 24 studies from the literature and our own data in the meta-analysis, which involved a total of 744 patients and 793 controls. Data on unmedicated patients (N = 156) and their comparison subjects (N = 203) were also extracted. To see the possible correlation between tryptophan concentrations and depression severity, meta-regression analysis was performed for 10 studies with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale 17-item version score. In our case-control study, mean (SD) plasma tryptophan level was significantly decreased in the MDD patients versus the controls (53.9 [10.9] vs 57.2 [11.3] μmol/L; P = .03). The meta-analysis after adjusting for publication bias showed a significant decrease in patients with MDD with a modest effect size (Hedges g, -0.45). However, analysis on unmedicated subjects yielded a large effect (Hedges g, -0.84; P = .00015). We

  11. The Relationship between the Plasma Triglyceride Concentration and the Severity of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Kuzkov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Triglycerides (TG may be involved in the pathogenesis of critical impairments. Objective: to study the relationship between the plasma concentration of TG, the outcome of the disease, and the markers of its severity in intensive care unit patients with early-stage acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. Subjects and methods. The prospective study included 18 patients with acute lung injury (ALI, who needed respiratory support. For further analysis, all the patients were divided into groups with TG < 1.00 mmol/l (TGlow; n=7 and >1.00 mmol/l (TGhigh; n=11. Results. A negative correlation was found between plasma TG concentration and oxygenation index (PaO2/FiO2. In the TG^jgh group, extravas-cular lung water index was significantly higher and cardiac index was lower than those in the TGlow group. Among the deceased patients, there was a 1.03 mmol/l reduction in TG concentration by day 4 of the study whereas in the survivors, TG concentration increased by an average of 0.15 mmol/l (p=0.02. Conclusion. In the patients with ALI, the plasma concentration of TG is related to oxygenation impairments and the degree of pulmonary edema, as well as with the outcome of the disease. Key words: triglycerides, acute lung injury, extravascular lung water index, pulmonary edema.

  12. Plasma concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D in meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians and vegans: results from the EPIC-Oxford study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Francesca L; Steur, Marinka; Allen, Naomi E; Appleby, Paul N; Travis, Ruth C; Key, Timothy J

    2011-02-01

    Vegetarians and vegans exclude certain food sources of vitamin D from their diet, but it is not clear to what extent this affects plasma concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D). The objective was to investigate differences in vitamin D intake and plasma concentrations of 25(OH)D among meat eaters, fish eaters, vegetarians and vegans. A cross-sectional analysis. United Kingdom. Plasma 25(OH)D concentrations were measured in 2107 white men and women (1388 meat eaters, 210 fish eaters, 420 vegetarians and eighty-nine vegans) aged 20-76 years from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Oxford cohort. Plasma 25(OH)D concentrations reflected the degree of animal product exclusion and, hence, dietary intake of vitamin D; meat eaters had the highest mean intake of vitamin D (3·1 (95 % CI 3·0, 3·2) μg/d) and mean plasma 25(OH)D concentrations (77·0 (95 % CI 75·4, 78·8) nmol/l) and vegans the lowest (0·7 (95 % CI 0·6, 0·8) μg/d and 55·8 (95 % CI 51·0, 61·0) nmol/l, respectively). The magnitude of difference in 25(OH)D concentrations between meat eaters and vegans was smaller (20 %) among those participants who had a blood sample collected during the summer months (July-September) compared with the winter months (38 %; January-March). The prevalence of low plasma concentrations of 25(OH)D (vegans than in meat and fish eaters; diet is an important determinant of plasma 25(OH)D in this British population.

  13. Childhood obesity treatment; Effects on BMI SDS, body composition, and fasting plasma lipid concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tenna Ruest Haarmark; Fonvig, Cilius Esmann; Dahl, Maria

    2018-01-01

    Objective The body mass index (BMI) standard deviation score (SDS) may not adequately reflect changes in fat mass during childhood obesity treatment. This study aimed to investigate associations between BMI SDS, body composition, and fasting plasma lipid concentrations at baseline and during......, and 80% improved their lipid concentrations. Conclusion Reductions in the degree of obesity during multidisciplinary childhood obesity treatment are accompanied by improvements in body composition and fasting plasma lipid concentrations. Even in individuals increasing their BMI SDS, body composition...... childhood obesity treatment. Methods 876 children and adolescents (498 girls) with overweight/obesity, median age 11.2 years (range 1.6±21.7), and median BMI SDS 2.8 (range 1.3±5.7) were enrolled in a multidisciplinary outpatient treatment program and followed for a median of 1.8 years (range 0...

  14. Lowering Plasma Glucose Concentration by Inhibiting Renal Sodium-Glucose Co-Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Ghani, Muhammad A; DeFronzo, Ralph A

    2017-01-01

    Maintaining normoglycaemia not only reduces the risk of diabetic microvascular complications but also corrects the metabolic abnormalities that contribute to the development and progression of hyperglycaemia (i.e. insulin resistance and beta-cell dysfunction). Progressive beta-cell failure, in addition to the multiple side effects associated with many current antihyperglycaemic agents (e.g., hypoglycaemia and weight gain) presents major obstacle to the achievement of the recommended goal of glycaemic control in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). Thus, novel effective therapies are needed for optimal glucose control in subjects with DM. Recently, specific inhibitors of renal sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) have been developed to produce glucosuria and lower the plasma glucose concentration. Because of their unique mechanism of action (which is independent of the secretion and action of insulin), these agents are effective in lowering the plasma glucose concentration in all stages of DM and can be combined with all other antidiabetic agents. In this review, we summarize the available data concerning the mechanism of action, efficacy and safety of this novel class of antidiabetic agent. PMID:24690096

  15. Effect of Addition of Concentrated Proteins and Seminal Plasma Low Molecular Weight Proteins in Freezing and Thawing of Equine Semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fagundes, B.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Difficulties in obtaining equine frozen semen with potential fertility are recognized. This study was designed to investigate the effect of seminal plasma on frozen/thawing of eight stallion semen from different breed using the following treatments: Seminal plasma with ten-fold concentrated proteins with molecular weight above 10 kDa on frozen extender; Part of seminal plasma with proteins under 10 kDa on frozen extender; Conventional freezing, using whole seminal plasma on frozen extender. Using the parameter of 30% of seminal motility post-thawing as index of good freezability, it was verified an increased percentage of stallions that presented good freezability when semen was frozen with seminal plasma containing ten-fold concentrated proteins with molecular weight above 10 kDa on frozen extender. These results, suggested the use of seminal plasma concentrated proteins from own stallion to freezing/thawing semen.

  16. Associations between plasma concentrations of PCB 28 and possible indoor exposure sources in Danish school children and mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egsmose, Emilie Lund; Bräuner, Elvira Vaclavik; Frederiksen, Marie; Mørck, Thit Aarøe; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Hansen, Pernille Winton; Nielsen, Flemming; Grandjean, Philippe; Knudsen, Lisbeth E

    2016-02-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitously present in the environment and are suspected of carcinogenic, neurotoxic and immunotoxic effects. Significantly higher plasma concentrations of the congener PCB 28 occur in children compared to adults. Exposure in schools may contribute to this difference. To determine whether increased blood plasma concentrations of PCB 28 in Danish school children and mothers are associated with living in homes or attending schools constructed in the PCB period (1959-1977). PCB 28 was analyzed in plasma samples from 116 children aged 6-11years and 143 mothers living in an urban and a rural area in Denmark and participating in the European pilot project DEMOCOPHES (Demonstration of a study to COordinate and Perform Human Biomonitoring on a European Scale). In Denmark, PCBs were used in construction in the period 1950-1977, and year of construction or renovation of the homes and schools was used as a proxy for indoor PCB exposure. Linear regression models were used to assess the association between potential PCB exposure from building materials and lipid adjusted concentrations of PCB 28 in plasma, with and without adjustment for potential confounders. Among the 116 children and 143 mothers, we were able to specify home construction period in all but 4 children and 5 mothers leaving 111 children and 138 mothers for our analyses. The median lipid adjusted plasma PCB 28 concentration was 3 (range: 1-28) ng/g lipid in the children and 2 (range: 1-8) ng/g lipid in the mothers. Children living in homes built in the PCB period had significantly higher lipid adjusted plasma PCB 28 concentrations compared to children living in homes built before or after the PCB period. Following adjustment for covariates, PCB 28 concentrations in children were 40 (95% CI: 13; 68) percent higher than concentrations of children living in homes constructed at other times. Furthermore, children attending schools built or substantially refurbished in the PCB

  17. Formulation, characterization and in vitro evaluation of theophylline-loaded Eudragit RS 100 microspheres prepared by an emulsion-solvent diffusion/evaporation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelvehgari, Mitra; Barar, Jaleh; Valizadeh, Hadi; Shadrou, Sanam; Nokhodchi, Ali

    2011-01-01

    The aim was to prepare theophylline-loaded Eudragit RS 100 microsphere to achieve sustained release pattern with relatively high production yield. To this end, microspheres were prepared by oil/oil solvent evaporation method using an acetone-methanol mixture and liquid paraffin system containing aluminum tristearate. Drug release profiles were determined at pH 1.2 and 7.4. Morphology and solid state of microspheres were examined using SEM, DSC, X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), and FT-IR. As the ratio of acetone/methanol increased during the preparation of microspheres the size of microsphere was reduced. The highest drug loading efficiency (87.21%) was obtained for the microsphere containing a high ratio of polymer to drug (6:1) and high volume of acetone. SEM studies showed that the microspheres are almost spherical with a few pores and cracks at surfaces. The FT-IR, XRPD and DSC results ruled out any chemical interaction between theophylline and Eudragit. The microspheres prepared with low ratio of polymer to drug (1:2) showed faster dissolution rate than those with high polymer to drug ratio. The ratio of polymer to drug and the volume of polymer solvent were found to be the key factors affecting the release profile which could lead to microspheres with desired release behavior.

  18. Serum creatinine and creatinine clearance for predicting plasma methotrexate concentrations after high-dose methotrexate chemotherapy for the treatment for childhood lymphoblastic malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei-qun; Zhang, Ling-yan; Chen, Xue-ying; Pan, Bin-hua; Mao, Jun-qing; Song, Hua; Li, Jing-yuang; Tang, Yong-min

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring of plasma methotrexate (MTX) concentrations allows for therapeutic adjustments in treating childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) or non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) with high-dose MTX (HDMTX). We tested the hypothesis that assessment of creatinine clearance (CrCl) and/or serum Cr may be a suitable means of monitoring plasma MTX concentrations. All children in the study had ALL or NHL, were in complete remission, and received HDMTX (3 or 5 g/m(2))+leucovorin. Plasma MTX concentrations were measured at 24, 48, and 96 h. CrCl was determined at 24 and 48 h. Correlations between 24- and 48-h plasma MTX concentrations and CrCl and serum Cr concentrations were determined. CrCl and serum Cr concentrations were compared over time between children who had delayed and non-delayed MTX elimination. A total of 105 children were included. There were significant negative correlations between CrCl at 24 and 48 h and plasma MTX concentrations at 24 (both p < 0.001) and 48 h (both p < 0.001). There were significant positive correlations between serum Cr concentrations at both 24 and 48 h and plasma MTX concentrations at 24 (both p < 0.001) and 48 h (both p < 0.001). There were 88 (30.2 %) instances of elimination delay. Children with elimination delay had significantly lower CrCl and higher Cr concentrations at 24 and 48 h compared with children without elimination delay (all p < 0.05). Our findings suggest that, with further refinement, assessment of renal function may be a useful means of monitoring plasma MTX concentrations during HDMTX for ALL and NHL.

  19. Medium-chain triglycerides in infant formulas and their relation to plasma ketone body concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, P Y; Edmond, J; Auestad, N; Rambathla, S; Benson, J; Picone, T

    1986-04-01

    A mild ketosis is known to prevail in the mother, fetus, and newborn infant during the 3rd trimester and in the early neonatal period. It has been shown that during an equivalent period in the rat ketone bodies are readily oxidized and serve as key substrates for lipogenesis in brain. Since medium-chain triglycerides are known to be ketogenic, preterm infants may benefit from dietary medium-chain triglycerides beyond the point of enhanced fat absorption. Our objective was to determine the ketogenic response in preterm infants (gestational age: 33 +/- 0.8 wk) fed three different isocaloric formulas by measuring the concentrations of 3-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate in the plasma of these infants. At the time of entrance to the study the infants were receiving 110 kcal/kg/24 h. Study I (11 infants): the infants were fed sequentially in the order; PM 60/40 (PM), Special Care Formula (SCF), and Similac 20 (SIM). In SCF greater than 50% of the fat consists of medium-chain length fatty acids while PM and SIM contain about 25%. The concentration of 3-hydroxybutyrate in plasma was significantly higher when infants were fed SCF than PM and SIM [0.14 +/- 0.03, 0.06 +/- 0.01, and 0.05 +/- 0.01 mM, respectively (p less than 0.01)]. Study II (12 infants); the infants were fed SCF, then SIM, or the reverse. The concentration of acetoacetate in plasma was 0.05 +/- 0.01 and 0.03 +/- 0.01 mM when infants were fed SCF and SIM, respectively (0.1 greater than p greater than 0.05). The concentrations of 3-hydroxybutyrate in plasma were similar to those measured in study I for the respective formulas.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Twenty-four-hour plasma tryptophan concentrations and ratios are below normal in obese subjects and are not normalized by substantial weight reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breum, Leif; Rasmussen, Michael H; Hilsted, Jannik

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Plasma tryptophan concentrations and the ratio of tryptophan to other large neutral amino acids (plasma tryptophan ratio) are reportedly low in obese subjects. The plasma tryptophan ratio predicts brain tryptophan uptake and serotonin production. If this ratio is low in obese subjects......, serotonin function may also be low. Plasma tryptophan concentrations and ratios have been measured only at single time points in obese subjects; it is not known whether low values for these 2 variables persist throughout a 24-h period. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to determine whether plasma tryptophan...... concentrations and ratios in obese subjects are lower than those in normal-weight subjects throughout a 24-h period and whether they increase when body weight is reduced. DESIGN: Plasma tryptophan concentrations and ratios were examined in obese subjects before and after weight loss and in nonobese control...

  1. The effects of therapeutic concentrations ofamisulpride andrisperidone on human plasma lipid peroxidation – invitro studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Dietrich-Muszalska

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Antipsychotics may in different ways affect the oxidative stress measured by plasma lipid peroxidation. Probably some of them may intensify the oxidative balance disturbances occurring in schizophrenia. The effects of amisulpride and risperidone on redox processes are not known sufficiently yet. Aim of the study: Establishment of the effects of amisulpride and risperidone on human plasma lipid peroxidation measured by determination of the level of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS, in vitro. Material and methods: Blood for the studies was collected from healthy volunteers (aged 24-26 years for ACD solution. Active substances of the examined drugs were dissolved in 0.01% dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO to the final concentrations (of amisulpride 578 ng/ml and risperidone 64 ng/ml and incubated with plasma for 1 and 24 hours at 37ºC. For each experiment the control samples of plasma with DMSO (without the drug were performed. The lipid peroxidation level was measured in plasma by determining the TBARS concentration, using the spectrophotometric method (acc. to Rice-Evans, 1991. The results were analysed using the following statistical methods: the paired Student t-test and ANOVA II variance analysis and NIR test (StatSoft Inc., Statistica v. 6.0. Results: The ANOVA II variance analysis indicated significant differences in the effects of both drugs on TBARS level (F=4.26; df=2, p0.05. Conclusion: Amisulpride and risperidone in concentrations corresponding to doses recommended for treatment of acute episode of schizophrenia do not induce oxidative stress measured by lipid peroxidation. Unlike risperidone, amisulpride exhibits antioxidative effects.

  2. Inverse association between plasma homocysteine concentrations and type 2 diabetes mellitus among a middle-aged and elderly Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, C; Wang, J; Wang, F; Han, X; Hu, H; Yuan, J; Miao, X; Yao, P; Wei, S; Wang, Y; Liang, Y; Chen, W; Zhang, X; Guo, H; Yang, H; Tang, Y; Zheng, D; Wu, T; He, M

    2018-03-01

    Plasma homocysteine concentrations have been reported to be associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with controversial findings. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between plasma homocysteine concentrations and T2DM. A cross-sectional study including 19,085 eligible participants derived from the Dongfeng-Tongji cohort was conducted. Plasma homocysteine concentrations were measured by Abbott Architect i2000 Automatic analyzer and T2DM was defined according to American Diabetes Association criteria. Logistic regression model was used to explore the association between plasma homocysteine concentrations and T2DM. The prevalence of T2DM was 19.0% in the whole population (mean age 62.9 years), 21.8% in males, and 17.1% in females. In the multivariable logistic regression analyses, compared with those in the lowest quintile, the OR (95% CI) of T2DM was 1.05 (0.92-1.21), 0.99 (0.86-1.14), 0.90 (0.78-1.05), and 0.77 (0.66-0.90) for quintile 2 to quintile 5 of homocysteine concentrations after adjustment for potential confounders (P for trend associated with decreased T2DM prevalence risk (OR = 0.88 per SD increase of homocysteine concentration; 95% CI: 0.84-0.93). A significant interaction between homocysteine concentrations and drinking status on T2DM prevalence risk was observed (P for interaction = 0.03). The inverse association of plasma homocysteine concentrations with T2DM prevalence risk was observed in non-drinkers but not in current drinkers. Plasma homocysteine concentrations were inversely correlated with T2DM among a middle-aged and elderly Chinese population. Copyright © 2017 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of plasma fibrinogen concentration as a diagnostic indicator of inflammation in red-eared sliders (Trachemys scripta elegans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, A Russell; Allender, Matthew C; Mitchell, Mark A; MacNeill, Amy L

    2015-01-15

    To critically evaluate plasma fibrinogen concentration as a diagnostic indicator of inflammation in red-eared sliders (Trachemys scripta elegans). Prospective induced-disease model and prospective cross-sectional study. Plasma samples from 12 purpose-bred red-eared sliders and 153 farm-raised red-eared sliders. A modification of the Jacobsson method was developed to measure fibrinogen concentration in platelet-poor plasma from red-eared sliders. Purpose-bred turtles had been inoculated with a ranavirus (n = 4) or sterile PBS solution (8) as part of another study. Farm-raised red-eared sliders were categorized as healthy (n = 138) or overtly ill (15) on the basis of physical examination findings at the time of blood sample collection. Samples from 124 of the 138 healthy red-eared sliders were used to establish a fibrinogen concentration reference interval as measured by the modified Jacobsson method. Fibrinogen concentrations in ranavirus-infected and physically ill turtles were compared with those of healthy turtles to determine whether fibrinogen concentration would be a useful diagnostic indicator of inflammation in red-eared sliders. The modified Jacobsson method was reliably used to measure fibrinogen concentration. The fibrinogen concentration reference interval from healthy reproductively active female red-eared sliders was right skewed. Fibrinogen concentration did not differ significantly between healthy red-eared sliders and ranavirus-infected or overtly ill red-eared sliders. A reference interval for red-eared slider plasma fibrinogen concentration was established and partitioned by sex to account for considerable right skewing observed for females. Fibrinogen concentration was not a useful indicator of inflammation in red-eared sliders with ranavirus infection or other overt illnesses.

