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Sample records for plasma theophylline concentrations

  1. Absorption kinetics and steady-state plasma concentrations of theophylline following therapeutic doses of two sustained-release preparations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, O; Nielsen, M K; Eriksen, P B;

    1983-01-01

    Ten healthy volunteers received two sustained-release preparations as a single and multiple dose regimen in an open crossover study. Plasma theophylline concentrations were measured by an enzyme immunoassay. The limited fluctuation of the theophylline levels at steady state, with twice daily...... formulation, whereas this was not the case for the other (r = 0.27 and 0.49). The daily dose necessary to keep the plasma concentration within the therapeutic range of 55-110 mumole/liter varied from 7.9 to 22.9 mg/kg. Only mild side effects were recorded, but they were not correlated to the plasma...... theophylline concentration....

  2. Plasma concentrations of the cyclic nucleotides, adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate and guanosine 3'.5'-monophosphate, in healthy adults treated with theophylline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, M; Eriksen, P B; Andersen, O;

    1982-01-01

    Plasma concentrations of cyclic adenosine monophosphate and cyclic guanosine monophosphate were measured in 10 health adults before, during and after periods of theophylline administration. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate concentrations did not change significantly, but cyclic guanosine monophosph...

  3. Determination of theophylline concentration in serum by chemiluminescent immunoassay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Mei-xia; GUAN Cha-ying; CHEN Guang; XIE Xin-you; WU Sheng-hai

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to establish chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA) for quantitative determination of theophylline levels in human serum. Methods: To measure the concentration of theophylline (n=122) and evaluate the assay.Results: The linear range of the CLIA method was 0.51~40 mg/L (Y=1.02X+0.44, r=0.995). The intra and inter CV (coefficient variance) of CLIA were 3.20% and 3.57%, respectively. The average recovery rate was 102.3%. This method was free from interference by brilirubin (<200 μmol/L), hemoglobin (<10 g/L), and triglycerides (<15 mmol/L). Conclusion: This method is simple, convenient and precise for clinical pharmacokinetics study oftheophylline.

  4. 胶束电动毛细管色谱法测定人血浆中茶碱的浓度%Determination of Theophylline Concentration in Human Plasma by Micellar Electrokinetic Capillary Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文悦; 翟所迪

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To develop a simple micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography for determination of theo-phylline concentration in human plasma. METHODS: The determination of plasma sample (without any pretreatment) was performed on un - coated fused - silica capillaries (at an effective length of 21 cm) in which the cathodic buffer solution (solution A) was 15 mmol·L~(-1) borax(pH = 10) and the running buffer solution(solution B) was sodium dodecyl sufate (SDS) (200 mmol·L~(-1)) - contained solution A. The sample was injected into capillary by pressure with separation voltage of 12 kV; the UV detection wavelength was set at 280 nm; quantitation was performed by external standard peak area method. RESULTS: The average determination time of each sample was 11 min; the linear range of theophylline was 1.25-40 μg·mL ~(-1) with its lowest detectable limit at 0.5 μg·mL~(-1); the average methodological recovery was 90.33%(RSD = 2.51%); the in-tra-day RSD was 2.3496~3.36% and the inter-day RSD was 2.03%~6.51%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The developed method is simple, rapid and sensitive and it is applicable for the therapeutic drug monitoring of theophylline.%目的:建立以胶束电动毛细管色谱法测定人血浆中茶碱浓度的方法.方法:血浆样品不用任何前处理直接进样测定,采用未涂层石英毛细管(有效长度21 cm),其中阴极缓冲液(A液)为15 mmol·L~(-1)的硼砂(pH10),运行缓冲液(B液)为内含200mmol·L~(-1)十二烷基硫酸钠(SDS)的A液,压力进样,分离电压为12 kV,紫外检测波长为280 nm,外标峰面积法定量.结果:平均每个样品测定11 min;茶碱血药浓度在1.25~40μg·mL~(-1)范围内线性关系良好,最低检测限为0.5 μg·mL~(-1);平均方法回收率为90.33%(RSD=2.51%);日内、日间RSD分别为2.34%~3.36%、2.03%~6.51%.结论:本方法方便、快捷、灵敏,适用于茶碱的治疗药物监测.

  5. Control of methylxanthines in the competition horse: pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic studies on caffeine, theobromine and theophylline for the assessment of irrelevant concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machnik, Marc; Kaiser, Simone; Koppe, Sophie; Kietzmann, Manfred; Schenk, Ina; Düe, Michael; Thevis, Mario; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Toutain, Pierre-Louis

    2016-09-23

    Methylxanthines positives in competition samples have challenged doping control laboratories and racing jurisdictions since methylxanthines are naturally occurring prohibited substances and often constituents of feed. For theobromine, an international threshold (renamed in International Residue Limit, IRL) of 2 µg/mL in urine has been established. On the basis of the data presented herein, a threshold or rather an IRL for theobromine in plasma of 0.3 µg/mL was proposed and was thereupon approved by the International Federation of Horseracing Authorities (IFHA). Official recommendations for reporting caffeine and theophylline are still lacking. The aim of the study was to investigate IRLs for theobromine in blood and for caffeine and theophylline in blood and urine. Therefore, a set of six administrations were carried out including both single i.v. and single oral administrations of caffeine, theobromine and theophylline. Plasma and urine concentrations were determined using a validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Applying the Toutain model approach an effective plasma concentration (EPC) of caffeine was estimated at 3.05 µg/mL, irrelevant concentrations in blood (IPC) and urine (IUC) approached 6 and 12 ng/mL, respectively. EPC of theobromine was calculated with 3.80 µg/mL, and irrelevant concentrations of theobromine were determined at 8 ng/mL in plasma and at 142 ng/mL in urine. Toutain modelling of the theophylline data produced an EPC, IPC, and IUC of 3.20 µg/mL, 6 ng/mL, and 75 ng/mL, respectively. The obtained irrelevant concentrations were used to postulate IRLs for theobromine in plasma and for caffeine and theophylline in plasma and urine. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Depression of vitamin B6 levels due to theophylline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, M R; Keniston, R C; Enriquez, J I; McNamee, G A

    1990-07-01

    Theophylline overdosage can cause life-threatening symptoms, that include seizures and cardiac arrhythmias, and can be fatal. Neither the onset of toxicity nor the severity of symptoms is well predicted by serum theophylline concentrations. Since depressed vitamin B6 plasma levels can occur in patients receiving theophylline, we explored a B6-theophylline interaction in a rabbit model. Administration of theophylline preparations intraperitoneally (aminophylline) or orally (sustained release anhydrous theophylline) resulted in a 47% depression of plasma pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) levels. The 87% increase in PLP with pyridoxine administration was only 18% when aminophylline was also given. The mechanism of the theophylline-B6 interaction is obscure. Ethylenediamine in some theophylline preparations binds directly to PLP, potentially increasing the less direct theophylline effect. Pyridoxine supplementation resulted in higher average PLP levels but did not prevent death in animals with profoundly low PLP levels. If these data apply to humans, B6 deficiency may contribute to chronic theophylline toxicity; however, pyridoxine administration in the dosage used may not prevent toxicity. Larger doses may prove beneficial after further investigation.

  7. Sustained release choline theophyllinate in nocturnal asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhind, G B; Connaughton, J J; McFie, J; Douglas, N J; Flenley, D C

    1985-12-07

    Nocturnal wheeze is common in patients with asthma, and slow release theophyllines may reduce symptoms. As theophyllines are stimulants of the central nervous system the effect of 10 days' twice daily treatment with sustained release choline theophyllinate or placebo on symptoms, overnight bronchoconstriction, nocturnal oxygen saturation, and quality of sleep were studied in a double blind crossover study in nine stable patients with nocturnal asthma (five men, four women, age range 23-64 years; forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) 0.85-3.8 1; vital capacity 1.95-6.1 1). When treated with the active drug all patients had plasma theophylline concentrations of at least 28 mmol/l (5 micrograms/ml) (peak plasma theophylline concentrations 50-144 mmol/l (9-26 micrograms/ml]. Morning FEV1 was higher when treated with sustained release choline theophyllinate (2.7 (SEM 0.3) 1) than placebo (2.1 (0.3) 1) (p less than 0.01). Both daytime and nocturnal symptoms were reduced when the patients were treated with sustained release choline theophyllinate and subjective quality of sleep was improved (p less than 0.002). When treated with the active drug, however, quality of sleep determined by electroencephalography deteriorated with an increase in wakefulness and drowsiness (p less than 0.05) and a reduction in non-rapid eye movement sleep (p less than 0.005). Treatment with choline theophyllinate had no effect on either the occurrence or the severity of transient nocturnal hypoxaemic episodes or apnoeas or hypopnoeas. In conclusion, sustained release choline theophyllinate prevents overnight bronchoconstriction, but impairs quality of sleep defined by electroencephalography.

  8. Modulation of pharmacokinetics of theophylline by antofloxacin, a novel 8-amino-fluoroquinolone, in humans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li LIU; Xian PAN; Hai-yan LIU; Xiao-dong LIU; Hui-wen YANG; Lin XIE; Jun-lin CHENG; Hong-wei FAN; Da-wei XIAO

    2011-01-01

    Aim:To evaluate the pharmacokinetic interactions between theophylline and antofloxacin in vivo and in vitro.Methods:A randomized,5-day treatment and 3-way crossover design was documented in 12 healthy subjects.The subjects were orally administered with antofloxacin (400 mg on d 1 and 200 mg on d 2 to 5),theophylline (100 mg twice a day and morning dose 200 mg on d 1 and 5),or theophylline plus antofloxacin.The plasma and urinary pharmacokinetics of antofloxacin and theophylline were characterized after the first and last dose.The effect of antofioxacin on theophylline metabolism was also investigated in pooled human liver microsomes.Results:The 5-day treatment with antofioxacin significantly increased the area of the plasma concentration-time curve and peak plasma concentration of theophylline,accompanied by a decrease in the excretion of theophylline metabolites.On the contrary,theophylline did not affect the pharmacokinetics of antofloxacin.In vitro studies using pooled human hepatic microsomes demonstrated that antofloxacin was a weak reversible and mechanism-based inhibitor of CYP1A2.The clinical interaction between theophylline and antofloxacin was further validated by the in vitro results.Conclusion:The results showed that antofloxacin increases the plasma theophylline concentration,partly by acting as a mechanismbased inhibitor of CYP1A2.

  9. Extracorporeal treatment for theophylline poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghannoum, Marc; Wiegand, Timothy J; Liu, Kathleen D

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Extracorporeal Treatments in Poisoning workgroup was created to provide evidence-based recommendations on the use of extracorporeal treatments (ECTRs) in poisoning. Here, the workgroup presents its systematic review and recommendations for theophylline. METHODS: After a systematic...... theophylline poisoning (1C). Specific recommendations for ECTR include a theophylline concentration [theophylline] > 100 mg/L (555 μmol/L) in acute exposure (1C), the presence of seizures (1D), life-threatening dysrhythmias (1D) or shock (1D), a rising [theophylline] despite optimal therapy (1D), and clinical...... deterioration despite optimal care (1D). In chronic poisoning, ECTR is suggested if [theophylline] > 60 mg/L (333 μmol/L) (2D) or if the [theophylline] > 50 mg/L (278 μmol/L) and the patient is either less than 6 months of age or older than 60 years of age (2D). ECTR is also suggested if gastrointestinal...

  10. Acute and chronic pharmacokinetics of asymmetrical doses of slow release choline theophyllinate in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibberd, S G; Alveyn, C; Coombes, E J; Holgate, S T

    1986-09-01

    The day and night pharmacokinetics of assymetrical doses of slow release choline theophyllinate (Sabidal SR 270) were compared at day 1 and at day 4 of treatment when steady state had been achieved. Ten patients with chronic asthma were given oral choline theophyllinate 424 mg at 09.00 h and 848 mg at 21.00 h for 4 days. At regular intervals during day 1 and day 4 of treatment theophylline concentrations were measured in plasma and dried blood spots by fluorimmunoassay. Theophylline concentrations measured from dried blood spots were slightly lower than those in plasma, the difference remaining constant at all time points during day 1 and day 4 of treatment. On day 1 the mean peak plasma theophylline concentration was 5.4 +/- 1.0 (+/- s.e. mean) micrograms ml-1 4 h after the morning dose and 11.2 +/- 1.6 micrograms ml-1 4 h after the evening dose which were significantly (P less than 0.01) different. Similarly the areas under the plasma theophylline concentration-time curves at night were significantly (P less than 0.001) greater than those observed during the day. During day 4 mean peak plasma concentrations of theophylline after the morning and larger evening dose were 13.2 +/- 1.3 and 12.1 +/- 1.4 micrograms ml-1 respectively, which were not significantly different. No significant difference was observed between the areas under the plasma theophylline concentration-time curves during the day and at night. However the post-dose time to peak was significantly delayed at night (6 h) compared to the morning (2 h, P less than 0.001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Simultaneous determination of caffeine, theophylline and theobromine in human plasma by on-line solid-phase extraction coupled to reversed-phase chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emara, Samy

    2004-10-01

    A reversed-phase liquid chromatographic column switching system was described for the determination of caffeine (CF), theophylline (TH) and theobromine (TB) in human plasma with a direct injection procedure. A short protein-coated mu Bondapak CN silica pre-column (20 x 3 mm, i.d.) was used for enrichment of the drugs and clean up from weakly retained plasma components using phosphate buffer saline pH 7.4. After washing step, the retained drugs were flushed into a reversed-phase column (5 microm TSK gel ODS-80 TM, 150 x 4.6 mm i.d.) with a mobile phase of methanol-0.01 M phosphate buffer, pH 3.5 (30:70, v/v) for the final separation. The eluent was monitored with a UV detector at 275 nm. The resulting chromatograms showed no interference from endogenous plasma components. A linear relationship between the concentration of drug and peak height was confirmed in the range of 0.5-20 microg/mL for all drugs. High extraction recoveries from plasma ranging from 96.12 to 100.32% were achieved. Validation of the method was examined performing intra- and inter-day accuracy and precision and was found to be satisfactory. The coefficients of variation of the three drugs were less than 3% for intra-day and less than 4% for inter-day run assays.

  12. Effect of pH, buffer concentration and buffer composition on the absorption of theophylline from the small intestine of the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaey, C.J. de; Schurgers, N.

    1984-01-01

    The absorption of theophylline from the small intestine of the rat was investigated using buffer solutions of different pH (3.0–9.2), composition and concentration. The technique used, encloses luminal perfusion of an intestinal loop with collection of the blood draining the perfused loop, which ena

  13. Comparative investigation of the influence of nizatidine, ranitidine, and cimetidine on the steady-state pharmacokinetics of theophylline in COPD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, K; Sullivan, T J; Mauro, L S; Martin, M; Jauregui, L; Levine, L

    1992-05-01

    The influence of usual regimens of the H2 blocking drugs, cimetidine, ranitidine, and nizatidine on the steady-state plasma concentrations and pharmacokinetic characteristics of theophylline was studied in seventeen patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Patients were dosed to steady-state with an oral, sustained-release formulation of theophylline given in therapeutic doses twice daily for 2 weeks. Over the next 4 weeks, each patient received a week-long regimen of each H2 blocker concomitantly with theophylline, and a week-long regimen of theophylline alone (control). At the end of each of the latter 4 weeks the steady-state pharmacokinetics of theophylline were assessed. Neither ranitidine nor nizatidine treatment altered the steady-state pharmacokinetics of theophylline relative to the control phase (i.e. no H2 blocker treatment). Values for theophylline C(ave), Cssmax, AUC0-12, and CLoral were significantly different during cimetidine treatment compared with all other treatments (ranitidine, nizatidine, and control). Cimetidine increased theophylline Cssmax, AUC0-12 and Cave by approximately 32%, and decreased theophylline oral clearance by approximately 23%. The authors conclude that cimetidine alters the steady-state pharmacokinetics of theophylline in COPD patients, whereas ranitidine and nizatidine are without effect.

  14. Invivo absorption behaviour of theophylline from starch-methyl methacrylate matrix tablets in beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Campos, F; Ferrero, C; Colom, H; Jiménez-Castellanos, M R

    2015-01-30

    This study evaluates in vivo the drug absorption profiles from potato starch-methyl methacrylate matrices(*) using theophylline as a model drug. Healthy beagle dogs under fasting conditions were used for in vivo studies and plasma samples were analyzed by a fluorescence polarization immunoassay analysis (FPIA method). Non-compartmental and compartmental (population approach) analysis was performed to determine the pharmacokinetic parameters. The principle of superposition was applied to predict multiple dose plasma concentrations from experimental single dose data. An in vitro-in vivo correlation (IVIVC) was also assessed. The sustained absorption kinetics of theophylline from these formulations was demonstrated by comparison with two commercially available oral sustained-release theophylline products (Theo-Dur(®) and Theolair(®)). A one-compartment model with first order kinetics without lag-time best describes the absorption/disposition of theophylline from the formulations. Results revealed a theophylline absorption rate in the order FD-HSMMA≥Theo-Dur(®)≥OD-CSMMA>Theolair(®)≥FD-CSMMA. On the basis of simulated plasma theophylline levels, a twice daily dosage (every 12h) with the FD-CSMMA tablets should be recommended. A Level C IVIVC was found between the in vitrot50% and the in vivo AUC/D, although further optimization of the in vitro dissolution test would be needed to adequately correlate with in vivo data.

  15. A multiple-dose study of sustained-release theophylline and aminophylline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, M C; Straughn, A B; Lieberman, P

    1980-08-01

    This study evaluated the relative bioavailability of a sustained-release capsule of theophylline, an elixir of theophylline, and a sustained-release tablet of aminophylline. Twelve healthy, nonsmoking, adult male subjects received nine doses of each of the three products in a crossover study conducted over a ten-day period. Each dosage form contained approximately 250 mg of theophylline and was administered every eight hours. Concentrations of theophylline in the plasma at steady state demonstrated the equivalence of the three dosage forms in terms of the percent of drug absorbed, including the tablet which had exhibited reduced bioavailability in an earlier single-dose study of only five subjects. The steady-state average concentrations of theopylline in the plasma were 9.8 micrograms/ml, 10.3 micrograms/ml and 10.8 micrograms/ml for the tablet, capsulse, and elixir, respectively. The areas under the curves of the plasma level vs time for the three dosage forms were within 9 percent of each other. These data indicate that a significant reduction in fluctuations of the plasma level of theophylline was achieved with the two sustained-release dosage forms, compared to the elixir.

  16. Theophylline in the Treatment of Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanseli Efeoğlu Gönlügür

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Theophylline is a drug used for the treatment of obstructive airway diseases. It inhibits the enzyme phosphodiesterase, thereby preventing the intracellular break-down of cyclic AMP. Potentially beneficial therapeutic effects of theophylline include bronchial smooth-muscle relaxation, enhanced mucociliary transport, decrease in pulmonary hypertension, improved diaphragmatic contractility, and central stimulation of ventilation. On the other hand, theophylline evokes a concentration- and time-dependent decrease in DNA synthesis in human breast cancer cells. Theophylline-treated melanoma cells exhibit low adhesion to laminin/collagen type IV. Consequently, theophylline possesses the capacity to inhibit not only cell proliferation, but also the metastatic behaviour of melanoma cells. This drug prevents neovascularization of the tumor by blocking endothelial cell proliferation. The combination of theophylline with cytotoxic drugs may permit a reduction in the effective dose needed in chemotherapy treatment of lung cancer patients. It has also a prophylactic effect on the nephrotoxicity due to cisplatin. However, this drug may inhibit small cell lung cancer cells but stimulate pulmonary adenocarcinoma cells. It is necessary to perform large, prospective studies for the exact role of theophylline on each type of lung cancer.

  17. H2-antagonist derangement of the kinetics of sustained-release oral theophylline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dal Negro, R; Turco, P; Zoccatelli, O; Trevisan, F; Pomart, C

    1985-06-01

    The authors have evaluated the interference of the H2-antagonists cimetidine and ranitidine with the elimination kinetics of sustained-release anhydrous theophylline, administered per os at the dose of 300 mg b.i.d. in two randomly selected groups of patients suffering from chronic obstructive lung disease. The plasma theophylline trends (obtained over a 12-hour period) were compared in the two groups in basal conditions (on reaching the theophylline steady state) and after 8 days treatment with cimetidine or ranitidine. In addition, the bronchodilator effect of theophylline was evaluated in these experimental conditions by means of FEV1 measurements. Simultaneous administration of ranitidine produced no changes in theophylline elimination, and the bronchodilator effect of theophylline proved both substantial and systematic in the patients treated with this H2-antagonist. On the other hand, the patients treated with cimetidine showed a marked, systematic increase in theophylline plasma levels, even exceeding the upper limit of its known therapeutic range in 4 cases. Despite this, no evidence of a bronchodilator effect was found in the cimetidine-treated patients, while significant effects attributable to theophylline toxicity were observed in the 4 cases with excessive theophylline plasma levels. The simultaneous administration of cimetidine in patients treated with sustained-release anhydrous theophylline thus proved capable of seriously undermining the strategy of theophylline usage precisely on account of the high degree of bioavailability of theophylline in the sustained-release formulation.

  18. Structural features of DNA interaction with caffeine and theophylline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafisi, Shohreh; Manouchehri, Firouzeh; Tajmir-Riahi, Heidar-Ali; Varavipour, Maryam

    2008-03-01

    Caffeine and theophylline are strong antioxidants that prevent DNA damage. The anticancer and antiviral activities of these natural products are implicated in their mechanism of actions. However, there has been no information on the interactions of these xanthine derivatives with individual DNA at molecular level. The aim of this study was to examine the stability and structural features of calf-thymus DNA complexes with caffeine and theophylline in aqueous solution, using constant DNA concentration (6.25 mM) and various caffeine or theophylline/DNA(P) ratios of 1/80, 1/40, 1/20, 1/10, 1/5, 1/2 and 1/1. FTIR, UV-visible spectroscopic methods were used to determine the ligand external binding modes, the binding constant and the stability of caffeine, theophylline-DNA complexes in aqueous solution. Spectroscopic evidence showed that the complexation of caffeine and theophylline with DNA occurred via G-C and A-T and PO 2 group with overall binding constants of K(caffeine-DNA) = 9.7 × 10 3 M -1 and K(theophylline-DNA) = 1.7 × 10 4 M -1. The affinity of ligand-DNA binding is in the order of theophylline > caffeine. A partial B to A-DNA transition occurs upon caffeine and theophylline complexation.

  19. Theophylline-ranitidine interaction in elderly COPD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukier, A; Vargas, F S; Santos, S R; Donzella, H; Terra-Filho, M; Teixeira, L R; Light, R W

    1995-08-01

    Most controlled studies in humans indicate that ranitidine does not alter theophylline metabolism, even at high doses. However, there have been several case reports published recently which demonstrate the development of theophylline toxicity mostly in older patients receiving stable oral doses of this drug when ranitidine was administered simultaneously. We studied eleven elderly (mean age, 69.0 +/- 6.2 years) patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). During one week the patients took slow-release theophylline, 200 mg every 12 h, followed by one week intake of the same dose of theophylline plus ranitidine tablets, 150 mg every 12 h. At the end of each period, blood samples were obtained 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 12 h after the morning dose for the determination of serum theophylline levels. The peak theophylline concentration (Tmax) was achieved after 4.1 +/- 0.9 h while the patients were taking theophylline, and after 2.9 +/- 1.4 h with the combined regimen. This difference was statistically significant (P ranitidine cannot be ascribed to slower theophylline metabolism in the geriatric patients with COPD who is also given ranitidine.

  20. Acute Theophylline Intoxication: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehra Baykal Tutal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Theophylline is an efficient bronchodilatator, which is used in the treatment of the disease such like Chronic Obstructive Pulmoner Disease (COPD neonatal apnea, bradycardial syndrome. Blood levels of theophylline above 15 ug/ml have risk of intoxication. Acute and chronic intoxication can be seen. Nausea, vomitin, agitation, palpitation and metabolic abnormalities such as, hyperglisemia, hypokalemia, impairment in acid base equilibrium and leukocytosis can be seen in acute theophylline intoxication. Acute theophylline intoxications can result life threatening situations such as convulsions, ventricular arrhythmias and death. Theophylline intoxications are often iatrogenic. In this case, the clinical course of a patient with COPD who took theophylline with the intention of suicide attempt is to mentioned and discussion of diagnosis, treatment and clinical course of acute theophylline intoxication was to aimed.

  1. Bioavailability of sustained-release theophylline formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonora Regazzi, M; Rondanelli, R; Vidale, E; Cristiani, D

    1983-05-01

    Sustained-release formulations of theophylline as well as of other drugs are designed to effect a delayed but constant release of the active principle in the gastrointestinal tract, thus ensuring more prolonged blood level curves. This study was made to assess the bioavailability of two sustained-release microencapsulated formulations and one sustained-release Diffucaps formulation, in comparison with an equivalent dose of theophylline solution. As regards bioavailability, none of the three formulations differed significantly from the reference formulation. The blood levels at steady state were estimated on the basis of data obtained after a single-dose study. All three sustained release formulations showed good results after prolonged administration in terms of peaks and troughs. The time duration at which the theophylline plasma levels remain higher than 75% of the maximum steady-state levels, following 12-h dosing interval, was evaluated: for the sustained-release microencapsulated formulations this time duration reaches 100% of the dosing interval. A multiple-dose administration of the sustained-release formulations used in this study should guarantee almost complete time coverage, with blood levels sharply exceeding the minimum threshold level of the theophylline therapeutic range.

  2. Plasma fibronectin concentrations in morbidly obese patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dejgaard, A; Andersen, T; Christoffersen, Pernille Yde

    1984-01-01

    Plasma fibronectin concentrations and liver morphology were investigated in 45 morbidly obese subjects (median overweight 88%) and in 42 normal weight controls, matched for sex and age. A significantly (P less than 0.01) raised plasma fibronectin concentration (median 464 mg/l, range 276-862 mg....../l) was found in the obese subjects when compared with concentrations in the controls (median 348 mg/l, range 164-536 mg/l). Plasma fibronectin concentrations of the obese patients correlated significantly to their degree of overweight (r = 0.33, P less than 0.05) as well as to the degree of fatty change found...... in their liver biopsies (r = 0.33, P less than 0.05). Significantly (P less than 0.05) elevated plasma fibronectin concentrations even in obese subjects without hepatic fatty change indicate that liver fat accumulation is no prerequisite of the obesity-related elevation of plasma fibronectin. Raised plasma...

  3. Theophylline pharmacokinetics during hyperbaria and hyperbaric hyperoxia in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, W G; Gross, D R; Fife, W P; Chaikin, B N

    1981-12-01

    The effect of hyperbaria and hyperbaric hyperoxia on the disposition kinetics of theophylline were investigated in the dog. The drug was administered as a 5 mg/kg iv bolus at 1 atmospheres absolute (ATA), 2.8 ATA and 6 ATA. Serial blood samples were collected over an eight hour period and analyzed for theophylline concentration using a gas chromatographic method. From the resultant data, elimination half-life, volume of distribution and total body clearance were calculated. There were no apparent effects of hyperbaria or hyperbaric hyperoxia on any of the parameters describing theophylline disposition, implying that, in the animal model studied, distribution, elimination and effect should remain constant.

  4. Theophylline: a haemoperfusion modelisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, D; Guenzet, J; Bourin, M

    1985-05-01

    A dynamic study of the kinetics of theophylline adsorption in aqueous medium by two adsorbent resins is proposed. The adsorption process involves Van der Walls pattern physical bonds. An in vitro haemoperfusion apparatus was schematized and data describing the adsorption-desorption process was obtained. A mathematical treatment led to the conclusion that first-order adsorption and desorption rates are involved, results which led to the consideration of a model of in vivo haemoperfusion in the case of first-order adsorption and desorption, with first-order corporeal elimination. The results indicate that one of the resins used, Amberlite XAD4, already known as a haemocompatible resin, is useful in eliminating theophylline.

  5. Theophylline enhances glucose recovery after hypoglycemia in healthy man and in type I diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidberg, A; Rasmussen, M H; Christensen, N J;

    1994-01-01

    ). The incremental AUC for cAMP was larger with theophylline for diabetic patients (P = .01). For healthy subjects, cAMP was greater with theophylline 30 minutes after insulin (P = .03). In conclusion, glucose recovery after hypoglycemia is significantly increased when theophylline is administered in an asthma...... after insulin-induced hypoglycemia. Eleven healthy subjects and nine type I (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients each participated in two experiments in randomized order, receiving on both days an insulin bolus of 0.15 IU/kg soluble insulin. On one day, theophylline (intravenous [IV] bolus of 220 mg......) was larger with theophylline than with NaCl (P = .04 for diabetic patients and P = .003 for healthy subjects). During the most active phase of glucose counterregulation, the rate of increase of plasma glucose was larger with theophylline (P = .003 for diabetic patients and P = .03 for healthy subjects...

  6. Plasma lipid concentrations for some Brazilian lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillett, M P; Lima, V L; Costa, J C; Sibrian, A M

    1979-01-01

    1. Plasma concentrations of cholesterol, cholesteryl esters, phospholipids and triglycerides were determined for ten species of Brazilian lizards, Iguana iguana, Tropidurus torquatos and T. semitaeniatus (Iguanidae), Tupinambis teguixin, Ameiva ameiva and Cnemidophorus ocellifer (Teiidae), Mabuya maculata (Scincidae), Hemidactylus mabouia (Gekkonidae), Amphisbaenia vermicularis and Leposternon polystegum (Amphisbaenidae). 2. Considerable inter- and intra-species variations in plasma lipid concentrations were observed. 3. The percentage of total cholesterol esterified and the individual phospholipid composition of plasma were relatively constant for each species. 4. Over 60% of the cholesteryl esters present in plasma from three species each of iguanid and teiid lizards were polyenoic.

  7. Increased plasma fibronectin concentrations in obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, T; Dejgaard, A; Astrup, A

    1987-01-01

    In 23 morbidly obese patients we investigated the influence of a large weight loss (30.6 kg, range 17.5-90.8) on the plasma fibronectin concentrations. Further, changes in plasma fibronectin were related to serum insulin levels and to liver biochemistry. Between the measurements patients had been...

  8. Use of theophylline in the investigation of pseudothrombocytopenia induced by edetic acid (EDTA-2K).

    OpenAIRE

    1988-01-01

    In automated cell counting of edetic acid (EDTA-2K) anticoagulated blood, thrombocytopenia is occasionally seen which bears no relation to any underlying disease. In this study a heparin and soluble theophylline mixture was used to measure accurately platelet numbers in patients with such pseudothrombocytopenia. In four normal volunteers, a theophylline concentration of more than 7 mg/ml produced no significant difference in platelet numbers between theophylline and heparin and EDTA-2K antico...

  9. Plasma catecholamine concentrations associated with cerebral vasospasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loach, A B; Benedict, C R

    1980-03-01

    Plasma concentrations of adrenaline and noradrenaline were measured sequentially over the immediate post-operative period following clipping of an intracranial aneurysm in 11 patients. Those patients who developed local cerebral vasospasm showed a sustained rise in plasma catecholamines, particularly noradrenaline, whilst those patients who developed generalised cerebral vasospasm showed early peaks of very high concentrations of adrenaline and noradrenaline which preceded radiological evidence of generalized vasospam.

  10. Use of theophylline in the investigation of pseudothrombocytopenia induced by edetic acid (EDTA-2K).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnuma, O; Shirata, Y; Miyazawa, K

    1988-08-01

    In automated cell counting of edetic acid (EDTA-2K) anticoagulated blood, thrombocytopenia is occasionally seen which bears no relation to any underlying disease. In this study a heparin and soluble theophylline mixture was used to measure accurately platelet numbers in patients with such pseudothrombocytopenia. In four normal volunteers, a theophylline concentration of more than 7 mg/ml produced no significant difference in platelet numbers between theophylline and heparin and EDTA-2K anticoagulated bloods. When blood treated with EDTA-2K was used in seven patients with pseudothrombocytopenia, falsely low platelet counts were observed in three patients immediately after sampling; in blood treated with theophylline, white cell and platelet counts remained unchanged for up to six hours after sampling. Microscopical examination of the EDTA-2K anticoagulated blood showed massive platelet clumping, but no aggregates were seen in theophylline anticoagulated blood. It is concluded that theophylline can be useful in the investigation of pseudothrombocytopenia when an automated cell counter is used.

  11. Plasma Glutamine Concentrations in Liver Failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnel Helling

    Full Text Available Higher than normal plasma glutamine concentration at admission to an intensive care unit is associated with an unfavorable outcome. Very high plasma glutamine levels are sometimes seen in both acute and chronic liver failure. We aimed to systematically explore the relation between different types of liver failure and plasma glutamine concentrations.Four different groups of patients were studies; chronic liver failure (n = 40, acute on chronic liver failure (n = 20, acute fulminant liver failure (n = 20, and post-hepatectomy liver failure (n = 20. Child-Pugh and Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD scores were assessed as indices of liver function. All groups except the chronic liver failure group were followed longitudinally during hospitalisation. Outcomes were recorded up to 48 months after study inclusion.All groups had individuals with very high plasma glutamine concentrations. In the total group of patients (n = 100, severity of liver failure correlated significantly with plasma glutamine concentration, but the correlation was not strong.Liver failure, regardless of severity and course of illness, may be associated with a high plasma glutamine concentration. Further studies are needed to understand whether high glutamine levels should be regarded as a biomarker or as a contributor to symptomatology in liver failure.

  12. Increased plasma fructosamine concentrations in laminitic horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, E J; Withers, J M; Mair, T S

    2012-03-01

    The use of plasma fructosamine concentration ([fructosamine]) as a marker of abnormal glucose homeostasis in laminitic horses has not been investigated. Plasma fructosamine concentration may be higher amongst laminitic horses than normal horses; this might relate to underlying insulin resistance. 1) To compare [fructosamine] between laminitic and normal horses. 2) To investigate associations between [fructosamine] at presentation in laminitic horses with a) single sample markers of insulin resistance and b) outcome. Plasma fructosamine concentration, fasting serum insulin concentration (insulin) and fasting plasma glucose concentration (glucose) were measured in 30 horses that presented with laminitis. Clinical details and follow-up data were recorded. Plasma fructosamine concentration was also measured in 19 nonlaminitic control horses. Laminitic horses had significantly higher mean [fructosamine] than normal horses (P<0.001). Thirteen of 30 laminitic horses had fasting hyperinsulinaemia, 2/30 had fasting hyperglycaemia. Statistically significant univariable correlations were identified between [fructosamine] and [glucose], [insulin] and the proxies RISQI and MIRG. Trends for association between [fructosamine] and negative outcome did not reach statistical significance. Increased mean [fructosamine] in laminitic horses may represent abnormal glycaemic control and [fructosamine] may become a clinically useful marker. © 2011 EVJ Ltd.

  13. Effect of pretreatment with ranitidine on the pharmacokinetics and gastrointestinal transit of a sustained release theophylline preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, C G; Washington, N; Greaves, J L; Blackshaw, P E; Perkins, A C; Barkworth, M F; Rehm, K D

    1991-11-01

    A scintigraphic and pharmacokinetic study of the behaviour of (Bronchoretard forte, CAS 58-55-9) was carried out in 8 healthy male volunteers to evaluate the sensitivity of the preparation to changes in gastric pH. Volunteers were pretreated with ranitidine (CAS 66357-35-5) (150 mg b.d.) or placebo for three days prior to and on the study day to reduce gastric acidity. The effect of the pretreatment with ranitidine on gastric pH was measured on the prestudy day and the mean pH was significantly reduced compared to the placebo (ranitidine pH 2.2 +/- 2.4; placebo pH 1.6 +/- 2.0, p less than 0.01 Wilcoxon Signed Rank test). All subjects were pretreated with theophylline for 3 days (500 mg b.d.) to achieve steady-state. On the study day the volunteers swallowed two theophylline sustained release capsules radiolabelled by inclusion of indium-111 micronised Amberlite resin and the gastrointestinal transit followed continuously for 14 h using gamma scintigraphy with a further image at 24 h. Blood samples were taken from each subject throughout the study to determine the pharmacokinetic profile of theophylline when presented in the sustained release formulation. No significant differences were found in the gastrointestinal transit of the labelled microparticulates between the data obtained from the group when treated with ranitidine or placebo. Plasma theophylline concentration profiles were identical for the two treatments. These data indicate that the theophylline sustained release formulation is not sensitive to the effects of major changes in gastric H+ concentration.

  14. Doxepin concentrations in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomburg, Robert; Remane, Daniela; Fassbender, Klaus; Maurer, Hans H; Spiegel, Jörg

    2011-04-01

    Doxepin--like other antidepressant drugs (ADs)--shows a variable antidepressant effect in clinical practice. The cause for this variability is as yet unclear; however, pharmacokinetic factors such as the variable permeability of doxepin into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), may contribute to the difference in therapeutic efficacy. We measured and correlated the concentration of doxepin and its active metabolite nordoxepin in both the plasma and CSF. Plasma and CSF samples were taken simultaneously from 21 patients who were treated with doxepin due to different clinical indications. The plasma concentration of both doxepin and nordoxepin correlated significantly with the oral dosage of doxepin (doxepin: r = +0.66, p < 0.001; nordoxepin: r = +0.78, p < 0.0001; Spearman's correlation). Furthermore, we found significant correlations between the plasma and CSF concentrations of both doxepin (r = +0.71; p < 0.001; Pearson's correlation) and nordoxepin (r = +0.74; p < 0.001). These highly significant correlations between the plasma and CSF concentrations indicate a constant CSF permeability of doxepin and its active metabolite nordoxepin.

  15. Plasma carnitine concentrations after chronic alcohol intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kępka, Alina; Waszkiewicz, Napoleon; Zalewska-Szajda, Beata; Chojnowska, Sylwia; Płudowski, Paweł; Konarzewska, Emilia; Szulc, Agata; Ladny, Jerzy Robert; Zwierz, Krzysztof; Szajda, Sławomir Dariusz

    2013-05-31

    Carnitine transports fatty acids from the cytoplasm to the mitochondrial matrix, where the fatty acids are oxidized. Chronic alcohol consumption reduces the concentration of carnitine and interferes with oxidative processes occurring in the cell. The assessment of carnitine concentrations in plasma of chronically intoxicated alcohol dependent persons in a 49-day abstinence period. The study included 31 patients (5 women and 27 men) aged from 26 to 60 years (44.6 ± 8.9) and 32 healthy subjects (15 women and 17 men) aged 22-60 years (39.8 ± 9.4). The patients' alcohol dependence ranged from 2 to 30 years (13.6 ± 7.5). Examined subjects consumed 75-700 g of ethanol/day (226.9 ± 151.5). Plasma concentrations of free and total carnitine were measured three times: at the first (T0), 30th (T30) and 49th (T49) day of hospital detoxification. Free (FC) and total (TC) carnitine were determined by the spectrophotometric method. Plasma acylcarnitine (AC) concentration was calculated from the difference between TC and FC; then the AC/FC ratio was calculated. To determine statistically significant differences for related variables, Student's t-test was used. At T0, alcoholics had significantly lower concentration of FC and TC (p < 0.05) in plasma, as compared to the control group. In comparison to controls, at T30, plasma TC and FC (p < 0.01) as well as AC (p < 0.001) were reduced. The lowest concentration of TC, FC and AC (p < 0.001)was found at T49. The ratio of AC/FC at T0 had a tendency to be higher in alcoholics than in the control group (p = 0.05), whereas at T49 it was significantly lower in alcoholics as compared to the control subjects (p < 0.05). Chronic alcohol intoxication causes a plasma deficiency of carnitine. Forty-nine days of abstinence showed a significant decrease in the concentration of TC, FC and AC. Further research is necessary to clarify whether a low level of plasma carnitine after chronic alcohol intoxication is caused by the uptake of blood

  16. Effect of extracellular calcium on the additive effect of theophylline on the cardiac response to catecholamine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamkuwar Prashant

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available At different extracellular calcium concentrations, the positive inotropic effect of isoproterenol and isoproterenol in combination with theophylline, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor have been evaluated in the isolated frog heart and the isolated guinea pig left atria to investigate whether extracellular calcium produces any effect on the additive effect of the theophylline on the cardiac response to catecholamine. Cumulative dose response study of isoproterenol and isoproterenol in presence of theophylline at different extracellular calcium concentration was performed. The study revealed an increase in additive effect of theophylline on the cardiac response to catecholamine with increase in extracellular calcium concentration, but increase in extracellular calcium concentration decreased the myocardial responsiveness to additive effect of theophylline and isoproterenol combination. The mechanism of positive inotropic effect of isoproterenol and in combination with theophylline involves increase in intracellular cAMP by different pathways and extracellular calcium produces positive inotropic effect by initiating the interaction between the contractile proteins actin and myosin. The study revealed that an increase in the concentration of extracellular calcium increased the additive effect of theophylline and isoproterenol combination, but a decrease in the myocardial responsiveness was observed.

  17. [The effect of pretreatment with ranitidine on the pharmacokinetics and gastrointestinal transit of a sustained-release theophylline preparation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, C G; Washington, N; Greaves, J L; Blackshaw, P E; Perkins, A C; Barkworth, M F; Rehm, K D

    1998-05-01

    A scintigraphic and pharmacokinetic study of the behavior of Bronchoretard forte (theophylline, CAS 58-55-9) was carried out in 8 healthy male volunteers to evaluate the sensitivity of the preparation to changes in gastric pH. The volunteers were pretreated with ranitidine (CAS 66357-35-5) (150 mg b.i.d.) or placebo for three days prior to and on the study day to reduce gastric acidity. The effect of the pretreatment with ranitidine on gastric pH was measured on the day before study begin and the mean pH was significantly increased compared to the placebo (ranitidine pH 2.2 +/- 2.4; placebo pH 1.6 +/- 2.0, p formulation. No significant differences were found in the gastrointestinal transit of the labelled microparticulates between the data obtained from the group treated with ranitidine and that from the placebo group. Plasma theophylline concentration profiles were identical for the two treatments. These data indicate that the theophylline sustained release formulation is not sensitive to the effects of major changes in gastric H+ concentration.

  18. Plasma homocysteine concentrations in novel microminipigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakimoto, Toshiaki; Otsuka, Akira; Kawaguchi, Hiroaki; Ogata, Kenji; Tanimoto, Akihide; Kanouchi, Hiroaki

    2014-01-01

    A novel microminipig has been recently developed for use in biomedical research. In the present study, age- and sex-related differences, as well as 24-h fluctuations in plasma total homocysteine concentrations (tHcy), were investigated in these microminipigs. tHcy (mean±SD) was 10.2±3.4 μM and significantly correlated with age. By contrast, neither the differences in tHcy between sexes nor the 24-h fluctuations in tHcy after feeding were significant. The kinetics of plasma tHcy after intravenous injection of reduced Hcy showed that its levels peaked within 5 min post-injection, as did the levels of tHcy. These results suggested that reduced Hcy is rapidly oxidized or metabolized. The half-lives of reduced Hcy, tHcy, and reduced cysteine in the blood were 47, 71, and 141 min, respectively. In conclusion, there was a significantly positive correlation between age and plasma tHcy in microminipigs. After intravenous injection of reduced Hcy, plasma tHcy quickly returned to pre-injection levels. Copyright © 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  19. Plasma bupivacaine concentrations following psoas compartment block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odoom, J A; Zuurmond, W W; Sih, I L; Bovill, J; Osterlöf, G; Oosting, H V

    1986-02-01

    Fourteen patients undergoing hip replacement surgery under psoas compartment block combined with general anaesthesia were studied. Group 1 (n = 7) received plain and Group 2 (n = 7) received 0.25% bupivacaine with adrenaline. The mean maximum peak concentrations were 1.93 (SEM 0.46) micrograms/ml and 1.04 (SEM 0.19) micrograms/ml at 10 minutes in groups 1 and 2 respectively. Bupivacaine concentrations were higher at all times in the group which received plain than the group receiving solution containing adrenaline. These differences were statistically significant at 10, 15 (p less than 0.05) and 30 minutes (p less than 0.025). The highest recorded plasma bupivacaine concentration was 4.54 micrograms/ml in one patient receiving plain bupivacaine. No patient developed any signs of toxic symptoms. The duration of analgesia was longer (p less than 0.005) in the group receiving bupivacaine with adrenaline. Bupivacaine 0.25% with adrenaline 1:200 000 is safe for psoas compartment block, and is recommended for hip surgery.

  20. Drug interactions between theophylline and H2-antagonists, roxatidine acetate hydrochloride and cimetidine: pharmacokinetic analysis in rats in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, N; Furuhata, M; Ogata, H

    1995-11-01

    The effects of roxatidine acetate hydrochloride (Rox) on the pharmacokinetics of theophylline were compared to those of cimetidine in rats in vivo, Cimetidine or Rox was maintained at a steady state level using continuous infusion, then theophylline was injected into the rats as a bolus (7.5 mg/kg). Cimetidine showed competitive inhibition of theophylline elimination in vivo, with an inhibition constant (Ki) of 28.5 microM. Cimetidine significantly decreased the total body clearance and extended the plasma half-life of theophylline, but did not change its volume of distribution. In contrast, Rox did not significantly influence the pharmacokinetics of theophylline in rats. The in vivo animal model used in the present study for investigating the mechanism of the drug interaction showed good agreement with the results obtained in clinical and in vitro studies.

  1. Food induced changes in theophylline absorption from a once-a-day theophylline product.

    OpenAIRE

    Steffensen, G.; Pedersen, S.

    1986-01-01

    Bioavailability and the absorption pattern of theophylline from the sustained release theophylline (SRT) product, Uniphyllin, were studied in eight adults and eight children under fasting conditions in the morning, after a standardised breakfast in the morning, and under fasting conditions in the evening (adults only). Theophylline given intravenously was used as a reference. The extent of absorption of theophylline was complete for all administrations of SRT both in adults and children. In a...

  2. Effects of Saiko-ka-ryukotsu-borei-to, a Japanese Kampo medicine, on tachycardia and central nervous system stimulation induced by theophylline in rats and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanae, F; Hayashi, H; Chisaki, K; Komatsu, Y

    1999-03-01

    Effects of Saiko-ka-ryukotsu-borei-to (SRBT) on theophylline-induced tachycardia in anesthetized rats and theophylline-induced locomotion and convulsions in mice were examined. An intraduodenal administration of SRBT (1 g/kg) prevented theophylline (5 mg/kg, i.v.)-induced tachycardia in rats. SRBT also attenuated an increase in arterial blood pressure with a slow reduction in heart rate of rats treated with theophylline, with no influence on the plasma level of theophylline. However, SRBT did not change the beating rate of right atrium isolated from rats in the absence or presence of theophylline or isoproterenol. The locomotor activity of theophylline in mice was reduced by the treatment with SRBT. Furthermore, the latency of convulsions in mice induced by administration of theophylline at a higher dose (240 mg/kg, i.p.) was prolonged by treatment with SRBT (1 g/kg, p.o.) and seven out of fifteen mice were saved from death due to convulsions. These results suggest that theophylline-induced tachycardia and central nervous stimulation are suppressed by SRBT and that SRBT may reduce the undesirable actions of theophylline on the cardiovascular and central nervous systems.

  3. Predictors of plasma zinc concentrations in children with acute diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Tor A; Adhikari, Ramesh K; Chandyo, Ram K; Sharma, Pushpa R; Sommerfelt, Halvor

    2004-03-01

    Plasma and serum zinc concentrations are the most widely used markers of zinc status in individual persons and populations. The objective was to identify factors that influence plasma zinc concentrations during acute childhood diarrhea. This was a cross-sectional study of 1757 cases of acute diarrhea in 6-35-mo-old Nepalese children. The association between plasma zinc concentration and several clinical, anthropometric, socioeconomic, and biochemical variables was estimated in simple and multiple linear regression analyses. We observed a reduction in the mean plasma zinc concentration of 0.59 (95% CI: 0.44, 0.74) micro mol/L per degree ( degrees C) increase in axillary temperature. Having dysentery and an elevated plasma C-reactive protein concentration was also independently associated with lower plasma zinc. Children with clinical features of dehydration had higher plasma zinc concentrations than did those who were not dehydrated. Furthermore, a decrease in plasma albumin of 1 g/L was associated with a decrease in plasma zinc of 0.25 (95% CI: 0.21, 0.29) micro mol/L. The plasma albumin concentration confounded the associations between some clinical variables and plasma zinc, but the association between axillary temperature and dehydration on one hand and plasma zinc on the other was not substantially influenced by the albumin concentration. Moreover, the plasma zinc concentration increased with an increase in observed hemolysis. Dehydration, clinical and biochemical indicators of inflammation and hemolysis, and, when possible, plasma albumin concentrations should be taken into account when the plasma zinc concentration is used to estimate zinc status during episodes of diarrhea in childhood.

  4. Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic effects of flumazenil and theophylline application in rats acutely intoxicated by diazepam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šegrt Zoran

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The majority of symptoms and signs of acute diazepam poisoning are the consequence of its sedative effect on the CNS affecting selectively polisynaptic routes by stimulating inhibitory action of GABA. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of combined application of theophylline and flumazenil on sedation and impaired motor function activity in acute diazepam poisoning in rats. Methods. Male Wistar rats were divided in four main groups and treated as follows: group I - with increasing doses of diazepam in order to produce the highest level of sedation and motor activity impairment; group II - diazepam + different doses of flumazenil; group III - diazepam + different doses of theophylline; group IV - diazepam + combined application of theophylline and flumazenil. Concentrations of diazepam and its metabolites were measured with LC-MS. The experiment was performed on a commercial apparatus for spontaneous motor-activity registration (LKBFarad, Sweden. Assessment of diazepam- induced neurotoxic effects and effects after theophylline and flumazenil application was performed with rotarod test on a commercial apparatus (Automatic treadmill for rats, Ugo Basile, Italy. Results. Diazepam in doses of 10 mg/kg and 15 mg/kg produced long-time and reproducible pharmacodynamic effects. Single application of flumazenil or theophylline antagonized effects of diazepam, but not completely. Combined application of flumazenile and theophylline resulted in best effects on diazepaminduced impairment of motoric activity and sedation. As a result of theopylline application there was better elimination of diazepam and its metabolites. Conclusion. Combined application of flumazenil and theophylline resulted in the best antidotal effects in the treatment of diazepam poisoned rats. These effects are a result of different mechanisms of their action, longer half-life of theophylline in relation to that of flumezenil and presumably the

  5. Plasma tryptophan concentration in depressive illness and mania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peet, M; Moody, J P; Worrall, E P; Walker, P; Naylor, G J

    1976-03-01

    Total and free plasma trytophan levels were measured in depressive and manic patients before and after recovery. No change was found in total or free plasma trytophan concentration on recovery from depressive illness. Free plasma tryptophan levels were higher in recovered manics than in active manics, and a group of four manic patients tested before and after recovery showed a significant increase in free plasma tryptophan concentration on recovery.

  6. Intravenous theophylline poisoning and multiple-dose charcoal in an animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulig, K W; Bar-Or, D; Rumack, B H

    1987-08-01

    Large overdoses of IV theophylline (50 to 100 mg/kg) were administered to five canines on two separate occasions. On day one, with no charcoal administered, theophylline levels were serially obtained between ten minutes and 12 hours after infusion and the animals were recovered from anesthesia. Three days later the same dose of theophylline was administered, but then 50 g activated charcoal was placed through a nasogastric tube into the duodenum every hour for eight doses. In all five animals tested, activated charcoal significantly decreased the area under the serum concentration-time curve, decreased the half-life of elimination, and increased the clearance of theophylline. This effect on pharmacokinetics was not seen when the nasogastric tube was put into the stomach instead of the small bowel because the charcoal administered did not pass beyond the pylorus. In a separate experiment in which bile theophylline concentrations were measured, it was demonstrated that enhanced elimination was not from interruption of enterohepatic circulation of theophylline. This suggests that the demonstrated physiologic mechanism is that of gastrointestinal dialysis.

  7. Plasma catecholamine and serum gastrin concentrations during sham feeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekker, Carsten; Andersen, D; Kronborg, O

    1983-01-01

    Plasma adrenaline, plasma noradrenaline and serum gastrin concentrations were measured before and after sham feeding in eight patients with duodenal ulcer and in four normal subjects. No significant change in the concentrations was observed after sham feeding. In three patients with duodenal ulcer...... an insulin test resulted in a 25-fold rise in plasma adrenaline. The ulcer patients showed significantly higher levels of plasma adrenaline and plasma noradrenaline than the normal subjects both before and after sham feeding, and this difference was probably not caused only by age difference in the two...

  8. Elevated circulating plasma endothelin-1 concentrations in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, S; Emmeluth, C; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1993-01-01

    As endothelin-1 (ET-1), a potent vasoconstricting peptide, may play a role in the circulatory derangement and renal impairment in cirrhosis, the aim of the present study was to investigate plasma concentrations of ET-1 in different vascular beds in relation to clinical and biochemical parameters.......70, P plasma concentration between the liver, renal, or femoral...

  9. [Inefficacy of theophylline in preventing hypoxemia in abdominal surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crenesse, D; Berre, A; Ardisson, J L; Blaive, B

    1988-12-01

    It would be very useful to prevent post surgery ventilatory and gazometric insufficiencies that represent a significant risk factor. Ten patients have received proper doses of theophyllin in order to maintain accurate plasmatic concentration immediately after surgery. During the next 24 hours, their respiratory frequency, tidal volume, ventilation per minute, PaO2 and PaCO2 have been recorded. Those data have been compared with a test group (N = 10) having received injections of placebo. No relevant discrepancy exists in the ventilation parameters nor any increase of PaO2. The significant factor is a substantial decrease of PaCO2. It appears that theophyllin has no significatory efficiency for controlling the post surgery hypoventilation and hypoxemia.

  10. Guanfacine in essential hypertension: Effect on blood pressure, plasma noradrenaline concentration and plasma renin activity

    OpenAIRE

    Schoeppe, W.; Brecht, H. M.

    1980-01-01

    1 The acute and chronic effects of guanfacine on blood pressure, plasma noradrenaline concentration and plasma renin activity were investigated in 23 patients (15 males, 8 females) with essential hypertension (WHO grade I-II).

  11. Food-induced "dose-dumping" from a once-a-day theophylline product as a cause of theophylline toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendeles, L; Weinberger, M; Milavetz, G; Hill, M; Vaughan, L

    1985-06-01

    Three slow-release preparations of theophylline have received approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for "once-daily" dosing indications, amid controversy regarding the appropriateness of this decision. Because of specific concerns regarding data submitted to the FDA in support of the first of these products to be approved, Theo-24, we examined the absorption characteristics of this newly marketed formulation. Eight healthy volunteers received, in a crossover manner, single doses of a theophylline reference solution and Theo-24, taken both fasting and after a breakfast of bacon and eggs. The concentrations of theophylline were measured up to 60 hours after the dose. Absorption of Theo-24 after an overnight fast was very slow, with only 71 +/- 6 percent (mean +/- SE) of the dose ultimately absorbed. In contrast, food caused precipitous "dose-dumping," resulting in dose-normalized peak levels in the serum that averaged 2.3 times higher than after a fasting dose. About half of the dose was absorbed in a four-hour period, generally beginning six to eight hours after the postprandial dose, and complete absorption was then attained within 24 hours (p less than 0.001). Toxic effects of theophylline occurred in four subjects when they took the dose with food whereas no toxic effects occurred during the fasting regimen. Consequently, doses of Theo-24 that would have attained a predicted peak concentration of 15 micrograms/ml after multiple dosing taken without food would, if taken with food, have resulted in larger fluctuations and in peak concentrations in the potentially toxic range for six of the eight subjects.

  12. Increased plasma carnitine concentrations in preeclampsia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thiele, IGI; Niezen-Koning, KE; van Gennip, AH; Aarnoudse, JG

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Preeclampsia is associated with abnormal lipid metabolism, including fatty acid metabolism. Carnitine plays an indispensable role in the oxidation of fatty acids. The aim of the study was to evaluate the possible role of abnormal fatty add oxidation in preeclampsia by comparing plasma car

  13. Vitamin E plasma concentration in osteoporotic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajimahmoodi M

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The cause of osteoporosis is multifactorial and many dietary factors are important in the prevention of this disease. Antioxidants as free radical scavengers may influence osteoporosis by reducing the effects of oxidative stress that may be associated with bone loss. Vitamin E is an important antioxidant that protects polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA in cell membranes from oxidation. There are only two studies regarding vitamin E plasma levels in subjects suffering from osteoporosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between plasma vitamin E levels and bone mineral density (BMD in Iranian patients. Methods: Subjects were consecutively recruited between May and September 2005 from among a total of approximately 1000 people referred for instrumental screening for osteoporosis to the Jami Clinic in Tehran. Inclusion criteria for the study group were: a femoral neck T-score of -1 or less, osteopenia, severe osteopenia and osteoporosis. A total of 137 subjects were enrolled. According to their femoral and spinal BMD scores, 54 persons were selected as a control group. The control group consisted of subjects with a femoral neck T-score and spine T-score of -1 or more. In selecting the case group, only the femoral BMD score was used. Plasma vitamin E was measured, after extraction with methanol, by HPLC with UV detection at 280 nm. Methanol, deionized water and butanol (90:4:6 was used as a mobile phase with a C8 column. The flow rate was 1.0 ml. min-1 and the acetate ester of vitamin E was used as an internal standard. Results: The results show no significant difference in plasma vitamin E between the control and case groups, however linear regression analysis does reveal a significant difference between the T-score and plasma vitamin E. Conclusion: Deceleration Femoral bone Density during osteoporosis will be Accelerated with Decrease of Vitamin E Antioxidant level.

  14. The effect of theophylline on sleep-disordered breathing in patients with stable chronic congestive heart failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡克; 李清泉; 杨炯; 胡苏萍; 陈喜兰

    2003-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing in patients with stable, optimally treated chronic congestive heart failure and the effect of short-term oral theophylline therapy on periodic breathing in these patients.Methods Patients with stable, optimally treated chronic congestive heart failure were monitored by polysomnography during nocturnal sleep. The effects of theophylline therapy on periodic breathing associated with stable heart failure were observed before and after treatment.Results Patients were divided into two groups. GroupⅠ(n=21) consisted of individuals with 15 episodes of apnea and hypopnea [as determined by the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI)] per hour or less; Group Ⅱ (n=15, 41.7%) individuals had an index of more than 15 episodes per hour. In group Ⅱ, the AHI varied from 16.8 to 78.8 (42.6±15.5) in which the obstructive AHI was 11.1±8.4 and the central AHI was 31.5±9.6. Group Ⅱ had significantly more arousals (36.8±21.3 compared with 19.4±11.2 in group Ⅰ) that were directly attributable to episodes of apnea and hypopnea, lower arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation (76.7%±4.6% compared with 86.5%±2.8%) and lower left ventricular ejection fraction (24.2%±8.8% compared with 31.5%±10.6%). Thirteen patients with compensated heart failure and periodic breathing received theophylline orally (at an average dose of 4.3 mg/kg) for five to seven days. After treatment, the mean plasma theophylline concentration was (11.3±2.5) μg/ml. Theophylline therapy resulted in significant decreases in the number of AHI (20.8±13.2 vs. 42.6±15.5; P<0.001) and the number of episodes of central apnea-hypopnea per hour (10.1±7.6 vs. 31.5±9.6; P<0.001). Furthermore, the percentage of total sleep time during which arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation (SaO2) was less than 90 percent (8.8%±8.6% vs. 23.4%±24.1%; P<0.05) and the arousals per hour (18.7±21.2 vs. 36.8±21.3; P<0.05) were also lower. There were no significant differences in the

  15. Plasma fibronectin concentrations in patients with liver diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gluud, C; Dejgaard, A; Clemmensen, I

    1983-01-01

    Plasma, obtained just prior to diagnostic liver biopsy in 71 patients with various liver diseases, was examined by electroimmunoassay using immunoglobulin against human fibronectin and purified plasma fibronectin as standard. The plasma fibronectin concentration was not significantly different from...... (n = 7); type non A, non B (n = 1] had significantly (P less than 0.01) raised plasma fibronectin concentrations (median 506 mg/l (range 339-804] compared to controls (median 399 mg/l (range 304-462]. Morbidly obese patients with fatty liver (n = 11) had significantly (P less than 0.001) raised...... plasma fibronectin concentrations (median 610 mg/l (range 429-862] compared to controls (median 361 mg/l (range 303-419]....

  16. Four salt phases of theophylline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buist, Amanda R; Kennedy, Alan R; Manzie, Craig

    2014-02-01

    The structures of two anhydrous salt phases of theophylline, namely 1,3-dimethyl-2,6-dioxo-7H-purin-9-ium tetrafluoroborate, C7H9N4O2(+)·BF4(-), and 1,3-dimethyl-2,6-dioxo-7H-purin-9-ium chloride, C7H9N4O2(+)·Cl(-), are reported together with the structures of two monohydrate salt forms, namely 1,3-dimethyl-2,6-dioxo-7H-purin-9-ium chloride monohydrate, C7H9N4O2(+)·Cl(-)·H2O, and 1,3-dimethyl-2,6-dioxo-7H-purin-9-ium bromide monohydrate, C7H9N4O2(+)·Br(-)·H2O. The monohydrate structures are mutually isostructural, with the cations and anions lying on crystallographic mirror planes (Z' = ½). The main intermolecular interaction motif is a hydrogen-bonding network in the same mirror plane. The tetrafluoroborate structure is based on planar hydrogen-bonded theopylline cation dimers; the anions interact with the dimers in a pendant fashion. The anhydrous chloride structure has Z' = 2 and in contrast to the other species it does not form planar hydrogen-bonded constructs, instead one-dimensional chains of cations and anions propagate parallel to the crystallographic c direction. An earlier report claiming to describe an anhydrous structure of theophylline hydrochloride is re-examined in light of these results. It is concluded that the earlier structure has been reported in the wrong space group and that it has been chemically misidentified.

  17. Plasma copper, zinc and blood selenium concentrations of sheep ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Veek. 1 990, 20(3). Concentrations of plasma mpper, plasma zinc and blood selenium ... these breeds make them suitable for meat production in arid, cxtonsive regions. ..... effect of high levels of dietary molyMenum and sulphate on SA Mutton ...

  18. Compound list: theophylline [Open TG-GATEs

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available theophylline TEO 00096 ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Human/in_vitro/the...ophylline.Human.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vitro/the...ophylline.Rat.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Single/the....jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Repeat/theophylline.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Repeat.zip ...

  19. Concentrations of plasma copper and zinc and blood selenium in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Human and Animal Physiology, University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch 7600, ... Concentrations of plasma copper and zinc as well as blood selenium were determined in single and twin lambs ... of zinc within the body; notably.

  20. Regular physical activity influences plasma ghrelin concentration in adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jürimäe, Jaak; Cicchella, Antonio; Jürimäe, Toivo; Lätt, Evelin; Haljaste, Kaja; Purge, Pritt; Hamra, Jena; von Duvillard, Serge P

    2007-10-01

    We examined the effect of regular physical activity on plasma ghrelin concentration after onset of puberty in girls. In addition, we also examined the association of fasting plasma ghrelin concentration with various plasma biochemical, body composition, and aerobic capacity variables in healthy adolescent girls. Fifty healthy schoolgirls ages 11 to 16 yr were divided either into a physically active (N = 25) or a physically inactive (N = 25) group. The physically active group consisted of swimmers who had trained on an average of 6.2 +/- 2.0 h.wk(-1) for the last 2 yr, whereas the inclusion criterion for the physically inactive group was the participation in physical education classes only. The subjects were matched for age (+/- 1 yr) and body mass index (BMI; +/- 2 kg.m(-2)). Maturation I group (14 matched pairs) included pubertal stages 2 and 3, and maturation II group (11 matched pairs) included pubertal stages 4 and 5. Physically active girls had significantly higher (P ghrelin levels than the physically inactive girls (maturation I: 1152.1 +/- 312.9 vs 877.7 +/- 114.8 pg.mL(-1); maturation II: 1084.0 +/- 252.5 vs 793.4 +/- 164.9 pg.mL(-1)). Plasma ghrelin concentration was negatively related to percent body fat, fat mass, peak oxygen consumption per kilogram of body mass, leptin, estradiol, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) (r > -0.298; P ghrelin concentration using the variables that were significantly associated with ghrelin concentration demonstrated that plasma IGF-I was the most important predictor of plasma ghrelin concentration (beta = -0.396; P = 0.008). Regular physical activity influences plasma ghrelin concentrations in girls with different pubertal maturation levels. Plasma IGF-I concentration seems to be the main determinant of circulating ghrelin in healthy, normal-weight adolescent girls.

  1. Effect of breed on plasma endothelin-1 concentration, plasma renin activity, and serum cortisol concentration in healthy dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höglund, K.; Lequarré, A.-S.; Ljungvall, I.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There are breed differences in several blood variables in healthy dogs. OBJECTIVE: Investigate breed variation in plasma endothelin-1 (ET-1) concentration, plasma renin activity, and serum cortisol concentration. ANIMALS: Five-hundred and thirty-one healthy dogs of 9 breeds examined...... blood pressure measurement, echocardiography, ECG, blood and urine analysis. RESULTS: Median ET-1 concentration was 1.29 (interquartile range [IQR], 0.97-1.82) pg/mL, median cortisol concentration 46.0 (IQR, 29.0-80.8) nmol/L, and median renin activity 0.73 (IQR, 0.48-1.10) ng/mL/h in all dogs. Overall...

  2. RNA binding efficacy of theophylline, theobromine and caffeine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, I Maria; Kumar, S G Bhuvan; Malathi, R

    2003-04-01

    The binding of naturally occurring methylxanthines such as theophylline, theobromine and caffeine to nucleic acids are reckoned to be pivotal as they are able to modulate the cellular activities. We explore the interaction of yeast RNA binding efficacy of the above xanthine derivatives by using UV absorption differential spectroscopy and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Both the analyses show discrimination in their binding affinity to RNA. The differential UV-spectrum at P/D 3.3 reveals the greater RNA binding activity for theophylline (85 +/- 5%), whereas moderate and comparatively less binding activity for theobromine (45 +/- 5%) and caffeine (30 +/- 5%) and the binding activity was found to depend on concentration of the drugs. In FTIR analysis we observed changes in the amino group (NH) of RNA complexed by drugs, where the NH band is found to become very broad, indicating hydrogen bonding (H-bonding) with theophylline (3343.4 cm(-1)), theobromine (3379.8 cm(-1)) and caffeine (3343 cm(-1)) as compared to the free RNA (3341.6 cm(-1)). Furthermore in RNA-theophylline complex, it is observed that the carbonyl (C=O) vibration frequency (nu(C=O)) of both drug (nu(C=O)=1718, 1666 cm(-1)) as well as RNA (nu(C=O)=1699, 1658 cm(-1)) disappeared and a new vibration band appeared around 1703 cm(-1), indicating that the C=O and NH groups of drug and RNA are effectively involved in H-bonding. Whereas in RNA-theobromine and RNA-caffeine complexes, we found very little changes in C=O frequency and only broadening of the NH band of RNA due to complexation is observed in these groups. The changes in the vibrations of G-C/A-U bands and other bending frequencies are discussed. Thus the discrimination in the binding affinity of methylxanthines with RNA molecule shows that strong RNA binding drugs like theophylline can selectively be delivered to RNA targets of microbial pathogens having the mechanism of RNA catalysis.

  3. Plasma radioiron kinetics in man: explanation for the effect of plasma iron concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarberg, K; Eng, M; Huebers, H; Marsaglia, G; Finch, C

    1978-03-01

    The plasma iron turnover was measured in 19 normal subjects. A correlation was found between plasma iron concentration and plasma iron turnover. In addition to the turnover of 55Fe at normal plasma iron concentration (predominantly monoferric transferrin), a second turnover in which the labeled plasma was saturated with iron (to produce predominantly diferric transferrin) was studied with 50Fe. It was demonstrated that diferric transferrin had a greater rate of iron turnover but that the distribution between erythroid and non-erythroid tissues was unchanged. It was concluded that plasma iron turnover is dependent on the monoferric/diferric transferrin ratio in the plasma but that the internal distribution of iron is unaffected.

  4. Plasma renin activities, angiotensin II concentrations, atrial natriuretic peptide concentrations and cardiopulmonary function values in dogs with severe heartworm disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagawa, H; Kitoh, K; Inoue, H; Ohba, Y; Suzuki, F; Sasaki, Y

    2000-04-01

    Relationships among plasma renin activities (PRA), plasma angiotensin II (ATII) concentrations, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) concentrations and cardiopulmonary function values were examined in dogs with ascitic pulmonary heartworm disease and acute- and chronic-vena caval syndrome (CS). PRA, plasma ATII concentration and plasma ANP concentration tended to be higher or were significantly higher in dogs with ascites, acute- and chronic-CS. PRA correlated significantly with plasma ATII concentration, WBC count, ALP activity, plasma concentrations of urea nitrogen, creatinine, sodium, potassium, and chloride, right ventricular endodiastolic pressure and right atrial pressure. Plasma ATII concentration correlated significantly with WBC count, plasma concentrations of urea nitrogen, sodium, and potassium, right ventricular endodiastolic pressure and right atrial pressure. Plasma ANP concentration did not correlate with PRA or ATII concentration, but correlated significantly only with pulmonary arterial pressure.

  5. Treatment of theophylline intoxication using continuous venovenous haemofiltration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koeijers, J.J.; Verhoeven, C.L.; Boersma, H.H.; van Mook, W.N.K.A

    2008-01-01

    Theophylline intoxication can cause serious complications such as seizures, cardiac arrhythmias and eventually cardiac arrest. Because of these potentially life-threatening clinical manifestations of theophylline intoxication, treatment methods that rapidly eliminate the drug are essential. These me

  6. A viscometric method of measuring plasma fibrinogen concentrations.

    OpenAIRE

    Ernst, E.; Resch, K L; Saradeth, T.; A. Maier; Matrai, A

    1992-01-01

    A technique based on deducing the viscosity of serum from that of plasma was compared with the commonly used Clauss method. The two methods correlated closely (r = 0.914). The reproducibility of the viscometric method was slightly poorer than the Clauss technique at low fibrinogen concentrations, equal to that at medium fibrinogen concentrations, and marginally better at high concentrations. Fibrinogen can therefore be measured reasonably accurately with the viscometric method, and can be rec...

  7. Effect of chronic intermittent hypoxia on theophylline metabolism in mouse liver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xiao-yang; ZENG Yi-ming; ZHANG Yi-xiang; WANG Wan-yu; WU Run-hua

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) has been associated with abnormalities in the liver,which is the most important organ for drug metabolism.This study aimed to investigate the effect of CIH on theophylline metabolism in mouse liver.Methods Eight C57BL/6J mice were exposed to CIH for 12 weeks.Eight C57BL/6J mice were exposed to room air as a control group.Serum levels of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were measured.Liver histology was observed by light and electron microscopy.Total hepatic cytochrome P450 concentration was measured.Hepatocytes were isolated and incubated with 15 mg/ml theophylline for four hours.After incubation,the theophylline concentration in the supernatant was measured and the theophylline metabolism rate was calculated.Results CIH did not affect the serum transaminase levels.Livers from mice exposed to CIH showed hepatocellular edema,and liver cells had fuzzy rough endoplasmic reticulum under the electron microscope.The theophylline metabolism rate was significantly inhibited by CIH compared with controls; (16.60±2.43)% vs.(21.58±4.52)% (P=0.02).The total liver cytochrome P450 concentration in the CIH group was significantly lower than in the control group;(0.83±0.08) vs.(1.13±0.21) mol/mg microsomal protein (P=0.004).Conclusion CIH decreases theophylline metabolism by mouse hepatocytes,which may correlate with the downregulation of cytochrome P450 expression by CIH.

