WorldWideScience

Sample records for plasma techniques annual

  1. [Plasma properties: Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The Magneto-Fluid Dynamics Division of the Courant Institute is engaged in a broad program of basic research in the theoretical aspects of plasma physics and magneto-fluid dynamics with emphasis on those areas which are relevant to the fusion energy program. The total research program in the division includes efforts in the areas of plasma containment, stability, equilibrium, transport, wave propagation (including shock waves), heating, orbit theory, as well as numerical experiments and the development of practical numerical methods in all plasma problems. Applications are made to the following project areas: Tokamaks, Mirrors, Stellarators, and Alternate Concepts. Developments include the whole spectrum of models from macroscopic MHD and guiding center to Vlasov, drift kinetic Fokker-Planck, and Boltzmann. This document describes research completed as well as programs in progress

  2. 1990's annual report of INPE's Plasma Associated Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    This is the 1990's annual report of INPE's Plasma Associated Laboratory it contains information on current research developed at the laboratory including quiescent plasma, magnetized plasma, plasma centrifuge, plasma and radiation (gyrotron), ionic propulsion, and toroidal plasma. (A.C.A.S.)

  3. [Research programs in plasma physics]: Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weitzner, H.

    1988-01-01

    This paper contains a brief review of the work done in 1987 at New York University in plasma physics. Topics discussed in this report are: reduction and interpretation of experimental tokamak data, turbulent transport in tokamaks and RFP's, laminar flow transport, wave propagation in different frequency regimes, stability of flows, plasma fueling, magnetic reconnection problems, development of new numerical techniques for Fokker-Planck-like equations, and stability of shock waves. Outside of fusion there has been work in free electron lasers, heating of solar coronal loops and renormalized theory of fluid turbulence

  4. Magnetic filtered plasma deposition and implantation technique

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang Hui Xing; Wu Xian Ying

    2002-01-01

    A high dense metal plasma can be produced by using cathodic vacuum arc discharge technique. The microparticles emitted from the cathode in the metal plasma can be removed when the metal plasma passes through the magnetic filter. It is a new technique for making high quality, fine and close thin films which have very widespread applications. The authors describe the applications of cathodic vacuum arc technique, and then a filtered plasma deposition and ion implantation system as well as its applications

  5. Wills Plasma Physics Department annual report, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    An overview of the collaborative researches carried out during the 1989 at the Wills Plasma Physics Department is given. The main activities included the study of hydromagnetic surface waves and RF heating using the Tortus tokamak; the development of diagnostic techniques, particularly those based on submillimetre lasers and tunable gyrotrons; gas discharge studies and investigations of apparent cold nuclear fusion in deuterated palladium. The small research tokamak Tortus was upgraded during the year, thus enabling the machine to be routinely and reliably operated at toroidal currents around 40 kA. A list of papers published or presented at various conferences during the year is included in the Appendix

  6. Wills Plasma Physics Department annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The experimental program on the research tokamak TORTUS has concentrated on fundamental studies of hydromagnetic waves in toroidal geometry, on preliminary experiments for an Alfven wave heating program, and on further development of diagnostics and data acquisition equipment. Highlights of the work were the observation of magnetically guided Alfven wave packets in toroidal geometry and of strong toroidal effects in the loading of a half-turn loop antenna in the low frequency Alfven wave regime. In work on the linear SUPPER IV machine magnetically guided Alfven and acoustic waves were observed. Theoretical work on plasma waves supported the experimental studies. The development of laser diagnostic techniques is also reported

  7. Influence of plasma density and plasma sheath dynamics on the ion implantation by plasma immersion technique

    OpenAIRE

    Ensinger, Wolfgang

    1996-01-01

    Influence of plasma density and plasma sheath dynamics on the ion implantation by plasma immersion technique / B. Rauschenbach ... - In: Nuclear instruments and methods in physics research. B. 113. 1996. S. 266-269

  8. Optics and Plasma Research Department annual progress report for 2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bindslev, Henrik; Lynov, Jens-Peter; Pedersen, C.

    2005-01-01

    The Optics and Plasma Research Department performs basic and applied research within three scientific programmes: (1) laser systems and optical materials, (2) optical diagnostics and information processing and (3) plasma physics and technology. Thedepartment has core competencies in optical sensors......, optical materials, biophotonics, fusion plasma physics, and industrial plasma technology. The department employs key technologies in micro- and nanotechnology for optical systems, temperaturecalibration, and infrared measurement techniques. The research is supported by several EU programmes, including...

  9. Plasma Physics Department annual report, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The main fields in which researches have been carried out during 1990 at the Wills Plasma Physics Department are briefly discussed. These include investigations of shear Alfven waves at frequencies above the ion cyclotron frequency; the use of submillimetre lasers to detect by far forward scattering density fluctuation associated with waves in Tortus during Alfven wave heating experiments; basic physics of laser induced fluorescence in plasma and in particular the process which determine the population of excited states, as well as magnetron discharge studies and application of the vacuum arc as ion sources for accelerators and as sputtering device for producing thin film coating. A list of publications and papers presented at various conferences by the members of the Department is given in the Appendix

  10. Visualization techniques in plasma numerical simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulhanek, P.; Smetana, M.

    2004-01-01

    Numerical simulations of plasma processes usually yield a huge amount of raw numerical data. Information about electric and magnetic fields and particle positions and velocities can be typically obtained. There are two major ways of elaborating these data. First of them is called plasma diagnostics. We can calculate average values, variances, correlations of variables, etc. These results may be directly comparable with experiments and serve as the typical quantitative output of plasma simulations. The second possibility is the plasma visualization. The results are qualitative only, but serve as vivid display of phenomena in the plasma followed-up. An experience with visualizing electric and magnetic fields via Line Integral Convolution method is described in the first part of the paper. The LIC method serves for visualization of vector fields in two dimensional section of the three dimensional plasma. The field values can be known only in grid points of three-dimensional grid. The second part of the paper is devoted to the visualization techniques of the charged particle motion. The colour tint can be used for particle temperature representation. The motion can be visualized by a trace fading away with the distance from the particle. In this manner the impressive animations of the particle motion can be achieved. (author)

  11. Optics and Plasma Research Department. Annual progress report for 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bindslev, H.; Lynov, J.P.; Pedersen, C.; Petersen, P.M.; Skaarup, B.

    2005-03-01

    The Optics and Plasma Research Department performs basic and applied research within three scientific programmes: (1) laser systems and optical materials, (2) optical diagnostics and information processing and (3) plasma physics and technology. The department has core competencies in optical sensors, optical materials, biophotonics, fusion plasma physics, and industrial plasma technology. The department employs key technologies in micro- and nanotechnology for optical systems, temperature calibration, and infrared measurement techniques. The research is supported by several EU programmes, including EURATOM, by Danish research councils and by industry. A summary of the activities in 2004 is presented. (au)

  12. Wills Plasma Physics Department annual progress report 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Progress in the experimental program using the research tokamak TORTUS is presented. The main thrust of the program is the study of the characteristics of hydromagnetic waves in tokamak plasmas and in the use of such waves in r.f. heating. Work on runaway electron production, on wave propagation in collisional plasmas and on hydromagnetic shock wave studies is reported. Diagnostic techniques and equipment described include a laser interferometer system and techniques based on the observation of resonance fluorescence and near-resonant scattering of a laser beam from atomic species in a plasma

  13. CTR plasma engineering studies. Annual progress report, 1 December 1985-30 November 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miley, G.H.

    1986-01-01

    The work described in this annual progress report covers a variety of topics ranging from alpha instabilities and current drive techniques to radiation heating of the first wall in a fusion device. Section II discusses work carried out on alpha instabilities, including comments on problems anticipated in the proposed compact ignition experiment and also recent studies of effects in tandem mirrors. Sections III and IV describe our recent efforts on RFP modelling. This includes a detailed study of oscillating field current drive (F-Θ) pumping and also parametric studies of ignition requirements. Section V presents a report of our application of control theory techniques to the stabilization of an elongated tokamak (ET) using feedback control of the plasma elongation. Section VI discusses our most recent study of the first-wall thermal response to plasma energy deposition while Section VII reviews our continuing study of techniques to radiation harden a wall detector for measuring alpha distributions in a burning plasma

  14. Neutron measurement techniques for tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarvis, O.N.

    1994-01-01

    The present article reviews the neutron measurement techniques that are currently being applied to the study of tokamak plasmas. The range of neutron energies of primary interest is limited to narrow bands around 2.5 and 14 MeV, and the variety of measurements that can be made for plasma diagnostic purposes is also restricted. To characterize the plasma as a neutron source, it is necessary only to measure the total neutron emission, the relative neutron emissivity as a function of position throughout the plasma, and the energy spectra of the emitted neutrons. In principle, such measurements might be expected to be relatively easy. That this is not the case is, in part, attributable to practical problems of accessibility to a harsh environment but is mostly a consequence of the time-scale on which the measurements have to be made and of the wide range of neutron emission intensities that have to be covered: for tokamak studies, the time-scale is of the order of 1 to 100 ms and the neutron intensity ranges from 10 12 to 10 19 s -1 . (author)

  15. CO2 laser interaction with magnetically confined plasmas. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlases, G.C.; Pietrzyk, Z.A.

    1977-08-01

    The experimental program involves two basic experimental configurations termed the slow (or steady) solenoid, and the fast solenoid. In the former, the field is essentially steady during the experiment lifetime, the gas (plasma) remains in contact with the wall, and all the heating is done by the laser. In the fast solenoid, the field rises on a timescale comparable to the laser pulse length, removing the plasma from the wall, and contributing to the plasma energy content via compression work. In the slow solenoid, preionization is generally not used, and the laser both creates the plasma and heats it. In the fast solenoid, the preionization technique is relatively critical as it must create conditions leading to a true particle minimum on axis in order to insure favorable refraction of the laser beam (''trapping''). Substantial progress has been made in both experiments this year, particularly with respect to diagnostic capabilities. In addition, the theoretical effort has expanded considerably. Highlights of this year's program are listed and details are contained in the balance of the report

  16. Plasma manipulation techniques for positron storage in a multicell trap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danielson, J. R.; Weber, T. R.; Surko, C. M.

    2006-01-01

    New plasma manipulation techniques are described that are central to the development of a multicell Penning trap designed to increase positron storage by orders of magnitude (e.g., to particle numbers N≥10 12 ). The experiments are done using test electron plasmas. A technique is described to move plasmas across the confining magnetic field and to deposit them at specific radial and azimuthal positions. Techniques to fill and operate two in-line plasma cells simultaneously, and the use of 1 kV confinement potentials are demonstrated. These experiments establish the capabilities to create, confine, and manipulate plasmas with the parameters required for a multicell trap; namely, particle numbers >10 10 in a single cell with plasma temperature ≤0.2 eV for plasma lengths ∼10 cm and radii ≤0.2 cm. The updated design of a multicell positron trap for 10 12 particles is described

  17. Application of plasma techniques for exhaust aftertreatment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pospíšil, M.; Viden, I.; Šimek, Milan; Pekárek, S.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 27, 1-4 (2001), s. 306-314 ISSN 0143-3369 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/99/1298 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : Non-thermal plasma, elctrical discharge, exhaust aftertreatment Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.190, year: 2001

  18. Three dimensional imaging technique for laser-plasma diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Shaoen; Zheng Zhijian; Liu Zhongli

    2001-01-01

    A CT technique for laser-plasma diagnostic and a three-dimensional (3D) image reconstruction program (CT3D) have been developed. The 3D images of the laser-plasma are reconstructed by using a multiplication algebraic reconstruction technique (MART) from five pinhole camera images obtained along different sight directions. The technique has been used to measure the three-dimensional distribution of X-ray of laser-plasma experiments in Xingguang II device, and the good results are obtained. This shows that a CT technique can be applied to ICF experiments

  19. Three dimensional imaging technique for laser-plasma diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaoen, Jiang; Zhijian, Zheng; Zhongli, Liu [China Academy of Engineering Physics, Chengdu (China)

    2001-04-01

    A CT technique for laser-plasma diagnostic and a three-dimensional (3D) image reconstruction program (CT3D) have been developed. The 3D images of the laser-plasma are reconstructed by using a multiplication algebraic reconstruction technique (MART) from five pinhole camera images obtained along different sight directions. The technique has been used to measure the three-dimensional distribution of X-ray of laser-plasma experiments in Xingguang II device, and the good results are obtained. This shows that a CT technique can be applied to ICF experiments.

  20. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory for FY2003. Annual Highlights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, Carol A.; DeMeo, Anthony R.

    2004-01-01

    The Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory FY2003 Annual Highlights report provides a summary of the activities at the Laboratory for the fiscal year--1 October 2002 through 30 September 2003. The report includes the Laboratory's Mission and Vision Statements, a message ''From the Director,'' summaries of the research and engineering activities by project, and sections on Technology Transfer, the Graduate and Science Education Programs, Awards and Honors garnered by the Laboratory and the employees, and the Year in Pictures. There is also a listing of the Laboratory's publications for the year and a section of the abbreviations, acronyms, and symbols used throughout the report. In the PDF document, links have been created from the Table of Contents to each section. You can also return to the Table of Contents from the beginning page of each section. The PPPL Highlights for fiscal year 2003 is also available in hardcopy format. To obtain a copy e-mail Publications and Reports at: pub-reports at pppl.gov. Be sure to include your complete mailing address

  1. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory FY2003 Annual Highlights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Editors: Carol A. Phillips; Anthony R. DeMeo

    2004-08-23

    The Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory FY2003 Annual Highlights report provides a summary of the activities at the Laboratory for the fiscal year--1 October 2002 through 30 September 2003. The report includes the Laboratory's Mission and Vision Statements, a message ''From the Director,'' summaries of the research and engineering activities by project, and sections on Technology Transfer, the Graduate and Science Education Programs, Awards and Honors garnered by the Laboratory and the employees, and the Year in Pictures. There is also a listing of the Laboratory's publications for the year and a section of the abbreviations, acronyms, and symbols used throughout the report. In the PDF document, links have been created from the Table of Contents to each section. You can also return to the Table of Contents from the beginning page of each section. The PPPL Highlights for fiscal year 2003 is also available in hardcopy format. To obtain a copy e-mail Publications and Reports at: pub-reports@pppl.gov. Be sure to include your complete mailing address

  2. A technique for plasma velocity-space cross-correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattingly, Sean; Skiff, Fred

    2018-05-01

    An advance in experimental plasma diagnostics is presented and used to make the first measurement of a plasma velocity-space cross-correlation matrix. The velocity space correlation function can detect collective fluctuations of plasmas through a localized measurement. An empirical decomposition, singular value decomposition, is applied to this Hermitian matrix in order to obtain the plasma fluctuation eigenmode structure on the ion distribution function. A basic theory is introduced and compared to the modes obtained by the experiment. A full characterization of these modes is left for future work, but an outline of this endeavor is provided. Finally, the requirements for this experimental technique in other plasma regimes are discussed.

  3. Optics and Plasma Research Department annual progress report for 2004

    OpenAIRE

    Bindslev, Henrik; Lynov, Jens-Peter; Pedersen, C.; Petersen, Paul Michael; Skaarup, Bitten

    2005-01-01

    The Optics and Plasma Research Department performs basic and applied research within three scientific programmes: (1) laser systems and optical materials, (2) optical diagnostics and information processing and (3) plasma physics and technology. Thedepartment has core competencies in optical sensors, optical materials, biophotonics, fusion plasma physics, and industrial plasma technology. The department employs key technologies in micro- and nanotechnology for optical systems, temperaturecalib...

  4. Plasma cleaning techniques and future applications in environmentally conscious manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, P.P.

    1995-07-01

    Plasmas have frequently been used in industry as a last step surface preparation technique in an otherwise predominantly wet-etch process. The limiting factor in the usefulness of plasma cleaning techniques has been the rate at which organic materials are removed. Recent research in the field of plasma chemistry has provided some understanding of plasma processes. By controlling plasma conditions and gas mixtures, ultra-fast plasma cleaning and etching is possible. With enhanced organic removal rates, plasma processes become more desirable as an environmentally sound alternative to traditional solvent or acid dominated process, not only as a cleaning tool, but also as a patterning and machining tool. In this paper, innovations in plasma processes are discussed including enhanced plasma etch rates via plasma environment control and aggressive gas mixtures. Applications that have not been possible with the limited usefulness of past plasma processes are now approaching the realm of possibility. Some of these possible applications will be discussed along with their impact to environmentally conscious manufacturing.

  5. Plasma filtering techniques for nuclear waste remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueroult, Renaud; Hobbs, David T; Fisch, Nathaniel J

    2015-10-30

    Nuclear waste cleanup is challenged by the handling of feed stocks that are both unknown and complex. Plasma filtering, operating on dissociated elements, offers advantages over chemical methods in processing such wastes. The costs incurred by plasma mass filtering for nuclear waste pretreatment, before ultimate disposal, are similar to those for chemical pretreatment. However, significant savings might be achieved in minimizing the waste mass. This advantage may be realized over a large range of chemical waste compositions, thereby addressing the heterogeneity of legacy nuclear waste. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Characteristics of nanosized zirconia prepared by plasma and chemical technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsova, L.; Grabis, J.; Heidemane, G.

    2003-01-01

    The studied preparation method of zirconia using the plasma technique, azeotropic distillation and glycine routes ensure obtaining of nano sized powders with close average particle size but different crystallite size and phase composition. The sinterability of nano sized zirconia particles prepared by plasma technique or wet-chemical methods is similar and depends on the green density of pressed powders, improvement of with can be achieved by using of granulated precursors. (authors)

  7. Plasma Technology as a New Preservation Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincón, R.; Calzada, M. D.

    The preliminary results of using the surface wave discharge at the atmospheric pressure on groups of lentils and sherry Fino wine samples are presented. In this research, the capability of active species and UV radiation from the plasma, has been assessed on preservation of food. Besides, the generation and emission of both excited molecules in a metastable state N2}(B3Π {g-> A3}Σ u{+) and the de-excitation of species NO(A2}Σ {+) producing UV radiation have been also studied.

  8. Plasma transport studies using transient techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonen, T.C.; Brower, D.L.; Efthimion, P.

    1991-01-01

    Selected topics from the Transient Transport sessions of the Transport Task Force Workshop, held February 19-23, 1990, in Hilton Head, South Carolina are summarized. Presentations on sawtooth propagation, ECH modulation, particle modulation, and H-mode transitions are included. The research results presented indicated a growing theoretical understanding and experimental sophistication in the application of transient techniques to transport studies. (Author)

  9. Nanosized lithium titanates produced by plasma technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabis, J; Orlovs, A; Rasmane, Dz

    2007-01-01

    The synthesis of nanosized lithium titanates is studied by evaporation of coarse grained commercially available titanium and lithium carbonate particles in radio-frequency plasma flow with subsequent controlling formation and growth conditions of product particles. In accordance with the XRD analysis the phase composition of the obtained powders is determined by feeding rate of precursors and strongly by ratio of lithium and titanium. The Li 2 TiO 3 and Li 4 Ti 5 O 12 particles containing small amounts of extra phases were obtained at ratio of Li/Ti = 2 and Li/Ti = 0.8 respectively, feeding rate of precursors being in the range of 0.6-0.9 kg/h. Specific surface area of powders is in the range of 20-40 m2/g depending on concentration of vapours in gas flow and cooling rate of the products. Additional calcination of nanosize particles at 800-900 deg. C improves phase composition of lithium titanates

  10. Optical coherence techniques for plasma doppler spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howard, J.; Michael, C.; Glass, F.; Cheetham, A.D.

    2000-01-01

    A new electro-optically Modulated Optical Solid-State (MOSS) interferometer has been constructed for measurement of the low order spectral moments of line emission from optically thin radiant media. The instrument, which is based on the principle of the Fourier transform spectrometer, has high etendue and is rugged, compact and inexpensive. By employing electro-optical path-length modulation techniques, the spectral information is transferred to the temporal frequency domain and can be obtained using a single photodetector. Specifically, the zeroth moment (brightness) is given by the average signal level, the first moment (shift) by the modulation phase and the second moment (line width) by the modulation amplitude. (author)

  11. Some novel diagnostic techniques for plasma chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufman, M.

    1976-01-01

    In order to probe the mechanisms of chemical transformations in electric discharges it is most useful to monitor concentrations of reactants, products and reactive intermediates as a function of discharge parameters. Mass spectrometry, a popular technique for observing intermediates in chemical reactions, meets with particular difficulty when applied to discharges, due to the presence of excited molecules as well as free radicals in such systems. Molecular beam analysis, a synthesis of mass spectrometry with molecular beam measurements of electric and magnetic moments and velocity distributions, is a technique developed in the laboratory which offers distinct advantages for the analysis of intermediates in electric discharges. In low pressure discharges, end-product analysis can be facilitated by sample compression. A chromatographic sampling system which employs compression in order to achieve sensitivity has been developed and evaluated. There is some question concerning the appropriate discharge parameters to be employed in correlating measured variations in concentrations. An investigation is being made of the use of discharge 'actinometers' as a means of measuring the intensity of electric discharges. In discharges the intensity (number and energy of the electrons) and the chemistry are strongly coupled. Thus, it is necessary that the actinometer be present in the reactor; it is not permissible to substitute vessels as is customary in photochemical investigations. Since the actinometer is to measure only the discharge intensity, it must not participate in any chemical reactions with molecules and intermediates in the discharge. Finally, the ratio of the rates of the primary interactions of the actinometer and reactant with the discharge must be independent of discharge parameters. (author)

  12. Laser and Plasma Technology Division, Annual Reports 1996 and 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatramani, N.

    1999-04-01

    This report describes the activity of the Laser and Plasma Technology Division of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre during the two year period 1996- 1997. This division is engaged in the research and development of high power beams mainly laser, plasma and electron beams. Laser and Plasma Technology Division has strived to establish indigenous capability to cater to the requirements of Department of Atomic Energy. This involves development and technology readiness study of laser, plasma and electron beam devices. In addition, studies are also carried out on related physical phenomenon with a view to gain better understanding of the devices. This report has been compiled from individual reports of various groups/sections working in the division. A list of publications by the several members of the division is also included. (author)

  13. Wills Plasma Physics Department annual progress report 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Progess is reported on research programs which are proceeding in the following areas: comissioning of the TORTUS research tokamak, plasma diagnostics, non-linear hydromagnetic waves and shock waves, and laser and gyrotron diagnostics

  14. Laser and Plasma Technology Division : annual report (1990-91)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    A brief account of the research and development (R and D) activities carried out by Laser and Plasma Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay during the period 1990-91 is presented. The R and D activities are reported under the headings: 1) Laser Activities, 2) Thermal Plasma Activities, and 3) Electron Beam Activities. List of publications including journal articles, papers published in symposia, conferences etc. is given at the end. (original). figs

  15. Laser and Plasma Technology Division annual report 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatramani, N.; Verma, R.L.

    1995-01-01

    A brief account of the research and development (R and D) activities carried out by Laser and Plasma Technology Division of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay during the period 1994 is presented. The activities are reported under the headings: 1) laser activities, 2) thermal plasma activities, 3) electron beam activity. At the end of each section, a list of publications by the staff members in the field indicated by the title of the section is given. (author). refs., tabs., figs

  16. Laser and Plasma Technology Division : annual report 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    A brief account of the research and development (R and D) activities carried out by Laser and Plasma Technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay during 1991 is presented. The R and D activities are reported under the headings (1) Laser Activities, (2) Thermal Plasma Activities, (3) Electron Beam Activities and (4) Divisional Workshop Activities. List of publications is given at the end of each activity heading

  17. Laser and Plasma Technology Division annual report 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkatramani, N; Verma, R L [eds.; Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Laser and Plasma Technology Div.

    1996-12-31

    A brief account of the research and development (R and D) activities carried out by Laser and Plasma Technology Division of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay during the period 1994 is presented. The activities are reported under the headings: (1) laser activities, (2) thermal plasma activities, (3) electron beam activity. At the end of each section, a list of publications by the staff members in the field indicated by the title of the section is given. (author). refs., tabs., figs.

  18. Annual review of Plasma Physics Laboratory, Kyoto University, April, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-04-01

    The devices for additionally heating joul-heated plasma in the Heliotron E, such as electron cyclotron resonance heating and neutral beam injection, were in operation in 1982. In the ECRH experiment, the microwaves of 200 kW at 28 GHz were generated by a gyrotron, but the pulse width was extended from 10 ms to 40 ms this year. By this, a currentless plasma of Te-1 keV was achieved. In the NB1 experiment, the neutral beam of about 1.5 MW was injected into joule-heated plasma, and the plasma of Ti(O)-950 eV, Te(O)-800 eV and Ne = 3 x 10 19 /m 3 was attained. The first experiment to inject neutral beam into ECRH currentless plasma was carried out. By this method, the density of the plasma increased as well as the ion temperature and electron temperature. As to the theory, a critical beta was calculated by using stellarator expansion, which should be 3 to 7 % in the Heliotron E. Two gyrotrons of 200 kW at 53 GHz each and an ion cyclotron resonance heating equipment of 1.5 MW at 26.7 MHz are prepared. As to the reactor study, the design of Heliotron H in the first phase was completed. The location of impurity sources in NB1 ion sources and beam lines was found. (Kako, I.)

  19. Annual review of Plasma Physics Laboratory, Kyoto University, July, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-07-01

    The construction of the Heliotron E was completed in June, 1980. After the preliminary examination for two months and the improvement of the power supply, the Joule heating experiment was carried out from September, 1980, to January, 1981. The experiment of electron cyclotron resonance heating was also carried out in January, 1981. Then, experiment was stopped to install the neutral beam injection apparatus. The results obtained by both experiments are reported. The target may be attained by producing high density plasma with low plasma current, and heating the plasma by NBI additionally. In the ECRH experiment, plasma was produced and heated successfully without Joule heating current, by the Gyrotron with 200 kW power output. The favorable results of the confinement experiment with current-free plasma indicate the possibility of a stationary fusion reactor of Heliotron type. The Heliotron magnetic field configuration was proposed in 1959, and since then, the experiments of Heliotron A, B, C, D and DM were carried out in succession. Now, the purpose of the experiment to prove the principle is being achieved with Heliotron E. Hope is placed on the NBI experiment in preparation. (Kako, I.)

  20. Laser and Plasma Technology Division annual report 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatramani, N.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the activity of the Laser and Plasma Technology Division of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai during the period 1995. This division is engaged in the research and development of high power beams namely lasers, plasma and electron beams which are characterized by high power density. This division has strived to establish indigenous capability to cater to the requirements of the Department of Atomic Energy. The broad program objectives of the division are (1) development and technology readiness studies of laser, plasma and electron beam devices; (2) studies on related physical phenomena with a view to gain better understanding of the devices and (3) improvements in technology and exploration of new areas. This report has been compiled from individual reports of various groups/sections with marginal editing. At the end of each section; a list of publications by the staff members in the field indicated by the title of the section is given. refs., figs., tabs

  1. Development of the dry decontamination technique using plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Soo; Seo, Yong Dae; Lee, Dong Uk; Jeon, Sang Hwan; Jung, Young Suk [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea)

    2001-04-01

    In order to develop an advanced dry decontamination method, dry decontamination technique using gaseous plasma is studied. Scopes of the research are 1) literature survey and case studies of the international R and D activities and industrial application, 2) contaminant characteristics analysis, 3) feasibility and applicability study of the unit techniques, 4) process development study on the plasma decontamination, 5) plasma diagnostics and quantitative analysis by QMS and OES, and 6) design of (microwave) plasma torch system. The major research results are as belows. The maximum etching rate of UO{sub 2} is achieved to be 0.8 {mu}m/min. under 300 deg C, 150 W CF{sub 4}/O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} r.f. plasma maintaining the optimum ratio of CF{sub 4}/O{sub 2} of four, and that of Co and Mo is 0.06 {mu}m/min. and 1.9 {mu}m/min., respectively, under 380 deg C, 220 W CF{sub 4}/O{sub 2} r.f. plasma. The optimum process for the dry decontamination of TRU, CP, and or FP nuclides, therefore, requires the optimum gas composition above 350 deg C and 220W power. It is also demonstrated that this optimum process can be extrapolated to atmospheric high power torch system. In conclusion, if plasma power and temperature increases with maintaining the optimum gas composition, this dry decontamination techniques must be definitely effective and efficient. 17 refs., 62 figs., 4 tabs. (Author)

  2. Characterization of plant plasma membrane antigens: [Annual] progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galbraith, D.W.; Afonso, C.L.; Meyer, D.; Harkins, K.R.

    1987-01-01

    Protoplast plasma membranes were used to raise antibodies in mice to cell surface antigens. Monoclonal antibodies were selected from those produced and used for indirect immunofluorescence microscopic analysis of N. tabacum cells. In parallel studies cDNA expression libraries were prepared. (DT)

  3. Laser and Plasma Technology Division annual report 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatramani, N.; Verma, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    This report describes the activities of the Laser and Plasma Technology Division during the year 1993. This Division is engaged in the research and development of high power beams namely laser, plasma and electron beams, which are characterized by high power density, normally in excess of 1 kW/mm 2 . Laser and Plasma Technology Division has strived to establish indigenous capability to cater to the requirements of the Department of Atomic Energy. The broad programme objectives of the Division are : (1) Development and technology readiness studies of laser, plasma and electron beam devices, (2) Studies on related physical phenomena with a view to gain better understanding of the devices, and (3) Improvements in technology and exploration of new areas. This report covers the activities of the Division during 1993 and describes how successfully the objectives have been met. The activities described in the report are diverse in nature. The report has been compiled from individual reports of various groups/sections with marginal editing. (author). refs., tabs., figs

  4. Laser and Plasma Technology Division annual report 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venkatramani, N; Verma, R L [eds.; Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Laser and Plasma Technology Div.

    1994-12-31

    This report describes the activities of the Laser and Plasma Technology Division during the year 1993. This Division is engaged in the research and development of high power beams namely laser, plasma and electron beams, which are characterized by high power density, normally in excess of 1 kW/mm{sup 2}. Laser and Plasma Technology Division has strived to establish indigenous capability to cater to the requirements of the Department of Atomic Energy. The broad programme objectives of the Division are : (1) Development and technology readiness studies of laser, plasma and electron beam devices, (2) Studies on related physical phenomena with a view to gain better understanding of the devices, and (3) Improvements in technology and exploration of new areas. This report covers the activities of the Division during 1993 and describes how successfully the objectives have been met. The activities described in the report are diverse in nature. The report has been compiled from individual reports of various groups/sections with marginal editing. (author). refs., tabs., figs.

  5. Geospace Plasma Dynamics Laboratory Annual Task Report (FY11)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Site Contractors: Nagendra Singh, Ph.D., Physicist , 0.5 MY Neil Grossbard, M.S., Mathematician , 0.7 MY Visitors: Publications: Articles in...PhD Project Manager Division Chief, RVB This report is published in the interest of scientific and technical...Annual Task Report (FY11) 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 61102F 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 2311 Daniel Ober 5e. TASK NUMBER

  6. Enhanced surface functionality via plasma modification and plasma deposition techniques to create more biologically relevant materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, Jeffrey C.

    Functionalizing nanoparticles and other unusually shaped substrates to create more biologically relevant materials has become central to a wide range of research programs. One of the primary challenges in this field is creating highly functionalized surfaces without modifying the underlying bulk material. Traditional wet chemistry techniques utilize thin film depositions to functionalize nanomaterials with oxygen and nitrogen containing functional groups, such as --OH and --NHx. These functional groups can serve to create surfaces that are amenable to cell adhesion or can act as reactive groups for further attachment of larger structures, such as macromolecules or antiviral agents. Additional layers, such as SiO2, are often added between the nanomaterial and the functionalized coating to act as a barrier films, adhesion layers, and to increase overall hydrophilicity. However, some wet chemistry techniques can damage the bulk material during processing. This dissertation examines the use of plasma processing as an alternative method for producing these highly functionalized surfaces on nanoparticles and polymeric scaffolds through the use of plasma modification and plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition techniques. Specifically, this dissertation will focus on (1) plasma deposition of SiO2 barrier films on nanoparticle substrates; (2) surface functionalization of amine and alcohol groups through (a) plasma co-polymerization and (b) plasma modification; and (3) the design and construction of plasma hardware to facilitate plasma processing of nanoparticles and polymeric scaffolds. The body of work presented herein first examines the fabrication of composite nanoparticles by plasma processing. SiOxC y and hexylamine films were coated onto TiO2 nanoparticles to demonstrate enhanced water dispersion properties. Continuous wave and pulsed allyl alcohol plasmas were used to produce highly functionalized Fe2 O3 supported nanoparticles. Specifically, film composition was

  7. Laser and Plasma Technology Division annual report 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkatramani, N.; Verma, R.L.

    1993-01-01

    The report describes the research and development (R and D) activities of Laser and Plasma technology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay during 1992. The broad programme objectives of the Division are: (1) development and technology readiness studies of laser, plasma and electron beam devices, (2) studies on related physical phenomena with a view to gain better understanding of the devices, and (3) improvements in technology and exploration of new areas. The R and D activities are reported under the sections entitled: (1) Laser Activities, (2) Thermal Plasma Activities, and (3) Electron Beam Activities. At the end of each section, a list of publications by the staff members in the field indicated by the title of the section is given. Some of the highlights of R and D work during 1992 are:(1) fabrication of an electron beam sustained CO 2 laser, (2) commissioning of a 6.5 m high LMMHD (Liquid Metal Magneto-hydrodynamic) generator loaded with 1.5 tons of mercury, (3) fabrication of electron beam processing equipment, and (4) study of the magnetic properties of vanadium nitride films produced by reactive sputtering in an indigenously developed DC magnetron sputtering equipment. (author). 56 figs., 6 tabs

  8. Review of Plasma Techniques Used to Trap Antihydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajans, Joel

    2011-10-01

    Recently, the ALPHA collaboration at CERN trapped antihydrogen atoms. To date, over three hundred antiatoms have been confined, some for as long as 1000s. This was the first time that antiatoms had ever been trapped. The ultimate goal of the ALPHA collaboration is to test CPT invariance by comparing the spectra of hydrogen and antihydrogen, and to measure the gravitational attraction between matter and antimatter. Such studies might resolve the baryogenesis problem: why is there very little antimatter in the Universe? The ALPHA experiment brought together techniques from many different fields of physics, but the crucial breakthroughs were in plasma physics. The essential problem is this: How does one combine two Malmberg-Penning trapped plasmas, one made from antiprotons, and the other positrons, which have opposite electrostatic potentials of nearly one volt, in such a manner that the antiprotons traverse the positrons with kinetic energies of less than 40 μeV, this latter being the depth of the superimposed neutral antihydrogen trap? The plasma techniques ALPHA developed to accomplish this include: Minimizing the effects of the neutral trap multipole fields on the positron and antiproton plasma confinement. Compressing antiprotons down to less than 0.5mm. Using autoresonance to inject antiprotons into the positrons with very little excess energy. Evaporative cooling of the electrons and antiprotons to record low temperatures. Development of charge, radial profile, temperature, and antiproton loss location diagnostics. Careful and lengthy manipulations to finesse the plasmas into the best states for optimal antihydrogen production and trapping. The plasma techniques necessary to trap antihydrogen will be reviewed in this talk. This work was supported by DOE and NSF, and is reported on behalf of the ALPHA collaboration.

  9. Dynamics of blood plasma by spectropolarimetry and biochemical techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voloshynska, Katerina; Ilashchuka, Tetjana; Prydij, Olexander; Gruia, Maria

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the study was to establish objective parameters of the field of laser and incoherent radiation of different spectral ranges (UV, visible, IR) as a non-invasive optical method of interaction with different samples of biological tissues and fluids of patients to determine the dynamics of metabolic syndrome and choosing the best personal treatment. As diagnostic methods have been used ultraviolet spectrometry samples of blood plasma in the liquid state, infrared spectroscopy middle range (2,5 - 25 microns) dry residue of plasma polarization and laser diagnostic technique of thin histological sections of biological tissues.

  10. Monte Carlo simulation techniques for predicting annual power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, J.P.; Bulandr, P.J.

    1991-01-01

    As the owner and operator of a number of small to mid-sized hydroelectric sites, STS HydroPower has been faced with the need to accurately predict anticipated hydroelectric revenues over a period of years. The typical approach to this problem has been to look at each site from a mathematical deterministic perspective and evaluate the annual production from historic streamflows. Average annual production is simply taken to be the area under the flow duration curve defined by the operating and design characteristics of the selected turbines. Minimum annual production is taken to be a historic dry year scenario and maximum production is viewed as power generated under the most ideal of conditions. Such an approach creates two problems. First, in viewing the characteristics of a single site, it does not take into account the probability of such an event occurring. Second, in viewing all sites in a single organization's portfolio together, it does not reflect the varying flow conditions at the different sites. This paper attempts to address the first of these two concerns, that being the creation of a simulation model utilizing the Monte Carlo method at a single site. The result of the analysis is a picture of the production at the site that is both a better representation of anticipated conditions and defined probabilistically

  11. Wills Plasma Physics Department annual progress report 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The experimental research program has three major themes - the study of hydromagnetic waves and RF heating using the TORTUS tokamak, the development of diagnostic techniques particularly those based on submillimetre lasers and the gyrotron, and gas discharge studies

  12. Flowing dusty plasma experiments: generation of flow and measurement techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, S.; Bandyopadhyay, P.; Sen, A.

    2016-12-01

    A variety of experimental techniques for the generation of subsonic/supersonic dust fluid flows and means of measuring such flow velocities are presented. The experiments have been carried out in a \\Pi -shaped dusty plasma experimental device with micron size kaolin/melamine formaldehyde particles embedded in a background of argon plasma created by a direct current glow discharge. A stationary dust cloud is formed over the cathode region by precisely balancing the pumping speed and gas flow rate. A flow of dust particles/fluid is generated by additional gas injection from a single or dual locations or by altering the dust confining potential. The flow velocity is then estimated by three different techniques, namely, by super particle identification code, particle image velocimetry analysis and the excitation of dust acoustic waves. The results obtained from these three different techniques along with their merits and demerits are discussed. An estimation of the neutral drag force responsible for the generation as well as the attenuation of the dust fluid flow is made. These techniques can be usefully employed in laboratory devices to investigate linear and non-linear collective excitations in a flowing dusty plasma.

  13. Institute for Plasma Research, Stuttgart University. Annual report 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    In 1986 the IPP-IPF cooperation in the field of fusion related research and development has been successfully continued. The ECRH project as the largest activity is concentrated on the completion of the 1 MW/70 GHz long-pulse ECRH-system for the W VII-AS stellarator. The components tests promise optimum technical and - hopefully - physical results. Theoretical investigations mainly concern ray propagation and time dependent transport calculations for stellarators at ECRH conditions. A first successful experimental demonstration of the LIDAR scattering concept on JET was a rather encouraging progress for the laser diagnostic group. Besides this project the FIR scattering was continued on ASDEX with measurements of the k-spectra of the low frequency fluctuations during the various kinds of plasma heating. On the WEGA stellarator a programme of flux surface measurements with electron beams has been started. A meanwhile improved detection method will be applied - in cooperation with the Wendelstein team - at the coming W VII-AS stellarator. In the last year the plasma focus experiment POSEIDON achieved successful operation at full bank energy. (orig.)

  14. Positron Plasma Control Techniques Applied to Studies of Cold Antihydrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Funakoshi, Ryo

    2003-01-01

    In the year 2002, two experiments at CERN succeeded in producing cold antihydrogen atoms, first ATHENA and subsequently ATRAP. Following on these results, it is now feasible to use antihydrogen to study the properties of antimatter. In the ATHENA experiment, the cold antihydrogen atoms are produced by mixing large amounts of antiprotons and positrons in a nested Penning trap. The complicated behaviors of the charged particles are controlled and monitored by plasma manipulation techniques. The antihydrogen events are studied using position sensitive detectors and the evidence of production of antihydrogen atoms is separated out with the help of analysis software. This thesis covers the first production of cold antihydrogen in the first section as well as the further studies of cold antihydrogen performed by using the plasma control techniques in the second section.

  15. An eigenexpansion technique for modelling plasma start-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillsbury, R.D.

    1989-01-01

    An algorithm has been developed and implemented in a computer program that allows the estimation of PF coil voltages required to start-up an axisymmetric plasma in a tokamak in the presence of eddy currents in toroidally continuous conducting structures. The algorithm makes use of an eigen-expansion technique to solve the lumped parameter circuit loop voltage equations associated with the PF coils and passive (conducting) structures. An example of start-up for CIT (Compact Ignition Tokamak) is included

  16. Bayesian Techniques for Plasma Theory to Bridge the Gap Between Space and Lab Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crabtree, Chris; Ganguli, Gurudas; Tejero, Erik

    2017-10-01

    We will show how Bayesian techniques provide a general data analysis methodology that is better suited to investigate phenomena that require a nonlinear theory for an explanation. We will provide short examples of how Bayesian techniques have been successfully used in the radiation belts to provide precise nonlinear spectral estimates of whistler mode chorus and how these techniques have been verified in laboratory plasmas. We will demonstrate how Bayesian techniques allow for the direct competition of different physical theories with data acting as the necessary arbitrator. This work is supported by the Naval Research Laboratory base program and by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration under Grant No. NNH15AZ90I.

  17. Wills Plasma Physics Department annual progress report 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The experimental research program continues to have two major themes - the study of hydromagnetic waves and RF heating using the TORTUS tokamak and the development of diagnostic techniques. Gas discharge studies now include work on the characteristics of metal vapour vacuum arcs. Other areas include a study of the characteristics of the magnetron sputtering discharge used in the production of selective surfaces for solar collectors

  18. A technique to reduce plasma armature formation voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamison, K.A.; Littrell, D.M.

    1991-01-01

    The initiation of a plasma armature by foil vaporization in a railgun is often accompanied by a large, fast, voltage transient appearing on both the breech and muzzle of the gun. For a railgun driven by an inductor/opening switch power supply, this voltage transient becomes a concern during current commutation from the switch to the railgun. To lessen the requirements on the opening switch, techniques must be found to reduce the armature formation voltage. This paper presents the experimental results from railgun firings at AFATL's Electromagnetic Launcher Basic Research Facility (Site A-15, Eglin Air Force Base, Florida) using different shapes of initiation foils. These foils have been designed to vaporize into a plasma armature with reduced transient voltages. A design criteria was developed to ensure that all portions of the foil vaporize at slightly different times

  19. [Platelet rich plasma (PRP): potentialities and techniques of extraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacifici, L; Casella, F; Maggiore, C

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the various techniques of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) extraction codified in recent years and their use potential is evaluated. PRP is one of the techniques with which at the moment it is attempted to modulate and facilitate the cure of a wound. The use of PRP is based on the theoretical premise that by concentrating platelets the effects of the growth factors (PDGF, TGF-beta, IGF-I and -II) so released will be increased. Marx's original technique is described above all. This prescribes the sampling of a unit of blood (450-500 ml) and the use of a cell separator. We then analysed the technique of Marx and Hannon in which the quantity of blood sampled is reduced to 150 ml, and the two simplified techniques of the Sacchi and Bellanda group. Finally, a new PRP extraction technique is described. We conclude that platelet gel allows access to autologous growth factors which by definition are neither toxic nor immunogenic and are capable of accelerating the normal processes of bone regeneration. PRP can thus be considered a useful instrument for increasing the quality and final quantity of regenerated bone in oral and maxillo-facial surgery operations.

  20. Nano powders, components and coatings by plasma technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKechnie, Timothy N. (Inventor); Antony, Leo V. M. (Inventor); O'Dell, Scott (Inventor); Power, Chris (Inventor); Tabor, Terry (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Ultra fine and nanometer powders and a method of producing same are provided, preferably refractory metal and ceramic nanopowders. When certain precursors are injected into the plasma flame in a reactor chamber, the materials are heated, melted and vaporized and the chemical reaction is induced in the vapor phase. The vapor phase is quenched rapidly to solid phase to yield the ultra pure, ultra fine and nano product. With this technique, powders have been made 20 nanometers in size in a system capable of a bulk production rate of more than 10 lbs/hr. The process is particularly applicable to tungsten, molybdenum, rhenium, tungsten carbide, molybdenum carbide and other related materials.

  1. Nano powders, components and coatings by plasma technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKechnie, Timothy N [Brownsboro, AL; Antony, Leo V. M. [Huntsville, AL; O'Dell, Scott [Arab, AL; Power, Chris [Guntersville, AL; Tabor, Terry [Huntsville, AL

    2009-11-10

    Ultra fine and nanometer powders and a method of producing same are provided, preferably refractory metal and ceramic nanopowders. When certain precursors are injected into the plasma flame in a reactor chamber, the materials are heated, melted and vaporized and the chemical reaction is induced in the vapor phase. The vapor phase is quenched rapidly to solid phase to yield the ultra pure, ultra fine and nano product. With this technique, powders have been made 20 nanometers in size in a system capable of a bulk production rate of more than 10 lbs/hr. The process is particularly applicable to tungsten, molybdenum, rhenium, tungsten carbide, molybdenum carbide and other related materials.

  2. Waste cell phone recycling by thermal plasma techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inaba, T.; Kunimoto, N.; Abe, S. [Chuo Univ., Bunkyo-Ku, Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Electrical, Electronics, and Communication Engineering; Li, O.L.; Chang, J.S.; Ruj, B. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada). Faculty of Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Due to the cost-effective nature of wireless networks, the number of cell phones used around the world has increased significantly. However, a major problem of this technology is the generation of a great deal of complex electronics wastes, such as cell phones. The typical average life of a cell phone is around 2 years. Therefore, inexpensive recycling techniques must be developed for valuable resources such as real metals and plastics used in cell phones. Thermal plasma has been used for many different waste treatments since it has the capability to detoxify waste by-products. This paper presented a preliminary investigation for cell phone recycling by a thermal plasma technology. Recyclable resource material was identified by neutron activation analyses. Then, the cell phone waste was first crashed and treated by Ar twin torch plasmas to remove the majority of organic materials. The paper described the experimental apparatus and results. It was concluded that styrene (C{sub 8}H{sub 8}) and benzene (C{sub 6}H{sub 6}O) may be two major by-products in on-line by-products gas. The molecule becomes a much heavier by-product gas after cooling down. 6 refs., 6 figs.

  3. Strategies in edge plasma simulation using adaptive dynamic nodalization techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kainz, A.; Weimann, G.; Kamelander, G.

    2003-01-01

    A wide span of steady-state and transient edge plasma processes simulation problems require accurate discretization techniques and can then be treated with Finite Element (FE) and Finite Volume (FV) methods. The software used here to meet these meshing requirements is a 2D finite element grid generator. It allows to produce adaptive unstructured grids taking into consideration the flux surface characteristics. To comply with the common mesh handling features of FE/FV packages, some options have been added to the basic generation tool. These enhancements include quadrilateral meshes without non-regular transition elements obtained by substituting them by transition constructions consisting of regular quadrilateral elements. Furthermore triangular grids can be created with one edge parallel to the magnetic field and modified by the basic adaptation/realignment techniques. Enhanced code operation properties and processing capabilities are expected. (author)

  4. Parallel pic plasma simulation through particle decomposition techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briguglio, S.; Vlad, G.; Di Martino, B.; Naples, Univ. 'Federico II'

    1998-02-01

    Particle-in-cell (PIC) codes are among the major candidates to yield a satisfactory description of the detail of kinetic effects, such as the resonant wave-particle interaction, relevant in determining the transport mechanism in magnetically confined plasmas. A significant improvement of the simulation performance of such codes con be expected from parallelization, e.g., by distributing the particle population among several parallel processors. Parallelization of a hybrid magnetohydrodynamic-gyrokinetic code has been accomplished within the High Performance Fortran (HPF) framework, and tested on the IBM SP2 parallel system, using a 'particle decomposition' technique. The adopted technique requires a moderate effort in porting the code in parallel form and results in intrinsic load balancing and modest inter processor communication. The performance tests obtained confirm the hypothesis of high effectiveness of the strategy, if targeted towards moderately parallel architectures. Optimal use of resources is also discussed with reference to a specific physics problem [it

  5. CTR plasma engineering studies. Annual progress report, October 1, 1977--October 31, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miley, G.H.

    1978-01-01

    Fusion engineering studies are described that relate to three areas of fusion reactor development. Techniques to examine high-energy alpha transport in tokamak plasmas are described along with results relative to wall bombardment and resultant plasma contamination. Calculations for an experiment planned for TFTR to verify this theory are also included. Studies of plasma heating, fueling and stability for a field-reversed mirror are described that have lead to the concept of a small (less than 10 MWe) reactor labeled SAFFIRE. Finally methods are proposed to improve the efficiency of a reversed-field pinch by extending its burn through refueling and energy-loss control

  6. Selection of suitable diagnostic techniques for an RF atmospheric pressure plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, M.G.; Deng, X.T.

    2001-01-01

    As an early report of our study, this paper summaries the RF atmospheric pressure plasma system we intend to characterize and a number of diagnostic techniques presently under assessment for our plasma rig. By discussing the advantages and disadvantages of these diagnostic techniques at this meeting, we hope to gain feedback and comments to improve our choice of appropriate diagnostic techniques as well as our subsequent application of these techniques to nonthermal RF atmospheric pressure plasmas

  7. Synthesis and characterization of carbon fibers obtained through plasma techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdivia B, M.

    2005-01-01

    The study of carbon, particularly the nano technology is a recent field, the one which has important implications in the science of new materials. It investigation is of great interest for industries producers of ceramic, metallurgy, electronic, energy storage, biomedicine, among others. The diverse application fields are a reason at national as international level, so that many works are focused in the production of nano fibers of carbon. The Thermal plasma applications laboratory (LAPT) of the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ), it is carrying out works about carbon nano technology. The present work has as purpose to carry out the synthesis and characterization of the carbon nano fibers which are obtained by electric arch of alternating current (CA) to high frequencies and by a plasma gun of non transferred arch, where are used hydrocarbons like benzene, methane, acetylene like carbon source and ferrocene, nickel, yttrium and cerium oxide like catalysts. For both techniques its were thought about a relationship among hydrocarbon-catalyst that it favored to the nano fibers production. The obtained product of each experiment outlined it was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), analysis with those were obtained pictures and diffraction graphs, which were observed to arrive to one conclusion on the operation conditions, same analysis with those were characterized the tests carried out according to the nano structures formation of carbon. (Author)

  8. A review of plasma polarimetry (theory and techniques)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segre, S. E.

    1997-11-01

    A review of plasma polarimetry is presented. First the theory is discussed in general, exact analytic solutions of the polarization evolution equation are presented and then approximate analytic solutions. Numerical integration of the evolution equation is also discussed. The design of experiments is then considered, with special attention to the techniques of polarization modulation (both progressive and alternating modulation). Different alternative configurations are described for progressive modulation which are of special interest because they can be realized in the far infrared and because they allow a measurement of phases rather than amplitudes. The effects of refraction are then considered. Finally, the combination of polarimetry and interferometry on the same instrument is discussed, including the effects of polarization modulation

  9. A technique to identify annual growth rings in Eucalyptus grandis using annual measurements of diameter at breast height and gamma ray densitometry

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Naidoo, Sasha

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A technique was developed to identify annual growth rings in E. grandis using a combination of annual measurements of diameter at breast height (DBH) from permanent sample plot (PSP) datasets and bark-pith density profiles. By assessing the pattern...

  10. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) annual site environmental report for calendar year 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finley, V.L.; Stencel, J.R.

    1992-11-01

    This report gives the results of the environmental activities and monitoring programs at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) for CY91. The report is prepared to provide the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the public with information on the level of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants, if any, added to the environment as a result of PPPL operations, as well as environmental initiatives, assessments, and programs. The objective of the Annual Site Environmental Report is to document evidence that DOE facility environmental protection programs adequately protect the environment and the public health.

  11. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) annual site environmental report for Calendar Year 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finley, V.L.; Wieczorek, M.A.

    1994-03-01

    This report gives the results of the environmental activities and monitoring programs at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) for CY92. The report is prepared to provide the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the public with information on the level of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants, if any, added to the environment as a result of PPPL operations, as well as environmental initiatives, assessments, and programs. The objective of the Annual Site Environmental Report is to document evidence that DOE facility environmental protection programs adequately protect the environment and the public health.

  12. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) annual site environmental report for Calendar Year 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finley, V.L.; Wieczorek, M.A.

    1994-03-01

    This report gives the results of the environmental activities and monitoring programs at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) for CY92. The report is prepared to provide the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the public with information on the level of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants, if any, added to the environment as a result of PPPL operations, as well as environmental initiatives, assessments, and programs. The objective of the Annual Site Environmental Report is to document evidence that DOE facility environmental protection programs adequately protect the environment and the public health

  13. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) annual site environmental report for calendar year 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finley, V.L.; Stencel, J.R.

    1992-11-01

    This report gives the results of the environmental activities and monitoring programs at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) for CY91. The report is prepared to provide the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the public with information on the level of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants, if any, added to the environment as a result of PPPL operations, as well as environmental initiatives, assessments, and programs. The objective of the Annual Site Environmental Report is to document evidence that DOE facility environmental protection programs adequately protect the environment and the public health

  14. CTR plasma engineering studies. Annual progress report, 1 December 1984-30 November 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miley, G.H.

    1985-01-01

    Work under this project is focused on plasma engineering developments in support of fusion reactor studies. The work described in this annual progress report covers a variety of topics ranging from plasma transport modelling for compact tori to radiation heating of the first wall in a fusion device. Sections 2 and 3 decribe computer codes developed for use with field-reversed configurations such as spheromaks and field-reversed mirrors. Section 4 presents an evaluation of the feasibility of heating a RFP-type reactor to ignition with ohmic current input alone. Sections 5 and 6 describe new work that has been initiated on optimal control theory for fusion reactors. Sections 7 to 9 discuss recent results on alpha-particle transport, instabilities, and diagnostics. In the final section, methods for analysis of the poloidal variation in the thermal wall loading of a tokamak reactor are discussed and some typical results are presented

  15. Proceedings of the eighteenth annual conference on explosives and blasting technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This edition of the Proceedings of the Annual Conference on Explosives and Blasting Techniques is the eighteenth in a series published by the International Society of Explosives Engineers. The papers cover a wide variety of explosives and blasting techniques, including: rock mechanics, rock drilling, perimeter control handling and documenting blasting complaints, blast vibration frequencies, blasting techniques for surface and underground coal mines, explosives for permafrost blasting, lightning detection, use of slow motion video to analyze blasts, tunneling, and close-in blasting control. Papers have been processed individually for inclusion on the data base

  16. Enhanced nonlinear iterative techniques applied to a nonequilibrium plasma flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoll, D.A.

    1998-01-01

    The authors study the application of enhanced nonlinear iterative methods to the steady-state solution of a system of two-dimensional convection-diffusion-reaction partial differential equations that describe the partially ionized plasma flow in the boundary layer of a tokamak fusion reactor. This system of equations is characterized by multiple time and spatial scales and contains highly anisotropic transport coefficients due to a strong imposed magnetic field. They use Newton's method to linearize the nonlinear system of equations resulting from an implicit, finite volume discretization of the governing partial differential equations, on a staggered Cartesian mesh. The resulting linear systems are neither symmetric nor positive definite, and are poorly conditioned. Preconditioned Krylov iterative techniques are employed to solve these linear systems. They investigate both a modified and a matrix-free Newton-Krylov implementation, with the goal of reducing CPU cost associated with the numerical formation of the Jacobian. A combination of a damped iteration, mesh sequencing, and a pseudotransient continuation technique is used to enhance global nonlinear convergence and CPU efficiency. GMRES is employed as the Krylov method with incomplete lower-upper (ILU) factorization preconditioning. The goal is to construct a combination of nonlinear and linear iterative techniques for this complex physical problem that optimizes trade-offs between robustness, CPU time, memory requirements, and code complexity. It is shown that a mesh sequencing implementation provides significant CPU savings for fine grid calculations. Performance comparisons of modified Newton-Krylov and matrix-free Newton-Krylov algorithms will be presented

  17. Nanoengineered Interfaces, Coatings, and Structures by Plasma Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilev, Krasimir; Ramiasa, Melanie Macgregor

    2017-12-15

    Nanoparticles, nanotubes, nanobelts, nanoneedles, nanosheets, nanowires, nanopillars: the variety of nanostructured interfaces that can be created and modified using plasma processes is virtually endless.[...].

  18. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory annual report, October 1, 1982-September 30, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, C.A.

    1983-01-01

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) achieved first plasma at 3:05 a.m. on December 24, 1982. During the course of the year, the plasma current was raised to a maximum of 1 MA, and extensive confinement studies were carried out with ohmic-heated plasmas. The most important finding was that tokamak energy confinement time increases as the cube of the plasma size. The Princeton Large Torus (PLT) carried out a number of high-powered plasma-heating experiments in the ion cyclotron frequency range, and also demonstrated for the first time that a 100-kA tokamak discharge can be built up by means of rf-waves in the lower hybrid range, without any need for inductive current drive by the conventional tokamak transformer system. The Poloidal Divertor Experiment (PDX) demonstrated that substantial improvements in plasma confinement during intense neutral-beam heating can be obtained by means of either a magnetic divertor or a mechanical scoop limiter. The S-1 spheromak experiment has come into operation, with first plasma in January 1983, and machine completion in August. The soft X-ray laser development experiment continues to make strong progress towards the demonstration of laser amplification. Thus far, a single-pass gain of 3.5 has been achieved, using the 182 A line of CVI. Theoretical MHD-stability studies have shed new light on the nature of the energetic-ion-driven ''fishbone instability,'' and the utilization of the bean-shaping technique to reach higher beta values in the tokamak

  19. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory annual report, October 1, 1982-September 30, 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, C.A. (ed.)

    1983-01-01

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) achieved first plasma at 3:05 a.m. on December 24, 1982. During the course of the year, the plasma current was raised to a maximum of 1 MA, and extensive confinement studies were carried out with ohmic-heated plasmas. The most important finding was that tokamak energy confinement time increases as the cube of the plasma size. The Princeton Large Torus (PLT) carried out a number of high-powered plasma-heating experiments in the ion cyclotron frequency range, and also demonstrated for the first time that a 100-kA tokamak discharge can be built up by means of rf-waves in the lower hybrid range, without any need for inductive current drive by the conventional tokamak transformer system. The Poloidal Divertor Experiment (PDX) demonstrated that substantial improvements in plasma confinement during intense neutral-beam heating can be obtained by means of either a magnetic divertor or a mechanical scoop limiter. The S-1 spheromak experiment has come into operation, with first plasma in January 1983, and machine completion in August. The soft X-ray laser development experiment continues to make strong progress towards the demonstration of laser amplification. Thus far, a single-pass gain of 3.5 has been achieved, using the 182 A line of CVI. Theoretical MHD-stability studies have shed new light on the nature of the energetic-ion-driven ''fishbone instability,'' and the utilization of the bean-shaping technique to reach higher beta values in the tokamak.

  20. Ignition and monitoring technique for plasma processing of multicell superconducting radio-frequency cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doleans, Marc

    2016-12-01

    An in-situ plasma processing technique has been developed at the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) to improve the performance of the superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavities in operation. The technique uses a low-density reactive neon-oxygen plasma at room-temperature to improve the surface work function, to help remove adsorbed gases on the RF surface, and to reduce its secondary emission yield. SNS SRF cavities have six accelerating cells and the plasma typically ignites in the cell where the electric field is the highest. This article details the technique to ignite and monitor the plasma in each cell of the SNS cavities.

  1. Low-temperature plasma techniques in surface modification of biomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Xiangfen; Xie Hankun; Zhang Jing

    2002-01-01

    Since synthetic polymers usually can not meet the biocompatibility and bio-functional demands of the human body, surface treatment is a prerequisite for them to be used as biomaterials. A very effective surface modification method, plasma treatment, is introduced. By immobilizing the bio-active molecules with low temperature plasma, polymer surfaces can be modified to fully satisfy the requirements of biomaterials

  2. Study of plasma-material surface interaction using Langmuir probe technique during plasma treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saloum, S.; Akel, M.