  4. A twin study of the trough plasma steady-state concentration of metformin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stage, Tore B; Damkier, Per; Pedersen, Rasmus S

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the intrapair similarity in trough steady-state plasma concentrations of metformin in monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs. METHODS: We included 16 twin pairs (eight monozygotic and eight dizygotic twin pairs) for this study after contacting 524 t...

  5. Comparison of plasma, liver, and skeletal muscle carnitine concentrations in cats with idiopathic hepatic lipidosis and in healthy cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, G; Cornelius, L; Keene, B; Rakich, P; Shug, A

    1990-09-01

    Concentrations of total, free, and esterified carnitine were determined in plasma, liver, and skeletal muscle from cats with idiopathic hepatic lipidosis and compared with values from healthy cats. The mean concentrations of plasma, liver, and skeletal muscle total carnitine; plasma and skeletal muscle free carnitine; and plasma and liver esterified carnitine were greater (P less than 0.05) in cats with idiopathic hepatic lipidosis than in control cats. The mean for the ratio of free/total carnitine in plasma and liver was lower (P less than 0.05) in cats with idiopathic hepatic lipidosis than in control cats. These data suggest that carnitine deficiency does not contribute to the pathogenesis of feline idiopathic hepatic lipidosis.

  6. Influence of dietary long-chain n-3 fatty acids from menhaden fish oil on plasma concentrations of alpha-tocopherol in geriatric beagles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jean A; Tooley, Katie A; Gradin, Joseph L; Jewell, Dennis E; Wander, Rosemary C

    2002-01-01

    To determine effects of dietary n-3 fatty acids from Menhaden fish oil on plasma alpha-tocopherol concentrations in Beagles. 32 female Beagles. For 82 days, dogs were fed diets that contained 1 of 2 ratios of n-6:n-3 fatty acids (40:1 [low n-3] and 1.4:1 [high n-3]) and 1 of 3 concentrations of all-rac-alpha-tocopheryl acetate (low, 17 mg/kg of diet; medium, 101 mg/kg; and high, 447 mg/kg) in a 2 X 3 factorial study. Diets high in n-3 fatty acids significantly increased total content of n-3 fatty acids in plasma (17.0 g/100 g of fatty acids), compared with low n-3 diets (2.02 g/100 g of fatty acids). Mean +/- SEM plasma concentration of cholesterol was significantly lower in dogs consuming high n-3 diets (4.59 +/- 0.48 mmol/L), compared with dogs consuming low n-3 diets (5.71 +/- 0.48 mmol/L). A significant interaction existed between the ratio for n-6 and n-3 fatty acids and amount of alpha-tocopheryl acetate in the diet (plasma alpha-tocopherol concentration expressed on a molar basis), because the plasma concentration of alpha-toco-pherol was higher in dogs consuming low n-3 diets, compared with those consuming high n-3 diets, at the 2 higher amounts of dietary alpha-tocopheryl acetate. Plasma alpha-tocopherol concentration expressed relative to total lipid content did not reveal effects of dietary n-3 fatty acids on concentration of alpha-tocopherol. Plasma alpha-tocopherol concentration is not dependent on dietary ratio of n-6 and n-3 fatty acids when alpha-tocopherol concentration is expressed relative to the total lipid content of plasma.

  7. Altered plasma concentrations of sex hormones in cats infected by feline immunodeficiency virus or feline leukemia virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejerizo, G; Doménech, A; Illera, J-C; Silván, G; Gómez-Lucía, E

    2012-02-01

    Gender differences may affect human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in humans and may be related to fluctuations in sex hormone concentration. The different percentage of male and female cats observed to be infected by feline leukemia virus (FeLV) or feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) has been traditionally explained through the transmission mechanisms of both viruses. However, sexual hormones may also play a role in this different distribution. To study this possibility, 17β-estradiol, progesterone, testosterone, and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) concentrations were analyzed using a competitive enzyme immunoassay in the plasma of 258 cats naturally infected by FIV (FIV(+)), FeLV (FeLV(+)), or FeLV and FIV (F(-)F(+)) or negative for both viruses, including both sick and clinically healthy animals. Results indicated that the concentrations of 17β-estradiol and testosterone were significantly higher in animals infected with FIV or FeLV (P < 0.05) than in negative cats. Plasma concentrations of DHEA in cats infected by either retrovirus were lower than in negative animals (P < 0.05), and F(-)F(+) cats had significantly lower plasma values than monoinfected cats (P < 0.05). No significant differences were detected in the plasma concentration of progesterone of the four groups. No relevant differences were detected in the hormone concentrations between animal genders, except that FIV(+) females had higher DHEA concentrations than the corresponding males (P < 0.05). In addition, no differences were observed in the hormone concentrations between retrovirus-infected and noninfected animals with and without clinical signs. These results suggest that FIV and FeLV infections are associated with an important deregulation of steroids, possibly from early in the infection process, which might have decisive consequences for disease progression. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Plasma homocyst(e)ine concentrations in pregnant and nonpregnant women with controlled folate intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnette, R E; Caudill, M A; Boddie, A M; Hutson, A D; Kauwell, G P; Bailey, L B

    1998-08-01

    To assess the effects of folate intake and pregnancy on plasma total homocyst(e)ine concentrations in women during the second trimester of pregnancy compared with young, healthy nonpregnant women. The diet provided either 450 or 850 microg of folate per day. These levels are approximately the current (400 microg/day) and previous (800 microg/day) Recommended Dietary Allowances for folate in pregnant women. Folate was provided as both food folate (120 microg/day) and supplemental folic acid (either 330 or 730 microg/day) for a period of 12 weeks. Plasma homocyst(e)ine (sum of free and protein-bound homocysteine), serum folate, and erythrocyte folate concentrations were determined weekly. Homocyst(e)ine concentrations were lower in pregnant women during the second trimester of normal pregnancy than in nonpregnant controls, independent of dietary folate intake. The overall mean (+/- standard deviation) homocyst(e)ine concentration of the pregnant subjects (5.4 +/- 1.4 micromol/L) was significantly lower than that observed in the nonpregnant control group (8.7 +/- 1.7 micromol/L) (P ine concentrations remained constant throughout the 12 weeks of the investigation. The folate intakes in this investigation were adequate to maintain constant homocyst(e)ine concentrations in pregnant and nonpregnant women. The lower homocyst(e)ine concentrations observed in pregnant subjects compared with nonpregnant controls may be a physiologic response to pregnancy.

  9. Insulin and adenosine regulate the phosphatidylcholine concentration in isolated rat adipocyte plasma membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiechle, F L; Sykes, E; Artiss, J D

    1995-01-01

    Blockade of adenosine receptors by 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine or degradation of endogenous adenosine with adenosine deaminase increased the phosphatidylcholine concentration in isolated rat adipocyte plasma membranes, an effect which was suppressed by the phosphatidylethanolamine methyltransferase inhibitor, S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine, and reversed by the adenosine analogue, N6-(L-phenylisopropyl)-adenosine. For example, the addition of N6-(L-phenylisopropyl)-adenosine to adenosine deaminase pretreated plasma membranes rapidly lowered the concentration of phosphatidylcholine by 171 nmol/mg at 30 seconds compared to control. Insulin-induced stimulation of phospholipid methylation in membranes treated with 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine or adenosine deaminase was achieved only after the addition of N6-(L-phenylisopropyl)-adenosine. These results suggest that adenosine receptor occupancy inhibits phospholipid methylation, is required for insulin stimulation of phospholipid methylation, and may perhaps activate a phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase C or phospholipase D.

  10. Comparison of nevirapine plasma concentrations between lead-in and steady-state periods in Chinese HIV-infected patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huijuan Kou

    Full Text Available To investigate the potential of nevirapine 200 mg once-daily regimen and evaluate the influence of patient characteristics on nevirapine concentrations.This was a prospective, multicentre cohort study with 532 HIV-infected patients receiving nevirapine as a part of their initial antiretroviral therapy. Plasma samples were collected at trough or peak time at the end of week 2 (lead-in period and week 4, 12, 24, 36, and 48 (steady-state period, and nevirapine concentrations were determined using a validated HPLC method. Potential influencing factors associated with nevirapine concentrations were evaluated using univariate and multivariate logistic regression.A total of 2348 nevirapine plasma concentrations were collected, including 1510 trough and 838 peak values. The median nevirapine trough and peak concentration during the lead-in period were 4.26 µg/mL (IQR 3.05-5.61 and 5.07 µg/mL (IQR 3.92-6.44 respectively, which both exceeded the recommended thresholds of nevirapine plasma concentrations. Baseline hepatic function had a moderate effect on median nevirapine trough concentrations at week 2 (4.25 µg/mL v.s. 4.86 µg/mL, for ALT <1.5 × ULN and ≥ 1.5 × ULN, respectively, P = 0.045. No significant difference was observed in median nevirapine trough concentration between lead-in and steady-state periods in patients with baseline ALT and AST level ≥ 1.5 × ULN (P = 0.171, P = 0.769, which was different from the patients with ALT/AST level <1.5ULN. The median trough concentrations were significantly higher in HIV/HCV co-infected patients than those without HCV at week 48 (8.16 µg/mL v.s. 6.15 µg/mL, P = 0.004.The 200 mg once-daily regimen of nevirapine might be comparable to twice-daily in plasma pharmacokinetics in Chinese population. Hepatic function prior to nevirapine treatment and HIV/HCV coinfection were significantly associated with nevirapine concentrations.

  11. Calcium alpha-ketoglutarate administration to malnourished hemodialysis patients improves plasma arginine concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedel, E; Hampl, H; Steudle, V; Nündel, M

    1996-01-01

    Calcium alpha-ketoglutarate administration to 24 malnourished hemodialysis patients for 1 year leads to a significant increase in plasma concentrations of L-arginine from 53.6 +/- 18.3 (compared to a healthy control group: 87.5 +/- 27.3) to 71.1 +/- 15.9 mumol/l (p calcium alpha-ketoglutarate administration.

  12. The plasma carnitine concentration regulates renal OCTN2 expression and carnitine transport in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Schürch, R; Todesco, L; Novakova, K; Mevissen, M; Stieger, B; Krähenbühl, S

    2010-01-01

    Previous findings in rats and in human vegetarians suggest that the plasma carnitine concentration and/or carnitine ingestion may influence the renal reabsorption of carnitine. We tested this hypothesis in rats with secondary carnitine deficiency following treatment with N-trimethyl-hydrazine-3-propionate (THP) for 2 weeks and rats treated with excess L-carnitine for 2 weeks. Compared to untreated control rats, treatment with THP was associated with an approximately 70% decrease in plasma car...

  13. Susceptibility of Mice to Trypanosoma evansi Treated with Human Plasma Containing Different Concentrations of Apolipoprotein L-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanfa, Vinicius R.; Otto, Mateus A.; Gressler, Lucas T.; Tavares, Kaio C.S.; Lazzarotto, Cícera R.; Tonin, Alexandre A.; Miletti, Luiz C.; Duarte, Marta M.M.F.; Monteiro, Silvia G.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test the susceptibility of mice to Trypanosoma evansi treated with human plasma containing different concentrations of apolipoprotein L-1 (APOL1). For this experiment, a strain of T. evansi and human plasma (plasmas 1, 2, and 3) from 3 adult males clinically healthy were used. In vivo test used 50 mice divided in 5 groups (A to E) with 10 animals in each group. Animals of groups B to E were infected, and then treated with 0.2 ml of human plasma in the following outline: negative control (A), positive control (B), treatment with plasma 1 (C), treatment with plasma 2 (D), and treatment with plasma 3 (E). Mice treated with human plasma showed an increase in longevity of 40.9±0.3 (C), 20±9.0 (D) and 35.6±9.3 (E) days compared to the control group (B) which was 4.3±0.5 days. The number of surviving mice and free of the parasite (blood smear and PCR negative) at the end of the experiment was 90%, 0%, and 60% for groups C, D, and E, respectively. The quantification of APOL1 was performed due to the large difference in the treatments that differed in the source plasma. In plasmas 1, 2, and 3 was detected the concentration of 194, 99, and 115 mg/dl of APOL1, respectively. However, we believe that this difference in the treatment efficiency is related to the level of APOL1 in plasmas. PMID:22355213

  14. Plasma paracetamol concentrations and pharmacokinetics following rectal administration in neonates and young infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tom Giedsing; O'Brien, K; Morton, N S

    1999-01-01

    Despite widespread use in children pharmacokinetic data about paracetamol are relatively scarce, not the least in the youngest age groups. This study aimed to describe plasma paracetamol concentrations and pharmacokinetics of a single rectal paracetamol dose in neonates and young infants....

  15. Studies on the Radioimmunoassay of Human Growth Hormone - 2. The plasma HGH concentrations in the various febrile diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Woo; Lee, Hong Kyu; Koh, Chang Soon; Lee, Mun Ho

    1972-01-01

    The plasma HGH concentrations were assayed in total 138 cases by the radioimmunoassay. The groups of control, typhoid fever, epidemic hemorrhagic fever, tuberculous meningitis and other febrile diseases were studied, also were the groups of hyperthyroidism, acromegaly and hypopituitarism. Insulin stimulation test was performed in control, typhoid fever and hypopituitarism. In the control group, the plasma HGH concentration in fasting (early morning) was 2.06±1.183 mμg/ml and its upper limit was 4.5 mμg/ml. No sexual difference was observed. By the insulin stimulation, plasma HGH concentration had rised to the peak level of 24.1±15.71 mμg/ml, 60 min. after the intravenous insulin injection, then decreased to the normal level progressively. In typhoid fever, fasting HGH concentrations in febrile state and in defeverence were 2.5±1.35 mμg/ml and 2.2±3.32 mμg/ml respectively, showing no significant difference with the control group. However, the levels of individual cases ranged widely, compared with the control group. The response to the insulin stimulation test was similar to the control group. In epidemic hemorrhagic fever. the HGH concentrations in oliguric phase, in diuretic phase and in convalescence were 4.2±3.71 mμg/ml, 2.2±l.30 mμg/ml and 3.4±3.01 mμg/ml respectively. No significant differences were observe when compared to the control, but they showed wide range of plasma HGH levels. In tuberculous meningitis, the fasting HGH concentration was 2.9±51.42 mμg/ml. In the other febrile diseases, the value was 2.5±2.23 mμg/ml. In 4 cases of hypopituitarism, the fasting HGH concentration was 2.3±0.42 mμg/ml and ranged normally. However, the response to the insulin stimulation test was not observed. Very high plasma HGH concentrations were observed in acromegalic patients.

  16. Studies on the Radioimmunoassay of Human Growth Hormone - 2. The plasma HGH concentrations in the various febrile diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Young Woo; Lee, Hong Kyu; Koh, Chang Soon; Lee, Mun Ho [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1972-03-15

    The plasma HGH concentrations were assayed in total 138 cases by the radioimmunoassay. The groups of control, typhoid fever, epidemic hemorrhagic fever, tuberculous meningitis and other febrile diseases were studied, also were the groups of hyperthyroidism, acromegaly and hypopituitarism. Insulin stimulation test was performed in control, typhoid fever and hypopituitarism. In the control group, the plasma HGH concentration in fasting (early morning) was 2.06+-1.183 m{mu}g/ml and its upper limit was 4.5 m{mu}g/ml. No sexual difference was observed. By the insulin stimulation, plasma HGH concentration had rised to the peak level of 24.1+-15.71 m{mu}g/ml, 60 min. after the intravenous insulin injection, then decreased to the normal level progressively. In typhoid fever, fasting HGH concentrations in febrile state and in defeverence were 2.5+-1.35 m{mu}g/ml and 2.2+-3.32 m{mu}g/ml respectively, showing no significant difference with the control group. However, the levels of individual cases ranged widely, compared with the control group. The response to the insulin stimulation test was similar to the control group. In epidemic hemorrhagic fever. the HGH concentrations in oliguric phase, in diuretic phase and in convalescence were 4.2+-3.71 m{mu}g/ml, 2.2+-l.30 m{mu}g/ml and 3.4+-3.01 m{mu}g/ml respectively. No significant differences were observe when compared to the control, but they showed wide range of plasma HGH levels. In tuberculous meningitis, the fasting HGH concentration was 2.9+-51.42 m{mu}g/ml. In the other febrile diseases, the value was 2.5+-2.23 m{mu}g/ml. In 4 cases of hypopituitarism, the fasting HGH concentration was 2.3+-0.42 m{mu}g/ml and ranged normally. However, the response to the insulin stimulation test was not observed. Very high plasma HGH concentrations were observed in acromegalic patients.