  8. Plasma concentrations of buprenorphine after epidural administration in conscious cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke-Novakovski, Tanya; Clark, Christopher R; Ambros, Barbara; Gilbert, Peter; Steagall, Paulo V M

    2011-06-01

    Buprenorphine plasma concentrations were measured after administering buprenorphine (20 μg/kg) into the lumbosacral epidural space of conscious cats chronically instrumented with an epidural catheter. Blood was collected from a jugular vein before injection and 15, 30, 45 and 60 min and 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 12 and 24 h after administration. Plasma buprenorphine concentrations were measured using ELISA. Background concentration (before injection) was 1.27 ± 0.27 ng/mL (mean ± SD). Including background concentration, the mean peak plasma concentration was obtained 15 min after injection (5.82 ± 3.75 ng/mL), and ranged from 3.79 to 2.20 ng/mL (30 min-3 h), remaining between 1.93 and 1.77 ng/mL (4-12 h), and declined to 1.40 ± 0.62 ng/mL at 24h. Elimination half-life was 58.8 ± 40.2 min and clearance 56.7 ± 21.5 mL/min. Results indicate early rapid systemic uptake of buprenorphine from epidural administration with plasma concentrations similar to using buccal or IM routes by 15 min postinjection.

  9. Changes in plasma potassium concentration during carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perner, A; Bugge, K; Lyng, K M

    1999-01-01

    Hyperkalaemia with ECG changes had been noted during prolonged carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum in pigs. We have compared plasma potassium concentrations during surgery in 11 patients allocated randomly to undergo either laparoscopic or open appendectomy and in another 17 patients allocated randomly...... to either carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum or abdominal wall lifting for laparoscopic colectomy. Despite an increasing metabolic acidosis, prolonged carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum resulted in only a slight increase in plasma potassium concentrations, which was both statistically and clinically insignificant....... Thus hyperkalaemia is unlikely to develop in patients with normal renal function undergoing carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopic surgery....

  10. Changes in plasma potassium concentration during carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perner, A; Bugge, K; Lyng, K M

    1999-01-01

    Hyperkalaemia with ECG changes had been noted during prolonged carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum in pigs. We have compared plasma potassium concentrations during surgery in 11 patients allocated randomly to undergo either laparoscopic or open appendectomy and in another 17 patients allocated randomly...... to either carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum or abdominal wall lifting for laparoscopic colectomy. Despite an increasing metabolic acidosis, prolonged carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum resulted in only a slight increase in plasma potassium concentrations, which was both statistically and clinically insignificant....... Thus hyperkalaemia is unlikely to develop in patients with normal renal function undergoing carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopic surgery....

  11. Target-controlled formation of silver nanoclusters in abasic site-incorporated duplex DNA for label-free fluorescence detection of theophylline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ki Soo; Oh, Seung Soo; Soh, H. Tom; Park, Hyun Gyu

    2014-08-01

    A novel, label-free, fluorescence based sensor for theophylline has been developed. In the new sensor system, an abasic site-incorporated duplex DNA probe serves as both a pocket for recognition of theophylline and a template for the preparation of fluorescent silver nanoclusters. The strategy relies on theophylline-controlled formation of fluorescent silver nanoclusters from abasic site-incorporated duplex DNA. When theophylline is not present, silver ions interact with the cytosine groups opposite to the abasic site in duplex DNA. This interaction leads to efficient formation of intensely red fluorescent silver nanoclusters. In contrast, when theophylline is bound at the abasic site through pseudo base-pairing with appropriately positioned cytosines, silver ion binding to the cytosine nucleobase is prevented. Consequently, fluorescent silver nanoclusters are not formed causing a significant reduction of the fluorescence signal. By employing this new sensor, theophylline can be highly selectively detected at a concentration as low as 1.8 μM. Finally, the diagnostic capability and practical application of this sensor were demonstrated by its use in detecting theophylline in human blood serum.A novel, label-free, fluorescence based sensor for theophylline has been developed. In the new sensor system, an abasic site-incorporated duplex DNA probe serves as both a pocket for recognition of theophylline and a template for the preparation of fluorescent silver nanoclusters. The strategy relies on theophylline-controlled formation of fluorescent silver nanoclusters from abasic site-incorporated duplex DNA. When theophylline is not present, silver ions interact with the cytosine groups opposite to the abasic site in duplex DNA. This interaction leads to efficient formation of intensely red fluorescent silver nanoclusters. In contrast, when theophylline is bound at the abasic site through pseudo base-pairing with appropriately positioned cytosines, silver ion binding to

  12. Plasma carnitine concentrations after chronic alcohol intoxication 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Kępka

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Carnitine transports fatty acids from the cytoplasm to the mitochondrial matrix, where the fatty acids are oxidized. Chronic alcohol consumption reduces the concentration of carnitine and interferes with oxidative processes occurring in the cell.Aim: The assessment of carnitine concentrations in plasma of chronically intoxicated alcohol dependent persons in a 49-day abstinence period.Material/Methods: The study included 31 patients (5 women and 27 men aged from 26 to 60 years (44.6± 8.9 and 32 healthy subjects (15 women and 17 men aged 22-60 years (39.8± 9.4. The patients’ alcohol dependence ranged from 2 to 30 years (13.6± 7.5. Examined subjects consumed 75-700 g of ethanol/day (226.9± 151.5. Plasma concentrations of free and total carnitine were measured three times: at the first (T0, 30th (T30 and 49th (T49 day of hospital detoxification. Free (FC and total (TC carnitine were determined by the spectrophotometric method. Plasma acylcarnitine (AC concentration was calculated from the difference between TC and FC; then the AC/FC ratio was calculated. To determine statistically significant differences for related variables, Student’s t-test was used.Results: At T0, alcoholics had significantly lower concentration of FC and TC (p < 0.05 in plasma, as compared to the control group. In comparison to controls, at T30, plasma TC and FC (p < 0.01 as well as AC (p < 0.001 were reduced. The lowest concentration of TC, FC and AC (p < 0.001was found at T49. The ratio of AC/FC at T0 had a tendency to be higher in alcoholics than in the control group (p = 0.05, whereas at T49 it was significantly lower in alcoholics as compared to the control subjects (p < 0.05.Conclusions: Chronic alcohol intoxication causes a plasma deficiency of carnitine. Forty-nine days of abstinence showed a significant decrease in the concentration of TC, FC and AC. Further research is necessary to clarify whether a low level of plasma carnitine

  13. Plasma carnitine concentrations after chronic alcohol intoxication 

    OpenAIRE

    Alina Kępka; Napoleon Waszkiewicz; Beata Zalewska-Szajda; Sylwia Chojnowska; Paweł Płudowski; Emilia Konarzewska; Agata Szulc; Jerzy Robert Ładny; Krzysztof Zwierz; Sławomir Dariusz Szajda

    2013-01-01

    Background: Carnitine transports fatty acids from the cytoplasm to the mitochondrial matrix, where the fatty acids are oxidized. Chronic alcohol consumption reduces the concentration of carnitine and interferes with oxidative processes occurring in the cell.Aim: The assessment of carnitine concentrations in plasma of chronically intoxicated alcohol dependent persons in a 49-day abstinence period.Material/Methods: The study included 31 patients (5 women and 27 men) aged from 26 to 60 years (44...

  14. Design, synthesis, anticancer, antimicrobial activities and molecular docking studies of theophylline containing acetylenes and theophylline containing 1,2,3-triazoles with variant nucleoside derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruddarraju, Radhakrishnam Raju; Murugulla, Adharvana Chari; Kotla, Ravindar; Chandra Babu Tirumalasetty, Muni; Wudayagiri, Rajendra; Donthabakthuni, Shobha; Maroju, Ravichandar; Baburao, K; Parasa, Lakshmana Swamy

    2016-11-10

    A new series of theophylline containing acetylene derivatives (6a-6b and 7-13) and theophylline containing 1,2,3-triazoles with variant nucleoside derivatives (20-32) have been designed and synthesized. These compounds were screened for anticancer and antimicrobial activity. Further the computational docking and 2D QSAR were performed using MOE software to identify novel scaffolds. The results showed that compound 29 and 30 exhibit significant cytotoxic effect on all four cancer cells such as lung (A549), colon (HT-29), breast (MCF-7) and melanoma (A375) with IC50 values of 2.56, 2.19, 1.89, 4.89 μM and 3.57, 2.90, 2.10, 5.81 μM respectively. Whereas quite different results were observed for these compounds in antimicrobial studies. Compounds 11, 21 and 26 have exhibited significant minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The docking studies demonstrate that compound 27, 28, 29 and 30 have good dock score and binding affinities with various therapeutic targets in cancer cell proliferation. In addition these compounds have shown acceptable correlation with bioassay results in the regression plots generated in 2D QSAR models. This is the first report to demonstrate the theophylline containing acetylene derivatives and theophylline containing 1,2,3-triazole nucleoside hybrids as potential anticancer and antimicrobial agents with comprehensive in silico analysis.

  15. Unfiltered coffee increases plasma homocysteine concentrations in healthy volunteers: a randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grubben, M.J.; Boers, G.H.; Blom, H.J.; Broekhuizen, R.; Jong, de R.; Rijt, van L.; Katan, M.B.

    2000-01-01

    Background: An elevated plasma homocysteine concentration is a putative risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Observational studies have reported an association between coffee consumption and plasma homocysteine concentrations. Objective: We studied the effect of coffee consumption on plasma

  16. Synthesis and Study of Guest-Rebinding of MIP Based on MAA Prepared using Theophylline Template

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhayati, T.; Yanti; Royani, I.; Widayani; Khairurrijal

    2016-08-01

    A molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) based on methacrylic acid (MAA) monomer and theophylline template has been synthesized using a modified bulk polymerization method. Theophylline was employed as a template and it formed a complex with MAA through hydrogen bonding. Self-assembly of template-monomer was followed by cross-linking process using ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) cross-linker. The polymerization process was initiated by thermal decomposition of benzoyl peroxide (BPO) as the initiator at 60oC after cooling treatment at -5oC. After 7 hours, a rigid polymer was obtained and followed by grinding the polymer and removing the template. As a reference, a nonimprinted polymer (NIP) has also been synthesized using similar procedure by excluding the template. FTIR study was carried out to investigate the presence of theophylline in the as- prepared polymer, MIP, and NIP. The spectra indicated that theophylline was successfully incorporated in the as-prepared polymer. This result was also confirmed by EDS analysis showing that N atoms of the as-prepared polymer were derived from amino group of theophylline. Furthermore, the polymer particles of MIP were irregular in shape and size as shown by its SEM image. The capability of guest-rebinding of the MIP was analyzed through Batchwise guest-binding experiment. The results showed that for initial concentration of theophylline in methanol/chloroform (1/1, v/v) of 0.333 mM, the binding capacity of the MIP was 23.22 /mol/g. Compared to the MIP, the adsorption capacity of the NIP was only 3.73 /mol/g. This result shows that MIP has higher affinity than NIP.

  17. Plasma mepivacaine concentrations in patients undergoing third molar surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarparo, H C; Maia, R N; Filho, Ea Dos Santos; Soares, Ecs; Costa, Fwg; Fonteles, Csr; Bezerra, T P; Ribeiro, T R; Romero, N R

    2016-12-01

    Local anaesthetic-related systemic toxicity mainly results from elevated plasma concentrations of these drugs. We hypothesized that intraoral injection of submaximal doses of mepivacaine does not lead to toxic levels of this drug in blood. This study evaluated the plasma levels of mepivacaine in third molars surgeries. Twenty-one patients were randomly assigned into two groups: group I (two unilateral third molars; submaximal dose of mepivacaine 108 mg with epinephrine 54 μg) and group II (four third molars; submaximal dose of mepivacaine 216 mg with epinephrine 108 μg). Blood samples were collected before anaesthesia, and 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40, 60, 90 and 120 min after anaesthesia. Individual peak plasma concentrations ranged 0.77-8.31 μg/mL (group I) and from 2.36-7.72 μg/mL (group II). An increase in the average dose of mepivacaine from 1.88 ± 0.12 mg/kg (group I) to 3.35 ± 0.17 mg/kg (group II) increased the mean mepivacaine peak plasma levels from 2.33 ± 0.58 to 4.01 ± 0.69 μg/mL, respectively. Four patients obtained plasma levels of mepivacaine above the threshold for toxicity (5 μg/mL). Toxic levels of mepivacaine are possible, even when a submaximal dose is used. A twofold increase in the dose of mepivacaine caused the mean peak plasma concentration to increase proportionally, indicating that they may be predicted based on the relation of dose per bodyweight. © 2016 Australian Dental Association.

  18. Theophylline effects in patients with syndrome X

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadeghian H

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available A role of adenosine in pathogenesis of syndrome X has recently been postulated. Previous studies suggest that aminophylline (An adenosine receptor blocker improves exercise tolerance in this disorder. Present study was performed to examine the efficacy of Theophylline in syndrome X and to determine the incidence of cardiovascular risk factors and clinical, ECG and angiographic findings in these patients. 31 patients were studied. The first 16 patients received Theophylline. Other 15 cases received placebo. Exercise tolerance test was repeated after 1-2 weeks. Patients who received Theophylline had increase in rate-pressure product at peak exercise and decrease in symptoms during exercise, but stage of st depression, global and peak st depression, exercise tolerance and persistence of st depression more than 3 minutes in recovery and symptoms of patients in general were not significant different. Theophylline has a favorable effect on exercise, reduces chest pain and rate-pressure product at peak exercise in patients with syndrome X, but not on other variables of exercise test.

  19. Formulation and in vitro evaluation of theophylline anhydrous bioadhesive tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deshmukh V

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to design oral controlled release (CR theophylline anhydrous bioadhesive tablets and to optimize the drug release profile and in vitro bioadhesion strength. Different types of natural hydrophilic polymers such as xanthun gum, locust bean gum, guar gum, karaya gum, and their combinations were used to formulate matrix tablets. Tablets of anhydrous theophylline were prepared by the direct compression method and were subjected to in vitro drug dissolution for 12 hours using the USP dissolution apparatus basket type at a speed of 100 rpm and temperature of 37 ± 0.5°C using gastric fluid (pH 1.2. The bioadhesive strength of the tablets was measured as the force of detachment against the porcine gastric mucosa. The in vitro release study as well as the retention time of the bioadhesive tablets on the mucous membrane were investigated to develop a bioadhesive polymer-based CR delivery system and to evaluate the performance of such a delivery device. The combination of karaya gum:guar gum (6:4 tablet showed a greater bioadhesive strength as compared with a single gum and other gum combination tablets. Karaya gum:guar gum-loaded tablets were not discharged from the mucous membrane and were dissolved in the gastric fluid. An increase in the gum concentration increases the drug release profile beyond 12 hours whereas there is no significant effect of gum concentration on the bioadhesive strength of the tablet.

  20. Use of refractometry for determination of psittacine plasma protein concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cray, Carolyn; Rodriguez, Marilyn; Arheart, Kristopher L

    2008-12-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated both poor and good correlation of total protein concentrations in various avian species using refractometry and biuret methodologies. The purpose of the current study was to compare these 2 techniques of total protein determination using plasma samples from several psittacine species and to determine the effect of cholesterol and other solutes on refractometry results. Total protein concentration in heparinized plasma samples without visible lipemia was analyzed by refractometry and an automated biuret method on a dry reagent analyzer (Ortho 250). Cholesterol, glucose, and uric acid concentrations were measured using the same analyzer. Results were compared using Deming regression analysis, Bland-Altman bias plots, and Spearman's rank correlation. Correlation coefficients (r) for total protein results by refractometry and biuret methods were 0.49 in African grey parrots (n=28), 0.77 in Amazon parrots (20), 0.57 in cockatiels (20), 0.73 in cockatoos (36), 0.86 in conures (20), and 0.93 in macaws (38) (Prefractometry in Amazon parrots, conures, and macaws (n=25 each, PRefractometry can be used to accurately measure total protein concentration in nonlipemic plasma samples from some psittacine species. Method and species-specific reference intervals should be used in the interpretation of total protein values.

  1. Effect of pregnancy on plasma phenobarbital concentrations in rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Moriyama,Masahiro; Domoto, Haruyo; Yamashita, Syoichi; Furuno,Katsushi; Oishi, Ryozo; Kawasaki,Hiromu; Gomita, Yutaka

    1995-01-01

    We examined the pharmacokinetics of phenobarbital before and during pregnancy in rats. Animals were divided into four groups: (a) control, (b) pregnant, (c) phenobarbital-treated, and (d) phenobarbital-treated pregnant groups. The increase in body weight of nonpregnant or pregnant rats was not influenced by long-term phenobarbital treatment. Plasma phenobarbital concentrations during the period of long-term phenobarbital treatment with a fixed dosage by body weight were not significantly affe...

  2. Elevated circulating plasma endothelin-1 concentrations in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Emmeluth, C; Henriksen, Jens Henrik

    1993-01-01

    veins on the one hand and the femoral artery on the other (P > 0.1), indicating no major net elimination or release in the liver, kidney or lower limb. A significant negative correlation was found between systolic and diastolic blood pressures on the one hand and circulating ET-1 on the other (r = -0.......70, P vein catheterization (n = 8), no significant differences were found in ET-1 plasma concentration between the liver, renal, or femoral...

  3. Midazolam plasma concentration after anesthesia premedication in clinical routine - an observational study : Midazolam plasma concentration after anesthesia premedication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, C; Steurer, M P; Mueller, D; Zueger, M; Dullenkopf, A

    2016-10-24

    Midazolam is commonly used as a pre-anesthesia anxiolytic. It`s elimination may not be fast enough for short procedures. In orally premedicated patients we obtained midazolam plasma concentrations at the end of surgical procedures and compared those to concentrations at anesthesia induction. The study was conducted prospectively with consent of the local ethics committee (Ethikkomission Kanton Thurgau, Switzerland) and carried out with written informed consent of each patient. Female patients aged 20 to 60 years undergoing elective procedures with general anesthesia were included, and were divided in two groups according to the planned surgical time: group S (Midazolam po as premedication. Blood samples were drawn at anesthesia induction, and at the end of surgery. Data were compared with t-test (independent samples; significance level p midazolam was not detectable in any samples. Time of premedication to the 1st blood sample was not statistically different between groups, neither were Midazolam plasma levels at this time point (p = 0.94). None of the patients from group L (n = 24), but five patients in group S (n = 22) did have a higher plasma level of Midazolam at the end of the case compared to the beginning. The elimination half-life of oral Midazolam can lead to higher plasma levels at the end of a short procedure compared to those at induction of anesthesia. German Clinical Trials Register (Deutsches Register Klinischer Studien), DRKS00005429 ; date of registration 3(rd) January 2014.

  4. Plasma D-dimer concentration in patients with systemic sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montagnana Martina

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systemic sclerosis (SSc is an autoimmune disorder of the connective tissue characterized by widespread vascular lesions and fibrosis. Little is known so far on the activation of the hemostatic and fibrinolytic systems in SSc, and most preliminary evidences are discordant. Methods To verify whether SSc patients might display a prothrombotic condition, plasma D-dimer was assessed in 28 consecutive SSc patients and in 33 control subjects, matched for age, sex and environmental habit. Results and discussion When compared to healthy controls, geometric mean and 95% confidence interval (IC95% of plasma D-dimer were significantly increased in SSc patients (362 ng/mL, IC 95%: 361–363 ng/mL vs 229 ng/mL, IC95%: 228–231 ng/mL, p = 0.005. After stratifying SSc patients according to disease subset, no significant differences were observed between those with limited cutaneous pattern and controls, whereas patients with diffuse cutaneous pattern displayed substantially increased values. No correlation was found between plasma D-dimer concentration and age, sex, autoantibody pattern, serum creatinine, erythrosedimentation rate, nailfold videocapillaroscopic pattern and pulmonary involvement. Conclusion We demonstrated that SSc patients with diffuse subset are characterized by increased plasma D-dimer values, reflecting a potential activation of both the hemostatic and fibrinolytic cascades, which might finally predispose these patients to thrombotic complications.

  5. Response Surface Optimization for Decaffeination and Theophylline Production by Fusarium solani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanjundaiah, Shwetha; Bhatt, Praveena; Rastogi, Navin Kumar; Thakur, Munna Singh

    2016-01-01

    Coffee processing industries generate caffeine-containing waste that needs to be treated and decaffeinated before being disposed. Five fungal isolates obtained on caffeine-containing mineral media were tested for their ability to utilize caffeine at high concentrations. An isolate identified as Fusarium solani could utilize caffeine as a sole source of carbon and nitrogen up to 5 g/l and could degrade it to an extent of 30-53 % in 120 h. Sucrose that was added as an auxiliary substrate (5 g/l) enhanced the biodecaffeination of caffeine to 88 % in 96 h. The addition of co- substrate (sucrose) not only resulted in higher biodecaffeination efficiency, but also reduced the incubation period from the initial 120 to 96 h. Theophylline and 3-methyl xanthine were obtained as the major metabolites of decaffeination at 96 and 120 h, respectively. Response surface methodology used to optimize the process parameters for maximum biodecaffeination as well as theophylline production showed that a pH of 5.8, temperature of 24 °C and inoculum size of 4.8 × 10(5) spores/ml have resulted in a complete biodecaffeination of caffeine as well as the production of theophylline with a yield of 33 % (w/w). Results thus show that a viable and sustainable process can be developed for the detoxification of caffeine along with the recovery of theophylline, a commercially important chemical.

  6. Plasma leptin and ghrelin concentrations in patients with Crohn's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yoshito Nishi; Hajime Isomoto; Hiroaki Ueno; Ken Ohnita; Chun Yang Wen; Fuminao Takeshima; Ryosuke Mishima; Masamitsu Nakazato; Shigeru Kohno

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To determine the concentrations of leptin and ghrelin, which have opposite effects on appetite,energy expenditure, and weight control, in the plasma of patients with Crohn's disease (CD), which is often associated with weight loss and malnutrition.METHODS: Plasma leptin and ghrelin concentrations were determined in 28 outpatients with CD by radioimmunoassay. Age- and sex-matched controls with and without Helicobacter pylori(H pylori) infection (28for each) were enrolled in the study. Circulating levels of these hormones were assessed with respect to CD activity, disease localization and medical treatment.RESULTS: There were no significant differences in ghrelin levels between CD patients and H pylorinegative controls. However, circulating ghrelin levels were significantly lower in H pylori-infected subjects than in CD patients and uninfected controls. Plasma leptin levels were comparable among the groups. Localization and medication profile had no significant impact on circulating ghrelin and leptin levels.CONCLUSION: Apart from H pyloriinfection, CD itself has no significant influence on circulating ghrelin and leptin levels in the outpatients who were mostly in inactive state.

  7. Effect of norfloxacin on theophylline pharmacokinetics at steady state.

    OpenAIRE

    Bowles, S K; Popovski, Z; Rybak, M J; Beckman, H B; Edwards, D. J.

    1988-01-01

    Norfloxacin is a currently marketed fluoroquinolone antibiotic. Other quinolones which are structurally similar to norfloxacin, particularly enoxacin, inhibit theophylline clearance. Since norfloxacin may be administered to patients also receiving theophylline, we studied the effect of norfloxacin on the pharmacokinetics of theophylline in 10 healthy male volunteers. A randomized, crossover study design with a 2-week washout period between treatments was used. Subjects received oral theophyll...

  8. Plasma polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations and immune function in postmenopausal women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spector, June T., E-mail: spectj@uw.edu [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Washington, 4225 Roosevelt Way NE, Seattle, WA 98105 (United States); Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); De Roos, Anneclaire J., E-mail: ajd335@drexel.edu [Epidemiology Program, Public Health Sciences Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 1100 Fairview Avenue N, P.O. Box 19024, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Ulrich, Cornelia M., E-mail: neli.ulrich@nct-heidelberg.de [Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Cancer Prevention Program, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, 1100 Fairview Avenue N, P.O. Box 19024, Seattle, WA 98109 (United States); National Center for Tumor Diseases and German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Sheppard, Lianne, E-mail: sheppard@uw.edu [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Washington, 4225 Roosevelt Way NE, Seattle, WA 98105 (United States); Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Sjoedin, Andreas, E-mail: asjodin@cdc.gov [National Center for Environmental Health, CDC, 4770 Buford Highway NE, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States); Wener, Mark H., E-mail: wener@u.washington.edu [Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Wood, Brent, E-mail: woodbl@u.washington.edu [Department of Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); and others

    2014-05-01

    Background: Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure has been associated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma in several studies, and the immune system is a potential mediator. Objectives: We analyzed associations of plasma PCBs with immune function measures. We hypothesized that higher plasma PCB concentrations are associated with lower immune function cross-sectionally, and that increases in PCB concentrations over a one year period are associated with decreases in immune function. Methods: Plasma PCB concentrations and immune function [natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxicity and PHA-induced T-lymphocyte proliferation (PHA-TLP)] were measured at baseline and one year in 109 postmenopausal overweight women participating in an exercise intervention study in the Seattle, Washington (USA) area. Mixed models, with adjustment for body mass index and other potential confounders, were used to estimate associations of PCBs with immune function cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Results: Associations of PCBs with immune function measures differed across groups of PCBs (e.g., medium- and high-chlorinated and dioxin-like [mono-ortho-substituted]) and by the time frame for the comparison (cross-sectional vs. longitudinal). Higher concentrations of medium- and high-chlorinated PCBs were associated with higher PHA-TLP cross-sectionally but not longitudinally. The mean decrease in 0.5 µg/mL PHA-TLP/50.0 pmol/g-lipid increase in dioxin-like PCBs over one year was 51.6 (95% confidence interval 2.7, 100.5; P=0.039). There was no association between plasma PCBs and NK cytotoxicity. Conclusions: These results do not provide strong evidence of impaired cellular immunity from PCB exposure. Larger longitudinal studies with greater variability in PCB exposures are needed to further examine temporal associations of PCBs with immune function. - Highlights: • Plasma PCBs and immune function were measured in 109 women at baseline and one year. • Immune measures included T lymphocyte proliferation

  9. Plasma concentrations of coffee polyphenols and plasma biomarkers of diabetes risk in healthy Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, A H; Tan, L 'b; Hiramatsu, N; Ishisaka, A; Alfonso, H; Tanaka, A; Uemura, N; Fujiwara, Y; Takechi, R

    2016-06-06

    Coffee consumption has been reported to reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes in experimental and epidemiological studies. This anti-diabetic effect of coffee may be attributed to its high content in polyphenols especially caffeic acid and chlorogenic acid. However, the association between plasma coffee polyphenols and diabetic risks has never been investigated in the literature. In this study, fasting plasma samples were collected from 57 generally healthy females aged 38-73 (mean 52, s.d. 8) years recruited in Himeji, Japan. The concentrations of plasma coffee polyphenols were determined by liquid chromatography coupled with mass tandem spectrometer. Diabetes biomarkers in the plasma/serum samples were analysed by a commercial diagnostic laboratory. Statistical associations were assessed using Spearman's correlation coefficients. The results showed that plasma chlorogenic acid exhibited negative associations with fasting blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin and C-reactive protein, whereas plasma total coffee polyphenol and plasma caffeic acid were weakly associated with these biomarkers. Our preliminary data support previous findings that coffee polyphenols have anti-diabetic effects but further replications with large samples of both genders are recommended.

  10. Use of antibiotics is associated with lower enterolactone plasma concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolvig, Anne Katrine; Kyrø, Cecilie; Nørskov, Natalja

    2016-01-01

    the association between antibiotic use and enterolactone concentration. Methods and results Using LC–MS/MS, enterolactone concentrations were quantified in plasma samples from 2237 participants from the Diet, Cancer and Health cohort. The participants were healthy at enrollment, but were later diagnosed...... with cancer. At enrollment, participants had blood drawn and completed a food frequency questionnaire and lifestyle questionnaire. Antibiotic use was assessed as reimbursed antibiotic prescriptions up to 12 months before enrollment. Antibiotic use ≤3 months before enrollment was associated with a 41% (Δcrude......: –41; 95% CI: –52, –28) lower enterolactone concentration in women and 12% in men (Δcrude: –12; 95% CI: –31, 11), while antibiotic use >3–12 months before enrollment was associated with 26% lower enterolactone in women (Δcrude: –26; 95% CI: –37, –14) and 14% in men (Δcrude: –14; 95% CI: –28, 1...

  11. Factors affecting plasma aluminum concentrations in nonexposed workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    House, R.A. (Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, St Michael' s Hospital, University of Toronto, Ontario (Canada))

    1992-10-01

    In this study, the distribution and determinants of plasma aluminum concentrations were examined in 71 office employees not occupationally exposed to aluminum. The samples were analyzed by Zeeman graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy and were found to be log normally distributed. After using the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry (IFCC) recommended procedure for removal of likely aberrant values, the 95th percentile value was 198 nmol/L (90% CI:165-238); when those using antacids were also excluded, the 95th percentile value fell to 175 nmol/L (90% CI:147-208). Multiple regression analysis indicated that the factors most predictive of log plasma aluminum were the batch in which the sample was analyzed and the use of antacids containing aluminum. The statistical significance of the batch variable likely indicates the well-recognized problem of contamination in sampling and analyzing aluminum.35 references.

  12. Plasma aldosterone concentrations and plasma renin activity in healthy dogs and dogs with hyperadrenocorticism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Javadi, S; Mol, JA; Boer, P; Boer, WH; Runberk, A

    2003-01-01

    The mean (se) basal plasma aldosterone concentrations were significantly lower in 31 dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (PDH) (75 [9] pmol/litre) than in 12 healthy dogs (118 [14] pmol/litre), whereas in five dogs with hyperadrenocorticism due to an adrenocortical tumour they were si

  13. Plasma oxytocin concentrations following MDMA or intranasal oxytocin in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Matthew G; Francis, Sunday M; Lee, Royce; de Wit, Harriet; Jacob, Suma

    2014-08-01

    MDMA (±3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, 'ecstasy') is reportedly used recreationally because it increases feelings of sociability and interpersonal closeness. Prior work suggests that the pro-social effects of MDMA may be mediated by release of oxytocin. A direct examination of plasma levels of oxytocin after acute doses of oxytocin and MDMA, in the same individuals, would provide further evidence for the idea that MDMA produces its pro-social effects by increasing oxytocin. Fourteen healthy MDMA users participated in a 4-session, double-blind study in which they received oral MDMA (0.75 and 1.5mg/kg), intranasal oxytocin (20IU or 40IU), and placebo. Plasma oxytocin concentrations, as well as cardiovascular and subjective effects were assessed before and at several time points after drug administration. MDMA (1.5mg/kg only) increased plasma oxytocin levels to a mean peak of 83.7pg/ml at approximately 90-120min, compared to 18.6pg/ml after placebo. Intranasal oxytocin (40IU, but not 20IU) increased plasma oxytocin levels to 48.0pg/ml, 30-60min after nasal spray administration. MDMA dose-dependently increased heart rate, blood pressure, feelings of euphoria (e.g., 'High' and 'Like Drug'), and feelings of sociability, whereas oxytocin had no cardiovascular or subjective effects. The subjective and cardiovascular responses to MDMA were not related to plasma oxytocin levels, although the N was small for this analysis. Future studies examining the effects of oxytocin antagonists on responses to MDMA will help to determine the mechanism by which MDMA produces pro-social effects.

  14. Plasma concentrations of four pregnancy proteins in complications of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, T M; Halbert, S P; Spellacy, W N; Berne, B H

    1977-08-01

    Toxemia of pregnancy was associated with an elevation of the pregnancy-associated plasma protein (PAPP)-A concentration, as compared to the level in normal pregnancy in the last month of gestation. The other pregnancy proteins measured were not altered in toxemia. In twin pregnancies, the PAPP-A, PAPP-C, and human placental lactogen levels were all increased, particularly PAPP-A. On the other hand, pregnancy zone protein was not affected by twinning. Pregnancy with diabetes showed normal levels of these proteins.

  15. Effects of running the Bostom Marathon on plasma concentrations of large neutral amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlay, L. A.; Wurtman, R. J.; Lopez G-Coviella, I.; Blusztajn, J. K.; Vacanti, C. A.; Logue, M.; During, M.; Caballero, B.; Maher, T. J.; Evoniuk, G.

    1989-01-01

    Plasma large neutral amino acid concentrations were measured in thirty-seven subjects before and after completing the Boston Marathon. Concentrations of tyrosine, phenylalanine, and methionine increased, as did their 'plasma ratios' (i.e., the ratio of each amino acid's concentration to the summed plasma concentrations of the other large neutral amino acids which compete with it for brain uptake). No changes were noted in the plasma concentrations of tryptophan, leucine, isoleucine, nor valine; however, the 'plasma ratios' of valine, leucine, and isoleucine all decreased. These changes in plasma amino acid patterns may influence neurotransmitter synthesis.

  16. Relationship between Plasma Albumin Concentration and Plasma Volume in 5 Inbred Rat Strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Rajiv; Klemcke, Harold G

    2015-09-01

    Using the Evans Blue procedure, we previously found strain-related differences in plasma volumes in 5 inbred rat strains. Because albumin binds strongly with Evans blue, this protein is important in the Evans blue method of plasma volume determination. Therefore, we speculated that interstrain differences in plasma albumin concentration (PAC) could distort calculated plasma volumes. To address this concern, we used ELISA techniques to measure PAC in these inbred rat strains. In study A, the blood volume was measured by using Evans blue dye, and albumin was measured at the start of hemorrhage. In study B, blood volume was not measured, and albumin was measured twice, near the start and end of hemorrhage (approximately 14 min apart). Neither study revealed any interstrain differences in PAC, which decreased after hemorrhage in all 5 strains. No correlation was found between PAC and plasma volume, survival time, blood lactate, or blood base excess. Percentage changes in PAC during hemorrhage were greater in salt-sensitive compared with Lewis rats. Moreover, these percentage changes were associated with survival time in Fawn hooded hypertensive rats. Our data show that the plasma volumes we measured previously were not misrepresented due to variations in PAC.

  17. A physiologically based in silico kinetic model predicting plasma cholesterol concentrations in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pas, van de N.C.A.; Woutersen, R.A.; Ommen, van B.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Graaf, de A.A.

    2012-01-01

    Increased plasma cholesterol concentration is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. This study describes the development, validation, and analysis of a physiologically based kinetic (PBK) model for the prediction of plasma cholesterol concentrations in humans. This model was dire

  18. A physiologically based in silico kinetic model predicting plasma cholesterol concentrations in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pas, N.C.A. van de; Woutersen, R.A.; Ommen, B. van; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Graaf, A.A. de

    2012-01-01

    Increased plasma cholesterol concentration is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. This study describes the development, validation, and analysis of a physiologically based kinetic (PBK) model for the prediction of plasma cholesterol concentrations in humans. This model was

  19. Approaches to modeling of plasmas containing impurity at arbitrary concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokar, Mikhail Z.

    2016-02-01

    A new approximate method to modeling of two-ion-species plasmas with arbitrary concentration of impurity is developed. It based on the usage of equations for the electron density and the ratio of the ion species densities as new dependent variables. In contrast to motion equations for the ion mass velocities used normally, those for the new variables have a singularity at the Debye sheath only, as in the case of a one species plasma. Computations for the most critical situations of weak and intermediate friction between species due to Coulomb collisions reproduce nearly perfectly the results got by solving the original equations, however within a calculation time reduced by a factor of 102-103. In the case of strong friction, where ions’ velocities are very close each other, the normal procedure does not converge at all, but the new one, being precise in this limit, operates very reliably. Calculations are done for conditions typical in the linear device PSI-2, with deuterium plasmas seeded by neon impurity. For fixed electron and ion temperatures a critical density of impurity atoms is found, at which the electron density grows without limits. Such a catastrophic behavior does not occur if the electron and ion heat balances are taken into account to calculate the temperature profiles self-consistently.

  20. Plasma Concentrations of Hepcidin in Anemic Zimbabwean Infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatenda G Mupfudze

    Full Text Available Anemia in infancy is a global public health problem. We evaluated the relative contributions of iron deficiency and inflammation to infant anemia.We measured plasma hepcidin, ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR, alpha-1-acid glycoprotein and C-reactive protein (CRP by ELISA on archived plasma from 289 HIV-unexposed anemic or non-anemic Zimbabwean infants at ages 3 mo, 6 mo and 12 mo. Among anemic infants, we determined the proportion with iron-deficiency anemia (IDA and anemia of inflammation (AI. We undertook regression analyses of plasma hepcidin and anemia status, adjusting for sex, age and birthweight.Anemic infants at 3 mo were more stunted and had higher CRP (median 0.45 vs 0.21 mg/L; P = 0.037 and hepcidin (median 14.7 vs 9.7 ng/mL; P = 0.022 than non-anemic infants, but similar levels of ferritin and sTfR; 11% infants had IDA and 15% had AI. Anemic infants at 6 mo had higher hepcidin (median 7.9 vs 4.5 ng/mL; P = 0.016 and CRP (median 2.33 vs 0.32 mg/L; P<0.001, but lower ferritin (median 13.2 vs 25.1 μg/L; P<0.001 than non-anemic infants; 56% infants had IDA and 12% had AI. Anemic infants at 12 mo had lower ferritin (median 3.2 vs 22.2 μg/L; P<0.001 and hepcidin (median 0.9 vs 1.9 ng/mL; P = 0.019, but similar CRP levels; 48% infants had IDA and 8% had AI. Comparing anemic with non-anemic infants, plasma hepcidin was 568% higher, 405% higher and 64% lower at 3 mo, 6 mo and 12 mo, respectively, after adjusting for sex and birthweight (all p<0.01. Plasma hepcidin declined significantly with age among anemic but not non-anemic infants. Girls had 61% higher hepcidin than boys, after adjusting for age, anemia and birthweight (p<0.001.Anemia is driven partly by inflammation early in infancy, and by iron deficiency later in infancy, with plasma hepcidin concentrations reflecting the relative contribution of each. However, there is need to better characterize the drivers of hepcidin during infancy in developing countries.

  1. Combination of First Derivative Spectrophotometry and H-Point Standard Addition Method for Simultaneous Determination of Guaifenesin and Theophylline in Cough Syrup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Hajian

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Combination of first derivative spectrophotometric and H-point standard addition method (HPSAM has been applied for simultaneous determination of guaifenesin and theophylline. First derivative signals at the two pairs of wavelengths, 282.0-290.2 nm and 277.4-287.8 nm were monitored with the addition of standard solutions of both guaifenesin and theophylline in the ratio of 1:1. The method is able to accurately determine guaifenesin and theophylline (1:5 to 10:1 mole ratios. Accuracy and reproducibility of the determination method on the various amounts of guaifenesin and theophylline with known concentrations were evaluated in their binary mixtures. The recommended procedure was successfully applied to some cough syrups and synthetic mixtures with satisfactory results.

  2. Diagnostic evaluation of plasma aldosterone concentration to plasma renin activity ratio in primary aldosteronism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huilan ZHANG; Daowen WANG

    2008-01-01

    Using the plasma aldosterone concentration to plasma renin activity ratio (PAC/PRA ratio) as the screening test of choice for primary aldosteronism in hypertensive patients, we studied the clinical character-istics and the diagnostic value of PAC/PRA ratio in primary aldosteronism. The plasma aldosterone concen-tration (PAC) and plasma renin activity (PRA) levels were measured by radioimmunoassay in 902 hypertensive patients from out-patient clinics or hospitals. One hundred and twenty-six suspected primary aldosteronism patients whose PAC/PRA ratio was > 25 ng/dL/ng/mL/ hr had a lamellar computed tomography (CT) scan in the adrenal gland and follow-up visits. The proportion of primary aldosteronism in hypertensive patients was 14% (126/902). There were 54 patients with unilateral or bilateral hyperplasia and 25 patients with adenoma according to the CT scan. 39% (49/126) of the patients with primary aldosteronism had hypokalemia. Twenty-five patients received surgical treatment. The efficacy and cure rates were 100% (25/25) and 48% (12/25), respect-ively. The effective rate of aldactone and the single-drug cure rate were 89% (48/54) and 24% (13/54), respectively. Primary aldosteronism affects over 10% of hypertensive patients in China. The PAC/PRA ratio can be considered as a routine screening test in hypertensives, especially resistant hypertensive patients and a high PAC/PRA ratio is an invaluable index in primary aldosteronism diagnosis.

  3. Decrease in pyridoxal-5'-phosphate concentration and increase in pyridoxal concentration in rat plasma by 4'-O-methylpyridoxine administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Daisuke; Yoshimura, Teruki; Johno, Atsushi; Ishikawa, Mika; Sasaki, Keiko; Wada, Keiji

    2015-07-01

    Food poisoning from Ginkgo biloba seeds can cause epilepsy because of a decrease in γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) concentrations in the brain. We previously demonstrated that 4'-O-methylpyridoxine (MPN) is responsible for this observed toxicity of G biloba seeds; however, the mechanism for the decrease in GABA and plasma concentration profile of MPN has not been clarified. Our hypothesis is that MPN induces a decrease in vitamin B6 concentrations, resulting in a decrease in GABA concentration. This study aimed to characterize the plasma concentration profile of MPN and intrinsic vitamin B6 concentrations (pyridoxal [PL], PL-5'-phosphate [PLP], and 4-pyridoxic acid) using a rat model. Plasma concentrations of B6 vitamers after intravenous MPN administration (5 mg/kg) were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography with a fluorescence detector. The half-life of MPN (0.91 ± 0.05 hours) was shorter in rats than the previously reported value in humans. We found a significant decrease in the plasma concentration of PLP, an active form of vitamin B6, after MPN administration. We also observed an increase in plasma PL and 4-pyridoxic acid concentrations; the increase in PL concentration may be caused by either metabolism of MPN to PL or by MPN-mediated inhibition of PL kinase. The present study is the first in vivo study showing relatively rapid elimination of MPN in rats and a decrease in plasma PLP concentration caused by MPN. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The effect of concurrent aspirin upon plasma concentrations of tenoxicam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, R O; Paull, P D; Lam, S; Swanson, B R; Williams, K M; Wade, D N

    1988-01-01

    1. The effect of chronic, high-dose aspirin therapy upon the disposition of a single dose and multiple doses of tenoxicam was examined in normal volunteers. 2. Aspirin caused a 24% drop in the t1/2 (P less than 0.005), a 49% rise in the volume of distribution (P less than 0.0003) and a 98% increase in the clearance (P less than 0.0001) of tenoxicam after a single dose of the tenoxicam. 3. Steady-state concentrations of tenoxicam decreased significantly from 10.4 +/- 1.5 to 4.5 +/- 1.6 micrograms ml-1 in the presence of chronic, high-dose aspirin treatment. 4. Tenoxicam percentage free measured in plasma from a normal volunteer was 0.56 +/- 0.05% over the tenoxicam concentration range 1-20 micrograms ml-1 and rose to 1.24 +/- 0.07% in the presence of aspirin 150 micrograms ml-1. 5. The effect of aspirin upon the disposition of tenoxicam was consistent with a competitive protein binding interaction. PMID:3190995

  5. The influence of insulin on the raised plasma fibronectin concentration in human obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dejgård, A; Andersen, T; Gluud, C

    1986-01-01

    Plasma concentrations of fibronectin, free insulin, C-peptide and plasma glucose were determined in 40 morbidly obese subjects and in 51 normal weight controls, matched for sex and age. All plasma concentrations were significantly elevated (p less than 0.01) among the obese subjects. A significant...

  6. Effectiveness of theophylline prophylaxis of renal impairment after coronary angiography in patients with chronic renal insufficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Wolfgang; Schipek, Chrysantha; Ilgmann, Kathrin; Page, Michael; Hennig, Michael; Wacker, Annette; Schweigart, Ursula; Lutilsky, Leopoldo; Valina, Christian; Seyfarth, Melchior; Schömig, Albert; Classen, Meinhard

    2003-05-15

    Contrast media can lead to renal impairment that results in longer hospitalization and increased mortality. Adenosine is a crucial mediator of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN; an increase in serum creatinine of >or=0.5 mg/dl within 48 hours). Therefore, it was the purpose of our study to investigate whether the adenosine antagonist theophylline reduces the incidence of CIN after coronary angiography. We also characterized risk factors for CIN after coronary angiography. One hundred patients with serum creatinine concentrations of >or=1.3 mg/dl randomly received 200 mg IV theophylline or placebo 30 minutes before coronary angiography (amount of contrast medium >or=100 ml). Patients who received theophylline and the controls were comparable with regard to baseline creatinine levels (means +/- SD) (1.65 +/- 0.41 vs 1.72 +/- 0.69 mg/dl) and the amount of contrast medium received (235 +/- 89 vs 261 +/- 139 ml). Theophylline significantly reduced the incidence of CIN (4% vs 20%, p = 0.0138). With placebo, creatinine significantly increased at 12 (1.82 +/- 0.79 mg/dl, p = 0.0057), 24 (1.90 +/- 0.86 mg/dl, p = 0.0001), and 48 hours (1.90 +/- 0.89 mg/dl, p = 0.0007) after administration of contrast medium. With pretreatment with theophylline, mean creatinine only increased 24 hours after contrast medium administration (1.70 +/- 0.40 mg/dl, p = 0.029), but was stable 12 hours (1.65 +/- 0.43 mg/dl, p = 0.99) and 48 hours after contrast medium administration (1.65 +/- 0.41 mg/dl, p = 0.99). The following parameters were significantly associated with contrast-induced renal impairment: Cigarroa quotient >5 (contrast medium [milliters] x serum creatinine/body weight [kg]), elevated troponin T, >300 ml of contrast medium, and emergency angiography. In conclusion, theophylline reduces the incidence of CIN in patients with chronic renal insufficiency undergoing coronary angiography. It should be used especially in patients receiving large amounts of contrast medium, and in

  7. Plasma Homocysteine Concentrations In Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiljevic Dragan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the concentration of serum homocysteine (Hcy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA compared with the control group and the connection between homocysteine and parameters of inflammation and disease activity. Sixty RA patients and 20 healthy controls were included in the study, and clinical examination and investigation were performed during which disease activity was assessed. Peripheral blood samples were used for all of the assays. Levels of Hcy were 33% higher in the RA patients than in the control subjects (mean +/− SD 11.79±3.72 μmol/L versus 8.90±1.38 μmol/L; p< 0.01. A significant correlation was found between parameters of inflammation (C-reactive protein and homocysteine in patients (r=0.322, p=0.012. Patients with high disease activity had a significantly greater increase in homocysteine (p<0.05. An increase in plasma homocysteine in RA patients is related to the parameters of inflammation and disease activity. Elevated Hcy levels occur commonly in patients with RA and may explain some of the increased cardiovascular mortality seen in RA patients.

  8. Is plasma urotensin II concentration an indicator of myocardial damage in patients with acute coronary syndrome?

    OpenAIRE

    Babińska, Magdalena; Holecki, Michał; Prochaczek, Fryderyk; OWCZAREK, ALEKSANDER; Kokocińska, Danuta; Chudek,Jerzy; Więcek, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Urotensin II (UII) is a vasoactive peptide secreted by endothelial cells. Increased plasma UII concentration was observed in patients with heart failure, liver cirrhosis, diabetic nephropathy and renal insufficiency. In patients with myocardial infarction both increased and decreased plasma UII concentrations were demonstrated. The aim of this study was to analyze whether plasma UII concentration reflects the severity of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Material and methods One hun...

  9. The influence of a cooked meat meal on creatinine plasma concentration and creatinine clearance.

    OpenAIRE

    Mayersohn, M; Conrad, K A; Achari, R

    1983-01-01

    1 The influence of a meal containing cooked meat (225 g) on creatinine plasma concentration, creatinine urinary excretion and creatinine clearance was determined in six healthy male subjects. 2 The meat meal produced an average 52% increase in creatinine plasma concentration within 1.5 to 3.5 h after ingestion. The 24 h area under the creatinine plasma concentration-time curve increased by about 19%. Urinary creatinine excretion during 24 h increased by an average of 13%. Creatinine clearance...

  10. Atazanavir increases the plasma concentrations of 1200 mg raltegravir dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Rajesh; East, Lilly; Larson, Patrick; Valiathan, Chandni; Deschamps, Kathleen; Luk, Julie Ann; Bethel-Brown, Crystal; Manthos, Helen; Brejda, John; Gartner, Michael

    2016-12-01

    Raltegravir is a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 integrase strand transfer inhibitor currently marketed at a dose of 400 mg twice-daily (b.i.d.). Raltegravir 1200 mg once-daily (q.d.) (investigational q.d. formulation of 2 × 600 mg tablets; q.d. RAL) was found to be generally well tolerated and non-inferior to the marketed 400 mg b.i.d. dose at 48 weeks in a phase 3 trial. Since raltegravir is eliminated mainly by metabolism via a uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A1-mediated glucuronidation pathway, co-administration of UGT1A1 inhibitors may increase the plasma levels of q.d. RAL. To assess this potential, the drug interaction of 1200 mg raltegravir using atazanavir, a known UGT1A1 inhibitor, was studied. An open-label, randomized, 2-period, fixed-sequence phase 1 study was performed in adult healthy male and female (non-childbearing potential) subjects ≥ 19 and ≤ 55 years of age, with a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 18.5 and ≤ 32.0 kg/m(2) . Subjects (n = 14) received a single oral dose of 1200 mg raltegravir in period 1. After a washout period of at least 7 days, the subjects received oral doses of 400 mg atazanavir q.d. for 9 consecutive days, with a single oral dose of 1200 mg raltegravir co-administered on day 7 of period 2. Serial blood samples were collected for 72 h following raltegravir dosing and analysed using a validated bioanalytical method to quantify raltegravir plasma concentrations. Co-administration with atazanavir yielded GMRs (90% CIs) for raltegravir AUC0-∞ , Cmax and C24 of 1.67 (1.34, 2.10), 1.16 (1.01, 1.33) and 1.26 (1.08, 1.46), respectively. There was no effect of raltegravir on serum total bilirubin. In contrast, atazanavir increased the mean bilirubin by up to 200%, an effect that was preserved in the atazanavir/raltegravir treatment group. Administration of single q.d. RAL alone and co-administered with multiple oral doses of atazanavir were generally well tolerated in healthy subjects. The results show that

  11. Lethal poisoning with theophylline in the form of rectally administered tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Kopacz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the case of death of a 56-year-old man who died in a municipal hospital from which his body was taken to the Chair and Department of Forensic Medicine, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Krakow. The man was said to have been found unconscious by accidental passers-by. While being transported to the hospital’s emergency department, he suffered an attack of convulsions and went into cardiac arrest. He was subsequently successfully resuscitated. A physical examination performed at the hospital revealed the presence of multiple, only slightly dissolved tablets in the man’s rectum. The patient died on the 25th day of hospitalization. A toxicological analysis showed a toxic concentration of theophylline (25 mg/l in the man’s blood. Theophylline was identified as the main ingredient of the tablets. The cause of death was thus given as theophylline poisoning. The reported case is unusual in that the poisoning occurred as a result of overdosing on an oral drug which was administered by the victim rectally, and in that the chosen substance currently is not very commonly used in medicine, and does not cause symptoms of intoxication.

  12. Plasma adiponectin concentration is associated with skeletal muscle insulin receptor tyrosine phosphorylation, and low plasma concentration precedes a decrease in whole-body insulin sensitivity in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefan, Norbert; Vozarova, Barbora; Funahashi, Tohru;

    2002-01-01

    -induced tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor (IR) and also increase whole-body insulin sensitivity. To further characterize the relationship between plasma adiponectin concentration and insulin sensitivity in humans, we examined 1) the cross-sectional association between plasma adiponectin......Adiponectin, the most abundant adipose-specific protein, has been found to be negatively associated with degree of adiposity and positively associated with insulin sensitivity in Pima Indians and other populations. Moreover, adiponectin administration to rodents has been shown to increase insulin...... concentration and skeletal muscle IR tyrosine phosphorylation and 2) the prospective effect of plasma adiponectin concentration at baseline on change in insulin sensitivity. Fasting plasma adiponectin concentration, body composition (hydrodensitometry or dual energy X-ray absorptiometry), insulin sensitivity...

  13. Decreased plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor and vascular endothelial growth factor concentrations during military training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Go Suzuki

    Full Text Available Decreased concentrations of plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and serum BDNF have been proposed to be a state marker of depression and a biological indicator of loaded psychosocial stress. Stress evaluations of participants in military mission are critically important and appropriate objective biological parameters that evaluate stress are needed. In military circumstances, there are several problems to adopt plasma BDNF concentration as a stress biomarker. First, in addition to psychosocial stress, military missions inevitably involve physical exercise that increases plasma BDNF concentrations. Second, most participants in the mission do not have adequate quality or quantity of sleep, and sleep deprivation has also been reported to increase plasma BDNF concentration. We evaluated plasma BDNF concentrations in 52 participants on a 9-week military mission. The present study revealed that plasma BDNF concentration significantly decreased despite elevated serum enzymes that escaped from muscle and decreased quantity and quality of sleep, as detected by a wearable watch-type sensor. In addition, we observed a significant decrease in plasma vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF during the mission. VEGF is also neurotrophic and its expression in the brain has been reported to be up-regulated by antidepressive treatments and down-regulated by stress. This is the first report of decreased plasma VEGF concentrations by stress. We conclude that decreased plasma concentrations of neurotrophins can be candidates for mental stress indicators in actual stressful environments that include physical exercise and limited sleep.

  14. The effects of cefonicid on the pharmacokinetics of a once-a-day theophylline formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazzola, M; Lobefalo, G; Lupis, F; Vanacore, L; Martucci, P; D'Amato, G

    1989-01-01

    The authors have explored the effects of cefonicid on the steady-state pharmacokinetics of a new sustained-release theophylline formulation in 12 adult patients suffering from chronic obstructive lung disease, by comparing the pharmacokinetic data obtained following four days of medication with theophylline alone with those found at the end of seven days of combined treatment with the same theophylline preparation plus cefonicid. Blood theophylline levels were assessed in duplicate by polarized immunofluorescence with a TDx analyser. Theophylline kinetics were totally unaffected by simultaneous cefonicid treatment, showing that the two drugs may be administered together without any need for adjustment of the theophylline dosage.

  15. Intracellular CD3+ T Lymphocyte Teriflunomide Concentration Is Poorly Correlated with and Has Greater Variability Than Unbound Plasma Teriflunomide Concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Ashley M; Moghaddami, Mahin; Foster, David J R; Proudman, Susanna M; Upton, Richard N; Wiese, Michael D

    2017-01-01

    Leflunomide's active metabolite teriflunomide inhibits dihydro-oroate dehydrogenase, an enzyme essential to proliferation of T lymphocytes. As teriflunomide must reach the target site to have this effect, this study assessed the distribution of teriflunomide into T lymphocytes, as intracellular concentrations may be a superior response biomarker to plasma concentrations. CD3 MicroBeads (Miltenyi Biotec, Bergisch Gladbach, Germany) were used to extract CD3(+) T cells from the peripheral blood of patients with rheumatoid arthritis who were taking a stable dose of leflunomide. Unbound plasma and intra-CD3(+) T cell teriflunomide concentrations were quantified using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Concentration (log transformed) and partition differences were assessed through paired Student t tests. Sixteen patients provided plasma steady-state teriflunomide samples, and eight provided a sample 6-12 weeks later. At time-point one, the geometric mean teriflunomide concentration (range) in CD3(+) T cells was 18.12 μg/L (6.15-42.26 μg/L) compared with 69.75 μg/L (32.89-263.1 μg/L) unbound in plasma (P < 0.001). The mean partition coefficient (range) for unbound plasma teriflunomide into CD3(+) T cells was 0.295 (0.092-0.632), which was significantly different from unity (P < 0.001). The median (range) change in teriflunomide concentration between the two time points was 14% (-10% to 40%) in unbound plasma and -29% (-69 to 138%) for CD3(+) T cells. Because teriflunomide concentrations in CD3(+) T cells were lower and displayed a higher intraindividual variability than the unbound plasma concentrations, its applicability as a therapeutic drug-monitoring marker may be limited. Copyright © 2016 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  16. Determination of caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline in standard reference material 2384, baking chocolate, using reversed-phase liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Jeanice Brown; Yen, James H; Schantz, Michele M; Porter, Barbara J; Sharpless, Katherine E

    2004-06-02

    A rapid and selective isocratic reversed-phase liquid chromatographic method has been developed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology to simultaneously measure caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline in a food-matrix standard reference material (SRM) 2384, Baking Chocolate. The method uses isocratic elution with a mobile phase composition (volume fractions) of 10% acetronitrile/90% water (pH adjusted to 2.5 using acetic acid) at a flow rate of 1.5 mL/min with ultraviolet absorbance detection (274 nm). Total elution time for these analytes is less than 15 min. Concentration levels of caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline were measured in single 1-g samples taken from each of eight bars of chocolate over an eight-day period. Samples were defatted with hexane, and beta-hydroxyethyltheophylline was added as the internal standard. The repeatability for the caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline measurements was 5.1, 2.3, and 1.9%, respectively. The limit of quantitation for all analytes was theobromine, and theophylline in SRM 2384.

  17. Association of lopinavir concentrations with plasma lipid or glucose concentrations in HIV-infected South Africans: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinxadi Phumla Z

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dyslipidaemia and dysglycaemia have been associated with exposure to ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitors. Lopinavir/ritonavir, the most commonly used protease inhibitor in resource-limited settings, often causes dyslipidaemia. There are contradictory data regarding the association between lopinavir concentrations and changes in lipids. Aim To investigate associations between plasma lopinavir concentrations and lipid and glucose concentrations in HIV-infected South African adults. Methods Participants stable on lopinavir-based antiretroviral therapy were enrolled into a cross-sectional study. After an overnight fast, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and lopinavir concentrations were measured and an oral glucose tolerance test was performed. Regression analyses were used to determine associations between plasma lopinavir concentrations and fasting and 2 hour plasma glucose, fasting cholesterol, and triglycerides concentrations. Results There were 84 participants (72 women with a median age of 36 years. The median blood pressure, body mass index and waist: hip ratio were 108/72 mmHg, 26 kg/m2 and 0.89 respectively. The median CD4 count was 478 cells/mm3. Median duration on lopinavir was 18.5 months. The median (interquartile range lopinavir concentration was 8.0 (5.2 to 12.8 μg/mL. Regression analyses showed no significant association between lopinavir pre-dose concentrations and fasting cholesterol (β-coefficient −0.04 (95% CI −0.07 to 0.00, triglycerides (β-coefficient −0.01 (95% CI −0.04 to 0.02, fasting glucose (β-coefficient −0.01 (95% CI −0.04 to 0.02, or 2-hour glucose concentrations (β-coefficient −0.02 (95% CI −0.09 to 0.06. Lopinavir concentrations above the median were not associated with presence of dyslipidaemia or dysglycaemia. Conclusions There was no association between lopinavir plasma concentrations and plasma lipid and glucose concentrations.

  18. Theophylline-dependent riboswitch as a novel genetic tool for strict regulation of protein expression in Cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahira, Yoichi; Ogawa, Atsushi; Asano, Hiroyuki; Oyama, Tokitaka; Tozawa, Yuzuru

    2013-10-01

    The cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 is a major model species for studies of photosynthesis. It is are also a potential cell factory for the production of renewable biofuels and valuable chemicals. We employed engineered riboswitches to control translational initiation of target genes in this cyanobacterium. A firefly luciferase reporter assay revealed that three theophylline riboswitches performed as expected in the cyanobacterium. Riboswitch-E* exhibited very low leaky expression of luciferase and superior and dose-dependent on/off regulation of protein expression by theophylline. The maximum magnitude of the induction vs. basal level was ∼190-fold. Furthermore, the induction level was responsive to a wide range of theophylline concentrations in the medium, from 0 to 2 mM, facilitating the fine-tuning of luciferase expression. We adapted this riboswitch to another gene regulation system, in which expression of the circadian clock kaiC gene product is controlled by the theophylline concentration in the culture medium. The results demonstrated that the adequately adjusted expression level of KaiC restored complete circadian rhythm in the kaiC-deficient arrhythmic mutant. This theophylline-dependent riboswitch system has potential for various applications as a useful genetic tool in cyanobacteria.

  19. Genome-wide association study identifies loci influencing concentrations of liver enzymes in plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chambers, John C; Zhang, Weihua; Sehmi, Joban; Li, Xinzhong; Wass, Mark N; Van der Harst, Pim; Holm, Hilma; Sanna, Serena; Kavousi, Maryam; Baumeister, Sebastian E; Coin, Lachlan J; Deng, Guohong; Gieger, Christian; Heard-Costa, Nancy L; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Kühnel, Brigitte; Kumar, Vinod; Lagou, Vasiliki; Liang, Liming; Luan, Jian'an; Vidal, Pedro Marques; Mateo Leach, Irene; O'Reilly, Paul F; Peden, John F; Rahmioglu, Nilufer; Soininen, Pasi; Speliotes, Elizabeth K; Yuan, Xin; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z; Atwood, Larry D; Borecki, Ingrid B; Brown, Morris J; Charoen, Pimphen; Cucca, Francesco; Das, Debashish; de Geus, Eco J C; Dixon, Anna L; Döring, Angela; Ehret, Georg; Eyjolfsson, Gudmundur I; Farrall, Martin; Forouhi, Nita G; Friedrich, Nele; Goessling, Wolfram; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F; Harris, Tamara B; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Heath, Simon; Hirschfield, Gideon M; Hofman, Albert; Homuth, Georg; Hyppönen, Elina; Janssen, Harry L A; Johnson, Toby; Kangas, Antti J; Kema, Ido P; Kühn, Jens P; Lai, Sandra; Lathrop, Mark; Lerch, Markus M; Li, Yun; Liang, T Jake; Lin, Jing-Ping; Loos, Ruth J F; Martin, Nicholas G; Moffatt, Miriam F; Montgomery, Grant W; Munroe, Patricia B; Musunuru, Kiran; Nakamura, Yusuke; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Olafsson, Isleifur; Penninx, Brenda W; Pouta, Anneli; Prins, Bram P; Prokopenko, Inga; Puls, Ralf; Ruokonen, Aimo; Savolainen, Markku J; Schlessinger, David; Schouten, Jeoffrey N L; Seedorf, Udo; Sen-Chowdhry, Srijita; Siminovitch, Katherine A; Smit, Johannes H; Spector, Timothy D; Tan, Wenting; Teslovich, Tanya M; Tukiainen, Taru; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Van der Klauw, Melanie M; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Wallace, Chris; Wallaschofski, Henri; Wichmann, H-Erich; Willemsen, Gonneke; Würtz, Peter; Xu, Chun; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M; Abecasis, Goncalo R; Ahmadi, Kourosh R; Boomsma, Dorret I; Caulfield, Mark; Cookson, William O; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Froguel, Philippe; Matsuda, Koichi; McCarthy, Mark I; Meisinger, Christa; Mooser, Vincent; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H; Schumann, Gunter; Snieder, Harold; Sternberg, Michael J E; Stolk, Ronald P; Thomas, Howard C; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Uda, Manuela; Waeber, Gérard; Wareham, Nicholas J; Waterworth, Dawn M; Watkins, Hugh; Whitfield, John B; Witteman, Jacqueline C M; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R; Fox, Caroline S; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Stefansson, Kari; Vollenweider, Peter; Völzke, Henry; Schadt, Eric E; Scott, James; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Elliott, Paul; Kooner, Jaspal S

    2011-01-01

    Concentrations of liver enzymes in plasma are widely used as indicators of liver disease. We carried out a genome-wide association study in 61,089 individuals, identifying 42 loci associated with concentrations of liver enzymes in plasma, of which 32 are new associations (P = 10(-8) to P = 10(-190))

  20. Pedophilia is accompanied by increased plasma concentrations of catecholamines, in particular epinephrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, M; De Vos, N; Van Hunsel, F; Van West, D; Westenberg, H; Cosyns, P; Neels, H

    2001-08-05

    Plasma epinephrine and norepinephrine concentrations were measured in pedophiles and normal men both in placebo conditions and after administration of meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP), a post-synaptic 5-HT2 receptor agonist. The plasma concentrations of catecholamines, in particular epinephrine, were significantly increased in pedophiles. It is concluded that pedophiles may have an increased activity of the sympathoadrenal system.

  1. Genome-wide association study identifies loci influencing concentrations of liver enzymes in plasma.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chambers, J.C.; Zhang, W.; Sehmi, J.; Li, X.; Wass, M.N.; Harst, P. van der; Holm, H.; Sanna, S.; Kavousi, M.; Baumeister, S.E.; Coin, L.J.; Deng, G.; Gieger, C.; Heard-Costa, N.L.; Hottenga, J.J.; Kuhnel, B.; Kumar, V.; Lagou, V.; Liang, L.; Luan, J.; Vidal, P.M.; Mateo Leach, I.; O'Reilly, P.F.; Peden, J.F.; Rahmioglu, N.; Soininen, P.; Speliotes, E.K.; Yuan, X.; Thorleifsson, G.; Alizadeh, B.Z.; Atwood, L.D.; Borecki, I.B.; Brown, M.J.; Charoen, P.; Cucca, F.; Das, D.; Geus, E.J. de; Dixon, A.L.; Doring, A.; Ehret, G.; Eyjolfsson, G.I.; Farrall, M.; Forouhi, N.G.; Friedrich, N.; Goessling, W.; Gudbjartsson, D.F.; Harris, T.B.; Hartikainen, A.L.; Heath, S.; Hirschfield, G.M.; Hofman, A.; Homuth, G.; Hypponen, E.; Janssen, H.L.; Johnson, T.; Kangas, A.J.; Kema, I.P.; Kuhn, J.P.; Lai, S.; Lathrop, M.; Lerch, M.M.; Li, Y.; Liang, T.J.; Lin, J.P.; Loos, R.J.; Martin, N.G.; Moffatt, M.F.; Montgomery, G.W.; Munroe, P.B.; Musunuru, K.; Nakamura, Y.; O'Donnell, C.J.; Olafsson, I.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Pouta, A.; Prins, B.P.; Prokopenko, I.; Puls, R.; Ruokonen, A.; Savolainen, M.J.; Schlessinger, D.; Schouten, J.N.; Seedorf, U.; Sen-Chowdhry, S.; Siminovitch, K.A.; Smit, J.H.; Spector, T.D.; Tan, W.; Teslovich, T.M.; Tukiainen, T.; Uitterlinden, A.G.; Klauw, M.M. Van der; Vasan, R.S.; Wallace, C.; Wallaschofski, H.; Wichmann, H.E.; Willemsen, G.; Wurtz, P.; Xu, C.; Yerges-Armstrong, L.M.; Abecasis, G.R.; Ahmadi, K.R.; Boomsma, D.I.; Caulfield, M.; Cookson, W.O.; Duijn, C.M. van; Froguel, P.; Matsuda, K.; McCarthy, M.I.; Meisinger, C.; Mooser, V.; Pietilainen, K.H.; Schumann, G.; Snieder, H.; Sternberg, M.J.; Stolk, R.P.; Thomas, H.C.; Thorsteinsdottir, U.; Uda, M.; Waeber, G.; Wareham, N.J.; Waterworth, D.M.; Watkins, H.; Whitfield, J.B.; Witteman, J.C.; Wolffenbuttel, B.H.R.; Fox, C.S.; Ala-Korpela, M.; Stefansson, K.; Vollenweider, P.; Volzke, H.; Schadt, E.E.; Scott, J.; Jarvelin, M.R.; Elliott, P.; Kooner, J.S.; Heijer, M. den; et al.,

    2011-01-01

    Concentrations of liver enzymes in plasma are widely used as indicators of liver disease. We carried out a genome-wide association study in 61,089 individuals, identifying 42 loci associated with concentrations of liver enzymes in plasma, of which 32 are new associations (P = 10(-8) to P =

  2. Higher plasma prorenin concentration plays a role in the development of coronary artery disease

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshida, Gakuro; Kawasaki, Masanori; MURATA, Ichijiro; Hayakawa, Yuka; AOYAMA, Takuma; Miyazaki, Nagisa; Yamada, Yoshihisa; NISHIGAKI, Kazuhiko; Arai, Yoshie; Suzuki, Fumiaki; Minatoguchi, Shinya

    2015-01-01

    Background Prorenin and renin are both involved in atherosclerosis. However, the role of plasma prorenin and renin in the development and progression of coronary artery disease (CAD) is still not clear. Thus, we aimed to examine the relationships among plasma prorenin concentration, CAD and clinical parameters. Methods We measured plasma prorenin and renin concentrations and other parameters in 85 patients who underwent coronary angiography. Patients were divided into a CAD group (≥75 % steno...

  3. Differential Responses of Plasma Adropin Concentrations To Dietary Glucose or Fructose Consumption In Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Andrew A; St-Onge, Marie-Pierre; Siebert, Emily A; Medici, Valentina; Stanhope, Kimber L; Havel, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    Adropin is a peptide hormone encoded by the Energy Homeostasis Associated (ENHO) gene whose physiological role in humans remains incompletely defined. Here we investigated the impact of dietary interventions that affect systemic glucose and lipid metabolism on plasma adropin concentrations in humans. Consumption of glucose or fructose as 25% of daily energy requirements (E) differentially affected plasma adropin concentrations (P Glucose consumption reduced plasma adropin from 3.55 ± 0.26 to 3.28 ± 0.23 ng/ml (N = 42). Fructose consumption increased plasma adropin from 3.63 ± 0.29 to 3.93 ± 0.34 ng/ml (N = 45). Consumption of high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) as 25% E had no effect (3.43 ± 0.32 versus 3.39 ± 0.24 ng/ml, N = 26). Overall, the effect of glucose, HFCS and fructose on circulating adropin concentrations were similar to those observed on postprandial plasma triglyceride concentrations. Furthermore, increases in plasma adropin levels with fructose intake were most robust in individuals exhibiting hypertriglyceridemia. Individuals with low plasma adropin concentrations also exhibited rapid increases in plasma levels following consumption of breakfasts supplemented with lipids. These are the first results linking plasma adropin levels with dietary sugar intake in humans, with the impact of fructose consumption linked to systemic triglyceride metabolism. In addition, dietary fat intake may also increase circulating adropin concentrations.