    2009-06-01

    In this study, we tried to understand the plasma-surface interactions by using Langmuir probes. Two different types of plasmas were studied, the first is the electropositive plasma in Argon and the second is the electronegative plasma in Sulfur Hexafluoride. In the first type, the effects of Argon gas pressure, the injection of Helium in the remote zone and the substrate bias on the measurements of the Electron Energy Probability Function (EEPF) and on the plasma parameters (electron density (n e ), effective electron temperature (T e ff), plasma potential (V p ) and floating potential (V f )) have been investigated. The obtained EEPFs and plasma parameters have been used to control two remote plasma processes. The first is the remote Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PE-CVD) of thin films, on silicon wafers, from Hexamethyldisoloxane (HMDSO) precursor diluted in the remote Ar-He plasma. The second is the pure Argon remote plasma treatment of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) polymer surface. In the second type, the plasma diagnostics were performed in the remote zone as a function of SF 6 flow rate, where relative concentrations of fluorine atoms were measured using actinometry optical emission spectroscopy; electron density, electron temperature and plasma potential were determined using single cylindrical Langmuir probe, positive ion flux and negative ion fraction were determined using an planar probe. The silicon etching process in SF 6 plasma was studied. (author)

  3. Study of plasma-material surface interaction using langmuir probe technique during plasma treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saloum, S.; Akel, M.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we tried to understand the plasma-surface interactions by using Langmuir probes. Two different types of plasmas were studied, the first is the electropositive plasma in Argon and the second is the electronegative plasma in Sulfur Hexafluoride. In the first type, the effects of Argon gas pressure, the injection of Helium in the remote zone and the substrate bias on the measurements of the Electron Energy Probability Function (EEPF) and on the plasma parameters (electron density (n e ), effective electron temperature (T e ff), plasma potential (V p ) and floating potential (V f )) have been investigated. The obtained EEPFs and plasma parameters have been used to control two remote plasma processes. The first is the remote Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PE-CVD) of thin films, on silicon wafers, from Hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) precursor diluted in the remote Ar-He plasma. The second is the pure Argon remote plasma treatment of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) polymer surface. In the second type, the plasma diagnostics were performed in the remote zone as a function of SF 6 flow rate, where relative concentrations of fluorine atoms were measured using actinometry optical emission spectroscopy; electron density, electron temperature and plasma potential were determined using single cylindrical Langmuir probe, positive ion flux and negative ion fraction were determined using an planar probe. The silicon etching process in SF 6 plasma was studied. (author)

  4. Annual plan of research on safety techniques against low level radioactive wastes, 1984-1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The establishment of the countermeasures for treating and disposing radioactive wastes has become an important subject for promoting the utilization of atomic energy. Especially as to low level radioactive wastes, the cumulative quantity has reached about 460,000 in terms of 200 l drums as of the end of March, 1983, and accompanying the development of the utilization of atomic energy, its rapid increase is expected. So far, as for the disposal of low level radioactive wastes, the research and development and the preparation of safety criteria and safety evaluation techniques have been carried out, following the basic policy of the Atomic Energy Commission to execute land disposal and ocean disposal in combination, first to make the test disposal after preliminary safety evaluation, and to shift to the full scale disposal based on the results. The annual plan was decided on July 22, 1983, and the first revision was carried out this time, therefore, it is reported here. The basic policy of establishing this annual plan, and the annual plan for safety technique research are described. (Kako, I.)

  5. Environmental friendly high efficient light source. Plasma lamp. 2006 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courret, G.

    2006-07-01

    This annual report for 2006 for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reports on work being done on the development of a high-efficiency source of light based on the light emission of a plasma. The report presents a review of work done in 2006, including thermodynamics and assessment of the efficiency of the magnetron, tests with small bulbs, study of the standing wave ratio (microwave fluxes) and the development of a new coupling system to allow ignition in very small bulbs. Also, knowledge on the fillings of the bulb and induced effects of the modulator were gained. The development of a second generation of modulator to obtain higher efficiency at lower power is noted.

  6. FY93 Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. Annual report, October 1, 1992--September 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-02-01

    This is the annual report from the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory for the period October 1, 1992 to September 30, 1993. The report describes work done on TFTR during the year, as well as preparatory to beginning of D-T operations. Design work is ongoing on the Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) which is to test very long pulse operations of tokamak type devices. PBX has come back on line with additional ion-Bernstein power and lower-hybrid current drive. The theoretical program is also described, as well as other small scale programs, and the growing effort in collaboration on international design projects on ITER and future collaborations at a larger scale.

  7. FY93 Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. Annual report, October 1, 1992--September 30, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This is the annual report from the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory for the period October 1, 1992 to September 30, 1993. The report describes work done on TFTR during the year, as well as preparatory to beginning of D-T operations. Design work is ongoing on the Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) which is to test very long pulse operations of tokamak type devices. PBX has come back on line with additional ion-Bernstein power and lower-hybrid current drive. The theoretical program is also described, as well as other small scale programs, and the growing effort in collaboration on international design projects on ITER and future collaborations at a larger scale

  8. CTR plasma engineering studies. Annual progress report, October 1, 1978-September 30, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miley, G.H.

    1979-01-01

    The current plasma engineering studies report on three major areas of fusion reactor development. Plasma engineering studies of the field-reversed mirror (FRM) have focused on stability, start-up, and fusion product heating and leakage. A Monte Carlo technique has been developed to study high-energy fusion product transport in the FRM. The stability studies involve use of a perturbation theory applied to orbits calculated with the SUPERLAYER code. Studies of the reversed-field pinches (RFP) have centered around development of a 1-D dynamic MHD code which is designed to investigate enhanced transport, cold particle fueling, fusion product heating, and stability limits. Rotation effects in the field-reversed theta pinch (FRTP) have been examined as a preliminary step in understanding its potential use in a reactor concept such as the moving plasmoid heater (MPH), also briefly examined here. Studies of fusion-product transport effects in tokamaks include plasma heating, blister-induced first wall erosion, and ash buildup limitations on burn time. Finally, other mirror systems studies have been concerned with both first-wall bombardment and plasma buildup during neutral beam injection

  9. Industrial implementation of plasma deposition using the expanding thermal plasma technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanden, van de M.C.M.; Oever, van den P.J.; Creatore, M.; Schaepkens, M.; Miebach, T.; Iacovangelo, C.D.; Bosch, R.C.M.; Bijker, M.D.; Evers, M.F.J.; Schram, D.C.; Kessels, W.M.M.

    2004-01-01

    Two successful industrial implementations of the expanding thermal plasma setup, a novel plasma source, obtaining high deposition rate are discussed. The Ar/O2/hexamethyldisiloxane and Ar/O2/octamethyl-cyclosiloxane-fed expanding thermal plasma setup is used to deposit scratch resistant silicone

  10. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) annual site environmental report for calendar year 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stencel, J.R.; Finley, V.L.

    1991-12-01

    This report gives the results of the environmental activities and monitoring programs at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory for CY90. The report is prepared to provide the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the public with information on the level of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants, if any, added to the environment as a result of PPPL operations, as well as environmental initiatives, assessments, and programs. The objective of the Annual Site Environmental Report is to document evidence that DOE facility environmental protection programs adequately protect the environment and the public health. The PPPL has engaged in fusion energy research since 1951 and in 1990 had one of its two large tokamak devices in operation: namely, the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor. The Princeton Beta Experiment-Modification is undergoing new modifications and upgrades for future operation. A new machine, the Burning Plasma Experiment -- formerly called the Compact Ignition Tokamak -- is under conceptual design, and it is awaiting the approval of its draft Environmental Assessment report by DOE Headquarters. This report is required under the National Environmental Policy Act. The long-range goal of the US Magnetic Fusion Energy Research Program is to develop and demonstrate the practical application of fusion power as an alternate energy source. 59 refs., 39 figs., 45 tabs.

  11. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) annual site environmental report for calendar year 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finley, V.L.; Wiezcorek, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    This report gives the results of the environmental activities and monitoring programs at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) for CY93. The report is prepared to provide the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the public with information on the level of radioactive and non-radioactive pollutants, if any, added to the environment as a result of PPPL operations, as well as environmental initiatives, assessments, and programs that were undertaken in 1993. The objective of the Annual Site Environmental Report is to document evidence that DOE facility environmental protection programs adequately protect the environment and the public health. The Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory has engaged in fusion energy research since 1951. The long-range goal of the U.S. Magnetic Fusion Energy Research Program is to develop and demonstrate the practical application of fusion power as an alternate energy source. In 1993, PPPL had both of its two large tokamak devices in operation; the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) and the Princeton Beta Experiment-Modification (PBX-M). PBX-M completed its modifications and upgrades and resumed operation in November 1991. TFTR began the deuterium-tritium (D-T) experiments in December 1993 and set new records by producing over six million watts of energy. The engineering design phase of the Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX), which replaced the cancelled Burning Plasma Experiment in 1992 as PPPL's next machine, began in 1993 with the planned start up set for the year 2001. In 1993, the Environmental Assessment (EA) for the TFRR Shutdown and Removal (S ampersand R) and TPX was prepared for submittal to the regulatory agencies

  12. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) annual site environmental report for calendar year 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finley, V.L.; Wieczorek, M.A.

    1996-02-01

    This report gives the results of the environmental activities and monitoring programs at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) for CY94. The report is prepared to provide the US Department of Energy (DOE) and the public with information on the level of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants, if any, added to the environment as a result of PPPL operations, as well as environmental initiatives, assessments, and programs that were undertaken in 1994. The objective of the Annual Site Environmental Report is to document evidence that PPPL's environmental protection programs adequately protect the environment and the public health. The Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory has engaged in fusion energy research since 195 1. The long-range goal of the US Magnetic Fusion Energy Research Program is to develop and demonstrate the practical application of fusion power as an alternate energy source. In 1994, PPPL had one of its two large tokamak devices in operation-the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). The Princeton Beta Experiment-Modification or PBX-M completed its modifications and upgrades and resumed operation in November 1991 and operated periodically during 1992 and 1993; it did not operate in 1994 for funding reasons. In December 1993, TFTR began conducting the deuterium-tritium (D-T) experiments and set new records by producing over ten at sign on watts of energy in 1994. The engineering design phase of the Tokamak Physics Experiment (T?X), which replaced the cancelled Burning Plasma Experiment in 1992 as PPPL's next machine, began in 1993 with the planned start up set for the year 2001. In December 1994, the Environmental Assessment (EA) for the TFTR Shutdown and Removal (S ampersand R) and TPX was submitted to the regulatory agencies, and a finding of no significant impact (FONSI) was issued by DOE for these projects

  13. Studies of air plasma techniques in mutating Penicillium chrysogenum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gui Fang; Liu Hui; Wang Hui; Wang Peng; Yuan Chengling; Zheng Zhiming

    2011-01-01

    penicillin producing strain Penicillium chrysogenum Pc05 as the starting strain was mutated by low-temperature air plasma technology. As the result revealed, in 30 minutes, the survival rate of spores followed the saddle-shaped curve. The positive mutants accounted for 44.19% of all mutants while the negative mutation was low. After primary and secondary screening, the mutant aPc051310 was obtained, and eventually its penicillin titer increased 42.1% compared with that of starting strain. Synergetic effect between chemical reactive species and charged particles was considered as the main mutation mechanism involved in low temperature air plasma. All the results have been proved that as a new industrial microbial strains mutation method, low temperature air plasma has potential applications. (authors)

  14. Development and application of the electrochemical etching technique. Annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-08-01

    This annual progress report documents further advances in the development and application of electrochemical etching of polycarbonate foils (ECEPF) for fast, intermediate, and thermal neutron dosimetry as well as alpha particle dosimetry. The fast (> 1.1 MeV) and thermal neutron dosimetry techniques were applied to a thorough investigation of the neutron contamination inherent in and about the primary x-ray beam of several medical therapy electron accelerators. Because of the small size of ECEPF dosimeters in comparison to other neutron meters, they have an unusually low perturbation of the radiation field under measurement. Due to this small size and the increased sensitivity of the ECEPF dosimeter over current techniques of measuring neutrons in a high photon field, the fast neutron contamination in the primary x-ray beam of all the investigated accelerators was measured with precision and found to be greater than that suggested by the other, more common, neutron dosimetry methods

  15. Development and application of the electrochemical etching technique. Annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-08-01

    This annual progress report documents further advances in the development and application of electrochemical etching of polycarbonate foils (ECEPF) for fast, intermediate, and thermal neutron dosimetry as well as alpha particle dosimetry. The fast (> 1.1 MeV) and thermal neutron dosimetry techniques were applied to a thorough investigation of the neutron contamination inherent in and about the primary x-ray beam of several medical therapy electron accelerators. Because of the small size of ECEPF dosimeters in comparison to other neutron meters, they have an unusually low perturbation of the radiation field under measurement. Due to this small size and the increased sensitivity of the ECEPF dosimeter over current techniques of measuring neutrons in a high photon field, the fast neutron contamination in the primary x-ray beam of all the investigated accelerators was measured with precision and found to be greater than that suggested by the other, more common, neutron dosimetry methods.

  16. Determination of plasma spot current and arc discharge plasma current on the system of plasma cathode electron sources using Rogowski coil technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wirjoadi; Bambang Siswanto; Lely Susita RM; Agus Purwadi; Sudjatmoko

    2015-01-01

    It has been done the function test experiments of ignitor electrode system and the plasma generator electrode system to determine the current spot plasma and arc discharge plasma current with Rogowski coil technique. Ignitor electrode system that gets power supply from IDPS system can generate the plasma spot current of 11.68 ampere to the pulse width of about 33 μs, this value is greater than the design probably because of electronic components used in the IDPS system was not as planned. For the plasma generator electrode system that gets power from ADPS system capable of producing an arc discharge plasma current around 103.15 amperes with a pulse width of about 96 μs, and this value as planned. Based on the value of the arc discharge plasma current can be determined plasma electron density, which is about 10.12 10"1"9 electrons/m"3, and with this electron density value, an ignitor electrode system and a plasma generator system is quite good if used as a plasma cathode electron source system. (author)

  17. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory Annual Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.D. Levine; V.L. Finley

    1998-01-01

    The results of the 1996 environmental surveillance and monitoring program for the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) are presented and discussed. The purpose of this report is to provide the US Department of Energy and the public with information on the level of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants, if any, that are added to the environment as a result of PPPL's operations. During Calendar Year 1996, PPPL's Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) continued to conduct fusion experiments. Having set a world record on November 2, 1994, by achieving approximately 10.7 million watts of controlled fusion power during the deuterium-tritium (D-T) plasma experiments, researchers turned their attention to studying plasma science experiments, which included ''enhanced reverse shear techniques.'' Since November 1993, more than 700 tritium-fueled experiments were conducted, which generated more than 4 x 10(superscript 20) neutrons and 1.4 gigajoules of fusion energy. In 1996, the overall performance of Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory was rated ''excellent'' by the US Department of Energy in the Laboratory Appraisal report issued in early 1997. The report cited the Laboratory's consistently excellent scientific and technological achievements and its successful management practices, which included high marks for environmental management, employee health and safety, human resources administration, science education, and communications. Groundwater investigations continued under a voluntary agreement with the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection. PPPL monitored for the presence of nonradiological contaminants, mainly volatile organic compounds (components of degreasing solvents) and petroleum hydrocarbons (past leaks of releases of diesel fuel from underground storage tanks). Also, PPPL's radiological monitoring program characterized the ambient, background levels of tritium in the environment and from the TFTR stack; the data are presented in this report

  18. Novel Technique for Direct Measurement of the Plasma Diffusion Coefficient in Magnetized Plasma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brotánková, Jana; Martines, E.; Adámek, Jiří; Stöckel, Jan; Popa, G.; Costin, C.; Ionita, G.; Schrittwieser, R.; Van Oost, G.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 48, 5-7 (2008), s. 418-423 ISSN 0863-1042. [International Workshop on Electrical Probes in Magnetized Plasmas/7th./. Praha, 22.07.2007-25.07.2007] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Tokamak * probe diagnostics * diffusion coefficient Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.250, year: 2008

  19. Ultrasonic technique for measuring porosity of plasma-sprayed alumina coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthasarathi, S.; Tittmann, B. R.; Onesto, E. J.

    1997-12-01

    Porosity is an important factor in plasma-sprayed coatings, especially ceramic coatings. Excessive poros-ity can adversely affect the performance of the coated component in various ways. An ultrasonic nonde-structive measurement technique has been developed to measure porosity in plasma-sprayed alumina coatings. The technique is generic and can be extended to other ceramic coating systems. To test the tech-nique, freestanding alumina coatings with varying levels of porosity were fabricated via plasma spray. Samples with varying porosity, obtained through innovative fabrication techniques, were used to gener-ate a calibration curve. The ultrasonic velocity in the low-frequency range was found to be dependent on the density of freestanding coatings (measured via Archimedian techniques). This dependence is the basis of the development of a technique to measure the density of coatings.

  20. Recent development in high energy plasma production techniques by the deflagration plasma gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, D.Y.; Chang, C.N.; Tripathi, P.P.

    1983-01-01

    This chapter reports experimental data and experience which establish the phenomenon of deflagration in plasma as unique and with quite different properties from the normal snowplow modes. Demonstrates that extremely high velocities and energies in plasma beams are possible with obvious applications in many field and, in particular, in fusion. Suggests that the potential of deflagration beams' scalability to very high energy quasi-neutral plasma beam is possible with present day technology. Discusses plasma deflagration in a T-tube; coaxial deflagration plasma guns; a typical deflagration gun and its operating procedures; electrical design considerations; kinetic theory point of view of the deflagration acceleration of particles; measurements and results; properties of the deflagration gun; applications; inertial confinement experiments; injection into magnetic confinement systems; interaction experiments; and highly energetic beams

  1. Plasma control techniques of the ASDEX feedback system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, F.

    1981-01-01

    In the ASDEX tokamak the shots are exactly preprogrammed and most of the disturbances are reproducible. So a computer can learn from one shot how to correct the next one. With this sort of disturbance feedforward one can also introduce a 'negative delay' in the program to compensate even fast and strong disturbances withous unwanted overswing or oscillations. The feedforward in conjunction with feedback control allows production of a magnetically limited plasma from the very beginning without any wall or limiter contact. This is a reason why in ASDEX the loop voltage on breakdown can be as low as 5 V/sup 2/. The plasma column can be controlled in the vacuum vessel even after disruptions have occurred

  2. A plasma polymerization technique to overcome cerebrospinal fluid shunt infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coekeliler, D [Plasma Aided Bioengineering and Biotechnology Research Laboratory, Engineering Faculty, Hacettepe University, 06532, Ankara (Turkey); Caner, H [Department of Neurosurgery, School of Medicine, Baskent University, 06610, Ankara (Turkey); Zemek, J [Institute of Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Cukrovarnicka 10, 162 53, Prague, Czech Republic (Czech Republic); Choukourov, A [Department of Macromolecular Physics, Charles University, V Holesovickach 2, 18000 Prague (Czech Republic); Biederman, H [Department of Macromolecular Physics, Charles University, V Holesovickach 2, 18000 Prague (Czech Republic); Mutlu, M [Plasma Aided Bioengineering and Biotechnology Research Laboratory, Engineering Faculty, Hacettepe University, 06532, Ankara (Turkey)

    2007-03-01

    Prosthetic devices, mainly shunts, are frequently used for temporary or permanent drainage of cerebrospinal fluid. The pathogenesis of shunt infection is a very important problem in modern medicine and generally this is characterized by staphylococcal adhesion to the cerebrospinal fluid shunt surfaces. In this paper, the prevention of the attachment of test microorganism Staphylococcus epidermidis on the cerebrospinal fluid shunt surfaces by 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA) precursor modification in the plasma polymerization system, is reported. Different plasma polymerization conditions (RF discharge power 10-20-30 W, exposure time 5-10-15 min) were employed during the surface modification. The surface chemistry and topology of unmodified and modified shunts was characterized by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Also, static contact angle measurements were performed to state the change of surface hydrophilicity. All samples were tested in vitro with Staphylococcus epidermidis. A plasma-polymerized HEMA film (PP HEMA) was found to be an alternative simple method to decrease the microorganism attachment and create bacterial anti-fouling surfaces. The attachment of the model microorganism Staphylococcus epidermidis on the shunt surface modified by PP HEMA at 20 W and 15 min was reduced 62.3% if compared to the unmodified control surface of the shunt.

  3. Synthesis of {gamma}-aluminium oxynitride spinel using thermal plasma technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panda, Pravuram; Singh, S. K.; Sinha, S. P. [School of Applied Science (Physics), KIIT University, Bhubaneswar 751024 (India); Advanced Materials Technology Department, IMMT (CSIR), Bhubaneswar 751013 (India); School of Applied Science (Physics), KIIT University, Bhubaneswar 751024 (India)

    2012-07-23

    The synthesis technique of {gamma}-AlON in NH{sub 3} plasma using extended arc thermal plasma reactor have been reported. Dense cubic AlON spinel was synthesized in liquid state by fusion of mixture of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and AlN powder under thermal plasma. The density of the fused AlON was found to be 3.64 g/cc which is 98.11% of theoretical value. The formation of AlON was confirmed from XRD and Raman studies. Well faceted structure of plasma fused AlON was observed in FE-SEM micrograph.

  4. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory Annual Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finley, V.L. and Levine, J.D.

    1999-01-10

    The results of the 1997 environmental surveillance and monitoring program for the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) are presented and discussed. The purpose of this report is to provide the U.S. Department of Energy and the public with information on the level of radioactive and non-radioactive pollutants, if any, that are added to the environment as a result of PPPL's operations. During Calendar Year 1997, PPPL's Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) completed fifteen years of fusion experiments begun in 1982. Over the course of three and half years of deuterium-tritium (D-T) plasma experiments, PPPL set a world record of 10.7 million watts of controlled fusion power, more than 700 tritium shots pulsed into the reactor vessel generating more than 5.6 x 1020 neutron and 1.6 gigajoules of fusion energy and researchers studied plasma science experimental data, which included "enhanced reverse shear techniques." As TFTR was completing its historic operations, PPPL participated with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Columbia University, and the University of Washington (Seattle) in a collaboration effort to design the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). This next device, NSTX, is located in the former TFTR Hot Cell on D site, and it is designed to be a smaller and more economical torus fusion reactor. Construction of this device began in late 1997, and first plasma in scheduled for early 1999. For 1997, the U.S. Department of Energy in its Laboratory Appraisal report rated the overall performance of Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory as "excellent." The report cited the Laboratory's consistently excellent scientific and technological achievements and its successful management practices, which included high marks for environmental management, employee health and safety, human resources administration, science education, and communications. Groundwater investigations continued under a voluntary agreement with the New Jersey

  5. [Cholinesterases in total blood measured with a semiquantitative technique, and plasma or erythrocyte cholinesterases measured with quantitative techniques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona-Fonseca, Jaime

    2007-06-01

    An equivalence model which allows comparison of blood cholinesterase values, measured by Lovibond (semiquantitative technique), and Michel, EQM, Monotest (erythrocyte and plasma cholinesterases) values measured by quantitative techniques is required. The performance of Lovibond (Edson tintometric and Limperos & Ranta techniques) were compared with quantitative techniques. The experimental design was descriptive, cross-sectional, and prospective. From a working population (18-59 years) in Valle de Aburrá and Near East of Antioquia. 827 representative samples were chosen for their lack of exposure to cholinesterase-inhibiting plaguicides and affiliated to the Social Security System. (1) 827 workers were classified by Lovibond in four categories: 821 values with 75% of cholinesterase activity or greater (categories 75, 87.5 and 100%) and 6 with cholinesterase activity smaller than 75%. (2) With each quantitative method, the mean values of erythrocyte and plasmatic cholinesterase corresponding to the four values obtained with Lovibond were statistically different to each other. (3) The mean values of each quantitative technique increased when increased the tintometric method value. (4) Lovibond classified the low enzymatic erythrocyte activity very poorly (61-73%), but the classification of the low enzymatic plasma activity was almost completely in error (94-96%). The values of erythrocyte or plasma cholinesterase were adequately estimated by both the quantitative techniques of Michel and EQM and by Lovibond, but only when the enzymatic activity is normal. Lovibond, however, had a poor capacity to designate as "low" the values that were low according to the quantitative tests.

  6. Experimental Study on Indoor Air Cleaning Technique of Nano-Titania Catalysis Under Plasma Discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Deli; Yang Xuechang; Zhou Fei; Wu Yuhuang

    2008-01-01

    In this study, a new technique of air cleaning by plasma combined with catalyst was proposed, which consisted of electrostatic precipitation, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) decomposition and sterilization. A novel indoor air purifier based on this technique was adopted. The experimental results showed that formaldehyde decomposition by the plasma-catalyst hybrid system was more efficient than that by plasma only. Positive discharge was better than negative discharge in formaldehyde removal. Meanwhile, the outlet concentration of ozone byproduct was effectively reduced by the nano-titania catalyst.

  7. Experimental setup for producing tungsten coated graphite tiles using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique for fusion plasma applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauhan, Sachin Singh; Sharma, Uttam; Choudhary, K.K.; Sanyasi, A.K.; Ghosh, J.; Sharma, Jayshree

    2013-01-01

    Plasma wall interaction (PWI) in fusion grade machines puts stringent demands on the choice of materials in terms of high heat load handling capabilities and low sputtering yields. Choice of suitable material still remains a challenge and open topic of research for the PWI community. Carbon fibre composites (CFC), Beryllium (Be), and Tungsten (W) are now being considered as first runners for the first wall components of future fusion machines. Tungsten is considered to be one of the suitable materials for the job because of its superior properties than carbon like low physical sputtering yield and high sputter energy threshold, high melting point, fairly high re-crystallization temperature, low fuel retention capabilities, low chemical sputtering with hydrogen and its isotopes and most importantly the reparability with various plasma techniques both ex-situ and in-situ. Plasma assisted chemical vapour deposition is considered among various techniques as the most preferable technique for fabricating tungsten coated graphite tiles to be used as tokamak first wall and target components. These coated tiles are more favourable compared to pure tungsten due to their light weight and easier machining. A system has been designed, fabricated and installed at SVITS, Indore for producing tungsten coated graphite tiles using Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PE-CVD) technique for Fusion plasma applications. The system contains a vacuum chamber, a turbo-molecular pump, two electrodes, vacuum gauges, mass analyzer, mass flow controllers and a RF power supply for producing the plasma using hydrogen gas. The graphite tiles will be put on one of the electrodes and WF6 gas will be inserted in a controlled manner in the hydrogen plasma to achieve the tungsten-coating with WF6 dissociation. The system is integrated at SVITS, Indore and a vacuum of the order of 3*10 -6 is achieved and glow discharge plasma has been created to test all the sub-systems. The system design with

  8. Schlieren Technique Applied to Magnetohydrodynamic Generator Plasma Torch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Nirbhav; Pearcy, Jacob; Jaworski, Michael

    2017-10-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generators are a promising augmentation to current hydrocarbon based combustion schemes for creating electrical power. In recent years, interest in MHD generators has been revitalized due to advances in a number of technologies such as superconducting magnets, solid-state power electronics and materials science as well as changing economics associated with carbon capture, utilization, and sequestration. We use a multi-wavelength schlieren imaging system to evaluate electron density independently of gas density in a plasma torch under conditions relevant to MHD generators. The sensitivity and resolution of the optical system are evaluated alongside the development of an automated analysis and calibration program in Python. Preliminary analysis shows spatial resolutions less than 1mm and measures an electron density of ne = 1 ×1016 cm-3 in an atmospheric microwave torch. Work supported by DOE contract DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  9. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory Annual Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.D. Levine; V.L. Finley

    1998-03-01

    The results of the 1996 environmental surveillance and monitoring program for the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) are presented and discussed. The purpose of this report is to provide the US Department of Energy and the public with information on the level of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants, if any, that are added to the environment as a result of PPPL's operations. During Calendar Year 1996, PPPL's Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) continued to conduct fusion experiments. Having set a world record on November 2, 1994, by achieving approximately 10.7 million watts of controlled fusion power during the deuterium-tritium (D-T) plasma experiments, researchers turned their attention to studying plasma science experiments, which included ''enhanced reverse shear techniques.'' Since November 1993, more than 700 tritium-fueled experiments were conducted, which generated more than 4 x 10(superscript 20) neutrons and 1.4 gigajoules of fusion energy. In 1996, the overall performance of Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory was rated ''excellent'' by the US Department of Energy in the Laboratory Appraisal report issued in early 1997. The report cited the Laboratory's consistently excellent scientific and technological achievements and its successful management practices, which included high marks for environmental management, employee health and safety, human resources administration, science education, and communications. Groundwater investigations continued under a voluntary agreement with the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection. PPPL monitored for the presence of nonradiological contaminants, mainly volatile organic compounds (components of degreasing solvents) and petroleum hydrocarbons (past leaks of releases of diesel fuel from underground storage tanks). Also, PPPL's radiological monitoring program characterized the ambient, background levels of tritium in the environment and

  10. A review of micro-wave techniques in plasma studies; Survol des techniques micro-ondes pour l'etude des plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Consoli, T [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    The problem of the application of micro-wave techniques to the study of plasma properties is considered in this report. In section I, the author summarizes a few fundamental laws concerning the theory of waves in an ionised medium as well as measurable effects of transverse and longitudinal propagation. Section II is a rapid review of the experimental methods and of the various measurements which may be effected in very high frequency plasmas. Only recent experimental work carried out since the last U. R.S.I. Assembly is considered. Section III is devoted to micro-wave techniques developed during this period in the laboratories of the Applied Physics Service. These techniques deal with longitudinal propagation and in particular with the propagation along a right mode. Section IV is a general view of similar studies undertaken in European Research Centres working on plasma physics or controlled fusion. Section V is a contribution concerning three particular topics from the Juelich and Max Planck Institute laboratories. (author) [French] On etudie dans ce rapport le probleme de l'application des techniques micro-ondes a l'etude des proprietes d'un plasma. Dans la section I, l'auteur rappelle rapidement quelques lois fondamentales de la theorie des ondes dans un milieu ionise ainsi que les effets mesurables en propagation transversale et longitudinale. La section II est une revue rapide des methodes experimentales et des diverses mesures qui peuvent etre faites dans les plasmas aux tres hautes frequences. On ne considere seulement que les etudes experimentales recentes depuis la derniere assemblee de l'U.R.S.I. La section III est consacree aux techniques hyperfrequences developpees durant la meme periode dans les laboratoires des Services de Physique Appliquee. Ces techniques se rapportent a la propagation longitudinale et particulierement a la propagation suivant le mode droit. La section IV est un panorama de travaux similaires entrepris dans les centres europeens

  11. Potential applications of plasma science techniques for water treatment systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlik, D.

    1994-01-01

    The historical evolution of water treatment techniques and their impact on man and his environment are presented. Ancient man recognized the relationship between good water and good health. However, it was not until the late 1800's that man's own contribution to the pollution of water via biological and chemical contamination of the water stream was recognized as having adverse affects on water quality. Since that time virtually every nation has adopted laws and regulations to ensure that safe sources of unpolluted water are available to its citizens. In the United States, water quality is governed by the Clean Water Act of 1972 administered at the federal level by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Further, each state has established its equivalent agency which administers its own laws and regulations. Different biological and chemical biohazards present in the water system are discussed. Biological contaminants include various types of viruses, bacteria, fungii, molds, yeasts, algae, amoebas, and parasites. Chemical contaminates include elemental heavy metals and other organic and inorganic compounds which interfere with normal biological functions. Conventional water treatments for both consumption and sewage effluent commonly employ four different principals: mechanical filtration, quiescent gravity settling, biological oxidation, and chemical treatment. Although these techniques have greatly reduced the incidence of water-borne disease recent studies suggest that more effective means of eliminating biohazards are needed. Regulatory requirements for more aggressive treatment and elimination of residual contaminants present a significant opportunity for the application of various forms of electromagnetic radiation techniques. A comparison between conventional techniques and more advanced methods using various forms of electromagnetic radiation is discussed

  12. Studies of MHD stability using data mining technique in helical plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Satoshi; Pretty, David; Blackwell, Boyd

    2010-01-01

    Data mining techniques, which automatically extract useful knowledge from large datasets, are applied to multichannel magnetic probe signals of several helical plasmas in order to identify and classify MHD instabilities in helical plasmas. This method is useful to find new MHD instabilities as well as previously identified ones. Moreover, registering the results obtained from data mining in a database allows us to investigate the characteristics of MHD instabilities with parameter studies. We introduce the data mining technique consisted of pre-processing, clustering and visualizations using results from helical plasmas in H-1 and Heliotron J. We were successfully able to classify the MHD instabilities using the criterion of phase differences of each magnetic probe and identify them as energetic-ion-driven MHD instabilities using parameter study in Heliotron J plasmas. (author)

  13. Energy optimization through probabilistic annual forecast water release technique for major storage hydroelectric reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Bahari Othman; Mohd Zamri Yusoff

    2006-01-01

    One of the important decisions to be made by the management of hydroelectric power plant associated with major storage reservoir is to determine the best turbine water release decision for the next financial year. The water release decision enables firm energy generated estimation for the coming financial year to be done. This task is usually a simple and straightforward task provided that the amount of turbine water release is known. The more challenging task is to determine the best water release decision that is able to resolve the two conflicting operational objectives which are minimizing the drop of turbine gross head and maximizing upper reserve margin of the reservoir. Most techniques from literature emphasize on utilizing the statistical simulations approach. Markovians models, for example, are a class of statistical model that utilizes the past and the present system states as a basis for predicting the future [1]. This paper illustrates that rigorous solution criterion can be mathematically proven to resolve those two conflicting operational objectives. Thus, best water release decision that maximizes potential energy for the prevailing natural inflow is met. It is shown that the annual water release decision shall be made in such a manner that annual return inflow that has return frequency smaller than critical return frequency (f c ) should not be considered. This criterion enables target turbine gross head to be set to the well-defined elevation. In the other words, upper storage margin of the reservoir shall be made available to capture magnitude of future inflow that has return frequency greater than or equal to f c. A case study is shown to demonstrate practical application of the derived mathematical formulas

  14. Book of Program and Abstracts of the 45th Annual Meeting of the Israel Physical Society and the Second Conference of the Israel Plasma Science and Technology Association

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    This is the book of abstracts of the 45th annual meeting of the Israel Physical Society. Some of the subjects are: condensed matter; atomic and nuclear physics; quantum mechanics; particles and fields; quantum optics and plasma physics

  15. Preionization Techniques in a kJ-Scale Dense Plasma Focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Povilus, Alexander; Shaw, Brian; Chapman, Steve; Podpaly, Yuri; Cooper, Christopher; Falabella, Steve; Prasad, Rahul; Schmidt, Andrea

    2016-10-01

    A dense plasma focus (DPF) is a type of z-pinch device that uses a high current, coaxial plasma gun with an implosion phase to generate dense plasmas. These devices can accelerate a beam of ions to MeV-scale energies through strong electric fields generated by instabilities during the implosion of the plasma sheath. The formation of these instabilities, however, relies strongly on the history of the plasma sheath in the device, including the evolution of the gas breakdown in the device. In an effort to reduce variability in the performance of the device, we attempt to control the initial gas breakdown in the device by seeding the system with free charges before the main power pulse arrives. We report on the effectiveness of two techniques developed for a kJ-scale DPF at LLNL, a miniature primer spark gap and pulsed, 255nm LED illumination. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  16. Plasma diagnostic techniques in thermal-barrier tandem-mirror fusion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, E.H.; Clauser, J.F.; Carter, M.R.; Failor, B.H.; Foote, J.H.; Hornady, R.S.; James, R.A.; Lasnier, C.J.; Perkins, D.E.

    1986-01-01

    We review two classes of plasma diagnostic techniques used in thermal-barrier tandem-mirror fusion experiments. The emphasis of the first class is to study mirror-trapped electrons at the thermal-barrier location. The focus of the second class is to measure the spatial and temporal behavior of the plasma space potential at various axial locations. The design and operation of the instruments in these two categories are discussed and data that are representative of their performance is presented

  17. Plasma-polymerized hexamethyldisilazane treated by nitrogen plasma immersion ion implantation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honda, R Y; Mota, R P; Batocki, R G S; Santos, D C R; Nicoleti, T; Kostov, K G; Kayama, M E; Algatti, M A [Laboratorio de Plasma, Faculdade de Engenharia, UNESP, Av. Dr Ariberto Pereira da Cunha-333, 12516-410, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil); Cruz, N C [Laboratorio de Plasmas Tecnologicos, Unidade Diferenciada, UNESP, Av. Tres de Marco-511, 18085-180, Sorocaba, SP (Brazil); Ruggiero, L, E-mail: honda@feg.unesp.b [Faculdade de Ciencias, UNESP, Av. Luis E. Carrijo Coube 14-1, 17033-360, Bauru, SP (Brazil)

    2009-05-01

    This paper describes the effect of nitrogen Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation (PIII) on chemical structure, refraction index and surface hardness of plasma-polymerized hexamethyldisilazane (PPHMDSN) thin films. Firstly, polymeric films were deposited at 13.56 MHz radiofrequency (RF) Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapour Deposition (PECVD) and then, were treated by nitrogen PIII from 15 to 60 min. Fourier Transformed Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was employed to analyse the molecular structure of the samples, and it revealed that vibrations modes at 3350 cm{sup -1}, 2960 cm{sup -1}, 1650 cm{sup -1}, 1250 cm{sup -1} and 1050 cm{sup -1} were altered by nitrogen PIII. Visible-ultraviolet (vis-UV) spectroscopy was used to evaluate film refractive index and the results showed a slight increase from 1.6 to 1.8 following the implantation time. Nanoindentation revealed a surface hardness rise from 0.5 to 2.3 GPa as PIII treatment time increased. These results indicate nitrogen PIII is very promising in improving optical and mechanical properties of PPHMDSN films.

  18. Princeton University Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey. Annual report, October 1, 1990--September 30, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-31

    This report discusses the following topics: Principal parameters of experimental devices; Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor; Burning Plasma Experiment; Princeton Beta Experiment-Modification; Current Drive Experiment-Upgrade; International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor; International Collaboration; X-Ray Laser Studies; Hyperthermal Atomic Beam Source; Pure Electron Plasma Experiments; Plasma Processing: Deposition and Etching of Thin Films; Theoretical Studies; Tokamak Modeling; Engineering Department; Environment, Safety, and Health and Quality Assurance; Technology Transfer; Office of Human Resources and Administration; PPPL Patent Invention Disclosures; Office of Resource Management; Graduate Education: Plasma Physics; Graduate Education: Program in Plasma Science and Technology; and Science Education Program.

  19. Electron temperature measurements by the plasma line technique at the French incoherent scatter radar facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kofman, W.; Lejeune, G.; Hagfors, T.; Bauer, P.

    1981-01-01

    The results of experiments aimed at the determination of the electron temperature by a plasma line technique are presented. Using the multistatic capabilities of the French incoherent scatter radar, the plasma line frequencies were simultaneously measured at two receiving stations (Mende and Nancay) at the altitude corresponding to the maximum of the F layer. Different plasma line frequencies are measued because of different effective k vectors that appear in the thermal term of the plasma dispersion relation. We derive and apply two data analysis procedures that enable us to determine this frequency difference. Comparison of this measured frequency difference to that calculated using the ion component electron temperature demonstrates that the plasma lines could indeed be used to determine the electron temperature. A strong dependence of the power in the plasma line as a function of the angle between k vector and magnetic field is observed in agreement with the theory. The future developments of this technique with the EISCAT radar facilities are discussed

  20. Annual review of the Institute of Plasma Physics, Nagoya University, for fiscal 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Activities of Institute of Plasma Physics, Nagoya University, from April 1978 to March 1979, are described in individual short summaries. As a main project, the JIPP T-II program aims at confinement and heating of hot plasmas in a tokamak/stellarator hybrid system. The STP-3 system for high beta pinch plasma has now almost been completed. Installation of the RFC-XX is now complete with the delivery of two rf oscillators for point cusp plugs. In high energy beam experiment, toroidal magnetic configurations maintained by intense relativistic currents were demonstrated. The Nagoya Bumpy Torus is a race track convertible to a circular torus. In parallel with the above research projects, there continued experiments on basic plasma physics, laser-produced plasma, the atomic processes and the surface physics related to the plasma-wall interaction. Theoretical and computational divisions worked in close collaboration with the above. (J.P.N.)

  1. Synthesis and Characterization of Nanofibrous Polyaniline Thin Film Prepared by Novel Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Polymerization Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Choon-Sang; Kim, Dong Ha; Shin, Bhum Jae; Tae, Heung-Sik

    2016-01-11

    This work presents a study on the preparation of plasma-polymerized aniline (pPANI) nanofibers and nanoparticles by an intense plasma cloud type atmospheric pressure plasma jets (iPC-APPJ) device with a single bundle of three glass tubes. The nano size polymer was obtained at a sinusoidal wave with a peak value of 8 kV and a frequency of 26 kHz under ambient air. Discharge currents, photo-sensor amplifier, and optical emission spectrometer (OES) techniques were used to analyze the plasma produced from the iPC-APPJ device. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and gel permeation chromatography (GPC) techniques were used to analyze the pPANI. FE-SEM and TEM results show that pPANI has nanofibers, nanoparticles morphology, and polycrystalline characteristics. The FT-IR and GC-MS analysis show the characteristic polyaniline peaks with evidence that some quinone and benzene rings are broken by the discharge energy. GPC results show that pPANI has high molecular weight ( M w ), about 533 kDa with 1.9 polydispersity index (PDI). This study contributes to a better understanding on the novel growth process and synthesis of uniform polyaniline nanofibers and nanoparticles with high molecular weights using the simple atmospheric pressure plasma polymerization technique.

  2. Synthesis and Characterization of Nanofibrous Polyaniline Thin Film Prepared by Novel Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Polymerization Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choon-Sang Park

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a study on the preparation of plasma-polymerized aniline (pPANI nanofibers and nanoparticles by an intense plasma cloud type atmospheric pressure plasma jets (iPC-APPJ device with a single bundle of three glass tubes. The nano size polymer was obtained at a sinusoidal wave with a peak value of 8 kV and a frequency of 26 kHz under ambient air. Discharge currents, photo-sensor amplifier, and optical emission spectrometer (OES techniques were used to analyze the plasma produced from the iPC-APPJ device. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS, and gel permeation chromatography (GPC techniques were used to analyze the pPANI. FE-SEM and TEM results show that pPANI has nanofibers, nanoparticles morphology, and polycrystalline characteristics. The FT-IR and GC-MS analysis show the characteristic polyaniline peaks with evidence that some quinone and benzene rings are broken by the discharge energy. GPC results show that pPANI has high molecular weight (Mw, about 533 kDa with 1.9 polydispersity index (PDI. This study contributes to a better understanding on the novel growth process and synthesis of uniform polyaniline nanofibers and nanoparticles with high molecular weights using the simple atmospheric pressure plasma polymerization technique.

  3. Analysis of relaxing laser-induced plasmas by absorption spectroscopy: Toward a new quantitative diagnostic technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribiere, M.; Cheron, B.G.

    2010-01-01

    Broad-band near UV absorption spectroscopy was used to analyze atmospheric laser-induced plasmas formed on metallic and refractory targets. When the common emission spectroscopy only provides the density of the radiating atomic excited states, the technique reported in this paper is able to achieve high spatial resolution in the measurement of absolute number densities in expanding laser-induced plasmas. The reliability and the versatility of this technique, which is based on the comparison between results of the numerical integration of the radiative transfer equation and experimental spectra, were tested on different targets. The evolutions in time and space of the absolute population of the plasma species originating from metallic alloys (Al-Mg and Cu-Ni) and refractory materials (C/SiC) were achieved over large time scales. Owing to its accuracy, this absorption technique (that we call 'LIPAS' for Laser Induced Plasma Absorption Spectroscopy) should bring a new and enhanced support to the validation of collisional-radiative models attempting to provide reliable evolutions of laser-induced plasmas.

  4. Fusion plasma theory. Task I. Magnetic confinement fusion plasma theory. Annual progress report, January 1, 1982-December 31, 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callen, J.D.

    1982-08-01

    The research on this contract over the past year has concentrated on some key tandem mirror confinement and heating issues (barrier trapping current, rf heating, low mode number stability) and on developing a comprehensive neoclassical transport theory for nonaxisymmetric toroidal plasmas (e.g., stellarators). Progress in these and some other miscellaneous areas are summarized briefly in this progress report

  5. Princeton University, Plasma Physics Laboratory annual report, October 1, 1988--September 30, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-12-31

    This report contains discussions on the following topics: principal parameters achieved in experimental devices (FY89); tokamak fusion test reactor; compact ignition tokamak; princeton beta experiment- modification; current drive experiment; international collaboration; x-ray laser studies; spacecraft glow experiment; plasma deposition and etching of thin films; theoretical studies; tokamak modeling; international thermonuclear experimental reactor; engineering department; project planning and safety office; quality assurance and reliability; technology transfer; administrative operations; PPPL patent invention disclosures for (FY89); graduate education: plasma physics; graduate education: plasma science and technology; and Princeton Plasmas Physics Laboratory Reports (FY89).

  6. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. Annual report, October 1, 1989--September 30, 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-31

    This report discusses the following topics: principal parameters achieved in experimental devices fiscal year 1990; tokamak fusion test reactor; compact ignition tokamak; Princeton beta experiment- modification; current drive experiment-upgrade; international collaboration; x-ray laser studies; spacecraft glow experiment; plasma processing: deposition and etching of thin films; theoretical studies; tokamak modeling; international thermonuclear experimental reactor; engineering department; project planning and safety office; quality assurance and reliability; technology transfer; administrative operations; PPPL patent invention disclosures for fiscal year 1990; graduate education; plasma physics; graduate education: plasma science and technology; science education program; and Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory reports fiscal year 1990.

  7. Princeton University, Plasma Physics Laboratory annual report, October 1, 1988--September 30, 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    This report contains discussions on the following topics: principal parameters achieved in experimental devices (FY89); tokamak fusion test reactor; compact ignition tokamak; princeton beta experiment- modification; current drive experiment; international collaboration; x-ray laser studies; spacecraft glow experiment; plasma deposition and etching of thin films; theoretical studies; tokamak modeling; international thermonuclear experimental reactor; engineering department; project planning and safety office; quality assurance and reliability; technology transfer; administrative operations; PPPL patent invention disclosures for (FY89); graduate education: plasma physics; graduate education: plasma science and technology; and Princeton Plasmas Physics Laboratory Reports (FY89).

  8. Princeton University, Plasma Physics Laboratory annual report, October 1, 1988--September 30, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This report contains discussions on the following topics: principal parameters achieved in experimental devices (FY89); tokamak fusion test reactor; compact ignition tokamak; princeton beta experiment- modification; current drive experiment; international collaboration; x-ray laser studies; spacecraft glow experiment; plasma deposition and etching of thin films; theoretical studies; tokamak modeling; international thermonuclear experimental reactor; engineering department; project planning and safety office; quality assurance and reliability; technology transfer; administrative operations; PPPL patent invention disclosures for (FY89); graduate education: plasma physics; graduate education: plasma science and technology; and Princeton Plasmas Physics Laboratory Reports (FY89)

  9. Dry-plasma-free chemical etch technique for variability reduction in multi-patterning (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kal, Subhadeep; Mohanty, Nihar; Farrell, Richard A.; Franke, Elliott; Raley, Angelique; Thibaut, Sophie; Pereira, Cheryl; Pillai, Karthik; Ko, Akiteru; Mosden, Aelan; Biolsi, Peter

    2017-04-01

    Scaling beyond the 7nm technology node demands significant control over the variability down to a few angstroms, in order to achieve reasonable yield. For example, to meet the current scaling targets it is highly desirable to achieve sub 30nm pitch line/space features at back-end of the line (BEOL) or front end of line (FEOL); uniform and precise contact/hole patterning at middle of line (MOL). One of the quintessential requirements for such precise and possibly self-aligned patterning strategies is superior etch selectivity between the target films while other masks/films are exposed. The need to achieve high etch selectivity becomes more evident for unit process development at MOL and BEOL, as a result of low density films choices (compared to FEOL film choices) due to lower temperature budget. Low etch selectivity with conventional plasma and wet chemical etch techniques, causes significant gouging (un-intended etching of etch stop layer, as shown in Fig 1), high line edge roughness (LER)/line width roughness (LWR), non-uniformity, etc. In certain circumstances this may lead to added downstream process stochastics. Furthermore, conventional plasma etches may also have the added disadvantage of plasma VUV damage and corner rounding (Fig. 1). Finally, the above mentioned factors can potentially compromise edge placement error (EPE) and/or yield. Therefore a process flow enabled with extremely high selective etches inherent to film properties and/or etch chemistries is a significant advantage. To improve this etch selectivity for certain etch steps during a process flow, we have to implement alternate highly selective, plasma free techniques in conjunction with conventional plasma etches (Fig 2.). In this article, we will present our plasma free, chemical gas phase etch technique using chemistries that have high selectivity towards a spectrum of films owing to the reaction mechanism ( as shown Fig 1). Gas phase etches also help eliminate plasma damage to the

  10. Characterization of the Plasma Edge for Technique of Atomic Helium Beam in the CIEMAT Fusion Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidalgo, A.

    2003-01-01

    In this report, the measurement of Electron Temperature and Density in the Boundary Plasma of TJ-II with a Supersonic Helium Beam Diagnostic and work devoted to the upgrading of this technique are described. Also, simulations of Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) studies of level populations of electronically excited He atoms are shown. This last technique is now being installed in the CIEMAT fusion device. (Author )

  11. The relation of plasma octopamine to hepatic encephalopathy studied with stable isotope dilution technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jianhua

    1992-01-01

    In order to investigate the relationship between octopamine and hepatic encephalopathy, plasma octopamine content of normal adults and hepatic patients (compensated or de-compensated cirrhotic, patients with encephalopathy) were determined with isotope dilution and GCMS technique, 200 ng of [1, 1-D]-octopamine was added to each sample as internal standard. After the de-proteinized plasma was subjected to cation exchange chromatography, the amine fraction was derivatized with PFP and analyzed with GCMS using the selected ion monitoring technique. The result showed that the level of plasma octopamine was significantly elevated in patients with encephalopathy. Since this method is sensitive and specific, it is readily applicable to the analysis of a few nano grams of octopamine

  12. Variance-reduction technique for Coulomb-nuclear thermalization of energetic fusion products in hot plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeVeaux, J.C.; Miley, G.H.

    1982-01-01

    A variance-reduction technique involving use of exponential transform and angular-biasing methods has been developed. Its purpose is to minimize the variance and computer time involved in estimating the mean fusion product (fp) energy deposited in a hot, multi-region plasma under the influence of small-energy transfer Coulomb collisions and large-energy transfer nuclear elastic scattering (NES) events. This technique is applicable to high-temperature D- 3 He, Cat. D and D-T plasmas which have highly energetic fps capable of undergoing NES. A first application of this technique is made to a D- 3 He Field Reversed Mirror (FRM) where the Larmor radius of the 14.7 MeV protons are typically comparable to the plasma radius (plasma radius approx. 2 fp gyroradii) and the optimistic fp confinement (approx. 45% of 14.7 MeV protons) previously predicted is vulnerable to large orbit perturbations induced by NES. In the FRM problem, this variance reduction technique is used to estimate the fractional difference in the average fp energy deposited in the closed-field region, E/sub cf/, with and without NES collisions

  13. Antimicrobial properties of uncapped silver nanoparticles synthesized by DC arc thermal plasma technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinde, Manish; Patil, Rajendra; Karmakar, Soumen; Bhoraskar, Sudha; Rane, Sunit; Gade, Wasudev; Amalnerkar, Dinesh

    2012-02-01

    We, herein, report the antimicrobial properties of uncapped silver nanoparticles for a Gram positive model organism, Bacillus subtilis. Uncapped silver nanoparticles have been prepared using less-explored DC arc thermal plasma technique by considering its large scale generation capability. It is observed that the resultant nanoparticles show size as well as optical property dependent antimicrobial effect.

  14. Annual increments, specific gravity and energy of Eucalyptus grandis by gamma-ray attenuation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezende, M.A.; Guerrini, I.A.; Ferraz, E.S.B.

    1990-01-01

    Specific gravity annual increments in volume, mass and energy of Eucalyptus grandis at thirteen years of age were made taking into account measurements of the calorific value for wood. It was observed that the calorific value for wood decrease slightly, while the specific gravity increase significantly with age. The so-called culmination age for the Annual Volume Increment was determined to be around fourth year of growth while for the Annual Mass and Energy Increment was around the eighty year. These results show that a tree in a particular age may not have a significant growth in volume, yet one is mass and energy. (author)

  15. Annual review of the Institute of Plasma Physics, Nagoya University, for fiscal 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    As to the reacting plasma project, the design team performed the extensive analysis of highly elongated, high β plasma configuration in fiscal 1983. As physical issues, the experiments on lower hybrid wave current start-up and ion Bernstein wave heating were successfully carried out in the JIPP-T-2U tokamak device. For the research and development related to reacting plasma, a 1/4 module of a 120 keV neutral beam system was completed. The construction of a tritium handling facility, the development of fast pulsed superconduction and the development of new aluminum alloys were accomplished as the results of 3-year preparatory program ending in 1983. The Institute also tried to pursue the alternative concept on fusion plasma research by organizing the program based on a low β toroidal system, radio frequency containment, high energy beam experiment, Nagoya bumpy torus and high β pinch plasma. The scientific activities of the Institute related to reacting plasma physics, various preparatory experiments, various basic studies and plasma theory and computation are reported. Also the services of the Computer Center, the Research Information Center and other facilities are described. (Kako, I.)

  16. Algorithm for polarimetry data inversion, consistent with other measuring techniques in tokamak plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kravtsov, Y.A.; Kravtsov, Y.A.; Chrzanowski, J.; Mazon, D.

    2011-01-01

    New procedure for plasma polarimetry data inversion is suggested, which fits two parameter knowledge-based plasma model to the measured parameters (azimuthal and ellipticity angles) of the polarization ellipse. The knowledge-based model is supposed to use the magnetic field and electron density profiles, obtained from magnetic measurements and LIDAR data on the Thomson scattering. In distinction to traditional polarimetry, polarization evolution along the ray is determined on the basis of angular variables technique (AVT). The paper contains a few examples of numerical solutions of these equations, which are applicable in conditions, when Faraday and Cotton-Mouton effects are simultaneously strong. (authors)

  17. One-loop calculations of photon splitting in relativistic quantum plasma by Green's function technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De la Incera, V.; Ferrer, E.; Shalad, A.Y.

    1987-01-01

    A homogeneous and isotropic plasma made up of electrons and positrons is examined. The coefficients of the covariant expansion of the three-photon vertex are calculated in the one-loop approximation of the Green's function technique, together with the probability amplitudes of various processes involving three photons that produce information on the probability of the polarization states of the incoming and outgoing photons in the splitting process. The calculation results are used to verify the consequences of all exact symmetries which must be done for the vertex tensor. The case of a charge-symmetric plasma is considered together with the special case of photon collinearity

  18. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory annual report, October 1, 1991--September 30, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    This report discusses the following topics: Principal parameters achieved in experimental devices for fiscal year 1992; tokamak fusion test reactor; princeton beta experiment-modification; current drive experiment-upgrade; tokamak physics experiment/steady-state advanced tokamak; international thermonuclear experimental reactor; international collaboration; x-ray laser studies; plasma processing: Deposition and etching of thin films; pure electron plasma experiments; theoretical studies; tokamak modeling; high-field magnet project; engineering department; environment, safety, and health and quality assurance; technology transfer; office of human resources and administration; PPPL invention disclosures for fiscal year 1992; office of resource management; graduate education: plasma physics; graduate education: program in plasma science and technology; and science education program.

  19. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory annual report, October 1, 1991--September 30, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: Principal parameters achieved in experimental devices for fiscal year 1992; tokamak fusion test reactor; princeton beta experiment-modification; current drive experiment-upgrade; tokamak physics experiment/steady-state advanced tokamak; international thermonuclear experimental reactor; international collaboration; x-ray laser studies; plasma processing: Deposition and etching of thin films; pure electron plasma experiments; theoretical studies; tokamak modeling; high-field magnet project; engineering department; environment, safety, and health and quality assurance; technology transfer; office of human resources and administration; PPPL invention disclosures for fiscal year 1992; office of resource management; graduate education: plasma physics; graduate education: program in plasma science and technology; and science education program

  20. Plasma-surface interactions in magnetic-fusion systems. Annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conn, R.W.; Prinja, A.K.

    1983-07-01

    The objective for the first year of the contract was to develop a one dimensional space-time code simulating particle and energy transport in tokamak edge plasmas, incorporating an accurate neutral transport model that properly distinguishes between atomic and molecular hydrogen species. This has been broadly accomplished and a brief summary of the work is presented below. We have also initiated work on modeling the halo plasma of tandem mirrors

  1. Effect of platelet-rich plasma and microfracture reparative technique combined in chondral lesions treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Zedde

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The microfracture surgery introduced by Stedman despite limitations still represents the most common procedure to repair chondral defects. In recent years other regeneration techniques, such as the implantation of platelet-rich plasma (PRP, have been adopted in combination to boost and promote successful outcomes. This study aimed at evaluating clinical and functional results in 60 patients affected by chondral lesions and treated only using the microfracture procedure or in combination with intra-articular PRP infiltration. Patients were sub-divided in 2 groups: 30 were treated with microfracture reparative technique and the remaining 30 microfractures were treated with 3 platelet-rich plasma intra-articular injections. All patients were postoperatively evaluated based on the visual along scale, International Knee Documentation Committee, subjective knee function, and Lysholm knee scoring scale. The evaluation results for each follow-up showed an improvement of all evaluation scores compared to the preoperative phase and a variable and progressive deterioration registered at 24, 36 and 48-month follow-up visits, more pronounced in patients treated with microfracture alone. Instead, more successful outcomes in terms of pain symptomatology and functional recovery were reported during all follow-up visits and based on all scoring scales for the 30 patients treated with a combination of both techniques. The combination of the micro fracture reparative technique and the platelet-rich plasma implantation favoured a faster resolution of pain symptomatology and a quicker functional recovery with favourable results maintained over time.

  2. Application of electrochemical plasma techniques in surface engineering of iron based structural materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coaca, E.; Rusu, O.; Mihalache, M.; Minca, M.; Tacica, M.; Florea, S.; Oncioiu, G.; Andrei, V.

    2013-01-01

    The surface of austenitic stainless steels 304 L and 316 L was modified by various complex surface treatments: - plasma electrolytic carbo-nitriding by means of Plasma electrolytic saturation (PES); the saturation of cathodic surfaces with C, N was performed using suitable electrolytes (aqueous solutions of inorganic acids, appropriate salts containing the desired elements and certain organic compounds); -electrodeposition of Al from ChCl based Ionic Liquid. The coatings obtained in various experimental conditions have been investigated by means of electron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersion x-ray spectrometry, electrochemical techniques, and the properties of the thin films have been correlated with the microstructure and the composition of the surface layers which are strongly dependents of the different regimes of diffusion treatments. The preliminary results on Electrochemical Plasma Technology (EPT) treatments demonstrate that we can select the processing parameters for essential improvement of corrosion behaviour in some aggressive medium and high values of microhardness. (authors)

  3. The Diagnosis of Plasma Parameters in Surface Alloying Technique by Optical Emission Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Yabo; Zhang Yuefei; Chen Qiang; Zhang Guangqiu; Gao Yuan; Wang Jianzhong; Kui Xiaoyun

    2006-01-01

    Electron density (Ne) in a glow discharge plasma for the surface alloying technique is diagnosed by optical emission spectrometry (OES). With CH 4 as the feeding gas, Ne is obtained by comparing the Hβ spectrum according to the Stark broadening effect. It is noticed that Ne varies with the working pressures (30 Pa to 70 Pa) and cathode voltages (500 V to 1000 V), respectively. Due to an abnormal glow discharge, Ne is between 1.71x10 15 /cm 3 to 6.64x10 15 /cm 3 and increases rapidly with working gas pressures and cathode voltages. The results show that OES is a useful method to measure the plasma parameters in a surface alloying glow discharge plasma

  4. Application of the thermal plasma technique in the treatment of stone surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez A, Z.I.

    2000-01-01

    The stone materials which form part of the cultural heritage of Mexico, are degraded under the united action of water, atmospheric gases, air pollution, temperature changes and the microorganisms action; provoking on the stone: fissures, crevices, scalings, fragmentations, pulverizations, etc. Therefore, the purpose of this work is to study the possibilities to apply a protective coating on the stone surfaces, previously clean and consolidated, through the thermal plasma technique. The purpose is to analyse the physical and chemical properties of three types of stone materials: quarry, tezontle and chiluca, usually used in constructions of cultural interest such as: historical monuments, churches, sculptures, etc., before and after to be submitted to the action of thermal plasma in order to examine the feasibility in the use of this coating technique in this type of applications. The application of conventional techniques to determine: porosity, density, absorption, low pressure water absorption and crystallization by total immersion of nuclear techniques such as: neutron activation analysis, x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy as well as of instrumental techniques: optical microscopy, mechanical assays of compression, flexure and surface area calculations, allowed to know the chemical and physical properties of the stone material before and after to be treated through the thermal plasma technique, projecting quartz on the stones surface at different distances and current intensity and showing the effect caused by the modifications or surface alterations present by cause of the application of that coating. the obtained results provide a general panorama of the application of this technique as an alternative to the maintenance of the architectural inheritance built in stone. (Author)

  5. Kinetic and Diagnostic Studies of Molecular Plasmas Using Laser Absorption Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Welzel, S; Rousseau, A; Davies, P B; Roepcke, J

    2007-01-01

    Within the last decade mid infrared absorption spectroscopy between 3 and 20 μm, known as Infrared Laser Absorption Spectroscopy (IRLAS) and based on tuneable semiconductor lasers, namely lead salt diode lasers, often called tuneable diode lasers (TDL), and quantum cascade lasers (QCL) has progressed considerably as a powerful diagnostic technique for in situ studies of the fundamental physics and chemistry of molecular plasmas. The increasing interest in processing plasmas containing hydrocarbons, fluorocarbons, organo-silicon and boron compounds has lead to further applications of IRLAS because most of these compounds and their decomposition products are infrared active. IRLAS provides a means of determining the absolute concentrations of the ground states of stable and transient molecular species, which is of particular importance for the investigation of reaction kinetics. Information about gas temperature and population densities can also be derived from IRLAS measurements. A variety of free radicals and molecular ions have been detected, especially using TDLs. Since plasmas with molecular feed gases are used in many applications such as thin film deposition, semiconductor processing, surface activation and cleaning, and materials and waste treatment, this has stimulated the adaptation of infrared spectroscopic techniques to industrial requirements. The recent development of QCLs offers an attractive new option for the monitoring and control of industrial plasma processes as well as for highly time-resolved studies on the kinetics of plasma processes. The aim of the present article is threefold: (i) to review recent achievements in our understanding of molecular phenomena in plasmas (ii) to report on selected studies of the spectroscopic properties and kinetic behaviour of radicals, and (iii) to describe the current status of advanced instrumentation for TDLAS in the mid infrared

  6. Theoretical investigations of plasma processes. Annual report, Oct 1975--Oct 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhelm, H.E.; Hong, S.H.