  17. Determining potential adverse effects in marine fish exposed to pharmaceuticals and personal care products with the fish plasma model and whole-body tissue concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meador, James P.; Yeh, Andrew; Gallagher, Evan P.

    2017-01-01

    The Fish Plasma Model (FPM) was applied to water exposure and tissue concentrations in fish collected from two wastewater treatment plant impacted estuarine sites. In this study we compared predicted fish plasma concentrations to Cmax values for humans, which represents the maximum plasma concentration for the minimum therapeutic dose. The results of this study show that predictions of plasma concentrations for a variety of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) from effluent concentrations resulted in 37 compounds (54%) exceeding the response ratio (RR = Fish [Plasma]/1%Cmax total ) of 1 compared to 3 compounds (14%) detected with values generated with estuarine receiving water concentrations. When plasma concentrations were modeled from observed whole-body tissue residues, 16 compounds out of 24 detected for Chinook (67%) and 7 of 14 (50%) for sculpin resulted in an RR tissue value greater than 1, which highlights the importance of this dose metric over that using estuarine water. Because the tissue residue approach resulted in a high percentage of compounds with calculated response ratios exceeding a value of unity, we believe this is a more accurate representation for exposure in the field. Predicting plasma concentrations from tissue residues improves our ability to assess the potential for adverse effects in fish because exposure from all sources is captured. Tissue residues are also more likely to represent steady-state conditions compared to those from water exposure because of the inherent reduction in variability usually observed for field data and the time course for bioaccumulation. We also examined the RR in a toxic unit approach to highlight the importance of considering multiple compounds exhibiting a similar mechanism of action. - Highlights: • Fish Plasma Model (FPM) to assess risk based on water and fish tissue concentrations. • Plasma levels predicted with receiving water concentrations underestimate exposure for feral fish.

  18. Acetylcysteine reduces plasma homocysteine concentration and improves pulse pressure and endothelial function in patients with end-stage renal failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholze, Alexandra; Rinder, Christiane; Beige, Joachim

    2004-01-01

    Increased oxidative stress, elevated plasma homocysteine concentration, increased pulse pressure, and impaired endothelial function constitute risk factors for increased mortality in patients with end-stage renal failure.......Increased oxidative stress, elevated plasma homocysteine concentration, increased pulse pressure, and impaired endothelial function constitute risk factors for increased mortality in patients with end-stage renal failure....

  19. Plasma Progranulin Concentrations Are Increased in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes and Obesity and Correlated with Insulin Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Qu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Insulin resistance (IR is considered to be one of the most important pathogenesis of glycolipid metabolism disorders. However, the molecular mechanism responsible for IR is not fully understood. Recently, the chronic inflammation has been proposed to be involved in the pathogenesis of IR. In this study, we aim to investigate the concentrations of plasma progranulin in Chinese patients with obesity (OB and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, and its relationship to IR. Plasma progranulin concentrations were significantly higher in the T2DM patients than in the normal glucose tolerant (NGT subjects (. Within the T2DM and the NGT patients, the concentrations of progranulin were significantly higher in obese subjects than that in the normal weight subjects (225.22 ± 34.39 ng/mL versus 195.59 ± 50.47 ng/mL and 183.79 ± 61.63 ng/mL versus 148.69 ± 55.27 ng/mL, . Plasma progranulin concentrations correlated positively with weight, waist circumferences, BMI, HbA1c, TG, IL-6, FINS and HOMA-IR (, while correlated negatively with HOMA-β (. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that BMI, HbA1c, IL-6 and TG correlated independently with circulating progranulin concentrations (. These results suggested that Plasma progranulin concentrations were higher in Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes and obesity and correlated closely with glycolipid metabolism, chronic inflammation and IR.

  20. Increased concentration of vasopressin in plasma of essential fatty acid-deficient rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Harald S.; Jensen, B.; Warberg, J.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of essential fatty acid deficiency (EFA-D) on the plasma concentration of arginine-vasopressin (AVP) and the urinary AVP excretion was investigated. Weanling rats were fed a fat-free diet (FF-rats). Control rats received the same diet in which 6% by wt. of sucrose was replaced by arachis...... oil. After 4-6 weeks of feeding, urine and plasma were analysed for AVP, osmolality, sodium and potassium. When compared to control rats FF-rats had decreased urine volume (6.0 ± 1.6 ml/24 hr versus 11.7 ± 3.2 ml/24 hr), increased urine osmolality (2409 ± 691 mOsm/kg versus 1260 ± 434 m...

  1. In vitro transdermal delivery of caffeine, theobromine, theophylline and catechin from extract of Guarana, Paullinia Cupana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heard, Charles M; Johnson, Sarah; Moss, Gary; Thomas, Chris P

    2006-07-06

    Extracts of guarana (Paullinia cupana) feature as putatively stimulating ingredients in a number of foods, drinks and dietary/herbal supplements. The objective of this work was to investigate in vitro the transdermal delivery of the major pharmacologically active compounds contained in guarana extract. Saturated solutions of guarana were prepared in polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG400), propylene glycol (PG) and H(2)O at 32 degrees C. Guarana extract was also formulated in Duro-tak 2287 transdermal adhesive in a range of concentrations and the diffusional release was determined in addition to adhesive properties. Transdermal delivery across full thickness pig ear skin was investigated in vitro using Franz-type diffusion cells, with reverse-phase HPLC being used for the quantification of the permeation of theobromine (TB), theophylline (TP), (+)-catechin (C) and caffeine (CF). Based upon a combination of release and adhesive property data a patch containing 5.55 mg guarana extract cm(-2) was deemed optimal. The general trend for the delivery of the 4 analytes was: water >5.55 mg cm(-2) patch approximately PG>PEG400. For CF the greatest steady state flux was obtained from the water vehicle: 19 microg cm(-2)h(-1), with approximately 420 microg cm(-2) permeating after 24h. This was some 6x times more than from the drug-in-adhesive patch and 10x greater than PG, a well-known penetration enhancer, and 50x that of the 'regular' excipient PEG400. A water vehicle also provided the greatest delivery of TB (0.45 microg cm(-2) h(-1)), TP (0.022 microg cm(-2) h(-1)), and C (0.10 microg cm(-2) h(-1)). An inverse relationship was noted between lipophilicity and k(p) in each vehicle. The simultaneous transdermal delivery of the major actives of guarana was established, with permeation rates being highly concentration and vehicle dependent.

  2. Measurement of concentrations of whole blood levels of choline, betaine, and dimethylglycine and their relations to plasma levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awwad, Hussain Mohamad; Kirsch, Susanne H; Geisel, Juergen; Obeid, Rima

    2014-04-15

    We aimed at developing a method for the measurement of choline and its metabolites in whole blood (WB). After an extraction step, quantification of choline, betaine, and dimethylglycine (DMG) was performed using ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). Plasma and WB metabolites were evaluated in a group of 61 elderly people. The calibration curves were linear (r(2)>0.997) for all compounds. The inter- and intra-assay coefficients of variation for all analytes were 90% and the relative matrix effect were ≤4.0%. The median concentrations of choline, betaine, and DMG were 11.3, 27.8, and 5.9μmol/L in plasma and 66.6, 165, and 13.7μmol/L in WB, respectively. There were positive correlations between WB and plasma markers; for choline (r=0.42), betaine (r=0.61), and DMG (r=0.56) (all p≤0.001). The concentrations of betaine in WB and plasma were significantly higher in men than in women. The concentrations of WB choline and DMG did not differ significantly according to sex. In conclusion, we have established a reliable method for measuring choline metabolites in WB. The concentrations of WB choline, betaine, and DMG seem to reflect intracellular concentrations of these metabolites. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Oestradiol-17β plasma concentrations after intramuscular injection of oestradiol benzoate or oestradiol cypionate in llamas (Lama glama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aba Marcelo A

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Llamas (Lama glama are induced ovulators and the process of ovulation depends on dominant follicular size. In addition, a close relationship between behavioural estrus and ovulation is not registered in llamas. Therefore, the exogenous control of follicular development with hormones aims to predict the optimal time to mate. Oestradiol-17β (E2 and its esters are currently used in domestic species, including camelids, in synchronization treatments. But, in llamas, there is no reports regarding the appropriate dosages to be used and most protocols have been designed by extrapolation from those recommended for other ruminants. The aim of the present study was to characterize plasma E2 concentrations in intact female llamas following a single intramuscular (i.m. injection of two oestradiol esters: oestradiol benzoate (EB and oestradiol cypionate (ECP. Methods Twelve non pregnant and non lactating sexually mature llamas were i.m. injected on day 0 with 2.5 mg of EB (EB group, n = 6 or ECP (ECP group, n = 6. Blood samples were collected immediately before injection, at 1, 6, 12, 24 h after treatment and then daily until day 14 post injection. Changes in hormone concentrations with time were analyzed in each group by analysis of variance (ANOVA using a repeated measures (within-SS design. Plasma E2 concentrations and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC values were compared between groups by ANOVA. In all cases a Least-Significant Difference test (LSD was used to determine differences between means. Hormonal and AUC data are expressed as mean ± S.E.M. Results Peak plasma E2 concentrations were achieved earlier and were higher in EB group than in ECP group. Thereafter, E2 returned to physiological concentrations earlier in EB group (day 5 than in ECP group (day 9. Although plasma E2 profiles differed over time among groups there were no differences between them on AUC values. Conclusions The i.m. injection of a single dose

  4. Oestradiol-17β plasma concentrations after intramuscular injection of oestradiol benzoate or oestradiol cypionate in llamas (Lama glama)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Llamas (Lama glama) are induced ovulators and the process of ovulation depends on dominant follicular size. In addition, a close relationship between behavioural estrus and ovulation is not registered in llamas. Therefore, the exogenous control of follicular development with hormones aims to predict the optimal time to mate. Oestradiol-17β (E2) and its esters are currently used in domestic species, including camelids, in synchronization treatments. But, in llamas, there is no reports regarding the appropriate dosages to be used and most protocols have been designed by extrapolation from those recommended for other ruminants. The aim of the present study was to characterize plasma E2 concentrations in intact female llamas following a single intramuscular (i.m.) injection of two oestradiol esters: oestradiol benzoate (EB) and oestradiol cypionate (ECP). Methods Twelve non pregnant and non lactating sexually mature llamas were i.m. injected on day 0 with 2.5 mg of EB (EB group, n = 6) or ECP (ECP group, n = 6). Blood samples were collected immediately before injection, at 1, 6, 12, 24 h after treatment and then daily until day 14 post injection. Changes in hormone concentrations with time were analyzed in each group by analysis of variance (ANOVA) using a repeated measures (within-SS) design. Plasma E2 concentrations and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) values were compared between groups by ANOVA. In all cases a Least-Significant Difference test (LSD) was used to determine differences between means. Hormonal and AUC data are expressed as mean ± S.E.M. Results Peak plasma E2 concentrations were achieved earlier and were higher in EB group than in ECP group. Thereafter, E2 returned to physiological concentrations earlier in EB group (day 5) than in ECP group (day 9). Although plasma E2 profiles differed over time among groups there were no differences between them on AUC values. Conclusions The i.m. injection of a single dose of both

  5. Application of NMR-based metabonomics suggests a relationship between betaine absorption and elevated creatine plasma concentrations in catheterised sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yde, Christian Clement; Westerhuis, Johan A.; Bertram, Hanne Christine S.

    2012-01-01

    of these metabolites from the small intestine. The LF diet resulted in a higher betaine concentration in the blood than the two high-fibre diets (P¼0·008). This leads to higher plasma concentrations of methionine (P¼0·0028) and creatine (P¼0·020) of endogenous origin. In conclusion, the use of NMR spectroscopy...... for measuring nutrient uptake in the present study elucidated the relationship between betaine uptake and elevated creatine plasma concentrations....

  6. Low Plasma alpha-Tocopherol Concentrations and Adverse Clinical Outcomes in Diabetic Hemodialysis Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Espe, K.M.; Raila, J.; Henze, A.; Blouin, K.; Schneider, A.; Schmiedeke, D.; Krane, V.; Pilz, S.; Schweigert, F.J.; Hocher, B.; Wanner, C.; Drechsler, C.

    2013-01-01

    Background and objectives Trials with the antioxidant vitamin E have failed to show benefit in the general population. Considering the different causes of death in ESRD, this study investigated the association between plasma concentrations of α-tocopherol and specific clinical outcomes in diabetic

  7. Pill content, dose and resulting plasma concentrations of 3,4-methylendioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) in recreational 'ecstasy' users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morefield, Kate M; Keane, Michael; Felgate, Peter; White, Jason M; Irvine, Rodney J

    2011-07-01

    To improve our understanding of the pharmacology of 'ecstasy' in recreational environments; in particular, to describe the composition of ecstasy pills, patterns of ecstasy use and the relationship between dose of 3,4-methylendioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and resulting plasma concentrations. A naturalistic observational study of 56 experienced 'ecstasy' users in recreational settings in Australia. Drug use patterns (number of pills consumed, other drugs consumed). drug content of pills and resultant plasma concentrations of MDMA and related drugs were assessed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Ecstasy pills generally contained MDMA, but this was often combined with other drugs such as 3,4-ethylendioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA) and methamphetamine. The dose of MDMA per pill ranged from 0 to 245 mg and users consumed from one-half to five pills, with the total dose consumed ranging up to 280 mg. Plasma concentrations of MDMA increased with number of pills consumed and cumulative MDMA dose. Use of larger numbers of pills was associated with extended exposure to the drug. MDMA is the major active drug in ecstasy pills, but there is a high degree of variation in doses. Use of multiple pills over the course of one session is common and results in a sustained increase in MDMA plasma concentrations over a number of hours. This is likely to lead to a much greater exposure of the brain to MDMA than would be predicted from controlled single-dose pharmacokinetic studies. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  8. Associations between plasma tenofovir concentration and renal function markers in HIV-infected women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mwila Mulubwa

    2016-07-01

    Objective: To investigate the correlation between plasma tenofovir (TFV concentration and certain renal function markers in HIV-infected women on TDF antiretroviral therapy (ART.These markers were also compared to a HIV-uninfected control group. Methods: HIV-infected women (n = 30 on TDF-based ART were matched with 30 controls forage and body mass index. Renal markers analysed were estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, creatinine clearance (CrCl, serum creatinine, albuminuria, glucosuria, serum urea, serum uric acid, urine sodium and maximum tubular reabsorption of phosphate. Baseline eGFR and CrCl data were obtained retrospectively for the HIV-infected women. Plasma TFV was assayed using a validated HPLC-MS/MS method. Step wise regression, Mann–Whitney test, unpaired and paired t-tests were applied in the statistical analyses. Results: TFV concentration was independently associated with albuminuria (adjusted r2 = 0.339; p = 0.001 in HIV-infected women. In the adjusted (weight analysis, eGFR (p = 0.038,CrCl (p = 0.032 and albuminuria (p = 0.048 were significantly higher in HIV-infected compared to the uninfected women, but eGFR was abnormally high in HIV-infected women. Both eGFR (p < 0.001 and CrCl (p = 0.008 increased from baseline to follow-up in HIV-infected women. Conclusion: Plasma TFV concentration was associated with increased albuminuria in HIV infected women in this sub-study. Both eGFR and CrCl were increased in HIV-infected women from baseline. These findings should be confirmed in larger studies, and hyperfiltration in HIV-infected women warrants further investigation.

  9. Toxic plasma concentration of ropivacaine after a paravertebral block in a patient suffering from severe hypoalbuminemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calenda, Emile; Baste, Jean Marc; Hajjej, Ridha; Danielou, Eric; Peillon, Christophe

    2014-03-01

    A case of systemic ropivacaine toxicity from a continuous thoracic paravertebral block in an adult patient who received a lobectomy is presented. The catheter was placed by the surgeon. Eleven hours after the start of the infusion, the patient experienced an arrhythmia leading to death. The total venous plasma concentration of ropivacaine was high (3.2 μg/mL). Furthermore, the patient had severe hypoalbuminemia (albumin 24 g/L), which resulted in the increase of the unbound ropivacaine plasma concentration that was responsible for the toxic side effects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. THE CONTAMINANT-ASSOCIATED STRESS RESPONSE AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO PLASMA STRESS AND SEX STERIOD CONCENTRATIONS IN THE FLORIDA GAR, LEPISOSTEUS PLATYRHINCUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contaminants can alter the stress response. This study examined the stress response, defined by plasma cortisol concentration, and its relationship to plasma estradiol-17b and testosterone concentrations in adult gar collected from Lake Apopka, Orange Lake and Lake Woodruff NWR, ...