  4. Elevated plasma and urinary concentrations of green tea catechins associated with improved plasma lipid profile in healthy Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takechi, Ryusuke; Alfonso, Helman; Hiramatsu, Naoko; Ishisaka, Akari; Tanaka, Akira; Tan, La'Belle; Lee, Andy H

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated green tea catechins in plasma and urine and chronic disease biomarkers. We hypothesized that plasma and urinary concentration of green tea catechins are associated with cardiovascular disease and diabetes biomarkers. First void urine and fasting plasma samples were collected from 57 generally healthy females aged 38 to 73 years (mean, 52 ± 8 years) recruited in Himeji, Japan. The concentrations of plasma and urinary green tea catechins were determined by liquid chromatography coupled with mass tandem spectrometer. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglyceride, glucose, insulin, glycated hemoglobin, and C-reactive protein in plasma/serum samples were analyzed by a commercial diagnostic laboratory. Statistical associations were assessed using Spearman correlation coefficients. The results showed weak associations between plasma total catechin and triglyceride (r = -0.30) and LDL cholesterol (r = -0.28), whereas plasma (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, (-)-epigallocatechin, (-)-epicatechin-3-gallate, and (-)-epicatechin exhibited weak to moderate associations with triglyceride or LDL cholesterol, but little associations with HDL cholesterol, body fat, and body mass index were evident. Urinary total catechin was weakly associated with triglyceride (r = -0.19) and LDL cholesterol (r = -0.15), whereas urinary (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (r = -0.33), (-)-epigallocatechin (r = -0.23), and (-)-epicatechin-3-gallate (r = -0.33) had weak to moderate correlations with triglyceride and similarly with body fat and body mass index. Both plasma (r = -0.24) and urinary (r = -0.24) total catechin, as well as individual catechins, were weakly associated with glycated hemoglobin. Plasma total and individual catechins were weakly to moderately associated with C-reactive protein, but not the case for urinary catechins. In conclusion, we found weak to moderate associations between plasma and urinary green tea

  5. Anemia as a factor that elevates plasma brain natriuretic peptide concentration in apparently healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Mika; Tsujino, Takeshi; Naito, Yoshiro; Lee-Kawabata, Masaaki; Ezumi, Akira; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Mano, Toshiaki; Masuyama, Tohru

    2008-09-01

    Plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) is widely used as a biomarker of heart failure (HF); however, its concentration is often found to be high even in apparently healthy subjects and little is known about which factors contribute to physiological change in plasma BNP concentration in subjects without HF. We examined the effects of gender, age, and anemia on plasma BNP concentration in apparently healthy subjects. The study population consisted of 1036 healthy subjects who underwent an annual health examination at their company in 2005. There were 874 women, ranging in age from 30 to 63 years (mean, 41 years). Plasma BNP concentration was abnormal (> 18.4 pg/mL) in 292 subjects. The incidence was significantly higher in women than in men (31% versus 14%, P < 0.01). Mean plasma BNP concentration was higher in women than in men. The difference in plasma BNP concentration was associated with the difference in blood hemoglobin and age. Logarithmically transformed BNP concentration correlated inversely with blood hemoglobin (r = -0.30, P < 0.01 for all; r = -0.21, P < 0.01 for women; r = -0.20, P < 0.01 for men). By multiple regression analysis, logarithmically transformed BNP concentration correlated with hemoglobin, age, and gender. In conclusion, anemia is likely a critical determinant that elevates plasma BNP concentration in apparently healthy subjects.

  6. Concentrations in plasma clozapine levels in schizophrenic and schizoaffective patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias García, Celso; Iglesias Alonso, Ana; Bobes, Julio

    2017-08-22

    There is great variability in plasma levels of clozapine. The objective of this study is to know the characteristics of patients treated with clozapine and the relationship between them and the variability of plasma levels. Descriptive, cross-sectional study of all patients currently treated with clozapine in a Psychiatric Service with a diagnosis of schizophrenic psychosis or schizoaffective disorder. The present study assessed physical situation, psychopathology and functionality of the patients and explored the associations and correlations between clinical variables and plasma levels. We studied 39 patients, predominantly men, with negative and depressive symptoms and cardiovascular risk factors (metabolic syndrome and smoking). Significant variability in dose and even greater in clozapine levels were observed. The levels of clozapine at equal doses/kg of body weight were higher in non-smokers, they had positive correlation with BMI and negative correlation with systolic BP, disruptive behaviors and number of cigarettes consumed. Plasma level monitoring clozapine is an important tool to avoid clozapine plasma levels monitoring and minimize undesirable clinical situations (metabolic syndrome, sedation, negative symptoms and functional impairment). It is also important to control the effects of a smoking habit for optimum drug bioavailability. Copyright © 2017 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Blood sampling and hemolysis affect concentration of plasma metabolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theil, Peter Kappel; Pedersen, Lene Juul; Jensen, Margit Bak;

    2012-01-01

    , a subset of samples from 24 sows fed twice daily in Exp. 1 was combined with data obtained from 30 sows sampled using jugular vein catheters. All sows in Exp. 2 were fed twice daily (0800 h and 1500 h) and blood samples collected repeatedly 1, 4, 11, and 23 h after morning feeding (other conditions were......Two experiments were carried out to reveal and quantify plasma metabolites that are sensitive to hemolysis and animal stress due to the blood sampling procedure (vein puncture vs. catheter). In Exp. 1, 48 sows were fed 4 diets either once (0800 h) or twice daily (0800 h and 1500 h) in a crossover...... design and blood was collected after restraint via vein puncture 1, 4, 11, and 23 h after morning feeding. Plasma samples were categorized as without or with minor or major hemolysis [clear (n = 218), yellow (n = 97), or red (n = 37)] upon centrifugation. Plasma NEFA (P

  8. Measurement of plasma cell-free DNA concentrations in dogs with sepsis, trauma, and neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letendre, Jo-Annie; Goggs, Robert

    2017-05-01

    To determine if cell-free DNA (cfDNA) was identifiable in canine plasma, to evaluate 3 techniques for the measurement of plasma cfDNA concentrations in dogs presented to an emergency service, and to compare the plasma cfDNA concentrations of healthy dogs to those with sepsis, trauma, and neoplasia. Retrospective study of banked canine plasma samples collected between May 2014 and December 2014. Dogs presented to the emergency service of a university veterinary teaching hospital. Plasma cfDNA was measured on residual plasma samples obtained from 15 dogs with sepsis, 15 dogs with moderate-severe trauma, 15 dogs diagnosed with a sarcoma. Plasma cfDNA was also measured in 15 healthy dogs. None. Assay linearity, repeatability, and reproducibility were evaluated. Quantification of cfDNA was performed in duplicate on diluted citrated plasma and following DNA purification using 2 fluorescence assays (SYBR-Gold; Quant-iT) and by ultraviolet absorbance spectroscopy. Fluorescence intensities (FIs) were converted to cfDNA concentrations using standard curves. Median FI values and cfDNA concentrations were compared to healthy controls using the Kruskal-Wallis test, with adjustment for multiple comparisons. Alpha was set at 0.05. Both assays had excellent linearity, and acceptable repeatability and reproducibility. Compared to controls, plasma cfDNA concentrations were significantly increased in dogs with sepsis or moderate-severe trauma with both assays (P ≤ 0.003). Dogs with neoplasia had significantly increased cfDNA concentrations with the Quant-iT assay only (P = 0.003). When measurements were performed on purified DNA, only dogs with moderate-severe trauma had significantly increased cfDNA concentrations (P plasma using 2 fluorescence assays. DNA extraction offers no advantage over direct measurement. Compared to healthy controls, dogs with sepsis or moderate-severe trauma have significantly increased plasma cfDNA concentrations. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care

  9. Comparative changes in plasma protein concentration, hematocrit and plasma volume during exercise, bedrest and + Gz acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Beaumont, W.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1972-01-01

    Discussion of experiments which indicate that under conditions of a constant red cell volume the proportional changes in hematocrit and plasma volume during exercise are never equal. On the basis of direct measurements and calculated changes of plasma volume it is concluded that during maximal exercise there is a small loss of protein from the plasma. It is clear that changes in content of blood constituents can only be evaluated correctly after determination of changes in plasma volume.

  10. Implications of Plasma Renin Activity and Plasma Aldosterone Concentration in Critically Ill Patients with Septic Shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Soo Chung

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is closely associated with volume status and vascular tone in septic shock. The present study aimed to assess whether plasma renin activity (PRA and plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC measurements compared with conventional severity indicators are associated with mortality in patients with septic shock. Methods We evaluated 105 patients who were admitted for septic shock. Plasma levels of the biomarkers PRA and PAC, the PAC/PRA ratio, C-reactive protein (CRP level, and cortisol level on days 1, 3, and 7 were serially measured. During the intensive care unit stay, relevant clinical information and laboratory results were recorded. Results Patients were divided into two groups according to 28-day mortality: survivors (n = 59 and non-survivors (n = 46. The survivor group showed lower PRA, PAC, Acute Physiologic and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II score, and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA score than did the non-survivor group (all P < 0.05. The SOFA score was positively correlated with PRA (r = 0.373, P < 0.001 and PAC (r = 0.316, P = 0.001. According to receiver operating characteristic analysis, the areas under the curve of PRA and PAC to predict 28-day mortality were 0.69 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.58 to 0.79; P = 0.001 and 0.67 (95% CI, 0.56 to 0.77; P = 0.003, respectively, similar to the APACHE II scores and SOFA scores. In particular, the group with PRA value ≥3.5 ng ml-1 h-1 on day 1 showed significantly greater mortality than did the group with PRA value <3.5 ng ml-1 h-1 (log-rank test, P < 0.001. According to multivariate analysis, SOFA score (hazard ratio, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.22, PRA value ≥3.5 ng ml-1 h-1 (hazard ratio, 3.25; 95% CI, 1.60 to 6.60, previous history of cancer (hazard ratio, 3.44; 95% CI, 1.72 to 6.90, and coronary arterial occlusive disease (hazard ratio, 2.99; 95% CI, 1.26 to 7.08 were predictors of 28-day mortality. Conclusions Elevated

  11. [Rapid determination of theophylline, theobromine and caffeine in dietary supplements containing guarana by ultra-performance liquid chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Takashi; Takahashi, Kazunaga; Saijo, Masaaki; Ishii, Toshiyasu; Nagata, Tomoko

    2009-12-01

    A rapid and simple method for determination of theophylline, theobromine and caffeine in dietary supplements containing guarana by ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) has been developed. Theophylline, theobromine and caffeine were extracted from finely powdered samples with water in a boiling water bath for 20 min, then the extracts were filtered and the filtrates were subjected to UPLC. Liquid samples were diluted with water and filteres, and the filtrates were subjected to UPLC. UPLC separation was performed on an AQUITY UPLC BEH C18 column (2.1 mm i.d.x50 mm, 1.7 microm, Waters) with 10 mmol/L ammonium acetate buffer (pH 4.0)-acetonitrile gradient and eluates were monitored at 275 nm. The recoveries of theophylline (spiked at 200 microg/g [tablet] and 50 microg/mL [liquid]), theobromine (spiked at 200 microg/g [tablet] and 50 microg/mL [liquid]) and caffeine (spiked at 1,000 microg/g [tablet] and 250 microg/mL [liquid]) were 97.6-98.7%, 97.3-99.7%, 97.1-105.4%, respectively. The quantitation limits of theophylline, theobromine and caffeine were 10 microg/g (seed, seed powder, tablet and capsule) and 2.0 microg/mL (liquid) each. When this analytical method was applied to commercial dietary supplements, theophylline, theobromine and caffeine were found at concentrations of 4.45 mg/tablet, 5.48 mg/tablet, 139 mg/tablet, respectively. Taking 4 tablets of this product according to the directions on the package could be dangerous to consumers because of possible overdosing of these ingredients.

  12. Correlation between Behavioural and Psychological Symptoms of Alzheimer Type Dementia and Plasma Homocysteine Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanjie Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between plasma homocysteine and behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD has not been specifically investigated in previous research. In this study, we compared plasma homocysteine (Hcy among 40 Alzheimer’s disease (AD patients with BPSD, 37 AD patients without BPSD, and 39 healthy controls. Our results evidenced that the plasma homocysteine levels in AD patients with BPSD and without BPSD were higher than healthy controls and that the plasma homocysteine concentration in AD patients with BPSD was the highest among the three groups. Significant correlation between plasma homocysteine concentration and cognitive decline and duration of dementia was observed, but there was no correlation between BPSD and cognitive dysfunction or duration of dementia. In conclusion, this study showed for the first time that BPSD were associated with plasma homocysteine concentration in Alzheimer's dementia, and the results supported that hyperhomocysteine may take part in the pathogenesis of BPSD.

  13. Low plasma concentrations achieved with conventional schedules of administration of ganciclovir in patients with AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piketty, C; Bardin, C; Gilquin, J; Mahe, V; Kazatchkine, M D; Chast, F

    1996-07-01

    Plasma concentration of ganciclovir was studied prospectively in 15 AIDS patients treated for acute cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis. Ganciclovir was administered at a mean dose of 10.3 +/- 0.6 mg/kg/day. The mean trough plasma concentration was 0.6 +/- 0.3 mg/L (n = 24), and the mean peak concentration was 7.2 +/- 2.4 mg/L (n = 6). In 12 patients, trough concentrations were below the range that has been associated with effective treatment. Low trough concentrations were associated with treatment failure in 6 patients. Following an increase in the daily dose, improvement was observed in 4 of the 6 patients. These results suggest that low plasma ganciclovir levels are associated with the failure of therapy. Monitoring the plasma concentration of ganciclovir may thus be useful before considering the virus to be resistant to the drug or before switching from ganciclovir to foscarnet.

  14. Plasma adiponectin concentration is associated with skeletal muscle insulin receptor tyrosine phosphorylation, and low plasma concentration precedes a decrease in whole-body insulin sensitivity in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan, Norbert; Vozarova, Barbora; Funahashi, Tohru; Matsuzawa, Yuji; Weyer, Christian; Lindsay, Robert S; Youngren, Jack F; Havel, Peter J; Pratley, Richard E; Bogardus, Clifton; Tataranni, P Antonio

    2002-06-01

    Adiponectin, the most abundant adipose-specific protein, has been found to be negatively associated with degree of adiposity and positively associated with insulin sensitivity in Pima Indians and other populations. Moreover, adiponectin administration to rodents has been shown to increase insulin-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor (IR) and also increase whole-body insulin sensitivity. To further characterize the relationship between plasma adiponectin concentration and insulin sensitivity in humans, we examined 1) the cross-sectional association between plasma adiponectin concentration and skeletal muscle IR tyrosine phosphorylation and 2) the prospective effect of plasma adiponectin concentration at baseline on change in insulin sensitivity. Fasting plasma adiponectin concentration, body composition (hydrodensitometry or dual energy X-ray absorptiometry), insulin sensitivity (insulin-stimulated glucose disposal, hyperinsulinemic clamp), and glucose tolerance (75-g oral glucose tolerance test) were measured in 55 Pima Indians (47 men and 8 women, aged 31 +/- 8 years, body fat 29 +/- 8% [mean +/- SD]; 50 with normal glucose tolerance, 3 with impaired glucose tolerance, and 2 with diabetes). Group 1 (19 subjects) underwent skeletal muscle biopsies for the measurement of basal and insulin-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of the IR (stimulated by 100 nmol/l insulin). The fold increase after insulin stimulation was calculated as the ratio between maximal and basal phosphorylation. Group 2 (38 subjects) had follow-up measurements of insulin-stimulated glucose disposal. Cross-sectionally, plasma adiponectin concentration was positively associated with insulin-stimulated glucose disposal (r = 0.58, P < 0.0001) and negatively associated with percent body fat (r = -0.62, P < 0.0001) in the whole group. In group 1 plasma adiponectin was negatively associated with the basal (r = -0.65, P = 0.003) and positively associated with the fold increase in IR

  15. Plane of nutrition affects plasma ghrelin concentrations in neonatal calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Investigating different planes of nutrition on appetite-related hormones could provide knowledge into the role of these hormones on growth performance in neonatal calves. The objective of the current study was to investigate the effects of feeding rates on ghrelin in plasma from preruminant calves....

  16. Plasma vitamin C concentration in pregnant women with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Oxidative stress plays a role in the aetiology of pre-eclampsia and ... plasma vitamin C and pre-eclampsia in Mulago Hospital, Kampala, Uganda. ... Health workers need to advise women at risk in the antenatal period about diet, ...

  17. Influence and Analysis of Concentrate Degree of Plasma Arc for Heat Process of Hardening Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shuo-gui; YAN Hong-ri

    2004-01-01

    According to the practicable model of the plasma arc surface quench, the influence law of the heat process、cooling course、 temperature field about surface quench treatment by plasma arc due to the concentrate degree of plasma arc heat source are discussed in this paper. It shows that the concentrate degree of plasma arc heat source can change the width of the hardening zone and can not change the maximum harden depth. With the increase of the concentrate degree, the area of the heat influence zone is decreased and its shape is narrowed after the heat source. Relative to cooling rate, the influence of the heat source concentrate degree for heat absorption is bigger. The correctness of the practical model are proved with experimental results for quench hardening of 45# steel by plasma arc.

  18. Influence and Analysis of Concentrate Degree of Plasma Arc for Heat Process of Hardening Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGShuo-gui; YANHong-ri

    2004-01-01

    According to the practicable model of the plasma arc surtace quench, the influence law ot me heat process, cooling course, temperature field about surface quench treatment by plasma arc due to the concentrate degree of plasma arc heat source are discussed in this paper. It shows that the concentrate degree of plasma arc heat source can change the width of the hardening zone and can not change the maximum harden depth. With the increase of the concentrate degree, the area of the heat influence zone is decreased and its shape is narrowed after the heat source. Relative to cooling rate, the influence of the heat source concentrate degree for heat absorption is bigger. The correctness of the practical model are proved with experimental results for quench hardening of 45# steel by plasma arc.

  19. The influence of environmental variables on platelet concentration in horse platelet-rich plasma

    OpenAIRE

    Rinnovati, Riccardo; Romagnoli, Noemi; Gentilini, Fabio; Lambertini, Carlotta; Spadari, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) commonly refers to blood products which contain a higher platelet (PLT) concentration as compared to normal plasma. Autologous PRP has been shown to be safe and effective in promoting the natural processes of soft tissue healing or reconstruction in humans and horses. Variability in PLT concentration has been observed in practice between PRP preparations from different patients or from the same individual under different conditions. A change in PLT concentration cou...

  20. Pharmacokinetic of theophylline in normal and hepatic fibrosis rats%茶碱在正常及肝纤维化大鼠体内的药物动力学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张懋璠; 蒋昆谕; 韩龙; 赵妍; 王欣; 孟胜男

    2012-01-01

    目的 比较茶碱在正常及肝纤维化大鼠体内的药物动力学.方法 SD大鼠24只,分成4组:静脉给药正常组、静脉给药模型组、口服给药正常组和口服给药模型组,每组各6只,采用尾静脉注射或灌胃方式给予茶碱5mg/kg,用HPLC法测定茶碱血药浓度,运用DAS2.1.1拟合药动学参数,并采用SPSS13.0软件进行统计分析.结果 在口服和静脉给药条件下,茶碱的药动学参数AUC0-24h、AUC0-(∞)、CLz;(z或CLz /F)、MRT0-24h、MRT0-(∞)和t1/2z在正常鼠和肝纤维化鼠之间差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),Cmax,tmax,Vz(或Vz/F)的差异则无统计学意义.结论 茶碱在大鼠体内的药动学会受肝纤维化显著影响.%Purpose To compare the pharmacokinetics of theophylline in normal and hepatic fibrosis rats. Methods Twenty-four Spraque-Dawley rats were divided into four groups( normal group with intravenous injection, hepatic fibrosis group with intravenous injection, normal group with gavage administration and hepatic fibrosis group with gavage administration) of which each got six rats and they were administrated with theophylline 5 mg/kg via gavage or tail intravenous injection. The concentration of theophylline in plasma was determined by HPLC method. The pharmacokinetic parameters were fitted by DAS2. 1. 1 software and statistically analyzed by SPSS13. 0 software. Results There was significant difference between normal group and hepatic fibrosis group in pharmacokinetic parameters of AUC0-24h, AUC0-∞, CLz( or CL/F) ,MRT0-24h,MRT0-∞ and t1/2z(P 0. 05 ). Conclusion The metabolism of theophylline in rats was significantly affected by hepatic fibrosis.

  1. Pharmacokinetic interaction studies of theophylline with puerarin in normal and hepatic fibrosis rats%茶碱与葛根素在大鼠体内药物动力学相互作用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张懋璠; 韩龙; 蒋昆谕; 赵妍; 王欣; 孟胜男

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究葛根素对茶碱在大鼠体内药物动力学影响.方法 SD大鼠24只,分成四组:静脉给药对照组、静脉给药葛根素处理组、口服给药对照组和口服给药葛根素处理组,每组各6只,采用尾静脉注射或灌胃方式给予茶碱5 mg/kg,用HPLC法测定茶碱血药浓度,运用DAS 2.1.1拟合药动学参数,并采用SPSS 13.0软件进行统计分析.结果口服和静脉给药条件下,茶碱的药动学参数AUC0-24 h、AUC0-∞、CLz(或CLz/F)、MRT0-24 h、MRT0-∞和t1/2z在对照组和葛根素处理组之间差异均有高度统计学意义(均P 0.05).结论 茶碱在大鼠体内代谢受葛根素的影响显著.%Objective To investigate the pharmacokinetic interaction of theophylline and puerarin in rats. Methods Twenty-four Spraque-Dawley rats were divided into four groups (control group with intravenous injection, puerarin pretreated group with intravenous injection, control group with gavage administration and puerarin pretreated group with gavage administration) of which each got six rats and were administrated theophylline 5 mg/kg via gavage or tail intravenous injection. The concentration of theophylline in plasma was determined by HPLC method. The pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by DAS 2.1.1 software and compared by SPSS 13.0 software. Results There was significant difference between control group and puerarin pretreated group for pharmacokinetic parameters of AUCo-m, AUCo-?, CLj (or CL/F), MRT0-241,, MRT0-30 and Ui-h (P 0.05). Conclusion The metabolism of theophylline in rats is significant affected by puerarin.

  2. Plasma soluble (pro)renin receptor is independent of plasma renin, prorenin, and aldosterone concentrations but is affected by ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Geneviève; Blanchard, Anne; Curis, Emmanuel; Bergerot, Damien; Chambon, Yann; Hirose, Takuo; Caumont-Prim, Aurore; Tabard, Sylvie Brailly; Baron, Stéphanie; Frank, Michael; Totsune, Kazuhito; Azizi, Michel

    2014-02-01

    A soluble (pro)renin receptor (sPRR) circulates in plasma and is able to bind renin and prorenin. It is not known whether plasma sPRR concentrations vary with the activity of the renin-angiotensin system. We measured plasma sPRR, renin, prorenin, and aldosterone concentrations in 121 white and 9 black healthy subjects, 40 patients with diabetes mellitus, 41 hypertensive patients with or without renin-angiotensin system blockers, 9 patients with primary aldosteronism, and 10 patients with Gitelman syndrome. Median physiological plasma sPRR concentration was 23.5 ng/mL (interquartile range, 20.9-26.5) under usual uncontrolled sodium diet. sPRR concentration in healthy subjects, unlike renin and prorenin, did not display circadian variation or dependence on age, sex, posture, or hormonal status. sPRR concentrations were ≈25% lower in black than in white subjects, whereas renin concentrations were ≈40% lower. Patients with diabetes mellitus (average renin-high prorenin levels) and with hypertension only (average renin-average prorenin levels) had sPRR concentrations similar to healthy subjects. Renin-angiotensin system blockade was associated with increase of sPRR concentration by ≈12%. sPRR in patients with primary aldosteronism (low renin-low prorenin) and Gitelman syndrome (high renin-high prorenin) were similar and ≈10% higher than in healthy subjects. There was no correlation between sPRR and renin or prorenin. In conclusion, our results show that plasma sPRR concentrations are dependent on ethnicity and independent of renin, prorenin, and aldosterone concentrations in healthy subjects and in patients with contrasted degrees of renin-angiotensin system activity.

  3. Variable aromatase inhibitor plasma concentrations do not correlate with circulating estrogen concentrations in post-menopausal breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertz, Daniel L; Speth, Kelly A; Kidwell, Kelley M; Gersch, Christina L; Desta, Zeruesenay; Storniolo, Anna Maria; Stearns, Vered; Skaar, Todd C; Hayes, Daniel F; Henry, N Lynn; Rae, James M

    2017-06-22

    The aromatase inhibitors (AI) exemestane (EXE), letrozole (LET), and anastrozole suppress estrogen biosynthesis, and are effective treatments for estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer. Prior work suggests that anastrozole blood concentrations are associated with the magnitude of estrogen suppression. The objective of this study was to determine whether the magnitude of estrogen suppression, as determined by plasma estradiol (E2) concentrations, in EXE or LET treated patients is associated with plasma AI concentrations. Five hundred post-menopausal women with ER-positive breast cancer were enrolled in the prospective Exemestane and Letrozole Pharmacogenetic (ELPh) Study conducted by the COnsortium on BReast cancer phArmacogomics (COBRA) and randomly assigned to either drug. Estrogen concentrations were measured at baseline and after 3 months of AI treatment and drug concentrations were measured after 1 or 3 months. EXE or LET concentrations were compared with 3-month E2 concentration or the change from baseline to 3 months using several complementary statistical procedures. Four-hundred patients with on-treatment E2 and AI concentrations were evaluable (EXE n = 200, LET n = 200). Thirty (7.6%) patients (EXE n = 13, LET n = 17) had 3-month E2 concentrations above the lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) (median: 4.75; range: 1.42-63.8 pg/mL). EXE and LET concentrations were not associated with on-treatment E2 concentrations or changes in E2 concentrations from baseline (all p > 0.05). Steady-state plasma AI concentrations do not explain variability in E2 suppression in post-menopausal women receiving EXE or LET therapy, in contrast with prior evidence in anastrozole treated patients.

  4. Plasma 8-iso-Prostaglandin F2α concentrations and outcomes after acute intracerebral hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Quan; Yu, Wen-Hua; Dong, Xiao-Qiao; Yang, Ding-Bo; Shen, Yong-Feng; Wang, Hao; Jiang, Li; Du, Yuan-Feng; Zhang, Zu-Yong; Zhu, Qiang; Che, Zhi-Hao; Liu, Qun-Jie

    2014-11-01

    Higher plasma 8-iso-Prostaglandin F2α concentrations have been associated with poor outcome of severe traumatic brain injury. We further investigated the relationships between plasma 8-iso-Prostaglandin F2α concentrations and clinical outcomes in patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhage. Plasma 8-iso-Prostaglandin F2α concentrations of 128 consecutive patients and 128 sex- and gender-matched healthy subjects were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We assessed their relationships with disease severity and clinical outcomes including 1-week mortality, 6-month mortality and unfavorable outcome (modified Rankin Scale score>2). Plasma 8-iso-Prostaglandin F2α concentrations were substantially higher in patients than in healthy controls. Plasma 8-iso-Prostaglandin F2α concentrations were positively associated with National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores and hematoma volume using a multivariate linear regression. It emerged as an independent predictor for clinical outcomes of patients using a forward stepwise logistic regression. ROC curves identified the predictive values of plasma 8-iso-Prostaglandin F2α concentrations, and found its predictive value was similar to NIHSS scores and hematoma volumes. However, it just numerically added the predictive values of NIHSS score and hematoma volume. Increased plasma 8-iso-Prostaglandin F2α concentrations are associated with disease severity and clinical outcome after acute intracerebral hemorrhage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. 76 FR 9789 - Determination That Theophylline Oral Solution, 80 Milligrams/15 Milliliters, Was Not Withdrawn...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-22

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Determination That Theophylline Oral Solution, 80 Milligrams... new drug applications (ANDAs) for theophylline oral solution, 80 mg/15 mL, if all other legal and... the listed drug for theophylline oral solution, 80 mg/15 mL. According to the latest version of...

  6. Plasma IL-6 concentration correlates with clinical disease activity and serum C-reactive protein concentration in chronic urticaria patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasperska-Zajac, A; Sztylc, J; Machura, E; Jop, G

    2011-10-01

    Our previous study was the first to demonstrate enhanced plasma IL-6 concentrations in chronic urticaria (CU). It is known that C-reactive protein (CRP) is a sensitive marker of an underlying systemic inflammation, triggered mainly as a response to IL-6. To evaluate plasma IL-6 concentration in CU patients relating to the clinical disease activity and serum CRP concentration. Serum CRP and plasma IL-6 concentrations were measured in 58 CU patients and 30 healthy subjects. Ten CU patients were evaluated twice, during the active period as well as upon the spontaneous clinical remission of the disease. CU activity was assessed with the use of the symptom scores recommended by EAACI/GALEN/EDF guidelines. IL-6 and CRP concentrations were significantly increased in CU patients as compared with the healthy subjects, whereas they decreased remarkably upon the spontaneous remission. IL-6 concentration was associated with weekly urticaria activity scores and also significant differences were found between patients showing different degrees of urticarial activity. Significant correlation was observed between IL-6 and CRP concentrations. This study reinforces evidence that, apart from a local cutaneous inflammation, CU is associated with a systemic inflammatory response. Such acute-phase response is manifested by increased circulating IL-6, which varies along with CRP changes and may be related to the urticarial activity. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. PLASMA ADIPONECTIN CONCENTRATIONS IN NON PREGNANT, NORMAL PREGNANCY AND OVERWEIGHT PREGNANT WOMEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nien, Jyh Kae; Mazaki-Tovi, Shali; Romero, Roberto; Erez, Offer; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Gotsch, Francesca; Pineles, Beth L.; Gomez, Ricardo; Edwin, Samuel; Mazor, Moshe; Espinoza, Jimmy; Yoon, Bo Hyun; Hassan, Sonia S.

    2008-01-01

    Aims Adiponectin is an adipokine that has anti-diabetic, anti-atherogenic, anti-inflammatory and angiogenic properties. This hormone has been implicated in both the physiological adaptation to normal pregnancy and obstetrical complications. The aims of this study were to determine normal maternal plasma concentrations of adiponectin throughout gestation and to explore the relationships between plasma adiponectin concentration, pregnancy, and maternal overweight. Study design A cross-sectional study was designed to include normal pregnant women (normal weight and overweight; 11–42 weeks of gestation), and non-pregnant women. Plasma adiponectin concentration was determined by immunoassay. Non-parametric statistics were used for analysis. Results (1) Adiponectin was detectable in the plasma of all patients; (2) there was no significant difference in the median adiponectin concentrations between pregnant and non-pregnant women; (3) plasma adiponectin concentrations were negatively correlated with gestational age only among normal weight pregnant women; and (4) overweight patients had significantly lower adiponectin concentrations than normal weight women. Conclusion Consistent with the increased insulin resistance and weight gain that occur in pregnancy, adiponectin concentrations were negatively correlated with gestational age. The results of this study and the nomogram herein presented can serve as the basis to explore the relationship between adiponectin and pregnancy complications and facilitate the clinical use of this important adipokine. Condensation Plasma adiponectin concentrations decrease with advancing gestational age only in nonobese women. PMID:17919116

  8. Plasma carnitine concentration and lipid metabolism in infants receiving parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, M L; Helms, R A; Mauer, E C; Storm, M C

    1989-11-01

    The relationships among plasma total carnitine concentration, postnatal age, and fatty acid metabolism were evaluated in 57 infants receiving parenteral nutrition. Concentrations of plasma carnitine, triglycerides, free fatty acids, acetoacetate, and beta-hydroxybutyrate were determined before and at 2 and 4 hours from the beginning of a standardized 2-hour lipid infusion. Plasma carnitine concentrations declined with increasing postnatal age. There were no significant differences in gestational age or triglyceride concentrations between infants less than or equal to 4 weeks of age and those greater than 4 weeks of age, whereas free fatty acid concentrations were lower and acetoacetate and beta-hydroxybutyrate concentrations were higher in the younger infants. Infants less than or equal to 4 weeks of age were further grouped according to plasma carnitine concentration greater than 13 nmol/ml (group 1) and less than or equal to 13 nmol/ml (group 2) and were then compared with infants greater than 4 weeks of age (group 3). There were no significant differences in triglyceride concentrations among the three groups; free fatty acids, acetoacetate, and beta-hydroxybutyrate concentrations for group 2 patients were similar to those of group 1 patients or fell between values for group 1 and group 3 patients. These results demonstrate decreasing plasma carnitine concentrations and possibly for more than 4 weeks.

  9. The plasma leptin concentration is closely associated with the body fat mass in nondiabetic uremic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, P; Nielsen, P K; Olgaard, K

    1999-01-01

    Plasma leptin is associated with the body mass index and, more precisely, with the body fat mass. Plasma leptin has been found to be elevated in uremic patients. This study aimed at investigating the plasma leptin concentration and associations between plasma leptin, body fat mass, and glomerular...... filtration rate in nondiabetic predialysis uremic patients and in nondiabetic patients on chronic hemodialysis. Plasma leptin, body fat mass, and creatinine clearance were measured in 22 predialysis uremic patients, 18 hemodialysis patients, and 24 healthy control subjects. The logarithmically transformed...... plasma leptin concentration was closely associated with the body fat mass in all groups (r = 0.93, r = 0.83, and r = 0.72, respectively; p

  10. Influence of Plasma Temperature on the Concentration of NO Produced by Pulsed Arc Discharge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡辉; 陈卫鹏; 张锦丽; 陆僖; 何俊佳

    2012-01-01

    This study conducted experiments on producing inhaled medical nitric oxide (iNO) by pulsed arc discharge in dry and clean air under different discharge current. The concentration of NO and NO2 produced by air discharge, as well as the change of the ratio of NO2/NO under different discharge current were investigated. Through the analysis of plasma emission spectrum, the relationship between discharge current and arc plasma temperature was studied. The results indicate that, as discharge current increases, the arc plasma temperature increases, which then leads to the increase of NO concentration, the decrease of NO2 concentration, and the rapid decrease of the ratio of NO2/NO. When the plasma temperature is 9000 K, the ratio of NO2/NO is approximately 60%, while when the plasma temperature varies between 10550 K and 11300 K, the NO2/NO ratio is within the range of 4.2% to 4.6%.

  11. Thiolated chitosan nanoparticles enhance anti-inflammatory effects of intranasally delivered theophylline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohapatra Shyam S

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chitosan, a polymer derived from chitin, has been used for nasal drug delivery because of its biocompatibility, biodegradability and bioadhesiveness. Theophylline is a drug that reduces the inflammatory effects of allergic asthma but is difficult to administer at an appropriate dosage without causing adverse side effects. It was hypothesized that adsorption of theophylline to chitosan nanoparticles modified by the addition of thiol groups would improve theophylline absorption by the bronchial epithelium and enhance its anti-inflammatory effects. Objectives We sought to develop an improved drug-delivery matrix for theophylline based on thiolated chitosan, and to investigate whether thiolated chitosan nanoparticles (TCNs can enhance theophylline's capacity to alleviate allergic asthma. Methods A mouse model of allergic asthma was used to test the effects of theophylline in vivo. BALB/c mice were sensitized to ovalbumin (OVA and OVA-challenged to produce an inflammatory allergic condition. They were then treated intranasally with theophylline alone, chitosan nanoparticles alone or theophylline adsorbed to TCNs. The effects of theophylline on cellular infiltration in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid, histopathology of lung sections, and apoptosis of lung cells were investigated to determine the effectiveness of TCNs as a drug-delivery vehicle for theophylline. Results Theophylline alone exerts a moderate anti-inflammatory effect, as evidenced by the decrease in eosinophils in BAL fluid, the reduction of bronchial damage, inhibition of mucus hypersecretion and increased apoptosis of lung cells. The effects of theophylline were significantly enhanced when the drug was delivered by TCNs. Conclusion Intranasal delivery of theophylline complexed with TCNs augmented the anti-inflammatory effects of the drug compared to theophylline administered alone in a mouse model of allergic asthma. The beneficial effects of theophylline in

  12. Evaluation of an immunoassay for determination of plasma efavirenz concentrations in resource-limited settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdissa, Alemseged; Wiesner, Lubbe; McIlleron, Helen

    2014-01-01

    to be implemented in resource-limited settings. This study evaluated a commercially available immunoassay for measurement of plasma efavirenz. Methods: The immunoassay-based method was applied to measure efavirenz using a readily available Humastar 80 chemistry analyzer. We compared plasma efavirenz concentrations...

  13. Effects of Betaine Intake on Plasma Homocysteine Concentrations and Consequences for Health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthof, M.R.; Verhoef, P.

    2005-01-01

    High plasma concentrations of homocysteine may increase risk of cardiovascular disease. Folic acid lowers plasma homocysteine by 25% maximally, because 5-methyltetrahydrofolate is a methyl donor in the remethylation of homocysteine to methionine. Betaine (trimethylglycine) is also a methyl donor in

  14. Cardiac C-type natriuretic peptide gene expression and plasma concentrations in neonatal piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lasse; Smith, Julie; Goetze, Jens P

    2014-01-01

    in plasma and cardiac tissue extracts were quantified by a porcine-specific radioimmunoassay. RESULTS: Cardiac CNP mRNA contents (n=24) were low compared to sites of known expression, where porcine seminal vesicle CNP mRNA contents were 200-fold higher. In addition, plasma proCNP concentrations...

  15. High plasma uric acid concentration: causes and consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Oliveira Erick

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract High plasma uric acid (UA is a precipitating factor for gout and renal calculi as well as a strong risk factor for Metabolic Syndrome and cardiovascular disease. The main causes for higher plasma UA are either lower excretion, higher synthesis or both. Higher waist circumference and the BMI are associated with higher insulin resistance and leptin production, and both reduce uric acid excretion. The synthesis of fatty acids (tryglicerides in the liver is associated with the de novo synthesis of purine, accelerating UA production. The role played by diet on hyperuricemia has not yet been fully clarified, but high intake of fructose-rich industrialized food and high alcohol intake (particularly beer seem to influence uricemia. It is not known whether UA would be a causal factor or an antioxidant protective response. Most authors do not consider the UA as a risk factor, but presenting antioxidant function. UA contributes to > 50% of the antioxidant capacity of the blood. There is still no consensus if UA is a protective or a risk factor, however, it seems that acute elevation is a protective factor, whereas chronic elevation a risk for disease.

  16. Concentration of plasma haptoglobin and symptomatic cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FAN Yi-mu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The relation of plasma haptoglobin concentration to symptomatic cerebral vasospasm (SCVS after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH was investigated. The plasma concentration of haptoglobin was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. SCVS was determined by aggravated headache, deteriorated conscious state a few days after ictus or by new neurologic impairment and new ischemic injuries on repeated CT scans. The mean concentration of plasma haptoglobin in 19 patients with SCVS was (0.29 ± 0.14 g/L, whereas it was (0.78 ± 0.48 g/L in 24 patients without SCVS. These findings may suggest that plasma haptoglobin concentration seems to be associated with the development of SCVS after SAH.

  17. Low plasma adiponectin concentrations do not predict weight gain in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vozarova, Barbora; Stefan, Norbert; Lindsay, Robert S;

    2002-01-01

    Low concentrations of plasma adiponectin, the most abundant adipose-specific protein, are observed in obese individuals and predict the development of type 2 diabetes. Administration of adiponectin to rodents prevented diet-induced weight gain, suggesting a potential etiologic role...... of hypoadiponectinemia in the development of obesity. Our aim was to prospectively examine whether low plasma adiponectin concentrations predict future weight gain in Pima Indians, explaining the predictive effect of adiponectin on the development of type 2 diabetes. We measured plasma adiponectin concentrations in 219...... an etiologic role in development of obesity in Pima Indians. Therefore, the predictive effect of low plasma adiponectin concentrations on the development of type 2 diabetes seems to be mediated by factors other than increased adiposity....

  18. Plasma concentration of parasite DNA as a measure of disease severity in falciparum malaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Imwong, M.; Woodrow, C.; Hendriksen, I.C.E.; Veenemans, J.; Verhoef, J.C.M.

    2015-01-01

    In endemic areas malaria parasitemia is common in apparently healthy children and severe malaria is commonly misdiagnosed in patients with incidental parasitemia. We assessed the performance of plasma P. falciparum DNA concentration measurement in distinguishing uncomplicated from severe malaria in

  19. Dynamics of plasma catecholamine and corticosterone concentrations during reinforced and extinguished operant behavior in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, S.F.; de Beun, R; Slangen, J L; van der Gugten, J

    1990-01-01

    Plasma noradrenaline (NA), adrenaline (A) and corticosterone (CS) concentrations were determined simultaneously in permanently heart-cannulated rats before and during the performance of reinforced and nonreinforced (extinguished) operant behavior. Shortly before the experimental food-reinforced (VI

  20. Dynamics of plasma catecholamine and corticosterone concentrations during reinforced and extinguished operant behavior in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, S.F.; de Beun, R; Slangen, J L; van der Gugten, J

    Plasma noradrenaline (NA), adrenaline (A) and corticosterone (CS) concentrations were determined simultaneously in permanently heart-cannulated rats before and during the performance of reinforced and nonreinforced (extinguished) operant behavior. Shortly before the experimental food-reinforced (VI

  1. Clinical significance of 2 h plasma concentrations of first-line anti-tuberculosis drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prahl, Julie B; Johansen, Isik S; Cohen, Arieh S;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study 2 h plasma concentrations of the first-line tuberculosis drugs isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol and pyrazinamide in a cohort of patients with tuberculosis in Denmark and to determine the relationship between the concentrations and the clinical outcome. METHODS: After 6......-207 days of treatment (median 34 days) 2 h blood samples were collected from 32 patients with active tuberculosis and from three patients receiving prophylactic treatment. Plasma concentrations were determined using LC-MS/MS. Normal ranges were obtained from the literature. Clinical charts were reviewed...... failure occurred more frequently when the concentrations of isoniazid and rifampicin were both below the normal ranges (P = 0.013) and even more frequently when they were below the median 2 h drug concentrations obtained in the study (P = 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: At 2 h, plasma concentrations of isoniazid...

  2. Evaluation of factors important in modeling plasma concentrations of tetracycline hydrochloride administered in water in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Sharon E; Almond, Glen W; Riviere, Jim E; Baynes, Ronald E

    2012-10-01

    To model the plasma tetracycline concentrations in swine (Sus scrofa domestica) treated with medication administered in water and determine the factors that contribute to the most accurate predictions of measured plasma drug concentrations. Plasma tetracycline concentrations measured in blood samples from 3 populations of swine. Data from previous studies provided plasma tetracycline concentrations that were measured in blood samples collected from 1 swine population at 0, 4, 8, 12, 24, 32, 48, 56, 72, 80, 96, and 104 hours and from 2 swine populations at 0, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours hours during administration of tetracycline hydrochloride dissolved in water. A 1-compartment pharmacostatistical model was used to analyze 5 potential covariate schemes and determine factors most important in predicting the plasma concentrations of tetracycline in swine. 2 models most accurately predicted the tetracycline plasma concentrations in the 3 populations of swine. Factors of importance were body weight or age of pig, ambient temperature, concentration of tetracycline in water, and water use per unit of time. The factors found to be of importance, combined with knowledge of the individual pharmacokinetic and chemical properties of medications currently approved for administration in water, may be useful in more prudent administration of approved medications administered to swine. Factors found to be important in pharmacostatistical models may allow prediction of plasma concentrations of tetracycline or other commonly used medications administered in water. The ability to predict in vivo concentrations of medication in a population of food animals can be combined with bacterial minimum inhibitory concentrations to decrease the risk of developing antimicrobial resistance.

  3. Genome-wide association study identifies loci influencing concentrations of liver enzymes in plasma

    OpenAIRE

    Chambers, John C.; Zhang, Weihua; Sehmi, Joban; Li, Xinzhong; Wass, Mark N; Harst, Pim; Holm, Hilma; Sanna, Serena; Kavousi, Maryam; Baumeister, Sebastian E.; Coin, Lachlan J.; Deng, Guohong; Gieger, Christian; Heard-Costa, Nancy L.; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan

    2011-01-01

    Concentrations of liver enzymes in plasma are widely used as indicators of liver disease. We carried out a genome-wide association study in 61,089 individuals, identifying 42 loci associated with concentrations of liver enzymes in plasma, of which 32 are new associations (P = 10(-8) to P = 10(-190)). We used functional genomic approaches including metabonomic profiling and gene expression analyses to identify probable candidate genes at these regions. We identified 69 candidate genes, includi...

  4. Genome-wide association study identifies loci influencing concentrations of liver enzymes in plasma

    OpenAIRE

    Chambers, John C.; Zhang, Weihua; Sehmi, Joban; Li, Xinzhong; Wass, Mark N; Harst, Pim; Holm, Hilma; Sanna, Serena; Kavousi, Maryam; Baumeister, Sebastian E.; Coin, Lachlan J.; Deng, Guohong; Gieger, Christian; Heard-Costa, Nancy L.; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan

    2011-01-01

    Concentrations of liver enzymes in plasma are widely used as indicators of liver disease. We carried out a genome-wide association study in 61,089 individuals, identifying 42 loci associated with concentrations of liver enzymes in plasma, of which 32 are new associations (P = 10−8 to P = 10−190). We used functional genomic approaches including metabonomic profiling and gene expression analyses to identify probable candidate genes at these regions. We identified 69 candidate genes, including g...

  5. Genome-wide association study identifies loci influencing concentrations of liver enzymes in plasma.

    OpenAIRE

    Chambers, John C.; Zhang, Weihua; Sehmi, Joban; Li, Xinzhong; Wass, Mark N; Harst, Pim; Holm, Hilma; Sanna, Serena; Kavousi, Maryam; Baumeister, Sebastian E.; Coin, Lachlan J.; Abecasis, Goncalo R.; Ahmadi, Kourosh R; Boomsma, Dorret I; Caulfield, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Concentrations of liver enzymes in plasma are widely used as indicators of liver disease. We carried out a genome-wide association study in 61,089 individuals, identifying 42 loci associated with concentrations of liver enzymes in plasma, of which 32 are new associations (P = 10(-8) to P = 10(-190)). We used functional genomic approaches including metabonomic profiling and gene expression analyses to identify probable candidate genes at these regions. We identified 69 candidate genes, includi...

  6. Reduced plasma aldosterone concentrations in randomly selected patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cronin, C C

    2012-02-03

    Abnormalities of the renin-angiotensin system have been reported in patients with diabetes mellitus and with diabetic complications. In this study, plasma concentrations of prorenin, renin, and aldosterone were measured in a stratified random sample of 110 insulin-dependent (Type 1) diabetic patients attending our outpatient clinic. Fifty-four age- and sex-matched control subjects were also examined. Plasma prorenin concentration was higher in patients without complications than in control subjects when upright (geometric mean (95% confidence intervals (CI): 75.9 (55.0-105.6) vs 45.1 (31.6-64.3) mU I-1, p < 0.05). There was no difference in plasma prorenin concentration between patients without and with microalbuminuria and between patients without and with background retinopathy. Plasma renin concentration, both when supine and upright, was similar in control subjects, in patients without complications, and in patients with varying degrees of diabetic microangiopathy. Plasma aldosterone was suppressed in patients without complications in comparison to control subjects (74 (58-95) vs 167 (140-199) ng I-1, p < 0.001) and was also suppressed in patients with microvascular disease. Plasma potassium was significantly higher in patients than in control subjects (mean +\\/- standard deviation: 4.10 +\\/- 0.36 vs 3.89 +\\/- 0.26 mmol I-1; p < 0.001) and plasma sodium was significantly lower (138 +\\/- 4 vs 140 +\\/- 2 mmol I-1; p < 0.001). We conclude that plasma prorenin is not a useful early marker for diabetic microvascular disease. Despite apparently normal plasma renin concentrations, plasma aldosterone is suppressed in insulin-dependent diabetic patients.

  7. Influence of meal composition on postprandial peripheral plasma concentrations of vasoactive peptides in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen-Bjergaard, U; Høst, U; Kelbaek, H

    1996-01-01

    In a randomized cross-over study healthy non-obese male human subjects received standardized isocaloric, isovolumetric meals consisting of either carbohydrate, protein or fat and a non-caloric control meal consisting of an equal volume of water. Peripheral venous plasma concentrations of calcitonin...... that the postprandial peripheral plasma concentrations of CGRP, VIP and PYY are dependent on the caloric meal composition. The VIP, but not the CGRP and PYY concentrations seem to be influenced by gastric distension. The physiological significance of the postprandial alterations in peripheral concentrations...

  8. Platelet-rich plasma releasate differently stimulates cellular commitment toward the chondrogenic lineage according to concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo JFC do Amaral

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Platelet-rich plasma has been used to treat articular cartilage defects, with the expectations of anabolic and anti-inflammatory effects. However, its role on cellular chondrogenic or fibrogenic commitment is still a controversy. Herein, the role of platelet-rich plasma releasate, the product obtained following platelet-rich plasma activation, on cellular commitment toward the chondrogenic lineage was evaluated in vitro. Human nasoseptal chondrogenic cells and human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells were used as cell types already committed to the chondrogenic lineage and undifferentiated cells, respectively, as different concentrations of platelet-rich plasma releasate were tested in comparison to commonly used fetal bovine serum. Low concentration of platelet-rich plasma releasate (2.5% presented similar effects on cellular growth compared to 10% fetal bovine serum, for both cell types. In a three-dimensional culture system, platelet-rich plasma releasate alone did not induce full nasoseptal chondrogenic cells cartilage-like pellet formation. Nonetheless, platelet-rich plasma releasate played a significant role on cell commitment as high-passage nasoseptal chondrogenic cells only originated cartilage-like pellets when expanded in the presence of platelet-rich plasma releasate rather than fetal bovine serum. Histological analyses and measurements of pellet area demonstrated that even low concentrations of platelet-rich plasma releasate were enough to prevent nasoseptal chondrogenic cells from losing their chondrogenic potential due to in vitro expansion thereby promoting their recommitment. Low concentration of platelet-rich plasma releasate supplemented in chondrogenic medium also increased the chondrogenic potential of mesenchymal stromal cells seeded on collagen-hyaluronic acid scaffolds, as observed by an increase in chondrogenic-related gene expression, sulfated glycosaminoglycan production, and compressive modulus following in vitro

  9. Platelet-rich plasma releasate differently stimulates cellular commitment toward the chondrogenic lineage according to concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsiko, Amos; Tomazette, Marcel RP; Rocha, Wanessa KR; Cordeiro-Spinetti, Eric; Levingstone, Tanya J; Farina, Marcos; O’Brien, Fergal J; El-Cheikh, Marcia C; Balduino, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Platelet-rich plasma has been used to treat articular cartilage defects, with the expectations of anabolic and anti-inflammatory effects. However, its role on cellular chondrogenic or fibrogenic commitment is still a controversy. Herein, the role of platelet-rich plasma releasate, the product obtained following platelet-rich plasma activation, on cellular commitment toward the chondrogenic lineage was evaluated in vitro. Human nasoseptal chondrogenic cells and human bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells were used as cell types already committed to the chondrogenic lineage and undifferentiated cells, respectively, as different concentrations of platelet-rich plasma releasate were tested in comparison to commonly used fetal bovine serum. Low concentration of platelet-rich plasma releasate (2.5%) presented similar effects on cellular growth compared to 10% fetal bovine serum, for both cell types. In a three-dimensional culture system, platelet-rich plasma releasate alone did not induce full nasoseptal chondrogenic cells cartilage-like pellet formation. Nonetheless, platelet-rich plasma releasate played a significant role on cell commitment as high-passage nasoseptal chondrogenic cells only originated cartilage-like pellets when expanded in the presence of platelet-rich plasma releasate rather than fetal bovine serum. Histological analyses and measurements of pellet area demonstrated that even low concentrations of platelet-rich plasma releasate were enough to prevent nasoseptal chondrogenic cells from losing their chondrogenic potential due to in vitro expansion thereby promoting their recommitment. Low concentration of platelet-rich plasma releasate supplemented in chondrogenic medium also increased the chondrogenic potential of mesenchymal stromal cells seeded on collagen-hyaluronic acid scaffolds, as observed by an increase in chondrogenic-related gene expression, sulfated glycosaminoglycan production, and compressive modulus following in vitro culture. On the

  10. Plasma and Intracellular Antiretroviral Concentrations in HIV-Infected Patients under Short Cycles of Antiretroviral Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Zehnacker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Study of plasma and intracellular concentrations of atazanavir, lopinavir, nevirapine, and efavirenz was conducted on 48 patients under short cycles of antiretroviral therapy. Intracellular concentrations (IC were still measurable for all drugs after 85 h or 110 h drug intake despite the absence of drug in plasma for atazanavir and lopinavir. A linear relationship between plasma and intracellular efavirenz was observed. Further studies to fully understand the impact of IC in the intermittent antiviral treatment are required.

  11. Temporal plasma vitamin concentrations are altered by fat-soluble vitamin administration in suckling pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Y D; Ma, J Y; Monegue, J S; Monegue, H J; Stuart, R L; Lindemann, M D

    2015-11-01

    Piglets are born with purportedly low plasma vitamin D levels. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of fat-soluble vitamin administration, primarily vitamin D, by different administration routes on plasma vitamin concentrations in suckling pigs. A total of 45 pigs from 5 litters were allotted at birth to 3 treatments within each litter. Pigs were administered 400 IU of α-tocopherol, 40,000 IU of retinyl palmitate, and 40,000 IU of vitamin D at d 1 of age either orally or by i.m. injection and compared with control pigs with no supplemental vitamin administration. Blood samples were collected at d 0 (initial), 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 9, 14, and 20 after administration. Plasma 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25OHD), α-tocopherol, retinyl palmitate, and retinol concentrations were analyzed. Except for retinol, the effects of treatment, day, and day × treatment interaction ( vitamin concentrations. Plasma concentrations of 25OHD and α-tocopherol increased immediately regardless of administration routes to peak at d 2 and 1 after administration, respectively. Plasma retinyl palmitate concentrations increased only with the injection treatment, with the peak at d 1 after administration. Plasma concentrations of 25OHD in both administration treatments and α-tocopherol in the injection treatment were maintained at greater levels than those in the control treatment until d 20 after administration. With regard to the pharmacokinetic parameters for plasma 25OHD concentrations, the injection treatment had greater elimination half-life ( vitamins administered and between administration routes and that the injection route had a greater increase and slower disappearance of plasma vitamin levels than the oral route during the suckling period.

  12. Plasma concentrations of blood coagulation factor VII measured by immunochemical and amidolytic methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladbjerg, E-M; Gram, J; Jespersen, J

    2000-01-01

    plasma, in cold activated plasma and in FVII deficient plasma. There was a positive correlation (r=0.96) between FVII:Ag and FVII:Am with slightly but significantly higher values for FVII:Ag (FVII:Ag= 106 U/ml and FVII:Am=100 U/ml; p ...Ever since the coagulant activity of blood coagulation factor VII (FVII:C) was identified as a risk indicator of cardiac death, a large number of studies have measured FVII protein concentrations in plasma. FVII protein concentrations are either measured immunologically with an ELISA method (FVII......:Ag) or estimated with an amidolytic method (FVII:Am). We have investigated whether FVII:Am is a valuable alternative to FVII:Ag. FVII:Ag and FVII:Am were measured in 147 plasma samples from blood donors, patients on oral anticoagulant therapy, postmenopausal women on hormone replacement therapy, in postprandial...

  13. Plasma and synovial fluid meclofenamic acid concentrations in patients with rheumatoid arthritis of the knee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koup, J R; Thomas, D; Tucker, E; Black, A; Ruderman, M; Dixon, J A; Kinkel, A

    1988-01-01

    We have measured plasma and synovial fluid concentrations of meclofenamic acid at 2, 4, 8, and 12 h during steady-state administration (100 mg three times daily for 4-7 days). Paired plasma and synovial samples were obtained pre-treatment and at one of the above times in twelve patients with a diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis. In addition, the extent of protein binding of meclofenamic acid was assessed in vitro in the pre-treatment plasma and synovial fluid specimens. Peak total concentrations of 1.73 and 0.86 micrograms.ml-1 were observed in plasma (at 2 h) and synovial fluid (at 4 h) respectively. The extent of protein binding was 99.7 and 99.6% (not significantly different) in plasma and synovial fluid respectively. The results of this study are compared to those from similar reported studies of other nonsteroidal anti-inflamatory compounds.

  14. Molecularly imprinted poly(4-amino-5-hydroxy-2,7-naphthalenedisulfonic acid) modified glassy carbon electrode as an electrochemical theophylline sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aswini, K.K., E-mail: aswinikk@ymail.com; Vinu Mohan, A.M.; Biju, V.M., E-mail: vmbiju@ymail.com

    2016-08-01

    Theophylline is an inexpensive drug employed in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder medications and is toxic at higher concentration. The development of a molecularly imprinted polymer based theophylline electrochemical sensor on glassy carbon electrode by the electropolymerization of 4-amino-5-hydroxy-2,7-naphthalenedisulfonic acid is being discussed in this work. The MIP modification enhances the theophylline recognition ability and the electron transfer kinetics of the bare electrode. The parameters, controlling the performance of the imprinted polymer based sensor, like number of electropolymerization cycles, composition of the pre-polymerization mixture, pH and immersion time were investigated and optimized. The interaction energy and the most stable conformation of the template–monomer complex in the pre-polymerization mixture were determined computationally using ab initio calculations based on density functional theory. The amperometric measurements showed that the developed sensor has a method detection limit of 0.32 μM for the dynamic range of 0.4 to 17 μM, at optimized conditions. The transducer possesses appreciable selectivity in the presence of structurally similar interferents such as theobromine, caffeine and doxofylline. The developed sensor showed remarkable stability and reproducibility and was also successfully employed in theophylline detection from commercially available tablets. - Highlights: • Molecularly imprinted polymer based theophylline sensor was developed. • Imprinted poly(4-amino-5-hydroxy-2,7-naphthalenedisulfonic acid) was electrodeposited. • Most stable template-monomer complex was assigned by computational analysis. • Possessed remarkable selectivity in the presence of structurally similar interferents • Employed for theophylline detection from commercially available tablets.

  15. Effect of abomasal glucose infusion on plasma concentrations of gut peptides in periparturient dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, M; Relling, A E; Reynolds, C K; Kristensen, N B

    2010-12-01

    Six Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas and permanent indwelling catheters in the portal vein, hepatic vein, mesenteric vein, and an artery were used to study the effects of abomasal glucose infusion on splanchnic plasma concentrations of gut peptides. The experimental design was a randomized block design with repeated measurements. Cows were assigned to one of 2 treatments: control or infusion of 1,500 g of glucose/d into the abomasum from the day of parturition to 29 d in milk. Cows were sampled 12 ± 6 d prepartum and at 4, 15, and 29 d in milk. Concentrations of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, glucagon-like peptide 1(7-36) amide, and oxyntomodulin were measured in pooled samples within cow and sampling day, whereas active ghrelin was measured in samples obtained 30 min before and after feeding at 0800 h. Postpartum, dry matter intake increased at a lower rate with infusion compared with the control. Arterial, portal venous, and hepatic venous plasma concentrations of the measured gut peptides were unaffected by abomasal glucose infusion. The arterial, portal venous, and hepatic venous plasma concentrations of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and glucagon-like peptide 1(7-36) amide increased linearly from 12 d prepartum to 29 d postpartum. Plasma concentrations of oxyntomodulin were unaffected by day relative to parturition. Arterial and portal venous plasma concentrations of ghrelin were lower postfeeding compared with prefeeding concentrations. Arterial plasma concentrations of ghrelin were greatest prepartum and lowest at 4 d postpartum, giving a quadratic pattern of change over the transition period. Positive portal venous-arterial and hepatic venous-arterial concentration differences were observed for glucagon-like peptide 1(7-36) amide. A negative portal venous-arterial concentration difference was observed for ghrelin pre-feeding. The remaining portal venous-arterial and hepatic venous-arterial concentration differences of

  16. Tryptophan and its metabolite concentrations in human plasma and breast milk during the perinatal period.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamimura,Shigehito

    1991-04-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations of tryptophan (free and protein bound and its metabolites in plasma of maternal vein at delivery, umbilical vein, umbilical artery, neonatal vein and breast milk were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. The plasma levels of tryptophan and most of its metabolites in umbilical vein and artery were significantly higher than those in maternal vein. The concentration of total tryptophan in plasma of neonatal vein showed marked decrease at 24 h after birth in comparison with that at birth, but the total kynurenine concentration was not decreased in plasma of neonatal vein. The colostrum contained a high level of total tryptophan. There were high ratios of free to total tryptophan in colostrum, transitional and mature milk. In the blood, ratios of free to total of tryptophan and kynurenine were kept at constant level throughout the perinatal period.

  17. Depression of plasma luteinizing hormone concentration in quail by the anticholinesterase insecticide parathion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rattner, B.A.; Clarke, R.N.; Ottinger, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    To examine the effects of parathion on basal plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) concentration, male Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) were orally intubated with 0, 5 or 10 mg/kg parathion and sacrificed after 4, 8 and 24 hr. At the 5 mg/kg dose, plasma LH levels were reduced at 4 and 8 hr, but returned to control values by 24 hr. Brain acetylcholinesterase activity was substantially reduced by 10 mg/kg parathion (52, 75 and 37% inhibition at 4, 8 and 24 hr, respectively) and plasma LH concentration remained depressed through the 24-hr period. These findings suggest that the organophosphorus insecticide parathion may alter plasma LH concentration in a manner which might impair reproductive activity, and provide indirect evidence for a cholinergic component in the regulation of LH secretion in quail.

  18. Lapatinib Plasma and Tumor Concentrations and Effects on HER Receptor Phosphorylation in Tumor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil L Spector

    Full Text Available The paradigm shift in cancer treatment from cytotoxic drugs to tumor targeted therapies poses new challenges, including optimization of dose and schedule based on a biologically effective dose, rather than the historical maximum tolerated dose. Optimal dosing is currently determined using concentrations of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in plasma as a surrogate for tumor concentrations. To examine this plasma-tumor relationship, we explored the association between lapatinib levels in tumor and plasma in mice and humans, and those effects on phosphorylation of human epidermal growth factor receptors (HER in human tumors.Mice bearing BT474 HER2+ human breast cancer xenografts were dosed once or twice daily (BID with lapatinib. Drug concentrations were measured in blood, tumor, liver, and kidney. In a randomized phase I clinical trial, 28 treatment-naïve female patients with early stage HER2+ breast cancer received lapatinib 1000 or 1500 mg once daily (QD or 500 mg BID before evaluating steady-state lapatinib levels in plasma and tumor.In mice, lapatinib levels were 4-fold higher in tumor than blood with a 4-fold longer half-life. Tumor concentrations exceeded the in vitro IC90 (~ 900 nM or 500 ng/mL for inhibition of HER2 phosphorylation throughout the 12-hour dosing interval. In patients, tumor levels were 6- and 10-fold higher with QD and BID dosing, respectively, compared to plasma trough levels. The relationship between tumor and plasma concentration was complex, indicating multiple determinants. HER receptor phosphorylation varied depending upon lapatinib tumor concentrations, suggestive of changes in the repertoire of HER homo- and heterodimers.Plasma lapatinib concentrations underestimated tumor drug levels, suggesting that optimal dosing should be focused on the site of action to avoid to inappropriate dose escalation. Larger clinical trials are required to determine optimal dose and schedule to achieve tumor concentrations that maximally

  19. The effect of concurrent aspirin upon plasma concentrations of tenoxicam.

    OpenAIRE

    Day, R O; Paull, P D; Lam, S; Swanson, B R; Williams, K. M.; Wade, D. N.

    1988-01-01

    1. The effect of chronic, high-dose aspirin therapy upon the disposition of a single dose and multiple doses of tenoxicam was examined in normal volunteers. 2. Aspirin caused a 24% drop in the t1/2 (P less than 0.005), a 49% rise in the volume of distribution (P less than 0.0003) and a 98% increase in the clearance (P less than 0.0001) of tenoxicam after a single dose of the tenoxicam. 3. Steady-state concentrations of tenoxicam decreased significantly from 10.4 +/- 1.5 to 4.5 +/- 1.6 microgr...

  20. Impact of hemoglobin on plasma pro-B-type natriuretic peptide concentrations in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Mads; Benn, Marianne; Mogelvang, Rasmus

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Age, sex, and renal function contribute to variations in plasma concentrations of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and its molecular precursor (proBNP). Recent studies indicate that anemia may also affect proBNP concentrations in patients with heart failure or stroke. However...... the proBNP plasma concentration. RESULTS: The mean proBNP concentration was increased 1.7-fold in the group with anemia vs the nonanemic group [mean (SD) 42 (45) pmol/L vs 25 (29) pmol/L, P ... was modest. CONCLUSIONS: Because moderate anemia is associated with a 1.7-fold increase in proBNP concentrations, hemoglobin concentrations should be taken into consideration in patients with nonspecific symptoms of heart disease and increased proBNP concentrations....

  1. Semen quality and concentration of soluble proteins in the seminal plasma of Alpine bucks Semen quality and concentration of soluble proteins in the seminal plasma of Alpine bucks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Eliza Facione Guimarães

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available It was aimed to study the in vitro seminal quality analyzed by complementary tests and to compare them with physical, morphological and biochemical aspects of male goat semen of the Alpine breed. This experiment took place at the Federal University of Viçosa, situated at 20º45’ S latitude and 42º51’ W longitude, Southwest of Brazil. It was done during the summer months of January and February, and three adult male goats of the Alpine breed were used in intensive conditions. The semen was collected by artificial vagina method. In all semen samples (45 ejaculates, after the physical and morphological analysis, the hiposmotic test was done. In 24 ejaculates, it were done thermo-resistance test, and in 21 ejaculates it were determined the concentration of total soluble proteins in seminal plasma. The male goats presented difference in the semen physical and morphological aspects, in the hiposmotic test and thermo-resistance test, but they did not presented difference in total soluble proteins concentration in seminal plasma. Results of the slow thermo-resistance test and hiposmotic test were positively correlated (r = 0.60. It was concluded, according to our results, that the concentration of total soluble proteins in seminal plasma can not be used as a parameter to predict the seminal quality of Alpine bucks.It was aimed to study the in vitro seminal quality analyzed by complementary tests and to compare them with physical, morphological and biochemical aspects of male goat semen of the Alpine breed. This experiment took place at the Federal University of Viçosa, situated at 20º45’ S latitude and 42º51’ W longitude, Southwest of Brazil. It was done during the summer months of January and February, and three adult male goats of the Alpine breed were used in intensive conditions. The semen was collected by artificial vagina method. In all semen samples (45 ejaculates, after the physical and morphological analysis, the hiposmotic test

  2. Impact of hemolysis during sample collection: how different is drug concentration in hemolyzed plasma from that of normal plasma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Aimin; Gagné, Sébastien; Lévesque, Isabelle A; Lachance, Sylvain; Boudreau, Nadine; Lévesque, Ann

    2012-07-15

    Hemolysis is a common phenomenon in clinical studies. Despite the growing interest in hemolysis matrix effect, how hemolysis impacts the representability of hemolyzed plasma samples was rarely evaluated. The purpose of this research is to perform such an evaluation by theoretical consideration and experiment. A formula for estimating the impact is proposed, which includes the degree of hemolysis and the drug's red blood cell (RBC): plasma concentration ratio. The impact of hemolysis on the representability of hemolyzed plasma samples is compound-dependant. Given the same degree of hemolysis, the stronger a drug binds to RBCs, the more significant the impact of hemolysis. For a drug with high affinity to RBCs, the results of hemolyzed plasma samples may not be useful even though they are accurate. There is an overall agreement between theoretical predication and experimental results. Among the ten different drug compounds tested, only methazolamide, which binds strongly to RBCs, showed significant change in plasma concentration due to hemolysis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of low-fat diets on plasma high-density lipoprotein concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katan, M.B.

    1998-01-01

    Low concentrations of HDLs in plasma are a strong predictor of risk for coronary as well as other cardiovascular diseases. There is increasing evidence that this relation is causal and that interventions that change HDL concentrations also change risk. One such intervention is exchanging fat and

  4. Effect of low-fat diets on plasma high-density lipoprotein concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katan, M.B.

    1998-01-01

    Low concentrations of HDLs in plasma are a strong predictor of risk for coronary as well as other cardiovascular diseases. There is increasing evidence that this relation is causal and that interventions that change HDL concentrations also change risk. One such intervention is exchanging fat and car

  5. Choline supplemented as phosphatidylcholine decreases fasting and postmethionine-loading plasma homocysteine concentrations in healthy men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthof, M.R.; Brink, E.J.; Katan, M.B.; Verhoef, P.

    2005-01-01

    Background: A high homocysteine concentration is a potential risk factor for cardiovascular disease that can be reduced through betaine supplementation. Choline is the precursor for betaine, but the effects of choline supplementation on plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations in healthy

  6. Impact of hemoglobin on plasma pro-B-type natriuretic peptide concentrations in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Mads; Benn, Marianne; Mogelvang, Rasmus

    2007-01-01

    Age, sex, and renal function contribute to variations in plasma concentrations of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and its molecular precursor (proBNP). Recent studies indicate that anemia may also affect proBNP concentrations in patients with heart failure or stroke. However, the impact...

  7. Choline supplemented as phosphatidylcholine decreases fasting and postmethionine-loading plasma homocysteine concentrations in healthy men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthof, M.R.; Brink, E.J.; Katan, M.B.; Verhoef, P.

    2005-01-01

    Background: A high homocysteine concentration is a potential risk factor for cardiovascular disease that can be reduced through betaine supplementation. Choline is the precursor for betaine, but the effects of choline supplementation on plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations in healthy huma

  8. A twin study of the trough plasma steady-state concentration of metformin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stage, Tore B; Damkier, Per; Pedersen, Rasmus S;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the intrapair similarity in trough steady-state plasma concentrations of metformin in monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs. METHODS: We included 16 twin pairs (eight monozygotic and eight dizygotic twin pairs) for this study after contacting 524...... twin pairs. They were dosed with metformin to steady state (1 g twice daily) for 6 days and on day 7, the trough concentration of metformin was determined 12 h after the last dose. RESULTS: There was no strong intrapair similarity in trough steady-state plasma concentrations of metformin in either...... dizygotic or monozygotic twin pairs. CONCLUSION: The trough steady-state plasma concentration of metformin does not appear to be tightly genetically regulated. The interpretation of this finding is limited by the small sample size....

  9. [Influence of Perftoran nanoemulsion on blood plasma concentrations of lipophilic drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pshenkina, N N

    2012-01-01

    The influence of perfluorocarbon blood substitute Perfloran on the plasma concentrations of bendazole, drotaverine, ketorolac and verapamil upon intravenous introduction after Perfloran infusion (5 ml/kg) has been investigated on rabbits. It has been found that the plasma concentrations of verapamil, drotaverine and bendazole (highly lipophilic drugs with log(P) = 4.5, 4.9 and 3.5, respectively) increased in the presence of Perfloran. The influence of Perfloran on the concentration of weakly lipophilic ketorolac was less significant. Perfloran effectively bound drotaverine, ketorolac and verapamil in vitro, whereas the binding of ketorolac by the emulsion particles was weak. Evidently, the infusion of hydrophobic nanoemulsion Perftoran elevates the sorption capacity of plasma and creates prerequisites for the redistribution drugs and favors increase in their concentrations.

  10. A high plasma concentration of TNF-alpha is associated with dementia in centenarians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruunsgaard, H.; Andersen-Ranberg, K.; Jeune, B.;

    1999-01-01

    Background Inflammatory mechanisms and immune activation have been hypothesized to play a role in the pathogenesis of age-associated diseases such as dementia and atherosclerosis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the plasma concentration of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha in a large...... cohort of centenarians and to look for its possible associations with cognitive function, atherosclerosis, and general health status. Furthermore, we investigated whether the concentration of TNF-alpha was correlated with the blood concentration of leucocyte subsets or the plasma concentrations...... of interleukin (IL)-6, soluble TNF receptor II (sTNFR-II) (75 kDa) and C-reactive protein (CRP). Methods. Plasma TNF-alpha was measured by ELISA in 126 centenarians, 45 subjects aged 81 years, 23 subjects aged 55-65 years, and 38 subjects aged 18-30 years. Atherosclerosis was evaluated by the ankle...

  11. Effects of Acute Exposure to Increased Plasma Branched-Chain Amino Acid Concentrations on Insulin-Mediated Plasma Glucose Turnover in Healthy Young Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah Everman; Mandarino, Lawrence J.; Carroll, Chad C.; Katsanos, Christos S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Plasma branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) are inversely related to insulin sensitivity of glucose metabolism in humans. However, currently, it is not known whether there is a cause-and-effect relationship between increased plasma BCAA concentrations and decreased insulin sensitivity. Objective To determine the effects of acute exposure to increased plasma BCAA concentrations on insulin-mediated plasma glucose turnover in humans. Methods Ten healthy subjects were randomly assigned to...