    1976-01-01

    System analyses are presented for electrically sustained, collision dominated plasma centrifuges, in which the plasma rotates under the influence of the Lorentz forces resulting from the interaction of the current density fields with an external magnetic field. It is shown that gas discharge centrifuges are technically feasible in which the plasma rotates at speeds up to 1 million cm/sec. The associated centrifugal forces produce a significant spatial isotope separation, which is somewhat perturbed in the viscous boundary layers at the centrifuge walls. The isotope separation effect is the more pronounced. The induced magnetic fields have negligible influence on the plasma rotation if the Hall coefficient is small. In the technical realization of collision dominated plasma centrifuges, a trade-off has to be made between power density and speeds of rotation. The diffusion of sputtered atoms to system surfaces of ion propulsion systems and the deposition of the atoms are treated theoretically by means of a simple model which permits an analytical solution. The problem leads to an inhomogeneous integral equation

  7. Annual Report on Scientific Activities in 1997 of Department of Physics and Nuclear Techniques, Academy of Mining and Metallurgy, Cracow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolny, J.; Olszynska, E.

    1998-01-01

    The Annual Report 1997 is the review of scientific activities of the Department of Nuclear Physics and Techniques (DNPT) of the Academy of Mining and Metallurgy, Cracow. The studies connected with: radiometric analysis, nuclear electronics, solid state physics, elementary particle and detectors, medical physics, physics of environment, theoretical physics, nuclear geophysics, energetic problems, industrial radiometry and tracer techniques have been broadly presented. The fill list of works being published and presented at scientific conferences in 1997 by the staff of DNPT are also included

  8. Pure high dose metal ion implantation using the plasma immersion technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, T.; Tang, B.Y.; Zeng, Z.M.; Kwok, T.K.; Chu, P.K.; Monteiro, O.R.; Brown, I.G.

    1999-01-01

    High energy implantation of metal ions can be carried out using conventional ion implantation with a mass-selected ion beam in scanned-spot mode by employing a broad-beam approach such as with a vacuum arc ion source, or by utilizing plasma immersion ion implantation with a metal plasma. For many high dose applications, the use of plasma immersion techniques offers a high-rate process, but the formation of a surface film along with the subsurface implanted layer is sometimes a severe or even fatal detriment. We describe here an operating mode of the metal plasma immersion approach by which pure implantation can be obtained. We have demonstrated the technique by carrying out Ti and Ta implantations at energies of about 80 and 120 keV for Ti and Ta, respectively, and doses on the order of 1x10 17 ions/cm 2 . Our experiments show that virtually pure implantation without simultaneous surface deposition can be accomplished. Using proper synchronization of the metal arc and sample voltage pulse, the applied dose that deposits as a film versus the part that is energetically implanted (the deposition-to-implantation ratio) can be precisely controlled.copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  9. Determination of trace elements in petroleum products by inductively coupled plasma techniques: A critical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sánchez, Raquel; Todolí, José Luis; Lienemann, Charles-Philippe; Mermet, Jean-Michel

    2013-01-01

    The fundamentals, applications and latter developments of petroleum products analysis through inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) are revisited in the present bibliographic survey. Sample preparation procedures for the direct analysis of fuels by using liquid sample introduction systems are critically reviewed and compared. The most employed methods are sample dilution, emulsion or micro-emulsion preparation and sample decomposition. The first one is the most widely employed due to its simplicity. Once the sample has been prepared, an organic matrix is usually present. The performance of the sample introduction system (i.e., nebulizer and spray chamber) depends strongly upon the nature and properties of the solution finally obtained. Many different devices have been assayed and the obtained results are shown. Additionally, samples can be introduced into the plasma by using an electrothermal vaporization (ETV) device or a laser ablation system (LA). The recent results published in the literature showing the feasibility, advantages and drawbacks of latter alternatives are also described. Therefore, the main goal of the review is the discussion of the different approaches developed for the analysis of crude oil and its derivates by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) techniques. - Highlights: • Analysis of petroleum products by inductively coupled plasma techniques is revisited. • Fundamental studies are included together with reports dealing with applications. • Conventional and non-conventional sample introduction methods are considered. • Sample preparation methods are critically compared and described

  10. Plasma processing techniques for deposition of carbonic thin protective coatings on structural nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrei, V.; Oncioiu, G.; Coaca, E.; Rusu, O.; Lungu, C.

    2009-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: The production of nano-structured surface films with controlled properties is crucial for the development of materials necessary for the Advanced Systems for Nuclear Energy. Since the surface of materials is the zone through which materials interact with the environment, the surface science and surface engineering techniques plays an essential role in the understanding and control of the processes involved. Complex surface structures were developed on stainless steels used as structural nuclear materials: austenitic stainless steels based on Fe, austenitic steels with high content of Cr, ferrites resistant to corrosion, by various Plasma Processing methods which include: - Plasma Electrolytic (PE) treatments: the steel substrates were modified by nitriding and nitro-carburizing plasma diffusion treatments; - carbonic films deposition in Thermionic Vacuum Arc Plasma. The results of the characterization of surface structures obtained in various experimental conditions for improvement of the properties (corrosion resistance, hardness, wear properties) are reported: the processes and structures were characterized by correlation of the results of the complementary techniques: XPS, 'depth profiling', SEM, XRD, EIS. An overall description of the processes involved in the surface properties improvement, and some consideration about the new materials development for energy technologies are presented

  11. Plasma levels of vitellogenin in Chrysemys picta during the annual gonadal cycle: Measurement by specific radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gapp, D.A.; Ho, S.M.; Callard, I.P.

    1979-01-01

    A RIA for turtle (Chrysemys picta) vitellogenin is described. After dimethylformamide precipitation of vitellogenin from the plasma of estrogen-treated female turtles, antibodies were developed in rabbits. The dimethylformamide precipitate was further purified by o-triethylaminoethyl cellulose column chromatography; the vitellogenin component eluted as a single peak. This material was used for iodination by a mild chloramine method. Antibodies to turtle vitellogenin did not cross-react with plasma from male turtles or vitellogenic females of other vertebrate groups, including lizards and snakes. Limited cross-reactivity exists among the chelonians, however. Using a 1:5000 dilution of antiserum, the limit of detection was 15 ng, and the midrange was 320 +- 45 ng. For an antiserum dilution of 1:1000, these figures were 30 and 600 +- 37 ng, respectively. Using this assay, the seasonal pattern of plasma vitellogenin in the turtle has been described, and preliminary studies on in vitro hepatic vitellogenesis have been performed

  12. Annual cycle of plasma luteinizing hormone and sex hormones in male and female mallards (Anas platyrhynchos)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donham, R.S.

    1979-01-01

    Comparisons between 'wild'and 'game farm' mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) were made to assess the differences in the temporal changes of plasma hormones. Seasonal variation in the levels of immunoreactive luteinizing hormone (LH), testosterone, 5 -dihydrotestosterone (DHT), estrone, estradiol-17i?? and progesterone were measured in male and female mallards. In all birds there was a vernal increase in the concentrations of LH and testosterone in plasma which were correlated with the development of the testes and ovaries prior to and during the nesting season. The concentrations of estrogens in the plasma of the females were, in general, slightly higher during the nesting season but were much lower than the levels of testosterone. The highest levels of LH and testosterone in the females coincided precisely with the period of egg laying which occurred approximately one month earlier in game farm females than in wild females. The concentrations of LH and testosterone in the plasma of females decreased rapidly during incubation. In wild males, the decline in levels of these hormones temporally coincided with that of females. In contrast, plasma levels of LH and testosterone of males of the game farm stock remained elevated after the beginning of incubation in females to which they were paired. On the basis of these results and an examination of the literature, it appears that domestication results in: 1) increased reproductive potential through earlier initiation of nesting and by delay of the termination of reproduction until later in the summer; and 2) a decrease in the synchronization of the hormonal events supporting reproduction between the male and female of a pair. Testicular weights and plasma levels of testosterone become higher in game farm and domestic males than in the wild stock but levels of LH are similar.

  13. Application of lock-in thermography non destructive technique to CFC armoured plasma facing components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escourbiac, F.; Constans, S.; Courtois, X.; Durocher, A.

    2007-01-01

    A non destructive testing technique - so called modulated photothermal thermography or lock-in thermography - has been set-up for plasma facing components examination. Reliable measurements of phase contrast were obtained on 8 mm carbon fiber composite (CFC) armoured W7-X divertor component with calibrated flaws. A 3D finite element analysis allowed the correlation of the measured phase contrast and showed that a 4 mm strip flaw can be detected at the CFC/copper interface

  14. Effect of platelet-rich plasma and microfracture reparative technique combined in chondral lesions treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Pietro Zedde; Sebastiano Cudoni; Pietro Lisai; Mario Fadda; Andrea Fabio Manunta

    2015-01-01

    The microfracture surgery introduced by Stedman despite limitations still represents the most common procedure to repair chondral defects. In recent years other regeneration techniques, such as the implantation of platelet-rich plasma (PRP), have been adopted in combination to boost and promote successful outcomes. This study aimed at evaluating clinical and functional results in 60 patients affected by chondral lesions and treated only using the microfracture procedure or in combination with...

  15. Annual cycle of methane emission from a boreal fen measured by the eddy covariance technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinne, Janne.; Pihlatie, Mari; Haapanala, Sami; Vesala, Timo; Riutta, Terhi; Tuittila, Eeva-Stiina; Aurela, Mika; Tuovinen, Juha-Pekka

    2007-01-01

    The northern wetlands are one of the major sources of methane into the atmosphere. We measured annual methane emission from a boreal minerotrophic fen, Siikaneva, by the eddy covariance method. The average wintertime emissions were below 1 mg/m 2 /h, and the summertime emissions about 3.5 mg/m 2 /h. The water table depth did have any clear effect on methane emissions. During most of the year the emission depended on the temperature of peat below the water table. However, during the high and late summer the emission was independent on peat temperature as well. No diurnal cycle of methane flux was found. The total annual emission from the Siikaneva site was 12.6 g/m 2 . The emissions of the snow free period contributed 91% to the annual emission. The emission pulse during the snow melting period was clearly detectable but of minor importance adding only less than 3% to the annual emission. Over 20% of the carbon assimilated during the year as carbon dioxide was emitted as methane. Thus methane emission is an important component of the carbon balance of the Siikaneva fen. This indicates need of taking methane into account when studying carbon balances of northern fen ecosystems

  16. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory Annual Site Environmental Report for Calendar Years 2002 and 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finley, Virginia L.

    2004-01-01

    This report provides the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the public with information on the level of radioactive and non-radioactive pollutants (if any) that are added to the environment as a result of Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory's (PPPL) operations. The results of the 2002 and 2003 environmental surveillance and monitoring program for PPPL are presented and discussed. The report also summarizes environmental initiatives, assessments, and programs that were undertaken in 2002 and 2003

  17. Fluctuations and transport in fusion plasmas. Annual progress report, October 1, 1983-September 30, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gould, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    This grant supports an integrated program of experiment and theory in tokamak plasma physics. Emphasis is placed on microscopic fluctuations and anomalous transport. The primary objective is to characterize the properties of the microscopic fluctuations observed in tokamaks and to try to develop an understanding of the fluctuation-induced transport of particles and heat. Anomalous transport, which causes energy losses one to two orders of magnitude larger than predicted by neoclassical transport theory, occurs in all tokamaks and underlies empirical scaling laws

  18. PREFACE: IX International Conference on Modern Techniques of Plasma Diagnostics and their Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savjolov, A. S.; Dodulad, E. I.

    2016-01-01

    The IX Conference on ''Modern Techniques of Plasma Diagnosis and their Application'' was held on 5 - 7 November, 2014 at National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (NRNU MEPhI). The goal of the conference was an exchange of information on both high-temperature and low-temperature plasma diagnostics as well as deliberation and analysis of various diagnostic techniques and their applicability in science, industry, ecology, medicine and other fields. The Conference also provided young scientists from scientific centres and universities engaged in plasma diagnostics with an opportunity to attend the lectures given by the leading specialists in this field as well as present their own results and findings. The first workshop titled ''Modern problems of plasma diagnostics and their application for control of chemicals and the environment'' took place at Moscow Engineering and Physics Institute (MEPhI) in June 1998 with the support of the Section on Diagnostics of the Council of Russian Academic of Science on Plasma Physics and since then these forums have been held at MEPhI every two years. In 2008 the workshop was assigned a conference status. More than 150 specialists on plasma diagnostics and students took part in the last conference. They represented leading Russian scientific centres (such as Troitsk Institute of Innovative and Thermonuclear Research, National Research Centre ''Kurchatov Institute'', Russian Federal Nuclear Centre - All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics and others) and universities from Belarus, Ukraine, Germany, USA, Belgium and Sweden. About 30 reports were made by young researchers, students and post-graduate students. All presentations during the conference were broadcasted online over the internet with viewers in Moscow, Prague, St. Petersburgh and other cities. The Conference was held within the framework of the Centre of Plasma, Laser Research and Technology supported by MEPhI Academic Excellence Project (Russian

  19. The control of plasma density profile in Tore Supra. Comparison of different fueling techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Commaux, N.

    2007-09-01

    The behaviour of a reactor-class plasma when fuelled using the existing techniques (gas puffing, supersonic molecular beam injection and pellet injection) is still very difficult to foresee. The present work has been initiated on Tore Supra in order to extrapolate the consequences of the different fuelling systems on ITER. Two main topics have been studied: the comparison of the plasma behaviour when fuelled using the different techniques at high Greenwald density fractions and the study of the homogenization following a pellet injection (main fuelling technique for ITER burning plasmas). The experiments at high Greenwald density fractions performed on Tore Supra showed that the plasma behaviour is very dependent on the fuelling method. The plasma energy confinement is following the scaling laws determined at low density when fuelled using pellet injection. which is better than for gas puffing and SMBI. both inducing a significant confinement loss. This behaviour is nor related to a transport modification: the ratio between effective diffusion and convection is similar to the pellet case. The difference between these shots is related only to the position of the matter source (at the edge for gas and close to the center for pellets). The study concerning the homogenization phenomena following a pellet injection aims mainly to study the ∇B-drift effect that expels the mater deposited by a pellet toward the low field side. A new phenomenon. which appears to be particularly important for the ∇B-drift during low field side injections. was then discovered: the influence of magnetic surfaces with an integer-valued safety factor (q). When the mater drifting toward low field side crosses an integer q surface. it experiences an important braking effect which stops the drift motion. It implies that the pellet material is mainly deposited on the last integer q surface crossed by the pellet during its injection. This study allows also to determine that the

  20. Annual plan of research on safety techniques against low level radioactive wastes, FY1994-FY1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The safety research on the disposal of low level radioactive waste has been promoted based on the annual plan decided by the committee on radiative waste safety regulation of the Nuclear Safety Commission. Hereafter, the disposal of low level radioactive waste in ocean is never selected. As to the subjects of the safety research which should be carried out for five years from 1994, the necessity, the contents of research, the organs that carry out the research and so on were deliberated, and the results are made into the annual plan, therefore, it is reported. The way of thinking on the safety research, the contents for which efforts should be exerted as the safety research, and the matters to which attention should be paid are shown. As for the annual plan of safety research, the necessity and the outline of the safety research on the disposal in strata, the concrete subjects and their contents, and the necessity and the outline of the safety research on the reuse, the concrete subjects and their contents are reported. The radioactive waste is those produced by the operation of nuclear reactor facilities, those containing TRU nuclides and RI waste. (K.I.)

  1. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory Annual Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finley, Virginia

    2001-01-01

    The results of the 1999 environmental surveillance and monitoring program for the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) are presented and discussed. The purpose of this report is to provide the U.S. Department of Energy and the public with information on the level of radioactive and non-radioactive pollutants (if any) that are added to the environment as a result of PPPL's operations. The report also summarizes environmental initiatives, assessments, and programs that were undertaken in 1999. The Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory has engaged in fusion energy research since 1951. The long-range goal of the U.S. Magnetic Fusion Energy Research Program is to create innovations to make fusion power a practical reality--an alternative energy source. 1999 marked the first year of National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) operations and Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) dismantlement and deconstruction activities. A collaboration among fourteen national laboratories, universities, and research institutions, the NSTX is a major element in the U.S. Fusion Energy Sciences Program. It has been designed to test the physics principles of spherical torus (ST) plasmas. The ST concept could play an important role in the development of smaller, more economical fusion reactors. With its completion within budget and ahead of its target schedule, NSTX first plasma occurred on February 12, 1999. The 1999 performance of the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory was rated ''outstanding'' by the U.S. Department of Energy in the Laboratory Appraisal report issued early in 2000. The report cited the Laboratory's consistently excellent scientific and technological achievements, its successful management practices, and included high marks in a host of other areas including environmental management, employee health and safety, human resources administration, science education, and communications. Groundwater investigations continued under a voluntary agreement with the New Jersey

  2. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory Annual Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virginia Finley

    2001-04-20

    The results of the 1999 environmental surveillance and monitoring program for the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) are presented and discussed. The purpose of this report is to provide the U.S. Department of Energy and the public with information on the level of radioactive and non-radioactive pollutants (if any) that are added to the environment as a result of PPPL's operations. The report also summarizes environmental initiatives, assessments, and programs that were undertaken in 1999. The Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory has engaged in fusion energy research since 1951. The long-range goal of the U.S. Magnetic Fusion Energy Research Program is to create innovations to make fusion power a practical reality--an alternative energy source. 1999 marked the first year of National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) operations and Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) dismantlement and deconstruction activities. A collaboration among fourteen national laboratories, universities, and research institutions, the NSTX is a major element in the U.S. Fusion Energy Sciences Program. It has been designed to test the physics principles of spherical torus (ST) plasmas. The ST concept could play an important role in the development of smaller, more economical fusion reactors. With its completion within budget and ahead of its target schedule, NSTX first plasma occurred on February 12, 1999. The 1999 performance of the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory was rated ''outstanding'' by the U.S. Department of Energy in the Laboratory Appraisal report issued early in 2000. The report cited the Laboratory's consistently excellent scientific and technological achievements, its successful management practices, and included high marks in a host of other areas including environmental management, employee health and safety, human resources administration, science education, and communications. Groundwater investigations continued under a voluntary

  3. Chromatographic techniques used in the laboratory scale fractionation and purification of plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti Najila Mohd Janib; Wan Hamirul Bahrin Wan Kamal; Shaharuddin Mohd

    2004-01-01

    Chromatography is a powerful technique used in the separation as well as purification of proteins for use as biopharmaceuticals or medicines. Scientists use many different chromatographic techniques in biotechnology as they bring a molecule from its initial identification stage to the stage of it becoming a marketed product. The most commonly used of these techniques is liquid chromatography (1,C). This technique can be used to separate the target molecule from undesired contaminants, as well as to analyse the final product for the requisite purity as established by governmental regulatory groups such as the FDA. Some examples of LC techniques include: ion exchange (IEC), hydrophobic interaction (HIC), gel filtration (GF), affinity (AC) and reverse phase (RPC) chromatography. These techniques are very versatile and can be used at any stage of the purification process i.e. capture, intermediate purification phase and polishing. The choice of a particular technique is dependent upon the nature of the target protein as well as its intended final use. This paper describes the preliminary work done on the chromatographic purification of factor VIII (FVIII), factor IX (FIX), albumin and IgG from plasma. Results, in particular, in the isolation of albumin and IgG using IEC, have been promising. Preparation and production of cryoprecipitate to yield FVIII and FIX have also been successful. (Author)

  4. Plasma arc and thermal lance techniques for cutting concrete and steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bargagliotti, A.; Caprile, L.; Piana, F.; Tolle, E.

    1986-01-01

    The plasma arc technique is used today in industrial practice for any metal, but mainly for cutting stainless steel, carbon steel and aluminium. In air the maximum thickness that was cut in the performed tests was 150 mm, both with ferritic and austenitic steel. Underwater the maximum thickness cut was 103 mm. The two types of torch used in the tests are those used today: the plasma-shaped electrode torch (WIPC) and the pointed electrode torch (DMC-GRUEN). Two different types of gas were compared: an argon-nitrogen mixture and an argon-hydrogen mixture. The second mixture adopted results in less dust emission. The production of dust and aerosols also depends on the cutting speed, on the kind of steel, but mainly on the environmental conditions; it is reduced up to 500 times under water. Dust and aerosols can, jeopardize the efficiency of the system; moreover, the ambient air can have high-level radiation fields. Indirect and direct protections are needed (shields, remote control, robots, etc.). Tentative procedures for dismantling two types of BWR reactor are examined. Two series of tests demonstrated the feasibility of cutting the most geometrically difficult parts of the reactor internals. The thermal lance technique is used in industrial practice mainly for dismantling large reinforced concrete structures. This technique can be applied to dismantle nuclear facilities, even though it can cause some problems due to the gases, fumes and lapilli produced. In addition, the cost of this technique seems to be generally higher than the cost of other techniques. From the analyses done, the conclusion seems that both the above techniques are feasible for dismantling a nuclear power plant (NPP). The best solution is probably to analyse the different dismantling possibilities and problems and problems of each case

  5. A study on decontamination of TRU, Co, and Mo using plasma surface etching technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Y.D.; Kim, Y.S.; Paek, S.H.; Lee, K.H.; Jung, C.H.; Oh, W.Z.

    2001-01-01

    Recently dry decontamination/surface-cleaning technology using plasma etching has been focused in the nuclear industry. In this study, the applicability and the effectiveness of this new dry processing technique are experimentally investigated by examining the etching reaction of UO 2 , Co, and Mo in r.f. plasma with the etchant gas of CF 4 /O 2 mixture. UO 2 is chosen as a representing material for uranium and TRU (TRans-Uranic) compounds and metallic Co and Mo are selected because they are the principal contaminants in the spent nuclear components such as valves and pipes made of stainless steel or INCONEL. Results show that in all cases maximum etching rate is achieved when the mole fraction of O 2 to CF 4 /O 2 mixture gas is 20 %, regardless of temperature and r.f. power. (author)

  6. Using X-ray spectroheliograph technique for investigations of laser-produced plasma under interaction with strong magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faenov, A.; Dyakin, V.; Magunov, A.; Pikuz, T.; Skobelev, I.; Pikuz, S.; Pisarczyk, T.; Wolowski, J.; Zielinska, E.

    1996-01-01

    A dense jet of a plasma consisting of multiply charged ions was generated in the interaction of a laser plasma with a strong external axial magnetic field. It is shown that using the high-luminosity X-ray spectroheliograph technique allows to measure plasma emission spectra with 2-dimensional spatial resolution even in the cases when these spectra have small intensities. The X-ray spectroscopy and interferometry methods are used to measure plasma parameter distributions. The dependencies of N e (z) and T e (z) measured in this paper can be used to calculate the evolution of plasma ionization state during plasma expansion. The quasihomogeneous laser jet, which appears when a laser plasma interacts with an external magnetic field can be used not only to form an active medium of a short wavelength laser, but probably also to tackle the urgent problem of transport in a laser ion injector. (orig.)

  7. Using X-ray spectroheliograph technique for investigations of laser-produced plasma under interaction with strong magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faenov, A. [MISDC of VNIIFTRI, Mendeleevo (Russian Federation); Dyakin, V. [MISDC of VNIIFTRI, Mendeleevo (Russian Federation); Magunov, A. [MISDC of VNIIFTRI, Mendeleevo (Russian Federation); Pikuz, T. [MISDC of VNIIFTRI, Mendeleevo (Russian Federation); Skobelev, I. [MISDC of VNIIFTRI, Mendeleevo (Russian Federation); Pikuz, S. [Rossijskaya Akademiya Nauk, Moscow (Russian Federation). Fizicheskij Inst.; Kasperczyk, A. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Warsaw (Poland); Pisarczyk, T. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Warsaw (Poland); Wolowski, J. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Warsaw (Poland); Zielinska, E. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Warsaw (Poland)

    1996-08-01

    A dense jet of a plasma consisting of multiply charged ions was generated in the interaction of a laser plasma with a strong external axial magnetic field. It is shown that using the high-luminosity X-ray spectroheliograph technique allows to measure plasma emission spectra with 2-dimensional spatial resolution even in the cases when these spectra have small intensities. The X-ray spectroscopy and interferometry methods are used to measure plasma parameter distributions. The dependencies of N{sub e}(z) and T{sub e}(z) measured in this paper can be used to calculate the evolution of plasma ionization state during plasma expansion. The quasihomogeneous laser jet, which appears when a laser plasma interacts with an external magnetic field can be used not only to form an active medium of a short wavelength laser, but probably also to tackle the urgent problem of transport in a laser ion injector. (orig.).

  8. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory Annual Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virginia L. Finley

    2002-04-22

    The results of the 2000 environmental surveillance and monitoring program for the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) are presented and discussed. The purpose of this report is to provide the U.S. Department of Energy and the public with information on the level of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants (if any) that are added to the environment as a result of PPPL's operations. The report also summarizes environmental initiatives, assessments, and programs that were undertaken in 2000. The Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory has engaged in fusion energy research since 1951. The long-range goal of the U.S. Magnetic Fusion Energy Research Program is to create innovations to make fusion power a practical reality -- an alternative energy source. The year 2000 marked the second year of National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) operations and Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) dismantlement and deconstruction activities. A collaboration among fourteen national laboratories, universities, and research institutions, the NSTX is a major element in the U.S. Fusion Energy Sciences Program. It has been designed to test the physics principles of spherical torus (ST) plasmas. The ST concept could play an important role in the development of smaller, more economical fusion power plants. With its completion within budget and ahead of its target schedule, NSTX first plasma occurred on February 12, 1999. In 2000, PPPL's radiological environmental monitoring program measured tritium in the air at on-site and off-site sampling stations. PPPL is capable of detecting small changes in the ambient levels of tritium by using highly sensitive monitors. The operation of an in-stack monitor located on D-site is a requirement of the National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) regulations with limits set by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Also included in PPPL's radiological environmental monitoring program, are precipitation, surface

  9. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory Annual Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    V. Finley

    2000-03-06

    The results of the 1998 environmental surveillance and monitoring program for the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) are presented and discussed. The purpose of this report is to provide the US Department of Energy and the public with information on the level of radioactive and non-radioactive pollutants, if any, that are added to the environment as a result of PPPL's operations. The report also summarizes environmental initiatives, assessments, and programs that were undertaken in 1998. One significant initiative is the Integrated Safety Management (ISM) program that embraces environment, safety, and health principles as one.

  10. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory Annual Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virginia L. Finley

    2002-04-01

    The results of the 2000 environmental surveillance and monitoring program for the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) are presented and discussed. The purpose of this report is to provide the U.S. Department of Energy and the public with information on the level of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants (if any) that are added to the environment as a result of PPPL's operations. The report also summarizes environmental initiatives, assessments, and programs that were undertaken in 2000. The Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory has engaged in fusion energy research since 1951. The long-range goal of the U.S. Magnetic Fusion Energy Research Program is to create innovations to make fusion power a practical reality -- an alternative energy source. The year 2000 marked the second year of National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) operations and Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) dismantlement and deconstruction activities. A collaboration among fourteen national laboratories, universities, and research institutions, the NSTX is a major element in the U.S. Fusion Energy Sciences Program. It has been designed to test the physics principles of spherical torus (ST) plasmas. The ST concept could play an important role in the development of smaller, more economical fusion power plants. With its completion within budget and ahead of its target schedule, NSTX first plasma occurred on February 12, 1999. In 2000, PPPL's radiological environmental monitoring program measured tritium in the air at on-site and off-site sampling stations. PPPL is capable of detecting small changes in the ambient levels of tritium by using highly sensitive monitors. The operation of an in-stack monitor located on D-site is a requirement of the National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) regulations with limits set by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Also included in PPPL's radiological environmental monitoring program, are precipitation, surface, ground, a nd

  11. Deposition of porous cathodes using plasma spray technique for reduced-temperature SOFCs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jankovic, J.; Hui, S.; Roller, J.; Kesler, O.; Xie, Y.; Maric, R.; Ghosh, D. [National Research Council of Canada, Vancouver, BC (Canada). Inst. for Fuel Cell Innovation

    2005-07-01

    Current techniques for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) materials deposition are often expensive and time-consuming. Plasma-spraying techniques provide higher deposition rates, short processing times and control over porosity and composition during deposition. Optimum plasma spraying for lanthanum based cathode materials were discussed. Plasma-spraying was used to deposit cathode materials onto ceramic and stainless steel substrates to obtain highly porous structures. Lanthanum cathode materials with composition of La{sub 0.6}Sr{sub 0.4}C{sub 0.2}Fe{sub 0.8}O{sub 3} were employed in the powder form. The powder was prepared from powder precursors with different power formers and binder levels, or from produced single-phase lanthanum powders. The (La{sub 0.8}Sr{sub 0.2}){sub 0.98}MnO{sub 3} cathode material was also processed for comparison purposes. The deposition process was developed to obtain coatings with good bond strength, porosity, film thickness and residual stresses. The phase and microstructure of deposited materials were characterized using X-Ray Diffraction and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). It was concluded that good flow of the powder precursors is achieved by spraying 50-100 um particle size powders and using vibrating feeders. Further processing of the spraying powders was recommended. It was noted that oxide precursors showed greater reactivity among the precursors. The best precursor reactivity and coating morphology was obtained using 40 volume per cent of graphite pore former, incorporated into the precursor mixture during wet ball milling. It was concluded that higher power levels and larger distances between the plasma gun and the substrate result in coatings with the highest porosities and best phase compositions. 5 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs.

  12. [Correlation and conversion of plasma cholinesterase activity values using three techniques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona-Fonseca, Jaime

    2007-07-01

    To determine mathematical correlations of three quantitative techniques to measure plasma cholinesterase, using reference values already established for two populations in the department of Antioquia, Colombia. In this descriptive, cross-sectional, prospective study, two independent, representative samples of working adults (18 to 65 years old) were examined. In both samples the adults worked for businesses associated with Colombia's Social Security system. Adults in the two samples had not been exposed to cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides. The samples were from two neighboring regions of the department of Antioquia: one sample (415 adults) was from the Aburrá Valley, and the other (412 adults) was from Oriente Antioqueño (Eastern Antioquia). Plasma cholinesterase (EC 3.1.1.8) was measured using three quantitative methods: Michel, EQM, and Monotest. Linear regression equations were developed to correlate results of these three techniques. Six simple linear regression equations were defined to show the relationship of three measurement techniques for plasma cholinesterase. There was a moderate correlation of the three techniques (r = 0.686 to 0.771), but it increased (r = 0.744 to 0.811) when 12 (1.5%) outliers were eliminated. Associations among the three techniques were highly significant (P EQM (U/mL) = 0.40773 + 1.8757 (Michel [delta pH/h]); Michel (delta pH/h) = 0.25799 + 0.33871 (EQM [U/mL]); Monotest (U/L) = 462.0 + 4 565.0 (Michel [delta pH/h]); Michel (delta pH/h) = 0.42956 + 0.00012125 (Monotest [U/L]); EQM (U/mL) = 0.75333 + 0.00031056 (Monotest [U/L]); and Monotest (U/L) = 262.0 + 2 118.0 (EQM [U/mL]). The proposed mathematical models allow conversion of cholinesterase activity values using the Michel, EQM, and Monotest techniques. These models can be of assistance in Colombia and other countries where a variety of measurement techniques are used, and where it becomes difficult to compare the results of different studies. Having mathematical models

  13. Ultrasonic techniques for quality assessment of ITER Divertor plasma facing component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez-Ona, Rafael; Garcia, Monica; Medrano, Mercedes

    2009-01-01

    The divertor is one of the most challenging components of ITER machine. Its plasma facing components contain thousands of joints that should be assessed to demonstrate their integrity during the required lifetime. Ultrasonic (US) techniques have been developed to study the capability of defect detection and to control the quality and degradation of these interfaces after the manufacturing process. Three types of joints made of carbon fibre composite to copper alloy, tungsten to copper alloy, and copper-to-copper alloy with two types of configurations have been studied. More than 100 samples representing these configurations and containing implanted flaws of different sizes have been examined. US techniques developed are detailed and results of validation samples examination before and after high heat flux (HHF) tests are presented. The results show that for W monoblocks the US technique is able to detect, locate and size the degradations in the two sample joints; for CFC monoblocks, the US technique is also able to detect, locate and size the calibrated defects in the two joints before the HHF, however after the HHF test the technique is not able to reliably detect defects in the CFC/Cu joint; finally, for the W flat tiles the US technique is able to detect, locate and size the calibrated defects in the two joints before HHF test, nevertheless defect location and sizing are more difficult after the HHF test.

  14. Annual review of the Institute of Plasma Physics, Nagoya University, for fiscal 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akaishi, K.; Midzuno, Y.; Namba, C.

    1988-01-01

    During the past three years, the Institute acquired 47ha of land for the new site in Toki City. The new plan of a large helical system which will be undertaken in the Toki site has been developed by a special committee under the Ministry of Education, Science and Culture. After the 11th IAEA Conference held in Kyoto last autumn, the Institute started under the new organization in order to concentrate effort to the comprehensive study on toroidal confinement including the design study of the large herical system. The new organization and the related research program in this fiscal year were torus projects (NTX/JIPP T-11U tokamak, compact helical system, advanced torus experiment), RF heating, plasma and fusion technologies, theory and computer simulation, various centers and others. This report presents the summary of these research subjects. Nagoya torus experiment (NTX) and helical island diverter experiment (HIDEX) using the JIPP T-11U device, the compact helical system of Torsatron/Heliotron type, the RF system for fast wave current drive and ion Bernstein wave heating experiments in JIPP T-11U, wall-plasma interaction, NBI heating, the development of a long pulse positive ion source and a high current negative ion source, tritium diffusion and so on are reported. (K.I.)

  15. Collisional processes of interest in MFE plasma research. Annual report, October 1, 1983-September 30, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    Research on this contract can be divided into two general topics: (1) D - formation collision processes; and (2) the determination of scattering cross sections used to diagnose properties of magnetically-confined plasmas. For topic (1) during last year, we completed theoretical calculations on D - negative ion formation from collisions of D atoms with Na and Cs targets. On the topic of research into polarized sources of H or He, we completed cross section studies of metastable He production in electron capture collisions of He + with Li and Na and of nuclear spin exchange collisions between H and the alkali metals. For diagnostic efforts, electron capture cross sections were determined for Al 2+ and Al 3+ colliding with H for the EBT program and C 4+ , C 6+ , Ar 8+ colliding with He for helium ash studies. Work is proceeding on laser-assisted collisions to enhance D - negative ion yields and the effects of l-mixing in collisions of He + (nl) with plasma constituents

  16. On the estimation of the current density in space plasmas: Multi- versus single-point techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perri, Silvia; Valentini, Francesco; Sorriso-Valvo, Luca; Reda, Antonio; Malara, Francesco

    2017-06-01

    Thanks to multi-spacecraft mission, it has recently been possible to directly estimate the current density in space plasmas, by using magnetic field time series from four satellites flying in a quasi perfect tetrahedron configuration. The technique developed, commonly called ;curlometer; permits a good estimation of the current density when the magnetic field time series vary linearly in space. This approximation is generally valid for small spacecraft separation. The recent space missions Cluster and Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) have provided high resolution measurements with inter-spacecraft separation up to 100 km and 10 km, respectively. The former scale corresponds to the proton gyroradius/ion skin depth in ;typical; solar wind conditions, while the latter to sub-proton scale. However, some works have highlighted an underestimation of the current density via the curlometer technique with respect to the current computed directly from the velocity distribution functions, measured at sub-proton scales resolution with MMS. In this paper we explore the limit of the curlometer technique studying synthetic data sets associated to a cluster of four artificial satellites allowed to fly in a static turbulent field, spanning a wide range of relative separation. This study tries to address the relative importance of measuring plasma moments at very high resolution from a single spacecraft with respect to the multi-spacecraft missions in the current density evaluation.

  17. Nitridation Of The A A 2024 T3 Aluminium By The Glow Discharge Plasma Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mudjiman, Supardjono; Sujitno, Tjipto; Sudjatmoko

    1996-01-01

    Nitridation of A A 2024 T3 aluminium by means of plasma glow discharge technique has been carried out. For this purpose, the experiments were carried out at the temperature 30 o C, 60 o C, 100 o C, 150 o C, 200 o C, and 250 o C whereas the nitridation time were varied at 5 minutes, 15 minutes, 40 minutes, 90 minutes and 180 minutes. The results showed that the optimum temperature and time of nitridation were 60 o C and 90 minutes respectively and the hardness increased from 115 to 166 KHN

  18. Improved numerical grid generation techniques for the B2 edge plasma code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stotler, D.P.; Coster, D.P.

    1992-06-01

    Techniques used to generate grids for edge fluid codes such as B2 from numerically computed equilibria are discussed. Fully orthogonal, numerically derived grids closely resembling analytically prescribed meshes can be obtained. But, the details of the poloidal field can vary, yielding significantly different plasma parameters in the simulations. The magnitude of these differences is consistent with the predictions of an analytic model of the scrape-off layer. Both numerical and analytic grids are insensitive to changes in their defining parameters. Methods for implementing nonorthogonal boundaries in these meshes are also presented; they differ slightly from those required for fully orthogonal grids

  19. Picosecond high power laser systems and picosecond diagnostic technique in laser produced plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, Hiroto; Masuko, H.; Maekawa, Shigeru; Suzuki, Yoshiji; Sugiyama, Masaru.

    1979-01-01

    Highly repetitive, high power YAG and Glass laser systems have been developed and been successfully used for the studies of laser-plasma interactions. Various picosecond diagnostic techniques have been developed for such purposes in the regions from optical to X-ray frequency. Recently highly sensitive X-ray (1 - 10 KeV) streak camera for highly repetitive operations have been developed. Preliminary experiment shows the achievement of 28ps temporal resolution (100μm slit) and good sensitivity with detectable minimum number of 10E3-1KeV photons/shot/slit area. (author)

  20. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory annual report, October 1, 1993-- September 30, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) project is well into the experimental phase of its deuterium-tritium (D-T) program, with the objective to derive the maximum amount of experimental data on the behavior of tokamak plasmas containing a significant population of energetic alpha particles. Since the initial D-T experiments in December 1993, the operational performance of the TFTR, as well as the required tritium-handling and machine maintenance procedures in an activated environment, have improved markedly, so that D-T operation has now become essentially routine, while fully conforming with all of the safety and environmental requirements. During the D-T phase, the machine and auxiliary-systems parameters have also been increased, most notably the toroidal field (to 5.6 T) and the neutral-beam power (to 40 MW). The radio-frequency power in the ion-cyclotron-range of frequencies (ICRF) has been increased to 11 MW.

  1. Collisional processes of interest in MFE plasma research. Annual report, October 1, 1985-July 31, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    Research on this grant can be divided into two general topics: (1) determination of electron capture cross sections between impurity ions and hydrogen atoms needed for diagnostic studies of magnetic fusion plasmas, and (2) studies into reactions important in neutral beam ion source work. For topic (1) during last year, we completed cross section calculations for B 3+ and Be 2+ on H using the molecular state approach for energies between 50 eV/u and 10 keV/u. At higher energies, 40 keV/u to 140 keV/u, we have completed classical trajectory Monte Carlo calculations to determine the nl electron capture cross sections for He 2+ , C 6+ , N 7+ and O 8+ on H collisions. For ion source work, topic (2), collisional studies were completed for negative ion formation in the process H + Na → H - + Na +

  2. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory annual report, October 1, 1993-- September 30, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) project is well into the experimental phase of its deuterium-tritium (D-T) program, with the objective to derive the maximum amount of experimental data on the behavior of tokamak plasmas containing a significant population of energetic alpha particles. Since the initial D-T experiments in December 1993, the operational performance of the TFTR, as well as the required tritium-handling and machine maintenance procedures in an activated environment, have improved markedly, so that D-T operation has now become essentially routine, while fully conforming with all of the safety and environmental requirements. During the D-T phase, the machine and auxiliary-systems parameters have also been increased, most notably the toroidal field (to 5.6 T) and the neutral-beam power (to 40 MW). The radio-frequency power in the ion-cyclotron-range of frequencies (ICRF) has been increased to 11 MW

  3. Nuclear measurements, techniques and instrumentation, industrial applications, plasma physics and nuclear fusion 1986-1996. International Atomic Energy Agency publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-03-01

    This catalogue lists all sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with Nuclear Measurements, Techniques, and Instrumentation, Industrial Applications, Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion, issued during the period 1986-1996. Most publications are in English. Proceedings of conferences, symposia and panels of experts may contain some papers in languages other than English (French, Russian or Spanish), but all of these papers have abstracts in English. Contents cover the three main areas of (i) Nuclear Measurements, Techniques and Instrumentation (Physics, Dosimetry Techniques, Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Research Reactor and Particle Accelerator Applications, and Nuclear Data), (ii) Industrial Applications (Radiation Processing, Radiometry, and Tracers), and (iii) Plasma Physics and Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion

  4. Evaluating microhardness of plasma sprayed Al2O3 coatings using Vickers indentation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin Zhijian; Tao Shunyan; Zhou Xiaming; Ding Chuanxian

    2007-01-01

    In this work, the microhardness of plasma sprayed Al 2 O 3 coatings was evaluated using the Vickers indentation technique, and the effects of measurement direction, location and applied loads were investigated. The measured data sets were then statistically analysed employing the Weibull distribution to evaluate their variability within the coatings. It was found that the Vickers hardness (VHN) increases with decreasing applied indenter load, which can be explained in terms of Kick's law and the Meyer index k of 1.93, as well as relating to the microstructural characteristics of plasma sprayed coatings and the elastic recovery taking place during indentation. In addition, VHN, measured on the cross section of coatings, was obviously higher than that on its top surface. The obtained Weibull modulus and variation coefficient indicate that the VHN was less variable when measured at a higher applied load and on the cross section of coating. The obvious dependence of the VHN on the specific indentation location within through-thickness direction was also realized. These phenomena described above in this work were related to the special microstructure and high anisotropic behaviour of plasma sprayed coatings

  5. Surface modification by cold-plasma technique for dental implants—Bio-functionalization with binding pharmaceuticals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masao Yoshinari

    2011-08-01

    At the bone tissue/implant interface, a thin calcium phosphate coating and rapid heating with infrared radiation were effective in controlling the dissolution without cracking the coating. These thin calcium phosphate coatings may directly promote osteogenisis, but also enable immobilization and subsequent drug delivery system (DDS of bisphosphonates. Simvastatin is also an effective candidate that is reported to increase the expression of BMP-2. The thin-film of hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO was plasma-polymerized onto titanium, and then HMDSO surface was activated by O2-plasma treatment. A quartz crystal microbalance (QCM-D technique demonstrated that simvastatin was immobilized on the plasma-treated surfaces due to introduction of O2-functional groups. At the soft tissue/implant interface, multi-grooved surface topographies and utilizing the adhesive proteins such as fibronectin or laminin-5 may help in providing a biological seal around the implant. At the oral fluid/implant interface, an alumina coating, F+-implantation and immobilization of anti-microbial peptides were responsible for inhibiting the biofilm accumulation.

  6. Determination of Rare Earth Elements in Thai Monazite by Inductively Coupled Plasma and Nuclear Analytical techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busamongkol, Arporn; Ratanapra, Dusadee; Sukharn, Sumalee; Laoharojanaphand, Sirinart

    2003-10-01

    The inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) for the determination of individual rare-earth elements (REE) was evaluated by comparison with instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and x-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF). The accuracy and precision of INAA and ICP-AES were evaluated by using standard reference material IGS-36, a monazite concentrate. For INAA, the results were close to the certified value while ICP-AES were in good agreement except for some low concentration rare earth. The techniques were applied for the analysis of some rare earth elements in two Thai monazite samples preparing as the in-house reference material for the Rare Earth Research and Development Center, Chemistry Division, Office of Atoms for Peace. The analytical results obtained by these techniques were in good agreement with each other

  7. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory Annual Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virginia L. Finley

    2004-04-07

    The purpose of this report is to provide the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the public with information on the level of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants (if any) that are added to the environment as a result of the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory's (PPPL) operations. The results of the 2001 environmental surveillance and monitoring program for PPPL are presented and discussed. The report also summarizes environmental initiatives, assessments, and programs that were undertaken in 2001. PPPL has engaged in fusion energy research since 1951. The vision of the Laboratory is to create innovations to make fusion power a practical reality--a clean, alternative energy source. The Year 2001 marked the third year of National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) operations and Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) dismantlement and deconstruction activities. A collaboration among fourteen national laboratories, universities, and research institutions, the NSTX is a major element in the U.S. Fusion Energy Sciences Program. It has been designed to test the physics principles of spherical torus (ST) plasmas. The ST concept could play an important role in the development of smaller, more economical fusion reactors. In 2001, PPPL's radiological environmental monitoring program measured tritium in the air at on- and off-site sampling stations. PPPL is capable of detecting small changes in the ambient levels of tritium by using highly sensitive monitors. The operation of an in-stack monitor located on D-site is a requirement of the National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) regulations; also included in PPPL's radiological environmental monitoring program, are water monitoring--precipitation, ground-, surface-, and waste-waters. PPPL's radiological monitoring program characterized the ambient, background levels of tritium in the environment and from the D-site stack; the data are presented in this report. Groundwater monitoring

  8. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory Annual Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finley, Virginia L.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the public with information on the level of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants (if any) that are added to the environment as a result of the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory's (PPPL) operations. The results of the 2001 environmental surveillance and monitoring program for PPPL are presented and discussed. The report also summarizes environmental initiatives, assessments, and programs that were undertaken in 2001. PPPL has engaged in fusion energy research since 1951. The vision of the Laboratory is to create innovations to make fusion power a practical reality--a clean, alternative energy source. The Year 2001 marked the third year of National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) operations and Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) dismantlement and deconstruction activities. A collaboration among fourteen national laboratories, universities, and research institutions, the NSTX is a major element in the U.S. Fusion Energy Sciences Program. It has been designed to test the physics principles of spherical torus (ST) plasmas. The ST concept could play an important role in the development of smaller, more economical fusion reactors. In 2001, PPPL's radiological environmental monitoring program measured tritium in the air at on- and off-site sampling stations. PPPL is capable of detecting small changes in the ambient levels of tritium by using highly sensitive monitors. The operation of an in-stack monitor located on D-site is a requirement of the National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) regulations; also included in PPPL's radiological environmental monitoring program, are water monitoring--precipitation, ground-, surface-, and waste-waters. PPPL's radiological monitoring program characterized the ambient, background levels of tritium in the environment and from the D-site stack; the data are presented in this report. Groundwater monitoring continue d under a

  9. Ion-substituted calcium phosphate coatings deposited by plasma-assisted techniques: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziani, Gabriela; Bianchi, Michele; Sassoni, Enrico; Russo, Alessandro; Marcacci, Maurilio

    2017-05-01

    One of the main critical aspects behind the failure or success of an implant resides in its ability to fast bond with the surrounding bone. To boost osseointegration, the ideal implant material should exhibit composition and structure similar to those of biological apatite. To this aim, the most common approach is to coat the implant surface with a coating of hydroxyapatite (HA), resembling the main component of mineralized tissues. However, bone apatite is a non-stoichiometric, multi-substituted poorly-crystalline apatite, containing significant amounts of foreign ions, with high biological relevance. Ion-substituted HAs can be deposited by so called "wet methods", which are however poorly reproducible and hardly industrially feasible; at the same time bioactive coatings realized by plasma assisted method, interesting for industrial applications, are generally made of stoichiometric (i.e. un-substituted) HA. In this work, the literature concerning plasma-assisted deposition methods used to deposit ion-substituted HA was reviewed and the last advances in this field discussed. The ions taken into exam are those present in mineralized tissues and possibly having biological relevance. Notably, literature about this topic is scarce, especially relating to in vivo animal and clinical trials; further on, available studies evaluate the performance of substituted coatings from different points of view (mechanical properties, bone growth, coating dissolution, etc.) which hinders a proper evaluation of the real efficacy of ion-doped HA in promoting bone regeneration, compared to stoichiometric HA. Moreover, results obtained for plasma sprayed coatings (which is the only method currently employed for deposition at the industrial scale) were collected and compared to those of novel plasma-assisted techniques, that are expected to overcome its limitations. Data so far available on the topic were discussed to highlight advantages, limitations and possible perspectives of these

  10. Anticorrosive coating of SixOyCz on metallic substrates applied with the plasma CVD technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perillo, P; Lasorsa, C; Versaci, R

    2006-01-01

    This work deals with the production of anticorrosive coatings of Si x O y C z on metallic substrates by PECVD (Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition) in a two layer coating, with a gaseous mixture using methyltrimethoxysilane (Z6070) with the contribution of O 2 and methane as reactive gases. The process involves two steps, the first with the substrate thermalized to 500 o C and the second step with the substrate at room temperature. In the first step the process is carried out with the mixture of O 2 and Z6070, in the second step methane is added to the mixture of the plasma forming gases. The coatings were carried out on AISI 410 stainless steel, AISI M2 steel, titanium and AA6061 aluminum substrates. This work presents the preliminary results of the electrochemical evaluation and the mechanical properties of the coating. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS/ESCA ), and scanning electron microscopy were used for this study. Electrochemical techniques were used to study the reaction to the corrosion of the coatings. Potentiodynamic polarization curves were prepared in a solution of 5% H 2 SO 4 and in NaCl 0,1M. The tests were undertaken at room temperature. This process is presented as an alternative to the conventional immersion processes by the sol-gel method, which produces the polymerization of the reagent as a result of the effect of the oxygen from the environment, while the plasma process produces very different chemical reactions in the center of the plasma itself with coatings also different (CW)

  11. Polyaniline (PANI) modified bentonite by plasma technique for U(VI) removal from aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xinghao; Cheng, Cheng; Xiao, Chengjian; Shao, Dadong; Xu, Zimu; Wang, Jiaquan; Hu, Shuheng; Li, Xiaolong; Wang, Weijuan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • PANI/bentonie can be synthesized by simple plasma technique. • PANI/bentonie has an excellent adsorption capacity for trace uranium in solution. • U(VI) adsorption on PANI/bentonite is a spontaneous and endothermic process. - Abstract: Polyaniline (PANI) modified bentonite (PANI/bentonie) was synthesized by plasma induced polymerization of aniline on bentonite surface, and applied to uptake of uranium(VI) ions from aqueous solution. The as-synthesized PANI/bentonie was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Batch adsorption technique was utilized to investigate the adsorption of U(VI) on bentonite and PANI/bentonite. The adsorption of U(VI) (10 mg/L) on PANI/bentonite surface is fairly depend on solution pH, ionic strength, and temperature in solution. The modified PANI on PANI/bentonite surface significantly enhances its adsorption capability for U(VI). The presence of humic acid (HA) can sound enhance U(VI) adsorption on PANI/bentonite at pH 6.5. According to the thermodynamic parameters, the adsorption of U(VI) on PANI/bentonite surface is a spontaneous and endothermic process. The results highlight the application of PANI/bentonite composites as candidate material for the uptake of trace U(VI) from aqueous solution.

  12. Synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of gold nanoparticles via plasma-liquid interaction technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatoon, N.; Yasin, H. M.; Younus, M.; Ahmed, W.; Rehman, N. U.; Zakaullah, M.; Iqbal, M. Zafar

    2018-01-01

    Fabrication of non-functionalized gold nanoparticles is interesting owing to their potential applications in sensing and biomedicine. We report on the synthesis of surfactant-free gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) by Plasma-Liquid Interaction (PLI) technique, using micro-atmospheric pressure D.C. plasma. The effects of discharge parameters, such as discharge current, precursor concentration and gas flow rates on the structure and morphology of AuNPs have been investigated. Optical Emission Spectroscopy (OES) was employed to estimate the UV radiation intensity and OH radical density. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) optical spectroscopy were employed to study the morphology and structure of AuNPs. The normalized intensities of UV radiation and OH radical density found to increase with increase in discharge current. We observed that the particle size can be tuned by controlling any of the following parameters: intensity of the UV radiation, OH radical density, and concentration of the Au precursor. Interestingly, we found that addition of 1% Ar in the feedstock gas results in formation of relatively uniform size distribution of nanoparticles. The surfactant-free AuNPs, due to their bare-surface, exhibit excellent surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) properties. The SERS study of Rhodamine 6G using AuNPs as substrates, shows significant Raman enhancement and fluorescence quenching, which makes our technique a potentially powerful route to detection of trace amounts of dangerous explosives and other materials.

  13. Polyaniline (PANI) modified bentonite by plasma technique for U(VI) removal from aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xinghao [Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Intelligent Manufacturing Technology Research Institute, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230088 (China); Cheng, Cheng [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Xiao, Chengjian, E-mail: xiaocj@caep.cn [Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Shao, Dadong, E-mail: shaodadong@126.com [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Xu, Zimu, E-mail: xzm@mail.ustc.edu.cn [Intelligent Manufacturing Technology Research Institute, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230088 (China); Wang, Jiaquan; Hu, Shuheng [Intelligent Manufacturing Technology Research Institute, Hefei University of Technology, Hefei 230088 (China); Li, Xiaolong; Wang, Weijuan [Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China)

    2017-07-31

    Highlights: • PANI/bentonie can be synthesized by simple plasma technique. • PANI/bentonie has an excellent adsorption capacity for trace uranium in solution. • U(VI) adsorption on PANI/bentonite is a spontaneous and endothermic process. - Abstract: Polyaniline (PANI) modified bentonite (PANI/bentonie) was synthesized by plasma induced polymerization of aniline on bentonite surface, and applied to uptake of uranium(VI) ions from aqueous solution. The as-synthesized PANI/bentonie was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Batch adsorption technique was utilized to investigate the adsorption of U(VI) on bentonite and PANI/bentonite. The adsorption of U(VI) (10 mg/L) on PANI/bentonite surface is fairly depend on solution pH, ionic strength, and temperature in solution. The modified PANI on PANI/bentonite surface significantly enhances its adsorption capability for U(VI). The presence of humic acid (HA) can sound enhance U(VI) adsorption on PANI/bentonite at pH < 6.5 because of the strong complexation, and inhibits U(VI) adsorption at pH > 6.5. According to the thermodynamic parameters, the adsorption of U(VI) on PANI/bentonite surface is a spontaneous and endothermic process. The results highlight the application of PANI/bentonite composites as candidate material for the uptake of trace U(VI) from aqueous solution.

  14. Surface Modification of Graphene Oxides by Plasma Techniques and Their Application for Environmental Pollution Cleanup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiangxue; Fan, Qiaohui; Chen, Zhongshan; Wang, Qi; Li, Jiaxing; Hobiny, Aatef; Alsaedi, Ahmed; Wang, Xiangke

    2016-02-01

    Graphene oxides (GOs) have come under intense multidisciplinary study because of their unique physicochemical properties and possible applications. The large amount of oxygen-containing functional groups on GOs leads to a high sorption capacity for the removal of various kinds of organic and inorganic pollutants from aqueous solutions in environmental pollution cleanup. However, the lack of selectivity results in difficulty in the selective removal of target pollutants from aqueous solutions in the presence of other coexisting pollutants. Herein, the surface grafting of GOs with special oxygen-containing functional groups using low-temperature plasma techniques and the application of the surface-modified GOs for the efficient removal of organic and inorganic pollutants in environmental pollution are reviewed. This paper gives an account of our research on the application of GO-based nanomaterials in environmental pollution cleanup, including: (1) the synthesis and surface grafting of functional groups on GOs, summarizing various types of low-temperature plasma techniques for the synthesis of graphene/GOs; and (2) the application of graphene/GOs and their composites for the efficient removal of organic and inorganic pollutants from aqueous solutions, including the interaction mechanism according to recently published results. © 2015 The Chemical Society of Japan & Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Proceedings of the twenty-seventh annual conference on explosives and blasting techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    Various aspects of explosives and blasting techniques are covered. Those of particular interest to the coal industry buffer blasting versus cast blasting, post-blast cast profile shape prediction, fragmentation model to estimate ROM size distribution of soft rocks, blasting accidents, blast vibrations, ANFO explosives and carbon monoxide poisoning.

  16. Advantages of the first-derivative probe technique over the three- and four-parameter probe techniques in fusion plasmas diagnostics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hasan, E.; Dimitrova, Miglena; Popov, T.; Ivanova, P.; Dejarnac, Renaud; Stöckel, Jan; Pánek, Radomír

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 4 (2018), č. článku P04005. ISSN 1748-0221 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015045 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Plasma potential * electron temperature * bi-Maxwellian EEDF * Divertor Langmuir probes * three- and four-parameter probe techniques * first-derivative probe technique Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: 2.11 Other engineering and technologies Impact factor: 1.220, year: 2016 http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1748-0221/13/04/P04005/meta

  17. Industrial scale production of stable isotopes employing the technique of plasma separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, N.R.; Bigelow, T.S.; Tarallo, F.J.

    2003-01-01

    Calutrons, centrifuges, diffusion and distillation processes are some of the devices and techniques that have been employed to produce substantial quantities of enriched stable isotopes. Nevertheless, the availability of enriched isotopes in sufficient quantities for industrial applications remains very restricted. Industries such as those involved with medicine, semiconductors, nuclear fuel, propulsion, and national defense have identified the potential need for various enriched isotopes in large quantities. Economically producing most enriched (non-gaseous) isotopes in sufficient quantities has so far eluded commercial producers. The plasma separation process is a commercial technique now available for producing large quantities of a wide range of enriched isotopes. Until recently, this technique has mainly been explored with small-scale ('proof-of-principle') devices that have been built and operated at research institutes. The new Theragenics TM facility at Oak Ridge, TN houses the only existing commercial scale PSP system. This device, which successfully operated in the 1980's, has recently been re-commissioned and is planned to be used to produce a variety of isotopes. Progress and the capabilities of this device and it's potential for impacting the world's supply of stable isotopes in the future is summarized. This technique now holds promise of being able to open the door to allowing new and exciting applications of these isotopes in the future. (author)

  18. Spatial and temporal superresolution concepts to study plasma membrane organization by single molecule fluorescence techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruprecht, V.

    2010-01-01

    Fluorescence microscopy techniques are currently among the most important experimental tools to study cellular processes. Ultra-sensitive detection devices nowadays allow for measuring even individual farnesylacetate labeled target molecules with nanometer spatial accuracy and millisecond time resolution. The emergence of single molecule fluorescence techniques especially contributed to the field of membrane biology and provided basic knowledge on structural and dynamic features of the cellular plasma membrane. However, we are still confronted with a rather fragmentary understanding of the complex architecture and functional interrelations of membrane constituents. In this thesis new concepts in one- and dual-color single molecule fluorescence techniques are presented that allow for addressing organization principles and interaction dynamics in the live cell plasma membrane. Two complementary experimental strategies are described which differ in their detection principle: single molecule fluorescence imaging and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. The presented methods are discussed in terms of their implementation, accuracy, quantitative and statistical data analysis, as well as live cell applications. State-of-the-art dual color single molecule imaging is introduced as the most direct experimental approach to study interaction dynamics between differently labeled target molecules. New analytical estimates for robust data analysis are presented that facilitate quantitative recording and identification of co localizations in dual color single molecule images. A novel dual color illumination scheme is further described that profoundly extends the current range and sensitivity of conventional dual color single molecule experiments. The method enables working at high surface densities of fluorescent molecules - a feature typically incommensurable with single molecule imaging - and is especially suited for the detection of rare interactions by tracking co localized

  19. Proceedings of the seventeenth annual conference on explosives and blasting technique. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Papers from this conference dealt with the following topics: surface and underground mine blasting, control of blast effects in sensitive areas, blasthole deviation, regulatory impact when blasting at Superfund sites, computer-aided blast design and monitoring, tunneling techniques, shaft excavations, video camera analysis of blasting operations, soil densification, cost optimization, mine blasting accidents, non-electric initiation systems, and delay detonators. Papers have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base

  20. Deposition of waste kaolin in aluminum alloy by electrolytic plasma technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palinkas, Fabiola Bergamasco da Silva Marcondes; Antunes, Maria Lucia Pereira; Cruz, Nilson Cristino; Rangel, Elidiane Cipriano; Souza, Jose Antonio da Silva

    2016-01-01

    Full text: Kaolin is a widely explored mineral for various industrial purposes and its processing generates up to 90% of waste, corresponding to 500 thousand tons annually. The Deposition of Kaolin residue on aluminum alloys by electrolytic plasma has objective of a valorization of the residue. It was evaluated the mineralogical composition by X-ray diffraction (XRD), using PANalytical diffractometer X'Pert Pro. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the spectrometry of dispersive of energy (EDS) evaluated the morphology and elementary chemical composition by microscope scanning electron JEOL JSM-6010LA. The Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) has used a Spectrometer the Perkin-Elmer 1760X FT-IR with spectral range 4000-400 cm -1 . XRD results indicate peaks of kaolinite as the main constituent. The morphology of the particles correspond to pseudo-hexagonal lamellar crystals characteristic of kaolinite, analysis by EDS allows to identify the composition of the particles as Al and Si. The samples were deposited at concentrations of 5, 10 and 15 mg of the residue and each concentration were considered deposition times of 5, 10 and 15 minutes. Tests evaluate the films as the wettability, chemical composition, morphology, mechanical strength and corrosion resistance. Results indicate the presence of kaolinite, alumina and mullite in the obtained coatings. (author)

  1. Proceedings of the national seminar on significant advancements in plasma/flame/associated techniques and their applications in chemical characterisation of atomic minerals and materials: souvenir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakrapani, G.; Premdas, A.; Bangroo, P.N.