  11. Plasma phospholipid fatty acid concentration and incident coronary heart disease in men and women: the EPIC-Norfolk prospective study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kay-Tee Khaw

    Full Text Available The lack of association found in several cohort studies between dietary saturated fat and coronary heart disease (CHD risk has renewed debate over the link between dietary fats and CHD.We assessed the relationship between plasma phospholipid fatty acid (PFA concentration and incident CHD using a nested case control design within a prospective study (EPIC-Norfolk of 25,639 individuals aged 40-79 years examined in 1993-1997 and followed up to 2009. Plasma PFA concentrations were measured by gas chromatography in baseline samples retrieved from frozen storage. In 2,424 men and women with incident CHD compared with 4,930 controls alive and free of cardiovascular disease, mean follow-up 13 years, saturated PFA (14:0, 16:0,18:0 plasma concentrations were significantly associated with increased CHD risk (odds ratio [OR] 1.75, 95% CI 1.27-2.41, p<0.0001, in top compared to bottom quartiles (Q, and omega-6 polyunsaturated PFA concentrations were inversely related (OR 0.77, 0.60-0.99, p<0.05 after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, blood pressure, smoking, alcohol intake, plasma vitamin C, social class, education, and other PFAs. Monounsaturated PFA, omega-3 PFA, and trans PFA concentrations were not significantly associated with CHD. Odd chain PFA (15:0, 17:0 concentrations were significantly inversely associated with CHD (OR 0.73, 0.59-0.91, p<0.001, Q4 versus Q1. Within families of saturated PFA or polyunsaturated PFA, significantly heterogeneous relationships with CHD were observed for individual fatty acids.In this study, plasma concentrations of even chain saturated PFA were found to be positively and omega-6 polyunsaturated PFA inversely related to subsequent coronary heart disease risk. These findings are consistent with accumulating evidence suggesting a protective role of omega-6 fats substituting for saturated fats for CHD prevention.

  12. Anticipation and consumption of food each increase the concentration of neuroactive steroids in rat brain and plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisu, Maria Giuseppina; Floris, Ivan; Maciocco, Elisabetta; Serra, Mariangela; Biggio, Giovanni

    2006-09-01

    Stressful stimuli and anxiogenic drugs increase the plasma and brain concentrations of neuroactive steroids. Moreover, in rats trained to consume their daily meal during a fixed period, the anticipation of food is associated with changes in the function of various neurotransmitter systems. We have now evaluated the effects of anticipation and consumption of food in such trained rats on the plasma and brain concentrations of 3alpha-hydroxy-5alpha-pregnan-20-one (3alpha,5alpha-TH PROG) and 3alpha,21-dihydroxy-5alpha-pregnan-20-one (3alpha,5alpha-TH DOC), two potent endogenous positive modulators of type A receptors for gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). The abundance of these neuroactive steroids was increased in both the cerebral cortex and plasma of the rats during both food anticipation and consumption. In contrast, the concentration of their precursor, progesterone, was increased in the brain only during food consumption, whereas it was increased in plasma only during food anticipation. Intraperitoneal administration of the selective agonist abecarnil (0.1 mg/kg) 40 min before food presentation prevented the increase in the brain levels of 3alpha,5alpha-TH PROG and 3alpha,5alpha-TH DOC during food anticipation but not that associated with consumption. The change in emotional state associated with food anticipation may thus result in an increase in the plasma and brain levels of 3alpha,5alpha-TH PROG and 3alpha,5alpha-TH DOC in a manner sensitive to the activation of GABA(A) receptor-mediated neurotransmission. A different mechanism, insensitive to activation of such transmission, may underlie the changes in the concentrations of these neuroactive steroids during food consumption.

  13. Determination of plasma albumin concentration in healthy and diseased turtles: a comparison of protein electrophoresis and the bromcresol green dye-binding method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Kerstin; Brunnberg, Leo

    2010-03-01

    In reptile medicine, plasma chemistry analysis is widely used for the evaluation of an individual's health status. The standard method for the determination of plasma albumin concentration is protein electrophoresis combined with the determination of total protein concentration, but the bromcresol green (BCG) dye-binding method is also used. The reliability of the BCG method for the measurement of albumin concentration in reptiles is unknown. The aim of this study was to compare the plasma albumin values of turtles obtained by protein electrophoresis and the BCG method. Between March 2008 and September 2008, heparinized plasma samples from 16 clinically healthy and 10 diseased turtles of different species were collected. Plasma albumin concentrations were measured by protein electrophoresis and by the BCG method. The results of the 2 methods were compared using Passing-Bablok regression and Bland-Altman plots. Albumin concentration measured by BCG was weakly correlated with the corresponding protein electrophoretic values in all turtles (r(s)=.610, Palbumin concentration measured with the 2 different methods differed significantly in all turtles (P=.009; Wilcoxon's test) and in healthy turtles (P=.005) but not in diseased animals (P=.241). In the Bland-Altman plot a systematic error was found between the 2 methods in diseased turtles. Measurement of albumin by the BCG dye-binding method may lead to inaccurate results for plasma albumin concentration, especially in ill turtles. Therefore, for health assessment in turtles, albumin should be measured by protein electrophoresis.

  14. Inflammatory markers in dependence on the plasma concentration of 37 fatty acids after the coronary stent implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handl, Jiří; Meloun, Milan; Mužáková, Vladimíra

    2018-02-05

    Using the regression model building the relationships between the concentration of 37 fatty acids of blood plasma phospholipids of 41 patients with coronary artery disease after coronary stent implantation, the inflammatory response and oxidative stress markers were estimated. The dynamics of the inflammatory response and the oxidative stress was indicated by measuring plasma concentrations of highly sensitive C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, serum amyloid A and malondialdehyde before, 24h after stent implantation. The multiple linear regression analysis was preceded by an exploratory data analysis, principal component analysis, factor analysis and cluster analysis, which proved a hidden internal relation of 37 fatty acids. The concentration of cerotic acid (C26:0) has been positively associated with an increase of malondialdehyde concentration after stent implantation, while the concentrations of tetracosatetraenoic (C24:4 N6) and nonadecanoic (C19:0) acids were associated with decrease of lipoperoxidation. The increase of interleukin-6 during the 24h after implantation was associated with higher levels of pentadecanoic acid (C15:0) and lower levels of α-linolenic acid (C18:3 N3). Regression models found several significant fatty acids at which the strength of the parameter β for each fatty acid on selected markers of C-reactive protein, malondialdehyde, interleukin-6 and serum amyloid A was estimated. Parameter β testifies to the power of the positive or negative relationship of the fatty acid concentration on the concentration of selected markers. The influencing effect of the cerotic acid (C26:0) concentration in plasma phospholipids exhibiting parameter β=140.4 is, for example, 3.5 times higher than this effect of n-3 tetracosapentaenoic acid (C24:5 N3) with β=40.0. Composition of fatty acids in plasma phospholipids shows spectrum of fatty acids available for intercellular communication in systemic inflammatory response of organism and should affect

  15. The interaction of lysozyme with caffeine, theophylline and theobromine in solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-Mei; Tang, Bo-Ping; Wang, Yan-Qing

    2010-10-01

    The interactions of lysozyme with caffeine (Caf), theophylline (Tph) and theobromine (Tbr) were investigated using UV-Vis absorption, fluorescence, synchronous fluorescence, and three-dimensional fluorescence spectra techniques. The results revealed that Caf (Tph or Tbr) caused the fluorescence quenching of lysozyme by the formation of Caf (Tph or Tbr)-lysozyme complex. The binding constants (K(A)) and thermodynamic parameters (ΔG°, ΔH°, ΔS°) at two different temperatures, the binding locality, and the binding power were obtained. The results showed that the process of binding Caf (Tph or Tbr) to lysozyme was a spontaneous molecular interaction procedure and the hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions play a major role in stabilizing the complex; The distance r between donor (lysozyme) and acceptor (Caf, Tph or Tbr) was obtained according to fluorescence resonance energy transfer. The effect of Caf (Tph or Tbr) on the conformation of lysozyme was analyzed using synchronous fluorescence and three-dimensional fluorescence spectra techniques. The results showed that the binding of Caf (Tph or Tbr) to lysozyme induced some micro-environmental and conformational changes in lysozyme and disturbed the environment of the polypeptide of lysozyme.

  16. Concentrations of thiocyanate and goitrin in human plasma, their precursor concentrations in brassica vegetables, and associated potential risk for hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felker, Peter; Bunch, Ronald; Leung, Angela M

    2016-04-01

    Brassica vegetables are common components of the diet and have beneficial as well as potentially adverse health effects. Following enzymatic breakdown, some glucosinolates in brassica vegetables produce sulforaphane, phenethyl, and indolylic isothiocyanates that possess anticarcinogenic activity. In contrast, progoitrin and indolylic glucosinolates degrade to goitrin and thiocyanate, respectively, and may decrease thyroid hormone production. Radioiodine uptake to the thyroid is inhibited by 194 μmol of goitrin, but not by 77 μmol of goitrin. Collards, Brussels sprouts, and some Russian kale (Brassica napus) contain sufficient goitrin to potentially decrease iodine uptake by the thyroid. However, turnip tops, commercial broccoli, broccoli rabe, and kale belonging to Brassica oleracae contain less than 10 μmol of goitrin per 100-g serving and can be considered of minimal risk. Using sulforaphane plasma levels following glucoraphanin ingestion as a surrogate for thiocyanate plasma concentrations after indole glucosinolate ingestion, the maximum thiocyanate contribution from indole glucosinolate degradation is estimated to be 10 μM, which is significantly lower than background plasma thiocyanate concentrations (40-69 μM). Thiocyanate generated from consumption of indole glucosinolate can be assumed to have minimal adverse risks for thyroid health. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Effects of different concentrations of Platelet-rich Plasma and Platelet-Poor Plasma on vitality and differentiation of autologous Adipose tissue-derived stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felthaus, Oliver; Prantl, Lukas; Skaff-Schwarze, Mona; Klein, Silvan; Anker, Alexandra; Ranieri, Marco; Kuehlmann, Britta

    2017-01-01

    Autologous fat grafts and adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) can be used to treat soft tissue defects. However, the results are inconsistent and sometimes comprise tissue resorption and necrosis. This might be due to insufficient vascularization. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is a source of concentrated autologous platelets. The growth factors and cytokines released by platelets can facilitate angiogenesis. The simultaneous use of PRP might improve the regeneration potential of fat grafts. The optimal ratio has yet to be elucidated. A byproduct of PRP preparation is platelet-poor plasma (PPP). In this study we investigated the influence of different concentrations of PRP on the vitality and differentiation of ASCs. We processed whole blood with the Arthrex Angel centrifuge and isolated ASCs from the same donor. We tested the effects of different PRP and PPP concentrations on the vitality using resazurin assays and the differentiation of ASCs using oil-red staining. Both cell vitality and adipogenic differentiation increase to a concentration of 10% to 20% PRP. With a PRP concentration of 30% cell vitality and differentiation decrease. Both PRP and PPP can be used to expand ASCs without xenogeneic additives in cell culture. A PRP concentration above 20% has inhibitory effects.

  18. Radioimmunological determination of apparent free progesterone concentration in plasma samples of pregnant and non-pregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clerico, A.; Del Chicca, M.G.; Strigini, F.; Melis, G.B.; Paoletti, A.M.; Mariani, G.; Fioretti, P.

    1980-01-01

    The determination of free steroids would be preferable with respect to total hormone plasma content, since it yields more reliable information about the most biologically active form of circulating steroids. The authors report a method for the determination of apparent free progesterone concentration (AFPC) in plasma, by means of direct radioimmunoassay of dialyzed progesterone after equilibrium dialysis. (Auth.)

  19. Comparison of the effects of caffeine and other methylxanthines on [Ca2+]i in rat ventricular myocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoso, P.; O'Neill, S. C.; Dilly, K. W.; Negretti, N.; Eisner, D. A.

    1994-01-01

    1. The effects of caffeine and other methylxanthines were investigated on intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) and contraction in rat isolated ventricular myocytes. The use of the fluorescent indicator, Indo-1, allowed simultaneous measurement of [Ca2+]i and the intracellular concentration of the methylxanthines. 2. Rapid application of caffeine (10 mM) produced a transient rise of [Ca2+]i which decayed to resting levels. This was accompanied by a transient contraction which decayed to a level above baseline. The addition of theophylline also produced a transient increase of [Ca2+]i. However, following the initial transient, contraction decayed before redeveloping to a maintained level. 3. Direct measurements showed that [caffeine]i rose more quickly than did [theophylline]i. The slower rise of [theophylline]i was associated with a delay in the increase of [Ca2+]i. At lower concentrations of the methylxanthines, theophylline was less effective than caffeine at initiating Ca release. The rate of entry of theobromine was similar to that of theophylline. 4. Isocaffeine did not produce a rise of [Ca2+]i. The rate of rise of [isocaffeine]i was much slower than that of either caffeine or theophylline. 5. Measurements of the oil:water partition coefficient showed that the order of relative partitioning into oil was: caffeine > theophylline > theobromine > isocaffeine. This is similar to the order of rate of entry into the cell. 6. We conclude that many of the differences in the effects of these methylxanthines can be attributed to differences in membrane permeability due to differences in oil:water partition. PMID:8004389

  20. Measurement of caffeine and its three primary metabolites in human plasma by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS and clinical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feng; Hu, Zhe-Yi; Parker, Robert B; Laizure, S Casey

    2017-06-01

    Caffeine is a mild stimulant with significant potential for abuse, being consumed in larger doses with the widespread availability of energy drinks and by novel routes of administration such as inspired powder, oral sprays and electronic cigarettes. How these recent changes in caffeine consumption affecting caffeine disposition and abuse potential is of growing concern. In the study of caffeine disposition in humans, it is common to only measure the caffeine concentration; however, caffeine's three major metabolites (paraxanthine, theobromine and theophylline) retain central nervous system stimulant activity that may contribute to the overall pharmacological activity and toxicity. Therefore, it would be scientifically more rigorous to measure caffeine and its major metabolites in the evaluation of caffeine disposition in human subjects. Herein, we report a method for the simultaneous quantification of caffeine and its three major metabolites in human plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS). Human plasma samples were treated by simple protein precipitation and the analytes were separated using a 6 min gradient program. Precision and accuracy were well within in the 15% acceptance range. The simple sample preparation, short runtime, sensitivity and the inclusion of caffeine's major metabolites make this assay methodology optimal for the study of caffeine's pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics in human subjects. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. High-nitrate vegetable diet increases plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations and reduces blood pressure in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashworth, Ann; Mitchell, Klaus; Blackwell, Jamie R; Vanhatalo, Anni; Jones, Andrew M

    2015-10-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that green leafy vegetables, which are high in dietary nitrate, are protective against CVD such as stroke. High blood pressure (BP) is a major risk factor for stroke and inorganic nitrate has been shown to reduce BP. The objective of the present study was to test the hypothesis that diets containing high-nitrate (HN) vegetables would increase plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations and reduce BP in healthy women. A randomized, crossover trial, where participants received HN vegetables (HN diet) or avoided HN vegetables (Control diet) for 1 week. Before and after each intervention, resting BP and plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations were measured. University of Exeter, UK. Nineteen healthy women (mean age 20 (sd 2) years; mean BMI 22·5 (sd 3·8) kg/m2). The HN diet significantly increased plasma nitrate concentration (before HN diet: mean 24·4 (sd 5·6) µmol/l; after HN diet: mean 61·0 (sd 44·1) µmol/l, Pdiet: mean 98 (sd 91) nmol/l; after HN diet: mean 185 (sd 34) nmol/l, Pdiet. The HN diet significantly reduced resting systolic BP (before HN diet: mean 107 (sd 9) mmHg; after HN diet: mean 103 (sd 6) mmHg, Pdiet (before Control diet: mean 106 (sd 8) mmHg; after Control diet: mean 106 (sd 8) mmHg). Consumption of HN vegetables significantly increased plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations and reduced BP in normotensive women.

  2. Ammonia concentrations in canine whole blood, EDTA-anticoagulated whole blood, and plasma measured by use of a point-of-care ammonia meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odunayo, Adesola; Tobias, Karen M; Okafor, Chika C; Flatland, Bente

    2017-11-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the use of canine whole blood (WB) for measurement of ammonia concentration by use of a point-of-care ammonia meter and to compare results of measuring ammonia concentrations in WB, EDTA-anticoagulated WB, and plasma. ANIMALS 40 client-owned dogs. PROCEDURES A blood sample (2 mL) was obtained from each dog. One drop of WB was immediately applied to a test strip for evaluation with an ammonia meter. The remainder of the blood sample was placed in an EDTA-containing tube, and 1 drop of EDTA-anticoagulated WB was applied to a test strip. The remaining EDTA-anticoagulated WB sample was centrifuged, and the plasma was harvested and placed on ice. One drop of plasma was applied to a test strip; the remainder of the plasma sample was transported on ice and used for ammonia measurement with a reference laboratory instrument. All samples were tested within 1 hour after sample collection. Results were evaluated to detect significant differences in ammonia concentration. RESULTS Ammonia concentrations did not differ significantly between WB and EDTA-anticoagulated WB and between plasma samples measured with the meter and reference laboratory instrument. However, median ammonia concentration was significantly higher in plasma than in WB or EDTA-anti-coagulated WB. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Anticoagulant-free WB was a valid sample for measurement by use of the ammonia meter. Plasma samples had higher ammonia concentrations than did WB samples. Results for each sample type should be interpreted by use of specimen- and method-specific reference intervals.