  12. Motility of liquid stored ram spermatozoa is altered by dilution rate independent of seminal plasma concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata-Campuzano, M; Soleilhavoup, C; Tsikis, G; Martinez-Pastor, F; de Graaf, S P; Druart, X

    2015-11-01

    The fertility after use of liquid stored ram semen following cervical AI rapidly decreases if semen is stored beyond 12h. The dilution of seminal plasma is often cited as a key contributor to the diminished motility and fertility of ram spermatozoa subjected to liquid preservation. Two experiments were conducted to assess the effect of spermatozoa concentration (i.e. dilution rate) and percentage of seminal plasma on the motility and viability of liquid stored ram spermatozoa. In Experiment 1, semen was diluted to one of seven concentrations ranging from 0.2 to 1.4×10(9)spermatozoa/ml with milk and assessed for motility after 3 or 24h of storage at 15°C. In Experiment 2, semen was collected and washed to remove seminal plasma before re-dilution to 0.2-1.4×10(9)spermatozoa/ml with milk containing 0%, 20% or 40% (final v/v ratio) seminal plasma and assessed for viability and motility after 3 or 24h of storage at 15°C. Whereas motility was not affected by spermatozoa concentration after 3h of storage, the proportion of progressive spermatozoa decreased after 24h of storage when spermatozoa concentration was greater than 1.0×10(9)spermatozoa/ml. The duration of preservation and the spermatozoa concentration affected spermatozoa motility but had no impact on spermatozoa viability. This negative effect of greater spermatozoa concentrations on motility was independent of the presence and the concentration of seminal plasma. The seminal plasma at both concentrations (20% and 40%) had a protective effect on spermatozoa motility after 24h of storage. These findings have the potential to improve the efficiency of cervical AI with liquid stored ram semen.

  13. Evaluation of the serum fructosamine test to monitor plasma glucose concentration in the transition dairy cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorondo, María L; Cirio, Alberto

    2009-05-01

    The usefulness of the serum fructosamine (Fser) to monitor the retrospective glucose concentrations in transitional dairy cows (n=17) was evaluated. In weekly blood samples (3 weeks before to 5 weeks after calving) concentrations of plasma glucose and serum fructosamine, beta-hydroxybutyrate (beta OHB) and total proteins were determined. The observed Fser concentrations (271+/-55 mean value, range 152-423 mumol/l) were within the range reported in the literature, and showed a progressive and significant decrease after calving. Mean plasma glucose concentration was 60.6+/-5.0 (range 39.9-82.2) mg/dl increasing from week 3 before calving to the week of calving and then decreasing during the next 5 weeks of lactation. This decrease was coincident with inverse relationships between plasma glucose and milk yield (P=0.03) and serum beta OHB (P<0.001). Linear regression analysis performed between serum fructosamine and (a) plasma glucose concentration of the same sampling and (b) plasma glucose concentration of 1, 2 and 3 weeks preceding the sampling, did not show significant and systematizing positive correlations. Persistent hypoproteinaemias that could affect the fructosamine concentrations were not found: mean value and range of serum proteins was 6.3+/-1.0 and 4.8-7.8 g/dl, respectively, and no correlation was found between serum proteins and Fser (P=0.26). Results did not support the possibility of retrospective monitoring of the plasma glucose concentration by serum fructosamine in dairy cows in the transition period.

  14. Plasma clusterin concentration is associated with longitudinal brain atrophy in mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thambisetty, Madhav; An, Yang; Kinsey, Anna; Koka, Deepthi; Saleem, Muzamil; Güntert, Andreas; Kraut, Michael; Ferrucci, Luigi; Davatzikos, Christos; Lovestone, Simon; Resnick, Susan M

    2012-01-01

    Recent genetic and proteomic studies demonstrate that clusterin/apolipoprotein-J is associated with risk, pathology, and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Our main aim was to examine associations between plasma clusterin concentration and longitudinal changes in brain volume in normal aging and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). A secondary objective was to examine associations between peripheral concentration of clusterin and its concentration in the brain within regions that undergo neuropathological changes in AD. Non-demented individuals (N=139; mean baseline age 70.5 years) received annual volumetric MRI (912 MRI scans in total) over a mean six-year interval. Sixteen participants (92 MRI scans in total) were diagnosed during the course of the study with amnestic MCI. Clusterin concentration was assayed by ELISA in plasma samples collected within a year of the baseline MRI. Mixed effects regression models investigated whether plasma clusterin concentration was associated with rates of brain atrophy for control and MCI groups and whether these associations differed between groups. In a separate autopsy sample of individuals with AD (N=17) and healthy controls (N=4), we examined the association between antemortem clusterin concentration in plasma and postmortem levels in the superior temporal gyrus, hippocampus and cerebellum. The associations of plasma clusterin concentration with rates of change in brain volume were significantly different between MCI and control groups in several volumes including whole brain, ventricular CSF, temporal gray matter as well as parahippocampal, superior temporal and cingulate gyri. Within the MCI but not control group, higher baseline concentration of plasma clusterin was associated with slower rates of brain atrophy in these regions. In the combined autopsy sample of AD and control cases, representing a range of severity in AD pathology, we observed a significant association between clusterin concentration in the plasma and

  15. Plasma bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein concentrations in critically ill children with the sepsis syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, H R; Doughty, L A; Wedel, N; White, M; Nelson, B J; Havrilla, N; Carcillo, J A

    1995-12-01

    Bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (BPI) is a neutrophil azurophilic granule component that is bactericidal towards Gram-negative bacteria and inhibits lipopolysaccharide-mediated inflammatory responses. We conducted a prospective study to measure plasma BPI concentrations in 36 critically ill children with and without the sepsis syndrome. Plasma BPI concentrations ranged from 0.5 to 452 ng/ml. Patients with the sepsis syndrome had higher median plasma BPI concentrations than critically ill controls (5.1 vs. 1.8 ng/ml, P = 0.006). Patients with organ system failure had higher median plasma BPI concentrations than those with no organ system failure (4.5 vs. 1.3 ng/ml, P = 0.001). Plasma BPI concentrations were positively associated with pediatric risk of mortality score (P = 0.03, rs = 0.4). These data provide the first clinical insights regarding the role of endogenous BPI production in critically ill children and suggest that BPI may play an important role in host defenses.

  16. Plasma hemoglobin concentration was related to estimated glomerular filtration rate in elderly patients with ischemic Cardiomyopatny

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang Li; Zhihua Wang; Canjing Zhang; Yang Wang

    2008-01-01

    Objectlves To stuaythe relationship between plasma hemoglobin concentration and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)in elderly patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM).Methods Clinical data of patients with coronary heart disease who weredischarged from The First Affiliated Hospital,Chongqing Medicai University between 2005 and 2007 were analyzed retrospectively.Echocardiography resuIts.plasma hemoglobin and creatinine concentration were abstracted from the medical records.The study included235 Chinese Han patients with age 60 years and older with angiography confwmed coronary heart disease.silent myocardial ischemia orangina pectoris,of whom 154 had ICM defined as left ventricular end-diastolic diameter(LVDd),male≥56mm,female≥51 mm(63.51±7.70 mm)measured by M-mode echocardiography.The differences in plasma hemoglobin concentration were analyzed retrospec-were no significant changes in plasma hemoglobin concentration and eGFR;however,plasma hernoglobin concentration was related toeGFR significantly positively in elderly patients with ICM due to coronary heart disease.

  17. Follicle profile and plasma gonadotropin concentration in pubertal female ponies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nogueira G.P.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Twelve female ponies were examined daily for 30 days and classified as ovulating (OV; N = 6; 197 ± 6 kg or prepubertal (PP; N = 6; 196 ± 9 kg. Follicles were detected by ultrasound and gonadotropins quantified by radioimmunoassay. The mean diameter of the largest follicles was significantly larger in OV (38 ± 1 mm than in PP (26 ± 2 mm but there was no difference between groups in the size of the second largest follicle. There were more small follicles (29 mm than the OV fillies. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH levels did not differ between groups but PP fillies had lower luteinizing hormone (LH peak (8 ± 1 ng/ml and basal (4 ± 0.5 ng/ml levels, lower peak magnitude (2 ± 0.2 ng/ml and period average (5 ± 0.6 ng/ml than OV fillies (32 ± 4.5, 8 ± 1.2, 17.1 ± 6, and 15 ± 2.3 ng/ml, respectively. The PP group, in contrast to the OV group, showed no relationship between FSH surge and follicle wave emergence. We conclude that an LH concentration higher than 8 ng/ml is needed for follicle growth to a preovulatory size. Wave emergence and FSH secretion seem to be independent events, probably due to an inhibitory neural system in these PP animals. PP fillies may provide a physiological model for the study of follicle wave emergence which apparently does not depend on gonadotropin levels.

  18. Salivary pH as a marker of plasma adiponectin concentrations in Women

    OpenAIRE

    Tremblay Monique; Loucif Yacine; Methot Julie; Brisson Diane; Gaudet Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Plasma adiponectin is a significant correlate of the pro-inflammatory cardiometabolic risk profile associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. Salivary pH is influenced by several cardiometabolic risk components such as inflammation, oxidation and numerous oral and systemic health modulators, including the menopausal status. This study aimed to assess the association between plasma adiponectin concentrations and salivary pH in women according to the menopausal status. Met...

  19. Use of Resting Cells of Native Screened Rhodotorula sp. CW03 in Biotransformation of Caffeine to Theophylline and Paraxanthine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ashengroph

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: In recent years, microorganisms have been applied as biocatalysts for making pharmaceutically natural products. Microbial biotransformation of caffeine suggests a dual approach for biodegradation of toxic caffeine from polluted environments and a method for the production of medically and pharmaceutically valuable dimethylxanthines. The present work describes the identification of native yeasts capable of biotransformation of caffeine into theophylline and paraxanthine. Materials & Methods: In this experimental study fourteen yeast strains which were able to de-grade caffeine isolated based on their morphology were selected as biocatalysts for biotrans-formation of caffeine as a low-cost substrate to high value added dimethylxanthines such as theophylline and theobromine. The selected strains were characterized based on phenotypic and genetic tests. Screening was performed by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC analyses. Results: The results obtained using TLC and HPLC analyses suggest formation of two main metabolites of theophylline and paraxanthine from biotransformation of caffeine under resting cells of Rhodotorula sp. CW03 (GenBank accession number KF414531. The results showed that under resting cell conditions a maximum concentration of theophylline 380 mg/l (molar yield of 16.4% and paraxanthine 880 mg/l (molar yield of 37.9% were obtained after 72 h and 120 h of conversion time, respectively. Conclusion: In the current investigation, done for the first time in Iran, we describe the isola-tion and identification of yeast strains with caffeine degradation ability which can be proposed as safe and cost-effective biocatalysts in production of value added dimethylxanthines from caffeine as a low-cost substrate.(Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2015; 22 (2: 83-92

  20. Fever and changes in plasma zinc and iron concentrations in the goat: The role of leukocytic pyrogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheijden, J.H.M.; Miert, A. S. J. P. A. M. Van; Duin, C.T.M. van; Schotman, A.J.H.; Nieuwenhuis, J.

    1984-01-01

    In goats with trypanosomiasis (T. vivax or T. congolense) no marked fall in plasma zinc concentration was seen despite high temperature peaks, whereas plasma concentrations of iron tended to undergo some decline. In goats infected with Ehrlichia phagocytophila, there was a marked decline in plasma z

  1. Determining Concentrations and Temperatures in Semiconductor Manufacturing Plasmas via Submillimeter Absorption Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helal, Yaser H.; Neese, Christopher F.; De Lucia, Frank C.; Ewing, Paul R.; Agarwal, Ankur; Craver, Barry; Stout, Phillip J.; Armacost, Michael D.

    2016-06-01

    Plasmas used in the manufacturing processes of semiconductors are similar in pressure and temperature to plasmas used in studying the spectroscopy of astrophysical species. Likewise, the developed technology in submillimeter absorption spectroscopy can be used for the study of industrial plasmas and for monitoring manufacturing processes. An advantage of submillimeter absorption spectroscopy is that it can be used to determine absolute concentrations and temperatures of plasma species without the need for intrusive probes. A continuous wave, 500 - 750 GHz absorption spectrometer was developed for the purpose of being used as a remote sensor of gas and plasma species. An important part of this work was the optical design to match the geometry of existing plasma reactors in the manufacturing industry. A software fitting routine was developed to simultaneously fit for the background and absorption signal, solving for concentration, rotational temperature, and translational temperature. Examples of measurements made on inductively coupled plasmas will be demonstrated. We would like to thank the Texas Analog Center of Excellence/Semiconductor Research Corporation (TxACE/SRC) and Applied Materials for their support of this work.

  2. Simultaneous determination of caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bispo, Marcia S; Veloso, Márcia Cristina C; Pinheiro, Heloísa Lúcia C; De Oliveira, Rodolfo F S; Reis, José Oscar N; De Andrade, Jailson B

    2002-01-01

    This work relates the development of an analytical methodology to simultaneously determine three methylxanthines (caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline) in beverages and urine samples based on reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Separation is made with a Bondesil C18 column using methanol-water-acetic acid or ethanol-water-acetic acid (20:75:5, v/v/v) as the mobile phase at 0.7 mL/min. Identification is made by absorbance detection at 273 nm. Under optimized conditions, the detection limit of the HPLC method is 0.1 pg/mL for all three methylxanthines. This method is applied to urine and to 25 different beverage samples, which included coffee, tea, chocolate, and coconut water. The concentration ranges determined in the beverages and urine are: theobromine; < 0.1 pg/mL to 47 microg/mL and < 0.1 pg/mL to 66.3 microg/mL for theophylline. The method proposed in this study is rapid and suitable for the simultaneous quantitation of methylxanthines in beverages and human urine samples and requires no extraction step or derivatization.

  3. Theophylline Pharmacokinetics in Foetal Sheep: Maternal Metabolic Capacity is the Principal Driver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBois, Barent; Louey, Samantha; Giraud, George D; Cherala, Ganesh; Jonker, Sonnet S

    2015-10-01

    Understanding theophylline pharmacokinetics (PK) in the foetus is essential to prevent in utero toxicity and optimize prophylactic therapies. Previous studies in pregnancy have been obfuscated by maternal dosing and inadequate sampling in the foetus; both render modelling of foetal PK difficult. Six ewes carrying singleton foetuses received theophylline (60 mg) into the foetal jugular vein. Blood samples were drawn from the foetus and ewe over 36 hr. Serum concentrations were measured. Maternal and foetal pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated. Foetal non-compartmental pharmacokinetic parameters were as follows: half-life 7.37 ± 1.22 hr; volume of distribution 44.62 ± 11.45 L; area under the curve 14.82 ± 2.71 hr/(μg/mL); and clearance 4.15 ± 0.70 L/hr. Rapid theophylline distribution across the placenta was observed. Maternal non-compartmental pharmacokinetic parameters were as follows: half-life 6.54 ± 2.44 hr; volume of distribution 32.48 ± 9.99 L; area under the curve 16.28 ± 4.53 hr/(μg/mL); and clearance 3.69 ± 1.47 L/hr. Foetal and ewe serum concentration-time profiles were fit together into a 3-compartment population pharmacokinetic model, and parameters were as follows: central volume 1.38 ± 0.11 L; 2nd peripheral compartment volume 3.11 ± 0.29 L; 3rd peripheral compartment volume 60.14 ± 6.02 L; elimination clearance 9.89 ± 0.90 L/hr; distribution clearance between central and 2nd compartment 30.87 ± 2.31 L/hr; and distribution clearance between 2nd and 3rd compartments 13.89 ± 1.11 L/hr. Cytochrome P4501A expression was robust in maternal liver; negligible activities were observed in placenta, foetal liver and foetal kidney. In vitro protein binding of theophylline was 30% lower in foetal serum compared to maternal serum (29.7 ± 4.4 versus 42.0 ± 3.6%-bound). Free concentrations were lower in the foetus than in the ewe, suggesting active transport across placenta. In summary, foetal

  4. Plasma and urine riboflavin and pyridoxine concentrations in enterally fed very-low-birth-weight neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcelli, P J; Adcock, E W; DelPaggio, D; Swift, L L; Greene, H L

    1996-08-01

    Preterm infant formulas (PIFs) for very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants (birth weight, pyridoxine at levels up to five-fold greater than in term infant formula and 18-fold greater than in human milk. We evaluated plasma riboflavin and pyridoxine concentrations in VLBW infants who received PIF during their first postnatal month. Eighty-eight plasma and 124 urine samples were collected for riboflavin- and pyridoxine-concentration measurements from 57 clinically healthy VLBW infants weekly during their first postnatal month. Concentrations were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. At the time of the sample, patients were receiving > or = 80% of their total calories via enteral feedings. Plasma riboflavin concentrations rose from 45.3 +/- 7.3 ng/ml at baseline (mean +/- SEM) to 173.5 +/- 20.3 ng/ml by 1 week of age and remained at 177.3-199.7 ng/ml during the following three weekly measurements; values were up to 14-fold above baseline concentration. Urine riboflavin concentration increased from 534 +/- 137 ng/ml at baseline to 3,521 +/- 423 ng/ml by 1 week of age and remained at 4,451-5,216 ng/ml during the next 3 weeks. In a similar pattern, baseline plasma (69.4 +/- 10.4 ng/ml) and urine (145 +/- 30 ng/ml) pyridoxine concentrations were significantly increased by 1 week postnatal age; they remained at 163-248 ng/ml (plasma) and 1,573-2,394 ng/ml (urine) through the first postnatal month. Plasma and urine riboflavin and pyridoxine concentrations in enterally fed VLBW infants increased from baseline concentrations by 1 week of postnatal age and remained elevated for the first postnatal month. High daily intake and immature renal development are probable contributing causes of the elevated plasma riboflavin and pyridoxine concentrations. We suggest that lower daily enteral administration of riboflavin and pyridoxine should maintain adequate blood concentrations and minimize potential toxicity.

  5. Reduction in penis size and plasma testosterone concentrations in juvenile alligators living in a contaminated environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillette, L J; Pickford, D B; Crain, D A; Rooney, A A; Percival, H F

    1996-01-01

    The development of the male reproductive ducts and external genitalia in vertebrates is dependent on elevated androgen concentrations during embryonic development and the period of postnatal growth. We have observed that a population of juvenile alligators living on Lake Apopka exhibit significantly smaller penis size (24% average decrease) and lower plasma concentrations of testosterone (70% lower concentrations) when compared to animals of similar size on Lake Woodruff. In addition to smaller phalli, no relationship exists between plasma testosterone concentrations and penile size in males from Lake Apopka, whereas a positive relationship exists for males from Lake Woodruff. The alligators on Lake Apopka are known to have elevated concentrations of the antiandrogenic DDT breakdown product p.p'-DDE stored in their fat. We suggest a number of hypotheses that could explain the modification in the phenotype of the juvenile male living in Lake Apopka. These modifications in phenotype include a smaller penis size, lower plasma androgen concentrations, and lack of responsiveness of the penis to the plasma androgens present.

  6. Dietary predictors and plasma concentrations of perfluorinated alkyl acids in a Singapore population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Su, Jin; van Dam, Rob M; Prem, Kiesha; Hoong, Joey Y S; Zou, Li; Lu, Yonghai; Ong, Choon Nam

    2017-03-01

    Perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs), a family of man-made organofluorinated compounds, have drawn much attention due to their ubiquitous existence in the environment and their bioaccumulation potential. Here, we examined the plasma concentrations of thirteen PFAAs in a healthy population (N = 270) in Singapore, and investigated the association between major food groups and plasma PFAA concentrations. We detected eight types of PFAAs in more than 75% of all samples (N = 270), and their median concentrations ranged from 0.05 to 8.34 ng mL(-1). Age- and gender-related differences were observed for the three dominant PFAAs, i.e., perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) and perfluorooctanoate acid (PFOA), with concentrations being higher in men and older adults. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that fish, shellfish, red meat and poultry were associated with increased PFAAs concentrations in plasma, whereas grains and soy products showed inverse associations with PFAAs. Further, significant correlations were observed between various long-chain PFAAs and plasma concentrations of omega-3 fatty acids, suggesting seafood was a significant source of these PFAAs, within this population. Future studies on diet exposure to PFAAs are encouraged to focus more on the effects on diet pattern.

  7. Power law relation between particle concentrations and their sizes in the blood plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirichenko, M. N.; Chaikov, L. L.; Zaritskii, A. R.

    2016-08-01

    This work is devoted to the investigation of sizes and concentrations of particles in blood plasma by dynamic light scattering (DLS). Blood plasma contains many different proteins and their aggregates, microparticles and vesicles. Their sizes, concentrations and shapes can give information about donor's health. Our DLS study of blood plasma reveals unexpected dependence: with increasing of the particle sizes r (from 1 nm up to 1 μm), their concentrations decrease as r-4 (almost by 12 orders). We found also that such dependence was repeated for model solution of fibrinogen and thrombin with power coefficient is -3,6. We believe that this relation is a fundamental law of nature that shows interaction of proteins (and other substances) in biological liquids.

  8. Endocannabinoids concentrations in plasma associated with feed efficiency and carcass composition of beef steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artegoitia, V M; Foote, A P; Lewis, R M; King, D A; Shackelford, S D; Wheeler, T L; Freetly, H C

    2016-12-01

    Endocannabinoids, including anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), are a class of endogenous lipid mediators that activate cannabinoids receptors and may be involved in the control of feed intake and energy metabolism. The objective of this study was to quantify AEA and 2-AG in plasma and identify possible associations with production traits and carcass composition in finishing beef steers. Individual DMI and BW gain were measured on 140 Angus-sired steers for 105 d on a finishing ration. Blood samples were collected on d 84 of the experiment, which was 40 d before slaughter. Variables were analyzed using Pearson CORR procedure of SAS. Mean endocannabinoid concentrations in plasma were 4.48 ± 1.82 ng/mL and 0.44 ± 0.24 ng/mL for AEA and 2-AG, respectively. The AEA concentration was positively correlated with G:F ratio ( = 0.20; = 0.02), indicating that more efficient animals had greater AEA plasma concentrations. In addition, AEA concentration tended to be negatively correlated with the 12th rib fat thickness ( = -0.17; = 0.07); but no correlation was found with USDA-calculated yield grade ( = -0.14; = 0.11), or marbling score ( = 0.05; = 0.54). The concentration of 2-AG was positively correlated with AEA ( = 0.21; = 0.01); however, 2-AG concentration was not correlated with parameters of feed efficiency or carcass composition. To our knowledge, this study is the first to report plasma concentration of endocannabinoids in steers. These results provide evidence that plasma concentration of a key endocannabinoid, AEA, was favorably correlated with feed efficiency and fat thickness in finishing steers.

  9. Products of DNA, protein and lipid oxidative damage in relation to vitamin C plasma concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajcovicová-Kudlácková, M; Dusinská, M; Valachovicová, M; Blazícek, P; Pauková, V

    2006-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of numerous chronic age-related free radical-induced diseases. Improved antioxidant status minimizes oxidative damage to DNA, proteins, lipids and other biomolecules. Diet-derived antioxidants such as vitamin C, vitamin E, carotenoids and related plant pigments are important in antioxidative defense and maintaining health. The results of long-term epidemiological and clinical studies suggest that protective vitamin C plasma concentration for minimum risk of free radical disease is higher than 50 micromol/l. Products of oxidative damage to DNA (DNA strand breaks with oxidized purines and pyrimidines), proteins (carbonyls) and lipids (conjugated dienes of fatty acids, malondialdehyde) were estimated in a group of apparently healthy adult non-smoking population in dependence on different vitamin C plasma concentrations. Under conditions of protective plasma vitamin C concentrations (>50 micromol/l) significantly lower values of DNA, protein and lipid oxidative damage were found in comparison with the vitamin C-deficient group (fruit and vegetable consumption (leading to higher vitamin C intake and higher vitamin C plasma concentrations) on oxidation of DNA, proteins and lipids is also expressed by an inverse significant correlation between plasma vitamin C and products of oxidative damage. The results suggest an important role of higher and frequent consumption of protective food (fruit, vegetables, vegetable oils, nuts, seeds and cereal grains) in prevention of free radical disease.

  10. Fasting plasma chenodeoxycholic acid and cholic acid concentrations are inversely correlated with insulin sensitivity in adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laville Martine

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accumulating data suggest a novel role for bile acids (BAs in modulating metabolic homeostasis. BA treatment has been shown to improve glucose tolerance and to increase energy expenditure in mice. Here, we investigated the relationship between fasting plasma BAs concentrations and metabolic parameters in humans. Findings Fasting plasma glucose, insulin and lipid profile were measured in 14 healthy volunteers, 20 patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D, and 22 non-diabetic abdominally obese subjects. Insulin sensitivity was also assessed by the determination of the glucose infusion rate (GIR during a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp in a subgroup of patients (9 healthy and 16 T2D subjects. Energy expenditure was measured by indirect calorimetry. Plasma cholic acid (CA, chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA and deoxycholic acid (DCA concentrations were analyzed by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry. In univariable analysis, a positive association was found between HOMA-IR and plasma CDCA (β = 0.09, p = 0.001, CA (β = 0.03, p = 0.09 and DCA concentrations (β = 0.07, p Conclusions Both plasma CDCA, CA and DCA concentrations were negatively associated with insulin sensitivity in a wide range of subjects.

  11. Plasma concentrations of testosterone and nandrolone in racing and nonracing intact male horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soma, L R; Uboh, C E; You, Y; Guan, F; McDonnell, S

    2012-04-01

    Pennsylvania (PA) State Racing Commissions regulate the endogenous androgenic steroid, testosterone (TES), in racing intact males (RIM) by quantification of TES in post-race samples. Post-race plasma samples (2209) collected between March 2008 and November 2010 were analyzed for TES, nandrolone (NAN), and other anabolic steroids (ABS). Of the 2209 plasma samples, 2098 had quantifiable TES ≥ 25 pg/mL. Plasma (mean ± SD) concentrations of TES and NAN in RIM were 329.2 ± 266.4 and 96.0 ± 67.8 pg/mL, respectively. Only 64.6% of RIM had quantifiable concentration of NAN, and there was no relationship between TES and NAN. Plasma TES concentrations were significantly (P horses. Based on quantile distribution of TES in the RIM and BS populations, 99.5% were at or below 1546.1 and 1778.0 pg/mL, respectively. Based on this population of RIM, the suggested upper threshold plasma concentration of endogenous TES in horses competing in PA should remain at 2000 pg/mL. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Relationship between plasma resistin concentrations, inflammatory chemokines, and components of the metabolic syndrome in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilante, Christina L; Kosmiski, Lisa A; Knutsen, Shannon D; Zineh, Issam

    2008-04-01

    Recent data suggest that resistin, an adipocyte-derived cytokine, has a putative role in inflammatory processes and metabolic derangements. In vitro data suggest that resistin stimulates the production of inflammatory chemokines, yet the relationship in vivo is largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine if a relationship exists between plasma resistin concentrations, plasma inflammatory chemokine aged concentrations (ie, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 [MCP-1] and epithelial neutrophil activator 78 [ENA-78]), and components of the metabolic syndrome in nondiabetic subjects without known cardiovascular disease (CVD). Plasma samples were obtained from nondiabetic subjects (N = 123) aged 18 to 55 years without known CVD or CVD risk equivalents. The presence of the metabolic syndrome was assessed using consensus guidelines. Fasting plasma resistin, MCP-1, ENA-78, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) concentrations were analyzed. The study population consisted of 67.5% women and 68.3% Caucasians (mean age = 44 +/- 7 years and mean body mass index = 33.3 +/- 6 kg/m(2)). The metabolic syndrome was present in 46.3% of study participants. Resistin concentrations were significantly correlated with white blood cell count (r = 0.326, P metabolic syndrome compared with those without the metabolic syndrome (P = .003). In stepwise regression analysis, white blood cell count (P metabolic syndrome, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Data from our cross-sectional study demonstrate that plasma resistin concentrations are associated with circulating chemokine markers of inflammation, namely, MCP-1, and white blood cell count in nondiabetic adults without CVD. Future studies examining the causal relationship between plasma resistin concentrations, chemokine markers of inflammation, CVD, and diabetes are warranted.

  13. EFFECTS OF CIGARETTE SMOKING ON ERYTHROCYTE ANTIOXIDATIVE ENZYME ACTIVITIES AND PLASMA CONCENTRATIONS OF THEIR COFACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zahraie

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco smoke contains numerous compounds, many ‎of which are oxidants and capable of producing free radical and enhancing ‎the oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cigarette smoking on the erythrocyte antioxidative enzyme activities and the plasmaconcentration of their cofactors. ‎Sixty eight healthy men were enrolled, 32 of whom had never smoked and 36 had smoked at least 10 cigarettes per day for ‎at least one year. Hemolysate superoxide dismutase (Cu-Zn SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px and ‎catalase (CAT activities were measured using spectrophotometer. Plasma copper, zinc and selenium concentrations were determined ‎using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Plasma iron concentration was determined by colorimetric ‎method. We found that erythrocyte Cu-Zn SOD activity was significantly higher in tobacco smokers ‎compared with non-smokers (1294 ± 206.7 U/gHb in smokers vs. 1121.6 ± 237.8 U/gHb in non-‎smokers, P < 0.01. While plasma selenium concentration was significantly lower in tobacco ‎smokers (62.7±14.8 μg/L in smokers vs. 92.1 ± 17.5 μg/L in non-smokers, P < 0.01, there were no significant ‎differences in erythrocyte GSH-Px and CAT activities and plasma copper, zinc and iron concentrations between the two groups. ‎It seems that cigarette smoking can alter antioxidative enzymes activity and plasma concentration of some trace elements.

  14. Impact of Annexin A 7 Deficiency on FGF23 Plasma Concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja T. Umbach

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The release of fibroblast growth factor FGF23, a powerful regulator of 1,25(OH2D3 formation and mineral metabolism, is stimulated by store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE, which is accomplished by the pore forming Ca2+ release activated channel protein Orai1. Regulators of Orai1 and thus FGF23 release include serum & glucocorticoid inducible kinase SGK1, a kinase up-regulated by glucocorticosteroids. Some effects of glucocorticoids require the presence of annexin A7, such as suppression of prostaglandin E2 in gastric glands. The present study thus explored whether annexin A7 impacts on FGF23 plasma levels. Methods: Comparisons were made between gene targeted mice lacking functional annexin A7 (Anx7-/- and their wild type littermates (Anx7+/+. Serum C-terminal-FGF23, intact FGF23, 1,25(OH2D3 and PTH concentrations were measured by ELISA or EIA. The serum and urinary phosphate concentrations were measured by colorimetry, the serum Ca2+ concentration and the urinary Ca2+ concentration by flame photometry. Results: Serum C-terminal FGF23 levels and corticosterone levels were significantly higher and serum 1,25(OH2 D3 and PTH levels were significantly lower in Anx7-/- than in Anx7+/+ mice. Water intake was slightly but significantly higher in Anx7-/- mice than in Anx7+/+ mice. No significant difference was observed between Anx7-/- and Anx7+/+ mice in urinary fluid excretion, plasma Ca2+ concentration, plasma phosphate concentration and urinary Ca2+ output. The urinary phosphate output was significantly lower in Anx7-/- mice than in Anx7+/+ mice. Conclusion: Annexin A7 deficiency upregulates FGF23 plasma levels, an effect paralleled by increased corticosterone plasma levels, as well as decreased 1,25(OH2 D3 and PTH plasma levels.

  15. Concentrations of thiocyanate and goitrin in human plasma, their precursor concentrations in brassica vegetables, and associated potential risk for hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felker, Peter; Bunch, Ronald; Leung, Angela M

    2016-04-01

    Brassica vegetables are common components of the diet and have beneficial as well as potentially adverse health effects. Following enzymatic breakdown, some glucosinolates in brassica vegetables produce sulforaphane, phenethyl, and indolylic isothiocyanates that possess anticarcinogenic activity. In contrast, progoitrin and indolylic glucosinolates degrade to goitrin and thiocyanate, respectively, and may decrease thyroid hormone production. Radioiodine uptake to the thyroid is inhibited by 194 μmol of goitrin, but not by 77 μmol of goitrin. Collards, Brussels sprouts, and some Russian kale (Brassica napus) contain sufficient goitrin to potentially decrease iodine uptake by the thyroid. However, turnip tops, commercial broccoli, broccoli rabe, and kale belonging to Brassica oleracae contain less than 10 μmol of goitrin per 100-g serving and can be considered of minimal risk. Using sulforaphane plasma levels following glucoraphanin ingestion as a surrogate for thiocyanate plasma concentrations after indole glucosinolate ingestion, the maximum thiocyanate contribution from indole glucosinolate degradation is estimated to be 10 μM, which is significantly lower than background plasma thiocyanate concentrations (40-69 μM). Thiocyanate generated from consumption of indole glucosinolate can be assumed to have minimal adverse risks for thyroid health.

  16. Pathogen inactivation treatment of plasma and platelet concentrates and their predicted functionality in massive transfusion protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbaeen, Ahmad F; Schubert, Peter; Serrano, Katherine; Carter, Cedric J; Culibrk, Brankica; Devine, Dana V

    2017-05-01

    Trauma transfusion packages for hemorrhage control consist of red blood cells, plasma, and platelets at a set ratio. Although pathogen reduction improves the transfusion safety of platelet and plasma units, there is an associated reduction in quality. This study aimed to investigate the impact of riboflavin/ultraviolet light-treated plasma or platelets in transfusion trauma packages composed of red blood cell, plasma, and platelet units in a ratio of 1:1:1 in vitro by modeling transfusion scenarios for trauma patients and assessing function by rotational thromboelastometry. Pathogen-reduced or untreated plasma and buffy coat platelet concentrate units produced in plasma were used in different combinations with red blood cells in trauma transfusion packages. After reconstitution of these packages with hemodiluted blood, the hemostatic functionality was analyzed by rotational thromboelastometry. Hemostatic profiles of pathogen-inactivated buffy coat platelet concentrate and plasma indicated decreased activity compared with their respective controls. Reconstitution of hemodiluted blood (hematocrit = 20%) with packages that contained treated or nontreated components resulted in increased alpha and maximum clot firmness and enhanced clot-formation time. Simulating transfusion scenarios based on 30% blood replacement with a transfusion trauma package resulted in a nonsignificant difference in rotational thromboelastometry parameters between packages containing treated and nontreated blood components (p ≥ 0.05). Effects of pathogen inactivation treatment were evident when the trauma package percentage was 50% or greater and contained both pathogen inactivation-treated plasma and buffy coat platelet concentrate. Rotational thromboelastometry investigations suggest that there is relatively little impact of pathogen inactivation treatment on whole blood clot formation unless large amounts of treated components are used. © 2017 AABB.

  17. Fatigue and plasma cytokine concentrations at rest and during exercise in patients with sarcoidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baydur, Ahmet; Alavy, Bahram; Nawathe, Amar; Liu, Shanshan; Louie, Stan; Sharma, Om Prakash

    2011-07-01

    Patients with sarcoidosis exhibit exercise intolerance-related fatigue and increased levels of circulating proinflammatory cytokines at rest. Exercise may result in increased plasma cytokine levels (PCLs) in healthy adults, but such a relationship has not been studied in sarcoidosis patients. To assess relationship of fatigue in sarcoidosis with PCLs at rest and with cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). We assessed lung function, CPET data, multidimensional fatigue inventory, plasma tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) concentrations before, immediately after, and 4-6 h following CPET in 22 sarcoidosis patients (13 receiving immunomodulatory drugs) and 22 controls. Patients exhibited greater fatigue, reduced cardiorespiratory function, higher Medical Research Council (MRC) scores and higher plasma TNF-α concentrations than controls at all times. Plasma IL-1β levels did not differ between cohorts. Patients exhibited a 28% increase (statistically not significant) in TNF-α level immediately post exercise. Plasma IL-β concentrations did not change among cohorts. Treated patients exhibited higher MRC and physical fatigue scores and lower breathing reserve, but no differences in cardiorespiratory function or PCLs compared to untreated patients. In treated patients, pre-exercise plasma IL-1β correlated with physical fatigue, reduced motivation and total fatigue; TNF-α levels only correlated with general fatigue score. Treated sarcoidosis patients exhibit a relation between physical fatigue, reduced motivation and total fatigue and pre-exercise plasma IL-1β concentrations. Acute exercise does not increase PCLs. Whether the reduced MRC score and physical fatigue in treated patients is related to the therapy or to the underlying inflammatory process is difficult to determine. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. [Changes in platelet concentrates from dogs due to storage. II. Biochemical changes in concentrate plasma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, A; Adamik, A; Mischke, R

    1999-08-01

    Platelet concentrate (PC) obtained from dogs with an automatic cell separator was stored in C4-cell separation sets with low gasdiffusionable Polyvinylchlorid (PVC) storage containers or in C4L-sets developed for storage with high gasdiffusionable Polyolefin(PO) containers, respectively. PC were stored for 10 days under permanent agitation at 22 degrees C (C4/22 degrees C, n = 10; C4L/22 degrees C, n = 11) or at 4 degrees C (C4L/4 degrees C, n = 6), respectively. Measurements were carried out directly after production of the PC, after 6 hours and then daily during the 10-day storage period. In the second part of this paper the results of pH, the concentration of bicarbonate, glucose, lactate and potassium ions as well as the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) are presented. The varying duration and intensity of the energy metabolism of the platelets and different part of glycolysis became obvious by the consumption of glucose and production of lactate, which differed significantly between the different storage conditions. Resulting from this, the mean pH decreased under the limit prescribed for human PC (pH = 6.3) already after a storage period of 3 days due to the slight capacity of gas diffusion in PVC-containers (C4/22 degrees C). In the PO-containers the pH fell below this limit at 22 degrees C (C4L/22 degrees C) after a storage period of 5 days and at 4 degrees C (C4L/4 degrees C) after 10 days. The latter reflects the high gas diffusion capacity of the PO-containers and the decreased metabolism activity at 4 degrees C. The increase of activity of LDH and of the concentration of potassium ions, which are localized in the cytosol of platelets, depended also on the different storage conditions and, thereby, reflected the different rapidity of increasing membrane permeability or the destruction of the cell membrane, respectively. The results of this study nearly are in agreement with the changes of platelet function shown in part I. Biochemical changes occur

  19. Green tea ingestion greatly reduces plasma concentrations of nadolol in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misaka, S; Yatabe, J; Müller, F; Takano, K; Kawabe, K; Glaeser, H; Yatabe, M S; Onoue, S; Werba, J P; Watanabe, H; Yamada, S; Fromm, M F; Kimura, J

    2014-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effects of green tea on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the β-blocker nadolol. Ten healthy volunteers received a single oral dose of 30 mg nadolol with green tea or water after repeated consumption of green tea (700 ml/day) or water for 14 days. Catechin concentrations in green tea and plasma were determined. Green tea markedly decreased the maximum plasma concentration (C(max)) and area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC(0-48)) of nadolol by 85.3% and 85.0%, respectively (P green tea. [(3)H]-Nadolol uptake assays in human embryonic kidney 293 cells stably expressing the organic anion-transporting polypeptides OATP1A2 and OATP2B1 revealed that nadolol is a substrate of OATP1A2 (Michaelis constant (K(m)) = 84.3 μmol/l) but not of OATP2B1. Moreover, green tea significantly inhibited OATP1A2-mediated nadolol uptake (half-maximal inhibitory concentration, IC(50) = 1.36%). These results suggest that green tea reduces plasma concentrations of nadolol possibly in part by inhibition of OATP1A2-mediated uptake of nadolol in the intestine.

  20. Perioperative plasma concentrations of stable nitric oxide products are predictive of cognitive dysfunction after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Iohom, G

    2012-02-03

    In this study our objectives were to determine the incidence of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) after laparoscopic cholecystectomy under sevoflurane anesthesia in patients aged >40 and <85 yr and to examine the associations between plasma concentrations of i) S-100beta protein and ii) stable nitric oxide (NO) products and POCD in this clinical setting. Neuropsychological tests were performed on 42 ASA physical status I-II patients the day before, and 4 days and 6 wk after surgery. Patient spouses (n = 13) were studied as controls. Cognitive dysfunction was defined as deficit in one or more cognitive domain(s). Serial measurements of serum concentrations of S-100beta protein and plasma concentrations of stable NO products (nitrate\\/nitrite, NOx) were performed perioperatively. Four days after surgery, new cognitive deficit was present in 16 (40%) patients and in 1 (7%) control subject (P = 0.01). Six weeks postoperatively, new cognitive deficit was present in 21 (53%) patients and 3 (23%) control subjects (P = 0.03). Compared with the "no deficit" group, patients who demonstrated a new cognitive deficit 4 days postoperatively had larger plasma NOx at each perioperative time point (P < 0.05 for each time point). Serum S-100beta protein concentrations were similar in the 2 groups. In conclusion, preoperative (and postoperative) plasma concentrations of stable NO products (but not S-100beta) are associated with early POCD. The former represents a potential biochemical predictor of POCD.

  1. Variation in absorption and half-life of hydrocortisone influence plasma cortisol concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindmarsh, Peter C; Charmandari, Evangelia

    2015-04-01

    Hydrocortisone therapy should be individualized in congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) patients to avoid over and under replacement. We have assessed how differences in absorption and half-life of cortisol influence glucocorticoid exposure. Forty-eight patients (21 M) aged between 6·1 and 20·3 years with CAH due to CYP21A2 deficiency were studied. Each patient underwent a 24-h plasma cortisol profile with the morning dose used to calculate absorption parameters along with an intravenous (IV) hydrocortisone (15 mg/m(2) body surface area) bolus assessment of half-life. Parameters derived were maximum plasma concentration (Cmax ), time of maximum plasma concentration (tmax ), time to attaining plasma cortisol concentration cortisol. Mean half-life was 76·5 ± 5·2 (range 40-225·3) min, Cmax 780·7 ± 61·6 nmol/l and tmax 66·7 (range 20-118) min. Time taken to a plasma cortisol concentration less than 100 nmol/l was 289 (range 140-540) min. Those with a fast half-life and slow tmax took longest to reach a plasma cortisol concentration less than 100 nmol/l (380 ± 34·6 min), compared to those with a slow half-life and fast tmax (298 ± 34·8 min) and those with a fast half-life and fast tmax (249·5 ± 14·4 min) (One-way anovaF = 4·52; P = 0·009). Both rate of absorption and half-life of cortisol in the circulation play important roles in determining overall exposure to oral glucocorticoid. Dose regimens need to incorporate estimates of these parameters into determining the optimum dosing schedule for individuals. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Plasma adiponectin concentrations are associated with dietary glycemic index in Malaysian patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Beng-In; Sathyasuryan, Daniel Robert; Mohamed, Hamid Jan Jan

    2013-01-01

    Adiponectin, an adipocyte-derived hormone has been implicated in the control of blood glucose and chronic inflammation in type 2 diabetes. However, limited studies have evaluated dietary factors on plasma adiponectin levels, especially among type 2 diabetic patients in Malaysia. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of dietary glycemic index on plasma adiponectin concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 305 type 2 diabetic patients aged 19-75 years from the Penang General Hospital, Malaysia. Socio-demographic information was collected using a standard questionnaire while dietary details were determined by using a pre-validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Anthropometry measurement included weight, height, BMI and waist circumference. Plasma adiponectin concentrations were measured using a commercial ELISA kit. Data were analyzed using multiple linear regression. After multivariate adjustment, dietary glycemic index was inversely associated with plasma adiponectin concentrations (β =-0.272, 95% CI -0.262, - 0.094; pglycemic index that plasma adiponectin level reduced by 0.3 μg/mL. Thirty two percent (31.9%) of the variation in adiponectin concentrations was explained by age, sex, race, smoking status, BMI, waist circumference, HDL-C, triglycerides, magnesium, fiber and dietary glycemic index according to the multiple linear regression model (R2=0.319). These results support the hypothesis that dietary glycemic index influences plasma adiponectin concentrations in patients with type 2 diabetes. Controlled clinical trials are required to confirm our findings and to elucidate the underlying mechanism.

  3. Independent effects of apolipoprotein AV and apolipoprotein CIII on plasma triglyceride concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baroukh, Nadine N.; Bauge, Eric; Akiyama, Jennifer; Chang, Jessie; Fruchart, Jean-Charles; Rubin, Edward M.; Fruchart, Jamila; Pennacchio, Len A.

    2003-08-15

    Both the apolipoprotein A5 and C3 genes have repeatedly been shown to play an important role in determining plasma triglyceride concentrations in humans and mice. In mice, transgenic and knockout experiments indicate that plasma triglyceride levels are negatively and positively correlated with APOA5 and APOC3 expression, respectively. In humans, common polymorphisms in both genes have also been associated with plasma triglyceride concentrations. The evolutionary relationship among these two apolipoprotein genes and their close proximity on human chromosome 11q23 have largely precluded the determination of their relative contribution to altered Both the apolipoprotein A5 and C3 genes have repeatedly been shown to play an important role in determining plasma triglyceride concentrations in humans and mice. In mice, transgenic and knockout experiments indicate that plasma triglyceride levels are negatively and positively correlated with APOA5 and APOC3 expression, respectively. In humans, common polymorphisms in both genes have also been associated with plasma triglyceride concentrations. The evolutionary relationship among these two apolipoprotein genes and their close proximity on human chromosome 11q23 have largely precluded the determination of their relative contribution to altered triglycerides. To overcome these confounding factors and address their relationship, we generated independent lines of mice that either over-expressed (''double transgenic'') or completely lacked (''double knockout'') both apolipoprotein genes. We report that both ''double transgenic'' and ''double knockout'' mice display intermedia tetriglyceride concentrations compared to over-expression or deletion of either gene alone. Furthermore, we find that human ApoAV plasma protein levels in the ''double transgenic'' mice are approximately 500-fold lower than human ApoCIII levels, supporting Apo

  4. Nebulised cromoglycate, theophylline, and placebo in preschool asthmatic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, J; Archer, L N; Adams, W; Simpson, H

    1981-01-01

    Sixteen children aged under 5 years with chronic asthma completed a double-blind crossover trial of treatment with oral choline theophyllinate (6.7 mg/kg four times daily) and nebulised sodium cromoglycate (20 mg four times daily). The trial comprised three 8-week treatment periods during which active sodium cromoglycate, active choline theophyllinate, and placebo were given in random order. Symptom scores for sleep disturbance, cough, wheeze, and daily activities were similar during the three treatment periods if results were analysed using Friedman's non-parametric analysis of variance. However the Mantel-Haenszel test showed that sodium cromoglycate was superior to placebo (P less than 0.05) in maintaining normal daily activities. Either regimen is safe and well tolerated by young children. PMID:6791596

  5. Population pharmacokinetics of caffeine and its metabolites theobromine, paraxanthine and theophylline after inhalation in combination with diacetylmorphine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandvliet, Anthe S; Huitema, Alwin D R; de Jonge, Milly E; den Hoed, Rob; Sparidans, Rolf W; Hendriks, Vincent M; van den Brink, Wim; van Ree, Jan M; Beijnen, Jos H

    2005-01-01

    The stimulant effect of caffeine, as an additive in diacetylmorphine preparations for study purposes, may interfere with the pharmacodynamic effects of diacetylmorphine. In order to obtain insight into the pharmacology of caffeine after inhalation in heroin users, the pharmacokinetics of caffeine and its dimethylxanthine metabolites were studied. The objectives were to establish the population pharmacokinetics under these exceptional circumstances and to compare the results to published data regarding intravenous and oral administration in healthy volunteers. Diacetylmorphine preparations containing 100 mg of caffeine were used by 10 persons by inhalation. Plasma concentrations of caffeine, theobromine, paraxanthine and theophylline were measured by high performance liquid chromatography. Non-linear mixed effects modelling was used to estimate population pharmacokinetic parameters. The model was evaluated by the jack-knife procedure. Caffeine was rapidly and effectively absorbed after inhalation. Population pharmacokinetics of caffeine and its dimethylxanthine metabolites could adequately and simultaneously be described by a linear multi-compartment model. The volume of distribution for the central compartment was estimated to be 45.7 l and the apparent elimination rate constant of caffeine at 8 hr after inhalation was 0.150 hr(-1) for a typical individual. The bioavailability was approximately 60%. The presented model adequately describes the population pharmacokinetics of caffeine and its dimethylxanthine metabolites after inhalation of the caffeine sublimate of a 100 mg tablet. Validation proved the stability of the model. Pharmacokinetics of caffeine after inhalation and intravenous administration are to a large extent similar. The bioavailability of inhaled caffeine is approximately 60% in experienced smokers.

  6. Refractory cachexia is associated with increased plasma concentrations of fentanyl in cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suno M

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Manabu Suno,1,* Yuriko Endo,1,* Hiroyuki Nishie,2 Makoto Kajizono,3 Toshiaki Sendo,3 Junji Matsuoka4 1Department of Oncology Pharmaceutical Care and Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2Department of Anesthesiology and Resuscitology, Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Okayama University, 3Department of Pharmacy, Okayama University Hospital, 4Faculty of Health Sciences, Okayama University Medical School, Okayama, Japan *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: An appropriate plasma concentration of fentanyl is the key to achieving good pain control in cancer patients. Cachexia, a multifactorial syndrome, is known to affect drug-metabolizing enzymes. However, the fentanyl concentrations in the blood of patients with cachexia have not been analyzed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of cancer cachexia on dose-adjusted plasma fentanyl concentrations in cancer patients.Methods: Blood was collected from 21 Japanese cancer patients treated with a 24-hour transdermal fentanyl patch during the steady state of fentanyl plasma concentration. Plasma fentanyl concentrations were analyzed using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS, and the levels were adjusted with the dose of fentanyl. Laboratory data were collected, and the cachexia stage was determined, based on study by Fearon et al. Multiple regression analysis was performed to identify the factors that affected fentanyl plasma concentrations.Results: Eight patients were classified as precachexia, nine as cachexia, and four as refractory cachexia, and the median dose-adjusted fentanyl concentrations (ng/mL per mg/kg/day were 27.5, 34.4, and 44.5, respectively. The dose-adjusted fentanyl concentration in patients with refractory cachexia was higher than that in patients with precachexia (Kruskal–Wallis test and post hoc Mann–Whitney U-test, P<0.01. The factors that

  7. A Prospective Survey on Safety of Sustained-Release Theophylline in Treatment of Asthma and COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sohei Makino

    2006-01-01

    Conclusions: The present survey demonstrates that sustained-release theophylline is safe, as long as used appropriately, although adverse reactions tend to develop early after initiation of administration.

  8. [Effect of temperature on the kinetics of propranolol, theophylline, phenytoin and digoxin in rats (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albin, H; Vincon, G; Ploux, D; Dangoumau, J

    1981-01-01

    1. The effect of chronic hyperthermia (35 degree C for 1 month) on the kinetics of propranolol, theophylline, diphenylhydantoin and digoxin was studied in groups of male Wistar rats. 2. Each compound was administered by intravenous injection, dosage being 2 mg/kg for propranolol, 3 mg/kg for theophylline, 10 mg/kg for phenytoin, and 0.01 mg/Kg for digoxin. 3. Total body clearance was diminished, mainly by an increase in the elimination half-life, for propranolol, theophylline, and digoxin. That of phenytoin remained unchanged. 4. Distribution volume increased slightly with propranolol, theophylline, digoxin.

  9. Relationship between labile plasma iron, liver iron concentration and cardiac response in a deferasirox monotherapy trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, John C.; Glynos, Tara; Thompson, Alexis; Giardina, Patricia; Harmatz, Paul; Kang, Barinder P.; Paley, Carole; Coates, Thomas D.

    2011-01-01

    The US04 trial was a multicenter, open-label, single arm trial of deferasirox monotherapy (30–40 mg/kg/day) for 18 months. Cardiac iron response was bimodal with improvements observed in patients with mild to moderate initial somatic iron stores; relationship of cardiac response to labile plasma iron is now presented. Labile plasma iron was measured at baseline, six months, and 12 months. In patients having a favorable cardiac response at 18 months, initial labile plasma iron was elevated in only 31% of patients at baseline and no patient at six or 12 months. Cardiac non-responders had elevated labile plasma iron in 50% of patients at baseline, 50% patients at six months, and 38% of patients at 12 months. Risk of abnormal labile plasma iron and cardiac response increased with initial liver iron concentration. Persistently increased labile plasma iron predicts cardiac non-response to deferasirox but labile plasma iron suppression does not guarantee favorable cardiac outcome. Study registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT00447694). PMID:21393329

  10. Measurement and Comparison of Organic Compound Concentrations in Plasma, Whole Blood, and Dried Blood Spot Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterman, Stuart A; Chernyak, Sergey; Su, Feng-Chiao

    2016-01-01

    The preferred sampling medium for measuring human exposures of persistent organic compounds (POPs) is blood, and relevant sample types include whole blood, plasma, and dried blood spots (DBS). Because information regarding the performance and comparability of measurements across these sample types is limited, it is difficult to compare across studies. This study evaluates the performance of POP measurements in plasma, whole blood and DBS, and presents the distribution coefficients needed to convert concentrations among the three sample types. Blood samples were collected from adult volunteers, along with demographic and smoking information, and analyzed by GC/MS for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHCs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and brominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Regression models were used to evaluate the relationships between the sample types and possible effects of personal covariates. Distribution coefficients also were calculated using physically-based models. Across all compounds, concentrations in plasma were consistently the highest; concentrations in whole blood and DBS samples were comparable. Distribution coefficients for plasma to whole blood concentrations ranged from 1.74 to 2.26 for pesticides/CHCs, averaged 1.69 ± 0.06 for the PCBs, and averaged 1.65 ± 0.03 for the PBDEs. Regression models closely fit most chemicals (R (2) > 0.80), and whole blood and DBS samples generally showed very good agreement. Distribution coefficients estimated using biologically-based models were near one and did not explain the observed distribution. Among the study population, median concentrations of several pesticides/CHCs and PBDEs exceeded levels reported in the 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, while levels of other OCPs and PBDEs were comparable or lower. Race and smoking status appeared to slightly affect plasma/blood concentration ratios for several POPs. The experimentally

  11. Measurement and Comparison of Organic Compound Concentrations in Plasma, Whole Blood and Dried Blood Spot Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart A Batterman

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The preferred sampling medium for measuring human exposures of persistent organic compounds (POPs is blood, and relevant sample types include whole blood, plasma, and dried blood spots (DBS. Because information regarding the performance and comparability of measurements across these sample types is limited, it is difficult to compare across studies. This study evaluates the performance of POP measurements in plasma, whole blood and DBS, and presents the distribution coefficients needed to convert concentrations among the three sample types. Blood samples were collected from adult volunteers, along with demographic and smoking information, and analyzed by GC/MS for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs, chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHCs, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, and brominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs. Regression models were used to evaluate the relationships between the sample types and possible effects of personal covariates. Distribution coefficients also were calculated using physically-based models.Across all compounds, concentrations in plasma were consistently the highest; concentrations in whole blood and DBS samples were comparable. Distribution coefficients for plasma to whole blood concentrations ranged from 1.74 to 2.26 for pesticides/CHCs, averaged 1.69 ± 0.06 for the PCBs, and averaged 1.65 ± 0.03 for the PBDEs. Regression models closely fit most chemicals (R2 > 0.80, and whole blood and DBS samples generally showed very good agreement. Distribution coefficients estimated using biologically-based models were near one and did not explain the observed distribution. Among the study population, median concentrations of several pesticides/CHCs and PBDEs exceeded levels reported in the 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, while levels of other OCPs and PBDEs were comparable or lower. Race and smoking status appeared to slightly affect plasma/blood concentration ratios for several POPs. The experimentally

  12. Effects of Different Heavy-Resistance Exercise Protocols on Plasma Beta-Endorphin Concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    exercise increases in muscular hypertrophy (27). Thus each exer- protocols used previously. Each subject gave informed cise series provides for...ANTE. P. D., AND M. E. HOUSTON. Effects of concentric and DUDLEY. C. M. MARESH, L. MARCHIrELLI, C. CRUTHIRDS, T. eccentric exercise on protein catabolism...DTIC Effects of different heavy-resistance exercise ELECTE protocols on plasma #-endorphin concentrations MAR 3 0 1993 C WILLIAM J. KRAEMER, JOSEPH E

  13. Cheese intake lowers plasma cholesterol concentrations without increasing bile acid excretion

    OpenAIRE

    Hjerpsted, Julie Bousgaard; Dragsted, Lars Ove; Tholstrup, Tine

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Cheese is a dairy product with high calcium content. It has been suggested that calcium intake may increase fecal excretion of bile acids that would cause a regeneration of bile acids from hepatic cholesterol and thereby result in a lowering of plasma cholesterol concentrations. We aimed to test this hypothesis by assessing bile acid and calcium concentrations in fecal samples from humans after intake of cheese and butter. Methods The study was a randomized, 2 × 6 weeks crossover, die...

  14. The roles of various plasma species in the plasma and plasma-catalytic removal of low-concentration formaldehyde in air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xing; Zhu, Tianle; Sun, Yifei; Yan, Xiao

    2011-11-30

    The contributions of various plasma species to the removal of low-concentration formaldehyde (HCHO) in air by DC corona discharge plasma in the presence and absence of downstream MnO(x)/Al(2)O(3) catalyst were systematically investigated in this study. Experimental results show that HCHO can be removed not only by short-living active species in the discharge zone, but also by long-living species except O(3) downstream the plasma reactor. O(3) on its own is incapable of removing HCHO in the gas phase but when combined with the MnO(x)/Al(2)O(3) catalyst, considerable HCHO conversion is seen, well explaining the greatly enhanced HCHO removal by combining plasma with catalysis. The plasma-catalysis hybrid process where HCHO is introduced through the discharge zone and then the catalyst bed exhibits the highest energy efficiency concerning HCHO conversion, due to the best use of plasma-generated active species in a two-stage HCHO destruction process. Moreover, the presence of downstream MnO(x)/Al(2)O(3) catalyst significantly reduced the emission of discharge byproducts (O(3)) and organic intermediates (HCOOH).

  15. Concentrations of Nicotinamide in Plasma by RP-HPLC With Fluorescence Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Zhipeng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to establish a new method for detecting nicotinamide concentration in plasma. In the experiment, the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method was used, with a fluorescence detector. The nicotinamide in the plasma was first converted to N1- methylnicotinamide, then reacted with acetophenone under certain conditions to produce fluorescent derivatives for testing. The method is a kind of highly sensitive detection, of which the lower limit is 10 ng/mL, the recovery rate is between 92.75% and 105.13%, and the relative standard deviation (RSD is between 3.76% and 4.43%. The results showed that this measurement method is accurate, sensitive and rapid. It meets the requirements of the experiment, and applies to the detection of nicotinamide concentration in plasma.

  16. Effects of plant proteins on postprandial, free plasma amino acid concentrations in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bodil Katrine; Dalsgaard, Anne Johanne Tang; Pedersen, Per Bovbjerg

    2012-01-01

    proteins from wheat, peas, field beans, sunflower and soybean. Blood samples were obtained from the caudal vein of 7 fish in each dietary treatment group prior to feeding, as well as: 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h after feeding (sampling 7 new fish at each time point), and plasma amino acid......Postprandial patterns in plasma free amino acid concentrations were investigated in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed either a fish meal based diet (FM) or a diet (VEG) where 59% of fish meal protein (corresponding to 46% of total dietary protein) was replaced by a matrix of plant...... concentrations were subsequently measured by HPLC. Nutrient digestibility and ammonia excretion of the two experimental diets were measured in a parallel experiment using a modified Guelph setup. Results showed that the appearance of most amino acids (essential and non-essential) in the plasma was delayed...

  17. Species-dependent effective concentration of DTPA in plasma for chelation of 241Am.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sueda, Katsuhiko; Sadgrove, Matthew P; Jay, Michael; Di Pasqua, Anthony J

    2013-08-01

    Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) is a chelating agent that is used to facilitate the elimination of radionuclides such as americium from contaminated individuals. Its primary site of action is in the blood, where it competes with various biological ligands, including transferrin and albumin, for the binding of radioactive metals. To evaluate the chelation potential of DTPA under these conditions, the competitive binding of Am between DTPA and plasma proteins was studied in rat, beagle, and human plasma in vitro. Following incubation of DTPA and Am in plasma, the Am-bound ligands were fractionated by ultrafiltration and ion-exchange chromatography, and each fraction was assayed for Am content by gamma scintillation counting. Dose response curves of DTPA for Am binding were established, and these models were used to calculate the 90% maximal effective concentration, or EC90, of DTPA in each plasma system. The EC90 were determined to be 31.4, 15.9, and 10.0 μM in rat, beagle, and human plasma, respectively. These values correspond to plasma concentrations of DTPA that maximize Am chelation while minimizing excess DTPA. Based on the pharmacokinetic profile of DTPA in humans, after a standard 30 μmol kg intravenous bolus injection, the plasma concentration of DTPA remains above EC90 for approximately 5.6 h. Likewise, the effective duration of DTPA in rat and beagle were determined to be 0.67 and 1.7 h, respectively. These results suggest that species differences must be considered when translating DTPA efficacy data from animals to humans and offer further insights into improving the current DTPA treatment regimen.

  18. Enhancement of basophil apoptosis by olopatadine and theophylline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Ayako; Suzukawa, Maho; Koketsu, Rikiya; Komiya, Akiko; Ohta, Ken; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Yamaguchi, Masao

    2008-01-01

    Regulation of basophil survival is an important aspect in the pathogenesis of allergic inflammation associated with local accumulation of basophils. However, pharmacologic modulation of basophil survival is largely unknown except for the apoptosis-enhancing effect of glucocorticoids. We tested the effects of two anti-allergic and anti-asthmatic drugs, olopatadine and theophylline, on basophil survival. Basophils were highly purified from normal human peripheral blood. Apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry using annexin V staining or another staining method that detected alterations in the mitochondrial transmembrane potential. In addition to the conventional method using annexin V, basophil apoptosis was successfully established by analysis of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential. Olopatadine decreased the number of live basophils, and they induced apoptosis of basophils during culture. The decline in live basophils was induced by olopatadine even when low doses of IL-3 were included in the culture medium. Theophylline also affected basophil apoptosis and induced a decrease in the number of live basophils. Basophil apoptosis was enhanced by both olopatadine and theophylline. This effect may partly explain the pharmacologic basis of why these drugs are effective on allergic diseases.

  19. Plasma concentrations of oseltamivir and oseltamivir carboxylate in critically ill children on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enno D Wildschut

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: To evaluate the effect of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO support on pharmacokinetics of oseltamivir and oseltamivir carboxylate (OC in children. METHODOLOGY: Steady state 0-12 hour pharmacokinetic sampling was performed in new influenza A (H1N1 infected children treated with oseltamivir while on ECMO support. Cmax, Cmin and AUC(0-12 h were calculated. The age-specific oseltamivir dosage was doubled to counter expected decreased plasma drug concentrations due to increased volume of distribution on ECMO support. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Three patients were enrolled aged 15, 6 and 14 years in this pharmacokinetic case series. For two children the OC plasma concentrations were higher than those found in children and adults not on ECMO. These increased plasma concentrations related to the increased oseltamivir dosage and decreased kidney function. In one patient suboptimal plasma concentrations coincided with a decreased gastric motility. CONCLUSION: Oseltamivir pharmacokinetics do not appear to be significantly influenced by ECMO support. Caution is required in case of nasogastric administration and decreased gastric motility. Due to the limited number of (paediatric patients available further multicenter studies are warranted.

  20. Phenylbutyrate reduces plasma leucine concentrations without affecting the flux of leucine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phenylbutyrate (PB) has been used as an alternative pathway to excrete nitrogen in urea cycle disorder patients for the last 20 years. PB, after oxidation to phenylacetate, is conjugated with glutamine and excreted in the urine. A reduction in the plasma concentration of branched amino acids (BCAA) ...

  1. Plasma prolactin, progesterone and oestradiol-17β concentrations around parturition in the pig

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taverne, M.; Willemse, A.H.; Dieleman, S.J.; Bevers, M.

    1979-01-01

    Plasma concentrations of prolactin, progesterone and oestradiol-17β were measured by radioimmunoassay in samples taken from 2–15 days before until 1–4 days after spontaneous parturition in four sows and in one sow around prostaglandin F2α-induced parturition. Between Days −15 and −2 (Day 0 = partur

  2. Decreased coenzyme Q10 concentration in plasma of children with cystic fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudshoorn, J.H.; Lecluse, A.L.Y.; Berg, R. van den; Vaes, W.H.J.; Laag, J. van der; Houwen, R.H.J.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is an effective lipophilic antioxidant and protects against lipid peroxidation by scavenging radicals. Patients with cystic fibrosis generally have fat malabsorption; thus, we hypothesized that overall plasma CoQ10 concentration in pediatric patients with cystic fibr

  3. Plasma concentrations of generic lopinavir/ritonavir in HIV type-1-infected individuals.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lugt, J. van der; Lange, J.; Avihingsanon, A.; Ananworanich, J.; Sealoo, S.; Burger, D.M.; Gorowara, M.; Phanuphak, P.; Ruxrungtham, K.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Generic drugs can contribute to access to treatment for HIV-infected patients. However quality and safety remains an issue of concern. Therefore, we evaluated minimal plasma concentrations and short-term safety of a generic lopinavir/ritonavir 200/50 mg tablet formulation. METHODS: In a

  4. High plasma arginine concentrations in critically ill patients suffering from hepatic failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Nijveldt (Robin); M.P.C. Siroen; B. van der Hoven (Ben); T. Teerlink (Tom); H.A. Prins (Hubert); A.R.J. Girbes (Armand); P.A.M. van Leeuwen

    2004-01-01

    textabstractObjective: In physiological conditions, the liver plays an important role in the regulation of plasma arginine concentrations by taking up large amounts of arginine from the hepatic circulation. When hepatic failure is present, arginine metabolism may be disturbed. Therefore, we hypothes

  5. Orlistat treatment increases fecal bilirubin excretion and decreases plasma bilirubin concentrations in hyperbilirubinemic Gunn rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nishioka, T; Hafkamp, AM; Havinga, R; Van Lierop, PPE; Velvis, H; Verkade, HJ

    2003-01-01

    Objective To determine whether serum levels of unconjugated bilirubin (UCB) can be decreased by enhancing fecal fat excretion. Study design Gunn rats were fed a high-fat diet (control) or the same diet mixed with the lipase inhibitor orlistat. At regular intervals, plasma UCB concentrations were det

  6. Coal pyrolysis to acetylene using dc hydrogen plasma torch: effects of system variables on acetylene concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Longwei; Meng Yuedong; Shen Jie; Shu Xingsheng; Fang Shidong [Laboratory of Applied Low-temperature Plasma Physics, Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, 230031 (China); Xiong Xinyang, E-mail: lwchen@ipp.ac.c [Xinjiang Tianye Group, Xinjiang, 832000 (China)

    2009-03-07

    In order to unveil the inner mechanisms that determine acetylene concentration, experimental studies on the effect of several parameters such as plasma torch power, hydrogen flux and coal flux were carried out from coal pyrolysis in a dc plasma torch. Xinjiang long flame coals including volatile constituents at a level of about 42% were used in the experiment. Under the following experimental conditions, namely plasma torch power, hydrogen flow rate and pulverized coal feed speed of 2.12 MW, 32 kg h{sup -1} and 900 kg h{sup -1}, respectively, acetylene volume concentration of about 9.4% was achieved. The experimental results indicate that parameters such as plasma torch power and coal flux play important roles in the formation of acetylene. Acetylene concentration increases inconspicuously with hydrogen flux. A chemical thermodynamic equilibrium model using the free energy method is introduced in this paper to numerically simulate each experimental condition. The numerical results are qualitatively consistent with the experimental results. Two parameters, i.e. the gas temperature and the ratio of hydrogen/carbon, are considered to be the dominant and independent factors that determine acetylene concentration.

  7. Coal pyrolysis to acetylene using dc hydrogen plasma torch: effects of system variables on acetylene concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Longwei; Meng, Yuedong; Shen, Jie; Shu, Xingsheng; Fang, Shidong; Xiong, Xinyang

    2009-03-01

    In order to unveil the inner mechanisms that determine acetylene concentration, experimental studies on the effect of several parameters such as plasma torch power, hydrogen flux and coal flux were carried out from coal pyrolysis in a dc plasma torch. Xinjiang long flame coals including volatile constituents at a level of about 42% were used in the experiment. Under the following experimental conditions, namely plasma torch power, hydrogen flow rate and pulverized coal feed speed of 2.12 MW, 32 kg h-1 and 900 kg h-1, respectively, acetylene volume concentration of about 9.4% was achieved. The experimental results indicate that parameters such as plasma torch power and coal flux play important roles in the formation of acetylene. Acetylene concentration increases inconspicuously with hydrogen flux. A chemical thermodynamic equilibrium model using the free energy method is introduced in this paper to numerically simulate each experimental condition. The numerical results are qualitatively consistent with the experimental results. Two parameters, i.e. the gas temperature and the ratio of hydrogen/carbon, are considered to be the dominant and independent factors that determine acetylene concentration.

  8. Reduced cooperativeness and reward-dependence in depression with above-normal plasma vasopressin concentration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goekoop, J. G.; de Winter, R. F. P.; Wolterbeek, R.; Spinhoven, P.; Zitman, F. G.; Wiegant, V. M.

    2009-01-01

    The neuropeptide vasopressin is centrally involved in the regulation of social behaviour and response to stress. We previously found support for a subcategory of depression defined by above-normal plasma vasopressin (AVP) concentration. This subcategory is validated by a positive family history of d

  9. Plasma Concentration of the Novel Peptide Apelin is Regularly Changed in Patients With Heart Failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Yanju; Li Tianchang; Yan Jun; Bian Hong; Yao Daokuo; Xu Shiying; Zheng Jianyong

    2006-01-01

    Objectives Apelin, the novel endogenous ligand for the G-protein-coupled receptor APJ, has been observed in many animals and humans studies. It is concluded that it has inotropic effects,hypotension and diuretic properties. The change of apelin in relation to heart failure is still controversial.Our goal was to observe the change of apelin-12 in patients with heart failure (HF). Methods From 2005 to 2006, 81 consecutive patients (46 male and 35 female, mean age 68.5±12.1 years) with heart failure resulting from variable etiologies and 15 healthy controls were included in this study. Plasma concentration of apelin-12 was measured through ELISA on admission. All patients received conventional therapy and recorded detailed the clinical conditions. Results (1) Plasma concentration of apelin of the controls is lower than the ones of heart failure patients. (2) Plasma concentration of apelin is increased in the early stage and decreased in the advanced period. (3) Apelin is related with variable indexes in the Pearson's association analysis. Apelin is also changed with the atrium and ventricular's diameter. Conclusions Plasma concentration of apelin is increased in early stage and decreased in advanced period. The apelin-APJ system might be important in the pathophysiological process of heart failure. And it might be valuable in diagnosis and therapeutic implications in heart failure.

  10. [Determination of cyclohexanone concentration in the plasma separator by gas chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Min-Ju; Yan, Lin; He, Yan-Ying; Lin, Wei-Cong

    2009-09-01

    This essay is to determine the cyclohexanone concentration of the plasma separator. The compound was introduced into the GC analytical system by the carrier gas. The determination was performed by the measurement of their peak area and by the external standard method.