    2013-01-01

    AAS techniques, novel decomposition methods, plasma techniques, separation, preconcentration, ICP-OPEs, ICP-OES/MS, ICP/other techniques, uranium, review articles and plasma techniques are some of the topics covered in this symposium. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  2. Interval colon cancer in a Lynch syndrome patient under annual colonoscopic surveillance: a case for advanced imaging techniques?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oxentenko Amy S

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lynch syndrome confers increased risk for various malignancies, including colorectal cancer. Colonoscopic surveillance programs have led to reduced incidence of colorectal cancer and reduced mortality from colorectal cancer. Colonoscopy every 1–2 years beginning at age 20–25, or 10 years earlier than the first diagnosis of colorectal cancer in a family, with annual colonoscopy after age 40, is the recommended management for mutation carriers. Screening programs have reduced colon cancer mortality, but interval cancers may occur. Case presentation We describe a 48-year-old woman with Lynch syndrome who was found to have an adenoma with invasive colorectal cancer within one year after a normal colonoscopy. Conclusion Our patient illustrates two current concepts about Lynch syndrome: 1 adenomas are the cancer precursor and 2 such adenomas may be “aggressive,” in the sense that the adenoma progresses more readily and more rapidly to carcinoma in this setting compared to usual colorectal adenomas. Our patient’s resected tumor invaded only into submucosa and all lymph nodes were negative; in that sense, she represents a success for annual colonoscopic surveillance. Still, this case does raise the question of whether advanced imaging techniques are advisable for surveillance colonoscopy in these high-risk patients.

  3. Proceedings of the twenty-fourth annual conference on explosives and blasting technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1998-01-01

    Papers of interest to the coal industry include: death of a coal shovel; deep hole blasting with SMS (site-mix slurry system); trend of bulk explosives in India; bottomhole annular pressure - a theoretical problem with real effects; maximizing rotary blast hole drills; explosive energy concept for drill productivity and higher overall productivity at reduced excavation costs; large diameter presplitting improved through two novel techniques; avoiding tragedy - lessons to be learned from a flyrock fatality; and an economic analysis of cast blasting compared to other stripping alternatives.

  4. Development and application of the electrochemical etching technique. Annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-08-01

    This report documents advances in the development and application of the electrochemical etching technique for thermal and epithermal neutron dosimetry as well as track geometry determinations. The bulk and track etching rates were studied by evaluating the track geometry during electrochemical etching. The foil surface removed versus etching time for two different etchants at 1000 V, 2 kHz, and 22 0 C were studied. Results indicated that the bulk etching rates were constant for the two etchants, i.e. 45% KOH and 45% KOH mixed with an equal volume of C 2 H 5 OH 5 and were equal to 0.20 +- 0.14 μm/hr and 2.7 +- 0.27 μm/hr from each side of the foil. The track etching rate (as contrasted with the bulk etching rate) can be determined by the microscope focus at various depths. The increase of track depth values as a function of etching time for the two etchants are plotted. The track cone angles were determined and found to be much larger for electrochemically etched polycarbonate foils than for most plastics etched with passive chemical techniques

  5. Clinical veterinary proteomics: Techniques and approaches to decipher the animal plasma proteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghodasara, P; Sadowski, P; Satake, N; Kopp, S; Mills, P C

    2017-12-01

    Over the last two decades, technological advancements in the field of proteomics have advanced our understanding of the complex biological systems of living organisms. Techniques based on mass spectrometry (MS) have emerged as powerful tools to contextualise existing genomic information and to create quantitative protein profiles from plasma, tissues or cell lines of various species. Proteomic approaches have been used increasingly in veterinary science to investigate biological processes responsible for growth, reproduction and pathological events. However, the adoption of proteomic approaches by veterinary investigators lags behind that of researchers in the human medical field. Furthermore, in contrast to human proteomics studies, interpretation of veterinary proteomic data is difficult due to the limited protein databases available for many animal species. This review article examines the current use of advanced proteomics techniques for evaluation of animal health and welfare and covers the current status of clinical veterinary proteomics research, including successful protein identification and data interpretation studies. It includes a description of an emerging tool, sequential window acquisition of all theoretical fragment ion mass spectra (SWATH-MS), available on selected mass spectrometry instruments. This newly developed data acquisition technique combines advantages of discovery and targeted proteomics approaches, and thus has the potential to advance the veterinary proteomics field by enhancing identification and reproducibility of proteomics data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Determination of organically bound Tritium in environmental samples by application of the oxidizing plasma technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strack, S.; Koenig, L.A.

    1981-12-01

    The low-temperature oxidizing plasma technique with a suitable system for trapping the water formed in the oxidation process can be used to determine T bound organically in low-level samples. First, the samples are freeze-dried and the tissue water obtained in this way is measured, after distillation, in a liquid scintillation spectrometer. The residual dry matter is ashed in the reactor chamber of the plasma system. Oxidation takes place at temperatures not exceeding 200 0 C in an oxygen flow of about 40 ml/min. The water of oxidation is collected in a cold trap installed behind the reactor chamber. A volume of about 10 ml of water is sufficient to measure the tritium activity without enrichment. The oxidation behavior of various organic materials has been tested. Some first results of T concentrations in tissue water and the organic dry matter from food and plant samples collected in the vicinity of the Nuclear Research Center are presented. The method has the advantage that a commercially available instrument can be used requiring only little additional equipment. Handling is much less dangerous and contamination effects by atmospheric T can be easily kept at a minimum. (orig./HP) [de

  7. Development of plasma arc cutting technique for dismantlement of reactor internals in JPDR decommissioning program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagihara, Satoshi; Tanaka, Mitsugu; Ujihara, Norio.

    1988-01-01

    The decommissioning program for JPDR has been conducted by JAERI since 1981 under contact with the Science and Technology Agency of Japan. The development of cutting tools for dismantling the JPDR is one of the important items in the program. An underwater plasma arc cutting technique was selected for dismantling the JPDR core internals. The study was concentrated on improving the cutting ability in water. Various cutting tests were conducted changing the parameters such as arc current, supply gas and cutting speed to evaluate the most effective cutting condition. Through the study, it has been achieved to be able to cut a 130 mm thick stainless steel plate in water. In addition, the amount and the characteristics of by-products were measured during the cutting tests for the safety evaluation of the dismantling activities. Final cutting tests and checkout of whole plasma arc cutting system were conducted using a mockup water pool and test pieces simulating the JPDR core internals. It was proved from the tests that the cutting system developed in the program will be applicable for the JPDR core internals dismantlement. (author)

  8. The use of laser-induced plasma spectroscopy technique for the characterization of boiler tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolas, G.; Mateo, M.P.; Yanez, A.

    2007-01-01

    The present work focuses on the characterization of boiler tube walls using laser-induced plasma spectroscopy technique with visual inspection by optical and scanning electron microscopy of the cross-sections of these tubes. In a watertube boiler, water runs through tubes that are surrounded by a heating source. As a result, the water is heated to very high temperatures, causing accumulation of deposits on the inside surfaces of the tubes. These deposits play an important role in the efficiency of the boiler tube because they produce a reduction of the boiler heat rate and an increase in the number of tube failures. The objectives are to determine the thickness and arrangement of deposits located on the highest heat area of the boiler and compare them with tube parts where the heat flux is lower. The major deposits found were copper and magnetite. These deposits come mainly from the boiler feedwater and from the reaction between iron and water, and they do not form on the tube walls at a uniform rate over time. Their amount depends on the areas where they are collected. A Nd:YAG laser operating at 355 nm has been used to perform laser-induced plasma spectra and depth profiles of the deposits

  9. The use of laser-induced plasma spectroscopy technique for the characterization of boiler tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, G.; Mateo, M. P.; Yañez, A.

    2007-12-01

    The present work focuses on the characterization of boiler tube walls using laser-induced plasma spectroscopy technique with visual inspection by optical and scanning electron microscopy of the cross-sections of these tubes. In a watertube boiler, water runs through tubes that are surrounded by a heating source. As a result, the water is heated to very high temperatures, causing accumulation of deposits on the inside surfaces of the tubes. These deposits play an important role in the efficiency of the boiler tube because they produce a reduction of the boiler heat rate and an increase in the number of tube failures. The objectives are to determine the thickness and arrangement of deposits located on the highest heat area of the boiler and compare them with tube parts where the heat flux is lower. The major deposits found were copper and magnetite. These deposits come mainly from the boiler feedwater and from the reaction between iron and water, and they do not form on the tube walls at a uniform rate over time. Their amount depends on the areas where they are collected. A Nd:YAG laser operating at 355 nm has been used to perform laser-induced plasma spectra and depth profiles of the deposits.

  10. The application of correlation techniques to the angular spectrum of scattered radiation from tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazikian, R.

    1990-07-01

    In the limit of the first Born approximation for a partially coherent secondary source, consisting of a spatially random plasma illuminated by a coherent plane wave, it is shown that the spectral coherence of the scattered radiation as measured on an arbitrary plane beyond the scatterer conveys information on the three dimensional intensity distribution of the random source. By defining a new two point statistical measure of the random field, closely related to the cross spectral density, we show that the fluctuation amplitude of the random source along the direction of the incident plane wave may by recovered from the measurement of the scattered radiation. The application of cross spectral techniques to fluctuation studies on tokamaks is considered. 7 refs

  11. Radioimmunoassay of plasma vasopressin. Technique and applicaton to some clinical cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granier, Francoise.

    1978-01-01

    The object of this work was to develop a sensitive and reliable radioimmunological determination of plasma vasopressin for routine use. Part one is devoted to an outline of the physiological aspects of antidiuretic hormone with emphasis on the vasopressin regulation and secretion mechanisms, especially osmotic regulation. Part two describes our analysis technique by successive stages and gives, for each point considered, a comparative review of the methods described in the literature. Part three reports our results obtained on normal subjects during dehydration tests and in some pathological cases. Our radioimmunoassay is similar to that of Robertson. In 2 observations of diabetes insipidus no detectable amount of vasopressin was measured in contradiction with the results obtained by most authors. On the whole our purpose has been fulfilled. However this work contains inadequacies which are underlined and will have to be corrected in later studies [fr

  12. IMPLEMENTATION OF A SWITCHED POWER SUPPLY FOR THE PLASMA ELECTROLYTIC OXIDATION TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Gordillo-Delgado

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A switched-mode power supply was implemented for using in the Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO technique. The electronic devices are inexpensive and ordinarily used, which facilitates the construction of the system. A MICROCHIP microcontroller was used for generating a digital signal with frequency and duty cycle control; a capacitor bank and a diode bridge were also used for rectifying the input signal from the electrical network. The management of the output voltage was made with an arrangement of MOSFET transistors in the "low side" configuration; the measurement of the current was made with a Hall Effect sensor and using the USB communication the data was sent to a computer for visualization with a LabVIEW algorithm. The power supply was tested for creating microcavities in a titanium sheet with the aim of forming nanostructures of titanium dioxide.

  13. Uncapped silver nanoparticles synthesized by DC arc thermal plasma technique for conductor paste formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinde, Manish; Pawar, Amol; Karmakar, Soumen; Seth, Tanay; Raut, Varsha; Rane, Sunit; Bhoraskar, Sudha; Amalnerkar, Dinesh

    2009-11-01

    Uncapped silver nanoparticles were synthesized by DC arc thermal plasma technique. The synthesized nanoparticles were structurally cubic and showed wide particle size variation (between 20-150 nm). Thick film paste formulated from such uncapped silver nanoparticles was screen-printed on alumina substrates and the resultant `green' films were fired at different firing temperatures. The films fired at 600 °C revealed better microstructure properties and also yielded the lowest value of sheet resistance in comparison to those corresponding to conventional peak firing temperature of 850 °C. Our findings directly support the role of silver nanoparticles in substantially depressing the operative peak firing temperature involved in traditional conductor thick films technology.

  14. FY 1995 annual report on the project for promoting development of superhigh electronic techniques; 1995 nendo chosentan denshi gijutsu kaihatsu sokushin jigyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    Described herein are the FY 1995 results of the R and D project for developing superfine machining process techniques, measurement/analysis/controlling techniques for extreme conditions, and techniques for electronic materials of new functions, in order to establish the superhigh electronic techniques of two generations beyond. The project is implemented, mainly for the following targets: direct image drawing systems with electron beams by R and D of the techniques for electro-optical systems and superhigh-accuracy controlling techniques therefor; patterning systems with supershort-wavelength electro-magnetic waves by R and D of techniques for X-ray optical systems, superhigh-accuracy controlling techniques therefor and photosensitive process techniques; superfine photosensitive techniques with ultrashort-wavelength laser beams; techniques for superhigh-accuracy light-shielding systems; superhigh techniques for measurement/analysis/controlling of plasma reactions as the bases for plasma-aided superthin film making and superfine etching; basic techniques for superhigh cleaning; techniques for superhigh-sensitivity media; techniques for elements of new functions and making thin films thereof; and techniques for electronic materials of new functions. (NEDO)

  15. The validation of the Z-Scan technique for the determination of plasma glucose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Sarah I.; Silva, Elaine A. O.; Costa, Simone S.; Sonego, Denise R. N.; Hallack, Maira L.; Coppini, Ornela L.; Rowies, Fernanda; Azzalis, Ligia A.; Junqueira, Virginia B. C.; Pereira, Edimar C.; Rocha, Katya C.; Fonseca, Fernando L. A.

    2013-11-01

    Glucose is the main energy source for the human body. The concentration of blood glucose is regulated by several hormones including both antagonists: insulin and glucagon. The quantification of glucose in the blood is used for diagnosing metabolic disorders of carbohydrates, such as diabetes, idiopathic hypoglycemia and pancreatic diseases. Currently, the methodology used for this determination is the enzymatic colorimetric with spectrophotometric. This study aimed to validate the use of measurements of nonlinear optical properties of plasma glucose via the Z-Scan technique. For this we used samples of calibrator patterns that simulate commercial samples of patients (ELITech ©). Besides calibrators, serum glucose levels within acceptable reference values (normal control serum - Brazilian Society of Clinical Pathology and Laboratory Medicine) and also overestimated (pathological control serum - Brazilian Society of Clinical Pathology and Laboratory Medicine) were used in the methodology proposal. Calibrator dilutions were performed and determined by the Z-Scan technique for the preparation of calibration curve. In conclusion, Z-Scan method can be used to determinate glucose levels in biological samples with enzymatic colorimetric reaction and also to apply the same quality control parameters used in biochemistry clinical.

  16. Temperature measurement of plasma-assisted flames: comparison between optical emission spectroscopy and 2-color laser induced fluorescence techniques

    KAUST Repository

    Lacoste, Deanna A.

    2015-03-30

    Accurate thermometry of highly reactive environments, such as plasma-assisted combustion, is challenging. With the help of conical laminar premixed methane-air flames, this study compares two thermometry techniques for the temperature determination in a combustion front enhanced by nanosecond repetitively pulsed (NRP) plasma discharges. Based on emission spectroscopic analysis, the results show that the rotational temperature of CH(A) gives a reasonable estimate for the adiabatic flame temperature, only for lean and stoichiometric conditions. The rotational temperature of N2(C) is found to significantly underestimate the flame temperature. The 2-color OH-PLIF technique gives correct values of the flame temperature.

  17. Temperature measurement of plasma-assisted flames: comparison between optical emission spectroscopy and 2-color laser induced fluorescence techniques

    KAUST Repository

    Lacoste, Deanna A.; Heitz, Sylvain A.; Moeck, Jonas P.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate thermometry of highly reactive environments, such as plasma-assisted combustion, is challenging. With the help of conical laminar premixed methane-air flames, this study compares two thermometry techniques for the temperature determination in a combustion front enhanced by nanosecond repetitively pulsed (NRP) plasma discharges. Based on emission spectroscopic analysis, the results show that the rotational temperature of CH(A) gives a reasonable estimate for the adiabatic flame temperature, only for lean and stoichiometric conditions. The rotational temperature of N2(C) is found to significantly underestimate the flame temperature. The 2-color OH-PLIF technique gives correct values of the flame temperature.

  18. Prediction of UV spectra and UV-radiation damage in actual plasma etching processes using on-wafer monitoring technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jinnai, Butsurin; Fukuda, Seiichi; Ohtake, Hiroto; Samukawa, Seiji

    2010-01-01

    UV radiation during plasma processing affects the surface of materials. Nevertheless, the interaction of UV photons with surface is not clearly understood because of the difficulty in monitoring photons during plasma processing. For this purpose, we have previously proposed an on-wafer monitoring technique for UV photons. For this study, using the combination of this on-wafer monitoring technique and a neural network, we established a relationship between the data obtained from the on-wafer monitoring technique and UV spectra. Also, we obtained absolute intensities of UV radiation by calibrating arbitrary units of UV intensity with a 126 nm excimer lamp. As a result, UV spectra and their absolute intensities could be predicted with the on-wafer monitoring. Furthermore, we developed a prediction system with the on-wafer monitoring technique to simulate UV-radiation damage in dielectric films during plasma etching. UV-induced damage in SiOC films was predicted in this study. Our prediction results of damage in SiOC films shows that UV spectra and their absolute intensities are the key cause of damage in SiOC films. In addition, UV-radiation damage in SiOC films strongly depends on the geometry of the etching structure. The on-wafer monitoring technique should be useful in understanding the interaction of UV radiation with surface and in optimizing plasma processing by controlling UV radiation.

  19. Enhanced nonlinear iterative techniques applied to a non-equilibrium plasma flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoll, D.A.; McHugh, P.R. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1996-12-31

    We study the application of enhanced nonlinear iterative methods to the steady-state solution of a system of two-dimensional convection-diffusion-reaction partial differential equations that describe the partially-ionized plasma flow in the boundary layer of a tokamak fusion reactor. This system of equations is characterized by multiple time and spatial scales, and contains highly anisotropic transport coefficients due to a strong imposed magnetic field. We use Newton`s method to linearize the nonlinear system of equations resulting from an implicit, finite volume discretization of the governing partial differential equations, on a staggered Cartesian mesh. The resulting linear systems are neither symmetric nor positive definite, and are poorly conditioned. Preconditioned Krylov iterative techniques are employed to solve these linear systems. We investigate both a modified and a matrix-free Newton-Krylov implementation, with the goal of reducing CPU cost associated with the numerical formation of the Jacobian. A combination of a damped iteration, one-way multigrid and a pseudo-transient continuation technique are used to enhance global nonlinear convergence and CPU efficiency. GMRES is employed as the Krylov method with Incomplete Lower-Upper(ILU) factorization preconditioning. The goal is to construct a combination of nonlinear and linear iterative techniques for this complex physical problem that optimizes trade-offs between robustness, CPU time, memory requirements, and code complexity. It is shown that a one-way multigrid implementation provides significant CPU savings for fine grid calculations. Performance comparisons of the modified Newton-Krylov and matrix-free Newton-Krylov algorithms will be presented.

  20. Characterization of nanostructures in the live cell plasma membrane utilizing advanced single molecule fluorescence techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brameshuber, M.

    2009-01-01

    lipid-lipid or protein-lipid interactions, protein-protein interactions play of mayor role for the regulation of cell metabolism and function. In this thesis I further characterized the interaction between human CD4, the major co-receptor in T cell activation, and human Lck, the protein tyrosine kinase essential for early T cell signaling using an ultra-sensitive fluorescence-based method. Interaction dynamics were studied in detail by performing photobleaching experiments and single molecule brightness analysis. This enabled a combined mobility and stoichiometry analysis of Lck-molecules interacting with the captured CD4 protein. In the last part of my thesis I present a single molecule fluorescence study using a variant of an oxidized phospholipid - which is known to induce apoptosis - to probe the structure of the cellular plasmamembrane. The cells were illuminated using a recently introduced technique which utilizes a highly inclined and laminated optical sheet (HILO) to reduce background signal arising from intracellular fluorophores or from cellular autofluorescence. Our data demonstrate the relevance of plasma membrane properties for uptake of oxidized phospholipids, and indicate a novel indirect mechanism for the control of endocytosis. (author) [de

  1. Application of the thermal plasma technique in the treatment of stone surfaces; Aplicacion de la tecnica de plasmas termicos en el tratamiento de superficies petreas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez A, Z I

    2000-07-01

    The stone materials which form part of the cultural heritage of Mexico, are degraded under the united action of water, atmospheric gases, air pollution, temperature changes and the microorganisms action; provoking on the stone: fissures, crevices, scalings, fragmentations, pulverizations, etc. Therefore, the purpose of this work is to study the possibilities to apply a protective coating on the stone surfaces, previously clean and consolidated, through the thermal plasma technique. The purpose is to analyse the physical and chemical properties of three types of stone materials: quarry, tezontle and chiluca, usually used in constructions of cultural interest such as: historical monuments, churches, sculptures, etc., before and after to be submitted to the action of thermal plasma in order to examine the feasibility in the use of this coating technique in this type of applications. The application of conventional techniques to determine: porosity, density, absorption, low pressure water absorption and crystallization by total immersion of nuclear techniques such as: neutron activation analysis, x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy as well as of instrumental techniques: optical microscopy, mechanical assays of compression, flexure and surface area calculations, allowed to know the chemical and physical properties of the stone material before and after to be treated through the thermal plasma technique, projecting quartz on the stones surface at different distances and current intensity and showing the effect caused by the modifications or surface alterations present by cause of the application of that coating. the obtained results provide a general panorama of the application of this technique as an alternative to the maintenance of the architectural inheritance built in stone. (Author)

  2. Southwestern Institute of Physics annual report (2000)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    The research results and engineering progress of SWIP (Southwestern Institute of Physics) during the year of 2000 was summarized in this annual report. The contents divided into five parts: 1. tokamak experimental diagnoses and tokamak engineering; 2. fusion reactor and fusion reactor materials; 3. plasma theory and calculation; 4. technique development and application; 5. appendix 31 theses and presented in this report

  3. Nuclear measurements, techniques and instrumentation industrial applications plasma physics and nuclear fusion. 1980-1994. International Atomic Energy Agency publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    This catalogue lists all sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with Nuclear Measurements, Techniques and Instrumentation, with Industrial Applications (of Nuclear Physics and Engineering), and with Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion, issued during the period 1980-1994. Most publications are in English. Proceedings of conferences, symposia, and panels of experts may contain some papers in other languages (French, Russian, or Spanish), but all papers have abstracts in English. Price quotes are in Austrian Schillings, do not include local taxes, and are subject to change without notice. Contents cover the three main categories of (i) Nuclear Measurements, Techniques and Instrumentation (Physics, Chemistry, Dosimetry Techniques, Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Research Reactors and Particle Accelerator Applications, Nuclear Data); (ii) Industrial Applications (Radiation Processing, Radiometry, Tracers); and (iii) Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion

  4. Nuclear measurements, techniques and instrumentation industrial applications plasma physics and nuclear fusion, 1980-1993. International Atomic Energy Agency publications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This catalogue lists all sales publications of the International Atomic Energy Agency dealing with Nuclear Measurements, Techniques and Instrumentation, with Industrial Applications (of Nuclear Physics and Engineering), and with Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion, issued during the period 1980-1993. Most publications are in English. Proceedings of conferences, symposia, and panels of experts may contain some papers in other languages (French, Russian, or Spanish), but all papers have abstracts in English. Price quotes are in Austrian Schillings, do not include local taxes, and are subject to change without notice. Contents cover the three main categories of (I) Nuclear Measurements, Techniques and Instrumentation (Physics, Chemistry, Dosimetry Techniques, Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Research Reactors and Particle Accelerator Applications, Nuclear Data); (ii) Industrial Applications (Radiation Processing, Radiometry, Tracers); and (iii) Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion

  5. Iridium Coating Deposited by Double Glow Plasma Technique — Effect of Glow Plasma on Structure of Coating at Single Substrate Edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Wangping; Chen Zhaofeng; Liu Yong

    2012-01-01

    Double glow plasma technique has a high deposition rate for preparing iridium coating. However, the glow plasma can influence the structure of the coating at the single substrate edge. In this study, the iridium coating was prepared by double glow plasma on the surface of single niobium substrate. The microstructure of iridium coating at the substrate edge was observed by scanning electron microscopy. The composition of the coating was confirmed by energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. There was a boundary between the coating and the substrate edge. The covered area for the iridium coating at the substrate edge became fewer and fewer from the inner area to the outer flange-area. The bamboo sprout-like particles on the surface of the substrate edge were composed of elemental niobium. The substrate edge was composed of the Nb coating and there was a transition zone between the Ir coating and the Nb coating. The interesting phenomenon of the substrate edge could be attributed to the effects of the bias voltages and the plasma cloud in the deposition chamber. The substrate edge effect could be mitigated or eliminated by adding lots of small niobium plates around the substrate in a deposition process. (plasma technology)

  6. Technique for fabrication of ultrathin foils in cylindrical geometry for liner-plasma implosion experiments with sub-megaampere currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager-Elorriaga, D. A.; Steiner, A. M.; Patel, S. G.; Jordan, N. M.; Lau, Y. Y.; Gilgenbach, R. M.

    2015-11-01

    In this work, we describe a technique for fabricating ultrathin foils in cylindrical geometry for liner-plasma implosion experiments using sub-MA currents. Liners are formed by wrapping a 400 nm, rectangular strip of aluminum foil around a dumbbell-shaped support structure with a non-conducting center rod, so that the liner dimensions are 1 cm in height, 6.55 mm in diameter, and 400 nm in thickness. The liner-plasmas are imploded by discharging ˜600 kA with ˜200 ns rise time using a 1 MA linear transformer driver, and the resulting implosions are imaged four times per shot using laser-shadowgraphy at 532 nm. This technique enables the study of plasma implosion physics, including the magneto Rayleigh-Taylor, sausage, and kink instabilities on initially solid, imploding metallic liners with university-scale pulsed power machines.

  7. Polyaniline (PANI) modified bentonite by plasma technique for U(VI) removal from aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinghao; Cheng, Cheng; Xiao, Chengjian; Shao, Dadong; Xu, Zimu; Wang, Jiaquan; Hu, Shuheng; Li, Xiaolong; Wang, Weijuan

    2017-07-01

    Polyaniline (PANI) modified bentonite (PANI/bentonie) was synthesized by plasma induced polymerization of aniline on bentonite surface, and applied to uptake of uranium(VI) ions from aqueous solution. The as-synthesized PANI/bentonie was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Batch adsorption technique was utilized to investigate the adsorption of U(VI) on bentonite and PANI/bentonite. The adsorption of U(VI) (10 mg/L) on PANI/bentonite surface is fairly depend on solution pH, ionic strength, and temperature in solution. The modified PANI on PANI/bentonite surface significantly enhances its adsorption capability for U(VI). The presence of humic acid (HA) can sound enhance U(VI) adsorption on PANI/bentonite at pH 6.5. According to the thermodynamic parameters, the adsorption of U(VI) on PANI/bentonite surface is a spontaneous and endothermic process. The results highlight the application of PANI/bentonite composites as candidate material for the uptake of trace U(VI) from aqueous solution.

  8. Evaluation of the double antibody - solid phase radioimmunoassay technique in plasma LH and FSH and urinary LH measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karonen, S.-L.; Laehteenmaeki, P.; Hohenthal, U.; Adlercreutz, H.

    1978-01-01

    Double antibody phase (DASP) radioimmunoassay methods for plasma LH and FSH and urinary LH were developed and carefully evaluated as to their reliability and practicability. The peptide hormones were iodinated enzymatically with immobilized lactoperoxidase which resulted in pure and stable products of unchanged immunoreactivity. The sensitivities of these assay methods are 0.02, 0.17 and 0.20 mlU/tube for plasma LH (MRC 68/40) and FSH (MRC 68/39) and urinary LH (IRP-HMG, urinary), respectively. Interassay coefficients of variation obtained over a 6-18 month period were 14.2, 14.7 and 12.8%, respectively. The latter values for plasma LH and FSH assays were obtained from one level pool samples, and the value for urinary LH is the mean of those obtained from two pools of different levels. Plasma reference values for LH and FSH obtained using these methods are about 1.8-2.9 times higher than those cited for other types of radioimmunoassay. However, the values obtained for LH in urine are similar to those reported in the literature. It is suggested that the DASP technique is less influenced by interference from plasma proteins and because of this gives plasma values closer to the true ones. It is concluded that the methods are well suited for use as routine clinical assays in laboratories with a high work load. (Auth.)

  9. Injection techniques of platelet-rich plasma into and around the Achilles tendon: a cadaveric study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiegerinck, Johannes I.; Reilingh, Mikel L.; de Jonge, Milko C.; van Dijk, C. Niek; Kerkhoffs, Gino M.

    2011-01-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injections are used to treat (Achilles) tendinopathies. Platelet-rich plasma has been injected at different locations, but the feasibility of PRP injections and the distribution after injection have not been studied. To evaluate (1) the feasibility of ultrasound-guided PRP

  10. Industrial applications of plasma, microwave and ultrasound techniques : nitrogen-fixation and hydrogenation reactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hessel, V.; Cravotto, G.; Fitzpatrick, P.; Patil, B.S.; Lang, J.; Bonrath, W.

    2013-01-01

    The MAPSYN project (Microwave, Acoustic and Plasma assisted SYNtheses) aims at nitrogen-fixation reactions intensified by plasma catalysis and selective hydrogenations intensified by microwaves, possibly assisted by ultrasound. Energy efficiency is the key motif of the project and the call of the

  11. Electronics Research Laboratory, Plasma Theory and Simulation Group annual progress report, January 1, 1989--December 31, 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birdsall, C.K.

    1989-01-01

    This is a brief progress report, covering our research in general plasma theory and simulation, plasma-wall physics theory and simulation, and code development. Reports written in this period are included with this mailing. A publications list plus abstracts for two major meetings are included

  12. Plasma Physics Research Institute, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, University of California, Davis annual report for fiscal year 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killeen, J.; Drake, R.P.

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses: The Davis Diverted Tokamak; Particle Simulation of Transport in Fusion Devices; Astrophysical Plasmas; Statistical Dynamics of Multi-Field Models for Plasma; Large Scale Density Modifications Induced in the Ionosphere; Studies of the Ion Acoustic Decay Instability; and Computer Simulation of Ionospheric Radio Frequency Heating

  13. A coverslip-based technique for evaluating Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation on human plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer N Walker

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The ability of the opportunistic pathogen, Staphylococcus aureus, to form biofilms is increasingly being viewed as an important contributor to chronic infections. In vitro methods for analyzing S. aureus biofilm formation have focused on bacterial attachment and accumulation on abiotic surfaces, such as in microtiter plate and flow cell assays. Microtiter plates provide a rapid measure of relative biomass levels, while flow cells have limited experimental throughput but are superior for confocal microscopy biofilm visualization. Although these assays have proven effective at identifying mechanisms involved in cell attachment and biofilm accumulation, the significance of these assays in vivo remains unclear. Studies have shown that when medical devices are implanted they are coated with host factors, such as matrix proteins, that facilitate S. aureus attachment and biofilm formation. To address the challenge of integrating existing biofilm assay features with a biotic surface, we have established an in vitro biofilm technique utilizing UV-sterilized coverslips coated with human plasma. The substratum more closely resembles the in vivo state and provides a platform for S. aureus to establish a robust biofilm. Importantly, these coverslips are amenable to confocal microscopy imaging to provide a visual reference of the biofilm growth stage, effectively merging the benefits of the microtiter and flow cell assays. We confirmed the approach using clinical S. aureus isolates and mutants with known biofilm phenotypes. Altogether, this new biofilm assay can be used to assess the function of S. aureus virulence factors associated with biofilm formation and for monitoring the efficacy of biofilm treatment modalities.

  14. The Use of Plasma Technique in Nitridation Process of Metal Alloy DIN 42CrMo4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purwanto; Malau, Viktor; Tjipto Sujitno

    2003-01-01

    Nitridation process with plasma technique is one of technique for surface treatment of a material. Research on plasma technique for nitridation process has been carried out to find out the nitridation effect on properties of metal alloy DIN 42CrM04. Nitridation process with plasma technique was conducted in a vacuum tube under following conditions 0.36 torr of pressure, 300 o C of temperature and nitridation times 1, 2, and 3 hours. Nitridation process was followed by hardness test measurement using High Quality Micro Hardness Tester machine, serial number MM-0054, as well as microstructure test using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) coupled with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) EDAX-DX4. The results showed that surface hardness increased after nitridation process. For nitridation processes for 1, 2, and 3 hours, the hardness increased from 291 kg/mm 2 to 303 kg/mm 2 , 324 kg/mm 2 and 403 kg/mm 2 , respectively. The results from micro structure observation showed that new phase of Ferro Nitride (Fe 4 N) has been formed with 4.17% nitrogen weight equivalent to 14.73% nitrogen atom and with the thickness of 5.71 μm, 5.08% nitrogen weight or 17.51% nitrogen atom and 6.78 μm thickness, and 5.69% nitrogen weight or 19.24% nitrogen atom and 8.57 μm thickness. (author)

  15. Man-made vitreous fiber produced from incinerator ash using the thermal plasma technique and application as reinforcement in concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sheng-Fu; Wang, To-Mai; Lee, Wen-Cheng; Sun, Kin-Seng; Tzeng, Chin-Ching

    2010-10-15

    This study proposes using thermal plasma technology to treat municipal solid waste incinerator ashes. A feasible fiberization method was developed and applied to produce man-made vitreous fiber (MMVF) from plasma vitrified slag. MMVF were obtained through directly blending the oxide melt stream with high velocity compressed air. The basic technological characteristics of MMVF, including morphology, diameter, shot content, length and chemical resistance, are described in this work. Laboratory experiments were conducted on the fiber-reinforced concrete. The effects of fibrous content on compressive strength and flexural strength are presented. The experimental results showed the proper additive of MMVF in concrete can enhance its mechanical properties. MMVF products produced from incinerator ashes treated with the thermal plasma technique have great potential for reinforcement in concrete. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Measuring Millimeter Wave of Cold Atmospheric Plasma Array by a Novel Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryon Eckert

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available An unexplained repulsive force occasionally observed during non-thermal plasma treatment of large infections may point the way to an efficient mechanism for characterizing biofield energy. Ambient pressure air plasma in non-thermal equilibrium creates areas of localized population inversion, causing spontaneous emission at magnetic dipole rotational resonance lines. For O2, many of these lines occur in the 60 GHz frequency range. This experiment examines a possible link between the fine resonance frequencies of oxygen in the 60 GHz region, and the therapeutic frequencies used in Russian non-thermal EHF therapy. This paper also explores the feasibility of using a plasma array for biological torsion field characterization. An array of several hundred non-thermal plasma plumes are placed directly in front of a circular horn. A switchable circular polarizer is used to select left hand circular, linear or right hand circular polarization. A low noise frequency converter allows a noise temperature of less than 1150 K. A frequency scan and averaging algorithm is developed to characterize noise temperature versus frequency, comparing signal and noise levels between plasma on and plasma off, and switching polarization sense. An experimental setup is proposed as a proof of concept for detecting signals from the plasma array, while a practical laboratory tool is also proposed.

  17. Quantum cascade laser absorption spectroscopy with the amplitude-to-time conversion technique for atmospheric-pressure plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yumii, Takayoshi; Kimura, Noriaki; Hamaguchi, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    The NO 2 concentration, i.e., density, in a small plasma of a nitrogen oxide (NOx) treatment reactor has been measured by highly sensitive laser absorption spectroscopy. The absorption spectroscopy uses a single path of a quantum cascade laser beam passing through a plasma whose dimension is about 1 cm. The high sensitivity of spectroscopy is achieved by the amplitude-to-time conversion technique. Although the plasma reactor is designed to convert NO in the input gas to NO 2 , it has been demonstrated by this highly sensitive absorption spectroscopy that NO 2 in a simulated exhaust gas that enters the reactor is decomposed by the plasma first and then NO 2 is formed again, possibly more than it was decomposed, through a series of gas-phase reactions by the time the gas exits the reactor. The observation is consistent with that of an earlier study on NO decomposition by the same type of a plasma reactor [T. Yumii et al., J. Phys. D 46, 135202 (2013)], in which a high concentration of NO 2 was observed at the exit of the reactor.

  18. A simplification of the deuterium oxide dilution technique using FT-IR analysis of plasma, for estimating piglet milk intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glencross, B.D.; Tuckey, R.C.; Hartmann, P.E.; Mullan, B.P.

    1997-01-01

    Previous studies estimating milk intake using deuterium oxide (D 2 O) as a tracer have required sublimation of the sample fluid (usually plasma) to remove solids and retrieve total water. This procedure has been simplified by directly measuring the D 2 O content of plasma with a Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectrometer, removing the requirement for sample sublimation. Comparisons of samples that were split and then analysed as water of sublimation and as total plasma were performed. It was found that the direct analysis of the plasma could be achieved without a loss in fidelity of the results (sublimated v. plasma, r 2 = 0.976; n = 26). Linearity of assay standards was very high (r 2 > 0.997). The modified technique was used to determine the milk intake by piglets from litters of 7 sows during established lactation (Days 10-15). Water turnover (WTO) was shown to be the primary point by which differences in the piglet milk intakes were influenced. Differences in the milk composition had minimal effect on the milk intake determinations. Milk intake by each piglet was shown to be strongly correlated to piglet growth (r 2 = 0.59, P 2 = 0.84, P < 0.01). Copyright (1997) CSIRO Australia

  19. X-ray spectroscopic technique for energetic electron transport studies in short-pulse laser/plasma interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tutt, T.E.

    1994-12-01

    When a solid target is irradiated by a laser beam, the material is locally heated to a high temperature and a plasma forms. The interaction of the laser with plasma can produce energetic electrons. By observing the behavior of these {open_quotes}hot{close_quotes} electrons, we hope to obtain a better understanding of Laser/Plasma Interactions. In this work we employ a layered-fluorescer technique to study the transport, and therefore the energetics, of the electrons. The plasma forms on a thin foil of metallic Pd which is bonded to thin layer of metallic Sn. Electrons formed from the plasma penetrate first the Pd and then the Sn. In both layers the energetic electrons promote inner (K) shell ionization of the metallic atoms which leads to the emission of characteristic K{sub {alpha}} x-rays of the fluorescers. By recording the x-ray spectrum emitted by the two foils, we can estimate the energy-dependent range of the electrons and their numbers.

  20. Plasma-based techniques applied to the determination of metals and metalloids in atmospheric aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smichowski, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Full text: This lecture presents an overview of the research carried out by our group during the last decade on the determination of metals, metalloids, ions and species in atmospheric aerosols and related matrices using plasma-based techniques. In our first studies we explored the application of a size fractionation procedure and the subsequent determination of minor, major and trace elements in samples of deposited particles collected one day after the eruption of the Copahue Volcano, located in the Chile-Argentina border to assess the content of relevant elements with respect of the environment and the local population health. We employed a multi-technique approach (ICP-MS, XRD and NAA) to gain complete information of the characteristics of the sample. In addition to the study of ashes emitted for natural sources we also studied ashes of anthropogenic origin such as those arising from coal combustion in thermal power plants. For estimating the behavior and fate of elements in atmospheric particles and ashes we applied in this case a chemical fractionation procedure in order to establish the distribution of many elements amongst soluble, bound to carbonates, bound to oxides and bound to organic matter and environmental immobile fraction. Studies on the air quality of the mega-city of Buenos Aires were scarce and fragmentary and our objective was, and still is, to contribute to clarify key issues related to levels of crustal, toxic and potentially toxic elements in this air basin. Our findings were compared with average concentrations of metals and metalloids with results reported for other Latin American cities such as Sao Paulo, Mexico and Santiago de Chile. In this context, a series of studies were carried out since 2004 considering different sampling strategies to reflect local aspects of air pollution sources. In the last years, our interest was focused on the levels of traffic-related elements in the urban atmosphere. We have contributed with the first data

  1. Plasma-based techniques applied to the determination of metals and metalloids in atmospheric aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smichowski, Patricia, E-mail: smichows@cnea.gov.ar [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Gerencia Quimica, Pcia de Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2011-07-01

    Full text: This lecture presents an overview of the research carried out by our group during the last decade on the determination of metals, metalloids, ions and species in atmospheric aerosols and related matrices using plasma-based techniques. In our first studies we explored the application of a size fractionation procedure and the subsequent determination of minor, major and trace elements in samples of deposited particles collected one day after the eruption of the Copahue Volcano, located in the Chile-Argentina border to assess the content of relevant elements with respect of the environment and the local population health. We employed a multi-technique approach (ICP-MS, XRD and NAA) to gain complete information of the characteristics of the sample. In addition to the study of ashes emitted for natural sources we also studied ashes of anthropogenic origin such as those arising from coal combustion in thermal power plants. For estimating the behavior and fate of elements in atmospheric particles and ashes we applied in this case a chemical fractionation procedure in order to establish the distribution of many elements amongst soluble, bound to carbonates, bound to oxides and bound to organic matter and environmental immobile fraction. Studies on the air quality of the mega-city of Buenos Aires were scarce and fragmentary and our objective was, and still is, to contribute to clarify key issues related to levels of crustal, toxic and potentially toxic elements in this air basin. Our findings were compared with average concentrations of metals and metalloids with results reported for other Latin American cities such as Sao Paulo, Mexico and Santiago de Chile. In this context, a series of studies were carried out since 2004 considering different sampling strategies to reflect local aspects of air pollution sources. In the last years, our interest was focused on the levels of traffic-related elements in the urban atmosphere. We have contributed with the first data

  2. A novel synthesis method for large area metallic amorphous/nanocrystal films by the glow-discharge plasma technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Jiang; Xu Zhong; Tao Jie; Liu Zili; Chen Zheyuan; Zhu Wenhui

    2007-01-01

    Two large-area metallic amorphous/nanocrystal films were prepared on AZ31 magnesium alloy and pure iron substrates by the double glow-discharge plasma technique. The formation mechanism of the novel amorphous films did not follow the established empirical rules for large glass-forming ability. The amorphous films were composed of binary alloys with a difference in the atomic diameter of alloying constituents of less than 12%, and an amorphous film of pure iron was successfully obtained

  3. Use of ion beam techniques to characterize thin plasma grown GaAs and GaAlAs oxide films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kauffman, R.L.; Feldman, L.C.; Chang, R.P.H.

    1978-01-01

    Thin plasma grown films of GaAs oxides and GaAlAs oxides have been analyzed using the combined techniques of Rutherford backscattering, ion-induced X-rays, and nuclear resonance profiling. The stoichiometries of the films have been quantitatively determined and can be combined with other Auger profiling results to characterize the films. The ion-induced X-ray technique has been checked against other measurements to determine its accuracy. For uniform films such as these the X-ray measurements can provide accurate quantitative results. (Auth.)

  4. Investigation of the interaction of high intensity laser light with solids and hot plasma using X-ray spectroscopic technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zigler, A.

    1978-06-01

    This work investigates the properties of high power laser-produced plasmas by developing and applying x-ray spectroscopic methods which utilize spatial resolution. The shadow techniques which were developed in this work yield a high spatial resolution of 5-15μm together with an adequate X-ray spectral resolution for single shots of laser power flux of 2.10 13 W/cm -2 . The intensity distribution in the source is calculated from the partial shadow by numerical differentiation. The main advantage of the present method is the ability to obtain spatial information simultaneously for strong and weak spectral lines for a single shot of medium power laser. Plasma parameters were derived from H-like and He-like lines and their inner-shell satellites, which were obtained from Mg, Al and Si targets. Using shadow techniques, the sizes of the emitting regions of the various spectral lines were measured; the spatial variation of the ionization stage, the electron temperature and density were investigated. A constant electron temperature of (250+-50)eV and electron density scale-length of about 50μm were derived for an expanding plasma. An experimental investigation of the possible origin and the mechanisms responsible for the Ksub(α) radiation in laser-produced plasma was carried out. It is shown that the Ksub(α) radiation was generated by fast suprathermal electrons and originated inside the target behind the interaction zone of the shock and heat waves. Energy penetration depth and hot plasma expansion were tested by using multilayer targets, thin foils and achieving a two-dimensional spatially resolved X-ray Al spectrum. (B.G.)

  5. Recent results of studies of plasma fluctuations in stellarators by microwave scattering technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skvortsova, N.N.; Batanov, G.M.; Kolik, L.V.; Petrov, A.E.; Pshenichnikov, A.A.; Sarksyan, K.A.; Kharchev, N.K.; Khol'nov, Yu.V.; Kubo, S.; Sanchez, J.

    2005-01-01

    Microwave scattering diagnostics are described that allow direct measurements of the turbulent processes in a high-temperature plasma of magnetic confinement systems. Plasma density fluctuations in the heating region of the L-2M stellarator were measured from microwave scattering at the fundamental and the second harmonics of the heating gyrotron radiation. In the TJ-II stellarator, a separate 2-mm microwave source was used to produce a probing beam; the measurements were performed at the middle of the plasma radius. Plasma density fluctuations in the axial (heating) region of the LHD stellarator were measured from microwave scattering at the fundamental harmonic of the heating gyrotron radiation. Characteristic features of fluctuations, common for all three devices, are revealed with the methods of statistical and spectral analysis. These features are the wide frequency Fourier and wavelet spectra, autocorrelation functions with slowly decreasing tails, and non-Gaussian probability distributions of the magnitudes and the increments of the magnitude of fluctuations. The drift-dissipative instability and the instability driven by trapped electrons are examined as possible sources of turbulence in a high-temperature plasma. Observations showed the high level of coherence between turbulent fluctuations in the central region and at the edge of the plasma in L-2M. It is shown in L-2M that the relative intensity of the second harmonic of gyrotron radiation on the axis of a microwave beam after quasi-optical filtering in a four-mirror quasi-optical transmission line is about -50 dB of the total radiation intensity. Spatiotemporal structures in plasma density fluctuations were observed in the central region of the plasma column. The correlation time between the structures was found to be on the order of 1 ms. It is shown that, the spectrum of the signal from the second-harmonic scattering extends to higher frequencies in comparison with that from the fundamental

  6. Mass spectrometer diagnostic technique in the study of stationary afterglow plasmas in helium, argon and krypton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langenwalter, M.

    1979-01-01

    Since some years the method of massspectrometric monitoring has become an important tool in the analysis of time resolved (or stationary) afterglow plasmas. The present thesis reports the construction and testing of a new fully bakeable UHV-stationary-afterglow-apparatus using a hollow cathode discharge as plasma source for the first time. The hollow cathode is moveable perpendicular to its axis relative to the sampling orifice (i.e. a very small hole at the centre of the plasma container's boundary), so that the radical distribution of the charged particle density can be studied. Several specific extraction conditions for ions from the plasma especially the sampling probe potential have been systematically investigated. Results are illustrated and discussed. The new apparatus has been tested by determining the ambipolar diffusion coefficient of the molecular ion He 2 + in a pure Helium-plasma in thermal equilibrium. The present result (Dsub(a2) = 603 +- 38 / P 0 cm 2 s -1 ) is in agreement with results reported by other workers. Finally an example for the radial behaviour of the Ar + -sampling current in an Argon-discharge for several different times in the afterglow period is given. The shown behaviour agrees relatively well with the theoretically predicted radial ion density distribution, i.e. the zero-order Ressel'function. (Author)

  7. A technique for temperature mapping in fluorocarbon plasmas using planar laser-induced fluorescence of CF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steffens, Kristen L.; Sobolewski, Mark A.

    2004-01-01

    Planar laser-induced fluorescence measurements of CF A 2 Σ + -X 2 Π(1,0) were used to determine two-dimensional maps of rotational temperature in CF 4 plasmas. Measured rotational temperatures are expected to be in equilibrium with the gas temperature due to the long chemical lifetime of CF relative to the collision rate. Experiments were performed in the capacitively coupled Gaseous Electronics Conference rf reference cell at pressures from 26.7 Pa (200 mTorr) to 107 Pa (800 mTorr) and powers of 10 to 30 W deposited in the plasma. Temperatures, which ranged from 273±15 K to 480±15 K, were fairly axially symmetric and increased with pressure and power. All plasmas were coolest near the electrodes, which provided a substantial sink for heat in the plasma. Highest temperatures were found at a radial position near the edge of the electrodes. The strong temperature gradients observed in the plasmas can have serious effects on density measurements that probe a single rotational level, as well as on reaction rate constants and interpretation of density gradients. The effects of water-cooling the electrodes and the presence of a silicon wafer on temperature were also measured

  8. Visualization by discharge illumination technique and modification by plasma actuator of rarefied Mach 2 airflow around a cylinder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leger, L; Depussay, E; Sellam, M; Barbosa, E

    2013-01-01

    The use of plasma actuators for flow control has received considerable attention in recent years. This kind of device seems to be an appropriate means of raising abilities in flow control thanks to total electric control, no moving parts and a fast response time. The experimental work presented here shows, firstly, the non-intrusive character of the visualization of the density field of an airflow around a cylinder obtained using a plasma luminescence technique. Experiments are made in a continuous supersonic wind tunnel. The static pressure in the flow is 8 Pa, the mean free path is about 0.3 mm and the airflow velocity is 510 m s −1 . Pressure measurements obtained by means of glass Pitot tube without the visualization discharge are proposed. Measured and simulated pressure profiles are in good agreement in the region near the cylinder. There is good correlation between numerical simulations of the supersonic flow field, analytical model predictions and experimental flow visualizations obtained by a plasma luminescence technique. Consequently, we show that the plasma luminescence technique is non-intrusive. Secondly, the effect of a dc discharge on a supersonic rarefied air flow around a cylinder is studied. An electrode is flush mounted on the cylinder. Stagnation pressure profiles are examined for different electrode positions on the cylinder. A shock wave modification depending on the electrode location is observed. The discharge placed at the upstream stagnation point induces an upstream shift of the bow shock, whereas a modification of the shock wave shape is observed when it is placed at 45° or 90°. (paper)

  9. Measurement of plasma current in Tokamaks using an optical fibre reflectometry technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuilpart Marc

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An optical time-domain reflectometer sensitive to the polarization of light is proposed for the measurement of plasma current in the Tore Supra fusion reactor. The measurement principle relies on the Faraday effect i.e. on the generation of a circular birefringence along an optical fiber subject to an axial magnetic field. The circular birefringence induces a polarization rotation that can be mapped along the fiber thanks to an opticaltime domain reflectometer followed by an linear polarizer. A proper fitting of the measurement trace then allows determining the applied plasma current. The sensor has been experimentally validated on the Tore Supra tokamak fusion reactor for a plasma current range going from 0.6 to 1.5 MA. A maximum error of 13.50% has been observed for the lowest current.

  10. Main error sources in sorbtion technique and plasma electron component parameter definition by continuous X radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavrilov, V.V.; Torokhova, N.V.; Fasakhov, I.K.

    1986-01-01

    Recombination radiation effect on the relation of signals behind the filters depending on the plasma temperature(sorption method for T determination) is demonstrated. This factor produces the main effect on the method accuracy (100-400%), the other factors analysed in combination make an error in temperature at the level of 50%. Method of plasma electron distribution function reconstruction by continuous x-radiation spectrum, based on the correctness (under certain limitations for the required function) of the equation, linking the electron distribution function with bremmsstrahlung spectral density is presented

  11. Radioimmunoassay of human. beta. -lipotropin in unextracted plasma. [/sup 125/I tracer technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiedemann, E. (Univ. of California, Berkeley); Saito, T.; Linfoot, J.A.; Li, C.H.

    1977-11-01

    A sensitive and specific radioimmunoassay for human ..beta..-lipotropin (..beta../sub h/-LPH) in unextracted plasma was developed using pure ..beta../sub h/-LPH as tracer and standard and an antiserum not cross-reacting with human ..beta..-MSH and hACTH. In healthy volunteers plasma ..beta../sub h/-LPH ranged from <20 to 150 pg/ml at 8:00 a.m. and rose after metyrapone administration. ..beta../sub h/-LPH was very low in panhypopituitarism, normal in most patients with untreated Cushing's disease, elevated in acromegaly and extremely high in Nelson's syndrome.

  12. A simple microwave technique for plasma density measurement using frequency modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bora, D.; Jayakumar, R.; Vijayashankar, M.K.

    1984-01-01

    A simple method of determining the phase variation unambiguously during microwave interferometric measurement is described. The frequency of the Klystron source is modulated with the help of staircase voltage pulse. The height of each stair is adjusted such that the corresponding phase shift in the test branch with an additional path length is 90 0 . Signals, proportional to cosine and sine of the phase shift due to plasma, can be generated in the same channel and plasma density information can be inferred. The microwave hardware remains the same as in conventional interferometry and the cost of such a scheme is low. (author)

  13. Fabrication of copper-based anodes via atmosphoric plasma spraying techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chun [Monroeville, PA

    2012-04-24

    A fuel electrode anode (18) for a solid oxide fuel cell is made by presenting a solid oxide fuel cell having an electrolyte surface (15), mixing copper powder with solid oxide electrolyte in a mixing step (24, 44) to provide a spray feedstock (30,50) which is fed into a plasma jet (32, 52) of a plasma torch to melt the spray feed stock and propel it onto an electrolyte surface (34, 54) where the spray feed stock flattens into lamellae layer upon solidification, where the layer (38, 59) is an anode coating with greater than 35 vol. % based on solids volume.

  14. A simple highly accurate field-line mapping technique for three-dimensional Monte Carlo modeling of plasma edge transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Y.; Sardei, F.; Kisslinger, J.

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents a new simple and accurate numerical field-line mapping technique providing a high-quality representation of field lines as required by a Monte Carlo modeling of plasma edge transport in the complex magnetic boundaries of three-dimensional (3D) toroidal fusion devices. Using a toroidal sequence of precomputed 3D finite flux-tube meshes, the method advances field lines through a simple bilinear, forward/backward symmetric interpolation at the interfaces between two adjacent flux tubes. It is a reversible field-line mapping (RFLM) algorithm ensuring a continuous and unique reconstruction of field lines at any point of the 3D boundary. The reversibility property has a strong impact on the efficiency of modeling the highly anisotropic plasma edge transport in general closed or open configurations of arbitrary ergodicity as it avoids artificial cross-field diffusion of the fast parallel transport. For stellarator-symmetric magnetic configurations, which are the standard case for stellarators, the reversibility additionally provides an average cancellation of the radial interpolation errors of field lines circulating around closed magnetic flux surfaces. The RFLM technique has been implemented in the 3D edge transport code EMC3-EIRENE and is used routinely for plasma transport modeling in the boundaries of several low-shear and high-shear stellarators as well as in the boundary of a tokamak with 3D magnetic edge perturbations

  15. Modification of glass fibers to improve reinforcement: a plasma polymerization technique

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Çökeliler, D.; Erkut, S.; Zemek, Josef; Biederman, H.; Mutlu, M.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 3 (2007), s. 335-342 ISSN 0109-5641 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : plasma polymerization * glos-discharge * E-glass fibros * ethylendiamine * 2-hydroxyethyl methacrystalate * triethyleneglycoldimethylether * fibre-reinforced composite ( FRC) Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 2.990, year: 2007

  16. New enhanced sensitivity infrared laser spectroscopy techniques applied to reactive plasmas and trace gas detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welzel, S.

    2009-01-01

    Infrared laser absorption spectroscopy (IRLAS) employing both tuneable diode and quantum cascade lasers (TDLs, QCLs) has been applied with both high sensitivity and high time resolution to plasma diagnostics and trace gas measurements. TDLAS combined with a conventional White type multiple pass cell

  17. Parallel-beam correlation technique for measuring density fluctuations in plasmas with strong magnetic shear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, A.R.

    1981-04-01

    A laser diagnostic scheme is described which facilitates localization of density fluctuations along the line of sight. The method exploits both the generally observed anisotropy of density fluctuations in low-beta plasmas, as well as the twisting of the magnetic field which occurs across the minor diameter of reversed-field pinches, spheromaks, etc. Both interferometric and schlieren variations are discussed

  18. Dismantling of JPDR reactor internals by underwater plasma arc cutting technique using robotic manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokota, M.

    1988-01-01

    The actual dismantling of JPDR started on December 4, 1986. As of now, equipment that surrounds the reactor has mostly been removed to provide working space in reactor containment prior to the dismantling of reactor internals. Some reactor internals have been successfully dismantled using the underwater arc cutting system with a robotic manipulator during the period of January to March 1988. The cutting system is composed of an underwater plasma arc cutting device and a robotic manipulator. The cut off reactor internals were core spray block, feedwater sparger and stabilizers for fuel upper grid tube. The plasma arc cutting device was developed to dismantle the reactor internals underwater. It mainly consists of a plasma torch, power and gas supply systems for the torch, and by-product treatment systems. It has the cutting ability of 130 mm thickness stainless steel underwater. The robotic manipulator has seven degrees of freedom of movement, enabling it to move in almost the same way as the arm of a human being. The arm of the robot is mounted on a supporting device which is suspended by three chains from the support structure set on a service floor. A plasma torch is griped by the robotic hand; its position to the structure to be cut is controlled from a remote control room, about 100 meters outside the reactor containment

  19. Radioimmunoassay of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in plasma. [/sup 125/I tracer techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahrenkrug, J.; Schaffalitzky de Muckadell, O.B.

    1977-06-01

    A sensitive and specific radioimmunoassay for vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) has been developed, which can detect 3.3 pmol x L/sup -1/ of the peptide in plasma. Antisera to highly purified porcine VIP coupled to albumin were raised in eight rabbits. The final dilution, the avidity, and the specificity of each antiserum were determined. /sup 125/I-VIP served as label, and highly purified porcine VIP was used as standard. Separation of antibody-bound and free VIP was achieved by plasma-coated charcoal. Nonspecific interference with the assay system was excluded by extraction of plasm samples with ethanol. The reliability of the assay was investigated by recovery experiments, by serial dilution of plasma samples with high concentration of endogenous VIP, and by immunosorption. The within-and between assay reproducibility at a concentration of 18.3 pmol x L/sup -1/ was 1.6 and 2.3 pmol x L/sup -1/ (1 S.D.), respectively. Median fasting concentration of VIP in plasma from 74 normal subjects was 7.3 pmol x L/sup -1/ (range: 0 to 20.0 pmol x L/sup -1/).

  20. Application of correlation techniques to the angular spectrum of scattered radiation from tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazikian, R.

    1990-01-01

    In the limit of the first Born approximation for a partially coherent secondary source consisting of a spatially random plasma illuminated by a coherent plane wave, it is shown that the spectral coherence of the scattered radiation conveys information on the three-dimensional intensity distribution of the secondary source

  1. Imaging of the magnetic field structure in megagauss plasmas by combining pulsed polarimetry with an optical Kerr effect shutter technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, R. J.

    2010-01-01

    Pulsed polarimetry in combination with a high speed photographic technique based on the optical Kerr effect is described. The backscatter in a pulsed polarimeter is directed through a scattering cell and photographed using an ∼1 ps shutter, essentially freezing the intensity pattern. The image provides both the local electron density and magnetic field distributions along and transverse to the laser sightline. Submillimeter spatial resolution is possible for probing wavelengths in the visible due to the high densities and strong optical activity. Pulsed polarimetry is thereby extended to centimeter-sized plasmas with n e >10 19 -10 20 cm -3 and B>20-100 T (MG) produced by multiterawatt, multimega-ampere electrical drivers, wire Z pinches, and liner imploded magnetized plasmas.

  2. Environment pollution control and cleaning processes by means of plasma techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amoru, Dzh.; Morvan, D.; Kavadias, S.

    2005-01-01

    The European Community introduces the strict standards for air and water pollution and for waste treatment. To meet the mentioned standards one proposes to make use of laser spectroscopy with time resolution and with induced breakdown enabling to perform the prompt analysis without sampling with high sensitivity for all elements of the periodic system. In case of plasma treatment of fly ashes and of polluted soils the mass spectrometry base or the optical emission spectrometry base check of volatile organic compounds takes a few seconds. The paper also describes plasma neutralization of organic volatile compounds in air flow following the DBD-procedure to neutralize of or to trap molecules of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [ru

  3. Techniques for measuring the alpha-particle distribution in magnetically confined plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, D.E.; Mikkelsen, D.R.; Hulse, R.A.; Stewart, L.D.; Weisheit, J.C.

    1979-10-01

    Methods are proposed for measuring the alpha-particle distribution in magnetically confined fusion plasmas using neutral-atom doping beams, ultraviolet spectroscopy, and neutral particle detectors. In the first method single charge exchange reactions, A 0 + He ++ - > A + (He + )*, are used to populate the n=2 and n=3 levels of He + . The ultraviolet photons from the decaying excited states are Doppler shifted by 5 to 10 Angstroms from those produced by the thermalized alpha-particle ash. In the second method double charge exchange reactions, A 0 + He ++ - > A ++ + He 0 , enable fast neutralized alpha-particles to escape from the plasma and be detected by neutral particle analysers. Detector configurations are analyzed, count rates are estimated and their detectability is discussed. A preliminary analysis of the feasibility of the required neutral beams is presented, and exploratory experiments on existing devices are suggested

  4. Direct radioimmunoassay of proinsulin and insulin in human plasma by the chromatographic technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Megahed, Y M; Abdel-Wahab, M F; El-Shawarbie, K; Sadek, S; Amer, M S [Atomic Energy Establishment, Cairo (Egypt). Radioisotope Department; Ain Shams Univ., Cairo (Egypt). Faculty of Medicine)

    1976-04-01

    Specific method for direct radioimmunoassay of IRP and IRI separately in human plasma has been described. The method is used for extraction of total insulin and separation of IRP from IRI by paper chromatography to be assayed separately. The separation of the two components is identified and confirmed by column chromatography, paper chromatography and ultraviolet spectral analysis in comparison with the standard compounds. 134 plasma samples of different cases were investigated for the determination of IRI, IRP and IRT. Out of these 39 were normals, 16 normal obes, 21 juvinil diabetes, 18 overt adult diabetes, 10 recent adult diabetes, 12 hypothyroidism and 18 bilharzial hepatosplenomegaly. They were used to evaluate the test levels in comparison with blood sugar concentration.

