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Sample records for plasma taurine level

  1. Changes in plasma taurine levels after different endurance events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, R J; Francaux, M; Cuisinier, C; Sturbois, X; De Witte, P

    1999-01-01

    The sulphonated amino acid taurine increased significantly in the plasma of trained athletes after three endurance exercises of different duration and intensity, a 90 min run on a treadmill at 75% of an individual's VO2 peak, a Marathon, 42.2 km and a 100 km run, by 19%, 77% and 36%, respectively. Such results indicated that the speed at which the exercise is performed, referred to as the intensity, rather than the duration of the exercise, correlated with the elevated taurine levels possibly indicating its release from muscle fibres. The plasma amino acid pool decreased significantly in relationship with the duration of the exercise, caused by their utilisation for glucogenesis. The possible sources of the increased plasma taurine are discussed.

  2. [Plasma taurine levels in patients with esophagus cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamônica-Garcia, Vânia Cristina; Marin, Flávia Andréa; Lerco, Mauro Masson; Moreto, Fernando; Henry, Maria Aparecida Coelho Arruda; Burini, Roberto Carlos

    2008-01-01

    The esophagus cancer-host has a two way close relationship as seen in its sulphur-amino acid metabolism. Taurine one of these compounds has ubiquous role in host defense and other physiological mechanisms related to survival. To study the plasma levels of taurine and its precursors in patients with esophagus cancer. In a sectional design both groups, patients (n = 16, 43-73 yrs old) and healthy controls (n = 20, 27-65 yrs old) were assessed for anthropometry, body-weight lost, hematology (Hb, Ht, total leukocytes and lymphocyte counts), general biochemistry (albumin, glucose, lipids and aminotransferases) and chromatographic analysis for taurine, cysteine, and homocysteine. The survival time was registered there since from the clinical-histopathological diagnosis. All participants had a written ethical consent for the research. The cancer patients were predominantly, white males of low social economic class, with spinocellular carcinoma stage IV located at upper 3rd half of them presented hypoalbuminemia and 16% referred significant body-weight loss. The patients showed statistically lower values of Hb, Ht, total and HDL cholesterol and cysteine and significantly higher values of taurine, homocysteine and aminotransferases than healthy controls. A positive relationship was found between taurine and either TLC (r = 0.50) and survival (r = 0.81). Lower plasma cysteine along with higher levels of taurine and homocysteine and the positive direct association of taurine with indications of survival suggest an effective role of this compound and therefore a prospective special nutritional care in its precursors (cysteine, methionine and B vitamins) of these patients.

  3. Plasma taurine levels are not affected by vigabatrin in pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spelbrink, Emily M; Mabud, Tarub S; Reimer, Richard; Porter, Brenda E

    2016-08-01

    Vigabatrin is a highly effective antiseizure medication, but its use is limited due to concerns about retinal toxicity. One proposed mechanism for this toxicity is vigabatrin-mediated reduction of taurine. Herein we assess plasma taurine levels in a retrospective cohort of children with epilepsy, including a subset receiving vigabatrin. All children who underwent a plasma amino acid analysis as part of their clinical evaluation between 2006 and 2015 at Stanford Children's Health were included in the analysis. There were no significant differences in plasma taurine levels between children taking vigabatrin (n = 16), children taking other anti-seizure medications, and children not taking any anti-seizure medication (n = 556) (analysis of variance [ANOVA] p = 0.841). There were, however, age-dependent decreases in plasma taurine levels. Multiple linear regression revealed no significant association between vigabatrin use and plasma taurine level (p = 0.87) when controlling for age. These results suggest that children taking vigabatrin maintain normal plasma taurine levels, although they leave unanswered whether taurine supplementation is necessary or sufficient to prevent vigabatrin-associated visual field loss. They also indicate that age should be taken into consideration when evaluating taurine levels in young children. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International League Against Epilepsy.

  4. Reduced plasma taurine level in Parkinson's disease: association with motor severity and levodopa treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Yuan, Yongsheng; Tong, Qing; Jiang, Siming; Xu, Qinrong; Ding, Jian; Zhang, Lian; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Kezhong

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the level of taurine in plasma, and its association with the severity of motor and non-motor symptoms (NMS) and chronic levodopa treatment in Parkinson's disease (PD). Plasma taurine level was measured in treated PD (tPD), untreated PD (ntPD) and control groups. Motor symptoms and NMS were assessed using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, the short form of the McGill Pain Questionnaire, the Hamilton Depression Scale, the Scale for Outcomes in Parkinson's disease for Autonomic Symptoms and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Longtime exposure to levodopa was indicated by its approximate cumulative dosage. The plasma taurine levels of PD patients were decreased when compared with controls and negatively associated with motor severity but not NMS. Moreover, tPD patients exhibited lower levels of plasma taurine than ntPD patients. Interestingly, plasma taurine levels negatively correlated with cumulative levodopa dosage in tPD. After controlling for potential confounders, the association between taurine and levodopa remained significant. Our study supports that taurine may play important roles in the pathophysiology of PD and the disturbances caused by chronic levodopa administration.

  5. Abnormal plasma levels of serine, methionine, and taurine in transient acute polymorphic psychosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Fekkes (Durk)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThe present study explored the usefulness of plasma amino acid concentrations in discriminating a subgroup of patients with transient acute polymorphic psychoses characterized by psychosensory symptoms (APP+ patients). Levels of amino acids in the plasma of APP+ patients were compared

  6. Effect of taurine and caffeine on plasma c-reactive protein and calcium in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owoyele, B V; Oyewole, A L; Biliaminu, S A; Alashi, Y

    2015-09-01

    Caffeine is a component of several beverages such as coffee and tea. It has been shown to possess psychoactive properties because it increases alertness, energy and ability to concentrate at moderate doses. Taurine on the other hand, is an amino acid which has the capacity to promote neural development, osmoregulation and neuroprotection. There is paucity of information on the effect of the combined administration of taurine and caffeine on C-reactive protein (CRP)--a marker of inflammation and plasma calcium level in rats. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of combined taurine and caffeine on the plasma level of CRP, Ca2+ as well as the effect of nifedipine on calcium level. Fifty four rats weighing 120-140 g were used for these studies. The animals were divided into nine groups consisting of six animals each. Group 1 was treated with 10 m/kg of normal saline, Groups 2 and 3 were given 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg of taurine respectively, groups 4 and 5 received 7.5 mg/kg and 15 mg/kg of caffeine respectively while group 6 was administered taurine (200 mg/kg) and caffeine (15 mg/kg), groups 7 and 8 were treated with taurine (200 mg/kg) plus nifedipine (10 mg/kg) and taurine (200 mg/kg)plus furosemide (20 mg/kg) respectively while group 9 was given taurine plu caffeine plus nifdipine plus furosemide. Treatment was done once daily for 21 days and blood was finally collected via cardiac puncture for the assay of CRP and calcium while the animals were under anaesthesia. The results showed that CRP was significantly decreased in five of the treated groups compared with the control with the exception of the group treated with taurine alone (Group 2), and that treated with combined taurine and caffeine (Group 6). The Ca2+ level of groups treated with caffeine (11.70 ± 0.29 mg/dL) and taurine with caffeine (11.64 ± 0.15 mg/dL) were significantly (p taurine and nifedipine (Group 7) led to significant (p taurine can boost plasma calcium level and