  11. Decreased coenzyme Q10 concentration in plasma of children with cystic fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudshoorn, J.H.; Lecluse, A.L.Y.; Berg, R. van den; Vaes, W.H.J.; Laag, J. van der; Houwen, R.H.J.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is an effective lipophilic antioxidant and protects against lipid peroxidation by scavenging radicals. Patients with cystic fibrosis generally have fat malabsorption; thus, we hypothesized that overall plasma CoQ10 concentration in pediatric patients with cystic

  12. Perioperative dilutional coagulopathy treated with fresh frozen plasma and fibrinogen concentrate: a prospective randomized intervention trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lance, M.D.; Ninivaggi, M.; Schols, S.E.; Feijge, M.A.; Oehrl, S.K.; Kuiper, G.J.; Nikiforou, M.; Marcus, M.A.; Hamulyak, K.; Pampus, E.C.M. van; Cate, H. ten; Heemskerk, J.W.M.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Treatment of dilutional coagulopathy by transfusing fresh frozen plasma (FFP) remains sub-optimal. We hypothesized that partial replacement of transfused FFP by fibrinogen concentrate results in improved coagulant activity and haemostasis. This was tested in a controlled c

  13. Plasma paracetamol concentrations and pharmacokinetics following rectal administration in neonates and young infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tom Giedsing; O'Brien, K; Morton, N S

    1999-01-01

    Despite widespread use in children pharmacokinetic data about paracetamol are relatively scarce, not the least in the youngest age groups. This study aimed to describe plasma paracetamol concentrations and pharmacokinetics of a single rectal paracetamol dose in neonates and young infants....

  14. Plasma concentrations of disodium cromoglycate after various inhalation methods in healthy subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Y; Muraki, K; Fujitaka, M; Sakura, N; Ueda, K

    1999-01-01

    Aims To compare the plasma concentrations of disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) following various inhalation procedures in healthy volunteers. Methods Nine healthy subjects inhaled 2 mg of aerosol, 20 mg of nebuliser solution only, 20 mg of nebuliser solution mixed with isotonic saline, or 20 mg of nebuliser solution mixed with saline and procaterol, a β2-adenoceptor agonist, on separate occasions 2–3 weeks apart. Plasma concentrations of DSCG were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (h.p.l.c.). Results The peak plasma concentrations of DSCG were 1.5±0.7 (range 0.4–2.4) ng ml−1 in the aerosol group, 8.8±6.2 (range 5.3–19.9) ng ml−1 in the nebuliser solution only group, 17.2±16.3 (range 5.0–38.6) ng ml−1 in the nebuliser solution plus isotonic saline group, and 24.5±11.9 (range 10.2–44.9) ng ml−1 in the nebuliser solution plus saline and procaterol group. Thus subjects who used the nebuliser had markedly higher plasma concentrations of DSCG than subjects who used the aerosol inhaler. Conclusions These findings may have important implications for the evaluation of inhalation treatment with DSCG for bronchial asthma. PMID:10417491

  15. A physiologically based kinetic model for the prediction of plasma cholesterol concentrations in mice and man

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pas, van de N.

    2011-01-01

    An increased plasma cholesterol concentration is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. However, individuals vary largely in their response to cholesterol lowering drugs and 40% of them, do not reach their cholesterol-lowering target. Development of novel therapies, for example co

  16. Cardiac C-type natriuretic peptide gene expression and plasma concentrations in neonatal piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lasse H; Smith, Julie; Goetze, Jens Peter

    2014-01-01

    and cardiac tissue extracts were quantified by a porcine-specific radioimmunoassay. RESULTS: Cardiac CNP mRNA contents (n=24) were low compared to sites of known expression, where porcine seminal vesicle CNP mRNA contents were 200-fold higher. In addition, plasma proCNP concentrations in the newborn piglets...

  17. Persistent increase of plasma butyryl/isobutyrylcarnitine concentrations as marker of SCAD defect and ethylmalonic encephalopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merinero, B; Perez-Cerda, C; Ruiz Sala, P

    2007-01-01

    High concentrations of butyryl/isobutyrylcarnitine (C(4)-carnitine) in plasma with increase of ethylmalonic acid (EMA) in urine point to different genetic entities, and further investigations are required to differentiate the possible underlying defect. Here we report three unrelated cases, two...

  18. High fetal plasma adenosine concentration: a role for the fetus in preeclampsia?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Espinoza, Jimmy

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: Clinical observations suggest a role for the fetus in the maternal manifestations of preeclampsia, but the possible signaling mechanisms remain unclear. This study compares the fetal plasma concentrations of adenosine from normal pregnancies with those from preeclampsia. STUDY DESIGN: This secondary data analysis included normal pregnancies (n = 27) and patients with preeclampsia (n = 39). Patients with preeclampsia were subclassified into patients with (n = 25) and without (n = 14) abnormal uterine artery Doppler velocimetry (UADV). RESULTS: Fetal plasma concentrations of adenosine were significantly higher in patients with preeclampsia (1.35 +\\/- 0.09 mumol\\/L) than in normal pregnancies (0.52 +\\/- 0.06 mumol\\/L; P < .0001). Fetal plasma concentrations of adenosine in patients with preeclampsia with abnormal UADV (1.78 +\\/- 0.15 mumol\\/L), but not with normal UADV (0.58 +\\/- 0.14 mumol\\/L), were significantly higher than in normal pregnancies (P < .0001). CONCLUSION: Patients with preeclampsia with sonographic evidence of chronic uteroplacental ischemia have high fetal plasma concentrations of adenosine.

  19. A genome-wide association meta-analysis of plasma Aβ peptides concentrations in the elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Chouraki (Vincent); R.F.A.G. de Bruijn (Renée); J. Chapuis; J.C. Bis (Joshua); C. Reitz (Christiane); S. Schraen (Susanna); C.A. Ibrahim-Verbaas (Carla); B. Grenier-Boley (Benjamin); C. Delay; R. Rogers; F. Demiautte; A. Mounier; A.L. Fitzpatrick (Annette); C. Berr (Claudine); J.-F. Dartigues; A.G. Uitterlinden (André); A. Hofman (Albert); M.M.B. Breteler (Monique); J.T. Becker; M. Lathrop (Mark); N. Schupf; A. Alperovitch (Annick); R. Mayeux (Richard); C.M. van Duijn (Cornelia M.); L. Buee (Luc); P. Amouyel (Philippe); O.L. Lopez (Oscar); M.A. Ikram (Arfan); C. Tzourio (Christophe); J.-C. Lambert (J.)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractAmyloid beta (Aβ) peptides are the major components of senile plaques, one of the main pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer disease (AD). However, Aβ peptides' functions are not fully understood and seem to be highly pleiotropic. We hypothesized that plasma Aβ peptides concentrations coul

  20. Plasma prolactin, progesterone and oestradiol-17β concentrations around parturition in the pig

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taverne, M.; Willemse, A.H.; Dieleman, S.J.; Bevers, M.

    Plasma concentrations of prolactin, progesterone and oestradiol-17β were measured by radioimmunoassay in samples taken from 2–15 days before until 1–4 days after spontaneous parturition in four sows and in one sow around prostaglandin F2α-induced parturition. Between Days −15 and −2 (Day 0 =

  1. Plasma paracetamol concentrations and pharmacokinetics following rectal administration in neonates and young infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tom Giedsing; O'Brien, K; Morton, N S

    1999-01-01

    Despite widespread use in children pharmacokinetic data about paracetamol are relatively scarce, not the least in the youngest age groups. This study aimed to describe plasma paracetamol concentrations and pharmacokinetics of a single rectal paracetamol dose in neonates and young infants....

  2. Relationship between craving and plasma leptin concentrations in patients with cocaine addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinotti, Giovanni; Montemitro, Chiara; Baroni, Gaia; Andreoli, Sara; Alimonti, Flaminia; Di Nicola, Marco; Tonioni, Federico; Leggio, Lorenzo; di Giannantonio, Massimo; Janiri, Luigi

    2017-08-05

    There is robust evidence indicating an overlap between neurobiological circuitry and pathways that regulate addictions and those that regulate appetite and food intake. Rodent work suggests a role of the appetitive peptide leptin in cocaine-seeking behaviours. The goal of this study was to investigate the possible relationship between plasma leptin concentrations and cocaine craving and use in patients seeking treatment for cocaine dependence. Patients (N=43) with a DSM-IV diagnosis of cocaine dependence were studied before starting detoxification (baseline; T0) and then again 14days after (T1; only those patients who abstained from cocaine during the study). Blood samples for plasma leptin concentrations were collected and cocaine craving was assessed using the Brief Cocaine Craving Questionnaire (Brief-CCQ). Food craving was also assessed using a food Visual Analogue Scale (f-VAS). Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS) was used to evaluate impulsivity. Plasma leptin concentrations at T0 significantly correlated with baseline Brief-CCQ scores (r=0.34, p0.05). The present study suggests a potential relationship between plasma leptin concentrations and cocaine craving and use. Future mechanistic studies are needed to determine whether manipulations of leptin signalling may lead to novel pharmacological approaches to treat cocaine addiction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Zinc and iron concentration and SOD activity in human semen and seminal plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzec-Wróblewska, Urszula; Kamiński, Piotr; Lakota, Paweł; Szymański, Marek; Wasilow, Karolina; Ludwikowski, Grzegorz; Kuligowska-Prusińska, Magdalena; Odrowąż-Sypniewska, Grażyna; Stuczyński, Tomasz; Michałkiewicz, Jacek

    2011-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to measure zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) concentration in human semen and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in seminal plasma and correlate the results with sperm quality. Semen samples were obtained from men (N = 168) undergoing routine infertility evaluation. The study design included two groups based on the ejaculate parameters. Group I (n = 39) consisted of males with normal ejaculate (normozoospermia), and group II (n = 129) consisted of males with pathological spermiogram. Seminal Zn and Fe were measured in 162 samples (group I, n = 38; group II, n = 124) and SOD activity in 149 samples (group I, n = 37; group II, n = 112). Correlations were found between SOD activity and Fe and Zn concentration, and between Fe and Zn concentration. SOD activity was negatively associated with volume of semen and positively associated with rapid progressive motility, nonprogressive motility, and concentration. Negative correlation was stated between Fe concentration and normal morphology. Mean SOD activity in seminal plasma of semen from men of group I was higher than in seminal plasma of semen from men of group II. Fe concentration was higher in teratozoospermic males than in males with normal morphology of spermatozoa in group II. Our results suggest that Fe may influence spermatozoa morphology.

  4. Plasma urea nitrogen and progesterone concentrations and follicular dynamics in ewes fed proteins of different degradability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Bianchi Lazarin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of overfeeding with protein of different degradability on body condition, plasma urea nitrogen and progesterone concentrations, ovulation number and follicular dynamics were assessed in Santa Ines ewes. Twelve ewes were assigned to a randomized block design according to body weight and received overfeeding with soybean meal or with corn gluten meal or maintenance diet for 28 days before ovulation and during the next estrous cycle. Blood samples were taken on days 7, 14, 21, and 28 after the beginning of treatments for analysis of plasma urea nitrogen and on days 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 into the estrous cycle for analysis of plasma urea nitrogen and progesterone. Follicular dynamics was monitored daily by ultrasound during one estrous cycle. Dry matter and crude protein intake, weight gain, plasma urea nitrogen concentration before ovulation, number of ovulations, diameter of the largest follicle of the 1st and of the 2nd waves and the growth rate of the largest follicle of the 1st wave were higher in the ewes that received overfeeding. The growth rate of the largest follicle of the 3rd wave was higher in the ewes fed maintenance diet. The back fat thickness, plasma urea nitrogen before ovulation and progesterone concentrations, diameter of the largest follicle of the 2nd wave and growth rate of the largest follicle of the 3rd wave were higher in ewes that received overfeeding with soybean meal. The growth rate of the largest follicle of the 1st wave was higher in ewes that received overfeeding with corn gluten meal. Overfeeding with protein-rich feeds may increase the ovulation number and with soybean meal, it may be effective in increasing plasma progesterone concentration in ewes.

  5. Overestimation of canine albumin concentration with the bromcresol green method in heparinized plasma samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokol, Tracy; Tarrant, Jacqueline M.; Scarlett, Janet M.

    2001-01-01

    Albumin concentrations are routinely measured in dogs with bromcresol green (BCG)-binding assays on automated chemistry analyzers. Several variables affect this assay, including the length of reaction time, sample type, and lack of specificity of BCG for albumin. We observed that albumin concentrations measured with BCG appeared higher in heparinized plasma samples in sick dogs. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of anticoagulant and assay procedure on BCG albumin concentrations in clinically ill dogs. We hypothesized that albumin concentrations would be overestimated in heparinized plasma compared with serum because of the combination of heparin and fibrinogen. Furthermore, we hypothesized that the overestimation would be influenced by assay parameters. Blood was collected from 32 clinically ill dogs into tubes containing heparin, citrate, or no anticoagulant. Citrate was chosen to assess the effect of fibrinogen in the absence of heparin. Albumin concentration was measured in all 3 sample types from each dog using 2 different BCG procedures on an automated chemistry analyzer. The BCG procedures (standard and modified) differed in the wavelengths used for absorbance readings (standard, 600/700; modified, 570/505) and the time point at which absorbance was measured (standard, 100 seconds; modified, 40 seconds). In addition, the modified method incorporated a sample blank. Globulin fractions, fibrinogen concentration, and indices of lipemia, hemolysis, and icterus were evaluated for their contribution to the overestimation of albumin concentration in heparinized plasma compared with serum samples. Albumin concentrations were significantly higher (P plasma (mean +/- SE, 3.8 +/- 0.1 g/dL) than in serum (3.6 +/- 0.2 g/dL) or citrated plasma (3.2 +/- 0.1 g/dL). Overestimation was evident only with the standard BCG procedure. Multiple linear regression analysis indicated that fibrinogen was largely responsible for the higher

  6. Increases in plasma motilin follow each episode of gallbladder emptying during the interdigestive period, and changes in serum bile acid concentration correlate to plasma motilin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, N; Oster-Jørgensen, E; Pedersen, S A

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The relationship between each single period of gallbladder emptying during the migrating motor complex (MMC) cycle and changes in concentration of plasma motilin and serum bile acids is unknown. METHODS: The variations in the concentration of plasma motilin and serum bile acids in rel...

  7. Clinical relevance of plasma prostaglandin F2α metabolite concentrations in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kensaku Aihara

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF is a devastating lung disease of unknown etiology with few current treatment options. Recently, we determined an important role of prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α in pulmonary fibrosis by using a bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis model and found an abundance of PGF2α in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of IPF patients. We investigated the role of PGF2α in human IPF by assessing plasma concentrations of 15-keto-dihydro PGF2α, a stable metabolite of PGF2α. METHODS: We measured plasma concentrations of 15-keto-dihydro PGF2α in 91 IPF patients and compared these values with those of controls (n = 25. We further investigated the relationships of plasma 15-keto-dihydro PGF2α concentrations with disease severity and mortality. RESULTS: Plasma concentrations of 15-keto-dihydro PGF2α were significantly higher in IPF patients than controls (p<0.001. Plasma concentrations of this metabolite were significantly correlated with forced expiratory volume in 1 second (Rs [correlation coefficient] = -0.34, p = 0.004, forced vital capacity (Rs = -0.33, p = 0.005, diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (Rs = -0.36, p = 0.003, the composite physiologic index (Rs = 0.40, p = 0.001, 6-minute walk distance (Rs = -0.24, p = 0.04 and end-exercise oxygen saturation (Rs = -0.25, p = 0.04 when patients with emphysema were excluded. Multivariate analysis using stepwise Cox proportional hazards model showed that a higher composite physiologic index (relative risk = 1.049, p = 0.002 and plasma 15-keto-dihydro PGF2α concentrations (relative risk = 1.005, p = 0.002 were independently associated with an increased risk of mortality. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated significant associations of plasma concentrations of PGF2α metabolites with disease severity and prognosis, which support a potential pathogenic role for PGF2α in human IPF.

  8. Cholesterol concentration in seminal plasma as a predictive tool for quality semen evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer-Ljubić, B; Aladrović, J; Marenjak, T S; Laskaj, R; Majić-Balić, I; Milinković-Tur, S

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between lipid composition of bovine serum and seminal plasma, seasonality, and semen quality. The experiment was carried out in two groups of Simmental breeding bulls: Group I (ages 2 to 4 yr) and Group II (ages 5 to 10 yr). Blood samples were collected from jugular vein, and bovine semen was sampled with an artificial vagina once per season. Serum concentrations of total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triacylglycerols, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs), and lipoprotein electrophoretic patterns were determined. Seminal plasma concentrations of total cholesterol, HDL-C, and LDL-C were assayed. Serum concentration of triacylglycerols in young bulls was significantly higher in winter compared with that in autumn, whereas serum NEFA concentration was significantly higher in autumn compared with that in other seasons. Serum concentration of total cholesterol, LDL-C, and LDL lipoproteins in older bulls was significantly higher in winter than in spring. Seminal plasma concentration of total cholesterol in young bulls was significantly higher in spring compared with that in summer, whereas in older bulls it was significantly higher in winter compared with that in autumn samples. Sperm volume of both groups was significantly higher in summer compared with that in autumn and winter. Sperm motility in young bulls was lowest in summer and differed significantly from the values recorded in other seasons. The changes observed in seminal plasma cholesterol concentration were associated with extracellular lipid use and appeared to be applicable as a biochemical marker of sperm quality.

  9. High Variability of Plasma Drug Concentrations in Dual Protease Inhibitor Regimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiard-Schmid, Jean-Baptiste; Poirier, Jean-Marie; Meynard, Jean-Luc; Bonnard, Philippe; Gbadoe, Ayi Hola; Amiel, Corinne; Calligaris, Frédérique; Abraham, Bruno; Pialoux, Gilles; Girard, Pierre-Marie; Jaillon, Patrice; Rozenbaum, Willy

    2003-01-01

    Ritonavir (RTV) strongly increases the concentrations of protease inhibitors (PIs) in plasma in patients given a combination of RTV and another PI. This pharmacological interaction is complex and poorly characterized and shows marked inter- and intraindividual variations. In addition, RTV interacts differently with saquinavir (SQV), indinavir (IDV), amprenavir (APV), and lopinavir (LPV). In this retrospective study on 542 human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients, we compared inter- and intraindividual variability of plasma PI concentrations and correlations between the Cmin (minimum concentration of drug in plasma) values for RTV and the coadministered PI Cmin values. Mean RTV Cmins are significantly lower in patients receiving combinations containing APV or LPV than in combinations with SQV or IDV. With the most common PI dose regimens (600 mg of IDV twice a day [BID], 800 mg of SQV BID, and 400 mg of LPV BID), the interindividual Cmin variability of patients treated with a PI and RTV seemed to be lower with APV and LPV than with IDV and SQV. As regards intraindividual variability, APV also differed from the other PIs, exhibiting lower Cmin variability than with the other combinations. Significant positive correlations between RTV Cmin and boosted PI Cmin were observed with IDV, SQV, and LPV, but not with APV. Individual dose adjustments must take into account the specificity the pharmacological interaction of each RTV/PI combination and the large inter- and intraindividual variability of plasma PI levels to avoid suboptimal plasma drug concentrations which may lead to treatment failure and too high concentrations which may induce toxicity and therefore reduce patient compliance. PMID:12604531

  10. Sigma-1 receptor concentration in plasma of patients with late-life depression: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimizu H

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Hideyuki Shimizu,1 Minoru Takebayashi,2 Masayuki Tani,1 Hiroaki Tanaka,1 Bun Yamagata,1 Kenzo Kurosawa,1 Hiroki Yamada,1 Mitsugu Hachisu,3 Kazue Hisaoka-Nakashima,2 Mami Okada-Tsuchioka,2 Masaru Mimura,4 Akira Iwanami11Department of Neuropsychiatry, Showa University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; 2Department of Psychiatry and Institute for Clinical Research, National Hospital Organization Kure Medical Center, Kure, Japan; 3Department of Clinical Psychopharmacy, Pharmacy School, Showa University, Tokyo, Japan; 4Department of Neuropsychiatry, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, JapanBackground: Recently, the sigma-1 receptor has been shown to play a significant role in the neural transmission of mood by regulating N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. Additionally, the sigma-1 receptor has been reported to influence cognitive functions including learning and memory. In this study, we measured plasma sigma-1 receptor concentrations before and after antidepressant treatment in patients with late-life major depressive disorder (MDD and explored whether changes in depressive status are related to sigma-1 receptor concentrations.Methods: The study participants were 12 subjects with late-life MDD diagnosed according to the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. All of the participants were over 60 years old. Immediately prior to and 8 weeks after the start of treatment, sigma-1 receptor concentration and mental status, including depressive symptoms (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale; HAM-D, were measured. Treatment for depression was performed according to a developed algorithm based on the choice of treatments. We examined the association between changes in sigma-1 receptor concentration and HAM-D scores during antidepressant treatment. For the measurement of plasma sigma-1 receptor concentration, blood plasma samples were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Western

  11. Salivary pH as a marker of plasma adiponectin concentrations in Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tremblay Monique

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasma adiponectin is a significant correlate of the pro-inflammatory cardiometabolic risk profile associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. Salivary pH is influenced by several cardiometabolic risk components such as inflammation, oxidation and numerous oral and systemic health modulators, including the menopausal status. This study aimed to assess the association between plasma adiponectin concentrations and salivary pH in women according to the menopausal status. Method Unstimulated saliva collection was performed in 151 Caucasian women of French-Canadian origin (53 premenopausal women (PMW and 98 menopausal women (MW. Student's t test, ANOVA and linear regression models were used to assess the association between plasma adiponectin concentrations and salivary pH. Results Plasma adiponectin levels increased as a function of salivary pH in the whole sample and among MW (r = 0.29 and r = 0.36, p 2 was 10.8% (p Conclusions These results suggest that salivary pH is a significant correlate of plasma adiponectin levels in women. With the increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes and obesity, new technologies should be developed to more easily monitor health status, disease onset and progression. Salivary pH, a simple, inexpensive and non-invasive measure, could be a very promising avenue.

  12. HEMOFILTRATION AND COUPLED PLASMA FILTRATION ADSORPTION IMPACT ON TACROLIMUS BLOOD CONCENTRATION IN RENAL TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Vatazin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the effect of hemofi ltration and coupled plasma fi ltration adsorption on tacrolimus blood concentration in renal transplant recipients.Methods and results. The study included 8 renal transplant recipients. In these patients immediately after the operation was performed the coupled plasma fi ltration adsorption with hemofiltration using a cartridge Mediasorb to reduce the severity of reperfusion injury. We have found that during this extracorporeal blood correction procedure there was statistically not signifi cant decrease of tacrolimus blood concentration. However, concentration of tacrolimus remained in the therapeutic range even after the procedure and it was not signifi cantly different from the control point С0.Conclusion. Coupled plasma fi ltration adsorption is safe in renal transplant recipients and has no signifi cant impact on tacrolimus blood concentration. However, the downward trend in the concentration of tacrolimus in the course of these procedures, especially in continuous or semicontinuous mode, as well as in patients with low hematocrit and hypoalbuminemia, requires individual monitoring.

  13. The Relationship between the Plasma Triglyceride Concentration and the Severity of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Kuzkov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Triglycerides (TG may be involved in the pathogenesis of critical impairments. Objective: to study the relationship between the plasma concentration of TG, the outcome of the disease, and the markers of its severity in intensive care unit patients with early-stage acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS. Subjects and methods. The prospective study included 18 patients with acute lung injury (ALI, who needed respiratory support. For further analysis, all the patients were divided into groups with TG < 1.00 mmol/l (TGlow; n=7 and >1.00 mmol/l (TGhigh; n=11. Results. A negative correlation was found between plasma TG concentration and oxygenation index (PaO2/FiO2. In the TG^jgh group, extravas-cular lung water index was significantly higher and cardiac index was lower than those in the TGlow group. Among the deceased patients, there was a 1.03 mmol/l reduction in TG concentration by day 4 of the study whereas in the survivors, TG concentration increased by an average of 0.15 mmol/l (p=0.02. Conclusion. In the patients with ALI, the plasma concentration of TG is related to oxygenation impairments and the degree of pulmonary edema, as well as with the outcome of the disease. Key words: triglycerides, acute lung injury, extravascular lung water index, pulmonary edema.

  14. Kinetic and Related Determinants of Plasma Triglyceride Concentration in Abdominal Obesity: Multicenter Tracer Kinetic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borén, Jan; Watts, Gerald F; Adiels, Martin; Söderlund, Sanni; Chan, Dick C; Hakkarainen, Antti; Lundbom, Nina; Matikainen, Niina; Kahri, Juhani; Vergès, Bruno; Barrett, P Hugh R; Taskinen, Marja-Riitta

    2015-10-01

    Patients with obesity and diabetes mellitus have increased risk of cardiovascular disease. A major cause is an atherogenic dyslipidemia related primarily to elevated plasma concentrations of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins. The aim of this study was to clarify determinants of plasma triglyceride concentration. We focused on factors that predict the kinetics of very-low density lipoprotein 1 (VLDL1) triglycerides. A multicenter study using dual stable isotopes (deuterated leucine and glycerol) and multicompartmental modeling was performed to elucidate the kinetics of triglycerides and apoB in VLDL1 in 46 subjects with abdominal obesity and additional cardiometabolic risk factors. Results showed that plasma triglyceride concentrations were dependent on both the secretion rate (r=0.44, Ptriglycerides and VLDL1-apoB. Liver fat mass was independently and directly associated with secretion rates of VLDL1-triglycerides (r=0.56, Ptriglycerides (r=0.48, Ptriglyceride concentrations in abdominal obesity are determined by the kinetics of VLDL1 subspecies, catabolism being mainly dependent on apoC-III concentration and secretion on liver fat content. Reduction in liver fat and targeting apoC-III may be an effective approach for correcting triglyceride metabolism atherogenic dyslipidemia in obesity. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Increased plasma concentration of serum amyloid P component in centenarians with impaired cognitive performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, M; Olsen, H; Jeune, B;

    1998-01-01

    these to the cognitive performance evaluated by Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE). We observed a significantly (p ... higher SAP concentration (60.2 microg/ml), while the subgroup of cognitive intact centenarians (MMSE score >24) showed a normal SAP concentration (38.4+/-9.3 microg/ml). No dehydration or hepatic dysfunction was demonstrable in the centenarians. We conclude that the centenarians with impaired cognitive...... performance had significantly increased plasma concentrations of SAP, while the values for cognitive intact centenarians were within the normal range....

  16. [The concentration of free lidocaine in arterial, central venous and peripheral vein plasma following intravenous injection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolte, H; al Saydali, B; Weissenberg, W

    1990-03-01

    Ten intensive care patients and five healthy volunteers each received a bolus injection of lidocaine HCl (100 mg, 2%) over an injection period of 5 s. After 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 15 and 25 min arterial, central venous and peripheral venous blood samples were collected. In four of the volunteers, arterial and central venous samples were also taken about 10 s after the end of injection. The fluorescence polarization method by means of the Abbott-TDx system was used, and plasma concentrations of lidocaine were determined. The measurements showed that lidocaine levels in central venous plasma 10 s after the end of administration were higher than those in arterial plasma. By 30 s after administration the opposite situation had developed, so that arterial concentrations were higher than those in central venous plasma. This relation did not change throughout the study, though the two levels became closer, as is shown by the ratios (Table 3, Fig. 2). Concentrations in peripheral venous plasma increased more slowly but remained far below those in arterial and central venous plasma, at least for the first 8 min. After 15 min lidocaine levels were almost the same in all three samples. During the entire study there were no ECG changes, and neither heart rate nor blood pressure showed any significant deviation from the values obtained at the beginning. The volunteers had minor toxic manifestations, such as dizziness, tinnitus and a metallic taste in the mouth; one person had a sensation of pressure in his chest, which improved following oxygen administration.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Plasma concentrations of organohalogenated pollutants in predatory bird nestlings: associations to growth rate and dietary tracers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustnes, Jan O; Bårdsen, Bård J; Herzke, Dorte; Johnsen, Trond V; Eulaers, Igor; Ballesteros, Manuel; Hanssen, Sveinn A; Covaci, Adrian; Jaspers, Veerle L B; Eens, Marcel; Sonne, Christian; Halley, Duncan; Moum, Truls; Nøst, Therese Haugdal; Erikstad, Kjell E; Ims, Rolf Anker

    2013-11-01

    The extent to which persistent organic pollutants (POPs) with different physicochemical properties originated from the food (dietary input) was assessed in raptor nestlings. Lipophilic polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) 153, 1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p'-DDE), and hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and protein-bound perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), were measured repeatedly in blood plasma of individual goshawk (Accipiter gentilis) and white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) nestlings, 1 to 3 wk after hatching and near fledging. Maternally derived POPs dilute as nestlings grow (growth dilution), and increasing plasma concentrations would indicate dietary input. First, plasma concentrations given no dietary input were estimated, and concentrations of p,p'-DDE, HCB, and notably PFOS were significantly higher than predicted from a growth-dilution scenario (approximately 1.5-fold to 2.5-fold higher; p growth rate. Both δ(15) N and δ(13) C (measured in body feathers) were significantly associated to the accumulation of most POPs, except PFOS. In conclusion, pollutant data acquired in plasma of nestling raptors should be interpreted and further investigated in the light of individual feeding ecology, and the use of raptor nestlings as sentinels for POP monitoring could be optimized by correcting for different factors such as body condition, brood size, and age.

  18. Anti-tumor Effects of Plasma Activated Media and Correlation with Hydrogen Peroxide Concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laroussi, Mounir; Mohades, Soheila; Barekzi, Nazir; Maruthamuthu, Venkat; Razavi, Hamid

    2016-09-01

    Plasma activated media (PAM) can induce death in cancer cells. In our research, PAM is produced by exposing liquid culture medium to a helium plasma pencil. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in the aqueous state are known factors in anti-tumor effects of PAM. The duration of plasma exposure determines the concentrations of reactive species produced in PAM. Stability of the plasma generated reactive species and their lifetime depend on parameters such as the chemical composition of the medium. Here, a complete cell culture medium was employed to make PAM. Later, PAM was used to treat SCaBER cancer cells either as an immediate PAM (right after exposure) or as an aged-PAM (after storage). SCaBER (ATCC®HTB-3™) is an epithelial cell line from a human bladder with the squamous carcinoma disease. A normal epithelial cell line from a kidney tissue of a dog - MDCK (ATCC®CCL-34™) - was used to analyze the selective effect of PAM. Correspondingly, we measured the concentration of hydrogen peroxide- as a stable species with biological impact on cell viability- in both immediate PAM and aged-PAM. In addition, we report on the effect of serum supplemented in PAM on the H2O2 concentration measured by Amplex red assay kit. Finally, we evaluate the effects of PAM on growth and morphological changes in MDCK cells using fluorescence microscopy.

  19. Consumption of canned citrus fruit meals increases human plasma β-cryptoxanthin concentration, whereas lycopene and β-carotene concentrations did not change in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chenghao H; Gertz, Erik R; Cai, Yimeng; Burri, Betty J

    2016-07-01

    Several studies suggest that β-cryptoxanthin has a greater plasma response from its common food sources than other carotenoids such as β-carotene and lycopene. The hypothesis of this study is that changes in plasma β-cryptoxanthin concentrations will be greater than changes in plasma β-carotene or lycopene concentrations even if these carotenoids are fed in a similar food matrix, such as citrus fruit. We tested this hypothesis by measuring changes in plasma concentrations of β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, and β-carotene after feeding measured amounts of canned tangerines and pink grapefruit to healthy nonsmoking adult humans. Volunteers served as their own controls and received both citrus fruit treatments randomly. In the first study, 8 subjects ate single meals of 234-304g of tangerines or 60-540g of pink grapefruit. The second study compared changes in plasma carotenoid concentration caused by feeding 234g of tangerines or 540g of pink grapefruit to 11 subjects. Blood was collected 5 times within 24hours after each citrus meal. Carotenoid concentrations were analyzed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Plasma β-cryptoxanthin concentrations increased within 5hours and then stabilized, remaining high throughout the 24hours measured. Plasma concentrations of lycopene and β-carotene did not change. These results show that β-cryptoxanthin concentrations increased after a citrus fruit meal, but lycopene and β-carotene concentrations did not change after a similar citrus fruit meal. These results support our hypothesis that changes in plasma β-cryptoxanthin are greater than changes in plasma lycopene or β-carotene, even when these carotenoids are fed in a similar food matrix.

  20. Rapid screening test for primary hyperaldosteronism: ratio of plasma aldosterone to renin concentration determined by fully automated chemiluminescence immunoassays.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perschel, F.H.; Schemer, R.; Seiler, L.; Reincke, M.; Deinum, J.; Maser-Gluth, C.; Mechelhoff, D.; Tauber, R.; Diederich, S.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The ratio of plasma aldosterone concentration to plasma renin activity (PAC/PRA) is the most common screening test for primary hyperaldosteronism (PHA), but it is not standardized among laboratories. We evaluated new automated assays for the simultaneous measurement of PAC and plasma ren

  1. Concentrations of danofloxacin 18% solution in plasma, milk and tissues after subcutaneous injection in dairy cows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mestorino, N. [Pharmacology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, CC 296, 1900 La Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina)], E-mail: nmestorino@yahoo.com; Marchetti, M.L.; Turic, E.; Pesoa, J.; Errecalde, J. [Pharmacology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, CC 296, 1900 La Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2009-04-01

    Danofloxacin is a fluoroquinolone developed for use in veterinary medicine. Its concentrations and pharmacokinetic profile in plasma, milk and tissues of lactating dairy cows were determined, and its milk withdrawal time (WT) calculated. Twenty-one dairy cows received a single subcutaneous administration of 18% mesylate danofloxacin salt (6 mg kg{sup -1}). Plasma and milk samples were obtained at different times until 48 h. Groups of three animals were sacrificed at different post-administration times and tissue samples (mammary gland, uterus, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, colon and mesenteric lymph nodes) obtained. Danofloxacin concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The milk WT was calculated by the Time to Safe Concentration method (Software WTM 1.4, EMEA). Danofloxacin was rapidly absorbed and its distribution from plasma to all sampled tissues and milk was extensive. Milk and tissues concentrations were several times above those found in plasma. Plasma area under the curve (AUCp) was 9.69 {mu}g h mL{sup -1} and its elimination half life (T{sub {beta}}{sup 1/2}) was 12.53 h. AUC values for the various tissues and milk greatly exceeded AUCp. T{sub {beta}}{sup 1/2} from milk and tissues ranged between 4.57 and 21.91 h and the milk withdrawal time was 73.48 h. The reported results support the potential use of danofloxacin in the treatment of mastitis and other infections in milk cows with 3 days of withdrawal.

  2. Development of a microfluidic device for cell concentration and blood cell-plasma separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria, M Sneha; Kumar, B S; Chandra, T S; Sen, A K

    2015-12-01

    This work presents design, fabrication and test of a microfluidic device which employs Fahraeus-Lindqvist and Zweifach-Fung effects for cell concentration and blood cell-plasma separation. The device design comprises a straight main channel with a series of branched channels placed symmetrically on both sides of the main channel. The design implements constrictions before each junction (branching point) in order to direct cells that would have migrated closer to the wall (naturally or after liquid extraction at a junction) towards the centre of the main channel. Theoretical and numerical analysis are performed for design of the microchannel network to ensure that a minimum flow rate ratio (of 2.5:1, main channel-to-side channels) is maintained at each junction and predict flow rate at the plasma outlet. The dimensions and location of the constrictions were determined using numerical simulations. The effect of presence of constrictions before the junctions was demonstrated by comparing the performances of the device with and without constrictions. To demonstrate the performance of the device, initial experiments were performed with polystyrene microbeads (10 and 15 μm size) and droplets. Finally, the device was used for concentration of HL60 cells and separation of plasma and cells in diluted blood samples. The cell concentration and blood-plasma purification efficiency was quantified using Haemocytometer and Fluorescence-Activated Cell Sorter (FACS). A seven-fold cell concentration was obtained with HL60 cells and a purification efficiency of 70 % and plasma recovery of 80 % was observed for diluted (1:20) blood sample. FACS was used to identify cell lysis and the cell viability was checked using Trypan Blue test which showed that more than 99 % cells are alive indicating the suitability of the device for practical use. The proposed device has potential to be used as a sample preparation module in lab on chip based diagnostic platforms.

  3. Increased plasma soluble CD40 ligand concentration in pelvic inflammatory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Tsung-chin; Yang, Shun-Fa; Wang, Po-Hui; Lin, Long-Yau; Tee, Yi-Torng; Liao, Wen-Chun; Chang, Hsiu-Ju; Tsai, Hsiu-Ting

    2015-01-01

    The role of soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) in pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) remains unclear. We sought to determine whether sCD40L was an efficient serum marker as with WBC and CRP in PID patients. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure the plasma levels of sCD40L before and after routine protocol treatments in sixty-four PID patients and seventy healthy controls. The level of plasma sCD40L (pg/ml) was significantly elevated in PID patients (1632.83±270.91) compared to that in normal controls (700.33±58.77; p=0.001) and decreased significantly as compared to that in the same patients (928.77±177.25; p=0.0001) after they received treatment. The concentration of sCD40L was significantly correlated with the level of plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) in the blood (r=0.202, p=0.01, n=134). When the cutoff level of plasma sCD40L levels was determined to be 1612.26pg/ml based on ROC, the sensitivity, specificity, and the area under the curve of plasma sCD40L level for predicting PID were 0.26, 0.97, and 0.58 (95% confidence interval: 0.48-0.68), respectively, while the adjusted odds ratio (AOR) with their 95% CI of plasma sCD40L for PID risk was 7.09 (95% CI=1.14-43.87, p=0.03). The expression of plasma sCD40L was increased in patients with PID and detection of plasma sCD40L could be useful for the diagnosis of PID. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The influence of environmental variables on platelet concentration in horse platelet-rich plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinnovati, Riccardo; Romagnoli, Noemi; Gentilini, Fabio; Lambertini, Carlotta; Spadari, Alessandro

    2016-07-04

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) commonly refers to blood products which contain a higher platelet (PLT) concentration as compared to normal plasma. Autologous PRP has been shown to be safe and effective in promoting the natural processes of soft tissue healing or reconstruction in humans and horses. Variability in PLT concentration has been observed in practice between PRP preparations from different patients or from the same individual under different conditions. A change in PLT concentration could modify PRP efficacy in routine applications. The aim of this study was to test the influence of environmental, individual and agonistic variables on the PLT concentration of PRP in horses. Six healthy Standardbred mares were exposed to six different variables with a one-week washout period between variables, and PRP was subsequently obtained from each horse. The variables were time of withdrawal during the day (morning/evening), hydration status (overhydration/dehydration) treatment with anti-inflammatory drugs and training periods on a treadmill. The platelet concentration was significantly higher in horses treated with a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (P = 0.03). The leukocyte concentration increased 2-9 fold with respect to whole blood in the PRP which was obtained after exposure to all the variable considered. Environmental variation in platelet concentration should be taken into consideration during PRP preparation.

  5. Evaluation of an immunoassay for determination of plasma efavirenz concentrations in resource-limited settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alemseged Abdissa

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM may improve antiretroviral efficacy through adjustment of individual drug administration. This could result in reduced toxicity, prevent drug resistance, and aid management of drug–drug interactions. However, most measurement methods are too costly to be implemented in resource-limited settings. This study evaluated a commercially available immunoassay for measurement of plasma efavirenz. Methods: The immunoassay-based method was applied to measure efavirenz using a readily available Humastar 80 chemistry analyzer. We compared plasma efavirenz concentrations measured by the immunoassay with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS (reference method in 315 plasma samples collected from HIV patients on treatment. Concentrations were categorized as suboptimal4 µg/ml. Agreement between results of the methods was assessed via Bland-Altman plot and κ statistic values. Results: The median Interquartile range (IQR efavirenz concentration was 2.8 (1.9; 4.5 µg/ml measured by the LC–MS/MS method and 2.5 (1.8; 3.9 µg/ml by the immunoassay and the results were well correlated (ρ=0.94. The limits of agreement assessed by Bland–Altman plots were −2.54; 1.70 µg/ml. Although immunoassay underestimated high concentrations, it had good agreement for classification into low, normal or high concentrations (K=0.74. Conclusions: The immunoassay is a feasible alternative to determine efavirenz in areas with limited resources. The assay provides a reasonable approximation of efavirenz concentration in the majority of samples with a tendency to underestimate high concentrations. Agreement between tests evaluated in this study was clinically satisfactory for identification of low, normal and high efavirenz concentrations.

  6. Patient age does not affect mefloquine concentrations in erythrocytes and plasma during the acute phase of falciparum malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz Fernandes Vieira

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To evaluate whether patient age has a significant impact on mefloquine concentrations in the plasma and erythrocytes over the course of treatment for uncomplicated falciparum malaria. Methods A total of 20 children aged between 8 and 11 years and 20 adult males aged between 22 and 41 years with uncomplicated falciparum malaria were enrolled in the study. Mefloquine was administered to patients in both age groups at a dose of 20 mg kg−1. The steady-state drug concentrations were measured by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. Results All patients had an undetectable mefloquine concentration on day 0. In adults, the plasma mefloquine concentrations ranged from 770 to 2930 ng mL−1 and the erythrocyte concentrations ranged from 2000 to 6030 ng mL−1. In children, plasma mefloquine concentrations ranged from 881 to 3300 ng mL−1 and erythrocyte concentrations ranged from 3000 to 4920 ng mL−1. There was no significant correlation between mefloquine concentrations in the plasma and erythrocytes in either adults or children. Conclusion In the present study, we observed no effect of patient age on the steady-state concentrations of mefloquine in the plasma and erythrocytes. We found that the mefloquine concentration in the erythrocytes was approximately 2.8-times higher than in the plasma. There were no significant correlations between mefloquine concentrations in the erythrocytes and plasma for either age group.

  7. Development of a molecularly imprinted polymer based surface plasmon resonance sensor for theophylline monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Rui; Cameron, Brent D.

    2011-03-01

    Molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) thin films and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensing technologies were combined to develop a novel sensing platform for monitoring real-time theophylline concentration, which is a compound of interest in environmental monitoring and a molecular probe for phenotyping certain cytochrome P450 enzymes. The MIPs hydrogel is easy to synthesize and provides shape-selective recognition with high affinity to specific target molecules. Different polymerization formulas were tested and optimized. The influence of the monomer sensitive factors were addressed by SPR. SPR is an evanescent wave optics based sensing technique that is suitable for real-time and label free sensing purposes. Gold nanorods (Au NRs) were uniformly immobilized onto a SPR sensing surface for the construction of a fiber optics based prism-free localized SPR (LSPR) measurement. This technique can be also applied to assess the activities of other small organic molecules by adjusting the polymerization formula, thus, this approach also has many other potential applications.

  8. Identification of a Hemolysis Threshold That Increases Plasma and Serum Zinc Concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killilea, David W; Rohner, Fabian; Ghosh, Shibani; Otoo, Gloria E; Smith, Lauren; Siekmann, Jonathan H; King, Janet C

    2017-06-01

    Background: Plasma or serum zinc concentration (PZC or SZC) is the primary measure of zinc status, but accurate sampling requires controlling for hemolysis to prevent leakage of zinc from erythrocytes. It is not established how much hemolysis can occur without changing PZC/SZC concentrations.Objective: This study determines a guideline for the level of hemolysis that can significantly elevate PZC/SZC.Methods: The effect of hemolysis on PZC/SZC was estimated by using standard hematologic variables and mineral content. The calculated hemolysis threshold was then compared with results from an in vitro study and a population survey. Hemolysis was assessed by hemoglobin and iron concentrations, direct spectrophotometry, and visual assessment of the plasma or serum. Zinc and iron concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma spectrometry.Results: A 5% increase in PZC/SZC was calculated to result from the lysis of 1.15% of the erythrocytes in whole blood, corresponding to ∼1 g hemoglobin/L added into the plasma or serum. Similarly, the addition of simulated hemolysate to control plasma in vitro caused a 5% increase in PZC when hemoglobin concentrations reached 1.18 ± 0.10 g/L. In addition, serum samples from a population nutritional survey were scored for hemolysis and analyzed for changes in SZC; samples with hemolysis in the range of 1-2.5 g hemoglobin/L showed an estimated increase in SZC of 6% compared with nonhemolyzed samples. Each approach indicated that a 5% increase in PZC/SZC occurs at ∼1 g hemoglobin/L in plasma or serum. This concentration of hemoglobin can be readily identified directly by chemical hemoglobin assays or indirectly by direct spectrophotometry or matching to a color scale.Conclusions: A threshold of 1 g hemoglobin/L is recommended for PZC/SZC measurements to avoid increases in zinc caused by hemolysis. The use of this threshold may improve zinc assessment for monitoring zinc status and nutritional interventions.

  9. Identification of a Hemolysis Threshold That Increases Plasma and Serum Zinc Concentration123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otoo, Gloria E; Smith, Lauren; Siekmann, Jonathan H

    2017-01-01

    Background: Plasma or serum zinc concentration (PZC or SZC) is the primary measure of zinc status, but accurate sampling requires controlling for hemolysis to prevent leakage of zinc from erythrocytes. It is not established how much hemolysis can occur without changing PZC/SZC concentrations. Objective: This study determines a guideline for the level of hemolysis that can significantly elevate PZC/SZC. Methods: The effect of hemolysis on PZC/SZC was estimated by using standard hematologic variables and mineral content. The calculated hemolysis threshold was then compared with results from an in vitro study and a population survey. Hemolysis was assessed by hemoglobin and iron concentrations, direct spectrophotometry, and visual assessment of the plasma or serum. Zinc and iron concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma spectrometry. Results: A 5% increase in PZC/SZC was calculated to result from the lysis of 1.15% of the erythrocytes in whole blood, corresponding to ∼1 g hemoglobin/L added into the plasma or serum. Similarly, the addition of simulated hemolysate to control plasma in vitro caused a 5% increase in PZC when hemoglobin concentrations reached 1.18 ± 0.10 g/L. In addition, serum samples from a population nutritional survey were scored for hemolysis and analyzed for changes in SZC; samples with hemolysis in the range of 1–2.5 g hemoglobin/L showed an estimated increase in SZC of 6% compared with nonhemolyzed samples. Each approach indicated that a 5% increase in PZC/SZC occurs at ∼1 g hemoglobin/L in plasma or serum. This concentration of hemoglobin can be readily identified directly by chemical hemoglobin assays or indirectly by direct spectrophotometry or matching to a color scale. Conclusions: A threshold of 1 g hemoglobin/L is recommended for PZC/SZC measurements to avoid increases in zinc caused by hemolysis. The use of this threshold may improve zinc assessment for monitoring zinc status and nutritional interventions. PMID

  10. Relationship between physical activity and plasma fibrinogen concentrations in adults without chronic diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel A Gomez-Marcos

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the relationship between regular physical activity, as assessed by accelerometer and 7-day physical activity recall (PAR, and plasma fibrinogen concentrations. METHODS: A cross-sectional study in a previously established cohort of healthy subjects was performed. This study analyzed 1284 subjects who were included in the EVIDENT study (mean age 55.0±13.6 years; 60.90% women. Fibrinogen concentrations were measured in blood plasma. Physical activity was assessed with a 7-day PAR (metabolic equivalents (METs/hour/week and GT3X ActiGraph accelerometer (counts/minute for 7 days. RESULTS: Physical exercise, which was evaluated with both an accelerometer (Median: 237.28 counts/minute and 7-day PAR (Median: 8 METs/hour/week. Physical activity was negatively correlated with plasma fibrinogen concentrations, which was evaluated by counts/min (r = -0.100; p<0.001 and METs/hour/week (r = -0.162; p<0.001. In a multiple linear regression analysis, fibrinogen concentrations of the subjects who performed more physical activity (third tertile of count/minute and METs/hour/week respect to subjects who performed less (first tertile, maintained statistical significance after adjustments for age and others confounders (β = -0.03; p = 0.046 and β = -0.06; p<0.001, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Physical activity, as assessed by accelerometer and 7-day PAR, was negatively associated with plasma fibrinogen concentrations. This relation is maintained in subjects who performed more exercise even after adjusting for age and other confounders.

  11. Pharmacokinetics of methimazole in children and adolescents with Graves' disease. Studies on plasma and intrathyroidal concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuno, A; Yano, K; Inyaku, F; Suzuki, Y; Sanae, N; Kumai, M; Naitoh, Y

    1987-05-01

    Methimazole concentrations in plasma and in the thyroid glands were measured by means of high-performance liquid chromatography. Pharmacokinetics of methimazole were studied after a single oral dose (175 mumol/m2) in nine children and adolescent who were in the thyrotoxic state. Plasma levels of methimazole showed peak concentrations of 4.4 to 12.6 (median 9.2) mumol/l at 0.5 to 4 h after drug administration. Plasma half-life, area under the curve, and distribution volume ranged from 2.73 to 6.04 h, 32.8 to 77.9 mumol X l-1 X h-1, and 0.516 to 0.913 l/kg, respectively. These pharmacokinetic parameters showed a wide variation among the patients, but were quite reproducible in the same subject. Intrathyroidal concentrations of methimazole were measured in another nine subjects including four adolescents and five adults who underwent thyroidectomy. The drug concentrations in the thyroid glands ranged between 3.5 and 23.8 mumol/kg tissue and were far higher than those in the plasma obtained at the time of surgery. In this series of experiments, the dose of the drug varied from 76 to 319 mumol/m2, time after the last dose to surgery from 5 to 24 h, and the mode of drug administration from a single to three divided doses. Among these variable factors, only the daily dose of methimazole corrected by body surface area showed significant correlation with the intrathyroidal concentration, whereas the time after the last dose of the drug and the mode of drug administration did not.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Influence of dietary fish proteins on plasma and liver cholesterol concentrations in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X; Beynen, A C

    1993-05-01

    The effects of amount and type of dietary fish proteins on plasma and liver cholesterol concentrations were evaluated in female rats. The isonitrogenous diets used contained 10 g cholesterol/kg and were carefully balanced for residual fat, cholesterol, Ca, Mg and P in the protein preparations. Cod meal, soya-bean protein or casein was incorporated into the diets as the only source of dietary protein at three levels: either 24, 48 or 72 g N/kg diet. Extra protein was added to the diet at the expense of the glucose component. In a second experiment soya-bean protein, casein, cod meal, whiting meal or plaice meal was added to the diet at a level of 24 g N/kg. When compared with casein, cod meal and soya-bean protein decreased plasma and liver cholesterol concentrations. A further cholesterol-lowering effect was achieved by increasing the proportion of either soya-bean protein or cod meal in the diet. Substitution of casein for glucose did not influence plasma and liver cholesterol concentrations. Plaice meal in the diet produced lower group mean plasma cholesterol concentrations than did whiting meal. In rats fed on the diet containing plaice meal, liver cholesterol concentrations were significantly lower than those in their counterparts fed on either cod meal or whiting meal. The present study demonstrates that different fish proteins in the diet have different effects on cholesterol metabolism and that the cholesterol-influencing properties of cod meal can be enhanced by the incorporation of higher proportions of this protein in the diet.

  13. Theophylline toxicity leading to suicidal ideation in a patient with no prior psychiatric illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Kapoor

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Suicidal behavior is a common psychiatric emergency and is associated with psychiatric illness and history of prior suicide attempts. Neuropsychiatric manifestations related to theophylline toxicity are well described in literature. We report a case of theophylline toxicity manifesting as suicidal ideation in a patient with no prior psychiatric illness.

  14. Occurrence and location of concentrated load and generator regions observed by Cluster in the plasma sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hamrin

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Here, and in a companion paper by Hamrin et al. (2009 [Scale size and life time of energy conversion regions observed by Cluster in the plasma sheet], we investigate localized energy conversion regions (ECRs in the Earth's plasma sheet. In total we have studied 151 ECRs within 660 h of plasma sheet data from the summer and fall of 2001 when Cluster was close to apogee at an altitude of about 15–20 RE. Cluster offers appropriate conditions for the investigation of energy conversion by the evaluation of the power density, E·J, where E is the electric field and J the current density. From the sign of the power density, we have identified more than three times as many Concentrated Load Regions (CLRs as Concentrated Generator Regions (CGRs. We also note that the CLRs appear to be stronger. To our knowledge, these are the first in situ observations confirming the general notion of the plasma sheet, on the average, behaving as a load. At the same time the plasma sheet appears to be highly structured, with energy conversion occurring in both directions between the fields and the particles. From our data we also find that the CLRs appear to be located closer to the neutral sheet, while CGRs prefer locations towards the plasma sheet boundary layer (PSBL. For both CLRs and CGRs, E and J in the GSM y (cross-tail direction dominate the total power density, even though the z contribution occasionally can be significant. The prevalence of the y-direction seems to be weaker for the CGRs, possibly related to a higher fluctuation level near the PSBL.

  15. Plasma protein concentrations in hypertriglyceridaemic subjects. Effect of clofibrate and comparison with normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantyne, F C; Morrison, B A; Ballantyne, D; Dryburgh, F J; Epenetos, A A

    1978-07-01

    Clofibrate, a widely used hypolipidaemic agent was given for twelve weeks to ten subjects with hypertriglyceridaemia. Its effect on lipoprotein-lipids and caeruloplasmin, IgA, IgM, alpha2-microglobulin and transferrin was assessed by comparing analyses at 4, 8 and 12 weeks on therapy with the means of values at two weeks before and at the start of treatment. The normal variation in plasma proteins was assessed in six healthy volunteers during the same period of time. On clofibrate, very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations fell, but the concentrations of cholesterol in low density (LDL) and high density (HDL) lipoproteins showed no consistent change. Caeruloplasmin and IgM concentrations decreased significantly, IgA showed a limited falls (significant only at 8 weeks) and alpha2-macroglobulin did not change. The concentration of transferrin increased on therapy. No relationships were found between the falls in VLDL-lipid concentrations and the alterations in other plasma proteins. No significant variation occurred in the concentrations of lipids or proteins in the normal subjects during the period of study. The results indicate that clofibrate exerts general effects on protein metabolism.

  16. Acetylcysteine reduces plasma homocysteine concentration and improves pulse pressure and endothelial function in patients with end-stage renal failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholze, Alexandra; Rinder, Christiane; Beige, Joachim;

    2004-01-01

    Increased oxidative stress, elevated plasma homocysteine concentration, increased pulse pressure, and impaired endothelial function constitute risk factors for increased mortality in patients with end-stage renal failure.......Increased oxidative stress, elevated plasma homocysteine concentration, increased pulse pressure, and impaired endothelial function constitute risk factors for increased mortality in patients with end-stage renal failure....

  17. Absence of a relation between efavirenz plasma concentrations and toxicity-driven efavirenz discontinuations in the EuroSIDA study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Luin, Matthijs; Bannister, Wendy P; Mocroft, Amanda

    2009-01-01

    plasma concentrations were measured from patients in the EuroSIDA study starting EFV after 1 January 1999. Patients with a plasma concentration available were divided into those that discontinued EFV because of any toxicity or by the choice of the patient or physician within 2 years (TOXPC group...

  18. Plasma alcohol, smoking, hormone concentrations and self-reported aggression. A study in a social-drinking situation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotson, L E; Robertson, L S; Tuchfeld, B

    1975-05-01

    Plasma alcohol concentrations and the number of cigarettes smoked by men during social-drinking situations were significantly related to change in testosterone levels. Age, height, plasma alcohol and smoking were related to self-reports of prior assault and verbal aggression. Agression was not related to testosterone concentration.

  19. Absence of a relation between efavirenz plasma concentrations and toxicity-driven efavirenz discontinuations in the EuroSIDA study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Luin, Matthijs; Bannister, Wendy P; Mocroft, Amanda;

    2009-01-01

    plasma concentrations were measured from patients in the EuroSIDA study starting EFV after 1 January 1999. Patients with a plasma concentration available were divided into those that discontinued EFV because of any toxicity or by the choice of the patient or physician within 2 years (TOXPC group...

  20. ADAMTS13 content in plasma-derived factor VIII/von Willebrand factor concentrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyvandi, Flora; Mannucci, Pier M; Valsecchi, Carla; Pontiggia, Silvia; Farina, Claudio; Retzios, Anastassios D

    2013-10-01

    Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a microangiopathy syndrome caused by a congenital or acquired deficiency of ADAMTS13, a plasma metalloprotease that cleaves von Willebrand factor (VWF) and thus prevents the formation of platelet-rich thrombi in the microcirculation. TTP can be fatal if not appropriately and timely treated with the infusion of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) or exchange plasmapheresis, that reverse the process of microangiopathy by removing anti-ADAMTS13 autoantibodies and replacing functional ADAMTS13. The treatment of TTP with FFP is not free from risks and must be administered in hospitals or clinics, owing to the substantial amount of plasma volume infused or exchanged and the frequent need of catheter application. Moreover, most FFPs are not subjected to treatments to remove or inactivate blood-borne infectious agents. A number of recent reports indicate that certain plasma-derived VWF-factor VIII (FVIII) concentrates are clinically effective in the treatment of congenital TTP. In this study, we measured ADAMTS13 levels in various plasma-derived VWF-FVIII concentrates, showing that Koate(®) -DVI (Grifols), contained relatively high amounts of ADAMTS13 and that Alphanate(®) (Grifols) was the closest other product in terms of protease content. Koate(®) -DVI contains, on average (five lots tested), 0.091 ± 0.007 Units of ADAMTS13 activity per IU of FVIII. On the basis of this analysis and other reports of VWF-FVIII concentrate utilization in congenital TTP, potential dosing, and future clinical developments are discussed.

  1. Resistin in dairy cows: plasma concentrations during early lactation, expression and potential role in adipose tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxime Reverchon

    Full Text Available Resistin is an adipokine that has been implicated in energy metabolism regulation in rodents but has been little studied in dairy cows. We determined plasma resistin concentrations in early lactation in dairy cows and investigated the levels of resistin mRNA and protein in adipose tissue and the phosphorylation of several components of insulin signaling pathways one week post partum (1 WPP and at five months of gestation (5 MG. We detected resistin in mature bovine adipocytes and investigated the effect of recombinant bovine resistin on lipolysis in bovine adipose tissue explants. ELISA showed that plasma resistin concentration was low before calving, subsequently increasing and reaching a peak at 1 WPP, decreasing steadily thereafter to reach pre-calving levels at 6 WPP. Plasma resistin concentration was significantly positively correlated with plasma non esterified fatty acid (NEFA levels and negatively with milk yield, dry matter intake and energy balance between WPP1 to WPP22. We showed, by quantitative RT-PCR and western blotting, that resistin mRNA and protein levels in adipose tissue were higher at WPP1 than at 5 MG. The level of phosphorylation of several early and downstream insulin signaling components (IRβ, IRS-1, IRS-2, Akt, MAPK ERK1/2, P70S6K and S6 in adipose tissue was also lower at 1 WPP than at 5 MG. Finally, we showed that recombinant bovine resistin increased the release of glycerol and mRNA levels for ATGL (adipose triglyceride lipase and HSL (hormone-sensitive lipase in adipose tissue explants. Overall, resistin levels were high in the plasma and adipose tissue and were positively correlated with NEFA levels after calving. Resistin is expressed in bovine mature adipocytes and promotes lipid mobilization in adipose explants in vitro.

  2. An Advanced Model to Precisely Estimate the Cell-Free Fetal DNA Concentration in Maternal Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huixin; Jiang, Haojun; Xie, Weiwei; Chen, Fang; Zeng, Peng; Li, Xuchao; Xie, Yifan; Liu, Hongtai; Huang, Guodong; Chen, Dayang; Liu, Ping; Jiang, Hui; Zhang, Xiuqing

    2016-01-01

    Background With the speedy development of sequencing technologies, noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) has been widely applied in clinical practice for testing for fetal aneuploidy. The cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA) concentration in maternal plasma is the most critical parameter for this technology because it affects the accuracy of NIPT-based sequencing for fetal trisomies 21, 18 and 13. Several approaches have been developed to calculate the cffDNA fraction of the total cell-free DNA in the maternal plasma. However, most approaches depend on specific single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) allele information or are restricted to male fetuses. Methods In this study, we present an innovative method to accurately deduce the concentration of the cffDNA fraction using only maternal plasma DNA. SNPs were classified into four maternal-fetal genotype combinations and three boundaries were added to capture effective SNP loci in which the mother was homozygous and the fetus was heterozygous. The median value of the concentration of the fetal DNA fraction was estimated using the effective SNPs. A depth-bias correction was performed using simulated data and corresponding regression equations for adjustments when the depth of the sequencing data was below 100-fold or the cffDNA fraction is less than 10%. Results Using our approach, the median of the relative bias was 0.4% in 18 maternal plasma samples with a median sequencing depth of 125-fold. There was a significant association (r = 0.935) between our estimations and the estimations inferred from the Y chromosome. Furthermore, this approach could precisely estimate a cffDNA fraction as low as 3%, using only maternal plasma DNA at the targeted region with a sequencing depth of 65-fold. We also used PCR instead of parallel sequencing to calculate the cffDNA fraction. There was a significant association (r = 98.2%) between our estimations and those inferred from the Y chromosome. PMID:27662469

  3. The effects of therapeutic concentrations ofamisulpride andrisperidone on human plasma lipid peroxidation – invitro studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Dietrich-Muszalska

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Antipsychotics may in different ways affect the oxidative stress measured by plasma lipid peroxidation. Probably some of them may intensify the oxidative balance disturbances occurring in schizophrenia. The effects of amisulpride and risperidone on redox processes are not known sufficiently yet. Aim of the study: Establishment of the effects of amisulpride and risperidone on human plasma lipid peroxidation measured by determination of the level of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS, in vitro. Material and methods: Blood for the studies was collected from healthy volunteers (aged 24-26 years for ACD solution. Active substances of the examined drugs were dissolved in 0.01% dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO to the final concentrations (of amisulpride 578 ng/ml and risperidone 64 ng/ml and incubated with plasma for 1 and 24 hours at 37ºC. For each experiment the control samples of plasma with DMSO (without the drug were performed. The lipid peroxidation level was measured in plasma by determining the TBARS concentration, using the spectrophotometric method (acc. to Rice-Evans, 1991. The results were analysed using the following statistical methods: the paired Student t-test and ANOVA II variance analysis and NIR test (StatSoft Inc., Statistica v. 6.0. Results: The ANOVA II variance analysis indicated significant differences in the effects of both drugs on TBARS level (F=4.26; df=2, p0.05. Conclusion: Amisulpride and risperidone in concentrations corresponding to doses recommended for treatment of acute episode of schizophrenia do not induce oxidative stress measured by lipid peroxidation. Unlike risperidone, amisulpride exhibits antioxidative effects.

  4. Technical note: Effect of determining baseline plasma urea nitrogen concentrations on subsequent posttreatment plasma urea nitrogen concentrations in 20- to 50-kilogram pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waguespack, A M; Powell, S; Roux, M L; Frugé, E D; Bidner, T D; Payne, R L; Southern, L L

    2011-12-01

    Plasma urea N (PUN) has been used as an indicator of AA requirements and efficiency of AA utilization in swine. However, PUN concentrations vary among a population of pigs, even a population with a close range of BW and fed the same diet. Thus, pretreatment or baseline PUN concentrations are used as a covariate to reduce variation of posttreatment PUN. However, this procedure increases experimental costs and stress to the pigs. Data from 14 experiments (26 to 28 d in duration) conducted using PUN as a response variable were compiled into 1 data set. Each experiment had 4 to 6 treatments. The purpose of this technical report was to summarize the effect of determining pretreatment baseline PUN concentrations on subsequent posttreatment PUN concentrations in 20- to 50-kg pigs. In all experiments, pigs were fed corn- and soybean meal-based diets and low-CP diets with various AA additions; pigs were assigned to dietary treatments in a randomized complete block design with a minimum of 4 replicates of 3 to 5 pigs each. Before the start of each experiment, all pigs were fed a common diet for a minimum of 3 d. Blood samples were collected from each pig before allotment to dietary treatments (d 0) and at the end of each experiment. The baseline (d 0) PUN was analyzed as a covariate for posttreatment PUN. Data from each experiment were analyzed without and with baseline PUN in the statistical model. In all experiments combined, there were 768 possible treatment comparisons. The covariate baseline PUN was statistically significant (P < 0.10) in 9 of 14 experiments. However, only 8 treatment differences changed statistical significance as a result of analyzing the data with baseline PUN as a covariate. These 8 treatment differences were in 3 experiments. These results indicate that it is not always necessary to determine baseline PUN concentrations when feeding diets with large differences in AA content.

  5. Plasma and erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activity, serum selenium concentration, and plasma total antioxidant capacity in cats with IRIS stages I-IV chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krofič Žel, M; Tozon, N; Nemec Svete, A

    2014-01-01

    Serum selenium concentrations and the activity of plasma glutathione peroxidase (GPx) decrease with the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in human patients. Selenium is considered a limiting factor for plasma GPx synthesis. Plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) is decreased in CKD cats in comparison to healthy cats. Serum selenium concentrations and plasma and erythrocyte GPx activity in cats with CKD are lower than in healthy cats. Serum selenium concentrations, the activity of enzymes, and plasma TAC progressively decrease with the progression of kidney disease according to IRIS (International Renal Interest Society) classification. Twenty-six client-owned cats in IRIS stages I-IV of CKD were compared with 19 client-owned healthy cats. A CBC, serum biochemical profile, urinalysis, plasma and erythrocyte GPx activity, serum selenium concentration, and plasma TAC were measured in each cat. Cats in IRIS stage IV CKD had a significantly higher (P = .025) activity of plasma GPx (23.44 ± 6.28 U/mL) than cats in the control group (17.51 ± 3.75 U/mL). There were no significant differences in erythrocyte GPx, serum selenium concentration, and plasma TAC, either among IRIS stages I-IV CKD cats or between CKD cats and healthy cats. Erythrocyte GPx activity, serum selenium concentration, and plasma TAC do not change in CKD cats compared with healthy cats. Selenium is not a limiting factor in feline CKD. Increased plasma GPx activity in cats with stage IV CKD suggests induction of antioxidant defense mechanisms. Antioxidant defense systems might not be exhausted in CKD in cats. Copyright © 2013 by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  6. [Plasma lipid concentration in smoking and nonsmoking male adults treated from alcohol addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Słodczyk, Ewa; Szołtysek-Bołdys, Izabela; Kozar-Konieczna, Aleksandra; Goniewicz, Jerzy; Ptak, Małgorzata; Olszowy, Zofia; Kośmider, Leon; Goniewicz, Maciej Łukasz; Sobczak, Andrzej

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol drinking and tobacco smoking affect plasma lipid levels and are both independent risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. Alcohol and nicotine addictions are more common among man than women in Poland. The aim of the study was to evaluate changes in plasma lipid levels after cessation of heavy drinking in smoking and nonsmoking Polish male adults. Subjects were recruited from individuals who participated in an inpatient addiction program following alcohol detoxification. We recruited 119 male adults: 48 non-smokers in age between 31 and 60 years (mean 48.7 +/- 8.8) and 71 smokers in age between 30 and 60 years (mean 46.1 +/- 7.8). Each subjects provided three blood samples: at baseline, after 3 weeks, and after 6 weeks of treatment. Plasma samples were analyzed for lipids by manual precipitation and automatic enzymatic methods. Changes in plasma lipid concentrations were analyzed using two-way analysis of variances with repeated measures with smoking status as between subjects factor and time post alcohol cessation as within-subject factors. All analyses were adjusted for age, and BMI. We found that plasma levels of HDL decreased in smoking and nonsmoking subjects by 30% and 24%, respectively (p smoking subjects, plasma levels of triglycerides and LDL increased significantly after 6 weeks post cessation of heavy drinking cessation by 17% and 16%, respectively (p = 0.001). We also found that total cholesterol levels remained high in smoking subjects, but decreased significantly by 7% (p = 0.022) in nonsmoking subjects after 6 weeks post cessation of heavy drinking. We concluded that cigarette smoking increased LDL and inhibited the decline in plasma cholesterol among subjects addicted to alcohol following cessation of heavy drinking. Alcohol addiction therapy should be complemented with smoking cessation to prevent increase in cardiovascular risk.

  7. Endothelin-1 concentration in plasma is increased after jogging but decreased after cycling in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewczuk, P; Söhnchen, N; Kele, H; Reimers, C D; Ehrenreich, H

    2003-02-01

    Endothelin-1 plays an important role as a paracrine factor in the regulation of regional blood flow. Plasma levels may represent the net result of spill-over from local stimulation/release and elimination of endothelin-1. In order to compare changes in the concentration of endothelin-1 in the plasma of subjects performing different types of sports exercises we measured immunoreactive endothelin-1 in healthy volunteers ( n=20) performing in random order jogging on a treadmill and cycling on a bicycle ergometer, for 30 min each. Plasma immunoreactive endothelin-1 increased significantly after jogging (2.13+/-0.8 pg/ml versus 2.6+/-0.8 pg/ml, before and after exercise, respectively, Pjogging than during cycling, resulting in a greater increase in plasma endothelin-1, which is too high to be immediately eliminated by the lung despite exercise-induced enhanced pulmonary perfusion. In contrast, similarly enhanced lung perfusion together with a relatively lower stimulation of endothelin-1 compared with jogging, may explain the net decrease in plasma after cycling.

  8. Comparative study of the binding of trypsin to caffeine and theophylline by spectrofluorimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ruiyong, E-mail: wangry@zzu.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); Kang, Xiaohui [Department of Chemistry, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); Wang, Ruiqiang [The First Affiliated Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052 (China); Wang, Rui; Dou, Huanjing; Wu, Jing; Song, Chuanjun [Department of Chemistry, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); Chang, Junbiao, E-mail: changjunbiao@zzu.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China)

    2013-06-15

    The interactions between trypsin and caffeine/theophylline were investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy, UV–visible absorption spectroscopy, resonance light scattering and synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy under mimic physiological conditions. The results revealed that the fluorescence quenching of trypsin by caffeine and theophylline was the result of the formed complex of caffeine–trypsin and theophylline–trypsin. The binding constants and thermodynamic parameters at three different temperatures were obtained. The hydrophobic interaction was the predominant intermolecular forces to stabilize the complex. Results showed that caffeine was the stronger quencher and bound to trypsin with higher affinity than theophylline. -- Highlights: ► The fluorescence of trypsin can be quenched by caffeine or theophylline via hydrophobic contacts. ► Caffeine binds to trypsin with higher affinity than theophylline. ► The influence of molecular structure on the binding aspects is reported.

  9. Plasma concentrations of corticosterone and buprenorphine in rats subjected to jugular vein catheterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldkuhl, Renée; Jacobsen, Kirsten Rosenmaj; Kalliokoski, Otto Henrik;

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated the postoperative plasma concentrations of corticosterone and buprenorphine in male Wistar and Sprague-Dawley rats, treated with buprenorphine administered either through subcutaneous (SC) injection or through voluntary ingestion (VI). The animals were treated...... with buprenorphine for pre-emptive analgesia prior to surgical placement of a jugular catheter, followed by automated blood sampling during 96 h. Buprenorphine was administered on a regular basis throughout the experiment, and blood was collected on selected time points. Body weight was measured before and 96 h...... after surgery. It was found that the two rat stocks responded in a similar manner to both buprenorphine treatments, with the exception of body weight change in Wistar rats, in which body weight was reduced after SC treatment. The plasma concentration of corticosterone was significantly higher in the SC...