  3. Effect of garlic on plasma lipoprotein(a) concentrations: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Serban, Corina; Ursoniu, Sorin; Banach, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    Garlic can play an essential role in the prevention of atherosclerosis, but the research addressing the effect of garlic on the concentration of lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] has not been fully demonstrated. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of garlic on plasma Lp(a) concentrations through systematic review of literature and meta-analysis of available randomized controlled trials. The literature search included SCOPUS, PubMed-Medline, ISI Web of Science, and Google Scholar databases up to March 10, 2015 to identify randomized controlled trials investigating the effect of garlic on plasma Lp(a) concentrations. Two independent reviewers extracted data on study characteristics, methods, and outcomes. Overall, the effect of garlic on plasma Lp(a) levels was reported in six trials. Meta-analysis did not suggest a significant alteration in plasma Lp(a) levels after garlic consumption (weighted mean difference [WMD] = 16.86%; 95% confidence interval, -4.59 to 38.31; P = 0.124). This result was robust in the leave-one-out sensitivity analysis. When the studies were categorized according to the duration of supplementation, there was no effect in the subgroup of trials lasting ≤12 wk (WMD = 2.01%; 95% CI, -14.67 to 18.68; P = 0.813) but a significant elevation of plasma Lp(a) concentrations was found in trials lasting >12 wk (WMD = 54.59%; 95% CI, 30.47-78.71; P meta-regression suggested an inverse association between the changes in plasma concentrations of Lp(a) and duration of supplementation (slope 1.71; 95% CI, 0.46-2.97; P = 0.007). The present meta-analysis did not suggest a significant effect of garlic supplementation on the reduction of Lp(a) levels. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C19 Genotypes on Steady-State Plasma Concentrations of Escitalopram and its Desmethyl Metabolite in Japanese Patients With Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchimine, Shoko; Ochi, Shinichiro; Tajiri, Misuzu; Suzuki, Yutaro; Sugawara, Norio; Inoue, Yoshimasa; Yasui-Furukori, Norio

    2018-06-01

    Plasma concentrations of the S-enantiomer of citalopram were different between extensive and poor CYP2C19 metabolizers in healthy subjects and depressed patients. However, most studies applied dose-corrected concentrations. Thus, we studied the effects of polymorphisms of the CYP2C19 gene on raw plasma drug concentrations in Japanese patients with depression. Subjects in this study consisted of 412 depressed patients receiving 5, 10, 15, or 20 mg of escitalopram once a day. Plasma concentrations of escitalopram and desmethylescitalopram were quantified using HPLC. CYP2C19 genotypes were identified using polymerase chain reaction methods. There were no differences in the steady-state plasma concentrations of escitalopram or desmethylescitalopram in each dose group (5, 10, 15, or 20 mg of escitalopram) among CYP2C19 genotype groups. However, 1-way analysis of variance showed significant effects of CYP2C19 genotypes on the dose-adjusted plasma concentration of escitalopram but not in the dose-adjusted plasma concentration of desmethylescitalopram. Analysis of covariance including age, sex, and body weight showed significant effects of CYP2C19 genotypes on the dose-adjusted plasma concentration of escitalopram and the ratio of desmethylescitalopram to escitalopram. These findings suggest that the CYP2C19 variants are associated with steady-state plasma concentrations of escitalopram to some extent but are not associated with desmethylescitalopram.

  5. Effects of debrisoquin and haloperidol on plasma homovanillic acid concentration in schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, M; Losonczy, M F; Mohs, R C; Lesser, J C; Powchik, P; Freed, L B; Davis, B M; Mykytyn, V V; Davis, K L

    1987-12-01

    Plasma levels of the dopamine metabolite homovanillic acid (pHVA) may potentially reflect upon central dopamine activity. This study examines the effects of debrisoquin, haloperidol, and the two drugs combined on pHVA concentrations of schizophrenic patients. Debrisoquin is a drug that suppresses the peripheral formation of homovanillic acid without affecting the central formation. Acute haloperidol administration consistently increased pHVA concentrations in patients pretreated or not pretreated with debrisoquin, suggesting that this increment reflects haloperidol's central and not peripheral effects.

  6. A high-protein diet increases postprandial but not fasting plasma total homocysteine concentrations: A dietary controlled, crossover trial in healthy volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, P.; Vliet, T. van; Olthof, M.R.; Katan, M.B.

    2005-01-01

    Background: A high plasma concentration of total homocysteine (tHcy) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. A high protein intake and hence a high intake of methionine-the sole dietary precursor of homocysteine-may raise plasma tHcy concentrations. Objectives: We studied

  7. A high-protein diet increases postprandial but not fasting plasma total homocysteine concentrations : A dietary controlled, crossover trial in healthy volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, Petra; Van Vliet, Trinette; Olthof, Margreet R.; Katan, Martijn B.

    2005-01-01

    Background: A high plasma concentration of total homocysteine (tHcy) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. A high protein intake and hence a high intake of methionine-the sole dietary precursor of homocysteine-may raise plasma tHcy concentrations. Objectives: We studied

  8. The effect of chronic prostatitis on zinc concentration of prostatic fluid and seminal plasma: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Dong; Han, GuangWei; Shang, YongGang; Mu, LiJun; Long, QingZhi; Du, YueFeng

    2015-01-01

    Prostatitis is a common disease in urology departments. Prostatic zinc accumulation is connected with the secretory function of the prostate, and zinc concentrations present in prostatic diseases differ greatly from the normal level. Studies have investigated the effect of chronic prostatitis on zinc concentration of prostatic fluid and seminal plasma, but have shown inconsistent results. Hence, we performed a systematic literature review and meta-analysis to assess the effect of chronic prostatitis on the zinc concentration of prostatic fluid and seminal plasma. Systematic literature searches were conducted with PubMed, Embase, Science Direct/Elsevier, CNKI and the Cochrane Library up to March 2015 for case-control studies that involved the relationship between chronic prostatitis and zinc concentration of prostatic fluid and seminal plasma. Meta-analysis was performed with Review Manager and Stata software. Standard mean differences (SMDs) of zinc concentration were identified with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) in a random- or fixed-effects model. Our results illustrated that the zinc concentrations in prostatic fluid and seminal plasma from chronic prostatitis patients were significantly lower than normal controls (SMD [95% CI] -246.71 [-347.97, -145.44], -20.74 [-35.11, -6.37], respectively). The sample size of each study was relatively small, and a total of 731 chronic prostatitis patients and 574 normal controls were investigated in all fourteen studies. Several studies related to the subject were excluded due to lack of control data or means and standard deviations. The present study illustrates that there was a significant negative effect of chronic prostatitis on zinc concentrations of prostatic fluid and seminal plasma. Further studies with larger sample sizes are needed to better illuminate the negative impact of chronic prostatitis on zinc concentrations.

  9. Women Administered Standard Dose Imatinib for Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Have Higher Dose-Adjusted Plasma Imatinib and Norimatinib Concentrations Than Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsey, Sarah L; Ireland, Robin; Lang, Kathryn; Kizilors, Aytug; Ho, Aloysius; Mufti, Ghulam J; Bisquera, Alessandra; De Lavallade, Hugues; Flanagan, Robert J

    2017-10-01

    The standard dose of imatinib for the treatment of chronic-phase chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is 400 mg·d. A predose plasma imatinib concentration of >1 mg·L is associated with improved clinical response. This study aimed to assess the plasma imatinib and norimatinib concentrations attained in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia administered standard doses of imatinib adjusted for dose, age, sex, body weight, and response. We evaluated data from a cohort of patients treated between 2008 and 2014 with respect to dose, age, sex, body weight, and response. The study comprised 438 samples from 93 patients (54 male, 39 female). The median imatinib dose was 400 mg·d in men and in women. The plasma imatinib concentration ranged 0.1-5.0 mg·L and was below 1 mg·L in 20% and 16% of samples from men and women, respectively. The mean dose normalized plasma imatinib and norimatinib concentrations were significantly higher in women in comparison with men. This was partially related to body weight. Mixed effects ordinal logistic regression showed no evidence of an association between sex and plasma imatinib (P = 0.13). However, there was evidence of an association between sex and plasma norimatinib, with higher norimatinib concentrations more likely in women than in men (P = 0.02). Imatinib therapeutic drug monitoring only provides information on dosage adequacy and on short-term adherence; longer-term adherence cannot be assessed. However, this analysis revealed that approximately 1 in 5 samples had a plasma imatinib concentration <1 mg·L, which was suggestive of inadequate dosage and/or poor adherence and posed a risk of treatment failure. Higher imatinib exposure in women may be a factor in the increased rate of long-term, stable, deep molecular response (undetectable breakpoint cluster-Abelson (BCR-ABL) transcript levels with a PCR sensitivity of 4.5 log, MR4.5) reported in women.

  10. HPLC for simultaneous quantification of total ceramide, glucosylceramide, and ceramide trihexoside concentrations in plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groener, Johanna E. M.; Poorthuis, Ben J. H. M.; Kuiper, Sijmen; Helmond, Mariette T. J.; Hollak, Carla E. M.; Aerts, Johannes M. F. G.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Simple, reproducible assays are needed for the quantification of sphingolipids, ceramide (Cer), and sphingoid bases. We developed an HPLC method for simultaneous quantification of total plasma concentrations of Cer, glucosylceramide (GlcCer), and ceramide trihexoside (CTH). METHODS:

  11. Plasma disposition, concentration in the hair, and anthelmintic efficacy of eprinomectin after topical administration in donkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokbulut, Cengiz; Di Loria, Antonio; Gunay, Necati; Masucci, Roberto; Veneziano, Vincenzo

    2011-12-01

    To investigate plasma disposition, concentration in the hair, and anthelmintic efficacy of eprinomectin after topical administration in donkeys. 12 donkeys naturally infected with strongyle nematodes. The pour-on formulation of eprinomectin approved for use in cattle was administered topically to donkeys at a dosage of 0.5 mg/kg. Heparinized blood samples and hair samples were collected at various times between 1 hour and 40 days after administration. Samples were analyzed via high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Fecal strongyle egg counts were performed by use of a modified McMaster technique before and at weekly intervals for 8 weeks after treatment. Plasma concentration and systemic availability of eprinomectin were relatively higher in donkeys, compared with values reported for other animal species. Concerning the anthelmintic efficacy against strongyle nematodes, eprinomectin was completely effective (100%) on days 7 and 14 and highly effective (> 99%) until the end of the study at 56 days after treatment. No abnormal clinical signs or adverse reactions were observed for any donkeys after treatment. Eprinomectin had excellent safety. The relatively high plasma concentration after topical administration could result in use of eprinomectin for the control and treatment of parasitic diseases in donkeys.

  12. High salt intake increases plasma trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) concentration and produces gut dysbiosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielinska, Klaudia; Radkowski, Marek; Grochowska, Marta; Perlejewski, Karol; Huc, Tomasz; Jaworska, Kinga; Motooka, Daisuke; Nakamura, Shota; Ufnal, Marcin

    2018-03-22

    A high-salt diet is considered a cardiovascular risk factor; however, the mechanisms are not clear. Research suggests that gut bacteria-derived metabolites such as trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) are markers of cardiovascular diseases. We evaluated the effect of high salt intake on gut bacteria and their metabolites plasma level. Sprague Dawley rats ages 12-14 wk were maintained on either water (controls) or 0.9% or 2% sodium chloride (NaCl) water solution (isotonic and hypertonic groups, respectively) for 2 wk. Blood plasma, urine, and stool samples were analyzed for concentrations of trimethylamine (TMA; a TMAO precursor), TMAO, and indoxyl sulfate (indole metabolite). The gut-blood barrier permeability to TMA and TMA liver clearance were assessed at baseline and after TMA intracolonic challenge test. Gut bacterial flora was analyzed with a 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) gene sequence analysis. The isotonic and hypertonic groups showed a significantly higher plasma TMAO and significantly lower 24-hr TMAO urine excretion than the controls. However, the TMA stool level was similar between the groups. There was no significant difference between the groups in gut-blood barrier permeability and TMA liver clearance. Plasma indoxyl concentration and 24-hr urine indoxyl excretion were similar between the groups. There was a significant difference between the groups in gut bacteria composition. High salt intake increases plasma TMAO concentration, which is associated with decreased TMAO urine excretion. Furthermore, high salt intake alters gut bacteria composition. These findings suggest that salt intake affects an interplay between gut bacteria and their host homeostasis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Plasma concentrations of endothelial vasoactive substances in clinically healthy subjects. associations with urinary albumin excretion and ambulatory blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, P; Jensen, J S; Jensent, G

    2000-01-01

    controls with normoalbuminuria. Plasma concentration of ET-1 was measured using an ELISA method and plasma concentration of nitrate/nitrite using a photometric method. Twenty-four-hour blood pressure was measured using a portable recorder (TM-2421). No significant differences in the concentrations...... of nitrate/nitrite and ET-1 were found between the groups, e.g. 21 (10-105) vs. 18 (11 -152) (p=0.33) and 0.98 (0.58 1.95) vs. 1.10 (0.54 -1.50) (p = 0.27), respectively. However, plasma nitrate/nitrite was significantly positively correlated to systolic and diastolic blood pressure in subjects...... in clinically healthy subjects. However, nitrate/nitrite is positively correlated to BP only in subjects with normoalbuminuria, and ET-1 is positively correlated to BP only in subjects with elevated UAE....

  14. A high-protein diet increases postprandial but not fasting plasma total homocysteine concentrations: a dietary controlled, crossover trial in healthy volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, P.; Vliet, van T.; Olthof, M.R.; Katan, M.B.

    2005-01-01

    Background: A high plasma concentration of total homocysteine (tHcy) is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. A high protein intake and hence a high intake of methionine¿the sole dietary precursor of homocysteine¿may raise plasma tHcy concentrations. Objectives: We studied

  15. Cardiac natriuretic peptide gene expression and plasma concentrations during the first 72 hours of life in piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Julie; Christoffersen, Christina; Nørgaard, Linn Maiken

    2013-01-01

    .73). Plasma pro-ANP levels were highest on the day of delivery (5580 pmol/L [4320-6786] decreasing to 2484 pmol/L [1602-2898] after 72 hours, P tissue were immature, ie, unprocessed pro...... the transition from fetal to neonate circulation. However, the cardiac gene expression does not explain plasma concentrations....

  16. Fenetylline: new results on pharmacology, metabolism and kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickel, B; Niebch, G; Peter, G; von Schlichtegroll, A; Tibes, U

    1986-06-01

    In the fenetylline molecule, theophylline is covalently linked with amphetamine via an alkyl chain. The inclusion of amphetamine and results from early metabolic studies have led to speculation that fenetylline may be merely a prodrug for amphetamine and/or theophylline. Although previous studies are not consistent with this hypothesis, additional studies were conducted to comparatively evaluate the profiles of activity exhibited by fenetylline and its two postulated primary metabolites, (+/-)-amphetamine and theophylline. Investigations were also initiated using newly developed high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) techniques to further characterize the metabolic pattern that fenetylline undergoes and to examine the relationship between plasma pharmacokinetics and the pharmacodynamic actions of the drug. Fenetylline inhibits activity associated with amphetamine in certain test systems, an effect similar to that previously observed with fenfluramine. Only small amounts of the amphetamine theoretically available in the fenetylline molecule are released. Pharmacodynamic activity associated with fenetylline administration is more closely tied to plasma levels of the parent compound than to any (+/-)-amphetamine produced.

  17. Effect of vitamin E intake from food and supplement sources on plasma α- and γ-tocopherol concentrations in a healthy Irish adult population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yang; Monahan, Frank J; McNulty, Breige A; Gibney, Mike J; Gibney, Eileen R

    2014-11-14

    Vitamin E is believed to play a preventive role in diseases associated with oxidative stress. The aims of the present study were to quantify vitamin E intake levels and plasma concentrations and to assess dietary vitamin E adequacy in Irish adults. Intake data from the National Adult Nutrition Survey were used; plasma samples were obtained from a representative cohort of survey participants. Plasma α- and γ-tocopherol concentrations were measured by HPLC. The main sources of vitamin E in the diet were 'butter, spreadable fats and oils' and 'vegetables and vegetable dishes'. When vitamin E intake from supplements was taken into account, supplements were found to be the main contributor, making a contribution of 29·2 % to vitamin E intake in the total population. Supplement consumers had significantly higher plasma α-tocopherol concentrations and lower plasma γ-tocopherol concentrations when compared with non-consumers. Consumers of 'vitamin E' supplements had significantly higher vitamin E intake levels and plasma α-tocopherol concentrations compared with consumers of other types of supplements, such as multivitamin and fish oil. Comparison with the Institute of Medicine Estimated Average Requirement of 12 mg/d indicated that when vitamin E intake from food and supplement sources was taken into account, 100 % of the study participants achieved the recommended intake levels. When vitamin E intake from food sources was taken into account, only 68·4 % of the females were found to achieve the recommended intake levels compared with 99·2 % of the males. The results of the present study show that dietary vitamin E intake has a significant effect on plasma α- and γ-tocopherol concentrations. Furthermore, they show that the consumption of supplements is a major contributor to overall intake and has a significant effect on plasma vitamin E concentrations in the Irish population.