  5. Experimental study of TJ-1 plasma using scattering and radiation emission techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardo, C.; Zurro, B.

    1987-01-01

    The Thomson scattering system of TJ-1 is described in detail. The radial profiles of Te and ne obtained in TJ-1 discharges are presented. This data make possible to deduce characteristic parameters of the plasma confinement in this machine, as energy confinement times, Zeff B. Using also radiation measurements (global and in the visible range) we obtained the particle confinement time and Zeff without non experimental assumptions. (Author) 52 refs

  6. Correlation between Fe–V–C alloys surface hardness and plasma temperature via LIBS technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messaoud Aberkane, S., E-mail: smessaoud@cdta.dz [Centre de Développement des Technologies Avancées, Baba Hassen, Alger (Algeria); Bendib, A. [Université des Sciences et de Technologie Houari Boumediene, Bab-Ezzouar, Alger (Algeria); Yahiaoui, K.; Boudjemai, S.; Abdelli-Messaci, S.; Kerdja, T. [Centre de Développement des Technologies Avancées, Baba Hassen, Alger (Algeria); Amara, S.E. [Université des Sciences et de Technologie Houari Boumediene, Bab-Ezzouar, Alger (Algeria); Harith, M.A. [National Institute of Laser Enhanced Science, Cairo University (Egypt)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • New application of LIBS in industry. • Hardness of metallic alloys estimation using LIBS calibration curves. • Linear correlation between the plasma temperature and the hardness of metallic alloys. • The shock wave is fast when the material is hard. - Abstract: Surface hardness is a very important characteristic of metals. Its monitoring plays a key role in industry. In the present paper, using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), Fe–V{sub 18%}–C{sub 1%} alloys with different heat treatments have been used for making the correlation between surface hardness and laser-induced plasma temperatures. All investigated samples were characterized by the same ferrite phase with different Vickers surface hardnesses. The differences in hardness values were attributed to the crystallite size changes. A linear relationship has been obtained between the Vickers surface hardness and the laser induced plasma temperature. For comparison the relation between surface hardness and the ratio of the vanadium ionic to atomic spectral lines intensities (VII/VI) provided good linear results too. However, adopting the proposed approach of using the plasma temperature, instead, is more reliable in view of the difficulties that could be encountered in choosing the proper ionic and atomic spectral lines. To validate this approach we have investigated the shock wave speed induced by laser interaction with the used samples. It was found that harder is the material faster is the shock wave. The determination of the surface hardness via measuring T{sub e} shows the feasibility of using LIBS as an easy and reliable method for in situ industrial application for production control.

  7. Northeast Artificial Intelligence Consortium Annual Report. 1988 Interference Techniques for Knowledge Base Maintenance Using Logic Programming Methodologies. Volume 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-10-01

    Northeast Aritificial Intelligence Consortium (NAIC). i Table of Contents Execu tive Sum m ary...o g~nIl ’vLr COPY o~ T- RADC-TR-89-259, Vol XI (of twelve) N Interim Report SOctober 1989 NORTHEAST ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE CONSORTIUM ANNUAL REPORT...ORGANIZATION 6b. OFFICE SYMBOL 7a. NAME OF MONITORING ORGANIZATION Northeast Artificial (If applicable) Intelligence Consortium (NAIC) . Rome Air Development

  8. Terapia de bioestimulación con plasma rico en plaquetas para el envejecimiento cutáneo Bioestimulation technique with rich plasma in platelets for skin aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HM Escobar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available La bioestimulación con plasma rico en plaquetas es una técnica ambulatoria para la prevención y manejo del envejecimiento cutáneo, se basa en la fisiología de la piel y funciona muy bien sola o dentro de un plan terapéutico combinado. El derivado de sangre autóloga estimula la producción de colágeno, elastina y tejido epidérmico, lo que se traduce en piel más tersa, luminosa y de mejor calidad. Son mínimos los riesgos de formación de hematomas, infección, transmisión de enfermedades o reacciones alérgicas.Biostimulation with rich plasma in platelets is an outpatient technique for the prevention and management of skin aging, which is based on the physiology of the skin, and works very well alone or in a combined treatment plan. Own patient derivate blood stimulates production of collagen, elastin and skin tissue, resulting in a smoother skin, brighter and better quality. Risks of bruising, infection, disease transmission or allergic reactions are minimal.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of carbon fibers obtained through plasma techniques; Sintesis y caracterizacion de fibras de carbono obtenidas mediante tecnicas de plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valdivia B, M

    2005-07-01

    The study of carbon, particularly the nano technology is a recent field, the one which has important implications in the science of new materials. It investigation is of great interest for industries producers of ceramic, metallurgy, electronic, energy storage, biomedicine, among others. The diverse application fields are a reason at national as international level, so that many works are focused in the production of nano fibers of carbon. The Thermal plasma applications laboratory (LAPT) of the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ), it is carrying out works about carbon nano technology. The present work has as purpose to carry out the synthesis and characterization of the carbon nano fibers which are obtained by electric arch of alternating current (CA) to high frequencies and by a plasma gun of non transferred arch, where are used hydrocarbons like benzene, methane, acetylene like carbon source and ferrocene, nickel, yttrium and cerium oxide like catalysts. For both techniques its were thought about a relationship among hydrocarbon-catalyst that it favored to the nano fibers production. The obtained product of each experiment outlined it was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), analysis with those were obtained pictures and diffraction graphs, which were observed to arrive to one conclusion on the operation conditions, same analysis with those were characterized the tests carried out according to the nano structures formation of carbon. (Author)

  10. Using remote sensing and modeling techniques to investigate the annual parasite incidence of malaria in Loreto, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousam, Aneela; Maggioni, Viviana; Delamater, Paul L.; Quispe, Antonio M.

    2017-10-01

    Between 2001 and 2010 significant progress was made towards reducing the number of malaria cases in Peru; however, the country saw an increase between 2011 and 2015. This work attempts to uncover the associations among various climatic and environmental variables and the annual malaria parasite incidence in the Peruvian region of Loreto. A Multilevel Mixed-effects Poisson Regression model is employed, focusing on the 2009-2013 period, when trends in malaria incidence shifted from decreasing to increasing. The results indicate that variations in elevation (β = 0.78; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.75-0.81), soil moisture (β = 0.0021; 95% CI, 0.0019-0.0022), rainfall (β = 0.59; 95% CI, 0.56-0.61), and normalized difference vegetation index (β = 2.13; 95% CI, 1.83-2.43) is associated with higher annual parasite incidence, whereas an increase in temperature (β = -0.0043; 95% CI, - 0.0044- 0.0041) is associated with a lower annual parasite incidence. The results from this study are particularly useful for healthcare workers in Loreto and have the potential of being integrated within malaria elimination plans.

  11. A self-organized plasma with induction, reconnection, and injection techniques: the SPIRIT concept for field reversed configuration research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Masaaki; JI, Hantao; Gerhardt, Stefan P.; Belova, Elena V.; Davidson, Ronald C.; Mikkelsen, David R.

    2007-01-01

    A comprehensive research concept, known as SPIRIT, is described for the investigation of the formation, stability, and sustainment of oblate field reversed configurations (FRCs). This concept, whose name stands for Self-organized Plasma with Induction, Reconnection, and Injection Techniques (SPIRIT), allows for the study of FRC stability properties on time scales much longer than the energy confinement time. Counter-helicity merging of inductively formed spheromaks is utilized to form large-flux FRCs. These FRCs are sustained by neutral beam injection with the initial aid of compact ohmic solenoids. Stability to n=1 tilt/shift modes is provided by plasma shaping and conducting shells. Stability to n ≥ 2 co-interchange modes is achieved by a distribution of high-energy non-thermal ions provided by the neutral beam. The combination of plasma shaping, conducting shells, current sustainment, and the non-thermal beam component are expected to lead to a configuration with stability to all global MHD modes, a regime recently discovered through hybrid-MHD simulation using the HYM code. An experimental test of the concept, utilizing the existing Magnetic Reconnection Experiment (MRX) facility, is described. Initial experiments in MRX have confirmed the viability of the SPIRIT concept, and calculations indicate that the confinement of high-energy ions in MRX should be sufficient to test the SPIRIT concept. (author)

  12. Prediction of ultraviolet-induced damage during plasma processes in dielectric films using on-wafer monitoring techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Yasushi; Katoh, Yuji; Okigawa, Mitsuru; Samukawa, Seiji

    2005-01-01

    We measured electron-hole pairs generated in dielectric film using our developed on-wafer monitoring technique to detect electrical currents in the film during the plasma etching processes. The electron-hole pairs were generated by plasma induced ultraviolet (UV) photons, and the number of electron-hole pairs depends on the UV wavelength. In SiO 2 film, UV light, which has a wavelength of less than 140 nm, generates electron-hole pairs, because the band gap energy of the film is 8.8 eV. On the other hand, in Si 3 N 4 film, which has a band gap energy level of 5.0 eV, UV light below 250 nm induces the electron-hole pairs. Additionally, we evaluated the fluorocarbon gas plasma process that induces UV radiation damage using multilayer sensors that consisted of both SiO 2 and Si 3 N 4 stacked films. In these cases, electron-hole pair generation depended on the dielectric film structure. There were more electron-hole pairs generated in the SiO 2 deposited on the Si 3 N 4 film than in the Si 3 N 4 deposited on the SiO 2 film. As a result, our developed on-wafer monitoring sensor was able to predict electron-hole pair generation and the device characteristics

  13. Determination of rare earth elements in tomato plants by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalla, S; Baffi, C; Barbante, C; Turetta, C; Turretta, C; Cozzi, G; Beone, G M; Bettinelli, M

    2009-10-30

    In recent years identification of the geographical origin of food has grown more important as consumers have become interested in knowing the provenance of the food that they purchase and eat. Certification schemes and labels have thus been developed to protect consumers and genuine producers from the improper use of popular brand names or renowned geographical origins. As the tomato is one of the major components of what is considered to be the healthy Mediterranean diet, it is important to be able to determine the geographical origin of tomatoes and tomato-based products such as tomato sauce. The aim of this work is to develop an analytical method to determine rare earth elements (RRE) for the control of the geographic origin of tomatoes. The content of REE in tomato plant samples collected from an agricultural area in Piacenza, Italy, was determined, using four different digestion procedures with and without HF. Microwave dissolution with HNO3 + H2O2 proved to be the most suitable digestion procedure. Inductively coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometry (ICPQMS) and inductively coupled plasma sector field plasma mass spectrometry (ICPSFMS) instruments, both coupled with a desolvation system, were used to determine the REE in tomato plants in two different laboratories. A matched calibration curve method was used for the quantification of the analytes. The detection limits (MDLs) of the method ranged from 0.03 ng g(-1) for Ho, Tm, and Lu to 2 ng g(-1) for La and Ce. The precision, in terms of relative standard deviation on six replicates, was good, with values ranging, on average, from 6.0% for LREE (light rare earth elements) to 16.5% for HREE (heavy rare earth elements). These detection limits allowed the determination of the very low concentrations of REE present in tomato berries. For the concentrations of REE in tomato plants, the following trend was observed: roots > leaves > stems > berries. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Magnetohydrodynamics: Parallel computation of the dynamics of thermonuclear and astrophysical plasmas. 1. Annual report of massively parallel computing pilot project 93MPR05

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This is the first annual report of the MPP pilot project 93MPR05. In this pilot project four research groups with different, complementary backgrounds collaborate with the aim to develop new algorithms and codes to simulate the magnetohydrodynamics of thermonuclear and astrophysical plasmas on massively parallel machines. The expected speed-up is required to simulate the dynamics of the hot plasmas of interest which are characterized by very large magnetic Reynolds numbers and, hence, require high spatial and temporal resolutions (for details see section 1). The four research groups that collaborated to produce the results reported here are: The MHD group of Prof. Dr. J.P. Goedbloed at the FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics 'Rijnhuizen' in Nieuwegein, the group of Prof. Dr. H. van der Vorst at the Mathematics Institute of Utrecht University, the group of Prof. Dr. A.G. Hearn at the Astronomical Institute of Utrecht University, and the group of Dr. Ir. H.J.J. te Riele at the CWI in Amsterdam. The full project team met frequently during this first project year to discuss progress reports, current problems, etc. (see section 2). The main results of the first project year are: - Proof of the scalability of typical linear and nonlinear MHD codes - development and testing of a parallel version of the Arnoldi algorithm - development and testing of alternative methods for solving large non-Hermitian eigenvalue problems - porting of the 3D nonlinear semi-implicit time evolution code HERA to an MPP system. The steps that were scheduled to reach these intended results are given in section 3. (orig./WL)

  15. Magnetohydrodynamics: Parallel computation of the dynamics of thermonuclear and astrophysical plasmas. 1. Annual report of massively parallel computing pilot project 93MPR05

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-08-01

    This is the first annual report of the MPP pilot project 93MPR05. In this pilot project four research groups with different, complementary backgrounds collaborate with the aim to develop new algorithms and codes to simulate the magnetohydrodynamics of thermonuclear and astrophysical plasmas on massively parallel machines. The expected speed-up is required to simulate the dynamics of the hot plasmas of interest which are characterized by very large magnetic Reynolds numbers and, hence, require high spatial and temporal resolutions (for details see section 1). The four research groups that collaborated to produce the results reported here are: The MHD group of Prof. Dr. J.P. Goedbloed at the FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics `Rijnhuizen` in Nieuwegein, the group of Prof. Dr. H. van der Vorst at the Mathematics Institute of Utrecht University, the group of Prof. Dr. A.G. Hearn at the Astronomical Institute of Utrecht University, and the group of Dr. Ir. H.J.J. te Riele at the CWI in Amsterdam. The full project team met frequently during this first project year to discuss progress reports, current problems, etc. (see section 2). The main results of the first project year are: - Proof of the scalability of typical linear and nonlinear MHD codes - development and testing of a parallel version of the Arnoldi algorithm - development and testing of alternative methods for solving large non-Hermitian eigenvalue problems - porting of the 3D nonlinear semi-implicit time evolution code HERA to an MPP system. The steps that were scheduled to reach these intended results are given in section 3. (orig./WL).

  16. Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol.3). Proceedings of academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society in 2013, No.7--nuclear fusion and plasma physics sub-volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-05-01

    Progress report on nuclear science and technology in China (Vol. 3) includes 22 articles which are communicated on the third national academic annual meeting of China Nuclear Society. There are 10 books totally. This is the seventh one, the content is about nuclear fusion and plasma physics sub-volume

  17. R and D activities for the design of the MITICA Plasma Driver Plate manufacturing process via explosion bonding technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavei, M.; Dal Bello, S.; Groeneveld, H.; Rizzolo, A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The work is focused on the manufacturing process of the Plasma Driver Plate of MITICA. ► A clad plate of molybdenum and copper has been manufactured. ► Simulations have been carried out to improve the design geometry of the component. ► The driver-hole rim have been machined and hot formed. ► No delamination were found in the molybdenum. -- Abstract: The back plate of the MITICA plasma source, named Plasma Driver Plate (PDP), will be protected from the impact of the highly energetic back-streaming positive ions (BSI+), generated inside the accelerator, by a 1.0 mm thick molybdenum layer that will be joined by Explosion Bonding (EB) technique to the copper heat sink. This technology has been investigated and used for manufacturing prototypes, demonstrating very high strength of the obtained molybdenum–copper interface. The production of the shaped edge profile of the driver-hole, after the EB, is an open point. In order to demonstrate the possibility to produce the PDP by explosion bonding, the manufacturing of a full scale prototype of the area just around one of the PDP driver-holes was identified as the road to address most of the manufacturing issues. Elasto-plastic finite element analyses have been carried out to improve the hole rim geometry and the process parameters of all the manufacturing steps. A full scale prototype of the PDP driver-hole has been manufactured and tested. This contribution gives an overview of the R and D activities carried out to address the main open issues, to define the PDP component detailed geometry and its manufacturing processes, via EB technique

  18. Heterogeneity of human plasma insulin: techniques for separating immunoreactive components and their determination by radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Iracelia Torres de Toledo e

    1977-01-01

    When human plasma is filtered on Sephadex G-SO fine, insulin immunoreactivity is recovered in two peaks: 'big insulin', the higher molecular weight component and 'little insulin', the lower molecular component, having elution volumes that correspond to those of porcine proinsulin 125 I and porcine insulin 125 I respectively. The presence of another form of immunoreactive insulin 'big big insulin' was detected from an insuloma suspect and its elution pattern corresponding to serum albumin. The eluates correspondent to 'big' and 'little' insulin as well as 'big big' component were assayed by radioimmunoassay using crystalline human insulin as a standard, porcine insulin 125 tracer and anti insulin serum. The antibody, raised in guinea-pigs, was sensitive and potent being adequate for the assay. The reactivity of insulin and proinsulin was tested against the antibody. The relative proportions of several components of total immunoreactive insulin in plasma were studied in basal conditions in five normal subjects and in the patient JSC with pancreatic insulin-secreting tumor as well as after glucose stimuli in all tolbutamide in JSC. (author)

  19. Techniques For Injection Of Pre-Charaterized Dust Into The Scrape Off Layer Of Fusion Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roquemore, A.L.; John, B.; Friesen, F.; Hartzfeld, K.; Mansfield, D.K.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction of micron-sized dust into the scrape-off layer (SOL) of a plasma has recently found many applications aimed primarily at determining dust behavior in future fusion reactors. The dust particles are typically composed of materials intrinsic to a fusion reactor. On DIII-D and TEXTOR carbon dust has been introduced into the SOL using a probe inserted from below into the divertor region. On NSTX, both Li and tungsten dust have been dropped from the top of the machine into the SOL throughout the duration of a discharge, by utilizing a vibrating piezoelectric based particle dropper. The original particle dropper was developed to inject passivated Li powder ∼ 40 μm in diameter into the SOL to enhance plasma performance. A simplified version of the dropper was developed to introduce trace amounts of tungsten powder for only a few discharges, thus not requiring a large powder reservoir. The particles emit visible light from plasma interactions and can be tracked by either spectroscopic means or by fast frame rate visible cameras. This data can then be compared with dust transport codes such as DUSTT to make predictions of dust behavior in next-step devices such as ITER. For complete modeling results, it is desired to be able to inject pre-characterized dust particles in the SOL at various known poloidal locations, including near the vessel midplane. Purely mechanical methods of injecting particles are presently being studied using a modified piezoelectric-based powder dropper as a particle source and one of several piezo-based transducers to deflect the particles into the SOL. Vibrating piezo fans operating at 60 Hz with a deflection of ±2.5 cm can impart a significant horizontal boost in velocity. The highest injection velocities are expected from rotating paddle wheels capable of injecting particles at 10's of meters per second depending primarily on the rotation velocity and diameter of the wheel. Several injection concepts have been tested and will be

  20. Experimental study of laser ablation as sample introduction technique for inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Winckel, S.

    2001-01-01

    The contribution consists of an abstract of a PhD thesis. In the PhD study, several complementary applications of laser-ablation were investigated in order to characterise experimentally laser ablation (LA) as a sample introduction technique for ICP-MS. Three applications of LA as a sample introduction technique are discussed: (1) the microchemical analysis of the patina of weathered marble; (2) the possibility to measure isotope ratios (in particular Pb isotope ratios in archaeological bronze artefacts); and (3) the determination of Si in Al as part of a dosimetric study of the BR2 reactor vessel

  1. Determination of the Mechanical Properties of Plasma-Sprayed Hydroxyapatite Coatings Using the Knoop Indentation Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Md. Fahad; Wang, James; Berndt, Christopher

    2015-06-01

    The microhardness and elastic modulus of plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings were evaluated using Knoop indentation on the cross section and on the top surface. The effects of indentation angle, testing direction, measurement location and applied load on the microhardness and elastic modulus were investigated. The variability and distribution of the microhardness and elastic modulus data were statistically analysed using the Weibull modulus distribution. The results indicate that the dependence of microhardness and elastic modulus on the indentation angle exhibits a parabolic shape. Dependence of the microhardness values on the indentation angle follows Pythagoras's theorem. The microhardness, Weibull modulus of microhardness and Weibull modulus of elastic modulus reach their maximum at the central position (175 µm) on the cross section of the coatings. The Weibull modulus of microhardness revealed similar values throughout the thickness, and the Weibull modulus of elastic modulus shows higher values on the top surface compared to the cross section.

  2. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. An alternative technique for monitoring 90Sr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TsingHai Wang; Yan-Chen Lai; Yi-Kong Hsieh; Chu-Fang Wang

    2017-01-01

    Developing a rapid detection method for monitoring released 90 Sr remains a challenge to analytical chemists, particularly considering its low concentration and significant interferences in environmental samples. We proposed a concept as an alternative to detect 90 Sr on the surface of fish scales using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). The high affinity of fish scales to Sr is capable of preconcentrating 90 Sr that minimizes isobaric interferences from 90 Zr + or 89 YH + , while tailing effect by abundant 88 Sr can be effectively reduced by adjusting the forward power of ICP-MS component. Adopting dried droplets of internal standards further allows a semiquantification of 90 Sr content on the surface of fish scales, which also arises an opportunity to monitoring the bioaccumulation of 90 Sr after Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster. (author)

  3. A multi-domain boundary-relaxation technique for the calculation of the electromagnetic field in ferrite-core inductive plasmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van J.; Velden, van der M.H.L.; Mullen, van der J.J.A.M.

    2002-01-01

    A technique is discussed for calculating the electromagnetic field in two-dimensional inductive plasmas with an arbitrary number of magnetic materials and load coils. The method is a generalization of the boundary-relaxation technique for systems with an arbitrary number of conducting regions, and

  4. Expert system and process optimization techniques for real-time monitoring and control of plasma processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jie; Qian, Zhaogang; Irani, Keki B.; Etemad, Hossein; Elta, Michael E.

    1991-03-01

    To meet the ever-increasing demand of the rapidly-growing semiconductor manufacturing industry it is critical to have a comprehensive methodology integrating techniques for process optimization real-time monitoring and adaptive process control. To this end we have accomplished an integrated knowledge-based approach combining latest expert system technology machine learning method and traditional statistical process control (SPC) techniques. This knowledge-based approach is advantageous in that it makes it possible for the task of process optimization and adaptive control to be performed consistently and predictably. Furthermore this approach can be used to construct high-level and qualitative description of processes and thus make the process behavior easy to monitor predict and control. Two software packages RIST (Rule Induction and Statistical Testing) and KARSM (Knowledge Acquisition from Response Surface Methodology) have been developed and incorporated with two commercially available packages G2 (real-time expert system) and ULTRAMAX (a tool for sequential process optimization).

  5. Department of Thermonuclear Research annual report 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadowski, M; Pawlowicz, W [eds.

    1992-02-01

    Department of Thermonuclear Research Annual Report 1991 presents a short review of theoretical, experimental, and technological studies carried out within the framework of two research programs: Plasma Physics and Development of Diagnostics Data Acquisition. Theoretical studies of a tokamak edge plasma, validity of inverse Abel transformation for strongly refracting objects, simulation of the pulse generators operation, and a numerical analysis of electron capture in p + H{sup +} collisions, are described. Experimental studies of corpuscular beams and X-rays from different plasma facilities, development of diagnostic techniques and of data acquisition systems, as well as experiments with the generation of cryogenic pellets for plasma research, are shortly summarized. Also presented are technological studies concerning the modernization of the PF- and RPI-type facilities and the application of the IONOTRON-type devices for the modification of semiconductor and metal surfaces. (author). 27 refs, 24 figs.

  6. Department of Thermonuclear Research annual report 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadowski, M.; Pawlowicz, W.

    1992-02-01

    Department of Thermonuclear Research Annual Report 1991 presents a short review of theoretical, experimental, and technological studies carried out within the framework of two research programs: Plasma Physics and Development of Diagnostics Data Acquisition. Theoretical studies of a tokamak edge plasma, validity of inverse Abel transformation for strongly refracting objects, simulation of the pulse generators operation, and a numerical analysis of electron capture in p + H + collisions, are described. Experimental studies of corpuscular beams and X-rays from different plasma facilities, development of diagnostic techniques and of data acquisition systems, as well as experiments with the generation of cryogenic pellets for plasma research, are shortly summarized. Also presented are technological studies concerning the modernization of the PF- and RPI-type facilities and the application of the IONOTRON-type devices for the modification of semiconductor and metal surfaces. (author). 27 refs, 24 figs

  7. Local and System Level Considerations for Plasma-Based Techniques in Hypersonic Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchomel, Charles; Gaitonde, Datta

    2007-01-01

    The harsh environment encountered due to hypersonic flight, particularly when air-breathing propulsion devices are utilized, poses daunting challenges to successful maturation of suitable technologies. This has spurred the quest for revolutionary solutions, particularly those exploiting the fact that air under these conditions can become electrically conducting either naturally or through artificial enhancement. Optimized development of such concepts must emphasize not only the detailed physics by which the fluid interacts with the imposed electromagnetic fields, but must also simultaneously identify system level issues integration and efficiencies that provide the greatest leverage. This paper presents some recent advances at both levels. At the system level, an analysis is summarized that incorporates the interdependencies occurring between weight, power and flow field performance improvements. Cruise performance comparisons highlight how one drag reduction device interacts with the vehicle to improve range. Quantified parameter interactions allow specification of system requirements and energy consuming technologies that affect overall flight vehicle performance. Results based on on the fundamental physics are presented by distilling numerous computational studies into a few guiding principles. These highlight the complex non-intuitive relationships between the various fluid and electromagnetic fields, together with thermodynamic considerations. Generally, energy extraction is an efficient process, while the reverse is accompanied by significant dissipative heating and inefficiency. Velocity distortions can be detrimental to plasma operation, but can be exploited to tailor flows through innovative electromagnetic configurations.

  8. Analysis of equatorial plasma bubble zonal drift velocities in the Pacific sector by imaging techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Yao

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Using 1024 nights of data from 2002–2005 taken by the Cornell Narrow Field Imager (CNFI, we examine equatorial plasma bubble (EPB zonal drift velocity characteristics. CNFI is located at the Maui Space Surveillance Site on the Haleakala Volcano (geographic: 20.71° N, 203.83° E; geomagnetic: 21.03° N, 271.84° E on the island of Maui, Hawaii. The imager is set up to view in a magnetic field-aligned geometry in order to maximize its resolution. We calculate the zonal drift velocities using two methods: a correlation routine and an EPB west-wall intensity gradient tracking routine. These two methods yield sizeable differences in the evenings, suggesting strong pre-local midnight EPB development. An analysis of the drift velocities is also performed based on the three influencing factors of season, geomagnetic activity, and solar activity. In general, our data match published trends and drift characteristics from past studies. However, we find that the drift magnitudes are much lower than results from other imagers at similar latitude sectors but at different longitude sectors, suggesting that zonal drift velocities have a longitudinal dependence.

  9. Highly zone-dependent synthesis of different carbon nanostructures using plasma-enhanced arc discharge technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Rajesh, E-mail: rajeshbhu1@gmail.com [Yonsei University, Department of Materials Science & Engineering (Korea, Republic of); Singh, Rajesh Kumar, E-mail: rksbhu@gmail.com [Banaras Hindu University, Department of Applied Physics, Indian Institute of Technology (India); Dubey, Pawan Kumar [University of Allahabad, Nanotechnology Application Centre (India); Yadav, Ram Manohar [Rice University, Department of Materials Science and Nano Engineering (United States); Singh, Dinesh Pratap [Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Departamento de Física (Chile); Tiwari, R. S.; Srivastava, O. N. [Banaras Hindu University, Department of Physics (India)

    2015-01-15

    Three kinds of carbon nanostructures, i.e., graphene nanoflakes (GNFs), multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), and spherical carbon nanoparticles (SCNPs) were comparatively investigated in one run experiment. These carbon nanostructures are located at specific location inside the direct current plasma-assisted arc discharge chamber. These carbon nanomaterials have been successfully synthesized using graphite as arcing electrodes at 400 torr in helium (He) atmosphere. The SCNPs were found in the deposits formed on the cathode holder, in which highly curled graphitic structure are found in majority. The diameter varies from 20 to 60 nm and it also appears that these particles are self-assembled to each other. The MWCNTs with the diameter of 10–30 nm were obtained which were present inside the swelling portion of cathode deposited. These MWCNTs have 14–18 graphitic layers with 3.59 Å interlayer spacing. The GNFs have average lateral sizes of 1–5 μm and few of them are stacked layers and shows crumpled like structure. The GNFs are more stable at low temperature (low mass loss) but SCNPs have low mass loss at high temperature.

  10. Effluents from MBT plants: Plasma techniques for the treatment of VOCs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ragazzi, Marco, E-mail: marco.ragazzi@unitn.it [Department of Civil, Environmental and Mechanical Engineering, University of Trento, Via Mesiano 77, I-38123 Trento (Italy); Tosi, Paolo, E-mail: paolo.tosi@unitn.it [Department of Physics, University of Trento, Via Sommarive 5, I-38123 Trento (Italy); Rada, Elena Cristina, E-mail: elena.rada@unitn.it [Department of Civil, Environmental and Mechanical Engineering, University of Trento, Via Mesiano 77, I-38123 Trento (Italy); Torretta, Vincenzo, E-mail: vincenzo.torretta@uninsubria.it [Department of Biotechnologies and Life Sciences, University of Insubria, Via G.B. Vico 46, I-21100 Varese (Italy); Schiavon, Marco, E-mail: marco.schiavon@unitn.it [Department of Civil, Environmental and Mechanical Engineering, University of Trento, Via Mesiano 77, I-38123 Trento (Italy); Department of Biotechnologies and Life Sciences, University of Insubria, Via G.B. Vico 46, I-21100 Varese (Italy)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Dielectric Barrier Discharge was applied to remove methyl ethyl ketone from air. • Methyl ethyl ketone was chosen since it represents emissions from MBT plants. • The removal efficiency was linearly dependent on time, power and energy density. • Besides CO{sub 2}, methyl nitrate and 2,3-butanedione were the main byproducts formed. • The removal efficiency can be increased by increasing the convective flow. - Abstract: Mechanical–biological treatments (MBTs) of urban waste are growing in popularity in many European countries. Recent studies pointed out that their contribution in terms of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and other air pollutants is not negligible. Compared to classical removal technologies, non-thermal plasmas (NTP) showed better performances and low energy consumption when applied to treat lowly concentrated streams. Therefore, to study the feasibility of the application of NTP to MBTs, a Dielectric Barrier Discharge reactor was applied to treat a mixture of air and methyl ethyl ketone (MEK), to simulate emissions from MBTs. The removal efficiency of MEK was linearly dependent upon time, power and specific input energy. Only 2–4% of MEK was converted to carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), the remaining carbon being involved in the formation of byproducts (methyl nitrate and 2,3-butanedione, especially). For future development of pilot-scale reactors, acting on residence time, power, convective flow and catalysts will help finding a compromise between energy consumption, desired abatement and selectivity to CO{sub 2}.

  11. Estimation of chromium-51 ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid plasma clearance: A comparative assessment of simplified techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picciotto, G.; Cacace, G.; Mosso, R.; De Filippi, P.G.; Cesana, P.; Ropolo, R.

    1992-01-01

    Chromium-51 ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid ( 51 Cr-EDTA) total plasma clearance was evaluated using a multi-sample method (i.e. 12 blood samples) as the reference compared with several simplified methods which necessitated only one or few blood samples. The following 5 methods were evaluated: Terminal slope-intercept method with 3 blood samples, simplified method of Broechner-Mortensen and 3 single-sample methods (Constable, Christensen and Groth, Tauxe). Linear regression analysis was performed. Standard error of estimate, bias and imprecision of different methods were evaluated. For 51 Cr-EDTA total plasma clearance greater than 30 ml.min -1 , the results which most approximated the reference source were obtained by the Christensen and Groth method at a sampling time of 300 min (inaccuracy of 4.9%). For clearances between 10 and 30 ml.min -1 , single-sample methods failed to give reliable results. Terminal slope-intercept and Broechner-Mortensen methods were better, with inaccuracies of 17.7% and 16.9%, respectively. Although sampling times at 180, 240 and 300 min are time-consuming for patients, 51 Cr-EDTA total plasma clearance can be accurately calculated for values greater than 10 ml.min -1 using the Broechner-Mortensen method. In patients with clearance greater than 30 ml.min -1 , single-sample techniques provide a good alternative to the multi-sample method; the choice of the method to be used depends on the degree of accuracy required. (orig.)

  12. Remote sensing of auroral E region plasma structures by radio, radar, and UV techniques at solar minimum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, S.; Valladares, C.E.; Basu, S.; Eastes, R.; Huffman, R.E.; Daniell, R.E.; Chaturvedi, P.K.; Livingston, R.C.

    1993-01-01

    The unique capability of the Polar BEAR satellite to simultaneously image auroral luminosities at multiple ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths and to remote sense large-scale (hundreds to tens of kilometers) and small-scale (kilometers to hundreds of meters) plasma density structures with its multifrequency beacon package is utilized to probe the auroral E region in the vicinity of the incoherent scatter radar (ISR) facility near Sondrestrom. In particular, we present coordinated observations on two nights obtained during the sunspot minimum (sunspot number < 10) January-February 1987 period when good spatial and temporal conjunction was obtained between Polar BEAR overflights and Sondrestrom ISR measurements. With careful coordinated observations we were able to confirm that the energetic particle precipitation responsible for the UV emissions causes the electron density increases in the E region. The integrations up to the topside of these ISR electron density profiles were consistent with the total electron content (TEC) measured by the Polar BEAR satellite. An electron transport model was utilized to determine quantitatively the electron density profiles which could be produced by the particle precipitation, which also produced multiple UV emissions measured by the imager; these profiles were found to be in good agreement with the observed ISR profiles in the E region. This outer scale size is also consistent with the measured phase to amplitude scintillation ratio. An estimate of the linear growth rate of the gradient-drift instability in the E region shows that these plasma density irregularities could have been generated by this process. The mutual consistency of these different sets of measurements provides confidence in the ability of the different techniques to remote sense large- and small-scale plasma density structures in the E region at least during sunspot minimum when the convection-dominated high-latitude F region is fairly weak. 56 refs., 16 figs

  13. Determination of trimethylamine, trimethylamine N-oxide, and taurine in human plasma and urine by UHPLC-MS/MS technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awwad, Hussain Mohamad; Geisel, Juergen; Obeid, Rima

    2016-12-01

    Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) is produced in the liver from trimethylamine (TMA) and is an important cellular osmolyte and potential atherogenic factor. Taurine is involved in cholesterol metabolism and also serves as a cellular osmolyte. Given their significant biological functions, the development of reliable measurement techniques is crucial to further study their role in health and disease METHODS: A new ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of TMA, TMAO, and taurine in plasma and urine. The method consisted of a deproteinization step using methanol/acetonitrile (15:85) that contained 0.2% formic acid and isotope-labeled internal standards. Samples were separated by centrifugation and injected into the UHPLC system. Quantification was conducted using a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer detector with electrospray ionization interface in positive mode. The limits of detection ranged from 0.08 to 0.12μmol/L. The calibration curves were linear (r≥0.999) over the range examined (0.15-400μmol/L) for all compounds. The inter- and intra-day coefficients of variations were≤14.5% for TMA and ≤8% for TMAO and taurine. TMAO and taurine were found to be stable in EDTA plasma for at least 14 months at -70°C. Mean recoveries ranged from 95% to 109% and the relative matrix effects were≤4.0%. The method was applied to study physiological and pre-analytical factors in plasma and urine samples. The new UHPLC-MS/MS method has good accuracy, precision, and recovery. The assay combines simple sample processing with a short run time, making it well suited for high-throughput routine clinical or research purposes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry: analytical assessment of the technique at the beginning of the 90's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanz-Medel, A.

    1991-01-01

    The main application of the inductively coupled plasma (ICP) today is in atomic emission spectroscopy (AES), as an excitation spectrochemical source, although uses of an ICP for fluorescence as just an atomizer, and specially for mass spectrometry, as an ionization source, are rocketing in the last few years. Since its inception, only a quarter of a century ago, ICP-AES has rapidly evolved to one of the preferred routine analytical techniques for convenient determination of many elements with high speed, at low levels and in the most varied samples. Perhaps its comparatively high kinetic temperature (capable of atomizing virtually every compound of any sample), its high excitation and ionization temperatures, and its favourable spatial structure at the core of the ICP success. By now, the ICP-AES can be considered as having achieved maturity in that a huge amount of analytical problems can be tackled with this technique, while no major or fundamental changes have been adopted for several years. Despite this fact, important driving forces are still in operation to further improve the ICP-AES sensitivity, selectivity, precision, sample throughput, etc. Moreover, proposals to extend the scope of the technique to traditionally elusive fields (e.g. non-metals and organic compound analysis) are also appearing in the recent literature. In this paper the 'state of the art', the last developments and the expectations in trying to circumvent the limitations of the ICP-AES (on the light of literature data and personal experience) are reviewed. (author)

  15. Annual variation of hematology and plasma chemistry in shortnose sturgeon, Acipenser brevirostrum, during a dam-impeded spawning run.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsche, Mark A; Gibbons, Jarrett

    2012-12-01

    Shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum) spawning migrations on the Cooper River are impeded by Pinopolis Dam, Lake Moultrie, South Carolina. Sturgeon and other species aggregate below the dam in late winter/early spring and are subjected to a variety of stressors stemming from crowding, poor habitat quality, and injuries that appear to be caused by boat propeller or turbine strikes. Spawning has been documented in the tailrace, but reproductive success has not been verified as no juveniles have been captured. Fish within the dam tailrace were captured by gill net during winter, 2005 and 2007-2011, and physiological condition was assessed using a panel of hematologic and biochemical indices. Plasma phosphorus and calcium were significantly higher in females, while PCV and aspartate aminotransferase were significantly higher in males, indicating sex-specific physiological changes triggered during maturity. A marked leucopenia, accompanied by lymphopenia and neutrophilia, was evident in both sexes and was consistent across years, indicating that these fish were under chronic stress. Testosterone and estradiol levels and hematologic and biochemical reference intervals are provided for comparative purposes.

  16. Low-Intrusion Techniques and Sensitive Information Management for Warhead Counting and Verification: FY2012 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarman, Kenneth D.; McDonald, Benjamin S.; Robinson, Sean M.; Gilbert, Andrew J.; White, Timothy A.; Pitts, W. Karl; Misner, Alex C.; Seifert, Allen

    2012-11-01

    Progress in the second year of this project is described by the series of technical reports and manuscripts that make up the content of this report. These documents summarize successes in our goals to develop our robust image-hash templating and material-discrimination techniques and apply them to test image data.

  17. Optimization of cathodic arc deposition and pulsed plasma melting techniques for growing smooth superconducting Pb photoemissive films for SRF injectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nietubyć, Robert; Lorkiewicz, Jerzy; Sekutowicz, Jacek; Smedley, John; Kosińska, Anna

    2018-05-01

    Superconducting photoinjectors have a potential to be the optimal solution for moderate and high current cw operating free electron lasers. For this application, a superconducting lead (Pb) cathode has been proposed to simplify the cathode integration into a 1.3 GHz, TESLA-type, 1.6-cell long purely superconducting gun cavity. In the proposed design, a lead film several micrometres thick is deposited onto a niobium plug attached to the cavity back wall. Traditional lead deposition techniques usually produce very non-uniform emission surfaces and often result in a poor adhesion of the layer. A pulsed plasma melting procedure reducing the non-uniformity of the lead photocathodes is presented. In order to determine the parameters optimal for this procedure, heat transfer from plasma to the film was first modelled to evaluate melting front penetration range and liquid state duration. The obtained results were verified by surface inspection of witness samples. The optimal procedure was used to prepare a photocathode plug, which was then tested in an electron gun. The quantum efficiency and the value of cavity quality factor have been found to satisfy the requirements for an injector of the European-XFEL facility.

  18. Multi-energy soft-x-ray technique for impurity transport measurements in the fusion plasma edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clayton, D J; Tritz, K; Stutman, D; Finkenthal, M; Kumar, D; Kaye, S M; LeBlanc, B P; Paul, S; Sabbagh, S A

    2012-01-01

    A new diagnostic technique was developed to produce high-resolution impurity transport measurements of the steep-gradient edge of fusion plasmas. Perturbative impurity transport measurements were performed for the first time in the NSTX plasma edge (r/a ∼ 0.6 to the SOL) with short neon gas puffs, and the resulting line and continuum emission was measured with the new edge multi-energy soft-x-ray (ME-SXR) diagnostic. Neon transport is modeled with the radial impurity transport code STRAHL and the resulting x-ray emission is computed using the ADAS atomic database. The radial transport coefficient profiles D(r) and v(r), and the particle flux from the gas puff Φ(t), are the free parameters in this model and are varied to find the best fit to experimental x-ray emissivity measurements, with bolometry used to constrain the impurity source. Initial experiments were successful and results were consistent with previous measurements of core impurity transport and neoclassical transport calculations. New diagnostic tools will be implemented on NSTX-U to further improve these transport measurements. (paper)

  19. Al-Si/B{sub 4}C composite coatings on Al-Si substrate by plasma spray technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarikaya, Ozkan [Sakarya University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Esentepe Campus, Sakarya 54187 (Turkey); Anik, Selahaddin [Sakarya University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Esentepe Campus, Sakarya 54187 (Turkey); Aslanlar, Salim [Sakarya University, Faculty of Technical Education, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Esentepe Campus, Sakarya 54187 (Turkey); Cem Okumus, S. [Sakarya University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Esentepe Campus, Sakarya 54187 (Turkey); Celik, Erdal [Dokuz Eylul University, Engineering Faculty, Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Buca, Izmir 35160 (Turkey)]. E-mail: erdal.celik@deu.edu.tr

    2007-07-01

    Plasma-sprayed coatings of Al-Si/B{sub 4}C have been prepared on Al-Si piston alloys for diesel engine motors. The Al-Si/B{sub 4}C composite powders including 5-25 wt% B{sub 4}C were prepared by mixing and ball-milling processes. These powders were deposited on Al-Si substrate using an atmospheric plasma spray technique. The coatings have been characterised with respect to phase composition, microstructure, microhardness, bond strength and thermal expansion. It was found that Al, Si, B{sub 4}C and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} phases were determined in the coatings with approximately 600 {mu}m thick by using X-ray diffraction analysis. Scanning electron microscope observation revealed that boron carbide particles were uniformly distributed in composite coatings and B{sub 4}C particles were fully wetted by Al-Si alloy. Also, no reaction products were observed in Al-Si/B{sub 4}C composite coatings. It was found that surface roughness, porosity, bond strength and thermal expansion coefficient of composite coatings decreased with increasing fraction of the boron carbide particle. It was demonstrated that the higher the B{sub 4}C content, the higher the hardness of coatings because the hardness of B{sub 4}C is higher than that of Al-Si.

  20. Temperature dependence of InN film deposition by an RF plasma-assisted reactive ion beam sputtering deposition technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinoda, Hiroyuki; Mutsukura, Nobuki

    2005-01-01

    Indium nitride (InN) films were deposited on Si(100) substrates using a radiofrequency (RF) plasma-assisted reactive ion beam sputtering deposition technique at various substrate temperatures. The X-ray diffraction patterns of the InN films suggest that the InN films deposited at substrate temperatures up to 370 deg C were cubic crystalline InN; and at 500 deg C, the InN film was hexagonal crystalline InN. In a scanning electron microscope image of the InN film surface, facets of cubic single-crystalline InN grains were clearly observed on the InN film deposited at 370 deg C. The inclusion of metallic indium appeared on the InN film deposited at 500 deg C

  1. Structural and mechanical properties of nc-TiC/a-C:H nanocomposite film prepared by dual plasma technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yaohui; Zhang Xu; Wu Xianying; Li Qiang; Zhang Huixing; Zhang Xiaoji

    2008-01-01

    Nanocomposite nc-TiC/a-C:H film, with an unusual combination of superhardness, high elastic modulus and high elastic recovery, are prepared by using the dual plasma technique. The effects of the filter coil current on the compositional, structural and mechanical properties of the nc-TiC/a-C:H films have been investigated. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman analyses show that deposition rate, composition and nanostructure of the nc-TiC/a-C:H films could be changed by varying the filter coil current. Fortunately, by selecting the proper value for the filter coil current, 2.5 A, one could remarkably enhance mechanical properties of films such as the superhardness (66.4 GPa), the high elastic modulus (510 GPa) and the high elastic recovery (83.3%)

  2. Overview of advanced techniques for fabrication and testing of ITER multilayer plasma facing walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavassoli, A.-A.F. [Commissariat a l`Energie Atomique, Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1998-09-01

    The design of the ITER primary first wall incorporates a multi-layered structure consisting of a layer of beryllium bonded to a layer of copper alloy with embedded stainless steel tubes which in turn is bonded to a stainless steel structure. In this configuration, the stainless steel provides structural support, the copper alloy improved resistance to high heat loads, and the beryllium layer a low Z metal interface with plasma. Fabrication, testing and control of this multi-layered structure, and indeed the entire blanket shield module, calls for advanced methods. Several associations in the four home teams and their industrial partners have been involved in various fabrication and joining tasks now grouped under L4 blanket project. In this paper, an overview of the work done so far for joining stainless steel to stainless steel, stainless steel to copper alloy, copper alloy to copper alloy, and copper alloy to beryllium is presented. Specialised papers dealing with most of the topics treated here are scheduled in this symposium. The fabrication and joining methods presented here, other than the conventional welding and brazing, follow four main routes. Two of them make extensive use of hot-isostatic pressing (HIP); (a) solid to solid; (b) solid or powder to powder, with or without a prior cold or hot isostatic pressing of one of the products. The third combines advantages of casting and HIPping for fabricating large and complex parts. The fourth investigates the possibility of using explosive welding for joining copper alloys to stainless steel. Other methods, including friction welding, are investigated for specific parts. (orig.) 34 refs.

  3. Characterization of plasma vitellogenin and sex hormone concentrations during the annual reproductive cycle of the endangered razorback sucker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinck, Jo Ellen; Papoulias, Diana M.; Annis, Mandy L.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Marr, Carrie; Denslow, Nancy D.; Kroll, Kevin J.; Nachtmann, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Population declines of the endangered razorback sucker Xyrauchen texanus in the Colorado River basin have been attributed to predation by and competition with nonnative fishes, habitat alteration, and dam construction. The reproductive health and seasonal variation of the reproductive end points of razorback sucker populations are currently unknown. Using nonlethal methods, we characterized the plasma hormonal fluctuations of reproductively mature female and male razorback suckers over a 12-month period in a hatchery by measuring their vitellogenin (VTG) and three sex hormones: 17β-estradiol (E2), testosterone (T), and 11-ketotestosterone (KT). Fish were identified as reproductive or nonreproductive based on their body weight, VTG, and sex hormone profiles. In reproductive females, the E2 concentration increased in the fall and winter, and increases in T and VTG concentrations were generally associated with the spawning period. Mean T concentrations were consistently greater in reproductive females than in nonreproductive females, but this pattern was even more pronounced during the spawning period (spring). Consistently low T concentrations (the spawning period may indicate reproductive impairment. In reproductive males, spring increases in KT and T concentrations were associated with spawning; concentrations of E2 (the study. In addition, the E2 : KT ratio and T were the best metrics by which to distinguish female from male adult razorback suckers throughout the year. These metrics of reproductive health and condition may be particularly important to recovery efforts of razorback suckers given that the few remaining wild populations are located in a river where water quality and quantity issues are well documented. In addition to the size, age, and recruitment information currently considered in the recovery goals of this endangered species, reproductive end points could be included as recovery metrics with which to monitor seasonal trends and determine whether

  4. Hot radial pressing: An alternative technique for the manufacturing of plasma-facing components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visca, E.; Libera, S.; Mancini, A.; Mazzone, G.; Pizzuto, A.; Testani, C.

    2005-01-01

    The Hot radial pressing (HRP) manufacturing technique is based on the radial diffusion bonding principle performed between the cooling tube and the armour tile. The bonding is achieved by pressurizing the cooling tube while the joining interface is kept at the vacuum and temperature conditions. This technique has been used for the manufacturing of relevant mock-ups of the ITER divertor vertical target. Tungsten monoblock mock-ups were successfully tested to high heat flux thermal fatigue (20 MW/m 2 of absorbed heat flux for 1000 cycles). After these good results the activity is now focused on the developing of a manufacturing process suitable also for the CFC monoblock mock-ups. A FE calculation was performed to investigate the stress involved in the CFC tiles during the process and to avoid the CFC fracture. The results obtained by the FE calculation and by the test performed in air simulating a HRP manufacturing process for a CFC monoblock mock-ups is reported in the paper

  5. Possible signatures of dissipation from time-series analysis techniques using a turbulent laboratory magnetohydrodynamic plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaffner, D. A.; Brown, M. R.; Rock, A. B.

    2016-01-01

    The frequency spectrum of magnetic fluctuations as measured on the Swarthmore Spheromak Experiment is broadband and exhibits a nearly Kolmogorov 5/3 scaling. It features a steepening region which is indicative of dissipation of magnetic fluctuation energy similar to that observed in fluid and magnetohydrodynamic turbulence systems. Two non-spectrum based time-series analysis techniques are implemented on this data set in order to seek other possible signatures of turbulent dissipation beyond just the steepening of fluctuation spectra. Presented here are results for the flatness, permutation entropy, and statistical complexity, each of which exhibits a particular character at spectral steepening scales which can then be compared to the behavior of the frequency spectrum.

  6. 2D and 3D modeling of wave propagation in cold magnetized plasma near the Tore Supra ICRH antenna relying on the perfecly matched layer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacquot, J; Colas, L; Clairet, F; Goniche, M; Hillairet, J; Lombard, G; Heuraux, S; Milanesio, D

    2013-01-01

    A novel method to simulate ion cyclotron wave coupling in the edge of a tokamak plasma with the finite element technique is presented. It is applied in the commercial software COMSOL Multiphysics. Its main features include the perfectly matched layer (PML) technique to emulate radiating boundary conditions beyond a critical cutoff layer for the fast wave (FW), full-wave propagation across the inhomogeneous cold peripheral plasma and a detailed description of the wave launcher geometry. The PML technique, while widely used in numerical simulations of wave propagation, has scarcely been used for magnetized plasmas, due to specificities of this gyrotropic material. A versatile PML formulation, valid for full dielectric tensors, is summarized and interpreted as wave propagation in an artificial medium. The behavior of this technique has been checked for plane waves on homogeneous plasmas. Wave reflection has been quantified and compared to analytical predictions. An incompatibility issue for adapting the PML for forward (FW) and backward (slow wave (SW)) propagating waves simultaneously has been evidenced. In a tokamak plasma, this critical issue is overcome by taking advantage of the inhomogeneous density profile to reflect the SW before it reaches the PML. The simulated coupling properties of a Tore Supra ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) antenna have been compared to experimental values in a situation of good single-pass absorption. The necessary antenna elements to include in the geometry to recover the coupling properties obtained experimentally are also discussed. (paper)

  7. Two-compartment, two-sample technique for accurate estimation of effective renal plasma flow: Theoretical development and comparison with other methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lear, J.L.; Feyerabend, A.; Gregory, C.

    1989-01-01

    Discordance between effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) measurements from radionuclide techniques that use single versus multiple plasma samples was investigated. In particular, the authors determined whether effects of variations in distribution volume (Vd) of iodine-131 iodohippurate on measurement of ERPF could be ignored, an assumption implicit in the single-sample technique. The influence of Vd on ERPF was found to be significant, a factor indicating an important and previously unappreciated source of error in the single-sample technique. Therefore, a new two-compartment, two-plasma-sample technique was developed on the basis of the observations that while variations in Vd occur from patient to patient, the relationship between intravascular and extravascular components of Vd and the rate of iodohippurate exchange between the components are stable throughout a wide range of physiologic and pathologic conditions. The new technique was applied in a series of 30 studies in 19 patients. Results were compared with those achieved with the reference, single-sample, and slope-intercept techniques. The new two-compartment, two-sample technique yielded estimates of ERPF that more closely agreed with the reference multiple-sample method than either the single-sample or slope-intercept techniques

  8. Silicon ribbon growth by a capillary action shaping technique. Annual report (Quarterly technical progress report No. 9)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwuttke, G.H.; Ciszek, T.F.; Kran, A.

    1977-10-01

    Progress on the technological and economical assessment of ribbon growth of silicon by a capillary action shaping technique is reported. Progress in scale-up of the process from 50 mm to 100 mm ribbon widths is presented, the use of vitreous carbon as a crucible material is analyzed, and preliminary tests of CVD Si/sub 3/N/sub 4/ as a potential die material are reported. Diffusion length measurements by SEM, equipment and procedure for defect display under MOS structure in silicon ribbon for lifetime interpretation, and an assessment of ribbon technology are discussed. (WHK)

  9. Spark Plasma Sintering As a Solid-State Recycling Technique: The Case of Aluminum Alloy Scrap Consolidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimos Paraskevas

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Recently, “meltless” recycling techniques have been presented for the light metals category, targeting both energy and material savings by bypassing the final recycling step of remelting. In this context, the use of spark plasma sintering (SPS is proposed in this paper as a novel solid-state recycling technique. The objective is two-fold: (I to prove the technical feasibility of this approach; and (II to characterize the recycled samples. Aluminum (Al alloy scrap was selected to demonstrate the SPS effectiveness in producing fully-dense samples. For this purpose, Al alloy scrap in the form of machining chips was cold pre-compacted and sintered bellow the solidus temperature at 490 °C, under elevated pressure of 200 MPa. The dynamic scrap compaction, combined with electric current-based joule heating, achieved partial fracture of the stable surface oxides, desorption of the entrapped gases and activated the metallic surfaces, resulting in efficient solid-state chip welding eliminating residual porosity. The microhardness, the texture, the mechanical properties, the microstructure and the density of the recycled specimens have been investigated. An X-ray computed tomography (CT analysis confirmed the density measurements, revealing a void-less bulk material with homogeneously distributed intermetallic compounds and oxides. The oxide content of the chips incorporated within the recycled material slightly increases its elastic properties. Finally, a thermal distribution simulation of the process in different segments illustrates the improved energy efficiency of this approach.

  10. CIS-Type PV Device Fabrication by Novel Techniques; Phase I Annual Technical Report, 1 July 1998 - 30 June 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basol, B.M.; Halani, A.; Kapur, V.K.; Leidholm, C.R.; Norsworthy, G.; Roe, R.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes work performed by International Solar Electric Technology, Inc. (ISET) during phase I of the R and D partnership subcontract titled ''CIS-Type PV Device Fabrication by Novel Techniques.'' The objective of this program is to bring ISET's novel non-vacuum CIS technology closer to commercialization by concentrating on issues such as device-efficiency improvement, larger-bandgap absorber growth, and module fabrication. Advances made in CIS and related compound solar cell fabrication processes have clearly shown that these materials and device structures can yield power conversion efficiencies in the 15%-20% range. However, many of the laboratory results on CIS-type devices have been obtained using relatively high-cost vacuum-based deposition techniques. The present project was specifically geared toward developing a low-cost, non-vacuum ''particle deposition'' method for CIS-type absorber growth. There are four major processing steps in this technique: i) preparation of a starting powder containing all or some of the chemical species constituting CIS, ii) preparation of an ink using the starting powder, iii) deposition of the ink on a substrate in the form of a thin precursor layer, and iv) conversion of the precursor layer into a fused photovoltaic absorber through annealing steps. During this Phase I program, ISET worked on tasks that were geared toward the following goals: i) elimination of back-contact problems, ii) growth of large-bandgap absorbers, and iii) fabrication of mini-modules. As a result of the Phase I research, a Mo back-contact structure was developed that eliminated problems that resulted in poor mechanical integrity of the absorber layers. Sulfur inclusion into CIS films through high-temperature sulfurization in H2S gas was also studied. It was determined that S diffusion was a strong function of the stoichiometry of the CIS layer. Sulfur was found to diffuse rapidly through the Cu-rich films, whereas the diffusion constant was

  11. Increased Oil Production and Reserves Utilizing Secondary/Tertiary Recovery Techniques on Small Reservoirs in the Paradox Basin, Utah; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jr., Chidsey, Thomas C.; Allison, M. Lee

    1999-01-01

    The primary objective of this project is to enhance domestic petroleum production by field demonstration and technology transfer of an advanced- oil-recovery technology in the Paradox basin, southeastern Utah. If this project can demonstrate technical and economic feasibility, the technique can be applied to approximately 100 additional small fields in the Paradox basin alone, and result in increased recovery of 150 to 200 million barrels (23,850,000-31,800,000 m3) of oil. This project is designed to characterize five shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs in the Pennsylvanian (Desmoinesian) Paradox Formation and choose the best candidate for a pilot demonstration project for either a waterflood or carbon-dioxide-(CO2-) miscible flood project. The field demonstration, monitoring of field performance, and associated validation activities will take place within the Navajo Nation, San Juan County, Utah

  12. Parallel path nebulizer: Critical parameters for use with microseparation techniques combined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanes, Enrique G.; Miller-Ihli, Nancy J.

    2005-01-01

    Four different, low flow parallel path Mira Mist CE nebulizers were evaluated and compared in support of an ongoing project related to the use of microseparation techniques interfaced to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for the quantification of cobalamin species (Vitamin B12). For the characterization of the different Mira Mist CE nebulizers, the nebulizer orientation as well as the effect of methanol on analytical response was the focus of the study. The position of the gas outlet on the nebulizer which consistently provided the maximum signal was when it was rotated to the 11 o'clock position when the nebulizer is viewed end-on. With this orientation the increased signal may be explained by the fact that the cone angle of the aerosol is such that the largest percentage of the aerosol is directed to the center of the spray chamber and consequently into the plasma. To characterize the nebulizer's performance, the signal response of a multielement solution containing elements with a variety of ionization potentials was used. The selection of elements with varying ionization energies and degrees of ionization was essential for a better understanding of observed increases in signal enhancement when methanol was used. Two different phenomena contribute to signal enhancement when using methanol: the first is improved transport efficiency and the second is the 'carbon enhancement effect'. The net result was that as much as a 30-fold increase in signal was observed for As and Mg when using a make-up solution of 20% methanol at a 15 μL/min flow rate which is equivalent to a net volume of 3 μL/min of pure methanol

  13. Characterization of the Plasma Edge for Technique of Atomic Helium Beam in the CIEMAT Fusion Device; Caracterizacion del Borde del Plasma del Dispositivo de Fusion TJ-II del CIEMAT mediante el Diagnostico del Haz Supersonico de Helio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hidalgo, A.

    2003-07-01

    In this report, the measurement of Electron Temperature and Density in the Boundary Plasma of TJ-II with a Supersonic Helium Beam Diagnostic and work devoted to the upgrading of this technique are described. Also, simulations of Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) studies of level populations of electronically excited He atoms are shown. This last technique is now being installed in the CIEMAT fusion device. (Author ) 36 refs.

  14. Two-dimensional imaging of edge plasma electron density and temperature by the passive helium emission ratio technique in TJ-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De la Cal, E; Guasp, J

    2011-01-01

    An intensified visible camera looks tangentially at a poloidal limiter where helium recycles, acting as a wide neutral source, and the atomic line emission due to plasma excitation becomes strongly localized there. It includes a bifurcated coherent bundle, each end with a different interference filter to select helium atomic lines, so that two simultaneous filtered images are captured in one single frame. The object of the proposed technique is to apply the well-known helium-beam line-ratio technique to obtain from selected filtered images the two-dimensional (2D) edge plasma n e and T e . The code EIRENE was used to demonstrate that the helium emission from recycling neutrals dominates the emission for the lines of view passing close above the limiter. Since these chords are nearly parallel to magnetic field lines in the emission region, the images can be approximated to poloidal cuts of the plasma emission within the tolerances discussed in the paper. The absolute radial profiles of T e and n e obtained with the method presented here were checked in the TJ-II stellarator to be in relatively good agreement with other diagnostics within a wide range of plasma parameters for both ECRH and NBI plasmas. The method is finally used to get 2D images of edge plasma T e and n e .