  7. Effects of graded taurine levels on juvenile cobia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taurine, which has multiple important physiological roles in teleost fish and mammals, is an amino acid not found in alternative protein sources not derived from animals. Although taurine is found in fish-meal-based feeds, its high water solubility leads to lower taurine levels in reduction-process-...

  8. Plasma Taurine, Diabetes Genetic Predisposition, and Changes of Insulin Sensitivity in Response to Weight-Loss Diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yan; Ceglarek, Uta; Huang, Tao; Wang, Tiange; Heianza, Yoriko; Ma, Wenjie; Bray, George A; Thiery, Joachim; Sacks, Frank M; Qi, Lu

    2016-10-01

    Taurine metabolism disturbance is closely linked to obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes. Previous evidence suggested that the preventative effects of taurine on diabetes might be through regulating the expression levels of diabetes-related genes. We estimated whether blood taurine levels modified the overall genetic susceptibility to diabetes on improvement of insulin sensitivity in a randomized dietary trial. We genotyped 31 diabetes-associated variants to calculate a genetic risk score (GRS) and measured plasma taurine levels and glycemic traits among participants from the Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies (POUNDS Lost) trial. Seven-hundred eleven overweight or obese participants (age 30-70 y; 60% females) had genetic variants genotyped and blood taurine levels measured. Participants went on 2-year weight-loss diets, which were different in macronutrient composition. Improvements in glycemic traits were measured. We found that baseline taurine levels significantly modified the effects of diabetes GRS on changes in fasting glucose, insulin, and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) during the 2-year diet intervention (P-interaction = .04, .01, .002, respectively), regardless of weight loss. High baseline taurine levels were associated with a less reduction in both glucose and HOMA-IR among the participants with the lowest tertile of diabetes GRS (both P = .02), and with a greater reduction in both insulin and HOMA-IR among those with the highest tertile of diabetes GRS (both P = .04). Our data suggest that blood taurine levels might differentially modulate the effects of diabetes-related genes on improvement of insulin sensitivity among overweight/obese patients on weight-loss diets.

  9. Níveis plasmáticos de taurina e de seus precursores em pacientes com câncer de esôfago Plasma taurine levels in patients with esophagus cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia Cristina Lamônica-Garcia

    2008-09-01

    e da mortalidade sugerem participação efetiva da taurina na sobrevida dos pacientes e, portanto, os cuidados nutricionais específicos com a sua via geradora (cisteína, metionina e vitaminas do complexo B.BACKGROUND: The esophagus cancer-host has a two way close relationship as seen in its sulphur-amino acid metabolism. Taurine one of these compounds has ubiquous role in host defense and other physiological mechanisms related to survival. AIM: To study the plasma levels of taurine and its precursors in patients with esophagus cancer. METHODS: In a sectional design both groups, patients (n = 16, 43-73 yrs old and healthy controls (n = 20, 27-65 yrs old were assessed for anthropometry, body-weight lost, hematology (Hb, Ht, total leukocytes and lymphocyte counts, general biochemistry (albumin, glucose, lipids and aminotransferases and chromatographic analysis for taurine, cysteine, and homocysteine. The survival time was registered there since from the clinical-histopathological diagnosis. All participants had a written ethical consent for the research. RESULTS: The cancer patients were predominantly, white males of low social economic class, with spinocellular carcinoma stage IV located at upper 3rd half of them presented hypoalbuminemia and 16% referred significant body-weight loss. The patients showed statistically lower values of Hb, Ht, total and HDL cholesterol and cysteine and significantly higher values of taurine, homocysteine and aminotransferases than healthy controls. A positive relationship was found between taurine and either TLC (r = 0.50 and survival (r = 0.81. CONCLUSIONS: Lower plasma cysteine along with higher levels of taurine and homocysteine and the positive direct association of taurine with indications of survival suggest an effective role of this compound and therefore a prospective special nutritional care in its precursors (cysteine, methionine and B vitamins of these patients.

  10. Taurine decreased uric acid levels in hyperuricemic rats and alleviated kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ying; Sun, Fang; Gao, Yongchao; Yang, Jiancheng; Wu, Gaofeng; Lin, Shumei; Hu, Jianmin

    2017-07-29

    Hyperuricemia can lead to direct kidney damage. Taurine participates in several renal physiological processes and has been shown as a renoprotective agent. It has been reported that taurine could reduce uric acid levels in diabetic rats, but to date there was no research on the effects of taurine on hyperuricemic rats with kidney injury. In present study, hyperuricemic rat models were induced by intragastric administration of adenine and ethambutol hydrochloride for 10 days, and taurine (1% or 2%) were added in the drinking water 7 days in advance for consecutively 17 days. The results showed that taurine alleviated renal morphological and pathological changes as well as kidney dysfunction in hyperuricemic rats. Taurine could efficiently decrease the elevated xanthine oxidase activities in hyperuricemic rats, indicating its effect on the regulation of uric acid formation. The reabsorption and secretion of uric acid are dependent on a number of urate transporters. Expressions of three urate transporters were significantly down-regulated in hyperuricemic rats, while taurine prevented the decrease of mRNA and protein expression levels of these urate transporters. The results indicate that taurine might play a role in the regulation of renal uric acid excretion. Therefore, taurine could be a promising agent for the treatment of hyperuricemia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of β-alanine treatment on mitochondrial taurine level and 5-taurinomethyluridine content