  10. Plasma concentration of atrial natriuretic peptide in normal pregnant women and in pregnant women with preeclampsia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, A L; Schütten, G; Asping, U;

    1991-01-01

    Plasma concentration of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) was determined in pregnant women with preeclampsia, in normal pregnant and in nonpregnant women by a specific radioimmunoassay. Results did not show important differences between nonpregnant controls and normal pregnant women, but a signifi......Plasma concentration of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) was determined in pregnant women with preeclampsia, in normal pregnant and in nonpregnant women by a specific radioimmunoassay. Results did not show important differences between nonpregnant controls and normal pregnant women......, but a significant rise was seen in women with preeclampsia compared to nonpregnant controls. Marked interindividual variation was found in all three groups. The mechanism of ANP release may differ between those women with normal pregnancy and those with preeclampsia. It is unclear whether the increased level of ANP...... in preeclampsia is an effect or a cause of the disease....

  11. Plasma concentrations and clinical effects after single oral doses of prazepam, clorazepate, and diazepam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shader, R I; Pary, R J; Harmatz, J S; Allison, S; Locniskar, A; Greenblatt, D J

    1984-10-01

    In a double-blind parallel-group pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic study, 31 healthy volunteers received single oral doses of prazepam (10 mg), clorazepate (7.5 mg), or diazepam (5 mg). Appearance in plasma of diazepam and of desmethyldiazepam was rapid after administration of diazepam and clorazepate, respectively, with peak plasma concentrations reached within an average of 1 hour. After oral prazepam, however, desmethyldiazepam appeared in blood slowly, with the highest mean concentration at 6 hours postdosage. Clinical self-ratings of fatigue and of "feeling spacey" were significantly different among groups, with changes over baseline being more marked with clorazepate and diazepam than with prazepam. Thus, differences in absorption rate of orally administered benzodiazepines can lead to differences in the intensity of single-dose effects, despite administration of doses that are equivalent in terms of long-term anxiolytic efficacy.

  12. A method for estimation of plasma albumin concentration from the buffering properties of whole blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rees, Stephen Edward; Diemer, Tue; Kristensen, Søren Risom

    2012-01-01

    was diluted at 3 different levels giving 57 data sets. Calculated and measured plasma albumin concentrations were compared using correlation coefficient (r(2)), regression line, and Bland-Altman bias and limits of agreement. RESULTS: Albumin levels covered the clinically interesting range from 8.8 to 53.3 g....../L. Calculated and measured plasma albumin concentrations compared well with r(2) = 0.9, a regression line of albumin-calculated = 1.05 × albumin-measured - 2.25, a small average bias between measured and calculated values of 0.7 g/L, and Bland-Altman limits of agreement of 10 g/L. CONCLUSIONS: This new method...

  13. Effects of major depression, aging and gender upon calculated diurnal free plasma cortisol concentrations: a re-evaluation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deuschle, M; Weber, B; Colla, M; Depner, M; Heuser, I

    1998-12-01

    Depression, aging and female gender are associated with increased diurnal concentrations of total plasma cortisol. For the physical effects of hypercortisolemia, however, it is generally assumed that free rather than total plasma cortisol concentrations are of importance. Herein, we report a mathematical approach to determine free plasma cortisol concentrations on the basis of total cortisol, corticosteroid binding-globulin (CBG) and albumin plasma concentrations. This approach was used to re-evaluate two sets of data in order to estimate the effect of depression as well as the effect of aging and gender upon free plasma cortisol concentrations. Comparing male depressed patients with healthy controls, we found 24-hour free cortisol minima (MIN: 4.1 +/- 1.8 vs. 1.6 +/- 1.1 nmol/l, p MAX: 85.3 +/- 23.3 vs. 45.2 +/- 15. 8 nmol/l, p problems triggered and/or maintained by glucocorticoids (e.g. osteoporosis) are frequently seen.

  14. Effects of total gastrectomy on plasma silicon and amino acid concentrations in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatara, Marcin R; Krupski, Witold; Szpetnar, Maria; Dąbrowski, Andrzej; Bury, Paweł; Szabelska, Anna; Charuta, Anna; Boguszewska-Czubara, Anna; Maciejewski, Ryszard; Wallner, Grzegorz

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to determine one-year effects of total gastrectomy on plasma silicon and free amino acid concentrations in patients and evaluate changes of volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) in lumbar spine. Eight patients were enrolled to the control (CTR) group. Six patients subjected to total gastrectomy (GX group) were included to the experimental group. vBMD in trabecular and cortical bone was measured in lumbar vertebrae at baseline (before surgery) and one year later using quantitative computed tomography. Plasma concentrations of silicon and free amino acids were determined at baseline and one year later using photometric method and ion-exchange chromatography. Body weights within CTR and GX groups were not different after one-year follow-up when compared to the baseline values (P > 0.05). An average annual decrease of vBMD in the trabecular bone in the gastrectomized patients reached 15.0% in lumbar spine and was significantly different in comparison to the percentage changes observed in CTR group (P = 0.02). One-year percentage change of vBMD in the cortical bone in L1 and L2 has shown significantly decreased values by 10.5 and 9.1% in the GX group when compared to the percentage change observed in the controls (P silicon was significantly lowered by 26.7% one year after the total gastrectomy when compared to the baseline value (P = 0.009). Total gastrectomy in patients has induced severe osteoporotic changes in lumbar spine within one-year period. The observed osteoporotic changes were associated with decreased plasma concentration of silicon indicating importance of exocrine and endocrine functions of stomach for silicon homeostasis maintenance. Gastrectomy-induced bone loss was not related to decreased amino acid concentration in plasma obtained from overnight fasted patients.

  15. Plasma Drug Concentrations of Orally Administered Rosuvastatin in Hispaniolan Amazon Parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaufrère, Hugues; Papich, Mark G; Brandão, João; Nevarez, Javier; Tully, Thomas N

    2015-03-01

    Atherosclerotic diseases are common in pet psittacine birds, in particular Amazon parrots. While hypercholesterolemia and dyslipidemia have not definitely been associated with increased susceptibility to atherosclerosis in parrots, these are important and well-known risk factors in humans. Therefore statin drugs such as rosuvastatin constitute the mainstay of human treatment of dyslipidemia and the prevention of atherosclerosis. No pharmacologic studies have been performed in psittacine birds despite the high prevalence of atherosclerosis in captivity. Thirteen Hispaniolan Amazon parrots were used to test a single oral dose of 10 mg/kg of rosuvastatin with blood sampling performed according to a balanced incomplete block design over 36 hours. Because low plasma concentrations were produced in the first study, a subsequent pilot study using a dose of 25 mg/kg in 2 Amazon parrots was performed. Most plasma samples for the 10 mg/kg dose and all samples for the 25 mg/kg dose had rosuvastatin concentration below the limits of quantitation. For the 10 mg/kg study, the median peak plasma concentration and time to peak plasma concentration were 0.032 μg/mL and 2 hours, respectively. Our results indicate that rosuvastatin does not appear suitable in Amazon parrots as compounded and used at the dose in this study. Pharmacodynamic studies investigating lipid-lowering effects of statins rather than pharmacokinetic studies may be more practical and cost effective in future studies to screen for a statin with more ideal properties for potential use in psittacine dyslipidemia and atherosclerotic diseases.

  16. Enantiospecific ketoprofen concentrations in plasma after oral and intramuscular administration in growing pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Mustonen Katja; Niemi Anneli; Raekallio Marja; Heinonen Mari; Peltoniemi Olli AT; Palviainen Mari; Siven Mia; Peltoniemi Marikki; Vainio Outi

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Ketoprofen is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug which has been widely used for domestic animals. Orally administered racemic ketoprofen has been reported to be absorbed well in pigs, and bioavailability was almost complete. The objectives of this study were to analyze R- and S-ketoprofen concentrations in plasma after oral (PO) and intra muscular (IM) routes of administration, and to assess the relative bioavailability of racemic ketoprofen for both enantiomers betwee...

  17. Relationship between brain serotonin transporter binding, plasma concentration and behavioural effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to characterise the relationship between in vivo brain serotonin transporter (SERT) binding, plasma concentration and pharmacological effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in mice. Oral administration of fluvoxamine, fluoxetine, paroxetine and sertraline at pharmacologically relevant doses exerted dose- and time-dependent binding activity of brain SERT as revealed by significant increases in KD for specific [3H]paroxetine binding, and the i...

  18. High Variability of Plasma Drug Concentrations in Dual Protease Inhibitor Regimens

    OpenAIRE

    Guiard-Schmid, Jean-Baptiste; Poirier, Jean-Marie; Meynard, Jean-Luc; Bonnard, Philippe; Gbadoe, Ayi Hola; Amiel, Corinne; Calligaris, Frédérique; Abraham, Bruno; Pialoux, Gilles; Girard, Pierre-Marie; Jaillon, Patrice; Rozenbaum, Willy

    2003-01-01

    Ritonavir (RTV) strongly increases the concentrations of protease inhibitors (PIs) in plasma in patients given a combination of RTV and another PI. This pharmacological interaction is complex and poorly characterized and shows marked inter- and intraindividual variations. In addition, RTV interacts differently with saquinavir (SQV), indinavir (IDV), amprenavir (APV), and lopinavir (LPV). In this retrospective study on 542 human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients, we compared inter- and ...

  19. Comparison of Australian Recommended Food Score (ARFS) and Plasma Carotenoid Concentrations: A Validation Study in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, Lee; Williams, Rebecca; Rollo, Megan; Pezdirc, Kristine; Collins, Clare

    2017-01-01

    Diet quality indices can predict nutritional adequacy of usual intake, but validity should be determined. The aim was to assess the validity of total and sub-scale score within the Australian Recommended Food Score (ARFS), in relation to fasting plasma carotenoid concentrations. Diet quality and fasting plasma carotenoid concentrations were assessed in 99 overweight and obese adults (49.5% female, aged 44.6 ± 9.9 years) at baseline and after three months (198 paired observations). Associations were assessed using Spearman’s correlation coefficients and regression analysis, and agreement using weighted kappa (Kw). Small, significantly positive correlations were found between total ARFS and plasma concentrations of total carotenoids (r = 0.17, p < 0.05), β-cryptoxanthin (r = 0.18, p < 0.05), β-carotene (r = 0.20, p < 0.01), and α-carotene (r = 0.19, p < 0.01). Significant agreement between ARFS categories and plasma carotenoid concentrations was found for total carotenoids (Kw 0.12, p = 0.02), β-carotene (Kw 0.14, p < 0.01), and α-carotene (Kw 0.13, p < 0.01). In fully-adjusted regression models the only signification association with ARFS total score was for α-carotene (β = 0.19, p < 0.01), while ARFS meat and fruit sub-scales demonstrated significant relationships with α-carotene, β-carotene, and total carotenoids (p < 0.05). The weak associations highlight the issues with self-reporting dietary intakes in overweight and obese populations. Further research is required to evaluate the use of the ARFS in more diverse populations. PMID:28817083

  20. Evidence that plasma concentration rather than dose per kilogram body weight predicts ribavirin-induced anaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, K; Schvarcz, R; Bruchfeld, A; Ståhle, L

    2004-01-01

    Ribavirin in combination with interferon alpha-2 or pegylated interferon is the standard treatment for chronic hepatitis C. The current dosage recommendations for ribavirin are based on body weight (bw). Ribavirin is mainly eliminated by the kidneys and we have recently shown that ribavirin plasma concentrations are determined primarily by renal function. It is therefore reasonable to hypothesize that side-effects of ribavirin, i.e. anaemia, should be more closely related to plasma concentrations of ribavirin than to the dose per kg bw. A total of 108 consecutive patients eligible for treatment of chronic hepatitis C were studied. Ribavirin concentrations in plasma were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-UV after solid-phase extraction in trough samples taken 4, 8 and 12 weeks after the treatment commenced. A total of 213 samples were obtained and the change in the haemoglobin level and the creatinine concentration was measured in addition to ribavirin. The dose of ribavirin per kg bw did not correlate with the drop in haemoglobin level induced by ribavirin. The concentration of ribavirin was non-linearly related to the drop in the haemoglobin level as revealed by fitting a standard Hill equation type dose-response curve. The half maximal drop in haemoglobin was obtained at 4.4 microm. The results from this study suggest that the anaemia induced by ribavirin depends primarily on the concentration of ribavirin, and not on the dose per kg bw. This lends further support to the idea that ribavirin should be dosed according to renal function.

  1. The relation between plasma tyrosine concentration and fatigue in primary biliary cirrhosis and primary sclerosing cholangitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vrolijk Jan

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC fatigue is a major clinical problem. Abnormal amino acid (AA patterns have been implicated in the development of fatigue in several non-hepatological conditions but for PBC and PSC no data are available. This study aimed to identify abnormalities in AA patterns and to define their relation with fatigue. Methods Plasma concentrations of tyrosine, tryptophan, phenylalanine, valine, leucine and isoleucine were determined in plasma of patients with PBC (n = 45, PSC (n = 27, chronic hepatitis C (n = 22 and healthy controls (n = 73. Fatigue and quality of life were quantified using the Fisk fatigue severity scale, a visual analogue scale and the SF-36. Results Valine, isoleucine, leucine were significantly decreased in PBC and PSC. Tyrosine and phenylalanine were increased (p Conclusion In patients with PBC and PSC, marked abnormalities in plasma AA patterns occur. Normal tyrosine concentrations, compared to increased concentrations, may be associated with fatigue and diminished quality of life.

  2. High plasma concentrations of asymmetric dimethylarginine inhibit ischemic cardioprotection in hypercholesterolemic rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landim, M.B.P.; Dourado, P.M.M.; Casella-Filho, A.; Chagas, A.C.P.; Luz, P.L. da [Unidade de Aterosclerose, Instituto do Coração, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-05-10

    A low concentration of nitric oxide associated with a high concentration of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) can explain the lack of ischemic cardioprotection observed in the presence of hypercholesterolemia. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of hypercholesterolemia on ischemic pre- and postconditioning and its correlation with plasma concentrations of ADMA. Male Wistar rats (6-8 weeks old) fed a 2% cholesterol diet (n = 21) for 8 weeks were compared to controls (n = 25) and were subjected to experimental myocardial infarction and reperfusion, with ischemic pre- and postconditioning. Total cholesterol and ADMA were measured in plasma before the experimental infarct and the infarct area was quantified. Weight, total cholesterol and plasma ADMA (means ± SE; 1.20 ± 0.06, 1.27 ± 0.08 and 1.20 ± 0.08 vs 0.97 ± 0.04, 0.93 ± 0.05 and 0.97 ± 0.04 µM) were higher in animals on the hypercholesterolemic diet than in controls, respectively. Cardioprotection did not reduce infarct size in the hypercholesterolemic animals (pre: 13.55% and post: 8% compared to 7.95% observed in the group subjected only to ischemia and reperfusion), whereas infarct size was reduced in the animals on a normocholesterolemic diet (pre: 8.25% and post: 6.10% compared to 12.31%). Hypercholesterolemia elevated ADMA and eliminated the cardioprotective effects of ischemic pre- and postconditioning in rats.

  3. Posaconazole plasma concentrations in pediatric patients receiving antifungal prophylaxis during neutropenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döring, Michaela; Cabanillas Stanchi, Karin Melanie; Klinker, Hartwig; Eikemeier, Melinda; Feucht, Judith; Blaeschke, Franziska; Schwarze, Carl-Philipp; Ebinger, Martin; Feuchtinger, Tobias; Handgretinger, Rupert; Heinz, Werner J

    2016-10-04

    Invasive fungal infections are one of the major complications in pediatric patients during prolonged neutropenia after chemotherapy. Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of the triazole posaconazole in these patients is missing. This multicenter survey analyzed trough concentrations of 33 pediatric patients with a median age of 8 years during 108 neutropenic episodes who received prophylactic posaconazole oral suspension. A total of 172 posaconazole trough levels were determined to median 438 ng/ml (range 111-2011 ng/ml; mean 468 ± 244 ng/ml). Age and gender had no influence on posaconazole plasma levels. Posaconazole was not discontinued due to adverse events in any of the patients. Only hepatic parameters significantly increased beyond the upper normal limit to median values of ALT of 87 U/l (P posaconazole trough concentration of 306 ng/ml experienced an invasive fungal infection. In conclusion, posaconazole was effective, safe and feasible in 33 pediatric patients with neutropenia ≥5 days after chemotherapy. Median posaconazole plasma concentrations were approximately 1.6-fold lower than the recommended plasma level of 700 ng/ml. Larger patient cohorts are needed to evaluate these findings.

  4. Decreased dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) concentrations in plasma of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldred, Sarah; Mecocci, Patrizia

    2010-01-01

    DHEA is secreted by the adrenal cortex and is also a neurosteroid. Its sulfate (DHEAS) is the most abundant steroid in circulation. The levels of both are seen to decline in concentration with age. Evidence is available for altered levels of DHEA and DHEAS in AD but is limited to relatively few studies assessing small cohorts. This study assessed plasma DHEA and DHEAS levels in AD sufferers (n=72) and compared them to age-matched controls (n=72). Plasma DHEA concentrations were significantly lower in AD patients compared to control (4.24+/-0.4 ng/ml for AD; 3.38+/-0.3 ng/ml for control, p=0.027, Mann-Whitney 1-tailed) and DHEA levels were significantly correlated to DHEAS levels in both control and AD conditions (Spearman's rho correlation coefficient=0.635 in controls and 0.467 in AD, pDHEA and DHEAS concentrations in plasma from a large cohort of patients suffering from AD when compared to age-matched controls. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Plasma ATP concentration and venous oxygen content in the forearm during dynamic handgrip exercise

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    Askew Christopher D

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been proposed that adenosine triphosphate (ATP released from red blood cells (RBCs may contribute to the tight coupling between blood flow and oxygen demand in contracting skeletal muscle. To determine whether ATP may contribute to the vasodilatory response to exercise in the forearm, we measured arterialised and venous plasma ATP concentration and venous oxygen content in 10 healthy young males at rest, and at 30 and 180 seconds during dynamic handgrip exercise at 45% of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC. Results Venous plasma ATP concentration was elevated above rest after 30 seconds of exercise (P Conclusions Collectively these results indicate that ATP in the plasma originated from the muscle microcirculation, and are consistent with the notion that deoxygenation of the blood perfusing the muscle acts as a stimulus for ATP release. That ATP concentration was elevated just 30 seconds after the onset of exercise also suggests that ATP may be a contributing factor to the blood flow response in the transition from rest to steady state exercise.

  6. Oral vitamin B12 supplementation reduces plasma total homocysteine concentration in women in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yajnik, Chittaranjan S; Lubree, Himangi G; Thuse, Nileema V; Ramdas, Lalita V; Deshpande, Swapna S; Deshpande, Vaishali U; Deshpande, Jyoti A; Uradey, Bhagyashree S; Ganpule, Anjali A; Naik, Sadanand S; Joshi, Niranjan P; Farrant, Hannah; Refsum, Helga

    2007-01-01

    People in India have a high prevalence of low vitamin B12 status and high plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations. In a proof of principle trial, we studied the effect of oral vitamin B12 (500 microg) and/or 100 g cooked green leafy vegetables (GLV) every alternate day in a 2x2 factorial design over a 6-week period. Forty-two non-pregnant vegetarian women (age 20-50 years) were randomly allocated to four study groups. Clinical measurements were made at the beginning and at the end of the study, and blood samples were collected before, and 2 and 6 weeks after commencement of intervention. Forty women completed the trial. Twenty-six women had low vitamin B12 status (15 micromol/L). GLV supplementation did not alter plasma folate or tHcy. Vitamin B12 supplementation increased plasma vitamin B12 concentration (125 to 215 pmol/L, p homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations.

  7. Aging effect on plasma metabolites and hormones concentrations in riding horses

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    K. Kawasumi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Age effects on plasma metabolites, hormone concentrations, and enzyme activities related to energy metabolism were investigated in 20 riding horses. Animals were divided into two groups: Young (3-8 years and aged (11-18 years. They were clinically healthy, and not obese. Plasma adiponectin (ADN concentrations in aged horses were significantly lower than those in young horses (mean±SE, 6.5±1.3 μg mL-1 vs, 10.9±1.7 μg mL-1, Mann-Whitney U test, respectively; P=0.0233. Plasma non-esterified fatty acid levels and Insulin and malondialdehyde concentrations in aged group tended to increase compared to those in young group although there were not significant differences statistically. In aged group, malate dehydrogenase/lactate dehydrogenase (M/L ratio, which is considered an energy metabolic indicator, did not change significantly compared to that in young group. Present data suggest that aging may negatively affect nutrition metabolism, but not induce remarkable changes in M/L ratio in riding horses.

  8. Cheese intake lowers plasma cholesterol concentrations without increasing bile acid excretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjerpsted, Julie Bousgaard; Dragsted, Lars Ove; Tholstrup, Tine

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Cheese is a dairy product with high calcium content. It has been suggested that calcium intake may increase fecal excretion of bile acids that would cause a regeneration of bile acids from hepatic cholesterol and thereby result in a lowering of plasma cholesterol concentrations. We aimed...... with 13% energy from cheese or butter. Results After 6 weeks of intervention cheese resulted in higher amounts of calcium excreted in feces compared to butter. However, no difference was observed in fecal bile acid output despite lower serum total, LDL and HDL cholesterol concentrations observed...

  9. Use of Bosentan, Theophylline and Vardenafil in Treatment of Priapism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihsan Unus

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the early therapeutic alternatives such as Bosentan an Endothelin receptor blocker, The­ophylline and Adenosin receptor blocker and Vardenafil a non-selective Phosphodiesterase 5 enzyme inhibitor for the therapy of ischemic priapism in the rat models. Methods: Twenty-four Sprague-Dawley rats were ran­domly divided into 4 equal groups. Control group, Var­denafil group, Bosentan group and Theophylline group. Erection was provided by vacuum constriction method and it was maintained for 4 hours for achieving the pria­pism in all groups. Then, Six rats from each group were sacrificed by cervical dislocation. Consequently, cavern­ous tissue samples were collected and placed in the tis­sue bath. Tissue samples were prepared as 0.5-0.2 cm. strips and put into heat jacketed double walled organ bath containing 37°C krebs solution which is constantly bubbled with 95% O2 and 5 % CO2 and mounted at a resting tension of 1000 mg. After taking the 1 hour record of the three groups except the control group, Bosentan, Theophylline and Vardenafil were admitted in increasing doses. Consequently the alterations of the contractions in the strips due to the drugs and their increasing doses are observed. Results: In this study we detected that Bosentan in­creased the frequency and amplitude of the contractions of the cavernous tissue in the Priapism status in a sta­tistically significant manner, Theophylline decreased the frequency and the amplitude significantly and Vardenafil had statistically no effect on the frequency and amplitude. Conclusion: Inhibition of priapism induced apoptosis with Bosentan, seems promising on preserving erectile function.

  10. Increased fasting plasma acylation-stimulating protein concentrations in nephrotic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozata, Metin; Oktenli, Cagatay; Gulec, Mustafa; Ozgurtas, Taner; Bulucu, Fatih; Caglar, Kayser; Bingol, Necati; Vural, Abdulgaffar; Ozdemir, I Caglayan

    2002-02-01

    Acylation-stimulating protein (ASP) is an adipocyte-derived protein that has recently been suggested to play an important role in the regulation of lipoprotein metabolism and triglyceride (TG) storage. ASP also appears to have a role in the regulation of energy balance. In addition to its role as a hormonal regulator of body weight and energy expenditure, leptin is now implicated as a regulatory molecule in lipid metabolism. However, little is known about the alterations in fasting plasma ASP and leptin concentrations in the nephrotic syndrome. As hyperlipidemia is one of the most striking manifestations of the nephrotic syndrome, we have investigated fasting plasma ASP and leptin levels and their relation to lipid levels in this syndrome. Twenty-five patients with untreated nephrotic syndrome and 25 age-, sex-, and body mass index-matched healthy controls were included in the study. Fasting plasma lipoproteins, TG, total cholesterol, lipoprotein(a), apolipoprotein AI (apoAI), apoB, urinary protein, plasma albumin, third component of complement (C3), ASP, and leptin levels were measured in both groups. Total cholesterol, TG, low and very low density lipoproteins, lipoprotein(a), apoB, and urinary protein levels were increased in the patient group, whereas plasma albumin, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and apoAI levels were decreased compared with those in the control group (P Fasting ASP concentrations showed no correlation with body mass index, proteinuria, plasma albumin, leptin, or any lipid parameter in either group, but C3 levels (in patient group: r(s) = 0.92; P < 0.001; in control group: r(s) = 0.68; P < 0.001). Our findings showed that plasma ASP levels were significantly elevated, whereas leptin levels were normal in the nephrotic syndrome. Increased ASP levels in the setting of dyslipidemia in the nephrotic syndrome raise the possibility of an ASP receptor defect in adipocytes, which also suggests the existence of so-called ASP resistance. Moreover

  11. Estimation of electron concentration in plasma and plasma frequency in the vicinity of a hypersonic aircraft that moves in atmosphere and analysis of propagation frequencies of electromagnetic waves in such plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, V. A.

    2016-05-01

    Electron concentration in plasma and plasma frequency are estimated for the plasma that is formed in the vicinity of a hypersonic aircraft that moves in atmosphere. The frequencies of electromagnetic waves that may propagate in plasma emerging in the vicinity of the aircraft are determined. Formulas that make it possible to analytically (rather than graphically) calculate electron concentration in plasma at altitudes of 30, 60, and 90 km are derived for two speeds. Several specific features of variations in the electron concentration in plasma depending on the above altitudes and speeds are presented. Quasi-periodic variations in the plasma concentration can be obtained using an increase and decrease in the speed of aircraft.

  12. Evaluation of cobalt, chromium, and nickel concentrations in plasma and blood of patients with removable partial dentures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denizoğlu, Saip; Duymuş, Zeynep Yeşil

    2006-06-01

    This study assessed the plasma and blood concentrations of Cr, Co, and Ni among subjects using removable partial dentures. A comparison was made between subjects with and without RPD treatment history. Control group consisted of 10 healthy individuals without dentures. Concentrations of Cr, Co, and Ni in subjects' plasma and blood were measured with an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Data were statistically analyzed by ANOVA, and multiple comparison test (alpha = 0.05) was used to identify significant differences between groups. RPD use had a significant effect on the concentrations of Cr (P partial dentures with metal frameworks led to an increase in the concentrations of Cr and Ni in both blood and plasma.

  13. The relationship between the daily dose, the plasma concentration of blonanserin, and its plasma anti-dopamine D2 and anti-serotonin 5-HT2A activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hidenobu; Gen, Keishi

    2010-01-01

    Blonanserin (BNS) possesses anti-serotonin 5-HT(2A) activity in addition to anti-dopamine D(2) activity, which is characteristic of second-generation antipsychotics, little information is available on its pharmacologic profile in vivo. We investigated the BNS daily dose, plasma concentration, plasma anti-D(2) activity, and plasma anti-5-HT(2A) activity in schizophrenia in a total of 14 subjects. Blood samples were taken 14 days after the BNS dose was fixed, and the plasma concentration was measured by means of high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method. In addition, the plasma anti-D(2) activity and anti-5-HT(2A) activity were measured by means of radioreceptor assays in which [(3)H]-spiperone and [(3)H]-ketanserin were used. The results revealed a statistically significant correlation between the daily dose and the plasma concentration (p = 0.04). Statistically significant correlations were also observed between the plasma concentration and the anti-D(2) activity and between the plasma concentration and the anti-5-HT(2A) activity (p = 0.003 and 0.04). It is therefore believed that both the anti-D(2) activity in plasma and the anti-5-HT(2A) activity in plasma are regulated almost solely by the unchanged principal. Moreover, the mean plasma serotonin/dopamine (S/D) ratio was 0.9 and BNS exhibited both anti-D(2) activity and also anti-5-HT(2A) activity in vivo, as well, so it was clear that the in vitro pharmacological profile was retained in vivo.

  14. Effect of Addition of Concentrated Proteins and Seminal Plasma Low Molecular Weight Proteins in Freezing and Thawing of Equine Semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Fagundes

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Difficulties in obtaining equine frozen semen with potential fertility are recognized. This study was designed to investigate the effect of seminal plasma on frozen/thawing of eight stallion semen from different breed using the following treatments: Seminal plasma with ten-fold concentrated proteins with molecular weight above 10 kDa on frozen extender; Part of seminal plasma with proteins under 10 kDa on frozen extender; Conventional freezing, using whole seminal plasma on frozen extender. Using the parameter of 30% of seminal motility post-thawing as index of good freezability, it was verified an increased percentage of stallions that presented good freezability when semen was frozen with seminal plasma containing ten-fold concentrated proteins with molecular weight above 10 kDa on frozen extender. These results, suggested the use of seminal plasma concentrated proteins from own stallion to freezing/thawing semen.

  15. Effect of seminal plasma and egg yolk concentration on freezability of goat semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria da Silva Ferreira

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of egg yolk and seminal plasma on the viability of cryopreserved goat semen. To this end, four fertile Saanen bucks, aged between 10 months and 1 year, and weighing 18 to 25 kg, were used. Semen was collected from each buck by the artificial vagina method at the end of breeding season (June-July. The extender used was the yolk citrate, which was split into two equal aliquots: 5% egg yolk (2.5 mL egg yolk: 47.5 mL citrate solution were added to one of the samples and 10% egg yolk (5.0 mL egg yolk: 45.0 mL citrate solution were added to another. The sperm motility and vigor after thawing and post thermal resistance test (TRT were evaluated and the data were subjected to analysis of variance and means were compared by the F test at 5.0% probability. The observed values for motility and vigor after thawing and post thermal resistance test (TRT, fast and slow, according to the presence of seminal plasma and egg yolk percentage were: 5% egg yolk with plasma (25.0% and 3.3; 1.60% and 0.7; 12.36% and 1.6, respectively; 5% egg yolk without plasma (23.61% and 3.1; 1.25% and 0.2; 9.93% and 1.3, respectively; 10% egg yolk with plasma (30.8% and 3.3; 4.4% and 1.9; 19.5% and 2.7, respectively; and 10% egg yolk without plasma (13.4% and 2.5; 4.1% and 0.5; 17.0% and 1.0, respectively. There were significant differences between the analyzed data in relation to semen with or without plasma at different percentages of egg yolk, and the group that presented the best results was 10% egg yolk citrate in extender with plasma. The presence of seminal plasma and higher concentration of egg yolk in extender provide a higher viability of cryopreserved goat semen.

  16. Plasma concentrations resulting from florfenicol preparations given to pigs in their drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, L; Vargas, D; Ocampo, L; Sumano, H; Martinez, R; Tapia, G

    2011-09-01

    Florfenicol administered through the drinking water has been recommended as a metaphylactic antibacterial drug to control outbreaks of respiratory diseases in pigs caused by strains of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Pasteurella multocida, yet it is difficult to pinpoint in practice when the drug is given metaphylactically or therapeutically. Further, pigs are likely to reject florfenicol-medicated water, and plasma concentrations of the drug are likely to be marginal for diseases caused by Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus aureus. The reported minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values for these organisms show a breakpoint of 2 to 3 μg/mL. An experiment was conducted during September and October 2009. One hundred twenty healthy crossbred pigs (Landrace-Yorkshire), weighing 23 ± 6.2 kg, were used in this trial. They were randomly assigned to 5 groups, with 3 replicates of 8 animals/group. Two commercial preparations of florfenicol were administered through the drinking water at 2 concentrations (0.01 and 0.015%). Water intake was measured before and after medication, and plasma concentrations of florfenicol were determined by HPLC. Considerable rejection of florfenicol-medicated water was observed. However, plasma florfenicol concentrations were of a range sufficient for a methaphylaxis approach to preventing disease by bacteria, with MIC breakpoints of ≤ 0.25 μg/mL. Decreased efficacy as a metaphylactic medication should be expected for bacteria with MIC >0.25 μg/mL, considering the reported existence of bacteria resistant to florfenicol and the natural resistance of Streptococcus suis or E. coli to this drug.

  17. Arginines Plasma Concentration and Oxidative Stress in Mild to Moderate COPD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinellu, Angelo; Fois, Alessandro Giuseppe; Sotgia, Salvatore; Sotgiu, Elisabetta; Zinellu, Elisabetta; Bifulco, Fabiana; Mangoni, Arduino A; Pirina, Pietro; Carru, Ciriaco

    2016-01-01

    Background Elevated plasma concentrations of the endogenous nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) have been observed in respiratory conditions such as asthma and cystic fibrosis. Since oxidative stress has been shown to increase the activity of arginine methylating enzymes, hence increased ADMA synthesis, and to reduce ADMA degrading enzymes, hence increased ADMA concentrations, we assessed methylated arginines concentrations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a disease characterized by increased oxidative stress. Methods Plasma arginine, ADMA and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA), oxidative stress markers (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, TBARS, and plasma proteins SH, PSH) and antioxidants (taurine and paraoxonase 1, PON1, activity) were measured in 43 COPD patients with mild (n = 29) or moderate (n = 14) disease and 43 age- and sex-matched controls. Results TBARS significantly increased with COPD presence and severity (median 2.93 vs 3.18 vs 3.64 μmol/L, respectively in controls, mild and moderate group, p<0.0001 by ANOVA) whereas PSH decreased (6.69±1.15 vs 6.04±0.85 vs 5.33±0.96 μmol/gr prot, p<0.0001 by ANOVA). Increased ADMA/arginine ratio, primarily due to reduced arginine concentrations, was also observed with COPD presence and severity (median 0.0067 vs 0.0075 vs 0.0100, p<0.0001 by ANOVA). In multiple logistic regression analysis, only TBARS (OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.25–0.77; p = 0.0045) and ADMA/Arginine ratio (OR 1.72, 95% CI 2.27–13.05; p = 0.02) were independently associated with COPD severity. Conclusion COPD presence and severity are associated with increased oxidative stress and alterations in arginine metabolism. The reduced arginine concentrations in COPD may offer a new target for therapeutic interventions increasing arginine availability. PMID:27479314

  18. Plasma uric acid concentrations and risk of ischaemic stroke in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, M C; Curhan, G C; Choi, H K; Forman, J P; Rexrode, K M

    2016-07-01

    Elevated plasma uric acid has been inconsistently associated with an increased risk of total stroke; however, data are sparse amongst women. The association between plasma uric acid concentrations and ischaemic stroke amongst women was examined and the effect modification by key cardiovascular risk factors was evaluated. A nested case-control design with matching by age, race/ethnicity, smoking status, menopausal status, postmenopausal hormone therapy use, date of blood draw and fasting status was utilized amongst female participants of the Nurses' Health Study who provided blood samples between 1989 and 1990. Plasma uric acid was measured on stored blood samples. The National Survey of Stroke criteria were utilized to confirm 460 incident cases of ischaemic stroke by medical records from 1990 to 2006. Multivariable conditional logistic regression models were estimated. In matched analysis, risk of ischaemic stroke increased by 15% for each 1 mg/dl increase in plasma uric acid [95% confidence interval (CI) 3%-28%], but was no longer significant after adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors, particularly history of hypertension. The highest quartile of uric acid was significantly associated with greater risk of ischaemic stroke (relative risk 1.56; 95% CI 1.06-2.29, extreme quartiles) in matched analysis, but estimates were no longer significant after adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors (relative risk 1.43; 95% CI 0.93-2.18). Significant effect modification by key cardiovascular risk factors was not observed. Plasma uric acid levels were not independently associated with increased risk of ischaemic stroke in this cohort of women. Whilst plasma uric acid was associated with stroke risk factors, it was not independently associated with stroke risk. © 2016 EAN.

  19. Cytokine Concentrations in Plasma from Children with Severe and Non-Severe Community Acquired Pneumonia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanne Haugen

    Full Text Available Children in low and middle-income countries have a high burden of pneumonia. Measuring the cytokine responses may be useful to identify novel markers for diagnosing, monitoring, and treating pneumonia.To describe and compare a wide range of inflammatory mediators in plasma from children with WHO-defined severe and non-severe community acquired pneumonia (CAP, and explore to what extent certain mediators are associated with severity and viral detection.We collected blood samples from 430 children with severe (n = 43 and non-severe (n = 387 CAP. Plasma from these children were analysed for 27 different cytokines, and we measured the association with age, disease severity and viral detection.There were generally higher plasma concentrations of several cytokines with both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory effects among children with severe CAP than in children with non-severe CAP. We found significantly higher concentrations of interleukin (IL-1, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-9, IL-15, eotaxin, basic fibroblast growth factor (b-FGF, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α in the group of severe CAP. Most of these associations persisted when adjusting for age in linear regression analyses. The cytokine response was strongly associated with age but to a lesser extent with viral etiology.The plasma concentrations of several cytokines, both with pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory effects, were higher among children with severe illness. In particular G-CSF and IL-6 reflected severity and might provide complementary information on the severity of the infection.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00148733.

  20. The effect of exercise intensity on plasma and tissue acyl ghrelin concentrations in fasted rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathi, Rozita; Ghanbari-Niaki, Abbass; Kraemer, Robert R; Talebi-Garakani, Elahe; Saghebjoo, Marziyeh

    2010-12-10

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of exercise training and feeding status on plasma and tissue acyl ghrelin concentrations. Thirty-two, eight-week-old male Wistar rats (185±5g) were randomly assigned to one of four groups: high intensity (HI: 34 m/min ~80-85% VO(2)max), moderate intensity (MI: 28 m/min ~70-75% VO(2)max), low intensity (LI: 20 m/min ~50-55% VO(2)max), and sedentary control (SED) groups. All experimental groups performed a 12-week exercise program consisting of treadmill running on a 0° slope for 1 h/day, 5 days/week at their respective training intensity. Twenty four hours following the last training session the animals completed a 12h fast. Rats were then killed, blood was collected and plasma separated; the fundus and soleus muscle were excised and frozen in liquid nitrogen for later analysis. Fasting levels of circulating acyl ghrelin and acyl ghrelin content in the soleus muscle and fundus, as well as glycogen in the soleus muscle were measured. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA. Results demonstrated that 12 weeks of exercise training combined with a 12h fast significantly increased plasma as well as soleus muscle concentrations of acyl ghrelin in the HI and MI groups (pghrelin concentrations in the fundus (pexercise training enhances fasting plasma acyl ghrelin in an intensity-dependent manner which is accompanied by a significant increase in soleus muscle and reduction in fundus acyl ghrelin levels. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The influence of epidural analgesia on platelet function and correlation with plasma bupivacaine concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odoom, J A; Dokter, P W; Sturk, A; Ten Cate, J W; Sih, I L; Bovill, J G

    1988-09-01

    The effect of epidural anaesthesia with bupivacaine 0.5% on platelet aggregation was studied in seven patients undergoing transurethral resection of the prostate. Peak plasma concentrations of bupivacaine 470 +/- 270 ng ml-1 occurred at 30 min after administration. At that time there were no significant changes in platelet aggregation. However, the maximum rate of the primary- and secondary-aggregation velocities induced by 1.0 microM ADP were significantly decreased at 1 h and 3 h after bupivacaine administration. The maximum percentage ADP-induced platelet aggregation was also decreased significantly at 1 h and 3 h. The minimum concentration of ADP required to induce secondary-phase platelet aggregation was significantly increased at 1 h but not at 3 h. There was a significant correlation between bupivacaine concentrations and all platelet aggregation parameters except the maximum ADP-induced aggregation. Platelet inhibition occurred at plasma bupivacaine concentrations that were considerably lower than those needed to produce similar inhibition in vitro.

  2. Plasma lactate concentration increases as a parabola with delay during ramp exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péronnet, F; Morton, R H

    1994-01-01

    This study presents an elementary model of a system which relates plasma lactate concentration ([La-]) during ramp exercise to its rate of accumulation (Rc) within its extramuscular distribution space (S). Under the parsimonious assumptions that Rc increases linearly with time (t) with a kinetic delay (delta), and that the volume of S is constant, it is shown that plasma [La-] increases as a parabola with the kinetic delay delta when t increases. This elementary system model describes changes in plasma [La-] observed in five healthy young subjects during ramp exercise on the cycle ergometer (1 W every 2 s) with great accuracy (r > 0.99) with very small residuals (average value less than 0.01 mmol.l-1), randomly distributed around the fitting curves. The delay between the beginning of exercise and the onset of increase in Rc could be due to the fact that at the corresponding work rates: (1) rate of lactate appearance (Ra), which is equal to the rate of lactate disappearance (Rd), is not modified from rest, since the exercising muscles work in fully aerobic conditions (hypothesis of the anaerobic threshold); or (2) the increase in Ra is associated with a similar increase in Rd. An alternate or complementary hypothesis is that, during ramp exercise, plasma [La-] could reflect metabolic events within the muscles, with a significant delay.

  3. Impurity identifications, concentrations and particle fluxes from spectral measurements of the EXTRAP T2R plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menmuir, S.; Kuldkepp, M.; Rachlew, E.

    2006-10-01

    An absolute intensity calibrated 0.5 m spectrometer with optical multi-channel analyser detector was used to observe the visible-UV radiation from the plasma in the EXTRAP T2R reversed field pinch experiment. Spectral lines were identified indicating the presence of oxygen, chromium, iron and molybdenum impurities in the hydrogen plasma. Certain regions of interest were examined in more detail and at different times in the plasma discharge. Impurity concentration calculations were made using the absolute intensities of lines of OIV and OV measured at 1-2 ms into the discharge generating estimates of the order of 0.2% of ne in the central region rising to 0.7% of ne at greater radii for OIV and 0.3% rising to 0.6% for OV. Edge electron temperatures of 0.5-5 eV at electron densities of 5-10×1011 cm-3 were calculated from the measured relative intensities of hydrogen Balmer lines. The absolute intensities of hydrogen lines and of multiplets of neutral chromium and molybdenum were used to determine particle fluxes (at 4-5 ms into the plasma) of the order 1×1016, 7×1013 and 3×1013 particles cm-2 s-1, respectively.

  4. The concentrations of adipokines in goat milk: relation to plasma levels, inflammatory status, milk quality and composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    GUZEL, Saime; YIBAR, Artun; BELENLI, Deniz; CETIN, Ismail; TANRIVERDI, Meltem

    2017-01-01

    The main objectives of our study were to measure the major adipokines adiponectin, leptin and resistin in goat milk, to assess their interrelationships and to assess their relationships with the plasma and serum concentrations of total protein, cholesterol, total lipids, plasma C-reactive protein (CRP), milk somatic cell count (SCC), milk total aerobic colony and lactobacillus count, and milk components in lactating Saanen goats. The study was performed on eighteen lactating Saanen goats. Milk and blood samples were collected on days 20, 35, 50, 65 and 80 of lactation postpartum. The milk and plasma adiponectin levels on days 50, 65 and 80 postpartum were significantly higher than those on day 20. The milk and plasma leptin levels were lower on day 20 than on days 35, 50, 65 and 80. The milk concentrations of these major adipokines were positively intercorrelated. The milk and plasma concentrations of these three adipokines were also positively correlated. The plasma CRP concentrations correlated positively with milk leptin and resistin concentrations and inversely with milk adiponectin concentration. Milk adiponectin concentration was inversely related with its SCC. These data confirm that adiponectin, leptin and resistin are present in goat milk. The milk concentrations of these three adipokines were interrelated and interacted with the general inflammatory marker, CRP. The inverse relationship between milk adiponectin concentrations and its SCC suggests that variations in milk adiponectin might be involved in the udder health of lactating goats, but clinical trials are needed to support this hypothesis. PMID:28111374

  5. [Congenital cardiopathies screening associated with diabetes mellitus using maternal fructosamine plasma concentration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Zilma Silveira Nogueira; Miranda, Ana Paula Brum; de Alencar Lima Rezende, Cezar; Detofol, Renan Bragança; Costa, Carolina Ribeiro; Cabral, Antônio Carlos Vieira

    2010-02-01

    to evaluate the importance of maternal plasma concentration of fructosamine as an indicator of fetal congenital cardiopathies in pregnancies complicated by diabetes mellitus. this was a retrospective study conducted on 91 pregnant women with diabetes mellitus who underwent routine fetal echocardiography at a university reference center in fetal medicine. Sixty-five patientes who presented pre-gestational diabetes mellitus and plasma fructosamine level were registered in the medical records prior to the ultrasound exam. The first measurement recorded was compared with the result of routine fetal echocardiography, carried out by a specialist physician of the service. The presence or absence of echocardiographic findings of congenital cardiopathies (EFCC) was related to plasma levels of fructosamine by the mean t-test and its accuracy for EFCC was verified by the ROC curve. Plsama fructosamine concentrations of 2.68, 2.9 and 2.23 mmol/L, which are, respectively, the local reference laboratory values, the value of the kit employed for measurement and the one of highest overall accuracy, were discussed as the cut-off values. EFCC was found in 52.3% of the fetuses. The first measurement of fructosamine, during the prenatal care period, was performed, on average, at 20.4+/-8.0 weeks of pregnancy. The maternal concentration ability of the fructosamine to identify fetuses with EFCC was significant (p<0.0001) and had an area under the ROC curve of 0.78 (95%CI=0.66-0.89). The 2.9 mmol/L plasma concentration of fructosamine revealed EFCC with better specificity, but with a higher percentage of false-negative results (96.8 and 55.9%). Values above 2.68 mmol/L were associated with a probability of 4.6 to identify fetuses with EFCC compared with lower values, with 58.8% of sensitivity and 87.1%, specificity. The value of 2.23 mmol/L proved to be the most overall accurate of the three values suggested, with a sensitivity of 88.2% in the identification of fetuses with

  6. Hepatitis C virus infection influences the S-methadone metabolite plasma concentration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiow-Ling Wu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Heroin-dependent patients typically contract hepatitis C virus (HCV at a disproportionately high level due to needle exchange. The liver is the primary target organ of HCV infection and also the main organ responsible for drug metabolism. Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT is a major treatment regimen for opioid dependence. HCV infection may affect methadone metabolism but this has rarely been studied. In our current study, we aimed to test the hypothesis that HCV may influence the methadone dosage and its plasma metabolite concentrations in a MMT cohort from Taiwan. METHODS: A total of 366 MMT patients were recruited. The levels of plasma hepatitis B virus (HBV, HCV, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV antibodies (Ab, liver aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT, as well as methadone and its metabolite 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP were measured along with the urine morphine concentration and amphetamine screening. RESULTS: Of the 352 subjects in our cohort with HCV test records, 95% were found to be positive for plasma anti-HCV antibody. The liver functional parameters of AST (Wilcoxon Rank-Sum test, P = 0.02 and ALT (Wilcoxon Rank-Sum test, P = 0.04, the plasma methadone concentrations (Wilcoxon Rank-Sum test, P = 0.043 and the R-enantiomer of methadone concentrations (Wilcoxon Rank-Sum test, P = 0.032 were significantly higher in the HCV antibody-positive subjects than in the HCV antibody-negative patients, but not the S-EDDP/methadone dose ratio. The HCV levels correlated with the methadone dose (β= 14.65 and 14.13; P = 0.029 and 0.03 and the S-EDDP/methadone dose ratio (β= -0.41 and -0.40; P = 0.00084 and 0.002 in both univariate and multivariate regression analyses. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that HCV may influence the methadone dose and plasma S-EDDP/methadone dose ratio in MMT patients in this preliminary study.

  7. Effects of plant stanol ester consumption on fasting plasma oxy(phyto)sterol concentrations as related to fecal microbiota characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Sabine; Mensink, Ronald P; Smet, Els De; Konings, Maurice; Fuentes, Susana; de Vos, Willem M; Plat, Jogchum

    2016-03-03

    Information regarding dietary effects on plasma oxyphytosterol concentrations as well as on the origin of oxyphytosterols is scarce. We hypothesized that plant sterols are oxidized in the intestinal lumen, mediated by microbial activity, followed by uptake into the circulation. To address this hypothesis, we carried out, a randomized, double blind, crossover study in 13 healthy subjects, who consumed for 3 weeks control and plant stanol ester enriched margarines (3.0g/d plant stanols) separated by a 4-week wash-out period. Plasma oxy(phyto)sterols were determined via GC-MS/MS, while microbiota analyses were performed on fecal DNA using a phylogenetic microarray to assess microbial composition and diversity. Plasma plant sterol concentrations did not correlate with plasma oxyphytosterols concentrations at baseline. Plant stanol consumption reduced serum sitosterol and campesterol concentrations (-37% and -38%), respectively (pmicrobiota composition and diversity of the faecal contents were not different between the two periods, we observed significant correlations between several specific bacterial groups and plasma plant sterol, but not with plasma oxyphytosterol concentrations. In conclusion, plant stanol ester consumption reduced serum plant sterol and plasma oxyphytosterol concentrations, while intestinal microbiota composition and diversity were not changed. To definitely answer the effects of microbiota on oxyphytosterol formation, future studies could examine oxyphytosterol concentrations after changing intestinal microbial composition or by measuring intestinal oxyphytosterol formation after providing labelled non-oxidized plant sterols.

  8. Plasma cytokine concentration changes induced by the antitumor agents dipterinyl calcium pentahydrate (DCP) and related calcium pterins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moheno, Phillip; Pfleiderer, Wolfgang; Fuchs, Dietmar

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of plasma cytokine concentration changes determined that oral dosing with the antitumor agent (1:4 mol:mol) calcium pterin (CaPterin) increased plasma IL-10, decreased plasma IL-6, and decreased plasma IFN-gamma concentrations in nude mice with MDA-MB-231 xenograph tumors [Moheno, P., Pfleiderer, W., Dipasquale, A.G., Rheingold, A.L., Fuchs, D., 2008. Cytokine and IDO metabolite changes effected by calcium pterin during inhibition of MDA-MB-231 xenograph tumors in nude mice. Int. J. Pharm. 355, 238-248]. A further analysis, reported here, of plasma cytokine concentration changes in nude mice with the same tumor xenographs treated with dipterinyl calcium pentahydrate (DCP), (1:2 mol:mol) calcium pterin, and CaCl(2).2H(2)O has been carried out. The measured cytokines included: IL-1beta, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, IFN-gamma, and TNF-alpha. The major preliminary findings from the analyses of these data are that (1) the overall relative tumor volumes for the treatments correlated significantly with a full study antitumor plasma cytokine pattern (fsAPCP), a composite measure consisting of decreased plasma IL-6 and increased IL-4 concentrations, and (2) DCP induces a significant threshold antitumor response strongly correlated to a derived DCP antitumor plasma cytokine pattern (DCP/APCP) consisting of plasma IL-12, IL-6, and IL-4 concentration changes. This DCP/APCP composite measure identifies plasma IL-12 concentration increases, plasma IL-6 concentration decreases, and plasma IL-4 concentration increases correlated to relative tumor volume decreases caused by DCP dosing. The finding that the novel calcium pterins and CaCl(2).2H(2)O treatments decrease plasma IL-6 concentrations corroborates the previous finding that CaPterin dosing decreases plasma IL-6 concentrations in this mouse/tumor system [Moheno, P., Pfleiderer, W., Dipasquale, A.G., Rheingold, A.L., Fuchs, D., 2008. Cytokine and IDO metabolite changes effected by calcium pterin during inhibition

  9. Tramadol Induced QTc-Interval Prolongation: Prevalence, Clinical Factors and Correlation to Plasma Concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Guillermo A; Etchegoyen, María C V; Fernandez, Nicolás; Olivera, Nancy M; Quiroga, Patricia N; Belloso, Waldo H; Diez, Roberto A; Di Girolamo, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, several cases of torsade de pointes have been associated with many opioids. However, to present no cases have been reported with tramadol. To evaluate the effect of tramadol on QT-interval in the clinical setting. Medical history and comorbidities predisposing to QT interval prolongation were registered for patients requiring medical assistance that involved tramadol administration. Ionograms and ECGs were performed at baseline and intratreatment; QT interval was analyzed after correction with Bazzet, Fridericia, Framinghan and Hogdes formula. 115 patients were studied (50.4% males) All patients had received tramadol 150-400 mg/day during 3.0-5.0 days at the moment of intratreatment control. Plasma concentrations of tramadol were 201-1613 ng/mL. Intratreatment electrocardiographic control, as mean ± SD (range), showed QTcB 372±32 (305 to 433), QTcFri 356±37 (281 to 429), QTcFra 363±33 (299 to 429), QTcH 362±30 (304 to 427), ΔQTcB 26±40 (-73 to 110), ΔQTcFri 24±48 (-97 to 121), ΔQTcFra 22±42 (-81 to 109) and .QTcH 22±38 (-68 to 110) ms. QTc interval presents high correlation with plasma tramadol concentrations (for .QTc, R>0.77). Renal failure was associated with a relative risk for ΔQTc > 30 ms of 1.90 (IC95% 1.31-2.74) and for ΔQTc > 60 ms of 4.74 (IC95% 2.57-8.74). No patient had evidence of arrhythmia during the present study. Tramadol produces QTc interval prolongation in good correlation with plasma drug concentrations; renal failure is a risk factor for higher concentration and QT prolongation by tramadol.

  10. Effect of ozone exposure on lung functions and plasma prostaglandin and thromboxane concentrations in guinea pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, P.D.; Ainsworth, D.; Lam, H.F.; Amdur, M.O.

    1987-03-30

    Male Hartley guinea pigs were exposed either to filtered air or to 1 ppm ozone (O/sub 3/) for 1 hr. At 2, 8, 24, or 48 hr after exposure we measured ventilation, respiratory mechanics, lung volumes, diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO), and alveolar volume (VA) in anesthetized, tracheotomized animals. Respiratory frequency and tidal volume were unchanged in all groups. Pulmonary resistance was increased 2 hr after O/sub 3/ but returned to control at 8 hr and thereafter. Prolonged reductions in lung volumes (total lung capacity, vital capacity, functional residual capacity, and residual volume) as well as in DLCO and VA occurred after O/sub 3/, with maximum decreases at 8 and 24 hr postexposure. Increased ratios of wet lung weight to body weight were seen at 2, 8, and 24 hr. In separate groups of animals, also exposed either to filtered air or to 1 ppm O/sub 3/, plasma eicosanoid (EC) concentrations were measured at 2, 8, 24, 48, or 72 hr after exposure. Significant increases in thromboxane B2 concentrations were seen at 2, 24, and 48 hr after exposure. Plasma concentrations of 6-keto prostaglandin F1 alpha (PGF1 alpha) and prostaglandin E1 (PGE1) were increased at 24 hr and at 24, 48, and 72 hr, respectively. The nature of this long-term pulmonary response to a short-term exposure to O/sub 3/ suggests alveolar involvement, including probable alveolar duct constriction and localized pulmonary edema. Although changes in plasma EC concentrations were observed concurrent with impaired lung functions, no simple causal relationship was apparent from these studies.

  11. Structure-related inhibitory effect of antimicrobial enoxacin and derivatives on theophylline metabolism by rat liver microsomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuki, Y; Fujiwara, I; Yamaguchi, T; Sekine, Y

    1996-01-01

    Enoxacin, an antimicrobial fluoroquinolone with a 7-piperazinyl-1, 8-naphthyridine skeleton, is a potent inhibitor of cytochrome P-450-mediated theophylline metabolism. The present study was designed to clarify, using seven enoxacin derivatives, the molecular characteristics of the fluoroquinolone responsible for the inhibition. Three derivatives with methyl-substituted 7-piperazine rings inhibited rat liver microsomal theophylline metabolism to 1,3-dimethyluric acid to an extent similar to that of enoxacin (50% inhibitory concentrations [IC50s] = 0.39 to 0.48 mM). 7-Piperazinyl-quinoline derivatives, 8-hydroenoxacin (8-Hy) and 1-cyclopropyl-8-fluoroenoxacin (8-F1), which have a hydrogen and a fluorine at position 8, respectively, more weakly inhibited metabolite formation (IC50s = 0.88 and 1.29 mM, respectively). Little inhibition (IC50 > 2 mM) was observed in those with 3'-carbonyl and 4'-N-acetyl groups on the piperazine rings. The substrate-induced difference spectra demonstrated that the affinities of enoxacin, 8-Hy, and 8-F1 to cytochrome P-450 were parallel with their inhibitory activities. The substituent at position 8 was found to determine the molecular conformations of the fluoroquinolones, and the planarity in molecular shape decreased in the same order as the inhibitory activity (enoxacin > 8-Hy > 8-F1). Moreover, the 3'-carbonyl and 4'-N-acetyl groups decreased the basicity of their vicinal 4'-nitrogen atoms when judged from their electrostatic potentials, which showed a remarkably broadened negative charge around the nitrogens. As a result, the planarity of the whole molecule and the basicity of the 4'-nitrogen atom of enoxacin are likely to be dominant factors in the inhibition of theophylline metabolism by cytochrome P-450. PMID:8843297

  12. Effect of abomasal glucose infusion on plasma concentrations of gut peptides in periparturient dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Mogens; Relling, A E; Reynolds, C K

    2010-01-01

    -dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, glucagon-like peptide 1(7-36) amide, and oxyntomodulin were measured in pooled samples within cow and sampling day, whereas active ghrelin was measured in samples obtained 30 min before and after feeding at 0800 h. Postpartum, dry matter intake increased at a lower rate with infusion...... portal venous-arterial concentration difference was observed for ghrelin pre-feeding. The remaining portal venous-arterial and hepatic venous-arterial concentration differences of gut peptides did not differ from zero. In conclusion, increased postruminal glucose supply to postpartum transition dairy......Six Holstein cows fitted with ruminal cannulas and permanent indwelling catheters in the portal vein, hepatic vein, mesenteric vein, and an artery were used to study the effects of abomasal glucose infusion on splanchnic plasma concentrations of gut peptides. The experimental design...

  13. Postprandial Plasma Concentrations of Individual Bile Acids and FGF-19 in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, David P; van Nierop, F Samuel; Kulik, Willem

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT: Bile acids regulate lipid and carbohydrate metabolism by interaction with membrane or intracellular proteins including the nuclear farnesoid X receptor (FXR). Postprandial activation of ileal FXR leads to secretion of fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF-19), a gut hormone that may be implic......CONTEXT: Bile acids regulate lipid and carbohydrate metabolism by interaction with membrane or intracellular proteins including the nuclear farnesoid X receptor (FXR). Postprandial activation of ileal FXR leads to secretion of fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF-19), a gut hormone that may...... be implicated in postprandial glucose metabolism. OBJECTIVE: To describe postprandial plasma concentrations of 12 individual bile acids and FGF-19 in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and healthy controls. DESIGN AND SETTING: Descriptive study, performed at the Center for Diabetes Research, Gentofte Hospital...... and FGF-19 concentrations. RESULTS: Postprandial total bile acid concentrations increased with increasing meal fat content (P

  14. [Effects of once-daily low-dose administration of sustained-release theophylline on airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness in patients with asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terao, Ichiro

    2002-04-01

    Bronchial asthma is eosinophilic airway inflammation with enhanced airway responsiveness induced by eosinophilic granule proteins such as eosinophilic cationic protein (ECP) that are released from eosinophils. In the present study using 30 outpatients with mild to moderate asthma who had no history of treatment with steroid inhalation, we examined the effects of 4-week low-dose (200 mg/day) treatment with Uniphyl Tablets, a sustained-release theophylline formulated for once-daily dosing, on airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness, as well as on respiratory function. Uniphyl Tablets significantly (p statistically significant (p V50 also showed statistically significant (p < 0.05) improvement. Mean blood theophylline concentration at the time the improvements were seen was 3.95 mg/mL. These results suggest that low-dose administration of Uniphyl Tablets has anti-airway inflammatory and anti-airway hyperresponsiveness effects in mild to moderate asthmatic patients.

  15. Normal values for plasma creatinine concentration related to maturity in normal term and preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trompeter, R S; Al-Dahhan, J; Haycock, G B; Chik, G; Chantler, C

    1983-09-01

    Creatinine concentration was measured by a kinetic method in 475 plasma samples obtained from 260 term and preterm infants during the first 2 months post-natal age. In term infants plasma creatinine fell from 88 +/- 4.4 mumol/L (mean + SEM) at birth, to 60 +/- 1.9 mumol/L by the fourth day remaining stable thereafter; in preterm infants creatinine fell to 86 +/- 7 mumol/L by the fourth day. Analysis of pooled data from all infants of more than 4 days post natal age revealed a progressive fall in creatinine with increasing post conceptual age. The normal range of values varies with post conceptual age and was not influenced by gestational age at the time of birth.

  16. Increased concentration of vasopressin in plasma of essential fatty acid-deficient rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Harald S.; Jensen, B.; Warberg, J.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of essential fatty acid deficiency (EFA-D) on the plasma concentration of arginine-vasopressin (AVP) and the urinary AVP excretion was investigated. Weanling rats were fed a fat-free diet (FF-rats). Control rats received the same diet in which 6% by wt. of sucrose was replaced by arachis...... oil. After 4-6 weeks of feeding, urine and plasma were analysed for AVP, osmolality, sodium and potassium. When compared to control rats FF-rats had decreased urine volume (6.0 ± 1.6 ml/24 hr versus 11.7 ± 3.2 ml/24 hr), increased urine osmolality (2409 ± 691 mOsm/kg versus 1260 ± 434 m...

  17. The effect of severe starvation and captivity stress on plasma thyroxine and triiodothyronine concentrations in an antarctic bird (emperor penguin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groscolas, R; Leloup, J

    1989-01-01

    The effect of confinement and severe starvation on the plasma thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations was determined in emperor penguins (Aptenodytes forsteri). During their annual cycle, emperor penguins fast freely for periods of up to 4 months and may thus represent a unique subject to study endocrine adaptations to fasting. Plasma T4 concentrations progressively decreased following capture and confinement of naturally fasting penguins, and within 15-20 days stabilized at levels three times lower than in free-living penguins. A transient fourfold increase in plasma T3 concentration developed within the day following confinement in parallel with a rise in daily body mass loss. Both plasma T3 concentration and mass loss subsided to normal levels within 15 days. The decrease in plasma T4 concentration is in accordance with the well-known inhibitory effect of stress on thyroid function in birds and mammals, whereas the transient increase in plasma T3 concentration seems related to enhancement of energy expenditure as a consequence of restlessness. Starvation severe enough to exhaust fat stores and to activate protein catabolism induced a 6- and 5 to 10-fold fall in plasma T4 and T3, respectively. This is in marked contrast with maintenance of plasma thyroid levels during long-term natural fasting associated with protein sparing (R. Groscolas and J. Leloup (1986) Gen. Comp. Endocrinol. 63, 264-274). Surprisingly, there was a final reincrease in plasma T4 concentration in very lean penguins. These results suggest that the effect of starvation on plasma thyroid hormones seems to depend on how much protein catabolism is activated and demonstrate the acute sensitivity of thyroid hormone balance to stress in penguins.

  18. Body weight, concentration of plasma leptin and serum testosterone of ratsin response to feeding of chitosan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang Hao Sun; Zhi Fang Liu; Shu Ran Wang; Chao Xu Wang; Kun Wu

    2000-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the effect of chitosan on rat body weight, concetration of plasma leptin and serumtestosterone.METHODS Five groups of rats were respectively given access to basic diet, high fat diet and high fat dietwith different doses of chitosan (1.5%,3.0% and 6.0% of chitosan in high fat diet respectively) for 7 wk.All rats were weighed once a week. By the end of wk 7, the animals were sacrificed and their blood sampleswere taken, the concentration of plasma leptin and serum testosterone were determined by RIA Kit method.RESULTS At the end of wk7, the average body weight of rats treated with high-fat diet was 67.3 gheavier than that with the basic diet, however, the average body weight of rats treated with high doses of chitosan in high-fat diet was 56.3 g lighter than that with high-fat diet (P < 0.01). In addition, plasma leptinconcentration in rats treated with high fat diet was significantly different from those with basic diet(P<0.01); plasma leptin concentration in rats treated with high dose of chitosan in high-fat diet wassignificantly lower than those with high-fat diet (P<0.01), but was significantly higher than those withbasic diet (P<0.05). Serum testosterone level in rats treated with high-fat diet was significantly lower thanthose with basic diet (P<0.01). Serum testosterone levels in rats administrated high dose of chitosan inhigh-fat diet were sighificantly lower than those with high-fat diet (P<0.01).CONCLUSION Chitosan prevents the increase of rat body weight induced by high-fat diet, and lowersplasma leptin and serum testosterone in rats.

  19. Quality assessment of platelet concentrates prepared by platelet rich plasma-platelet concentrate, buffy coat poor-platelet concentrate (BC-PC and apheresis-PC methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Ravindra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Platelet rich plasma-platelet concentrate (PRP-PC, buffy coat poor-platelet concentrate (BC-PC, and apheresis-PC were prepared and their quality parameters were assessed. Study Design: In this study, the following platelet products were prepared: from random donor platelets (i platelet rich plasma - platelet concentrate (PRP-PC, and (ii buffy coat poor- platelet concentrate (BC-PC and (iii single donor platelets (apheresis-PC by different methods. Their quality was assessed using the following parameters: swirling, volume of the platelet concentrate, platelet count, WBC count and pH. Results: A total of 146 platelet concentrates (64 of PRP-PC, 62 of BC-PC and 20 of apheresis-PC were enrolled in this study. The mean volume of PRP-PC, BC-PC and apheresis-PC was 62.30±22.68 ml, 68.81±22.95 ml and 214.05±9.91 ml and ranged from 22-135 ml, 32-133 ml and 200-251 ml respectively. The mean platelet count of PRP-PC, BC-PC and apheresis-PC was 7.6±2.97 x 1010/unit, 7.3±2.98 x 1010/unit and 4.13±1.32 x 1011/unit and ranged from 3.2-16.2 x 1010/unit, 0.6-16.4 x 1010/unit and 1.22-8.9 x 1011/unit respectively. The mean WBC count in PRP-PC (n = 10, BC-PC (n = 10 and apheresis-PC (n = 6 units was 4.05±0.48 x 107/unit, 2.08±0.39 x 107/unit and 4.8±0.8 x 106/unit and ranged from 3.4 -4.77 x 107/unit, 1.6-2.7 x 107/unit and 3.2 - 5.2 x 106/unit respectively. A total of 26 units were analyzed for pH changes. Out of these units, 10 each were PRP-PC and BC-PC and 6 units were apheresis-PC. Their mean pH was 6.7±0.26 (mean±SD and ranged from 6.5 - 7.0 and no difference was observed among all three types of platelet concentrate. Conclusion: PRP-PC and BC-PC units were comparable in terms of swirling, platelet count per unit and pH. As expected, we found WBC contamination to be less in BC-PC than PRP-PC units. Variation in volume was more in BC-PC than PRP-PC units and this suggests that further standardization is required for preparation of BC

  20. Plasma insulin-like peptide 3 and testosterone concentrations in male dogs: changes with age and effects of cryptorchidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathirana, I N; Yamasaki, H; Kawate, N; Tsuji, M; Büllesbach, E E; Takahashi, M; Hatoya, S; Inaba, T; Tamada, H

    2012-02-01

    The objectives were to: (1) develop a time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay (TRFIA) to measure insulin-like peptide 3 (INSL3) in canine plasma; (2) investigate changes of plasma concentrations of INSL3 and testosterone with age in normal male dogs; and (3) compare hormonal concentrations among cryptorchid, normal, and castrated dogs to evaluate endocrine function of the Leydig cell component in retained testes. Blood samples were taken from normal male dogs from prepubertal age to advanced age (4 mo to 14 y, n = 89), and from unilateral cryptorchid (n = 31), bilateral cryptorchid (n = 7), and castrated dogs (n = 3). Canine plasma INSL3 was measured with a newly developed TRFIA. The minimum detection limit of the INSL3 assay was 0.02 ng/ml and the detection range was 0.02 to 20 ng/ml. Plasma INSL3 concentrations increased (P castrated dogs (INSL3 < 0.02 ng/ml; testosterone < 0.04 ng/ml). In conclusion, plasma INSL3 concentrations in male dogs measured by a newly developed TRFIA had a transient surge at a pubertal age, whereas testosterone did not. Lower plasma concentrations of INSL3 and testosterone in bilateral cryptorchid dogs suggest impaired endocrine functions of Leydig cell component in paired retained testes. Therefore, peripheral plasma INSL3 and testosterone concentrations have potential diagnostic value in predicting the presence of bilaterally retained testes in male dogs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Risk factors for a low linezolid trough plasma concentration in acute infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morata, Laura; Cuesta, Marta; Rojas, Jhon F; Rodriguez, Sebastian; Brunet, Merce; Casals, Gregori; Cobos, Nazareth; Hernandez, Cristina; Martínez, José A; Mensa, Josep; Soriano, Alex

    2013-04-01

    Linezolid is an antibiotic with time-dependent activity, and both the percentage of time that plasma concentrations exceed the MIC and the area under the concentration-time curve over 24 h in the steady state divided by the MIC (AUC24/MIC ratio) are associated with clinical response. The aim of this study was to analyze the linezolid trough plasma concentration (C(min)) and to determine factors associated with a C(min) 80 ml/min, in intensive care unit (ICU) patients, and in patients with an infection due to Staphylococcus aureus. The independent predictors of C(min) 80 ml/min (odds ratio [OR], 10; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.732 to 37.037; P = 0.001) and infection due to S. aureus (OR, 5.906; 95% CI, 1.651 to 21.126; P = 0.006). A linezolid C(min) of 80 ml/min and in infections due to S. aureus. In patients with severe sepsis, a loading dose or continuous infusion and drug monitoring could improve the pharmacodynamic parameters associated with linezolid efficacy.

  2. Plasma-derived versus recombinant factor concentrates in PUPs: a never ending debate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berntorp, Erik

    2017-01-31

    Inhibitor development in haemophilia is a serious complication to treatment with factor concentrates. Since the advent of more pure products, especially developed using recombinant DNA technology, some studies have shown an increased incidence of inhibitors in previously untreated patients (PUPs) receiving recombinant products whereas plasma-derived concentrates sometimes have been claimed to have a protective role, probably due to the content of von Willebrand factor (VWF). In fact, experiments indicate that the VWF may block uptake of factor VIII into macrophages for further processing to the immune system. Also, a competition between VWF and inhibitor binding to the C2 domain of factor VIII has been suggested. Recently, large cohort and surveillance studies have created a vigorous debate about the role of product class for inhibitor development as results have been conflicting. The only randomised prospective study, the SIPPET study, was published in 2016, and substantiated previous reports claiming that plasma derived concentrates give less inhibitors in patients with severe haemophilia A, previously not exposed to factor VIII. The debate will continue.

  3. The ratios of aldosterone / plasma renin activity (ARR) versus aldosterone / direct renin concentration (ADRR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glinicki, Piotr; Jeske, Wojciech; Bednarek-Papierska, Lucyna; Kruszyńska, Aleksandra; Gietka-Czernel, Małgorzata; Rosłonowska, Elżbieta; Słowińska-Srzednicka, Jadwiga; Kasperlik-Załuska, Anna; Zgliczyński, Wojciech

    2015-12-01

    Primary aldosteronism (PA) is estimated to occur in 5-12% of patients with hypertension. Assessment of aldosterone / plasma renin activity (PRA) ratio (ARR) has been used as a screening test in patients suspected of PA. Direct determination of renin (DRC) and calculation of aldosterone / direct renin concentration ratio (ADRR) could be similarly useful for screening patients suspected of PA. The study included 62 patients with indication for evaluation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and 35 healthy volunteers. In all participants we measured concentrations of serum aldosterone, plasma direct renin, and PRA after a night's rest and again after walking for two hours. The concentrations of aldosterone, direct renin, and PRA were measured by isotopic methods (radioimmunoassay (RIA) / immunoradiometric assay (IRMA)). Correlations of ARR with ADRR in the supine position were r = 0.9162, r(2) = 0.8165 (p 80% and 100%, respectively) appeared for the ratios ≥ 30. We suggest that for practical and economic reasons ARR can be replaced by ADRR.