  15. Non-platinum nanocatalyst on porous nitrogen-doped carbon fabricated by cathodic vacuum arc plasma technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirirak, Reungruthai [Material Science Research Center, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Department of Chemistry and Center of Excellence for Innovation in Chemistry (PERCH-CIC), Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Sarakonsri, Thapanee, E-mail: tsarakonsri@gmail.com [Material Science Research Center, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Department of Chemistry and Center of Excellence for Innovation in Chemistry (PERCH-CIC), Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Medhesuwakul, Min [Plasma & Beam Physics Research Facility, Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand)

    2015-11-30

    Highlights: • High surface area porous coral-like nitrogen-doped carbon (NC) and non-platinum nanocatalysts were fabricated on proton exchange membrane using the cathodic vacuum arc plasma (CVAP) technique. • It is a one-step catalysts preparation directly on nafion proton exchange membrane. This CVAP technique is the first new method that was applied in a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) catalysts preparation. • Due to these excellent characteristics of nitrogen-doped carbon, it is expected to exhibit a good catalyst supporter for PEMFC. • In addition, the Fe–NC catalysts fabricated via this CVAP technique are sphere-like nanoparticle and well disperse on coral-like NC film, which particularity exhibits that these prepared catalysts ought to be a good oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalyst for PEMFC. • This approach can be extended to the synthesis of other non-platinum ORR catalyst for broad range applications in energy conversion. - Abstract: Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) convert chemical energy directly into electrical energy where catalysts composing of non-noble transition metals, nitrogen, and carbon compounds are the most promising materials to replace the expensive platinum catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). In this research, cathodic vacuum arc plasma (CVAP) technique was used to fabricate porous nitrogen doped carbon (NC) and non-platinum catalyst on porous NC (Fe–NC) directly on ion exchange membrane for being used as an ORR catalyst at the cathode. The porous NC layer was fabricated on silicon wafer at 0.05 mTorr, 0.1 mTorr, 0.5 mTorr, 1 mTorr, and 5 mTorr of nitrogen gas inlet. The AFM, and SEM images are observed to be regularly big with quite high hillocks and thin NC layers; these results indicate that the optimum process pressure of nitrogen gas inlet is 5 mTorr for porous NC fabrication. The SEM–EDS detects Fe, N, and C elements in the prepared catalysts, and the XRD pattern reviews

  16. Non-platinum nanocatalyst on porous nitrogen-doped carbon fabricated by cathodic vacuum arc plasma technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirirak, Reungruthai; Sarakonsri, Thapanee; Medhesuwakul, Min

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • High surface area porous coral-like nitrogen-doped carbon (NC) and non-platinum nanocatalysts were fabricated on proton exchange membrane using the cathodic vacuum arc plasma (CVAP) technique. • It is a one-step catalysts preparation directly on nafion proton exchange membrane. This CVAP technique is the first new method that was applied in a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) catalysts preparation. • Due to these excellent characteristics of nitrogen-doped carbon, it is expected to exhibit a good catalyst supporter for PEMFC. • In addition, the Fe–NC catalysts fabricated via this CVAP technique are sphere-like nanoparticle and well disperse on coral-like NC film, which particularity exhibits that these prepared catalysts ought to be a good oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalyst for PEMFC. • This approach can be extended to the synthesis of other non-platinum ORR catalyst for broad range applications in energy conversion. - Abstract: Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) convert chemical energy directly into electrical energy where catalysts composing of non-noble transition metals, nitrogen, and carbon compounds are the most promising materials to replace the expensive platinum catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). In this research, cathodic vacuum arc plasma (CVAP) technique was used to fabricate porous nitrogen doped carbon (NC) and non-platinum catalyst on porous NC (Fe–NC) directly on ion exchange membrane for being used as an ORR catalyst at the cathode. The porous NC layer was fabricated on silicon wafer at 0.05 mTorr, 0.1 mTorr, 0.5 mTorr, 1 mTorr, and 5 mTorr of nitrogen gas inlet. The AFM, and SEM images are observed to be regularly big with quite high hillocks and thin NC layers; these results indicate that the optimum process pressure of nitrogen gas inlet is 5 mTorr for porous NC fabrication. The SEM–EDS detects Fe, N, and C elements in the prepared catalysts, and the XRD pattern reviews

  17. A Novel Hybrid Axial-Radial Atmospheric Plasma Spraying Technique for the Fabrication of Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Anodes Containing Cu, Co, Ni, and Samaria-Doped Ceria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuglietta, Mark; Kuhn, Joel; Kesler, Olivera

    2013-06-01

    Composite coatings containing Cu, Co, Ni, and samaria-doped ceria (SDC) have been fabricated using a novel hybrid atmospheric plasma spraying technique, in which a multi-component aqueous suspension of CuO, Co3O4, and NiO was injected axially simultaneously with SDC injected radially in a dry powder form. Coatings were characterized for their microstructure, permeability, porosity, and composition over a range of plasma spray conditions. Deposition efficiency of the metal oxides and SDC was also estimated. Depending on the conditions, coatings displayed either layering or high levels of mixing between the SDC and metal phases. The deposition efficiencies of both feedstock types were strongly dependent on the nozzle diameter. Plasma-sprayed metal-supported solid oxide fuel cells utilizing anodes fabricated with this technique demonstrated power densities at 0.7 V as high as 366 and 113 mW/cm2 in humidified hydrogen and methane, respectively, at 800 °C.

  18. Physicochemical characterization of titanium dioxide pigments using various techniques for size determination and asymmetric flow field flow fractionation hyphenated with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helsper, Hans; Peters, Ruud J.B.; Bemmel, van Greet; Herrera Rivera, Zahira; Wagner, Stephan; Kammer, von der Frank; Tromp, Peter C.; Hofmann, Thilo; Weigel, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Seven commercial titanium dioxide pigments and two other well-defined TiO2 materials (TiMs) were physicochemically characterised using asymmetric flow field flow fractionation (aF4) for separation, various techniques to determine size distribution and inductively coupled plasma mass

  19. Physicochemical characterization of titanium dioxide pigments using various techniques for size determination and asymmetric flow field flow fractionation hyphenated with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helsper, J.P.F.G.; Peters, R.J.B.; Bemmel, M.E.M. van; Rivera, Z.E.H.; Wagner, S.; Kammer, F. von der; Tromp, P.C.; Hofmann, T.; Weigel, S.

    2016-01-01

    Seven commercial titanium dioxide pigments and two other well-defined TiO2 materials (TiMs) were physicochemically characterised using asymmetric flow field flow fractionation (aF4) for separation, various techniques to determine size distribution and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

  20. Severe Hemolysis in a Patient With Erythrocytosis During Coupled Plasma Filtration Adsorption Therapy Was Prevented by Changing From Membrane-Based Technique to a Centrifuge-Based One.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Rong; Wu, Buyun; Kong, Ling; Gong, Dehua

    2016-01-01

    Coupled plasma filtration adsorption (CPFA) usually adopts membrane to separate plasma from blood. Here, we reported a case with erythrocytosis experienced severe hemolysis and membrane rupture during CPFA, which was avoided by changing from membrane-based technique to a centrifuge-based one. A 66-year-old man was to receive CPFA for severe hyperbilirubinemia (total bilirubin 922 μmol/L, direct bilirubin 638 μmol/L) caused by obstruction of biliary tract. He had erythrocytosis (hemoglobin 230 g/L, hematocrit 0.634) for years because of untreated tetralogy of Fallot. Severe hemolysis and membrane rupture occurred immediately after blood entering into the plasma separator even at a low flow rate (50 mL/min) and persisted after changing a new separator. Finally, centrifugal plasma separation technique was used for CPFA in this patient, and no hemolysis occurred. After 3 sessions of CPFA, total bilirubin level decreased to 199 μmol/L with an average decline by 35% per session. Thereafter, the patient received endoscopic biliary stent implantation, and total bilirubin level returned to nearly normal. Therefore, centrifugal-based plasma separation can also be used in CPFA and may be superior to a membrane-based one in patients with hyperviscosity.

  1. Use of nonimaging nuclear medicine techniques to assess the effect of flunixin meglumine on effective renal plasma flow and effective renal blood flow in healthy horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, J P; Daniel, G B

    1991-10-01

    The effect of flunixin meglumine on renal function was studied in 6 healthy horses by use of nonimaging nuclear medicine techniques. Effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) and effective renal blood flow (ERBF) were determined by plasma clearance of 131I-orthoiodohippuric acid before and after administration of flunixin meglumine. Mean ERPF and ERBF was 6.03 ml/min/kg and 10.7 ml/min/kg, respectively, before treatment and was 5.7 ml/min/kg and 9.7 ml/min/kg, respectively, after treatment. Although ERPF and ERBF decreased after flunixin meglumine administration, the difference was not statistically significant.

  2. Development of bonding techniques of W and Cu-alloys for plasma facing components of fusion reactor with HIP method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, S.; Fukaya, K.; Ishiyama, S.; Eto, M.; Sato, K.; Akiba, M.

    1998-01-01

    W (tungsten) and Cu (copper)-alloys, like oxygen free high thermal conductivity (OFHC)-copper or dispersion strengthened (DS)-copper, are candidate materials for plasma facing components(PFC) of TOKAMAK type fusion reactor as armor tile and heat sink, respectively. However, PFC are exposed to cyclic high heat load and heavy irradiation by 14 MeV neutrons. Under these conditions, thermal stresses at bonding interface and irradiation damage will decrease the bonding strength between W and Cu alloys. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a reliable bonding techniques in order to make PFC with enough integrity. We have applied the hot isostatic press (HIP) method to bond W with Cu-alloys. In this experiments, to optimize HIP bonding conditions, four point bending tests were performed for different bonding conditions at temperatures from R.T. to 873 K and we obtained an optimum HIP bonding condition for W and OFHC-Cu as 1273 SK x 2 hours x 98 ∼ 147 MPa. Tensile tests were also performed at the same temperature range. The tensile strength of the bonded W / Cu was almost equal to that of OFHC Cu which was HIPed at the same conditions. Tensile specimens were broken at the bonding interface or OFHC-Cu side. Bonding tests of W and DS-Cu showed that HIP was not successful because tungsten oxide was produced at the bonding interface and residual stresses were not relaxed. Therefore, it was concluded that some insert materials will be needed to bond W and DS-Cu. (author)

  3. Rutherford scattering of neutral atoms: a technique for measuring plasma ion temperatures. An analysis of the applicability to the central cell plasma of TMX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granneman, E.H.A.

    1980-01-01

    Rutherford scattering of neutral particles by plasma ions is examined as a method for determining plasma ion in the central cell fo the Tandem Mirror Experiment (TMX). When a scattering configuration, consisting of a 20-keV-, 10-A-deuterium neutral beam and an energy analyzer with a 1% resolution, is arranged such that only neutral particles scattered by plasma ions over an angle of 10 0 are accepted, central-cell ion temperatures in the 30- to 1000-eV range can be measured. The count rate registered by the detector(s) is estimated to be 2000 counts/ms. Consequently, good statistical accuracy and time resolution are attainable simultaneously. The results of the calculation are presented such that the scaling of the count rates and the energy broadening with scattering angle, neutral-beam energy, ion temperature, and plasma density can easily be deduced. Neutral helium beams are also considered; they have some advantages over deuterium beams. The background signal, caused by neutral particles entering the detector after two successive charge-exchange collisions, is examined and ways to completely eliminate this background are indicated

  4. Study on the interaction of plasma protein binding rate between edaravone and taurine in human plasma based on HPLC analysis coupled with ultrafiltration technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Dao-quan; Li, Yin-jie; Li, Zheng; Bian, Ting-ting; Chen, Kai; Zheng, Xiao-xiao; Yu, Yan-yan; Jiang, Shui-shi

    2015-08-01

    In this work, two high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assays were developed and validated for the independent determination of edaravone and taurine using 3-methyl-1-p-tolyl-5-pyrazolone and L-glutamine as internal standards. In in vitro experiments, human plasma was separately spiked with a mixture of edaravone and taurine, edaravone or taurine alone. Plasma was precipitated with acetonitrile containing 0.1% formic acid. Ultrafiltration was employed to obtain the unbound ingredients of the two drugs. The factors that might influence the ultrafiltration effiency were elaborately optimized. Plasma supernatant and ultrafiltrate containing taurine were derivated with o-phthalaldehyde and ethanethiol in the presence of 40 mmol/L sodium borate buffer (pH 10.2) at room temperature within 1 min. Chromatographic separations were achieved on an InertSustain C18 column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 µm). Isocratic 50 mmol/L ammonium acetate-acetonitrile and gradient 50 mmol/L sodium acetate (pH 5.3)-methanol were respectively selected as the mobile phase for the determination of edaravone and taurine. All of the validation data including linearity, extraction recovery, precision, accuracy and stability conformed to the requirements. Results showed that there were no significant alterations in the plasma protein binding rate of taurine and edaravone, implying that the proposed combination therapy was pharmacologically feasible. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Technique of experimental measurements of the optical thickness of a pulse discharge plasma channel in water on a contour reabsorption lines of hydrogen Hα

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Fedorovich

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work the results of development and application of the technique of experimental definition of optical thickness (τ of the pulse discharge plasma channel in water which are based on the distribution of radiation intensities on contour reabsorption lines of hydrogen Ha (656.3 nm are given. Optical thickness of continues spectrum was defined by extrapolation of intensities in far wing of contour reabsorption lines of hydrogen Ha, where t value did not vary any more, and the line smoothly transferred in continuous spectrum. The atomic concentration Na, received on a method of definition of t on a contour reabsorption lines of hydrogen Ha., agreed with calculation obtained from the equation of the plasma state. The recommendations on the correct definition of optical thickness of plasma of pulse discharge in liquids are given.

  6. Complex polarimetric and spectral techniques in diagnostics of blood plasma of patients with ovarian cancer as a preliminary stage molecular genetic screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzegorzewski, B.; Peresunko, O. P.; Yermolenko, S. B.

    2018-01-01

    This work is devoted to the substantiation and selection of patients with ovarian cancer (OC) for the purpose of conducting expensive molecular genetic studies on genotyping. As diagnostic methods have been used ultraviolet spectrometry samples of blood plasma in the liquid state, infrared spectroscopy middle range (2,5 - 25 microns) dry residue of plasma polarization and laser diagnostic technique of thin histological sections of biological tissues. Obtained results showed that the use of spectrophotometry in the range of 1000-3000 cm-1 allowed to establish quantitative parameters of the plasma absorption rate of blood of patients in the third group in different ranges, which would allow in the future to conduct an express analysis of the patient's condition (procedure screening) for further molecular-genetic typing on BRCA I and II.

  7. A comparative study of sample dissolution techniques and plasma-based instruments for the precise and accurate quantification of REEs in mineral matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitty-Léveillé, Laurence; Turgeon, Keven [Département de génie des mines, de la métallurgie et des matériaux, Université Laval, Québec, QC (Canada); Département de chimie, Université Laval, Québec, QC (Canada); Bazin, Claude [Département de génie des mines, de la métallurgie et des matériaux, Université Laval, Québec, QC (Canada); Larivière, Dominic, E-mail: dominic.lariviere@chm.ulaval.ca [Département de chimie, Université Laval, Québec, QC (Canada)

    2017-04-08

    The recent commercialisation of inductively coupled plasma tandem mass spectrometric (ICP-MS/MS) instruments has provided analytical chemists with a new tool to properly quantify atomic composition in a variety of matrices with minimal sample preparation. In this article, we report on our assessment of the compatibility of 3 sample preparation techniques (open-vessel acid digestion, microwave digestion and alkaline fusion) for the quantification of rare earth elements (REEs) in mineral matrices. The combination of the high digestion temperatures (1050 °C) and using LiBO{sub 2} as a flux was the most effective strategy for the digestion of all rare earth elements in mineral matrices and was compatible with ICP-MS/MS measurements. We also assessed the analytical performances of ICP-MS/MS against other plasma-based instrumentation (microwave induced plasma and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (MIP-AES and ICP-AES, respectively) and single quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The comparative study showed that the concentrations obtained by ICP-MS/MS are in excellent agreement with the certified reference material values, and much more suited than the other analytical techniques tested for the quantification of REEs, which exhibited low detectability and/or spectral interferences for some elements/isotopes. Finally, the ruggedness of the analytical protocol proposed which combines a rapid sample dissolution step performed by an automated fusion unit and an ICP-MS/MS as a detector was established using various certified mineral matrices containing variable levels of REEs. - Highlights: • Three types of digestion methods were tested. • Four types of analytical techniques were compared. • Elimination of the spectral interferences encountered in ICP-MS was achieved by the use of Tandem ICP-MS. • Robustness of the analytical procedure was successfully evaluate on four types of certified reference material.

  8. A comparative study of sample dissolution techniques and plasma-based instruments for the precise and accurate quantification of REEs in mineral matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitty-Léveillé, Laurence; Turgeon, Keven; Bazin, Claude; Larivière, Dominic

    2017-01-01

    The recent commercialisation of inductively coupled plasma tandem mass spectrometric (ICP-MS/MS) instruments has provided analytical chemists with a new tool to properly quantify atomic composition in a variety of matrices with minimal sample preparation. In this article, we report on our assessment of the compatibility of 3 sample preparation techniques (open-vessel acid digestion, microwave digestion and alkaline fusion) for the quantification of rare earth elements (REEs) in mineral matrices. The combination of the high digestion temperatures (1050 °C) and using LiBO_2 as a flux was the most effective strategy for the digestion of all rare earth elements in mineral matrices and was compatible with ICP-MS/MS measurements. We also assessed the analytical performances of ICP-MS/MS against other plasma-based instrumentation (microwave induced plasma and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (MIP-AES and ICP-AES, respectively) and single quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The comparative study showed that the concentrations obtained by ICP-MS/MS are in excellent agreement with the certified reference material values, and much more suited than the other analytical techniques tested for the quantification of REEs, which exhibited low detectability and/or spectral interferences for some elements/isotopes. Finally, the ruggedness of the analytical protocol proposed which combines a rapid sample dissolution step performed by an automated fusion unit and an ICP-MS/MS as a detector was established using various certified mineral matrices containing variable levels of REEs. - Highlights: • Three types of digestion methods were tested. • Four types of analytical techniques were compared. • Elimination of the spectral interferences encountered in ICP-MS was achieved by the use of Tandem ICP-MS. • Robustness of the analytical procedure was successfully evaluate on four types of certified reference material.

  9. Technique of experimental definition of optical thickness of the plasma channel by the method of lightening and possibilities of its application for pulsing discharge in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorovich, O.A.

    2008-01-01

    Results of development and application of a technique of experimental definition of optical thickness τ of the plasma channel in water by the method of lightening are given. Plasma of the discharge in water managed to be lighten through on a stage of relaxation and the logarithm of coefficient of passage of radiation from an extraneous radiation source have been determined. The basic contribution to size of optical thickness gives absorption of radiation, instead of dispersion. But this value is not real optical thickness. Calculation of atoms N a concentration in the channel on values τ, received by the lightening through method, at 4 - 15 times is overestimated in comparison to the values of concentration, received by other independent method. Results of direct measurements of τ by illumination of the plasma channel by reference source EhV-45 are overestimated because of features of passage of appearing through radiation through the channel of the discharge in water of the cylindrical form as it represents a disseminating lens. The reasons of this distinguish of the received by lightening through method values of τ in cylindrical plasma channel in liquids are given. The technique of definition of time of a delay of the beginning of expansion of the channel concerning the moment of submission of a voltage on a digit interval is developed

  10. Synthesis and characterization of Al2O3 and SiO2 films with fluoropolymer content using rf-plasma magnetron sputtering technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Islam, Mohammad; Inal, Osman T.

    2008-01-01

    Pure and molecularly mixed inorganic films for protection against atomic oxygen in lower earth orbit were prepared using radio-frequency (rf) plasma magnetron sputtering technique. Alumina (Al 2 O 3 ) and silica (SiO 2 ) films with average grain size in the range of 30-80 nm and fully dense or dense columnar structure were synthesized under different conditions of pressure and power. Simultaneous oxide sputtering and plasma polymerization (PP) of hexafluoropropylene (HFP) led to the formation of molecularly mixed films with fluoropolymer content. The degree of plasma polymerization was strongly influenced by total chamber pressure and the argon to HFP molar ratio (n Ar /n M ). An order of magnitude increase in pressure due to argon during codeposition changed the plasma-polymerization mechanism from radical-chain- to radical-radical-type processes. Subsequently, a shift from linear CH 2 group based chain polymerization to highly disordered fluoropolymer content with branching and cross-linking was observed. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy studies revealed chemical interaction between depositing SiO 2 and PP-HFP through appearance of absorption bands characteristic of Si-F stretching and expansion of SiO 2 network. The relative amount and composition of plasma-polymerized fluoropolymer in such films can be controlled by changing argon to HFP flow ratio, total chamber pressure, and applied power. These films offer great potential for use as protective coatings in aerospace applications

  11. Improvement of interfacial adhesion and nondestructive damage evaluation for plasma-treated PBO and Kevlar fibers/epoxy composites using micromechanical techniques and surface wettability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joung-Man; Kim, Dae-Sik; Kim, Sung-Ryong

    2003-08-15

    Comparison of interfacial properties and microfailure mechanisms of oxygen-plasma treated poly(p-phenylene-2,6-benzobisoxazole (PBO, Zylon) and poly(p-phenylene terephthalamide) (PPTA, Kevlar) fibers/epoxy composites were investigated using a micromechanical technique and nondestructive acoustic emission (AE). The interfacial shear strength (IFSS) and work of adhesion, Wa, of PBO or Kevlar fiber/epoxy composites increased with oxygen-plasma treatment, due to induced hydrogen and covalent bondings at their interface. Plasma-treated Kevlar fiber showed the maximum critical surface tension and polar term, whereas the untreated PBO fiber showed the minimum values. The work of adhesion and the polar term were proportional to the IFSS directly for both PBO and Kevlar fibers. The microfibril fracture pattern of two plasma-treated fibers appeared obviously. Unlike in slow cooling, in rapid cooling, case kink band and kicking in PBO fiber appeared, whereas buckling in the Kevlar fiber was observed mainly due to compressive and residual stresses. Based on the propagation of microfibril failure toward the core region, the number of AE events for plasma-treated PBO and Kevlar fibers increased significantly compared to the untreated case. The results of nondestructive AE were consistent with microfailure modes.

  12. Experimental study of TJ-1 plasma using scattering and radiation emission techniques; Analisis experimental del plasma TJ-1 con tecnicas de scattering y emision de radiacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pardo, C; Zurro, B

    1987-07-01

    The Thomson scattering system of TJ-1 is described in detail. The radial profiles of Te and ne obtained in TJ-1 discharges are presented. This data make possible to deduce characteristic parameters of the plasma confinement in this machine, as energy confinement times, Zeff B. Using also radiation measurements (global and in the visible range) we obtained the particle confinement time and Zeff without non experimental assumptions. (Author) 52 refs.

  13. Green's function for a switched plasma medium and a perturbation technique for the study of wave propagation in a transient plasma with a small rise time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalluri, D.K.

    1996-01-01

    The main effect of switching a medium (creating a temporal discontinuity in the properties of a medium) is the splitting of the source (incident) wave into new waves whose frequencies are different. Lightning induced effects in the ionosphere cause a temporary enhancement of ionization. Such transient plasmas have a time-varying plasma frequency ω p (t) with a rise time T r . If the period t 0 of a source wave existing before the transient effect begins is much larger than the rise time, the ionization change may be idealized as a sudden switching of the medium. The solution to this initial value problem with a step-change in the electron density profile is known and this profile will be considered as a reference profile. The topic of this paper is the solution of the initial value problem when t 0 is comparable to the rise time T r . The initial motivation for investigating the problem is given below. There is considerable interest in the ionospheric physics community to investigate the recently discovered Sprites phenomenon which are red emissions in the lower D region induced by the lightning discharges from a cloud to the ground. The preliminary indications are that the Sprite is a plasma with electron density enhanced by about 10 1 to 10 3 /cc in a rise time of about 100 micros

  14. Improving the cell affinity of a poly(D,L-lactide) film modified by grafting collagen via a plasma technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jianhao; Wang Jue; Tu Mei; Luo Binghong; Zhou Changren

    2006-01-01

    Poly(D,L-lactide) films were surface-modified by grafting collagen via NH 3 plasma to improve cell affinity. The modified films were characterized by IR analysis, contact angle measurement, SEM analysis and collagen quantity determination. It was demonstrated that -NH 2 and collagen were incorporated into the surface of PDLLA films. The hydrophilicity of the PDLLA film increased after NH 3 plasma treatment, but decreased with further collagen modification. More collagen was incorporated into the PDLLA films by a grating method as compared to that with an anchorage treatment. L929 fibroblast cells were used to evaluate the cell affinity of the modified films and control. It was shown that PDLLA films surface-modified by grafting collagen via NH 3 plasma more efficiently enhanced the cells attachment and proliferation than those films modified by collagen anchorage or only NH 3 plasma treatment

  15. Adsorption of proteins from plasma to a series of hydrophilic-hydrophobic copolymers. I. Analysis with the in situ radioiodination technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horbett, T.A.; Weathersby, P.K.

    1981-01-01

    The adsorption of proteins affects cellular interactions with foreign surfaces and thus plays an important role in determining the biocompatibility of implants. Previous studies have indicated differences in the affinity of various proteins for a given polymer, and differences in the affinity of fibrinogen for a series of polymers varying in hydrophilicity. These studies suggest that differences in the composition of the protein layer adsorbed to polymers from plasma might exist. To examine this hypothesis, the proteins adsorbed from plasma to a series of polymers varying in hydrophilicity were analyzed with the iodogram technique. Copolymers of hydroxyethyl methacrylate and ethyl methacrylate made by the radiation grafting technique were exposed to plasma for 0.5 or 150 min. The adsorbed proteins were iodinated, eluted with SDS, and separated with polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Fibrinogen, immunoglobulin G, hemoglobin, and a peak tentatively ascribed to prothrombin were the major proteins detected. Very little iodine was incorporated into adsorbed albumin, even though it was shown to be present by a separate experiment using dye binding. The fraction of total radioactivity associated with each of nine proteins was found to vary markedly and systematically among the surfaces. The distribution of radioactivity into the proteins was very different on 0.5 and 150-min plasma exposed polymers. The results reflect both compositional differences in the adsorbed protein layer on the polymers and differences in the accessibility of proteins to the labeling reagent in the adsorbed state. Differences in the organization of the adsorbed protein layer may play a key role in determining whether cell surface receptors can come in contact with the specific plasma protein able to further stimulate the cell

  16. Annual Report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewska, D.; Infeld, E.; Preibisz, Z.; Zupranski, P.

    2004-01-01

    In the presented ''Annual Report 2003'' the scientific, organizational end educational activities of the Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies (SINS) are presented. The document is divided into two parts. First of them consists of the general information about management, scientific council, departments of SINS, scientific staff, visiting scientists, list of research project (grants) as well as information about PhD and DSc theses and the organized by SINS conferences and workshops. The second one: ''Reports on Research'' describes the research activities of SINS. It is divided into 12 sections - in which the works of SINS departments and establishments are presented (Department of Nuclear Reactions, Department of Nuclear Spectroscopy and Technique, Department of Detectors and Nuclear Electronics, Department of Radiation Shielding and Dosimetry, Department of Plasma Physics and Technology, Department of High Energy Physics, Department of Cosmic Ray Physics, Department of Nuclear Theory, Department of Material Studies, Department of Accelerator Physics and Technology, Department of Training and Consulting and Establishment for Nuclear Equipment). Each of these sections are preceded by short overview given by the head of given department. The foreword, in which the whole activities of the SINS are summarized, given by head of the Institute professor Z. Sujkowski is also given

  17. Annual report 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chmielewska, D; Infeld, E; Zupranski, P [eds.

    1999-12-31

    In the presented ``Annual Report 1997`` the scientific, organizational end educational activities of the Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies (SINS) are presented. The document is divided into two parts. First of them consist of the general information about management, scientific council, department of SINS, scientific staff, visiting scientists, list of research project (grants), PhD and DSc theses as well as the information about organized schools and exhibitions. The second one: ``Reports on Research`` describes the research activities of SINS. It is divided into 12 parts - in which the works of SINS departments and establishments are presented (Department of Nuclear Reactions, Department of Nuclear Spectroscopy and Technique, Department of Nuclear Electronics, Department of Radiation Shielding and Dosimetry, Department of Plasma Physics and Technology, Department of High Energy Physics, Department of Cosmic Radiation Physics, Department of Atomic Nucleus Theory, Department of Radiation Detectors, Department of Accelerator Physics and Technology, Department of Training an Consulting and Establishment for Nuclear Equipment). Each of these parts are foreworded by short overview given by the head of appropriate department. The foreword, in which the whole activities of the SINS are summarized, given by head of the Institute professor Z. Sujkowski is also given

  18. Annual Report 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chmielewska, D; Infeld, E; Preibisz, Z; Zupranski, P [eds.

    2003-07-01

    In the presented ''Annual Report 2002'' the scientific, organizational end educational activities of the Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies (SINS) are presented. The document is divided into two parts. First of them consist of the general information about management, scientific council, departments of SINS, scientific staff, visiting scientists, list of research project (grants) as well as information about PhD and DSc theses. The second one: ''Reports on Research'' describes the research activities of SINS. It is divided into 12 sections - in which the works of SINS departments and establishments are presented (Department of Nuclear Reactions, Department of Nuclear Spectroscopy and Technique, Department of Detectors and Nuclear Electronics, Department of Radiation Shielding and Dosimetry, Department of Plasma Physics and Technology, Department of High Energy Physics, Department of Cosmic Ray Physics, Department of Nuclear Theory, Department of Material Studies, Department of Accelerator Physics and Technology, Department of Training an Consulting and Establishment for Nuclear Equipment). Each of these sections are preceded by short overview given by the head of given department. The foreword, in which the whole activities of the SINS are summarized, given by head of the Institute professor Z. Sujkowski is also given.

  19. Annual Report 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chmielewska, D; Infeld, E; Preibisz, Z; Zupranski, P [eds.

    1999-10-01

    In the presented ``Annual Report 1998`` the scientific, organizational and educational activities of the Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies (SINS) are presented. The document is divided into two parts. First of them consists of the general information about management, scientific council, department of SINS, scientific staff, visiting scientists, list of research project (grants), PhD and DSc theses as well as the information about organized schools and exhibitions. The second one: ``Reports on Research`` describes the research activities of SINS. It is divided into 12 parts - in which the works of SINS departments and establishments are presented (Department of Nuclear Reactions, Department of Nuclear Spectroscopy and Technique, Department of Nuclear Electronics, Department of Radiation Shielding and Dosimetry, Department of Plasma Physics and Technology, Department of High Energy Physics, Department of Cosmic Radiation Physics, Department of Nuclear Theory, Department of Radiation Detectors, Department of Accelerator Physics and Technology, Department of Training an Consulting and Establishment for Nuclear Equipment). Each of these parts are preceded by a short overview given by the head of the given department. The foreword, in which the whole activities of the SINS are summarized, given by head of the Institute professor Z. Sujkowski is also given

  20. Annual report 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewska, D.; Infeld, E.; Zupranski, P.

    1998-01-01

    In the presented ''Annual Report 1997'' the scientific, organizational end educational activities of the Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies (SINS) are presented. The document is divided into two parts. First of them consist of the general information about management, scientific council, department of SINS, scientific staff, visiting scientists, list of research project (grants), PhD and DSc theses as well as the information about organized schools and exhibitions. The second one: ''Reports on Research'' describes the research activities of SINS. It is divided into 12 parts - in which the works of SINS departments and establishments are presented (Department of Nuclear Reactions, Department of Nuclear Spectroscopy and Technique, Department of Nuclear Electronics, Department of Radiation Shielding and Dosimetry, Department of Plasma Physics and Technology, Department of High Energy Physics, Department of Cosmic Radiation Physics, Department of Atomic Nucleus Theory, Department of Radiation Detectors, Department of Accelerator Physics and Technology, Department of Training an Consulting and Establishment for Nuclear Equipment). Each of these parts are foreworded by short overview given by the head of appropriate department. The foreword, in which the whole activities of the SINS are summarized, given by head of the Institute professor Z. Sujkowski is also given

  1. Annual Report 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewska, D.; Infeld, E.; Preibisz, Z.; Zupranski, P.

    2003-01-01

    In the presented ''Annual Report 2002'' the scientific, organizational end educational activities of the Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies (SINS) are presented. The document is divided into two parts. First of them consist of the general information about management, scientific council, departments of SINS, scientific staff, visiting scientists, list of research project (grants) as well as information about PhD and DSc theses. The second one: ''Reports on Research'' describes the research activities of SINS. It is divided into 12 sections - in which the works of SINS departments and establishments are presented (Department of Nuclear Reactions, Department of Nuclear Spectroscopy and Technique, Department of Detectors and Nuclear Electronics, Department of Radiation Shielding and Dosimetry, Department of Plasma Physics and Technology, Department of High Energy Physics, Department of Cosmic Ray Physics, Department of Nuclear Theory, Department of Material Studies, Department of Accelerator Physics and Technology, Department of Training an Consulting and Establishment for Nuclear Equipment). Each of these sections are preceded by short overview given by the head of given department. The foreword, in which the whole activities of the SINS are summarized, given by head of the Institute professor Z. Sujkowski is also given

  2. Annual Report 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewska, D.; Infeld, E.; Preibisz, Z.; Zupranski, P.

    1999-01-01

    In the presented ''Annual Report 1998'' the scientific, organizational and educational activities of the Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies (SINS) are presented. The document is divided into two parts. First of them consists of the general information about management, scientific council, department of SINS, scientific staff, visiting scientists, list of research project (grants), PhD and DSc theses as well as the information about organized schools and exhibitions. The second one: ''Reports on Research'' describes the research activities of SINS. It is divided into 12 parts - in which the works of SINS departments and establishments are presented (Department of Nuclear Reactions, Department of Nuclear Spectroscopy and Technique, Department of Nuclear Electronics, Department of Radiation Shielding and Dosimetry, Department of Plasma Physics and Technology, Department of High Energy Physics, Department of Cosmic Radiation Physics, Department of Nuclear Theory, Department of Radiation Detectors, Department of Accelerator Physics and Technology, Department of Training an Consulting and Establishment for Nuclear Equipment). Each of these parts are preceded by a short overview given by the head of the given department. The foreword, in which the whole activities of the SINS are summarized, given by head of the Institute professor Z. Sujkowski is also given

  3. Annual Report 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewska, D.; Infeld, E.; Preibisz, Z.; Zupranski, P.

    2000-01-01

    In the presented ''Annual Report 1999'' the scientific, organizational and educational activities of the Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies (SINS) are presented. The document is divided into two parts. First of them consists of the general information about management, scientific council, departments of SINS, scientific staff, visiting scientists, list of research project (grants) as well as information about PhD and DSc theses. The second one: ''Reports on Research'' describes the research activities of SINS. It is divided into 12 sections - in which the works of SINS departments and establishments are presented (Department of Nuclear Reactions, Department of Nuclear Spectroscopy and Technique, Department of Nuclear Electronics, Department of Radiation Shielding and Dosimetry, Department of Plasma Physics and Technology, Department of High Energy Physics, Department of Cosmic Radiation Physics, Department of Nuclear Theory, Department of Radiation Detectors, Department of Accelerator Physics and Technology, Department of Training and Consulting and Establishment for Nuclear Equipment). Each of these sections is preceded by short overview given by the head of given department. The foreword, in which the whole activities of the SINS are summarized, given by head of the Institute professor Z. Sujkowski is also given

  4. Annual Report 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chmielewska, D; Infeld, E; Preibisz, Z; Zupranski, P [eds.

    2001-07-01

    In the presented ''Annual Report 2000'' the scientific, organizational end educational activities of the Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies (SINS) are presented. The document is divided into two parts. First of them consists of the general information about management, scientific council, department of SINS, scientific staff, visiting scientists, list of research projects (grants) as well as information about PhD and DSc theses. The second one: ''Reports on Research'' describes the research activities of SINS. It is divided into 12 sections - in which the works of SINS departments and establishments are presented (Department of Nuclear Reactions, Department of Nuclear Spectroscopy and Technique, Department of Detectors and Nuclear Electronics, Department of Radiation Shielding and Dosimetry, Department of Plasma Physics and Technology, Department of High Energy Physics, Department of Cosmic Ray Physics, Department of Nuclear Theory, Department of Material Studies, Department of Accelerator Physics and Technology, Department of Training an Consulting and Establishment for Nuclear Equipment). Each of these sections are preceded by short overview given by the head of given department. The foreword, in which the whole activities of the SINS are summarized, given by head of the Institute professor Z. Sujkowski is also given.

  5. Annual report 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chmielewska, D.; Infeld, E.; Zupranski, P. [eds.

    1998-12-31

    In the presented ``Annual Report 1997`` the scientific, organizational end educational activities of the Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies (SINS) are presented. The document is divided into two parts. First of them consist of the general information about management, scientific council, department of SINS, scientific staff, visiting scientists, list of research project (grants), PhD and DSc theses as well as the information about organized schools and exhibitions. The second one: ``Reports on Research`` describes the research activities of SINS. It is divided into 12 parts - in which the works of SINS departments and establishments are presented (Department of Nuclear Reactions, Department of Nuclear Spectroscopy and Technique, Department of Nuclear Electronics, Department of Radiation Shielding and Dosimetry, Department of Plasma Physics and Technology, Department of High Energy Physics, Department of Cosmic Radiation Physics, Department of Atomic Nucleus Theory, Department of Radiation Detectors, Department of Accelerator Physics and Technology, Department of Training an Consulting and Establishment for Nuclear Equipment). Each of these parts are foreworded by short overview given by the head of appropriate department. The foreword, in which the whole activities of the SINS are summarized, given by head of the Institute professor Z. Sujkowski is also given

  6. Annual Report 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewska, D.; Infeld, E.; Preibisz, Z.; Zupranski, P.

    2002-01-01

    In the presented ''Annual Report 2001'' the scientific, organizational and educational activities of the Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies (SINS) are presented. The document is divided into two parts. First of them consists of the general information about management, scientific council, departments of SINS, scientific staff, visiting scientists, list of research project (grants) as well as information about PhD and DSc theses. The second one: ''Reports on Research'' describes the research activities of SINS. It is divided into 12 sections - in which the works of SINS departments and establishments are presented (Department of Nuclear Reactions, Department of Nuclear Spectroscopy and Technique, Department of Detectors and Nuclear Electronics, Department of Radiation Shielding and Dosimetry, Department of Plasma Physics and Technology, Department of High Energy Physics, Department of Cosmic Ray Physics, Department of Nuclear Theory, Department of Material Studies, Department of Accelerator Physics and Technology, Department of Training an Consulting and Establishment for Nuclear Equipment). Each of these sections are preceded by short overview given by the head of given department. The foreword, in which the whole activities of the SINS are summarized, given by head of the Institute professor Z. Sujkowski is also given

  7. Annual Report 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chmielewska, D; Infeld, E; Preibisz, Z; Zupranski, P [eds.

    2004-07-01

    In the presented ''Annual Report 2003'' the scientific, organizational end educational activities of the Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies (SINS) are presented. The document is divided into two parts. First of them consists of the general information about management, scientific council, departments of SINS, scientific staff, visiting scientists, list of research project (grants) as well as information about PhD and DSc theses and the organized by SINS conferences and workshops. The second one: ''Reports on Research'' describes the research activities of SINS. It is divided into 12 sections - in which the works of SINS departments and establishments are presented (Department of Nuclear Reactions, Department of Nuclear Spectroscopy and Technique, Department of Detectors and Nuclear Electronics, Department of Radiation Shielding and Dosimetry, Department of Plasma Physics and Technology, Department of High Energy Physics, Department of Cosmic Ray Physics, Department of Nuclear Theory, Department of Material Studies, Department of Accelerator Physics and Technology, Department of Training and Consulting and Establishment for Nuclear Equipment). Each of these sections are preceded by short overview given by the head of given department. The foreword, in which the whole activities of the SINS are summarized, given by head of the Institute professor Z. Sujkowski is also given.

  8. Annual Report 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewska, D.; Infeld, E.; Preibisz, Z.; Zupranski, P.

    2001-01-01

    In the presented ''Annual Report 2000'' the scientific, organizational end educational activities of the Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies (SINS) are presented. The document is divided into two parts. First of them consists of the general information about management, scientific council, department of SINS, scientific staff, visiting scientists, list of research projects (grants) as well as information about PhD and DSc theses. The second one: ''Reports on Research'' describes the research activities of SINS. It is divided into 12 sections - in which the works of SINS departments and establishments are presented (Department of Nuclear Reactions, Department of Nuclear Spectroscopy and Technique, Department of Detectors and Nuclear Electronics, Department of Radiation Shielding and Dosimetry, Department of Plasma Physics and Technology, Department of High Energy Physics, Department of Cosmic Ray Physics, Department of Nuclear Theory, Department of Material Studies, Department of Accelerator Physics and Technology, Department of Training an Consulting and Establishment for Nuclear Equipment). Each of these sections are preceded by short overview given by the head of given department. The foreword, in which the whole activities of the SINS are summarized, given by head of the Institute professor Z. Sujkowski is also given

  9. Annual Report 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chmielewska, D; Infeld, E; Zupranski, P [eds.

    2005-07-01

    In the presented ''Annual Report 2004' the scientific, organizational and educational activities of the Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies (SINS) are presented. The document is divided into two parts. First of them consists of the general information about management, scientific council, departments of SINS, scientific staff, visiting scientists, list of research projects (grants) as well as information about PhD and DSc theses. The second one: ''Reports on Research'' describes the research activities of SINS. It is divided into 12 sections - in which the works of SINS departments and establishments are presented (Department of Nuclear Reactions, Department of Nuclear Spectroscopy and Technique, Department of Detectors and Nuclear Electronics, Department of Radiation Shielding and Dosimetry, Department of Plasma Physics and Technology, Department of High Energy Physics, Department of Cosmic Ray Physics, Department of Nuclear Theory, Department of Material Studies, Department of Accelerator Physics and Technology, Department of Training and Consulting and Establishment for Nuclear Equipment). Each of these sections are preceded by short overview given by the head of given department. The foreword, in which the whole activities of the SINS are summarized, given by head of the Institute professor Z. Sujkowski, is also given.

  10. Annual Report 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chmielewska, D.; Infeld, E.; Zupranski, P.

    2005-01-01

    In the presented ''Annual Report 2004' the scientific, organizational and educational activities of the Andrzej Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies (SINS) are presented. The document is divided into two parts. First of them consists of the general information about management, scientific council, departments of SINS, scientific staff, visiting scientists, list of research projects (grants) as well as information about PhD and DSc theses. The second one: ''Reports on Research'' describes the research activities of SINS. It is divided into 12 sections - in which the works of SINS departments and establishments are presented (Department of Nuclear Reactions, Department of Nuclear Spectroscopy and Technique, Department of Detectors and Nuclear Electronics, Department of Radiation Shielding and Dosimetry, Department of Plasma Physics and Technology, Department of High Energy Physics, Department of Cosmic Ray Physics, Department of Nuclear Theory, Department of Material Studies, Department of Accelerator Physics and Technology, Department of Training and Consulting and Establishment for Nuclear Equipment). Each of these sections are preceded by short overview given by the head of given department. The foreword, in which the whole activities of the SINS are summarized, given by head of the Institute professor Z. Sujkowski, is also given

  11. The control of plasma density profile in Tore Supra. Comparison of different fueling techniques; Controle du profil de densite dans le plasma de Tore Supra. Comparaison de differentes methodes d'alimentation en particules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Commaux, N

    2007-09-15

    The behaviour of a reactor-class plasma when fuelled using the existing techniques (gas puffing, supersonic molecular beam injection and pellet injection) is still very difficult to foresee. The present work has been initiated on Tore Supra in order to extrapolate the consequences of the different fuelling systems on ITER. Two main topics have been studied: the comparison of the plasma behaviour when fuelled using the different techniques at high Greenwald density fractions and the study of the homogenization following a pellet injection (main fuelling technique for ITER burning plasmas). The experiments at high Greenwald density fractions performed on Tore Supra showed that the plasma behaviour is very dependent on the fuelling method. The plasma energy confinement is following the scaling laws determined at low density when fuelled using pellet injection. which is better than for gas puffing and SMBI. both inducing a significant confinement loss. This behaviour is nor related to a transport modification: the ratio between effective diffusion and convection is similar to the pellet case. The difference between these shots is related only to the position of the matter source (at the edge for gas and close to the center for pellets). The study concerning the homogenization phenomena following a pellet injection aims mainly to study the {nabla}B-drift effect that expels the mater deposited by a pellet toward the low field side. A new phenomenon. which appears to be particularly important for the {nabla}B-drift during low field side injections. was then discovered: the influence of magnetic surfaces with an integer-valued safety factor (q). When the mater drifting toward low field side crosses an integer q surface. it experiences an important braking effect which stops the drift motion. It implies that the pellet material is mainly deposited on the last integer q surface crossed by the pellet during its injection. This study allows also to determine that the {nabla

  12. Annual report 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Infeld, E.; Jaskola, Z.; Zupranski, P.

    1995-01-01

    This report surveys our activities in the following fields: nuclear, particle and cosmic ray physics, plasma and thermonuclear research and techniques, nuclear electronics, accelerator techniques and physics, as well as ionizing radiation detection and spectrometry techniques, developmental work and implementations resulting from chosen trends in nuclear physics. (author)

  13. Annual report 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Infeld, E.; Jaskola, Z.; Zupranski, P. [eds.

    1995-12-31

    This report surveys our activities in the following fields: nuclear, particle and cosmic ray physics, plasma and thermonuclear research and techniques, nuclear electronics, accelerator techniques and physics, as well as ionizing radiation detection and spectrometry techniques, developmental work and implementations resulting from chosen trends in nuclear physics. (author).

  14. Annual report 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Infeld, E; Jaskola, Z; Zupranski, P [eds.

    1996-12-31

    This report surveys our activities in the following fields: nuclear, particle and cosmic ray physics, plasma and thermonuclear research and techniques, nuclear electronics, accelerator techniques and physics, as well as ionizing radiation detection and spectrometry techniques, developmental work and implementations resulting from chosen trends in nuclear physics. (author).

  15. Annual Scientific Report for DE-FG03-02NA00063 Coherent imaging of laser-plasma interactions using XUV high harmonic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henry C. Kapteyn

    2005-01-01

    In this project, we use coherent short-wavelength light generated using high-order harmonic generation as a probe of laser-plasma dynamics and phase transitions on femtosecond time-scales. The interaction of ultrashort laser pulses with materials and plasmas is relevant to stockpile stewardship, to understanding the equation of state of matter at high pressures and temperatures, and to plasma concepts such as the fast-ignitor ICF fusion concept and laser-based particle acceleration. Femtosecond laser technology makes it possible to use a small-scale setup to generate 20fs pulses with average power >10W at multiple kHz repetition rates, that can be focused to intensities in excess of 1017W/cm2. These lasers can be used either to rapidly heat materials to initiate phase transitions, or to create laser plasmas over a wide parameter space. These lasers can also be used to generate fully spatially coherent XUV beams with which to probe these materials and plasma systems. We are in process of implementing imaging studies of plasma hydrodynamics and warm, dense matter. The data will be compared with simulation codes of laser-plasma interactions, making it possible to refine and validate these codes

  16. 1995 annual report. Ghana Atomic Energy Commission : using nuclear energy and techniques to alleviate hunger, diseases and control of environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The 1995 annual report reflects the activities of the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC) on an institutional basis. It provides an overview of the outcomes achieved and the current activities of the GAEC grouped under its core nuclear science areas

  17. Inversion techniques in the Soft X-Ray tomography of fusion plasmas: towards real-time applications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mlynář, Jan; Weinzettl, Vladimír; Bonheure, G.; Murari, A.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 3 (2010), s. 733-741 ISSN 1536-1055. [Workshop on Fusion Data Processing, Validation and Ananlyses/6th./. Madrid, 25.01.2010-27.01.2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/10/2055; GA ČR GA202/09/1467; GA MŠk LA08048 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : plasma tomography * real - time control * soft-X-ray diagnostics Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.654, year: 2010 http://www.new.ans.org/store/j_10922

  18. Development of bonding techniques between tungsten and copper alloy for plasma facing components by HIP method. 1. Bonding between tungsten and oxygen free copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Shigeru; Fukaya, Kiyoshi; Ishiyama, Shintaro; Eto, Motokuni; Akiba, Masato

    1999-08-01

    In recent years, it has been considered that W (tungsten) is one of candidate materials for armor tiles of plasma facing components, like first wall or divertor, of fusion reactor. On the other hand, oxygen free high thermal conductivity (OFHC)-copper is proposed as heat sink materials behind the plasma facing materials because of its high thermal conductivity. However, plasma facing components are exposed to cyclic high heat load and heavily irradiated by 14 MeV neutron. Under these conditions, many unfavorable effects, for instance, thermal stresses of bonding interface, irradiation damage and He atom production by nuclear transmutation, will be decreased bonding strength between W and Cu alloys. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a reliable bonding techniques in order to make plasma facing components which can resist them. Then, we started the bonding technology development by hot isostatic press (HIP) method to bond W with Cu alloys. In this experiments, to optimize HIP bonding conditions, four point bending were performed for each bonded conditions at temperature from R.T. to 873 K and we could get the best HIP bonding conditions for W and OFHC-Cu as 1273 K x 2 hours x 147 MPa. To evaluate bonding strength of the specimen bonded at these conditions, tensile tests were also performed at same temperature range. The tensile strength was similar with OFHC-Cu which were treated at same conditions. (author)

  19. FY 1998 annual summary report on research and development of hybrid pulse plasma coating (HPPC) system (first year); 1998 nendo hybrid gata pulse plasma coating (HPPC) system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Daiichinendo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The R and D program was implemented for a hybrid pulse plasma coating system, where organometallic gases as the feed gases were selected, and methods for feeding them and treating the exhaust gases to remove organic metals were studied, as the preliminary steps for the pulse introduction tests. The tests of combining an rf plasma with microwaves and pulse plasma generation have been started. The power source characteristics, e.g., pulse width, voltage and current, were analyzed, and high-voltage pulse voltage application tests were conducted, in order to grasp the power source characteristics related to the pulse voltage application. Generation of high-density plasma has been confirmed by the tests with microwaves absorbed by an rf plasma, and the plasma density measurement has been started using the single probe and double probe methods. It is also confirmed that a pulse voltage can be applied to a high-density plasma. A plasma source type ion injector (PSII) has been made on a trial basis, to collect the data for the injector. (NEDO).

  20. Departures from local thermodynamic equilibrium in cutting arc plasmas derived from electron and gas density measurements using a two-wavelength quantitative Schlieren technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prevosto, L.; Mancinelli, B.; Artana, G.; Kelly, H.

    2011-01-01

    A two-wavelength quantitative Schlieren technique that allows inferring the electron and gas densities of axisymmetric arc plasmas without imposing any assumption regarding statistical equilibrium models is reported. This technique was applied to the study of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) departures within the core of a 30 A high-energy density cutting arc. In order to derive the electron and heavy particle temperatures from the inferred density profiles, a generalized two-temperature Saha equation together with the plasma equation of state and the quasineutrality condition were employed. Factors such as arc fluctuations that influence the accuracy of the measurements and the validity of the assumptions used to derive the plasma species temperature were considered. Significant deviations from chemical equilibrium as well as kinetic equilibrium were found at elevated electron temperatures and gas densities toward the arc core edge. An electron temperature profile nearly constant through the arc core with a value of about 14000-15000 K, well decoupled from the heavy particle temperature of about 1500 K at the arc core edge, was inferred.

  1. Terapia de bioestimulación con plasma rico en plaquetas para el envejecimiento cutáneo Bioestimulation technique with rich plasma in platelets for skin aging

    OpenAIRE

    HM Escobar

    2012-01-01

    La bioestimulación con plasma rico en plaquetas es una técnica ambulatoria para la prevención y manejo del envejecimiento cutáneo, se basa en la fisiología de la piel y funciona muy bien sola o dentro de un plan terapéutico combinado. El derivado de sangre autóloga estimula la producción de colágeno, elastina y tejido epidérmico, lo que se traduce en piel más tersa, luminosa y de mejor calidad. Son mínimos los riesgos de formación de hematomas, infección, transmisión de enfermedades o reaccio...

  2. Fabrication of Ni-Ti Alloy by Self-Propagating High-Temperature Synthesis and Spark Plasma Sintering Technique

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Salvetr, P.; Kubatík, Tomáš František; Pignol, D.; Novák, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 2 (2017), s. 772-778 ISSN 1073-5615 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : powder metallurgy * Spark plasma sintering Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials OBOR OECD: Materials engineering Impact factor: 1.642, year: 2016

  3. Structural and electrical manifestation of aging in thin-film Fe-Ta-O nanocomposite prepared by plasma jet technique

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lobotka, P.; Vávra, I.; Fendrych, František; Chayka, Oleksandr

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 201, č. 7 (2004), s. 1493-1499 ISSN 0031-8965 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK1010104 Keywords : nanocomposite fils Fe-Ta-O * plasma jet * tunneling * electrical transport * magnetoresistance * ageing Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.860, year: 2004

  4. Low-temperature oxidizing plasma surface modification and composite polymer thin-film fabrication techniques for tailoring the composition and behavior of polymer surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Brendan D.

    This dissertation examines methods for modifying the composition and behavior of polymer material surfaces. This is accomplished using (1) low-temperature low-density oxidizing plasmas to etch and implant new functionality on polymers, and (2) plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) techniques to fabricate composite polymer materials. Emphases are placed on the structure of modified polymer surfaces, the evolution of polymer surfaces after treatment, and the species responsible for modifying polymers during plasma processing. H2O vapor plasma modification of high-density polyethylene (HDPE), low-density polyethylene (LDPE), polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS), polycarbonate (PC), and 75A polyurethane (PU) was examined to further our understanding of polymer surface reorganization leading to hydrophobic recovery. Water contact angles (wCA) measurements showed that PP and PS were the most susceptible to hydrophobic recovery, while PC and HDPE were the most stable. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) revealed a significant quantity of polar functional groups on the surface of all treated polymer samples. Shifts in the C1s binding energies (BE) with sample age were measured on PP and PS, revealing that surface reorganization was responsible for hydrophobic recovery on these materials. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to rule out the intrinsic thermal properties as the cause of reorganization and hydrophobic recovery on HDPE, LDPE, and PP. The different contributions that polymer cross-linking and chain scission mechanisms make to polymer aging effects are considered. The H2O plasma treatment technique was extended to the modification of 0.2 microm and 3.0 microm track-etched polycarbonate (PC-TE) and track-etched polyethylene terephthalate (PET-TE) membranes with the goal of permanently increasing the hydrophilicity of the membrane surfaces. Contact angle measurements on freshly treated and aged samples confirmed the wettability of the

  5. Foreword. Annual report 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sujkowski, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: My Foreword to the 2002 Annual Report ended with a handful of best wishes for the year 2003. One of them, rather highly pitched, was addressed to our funding authorities: may their preaching about a ''Knowledge Based Society in Poland'' come true ! There is, unfortunately, little evidence that this preaching is taken seriously by the preachers, even though the time for that in a unifying Europe is high. I hope that this Annual Report bears witness that at least we are doing our bit in this direction. Thus: We have published 203 papers in international journals. Several of them quickly gain international recognition. There was hard competition for our internal awards. The four emerging winners are behind the contributions: on the creation of circular vortices in Bose-Einstein condensates (contribution 8.23), on our share in the NA49 experiment at CERN (contribution 6.4), on our use of solid state nuclear track detectors, SSNTD, in the hostile environment of hot plasma experiments (contribution 5.5) and on some special detectors for positron emission tomography to be applied in hadron therapy (contribution 3.7). We have also contributed to the general education by, e.g., having over 7000 young guests at our Training Department (see Chapter 11 ), taking part in the Science Festival in Warsaw and Lodz, or starting the ''Roland Maze project'' in that city. The project aims at involving a large number of high school pupils in active research concerning extensive air showers at highest energies (contribution 7.6). Very importantly, it has gained approval and financial support of the local authorities in Lodz. Two international meetings were organized by our Institute: the 28 Mazurian Lakes Conference, ''The Atomic Nucleus as a Laboratory for Fundamental Processes'', EPS sponsored, see e.g. CERN Courier 44 (2004), and the ''Conference on Plasma Research and Applications, PLASMA 2003'', biannual gathering of plasma physics its. Our attempts at obtaining EU

  6. Plasma Cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintze, Paul E.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Kennedy Space Center has developed two solvent-free precision cleaning techniques: plasma cleaning and supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2), that has equal performance, cost parity, and no environmental liability, as compared to existing solvent cleaning methods.

  7. Large-scale numerical simulations of plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamaguchi, Satoshi

    2004-01-01

    The recent trend of large scales simulations of fusion plasma and processing plasmas is briefly summarized. Many advanced simulation techniques have been developed for fusion plasmas and some of these techniques are now applied to analyses of processing plasmas. (author)

  8. Trends in Attendance at Scoliosis Research Society Annual Meetings (SRS AM) and International Meeting on Advanced Spine Techniques (IMAST): Location, Location, Location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Foster; Cho, Woojin; Kim, Han Jo; Levine, David B

    2017-07-01

    Descriptive, respective. Although overall membership in Scoliosis Research Society (SRS) has grown over the years, we were curious to see the effects of changing event venue location and timing on conference attendance. Every year, the SRS hosts two major meetings: the Annual Meeting (SRS AM) in the autumn, and the International Meeting on Advanced Spine Techniques (IMAST) in the summer. Sites have alternated from within and outside North America. Often, these meetings have also overlapped with several holidays in certain countries. This was an observational study of attendance from past SRS AM and IMAST meetings. Fourteen years of AM and 8 years of IMAST data were made available from the SRS. Participation based on delegate type and countries were tallied. Details from the 10 most represented nations and host nations per year were also tallied, and their national holidays were reviewed for overlaps with the AM. Membership in AM and IMAST increased from 820 in 2003 to 1,323 in 2016. Attendance at the AM has increased, whereas attendance at IMAST has declined, even after adjusting for membership size. Trends in participation were highly influenced by location. Participation by attendees from the host continent, and especially the host country, is generally high. The negative impact of distant meetings is profoundly seen with North Americans, whereas the positive impact of a nearby meeting was mostly clearly demonstrated by South Americans. Although SRS AM overlapped with holidays in China, Japan, or Korea nearly 50% of the time, this did not influence participation by delegates from these countries. Participation in the AM is highly influenced by location. Although North Americans represented the largest constituency, their presence was not needed to drive total attendance and was not sufficient to turn around the downturn in IMAST attendance. Choice of location can encourage the participation of delegates from the host and neighboring nations; through strategic

  9. Thin film silicon by a microwave plasma deposition technique: Growth and devices, and, interface effects in amorphous silicon/crystalline silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagannathan, Basanth

    Thin film silicon (Si) was deposited by a microwave plasma CVD technique, employing double dilution of silane, for the growth of low hydrogen content Si films with a controllable microstructure on amorphous substrates at low temperatures (prepared by this technique. Such films showed a dark conductivity ˜10sp{-6} S/cm, with a conduction activation energy of 0.49 eV. Film growth and properties have been compared for deposition in Ar and He carrier systems and growth models have been proposed. Low temperature junction formation by undoped thin film silicon was examined through a thin film silicon/p-type crystalline silicon heterojunctions. The thin film silicon layers were deposited by rf glow discharge, dc magnetron sputtering and microwave plasma CVD. The hetero-interface was identified by current transport analysis and high frequency capacitance methods as the key parameter controlling the photovoltaic (PV) response. The effect of the interface on the device properties (PV, junction, and carrier transport) was examined with respect to modifications created by chemical treatment, type of plasma species, their energy and film microstructure interacting with the substrate. Thermally stimulated capacitance was used to determine the interfacial trap parameters. Plasma deposition of thin film silicon on chemically clean c-Si created electron trapping sites while hole traps were seen when a thin oxide was present at the interface. Under optimized conditions, a 10.6% efficient cell (11.5% with SiOsb2 A/R) with an open circuit voltage of 0.55 volts and a short circuit current density of 30 mA/cmsp2 was fabricated.

  10. Dusty plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, M.E.; Winske, D.; Keinigs, R.; Lemons, D.

    1996-01-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this project has been to develop a fundamental understanding of dusty plasmas at the Laboratory. While dusty plasmas are found in space in galactic clouds, planetary rings, and cometary tails, and as contaminants in plasma enhanced fabrication of microelectronics, many of their properties are only partially understood. Our work has involved both theoretical analysis and self-consistent plasma simulations to understand basic properties of dusty plasmas related to equilibrium, stability, and transport. Such an understanding can improve the control and elimination of plasma dust in industrial applications and may be important in the study of planetary rings and comet dust tails. We have applied our techniques to the study of charging, dynamics, and coagulation of contaminants in plasma processing reactors for industrial etching and deposition processes and to instabilities in planetary rings and other space plasma environments. The work performed in this project has application to plasma kinetics, transport, and other classical elementary processes in plasmas as well as to plasma waves, oscillations, and instabilities

  11. Annual Report on Scientific Activities in 1997 of Department of Physics and Nuclear Techniques, Academy of Mining and Metallurgy, Cracow; Sprawozdanie z dzialalnosci naukowej w roku 1997, Wydzial Fizyki i Techniki Jadrowej, Akademia Gorniczo-Hutnicza, Cracow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolny, J.; Olszynska, E. [eds.

    1998-12-31

    The Annual Report 1997 is the review of scientific activities of the Department of Nuclear Physics and Techniques (DNPT) of the Academy of Mining and Metallurgy, Cracow. The studies connected with: radiometric analysis, nuclear electronics, solid state physics, elementary particle and detectors, medical physics, physics of environment, theoretical physics, nuclear geophysics, energetic problems, industrial radiometry and tracer techniques have been broadly presented. The fill list of works being published and presented at scientific conferences in 1997 by the staff of DNPT are also included.

  12. EDITORIAL: Plasma jets and plasma bullets Plasma jets and plasma bullets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, M. G.; Ganguly, B. N.; Hicks, R. F.

    2012-06-01

    to 1990 with only 31 papers per year on average, and a total of some 1300 papers, precedes a considerable growth of some 35-50% in research activity every five years, over the last 20 years or so. As shown in the table, the annual dissemination of the field is more than 1600 papers and the total number of papers is in excess of 20000. This upwards trajectory is typical of a strong and growing subject area in physical science, with considerable capacity in both fundamental science and applications. PeriodNumber of papersPapers per annum 1948-1990130031 1991-19952279456 1996-20003447689 2001-20054571914 2006-201066401328 2011 1658 In many of the dense plasma jets discussed above, strong physical forces generated by the plasma are often desired and this favours plasma generation at elevated gas pressure, including atmospheric pressure, which favours a high level of gas ionization. Historically it has been challenging to reduce and control the strong physical forces in high-pressure plasmas for applications where these are unwanted, for example, surface modification of polymeric sheets [5]. Indeed, there is a real need for a vast range of material processing applications at temperatures below 100oC (or below 400 K) and this favours atmospheric-pressure plasma jets sustained far from thermal equilibrium with the dissipated electrical energy largely used not in heat generation but in unleashing non-equilibrium chemical reactions. The long-standing difficulty of effectively controlling the level of gas ionization at atmospheric pressure was overcome by the technological breakthrough of achieving atmospheric-pressure glow discharges in the late 1980s [6]. A related challenge stemming from high collisionality of atmospheric-pressure plasmas (v >> ω0) means that large-area plasmas sustained between parallel-plate electrodes are very susceptible to strong plasma instabilities when molecular gases are introduced for processing applications. This led to an effective

  13. Effects of freezing and cold acclimation on the plasma membrane of isolated protoplasts. [Annual report], May 16, 1993--January 29, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steponkus, P.L.