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background The β-amino acid, taurine, is a nutritional requirement in some species. In these species, the depletion of intracellular stores of taurine leads to the development of severe organ dysfunction. The basis underlying these defects is poorly understood, although there is some suggestion that oxidative stress may contribute to the abnormalities. Recent studies indicate that taurine is required for normal mitochondrial protein synthesis and normal electron transport chain activity; it is known that defects in these events can lead to severe mitochondrial oxidative stress. The present study examines the effect of taurine deficiency on the first step of mitochondrial protein synthesis regulation by taurine, namely, the formation of taurinomethyluridine containing tRNA. Methods Isolated rat cardiomyocytes were rendered taurine deficient by incubation with medium containing the taurine transport inhibitor, β-alanine. The time course of cellular and mitochondrial taurine depletion was measured. The primer extension method was employed to evaluate the effect of β-alanine treatment on taurinomethyluridine content of tRNALeu. The protein levels of ND6 were also determined by Western blot analysis. Results β-alanine caused a time-dependent decrease in cellular taurine content, which were reduced in half after 48 hrs of incubation. The amount of taurine in the mitochondria was considerably less than that in the cytosol and was unaffected by β-alanine treatment. Approximately 70% of the tRNALeu in the untreated cell lacked taurinomethyluridine and these levels were unchanged following β-alanine treatment. Protein content of ND6, however, was significantly reduced after 48 hours incubation with β-alanine. Conclusions The taurine levels of the cytosol and the mitochondria are not directly coupled. The β-alanine-mediated reduction in taurine levels is too small to affect taurinomethyluridine levels. Nonetheless, it interferes with mitochondrial protein synthesis

  12. The taurine transporter substrate guanidinoethyl sulfonate mimics the action of taurine on long-term synaptic potentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, Luz M; Muñoz, María-Dolores; González, José C; Bustamante, Julián; Del Río, Rafael Martín; Solís, José M

    2016-11-01

    Taurine is especially abundant in rodent brain where it appears to be involved in osmoregulation and synaptic plasticity mechanisms. The demonstration of a physiological role for taurine has been hampered by the difficulty in modifying taurine levels in most tissues, including the brain. We used an experimental strategy to reduce taurine levels, involving treatment with guanidinoethyl sulfonate (GES), a structural analogue of taurine that, among other properties, acts as a competitive inhibitor of taurine transport. GES delivered in the drinking water of rats for 1 month effectively reduced taurine levels in brain structures (hippocampus, cerebellum and cortex) and outside the brain (heart, muscle, kidney, liver and plasma) by between 50 and 80 %, depending on the tissue. This partial taurine depletion did not affect either basal synaptic transmission or the late phase of long-term potentiation (late-LTP) in hippocampal slices. In vivo microdialysis studies in the hippocampus revealed that GES treatment reduced extracellular taurine levels and the magnitude of taurine released in response to the application of either N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) or a hypoosmotic solution, without affecting release mechanisms. Finally, we demonstrated in hippocampal slices that a brief GES application can mimic taurine action on the conversion of a decremental LTP into a perdurable late-LTP, concluding that GES might replace taurine function in some mechanisms such as those implicated in synaptic plasticity.

  13. Host defense--a role for the amino acid taurine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, P P; O'Flaherty, L; Redmond, H P; Bouchier-Hayes, D J

    1998-01-01

    Taurine (2-aminoethane sulphonic acid), a ubiquitous beta-amino acid is conditionally essential in man. It is not utilized in protein synthesis but found free or in some simple peptides. Derived from methionine and cysteine metabolism, taurine is known to play a pivotal role in numerous physiological functions. Some of the roles with which taurine has been associated include osmoregulation, antioxidation, detoxification and stimulation of glycolysis and glycogenesis. Intracellular taurine is maintained at high concentrations in a variety of cell types and alteration of cell taurine levels is difficult. The role of taurine within the cell appears to be determined by the cell type. Recent research has determined a regulatory role for taurinechloramine, the product formed by the reaction between taurine and neutrophil derived hypochlorous acid on macrophage function. Plasma taurine levels are also high, although decreases are observed in response to surgical injury and numerous pathological conditions including cancer and sepsis. Supplementary taurine replenishes decreased plasma taurine. Although commonly used as a dietary supplement in the Far East, the potential advantages of dietary taurine supplementation have not as yet been fully recognized in the Western World; this is an area which could prove to be beneficial in the clinical arena.

  14. Taurine deficiency, synthesis and transport in the mdx mouse model for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrill, Jessica R; Grounds, Miranda D; Arthur, Peter G

    2015-09-01

    The amino acid taurine is essential for the function of skeletal muscle and administration is proposed as a treatment for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD). Taurine homeostasis is dependent on multiple processes including absorption of taurine from food, endogenous synthesis from cysteine and reabsorption in the kidney. This study investigates the cause of reported taurine deficiency in the dystrophic mdx mouse model of DMD. Levels of metabolites (taurine, cysteine, cysteine sulfinate and hypotaurine) and proteins (taurine transporter [TauT], cysteine deoxygenase and cysteine sulfinate dehydrogenase) were quantified in juvenile control C57 and dystrophic mdx mice aged 18 days, 4 and 6 weeks. In C57 mice, taurine content was much higher in both liver and plasma at 18 days, and both cysteine and cysteine deoxygenase were increased. As taurine levels decreased in maturing C57 mice, there was increased transport (reabsorption) of taurine in the kidney and muscle. In mdx mice, taurine and cysteine levels were much lower in liver and plasma at 18 days, and in muscle cysteine was low at 18 days, whereas taurine was lower at 4: these changes were associated with perturbations in taurine transport in liver, kidney and muscle and altered metabolism in liver and kidney. These data suggest that the maintenance of adequate body taurine relies on sufficient dietary intake of taurine and cysteine availability and metabolism, as well as retention of taurine by the kidney. This research indicates dystrophin deficiency not only perturbs taurine metabolism in the muscle but also affects taurine metabolism in the liver and kidney, and supports targeting cysteine and taurine deficiency as a potential therapy for DMD. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Cerebral Taurine Levels are Associated with Brain Edema and Delayed Cerebral Infarction in Patients with Aneurysmal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofler, Mario; Schiefecker, Alois; Ferger, Boris; Beer, Ronny; Sohm, Florian; Broessner, Gregor; Hackl, Werner; Rhomberg, Paul; Lackner, Peter; Pfausler, Bettina; Thomé, Claudius; Schmutzhard, Erich; Helbok, Raimund

    2015-12-01

    Cerebral edema and delayed cerebral infarction (DCI) are common complications after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) and associated with poor functional outcome. Experimental data suggest that the amino acid taurine is released into the brain extracellular space secondary to cytotoxic edema and brain tissue hypoxia, and therefore may serve as a biomarker for secondary brain injury after aSAH. On the other hand, neuroprotective mechanisms of taurine treatment have been described in the experimental setting. We analyzed cerebral taurine levels using high-performance liquid chromatography in the brain extracellular fluid of 25 consecutive aSAH patients with multimodal neuromonitoring including cerebral microdialysis (CMD). Patient characteristics and clinical course were prospectively recorded. Associations with CMD-taurine levels were analyzed using generalized estimating equations with an autoregressive process to handle repeated observations within subjects. CMD-taurine levels were highest in the first days after aSAH (11.2 ± 3.2 µM/l) and significantly decreased over time (p taurine levels compared to those without (Wald = 7.3, df = 1, p taurine supplementation and brain extracellular taurine (p = 0.6). Moreover, a significant correlation with brain extracellular glutamate (r = 0.82, p taurine levels were found in patients with brain edema or DCI after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Its value as a potential biomarker deserves further investigation.