  18. Measurement of plasma gentamicin concentrations postchemical ciliary body ablation in dogs with chronic glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Amy J; Lanuza, Rick; KuKanich, Butch; Crumley, William C; Pucket, Jonathan D; Allbaugh, Rachel A; Meekins, Jessica M

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the absorption of gentamicin into the plasma after an intravitreal injection in dogs and to report the success rate of this procedure in lowering the intraocular pressure. Twenty-four client-owned dogs with chronic, end-stage glaucoma. Dogs received a unilateral (22) or bilateral (2) intravitreal injection of 25-40 mg of gentamicin (mean ± SD dose 2.57 ± 1.65 mg/kg and range 0.61-7.50 mg/kg) and 1 mg of dexamethasone per eye. Blood samples were collected at various time points following the intravitreal injection. Plasma concentrations of gentamicin were determined by liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. The total plasma concentration of gentamicin ranged from 0.21 to 9.71 μg/mL (mean ± SD 2.15 ± 2.03). The mean gentamicin CMAX was 2.29 μg/mL at 2.54 h with a terminal half-life of 9.8 h. The success rate of the chemical ablation procedure was 86.4% (19/22 eyes) in dogs that had at least 1 month of follow-up. Intravitreal injection of gentamicin in eyes with chronic glaucoma resulted in detectable plasma levels in dogs and was successful in lowering the intraocular pressure in 86.4% of the eyes after the first procedure. © 2015 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  19. Sequence variation does not confound the measurement of plasma PfHRP2 concentration in African children presenting with severe malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramutton Thiranut

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein PFHRP2 measurement is used widely for diagnosis, and more recently for severity assessment in falciparum malaria. The Pfhrp2 gene is highly polymorphic, with deletion of the entire gene reported in both laboratory and field isolates. These issues potentially confound the interpretation of PFHRP2 measurements. Methods Studies designed to detect deletion of Pfhrp2 and its paralog Pfhrp3 were undertaken with samples from patients in seven countries contributing to the largest hospital-based severe malaria trial (AQUAMAT. The quantitative relationship between sequence polymorphism and PFHRP2 plasma concentration was examined in samples from selected sites in Mozambique and Tanzania. Results There was no evidence for deletion of either Pfhrp2 or Pfhrp3 in the 77 samples with lowest PFHRP2 plasma concentrations across the seven countries. Pfhrp2 sequence diversity was very high with no haplotypes shared among 66 samples sequenced. There was no correlation between Pfhrp2 sequence length or repeat type and PFHRP2 plasma concentration. Conclusions These findings indicate that sequence polymorphism is not a significant cause of variation in PFHRP2 concentration in plasma samples from African children. This justifies the further development of plasma PFHRP2 concentration as a method for assessing African children who may have severe falciparum malaria. The data also add to the existing evidence base supporting the use of rapid diagnostic tests based on PFHRP2 detection.

  20. Duloxetine Plasma Concentrations and Its Effectiveness in the Treatment of Nonorganic Chronic Pain in the Orofacial Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Yuka; Nagashima, Wataru; Tokura, Tatsuya; Yoshida, Keizo; Umemura, Eri; Miyauchi, Tomoya; Arao, Munetaka; Ito, Mikiko; Kimura, Hiroyuki; Kurita, Kenichi; Ozaki, Norio

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the pain-relieving effects of duloxetine and its plasma concentrations in patients with burning mouth syndrome and atypical odontalgia characterized by chronic nonorganic pain in the orofacial region. We administered duloxetine to 77 patients diagnosed as having burning mouth syndrome or atypical odontalgia for 12 weeks. The initial dose of duloxetine was established as 20 mg/d and was increased to 40 mg/d after week 2. We evaluated pain using the visual analog scale and depressive symptoms using the Structured Interview Guide for the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale at weeks 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 and measured plasma concentrations of duloxetine 12 weeks after the start of its administration. Visual analog scale scores were significantly lower 12 weeks after than at the start of the administration of duloxetine (paired t test, t = 6.65, P pain in patients with chronic nonorganic pain in the orofacial region. However, no relationship was observed between its pain-relieving effects and plasma concentrations.

  1. Platelet concentration in platelet-rich plasma affects tenocyte behavior in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusti, Ilaria; D'Ascenzo, Sandra; Mancò, Annalisa; Di Stefano, Gabriella; Di Francesco, Marianna; Rughetti, Anna; Dal Mas, Antonella; Properzi, Gianfranco; Calvisi, Vittorio; Dolo, Vincenza

    2014-01-01

    Since tendon injuries and tendinopathy are a growing problem, sometimes requiring surgery, new strategies that improve conservative therapies are needed. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) seems to be a good candidate by virtue of its high content of growth factors, most of which are involved in tendon healing. This study aimed to evaluate if different concentrations of platelets in PRP have different effects on the biological features of normal human tenocytes that are usually required during tendon healing. The different platelet concentrations tested (up to 5 × 10(6) plt/µL) stimulated differently tenocytes behavior; intermediate concentrations (0.5 × 10(6), 1 × 10(6) plt/µL) strongly induced all tested processes (proliferation, migration, collagen, and MMPs production) if compared to untreated cells; on the contrary, the highest concentration had inhibitory effects on proliferation and strongly reduced migration abilities and overall collagen production but, at the same time, induced increasing MMP production, which could be counterproductive because excessive proteolysis could impair tendon mechanical stability. Thus, these in vitro data strongly suggest the need for a compromise between extremely high and low platelet concentrations to obtain an optimal global effect when inducing in vivo tendon healing.

  2. Delivery of theophylline as dry powder for inhalation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Zhu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Theophylline (TP is a very well established orally or intravenously delivered antiasthma drug with many beneficial effects. This study aims to improve asthma treatment by creating a dry powder inhalable (DPI formulation of TP to be delivered directly to the lung, avoiding the side effects associated with conventional oral delivery. The DPI TP formulation was investigated for its physico-chemical characteristics using scanning electron microscopy, laser diffraction, thermal analysis and dynamic vapour sorption. Furthermore, aerosol performance was assessed using the Multi Stage Liquid Impinger (MSLI. In addition, a Calu-3 cell transport assay was conducted in vitro using a modified ACI to study the impact of the DPI formulation on lung epithelial cells. Results showed DPI TP to be physico-chemically stable and of an aerodynamic size suitable for lung delivery. The aerosolisation performance analysis showed the TP DPI formulation to have a fine particle fraction of 29.70 ± 2.59% (P < 0.05 for the TP formulation containing 1.0% (w/w sodium stearate, the most efficient for aerosolisation. Regarding the deposition of TP DPI on Calu-3 cells using the modified ACI, results demonstrated that 56.14 ± 7.62% of the total TP deposited (13.07 ± 1.69 µg was transported across the Calu-3 monolayer over 180 min following deposition, while 37.05 ± 12.62% of the deposited TP was retained in the cells. This could be due to the presence of sodium stearate in the current formulation that increased its lipophilicity. A DPI formulation of TP was developed that was shown to be suitable for inhalation.

  3. Latent viral reactivation is associated with changes in plasma antimicrobial protein concentrations during long-duration spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielmann, G.; Laughlin, M. S.; Kunz, H.; Crucian, B. E.; Quiriarte, H. D.; Mehta, S. K.; Pierson, D. L.; Simpson, R. J.

    2018-05-01

    Long duration spaceflights are associated with profound dysregulation of the immune system and latent viral reactivations. However, little is known on the impact of long duration spaceflight on innate immunity which raises concerns on crewmembers' ability to fight infections during a mission. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of spaceflight on plasma antimicrobial proteins (AMPs) and how these changes impact latent herpesvirus reactivations. Plasma, saliva and urine samples were obtained from 23 crewmembers before, during and after a 6-month mission on the International Space Station (ISS). Plasma AMP concentrations were determined by ELISA, and saliva Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and varicella zoster virus (VZV) and urine cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA levels were quantified by Real-Time PCR. There was a non-significant increase in plasma HNP1-3 and LL-37 during the early and middle stages of the missions, which was significantly associated with changes in viral DNA during and after spaceflight. Plasma HNP1-3 and Lysozyme increased at the late mission stages in astronauts who had exhibited EBV and VZV reactivations during the early flight stages. Following return to Earth and during recovery, HNP1-3 and lysozyme concentrations were associated with EBV and VZV viral DNA levels, reducing the magnitude of viral reactivation. Reductions in plasma LL-37 upon return were associated with greater CMV reactivation. This study shows that biomarkers of innate immunity appeared to be partially restored after 6-months in space and suggests that following adaptation to the space environment, plasma HNP1-3 and lysozyme facilitate the control of EBV and VZV reactivation rate and magnitude in space and upon return on earth. However, the landing-associated decline in plasma LL-37 may enhance the rate of CMV reactivation in astronauts following spaceflight, potentially compromising crewmember health after landing.

  4. Concentration of total proteins in blood plasma of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs with low dose gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilic, M.; Kraljevic, P.; Miljanic, S.; Simpraga, M.

    2005-01-01

    It is known that low-dose ionising radiation may have stimulating effects on chickens. Low doses may also cause changes in the concentration of blood plasma total proteins, glucose and cholesterol in chickens. This study investigates the effects of low dose gamma-radiation on the concentration of total proteins in the blood plasma of chickens hatched from eggs irradiated with a dose of 0.15 Gy on incubation days 7 and 19. Results were compared with the control group (chickens hatched from non-irradiated eggs). After hatching, all other conditions were the same for both groups. Blood samples were drawn from the heart, and later from the wing vein on days 1, 3, 5, 7,10, 20, 30 and 42. The concentration of total proteins was determined spectrophotometrically using Boehringer Mannheim GmbH optimised kits. The concentration of total proteins in blood plasma in chickens hatched from eggs irradiated with 0.15 Gy on incubation day 7 showed a statistically significant decrease on the sampling day 3 (P less than 0.05) and 7 (P less than 0.01). The concentration of total proteins in blood plasma in chickens hatched from eggs irradiated with 0.15 Gy on incubation day 19 showed a statistically significant increase only on sampling day 1 (P less than 0.05). These results suggest that exposure of eggs to 0.15 Gy of gamma-radiation on the 7th and 19th day of incubation could produce different effects on the protein metabolism in chickens.(author)

  5. The effects of aspirin on platelet function and lysophosphatidic acids depend on plasma concentrations of EPA and DHA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Robert C; Abdolahi, Amir; Tu, Xin; Georas, Steve N; Brenna, J Thomas; Phipps, Richard P; Lawrence, Peter; Mousa, Shaker A

    2015-05-01

    Aspirin's prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus is controversial. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and aspirin all affect the cyclooxygenase enzyme. The relationship between plasma EPA and DHA and aspirin's effects has not been determined. Thirty adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus ingested aspirin (81 mg/day) for 7 days, then EPA+DHA (2.6g/day) for 28 days, then both for another 7 days. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) species and more classic platelet function outcomes were determined. Plasma concentrations of total EPA+DHA were associated with 7-day aspirin reduction effects on these outcomes in a "V"-shaped manner for all 11 LPA species and ADP-induced platelet aggregation. This EPA+DHA concentration was quite consistent for each of the LPA species and ADP. These results support aspirin effects on lysolipid metabolism and platelet aggregation depending on plasma EPA+DHA concentrations in individuals with a disturbed lipid milieu. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Saliva oxytocin measures do not reflect peripheral plasma concentrations after intranasal oxytocin administration in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, Daniel S; Westlye, Lars T; Smerud, Knut T; Mahmoud, Ramy A; Andreassen, Ole A; Djupesland, Per G

    2018-05-16

    Oxytocin plays an important role in social behavior. Thus, there has been significant research interest for the role of the oxytocin system in several psychiatric disorders, and the potential of intranasal oxytocin administration to treat social dysfunction. Measurement of oxytocin concentrations in saliva are sometimes used to approximate peripheral levels of oxytocin; however, the validity of this approach is unclear. In this study, saliva and plasma oxytocin was assessed after two doses of Exhalation Delivery System delivered intranasal oxytocin (8 IU and 24 IU), intravenous oxytocin (1 IU) and placebo in a double-dummy, within-subjects design with men. We found that intranasal oxytocin (8 IU and 24 IU) administration increased saliva oxytocin concentrations in comparison to saliva oxytocin concentration levels after intravenous and placebo administration. Additionally, we found that saliva oxytocin concentrations were not significantly associated with plasma oxytocin concentrations after either intranasal or intravenous oxytocin administration. Altogether, we suggest that saliva oxytocin concentrations do not accurately index peripheral oxytocin after intranasal or intravenous oxytocin administration, at least in men. The data indicates that elevated oxytocin saliva levels after nasal delivery primarily reflect exogenous administered oxytocin that is cleared from the nasal cavity to the oropharynx, and is therefore a weak surrogate for peripheral blood measurements. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The influence of 5-HTTLPR genotype on the association between the plasma concentration and therapeutic effect of paroxetine in patients with major depressive disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsu Tomita

    Full Text Available The efficacy of treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD can differ depending on the patient's serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR genotype, and the effects of varying plasma concentrations of drugs can also vary. We investigated the association between the paroxetine plasma concentration and clinical response in patients with different 5-HTTLPR genotypes.Fifty-one patients were enrolled in this study. The Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS was used to evaluate patients at 0, 1, 2, 4, and 6 weeks. The patients' paroxetine plasma concentrations at week 6 were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. Additionally, their 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms (alleles S and L were analyzed using a polymerase chain reaction with specific primers. We divided the participants into two groups based on their L haplotype: the SS group and the SL and LL group. We performed single and multiple regression analyses to investigate the associations between MADRS improvement and paroxetine plasma concentrations or other covariates for each group.There were no significant differences between the two groups with regard to demographic or clinical data. In the SS group, the paroxetine plasma concentration was significantly negatively correlated with improvement in MADRS at week 6. In the SL and LL group, the paroxetine plasma concentration was significantly positively correlated with improvement in MADRS at week 6 according to the results of the single regression analysis; however, it was not significantly correlated with improvement in MADRS at week 6 according to the results of the multiple regression analysis.Among patients with MDD who do not respond to paroxetine, a lower plasma concentration or a lower oral dose of paroxetine might be more effective in those with the SS genotype, and a higher plasma concentration might be more effective in those with the SL or LL

  8. Effects of fasting on plasma catecholamine, corticosterone and glucose concentrations under basal and stress conditions in individual rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, S.F.; Koopmans, S.J.; Slangen, J L; Van der Gugten, J

    Plasma noradrenaline (NA), adrenaline (A), corticosterone (CS) and glucose concentrations were determined in blood sampled via a cardiac catheter from freely moving male rats under ad lib fed and 24 hr food deprived conditions using a repeated measures within-subject design. Resting plasma NA and

  9. Associations between marine food consumption and plasma concentrations of POPs in a Norwegian coastal population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rylander, Charlotta; Sandanger, Torkjel Manning; Brustad, Magritt

    2009-02-01

    There are strong indications that a moderate intake of fatty fish decreases the risk of cardiovascular diseases due to its content of omega-3 fatty acids. Other studies indicate that fatty fish consumption increase the body burden of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) and may thereby increase the risk of negative health effects. Many of the latter studies are based on POP analysis of fatty fish, from which a recommended daily intake for humans has been calculated based on the no-observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) obtained from animal studies. Studies investigating associations between human plasma concentrations of POPs and intake of marine food show deviating results. In this study we investigated associations between self-reported intake of marine food (fatty fish, fish liver, fish liver oil, seagull eggs and halibut) and plasma concentrations of POPs. The study group consisted of 44 women and 16 men from northern Norway with a marine based diet. In addition to donate blood samples, the participants answered a detailed food frequency questionnaire with special emphasis on marine food consumption. Concentrations of 25 different POPs were measured in plasma. PCB 153 and p'p-DDE were the most ubiquitous PCB and chlorinated pesticide and the geometric mean concentrations were 73 ng/g lipids and 116 ng/g lipids respectively. The main findings in this study were that age, gender and intake of fresh fish liver oil were significant predictors of three of the most common PCBs and trans-Nonachlor in this study group. In addition, intake of seagull eggs influenced the concentration of PCB 180. However, even though the participants had a high intake of marine food they did not have elevated levels of POPs compared to other study groups. Intake of fatty fish did not significantly affect the body burden of POPs in this study group.

  10. Computed exercise plasma lactate concentrations: A conversion formula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lia Bally

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Blood lactate measurements are common as a marker of skeletal muscle metabolism in sport medicine. Due to the close equilibrium between the extracellular and intramyocellular space, plasma lactate is a more accurate estimate of muscle lactate. However, whole blood-based lactate measurements are more convenient in field use. The purpose of this investigation was therefore (1 to establish a plasma-converting lactate formula for field use, and (2 to validate the computed plasma lactate levels by comparison to a laboratory standard method. Design and methods: A total of 91 venous samples were taken from 6 individuals with type 1 diabetes during resting and exercise conditions and assessed for whole blood and plasma lactate using the YSI 2300 analyzer. A linear model was applied to establish a formula for converting whole blood lactate to plasma lactate. The validity of computed plasma lactate values was assessed by comparison to a laboratory standard method. Results: Whole blood YSI lactate could be converted to plasma YSI values (slope 1.66, intercept 0.12 for samples with normal hematocrit. Computed plasma levels compared to values determined by the laboratory standard method using Passing-Bablok regression yielded a slope of 1.03 (95%CI:0.99:1.08 with an intercept of -0.11 (95%CI:-0.18:-0.06. Conclusions: Whole blood YSI lactate values can be reliably converted into plasma values which are in line with laboratory determined plasma measurements. Keywords: Lactate, Plasma vs whole-blood, Hematocrit, Enzyme electrodes, Sample treatment

  11. Concentration differences between serum and plasma of the elements cobalt, iron, mercury, rubidium, selenium and zinc determined by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasperek, K.; Kiem, J.; Iyengar, G.V.; Feinendegen, L.E.