    1994-06-01

    Our aim is to provide a mechanistic understanding of the cellular and molecular aspects of freezing injury and cold acclimation from a perspective of the structural and functional integrity of the plasma membrane-the primary site of freezing injury in winter cereals. We established that destabilization of the plasma membrane of winter rye, the most freezing-tolerant winter cereal, can result from several different lesions: expansion induced lysis, lamellar-to-hexagonal II phase transitions, and the fracture-jump lesion. The occurrence and incidence of these various lesions, depends on the freeze/thaw protocol and the stage of cold acclimation. In non-acclimated leaves and protoplasts, expansion-induced lysis is the predominant lesion at temperatures between {minus}2 and {minus}5{degree}C, whereas freeze-induced formation of the H{sub II} phase is the predominant lesion at temperatures below {minus}10{degree}C. We investigated whether the difference in freezing tolerance and the threshold temperatures at which the lesions occur in rye and oat are a consequence of differences in the lipid composition of the plasma membrane. There are substantial differences between rye and oat cell membranes both before and after cold acclimation. The plasma membrane of oat contains greater proportions of acylated sterylglucosides and cerebrosides than that of rye, and there is little change in these two lipid classes during cold acclimation. The lyotropic phase behavior of lipid mixtures that resemble the plasma membrane of rye and oat was studied. The differences in lipid composition of rye and oat are of mechanistic significance because of their influence on the hydration characteristics of the plasma membrane, the propensity for dehydration-induced lipid-lipid demixing, and the intrinsic curvature of the lipid monolayers. These studies suggest that strategies for improving the freezing tolerance of winter cereals should include approaches to modify membrane lipid composition.

  14. The effects of venous cannulation technique and cardioplegia type on plasma potassium concentration and arterial blood pressure during cardiopulmonary bypass.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Coleman, E T

    2012-02-03

    The cannulation method and cardioplegia solution used during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) may both influence plasma potassium concentrations ([K+]) and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP). Bi-caval or right atrial cannulation methods are routinely used in conjunction with crystalloid or blood cardioplegia. We investigated the influence of cannulation method and cardioplegia solutions on plasma [K+] and MAP during cardiopulmonary bypass. Sixty consecutive patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) using CPB were studied. They were randomly divided into three groups of 20 patients. Patients in Group A underwent bi-caval venous cannulation and received crystalloid cardioplegia. Group B patients underwent right atrial cannulation and received crystalloid cardioplegia. Group C patients underwent right atrial cannulation and received blood cardioplegia. In each case. cardioplegia was administered antegrade via the aortic root. Plasma [K+], MAP. and hemoglobin concentration (Hb) were measured over an 8-min period following cardioplegia administration (pilot studies indicated pressure changes occuring post cardioplegia administration up to this time). The combination of bi-caval cannulation and crystalloid cardioplegia (Group A) was associated with the least increase in plasma [K+] and no decrease in MAP. The maximum [K+] for this Group was 4.2 mmol\\/L (4.6% increase). The minimum mean pressure was 57 mmHg (13.6% increase). Both right atrial cannulation groups (B and C) showed a large rise in plasma [K+] and a decrease in MAP. Group B maximum [K+] was 5.2 mmol\\/L (27.5% increase). Group C was also 5.2 mmol\\/L (26.0% increase). Group C showed the largest pressure decrease, the minimum mean pressure was 45 mmHg (21.3% decrease). The Group B minimum mean pressure was 45 mmHg (8.7% decrease). Our results show that patients undergoing CPB operations who are deemed to be at increased risk of suffering adverse effects from hypotensive episodes may

  15. Ghana Atomic Energy Commission. 1996 annual report : using nuclear energy and techniques to alleviate hunger, diseases and control of environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-03-01

    The 1996 annual report reflects the activities of the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC) on an institutional basis. It provides an overview and indicates the many ways in which the GAEC contributes to the development of nuclear science in the fields of agriculture, industry and medicine

  16. Simple protein precipitation extraction technique followed by validated chromatographic method for linezolid analysis in real human plasma samples to study its pharmacokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Samah A; Eissa, Maya S; Ahmed, Hytham M

    2017-02-01

    Fast and sensitive HPLC method was developed, optimized and validated for quantification of linezolid (LNZ) in human plasma using guaifenesin as an internal standard (IS). Analyte and IS were extracted from plasma by simple protein precipitation extraction technique using methanol as the precipitating solvent. The pretreated samples were injected in a mobile phase formed of acetonitrile:water:methanol (20:70:10v/v/v) in an isocratic mode at a flow rate of 1.5mL/min with UV detection at 251nm. Separation was done using Aglient ODS C 18 . The method showed linearity in the range of 0.75-50μg/mL with correlation coefficients equals to 0.9991. Precision and accuracy were in conformity with the criteria normally accepted in bio-analytical method validation. The RSDs for intra- and inter-day assays were <3.56 and 4.63%, respectively. The intra- and inter-day accuracies were 94.67-98.28% and 91.25-96.18%, respectively. The mean absolute recoveries ranged from 92.56±1.78 to 95.24±2.84. According to stability results, LNZ was stable in human plasma during the storage and analysis. LNZ a pharmacokinetic behavior was studied by applying the proposed analytical method. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The Influence Of Nitridation Temperature And Time On The Surface Hardness Of AISI 1010 Low Carbon Steels Nitrided By Means Of Plasma Glow Discharge Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sujitno, Tjipto; Mujiman, Supardjono

    1996-01-01

    The results of the influence of nitridation temperature and time on the surface hardness of AISI 1010 low carbon steels nitrided by means of plasma glow discharge technique are presented in this paper. The results are the changing of surface hardiness, the changing of surface microstructure and the penetration profile depth. The experiment has been carried out at the temperature 400 o C, 450 o C, 500 o C, 550 o C, 570 o C and 600 o C, whereas the time is 5 minutes, 15 minutes, 40 minutes, 90 minutes and 180 minutes. All the experiments have been carried out at the optimum plasma density condition. The optimum plasma density condition is achieved at the pressure of p = 0.2 torr, when thr gas flow of nitrogen is 0.6 liter/minute and the distance of electrode plate is 4.5 cm. It was found that the optimum hardness of the surface was achieved at the temperature of 570 o C and the time of nitridation was 90 minutes, i.e. 190 KHN

  18. Effects of Surface Modification of Nanodiamond Particles for Nucleation Enhancement during Its Film Growth by Microwave Plasma Jet Chemical Vapour Deposition Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chii-Ruey Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The seedings of the substrate with a suspension of nanodiamond particles (NDPs were widely used as nucleation seeds to enhance the growth of nanostructured diamond films. The formation of agglomerates in the suspension of NDPs, however, may have adverse impact on the initial growth period. Therefore, this paper was aimed at the surface modification of the NDPs to enhance the diamond nucleation for the growth of nanocrystalline diamond films which could be used in photovoltaic applications. Hydrogen plasma, thermal, and surfactant treatment techniques were employed to improve the dispersion characteristics of detonation nanodiamond particles in aqueous media. The seeding of silicon substrate was then carried out with an optimized spin-coating method. The results of both Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering measurements demonstrated that plasma treated diamond nanoparticles possessed polar surface functional groups and attained high dispersion in methanol. The nanocrystalline diamond films deposited by microwave plasma jet chemical vapour deposition exhibited extremely fine grain and high smooth surfaces (~6.4 nm rms on the whole film. These results indeed open up a prospect of nanocrystalline diamond films in solar cell applications.

  19. Experimental, theoretical and computational study of frequency upshift of electromagnetic radiation using plasma techniques. Final technical report, January 14, 1991--January 14, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, C.

    1997-01-01

    The final report for the project is comprised of the PhD thesis of Richard L. Savage, Jr entitled: 'Frequency Upshifting of Electromagnetic Radiation via an Underdense Relativistic Ionization Front.' An underdense, relativistically propagating ionization front has been utilized to upshift the frequency of an impinging electromagnetic wave from 35 GHz to more than 173 GHz in a continuously tunable fashion. The source radiation interacted with the ionization front inside a metallic waveguide. The front, simply a moving boundary between ionized and neutral gas, was created as a short, intense pulse of ionizing laser radiation propagated through the gas-filled waveguide. In 1991, W.B. Mori showed theoretically that large upshifts are possible using underdense ionization fronts (underdense implies that the plasma density is lower than that required to reflect the source radiation), where the source wave is transmitted through the plasma/neutral boundary. The authors have extrapolated Mori's analysis to interactions within a waveguide. This is a new technique for generating high-power, short-pulse, tunable radiation, and has potential applications in areas such as time-resolved microwave spectroscopy, plasma diagnostics, and remote sensing

  20. CRPP Annual report 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    This annual report presents the activities of the CRPP in the domain of fusion and points out the main results and events of the past year. For the sake of clarity the activities have been grouped under five headings, resulting in sections of unequal size. These are: tokamak physics, development of new diagnostics, theory and numerical simulation, non-linear plasma physics and development of microwave sources. figs., tabs., refs

  1. Ultraviolet electroluminescence from nitrogen-doped ZnO-based heterojuntion light-emitting diodes prepared by remote plasma in situ atomic layer-doping technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Jui-Fen; Liao, Hua-Yang; Yu, Sheng-Fu; Lin, Ray-Ming; Shiojiri, Makoto; Shyue, Jing-Jong; Chen, Miin-Jang

    2013-01-23

    Remote plasma in situ atomic layer doping technique was applied to prepare an n-type nitrogen-doped ZnO (n-ZnO:N) layer upon p-type magnesium-doped GaN (p-GaN:Mg) to fabricate the n-ZnO:N/p-GaN:Mg heterojuntion light-emitting diodes. The room-temperature electroluminescence exhibits a dominant ultraviolet peak at λ ≈ 370 nm from ZnO band-edge emission and suppressed luminescence from GaN, as a result of the decrease in electron concentration in ZnO and reduced electron injection from n-ZnO:N to p-GaN:Mg because of the nitrogen incorporation. The result indicates that the in situ atomic layer doping technique is an effective approach to tailoring the electrical properties of materials in device applications.

  2. Israel Atomic Energy Commission 1997 Annual Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The 1997 Annual Report is published in a special year for Israel, marking the 50th anniversary of its independece and statehood. From its inception, and the election of a distinguished scientist as its first president, Israel has regarded science and technology as a central pillar for future AEC development and a lever for improved quality of life of its people. The Israel Atomic Energy Commission, which will be celebrating its own anniversary in a few years, has made a modest but significant contribution to the establishment and growth of the technological infrastructure of the country. The first article in this Annual Report focuses attention on yet another aspect of our continuing investigation of the basic properties of technologically interesting and important materials, presented in our 1994 and 1996 Annual Reports. The current entry describes an application of the nuclear Time Differential Perturbed Angular Correlation technique to the study of the structure and properties of metal-hydrogen compounds, of potential interest within the framework of future, environmentally attractive hydrogen-burning energy systems, and in fusion power reactors. The second article also relates to some basic aspects of nuclear fusion. A theoretical study of the behavior and properties of laser-generated hot plasmas resulted in the proposal of a new confinement scheme, in which a plasma generated by circularly polarized laser light is confined in a miniature magnetic bottle created by magnetic fields induced in the plasma by the same light. The paper discusses the conditions under which such confinement and ensuing energy gain may be achieved. Measurements of actual axial magnetic fields generated in plasma by intense circularly polarized laser light are also reported. The third report describes one of our ongoing efforts to improve and streamline the techniques and procedures used in medical applications of radioisotopes. Replacement of the customary )311 solutions for

  3. Israel Atomic Energy Commission 1997 Annual Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    The 1997 Annual Report is published in a special year for Israel, marking the 50th anniversary of its independece and statehood. From its inception, and the election of a distinguished scientist as its first president, Israel has regarded science and technology as a central pillar for future AEC development and a lever for improved quality of life of its people. The Israel Atomic Energy Commission, which will be celebrating its own anniversary in a few years, has made a modest but significant contribution to the establishment and growth of the technological infrastructure of the country. The first article in this Annual Report focuses attention on yet another aspect of our continuing investigation of the basic properties of technologically interesting and important materials, presented in our 1994 and 1996 Annual Reports. The current entry describes an application of the nuclear Time Differential Perturbed Angular Correlation technique to the study of the structure and properties of metal-hydrogen compounds, of potential interest within the framework of future, environmentally attractive hydrogen-burning energy systems, and in fusion power reactors. The second article also relates to some basic aspects of nuclear fusion. A theoretical study of the behavior and properties of laser-generated hot plasmas resulted in the proposal of a new confinement scheme, in which a plasma generated by circularly polarized laser light is confined in a miniature magnetic bottle created by magnetic fields induced in the plasma by the same light. The paper discusses the conditions under which such confinement and ensuing energy gain may be achieved. Measurements of actual axial magnetic fields generated in plasma by intense circularly polarized laser light are also reported. The third report describes one of our ongoing efforts to improve and streamline the techniques and procedures used in medical applications of radioisotopes. Replacement of the customary 311 solutions for

  4. A novel femtosecond-gated, high-resolution, frequency-shifted shearing interferometry technique for probing pre-plasma expansion in ultra-intense laser experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feister, S., E-mail: feister.7@osu.edu; Orban, C. [Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Innovative Scientific Solutions, Inc., Dayton, Ohio 45459 (United States); Nees, J. A. [Innovative Scientific Solutions, Inc., Dayton, Ohio 45459 (United States); Center for Ultra-Fast Optical Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Morrison, J. T. [Fellow, National Research Council, Washington, D.C. 20001 (United States); Frische, K. D. [Innovative Scientific Solutions, Inc., Dayton, Ohio 45459 (United States); Chowdhury, E. A. [Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Intense Energy Solutions, LLC., Plain City, Ohio 43064 (United States); Roquemore, W. M. [Air Force Research Laboratory, Dayton, Ohio 45433 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Ultra-intense laser-matter interaction experiments (>10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2}) with dense targets are highly sensitive to the effect of laser “noise” (in the form of pre-pulses) preceding the main ultra-intense pulse. These system-dependent pre-pulses in the nanosecond and/or picosecond regimes are often intense enough to modify the target significantly by ionizing and forming a plasma layer in front of the target before the arrival of the main pulse. Time resolved interferometry offers a robust way to characterize the expanding plasma during this period. We have developed a novel pump-probe interferometry system for an ultra-intense laser experiment that uses two short-pulse amplifiers synchronized by one ultra-fast seed oscillator to achieve 40-fs time resolution over hundreds of nanoseconds, using a variable delay line and other techniques. The first of these amplifiers acts as the pump and delivers maximal energy to the interaction region. The second amplifier is frequency shifted and then frequency doubled to generate the femtosecond probe pulse. After passing through the laser-target interaction region, the probe pulse is split and recombined in a laterally sheared Michelson interferometer. Importantly, the frequency shift in the probe allows strong plasma self-emission at the second harmonic of the pump to be filtered out, allowing plasma expansion near the critical surface and elsewhere to be clearly visible in the interferograms. To aid in the reconstruction of phase dependent imagery from fringe shifts, three separate 120° phase-shifted (temporally sheared) interferograms are acquired for each probe delay. Three-phase reconstructions of the electron densities are then inferred by Abel inversion. This interferometric system delivers precise measurements of pre-plasma expansion that can identify the condition of the target at the moment that the ultra-intense pulse arrives. Such measurements are indispensable for correlating laser pre-pulse measurements

  5. New technique for the direct analysis of food powders confined in a small hole using transversely excited atmospheric CO(2) laser-induced gas plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khumaeni, Ali; Ramli, Muliadi; Deguchi, Yoji; Lee, Yong Inn; Idris, Nasrullah; Kurniawan, Koo Hendrik; Lie, Tjung Jie; Kagawa, Kiichiro

    2008-12-01

    Taking advantage of the differences between the interactions of transversely excited atmospheric (TEA) CO(2) lasers with metal and with organic powder, a new technique for the direct analysis of food powder samples has been developed. In this technique, the powder samples were placed into a small hole with a diameter of 2 mm and a depth of 3 mm and covered by a metal mesh. The TEA CO(2) laser (1500 mJ, 200 ns) was focused on the powder sample surfaces, passing through the metal mesh, at atmospheric pressure in nitrogen gas. It is hypothesized that the small hole functions to confine the powder particles and suppresses the blowing-off of sample, while the metal mesh works as the source of electrons to initiate the strong gas breakdown plasma. The confined powder particles are then ablated by laser irradiation and the ablated particles move into the strong gas breakdown plasma region to be atomized and excited; this method cannot be applied for the case of Nd:YAG lasers because in such case the metal mesh itself was ablated by the laser irradiation. A quantitative analysis of a milk powder sample containing different concentrations of Ca was successfully demonstrated, resulting in a good linear calibration curve with high precision.

  6. A simple method to deposit palladium doped SnO2 thin films using plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Soon; Wahab, Rizwan; Shin, Hyung-Shik; Ansari, S. G.; Ansari, Z. A.

    2010-01-01

    This work presents a simple method to deposit palladium doped tin oxide (SnO 2 ) thin films using modified plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition as a function of deposition temperature at a radio frequency plasma power of 150 W. Stannic chloride (SnCl 4 ) was used as precursor and oxygen (O 2 , 100 SCCM) (SCCM denotes cubic centimeter per minute at STP) as reactant gas. Palladium hexafluroacetyleacetonate (Pd(C 5 HF 6 O 2 ) 2 ) was used as a precursor for palladium. Fine granular morphology was observed with tetragonal rutile structure. A peak related to Pd 2 Sn is observed, whose intensity increases slightly with deposition temperature. Electrical resistivity value decreased from 8.6 to 0.9 mΩ cm as a function of deposition temperature from 400 to 600 deg. C. Photoelectron peaks related to Sn 3d, Sn 3p3, Sn 4d, O 1s, and C 1s were detected with varying intensities as a function of deposition temperature.

  7. A full-angle Monte-Carlo scattering technique including cumulative and single-event Rutherford scattering in plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginson, Drew P.

    2017-11-01

    We describe and justify a full-angle scattering (FAS) method to faithfully reproduce the accumulated differential angular Rutherford scattering probability distribution function (pdf) of particles in a plasma. The FAS method splits the scattering events into two regions. At small angles it is described by cumulative scattering events resulting, via the central limit theorem, in a Gaussian-like pdf; at larger angles it is described by single-event scatters and retains a pdf that follows the form of the Rutherford differential cross-section. The FAS method is verified using discrete Monte-Carlo scattering simulations run at small timesteps to include each individual scattering event. We identify the FAS regime of interest as where the ratio of temporal/spatial scale-of-interest to slowing-down time/length is from 10-3 to 0.3-0.7; the upper limit corresponds to Coulomb logarithm of 20-2, respectively. Two test problems, high-velocity interpenetrating plasma flows and keV-temperature ion equilibration, are used to highlight systems where including FAS is important to capture relevant physics.

  8. Novel double-isotope technique for enzymatic assay of catecholamines, permitting high precision, sensitivity and plasma sample capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, M.J.; Jenner, D.A.

    1981-01-01

    A novel use of a double-isotope method is described which allows radioenzymatic assays to combine precision and sensitivity. In the catechol O-methyltransferase assay separate portions of each plasma sample are incubated with either S-[ 3 H]- or S-[ 14 C]-adenosyl-L-methionine. Standards of noradrenaline and adrenaline are added to the latter portions and are thus converted into standards of [ 14 C]metadrenalines. These are added to the 3 H-labelled portions after the incubation, where they function as tracers. The final recovery of 14 C radioactivity corrects for (a) the efficiency of methylation in the plasma sample concerned and (b) the recovery of metadrenalines during the extraction procedures. The 3 H/ 14 C ratio is constant in each assay for a given catecholamine concentration and is determined for samples to which standards of noradrenaline and adrenaline are added to the 3 H- (as well as the 14 C-) labelled portions before the initial incubation. The sensitivity of the assay is increased by using high specific radioactivity S-[ 3 H]adenosyl-L-methionine, and low backgrounds are maintained by catecholamine depletion in vivo in the rats used for enzyme preparation. Both catecholamines (1.5 pg/ml; 10 pmol/l) may be detected; the coefficients of variation are 3.0 and 3.2% for noradrenaline and adrenaline respectively (intra-assay) and 4.6 and 5.0% (inter-assay). (author)

  9. Field-reversing electron and ion rings for the confinement and heating of plasmas. Annual progress report, September 1, 1980-August 31, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleischmann, H.H.

    1981-09-01

    Our experimental work on the RECE-Christa device during the present period concentrated on obtaining conditions for first measurements of plasma confinement and on the generation of mixed-CT configurations. The most important results in these areas included the generation of rings with plasma currents significantly larger than originally hoped for, and - on the other hand - a failure to propagate rings efficiently in background gas densities below 1 mTorr. In addition, a digital data management system has been acquired and the respective software is being completed. Finally, theoretical work was performed on calculating banana drift orbits in Spheromak-type configurations and on developing a semi-analytic model for the equilibrium of ion rings which could be used for estimating the ring behavior during the slow-down of the ions

  10. Annual report to DOE of the fusion programs in applied plasma physics and development and technology at GA Technologies Inc., fiscal 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkawa, T.

    1985-04-01

    The GA programs in Applied Plasma Physics and Development and Technology have registered substantial accomplishments during fiscal 1984. Theoretical work in the MHD area has contributed to further understanding of the physics governing low-q, high-β tokamak discharges, including the effects of a cold plasma mantle and an edge-temperature pedestal. The universal scaling law for the maximum β stable to ideal-MHD modes has been verified for Doublet III and has also been validated for JET, DIII-D, and a Double Dee configuration. Experimental work in Applied Plasma Physics included the development of two new high-energy diagnostics, one for gamma rays and one for tritons (or, in a reactor, alpha particles), both of which can yield essential physics information that is not readily obtainable from the panoply of existing diagnostic instruments. The development of a current-density profile diagnostic continued, and it was found that the instrument could also be used to obtain relative density profiles throughout a tokamak discharge. And tests of an ergodic magnetic limiter scheme indicated that the configuration has the potential to create a stable, radiating boundary layer while reducing the heat load to the walls in future high-power devices. The work carried out in the area of Development and Technology included a group of reactor systems design studies that bring into focus some of the challenges that will be faced by the engineers of fusion power equipment. Closer to realization are advanced rf equipment and superconducting magnet developments, both under design in the area of plasma technologies. Technological developments that apply directly to current experiments as well as to future devices comprise the rest of the GA D and T program

  11. Confinement and heating of high beta plasmas with emphasis on compact toroids: Task 2, Stellarator and heliac research: Annual report, October 1, 1985-September 30, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribe, F.L.

    1986-01-01

    Progress over the past year has enabled us to complete the comprehensive experimental investigation of the equilibrium and stability of the linear heliac and the linear l = 1 stellarator configration. In the case of the heliac work, we discoverd axisymmetric hot plasma near the axial conductor (''hardcore'') in amounts which are comparable to the helically symmetric hot plasma centered on the magnetic axis. From this result came the motivation for an extended investigation which concentrates on the details of high-beta heliac formation. Important first results of the formation study have been obtained. In the case of the stellarator work, we have observed the flute-like m = 1 instability foe a specific set of experimental parameters and, for a different set, we have observed the mode stabilized by the combined effects of a finite ion Larmor radius and a nearby conducting wall. The single-discharge CV ion-temperature diagnostic system has been debugged and has yielded a heliac temperature measurement of (90 +- 10)eV. The plasma density diagnostic system based on cross-tube interferometry has been modified from its previous design for use with the somewhat wrinkly helical discharge tube

  12. Effect of intake on fasting heat production, respiratory quotient and plasma metabolites measured using the washed rumen technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective was to investigate the effect of intake prior to fasting on concentrations of metabolites and hormones, respiratory quotient (RQ) and fasting heat production (HP) using the washed rumen technique and to compare these values with those from the fed state. Six Holstein steers (360 ± 22 k...

  13. Masked-backlighter technique used to simultaneously image x-ray absorption and x-ray emission from an inertial confinement fusion plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, F. J., E-mail: fredm@lle.rochester.edu; Radha, P. B. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    A method to simultaneously image both the absorption and the self-emission of an imploding inertial confinement fusion plasma has been demonstrated on the OMEGA Laser System. The technique involves the use of a high-Z backlighter, half of which is covered with a low-Z material, and a high-speed x-ray framing camera aligned to capture images backlit by this masked backlighter. Two strips of the four-strip framing camera record images backlit by the high-Z portion of the backlighter, while the other two strips record images aligned with the low-Z portion of the backlighter. The emission from the low-Z material is effectively eliminated by a high-Z filter positioned in front of the framing camera, limiting the detected backlighter emission to that of the principal emission line of the high-Z material. As a result, half of the images are of self-emission from the plasma and the other half are of self-emission plus the backlighter. The advantage of this technique is that the self-emission simultaneous with backlighter absorption is independently measured from a nearby direction. The absorption occurs only in the high-Z backlit frames and is either spatially separated from the emission or the self-emission is suppressed by filtering, or by using a backlighter much brighter than the self-emission, or by subtraction. The masked-backlighter technique has been used on the OMEGA Laser System to simultaneously measure the emission profiles and the absorption profiles of polar-driven implosions.

  14. Masked-backlighter technique used to simultaneously image x-ray absorption and x-ray emission from an inertial confinement fusion plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, F J; Radha, P B

    2014-11-01

    A method to simultaneously image both the absorption and the self-emission of an imploding inertial confinement fusion plasma has been demonstrated on the OMEGA Laser System. The technique involves the use of a high-Z backlighter, half of which is covered with a low-Z material, and a high-speed x-ray framing camera aligned to capture images backlit by this masked backlighter. Two strips of the four-strip framing camera record images backlit by the high-Z portion of the backlighter, while the other two strips record images aligned with the low-Z portion of the backlighter. The emission from the low-Z material is effectively eliminated by a high-Z filter positioned in front of the framing camera, limiting the detected backlighter emission to that of the principal emission line of the high-Z material. As a result, half of the images are of self-emission from the plasma and the other half are of self-emission plus the backlighter. The advantage of this technique is that the self-emission simultaneous with backlighter absorption is independently measured from a nearby direction. The absorption occurs only in the high-Z backlit frames and is either spatially separated from the emission or the self-emission is suppressed by filtering, or by using a backlighter much brighter than the self-emission, or by subtraction. The masked-backlighter technique has been used on the OMEGA Laser System to simultaneously measure the emission profiles and the absorption profiles of polar-driven implosions.

  15. CRPP Annual Report 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-12-01

    This report covers all the activities of the CRPP in the field of plasma physics, from the technological challenges of future fusion reactors to the industrial use of low temperature plasmas. The work centres on the experimental and theoretical challenges of developing the techniques and understanding for advancing the concept of magnetic confinement of hot plasmas. Most of these activities are carried out under the auspices of the Association EURATOM-Confederation Suisse. An overview on the international collaborations, as well as lists of scientific papers and reports prepared by CRPP staff members in 1999 are also provided

  16. CRPP Annual Report 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-07-01

    This report covers all the activities of the CRPP in the field of plasma physics, from the technological challenges of future fusion reactors to the industrial use of low temperature plasmas. The work centres on the experimental and theoretical challenges of developing the techniques and understanding for advancing the concept of magnetic confinement of hot plasmas. Most of these activities are carried out under the auspices of the Association EURATOM-Confederation Suisse. An overview on the international collaborations, as well as lists of scientific papers and reports prepared by CRPP staff members in 1998 are also provided

  17. CRPP Annual Report 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-10-01

    This report covers all the activities of the CRPP in the field of plasma physics, from the technological challenges of future fusion reactors to the industrial use of low temperature plasmas. The work centres on the experimental and theoretical challenges of developing the techniques and understanding for advancing the concept of magnetic confinement of hot plasmas. Most of these activities are carried out under the auspices of the Association EURATOM-Confederation Suisse. An overview on the international collaborations, as well as lists of scientific papers and reports prepared by CRPP staff members in 2000 are also provided

  18. CRPP Annual Report 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-10-01

    This report covers all the activities of the CRPP in the field of plasma physics, from the technological challenges of future fusion reactors to the industrial use of low temperature plasmas. The work centres on the experimental and theoretical challenges of developing the techniques and understanding for advancing the concept of magnetic confinement of hot plasmas. Most of these activities are carried out under the auspices of the Association EURATOM-Confederation Suisse. An overview on the international collaborations, as well as lists of scientific papers and reports prepared by CRPP staff members in 2000 are also provided.

  19. CRPP Annual Report 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-12-01

    This report covers all the activities of the CRPP in the field of plasma physics, from the technological challenges of future fusion reactors to the industrial use of low temperature plasmas. The work centres on the experimental and theoretical challenges of developing the techniques and understanding for advancing the concept of magnetic confinement of hot plasmas. Most of these activities are carried out under the auspices of the Association EURATOM-Confederation Suisse. An overview on the international collaborations, as well as lists of scientific papers and reports prepared by CRPP staff members in 1999 are also provided.

  20. CRPP Annual Report 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This report covers all the activities of the CRPP in the field of plasma physics, from the technological challenges of future fusion reactors to the industrial use of low temperature plasmas. The work centres on the experimental and theoretical challenges of developing the techniques and understanding for advancing the concept of magnetic confinement of hot plasmas. Most of these activities are carried out under the auspices of the Association EURATOM-Confederation Suisse. An overview on the international collaborations, as well as lists of scientific papers and reports prepared by CRPP staff members in 1998 are also provided.

  1. BAM - Annual report 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-06-01

    The annual report contains progress and activity reports of the presidential department, the departments metals and metal construction, civil engineering and building activities, organic matter, chemical safety engineering, special fields of materials testing, techniques independent of the type of material, an index, as well as general and statistic statements. (HK) [de

  2. Annual Report 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swiboda, G.

    2005-01-01

    The Annual Report of the Institute of Atomic Energy describes the results of the research activities carried out in 2004. The document consist of seven parts: General Information; Operation and safety of MARIA reactor; Radiological protection and monitoring of environment; Nuclear techniques in health and environment protection and in last section the list of published in 2004 papers is presented

  3. Determination of Four Anti-epileptic Drugs in Plasma Using Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography with Mass Detection Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassib, Sonia T; Hashem, Hanaa M A; Mahrouse, Marianne A; Mostafa, Eman A

    2018-04-10

    Status epilepticus (SE) is considered the second most frequent neurologic emergency. Its therapeutic management is performed using sequential anti-epileptic drug regimens. Diazepam (DIA), midazolam (MID), phenytoin (PHT) and phenobarbital (PB) are four drugs of different classes used sequentially in the management of SE. A sensitive, selective, accurate and precise method was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of the four anti-epileptic drugs in human plasma. Their separation and quantification were achieved using ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) with mass detection using carbamazepine as internal standard (IS). For the first three drugs and IS, UPLC-MS/MS with electrospray ionization working in multiple reaction monitoring mode was used at the following transitions: m/z 285→193 for DIA, m/z 326→291 for MID, m/z 253→182 for PHT and m/z 237→194, 237→192 for IS. For the fourth drug (PB), molecular ion peak of PB [M+H] + at m/z 233 was used for its quantitation. The method was linear over concentration ranges of 5-500 ng/ml for DIA and MID and 0.25-20 μg/ml for PHT and PB, respectively. Bio-analytical validation of the developed method was carried out according to European Medicines Agency guidelines. The developed method can be applied for routine drug analysis, therapeutic drug monitoring and bioequivalence studies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. Development of non-destructive examination techniques for CFC-metal joints in annular geometry and their application to the manufacturing of plasma-facing components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Pietro, E.; Visca, E.; Orsini, A.; Sacchetti, M.; Borruto, T.M.R.; Varone, P.; Vesprini, R.

    1995-01-01

    The design of plasma-facing components for ITER, as for any of the envisaged next-step machines, relies heavily on the use of brazed junctions to couple armour materials to the heat sink and cooling tubes. Moreover, the typical number of brazed components and the envisaged effects of local overheating due to failure in a single brazed junction stress the importance of having a set of NDE techniques developed that can ensure the flawless quality of the joint. The qualification and application of two NDE techniques (ultrasonic and thermographic analysis) for inspection of CFC-to-metal joints is described with particular regard to the annular geometry typical of macroblock/monoblock solutions for divertor high-heat-flux components. The results of the eddy current inspection are not reported. The development has been focused specifically on the joint between carbon-fiber composite and TZM molybdenum alloy; techniques for the production of reference defect samples have been devised and a set of reference defect samples produced. The comparative results of the NDE inspections are reported and discussed, also on the basis of the destructive examination of the samples. The nature and size of relevant and detectable defects are discussed together with hints for a possible NDE strategy for divertor high-heat-flux components

  5. Field-reversing electron and ion rings for the confinement and heating of plasmas. Annual progress report, October 1, 1985-September 30, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleischmann, H.H.

    1986-10-01

    During the present, second period of our contract, the effort of our RECE-group was focussed mainly in four areas: (1) the design and construction of our new main experimental device, the megavolt ion coil experiment (MICE, aimed at generating 1-MeV ion rings) was continued. The device construction was completed and injection experiments recently have started using a half-cusp arrangement. (2) Using our smaller MERGE device (500 keV electrons, cusp injection), we investigated as expected the precessional stabilization of strong electron rings by a resistive wall. As expected, the experiments are completed. The results show excellent agreement with the basic theoretical expectations of our earlier analytic calculations and also with a more detailed computer code recently compiled. (3) Also, our MERGE device was completed as expected; experiments showed successful generation of electron and plasma rings; first experiments on the merging of these rings show a rapid attraction between the rings, which is to be properly slowed down by the introduction of a resistive wall. (4) Our pilot model calculations on mixed-CT configurations were nearly completed; including a survey of relevant plasma ring equilibria with a strong large-orbit particle components. Rough stability limits were obtained by studying the magnetic interaction between the two components

  6. Extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray diagnostics of high-temperature plasmas. Annual progress report, June 1, 1976--May 31, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moos, H.W.; Armstrong, L. Jr.; Fastie, W.G.

    1977-01-01

    The results of the research program at this laboratory from mid February 1976 until January 31, 1977, are described. The four major research areas of the program: diagnostic studies of magnetically confined high temperature plasmas, supporting laboratory studies, theoretical studies of highly ionized atoms, and instrument development are discussed. Spatially resolved ultraviolet measurements on Elmo Bumpy Torus have determined impurity confinement times. The measured oxygen densities and fluxes are being determined at Alcator; the spectroscopic studies show that hydrogen discharges in this tokamak have an effective Z close to one. A laboratory study of the Penning discharge between 100 and 300 A shows that it is a bright source for evaluation of EUV diagnostic instrumentation. Design of a multispatial element spectrometer system is complete and construction has begun. A spectrophotometer compatible with both types of facilities is available for absolute intensity calibration transfer from the NBS SURF II facility to ERDA plasma facilities. Computer programs needed for relativistic calculation of transition probabilities and wavelengths have been completed and applied to calculations in the Li, Be, Ar, and K isoelectronic sequences

  7. Development of bonding techniques between W and Cu-alloys for plasma facing components by HIP method (3). Bonding tests with Au-foil insert

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Shigeru

    2002-07-01

    In recent years, it has been considered that W (tungsten) is one of candidate materials for armor tiles of plasma a facing components (PFC), like first wall or divertor, of fusion reactor. On the other hand, Cu-alloys, like OFHC-Cu or DS-Cu, are proposed as heat sink materials behind the plasma facing materials because of its high thermal conductivity. It is necessary to develop a reliable bonding techniques in order to fabricate PFC. JAERI has developed the hot isostatic press (HIP) bonding process to bond W with Cu-alloys. In this experiments, bonding tests with Au-foil insert were performed. We could get the best HIP bonding conditions for W and Cu-alloys with Au-foil as 1123K x 2hours x 147MPa. It was shown that the HIP temperature was 150K lower than that of without Au-foil. Furthermore, the tensile strength was similar to that of with without Au-foil. (author)

  8. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis of agricultural soils using the sol-gel technique of pellet preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubova, I.; Hola, M.; Vaculovic, T.; Pinkas, J.; Prokes, L.; Stefan, I.; Kanicky, V.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Monitoring of metals in agricultural soils is gaining importance as they are accumulated by plants. A LAICPQMS method with Nd:YAG 213 nm laser has been developed for determination of Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb in soil pellets prepared by the sol-gel technique. LA-ICPMS analysis of archive samples was verified by XRF of wax-soil pellets and ICPMS with nebulization of solutions obtained by total soil decomposition and by analysis of reference materials. Sequention extraction was used for fractionation analysis. (author)

  9. The clinical value of enzyme-multiplied immunoassay technique monitoring the plasma concentrations of cyclosporine A after renal transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Hui Luo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility and the clinical value of the enzyme-multiplied immunoassay technique (EMIT monitoring of blood concentrations of cyclosporine A (CsA in patients treated with CsA were investigated after kidney transplantation. The validation method was performed to the EMIT determination of CsA blood concentration, the CsA whole blood ‘trough concentrations (C0 of patients in different time periods after renal transplantation were monitored, and combined with the clinical complications, the statistical results were analyzed and compared. EMIT was precise, accurate and stable, also with a high quality control. The mean postoperative blood concentration of CsA was as follows: 12 months, (185.6 ± 28.1ng/mL. The toxic reaction rate of CsA blood concentration within the recommended therapeutic concentration was 14. 1%, significantly lower than that of the none-recommended dose group (37.2% (P < 0.05; the transplantation rejection rate was 4.4%, significantly lower than that of the none-recommended dose group (22.5% (P < 0.05. Using EMIT to monitor the blood concentration of CsA as the routine laboratory method is feasible, and is able to reduce the CsA toxicity and rejection significantly, leading to achieving the desired therapeutic effect. Keywords: enzyme-multiplied immunoassay technique, renal transplantation, cyclosporin A, blood concentration monitoring

  10. Increased oil production and reserves from improved completion techniques in the Bluebell Field, Uinta Basin, Utah. Annual report, October 1, 1996--September 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deo, M.D.; Morgan, C.D.

    1998-05-01

    Wells in the Bluebell field are typically completed by perforating 40 or more beds over 1,000 to 3,000 vertical ft, them stimulating the entire interval with hydrochloric acid. This technique is often referred to as the shot gun completion. The shot-gun technique is believed to leave many potentially productive beds damaged and/or untreated, while allowing water-bearing and low-pressure (thief) zones to communicate with the wellbore. A two-year characterization study involved detailed examination of outcrop, core, well logs, surface and subsurface fractures, produced oil-field waters, engineering parameters of the two demonstration wells, and analysis of past completion techniques and effectiveness. The study was intended to improve the geologic characterization of the producing formations and thereby develop completion techniques specific to the producing beds or facies instead of a shot gun approach to stimulating all the beds. The characterization did not identify predictable-facies or predictable-fracture trends within the vertical stratigraphic column as originally hoped. Advanced logging techniques can identify productive beds in individual wells. A field-demonstration program was developed to use cased-hole advanced logging techniques in two wells and recompletion the wells at two different scales based on the logging. The first well was going to be completed at the interval scale using a multiple stage completion technique (about 500 ft per stage). The second well will be recompleted at the bed-scale using bridge plug and packer to isolate three or more beds for stimulation. These recompletion will show which logs are most effective in identifying productive beds and what scale of completion is most cost effective. The third demonstration will be the logging and completion of a new well using the logs and completion scale or technique most effective in the previous demonstrations.

  11. Extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray diagnostics of high-temperature plasmas. Annual progress report, June 1, 1977--May 31, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moos, H.W.; Armstrong, L. Jr.; Fastie, W.G.

    1978-01-01

    Spatial scans of Alcator Tokamak have led to a more direct determination of the oxygen and nitrogen concentrations. These scans have also shown that grad B and curvature drifts are significant transport mechanisms in this device. Spatial scans of Elmo Bumpy Torus from both the top and the side have produced two dimensional plots of the impurity concentrations. Preliminary results from 2XIIB show that oxygen is the dominant impurity; nitrogen, carbon, and titanium are also present. The Spatial Imaging Detector System is discussed; construction is complete and it is being prepared for installation on a plasma machine. EUV photometric calibration techiques at this laboratory are described. The accuracy and stability of this calibration is discussed. Theoretical calculations of relativistic transition rates and energies have continued, and studies of electron-impact ionization and excitation cross sections have begun

  12. Application of a microwave-based desolvation system for multi-elemental analysis of wine by inductively coupled plasma based techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grindlay, Guillermo [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Nutrition and Food Sciences, University of Alicante, P.O. Box 99, 03080 Alicante (Spain)], E-mail: guillermo.grindlay@ua.es; Mora, Juan; Maestre, Salvador; Gras, Luis [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Nutrition and Food Sciences, University of Alicante, P.O. Box 99, 03080 Alicante (Spain)

    2008-11-23

    Elemental wine analysis is often required from a nutritional, toxicological, origin and authenticity point of view. Inductively coupled plasma based techniques are usually employed for this analysis because of their multi-elemental capabilities and good limits of detection. However, the accurate analysis of wine samples strongly depends on their matrix composition (i.e. salts, ethanol, organic acids) since they lead to both spectral and non-spectral interferences. To mitigate ethanol (up to 10% w/w) related matrix effects in inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), a microwave-based desolvation system (MWDS) can be successfully employed. This finding suggests that the MWDS could be employed for elemental wine analysis. The goal of this work is to evaluate the applicability of the MWDS for elemental wine analysis in ICP-AES and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). For the sake of comparison a conventional sample introduction system (i.e. pneumatic nebulizer attached to a spray chamber) was employed. Matrix effects, precision, accuracy and analysis throughput have been selected as comparison criteria. For ICP-AES measurements, wine samples can be directly analyzed without any sample treatment (i.e. sample dilution or digestion) using pure aqueous standards although internal standardization (IS) (i.e. Sc) is required. The behaviour of the MWDS operating with organic solutions in ICP-MS has been characterized for the first time. In this technique the MWDS has shown its efficiency to mitigate ethanol related matrix effects up to concentrations of 1% (w/w). Therefore, wine samples must be diluted to reduce the ethanol concentration up to this value. The results obtained have shown that the MWDS is a powerful device for the elemental analysis of wine samples in both ICP-AES and ICP-MS. In general, the MWDS has some attractive advantages for elemental wine analysis when compared to a conventional sample introduction system such

  13. Application of a microwave-based desolvation system for multi-elemental analysis of wine by inductively coupled plasma based techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grindlay, Guillermo; Mora, Juan; Maestre, Salvador; Gras, Luis

    2008-01-01

    Elemental wine analysis is often required from a nutritional, toxicological, origin and authenticity point of view. Inductively coupled plasma based techniques are usually employed for this analysis because of their multi-elemental capabilities and good limits of detection. However, the accurate analysis of wine samples strongly depends on their matrix composition (i.e. salts, ethanol, organic acids) since they lead to both spectral and non-spectral interferences. To mitigate ethanol (up to 10% w/w) related matrix effects in inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), a microwave-based desolvation system (MWDS) can be successfully employed. This finding suggests that the MWDS could be employed for elemental wine analysis. The goal of this work is to evaluate the applicability of the MWDS for elemental wine analysis in ICP-AES and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). For the sake of comparison a conventional sample introduction system (i.e. pneumatic nebulizer attached to a spray chamber) was employed. Matrix effects, precision, accuracy and analysis throughput have been selected as comparison criteria. For ICP-AES measurements, wine samples can be directly analyzed without any sample treatment (i.e. sample dilution or digestion) using pure aqueous standards although internal standardization (IS) (i.e. Sc) is required. The behaviour of the MWDS operating with organic solutions in ICP-MS has been characterized for the first time. In this technique the MWDS has shown its efficiency to mitigate ethanol related matrix effects up to concentrations of 1% (w/w). Therefore, wine samples must be diluted to reduce the ethanol concentration up to this value. The results obtained have shown that the MWDS is a powerful device for the elemental analysis of wine samples in both ICP-AES and ICP-MS. In general, the MWDS has some attractive advantages for elemental wine analysis when compared to a conventional sample introduction system such

  14. A new method for evaluating annual absorbed gamma dose rates in an archaeological site by combining the SSNTD technique with Monte Carlo simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Misdaq, M A; Erramli, H; Mikdad, A; Rzama, A; Yousif-Charif, M L

    1998-01-01

    Uranium and thorium contents in different layers of an archaeological site have been determined by using CR-39 and LR-115 type II solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD) and calculating the probabilities for alpha-particles emitted by the uranium and thorium series to reach and be registered on the SSNTD films. A new method has been developed based on calculating the self-absorption coefficient of the gamma-photons emitted by the uranium ( sup 2 sup 3 sup 8 U), thorium ( sup 2 sup 3 sup 2 Th) and their corresponding decay products as well as the potassium-40 ( sup 4 sup 0 K) isotope for evaluating the annual absorbed gamma dose rates in the considered material samples. Results obtained have been compared with data obtained by using the TL dosimetry and Bell's methods. Ceramic samples belonging to the studied archaeological site have been dated.

  15. Physicochemical characterization of titanium dioxide pigments using various techniques for size determination and asymmetric flow field flow fractionation hyphenated with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helsper, Johannes P F G; Peters, Ruud J B; van Bemmel, Margaretha E M; Rivera, Zahira E Herrera; Wagner, Stephan; von der Kammer, Frank; Tromp, Peter C; Hofmann, Thilo; Weigel, Stefan

    2016-09-01

    Seven commercial titanium dioxide pigments and two other well-defined TiO2 materials (TiMs) were physicochemically characterised using asymmetric flow field flow fractionation (aF4) for separation, various techniques to determine size distribution and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) for chemical characterization. The aF4-ICPMS conditions were optimised and validated for linearity, limit of detection, recovery, repeatability and reproducibility, all indicating good performance. Multi-element detection with aF4-ICPMS showed that some commercial pigments contained zirconium co-eluting with titanium in aF4. The other two TiMs, NM103 and NM104, contained aluminium as integral part of the titanium peak eluting in aF4. The materials were characterised using various size determination techniques: retention time in aF4, aF4 hyphenated with multi-angle laser light spectrometry (MALS), single particle ICPMS (spICPMS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and particle tracking analysis (PTA). PTA appeared inappropriate. For the other techniques, size distribution patterns were quite similar, i.e. high polydispersity with diameters from 20 to >700 nm, a modal peak between 200 and 500 nm and a shoulder at 600 nm. Number-based size distribution techniques as spICPMS and SEM showed smaller modal diameters than aF4-UV, from which mass-based diameters are calculated. With aF4-MALS calculated, light-scattering-based "diameters of gyration" (Øg) are similar to hydrodynamic diameters (Øh) from aF4-UV analyses and diameters observed with SEM, but much larger than with spICPMS. A Øg/Øh ratio of about 1 indicates that the TiMs are oblate spheres or fractal aggregates. SEM observations confirm the latter structure. The rationale for differences in modal peak diameter is discussed.

  16. Platelet-Rich Plasma Injection With Percutaneous Needling for Recalcitrant Lateral Epicondylitis: Comparison of Tenotomy and Fenestration Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, Michael P; Motto, Michael A; Lewis, Sarah; Jacoby, Sidney M; Culp, Randall W; Lee Osterman, A; Kane, Patrick M

    2017-12-01

    Recalcitrant lateral epicondylitis (LE) is a common debilitating condition, with numerous treatment options of varying success. An injection of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been shown to improve LE, although it is unclear whether the method of needling used in conjunction with a PRP injection is of clinical importance. To determine whether percutaneous needle tenotomy is superior to percutaneous needle fenestration when each is combined with a PRP injection for the treatment of recalcitrant LE. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. A total of 93 patients with recalcitrant LE were treated with a PRP injection and percutaneous needle fenestration (n = 45) or percutaneous needle tenotomy (n = 48) over a 5-year study interval. Preoperative patient data, including visual analog scale for pain (VAS-P), Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (QuickDASH), and Patient-Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation (PRTEE) scores and grip strength, were obtained from a chart review and compared with postoperative values obtained prospectively. Secondary outcomes included the incidence of complications, need for additional interventions, return to work, and patient satisfaction. At a mean follow-up of 40 months, significant improvements in VAS-P (mean, -6.1; 95% CI, -6.8 to -5.5; P < .0001), QuickDASH (mean, -46; 95% CI, -52 to -40; P < .0001), and PRTEE (mean, -57; 95% CI, -64 to -50; P < .0001) scores and grip strength (mean, +6.1 kg; 95% CI, 4.9 to 7.3; P < .0001) were observed across the entire study cohort, with no significant differences noted between the fenestration and tenotomy groups. Nine of 45 patients (22%) underwent additional procedures to treat recurrent symptoms in the fenestration group compared with 5 of 48 patients (10%) in the tenotomy group ( P = .05). No complications occurred in any patients, and no patients expressed dissatisfaction with their treatment course. A PRP injection with concomitant percutaneous needling is an effective treatment for recalcitrant

  17. Platelet-Rich Plasma Injection With Percutaneous Needling for Recalcitrant Lateral Epicondylitis: Comparison of Tenotomy and Fenestration Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, Michael P.; Motto, Michael A.; Lewis, Sarah; Jacoby, Sidney M.; Culp, Randall W.; Lee Osterman, A.; Kane, Patrick M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Recalcitrant lateral epicondylitis (LE) is a common debilitating condition, with numerous treatment options of varying success. An injection of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been shown to improve LE, although it is unclear whether the method of needling used in conjunction with a PRP injection is of clinical importance. Purpose: To determine whether percutaneous needle tenotomy is superior to percutaneous needle fenestration when each is combined with a PRP injection for the treatment of recalcitrant LE. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: A total of 93 patients with recalcitrant LE were treated with a PRP injection and percutaneous needle fenestration (n = 45) or percutaneous needle tenotomy (n = 48) over a 5-year study interval. Preoperative patient data, including visual analog scale for pain (VAS-P), Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (QuickDASH), and Patient-Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation (PRTEE) scores and grip strength, were obtained from a chart review and compared with postoperative values obtained prospectively. Secondary outcomes included the incidence of complications, need for additional interventions, return to work, and patient satisfaction. Results: At a mean follow-up of 40 months, significant improvements in VAS-P (mean, –6.1; 95% CI, –6.8 to –5.5; P < .0001), QuickDASH (mean, –46; 95% CI, –52 to –40; P < .0001), and PRTEE (mean, –57; 95% CI, –64 to –50; P < .0001) scores and grip strength (mean, +6.1 kg; 95% CI, 4.9 to 7.3; P < .0001) were observed across the entire study cohort, with no significant differences noted between the fenestration and tenotomy groups. Nine of 45 patients (22%) underwent additional procedures to treat recurrent symptoms in the fenestration group compared with 5 of 48 patients (10%) in the tenotomy group (P = .05). No complications occurred in any patients, and no patients expressed dissatisfaction with their treatment course. Conclusion: A PRP injection

  18. Dama annual modulation from electron recoils

    OpenAIRE

    Foot, R.

    2018-01-01

    Plasma dark matter, which arises in dissipative dark matter models, can give rise to large annual modulation signals from keV electron recoils. Previous work has argued that the DAMA annual modulation signal might be explained in such a scenario. Detailed predictions are difficult due to the inherent complexities involved in modelling the halo plasma interactions with Earth bound dark matter. Here, we consider a simplified phenomenological model for the dark matter density and temperature nea...

  19. Plasma basic concepts and nitrogen containing plasmas

    OpenAIRE

    Sanz Lluch, M. del Mar; Tanarro, Isabel

    2007-01-01

    Basic concepts related to plasmas are described as well as the typical characterization methods currently available. A brief overview about some plasma applications is given, but focusing on plasma used in material processing mainly devoted to the microelectronics industry. Finally, specific applications related to plasma-assisted MBE for nitrides and dilute nitrides are given, showing some interesting research works performed to that purpose, and giving the usual characterization techniques ...

  20. High-precision analysis on annual variations of heavy metals, lead isotopes and rare earth elements in mangrove tree rings by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Kefu; Kamber, Balz S.; Lawrence, Michael G.; Greig, Alan; Zhao Jianxin

    2007-01-01

    Annual variations from 1982 to 1999 of a wide range of trace elements and reconnaissance Pb isotopes ( 207 Pb/ 206 Pb and 208 Pb/ 206 Pb) were analyzed by solution ICP-MS on digested ash from mangrove Rhizophora apiculata, obtained from Leizhou Peninsula, along northern coast of South China Sea. The concentrations of the majority of elements show a weak declining trend with growth from 1982 to 1999, punctuated by several high concentration spikes. The declining trends are positively correlated with ring width and negatively correlated with inferred water-use efficiency, suggesting a physiological control over metal-uptake in this species. The episodic metal concentration-peaks cannot be interpreted with lateral movement or growth activities and appear to be related to environmental pollution events. Pb isotope ratios for most samples plot along the 'Chinese Pb line' and clearly document the importance of gasoline Pb as a source of contaminant. Shale-normalised REE + Y patterns are relatively flat and consistent across the growth period, with all patterns showing a positive Ce anomaly and elevated Y/Ho ratio. The positive Ce anomaly is observed regardless of the choice of normaliser, in contrast to previously reported REE patterns for terrestrial and marine plants. This pilot study of trace element, REE + Y and Pb isotope distribution in mangrove tree rings indicates the potential use of mangroves as monitors of historical environmental change

  1. Development of the gas puff charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (GP-CXRS) technique for ion measurements in the plasma edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Churchill, R. M.; Theiler, C.; Lipschultz, B.; Dux, R.; Pütterich, T.; Viezzer, E.

    2013-01-01

    A novel charge-exchange recombination spectroscopy (CXRS) diagnostic method is presented, which uses a simple thermal gas puff for its donor neutral source, instead of the typical high-energy neutral beam. This diagnostic, named gas puff CXRS (GP-CXRS), is used to measure ion density, velocity, and temperature in the tokamak edge/pedestal region with excellent signal-background ratios, and has a number of advantages to conventional beam-based CXRS systems. Here we develop the physics basis for GP-CXRS, including the neutral transport, the charge-exchange process at low energies, and effects of energy-dependent rate coefficients on the measurements. The GP-CXRS hardware setup is described on two separate tokamaks, Alcator C-Mod and ASDEX Upgrade. Measured spectra and profiles are also presented. Profile comparisons of GP-CXRS and a beam based CXRS system show good agreement. Emphasis is given throughout to describing guiding principles for users interested in applying the GP-CXRS diagnostic technique

  2. Development of the gas puff charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (GP-CXRS) technique for ion measurements in the plasma edge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Churchill, R. M.; Theiler, C.; Lipschultz, B. [MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Dux, R.; Pütterich, T.; Viezzer, E. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstrasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Collaboration: Alcator C-Mod Team; ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2013-09-15

    A novel charge-exchange recombination spectroscopy (CXRS) diagnostic method is presented, which uses a simple thermal gas puff for its donor neutral source, instead of the typical high-energy neutral beam. This diagnostic, named gas puff CXRS (GP-CXRS), is used to measure ion density, velocity, and temperature in the tokamak edge/pedestal region with excellent signal-background ratios, and has a number of advantages to conventional beam-based CXRS systems. Here we develop the physics basis for GP-CXRS, including the neutral transport, the charge-exchange process at low energies, and effects of energy-dependent rate coefficients on the measurements. The GP-CXRS hardware setup is described on two separate tokamaks, Alcator C-Mod and ASDEX Upgrade. Measured spectra and profiles are also presented. Profile comparisons of GP-CXRS and a beam based CXRS system show good agreement. Emphasis is given throughout to describing guiding principles for users interested in applying the GP-CXRS diagnostic technique.

  3. Electric field measurements from satellites-to-forbidden line ratios in an Omega-Upgrade laser-produced plasma. Semi-annual report, February 1--May 31, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griem, H.R.; Elton, R.C.; Welch, B.L.

    1996-01-01

    Under this FY-96 NLUF program, the authors began their search for satellite lines to forbidden transitions for localized laser-induced electric field measurements by preparing in their laboratory a flat-field grazing incidence spectrograph for use on the OMEGA-Upgrade facility. This involved wavelength calibration using a (small) laser-produced plasma, as well as designing and constructing a mounting table compatible with the large 60-beam target chamber at LLE. Beginning in April 1996 they installed and aligned the spectrograph at LLE. Following final alignment on Monday, April 29, they obtained the following day their first time-integrated spectral data in the 30--250 angstrom range. A total of 28 successful shots were obtained. For most shots, two beams of the OMEGA-Upgrade laser were used at nominal uv-pulse widths of 1.1 ns and energies ranging from 76--470 J/beam, with focal spots of 80--450 microm and irradiances covering approximately 10 14 --10 16 Watt/cm 2 . Planar targets used consisted of Mg and NaF, as well as boron mounted on a plastic film, with some of the former two overcoated with 5 microm of CH on each side for containing the plasma, at least during the early portion of the pulse. Preliminary analyses indicate that they do indeed observe the desired Li-like L-shell spectra for oxygen, fluorine, sodium and magnesium, as well as L-shell lines in the corresponding H-(Balmer) and He-like species. Similarly, they recorded K-shell lines from B and C. Sample traces for Mg and Na fluoride from their soft x-ray spectrograph are shown. Both of these shots were obtained at a rather low applied irradiance of 2 X 10 14 W/cm 2 , and were chosen mainly for line identification. The parent Li-like 2s-3p allowed lines corresponding to the forbidden-line satellites sought for E-field determinations are clearly present. The calculated satellite line intensity relative to the intensity from this 2s-3p transition is ∼ 3%

  4. Development of high-sensitivity ultrasonic techniques for in-service inspection of nuclear reactors. Annual report, July 1, 1975--June 30, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linzer, M.

    1977-02-01

    Substantial progress was made in the development of improved ultrasonic techniques based on real-time signal averaging, pulse compression, multifrequency transception, and compact electromagnetic transducers. A preliminary correlation was established between ultrasonic velocity and the degree of sensitization of stainless steel

  5. Association of Postbreakfast Triglyceride and Visit-to-Visit Annual Variation of Fasting Plasma Glucose with Progression of Diabetic Nephropathy in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaori Kitaoka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR was measured at baseline and after a median follow-up of 6.0 years in 161 patients with type 2 diabetes. Intrapersonal means and SD of HbA1c, systolic BP, fasting, and postmeal plasma glucose (FPG and PMPG, resp. and serum triglycerides (FTG and PMTG, resp. were calculated in each patient during the first 12 months after enrollment. Associations of these variables with nephropathy progression (15 patients with progression of albuminuric stages and 5 with ACR doubling within the microalbuminuric range were determined by multivariate logistic regression analysis providing odds ratio with 95% confidential interval. Patients with nephropathy progression, compared with those without nephropathy progression, had higher HbA1c (p<0.01. They also had higher means and SD of FPG (both p<0.05, FTG (both p<0.05, and PMTG (p=0.001. Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that SD-FPG (1.036, 1.001–1.073, p=0.04 and PMTG (1.013, 1.008–1.040, p=0.001 were significant predictors of progression of nephropathy even after adjustment for mean FPG and SD-FTG, age, sex, BMI, waist circumference, diabetes duration and therapy, means and SDs of HbA1c, PPG, FTG and systolic BP, baseline ACR, smoking status, and uses of antihypertensive and lipid-lowering medications. Consistency of glycemic control and management of postmeal TG may be important to prevent nephropathy progression in type 2 diabetic patients.

  6. Department of Thermonuclear Research annual report 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadowski, M.; Pawlowicz, W.

    1994-01-01

    Department of Thermonuclear Research Annual Report 1993 presents a short review of theoretical, experimental and technological studies performed within the framework of the research program - Plasma Physics. Theoretical studies of a tokamak edge plasma, inner shell ionization by positrons, heat transfer in thin foils, and numerical simulation of HV pulse generators, are summarized. Experimental studies of X-rays and charged particles (including fusion protons) emitted from Plasma-Focus facilities, as well as measurements of plasma-ion streams generated by IONOTRON devices, are described shortly. Also presented are technological studies on data acquisition systems and material engineering, in particular the modification of solid surfaces with the plasma-ion streams. (author)

  7. Department of Thermonuclear Research. Annual report 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadowski, M.

    1989-01-01

    Department of Thermonuclear Research annual report 1988 presents a short review of theoretical, experimental and technological studies performed within a framework of two research programs: diagnostics of high-temperature plasma and nuclear technology. We describe theoretical investigations on the modelling of Tokamak edge plasmas, ion motions, atomic collisions, high-voltage electrode systems and plasma-focus (PF) facilities. The experimental studies on plasma-ion streams, high-current discharges of the PF-type, and on the interaction of ion beams with gaseous targets, are shortly summarized. Also presented are technological studies on electronic and high-voltage systems, as well as applications of the IONOTRON type plasma devices. (author)

  8. Department of Thermonuclear Research annual report 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadowski, M; Pawlowicz, W [eds.; Soltan Inst. for Nuclear Studies, Otwock-Swierk (Poland)

    1994-12-31

    Department of Thermonuclear Research Annual Report 1993 presents a short review of theoretical, experimental and technological studies performed within the framework of the research program - Plasma Physics. Theoretical studies of a tokamak edge plasma, inner shell ionization by positrons, heat transfer in thin foils, and numerical simulation of HV pulse generators, are summarized. Experimental studies of X-rays and charged particles (including fusion protons) emitted from Plasma-Focus facilities, as well as measurements of plasma-ion streams generated by IONOTRON devices, are described shortly. Also presented are technological studies on data acquisition systems and material engineering, in particular the modification of solid surfaces with the plasma-ion streams. (author).