  16. High taurine levels in the Solemya velum symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, N M; McDowell Capuzzo, J E

    1992-05-01

    1. To compare biochemical differences between bivalves with and without endosymbiotic chemoautotrophic bacteria, specimens of Solemya velum, a bivalve species known to contain bacterial endosymbionts, and the symbiont-free soft-shelled clam Mya arenaria, were collected from the same subtidal reducing sediments during October and November 1988. 2. Total and free amino acid compositions were determined for both species. Protein-bound amino acids were calculated as the difference between total and free amino acids. In addition, stable isotope ratios of the total and free amino acids of each species were measured to determine potential sources for these molecules. 3. Both species had similar total hydrolyzable- and protein-bound amino acid compositions; approximately 50% of the protein-bound amino acids were essential amino acids. In S. velum, the small size of the digestive system suggests that these amino acids are probably synthesized by the endosymbiotic bacteria and translocated to the animal tissue. The delta 13C and delta 15N ratios of the amino acids are very similar to the isotope ratios previously found in both the endosymbionts and whole tissues of S. velum. The relative and absolute amounts of free amino acids are very different in the two species. In S. velum, the absolute concentrations of taurine, a sulfur-containing amino acid, were greater than the total free amino acid concentrations found in other bivalves. 4. The delta 34S ratios of the free amino acids of S. velum, which were predominantly composed of taurine, were extremely negative (-17.2/1000) suggesting that taurine is synthesized using sulfur originally derived from external reduced sulfur sources, such as pore water sulfides. The possible roles for taurine in this animal-bacteria symbiosis are discussed.

  17. Positive correlation between serum taurine and adiponectin levels in high-fat diet-induced obesity rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Jeong Soon; Zhao, Xu; Kim, Sung Hoon; Chang, Kyung Ja

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between serum taurine level and serum adiponectin or leptin levels in high-fat diet-induced obesity rats. Five-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups for a period of 8 weeks (normal diet, N group; high-fat diet, HF group; high-fat diet + taurine, HFT group). Taurine was supplemented by dissolving in feed water (3% w/v), and the same amount of distilled water was orally administrated to N and HF groups. In serum, adiponectin level was higher in HFT group compared to HF group. The serum taurine level was negatively correlated with serum total cholesterol (TC) level and positively correlated with serum adiponectin level. These results suggest that dietary taurine supplementation has beneficial effects on total cholesterol and adiponectin levels in high-fat diet-induced obesity rats.

  18. Analysis of MTHFR, CBS, Glutathione, Taurine, and Hydrogen Sulfide Levels in Retinas of Hyperhomocysteinemic Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xuezhi; Navneet, Soumya; Wang, Jing; Roon, Penny; Chen, Wei; Xian, Ming; Smith, Sylvia B

    2017-04-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia (Hhcy) is implicated in certain retinal neurovascular diseases, although whether it is causative remains uncertain. In isolated ganglion cells (GCs), mild Hhcy induces profound death, whereas retinal phenotypes in Hhcy mice caused by mutations in remethylation (methylene tetrahydrofolatereductase [Mthfr+/-]) or transsulfuration pathways (cystathionine β-synthase [Cbs+/-]) demonstrate mild GC loss and mild vasculopathy. The current work investigated compensation in vivo of one pathway for the other, and, because the transsulfuration pathway yields cysteine necessary for formation of glutathione (GSH), taurine, and hydrogen sulfide (H2S), they were analyzed also. Retinas isolated from wild-type (WT), Mthfr+/-, and Cbs+/- mice (12 and 22 weeks) were analyzed for methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS), and cystathionase (CTH) RNA/protein levels. Retinas were evaluated for levels of reduced:oxidized GSH (GSH:GSSG), Slc7a11 (xCT), taurine, taurine transporter (TAUT), and H2S. Aside from decreased CBS RNA/protein levels in Cbs+/- retinas, there were minimal alterations in remethylation/transsulfuration pathways in the two mutant mice strains. Glutathione and taurine levels in Mthfr+/- and Cbs+/- retinas were similar to WT, which may be due to robust levels of xCT and TAUT in mutant retinas. Interestingly, levels of H2S were markedly increased in retinas of Mthfr+/- and Cbs+/- mice compared with WT. Ganglion cell loss and vasculopathy observed in Mthfr+/- and Cbs+/- mouse retinas may be milder than expected, not because of compensatory increases of enzymes in remethylation/transsulfuration pathways, but because downstream transsulfuration pathway products GSH, taurine, and H2S are maintained at robust levels. Elevation of H2S is particularly intriguing owing to neuroprotective properties reported for this gasotransmitter.

  19. Study on the interaction of plasma protein binding rate between edaravone and taurine in human plasma based on HPLC analysis coupled with ultrafiltration technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Dao-quan; Li, Yin-jie; Li, Zheng; Bian, Ting-ting; Chen, Kai; Zheng, Xiao-xiao; Yu, Yan-yan; Jiang, Shui-shi