  4. Effect of Dietary Inulin Source on Piglet Performance, Immunoglobulin Concentration, and Plasma Lipid Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grela Eugeniusz R.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of an inulin source (aqueous or aqueous-alcoholic extract, dried chicory root, or dried Jerusalem artichoke tubers on piglet performance, plasma lipid profile, and immunoglobulin concentration. The study was conducted on 534 piglets (44 litters allocated to five nutritional groups: group I (control - fed basal diet, groups II and III receiving basal diet supplemented with 2% of inulin (aqueous and aqueous-alcoholic extract respectively, and groups IV and V -4% additive of dried artichoke or dried chicory respectively. During the trial, piglets’ body weight, feed intake, diarrhoea incidence, and mortality were controlled. Blood samples were collected twice from six animals of each group. In blood plasma, indices of lipid profile and concentrations of IgA, IgG and IgM were measured. The addition of inulin, regardless of its form (extracts or dried plants, significantly improved the rearing indices. In piglets of groups III, IV and V a significant improvement of daily weight gains and feed efficiency was noted. Inulin showed hypolipidemic activity (lowered total cholesterol level and stimulated piglet immune system manifested by elevated IgA and IgG concentrations. Irrespective of the inulin source, a lower mortality rate resulting from the improvement of animal health was noted in all experimental groups.

  5. Genetic variation in hyaluronan metabolism loci is associated with plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanktree, Matthew B; Johansen, Christopher T; Anand, Sonia S; Davis, A Darlene; Miller, Ruby; Yusuf, Salim; Hegele, Robert A

    2010-09-23

    Elevated plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) concentration is associated with cardiovascular disease risk. PAI-1 is the primary inhibitor of fibrinolysis within both the circulation and the arterial wall, playing roles in both atherosclerosis and thrombosis. To define the heritable component, subjects within the population-based SHARE (Study of Health Assessment and Risk in Ethnic groups) and SHARE-AP (Study of Health Assessment and Risk Evaluation in Aboriginal Peoples) studies, composed of Canadians of South Asian (n = 298), Chinese (n = 284), European (n = 227), and Aboriginal (n = 284) descent, were genotyped using the gene-centric Illumina HumanCVD BeadChip. After imputation, more than 150,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in more than 2000 loci were tested for association with plasma PAI-1 concentration. Marginal association was observed with the PAI-1 locus itself (SERPINE1; P HABP2, HSPA1A, HYAL1, MBTPS1, TARP) were associated with PAI-1 concentration at a P HABP2) and hyaluronoglucosaminidase 1 (HYAL1), play key roles in hyaluronan metabolism, providing genetic evidence to link these pathways.

  6. Risk Factors for a Low Linezolid Trough Plasma Concentration in Acute Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morata, Laura; Cuesta, Marta; Rojas, Jhon F.; Rodriguez, Sebastian; Brunet, Merce; Casals, Gregori; Cobos, Nazareth; Hernandez, Cristina; Martínez, José A.; Mensa, Josep

    2013-01-01

    Linezolid is an antibiotic with time-dependent activity, and both the percentage of time that plasma concentrations exceed the MIC and the area under the concentration-time curve over 24 h in the steady state divided by the MIC (AUC24/MIC ratio) are associated with clinical response. The aim of this study was to analyze the linezolid trough plasma concentration (Cmin) and to determine factors associated with a Cmin 80 ml/min, in intensive care unit (ICU) patients, and in patients with an infection due to Staphylococcus aureus. The independent predictors of Cmin 80 ml/min (odds ratio [OR], 10; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.732 to 37.037; P = 0.001) and infection due to S. aureus (OR, 5.906; 95% CI, 1.651 to 21.126; P = 0.006). A linezolid Cmin of 80 ml/min and in infections due to S. aureus. In patients with severe sepsis, a loading dose or continuous infusion and drug monitoring could improve the pharmacodynamic parameters associated with linezolid efficacy. PMID:23403416

  7. Plasma glutathione and oxidized glutathione level, glutathione/oxidized glutathione ratio, and albumin concentration in complicated and uncomplicated falciparum malaria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Loeki Enggar Fitri; Agustin Iskandar; Teguh Wahju Sardjono; Ummu Ditya Erliana; Widya Rahmawati; Didi Candradikusuma; Utama Budi Saputra; Eko Suhartono; Bambang Setiawan; Erma Sulistyaningsih

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To compare the level of glutathione(GSH) and oxidized glutathione(GSSG),the ratio of GSH/GSSG and the concentration of albumin in plasma of patients with complicated and un-complicated falciparum malaria.Methods: This research was a cross sectional study using comparison analysis with the plasma GSH and GSSG, the ratio of plasma GSH/GSSG and the concentration of plasma albumin as variables. The complicated malaria patients were obtained from Dr. Saiful Anwar Hospital Malang, whereas uncomplicated malaria patients were obtained from the Regency of Pleihari South Kalimantan. Plasma GSH and GSSG levels were determined by the spectrophotometer at the wave length of 412 nm, whereas the concentration of albumin was determined by bromocresol green method in the p H of 4.1.Results: There were no significant differences between the level of plasma GSH and GSSG in complicated and uncomplicated malaria patients, as well as the ratio of plasma GSH/GSSG in the two groups(P = 0.373; P = 0.538; and P = 0.615, respectively, independent ttest). In contrast, the plasma albumin concentration in complicated malaria patients were significantly higher than uncomplicated malaria patients(P = 0.000, Mann Whitney U test).Conclusions: It can be concluded that the average of plasma GSH and GSSG level, also plasma GSH/GSSG ratio in complicated malaria are not different from uncomplicated malaria. Although plasma concentration of albumin in both groups is below the normal range,there is an increase in complicated malaria that might be as compensation of oxidative stress.

  8. Plasma glutathione and oxidized glutathione level, glutathione/oxidized glutathione ratio, and albumin concentration in complicated and uncomplicated falciparum malaria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Loeki Enggar Fitri; Erma Sulistyaningsih; Agustin Iskandar; Teguh Wahju Sardjono; Ummu Ditya Erliana; Widya Rahmawati; Didi Candradikusuma; Utama Budi Saputra; Eko Suhartono; Bambang Setiawan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To compare the level of glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG), the ratio of GSH/GSSG and the concentration of albumin in plasma of patients with complicated and un-complicated falciparum malaria. Methods: This research was a cross sectional study using comparison analysis with the plasma GSH and GSSG, the ratio of plasma GSH/GSSG and the concentration of plasma albumin as variables. The complicated malaria patients were obtained from Dr. Saiful Anwar Hospital Malang, whereas uncomplicated malaria patients were obtained from the Regency of Pleihari South Kalimantan. Plasma GSH and GSSG levels were determined by the spectrophotometer at the wave length of 412 nm, whereas the concentration of albumin was determined by bromocresol green method in the pH of 4.1. Results: There were no significant differences between the level of plasma GSH and GSSG in complicated and uncomplicated malaria patients, as well as the ratio of plasma GSH/GSSG in the two groups (P=0.373;P=0.538;and P=0.615, respectively, independent t-test). In contrast, the plasma albumin concentration in complicated malaria patients were significantly higher than uncomplicated malaria patients (P=0.000, Mann Whitney U test). Conclusions: It can be concluded that the average of plasma GSH and GSSG level, also plasma GSH/GSSG ratio in complicated malaria are not different from uncomplicated ma-laria. Although plasma concentration of albumin in both groups is below the normal range, there is an increase in complicated malaria that might be as compensation of oxidative stress.

  9. [Isolation, extractive concentration, and determination of caffeine in the studies of blood plasma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenman, Ia I; Shormanov, V K; Mokshina, N Ia; Krivosheeva, O A; Golubitskiĭ, G B

    2012-01-01

    The optimal conditions for the isolation of caffeine from human blood by means of acetone extraction are described with special reference to the peculiarities of extraction from aqueous solutions. The possibility of concentration and purification of caffeine from blood plasma using acetone and aceton-chlorophorm mixture (2:8) as the solvents is illustrated. In addition, purification by silica-gel thin layer chromatography is discussed. Thin layer chromatography, UV-spectrophotometry, and high performance liquid chromatography are considered as potential methods for the identification and quantitative determination of caffeine.

  10. Associations between plasma tenofovir concentration and renal function markers in HIV-infected women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mwila Mulubwa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF has been associated with kidney tubulardys function and reduced renal function. Limited studies were performed in Europe and Asia that related plasma tenofovir (TFV concentration with renal function; no such studies to date have been performed on Africans.Objective: To investigate the correlation between plasma tenofovir (TFV concentration and certain renal function markers in HIV-infected women on TDF antiretroviral therapy (ART.These markers were also compared to a HIV-uninfected control group.Methods: HIV-infected women (n = 30 on TDF-based ART were matched with 30 controls forage and body mass index. Renal markers analysed were estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, creatinine clearance (CrCl, serum creatinine, albuminuria, glucosuria, serum urea, serum uric acid, urine sodium and maximum tubular reabsorption of phosphate. Baseline eGFR and CrCl data were obtained retrospectively for the HIV-infected women. Plasma TFV was assayed using a validated HPLC-MS/MS method. Step wise regression, Mann–Whitney test, unpaired and paired t-tests were applied in the statistical analyses.Results: TFV concentration was independently associated with albuminuria (adjusted r2 = 0.339; p = 0.001 in HIV-infected women. In the adjusted (weight analysis, eGFR (p = 0.038,CrCl (p = 0.032 and albuminuria (p = 0.048 were significantly higher in HIV-infected compared to the uninfected women, but eGFR was abnormally high in HIV-infected women. Both eGFR (p < 0.001 and CrCl (p = 0.008 increased from baseline to follow-up in HIV-infected women.Conclusion: Plasma TFV concentration was associated with increased albuminuria in HIV infected women in this sub-study. Both eGFR and CrCl were increased in HIV-infected women from baseline. These findings should be confirmed in larger studies, and hyperfiltration in HIV-infected women warrants further investigation.

  11. Enantiospecific ketoprofen concentrations in plasma after oral and intramuscular administration in growing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustonen Katja

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ketoprofen is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug which has been widely used for domestic animals. Orally administered racemic ketoprofen has been reported to be absorbed well in pigs, and bioavailability was almost complete. The objectives of this study were to analyze R- and S-ketoprofen concentrations in plasma after oral (PO and intra muscular (IM routes of administration, and to assess the relative bioavailability of racemic ketoprofen for both enantiomers between those routes of administration in growing pigs. Methods Eleven pigs received racemic ketoprofen at dose rates of 4 mg/kg PO and 3 mg/kg IM in a randomized, crossover design with a 6-day washout period. Enantiomers were separated on a chiral column and their concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated and relative bioavailability (Frel was determined for S and R –ketoprofen. Results S-ketoprofen was the predominant enantiomer in pig plasma after administration of the racemic mixture via both routes. The mean (± SD maximum S-ketoprofen concentration in plasma (7.42 mg/L ± 2.35 in PO and 7.32 mg/L ± 0.75 in IM was more than twice as high as that of R-ketoprofen (2.55 mg/L ± 0.99 in PO and 3.23 mg/L ± 0.70 in IM, and the terminal half-life was three times longer for S-ketoprofen (3.40 h ± 0.91 in PO and 2.89 h ± 0.85 in IM than R-ketoprofen (1.1 h ± 0.90 in PO and 0.75 h ± 0.48 in IM. The mean (± SD relative bioavailability (PO compared to IM was 83 ± 20% and 63 ± 23% for S-ketoprofen and R-ketoprofen, respectively. Conclusions Although some minor differences were detected in the ketoprofen enantiomer concentrations in plasma after PO and IM administration, they are probably not relevant in clinical use. Thus, the pharmacological effects of racemic ketoprofen should be comparable after intramuscular and oral routes of

  12. Plasma estrogen concentrations after oral and vaginal estrogen administration in women with atrophic vaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorr, Mary Beth; Nelson, Anita L; Mayer, Philip R; Ranganath, Radhika P; Norris, Paul M; Helzner, Eileen C; Preston, Richard A

    2010-11-01

    In this open-label, randomized, multiple-dose, two-treatment crossover study, 24 postmenopausal women with moderate to severe atrophic vaginitis received 0.3 mg conjugated estrogens daily for 14 days: 7 days orally (0.3 mg tablet) and 7 days vaginally (0.5 g cream). Steady-state plasma concentrations of E2 and estrone were one-third lower after vaginal versus oral administration of conjugated estrogens. Copyright © 2010 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Modeling of the Flow, Temperature and Concentration Fields in an Arc Plasma Reactor with Argon-Nitrogen Atmosphere

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fudolig, Agustin M; Nogami, Hiroshi; Yagi, Jun-ichiro

    1996-01-01

    A mathematical formulation was developed for describing the flow behavior, temperature profile and concentration fields in pure or mixed argon and nitrogen arc plasmas impinging on a metal target inside a reactor...

  14. Lipid-based nutrient supplements do not affect efavirenz but lower plasma nevirapine concentrations in Ethiopian adult HIV patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdissa, A; Olsen, Mette Frahm; Yilma, D

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNSs) are increasingly used in HIV programmes in resource-limited settings. However, the possible effects of LNSs on the plasma concentrations of antiretroviral drugs have not been assessed. Here, we aimed to assess the effects of LNSs on plasma...... efavirenz and nevirapine trough concentrations in Ethiopian adult HIV-infected patients. METHODS: The effects of LNSs were studied in adults initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) in a randomized trial. Patients with body mass index (BMI) > 17 kg/m(2) (n = 282) received daily supplementation of an LNS.......9; -0.9 μg/mL; P = 0.01), respectively, compared with the group not receiving supplements. There were no differences between groups with respect to efavirenz plasma concentrations. The CYP2B6 516 G>T polymorphism was associated with a 5 μg/mL higher plasma efavirenz concentration compared with the wild...

  15. Cardiac natriuretic peptide gene expression and plasma concentrations during the first 72 hours of life in piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Julie; Christoffersen, Christina; Nørgaard, Linn Maiken

    2013-01-01

    Plasma measurement of cardiac natriuretic peptides constitutes promising markers of congenital heart disease. However, concentrations change rapidly and dramatically during the first days after delivery even in healthy neonates, which complicates clinical interpretation. It is unknown whether...

  16. Age- and therapy-related effects on morphine requirements and plasma concentrations of morphine and its metabolites in postoperative infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Bouwmeester (Nancy); J.N. van den Anker (John); W.C.J. Hop (Wim); K.J.S. Anand (Kanwaljeet); D. Tibboel (Dick)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: To investigate clinical variables such as gestational age, sex, weight, the therapeutic regimens used and mechanical ventilation that might affect morphine requirements and plasma concentrations of morphine and its metabolites. METHODS: In a double-blind stu

  17. Effect of chronic elevation of plasma calcium concentration by PTH or vitamin D3on blood pressure and hypotensive activity of nifedipine in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkman, F.A.M.; Thoolen, M.J.M.C.; Wilffert, B.

    1984-01-01

    The influence of a chronically elevated total plasma calcium concentration on blood pressure and heart rate was investigated in conscious normotensive rats. The plasma calcium concentration was elevated by continuous subcutaneous infusion with parathormone (PTH) after parathyreoidectomy, and by oral

  18. Platelet Concentration in Platelet-Rich Plasma Affects Tenocyte Behavior In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Giusti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Since tendon injuries and tendinopathy are a growing problem, sometimes requiring surgery, new strategies that improve conservative therapies are needed. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP seems to be a good candidate by virtue of its high content of growth factors, most of which are involved in tendon healing. This study aimed to evaluate if different concentrations of platelets in PRP have different effects on the biological features of normal human tenocytes that are usually required during tendon healing. The different platelet concentrations tested (up to 5 × 106 plt/µL stimulated differently tenocytes behavior; intermediate concentrations (0.5 × 106, 1 × 106 plt/µL strongly induced all tested processes (proliferation, migration, collagen, and MMPs production if compared to untreated cells; on the contrary, the highest concentration had inhibitory effects on proliferation and strongly reduced migration abilities and overall collagen production but, at the same time, induced increasing MMP production, which could be counterproductive because excessive proteolysis could impair tendon mechanical stability. Thus, these in vitro data strongly suggest the need for a compromise between extremely high and low platelet concentrations to obtain an optimal global effect when inducing in vivo tendon healing.

  19. Effects of humidity on the plasma-catalytic removal of low-concentration BTX in air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xing; Zhu, Tianle; Wan, Yajuan; Yan, Xiao

    2010-08-15

    Effects of relative humidity (30%, 50% and 80% RH) on the removal of low-concentration benzene, toluene and p-xylene (BTX mixture) in air by non-thermal plasma (NTP) and the combination of NTP and MnO(x)/Al(2)O(3) catalyst (CPC) were systematically investigated in a link tooth wheel-cylinder plasma reactor. A long-term (150 h) CPC experiment under 30% RH was also conducted to investigate the stability of the catalyst. Results show that increasing humidity inhibits the O(3) production in plasma and its decomposition over the catalyst. As for BTX conversion, increasing humidity suppresses the benzene conversion by both NTP and CPC; although higher humidity slightly promotes the toluene conversion by NTP, it negatively influences that by CPC; while the conversion of p-xylene by both NTP and CPC is insensitive to the humidity levels. Irrespective of the RH, the introduction of MnO(x)/Al(2)O(3) catalyst significantly promotes BTX conversion and improves the energy efficiency. On the other hand, CPC under 30% RH shows the best performance towards CO(x) formation during BTX oxidation processes. However, for a specific input energy of 10 J L(-1) in this study, organic intermediates generated and accumulated over the catalyst surface, resulting in a slight deactivation of the MnO(x)/Al(2)O(3) catalyst after 150-h reactions. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Plasma mitomycin C concentrations determined by HPLC coupled to solid-phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paroni, R; Arcelloni, C; De Vecchi, E; Fermo, I; Mauri, D; Colombo, R

    1997-04-01

    The aim of this study was to set up a method for quantification of plasma mitomycin C (MMC) concentrations during intravesical chemotherapy delivered in the presence of local bladder hyperthermia (HT). In comparison with existing methods, this assay, characterized by relative simplicity and efficiency, resulted in the facilitation of performance with nondedicated instrumentation or nonspecialized staff. Purification from plasma matrix was carried out by solid-phase extraction under vaccuum. The purified drug was then collected directly into the vials of the HPLC autosampler. Chromatographic analysis was performed on a reversed-phase C18 column with water:acetonitrile (85:15 by vol) as the mobile phase and the UV detector set at 365 nm. The use of porfiromycin as internal standard provided a method with good within-day precision (CV 6.0% at 5 micrograms/L, n = 6), linearity (0.5-50 micrograms/L), and specificity. The lower limit of detection (< or = 0.5 microgram/L) proved to be suitable for plasma pharmacokinetics monitoring in two tested patients treated with MMC + HT for superficial bladder cancer.

  1. Ion mobility spectrometry as a simple and rapid method to measure the plasma propofol concentrations for intravenous anaesthesia monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Zhou, Qinghua; Jiang, Dandan; Gong, Yulei; Li, Enyou; Li, Haiyang

    2016-11-01

    The plasma propofol concentration is important information for anaesthetists to monitor and adjust the anaesthesia depth for patients during a surgery operation. In this paper, a stand-alone ion mobility spectrometer (IMS) was constructed for the rapid measurement of the plasma propofol concentrations. Without any sample pre-treatment, the plasma samples were dropped on a piece of glass microfiber paper and then introduced into the IMS cell by the thermal desorption directly. Each individual measurement could be accomplished within 1 min. For the plasma propofol concentrations from 1 to 12 μg mL-1, the IMS response was linear with a correlation coefficient R2 of 0.998, while the limit of detection was evaluated to be 0.1 μg mL-1. These measurement results did meet the clinical application requirements. Furthermore, other clinically-often-used drugs, including remifentanil, flurbiprofen and atracurium, were found no significant interference with the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the plasma propofol. The plasma propofol concentrations measured by IMS were correlated well with those measured by the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results confirmed an excellent agreement between these two methods. Finally, this method was applied to monitor the plasma propofol concentrations for a patient undergoing surgery, demonstrating its capability of anaesthesia monitoring in real clinical environments.

  2. Estimating time of last oral ingestion of cannabis from plasma THC and THCCOOH concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huestis, Marilyn A; Elsohly, Mahmoud; Nebro, Wesenyalsh; Barnes, Allan; Gustafson, Richard A; Smith, Michael L

    2006-08-01

    Estimating the time of last cannabis use is important in assessing possible impairment of drivers involved in accidents, in verifying accuracy of court testimony and in the future, helpful in therapeutic monitoring of cannabis agonists. In 1992, Huestis et al developed model 1, based on plasma Delta-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) concentrations, and model 2, on plasma 11-nor-9-carboxy-Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannbinol/THC ratios, that predicted 95% confidence intervals for time of last cannabis use. These models seemed to be valuable when applied to the small amount of data from published studies of oral ingestion, a route of administration more popular with the advent of cannabis therapies. A study was designed to further validate the models after oral ingestion of THC, and to determine whether they could predict last usage after multiple oral doses. Eighteen subjects in IRB-approved studies participated after providing informed consent. Each of 12 subjects in one group received a single 10 mg oral dose of dronabinol (synthetic THC). In another protocol, 6 subjects received 4 different oral daily doses, divided into thirds and administered with meals for 5 consecutive days. There was a 10-day washout period between each dosing regimen. Daily doses were 0.39, 0.47, and 14.8 mg THC in hemp oil and 7.5 mg dronabinol. Blood specimens were collected throughout the study and analyzed for plasma THC and 11-nor-9-carboxy-Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannbinol by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with limits of quantification (LOQs) of 0.5 and 1.0 ng/mL, respectively. Actual times between ingestion of THC and blood collection spanned 0.5 to 16 hours. All plasma specimens with analyte concentrations >LOQ (n=90) were evaluated. Models 1 and 2 correctly predicted time of last THC ingestion for 74.4% and 90.0% of plasma specimens, respectively. 96.7% of predicted times were correct with one overestimate and 2 underestimates using the time interval defined by the lowest and highest 95

  3. Increased plasma 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α concentration in severe human traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guo-Feng; Jie, Yuan-Qing; Wu, An; Huang, Qiang; Dai, Wei-Min; Fan, Xiao-Feng

    2013-06-05

    8-Iso-Prostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF2α) is considered as a gold standard for measuring oxidative stress in vivo. The present study was undertaken to investigate plasma 8-iso-PGF2α concentrations in severe human traumatic brain injury (TBI) and to analyze its correlation with disease outcome. One hundred six healthy subjects and 106 severe TBI patients were recruited. The correlations of plasma 8-iso-PGF2α concentration with 1-year mortality and unfavorable outcome (Glasgow Outcome Scale score of 1-3) were analyzed. Thirty-one patients (29.2%) died and 48 patients (45.3%) had an unfavorable outcome at 1 year after TBI. Patients had significantly higher plasma 8-iso-PGF2α levels compared to healthy controls (572.1±157.5 pg/ml vs. 84.3±18.9 pg/ml, Piso-PGF2α level as an independent predictor for 1-year unfavorable outcome [odds ratio (OR) 1.401, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.107-2.371, P=0.005] and mortality (OR 1.609, 95% CI 1.113-3.142, P=0.003). A receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed plasma 8-iso-PGF2α level predicted 1-year unfavorable outcome [area under curve (AUC), 0.871; 95% CI, 0.792-0.928] and mortality (AUC, 0.881; 95% CI, 0.804-0.936) as statistically significantly. The prognostic value of 8-iso-PGF2α was similar to that of Glasgow Coma Scale score for 1-year clinical outcomes (both P>0.05). However, 8-iso-PGF2α did not improve the prognostic value of Glasgow Coma Scale score for 1-year clinical outcomes (both P>0.05). Plasma 8-iso-PGF2α level is highly associated with 1-year clinical outcomes of TBI. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Seminal Plasma HIV-1 RNA Concentration Is Strongly Associated with Altered Levels of Seminal Plasma Interferon-γ, Interleukin-17, and Interleukin-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Jennifer C.; Anton, Peter A.; Baldwin, Gayle Cocita; Elliott, Julie; Anisman-Posner, Deborah; Tanner, Karen; Grogan, Tristan; Elashoff, David; Sugar, Catherine; Yang, Otto O.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA level is an important determinant of the risk of HIV-1 sexual transmission. We investigated potential associations between seminal plasma cytokine levels and viral concentration in the seminal plasma of HIV-1-infected men. This was a prospective, observational study of paired blood and semen samples from 18 HIV-1 chronically infected men off antiretroviral therapy. HIV-1 RNA levels and cytokine levels in seminal plasma and blood plasma were measured and analyzed using simple linear regressions to screen for associations between cytokines and seminal plasma HIV-1 levels. Forward stepwise regression was performed to construct the final multivariate model. The median HIV-1 RNA concentrations were 4.42 log10 copies/ml (IQR 2.98, 4.70) and 2.96 log10 copies/ml (IQR 2, 4.18) in blood and seminal plasma, respectively. In stepwise multivariate linear regression analysis, blood HIV-1 RNA level (pplasma HIV-1 RNA level. After controlling for blood HIV-1 RNA level, seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA level was positively associated with interferon (IFN)-γ (p=0.03) and interleukin (IL)-17 (p=0.03) and negatively associated with IL-5 (p=0.0007) in seminal plasma. In addition to blood HIV-1 RNA level, cytokine profiles in the male genital tract are associated with HIV-1 RNA levels in semen. The Th1 and Th17 cytokines IFN-γ and IL-17 are associated with increased seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA, while the Th2 cytokine IL-5 is associated with decreased seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA. These results support the importance of genital tract immunomodulation in HIV-1 transmission. PMID:25209674

  5. Maternal plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and the risk for gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuilin Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidence is accumulating for a role of vitamin D in maintaining normal glucose homeostasis. However, studies that prospectively examined circulating concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-[OH] D in relation to diabetes risk are limited. Our objective is to determine the association between maternal plasma 25-[OH] D concentrations in early pregnancy and the risk for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM. METHODS: A nested case-control study was conducted among a prospective cohort of 953 pregnant women. Among them, 57 incident GDM cases were ascertained and 114 women who were not diagnosed with GDM were selected as controls. Controls were frequency matched to cases for the estimated season of conception of the index pregnancy. RESULTS: Among women who developed GDM, maternal plasma 25-[OH] D concentrations at an average of 16 weeks of gestation were significantly lower than controls (24.2 vs. 30.1 ng/ml, P<0.001. This difference remained significant (3.62 ng/ml lower on average in GDM cases than controls (P value = 0.018 after the adjustment for maternal age, race, family history of diabetes, and pre-pregnancy BMI. Approximately 33% of GDM cases, compared with 14% of controls (P<0.001, had maternal plasma 25-[OH] D concentrations consistent with a pre-specified diagnosis of vitamin D deficiency (<20 ng/ml. After adjustment for the aforementioned covariates including BMI, vitamin D deficiency was associated with a 2.66-fold (OR (95% CI: 2.66 (1.01-7.02 increased GDM risk. Moreover, each 5 ng/ml decrease in 25-[OH] D concentrations was related to a 1.29-fold increase in GDM risk (OR (95% CI: 1.29 (1.05-1.60. Additional adjustment for season and physical activity did not change findings substantially. CONCLUSIONS: Findings from the present study suggest that maternal vitamin D deficiency in early pregnancy is significantly associated with an elevated risk for GDM.

  6. Effects of Hatha yoga exercise on plasma malondialdehyde concentration and superoxide dismutase activity in female patients with shoulder pain

    OpenAIRE

    Ha, Min-Sung; Kim, Do-Yeon; Baek, Yeong-Ho

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of Hatha yoga exercise on plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in female patients with shoulder pain. [Subjects] Subjects comprised 20 female patients with shoulder pain. [Methods] Subjects were divided into 2 groups: a Hatha yoga exercise group (n = 10) and a control group that performed no exercise (n = 10). The subjects’ body composition, plasma malondialdehyde concentrations, and s...

  7. Effects of exercise intensity on plasma concentrations of appetite-regulating hormones: Potential mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazell, Tom J; Islam, Hashim; Townsend, Logan K; Schmale, Matt S; Copeland, Jennifer L

    2016-03-01

    The physiological control of appetite regulation involves circulating hormones with orexigenic (appetite-stimulating) and anorexigenic (appetite-inhibiting) properties that induce alterations in energy intake via perceptions of hunger and satiety. As the effectiveness of exercise to induce weight loss is a controversial topic, there is considerable interest in the effect of exercise on the appetite-regulating hormones such as acylated ghrelin, peptide YY (PYY), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and pancreatic polypeptide (PP). Research to date suggests short-term appetite regulation following a single exercise session is likely affected by decreases in acylated ghrelin and increases in PYY, GLP-1, and PP. Further, this exercise-induced response may be intensity-dependent. In an effort to guide future research, it is important to consider how exercise alters the circulating concentrations of these appetite-regulating hormones. Potential mechanisms include blood redistribution, sympathetic nervous system activity, gastrointestinal motility, cytokine release, free fatty acid concentrations, lactate production, and changes in plasma glucose and insulin concentrations. This review of relevant research suggests blood redistribution during exercise may be important for suppressing ghrelin, while other mechanisms involving cytokine release, changes in plasma glucose and insulin concentrations, SNS activity, and muscle metabolism likely mediate changes in the anorexigenic signals PYY and GLP-1. Overall, changes in appetite-regulating hormones following acute exercise appear to be intensity-dependent, with increasing intensity leading to a greater suppression of orexigenic signals and greater stimulation of anorexigenic signals. However, there is less research on how exercise-induced responses in appetite-regulating hormones differ between sexes or different age groups. A better understanding of how exercise intensity and workload affect appetite across the sexes and life

  8. Baseline Plasma C-Reactive Protein Concentrations and Motor Prognosis in Parkinson Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Umemura

    Full Text Available C-reactive protein (CRP, a blood inflammatory biomarker, is associated with the development of Alzheimer disease. In animal models of Parkinson disease (PD, systemic inflammatory stimuli can promote neuroinflammation and accelerate dopaminergic neurodegeneration. However, the association between long-term systemic inflammations and neurodegeneration has not been assessed in PD patients.To investigate the longitudinal effects of baseline CRP concentrations on motor prognosis in PD.Retrospective analysis of 375 patients (mean age, 69.3 years; mean PD duration, 6.6 years. Plasma concentrations of high-sensitivity CRP were measured in the absence of infections, and the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale Part III (UPDRS-III scores were measured at five follow-up intervals (Days 1-90, 91-270, 271-450, 451-630, and 631-900.Change of UPDRS-III scores from baseline to each of the five follow-up periods.Change in UPDRS-III scores was significantly greater in PD patients with CRP concentrations ≥0.7 mg/L than in those with CRP concentrations <0.7 mg/L, as determined by a generalized estimation equation model (P = 0.021 for the entire follow-up period and by a generalized regression model (P = 0.030 for the last follow-up interval (Days 631-900. The regression coefficients of baseline CRP for the two periods were 1.41 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.21-2.61 and 2.62 (95% CI 0.25-4.98, respectively, after adjusting for sex, age, baseline UPDRS-III score, dementia, and incremental L-dopa equivalent dose.Baseline plasma CRP levels were associated with motor deterioration and predicted motor prognosis in patients with PD. These associations were independent of sex, age, PD severity, dementia, and anti-Parkinsonian agents, suggesting that subclinical systemic inflammations could accelerate neurodegeneration in PD.

  9. Seasonal effects on plasma cortisol concentrations in the Bedouin buck: circadian studies and response to ACTH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chergui, N; Mormede, P; Foury, A; Khammar, F; Amirat, Z

    2017-03-01

    Our work aims at the exploration of cortisol secretion in the Bedouin goat, native to the Algerian Sahara desert, to understand the mechanisms of adaptation to extreme hot climates. In the present study, diurnal and seasonal variations of cortisol concentrations were measured in basal conditions, as well as the response to ACTH stimulation tests across seasons in bucks. The plasma concentrations of cortisol showed no diurnal cycle but a large variation across seasons. The highest levels occurred in summer and winter when the environmental conditions are at their extreme levels. The rectal temperature showed nychthemeral and seasonal variations, and BW was also different across seasons with highest values in summer and lowest in winter. The results obtained after administration of two doses (2 or 10 μg/kg BW) of synthetic ACTH to three different age groups (kids, adults and elderly animals) showed a strong increase in plasma cortisol concentrations under all conditions with maximum levels achieved between 15 and 120 min. The analysis of the area under the cortisol curve showed no significant difference between the responses to the two doses of ACTH and between age groups, but showed seasonal variations with the lowest response in autumn than in other seasons. We conclude that season significantly affects secretion of cortisol in both basal state and under ACTH stimulation. However, the variation of adrenal reactivity to ACTH is not sufficient to explain seasonal differences, and in particular the summer peak in basal circulating cortisol concentrations. Further research should focus on the respective contribution of environmental factors (such as day length, temperature, humidity) and the mechanisms involved in cortisol regulation.

  10. High-intensity endurance training improves adiponectin mRNA and plasma concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghadasi, Mehrzad; Mohebbi, Hamid; Rahmani-Nia, Farhad; Hassan-Nia, Sadegh; Noroozi, Hamid; Pirooznia, Nazanin

    2012-04-01

    Adiponectin is an anti-inflammatory protein that reduced in obesity. Exercise training may reduce the adipose tissue (AT), although it is not well known whether exercise-induced change in AT, increases the adiponectin mRNA expression and plasma concentrations or not; therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the adiponectin mRNA and plasma concentrations in middle-aged men after 12 weeks high-intensity exercise training and after a week detraining. Sixteen sedentary overweight and obese middle-aged men (age 41.18 ± 6.1 years; ± SD) volunteered to participate in this study. The subjects were randomly assigned to training group (n = 8) or control group (n = 8). The training group performed endurance training 4 days a week for 12 weeks at an intensity corresponding to 75-80% individual maximum oxygen consumption for 45 min. After 12 weeks of training, subjects underwent a week of detraining. The results showed that the BMI as well as central and peripheral AT volume were decreased in the training group compared to the control group (P training group resulted in a significant increase (P training compared to the control group (P training group. In conclusion, high-intensity endurance training caused an increase adiponectin mRNA in obese middle-aged men.

  11. Flavonoid-rich dark chocolate improves endothelial function and increases plasma epicatechin concentrations in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engler, Mary B; Engler, Marguerite M; Chen, Chung Y; Malloy, Mary J; Browne, Amanda; Chiu, Elisa Y; Kwak, Ho-Kyung; Milbury, Paul; Paul, Steven M; Blumberg, Jeffrey; Mietus-Snyder, Michele L

    2004-06-01

    Dark chocolate derived from the plant (Theobroma cacao) is a rich source of flavonoids. Cardioprotective effects including antioxidant properties, inhibition of platelet activity, and activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase have been ascribed to the cocoa flavonoids. To investigate the effects of flavonoid-rich dark chocolate on endothelial function, measures of oxidative stress, blood lipids, and blood pressure in healthy adult subjects. The study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled design conducted over a 2 week period in 21 healthy adult subjects. Subjects were randomly assigned to daily intake of high-flavonoid (213 mg procyanidins, 46 mg epicatechin) or low-flavonoid dark chocolate bars (46 g, 1.6 oz). High-flavonoid chocolate consumption improved endothelium-dependent flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery (mean change = 1.3 +/- 0.7%) as compared to low-flavonoid chocolate consumption (mean change = -0.96 +/- 0.5%) (p = 0.024). No significant differences were noted in the resistance to LDL oxidation, total antioxidant capacity, 8-isoprostanes, blood pressure, lipid parameters, body weight or body mass index (BMI) between the two groups. Plasma epicatechin concentrations were markedly increased at 2 weeks in the high-flavonoid group (204.4 +/- 18.5 nmol/L, p chocolate improves endothelial function and is associated with an increase in plasma epicatechin concentrations in healthy adults. No changes in oxidative stress measures, lipid profiles, blood pressure, body weight or BMI were seen.

  12. Plasma retinoids concentration in Leptodactylus chaquensis (Amphibia: Leptodactylidae) from rice agroecosystems, Santa Fe province, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teglia, Carla M; Attademo, Andrés M; Peltzer, Paola M; Goicoechea, Héctor C; Lajmanovich, Rafael C

    2015-09-01

    Retinoids are known to regulate important processes such as differentiation, development, and embryogenesis of vertebrates: Alteration in endogenous retinoids concentration is linked with teratogenic effects. Retinol (ROH), retinoid acid (RA), and isoform 13-Cis-retinoic acid (13-Cis-RA), in plasma of a native adults frog, Leptodactylus chaquensis from a rice field (RF) and a forest (reference site; RS) were measured. ROH did not vary between treatment sites. RA and 13-Cis-RA activities were higher (93.7±8.6 μg mL(-1) and 131.7±11.4 μg mL(-1), respectively) in individuals collected from RF than in those from RS (65.5±8.6 μg mL(-1) and 92.2±10.2 μg mL(-1), respectively). The ratios retinoic acid-retinol (RA/ROH) and 13-Cis-RA/ROH revealed significantly higher values in RF than in RS. RA and 13-Cis-RA concentrations in plasma on wild amphibian's species such as L. chaquensis would be suitable biomarkers of pesticide exposure in field monitoring. Finally, the mechanism of alteration in retinoid metabolites alteration should be further explored both in larvae and adult, considering that the potential exposition and uptake contaminants vary between the double lives of these vertebrates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Transplacental pharmacokinetics and maternal/fetal plasma concentrations of cocaine in pregnant macaques near term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binienda, Z; Bailey, J R; Duhart, H M; Slikker, W; Paule, M G

    1993-01-01

    The transplacental pharmacokinetics of cocaine were studied in three pregnant rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) at 150-154 days of pregnancy (term approximately 165 days). Animals were dosed intramuscularly with cocaine hydrochloride at 1 mg/kg, supplemented with a tritiated cocaine tracer. Plasma cocaine and its metabolite benzoylecgonine levels were determined after separation by HPLC and subsequent quantification by liquid scintillation spectrometry. Cocaine levels peaked in maternal blood within 10-20 min after dosing, and cocaine was detected in fetal blood within 5 min, reaching peak concentrations within 30-120 min. Mean maternal elimination half-lives (t1/2) for cocaine and benzoylecgonine were 1.2 +/- 0.5 hr and 12.4 +/- 6.6 hr (+/- SEM), respectively; fetal half-lives were 0.5 +/- 0.2 and 7.7 +/- 3.0 hr. Mean maternal residence times were 1.9 +/- 0.5 and 17.0 +/- 9.1 hr for cocaine and benzoylecgonine, respectively; fetal values were 2.1 +/- 0.2 and 11.6 +/- 3.5 hr. Total areas under the concentration versus time curves (AUCs) for cocaine and benzoylecgonine in maternal plasma were 360 +/- 38 and 585 +/- 260 (ng/ml) hr, respectively; fetal values were 104 +/- 29 and 262 +/- 61 (ng/ml) hr. Based on AUC comparisons for cocaine, fetal exposures are thus approximately one-third of maternal exposures, demonstrating that substantial exposure to cocaine does occur in utero.

  14. Effect of Resistance Training on Plasma Nitric Oxide and Asymmetric Dimethylarginine Concentrations in Type I Diabetic Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esfahani, Parivash Shekarchizadeh; Gharakhanlou, Reza; Karimian, Jahangir; Khazaei, Majid; Feizi, Awat; Safarzade, Alireza

    2013-01-01

    Background: Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) has a predominant role in progression of some cardiovascular diseases, including diabetes. It interferes with L-arginine in production of nitric oxide (NO) by inhibition of NO synthase. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of resistance training on plasma NO and ADMA concentrations in type 1 diabetic male rats. Methods: Thirty-six male wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: (1) control; (2) diabetic; (3) diabetic trained, and (4) control trained (n = 9 each). In the trained groups, the animals undertook one training session per day, 3 days/week, for 4 weeks. At the end of experiment, blood samples were taken and the concentrations of plasma glucose, insulin, lipid profile, NO and ADMA concentrations were determined. Results: plasma ADMA concentration showed a significant increase in diabetic rats compare to control group (0.73 ± 0.07 vs. 0.62 ± 0.04 μmol/l; P < 0.05). The plasma ADMA level in the trained diabetic and control were lower than the sedentary groups, although it was not statistically significant. Plasma NO concentration in diabetic group was lower than control (P < 0.05). Resistance training significantly increased plasma NO concentration in diabetic animals (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Elevated ADMA level in diabetic animals can normalize during resistance exercise. Reduced ADMA level and increased NO level following resistance training might improve cardiovascular risk in diabetic subjects. PMID:23717776

  15. Study on Plasma Concentration and Bioavailability of Wogonin in Beagle's Dogs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jian-chun; CHEN Fei-hu; DONG Hai-jun; GAO Shu

    2011-01-01

    Objective To develop an LC-MS/MS method for determining the concentration of wogonin in dog plasma and investigate the pharmacokinetics and bioavailability by different administrations of wogonin in Beagle's dogs. Methods LC-MS/MS was employed in determining the concentration of wogonin with the selected ion monitoring model after liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate of dog plasma samples. The lower limit of quantification was 0.105 μg/L. Target ions were at m/z 285.0→270.0 for wogonin and 373.3→305.3 for finasteride. In a randomized, self-control, and cross-over study, six male Beagle's dogs were treated with different administration methods in three test periods. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated with DAS software (Ver. 2.0). Results The calibration curve was linear in the range of 0.105-107.36 μg/L for wogonin in dog plasma samples. The main pharmacokinetic parameters of ig administration (native drug of 15 mg/kg and solution preparation of 5 mg/kg) and iv route were as follows: Cmax (2.5 ± 1.1), (7.9 ± 3.3), and (6838.7 ± 1322.1) μg/L, tmax (0.7 ± 0.3) and (0.3 ± 0.2) h for the both former, AUC0-1 (7.1 ± 2.0), (21.0 ± 3.2), and (629.7 ±111.8) μg·h/L. The absolute bioavailability of native and solution of wogonin were (0.59 ± 0.35)% and (3.65 ± 2.00)%, respectively. Conclusion The validated method is convenient, sensitive, and specific, and the improvement of wogonin solubility could remarkably increase the absolute bioavailability.

  16. Determination of plasma lactic acid concentration and specific activity using high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleiberg, B; Steinberg, J J; Katz, S D; Wexler, J; LeJemtel, T

    1991-08-23

    Assessment of lactate metabolism is of particular interest during exercise and in disease states such as diabetes, shock, and absorptive abnormalities of short-chain fatty acids by the colon. We describe an analytical method that introduces radio-active tracers and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to simultaneously analyze concentrations and specific activities (SAs) of plasma lactate. The HPLC conditions included separation on a reversed-phase column (octadecylsilane) and an isocratic buffer (30% acetonitrile in water). [3H]Acetate served as an internal standard. Lactate and acetate were extracted from plasma samples with diethyl ether following a pH adjustment to less than 1.0 and back-extracted into a hydrophilic phase with sodium carbonate (2 mM, pH greater than 10.0). Lactate is detected in the ultraviolet range (242 and 320 nm) by derivatization with alpha-bromoacetophenone. Control plasma samples were studied after an overnight fast for precision and analytical recovery. Calibration curves were linear in the range 0.18-6.0 mM (r = 0.92). The precision was 3% and the analytical recovery was 87%. The detection limit of the method was 36 pmol. Determination of lactate metabolism was performed in a patient with chronic congestive heart failure who was administered primed-continuous L-[U-14C]lactate (10 microCi bolus and 0.3 microCi/min continuously) during a 60-min rest period. Mean arterial lactate concentration and SA were 1.69 +/- 0.2 mM and 253.8 +/- 22 dpm/mumol, respectively. Systemic lactate turnover was 25.65 mumol/kg per min. Lactic acid systemic turnover, organ uptake and release rates can be accurately determined by isocratic HPLC.

  17. Relationship between plasma concentrations of the l-enantiomer of methadone and response to methadone maintenance treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meini, Milo; Moncini, Marco; Daini, Laura; Giarratana, Tania; Scaramelli, Daniela; Chericoni, Silvio; Stefanelli, Fabio; Rucci, Paola

    2015-08-05

    This study evaluated the relationship between the plasma concentration of l-methadone and response to methadone in real-world patients, in order to identify a minimum plasma concentration above which methadone treatment is effective. Ninety-four patients with opioid dependence under maintenance methadone treatment were consecutively recruited. Response was defined as negative urine analyses in the three weeks prior to the blood sampling. The percentage of participants with a plasma l-methadone concentration between 100 and 250 ng/ml was 54.2% among those with a methadone dosage ≥60 mg/day. Plasma l-methadone concentrations were significantly higher in patients with negative urine analyses compared with those with positive urine analyses (median 93 vs. 77 ng/ml, Mann-Whitney test, Pmethadone concentrations of 200 ng/ml no heroin use was reported and urine analyses were negative. Moreover, above concentrations of 250 ng/ml craving was absent. Examination of demographic correlates of treatment outcome indicated that older age, a stable job and being married were protective against the use of heroin. Mean plasma l-methadone concentration was significantly lower in patients who used cannabis compared with those who did not use cannabis, after adjusting for methadone dosage. In conclusion our results identify specific cut-offs for plasma l-methadone concentrations about which therapeutic response is observed and provide new evidence that therapeutic response is associated with patient׳s demographic characteristics. This underscores the need to monitor plasma methadone concentrations as part of Drug Addiction Services routine practice, in order to provide an objective framework for changing the methadone dosage.

  18. Theophylline is able to partially revert cachexia in tumour-bearing rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivan Mireia

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and aims The aim of the present investigation was to examine the anti-wasting effects of theophylline (a methylxantine present in tea leaves on a rat model of cancer cachexia. Methods The in vitro effects of the nutraceuticals on proteolysis were examined on muscle cell cultures submitted to hyperthermia. Individual muscle weights, muscle gene expression, body composition and cardiac function were measured in rats bearing the Yoshida AH-130 ascites hepatoma, following theophylline treatment. Results Theophylline treatment inhibited proteolysis in C2C12 cell line and resulted in an anti-proteolytic effect on muscle tissue (soleus and heart, which was associated with a decrease in circulating TNF-alpha levels and with a decreased proteolytic systems gene expression. Treatment with the nutraceutical also resulted in an improvement in body composition and cardiac function. Conclusion Theophylline - alone or in combination with drugs - may be a candidate molecule for the treatment of cancer cachexia.

  19. Pharmaceutical cocrystals of diflunisal and diclofenac with theophylline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surov, Artem O; Voronin, Alexander P; Manin, Alex N; Manin, Nikolay G; Kuzmina, Lyudmila G; Churakov, Andrei V; Perlovich, German L

    2014-10-01

    Pharmaceutical cocrystals of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs diflunisal (DIF) and diclofenac (DIC) with theophylline (THP) were obtained, and their crystal structures were determined. In both of the crystal structures, molecules form a hydrogen bonded supramolecular unit consisting of a centrosymmetric dimer of THP and two molecules of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). Crystal lattice energy calculations showed that the packing energy gain of the [DIC + THP] cocrystal is derived mainly from the dispersion energy, which dominates the structures of the cocrystals. The enthalpies of cocrystal formation were estimated by solution calorimetry, and their thermal stability was studied by differential scanning calorimetry. The cocrystals showed an enhancement of apparent solubility compared to the corresponding pure APIs, while the intrinsic dissolution rates are comparable. Both cocrystals demonstrated physical stability upon storing at different relative humidity.

  20. A lignan complex isolated from flaxseed does not affect plasma lipid concentrations or antioxidant capacity in healthy postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallund, Jesper; Ravn-Haren, Gitte; Bügel, S.;

    2006-01-01

    A lignan complex rich in the plant lignan secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) was isolated from flaxseed. SDG is metabolized by the colonic microflora to the mammalian lignans enterodiol (END) and enterolactone (ENL), and was hypothesized to reduce plasma lipid concentrations and improve...... (LDL-C), HDL cholesterol (HDL-C), triacylglycerol (TAG), serum lipoprotein oxidation lag time, plasma Trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), and ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) were measured at the beginning and end of each intervention period. ENL concentrations in serum (P

  1. Stability-indicating RP-HPLC method for simultaneous estimation of levosalbutamol sulfate and theophylline in combined dosage form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagar Suman Panda

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A novel, simple, accurate and precise RP-HPLC method for simultaneous determination of levosalbutamol sulfate and theophylline has been developed and validated. Separation was achieved on a Phenomenex; C18 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm i.d., 5 µm using methanol: 10 mM TBAHS(tetrabutyl ammonium hydrogen sulfate (50:50, v/v as mobile phase at flow rate of 1.0 mL.min-1. The UV detection wavelength was 274 nm. The linearity is obeyed over a concentration range of 0.5-150 µg.mL-1 with correlation coefficient of 0.999 for both the drugs. The proposed method was validated by determining accuracy, precision, stability and system suitability parameters. The method was found to be robust. Specificity of the method was determined by subjecting the drugs to various stress conditions like acid, alkali, oxidation, thermal and photolytic degradation. The method was used successfully for the simultaneous determination of levosalbutamol sulfate and theophylline in syrup dosage form.

  2. Plasma and urine concentrations of marbofloxacin following single subcutaneous administration to cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kietzmann, Manfred; Niedorf, Frank; Kramer, Sabine; Hoffmann, Marina; Schneider, Marc; Vallé, Marc; Pankow, Rüdiger

    2011-01-01

    The pharmacokinetic properties of marbofoxacin, a third generation fluoroquinolone, were investigated in 12 healthy adult cats after single subcutaneous (SC) administration of 2 mg/kg BW (Part I, n=8 cats) and 4 mg/kg BW (Part II, n=4 cats). In each part of the study blood and urine samples were collected before treatment and thereafter for 5 days. The plasma and urine concentrations of marbofloxacin were determined by HPLC with UV detection. Pharmacokinetic calculations were performed for each treated animal using an open one-compartment-model with first-order elimination after SC dosing. Marbofloxacin in plasma (means): Maximum concentrations (Cmax) of about 1.2 and 3.0 microg/ml were measured 2.3 and 4 hours (tmax) after dosing of 2 and 4 mg/kg BW, respectively. Elimination from the body was low with a total clearance (Cl/F) of approximately 0.1 l/h/kg for both dosages. The half-life (t 1/2) for this process was calculated with 8-10 hours. AUC increased almost proportional when doubling the dose, i.e., 19.77 +/- 6.25 microg * h/ml (2 mg/kg BW) and 51.26 +/- 11.83 microg * h/ml (4 mg/kg BW). Plasma kinetics measured were in accordance with data from literature. Marbofloxacin in urine (means): Maximum drug concentrations were detected 4 and 8 hours after dosing with 70 microg/ml (2 mg/kg BW) and 160 microg/ml (4 mg/kg BW), respectively. Inhibitory effects of the urinary matrix on the antimicrobial activity of the drug were taken into account when performing PK/PD calculations. However, a concentration-dependent bactericidal activity (Cmax/MIC > 8-10) which is claimed for fluoroquinolones was sufficiently met with focus on Escherichia (E.) coli (MIC90 0.5 microg/ml). In the same matrix a threshold value of 1.0 microg/ml was undercut 82 and 116 hours after SC dosing, respectively. Hence, a time-dependent bacteria killing kinetic (T > MIC) which may be of relevance for some Gram-positive germs like Staphylococcus spp. (MIC90 1.0 microg/ml) should be covered, too.

  3. Posaconazole plasma concentration in pediatric patients receiving antifungal prophylaxis after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinz, Werner J; Cabanillas Stanchi, Karin M; Klinker, Hartwig; Blume, Olivia; Feucht, Judith; Hartmann, Ulrike; Feuchtinger, Tobias; Lang, Peter; Handgretinger, Rupert; Döring, Michaela

    2016-02-01

    Posaconazole has been proven to be effective for antifungal prophylaxis in adults after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Due to low gastrointestinal resorption of posaconazole suspension, bioavailability is impaired. Fatty food improves the uptake of posaconazole, but insufficient data on the pharmacokinetics of posaconazole in pediatric patients are available so far. The single-center analysis investigated 161 posaconazole serum concentrations in 27 pediatric patients after HSCT receiving 12 mg·kg BW(-1)·d(-1) posaconazole suspension depending on age, gender, and intestinal graft-versus-host (iGvHD) disease, and the influence of posaconazole on cyclosporine A plasma concentrations. To improve the uptake of posaconazole, one patient cohort received higher fat nutrition with the drug administration. A comparison of the regular nutrition and higher-fat nutrition groups revealed the following values: 31 (27.4%) versus 8 (16.7%) 2000 ng/ml. The mean posaconazole concentrations in patients with regular nutrition was 1123 ± 811 ng/ml and with higher-fat nutrition was 1191 ± 673 ng/ml. Posaconazole levels in patients with iGvHD were significantly lower (P = 0.0003) than in patients without GvHD. The majority of samples showed a sufficient posaconazole concentration above 700 ng/ml. Posaconazole levels were slightly higher in patients with higher-fat nutrition and significantly lower in patients with iGvHD. Cyclosporine A levels were not significantly higher during posaconazole administration.

  4. Fluctuation in Plasma 5-Fluorouracil Concentration During Continuous 5-Fluorouracil Infusion for Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Hideo; Okumura, Hideo; Murakami, Haruaki; Kubota, Hisako; Higashida, Masaharu; Tsuruta, Atsushi; Tohyama, Kaoru; Hirai, Toshihiro

    2015-11-01

    It is generally believed that the plasma concentration of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) is constant when 5-FU is continually administered for chemotherapy. The aim of the present study was to verify whether this is true. Nine patients with colorectal cancer were enrolled in this study. All patients received chemotherapy; four patients received FOLFIRI (leucovorin, 5-fluorouracil, irinotecan) and five received FOLFOX (leucovorin, 5-fluorouracil, oxaliplatin). 5-FU was administered continuously (2400 mg/m(2)) for 46 h. Serum was collected at 12 points after the start of administration. The concentration of 5-FU was evaluated using a new immunoassay method and gas chromatography-mass spectrometric (GC/MS) method. The concentrations of 5-FU fluctuated dramatically over time, with greater than 3-fold changes in each individual, and the pattern was not constant. Because the serum concentration of 5-FU fluctuates and displays various patterns, the dosage should not be based on body surface area. A new individualized method for determining the 5-FU dosage should be developed. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  5. Establishing human heart chromium, cobalt and vanadium concentrations by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Patrick L; Eckdahl, Steven J; Maleszewski, Joseph J; Wright, Thomas C; Murray, David L

    2017-05-01

    Chromium, cobalt, and vanadium are used in metallic joint prosthesis. Case studies have associated elevated heart tissue cobalt concentrations with myocardial injury. To document the long term heart metal ion concentrations, a validated inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) method was needed. The method utilized a closed-vessel microwave digestion system to digest the samples. An ICP-MS method utilizing Universal Cell Technology was used to determine our target analyte concentrations. Accuracy was verified using reference materials. Precision, sensitivity, recovery and linearity studies were performed. This method was used to establish a reference range for a non-implant containing cohort of 80 autopsy human heart tissues RESULTS: This method demonstrated an analytic measurement range of 0.5-100ng/mL for each element. Accuracy was within ±10% of target value for each element. Within-run precision for each element was below 20% CV. The chromium, vanadium and cobalt concentrations (mean±SD) were 0.1523±0.2157μg/g, 0.0094±0.0211μg/g and 0.1039±0.1305μg/g respectively in 80 non-implant containing human heart tissue samples. This method provides acceptable recovery of the chromium, cobalt and vanadium in heart tissue; allowing assessment of the effects of metallic joint prosthesis on myocardial health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of ophthalmic disease on concentrations of plasma fibrinogen and serum amyloid A in the horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labelle, A L; Hamor, R E; Macneill, A L; Lascola, K M; Breaux, C B; Tolar, E L

    2011-07-01

    There is little scientific information available about the ability of ocular disease to cause a systemic inflammatory response. Horses are frequently affected with ocular disease and ensuring their systemic health prior to performing vision saving surgery under anaesthesia is essential for the successful treatment of ophthalmic disease. Ocular disease will cause elevations in the concentration of the acute phase proteins fibrinogen and serum amyloid A in peripheral blood. Whole blood and serum samples were obtained from 38 mature horses with ulcerative keratitis or uveitis and no evidence of systemic disease, 9 mature horses with no evidence of ocular or systemic disease (negative controls) and 10 mature horses with systemic inflammatory disease and no evidence of ocular disease (positive controls). Blood samples were assayed for concentrations of the acute phase proteins fibrinogen and serum amyloid A. Fibrinogen and serum amyloid A were significantly different in the positive control group compared to the negative control, corneal disease and uveitis groups (P<0.126). There was no significant difference between the negative control, corneal disease and uveitis groups (P<0.001). Ulcerative keratitis and anterior uveitis are not associated with elevated concentrations of the acute phase proteins fibrinogen and serum amyloid A in peripheral blood. When the clinician is presented with a patient with ocular disease and elevated plasma fibrinogen or serum amyloid A concentrations, a nonocular inflammatory focus should be suspected. © 2011 EVJ Ltd.

  7. Effect of vacuum conditions and plasma concentration on the chemical composition and adhesion of vacuum-plasma coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisov, D. P.; Kuznetsov, V. M.; Slabodchikov, V. A.

    2015-11-01

    The paper reports on the chemical composition of titanium nitride (TiN) and silicon (Si) coatings deposited with a new technological vacuum plasma setup which comprises magnetron sputtering systems, arc evaporators, and an efficient plasma generator. It is shown that due to highly clean vacuum conditions and highly clean surface treatment in the gas discharge plasma, both the coating-substrate interface and the coatings as such are almost free from oxygen and carbon. It is found that the coating-substrate interface represents a layer of thickness ≥ 60 nm formed through vacuum plasma mixing of the coating and substrate materials. The TiN coatings obtained on the new equipment display a higher adhesion compared to brass coatings deposited by industrial technologies via intermediate titanium oxide layers. It is concluded that the designed vacuum plasma equipment allows efficient surface modification of materials and articles by vacuum plasma immersion processes.

  8. Synovial fluid and plasma selenium, copper, zinc, and iron concentrations in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazar, M; Sarban, S; Kocyigit, A; Isikan, U E

    2005-08-01

    In recent years, a great number of studies have investigated the possible role of trace elements in the etiology and pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoartritis (OA). We studied synovial fluid and plasma concentrations of selenium (Se), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and iron (Fe) in patients with RA and OA and compared them with sex- and age-matched healthy subjects. Plasma albumin levels were measured as an index of nutritional status. Plasma Se, Cu, and Zn concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and Fe concentrations were determined by the colorimetric method. Although plasma and synovial fluid Se concentration were found to be significantly lower (p 0.05). On the other hand, synovial fluid Cu and Fe concentrations were significantly higher in patients with OA than those of healthy subjects (p < 0.05). There was a significantly positive correlation between synovial fluid Se-Cu values and Zn-Fe values in patients with RA. Our results showed that synovial fluid and plasma trace element concentrations, excluding Zn, change in inflammatory RA, but not in OA. These alterations in trace element concentrations in inflammatory RA might be a result of the changes of the immunoregulatory cytokines.

  9. Calculated plasma medial effective concentration of propofol with and without magnesium sulfate at loss of consciousness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Hong-liang; YE Tie-hu; SUN Li

    2011-01-01

    Background Perioperative disorder of magnesium,an important cation in the human body,may affect clinical anesthesia. The pharmacological data of propofol use,which is popularly used in the anesthesiology department and intensive care unit,is incomplete in Chinese patients. This study aimed to assess the effect of magnesium sulfate on the calculated plasma medial effective concentration (Cp50cal) of propofol at loss of response to command in Chinese females.Methods Fifty patients undergoing gynecological laparoscopic surgery were randomly divided into the control group and the magnesium group. Before induction,magnesium sulfate (30 mg/kg) or placebo (equal volume of 0.9% saline)was given to patients in the magnesium group or the control group,respectively. Propofol was infused using a target-controlled infusion system,with a target concentration for each patient decided by up-and-down sequential allocation. After the equilibration between target plasma concentration and effective-site concentration,the state of consciousness was assessed. For determination of serum magnesium and calcium concentration,blood samples were taken before induction,after induction and at the end of surgery.Results The Cp50cal was 2.52 μg/ml (2.47-2.57 μg/ml) for patients in the control group,and 2.46 μg/ml (2.41-2.51μg/ml) for those in the magnesium group. A significant reduction of Cp50cal was observed (P=0.021). There was a significant difference between the serum magnesium concentrations after induction and at the end of the surgery (P <0.05). In the magnesium group,there was a trend toward decreasing after surgery,while in the control group,Cp50cal decreased significantly (P <0.01).Conclusions Cp50cal of propofol at loss of response to command was 2.52 μg/ml (2.47-2.57 μg/ml) for Chinese female adults in this study. Infusion of 30 mg/kg magnesium sulfate may reduce the Cp50cal of propofol at loss of consciousness,which implies that magnesium may enhance the pharmacological

  10. Increasing in activity and plasma concentration of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in metastatic breast cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Sadeghi1

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available (Received 30 March, 2009 ; Accepted 22 July, 2009AbstractBackground and purpose: Matrix metalloproteinase are a family of proteolytic enzymes that have specific functions in digestion of cells cohesive extra cellular matrix and also, increasing metastasis behavior of acute human tumors. It has been reported that MMPs in two forms, namely proenzyme and active enzyme in biological samples. It is distinguished that among this family, (MMP-9 Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 has function in both initiation and invasion steps of breast cancer. In our previous study, we reported a correlation between C/T polymorphism at promoter region of this gene and metastasis step of breast cancer.Considering few findings regarding the relationship between the active form of this enzyme and occurrence of cancer, and also the correlation between active form and allelic genotype of persons, in this study we decided to do a parallel study on measurement of active plasma MMP-9 and its relationship with allelic genotype of breast cancer patients.Materials and methods: After analysis of data, we found that concentration of active MMP-9 has a significant difference in breast cancer patients in comparison with control group, as the concentration of active form of this enzyme was less in control group than the breast cancer patients group (0.7 ng and 1.7 ng respectively. Thus, the level of active MMP-9 showed a significant increase in persons with CT and TT genotypes in comparison with CC genotype (1.5 folds.Results: The present data suggest the concentration of active MMP-9 in breast cancer patients has significantly increased in comparison with the control group and the increased in plasma level of this enzyme is related with the existence of T allele at this gene promoter and also in progression of breast cancer in these patients. We can use the active plasma level of this enzyme or the existence of T allele as a diagnostic tool for discriminating subgroups of breast cancer

  11. Effect of pubertal development and physical activity on plasma ghrelin concentration in boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jürimäe, J; Cicchella, A; Tillmann, V; Lätt, E; Haljaste, K; Purge, P; Pomerants, T; Jürimäe, T

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of regular physical activity on plasma ghrelin concentration in pre-pubertal and pubertal boys. In addition, the impact of ghrelin concentration on bone mineral density (BMD) was examined. In total, 56 healthy schoolboys aged between 10 and 16 yr were divided into the swimming (no.=28) and the control (no.=28) groups. The subjects were matched by age and body mass index (BMI), generating 9 matched pairs in pubertal group I (Tanner stage 1), 11 pairs in group II (Tanner stages 2 and 3), and 8 pairs in group III (Tanner stages 4 and 5). Swimmers in pubertal groups II and III had significantly (both pghrelin levels than the controls (group II: 1126.8+/-406.0 vs 868.3+/-411.2 pg/ml; group III: 1105.5+/-337.5 vs 850.8+/-306.0 pg/ml, respectively), whereas no difference was seen in the pubertal group I (1230.8+/-386.0 vs 1272.7+/-424.4 pg/ml). Ghrelin was the most important hormonal determinant for total BMD and lumbar apparent volumetric BMD (BMAD) (R2=27.2% and R2=19.8%, respectively) in swimmers, whereas in control boys, plasma IGF-I was the most important hormonal predictor accounting for 41.8% of the variability of total BMD and 20.4% of the variability of lumbar BMAD. In conclusion, ghrelin concentration decreased during puberty in physically inactive boys, while in regularly physically active boys it remained relatively unchanged. Ghrelin appears to be an important hormonal predictor for BMD in physically active boys, while BMD is mostly determined by IGF-I in physically inactive boys.

  12. An HPLC-UV method for determining plasma dimethylacetamide concentrations in patients receiving intravenous busulfan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cendana, Mildred; Lee, Samiuela; Upadhyay, Parth J; Byrne, Jennifer A; Shaw, Peter J; Earl, John; Nath, Christa E

    2016-12-07

    Dimethylacetamide (DMA) is a solvent used in the preparation of intravenous busulfan, an alkylating agent used in blood or marrow transplantation. DMA may contribute to hepatic toxicity, so it is important to monitor its clearance. The aim of this study was to develop an HPLC-UV assay for measurement of DMA in human plasma. After precipitation of plasma proteins with acetonitrile followed by dilution (1:4) with water, the extract was injected onto the HPLC and detected at 195 nm. Separation was performed using a Cogent-HPS 5 μm C18 column (250 × 4.6 mm) preceded by a Brownlee 7 μm RP18 , pre-column (1.5 cm × 3.2 mm). The mobile phase was 25 mm sodium phosphate buffer (pH 3), containing 2.5% (v/v) acetonitrile and 0.0005% (v/v) sodium-octyl-sulfonate. Using a flow rate of 1 mL/min, the retention times of DMA and the internal standard (IS), 2-chloroacetamide, were 9.5 and 3.5 min, respectively. Peak area ratio (DMA:IS) was a linear function of concentration from 1 to 1000 μg/mL. There was excellent intraday precision (<5% for 5-700 μg/mL DMA), accuracy (<3% deviation from the true concentration) and recovery (74-98%). The limits of detection and quantification were 1 and 5 μg/mL, respectively. In eight children who received intravenous busulfan, DMA concentrations ranged from 110 to 438 μg/mL.

  13. Association between dopamine-related polymorphisms and plasma concentrations of prolactin during risperidone treatment in schizophrenic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui-Furukori, Norio; Saito, Manabu; Tsuchimine, Shoko; Nakagami, Taku; Sato, Yasushi; Sugawara, Norio; Kaneko, Sunao

    2008-08-01

    Hyperprolactinemia is an inevitable consequence of treatment with antipsychotic agents to some extent because prolactin response to antipsychotics is related to dopamine blockade. Recent studies have suggested that polymorphisms of the dopamine receptors are associated with therapeutic response to antipsychotics. Thus, we studied the effects of major polymorphisms of dopamine-related genes on plasma concentration of prolactin. Subjects were 174 schizophrenic patients (68 males, 106 females) receiving 3 mg twice daily of risperidone for at least 4 weeks. Sample collections were conducted 12 h after the bedtime dosing. Five dopamine-related polymorphisms (Taq1A, -141C ins/del for DRD2, Ser9Gly for DRD3, 48 bp VNTR for DRD4, Val158Met for COMT) were identified. The mean (+/-SD) plasma concentration of prolactin in females was significantly higher than males (54.3+/-27.2 ng/ml versus 126.8+/-70.2 ng/ml, p<0.001). No dopamine-related polymorphisms differed the plasma concentration of prolactin in males or females. Multiple regression analyses including plasma drug concentration and age revealed that plasma concentration of prolactin correlated with gender (standardized partial correlation coefficients (beta)=0.551, p<0.001) and negatively with age (standardized beta=-0.202, p<0.01). No correlations were found between prolactin concentration and dopamine-related polymorphisms. These findings suggest that plasma prolactin concentrations in females are much higher than in males but the dopamine-related variants are not predominantly associated with plasma concentration of prolactin.

  14. Effects of storage time on total protein and globulin concentrations in bovine fresh frozen plasma obtained for transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proverbio, D; Spada, E; Baggiani, L; Bagnagatti De Giorgi, G; Roggero, N; Belloli, A; Pravettoni, D; Perego, R

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of storage conditions on total protein (TP) and globulin fractions in fresh frozen bovine plasma units prepared and stored for transfusion, TP and globulin fractions were evaluated in fresh plasma and at 1 month and 6 and 12 months after blood collection in plasma stored at -20°C. Significant differences in concentrations were found in the median concentration of total protein (P=0.0336), between 0 months and 1 month (P=0.0108), 0 and 6 months (P=0.0023), and 0 and 12 months (P=0.0027), in mean concentration (g/dL) of albumin (P=0.0394), between 0 months and 1 month (P=0.0131), 0 and 6 months (P=0.0035), and 0 and 12 months (P=0.0038), and beta-2 fraction (P=0.0401), between 0 and 6 months (P=0.0401) and 0 and 12 months (P=0.0230). This study suggests that total gamma globulin concentration in bovine frozen plasma is stable for 12 months at -20°C. Total protein, ALB, and beta-2 fraction have significantly different concentrations (g/dL) when compared to prestorage. This study has shown IgG protein fraction stability in bovine fresh frozen plasma collected for transfusion; therefore, bovine fresh frozen plasma seems to be suitable for the treatment of hypogammaglobulinemia (failure of passive transfer) in calves when stored for 12 months at -20°C.

  15. The relationship between bone health and plasma zinc, copper lead and cadmium concentration in osteoporotic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Naficeh; Oveisi, Mohammad Reza; Jannat, Behrooz; Hajimahmoodi, Mannan; Behzad, Masoomeh; Behfar, Abdolazim; Sadeghi, Fatemeh; Saadatmand, Sahereh

    2014-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a multi factorial disease with dimension of genetic and nutritional considerations. The aim of this study was to present data from the association of plasma zinc, copper and toxic elements of lead and cadmium levels with bone mineral density in Iranian women. 135 women gave their information and enrolled. Fasting plasma was used for measurement of trace elements and heavy metals by Differential Pulse Anodic Stripping Voltammetry. Control group (n = 51) were normal in both lumbar spine (L1-L4) and femoral neck density (T-score ≥ -1), but just femoral neck T-score was considered as criterion in selection of patient group (n = 49, Tscore T-score > -1.7), 1.463 ± 0.174, 1.327 ± 0.147 μg/ml in Severe patient group (T-score < -1.7); respectively. Mean ± SD plasma level of lead and cadmium was 168.42 ± 9.61 ng/l, 2.91 ± 0.18 ng/ml in control group, 176.13 ± 8.64 ng/l, 2.97 ± 0.21 ng/ml in TP, 176.43 ± 13.2 ng/l, 2.99 ± 0.1 ng/ml in mild patients, 221.44 ± 20 ng/l and 3.80 ± 0.70 ng/ml in severe patient group, respectively. In this study plasma zinc, copper, lead & cadmium concentrations were higher in the patients than in the control, though differences were not significant. However, differences were higher between the controls and patients with severe disease (T-score < -1.7). In addition adjusted T-score of femur with age and BMI showed negative significant correlation with plasma levels of zinc and lead in total participants (p < 0.05, r = -0.201, p = 0.044, r = -0.201). It seems that more extensive study with larger ample size might supply definite results about this association for copper and cadmium.

  16. THEOPHYLLINE-INDUCED ALTERATION IN SERUM ELECTROLYTES AND URIC ACID OF ASTHMATIC CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Amin

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Theophylline, (1,3-dimethylxanthine is widely used as a smooth muscle relaxant, myocardial stimulant and a diuretic agent. The most frequent use of theophylline is in treatment of acute and chronic asthma as a bronchodilator.To determine the effect of Theophylline on serum electrolyte and uric acid, 21 asthmatic children (age range 1,5-7 years with severe acute asthma and 25 patients with chronic asthma (5-15 years who were being treated with slow-release theophylline were enrolled in this study. Fifty age and sex matched normal children took part as control. Blood samples (5ml were withdrawn before, during and after completion of the course of intravenous theophylline treatment (0.05-0.70 mg/kg/ hr. Sera obtained were used for analysis of K+, Na+, phosphorus, calcium and uric acid by RA-1000 automated analyzer and the following results were obtained:(1 After treatment, total serum calcium in acute asthmatic patients decreased significantly compared with controls (PWe conclude that the serum levels of phosphate, potassium, calcium and uric acid should be monitored in patient receiving theophylline especially during prolonged use and critical emergency cases.