  9. FY 1998 annual summary report on photon measuring/processing techniques. Development of highly functional maintenance techniques for power generating facilities; 1998 nendo foton keisoku kako gijutsu. Hatsuden shisetsuyo kokino maintenance gijutsu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The objectives are set to develop the techniques for non-destructive measurement of conditions of facility portions, especially those exposed to severe environments, e.g., elevated temperature and pressure, over a wide range; the techniques for measurement of leakage of, e.g., gases, at high sensitivity; the techniques of laser-aided welding and surface-modification treatment for the members exposed to severe conditions; and the techniques for generating photon beams of high quality and energy density as the tools therefor, in order to improve reliability and maintenance efficiency of power generating facilities. The R and D themes are microscopic processing technology: fabrication technology for functional micro-composite circuits; in-situ status measuring technology: gas concentration/component measurement technology, and photon wavefront compensation device technology; non-destructive composition measuring technology: high-sensitivity detection technology using short-wavelength photons; high-power all-solid-state laser technology: rod-type laser and slab-type laser; tightly-focusing all-solid-state laser technology: high-energy pulse, high-quality laser; and comprehensive investigation of photonics engineering: investigation for photon-applied measurement technologies. (NEDO)

  10. A hybrid hydrologic-geophysical inverse technique for the assessment and monitoring of leachates in the vadose zone. 1997 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alumbaugh, D.L.

    1997-01-01

    'It is the objective of this proposed study to develop and field test a new, integrated Hybrid Hydrologic-Geophysical Inverse Technique (HHGIT) for characterization of the vadose zone at contaminated sites. This fundamentally new approach to site characterization and monitoring will provide detailed knowledge about hydrological properties, geological heterogeneity and the extent and movement of contamination. HHGIT combines electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) to geophysically sense a 3D volume, statistical information about fabric of geological formations, and sparse data on moisture and contaminant distributions. Combining these three types of information into a single inversion process will provide much better estimates of spatially varied hydraulic properties and three-dimensional contaminant distributions than could be obtained from interpreting the data types individually. Furthermore, HHGIT will be a geostatistically based estimation technique; the estimates represent conditional mean hydraulic property fields and contaminant distributions. Thus, this method will also quantify the uncertainty of the estimates as well as the estimates themselves. The knowledge of this uncertainty is necessary to determine the likelihood of success of remediation efforts and the risk posed by hazardous materials. Controlled field experiments will be conducted to provide critical data sets for evaluation of these methodologies, for better understanding of mechanisms controlling contaminant movement in the vadose zone, and for evaluation of the HHGIT method as a long term monitoring strategy.'

  11. Compression of toroidal plasma by imploding plasma-liner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikuta, Kazunari.

    1979-07-01

    A new concept of compressing a plasma in a closed magnetic configuration by a version of liner implosion flux compression technique is considered. The liner consists of a dense plasma cylinder, i.e. the plasma-liner. Maximum compression ratio of toroidal plasma is determined just by the initial density ratio of the toroidal plasma to the liner plasma because of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. A start-up senario of plasma-liner is also proposed with a possible application of this concept to the creation of a burning plasma in reversed field configurations, i.e. burning plasma vortex. (author)

  12. Annual Report 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swiboda, G.

    2007-01-01

    The Annual Report of the Institute of Atomic Energy describes the results of the research activities carried out in 2006. The document consist of seven parts: General Information; Operation and safety of MARIA reactor; Radiation protection and dosimetry; Nuclear Technology in Energy Generation; Solid State Physics; Nuclear techniques in Health and Environment Protection management of Hazards and in last section the list of published in 2006 papers, conferences, seminars, workshops, research projects and educational activities are presented

  13. Annual Report 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swiboda, G [Institute of Atomic Energy, Otwock-Swierk (Poland)

    2006-07-01

    The Annual Report of the Institute of Atomic Energy describes the results of the research activities carried out in 2005. The document consist of seven parts: General Information; Operation and safety of MARIA reactor; Radiological protection and dosimetry; Nuclear Technology in Energy Generation; Solid State Physics; Nuclear techniques in Health and Environment Protection management of Hazards and in last section the list of published in 2004 papers, conferences, seminars, workshops, research projects and educational activities are presented.

  14. ILL Annual Report 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    This annual report provides a general view of the activities of the different sections of the ILL. In 1974, twenty-two different neutron spectrometers with different characteristics were available on a regular basis. Moreover, a number of special neutron sources were employed for on-line experiments. The major effort was devoted to an increase in experimental systems and to the development of new measurement techniques [fr

  15. Annual Report 2005

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swiboda, G.

    2006-01-01

    The Annual Report of the Institute of Atomic Energy describes the results of the research activities carried out in 2005. The document consist of seven parts: General Information; Operation and safety of MARIA reactor; Radiological protection and dosimetry; Nuclear Technology in Energy Generation; Solid State Physics; Nuclear techniques in Health and Environment Protection management of Hazards and in last section the list of published in 2004 papers, conferences, seminars, workshops, research projects and educational activities are presented

  16. Annual Report 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swiboda, G [Institute of Atomic Energy, Otwock-Swierk (Poland)

    2008-07-01

    The Annual Report of the Institute of Atomic Energy describes the results of the research activities carried out in 2007. The document consist of eight parts: General Information; Operation and safety of MARIA reactor; Radiation protection and dosimetry; Nuclear technology in energy generation; Condensed matter physics; Nuclear techniques in health and environment protection management of hazards; Radioisotope center POLATOM and in last section in which the lists of published in 2007 papers, conferences, seminars, workshops, research projects and educational activities are presented.

  17. Annual Report 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swiboda, G.

    2008-01-01

    The Annual Report of the Institute of Atomic Energy describes the results of the research activities carried out in 2007. The document consist of eight parts: General Information; Operation and safety of MARIA reactor; Radiation protection and dosimetry; Nuclear technology in energy generation; Condensed matter physics; Nuclear techniques in health and environment protection management of hazards; Radioisotope center POLATOM and in last section in which the lists of published in 2007 papers, conferences, seminars, workshops, research projects and educational activities are presented

  18. Plasma processing and chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schram, D.C.; Mullen, van der J.J.A.M.; Sanden, van de M.C.M.

    1994-01-01

    The growing field of applications of plasma as deposition, etching, surface modification and chemical conversion has stimulated a renewed interest in plasma science in the atomic physical chemistry regime. The necessity to optimize the various plasma processing techniques in terms of rates, and

  19. Assessment of the plasma desorption time-of-flight mass spectrometry technique for pesticide adsorption and degradation on 'as-received' treated soil samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J P; Nsouli, B; Darwish, T; Fallavier, M; Khoury, R; Wehbé, N

    2005-01-01

    The assessment of the plasma desorption time-of-flight mass spectrometry (PD-TOFMS) technique as a tool for direct characterization of pesticides adsorbed on agricultural soil is made for the first time in this study. Pellets of soils impregnated by solutions of three pesticides, namely norflurazon, malathion and oxyfluorfen, as well as deposits of these solutions onto aluminum surfaces, were investigated to this end. The yield values of the most characteristic peaks of the negative ion mass spectra were used to determine both the lowest concentrations detected on soils and limits of detection from thin films. The lowest values on soils are for malathion (1000 ppm range), and the largest for norflurazon (20,000 ppm), which is close to the limit of detection (LOD) found for the pesticide on the aluminum substrate (approximately 0.2 microg . cm(-2)). Different behaviors were observed as a function of time of storage in the ambient atmosphere or under vacuum; norflurazon adsorbed on soil exhibited high stability for a long period of time, and a rapid degradation of malathion with the elapsed time was clearly observed. The behavior of oxyfluorfen was also investigated but segregation processes seem to occur after several days. Although by far less sensitive than conventional methods based on extraction processes and used for real-world analytical applications, this technique is well suited to the study of the transformations occurring at the sample surface. A discussion is presented of the future prospects of such experiments in degradation studies. Copyright (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Study and development of different techniques for the generation, conversion, propagation, and radiation of high power microwaves for the electronic cyclotron frequency plasma heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebuffi, L.

    1987-10-01

    The development and optimization of a microwave technique, concerning the high frequency (electronic cyclotron frequency) plasma heating is presented. The experiments are effectuated on the Fontenay-aux-Roses TFR tokamak, with 660 kw whole power, during 100 msec, produced at 60 GHz. Low power tests are performed on the different transmission line components (there are 3, formed by metallic circular waveguides). The work also includes: the development of a lens formed by thin metallic plans; the study of slotted surface mirror; the development of a system for the accurate measurement (5.10 -6 ) of the gyrotronic frequency; a theory, based on the equivalent circuits method, generalized to the rotational and polarization mirrors; the development of a numerical simulation code. A practical scheme, for the optimization of the parameters concerning the optical transmission line project, is given. The results of this work can be applied to the experiment involving power levels, frequencies and times of impulsion increasingly higher (respectively about MW, 100 GHz and 10s) than the reported ones. Moreover, they can also be used in any experiment in the microwave field [fr

  1. Annual report of the project BDI 5001: Improving cassava productivity through mutation breeding and better water and nutrient management practices using nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2018-01-01

    Implementating the IAEA/BDI 5001 project, ISABU has conducted several activities in order to contribute to the food security improvement and farmers’ incomes. Cassava productivity was indeed improved through soil fertilization, mutation breeding, cassava in vitro mutagenesis, halding mutant populations and best water and nutrient management practices using nuclear techniques. Scientific visits, workshops and farmer field schools were organized for different associations in different regions of Burundi for exchange of experience and diseases limitation. The expected results were the soil fertility, a good water management and the increase of the capacity of cassava to resist diseases, which gives a good yield of cassava. High officials from Burundi and expert form IAEA visited the project, the constraint is the lack of irradiation facilities in the region and ISABU propose that IAEA should support national Institutes.

  2. Fizeau plasma interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, A.M.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes a technique by which the sensitivity of plasma interferometers can be increased. Stabilization and fractional fringe measurement techniques have improved to the point where additional optical sensitivity could be useful

  3. FY 1998 annual summary report on photon measuring/processing techniques. Development of the techniques for high-efficiency production processes; 1998 nendo foton keisoku kako gijutsu seika hokokusho. Kokoritsu seisan process gijutsu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    The objectives are set to develop the techniques for energy-efficient laser-aided processing; techniques for high-precision, real-time measurement to improve quality control for production processes and increase their efficiency; and the techniques for generating/controlling photon of high efficiency and quality as the laser beam sources therefor, in order to promote energy saving at and improve efficiency of production processes consuming large quantities of energy, e.g., welding, joining, surface treatment and production of fine particles. The R and D themes are microscopic processing technology: simulation technology for laser welding phenomena; microscopic processing technology: synthesis of technology for quantum dot functional structures; in-situ status measuring technology: fine particle elements and size measurement technology; high-power all-solid-state laser technology: efficient rod type LD-pumping laser modules and pumping chamber of a slab-type laser; tightly-focusing all-solid-state laser technology: improvement of E/O efficiency of laser diode, high-quality nonlinear crystal growth technology and fabrication technology for nonlinear crystal; and comprehensive investigation of photonics engineering: high-efficiency harmonic generation technology. (NEDO)

  4. Annual Report 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalik, J; Smulek, W; Godlewska-Para, E [eds.

    2007-07-01

    The Annual Report of the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology (Warsaw, Poland) describes achievements of the Institute in 2006 obtained in seven fields: (1) radiation chemistry and technology, (2) radiochemistry and coordination chemistry, (3) radiobiology, (4) application of nuclear methods in material and process engineering, (5) design of instruments based on nuclear techniques, (6) trace analysis and radioanalytical techniques, (7) environmental research. In total - 83 detailed papers prepared by the Institute workers and collaborating scientists are presented. General information on the Institute status, personnel activity, international cooperation and publications are presented.

  5. 1985. Annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This annual progress report of the CEA Protection and Nuclear Safety Institut outlines a description of the progress made in each sections of the Institut Research activities of the different departments include: reactor safety analysis, fuel cycle facilities analysis; and associated safety research programs (criticality, sites, transport ...), radioecology and environmental radioprotection techniques; data acquisition on radioactive waste storage sites; radiation effects on man, studies on radioprotection techniques; nuclear material security including security of facilities, security of nuclear material transport, and monitoring of nuclear material management; nuclear facility decommissioning; and finally the public information [fr

  6. Annual Report 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michalik, J.; Smulek, W.; Godlewska-Para, E.

    2007-01-01

    The Annual Report of the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology (Warsaw, Poland) describes achievements of the Institute in 2006 obtained in seven fields: (1) radiation chemistry and technology, (2) radiochemistry and coordination chemistry, (3) radiobiology, (4) application of nuclear methods in material and process engineering, (5) design of instruments based on nuclear techniques, (6) trace analysis and radioanalytical techniques, (7) environmental research. In total - 83 detailed papers prepared by the Institute workers and collaborating scientists are presented. General information on the Institute status, personnel activity, international cooperation and publications are presented

  7. GKSS annual report 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH, one of the national research centers, carries out R and D work on conservation of resources and environment, improvement of working conditions and on increase of economic competitiveness. The activities fall into the fields energy research and technology, basic technologies, marine research and techniques, health-environment-biotechnology. The annual report contains selected research work in summaries, the report on R and D work in reactor safety, materials research, environmental and climate research as well as environmental, and underwater techniques, describes the research institutes, cooperation with external partners, the organization, the budget, personnel, publications, including patent applications, and lectures. (HK) [de

  8. Snowball Vs. House-to-House Technique for Measuring Annual Incidence of Kala-azar in the Higher Endemic Blocks of Bihar, India: A Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Niyamat A; Rabidas, Vidya N; Sinha, Sanjay K; Verma, Rakesh B; Pandey, Krishna; Singh, Vijay P; Ranjan, Alok; Topno, Roshan K; Lal, Chandra S; Kumar, Vijay; Sahoo, Ganesh C; Sridhar, Srikantaih; Pandey, Arvind; Das, Pradeep

    2016-09-01

    Visceral Leishmaniasis, commonly known as kala-azar, is widely prevalent in Bihar. The National Kala-azar Control Program has applied house-to-house survey approach several times for estimating Kala-azar incidence in the past. However, this approach includes huge logistics and operational cost, as occurrence of kala-azar is clustered in nature. The present study aims to compare efficiency, cost and feasibility of snowball sampling approach to house-to-house survey approach in capturing kala-azar cases in two endemic districts of Bihar, India. A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in two highly endemic Primary Health Centre (PHC) areas, each from two endemic districts of Bihar, India. Snowball technique (used to locate potential subjects with help of key informants where subjects are hard to locate) and house-to-house survey technique were applied to detect all the new cases of Kala-azar during a defined reference period of one year i.e. June, 2010 to May, 2011. The study covered a total of 105,035 households with 537,153 populations. Out of total 561 cases and 17 deaths probably due to kala-azar, identified by the study, snowball sampling approach captured only 221 cases and 13 deaths, whereas 489 cases and 17 deaths were detected by house-to-house survey approach. Higher value of McNemar's χ² statistics (64; phouse-to-house survey approach than snowball sampling and relative difference (>1) indicates that most of the kala-azar cases missed by snowball sampling were captured by house-to-house approach with 13% of omission. Snowball sampling was not found sensitive enough as it captured only about 50% of VL cases. However, it captured about 77% of the deaths probably due to kala-azar and was found more cost-effective than house-to-house approach. Standardization of snowball approach with improved procedure, training and logistics may enhance the sensitivity of snowball sampling and its application in national Kala-azar elimination programme as cost

  9. Plasma metallization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowther, J.M.

    1997-09-01

    Many methods are currently used for the production of thin metal films. However, all of these have drawbacks associated with them, for example the need for UHV conditions, high temperatures, exotic metal precursors, or the inability to coat complex shaped objects. Reduction of supported metal salts by non-isothermal plasma treatment does not suffer from these drawbacks. In order to produce and analyse metal films before they become contaminated, a plasma chamber which could be attached directly to a UHV chamber with XPS capability was designed and built. This allowed plasma treatment of supported metal salts and surface analysis by XPS to be performed without exposure of the metal film to the atmosphere. Non-equilibrium plasma treatment of Nylon 66 supported gold(lll) chloride using hydrogen as the feed gas resulted in a 95% pure gold film, the remaining 5% of the film being carbon. If argon or helium were used as the feed gases during plasma treatment the resultant gold films were 100% pure. Some degree of surface contamination of the films due to plasma treatment was observed but was easily removed by argon ion cleaning. Hydrogen plasma reduction of glass supported silver(l) nitrate and palladium(ll) acetate films reveals that this metallization technique is applicable to a wide variety of metal salts and supports, and has also shown the ability of plasma reduction to retain the complex 'fern-like' structures seen for spin coated silver(l) nitrate layers. Some metal salts are susceptible to decomposition by X-rays. The reduction of Nylon 66 supported gold(lll) chloride films by soft X-rays to produce nanoscopic gold particles has been studied. The spontaneous reduction of these X-ray irradiated support gold(lll) chloride films on exposure to the atmosphere to produce gold rich metallic films has also been reported. (author)

  10. Plasma Diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaveryaev, V [Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); others, and

    2012-09-15

    The success in achieving peaceful fusion power depends on the ability to control a high temperature plasma, which is an object with unique properties, possibly the most complicated object created by humans. Over years of fusion research a new branch of science has been created, namely plasma diagnostics, which involves knowledge of almost all fields of physics, from electromagnetism to nuclear physics, and up-to-date progress in engineering and technology (materials, electronics, mathematical methods of data treatment). Historically, work on controlled fusion started with pulsed systems and accordingly the methods of plasma parameter measurement were first developed for short lived and dense plasmas. Magnetically confined hot plasmas require the creation of special experimental techniques for diagnostics. The diagnostic set is the most scientifically intensive part of a plasma device. During many years of research operation some scientific tasks have been solved while new ones arose. New tasks often require significant changes in the diagnostic system, which is thus a very flexible part of plasma machines. Diagnostic systems are designed to solve several tasks. As an example here are the diagnostic tasks for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor - ITER: (1) Measurements for machine protection and basic control; (2) Measurements for advanced control; (3) Additional measurements for performance evaluation and physics. Every new plasma machine is a further step along the path to the main goal - controlled fusion - and nobody knows in advance what new phenomena will be met on the way. So in the planning of diagnostic construction we should keep in mind further system upgrading to meet possible new scientific and technical challenges. (author)

  11. Plasma diagnostics discharge parameters and chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Auciello, Orlando

    1989-01-01

    Plasma Diagnostics, Volume 1: Discharge Parameters and Chemistry covers seven chapters on the important diagnostic techniques for plasmas and details their use in particular applications. The book discusses optical diagnostic techniques for low pressure plasmas and plasma processing; plasma diagnostics for electrical discharge light sources; as well as Langmuir probes. The text also describes the mass spectroscopy of plasmas, microwave diagnostics, paramagnetic resonance diagnostics, and diagnostics in thermal plasma processing. Electrical engineers, nuclear engineers, microwave engineers, che

  12. A New Technique for the Treatment of Lumbar Facet Joint Syndrome Using Intra-articular Injection with Autologous Platelet Rich Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiuping; Du, Zhenwu; Lv, Yang; Zhang, Jun; Xiong, Wei; Wang, Ruiqiang; Liu, Rui; Zhang, Guizhen; Liu, Qinyi

    2016-01-01

    longer follow-up may lead to a more convincing result for our study. In the short-term period of 3 months, the new technique of lumbar facet joint injection with autologous PRP is effective and safe for patients with lumbar facet joint syndrome. Key words: Low back pain, lumbar facet joint syndrome, autologous platelet rich plasma, intra-articular injection.

  13. FY 1998 annual summary report on comprehensive development study of high-function flat panel display techniques (second year); 1998 nendo koseino flat panel display gijutsu no sogo kaihatsu kenkyu seika hokokusho. Daininendo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    This project is aimed at creation of the new world display industry in Shikoku by developing the high-function flat panel display techniques and thereby establishing new techniques which solve the problems involved in, e.g., LEDs, plasma-aided devices and ELs other than liquid crystal devices. For development of emitters using diamond, important results have been obtained for the morphology, and cathode luminescence, Raman and photoluminescence spectra of polycrystalline diamond, synthesized by the vapor-phase process under varying conditions, on the electron radiation characteristics of the emitters. These results have led to clarification of the optimum vapor-phase synthesis conditions for diamond for high-function emitters. The techniques utilizing focused ion beams have also advanced to develop thin polycrystalline diamond films for emitters which correspond to the image elements of quality for television. For electron emitters, a structure prepared by implantation without using a high electrical field is proposed, and the device mechanisms involved are clarified. (NEDO)

  14. Electron waves and resonances in bounded plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Vandenplas, Paul E

    1968-01-01

    General theoretical methods and experimental techniques ; the uniform plasma slab-condenser system ; the hollow cylindrical plasma ; scattering of a plane electromagnetic wave by a plasma column in steady magnetic fields (cold plasma approximation) ; hot non-uniform plasma column ; metallic and dielectric resonance probes, plasma-dielectric coated antenna, general considerations.

  15. Elements of plasma technology

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, Chiow San

    2016-01-01

    This book presents some fundamental aspects of plasma technology that are important for beginners interested to start research in the area of plasma technology . These include the properties of plasma, methods of plasma generation and basic plasma diagnostic techniques. It also discusses several low cost plasma devices, including pulsed plasma sources such as plasma focus, pulsed capillary discharge, vacuum spark and exploding wire; as well as low temperature plasmas such as glow discharge and dielectric barrier discharge which the authors believe may have potential applications in industry. The treatments are experimental rather than theoretical, although some theoretical background is provided where appropriate. The principles of operation of these devices are also reviewed and discussed.

  16. NERSC 2001 Annual Report; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hules, John

    2001-01-01

    The National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center (NERSC) is the primary computational resource for scientific research funded by the DOE Office of Science. The Annual Report for FY2001 includes a summary of recent computational science conducted on NERSC systems (with abstracts of significant and representative projects); information about NERSC's current systems and services; descriptions of Berkeley Lab's current research and development projects in applied mathematics, computer science, and computational science; and a brief summary of NERSC's Strategic Plan for 2002-2005

  17. Plasma electron losses in a multidipole plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haworth, M.D.

    1983-01-01

    The magnitude of the plasma electron cusp losses in a multidipole plasma device is determined by using a plasma electron heating technique. This method consists of suddenly generating approximately monoenergetic test electrons inside the multidipole plasma, which is in a steady-state equilibrium prior to the introduction of the test electrons. The Coulomb collisions between the test electrons and the plasma electrons result in heating the plasma electrons. The experimentally measured time evolution of the plasma electron temperature is compared with that predicted by a kinetic-theory model which calculates the time evolution of the test electron and the plasma electron distribution functions. The analytical solution of the plasma electron heating rate when the test electrons are first introduced into the plasma predicts that there is no dependence on ion mass. Experimental results in helium, neon, argon, and krypton multidipole plasmas confirm this prediction. The time-evolved solution of the kinetic equations must be solved numerically, and these results (when coupled with the experimental heating results) show that the plasma electron cusp-loss width is on the order of an electron Larmor radius

  18. The study and the realization of radiation detectors made from polycrystalline diamond films grown by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jany, Ch.

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this work was to develop radiation detectors made from polycrystalline diamond films grown by microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition technique. The influence of surface treatments, contact technology and diamond growth parameters on the diamond detectors characteristics was investigated in order to optimise the detector response to alpha particles. The first part of the study focused on the electrical behaviour of as-deposited diamond surface, showing a p type conduction and its influence on the leakage current of the device. A surface preparation process was established in order to reduce the leakage current of the device by surface dehydrogenation using an oxidising step. Several methods to form and treat electrical contacts were also investigated showing that the collection efficiency of the device decreases after contact annealing. In the second part, we reported the influence of the diamond deposition parameters on the characteristics of the detectors. The increase of the deposition temperature and/or methane concentration was shown to lead η to decrease. In contrast, η was found to increase with the micro-wave power. The evolution of the diamond detector characteristics results from the variation in sp 2 phases incorporation and in the crystallography quality of the films. These defects increase the leakage current and reduce the carrier mobility and lifetime. Measurements carried out on detectors with different thicknesses showed that the physical properties varies along the growth direction, improving with the film thickness. Finally, the addition of nitrogen (> 10 ppm) in the gas mixture during diamond deposition was found to strongly reduce the collection efficiency of the detectors. To conclude the study, we fabricated and characterised diamond devices which were used for thermal neutron detection and for the intensity and shape measurement of VUV and soft X-ray pulses. (author)

  19. Concentration profiling of minerals in iliac crest bone tissue of opium addicted humans using inductively coupled plasma and discriminant analysis techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani-Varnosfaderani, Ahmad; Jamshidi, Mahbobeh; Yeganeh, Ali; Mahmoudi, Mani

    2016-02-20

    Opium addiction is one of the main health problems in developing countries and induces serious defects on the human body. In this work, the concentrations of 32 minerals including alkaline, heavy and toxic metals have been determined in the iliac crest bone tissue of 22 opium addicted individuals using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The bone tissues of 30 humans with no physiological and metabolomic diseases were used as the control group. For subsequent analyses, the linear and quadratic discriminant analysis techniques have been used for classification of the data into "addicted" and "non-addicted" groups. Moreover, the counter-propagation artificial neural network (CPANN) has been used for clustering of the data. The results revealed that the CPANN is a robust model and thoroughly classifies the data. The area under the curve for the receiver operating characteristic curve for this model was more than 0.91. Investigation of the results revealed that the opium consumption causes a deficiency in the level of Calcium, Phosphate, Potassium and Sodium in iliac crest bone tissue. Moreover, this type of addiction induces an increment in the level of toxic and heavy metals such as Co, Cr, Mo and Ni in iliac crest tissue. The correlation analysis revealed that there were no significant dependencies between the age of the samples and the mineral content of their iliac crest, in this study. The results of this work suggest that the opium addicted individuals need thorough and restricted dietary and medical care programs after recovery phases, in order to have healthy bones. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Cold plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franz, G.

    1990-01-01

    This textbook discusses the following topics: Phenomenological description of a direct current glow discharge; the plasma (temperature distribution and measurement, potential variation, electron energy distribution function, charge neutralization, wall potentials, plasma oscillations); Production of charge carriers (ions, electrons, ionization in the cathode zone, negative glowing zone, Faraday dark space, positive column, anode zone, hollow cathode discharges); RF-discharges (charge carrier production, RF-Shields, scattering mechanisms); Sputtering (ion-surface interaction, kinetics, sputtering yield and energy distribution, systems and conditions, film formation and stresses, contamination, bias techniques, multicomponent film deposition, cohesion, magnetrons, triode systems, plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition); Dry etching (sputter etching, reactive etching, topography, process control, quantitative investigations); Etching mechanisms (etching of Si and SiO 2 with CF 4 , of III/V-compound-semiconductors, combination of isotrope and anisotrope etching methods, surface cleaning); ion beam systems (applications, etching); Dyclotron-resonance-systems (electron cyclotron resonance systems, whistler-sources and 'resonant inductive plasma etching'); Appendix (electron energy distribution functions, Bohm's transition zone, plasma oscillations, scattering cross sections and mean free path, metastable states, Child-Langmuir-Schottky equation, loss mechanisms, charge carrier distribution in the positive column, breakdown at high frequencies, motion in a magnetic field, skin depth of an electric field for a HF-discharge, whistler waves, dispersion relations for plane wave propagation). (orig.) With 138 figs

  1. Fourth annual report 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The Independent Radiation Monitoring Scheme for Clwyd began its monitoring programme in Clwyd in 1988. This is the fourth report on the results of the radiation monitoring carried out within Clwyd. The historical reasons for the conception of the Radiation Monitoring Scheme are given in the First Annual Report together with the protocol of operation and detailed sampling and monitoring information. The fourth Annual Report identifies any changes in techniques that have occurred in the last twelve months together with the latest monitoring and analytical data. Samples of air, beach materials, coastal sand and silt, seaweed, meat, fish and milk were taken from various locations within the county. No significant charges in radiation levels were found when compared with data from previous years. The values have remained within the range currently being expected throughout the United Kingdom. (author)

  2. Plasma reseach laboratory annual report 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Research activities outlined include upgrading of the tokamak, studies of toroidal magnetic fields aimed at optimizing the field configuration on stellarators and a design study on a proposed large modular stellarator

  3. A comparison of two nuclear-medical techniques for effective renal plasma flow determination in rabbits: Radiation controlled infusion-pump and whole-body measurement according to Oberhausen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayer-Wehrstein, R.

    1981-01-01

    Two nuclear techniques were investigated for determination of the effective renal plasma flow with J-131-Hippuran in rabbits: whole-body measurement according to Oberhausen and clearance determination with a radiation controlled feed back infusion pump. In the first method the clearance determination follows after a single injection of the testing substance in the decreasing phase of the blood level, in the second method a constant blood level of the testing substance is maintained. A technique was developed for the determination of the blood-tissue ratio by considering the values determined by the constant blood level. This way the exact clearance values were computet for the decreasing plasma level. Nineteen clearance determinations were performed in rabbits altogether. (orig.) [de

  4. Annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    This is the thirty-ninth annual report of the Atomic Energy Control Board. The period covered by this report is the year ending March 31, 1986. The Atomic Energy Control Board (AECB) was established in 1946, by the Atomic Energy Control Act (AEC Act), (Revised Statues of Canada (R.S.C.) 1970 cA19). It is a departmental corporation (Schedule B) within the meaning and purpose of the Financial Administration Act. The AECB controls the development, application and use of atomic energy in Canada, and participates on behalf of Canada in international measures of control. The AECB is also repsonsible for the administration of the Nuclear Liability Act, (R.S.C. 1970 c29 1st Supp) as amended, including the designation of nuclear installations and the prescription of basic insurance to be carried by the operators of such nuclear installations. The AECB reports to Parliament through a designated Minister, currently the Minister of Energy, Mines and Resources

  5. Study of Complex Plasmas with Magnetic Dipoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-10

    Electro-Energetic Physics Annual Program Review , Basic Research Innovation and Collaboration Center, Arlington VA USA, November 29-30, 2016 (6) The...and O. Ishihara, Electromagnetic band structure due to surface plasmon resonances in a complex plasma, Physical Review E, 94, 013202- 1~8 (2016). 7...Novel Features in Complex Plasmas, 2016 Plasma & Electro-Energetic Physics Annual Program Review , Basic Research Innovation and Collaboration Center

  6. Plasma cleaning for waste minimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, P.P.

    1993-07-01

    Although plasma cleaning is a recognized substitute for solvent cleaning in removing organic contaminants, some universal problems in plasma cleaning processes prevent wider use of plasma techniques. Lack of understanding of the fundamental mechanisms of the process, unreliable endpoint detection techniques, and slow process times make plasma cleaning processes less than desirable. Our approach to address these plasma cleaning problems is described. A comparison of plasma cleaning rates of oxygen and oxygen/sulfur hexafluoride gases shows that fluorine-containing plasmas can enhance etch rates by 400% over oxygen alone. A discussion of various endpoint indication techniques is discussed and compared for application suitability. Work toward a plasma cleaning database is discussed. In addition to the global problems of plasma cleaning, an experiment where the specific mixed-waste problem of removal of machine oils from radioactive scrap metal is discussed.

  7. Study of the effect of low-power pulse laser on arc plasma and magnesium alloy target in hybrid welding by spectral diagnosis technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liming; Hao, Xinfeng

    2008-10-01

    In order to study the effect of laser pulses on arc plasma and target metal in the hybrid welding process, the spectra of the plasmas in the welding process of magnesium alloys are analysed in this paper. The acquisition system of plasma spectra is set up and the spectral lines of welding plasma are acquired. Compared with tungsten-inert gas (TIG) welding, the intensities of the spectral lines of magnesium increase sharply while those of Ar decrease for strong evaporation and ionization of magnesium alloys in low-power laser/arc hybrid welding. The electron temperature and density are estimated by the Boltzmann plot method and the Stark broadening effect. The result shows that the electron temperature of arc plasma in the hybrid welding process is much lower than that in TIG welding, especially in the laser beam-affected zone. In contrast, the electron density of the plasma is enhanced. The influences of laser parameters on electron temperature are also studied. The changes in electron temperature and density indicate that the effect of laser pulse on the target metal is the dominant factor influencing the electron temperature and density in low-power laser/arc hybrid welding.

  8. Direct analysis of ultra-trace semiconductor gas by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry coupled with gas to particle conversion-gas exchange technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohata, Masaki; Sakurai, Hiromu; Nishiguchi, Kohei; Utani, Keisuke; Günther, Detlef

    2015-09-03

    An inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) coupled with gas to particle conversion-gas exchange technique was applied to the direct analysis of ultra-trace semiconductor gas in ambient air. The ultra-trace semiconductor gases such as arsine (AsH3) and phosphine (PH3) were converted to particles by reaction with ozone (O3) and ammonia (NH3) gases within a gas to particle conversion device (GPD). The converted particles were directly introduced and measured by ICPMS through a gas exchange device (GED), which could penetrate the particles as well as exchange to Ar from either non-reacted gases such as an air or remaining gases of O3 and NH3. The particle size distribution of converted particles was measured by scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and the results supported the elucidation of particle agglomeration between the particle converted from semiconductor gas and the particle of ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) which was produced as major particle in GPD. Stable time-resolved signals from AsH3 and PH3 in air were obtained by GPD-GED-ICPMS with continuous gas introduction; however, the slightly larger fluctuation, which could be due to the ionization fluctuation of particles in ICP, was observed compared to that of metal carbonyl gas in Ar introduced directly into ICPMS. The linear regression lines were obtained and the limits of detection (LODs) of 1.5 pL L(-1) and 2.4 nL L(-1) for AsH3 and PH3, respectively, were estimated. Since these LODs revealed sufficiently lower values than the measurement concentrations required from semiconductor industry such as 0.5 nL L(-1) and 30 nL L(-1) for AsH3 and PH3, respectively, the GPD-GED-ICPMS could be useful for direct and high sensitive analysis of ultra-trace semiconductor gas in air. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Annual progress report 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    This annual progress report of the CEA Protection and Nuclear Safety Institut outlines a brief description of the progress made in each section of the Institut. Research activities of the Protection department include, radiation effects on man, radioecology and environment radioprotection techniques. Research activities of the Nuclear Safety department include, reactor safety analysis, fuel cycle facilities safety analysis, safety research programs. The third section deals with nuclear material security including security of facilities, security of nuclear material transport and monitoring of nuclear material management [fr

  10. Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... today. ANNUAL FUND Become a Corporate Supporter Cause Marketing Make a Charitable Gift Our Corporate Supporters Workplace ... Clearance Airway Clearance Techniques (ACTs) There are different ways to clear your airways. Most are easy to ...

  11. Information Theory and Plasma Turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dendy, R. O.

    2009-01-01

    Information theory, applied directly to measured signals, yields new perspectives on, and quantitative knowledge of, the physics of strongly nonlinear and turbulent phenomena in plasmas. It represents a new and productive element of the topical research programmes that use modern techniques to characterise strongly nonlinear signals from plasmas, and that address global plasma behaviour from a complex systems perspective. We here review some pioneering studies of mutual information in solar wind and magnetospheric plasmas, using techniques tested on standard complex systems.

  12. Annual report '80

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This document is an annual report from the Foundation for Fundamental Research on Matter (FOM) and the Foundation Institute for Nuclear Physics Research (IKO). The FOM stimulates research in new fields of physics, by the co-ordination of existing research projects and by calling in the help of its institutes and working groups. Furthermore it supports the IKO which has as its task the promotion of fundamental and applied scientific research in the field of nuclear physics and related fields in the Netherlands. The report contains organisational and financial reports and information concerning the personnel. The following FOM institutes/working-communities have submitted separate reports: Nuclear physics, Institute for atomic and molecular physics, Atomic physics, Metals FOM-TNO, Molecular physics, Solid State, Thermonuclear Research and Plasma Physics and High energy physics. Reports are also included from the Special Committee for Theoretical physics, The Special Committee for Technical physics and the Contact Group for technical semi-conductor physics and electronics. Four ''trend articles'' are also included with the following titles: 'Atomic hydrogen as a gas at low temperatures', 'Negative ion beams', 'Turbulence in plasmas' and 'Nuclear structure described by interacting bosons'. (C.F.)

  13. X-ray hot plasma diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cojocaru, E.

    1984-11-01

    X-ray plasma emission study is powerful diagnostic tool of hot plasmas. In this review article the main techniques of X-ray plasma emission measurement are shortly presented: X-ray spectrometry using absorbent filters, crystal and grating spectrometers, imaging techniques using pinhole cameras, X-ray microscopes and Fresnel zone plate cameras, X-ray plasma emission calorimetry. Advances in these techniques with examples for different hot plasma devices are also presentes. (author)

  14. Annual progress report 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    The experimental research program has two major themes -the study of hydromagnetic waves and RF heating using the TORTUS tokamak and the development of diagnostic techniques. Some highlights during 1985 were: the completion of an experiment which shows that antennas used in Alfven wave heating should not have current elements parallel to the magnetic field and that they should be operated at frequencies well below the ion cyclotron frequency - otherwise, the antenna directly excites unwanted Alfven waves in the edge plasma; the use of the scanning submillimetre laser inteferometer to determine the radial profile of the electron density in TORTUS; and the completion of the experimental observation of laser induced fluorescence using the SUPPER II plasma

  15. Plasma processing: Technologies and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naddaf, M.; Saloum, S.

    2005-01-01

    This study aims to present the fundamentals of physics of plasmas, methods of generation, diagnostics, and applications for processing of materials. The first chapter defines plasma in general as well as its main parameters, the most important differential equations in plasma physics, and classifies the types of plasmas. the various methods and techniques to create and sustain plasma are presented in the second chapter. Chapter 3 focuses on plasma diagnostic methods and tools. While chapter 4 deals with applications of plasma processing such as; surface modification of materials, plasma ashing and etching, plasma cutting, and the environmental applications of plasma. Plasma polymerization and its various applications have been presented in more details in the last chapter. (Author)

  16. Quarterly, Bi-annual and Annual Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Quarterly, Bi-annual and Annual Reports are periodic reports issued for public release. For the deep set fishery these reports are issued quarterly and anually....

  17. GKSS annual report 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH, as a national research center, carries out development work on behalf of the Federal Government's research and technology policy in order to deepen scientific knowledge, conserve resources and environment, improve living and working conditions, and increase economic efficiency and competitiveness. The center carries out work on energy research and energy technology, basic technologies, marine research and techniques, health-environment-biotechnology. The annual report contains in summary selected research work, the report on R and D activities in reactor safety, materials, environment and climate, underwater and environmental techniques. The research institutes, cooperation with external partners, the organization, budget, personnel, publications, including patent applications, and lectures are described. (HK) [de

  18. Plasma polarization spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamae, Atsushi; Horimoto, Yasuhiro; Fujimoto, Takashi; Hasegawa, Noboru; Sukegawa, Kouta; Kawachi, Tetsuya

    2005-01-01

    The electron velocity distribution function (EVDF) in plasma can be anisotropic in laser-produced plasmas. We have developed a new technique to evaluate the polarization degree of the emission lines in the extreme vacuum ultra violet wavelength region. The polarization of the emission lines and the continuums from the lithium-like nitrogen and from helium- and hydrogen-like carbon in recombining plasma is evaluated. Particle simulation in the velocity space gives the time scale for relaxation of anisotropic EVDFs. (author)

  19. Applied plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Applied Plasma Physics is a major sub-organizational unit of the Magnetic Fusion Energy (MFE) Program. It includes Fusion Plasma Theory and Experimental Plasma Research. The Fusion Plasma Theory group has the responsibility for developing theoretical-computational models in the general areas of plasma properties, equilibrium, stability, transport, and atomic physics. This group has responsibility for giving guidance to the mirror experimental program. There is a formal division of the group into theory and computational; however, in this report the efforts of the two areas are not separated since many projects have contributions from members of both. Under the Experimental Plasma Research Program we are developing a neutral-beam source, the intense, pulsed ion-neutral source (IPINS), for the generation of a reversed-field configuration on 2XIIB. We are also studying the feasibility of using certain neutron-detection techniques as plasma diagnostics in the next generation of thermonuclear experiments

  20. Applied plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1978-01-01

    Applied Plasma Physics is a major sub-organizational unit of the MFE Program. It includes Fusion Plasma Theory and Experimental Plasma Research. The Fusion Plasma Theory group has the responsibility for developing theoretical-computational models in the general areas of plasma properties, equilibrium, stability, transport, and atomic physics. This group has responsibility for giving guidance to the mirror experimental program. There is a formal division of the group into theory and computational; however, in this report the efforts of the two areas are not separated since many projects have contributions from members of both. Under the Experimental Plasma Research Program, we are developing the intense, pulsed neutral-beam source (IPINS) for the generation of a reversed-field configuration on 2XIIB. We are also studying the feasibility of utilizing certain neutron-detection techniques as plasma diagnostics in the next generation of thermonuclear experiments

  1. A novel double-isotope technique for the enzymatic assay of plasma histamine: application to estimation of mast cell activation assessed by antigen challenge in asthmatics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, M.J.; Ind, P.W.; Causon, R.; Lee, T.H.

    1982-01-01

    The concentration of plasma histamine may provide an index of mast cell activation (degranulation) and can be measured by a sensitive radioenzymatic assay based on its specific conversion to (/sup 3/H)-methylhistamine in the presence of histamine-N-methyltransferase and (/sup 3/H)-S-adenosyl-L-methionine. In this assay, the separation of excess (/sup 3/H)-S-adenosyl-L-methionine from (/sup 3/H)-methylhistamine requires several steps, for which a correction factors is necessary to maintain precision. In the present modification, duplicate 50-microliters aliquots of each plasma sample were incubated with histamine-N-methyltransferase and (/sup 3/H)-S-adenosyl-L-methionine. A further aliquot, with an added standard of 200 ng/ml histamine, was incubated with histamine-N-methyl-transferase and (/sup 14/C)-S-adenosyl-L-methionine. This standard was converted to (/sup 14/C)-methylhistamine, and its recovery at the end of the assay corrected both for varying efficiency of methylation among plasma samples and for losses during the subsequent extraction and separation stages. The sensitivity of the assay was 25 pg/ml. The intra-assay and interassay coefficients of variation were 7.2% and 11.6%, respectively. In five asthmatics, antigen challenge caused a 28% fall in FEV1, and this was associated with a twofold to threefold rise in plasma histamine concentration. This assay may thus prove a useful method for assessing the role of mast cell release of mediators in vivo

  2. The evaluation of the x-ray fluorescence (XRF) technique for process monitoring of vitreous slag from thermal waste treatment systems: A comparative study of the analysis of Plasma Hearth slag for Ce, Fe and Cr by XRF and inductively coupled plasma spectrometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutton, M.A.H.; Crane, P.J.; Cummings, D.G.; Carney, K.P.

    1995-05-01

    Slag material produced by the Plasma Hearth Process (PHP) varies in chemical composition due to the heterogeneous nature of the input sample feed. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) is a spectroscopic technique which has been evaluated to perform elemental analyses on surrogate slag material for process control. Vitreous slag samples were ground to a fine powder in an impact ball mill and analyzed directly using laboratory prepared standards. The fluorescent intensities of Si, Al and Fe in the slag samples was utilized to determine the appropriate matrix standard set for the determination of Ce. The samples were analyzed for Cr, Ni, Fe and Ce using a wavelength dispersive XRF polychromator. Split samples were dissolved and analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES). The precision of the XRF technique was better than 5% RSD. The limit of detection for Ce varied with sample matrix and was typically below 0.01% by weight. The linear dynamic range for the technique was evaluated over two orders of magnitude. Typical calibration standards ranged from 0.01% Ce to 1% Ce. The Ce determinations performed directly on ground slag material by the XRF techniques were similar to ICP-AES analyses. Various chemical dissolution and sample preparation techniques were evaluated for the analysis of Ce in slag samples. A fusion procedure utilizing LiBO 2 was found to provide reliable analyses for the actinide surrogate in a variety of slag matrices. The use of the XRF technique reduced the time of analysis for Ce and Cr from three days to one day for five samples. No additional waste streams were created from the analyses by the XRF technique, while the ICP technique generated several liters of liquid waste

  3. Fusion Energy Division annual progress report period ending December 31, 1986

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, O.B. Jr.; Berry, L.A.; Sheffield, J.

    1987-10-01

    This annual report on fusion energy discusses the progress on work in the following main topics: toroidal confinement experiments; atomic physics and plasma diagnostics development; plasma theory and computing; plasma-materials interactions; plasma technology; superconducting magnet development; fusion engineering design center; materials research and development; and neutron transport. (LSP)

  4. Fusion Energy Division annual progress report period ending December 31, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, O.B. Jr.; Berry, L.A.; Sheffield, J.

    1987-10-01

    This annual report on fusion energy discusses the progress on work in the following main topics: toroidal confinement experiments; atomic physics and plasma diagnostics development; plasma theory and computing; plasma-materials interactions; plasma technology; superconducting magnet development; fusion engineering design center; materials research and development; and neutron transport

  5. Determining Mean Annual Energy Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Folley, Matt

    2016-01-01

    This robust book presents all the information required for numerical modelling of a wave energy converter, together with a comparative review of the different available techniques. The calculation of the mean annual energy production (MAEP) is critical to the assessment of the levelized cost...... of energy for a wave energy converter or wave farm. Fundamentally, the MAEP is equal to the sum of the product of the power capture of a set of sea-states and their average annual occurrence. In general, it is necessary in the calculation of the MAEP to achieve a balance between computational demand...

  6. Annual report for 1979/80

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-02-01

    This annual report contains extended abstracts of the work done in the named Institute. These concern nuclear physics, solid state physics, molecule physics, high- and intermediate-energy physics, plasma physics, applied optics, data processing, and instrumental and methodical developments. In addition a list of publications, meetings, and theses is given. (HSI) [de

  7. Comparison of glomerular filtration rate measured by plasma sample technique, Cockroft Gault method and Gates’ method in voluntary kidney donors and renal transplant recipients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hephzibah, Julie; Shanthly, Nylla; Oommen, Regi

    2013-01-01

    There are numerous methods for calculation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR), which is a crucial measurement to identify patients with renal disease. The aim of this study is to compare four different methods of GFR calculation. Clinical setup, prospective study. Data was collected from routine renal scans done for voluntary kidney donors (VKD) or renal transplant recipients 6 months after transplantation. Following technetium-99m diethylene triamine penta acetic acid injection, venous blood samples were collected from contralateral arm at 120, 180, and 240 min through an indwelling venous cannula and direct collection by syringe. A total volume of 1 ml of plasma from each sample and standards were counted in an automatic gamma counter for 1 min. Blood samples taken at 120 min and 240 min were used for double plasma sample method (DPSM) and a sample taken at 180 min for single plasma sample method (SPSM). Russell's formulae for SPSM and DPSM were used for GFR estimation. Gates’ method GFR was calculated by vendor provided software. Correlation analysis was performed using Pearson's correlation test. SPSM correlated well with DPSM. GFR value in healthy potential kidney donors has a significant role in the selection of donors. The mean GFR ± (standard deviation) in VKD using SPSM, DPSM, camera depth method and Cockroft Gault method was 134.6 (25.9), 137.5 (42.4), 98.6 (15.9), 83.5 (21.1) respectively. Gates’ GFR calculation did not correlate well with plasma sampling method. Calculation of GFR plays a vital role in the management of renal patients, hence it was noted that Gates GFR may not be a reliable method of calculation. SPSM was more reliable. DPSM is reliable but cumbersome. It is difficult to accurately calculate GFR without a gold standard

  8. Fabrication and characterization of He-charged ODS-FeCrNi films deposited by a radio-frequency plasma magnetron sputtering technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Liang; Wang, Xianping; Wang, Le; Zhang, Ying; Liu, Wang; Jiang, Weibing; Zhang, Tao; Fang, Qianfeng; Liu, Changsong

    2017-04-01

    He-charged oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) FeCrNi films were prepared by a radio-frequency (RF) plasma magnetron sputtering method in a He and Ar mixed atmosphere at 150 °C. As a comparison, He-charged FeCrNi films were also fabricated at the same conditions through direct current (DC) plasma magnetron sputtering. The doping of He atoms and Y2O3 in the FeCrNi films was realized by the high backscattered rate of He ions and Y2O3/FeCrNi composite target sputtering method, respectively. Inductive coupled plasma (ICP) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis confirmed the existence of Y2O3 in FeCrNi films, and Y2O3 content hardly changed with sputtering He/Ar ratio. Cross-sectional scanning electron microscopy (SEM) shows that the FeCrNi films were composed of dense columnar nanocrystallines and the thickness of the films was obviously dependent on He/Ar ratio. Nanoindentation measurements revealed that the FeCrNi films fabricated through DC/RF plasma magnetron sputtering methods exhibited similar hardness values at each He/Ar ratio, while the dispersion of Y2O3 apparently increased the hardness of the films. Elastic recoil detection (ERD) showed that DC/RF magnetron sputtered FeCrNi films contained similar He amounts (˜17 at.%). Compared with the minimal change of He level with depth in DC-sputtered films, the He amount decreases gradually in depth in the RF-sputtered films. The Y2O3-doped FeCrNi films were shown to exhibit much smaller amounts of He owing to the lower backscattering possibility of Y2O3 and the inhibition effect of nano-sized Y2O3 particles on the He element.

  9. Nonlinear Physics of Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Kono, Mitsuo

    2010-01-01

    A nonlinearity is one of the most important notions in modern physics. A plasma is rich in nonlinearities and provides a variety of behaviors inherent to instabilities, coherent wave structures and turbulence. The book covers the basic concepts and mathematical methods, necessary to comprehend nonlinear problems widely encountered in contemporary plasmas, but also in other fields of physics and current research on self-organized structures and magnetized plasma turbulence. The analyses make use of strongly nonlinear models solved by analytical techniques backed by extensive simulations and available experiments. The text is written for senior undergraduates, graduate students, lecturers and researchers in laboratory, space and fusion plasmas.

  10. Nanoscale zero-valent iron particles supported on reduced graphene oxides by using a plasma technique and their application for removal of heavy-metal ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie; Chen, Changlun; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Xiangke

    2015-06-01

    Nanoscale zero-valent iron particles supported on reduced graphene oxides (NZVI/rGOs) from spent graphene oxide (GO)-bound iron ions were developed by using a hydrogen/argon plasma reduction method to improve the reactivity and stability of NZVI. The NZVI/rGOs exhibited excellent water treatment performance with excellent removal capacities of 187.16 and 396.37 mg g(-1) for chromium and lead, respectively. Moreover, the NZVI/rGOs could be regenerated by plasma treatment and maintained high removal ability after four cycles. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis results implied that the removal mechanisms could be attributed to adsorption/precipitation, reduction, or both. Such multiple removal mechanisms by the NZVI/rGOs were attributed to the reduction ability of the NZVI particles and the role of dispersing and stabilizing abilities of the rGOs. The results indicated that the NZVI/rGOs prepared by a hydrogen/argon plasma reduction method might be an effective composite for heavy-metal-ion removal. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Comparison between the X-ray fluorescence technique and inductive coupling plasma for the analysis of high alloys in solid state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombardi Neto, A.; Casteletti, L.C.

    1989-01-01

    The benefits of the Solid Sampling ICP (55 ICP) technique for the analysis of high alloys are presented and some facts of this new technique are discussed. The global calibration of nickel base alloys is used to illustrate the powerful capability of this method in fast chemical analyses. (author) [pt

  12. Plasma turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, W.

    1998-07-01

    The origin of plasma turbulence from currents and spatial gradients in plasmas is described and shown to lead to the dominant transport mechanism in many plasma regimes. A wide variety of turbulent transport mechanism exists in plasmas. In this survey the authors summarize some of the universally observed plasma transport rates

  13. IHEP 2001 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-01-01

    IHEP's focal points of research encompass high energy physics experiment and theory, cosmic ray and high energy astrophysics, theory of nuclear physics, nuclear detector and nuclear electronics, accelerator physics and technology, synchrotron radiation technology and application, nuclear analytical technique and application, free electron laser, computer and network application, radiation projection, etc. In 2001, IHEP further compacted its scientific goal by defining three key fields of high energy physics, research and development of advanced accelerator technologies, and advanced synchrotron radiation technologies and applications, as well as 10 relevant major research orientations. The plentiful results on scientific research, operation and upgrading of BEPC/BES/BSRF and other branches of work in 2001 are given in this annual report

  14. BESSY annual report 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The annual report 1991 is drawn up as in the previous years, with general information on the organisational structure of the institution and its general purposes being given ahead of the research-specific reports. The achievements and developments in the fields of machines and experiments are reported, including contributions from the Litography laboratory of the Fraunhofer Institute for Microstructural Studies and Techniques, and from the Radiometry Laboratory of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, followed by reports on basic research work. The machine developments are reported in varions contributions, and a list of publications shows all available and known scientific publications resulting from research work done at the BESSY installations by the various users. Diploma, doctoral and habilitation theses are listed separately. (orig.) [de

  15. Development of bonding techniques between tungsten and copper alloy for plasma facing components by HIP method (2). Bonding between tungsten and DS-copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Shigeru; Fukaya, Kiyoshi; Eto, Motokuni; Ishiyama, Shintaro; Akiba, Masato

    2000-02-01

    Recently, W (tungsten)-alloys are considered as plasma facing material (PFM) for ITER because of these many favorable properties such as high melting point (3655 K), relatively high thermal conductivity and higher resistivity for plasma sputtering. On the other hand, Cu-alloys, especially DS (dispersion strengthened)-Cu, are proposed as heat sink materials because of its high thermal conductivity and good mechanical properties at high temperature. Plasma facing components (PFC) are designed as the duplex structure where W armor tiles are bonded with Cu-alloy heat sink. Then, we started the bonding technology development by hot isostatic press (HIP) method to bond W with Cu-alloys because of its many advantages. Until now, it was reported that we could get the best HIP bonding conditions for W and OFHC-Cu and the tensile strength was similar with HIP treated OFHC-Cu. In this experiments, bonding tests of W and DS-Cu with insert material were performed. As insert material, OFHC-Cu was used with different thickness. Bonding conditions were selected as 1273 K x 2 hours x 147 MPa. Bonding tests with 0.3 to 1.8 mm thickness OFHC-Cu were successfully bonded but with 0.1 mm thickness was not bonded. From the results of tensile tests, the tensile strength of the specimens with 0.3 and 0.5 mm thickness were decreased at elevated temperature. It was shown that over 1.0 mm thickness OFHC-Cu insert may be needed and the tensile strength were a little higher than that of HIP treated OFHC-Cu. (author)

  16. Application of the multicriterion optimization techniques and hierarchy of computational models to the research of ion acceleration due to laser-plasma interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inovenkov, I. N.; Echkina, E. Yu.; Nefedov, V. V.; Ponomarenko, L. S.

    2017-12-01

    In this paper we discuss how a particles-in-cell computation code can be combined with methods of multicriterion optimization (in particular the Pareto optimal solutions of the multicriterion optimization problem) and a hierarchy of computational models approach to create an efficient tool for solving a wide array of problems related to the laser-plasma interaction. In case of the computational experiment the multicriterion optimization can be applied as follows: the researcher defines the objectives of the experiment - some computable scalar values (i.e. high kinetic energy of the ions leaving the domain, least possible number of electrons leaving domain in the given direction, etc). After that the parameters of the experiment which can be varied to achieve these objectives and the constrains on these parameters are chosen (e.g. amplitude and wave-length of the laser radiation, dimensions of the plasma slab(s)). The Pareto optimality of the vector of the parameters can be seen as this: x 0 is Pareto optimal if there exists no vector which would improve some criterion without causing a simultaneous degradation in at least one other criterion. These efficient set of parameter and constrains can be selected based on the preliminary calculations in the simplified models (one or two-dimensional) either analytical or numerical. The multistage computation of the Pareto set radically reduces the number of variants which are to be evaluated to achieve the given accuracy. During the final stage we further improve the results by recomputing some of the optimal variants on the finer grids, with more particles and/or in the frame of a more detailed model. As an example we have considered the ion acceleration caused by interaction of very intense and ultra-short laser pulses with plasmas and have calculated the optimal set of experiment parameters for optimizing number and average energy of high energy ions leaving the domain in the given direction and minimizing the expulsion

  17. Mass cytometry: technique for real time single cell multitarget immunoassay based on inductively coupled plasma time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandura, Dmitry R; Baranov, Vladimir I; Ornatsky, Olga I; Antonov, Alexei; Kinach, Robert; Lou, Xudong; Pavlov, Serguei; Vorobiev, Sergey; Dick, John E; Tanner, Scott D

    2009-08-15

    A novel instrument for real time analysis of individual biological cells or other microparticles is described. The instrument is based on inductively coupled plasma time-of-flight mass spectrometry and comprises a three-aperture plasma-vacuum interface, a dc quadrupole turning optics for decoupling ions from neutral components, an rf quadrupole ion guide discriminating against low-mass dominant plasma ions, a point-to-parallel focusing dc quadrupole doublet, an orthogonal acceleration reflectron analyzer, a discrete dynode fast ion detector, and an 8-bit 1 GHz digitizer. A high spectrum generation frequency of 76.8 kHz provides capability for collecting multiple spectra from each particle-induced transient ion cloud, typically of 200-300 micros duration. It is shown that the transients can be resolved and characterized individually at a peak frequency of 1100 particles per second. Design considerations and optimization data are presented. The figures of merit of the instrument are measured under standard inductively coupled plasma (ICP) operating conditions ( 900 for m/z = 159, the sensitivity with a standard sample introduction system of >1.4 x 10(8) ion counts per second per mg L(-1) of Tb and an abundance sensitivity of (6 x 10(-4))-(1.4 x 10(-3)) (trailing and leading masses, respectively) are shown. The mass range (m/z = 125-215) and abundance sensitivity are sufficient for elemental immunoassay with up to 60 distinct available elemental tags. When 500) can be used, which provides >2.4 x 10(8) cps per mg L(-1) of Tb, at (1.5 x 10(-3))-(5.0 x 10(-3)) abundance sensitivity. The real-time simultaneous detection of multiple isotopes from individual 1.8 microm polystyrene beads labeled with lanthanides is shown. A real time single cell 20 antigen expression assay of model cell lines and leukemia patient samples immuno-labeled with lanthanide-tagged antibodies is presented.

  18. ANSTO. Annual Report 1993-1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    Scientific highlights during 1993-1994 financial year at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization (ANSTO) as outlined in the Annual Report include: a new Synroc facility was commissioned to provide microsphere feedstocks and confirmed the choice of the dry precursor route for the Synroc conceptual plant; joint research in plasma immersion ion implantation (PI3) with the Technical University of Clausthal, Germany; the design and manufacture of a prototype ceramic knee prosthesis; international collaboration established in the use of accelerator techniques to measure aerosol pollution; the discovery of new low temperature phases of palladium deuteride which crystal structures were determined using neutron scattering; elucidate the controversial age of the Venafro Chessmen using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry. Achievements in the biomedical fields included: the successful clinical evaluation of 123 I-iododexetimide in patients with Alzheimer's disease or frontal lobe epilepsy and the completed clinical trial of technetium-99m 3B6/22 antibody for the diagnosis of lung cancer. ANSTO has also completed two studies on the treatment of contaminated wastes arising from the flooding of uranium mines in Germany and advised the German Ministry of Economics on treatment options, developed new processes for the production of high purity cerium compounds from monazite concentrates and a computer software to assess the likelihood of a pollution release from the failure of industrial equipment and containment or clean-up systems. Details are also given of the Corporate and Information Services activities. The financial statements for the year under review is included. ills., tabs

  19. Plasma properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weitzner, H.

    1990-06-01

    This paper discusses the following topics: MHD plasma activity: equilibrium, stability and transport; statistical analysis; transport studies; edge physics studies; wave propagation analysis; basic plasma physics and fluid dynamics; space plasma; and numerical methods

  20. Plasmas for medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Woedtke, Th.; Reuter, S.; Masur, K.; Weltmann, K.-D.

    2013-09-01

    Plasma medicine is an innovative and emerging field combining plasma physics, life science and clinical medicine. In a more general perspective, medical application of physical plasma can be subdivided into two principal approaches. (i) “Indirect” use of plasma-based or plasma-supplemented techniques to treat surfaces, materials or devices to realize specific qualities for subsequent special medical applications, and (ii) application of physical plasma on or in the human (or animal) body to realize therapeutic effects based on direct interaction of plasma with living tissue. The field of plasma applications for the treatment of medical materials or devices is intensively researched and partially well established for several years. However, plasma medicine in the sense of its actual definition as a new field of research focuses on the use of plasma technology in the treatment of living cells, tissues, and organs. Therefore, the aim of the new research field of plasma medicine is the exploitation of a much more differentiated interaction of specific plasma components with specific structural as well as functional elements or functionalities of living cells. This interaction can possibly lead either to stimulation or inhibition of cellular function and be finally used for therapeutic purposes. During recent years a broad spectrum of different plasma sources with various names dedicated for biomedical applications has been reported. So far, research activities were mainly focused on barrier discharges and plasma jets working at atmospheric pressure. Most efforts to realize plasma application directly on or in the human (or animal) body for medical purposes is concentrated on the broad field of dermatology including wound healing, but also includes cancer treatment, endoscopy, or dentistry. Despite the fact that the field of plasma medicine is very young and until now mostly in an empirical stage of development yet, there are first indicators of its enormous