    2015-08-01

    In this work, two high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assays were developed and validated for the independent determination of edaravone and taurine using 3-methyl-1-p-tolyl-5-pyrazolone and L-glutamine as internal standards. In in vitro experiments, human plasma was separately spiked with a mixture of edaravone and taurine, edaravone or taurine alone. Plasma was precipitated with acetonitrile containing 0.1% formic acid. Ultrafiltration was employed to obtain the unbound ingredients of the two drugs. The factors that might influence the ultrafiltration effiency were elaborately optimized. Plasma supernatant and ultrafiltrate containing taurine were derivated with o-phthalaldehyde and ethanethiol in the presence of 40 mmol/L sodium borate buffer (pH 10.2) at room temperature within 1 min. Chromatographic separations were achieved on an InertSustain C18 column (250 × 4.6 mm, 5 µm). Isocratic 50 mmol/L ammonium acetate-acetonitrile and gradient 50 mmol/L sodium acetate (pH 5.3)-methanol were respectively selected as the mobile phase for the determination of edaravone and taurine. All of the validation data including linearity, extraction recovery, precision, accuracy and stability conformed to the requirements. Results showed that there were no significant alterations in the plasma protein binding rate of taurine and edaravone, implying that the proposed combination therapy was pharmacologically feasible. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Taurine ameliorates hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia by reducing insulin resistance and leptin level in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty (OLETF) rats with long-term diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Da Hee; Kim, Jung Yeon; Lee, Bong Gn; You, Jeong Soon; Chang, Kyung Ja; Chung, Hyunju; Yoo, Myung Chul; Yang, Hyung-In; Kang, Ja-Heon; Hwang, Yoo Chul; Ahn, Kue Jeong; Chung, Ho-Yeon

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether taurine supplementation improves metabolic disturbances and diabetic complications in an animal model for type 2 diabetes. We investigated whether taurine has therapeutic effects on glucose metabolism, lipid metabolism, and diabetic complications in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty (OLETF) rats with long-term duration of diabetes. Fourteen 50-week-old OLETF rats with chronic diabetes were fed a diet supplemented with taurine (2%) or a non-supplemented control diet for 12 weeks. Taurine reduced blood glucose levels over 12 weeks, and improved OGTT outcomes at 6 weeks after taurine supplementation, in OLETF rats. Taurine significantly reduced insulin resistance but did not improve β-cell function or islet mass. After 12 weeks, taurine significantly decreased serum levels of lipids such as triglyceride, cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol. Taurine significantly reduced serum leptin, but not adiponectin levels. However, taurine had no therapeutic effect on damaged tissues. Taurine ameliorated hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia, at least in part, by improving insulin sensitivity and leptin modulation in OLETF rats with long-term diabetes. Additional study is needed to investigate whether taurine has the same beneficial effects in human diabetic patients. PMID:23114424

  1. A Novel Cysteine Sulfinic Acid Decarboxylase Knock-Out Mouse: Taurine Distribution in Various Tissues With and Without Taurine Supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eunkyue; Park, Seung Yong; Cho, In Soo; Kim, Bo Sook; Schuller-Levis, Georgia

    2017-01-01

    Taurine, a sulfur containing amino acid, has various physiological functions including development of the eye and brain, immune function, reproduction, osmo-regulatory function as well as anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. In order to understand the physiological role, we developed taurine deficient mice deleting a rate-liming enzyme, cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase (CSAD) for biosynthesis of taurine. Taurine was measured in various tissues including the liver, brain, lung, spleen, thymus, pancreas, heart, muscle and kidney as well as plasma from CSAD knock-out mice (CSAD KO) with and without treatment of taurine in the drinking water at the age of 2 months (2 M). Taurine was determined using HPLC as a phenylisothiocyanate derivative of taurine at 254 nm. Taurine concentrations in the liver and kidney from homozygotes of CSAD KO (HO), in which CSAD level is high, were 90% and 70% lower than WT, respectively. Taurine concentrations in the brain, spleen and lung, where CSAD level is low, were 21%, 20% and 28% lower than WT, respectively. At 2 M, 1% taurine treatment of HO restored taurine concentrations in all tissues compared to that of WT. To select an appropriate taurine treatment, HO were treated with various concentrations (0.05, 0.2, 1%) of taurine for 4 months (4 M). Restoration of taurine in all tissues except the liver, kidney and lung requires 0.05% taurine to be restored to that of WT. The liver and kidney restore taurine back to WT with 0.2% taurine. To examine which enzymes influence taurine concentrations in various tissues from WT and HO at 2 M, expression of five taurine-related enzymes, two antioxidant enzymes as well as lactoferrin (Lft) and prolactin receptor (Prlr) was determined using RT(2) qPCR. The expression of taurine transporter in the liver, brain, muscle and kidney from HO was increased except in the lung. Our data showed expression of glutamate decarboxylase-like 1(Gadl-1) was increased in the brain and muscle in HO

  2. Scallop protein with endogenous high taurine and glycine content prevents high-fat, high-sucrose-induced obesity and improves plasma lipid profile in male C57BL/6J mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tastesen, Hanne Sørup; Keenan, Alison H.; Madsen, Lise

    2014-01-01

    -fasted states. Dietary intake of taurine and glycine correlated negatively with body mass gain and total fat mass, while intake of all other amino acids correlated positively. Furthermore taurine and glycine intake correlated positively with improved plasma lipid profile, i.e., lower levels of plasma lipids...... and higher HDL-to-total-cholesterol ratio. In conclusion, dietary scallop protein completely prevents high-fat, high-sucrose-induced obesity whilst maintaining lean body mass and improving the plasma lipid profile in male C57BL/6J mice......., glycerol and hydroxy-butyrate levels were significantly reduced, indicating reduced lipid mobilization in scallop-fed mice. The plasma HDL-to-total-cholesterol ratio was higher, suggesting increased reverse cholesterol transport or cholesterol clearance in scallop-fed mice in both fasted and non...

  3. Levels of inflammation and oxidative stress, and a role for taurine in dystropathology of the Golden Retriever Muscular Dystrophy dog model for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica R. Terrill

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD is a fatal skeletal muscle wasting disease presenting with excessive myofibre necrosis and increased inflammation and oxidative stress. In the mdx mouse model of DMD, homeostasis of the amino acid taurine is altered, and taurine administration drastically decreases muscle necrosis, dystropathology, inflammation and protein thiol oxidation. Since the severe pathology of the Golden Retriever Muscular Dystrophy (GRMD dog model more closely resembles the human DMD condition, we aimed to assess the generation of oxidants by inflammatory cells and taurine metabolism in this species. In muscles of 8 month GRMD dogs there was an increase in the content of neutrophils and macrophages, and an associated increase in elevated myeloperoxidase, a protein secreted by neutrophils that catalyses production of the highly reactive hypochlorous acid (HOCl. There was also increased chlorination of tyrosines, a marker of HOCl generation, increased thiol oxidation of many proteins and irreversible oxidative protein damage. Taurine, which functions as an antioxidant by trapping HOCl, was reduced in GRMD plasma; however taurine was increased in GRMD muscle tissue, potentially due to increased muscle taurine transport and synthesis. These data indicate a role for HOCl generated by neutrophils in the severe dystropathology of GRMD dogs, which may be exacerbated by decreased availability of taurine in the blood. These novel data support continued research into the precise roles of oxidative stress and taurine in DMD and emphasise the value of the GRMD dogs as a suitable pre-clinical model for testing taurine as a therapeutic intervention for DMD boys.