    1981-01-01

    The differences in concentrations of cesium, cobalt, iron, mercury, rubidium, selenium and zinc between serum and plasma were examined with the aid of instrumental neutron activation analysis. Eighty serum and plasma samples obtained from 13 donors were compared. Serum was prepared in plastic tubes immediately after clotting, and plasma was separated with heparin as anticoagulant. No significant differences in the concentrations of cesium, cobalt, mercury and selenium were observed. However, the concentrations of iron, rubidium and zinc were significantly higher in serum than in plasma. The average differences were 322, 12 and 20 ng/ml for iron, rubidium and zinc, respectively. The average differences found for cesium, rubidium and zinc were far below that which can be expected from a complete, or considerable release of these elements from platelets which aggregate or disintegrate during the clotting process in preparing serum. (orig.)

  12. The plasma concentration of HDL-associated apoM is influenced by LDL receptor-mediated clearance of apoB-containing particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Christina; Benn, Marianne; Christensen, Pernille Møller

    2012-01-01

    .005) of the initial amounts of human apoM remained in the plasma of Wt and LDL receptor-deficient mice, respectively. Finally, we compared the turnover of radio-iodinated LDL and plasma apoM concentrations in 45 normocholesterolemic humans. There was a negative correlation between plasma apoM and the fractional......ApoM is mainly associated with HDL. Nevertheless, we have consistently observed positive correlations of apoM with plasma LDL cholesterol in humans. Moreover, LDL receptor deficiency is associated with increased plasma apoM in mice. Here, we tested the idea that plasma apoM concentrations...... = 0.02, respectively) as compared with noncarriers (0.93 ± 0.04 µM). When we injected human apoM-containing HDL into Wt (n = 6) or LDL receptor-deficient mice (n = 6), the removal of HDL-associated human apoM was delayed in the LDL receptor-deficient mice. After 2 h, 54 ± 5% versus 90 ± 8% (P

  13. Resistin in Dairy Cows: Plasma Concentrations during Early Lactation, Expression and Potential Role in Adipose Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reverchon, Maxime; Ramé, Christelle; Cognié, Juliette; Briant, Eric; Elis, Sébastien; Guillaume, Daniel; Dupont, Joëlle

    2014-01-01

    Resistin is an adipokine that has been implicated in energy metabolism regulation in rodents but has been little studied in dairy cows. We determined plasma resistin concentrations in early lactation in dairy cows and investigated the levels of resistin mRNA and protein in adipose tissue and the phosphorylation of several components of insulin signaling pathways one week post partum (1 WPP) and at five months of gestation (5 MG). We detected resistin in mature bovine adipocytes and investigated the effect of recombinant bovine resistin on lipolysis in bovine adipose tissue explants. ELISA showed that plasma resistin concentration was low before calving, subsequently increasing and reaching a peak at 1 WPP, decreasing steadily thereafter to reach pre-calving levels at 6 WPP. Plasma resistin concentration was significantly positively correlated with plasma non esterified fatty acid (NEFA) levels and negatively with milk yield, dry matter intake and energy balance between WPP1 to WPP22. We showed, by quantitative RT-PCR and western blotting, that resistin mRNA and protein levels in adipose tissue were higher at WPP1 than at 5 MG. The level of phosphorylation of several early and downstream insulin signaling components (IRβ, IRS-1, IRS-2, Akt, MAPK ERK1/2, P70S6K and S6) in adipose tissue was also lower at 1 WPP than at 5 MG. Finally, we showed that recombinant bovine resistin increased the release of glycerol and mRNA levels for ATGL (adipose triglyceride lipase) and HSL (hormone-sensitive lipase) in adipose tissue explants. Overall, resistin levels were high in the plasma and adipose tissue and were positively correlated with NEFA levels after calving. Resistin is expressed in bovine mature adipocytes and promotes lipid mobilization in adipose explants in vitro. PMID:24675707

  14. Resistin in dairy cows: plasma concentrations during early lactation, expression and potential role in adipose tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxime Reverchon

    Full Text Available Resistin is an adipokine that has been implicated in energy metabolism regulation in rodents but has been little studied in dairy cows. We determined plasma resistin concentrations in early lactation in dairy cows and investigated the levels of resistin mRNA and protein in adipose tissue and the phosphorylation of several components of insulin signaling pathways one week post partum (1 WPP and at five months of gestation (5 MG. We detected resistin in mature bovine adipocytes and investigated the effect of recombinant bovine resistin on lipolysis in bovine adipose tissue explants. ELISA showed that plasma resistin concentration was low before calving, subsequently increasing and reaching a peak at 1 WPP, decreasing steadily thereafter to reach pre-calving levels at 6 WPP. Plasma resistin concentration was significantly positively correlated with plasma non esterified fatty acid (NEFA levels and negatively with milk yield, dry matter intake and energy balance between WPP1 to WPP22. We showed, by quantitative RT-PCR and western blotting, that resistin mRNA and protein levels in adipose tissue were higher at WPP1 than at 5 MG. The level of phosphorylation of several early and downstream insulin signaling components (IRβ, IRS-1, IRS-2, Akt, MAPK ERK1/2, P70S6K and S6 in adipose tissue was also lower at 1 WPP than at 5 MG. Finally, we showed that recombinant bovine resistin increased the release of glycerol and mRNA levels for ATGL (adipose triglyceride lipase and HSL (hormone-sensitive lipase in adipose tissue explants. Overall, resistin levels were high in the plasma and adipose tissue and were positively correlated with NEFA levels after calving. Resistin is expressed in bovine mature adipocytes and promotes lipid mobilization in adipose explants in vitro.

  15. Plasma homocyst(e)ine concentrations in eclamptic and preeclamptic African women postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkovic, A; Mahomed, K; Malinow, M R; Sorenson, T K; Woelk, G B; Williams, M A

    1999-09-01

    To examine the relationship between plasma homocyst(e)ine and risk of eclampsia and preeclampsia among sub-Saharan African women who delivered at Harare Maternity Hospital in Zimbabwe. We ran a hospital-based, case-control study at Harare Maternity Hospital, University of Zimbabwe, Harare, Zimbabwe comprising 33 pregnant women with eclampsia and 138 with preeclampsia. Controls were 185 normotensive pregnant women. Plasma was collected postpartum and homocyst(e)ine levels were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography and electrochemical detection. Women with eclampsia or preeclampsia had significantly higher mean homocyst(e)ine levels than normotensive controls (12.54 or 12.77 micromol/L versus 9.93 micromol/L, respectively, Pine distribution (median 13.9 micromol/L) compared with women in the lowest quartile (median 6.2 micromol/L). The corresponding OR for preeclampsia was 4.57. Nulliparas with elevated homocyst(e)ine had a 12.90 times higher risk of preeclampsia compared with multiparas without elevated homocyst(e)ine. Postpartum plasma homocyst(e)ine concentrations are higher among Zimbabwean women with eclampsia and preeclampsia compared with normotensive women.

  16. Synthesis of coumarin-theophylline hybrids as a new class of anti-tubercular and anti-microbial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangasuli, Sumitra N; Hosamani, Kallappa M; Devarajegowda, Hirihalli C; Kurjogi, Mahantesh M; Joshi, Shrinivas D

    2018-02-25

    A series of novel coumarin-theophylline hybrids were synthesized and examined for their anti-tubercular activity in vitro against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H 37 Rv, anti-microbial activity in vitro against gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus) and gram-negative bacterias (Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi) as well as fungi (Candida albicans). The compound (3a) has shown excellent anti-tubercular activity with MIC of 0.12 μg/mL. Electron donating compounds (3a, 3f) have displayed significant anti-microbial activity. The compounds have also been precisely elucidated using single crystal X-ray diffraction techniques. Molecular docking study has been performed against 4DQU enzyme of Mycobacterium tuberculosis showed good binding interactions and is in agreement with the in vitro results. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  17. Determining potential adverse effects in marine fish exposed to pharmaceuticals and personal care products with the fish plasma model and whole-body tissue concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meador, James P; Yeh, Andrew; Gallagher, Evan P

    2017-11-01

    The Fish Plasma Model (FPM) was applied to water exposure and tissue concentrations in fish collected from two wastewater treatment plant impacted estuarine sites. In this study we compared predicted fish plasma concentrations to Cmax values for humans, which represents the maximum plasma concentration for the minimum therapeutic dose. The results of this study show that predictions of plasma concentrations for a variety of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) from effluent concentrations resulted in 37 compounds (54%) exceeding the response ratio (RR = Fish [Plasma]/1%Cmax total ) of 1 compared to 3 compounds (14%) detected with values generated with estuarine receiving water concentrations. When plasma concentrations were modeled from observed whole-body tissue residues, 16 compounds out of 24 detected for Chinook (67%) and 7 of 14 (50%) for sculpin resulted in an RR tissue value greater than 1, which highlights the importance of this dose metric over that using estuarine water. Because the tissue residue approach resulted in a high percentage of compounds with calculated response ratios exceeding a value of unity, we believe this is a more accurate representation for exposure in the field. Predicting plasma concentrations from tissue residues improves our ability to assess the potential for adverse effects in fish because exposure from all sources is captured. Tissue residues are also more likely to represent steady-state conditions compared to those from water exposure because of the inherent reduction in variability usually observed for field data and the time course for bioaccumulation. We also examined the RR in a toxic unit approach to highlight the importance of considering multiple compounds exhibiting a similar mechanism of action. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Plasma concentrations of inflammatory cytokines rise rapidly during ECMO-related SIRS due to the release of preformed stores in the intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McILwain, R Britt; Timpa, Joseph G; Kurundkar, Ashish R; Holt, David W; Kelly, David R; Hartman, Yolanda E; Neel, Mary Lauren; Karnatak, Rajendra K; Schelonka, Robert L; Anantharamaiah, G M; Killingsworth, Cheryl R; Maheshwari, Akhil

    2010-01-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a life-saving support system used in neonates and young children with severe cardiorespiratory failure. Although ECMO has reduced mortality in these critically ill patients, almost all patients treated with ECMO develop a systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) characterized by a 'cytokine storm', leukocyte activation, and multisystem organ dysfunction. We used a neonatal porcine model of ECMO to investigate whether rising plasma concentrations of inflammatory cytokines during ECMO reflect de novo synthesis of these mediators in inflamed tissues, and therefore, can be used to assess the severity of ECMO-related SIRS. Previously healthy piglets (3-week-old) were subjected to venoarterial ECMO for up to 8 h. SIRS was assessed by histopathological analysis, measurement of neutrophil activation (flow cytometry), plasma cytokine concentrations (enzyme immunoassays), and tissue expression of inflammatory genes (PCR/western blots). Mast cell degranulation was investigated by measurement of plasma tryptase activity. Porcine neonatal ECMO was associated with systemic inflammatory changes similar to those seen in human neonates. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) concentrations rose rapidly during the first 2 h of ECMO, faster than the tissue expression of these cytokines. ECMO was associated with increased plasma mast cell tryptase activity, indicating that increased plasma concentrations of inflammatory cytokines during ECMO may result from mast cell degranulation and associated release of preformed cytokines stored in mast cells. TNF-alpha and IL-8 concentrations rose faster in plasma than in the peripheral tissues during ECMO, indicating that rising plasma levels of these cytokines immediately after the initiation of ECMO may not reflect increasing tissue synthesis of these cytokines. Mobilization of preformed cellular stores of inflammatory cytokines such as in mucosal mast cells may have

  19. Plasma retinol, carotene and vitamin E concentrations and lung function in a crocidolite-exposed cohort from Wittenoom, Western Australia: a cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambrosini Gina

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increased rates of death from asbestos related diseases have been reported for people previously employed in the mining and milling operations at Wittenoom (Western Australia, and people who lived in the nearby town, where they were environmentally exposed to crocidolite. Methods Annual measurements of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 and forced vital capacity (FVC and plasma concentrations of retinol, carotene and vitamin E have been made since 1992. Mixed effects models were used to examine the associations between lung function and the plasma vitamin levels of retinol, carotene and vitamin E. Results After adjusting for potential confounders, higher plasma retinol and carotene concentrations were significantly associated with higher levels of lung function at entry into the study, while vitamin E concentrations were associated with lower entry lung function. Retinol was associated with a less steep decline of lung function over time, while carotene concentrations were associated with an increased decline of lung function over time and vitamin E levels were not associated with changes of lung function over time. Conclusion These results support a beneficial relationship between plasma concentrations of retinol on the levels and rates of change of lung function, while showing no such consistent beneficial effect for plasma levels of beta-carotene or vitamin E.

  20. Effect of pH and comedication on gastrointestinal absorption of posaconazole: monitoring of intraluminal and plasma drug concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walravens, Jeroen; Brouwers, Joachim; Spriet, Isabel; Tack, Jan; Annaert, Pieter; Augustijns, Patrick

    2011-11-01

    Posaconazole (Noxafil®) is an extended-spectrum triazole antifungal agent for prevention and treatment of invasive fungal infections. An inadequate dietary intake and abnormal gastric pH levels are common in critically ill patients receiving antifungal treatment with posaconazole, resulting in unpredictable bioavailability and sub-therapeutic plasma concentrations. This study was carried out to elucidate the impact of pH on posaconazole absorption and to explore the underlying mechanisms of enhanced intestinal absorption when coadministering an acidic carbonated beverage. In contrast to previously published studies, in which only plasma concentrations were determined, we also explored the gastric and intestinal behaviour of posaconazole after a single oral dose. A crossover study was performed in five healthy subjects. A single dose (10 mL) of posaconazole suspension (40 mg/mL) was administered orally in four different conditions: with 330 mL of water (condition 1); with 330 mL of a cola beverage [Coca-Cola®] (condition 2); with 330 mL of water following intake of the proton pump inhibitor esomeprazole 40 mg once daily for 3 days (condition 3); or with 330 mL of Coca-Cola® following intake of esomeprazole 40 mg once daily for 3 days (condition 4). After administration, gastrointestinal fluid and plasma samples were collected at regular time points, and posaconazole concentrations were determined. Compared with administration with water, coadministration of Coca-Cola® did not alter the pH of the intraluminal environment but did significantly increase posaconazole gastric concentrations (+102%; p Coca-Cola® and prolonged gastric residence. Coadministration of esomeprazole led to an increased gastric pH, which was accompanied by decreased posaconazole absorption; the mean plasma and gastric area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) values decreased by 37% and 84%, respectively. Simultaneous intake of Coca-Cola® could not completely compensate for the

  1. Treatment of infants with congenital toxoplasmosis: Tolerability and plasma concentrations of sulfadiazine and pyrimethamine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, D.R.; Høgh, B; Andersen, O

    2006-01-01

    The aim was to study the tolerability and plasma concentrations of pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine in children treated for congenital toxoplasmosis. Infants were diagnosed through the Danish Toxoplasma Neonatal Screening Programme, based on detection of toxoplasma-specific IgM- and/or IgA-antibodi......The aim was to study the tolerability and plasma concentrations of pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine in children treated for congenital toxoplasmosis. Infants were diagnosed through the Danish Toxoplasma Neonatal Screening Programme, based on detection of toxoplasma-specific IgM- and/or Ig...... spectrometric detection. Of 48 infants, 41 completed the treatment without change in schedule. Six infants had neutrophil counts below 0.5x10(9)/l, and one infant had an elevated bilirubin value. Twenty-nine children were tested by a series of neutrophil counts during treatment. The neutrophil count was ... efficacy is still a concern, since progression of eye lesions was observed in three eyes during the follow-up period. We concluded that the treatment was well tolerated in 86% (25/29) of the children. The drugs did not affect their weight gain. Drugs given in the recommended doses led to concentrations...

  2. The Effects of Combination of High Intensity Intermittent Exercise and Supplement Flaxseed Oil 1 ICAM- Plasma Concentration in Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Khademi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Prevalence of cardiovascular diseases is rooted in inflammation and inflammation is along with the increase of ICAM-1. The aim of the present study was to review the effect of combination of high interval training and flaxseed oil supplementation on plasma concentration of ICAM-1 of rats. Methods: In this experimental study, 30 rats were selected and divided into six groups of five male rats, including (1 control, (2 training, (3 10 mg/kg Flaxseed oil, (4 30 mg/kg Flaxseed oil, (5 training with 10 mg/kg Flaxseed oil and (6 training with 30 mg/kg Flaxseed oil. Groups of 2, 5 and 6 were trained with high intensity interval training for 10 weeks and five sessions per week, also groups 3 to 6 received flaxseed oil for 10 weeks. For statistical analysis of data two way ANOVA test was used (p≤0.05. Results: 10 weeks  treating high intensity interval training  for 10 weeks had significant effect on the increase of the plasma concentration of ICAM-1 of male rats (p=0.001. Nevertheless, Taking 10 weeks 10 and 30 mg/kg flaxseed oil supplementation for 10 weeks has significant effect on reducing  the plasma concentration of ICAM-1 of rats (p=0.001. Training and taking flaxseed oil supplementation have interactional effect on reduingc the plasma concentration of ICAM-1 of male rats (p=0.001. Conclusion: Combination of high intensity interval training and flaxseed oil supplementation has interactional effects on the improvement of plasma concentration of ICAM-1 in male rats.