  17. An alternative antidote therapy in amitriptyline-induced rat toxicity model: theophylline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oransay, Kubilay; Kalkan, Sule; Hocaoglu, Nil; Arici, Aylin; Tuncok, Yesim

    2011-01-01

    We planned this study in order to investigate the effects of theophylline on cardiovascular parameters in an anaesthetized rat model of amitriptyline toxicity. In the preliminary study, we tested theophylline as 1 mg/kg of bolus, followed by a 0.5-mg/kg infusion. Toxicity was induced by the infusion of 0.94 mg/kg/min of amitriptyline up to the point of a 40-45% inhibition of mean arterial pressure (MAP). The rats were randomized to two groups: a group of 5% dextrose bolus followed by 5% dextrose infusion, and another group with theophylline bolus followed by infusion. Amitriptyline caused a significant decrease in MAP and prolongation in QRS; however, it did not alter heart rate (HR). When compared to the dextrose group, theophylline administration increased MAP, shortened prolonged QRS duration, and increased HR (P  0.05). Bolus doses followed by a continuous infusion of theophylline were found to be effective in reversing the hypotension and QRS prolongation seen in amitriptyline toxicity. One of the possible explanations of this beneficial effect is nonselective adenosine antagonism of theophylline. Further studies are needed to reveal the exact mechanism of the observed effect.

  18. Serum vaspin level in relation to postprandial plasma glucose concentration in subjects with diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Yin; HOU Xu-hong; PAN Xiao-ping; LU Jun-xi; JIA Wei-ping

    2009-01-01

    Background Vaspin is a newly-identified adipocytokine related to obesity and insulin sensitivity.However,its pathophysiologic role in humans remains largely unknown.The aim of our study was to investigate the relationship between serum vaspin level and glucose metabolism or obesity in Chinese adults.Methods A total of 123 subjects,including 84 subjects with normal glucose tolerance(NGT)and 39 subjects with diabetes,were enrolled in this study.Anthropometric parameters,abdominal fat areas,plasma glucose concentration,serum insulin,lipids,and vaspin level were measured in each participant.Results Serum vaspin concentration was significantly higher in diabetic patients than that in NGT subjects(592 (438-695)pg/ml vs 380(294-517)pg/ml,P=0.020)in women.In all participants,age,fasting plasma glucose concentration(FPG),2-hour post-load plasma glucose(PG2h),hemoglobin Alc(HbAlc)and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol(HDL-c)significantly increased from the lower tertile to the higher tertile of vaspin.Univariate linear regression analyses revealed that vaspin level was only positively correlated with age(β=0.340,P=0.002)in NGT subjects.And vaspin was positively associated with FPG(β=0.365,P=0.023),PG2h(β=0.526,P=0.001),HbA1c(13=0.388,P=0.016),and HDL-c(β=0.353,P=0.027),while negatively with homeostasis model assessment of beta cell function(HOMA-β)(β=-0.361,P=0.024)in diabetic patients.In stepwise multivariate regression analyses,age was independently associated with circulating vaspin in NGT subjects,whereas PG2h was an independent predictor of vaspin in diabetic patients.In addition,there was no significant difference of serum vaspin level between men and women.And no significant correlations between vaspin and body fat indexes were detected.Conclusions Serum vaspin level is higher in diabetic patients than that in NGT subjects in women.Age predicts serum vaspin level in NGT subjects,while PG2h is independently associated with vaspin in diabetic patients.

  19. Comparison of blood lead and blood and plasma δ-aminolevulinic acid concentrations as biomarkers for lead poisoning in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hwan Goo; Bischoff, Karyn; Ebel, Joseph G; Cha, Sang Ho; McCardle, James; Choi, Cheong Up

    2010-11-01

    Lead (Pb) concentrations in whole blood and δ-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) concentrations in plasma and whole blood from 37 cattle with suspected Pb exposure were determined in order to investigate the usefulness of ALA as a biological indicator for Pb poisoning in cattle. Cows were divided into 4 groups based on blood Pb, as follows: ppb (group 1), 30-100 ppb (group 2), 100-300 ppb (group 3), and >300 ppb (group 4). The derivatization reaction for ALA was improved by a greater than 2-fold measure in whole blood and by a 10-fold measure in plasma by adding 75 and 50 µl of 0.1 N HCl, respectively. Blood Pb concentrations ranged from ppb to 1,006 ppb (185.5 ± 254.9 ppb), with 17 samples containing >50 ppb Pb. Delta-aminolevulinic acid concentrations in whole blood and plasma ranged from ppb to 96.9 ppb (77.4 ± 8.4 ppb) and from ppb to 24.0 ppb (4.6 ± 3.8 ppb), respectively. Whole blood ALA did not correlate with blood lead concentrations in any group. Increase in plasma ALA concentration was dependent on blood Pb concentration. There was no correlation between blood Pb concentration and plasma ALA concentration in group 2 (n  =  4), but correlation coefficients were 0.736 in group 3 and 0.807 in group 4, respectively. The correlation coefficient was increased to 0.851 when groups 3 and 4 were combined. Based on these observations, in cattle, plasma ALA is a more reliable biological biomarker for Pb exposure than is blood ALA.

  20. Effects of humidity on the plasma-catalytic removal of low-concentration BTX in air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan Xing [School of Chemistry and Environment, Beihang University, No. 37, Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100191 (China); Zhu Tianle, E-mail: zhutl@buaa.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Environment, Beihang University, No. 37, Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100191 (China); Wan Yajuan; Yan Xiao [School of Chemistry and Environment, Beihang University, No. 37, Xueyuan Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2010-08-15

    Effects of relative humidity (30%, 50% and 80% RH) on the removal of low-concentration benzene, toluene and p-xylene (BTX mixture) in air by non-thermal plasma (NTP) and the combination of NTP and MnO{sub x}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst (CPC) were systematically investigated in a link tooth wheel-cylinder plasma reactor. A long-term (150 h) CPC experiment under 30% RH was also conducted to investigate the stability of the catalyst. Results show that increasing humidity inhibits the O{sub 3} production in plasma and its decomposition over the catalyst. As for BTX conversion, increasing humidity suppresses the benzene conversion by both NTP and CPC; although higher humidity slightly promotes the toluene conversion by NTP, it negatively influences that by CPC; while the conversion of p-xylene by both NTP and CPC is insensitive to the humidity levels. Irrespective of the RH, the introduction of MnO{sub x}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst significantly promotes BTX conversion and improves the energy efficiency. On the other hand, CPC under 30% RH shows the best performance towards CO{sub x} formation during BTX oxidation processes. However, for a specific input energy of 10 J L{sup -1} in this study, organic intermediates generated and accumulated over the catalyst surface, resulting in a slight deactivation of the MnO{sub x}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst after 150-h reactions.

  1. Physiologically relevant plasma d,l-homocysteine concentrations mobilize Cd from human serum albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagmeister, Peter; Gibson, Matthew A; McDade, Kyle H; Gailer, Jürgen

    2016-08-01

    Although low-level chronic exposure of humans to cadmium (Cd(2+)) can result in a variety of adverse health effects, little is known about the role that its interactions with plasma proteins and small molecular weight (SMW) ligands in the bloodstream may play in delivering this metal to its target organs. To gain insight, a Cd-human serum albumin (HSA) 1:1 (molar ratio) complex was analyzed by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) coupled on-line to a flame atomic absorption spectrometer (FAAS). Using a phosphate buffered saline (PBS)-buffer mobile phase, the stability of the Cd-HSA complex was investigated in the presence of 2.0mM of SMW ligands, including taurine, acetaminophen, l-methionine, l-cysteine (Cys), d,l-homocysteine (hCys) or l-cysteine methyl-ester (Cys-Me). While taurine, acetaminophen and l-methionine did not affect its integrity, Cys, hCys and Cys-Me completely abstracted Cd from HSA. Subsequent investigations into the effect of 1.5, 1.0 and 0.5mM Cys and hCys on the integrity of the Cd-HSA complex revealed clear differences with regard to the nature of the eluting SMW-Cd species between these structurally related endogenous thiols. Interestingly, the Cd-specific chromatograms that were obtained for 0.5mM hCys revealed the elution of an apparent mixture of the parent Cd-HSA complex with a significant contribution of a structurally uncharacterized CdxhCysy species. Since this hCys concentration is encountered in blood plasma of hyperhomocysteinemia patients and since previous studies by others have revealed that a SH-containing carrier mediates the uptake of Cd into hepatocytes, our results suggest that plasma hCys may play a role in the toxicologically relevant translocation of Cd from the bloodstream to mammalian target organs.

  2. Plasma and synovial fluid concentrations of calcium pentosan polysulphate achieved in the horse following intramuscular injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, C J; Ghosh, P; Barr, A R S

    2002-01-01

    Results from in vitro studies have indicated that calcium pentosan polysulphate (CaPPS) may be of therapeutic value in osteoarthritis (OA) in the horse. However, no controlled clinical trials using this drug in equine OA have yet been reported. If CaPPS is to be developed for such use, the relationship between the proposed i.m. dose of CaPPS to be used and the concentrations of drug attained in plasma and synovial fluid of the target joint should first be established. An investigation was undertaken to determine these concentrations after a single 2 mg/kg i.m. injection of CaPPS. Blood and synovial fluid samples were taken from 6 healthy, sound horses following i.m. CaPPS administration. Concentrations of CaPPS measured in the synovial fluid were, on the basis of published studies, sufficient to elicit a potential therapeutic effect on synoviocyte metabolism, and possibly also to stimulate proteoglycan synthesis and reduce matrix metalloproteinase activities in articular cartilage. It would therefore seem justified to investigate further the therapeutic effect of CaPPS in OA in the horse.

  3. Blood Biochemistry and Plasma Corticosterone Concentration in Broiler Chickens Under Heat Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvis Alexander Díaz López

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available High ambient temperatures cause susceptibility to heat stress in broiler chickens, generating metabolic changes. This paper seeks to determine the changes in blood biochemistry and plasma corticosterone concentration, as well as in glucose, total protein, albumin, globulin, sodium, chlorine, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, and calcium in broiler chickens under chronic heat stress and at ambient temperature conditions at the Colombian Amazonian piedmont. 21-days-old male chickens of two lines were studied, distributed in an unrestricted random design, in a two-factor scheme, with four treatments. Five repetitions per treatment were performed, and 25 animals per experimental unit examined. Broilers were fed a basic diet of corn and soybean meal with 3,100 kcal ME and 19.5% protein until they reached 42 days of age. The line factor had no effect on the evaluated variables (p ≥ 0.05. However, there was statistically significant difference (p ≤ 0.05 in all variables when concentrations of metabolites in broilers under chronic heat stress were compared to those of chickens exposed to ambient temperatures at the Colombian Amazon piedmont. In conclusion, blood biochemistry suffered significant changes under both experimental temperatures, with more physiological detriment in broilers under chronic heat stress. Concentration of corticosterone became the most sensitive and consistent indicator of the physiological condition of chronic heat stress.

  4. Composition of highly concentrated silicate electrolytes and ultrasound influencing the plasma electrolytic oxidation of magnesium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simchen, F.; Rymer, L.-M.; Sieber, M.; Lampke, T.

    2017-03-01

    Magnesium and its alloys are increasingly in use as lightweight construction materials. However, their inappropriate corrosion and wear resistance often prevent their direct practical use. The plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) is a promising, environmentally friendly method to improve the surface characteristics of magnesium materials by the formation of oxide coatings. These PEO layers contain components of the applied electrolyte and can be shifted in their composition by increasing the concentration of the electrolyte constituents. Therefore, in contrast to the use of conventional low concentrated electrolytes, the process results in more stable protective coatings, in which electrolyte species are the dominating constitutes. In the present work, the influence of the composition of highly concentrated alkaline silicate electrolytes with additives of phosphate and glycerol on the quality of PEO layers on the magnesium alloy AZ31 was examined. The effect of ultrasound coupled into the electrolyte bath was also considered. The process was monitored by recording the electrical process variables with a transient recorder and by observation of the discharge phenomena on the sample surface with a camera. The study was conducted on the basis of a design of experiments. The effects of the process parameter variation are considered with regard to the coatings thickness, hardness and corrosion resistance. Information about the statistical significance of the effects of the parameters on the considered properties is obtained by an analysis of variance (ANOVA).

  5. Large inter-individual variation in isoflavone plasma concentration limits use of isoflavone intake data for risk assessement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velpen, van der V.; Hollman, P.C.H.; Nielen, van M.; Schouten, E.G.; Mensink, M.R.; Veer, van 't P.; Geelen, A.

    2014-01-01

    Background/objectives: Isoflavones are present in soy foods and soy-based supplements. Despite low plasma isoflavone concentrations in the general Western population, concentrations in supplement users exceed those suggested to be beneficial for health in Asian populations, raising concerns for

  6. Different antibacterial activity of novel theophylline-based ionic liquids - Growth kinetic and cytotoxicity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borkowski, Andrzej; Ławniczak, Łukasz; Cłapa, Tomasz; Narożna, Dorota; Selwet, Marek; Pęziak, Daria; Markiewicz, Bartosz; Chrzanowski, Łukasz

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate novel theophylline-based ionic liquids and their cytotoxic effects towards model Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli, respectively). Growth kinetics, respiratory rates and dehydrogenase activities were studied in the presence of ionic liquids at concentrations ranging from 10 to 1000mg/L. Additionally, the influence of ionic liquids on bacterial cells associated with specific interactions based on the structure of cell wall was evaluated. This effect was assessed by viability tests and scanning electron microscope observations. The obtained results confirmed that ionic liquids exhibit different levels of toxicity in relation to Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Those effects are associated with the chemical structure of the cationic species of the ionic liquids and their critical micelle concentration value. It was established that the presence of an alkyl or allyl group increased the toxicity, whereas the presence of an aryl group in the cation decreased the toxic effect of ILs. Results presented in this study also revealed unexpected effects of self-aggregation of E. coli cells. Overall, it was established that the studied ILs exhibited higher toxicity towards Gram-positive bacteria due to different interactions between the ILs and the cell membranes. These findings may be of importance for the design of ILs with targeted antimicrobial properties.

  7. Getting the MAX out of Computational Models: The Prediction of Unbound-Brain and Unbound-Plasma Maximum Concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mente, Scot; Doran, Angela; Wager, Travis T

    2012-06-14

    The objective of this work was to establish that unbound maximum concentrations may be reasonably predicted from a combination of computed molecular properties assuming subcutaneous (SQ) dosing. Additionally, we show that the maximum unbound plasma and brain concentrations may be projected from a mixture of in vitro absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion experimental parameters in combination with computed properties (volume of distribution, fraction unbound in microsomes). Finally, we demonstrate the utility of the underlying equations by showing that the maximum total plasma concentrations can be projected from the experimental parameters for a set of compounds with data collected from clinical research.

  8. Plasma assisted measurements of alkali metal concentrations in pressurized combustion processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernberg, R.; Haeyrinen, V. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Dept. of Physics

    1996-12-01

    The plasma assisted method for continuous measurement of alkali concentrations in product gas flows of pressurized energy processes will be tested and applied at the 1.6 MW PFBC/G facility at Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands. During the reporting period the alkali measuring device has been tested under pressurized conditions at VTT Energy, DMT, Foster-Wheeler Energia and ABB Carbon. Measurements in Delft will be performed during 1996 after installation of the hot gas filter. The original plan for measurements in Delft has been postponed due to schedule delays in Delft. The results are expected to give information about the influence of different process conditions on the generation of alkali vapours, the comparison of different methods for alkali measurement and the specific performance of our system. This will be the first test of the plasma assisted measurement method in a gasification process. The project belongs to the Joule II extension program under contract JOU2-CT93-0431. (author)

  9. Relationship between plasma growth hormone concentration and cellular sodium transport in acromegaly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herlitz, H.; Jonsson, O.; Bengtsson, B.-Aa. (Departments of Nephrology, Urology and Endocrinology, University of Goeteborg, Goeteborg (Sweden))

    1992-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between mean plasma growth hormone (GH) concentration and cellular sodium transport in untreated and treated acromegaly. Seventeen patients (age 55 [+-] 3 years) with active acromegaly were studied with respect to plasma GH (mean of 24 h GH profile) and erythrocyte electrolyte content as well as transmembrane sodium transport. The patients were reinvestigated two weeks after successful surgery (N = 14) and again after one year (N = 13). Erythrocyte electrolytes were analyzed by flame photometry and sodium influx and efflux rate constant determined by in vitro incubation using a modified Keyne's formula. In patients with active acromegaly there was a significant positive correlation between IGF-1 and cellular sodium transport, while GH tended to show a negative relatonship to the same parameter. After successful treatment, both IGF-1 and GH disclosed a positive relationship to cellular sodium transport. After one year, a significant increase in erythrocyte sodium content was seen in the patients compared to the preoperative situation. In conclusion, if this is a generalized phenomonen the results are compatible with a sodium-retaining effect of GH via stimulation of transmembrane sodium transport. In active acromegaly this may be counteracted by a sodium transport inhibitor giving the reverse relationship between GH and cellular sodium transport. (au).

  10. A single untimed plasma drug concentration measurement during low-level HIV viremia predicts virologic failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Serna, A; Swenson, L C; Watson, B; Zhang, W; Nohpal, A; Auyeung, K; Montaner, J S; Harrigan, P R

    2016-12-01

    Suboptimal untimed plasma drug levels (UDL) have been associated with lower rates of virologic suppression and the emergence of drug resistance. Our aim was to evaluate whether UDL among patients with low-level viremia (LLV) while receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) can predict subsequent virologic failure (plasma viral load ≥1000 copies/mL) and emergence of resistance. The first documented LLV episode of 328 consenting patients was analysed in terms of drug levels, viral load and resistance, which were monitored while patients were on a consistent HAART regimen. UDL of protease inhibitors (PIs) and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), were categorized as 'therapeutic' or 'subtherapeutic' based on predefined target trough concentrations. Drug resistance genotype was assessed using the Stanford algorithm. Time to virologic failure was evaluated by Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox proportional hazards regression. We found 78 of 328 patients (24%) with subtherapeutic drug levels at time of first detectable LLV, while 19% harboured drug-resistant virus. Both subtherapeutic UDL and drug resistance independently increased the risk of subsequent virologic failure (p resistance. Patients with subtherapeutic UDL accumulated further drug resistance faster during follow-up (p 0.03). Together, resistance and UDL variables can explain a higher proportion of virologic failure than either measure alone. Our results support further prospective evaluation of UDL in the management of low-level viremia. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Associations between plasma concentrations of PCB 28 and possible indoor exposure sources in Danish school children and mothers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egsmose, Emilie Lund; Bräuner, Elvira Vaclavik; Frederiksen, Marie;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitously present in the environment and are suspected of carcinogenic, neurotoxic and immunotoxic effects. Significantly higher plasma concentrations of the congener PCB 28 occur in children compared to adults. Exposure in schools may contribute...... to this difference. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether increased blood plasma concentrations of PCB 28 in Danish school children and mothers are associated with living in homes or attending schools constructed in the PCB period (1959-1977). METHODS: PCB 28 was analyzed in plasma samples from 116 children aged 6-11years...... were 40 (95% CI: 13; 68) percent higher than concentrations of children living in homes constructed at other times. Furthermore, children attending schools built or substantially refurbished in the PCB period also had significantly higher (46%, 95% CI: 22; 70) PCB 28 concentrations compared to children...

  12. EVALUATION OF PLASMA LACTATE CONCENTRATION IN UNEXPLAINED MYOPATHIES WITH MULTI-ORGAN INVOLVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papia

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Myopathies are disorders of muscle with structural c hanges or functional impairment. Mitochondrial myopathies are caused by g enetic mutations that directly influence the functioning of the electron transport chain. The ubiquitous distribution of the mitochondria in the human body explains the multiple organ involv ement. Diagnosis often requires a multifaceted approach with measurements of serum lact ate, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, muscle histology and ultrastructure, enzymology, ge netic analysis, and exercise testing. The present study was conducted to find out the reason b ehind unexplained myopathies with multi- organ involvement by measuring plasma lactate concen tration in patients who were suspected to be suffering from mitochondrial disorders. Muscl e biopsy samples of those patients were also subjected for histopathological assessment. Out of t wenty suspected patients, nine patients showed high lactate concentration and their muscle biopsy sample also revealed some changes suggestive of mitochondrial disorders.

  13. Treatment of infants with congenital toxoplasmosis: tolerability and plasma concentrations of sulfadiazine and pyrimethamine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Dorte Remmer; Høgh, Birthe; Andersen, O;

    2006-01-01

    acid 7.5 mg was administered twice weekly. Blood cell counts and body weight were recorded during follow-up. The plasma concentrations of pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine were analysed in a subgroup of seven children, using high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet and mass spectrometric...... detection. Of 48 infants, 41 completed the treatment without change in schedule. Six infants had neutrophil counts below 0.5×109/l, and one infant had an elevated bilirubin value. Twenty-nine children were tested by a series of neutrophil counts during treatment. The neutrophil count was 0.5×109/l or lower......A-antibodies on 3 mm blood spots collected from phenylketonuria [PKU cards (Guthrie cards)]. Toxoplasma-infected children received 3 months continuous treatment with 50–100 mg/kg per day sulfadiazine in two separate administrations and 1 mg/kg per day pyrimethamine after a 1-day loading dose of 2 mg/kg, and folinic...

  14. Plasma concentration and cardiovascular effects of lidocaine during continuous epidural administration in dogs anesthetized with isoflurane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakonju, Iwao; Maeda, Kenichi; Karasawa, Koichi; Tadokoro, Toshiyuki; Kakuta, Tomoko; Takase, Katsuaki

    2011-03-01

    The cardiovascular effects of continuous epidural administration (CEA) of lidocaine were investigated in anesthetized dogs. Loading epidural injections of 2, 4, or 6 mg/kg of lidocaine were followed by CEA with 1, 2, or 3 mg/kg/hr lidocaine, respectively, for 2 hr under 2.0% isoflurane anesthesia. Heart rate, direct blood pressure, cardiac index, and stroke volume decreased dose-dependently during CEA, whereas systemic vascular resistance did not significantly differ with dose, and no characteristic changes were observed in any groups. Plasma lidocaine concentration reached a steady state during CEA and increased in a dose-dependent manner. Circulatory suppression caused by lidocaine CEA was not attributable to peripheral vasodilation, but rather to the direct cardiac action of systemic lidocaine absorption from the peridural space.

  15. Plasma Fetuin-A concentration, genetic variation in the AHSG gene and risk of colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nimptsch, Katharina; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Boeing, Heiner

    2015-01-01

    .93-1.22) in women, 1.13 (1.00-1.27) for colon cancer and 1.12 (0.94-1.32) for rectal cancer. To improve causal inference in a Mendelian Randomization approach, five tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms of the AHSG gene were genotyped in a subset of 456 case-control pairs. The AHSG allele-score explained 21......% of the interindividual variation in plasma fetuin-A concentrations. In instrumental variable analysis, genetically raised fetuin-A was not associated with colorectal cancer risk (relative risk per 40 µg/mL genetically determined higher fetuin-A was 0.98, 95% confidence interval: 0.73-1.33). The findings of our study...

  16. Estimation of glomerular filtration rate from plasma creatinine concentration in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counahan, R; Chantler, C; Ghazali, S; Kirkwood, B; Rose, F; Barratt, T M

    1976-11-01

    The relation between the true plasma creatinine concentration (Pc) and the glomerular filtration rate corrected for body surface area (GFR/SA) was investigated in 108 individuals, and the following formula was derived: GFR/SA (ml/min per 1-73m2SA) = 0-43 Ht (cm)/Pc (mg/100 ml). This formula was tested in a second group of 83 children, and its accuracy and precision was compared to the 24-hour creatinine clearance. It was found to be superior to the creatinine clearance overall, and was as good, even if all results involving suspect 24-hour-urine collections were eliminated from analysis. The formula in SI usage is: GFR/SA (ml/min per 1-73 m2SA) = 38 Ht (cm)1Pc (mumol/l).

  17. Renal blood flow, early distal sodium, and plasma renin concentrations during osmotic diuresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leyssac, P P; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Skøtt, O

    2000-01-01

    .6 mmHg. Urine flow increased 10-fold, and sodium excretion increased by 177%. Plasma renin concentration (PRC) increased by 58%. Renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate decreased, however end-proximal flow remained unchanged. After a similar volume of hypotonic glucose (152 mM), ED......(NaCl) increased by 3.6 mM, (P sodium excretion rate, or PRC. Infusion of 300 micromol NaCl in a smaller volume caused ED(NaCl) to increase by 6.4 mM without significant changes in PRC. Urine flow and sodium excretion increased significantly....... There was a significant inverse relationship between superficial nephron ED(NaCl) and PRC. We conclude that ED(Na) decreases during osmotic diuresis, suggesting that the increase in PRC was mediated by the macula densa. The results suggest that the natriuresis during osmotic diuresis is a result of impaired sodium...

  18. The T1405N carbamoyl phosphate synthetase polymorphism does not affect plasma arginine concentrations in preterm infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob M J Moonen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A C-to-A nucleotide transversion (T1405N in the gene that encodes carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase 1 (CPS1 has been associated with changes in plasma concentrations of L-arginine in term and near term infants but not in adults. In preterm infants homozygosity for the CPS1 Thr1405 variant (CC genotype was associated with an increased risk of having necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC. Plasma L-arginine concentrations are decreased in preterm infants with NEC. AIM: To examine the putative association between the CPS1 T1405N polymorphism and plasma arginine concentrations in preterm infants. METHODS: Prospective multicenter cohort study. Plasma and DNA samples were collected from 128 preterm infants (<30 weeks between 6 and 12 hours after birth. Plasma amino acid and CPS1 T1405N polymorphism analysis were performed. RESULTS: Distribution of genotypes did not differ between the preterm (CC:CA:AA = 55.5%:33.6%:10.9%, n = 128 and term infants (CC:CA:AA = 54.2%:35.4%:10.4%, n = 96. There was no association between the CPS1 genotype and plasma L-arginine or L-citrulline concentration, or the ornithine to citrulline ratio, which varies inversely with CPS1 activity. Also the levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine, and symmetric dimethylarginine were not significantly different among the three genotypes. CONCLUSIONS: The present study in preterm infants did not confirm the earlier reported association between CPS1 genotype and L-arginine levels in term infants.

  19. Effects of Hatha yoga exercise on plasma malondialdehyde concentration and superoxide dismutase activity in female patients with shoulder pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Min-Sung; Kim, Do-Yeon; Baek, Yeong-Ho

    2015-07-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of Hatha yoga exercise on plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in female patients with shoulder pain. [Subjects] Subjects comprised 20 female patients with shoulder pain. [Methods] Subjects were divided into 2 groups: a Hatha yoga exercise group (n = 10) and a control group that performed no exercise (n = 10). The subjects' body composition, plasma malondialdehyde concentrations, and superoxide dismutase activities were measured before and after a 16-week Hatha yoga exercise program. [Results] After the 16-week Hatha yoga exercise program, the exercise group had significantly lower plasma MDA concentrations than the control group. In addition, the exercise group had significantly higher plasma SOD activity than the control group. [Conclusions] Hatha yoga exercise improves flexibility, muscle tone and strength, balance, and joint function. Our findings indicate that regular and continuous yoga exercise effectively improved body composition, decrease plasma MDA concentration, and increase plasma SOD activity in female patients with shoulder pain.

  20. Susceptibility of mice to Trypanosoma evansi treated with human plasma containing different concentrations of apolipoprotein L-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva, Aleksandro S; Fanfa, Vinicius R; Otto, Mateus A; Gressler, Lucas T; Tavares, Kaio C S; Lazzarotto, Cícera R; Tonin, Alexandre A; Miletti, Luiz C; Duarte, Marta M M F; Monteiro, Silvia G

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to test the susceptibility of mice to Trypanosoma evansi treated with human plasma containing different concentrations of apolipoprotein L-1 (APOL1). For this experiment, a strain of T. evansi and human plasma (plasmas 1, 2, and 3) from 3 adult males clinically healthy were used. In vivo test used 50 mice divided in 5 groups (A to E) with 10 animals in each group. Animals of groups B to E were infected, and then treated with 0.2 ml of human plasma in the following outline: negative control (A), positive control (B), treatment with plasma 1 (C), treatment with plasma 2 (D), and treatment with plasma 3 (E). Mice treated with human plasma showed an increase in longevity of 40.9 ± 0.3 (C), 20 ± 9.0 (D) and 35.6 ± 9.3 (E) days compared to the control group (B) which was 4.3 ± 0.5 days. The number of surviving mice and free of the parasite (blood smear and PCR negative) at the end of the experiment was 90%, 0%, and 60% for groups C, D, and E, respectively. The quantification of APOL1 was performed due to the large difference in the treatments that differed in the source plasma. In plasmas 1, 2, and 3 was detected the concentration of 194, 99, and 115 mg/dl of APOL1, respectively. However, we believe that this difference in the treatment efficiency is related to the level of APOL1 in plasmas.

  1. Performance and plasma concentration of metabolites in transition dairy cows supplemented with vitamin E and fat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rohollah Amirifard; Mohammad Khorvash; Masiholla Forouzmand; Hamid-Reza Rahmani; Ahmad Riasi; Mohammad Malekkhahi; Mojtaba Yari; Morteza Hosseini-Ghaffari

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of vitamin E (VE; 1500 or 3000 international units (IU) d–1) and fat (2% of dry matter calcium salt of soybean oil) supplementation during the transition period on feed intake, milk yield and composition and blood metabolites of dairy cows. 48 multiparous Holstein cows were randomly assigned into one of four treatments in a 2×2 factorial arrangement of vitamin E and supplemental dietary fat during the transition period. Treatments were: 1) 1500 IU d–1 vitamin E without fat supplementation (1500VE–F); 2) 1500 IU d–1 vitamin E with fat supplement (1500VE+F); 3) 3000 IU d–1 vitamin E without fat supplementation (3000VE–F); and 4) 3000 IU d–1 vitamin E with fat supplement (3000VE+F). Dietary treatments were initiated at approximately 28 d before expected calving dates and con-tinued through 28 d postpartum. Dry matter intake (DMI) was unaffected (P>0.05) by prepartum treatment. Regardless of vitamin E supplementation, DMI was greater (P0.05) by treatments. Postpartum diets had no signiifcant effect on milk yield or milk composition. Plasma concentra-tions of non-esteriifed fatty acids, glucose, and insulin were not affected (P>0.05) by treatments. Regardless of vitamin E supplementation, plasma β-hydroxybutyrate concentration was greater (P<0.05) in fat-supplemented cows compared with un-supplemented cows during the postpartum period. These results showed no indication of positive effects on lactation performance associated with vitamin E and dietary fat supplement in transition cows.

  2. Plasma fructosamine concentrations in horses with pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction with and without laminitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, E J; Menzies-Gow, N J; Mair, T S

    2014-03-01

    Plasma fructosamine concentration ([fructosamine]) is believed to reflect medium term, average blood glucose concentration and in a previous study was higher in horses with active laminitis than in normal horses. Pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction (PPID) is associated with hyperglycaemia and laminitis. To test the hypotheses that: [fructosamine] is higher in PPID cases than normal animals; furthermore, that within cases of PPID [fructosamine] is higher in those with active laminitis than nonlaminitic cases and in cases that have been affected by active laminitis in the preceding year than those that have not. Observational, case-control/cross-sectional study. [Fructosamine] was measured in cases of PPID (n = 46) and normal animals (n = 139). A normal range was calculated; values were compared between the 2 groups and within the PPID group, between cases with and without active laminitis and between cases that had and had not been affected by active laminitis in the preceding year. In normal animals mean [fructosamine] was 248.7 μmol/l; the normal range (mean ± 2 s.d.) was 195.5-301.9 μmol/l. Plasma [fructosamine] was not higher in PPID cases than in normal animals. In PPID cases, [fructosamine] was significantly (P = 0.006) higher in cases with active laminitis (mean ± s.d. 261.2 ± 39.2 μmol/l) compared with those without active laminitis (234.5 ± 32.9 μmol/), but [fructosamine] was not higher in cases that had been affected by active laminitis in the preceding year than those that had not. In horses affected by PPID, [fructosamine] is higher in cases with active laminitis than in cases without active laminitis. Clinical use of [fructosamine] is limited due to overlap with the normal range. Further studies into glucose and protein metabolism in cases of PPID are warranted. © 2013 EVJ Ltd.

  3. Efficacy of theophylline in people with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, F S F; Jardin, J R; Atallah, A; Castro, A A; Mazzini, R; Goldstein, R; Lacasse, Y; Cendon, S

    2005-02-01

    To determine the efficacy of oral theophylline compared with placebo in people with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Systematic review of randomized-controlled trials comparing oral theophylline with placebo for a minimum of 7 days in people with stable COPD. Twenty randomized-controlled trials were included in this review. The following outcomes showed significant improvement with theophylline compared with placebo: FEV1 and FVC both improved with theophylline (weighted mean difference [WMD] 0.10 L; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.04-0.16 and WMD 0.21 L; 95% CI 0.10-0.32, respectively). VO2 max also improved with theophylline (WMD 195.27mL/ min; 95% CI 112.71-277.83), as did PaO2 and PaCO2 (WMD 3.18 mmHg; 95% CI 1.23-5.13 and WMD -2.36mmHg; 95% CI -3.52 to -1.21, respectively). Patients preferred theophylline over placebo (relative risk 2.27; 95% CI 1.26-4.11). Theophylline increased the risk of nausea compared with placebo (RR 7.67; 95% CI 1.47-39.94). This review has shown that theophylline still has a role in the management of stable COPD, and is preferred by patients over placebo. However, the benefits of theophylline in stable COPD have to be weighed against the risk of adverse effects.

  4. Evaluation of the Ecstasy influence on tramadol and its main metabolite plasma concentration in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamali, Bardia; Sheikholeslami, Behjat; Hosseinzadeh Ardakani, Yalda; Lavasani, Hoda; Rouini, Mohammad-Reza

    2017-09-26

    Tramadol is prone to be abused alone, or in combination with 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, Ecstasy). It was reported that 95% of people with a history of substance abuse in the United States used tramadol in 2004. According to the WHO report in 2016, there was a growing number of tramadol abusers alone or in combination with psychoactive substances such as MDMA in particular in some Middle East countries. Higher concentrations of tramadol in plasma may lead to adverse drug reactions or lethal intoxication. In this study, the effect of MDMA on the pharmacokinetics of tramadol was examined in male rats. The effect of MDMA on Tmax, Cmax, area under the curve, elimination rate, and half-life of tramadol and its metabolites was examined. Two control and two treatment groups were designed. The treatment groups received MDMA 18 h before the administration of tramadol. Jugular vein blood samples were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescent detector to determine the concentrations of tramadol and its metabolites. Independent-sample t-test was used to define the differences between pharmacokinetic parameters of control and treatment groups. When tramadol administered intraperitoneally, the absorption rate of this drug was reduced, and a lower Cmax (40%) with longer Tmax (eight-fold) was achieved. MDMA exerted greater inhibitory effects on cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) than on cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6). The M2 metabolite ratio was reduced by half, and because of the inhibition of M2 production, the M1 plasma concentration slightly increased. According to the obtained data, MDMA treatment affected the absorption, distribution and metabolism phases of tramadol. This treatment increased the concentration of tramadol if administered intravenously and can latent the absorption of tramadol in oral route. However, MDMA was introduced as CYP2D6 inhibitor; in this study, MDMA inhibited CYP3A4 isoenzymes as well. This finding is important for

  5. Anti-inflammatory dosing of theophylline in the treatment of status asthmaticus in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eid N

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Nemr S Eid,1 Adrian O’Hagan,1 Scott Bickel,1 Ronald Morton,1 Sarah Jacobson,2 John A Myers3 1Division of Pediatric Pulmonology, University of Louisville, 2Department of Pharmacy, Kosair Children’s Hospital, 3Department of Pediatrics, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, USA Background: Low-dose theophylline has been recognized for its ability to restore histone deacetylase-2 activity which leads to improved steroid responsiveness and thus improved clinical outcome. We retrospectively evaluated the effect of low-dose theophylline therapy in pediatric patients hospitalized for an acute asthma exacerbation as a proof of concept study.Methods: We compared patients who received low-dose theophylline (5–7 mg/kg/day in addition to current standard of care to patients who were treated with current standard of care alone. The primary outcome of the study was hospital length of stay (LOS. Generalized linear mixed-effects modeling (GLMM was used to test whether receiving theophylline independently predicted outcomes. A Cox (proportional hazards regression model was also developed to examine whether theophylline impacted LOS.Results: After adjustment for illness severity measures, theophylline significantly reduces LOS (β=–21.17, P<0.001, time to discontinue oxygen (β=–15.88, P=0.044, time to spirometric improvement (β=–16.60, P=0.014, and time to space albuterol (β=–23.2, P<0.001 as well as reduced costs (β=–US$2,746, P<0.001. Furthermore, theophylline significantly increased the hazards of being discharged from the hospital (hazards ratio =1.75, 95% confidence interval 1.20–2.54, P=0.004. There was no difference in side effects between patients who receive low-dose theophylline and those who did not.Conclusion: The results of this retrospective study suggest low-dose theophylline may have a positive effect in acute status asthmaticus. This study suggests that further research with a prospective, randomized, double

  6. Evaluation of plasma antioxidant activity in rats given excess EGCg with reference to endogenous antioxidants concentrations and assay methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokotani, Kaori; Umegaki, Keizo

    2017-02-01

    The contribution of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg) intake to in vivo antioxidant activity is unclear, even with respect to plasma. In this study, we examined how administration of EGCg contributes to plasma antioxidant activity, relative to its concentration, endogenous antioxidants, and assay methods, namely oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP). Administration of EGCg (500 mg/kg) to rats increased plasma EGCg (4μmol/L as free form) and ascorbic acid (1.7-fold), as well as ORAC (1.2-fold) and FRAP (3-fold) values. The increase in plasma ascorbic acid following EGCg administration was accompanied by its relocation from the adrenal glands and lymphocytes into plasma, and was related to the increase in FRAP. Plasma deproteinization and assays in plasma model solutions revealed that protein levels significantly contributed to ORAC values, where plasma ascorbic acid was not influenced by deproteinization, differences in FRAP values with and without deproteinization were estimated to determine the contribution of enhanced ascorbic acid attributable to EGCg administration. These results will help to understand the points that should be considered when evaluating EGCg antioxidant activity in plasma.

  7. Determining the Concentrations and Temperatures of Products in a CF_4/CHF_3/N_2 Plasma via Submillimeter Absorption Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helal, Yaser H.; Neese, Christopher F.; De Lucia, Frank C.; Ewing, Paul R.; Agarwal, Ankur; Craver, Barry; Stout, Phillip J.; Armacost, Michael D.

    2017-06-01

    Plasmas used for the manufacturing of semiconductor devices are similar in pressure and temperature to those used in the laboratory for the study of astrophysical species in the submillimeter (SMM) spectral region. The methods and technology developed in the SMM for these laboratory studies are directly applicable for diagnostic measurements in the semiconductor manufacturing industry. Many of the molecular neutrals, radicals, and ions present in processing plasmas have been studied and their spectra have been cataloged or are in the literature. In this work, a continuous wave, intensity calibrated SMM absorption spectrometer was developed as a remote sensor of gas and plasma species. A major advantage of intensity calibrated rotational absorption spectroscopy is its ability to determine absolute concentrations and temperatures of plasma species from first principles without altering the plasma environment. An important part of this work was the design of the optical components which couple 500-750 GHz radiation through a commercial inductively coupled plasma chamber. The measurement of transmission spectra was simultaneously fit for background and absorption signal. The measured absorption was used to calculate absolute densities and temperatures of polar species. Measurements for CHF_3, CF_2, FCN, HCN, and CN made in a CF_4/CHF_3/N_2 plasma will be presented. Temperature equilibrium among species will be shown and the common temperature is leveraged to obtain accurate density measurements for simultaneously observed species. The densities and temperatures of plasma species are studied as a function of plasma parameters, including flow rate, pressure, and discharge power.

  8. Concentrations of haptoglobin in bovine plasma determined by ELISA or a colorimetric method based on peroxidase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, R F; Arthington, J D

    2013-06-01

    The objective was to compare different procedures for determination of haptoglobin in bovine plasma. Nine Angus steers were vaccinated against Mannheimia haemolytica to stimulate an acute-phase response. Blood samples were collected immediately prior to vaccination (day 0), and on days 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10. Plasma samples were frozen in duplicates at -80 °C. One set of the duplicates was analysed for haptoglobin concentrations using a commercial ELISA kit. A day effect was detected (p peroxidase activity (CPPA) with results expressed as optical density. Further, based on the ELISA results, the plasma sample with the greatest haptoglobin concentration was also serially diluted into a plasma sample with negligible haptoglobin concentration from the same steer (1:1 through 1:1024 dilution). These dilutions were used within the CPPA method to generate a standard curve and estimate plasma haptoglobin concentrations (CPPA + STD). A linear standard curve was generated (r(2)  = 0.99). A day effect similar to the ELISA method was detected for the CPPA and CPPA + STD methods (p ELISA methods were positively correlated (r = 0.97; p ELISA method. In conclusion, assessing concentrations of haptoglobin in bovine plasma using the CPPA and CPPA + STD methods generate highly correlated or similar results, respectively, compared to ELISA. Therefore, the CPPA + STD and CPPA methods can be used as a less expensive alternative to ELISA to determine concentrations or monitor changes in plasma haptoglobin in bovine samples.

  9. Effects of ovariectomy or force feeding on the plasma concentrations of prolactin and luteinizing hormone in incubating turkey hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadworny, D; Etches, R J

    1987-02-01

    The effect of ovariectomy (OVX) on plasma concentrations of prolactin (PRL) and luteinizing hormone (LH) in incubating turkey hens was studied. Neither the sham-operated nor the OVX hens exhibited any change in the pattern of incubation behavior as a result of the surgery. Plasma concentrations of estradiol decreased to less than approximately 3 pg/ml by 2 days after surgery in the OVX hens. There were no significant differences in plasma levels of PRL between the sham-operated and OVX hens throughout the study. The concentration of PRL did not change in either the sham-operated or OVX hens and was maintained at high levels after surgery and during incubation of the eggs. By 2 days after hens were placed into cages, plasma levels of PRL significantly decreased and were maintained at low levels in both groups. The concentration of LH did not change in either group during the two wk after surgery when the hens were incubating eggs. After the hens were placed into cages, the concentration of LH increased in the OVX hens and was maintained at significantly higher levels than in the sham-operated hens. By contrast, the concentration of LH increased within 4 days after OVX of out-of-lay but nonincubating hens. The delay in the postcastration increase in plasma level of LH in the OVX hens was not associated with anorexia of incubating hens, since plasma levels of LH were not affected by force-feeding unless plasma levels of PRI were suppressed by nest deprivation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Orally administered, insulin-loaded amidated pectin hydrogel beads sustain plasma concentrations of insulin in streptozotocin-diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musabayane, C T; Munjeri, O; Bwititi, P; Osim, E E

    2000-01-01

    We report successful oral administration of insulin entrapped in amidated pectin hydrogel beads in streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats, with a concomitant reduction in plasma glucose concentration. The pectin-insulin (PI) beads were prepared by the gelation of humilin-pectin solutions in the presence of calcium. Separate groups of STZ-diabetic rats were orally administered two PI beads (30 micrograms insulin) once or twice daily or three beads (46 micrograms) once daily for 2 weeks. Control non-diabetic and STZ-diabetic rats were orally administered pectin hydrogel drug-free beads. By comparison with control non-diabetic rats, untreated STZ-diabetic rats exhibited significantly low plasma insulin concentration (0.32+/-0. 03 ng/ml, n=6, compared with 2.60+/-0.44 ng/ml in controls, n=6) and increased plasma glucose concentrations (25.84+/-1.44 mmol/l compared with 10.72+/- 0.52 mmol/l in controls). Administration of two PI beads twice daily (60 micrograms active insulin) or three beads (46 micrograms) once a day to STZ-diabetic rats increased plasma insulin concentrations (0.89+/-0.09 ng/ml and 1.85+/- 0.26 ng/ml, respectively), with a concomitant reduction in plasma glucose concentration (15.45+/-1.63 mmol/l and 10.56+/-0.26 mmol/l, respectively). However, a single dose of PI beads (30 micrograms) did not affect plasma insulin concentrations, although plasma glucose concentrations (17.82+/-2.98 mmol/l) were significantly reduced compared with those in untreated STZ-diabetic rats. Pharmacokinetic parameters in STZ-diabetic rats show that the orally administered PI beads (30 micrograms insulin) were more effective in sustaining plasma insulin concentrations than was s.c. insulin (30 micrograms). The data from this study suggest that this insulin-loaded amidated pectin hydrogel bead formulation not only produces sustained release of insulin, but may also reduce plasma glucose concentration in diabetes mellitus.

  11. Comparison of eicosapentaenoic acid concentrations in plasma between patients with ischemic stroke and control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeya, Yoshimori; Fukuyama, Naoto; Kitajima, Waichi; Ogushi, Yoichi; Mori, Hidezo

    2013-01-01

    ω-3 fatty acids, including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), prevent ischemic stroke. However, the clinical importance of EPA for ischemic stroke and its subtype has not been fully elucidated. In a cross-sectional study, we determined whether ω-3 fatty acids were predictive factors for ischemic stroke. We compared common clinical parameters among 65 patients with ischemic stroke and 65 control subjects. The parameters included blood chemistry data; concentrations of EPA, docosahexaenoic acid, and arachidonic acid (AA); EPA/AA ratio; smoking; alcohol intake; fish consumption more than four times per week; and the incidence of underlying diseases. The comparisons were performed using the Mann-Whitney U test, and multiple logistic regression analysis was applied to the significant factors in the non-parametric test. We also applied the same approach to the ischemic stroke subtypes, cardioembolism and large-artery atherosclerosis. In the multiple logistic regression analysis after the Mann-Whitney U test, a lower EPA concentration was one of the significant risk factors for ischemic stroke, as were a lower body mass index, lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and smoking (sensitivity 0.846, specificity 0.831, positive predictive value 0.833). In the analysis of subtypes, a lower EPA/AA ratio and a lower body mass index were the significant risk factors for cardioembolism (sensitivity 0.800, specificity 0.733, positive predictive value 0.750). However, large-artery atherosclerosis was not related to the EPA concentration or the EPA/AA ratio. In this study, the plasma EPA concentration and the EPA/AA ratio were potential predictive risk factors for ischemic stroke, especially for cardioembolism. Further prospective studies are necessary. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Impact of gender and menstrual cycle phase on plasma cytokine concentrations.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Brien, Sinead M

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVE: The lifetime prevalence of major depression is twice as high in females as in males. Depression is known to increase at periods where there are changes in gonadal hormones. We examined pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine levels during the normal menstrual cycle of healthy females compared to similar time points in healthy males. METHODS: Plasma concentrations of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R) were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays in healthy females during the normal ovulatory menstrual cycle and also in males at similar time points. RESULTS: The luteal phase of the menstrual cycle is associated with increased production of sIL-6R, IL-4 and TNF-alpha compared to the early follicular phase. No change was observed in IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 concentration throughout the menstrual cycle. We found IL-4 positively correlated with oestrogen while TNF-alpha positively correlated with progesterone. Females were found to have significantly higher concentrations of TNF-alpha and sIL-6R across all phases of the menstrual cycle, compared to males across similar time points. CONCLUSION: The normal menstrual cycle is associated with increased production of sIL-6R, IL-4 and TNF-alpha in the luteal phase compared to the early follicular phase. Females have significantly higher concentrations of sIL-6R and TNF-alpha at all time points across the menstrual cycle than males.

  13. The effect of morphine consumption on plasma corticosteron concentration and placenta development in pregnant rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoomeh Kazemi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous studies have shown that morphine consumption during pregnancy may delay embryo development or cause abnormal nervous system function. Objective: The present study focused on the effect of maternal morphine consumption on development of placenta and blood corticosteron concentration in addictive pregnant mothers.Materials and Methods: 24 female rats, 170-200g weight, were used. The experimental groups after pregnancy received an oral dose of 0.05 mg/ml of morphine by tap water while the control group received only tap water. On 10th and 14th day of pregnancy, rats were anesthetized and placenta removed surgically, 1ml blood was collected from each pregnant mother from retro-orbital sinus, the concentration of blood corticosteron was determined by corticosteron Elisa kit after centrifugation. The fixed tissue was processed, sectioned and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Placenta was studied microscopically according to the thickness of layers, area of blood cisterns, and the number of cells.Results: Comparing the plasma corticosteron concentration of the treatment and the control groups, not only a severe increase in the treatment group was detected, but also the thickness of maternal and embryonic portions of the placenta at day 10th and 14th of gestation was different significantly (p≤0.05. Furthermore, an increase in number of cells in maternal and embryonic portion of placenta and a decrease in blood cistern area were demonstrated in both the experimental and the control groups.Conclusion: The effects of morphine, including an increase in blood concentration of corticosteron, in dependent pregnant mothers were seen. Development of placenta in the experimental group was delayed.

  14. Plasma buprenorphine concentrations after the application of a 70 microg/h transdermal patch in dogs. Preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andaluz, A; Moll, X; Ventura, R; Abellán, R; Fresno, L; García, F

    2009-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the plasma concentrations and pharmacokinetics of buprenorphine after transdermal application in dogs (n = 4). A 70 microg/h transdermal buprenorphine patch was applied to the ventral abdomen of four healthy beagles. Blood samples were collected through a preplaced jugular catheter before and at 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 36, 48 and every 6 h until 108 h after the patch application. Plasma buprenorphine concentrations were measured using a (125)I-labelled radioimmunoassay (RIA) assay. No adverse effects were observed in any of the dogs. Concentrations of buprenorphine were detected in plasma after the application of the transdermal buprenorphine patch on the four experimental animals. Buprenorphine plasma concentrations increased during the first 36 h and then remained in the 0.7-1.0 ng/mL range during the study period. A decrease in plasma buprenorphine concentration was not observed during the study. Although analgesia could not be demonstrated the present study shows the ability of buprenorphine transdermal delivery systems developed for human use to deliver measurable concetrations of buprenorphine in dogs.

  15. Pregnancy-associated glycoprotein (PAG) concentration in plasma and milk samples for early pregnancy diagnosis in Lacaune dairy sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Amiri, B; Sousa, N M; Alvarez Oxiley, A; Hadarbach, D; Beckers, J F

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, four RIA systems (RIA-1 to -4) based on two antisera raised against ovine pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (ovPAGs), combined with an ovine or a bovine PAG tracer were used to measure PAG concentrations in plasma and milk samples of dairy ewes. Blood and milk samples were collected on different days of gestation: 0, 18, 20, 22, 25, 28, 32, 42, and 49. From day 20 onward, the PAG in plasma could be detected in all pregnant ewes using the four RIA systems. By using milk, except for RIA-1, the other systems showed a sensitivity of 100% from day 28 of gestation onward. In plasma, PAG concentrations were higher in multiple than in single pregnancies, while no clear relationship was observed in milk. In conclusion, milk is a good alternative to plasma for early pregnancy diagnosis in sheep from day 28 to day 42.

  16. On the validity of setting breakpoint minimum inhibition concentrations at one quarter of the plasma concentration achieved following oral administration of oxytetracycline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coyne, R.; Samuelsen, O.; Bergh, Ø.

    2004-01-01

    Plasma concentrations of oxytetracycline (OTC) were established in two Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) pre-smolts populations after they had received OTC medicated feed at a rate of 75 mg OTC/kg over 10 days. One population was experiencing an epizootic of furunculosis in a commercial freshwater farm...... and the other was held in a laboratory. Both populations were maintained at approximately 13 °C. The mean plasma concentration in 26 health farm fish was 0.25±0.06 and the 80th percentile was 0.21 mg/l. The mean concentration for 26 laboratory fish was 0.21±0.06 mg/l with an 80th percentile of 0.15 mg....../l. The validity of setting a breakpoint minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) at a quarter of these plasma concentrations was investigated. The MIC of the Aeromonas salmonicida isolated from the farmed fish (n=7) was 0.5 mg/l and the breakpoints generated by application of the 4:1 ratio were in the range 0...

  17. Patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with methotrexate (MTX): concentrations of steady-state erythrocyte MTX correlate to plasma concentrations and clinical efficacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornung, N.; Ellingsen, T.; Attermann, J.;

    2008-01-01

    -six patients with RA were included in this open prospective study: 40 were included before initiation of MTX therapy. Laboratory analyses, intracellular MTX concentrations in erythrocytes (Ery-MTX), and clinical examinations including toxicity data were performed prospectively for 52 weeks. Plasma...... concentrations of MTX were measured and area under the plasma concentration versus time curve (AUC) was estimated along with other pharmacokinetic variables in a population based software model.RESULTS: Ery-MTX rose after initiation of therapy and reached a steady state after 6-8 weeks. The correlation between...... steady-state Ery-MTX and dose was poor (r(2) = 0.16), whereas steady-state Ery-MTX levels correlated strongly with the estimated AUC (r(2) = 0.51, log-transformed variables). Both steady-state Ery-MTX levels and estimated AUC were significantly higher in patients responding to MTX therapy than...

  18. Effects of acute exposure to increased plasma branched-chain amino acid concentrations on insulin-mediated plasma glucose turnover in healthy young subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Everman

    Full Text Available Plasma branched-chain amino acids (BCAA are inversely related to insulin sensitivity of glucose metabolism in humans. However, currently, it is not known whether there is a cause-and-effect relationship between increased plasma BCAA concentrations and decreased insulin sensitivity.To determine the effects of acute exposure to increased plasma BCAA concentrations on insulin-mediated plasma glucose turnover in humans.Ten healthy subjects were randomly assigned to an experiment where insulin was infused at 40 mU/m2/min (40U during the second half of a 6-hour intravenous infusion of a BCAA mixture (i.e., BCAA; N = 5 to stimulate plasma glucose turnover or under the same conditions without BCAA infusion (Control; N = 5. In a separate experiment, seven healthy subjects were randomly assigned to receive insulin infusion at 80 mU/m2/min (80U in association with the above BCAA infusion (N = 4 or under the same conditions without BCAA infusion (N = 3. Plasma glucose turnover was measured prior to and during insulin infusion.Insulin infusion completely suppressed the endogenous glucose production (EGP across all groups. The percent suppression of EGP was not different between Control and BCAA in either the 40U or 80U experiments (P > 0.05. Insulin infusion stimulated whole-body glucose disposal rate (GDR across all groups. However, the increase (% in GDR was not different [median (1st quartile - 3rd quartile] between Control and BCAA in either the 40U ([199 (167-278 vs. 186 (94-308] or 80 U ([491 (414-548 vs. 478 (409-857] experiments (P > 0.05. Likewise, insulin stimulated the glucose metabolic clearance in all experiments (P 0.05.Short-term exposure of young healthy subjects to increased plasma BCAA concentrations does not alter the insulin sensitivity of glucose metabolism.

  19. Nonlinear and Robust Control Strategy Based on Chemotherapy to Minimize the HIV Concentration in Blood Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Aguilar-López

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A nonlinear PI-type control strategy is designed in order to minimize the HIV concentration in blood plasma, via medical drug injection, under the framework of bounded uncertain input disturbances. For control design it is considered a simplified mathematical model of the virus infection as a benchmark. The model is based on mass balances of healthy cells, infected cells, and the virus concentrations. The proposed controller contains a nonlinear feedback PI structure of bounded functions of the regulation error. The closed-loop stability of the system is analyzed via Lyapunov technique, in which robustness against system disturbances is demonstrated. Numerical experiments show a satisfactory performance of the proposed methodology as a HIV therapy, in which the virion particles and the infected CD4+T cells are minimized and, as an interesting result, the drug dosage can be suspended, thus avoiding drug resistance from the virus. Finally, the proposed controller is compared to a standard sliding-mode and hyperbolic tangent controllers showing better performance.

  20. Whey protein supplementation increases methionine intake but not homocysteine plasma concentration in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deminice, Rafael; Comparotto, Hugo; Jordao, Alceu Afonso

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of whey protein supplementation on homocysteine (Hcy) metabolism and liver oxidative stress in rats. Twenty-four rats were divided into 3 groups (n = 8) to receive one of the following diets for 4 weeks: control diet (C), whey protein-composed diet (WP), and whey protein-supplemented diet (WPS). The C and WP diets consisted of AIN-93 with 20% casein and 20% whey protein as protein source, respectively. WPS was AIN-93 (20% casein) supplemented by the addition of 20% (w/w) whey protein. Four weeks of ingesting a WPS diet resulted in a significantly higher (P protein and methionine intakes. Although a significant increase (P protein products, known liver oxidative stress markers, were increased in the WPS group compared with the C group. In addition, no change in glutathione liver concentration was observed in any of the groups studied. In conclusion, whey protein supplementation increases methionine intake substantially; however, it does not change plasma Hcy concentrations. On the other hand, increased hepatic oxidative stress markers were observed in whey protein supplemented rats were probably due to high protein intake.

  1. Steady-state maternal and fetal plasma concentrations of glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) in the preterm sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustard, Mark A; Farley, Anne E; Bennett, Brian M; Smith, Graeme N

    2003-09-01

    The administration of glyceryl trinitrate (GTN; nitroglycerin) is increasing during preterm pregnancies, yet its disposition and, importantly, the extent of fetal exposure remain to be elucidated. When used as a tocolytic (pharmacological agent that stops uterine contractions), it is administered transdermally (24-48 h). Here, we quantified the maternal and fetal steady-state plasma concentrations of maternal intravenous GTN in preterm sheep and continuously monitored maternal and fetal vascular parameters to observe possible dose-dependent vascular effects. Preterm (120 days gestation) pregnant sheep (n = 6) were instrumented with maternal femoral arterial (MA) and venous (MV) and fetal femoral arterial (FA) and umbilical venous (UV) polyethylene blood-sampling catheters. During maternal GTN infusion (3.0 micro g.kg-1.min-1, 60-min duration) the steady-state GTN concentrations ([GTN]) were as follows: MA, 98.6 +/- 9.0 nM; UV, 17.4 +/- 7.6 nM; and FA, GTN] was established by 5 min, and the UV/MA ratio of [GTN] was 0.18. The FA [GTN] (GTN in the UV, and the maternal and fetal heart rate and mean arterial pressure appear to be independent of maternal GTN infusion.

  2. Sleep restriction alters plasma endocannabinoids concentrations before but not after exercise in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedernaes, Jonathan; Fanelli, Flaminia; Fazzini, Alessia; Pagotto, Uberto; Broman, Jan-Erik; Vogel, Heike; Dickson, Suzanne L; Schiöth, Helgi B; Benedict, Christian

    2016-12-01

    Following binding to cannabinoid receptors, endocannabinoids regulate a variety of central nervous system processes including appetite and mood. Recent evidence suggests that the systemic release of these lipid metabolites can be altered by acute exercise and that their levels also vary across the 24-h sleep-wake cycle. The present study utilized a within-subject design (involving 16 normal-weight men) to determine whether daytime circulating endocannabinoid concentrations differ following three nights of partial sleep deprivation (4.25-h sleep opportunity, 2:45-7a.m. each night) vs. normal sleep (8.5-h sleep opportunity, 10:30p.m.-7a.m. each night), before and after an acute bout of ergometer cycling in the morning. In addition, subjective hunger and stress were measured. Pre-exercise plasma concentrations of 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2AG) were 80% higher 1.5h after awakening (vs. normal sleep, pexercise (+44%, pduration did not however modulate this exercise-induced rise. Finally, subjective stress was generally lower on the day after three nights of short sleep vs. normal sleep, especially after exercise (pmood, our results could suggest that behavioral effects of acute sleep loss, such as increased hunger and transiently improved psychological state, may partially result from activation of this signaling pathway. In contrast, more pronounced exercise-induced elevations of endocannabinoids appear to be less affected by short sleep duration. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. CCR5 genotype and plasma ß-chemokine concentration of Brazilian HIV-infected individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikawa A.Y.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The 32-bp deletion in the HIV-1 co-receptor CCR5 confers a high degree of resistance to HIV-1 infection in homozygous individuals for the deleted allele and partial protection against HIV-1 during disease progression in heterozygotes. Natural ligands for CCR5, MIP-1alpha, MIP-1ß and RANTES, have been shown to inhibit HIV replication in CD4+ T cells. In the present study, we examined the CCR5 genotype by PCR and the plasma levels of RANTES and MIP-1alpha by ELISA among blood donors (N = 26 and among HIV-1-infected individuals (N = 129. The control group consisted of healthy adult volunteers and HIV-1-infected subjects were an asymptomatic and heterogeneous group of individuals with regard to immunologic and virologic markers of HIV-1 disease. The frequency of the CCR5 mutant allele (delta32ccr5 in this population was 0.032; however, no delta32ccr5 homozygote was detected. These results could be related to the intense ethnic admixture of the Brazilian population. There was no correlation between circulating ß-chemokines (MIP-1alpha, RANTES and viral load in HIV-infected individuals. RANTES concentrations in plasma samples from HIV+ patients carrying the homozygous CCR5 allele (CCR5/CCR5 (28.23 ng/ml were higher than in the control samples (16.07 ng/ml; P<0.05; however, this HIV+ patient group (mean 26.23 pg/ml had significantly lower concentrations of MIP-1alpha than those observed in control samples (mean 31.20 pg/ml; P<0.05. Both HIV-1-infected and uninfected individuals heterozygous for the delta32ccr5 allele had significantly lower concentrations of circulating RANTES (mean 16.07 and 6.11 ng/ml, respectively than CCR5/CCR5 individuals (mean 28.23 and 16.07 ng/ml, respectively; P<0.05. These findings suggest that the CCR5 allele and ß-chemokine production may affect the immunopathogenesis of HIV-1.

  4. Glucose-stimulated insulin response in pregnant sheep following acute suppression of plasma non-esterified fatty acid concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriskandarajah Nadarajah

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Elevated non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA concentrations in non-pregnant animals have been reported to decrease pancreatic responsiveness. As ovine gestation advances, maternal insulin concentrations fall and NEFA concentrations increase. Experiments were designed to examine if the pregnancy-associated rise in NEFA concentration is associated with a reduced pancreatic sensitivity to glucose in vivo. We investigated the possible relationship of NEFA concentrations in regulating maternal insulin concentrations during ovine pregnancy at three physiological states, non-pregnant, non-lactating (NPNL, 105 and 135 days gestational age (dGA, term 147+/- 3 days. Methods The plasma concentrations of insulin, growth hormone (GH and ovine placental lactogen (oPL were determined by double antibody radioimmunoassay. Insulin responsiveness to glucose was measured using bolus injection and hyperglycaemic clamp techniques in 15 non-pregnant, non-lactating ewes and in nine pregnant ewes at 105 dGA and near term at 135 dGA. Plasma samples were also collected for hormone determination. In addition to bolus injection glucose and insulin Area Under Curve calculations, the Mean Plasma Glucose Increment, Glucose Infusion Rate and Mean Plasma Insulin Increment and Area Under Curve were determined for the hyperglycaemic clamp procedures. Statistical analysis of data was conducted with Students t-tests, repeated measures ANOVA and 2-way ANOVA. Results Maternal growth hormone, placental lactogen and NEFA concentrations increased, while basal glucose and insulin concentrations declined with advancing gestation. At 135 dGA following bolus glucose injections, peak insulin concentrations and insulin area under curve (AUC profiles were significantly reduced in pregnant ewes compared with NPNL control ewes (p Conclusions Results suggest that despite an acute suppression of circulating NEFA concentrations during pregnancy, the associated steroids and hormones

  5. Obese Hypertensive Men Have Plasma Concentrations of C-Reactive Protein Similar to That of Obese Normotensive Men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asferg, Camilla L; Andersen, Ulrik B; Linneberg, Allan

    2014-01-01

    plasma CRP concentrations are also closely associated with obesity. It is uncertain whether CRP is directly involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension or is only a marker of other pathogenic processes closely related to obesity. METHODS: We studied 103 obese men (body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30.0 kg/m(2......BACKGROUND: Low-grade chronic inflammation is a characteristic feature of obesity, the most important lifestyle risk factor for hypertension. Elevated plasma concentrations of the inflammatory biomarker C-reactive protein (CRP) are associated with an increased risk of hypertension, but elevated...... participants were medication-free. We measured plasma CRP concentrations with a high-sensitivity assay and determined body composition by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry scanning. RESULTS: There were no differences in anthropometric measures (BMI, waist circumference, or total fat mass percentage) between OHT...

  6. Effect of heat stress and drinking water salt supplements on plasma electrolytes and aldosterone concentration in broiler chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deyhim, F.; Teeter, R. G.

    1995-12-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of supplementing drinking water with isomolar (0.067 mol/l) KCl or NaCl on mass gain, food and water consumption, rectal temperature, and plasma concentrations of aldosterone, Na+, and K+ in broiler chickens reared in thermoneutral and cycling heat stressing environments. Heat stress decreased ( P≤0.05) mass gain, food consumption, and plasma concentrations of Na+ and K+, while increases ( P≤0.05) in plasma concentrations of aldosterone, rectal temperature, and water consumption were observed. Drinking water supplemented with either KCl or NaCl increased ( P≤0.05) broiler mass gain and water consumption, but had no effect ( P>0.1) on the other variables evaluated. The results of this study indicate that broiler chickens in a heat stress environment are under osmotic stress and supplementing drinking water with 0.067 mol/1 KCl or NaCl does not lessen this stress.

  7. Scale-up of the process to obtain functional ingredients based in plasma protein concentrates from porcine blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parés, Dolors; Toldrà, Mònica; Saguer, Elena; Carretero, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    The feasibility of a scaled-up process to obtain two protein concentrates from porcine blood plasma, i.e. serum and albumin, for use as functional food ingredients was assessed. The process consisted of fractionating plasma proteins by salting out, concentrating and purifying fractions by means of membrane technology, and subsequently dehydrating through spray-drying. The fractionation process allowed a good isolation of the desired proteins, which were then concentrated and desalted in a tangential flow filtration (TFF) process combining ultra and diafiltration. Purification, pre-concentration and dehydration were successfully achieved. The functional properties of dehydrated serum and albumin were determined. As compared to the same hemoderivatives obtained by a lab-scale production system, serum maintained the gelling properties; albumin exhibited similar foaming properties; and both serum and albumin concentrates showed slightly improved emulsifying properties.

  8. alpha-Synuclein fission yeast model: concentration-dependent aggregation without plasma membrane localization or toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandis, Katrina A; Holmes, Isaac F; England, Samantha J; Sharma, Nijee; Kukreja, Lokesh; DebBurman, Shubhik K

    2006-01-01

    Despite fission yeast's history of modeling salient cellular processes, it has not yet been used to model human neurodegeneration-linked protein misfolding. Because alpha-synuclein misfolding and aggregation are linked to Parkinson's disease (PD), here, we report a fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) model that evaluates alpha-synuclein misfolding, aggregation, and toxicity and compare these properties with those recently characterized in budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Wild-type alpha-synuclein and three mutants (A30P, A53T, and A30P/A53T) were expressed with thiamine-repressible promoters (using vectors of increasing promoter strength: pNMT81, pNMT41, and pNMT1) to test directly in living cells the nucleation polymerization hypothesis for alpha-synuclein misfolding and aggregation. In support of the hypothesis, wild-type and A53T alpha-synuclein formed prominent intracellular cytoplasmic inclusions within fission yeast cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, whereas A30P and A30P/A53T remained diffuse throughout the cytoplasm. A53T alpha-synuclein formed aggregates faster than wild-type alpha-synuclein and at a lower alpha-synuclein concentration. Unexpectedly, unlike in budding yeast, wild-type and A53T alpha-synuclein did not target to the plasma membrane in fission yeast, not even at low alpha-synuclein concentrations or as a precursor step to forming aggregates. Despite alpha-synuclein's extensive aggregation, it was surprisingly nontoxic to fission yeast. Future genetic dissection might yield molecular insight into this protection against toxicity. We speculate that alpha-synuclein toxicity might be linked to its membrane binding capacity. To conclude, S. pombe and S. cerevisiae model similar yet distinct aspects of alpha-synuclein biology, and both organisms shed insight into alpha-synuclein's role in PD pathogenesis.

  9. Effects of starvation, surgery and infusion of adrenocorticotrophin on plasma amino acid concentration in the pregnant ewe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, J S; Mellor, D J

    1977-01-01

    Total plasma amino acid concentrations (TAA) in 12 Scottish Blackface ewes between 80 and 140 days of pregnancy were unaltered by two days of starvation, but concentrations of essential amino acids (EAA) increased and non-essential amino acid (NAA) levels decreased. These trends were more pronounced later in pregnancy. Ewes fasted before surgery to implant fetal catheters showed marked reductions in mean TAA levels (--26 per cent, n-5) on the day after operation (day+ 1). Half of this decrease was accounted for by glycine. Mean concentrations of NAA increased after day +1 but by day +6 were still 15 per cent below baseline values. In contrast mean plasma concentrations of EAA were 31 per cent above prestarvation levels on day +6 and maximal on day +4(+39 per cent). Following a two-day fast, sheep given half rations and simultaneously infused with adrenocorticotrophin showed changes in plasma-free amino acid composition like those observed during the two days after operation. Disturbances to plasma amino acid concetrations persisted for up to 12 days after operation and are attributed to the preoperative starvation and the combined effects of irregular feeding patterns and elevated plasma corticosteroid levels during and after operation.

  10. Intracerebroventricular administration of chicken oxyntomodulin suppresses food intake and increases plasma glucose and corticosterone concentrations in chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Kazuhisa; Saneyasu, Takaoki; Yamaguchi, Takuya; Shimatani, Tomohiko; Aoki, Koji; Nakanishi, Kiwako; Kamisoyama, Hiroshi

    2014-04-03

    Central administration of proglucagon-derived peptides, glucagon, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), and oxyntomodulin (OXM), suppresses food intake in both mammals and birds. Recent findings suggest that GLP-1 receptor is involved in the anorexigenic action of OXM in both species. However, mammalian (bovine) OXM was used in chicken studies, even though the amino acid sequence and peptide length of chicken OXM differ from those of bovine OXM. In the present study, we examined the effect of chicken OXM on food intake and plasma components in chicks to investigate the mechanisms underlying the OXM effect. Male 8-day-old chicks (Gallus gallus domesticus) were used in all experiments. Intracerebroventricular administration of chicken OXM significantly suppressed food intake in chicks. Plasma concentrations of glucose and corticosterone were significantly increased by chicken OXM. These phenomena were also observed after bovine OXM injection in chicks. In contrast, central administration of chicken GLP-1 significantly decreased plasma glucose concentration and did not affect plasma corticosterone concentration. We previously showed that central administration of chicken glucagon significantly increased plasma concentrations of glucose and corticosterone in chicks. All our findings suggest that the mechanism underlying the anorexigenic action of OXM is similar to that of glucagon in chicks.

  11. Reduced plasma total homocysteine concentrations in Type 1 diabetes mellitus is determined by increased renal clearance.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldman, B.A.J.; Vervoort, G.M.M.; Blom, H.J.; Smits, P.

    2005-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Elevated plasma levels of total homocysteine are related to the development of vascular complications. Patients with diabetes mellitus are particularly at risk for the development of these complications. Several factors determine plasma total homocysteine including renal function.

  12. Effects of physiological and pharmacological variation of sympathetic nervous system activity on plasma non-esterified fatty acid concentrations in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbe, P; Galitz