  4. Peroxynitrite induced decrease in Na+, K+-ATPase activity is restored by taurine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Necla Kocak-Toker; Murat Giris; Feti Tülübas; Müjdat Uysal; Gülcin Aykac-Toker

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Peroxynitrite (ONOO-) is a powerful oxidant shown to damage membranes. In the present study, the effect of taurine on changes of liver plasma membrane Na+, K+-ATPase induced by ONOO- was investigated. METHODS: Liver plasma membrane was exposed toONOO-with or without taurine. Na+, K+-ATPase activity and lipid peroxidation as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels were measured.RESULTS: Different concentrations of ONOO- (100, 200,500, and 1 000 μmol/L) were found to decrease liver plasma membrane Na+, K+-ATPase activity significantly. The depletion of enzyme activity was not concentration dependent. Effects of different concentrations of taurine on liver plasma membrane Na+, K+-ATPase activity were also measured. Taurine did not cause any increase in enzyme activity. When plasma membranes were treated with 200 μmol/L ONOO- with different concentrations of taurine, a restoring effect of taurine on enzyme activity was observed. TBARS levels were also measured and taurine was found to decrease the elevated values. CONCLUSION: Taurine is observed to act as an antioxidant of ONOO-to decrease lipid peroxidation and thus affect liver plasma membrane Na+, K+-ATPase by restoring its activity.

  5. Determination of trimethylamine, trimethylamine N-oxide, and taurine in human plasma and urine by UHPLC-MS/MS technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awwad, Hussain Mohamad; Geisel, Juergen; Obeid, Rima

    2016-12-01

    Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) is produced in the liver from trimethylamine (TMA) and is an important cellular osmolyte and potential atherogenic factor. Taurine is involved in cholesterol metabolism and also serves as a cellular osmolyte. Given their significant biological functions, the development of reliable measurement techniques is crucial to further study their role in health and disease METHODS: A new ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of TMA, TMAO, and taurine in plasma and urine. The method consisted of a deproteinization step using methanol/acetonitrile (15:85) that contained 0.2% formic acid and isotope-labeled internal standards. Samples were separated by centrifugation and injected into the UHPLC system. Quantification was conducted using a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer detector with electrospray ionization interface in positive mode. The limits of detection ranged from 0.08 to 0.12μmol/L. The calibration curves were linear (r≥0.999) over the range examined (0.15-400μmol/L) for all compounds. The inter- and intra-day coefficients of variations were≤14.5% for TMA and ≤8% for TMAO and taurine. TMAO and taurine were found to be stable in EDTA plasma for at least 14 months at -70°C. Mean recoveries ranged from 95% to 109% and the relative matrix effects were≤4.0%. The method was applied to study physiological and pre-analytical factors in plasma and urine samples. The new UHPLC-MS/MS method has good accuracy, precision, and recovery. The assay combines simple sample processing with a short run time, making it well suited for high-throughput routine clinical or research purposes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Circulating Glutamate and Taurine Levels Are Associated with the Generation of Reactive Oxygen Species in Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation

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    Shintaro Takano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Atrial fibrillation (AF is the most common cardiac arrhythmia, but its proarrhythmic mechanism remains to be elucidated. Glutamate (Glu and taurine (Tau are present in the myocardium at substantially higher concentrations than in the plasma, suggesting their active role in myocardium. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the metabolism of Glu and Tau is altered in association with the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS in patients with AF. Fifty patients with paroxysmal AF and 50 control subjects without a history of AF were consecutively enrolled. Circulating Glu and Tau levels were measured and correlations between Glu/Tau and ROS levels were examined. Glu/Tau content was significantly higher in patients with AF versus controls (Glu: 79.2±23.9 versus 60.5±25.2 nmol/L; Tau: 78.8±19.8 versus 68.5±20.8 nmol/L; mean ± standard deviation (SD, p<0.001 for both. Glu/Tau levels also showed an independent association with AF by multiple logistic regression analysis. Glu and Tau levels both showed significant positive associations with plasma hydroperoxide concentrations. These data suggest a novel pathophysiological role of Glu and Tau in association with ROS production in paroxysmal AF, providing new insights into the elevated amino acid content in cardiac disease.

  7. Effects of periconceptional undernutrition on maternal taurine concentrations in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorstensen, Eric B; Derraik, José G B; Oliver, Mark H; Jaquiery, Anne L; Bloomfield, Frank H; Harding, Jane E

    2012-02-01

    Taurine has an important role in numerous physiological processes, including many aspects of fetal development such as development of the pancreas and brain, and requirements increase during pregnancy. Periconceptional undernutrition has long-term effects on pancreas and brain function of the offspring, but the effects on maternal taurine economy are unknown. We, therefore, studied the effects of different periods of periconceptional undernutrition on maternal plasma and urine taurine concentrations before and during pregnancy. Four groups of singleton-bearing ewes were studied (n 10-11): controls fed ad libitum, and groups undernourished from 60 d before until mating (PreC), from 2 d before mating until 30 d after mating (PostC) or from 60 d before until 30 d after mating (Pre+PostC). In PreC ewes, plasma taurine concentrations remained at control levels for the first 30 d, and then decreased through the remainder of undernutrition, but recovered by 30 d after mating; urinary taurine excretion was low at mating, but recovered similarly. In PostC ewes, plasma taurine concentrations recovered after 2 weeks despite ongoing undernutrition; urinary taurine excretion had recovered by 30 d after mating. Pre+PostC ewes followed the same pattern as PreC for the first 60 d, but plasma taurine concentrations and urinary excretion recovered slowly, and did not reach the control levels until 97 d. These data suggest that different periods of mild periconceptional undernutrition in sheep have different but substantial effects on maternal taurine homoeostasis. These effects may be one mechanism by which maternal periconceptional undernutrition alters development of the offspring with implications for adult health.