  3. Determination of the Tritium Concentration in Deuterium-Tritium Fusion Plasmas from the Jet TTE Campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatu Johnson, Maria

    2004-01-01

    This thesis describes the development and implementation of methods for tritium concentration determination for JET fusion plasmas. The usefulness of MPR data in this context is investigated. It is shown that results from MPR spectral analysis can simplify the calculations for neutral beam heated plasmas and that it is essential for calculations for radio frequency heated plasmas. The described methods are applied to pulses from the Trace Tritium Experiment (TTE), staged at JET in October 2003. Results from simple, time resolved analysis using MPR and other public JET data are presented and the assumptions made in the calculations are discussed. The results agree with expectations but would be even more interesting if spatial variations were taken into account

  4. Determination of the Tritium Concentration in Deuterium-Tritium Fusion Plasmas from the Jet TTE Campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gatu Johnson, Maria

    2004-01-01

    This thesis describes the development and implementation of methods for tritium concentration determination for JET fusion plasmas. The usefulness of MPR data in this context is investigated. It is shown that results from MPR spectral analysis can simplify the calculations for neutral beam heated plasmas and that it is essential for calculations for radio frequency heated plasmas. The described methods are applied to pulses from the Trace Tritium Experiment (TTE), staged at JET in October 2003. Results from simple, time resolved analysis using MPR and other public JET data are presented and the assumptions made in the calculations are discussed. The results agree with expectations but would be even more interesting if spatial variations were taken into account.

  5. D-serine plasma concentration is a potential biomarker of (R,S)-ketamine antidepressant response in subjects with treatment-resistant depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moaddel, Ruin; Luckenbaugh, David A; Xie, Ying; Villaseñor, Alma; Brutsche, Nancy E; Machado-Vieira, Rodrigo; Ramamoorthy, Anuradha; Lorenzo, Maria Paz; Garcia, Antonia; Bernier, Michel; Torjman, Marc C; Barbas, Coral; Zarate, Carlos A; Wainer, Irving W

    2015-01-01

    (R,S)-ketamine is a rapid and effective antidepressant drug that produces a response in two thirds of patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD). The underlying biochemical differences between a (R,S)-ketamine responder (KET-R) and non-responder (KET-NR) have not been definitively identified but may involve serine metabolism. The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between baseline plasma concentrations of D-serine and its precursor L-serine and antidepressant response to (R,S)-ketamine in TRD patients. Plasma samples were obtained from 21 TRD patients at baseline, 60 min before initiation of the (R,S)-ketamine infusion. Patients were classified as KET-Rs (n = 8) or KET-NRs (n = 13) based upon the difference in Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) scores at baseline and 230 min after infusion, with response defined as a ≥50 % decrease in MADRS score. The plasma concentrations of D-serine and L-serine were determined using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Baseline D-serine plasma concentrations were significantly lower in KET-Rs (3.02 ± 0.21 μM) than in KET-NRs (4.68 ± 0.81 μM), p < 0.001. A significant relationship between baseline D-serine plasma concentrations and percent change in MADRS at 230 min was determined using a Pearson correlation, r = 0.77, p < 0.001, with baseline D-serine explaining 60 % of the variance in (R,S)-ketamine response. The baseline concentrations of L-serine (L-Ser) in KET-Rs were also significantly lower than those measured in KET-NRs (66.2 ± 9.6 μM vs 242.9 ± 5.6 μM, respectively; p < 0.0001). The results demonstrate that the baseline D-serine plasma concentrations were significantly lower in KET-Rs than in KET-NRs and suggest that this variable can be used to predict an antidepressant response following (R,S)-ketamine administration.

  6. On the validity of setting breakpoint minimum inhibition concentrations at one quarter of the plasma concentration achieved following oral administration of oxytetracycline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coyne, R.; Samuelsen, O.; Bergh, Ø.

    2004-01-01

    Plasma concentrations of oxytetracycline (OTC) were established in two Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) pre-smolts populations after they had received OTC medicated feed at a rate of 75 mg OTC/kg over 10 days. One population was experiencing an epizootic of furunculosis in a commercial freshwater farm...

  7. [Proceeding: Production rate, metabolic clearance rate and mean plasma concentration of cortisol in hyperthyroidism (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linquette, M; Lefebvre, J; Racadot, A; Cappoen, J P

    1975-01-01

    The adrenocortical function was studied in 23 patients with hyperthyroidism and compared with a group of 15 normal subjects. Parameters of adrenal function were determined with 1,2(3)H-cortisol. The half-life of cortisol is significantly shortened in hyperthyroidism, as compared to normal subjects (49,5 +/- 6,6 min vs 68,3 +/- 10,5 min) and metabolic clearance rate is increased (418,5 +/- 89,5 L/24 h vs 237,5 +/- 48,5 L/24 h, for normal subjects). The production rate of cortisol, calculated from specific and cumulate activities of THE and THF is increased in hyperthyroidism expressed as mg/24 h or mg/m2/24 h (respectively : 26,7 +/- 7,8 mg/24 h vs 15,7 +/- 3 mg/24 h and 16,9 +/- 4,6 mg/m2/24 h vs 9,5 +/- 1,8 mg/m2/24 h). The mean plasma concentration, calculated as the radio (see article) is not statiscally different in hyperthyroid and normal subjects (6,8 +/- 2,1 microg/100 ml vs 7,3 +/- 1,9 microg/100 ml). 7 patients were reinvestigated after treatment of thyrotoxicosis when they were clinically and biologically in euthyroid state. All the values were normalized, without statistically significant difference from control (T 1/2 = 65,4 +/- 18 min, Metb Cl. Rate : 255 +/- 64,5 L/24 h, production rate : 15,6 +/- 1,8 mg/24 h and 9 +/- 1,4 mg/m2/24 h. mean plasma concentration : 6,8 +/- 2,8 microg/100 ml). Shortened cortisol half life, increased metabolic clearance rate and production rate, and normal mean plasma concentration have been reported in hyperthyroidism (Peterson, Copinschi, Gallagher). These changes, secondary to thyroid hormone excess, are the consequences of increased hepatic catabolism of cortisol. The activity of 11 OH steroid deshydrogenase is increased, as demonstrated by increased ratio (see article) in normal subjects (0,001 less than p less than 0,005). There is a high proportion of 17 kéto metabolites (E, DHE, THE) whose feed-back effect is weak as compared to 17 OH metabolites (F, DHF, THF). The hypothalamo-hypophyso-adrenal system is

  8. Dynamics of plasma catecholamine and corticosterone concentrations during reinforced and extinguished operant behavior in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, S.F.; de Beun, R; Slangen, J L; van der Gugten, J

    Plasma noradrenaline (NA), adrenaline (A) and corticosterone (CS) concentrations were determined simultaneously in permanently heart-cannulated rats before and during the performance of reinforced and nonreinforced (extinguished) operant behavior. Shortly before the experimental food-reinforced (VI

  9. New method for GC/FID and GC-C-IRMS analysis of plasma free fatty acid concentration and isotopic enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangani, Cyrous O; Kelley, David E; Delany, James P

    2008-09-15

    A simple, direct and accurate method for the determination of concentration and enrichment of free fatty acids (FFAs) in human plasma was developed. The validation and comparison to a conventional method are reported. Three amide derivatives, dimethyl, diethyl and pyrrolidide, were investigated in order to achieve optimal resolution of the individual fatty acids. This method involves the use of dimethylamine/Deoxo-Fluor to derivatize plasma free fatty acids to their dimethylamides. This derivatization method is very mild and efficient, and is selective only towards FFAs so that no separation from a total lipid extract is required. The direct method gave lower concentrations for palmitic acid and stearic acid and increased concentrations for oleic acid and linoleic acid in plasma as compared to methyl ester derivative after thin-layer chromatography. The [(13)C]palmitate isotope enrichment measured using direct method was significantly higher than that observed with the BF(3)/MeOH-TLC method. The present method provided accurate and precise measures of concentration as well as enrichment when analyzed with gas chromatography combustion-isotope ratio-mass spectrometry.

  10. Determination of plasma concentrations of organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in pet cats and dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yavuz, Oguzhan; Arslan, Handan Hilal; Esin, Cagatay; Das, Yavuz Kursad; Aksoy, Abdurrahman

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was the determination of plasma concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in cats and dogs and evaluation of their prevalence and possible effects. The concentrations of nine OCPs, such as α-hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH), β-HCH, γ-HCH, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), aldrin, 2,4'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (2,4'-DDT), 4,4'-DDT, 2,4'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (2,4'-DDE) and 4,4'-DDE and 16 PCBs (PCB-28, -52, -70, -74, -81, -99, -101, -118, -138, -153, -156, -170, -180, -183, -187 and -208) were evaluated in the plasma samples of pet cats ( n = 15) and dogs ( n = 21). The concentrations of OCPs ranged from 1.12 ng g -1 lipid weight (lw) to 7.65 ng g -1 lw in cats and from 1.25 ng g -1 lw to 6.79 ng g -1 lw in dogs. In addition, mean PCB levels were 0.58-5.66 and 0.52-6.62 ng g -1 lw in cats and dogs, respectively. β-HCH, γ-HCH and PCB-138 levels were significantly higher in dogs ( p < 0.05). As far as could be determined, OCPs and PCBs were detected in the plasma samples of domestic cats and dogs in Turkey for the first time. Their concentrations were similar to those reported in earlier studies abroad. However, in contrast to other research, the levels of some OCPs were higher in dogs than in cats. It is concluded that, because of their high prevalence and potential health effects in animals and humans, OCP and PCB levels should be monitored systematically in domestic cats and dogs.

  11. Chloroquine, quinine, procaine, quinidine, tricyclic antidepressants, and methylxanthines as prostaglandin agonists and antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manku, M S; Horrobin, D F

    1976-11-20

    Chloroquine, quanine, procaine, quinidine, clomipramine, theophylline, and caffeine have been shown to be strong prostaglandin antagonists and weak agonists. The antagonist effect is clearly demonstrable at concentrations reached in human plasma when the drugs are used therapeutically. This suggests that prostaglandins are important in several situations in which their role has hitherto been unsuspected. New approaches to the development of prostaglandin antagonists and new uses for established drugs are indicated. In a preliminary study chloroquine has been successfully used to close patent ductus arteriosus in three infants.

  12. Increased plasma concentrations of vitamin D metabolites and vitamin D binding protein in women using hormonal contraceptives: a cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liendgaard, Ulla Kristine Møller; við Streym, Susanna; Jensen, Lars Thorbjørn

    2013-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Use of hormonal contraceptives (HC) may influence total plasma concentrations of vitamin D metabolites. A likely cause is an increased synthesis of vitamin D binding protein (VDBP). Discrepant results are reported on whether the use of HC affects free concentrations of vitamin D...... metabolites. AIM: In a cross-sectional study, plasma concentrations of vitamin D metabolites, VDBP, and the calculated free vitamin D index in users and non-users of HC were compared and markers of calcium and bone metabolism investigated. RESULTS: 75 Caucasian women aged 25-35 years were included during......, parathyroid hormone, and calcitonin, p > 0.21) or bone metabolism (plasma bone specific alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and urinary NTX/creatinine ratio) between groups. IN CONCLUSION: Use of HC is associated with 13%-25% higher concentrations of total vitamin D metabolites and VDBP. This however...

  13. Quality assessment of platelet concentrates prepared by platelet rich plasma-platelet concentrate, buffy coat poor-platelet concentrate (BC-PC and apheresis-PC methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Ravindra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Platelet rich plasma-platelet concentrate (PRP-PC, buffy coat poor-platelet concentrate (BC-PC, and apheresis-PC were prepared and their quality parameters were assessed. Study Design: In this study, the following platelet products were prepared: from random donor platelets (i platelet rich plasma - platelet concentrate (PRP-PC, and (ii buffy coat poor- platelet concentrate (BC-PC and (iii single donor platelets (apheresis-PC by different methods. Their quality was assessed using the following parameters: swirling, volume of the platelet concentrate, platelet count, WBC count and pH. Results: A total of 146 platelet concentrates (64 of PRP-PC, 62 of BC-PC and 20 of apheresis-PC were enrolled in this study. The mean volume of PRP-PC, BC-PC and apheresis-PC was 62.30±22.68 ml, 68.81±22.95 ml and 214.05±9.91 ml and ranged from 22-135 ml, 32-133 ml and 200-251 ml respectively. The mean platelet count of PRP-PC, BC-PC and apheresis-PC was 7.6±2.97 x 1010/unit, 7.3±2.98 x 1010/unit and 4.13±1.32 x 1011/unit and ranged from 3.2-16.2 x 1010/unit, 0.6-16.4 x 1010/unit and 1.22-8.9 x 1011/unit respectively. The mean WBC count in PRP-PC (n = 10, BC-PC (n = 10 and apheresis-PC (n = 6 units was 4.05±0.48 x 107/unit, 2.08±0.39 x 107/unit and 4.8±0.8 x 106/unit and ranged from 3.4 -4.77 x 107/unit, 1.6-2.7 x 107/unit and 3.2 - 5.2 x 106/unit respectively. A total of 26 units were analyzed for pH changes. Out of these units, 10 each were PRP-PC and BC-PC and 6 units were apheresis-PC. Their mean pH was 6.7±0.26 (mean±SD and ranged from 6.5 - 7.0 and no difference was observed among all three types of platelet concentrate. Conclusion: PRP-PC and BC-PC units were comparable in terms of swirling, platelet count per unit and pH. As expected, we found WBC contamination to be less in BC-PC than PRP-PC units. Variation in volume was more in BC-PC than PRP-PC units and this suggests that further standardization is required for preparation of BC

  14. Plasma zinc, vitamin B(12) and α-tocopherol are positively and plasma γ-tocopherol is negatively associated with Hb concentration in early pregnancy in north-west Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamim, Abu Ahmed; Kabir, Alamgir; Merrill, Rebecca D; Ali, Hasmot; Rashid, Mahbubur; Schulze, Kerry; Labrique, Alain; West, Keith P; Christian, Parul

    2013-08-01

    The objective of the current analysis was to explore the association of multiple micronutrients with Hb concentration among pregnant women in a South Asian setting, a topic that has not been adequately explored. Sociodemographic, anthropometric and micronutrient status (plasma ferritin, transferrin receptor, retinol, a- and g-tocopherol, folate, vitamin B12, Zn) and Hb concentration were assessed at early pregnancy. The biochemical sub-study was nested within a double-blind, placebo-controlled, community-based vitamin A and b-carotene supplementation trial in rural north-western Bangladesh (JiVitA). All assessments were conducted before trial supplementation was initiated. A systematic sample of 285 women was selected from those enrolled in the biochemical sub-study. Seventeen per cent of women were mildly anaemic; moderate and severe anaemia was uncommon (2.1 %). a-Tocopherol, vitamin B12 and Zn deficiencies were common (43.5%, 19.7% and 14.7%, respectively); however, vitamin A, folate and Fe deficiencies were comparatively rare (7.4%, 2.8% and ,1%,respectively). Plasma Zn, vitamin B12 and a-tocopherol were positively associated and plasma g-tocopherol was negatively associated with Hb (P < 0.05) after adjustment for gestational age, inflammation status, season and nutritional status measured by mid-upper arm circumference. Among pregnant women in rural Bangladesh with minimal Fe deficiency, plasma Zn, vitamin B12, and a- and g-tocopherol concentrations were associated with Hb concentration. Appreciating the influence on Hb of micronutrients in addition to those with known associations with anaemia, such as Fe, folate, and vitamin A, is important when addressing anaemia in similar settings.

  15. Baseline Plasma C-Reactive Protein Concentrations and Motor Prognosis in Parkinson Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Umemura

    Full Text Available C-reactive protein (CRP, a blood inflammatory biomarker, is associated with the development of Alzheimer disease. In animal models of Parkinson disease (PD, systemic inflammatory stimuli can promote neuroinflammation and accelerate dopaminergic neurodegeneration. However, the association between long-term systemic inflammations and neurodegeneration has not been assessed in PD patients.To investigate the longitudinal effects of baseline CRP concentrations on motor prognosis in PD.Retrospective analysis of 375 patients (mean age, 69.3 years; mean PD duration, 6.6 years. Plasma concentrations of high-sensitivity CRP were measured in the absence of infections, and the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale Part III (UPDRS-III scores were measured at five follow-up intervals (Days 1-90, 91-270, 271-450, 451-630, and 631-900.Change of UPDRS-III scores from baseline to each of the five follow-up periods.Change in UPDRS-III scores was significantly greater in PD patients with CRP concentrations ≥0.7 mg/L than in those with CRP concentrations <0.7 mg/L, as determined by a generalized estimation equation model (P = 0.021 for the entire follow-up period and by a generalized regression model (P = 0.030 for the last follow-up interval (Days 631-900. The regression coefficients of baseline CRP for the two periods were 1.41 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.21-2.61 and 2.62 (95% CI 0.25-4.98, respectively, after adjusting for sex, age, baseline UPDRS-III score, dementia, and incremental L-dopa equivalent dose.Baseline plasma CRP levels were associated with motor deterioration and predicted motor prognosis in patients with PD. These associations were independent of sex, age, PD severity, dementia, and anti-Parkinsonian agents, suggesting that subclinical systemic inflammations could accelerate neurodegeneration in PD.

  16. Plasma assisted measurements of alkali metal concentrations in pressurized combustion processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernberg, R.; Haeyrinen, V. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Dept. of Physics

    1996-12-01

    The plasma assisted method for continuous measurement of alkali concentrations in product gas flows of pressurized energy processes will be tested and applied at the 1.6 MW PFBC/G facility at Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands. During the reporting period the alkali measuring device has been tested under pressurized conditions at VTT Energy, DMT, Foster-Wheeler Energia and ABB Carbon. Measurements in Delft will be performed during 1996 after installation of the hot gas filter. The original plan for measurements in Delft has been postponed due to schedule delays in Delft. The results are expected to give information about the influence of different process conditions on the generation of alkali vapours, the comparison of different methods for alkali measurement and the specific performance of our system. This will be the first test of the plasma assisted measurement method in a gasification process. The project belongs to the Joule II extension program under contract JOU2-CT93-0431. (author)