  8. Phenotype of the taurine transporter knockout mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warskulat, Ulrich; Heller-Stilb, Birgit; Oermann, Evelyn; Zilles, Karl; Haas, Helmut; Lang, Florian; Häussinger, Dieter

    2007-01-01

    This chapter reports present knowledge on the properties of mice with disrupted gene coding for the taurine transporter (taut-/- mice). Study of those mice unraveled some of the roles of taurine and its membrane transport for the development and maintenance of normal organ functions and morphology. When compared with wild-type controls, taut-/- mice have decreased taurine levels in skeletal and heart muscle by about 98%, in brain, kidney, plasma, and retina by 80 to 90%, and in liver by about 70%. taut-/- mice exhibit a lower body mass as well as a strongly reduced exercise capacity compared with taut+/- and wild-type mice. Furthermore, taut-/- mice show a variety of pathological features, for example, subtle derangement of renal osmoregulation, changes in neuroreceptor expression, and loss of long-term potentiation in the striatum, and they develop clinically relevant age-dependent disorders, for example, visual, auditory, and olfactory dysfunctions, unspecific hepatitis, and liver fibrosis. Taurine-deficient animal models such as acutely dietary-manipulated foxes and cats, pharmacologically induced taurine-deficient rats, and taurine transporter knockout mouse are powerful tools allowing identification of the mechanisms and complexities of diseases mediated by impaired taurine transport and taurine depletion (Chapman et al., 1993; Heller-Stilb et al., 2002; Huxtable, 1992; Lake, 1993; Moise et al., 1991; Novotny et al., 1991; Pion et al., 1987; Timbrell et al., 1995; Warskulat et al., 2004, 2006b). Taurine, which is the most abundant amino acid in many tissues, is normally found in intracellular concentrations of 10 to 70 mmol/kg in mammalian heart, brain, skeletal muscle, liver, and retina (Chapman et al., 1993; Green et al., 1991; Huxable, 1992; Timbrell et al., 1995). These high taurine levels are maintained by an ubiquitous expression of Na(+)-dependent taurine transporter (TAUT) in the plasma membrane (Burg, 1995; Kwon and Handler, 1995; Lang et al., 1998

  9. The effect of long-term taurine supplementation and fructose feeding on glucose and lipid homeostasis in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Lea Hüche; Orstrup, Laura Kofoed Hvidsten; Hansen, Svend Høime; Grunnet, Niels; Quistorff, Bjørn; Mortensen, Ole Hartvig

    2013-01-01

    The nonprotein amino acid taurine has been shown to counteract the negative effects of a high-fructose diet in rats with regard to insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. Here we examined the long-term (26 weeks) effects of oral taurine supplementation (2% in the drinking water) in fructose-fed Wistar rats.The combination of fructose and taurine caused a significant increase in fasting glucose compared to the control diet without changing hepatic phosphoenol pyruvate carboxykinase mRNA levels. The combination of fructose and taurine also improved glucose tolerance compared to control. Neither a high-fructose diet nor taurine supplementation induced significant changes in body weight, body fat or total calorie intake, fasting insulin levels, HOMA-IR, or insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation in skeletal muscle.Fructose alone caused a decrease in liver triglyceride content, with taurine supplementation preventing this. There was no effect of long-term fructose diet and/or taurine supplementation on plasma triglycerides, plasma nonesterified fatty acids, as well as plasma HDL, LDL, and total cholesterol.In conclusion, the study suggests that long-term taurine supplementation improves glucose tolerance and normalize hepatic triglyceride content following long-term fructose feeding. However, as the combination of taurine and fructose also increased fasting glucose levels, the beneficial effect of taurine supplementation towards amelioration of glucose intolerance and insulin resistance may be questionable.

  10. Dietary taurine and nutrient intake and dietary quality by alcohol consumption level in Korean male college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Jeong Soon; Kim, So Young; Park, So Yoon; Chang, Kyung Ja

    2013-01-01

    Heavy alcohol consumption is related to various negative healthy consequences. To investigate difference of taurine intake according to the alcohol consumption level, we studied body composition, intake of dietary nutrients including taurine, and dietary quality in Korean male college students that were divided according to their alcohol consumption level. Surveys were conducted using a questionnaire and a 3-day recall method for assessing dietary intake in 220 male college students residing in Incheon, Korea. The subjects were divided into two groups by alcohol consumption level: heavy drinking group (average drinking over 5 cans (355 ml) of beer or 7 shots (45 ml) of soju) and light drinking group (average drinking less than 5 cans of beer or 7 shots of soju or not drinking any alcohol at all at one time during the previous month). The average body mass index (BMI) in the heavy drinking group was significantly higher compared to the light drinking group (p nutrition education for heavy drinking Korean male college students may be needed to improve balanced nutritional status and further studies such as case-control study or taurine intervention study are required to know the relationship between dietary taurine intake and alcohol consumption.

  11. Taurine Attenuates Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced Breast Tumorigenesis in Rats: A Plasma Metabolomic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Y U; Li, Qingdi Quentin; Guo, Song Chao

    2016-02-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy and the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in women worldwide. Taurine, the most abundant free amino acid, plays a role in several biological processes in humans and has been shown to have activity against breast cancer and other tumors. To investigate the role and mechanism of taurine action in breast cancer, we used dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced breast carcinogenesis in rats as a model of breast cancer. The administration of taurine significantly reduced the DMBA-induced breast cancer rate from 80% to 40% in rats (ptaurine-administered rats. Bioinformatic analysis further revealed that these metabolites are involved in multiple metabolic pathways, including energy, glucose, amino acid, and nucleic acid metabolism, suggesting that the antitumor activity of taurine in rats is mediated through altered metabolism of breast cancer cells. We propose that these differential metabolites may be potential biomarkers for monitoring cancer therapy and prognosis in the clinic. This study provides a scientific basis for further investigations of the antitumor mechanism of taurine and the development of novel therapeutic strategies to treat breast cancer. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  12. The intrauterine metabolic environment modulates the gene expression pattern in fetal rat islets: prevention by maternal taurine supplementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reusens, B; Sparre, T; Kalbe, L;

    2008-01-01

    is decreased at birth and metabolic perturbation lasts through adulthood even though a normal diet is given after birth or after weaning. Maternal and fetal plasma taurine levels are suboptimal. Maternal taurine supplementation prevents these induced abnormalities. In this study, we aimed to reveal changes...

  13. Taurine Supplementation Lowers Blood Pressure and Improves Vascular Function in Prehypertension: Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qianqian; Wang, Bin; Li, Yingsha; Sun, Fang; Li, Peng; Xia, Weijie; Zhou, Xunmei; Li, Qiang; Wang, Xiaojing; Chen, Jing; Zeng, Xiangru; Zhao, Zhigang; He, Hongbo; Liu, Daoyan; Zhu, Zhiming

    2016-03-01

    Taurine, the most abundant, semiessential, sulfur-containing amino acid, is well known to lower blood pressure (BP) in hypertensive animal models. However, no rigorous clinical trial has validated whether this beneficial effect of taurine occurs in human hypertension or prehypertension, a key stage in the development of hypertension. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, we assessed the effects of taurine intervention on BP and vascular function in prehypertension. We randomly assigned 120 eligible prehypertensive individuals to receive either taurine supplementation (1.6 g per day) or a placebo for 12 weeks. Taurine supplementation significantly decreased the clinic and 24-hour ambulatory BPs, especially in those with high-normal BP. Mean clinic systolic BP reduction for taurine/placebo was 7.2/2.6 mm Hg, and diastolic BP was 4.7/1.3 mm Hg. Mean ambulatory systolic BP reduction for taurine/placebo was 3.8/0.3 mm Hg, and diastolic BP was 3.5/0.6 mm Hg. In addition, taurine supplementation significantly improved endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent vasodilation and increased plasma H2S and taurine concentrations. Furthermore, changes in BP were negatively correlated with both the plasma H2S and taurine levels in taurine-treated prehypertensive individuals. To further elucidate the hypotensive mechanism, experimental studies were performed both in vivo and in vitro. The results showed that taurine treatment upregulated the expression of hydrogen sulfide-synthesizing enzymes and reduced agonist-induced vascular reactivity through the inhibition of transient receptor potential channel subtype 3-mediated calcium influx in human and mouse mesenteric arteries. In conclusion, the antihypertensive effect of chronic taurine supplementation shows promise in the treatment of prehypertension through improvement of vascular function. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. Development of a novel cysteine sulfinic Acid decarboxylase knockout mouse: dietary taurine reduces neonatal mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eunkyue; Park, Seung Yong; Dobkin, Carl; Schuller-Levis, Georgia

    2014-01-01

    We engineered a CSAD KO mouse to investigate the physiological roles of taurine. The disruption of the CSAD gene was verified by Southern, Northern, and Western blotting. HPLC indicated an 83% decrease of taurine concentration in the plasma of CSAD(-/-). Although CSAD(-/-) generation (G)1 and G2 survived, offspring from G2 CSAD(-/-) had low brain and liver taurine concentrations and most died within 24 hrs of birth. Taurine concentrations in G3 CSAD(-/-) born from G2 CSAD(-/-) treated with taurine in the drinking water were restored and survival rates of G3 CSAD(-/-) increased from 15% to 92%. The mRNA expression of CDO, ADO, and TauT was not different in CSAD(-/-) compared to WT and CSAD mRNA was not expressed in CSAD(-/-). Expression of Gpx 1 and 3 was increased significantly in CSAD(-/-) and restored to normal levels with taurine supplementation. Lactoferrin and the prolactin receptor were significantly decreased in CSAD(-/-). The prolactin receptor was restored with taurine supplementation. These data indicated that CSAD KO is a good model for studying the effects of taurine deficiency and its treatment with taurine supplementation.

  15. Development of a Novel Cysteine Sulfinic Acid Decarboxylase Knockout Mouse: Dietary Taurine Reduces Neonatal Mortality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunkyue Park

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We engineered a CSAD KO mouse to investigate the physiological roles of taurine. The disruption of the CSAD gene was verified by Southern, Northern, and Western blotting. HPLC indicated an 83% decrease of taurine concentration in the plasma of CSAD-/-. Although CSAD-/- generation (G1 and G2 survived, offspring from G2 CSAD-/- had low brain and liver taurine concentrations and most died within 24 hrs of birth. Taurine concentrations in G3 CSAD-/- born from G2 CSAD-/- treated with taurine in the drinking water were restored and survival rates of G3 CSAD-/- increased from 15% to 92%. The mRNA expression of CDO, ADO, and TauT was not different in CSAD-/- compared to WT and CSAD mRNA was not expressed in CSAD-/-. Expression of Gpx 1 and 3 was increased significantly in CSAD-/- and restored to normal levels with taurine supplementation. Lactoferrin and the prolactin receptor were significantly decreased in CSAD-/-. The prolactin receptor was restored with taurine supplementation. These data indicated that CSAD KO is a good model for studying the effects of taurine deficiency and its treatment with taurine supplementation.

  16. Taurine content in different brain structures during ageing: effect on hippocampal synaptic plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, Luz M; Muñoz, María-Dolores; Martín Del Río, Rafael; Solís, José M

    2016-05-01

    A reduction in taurine content accompanies the ageing process in many tissues. In fact, the decline of brain taurine levels has been associated with cognitive deficits whereas chronic administration of taurine seems to ameliorate age-related deficits such as memory acquisition and retention. In the present study, using rats of three age groups (young, adult and aged) we determined whether the content of taurine and other amino acids (glutamate, serine, glutamine, glycine, alanine and GABA) was altered during ageing in different brain areas (cerebellum, cortex and hippocampus) as well non-brain tissues (heart, kidney, liver and plasma). Moreover, using hippocampal slices we tested whether ageing affects synaptic function and plasticity. These parameters were also determined in aged rats fed with either taurine-devoid or taurine-supplemented diets. With age, we found heterogeneous changes in amino acid content depending on the amino acid type and the tissue. In the case of taurine, its content was reduced in the cerebellum of adult and aged rats, but it remained unchanged in the hippocampus, cortex, heart and liver. The synaptic response amplitude decreased in aged rats, although the late phase of long-term synaptic potentiation (late-LTP), a taurine-dependent process, was not altered. Our study highlights the stability of taurine content in the hippocampus during ageing regardless of whether taurine was present in the diet, which is consistent with the lack of changes detected in late-LTP. These results indicate that the beneficial effects of taurine supplementation might be independent of the replenishment of taurine stores.

  17. Taurine Growth Effects - Determining Optimum Taurine Supplementation Levels for Plant Proteins Incorporated into Marine Finfish Feeds using Juvenile Sablefish Anoplopoma fimbria

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Taurine, an amino sulfonic acid, has important roles in osmoregulation, bile acid conjugation, membrane stabilization and calcium homeostasis in vertebrates. Though...

  18. Protective effect of taurine on the decreased biogenic amine neurotransmitter levels in the brain of mice exposed to arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaohui; Piao, Fengyuan; Li, Yachen

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic (As) exposure has a toxic effect on the central nervous system, especially on learning and memory. Norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), and serotonin (5-HT) play an important role in learning and memory function of the brain. In the present study, the protective effect of taurine on the disturbed biogenic amine neurotransmitter levels in the mouse brain induced by arsenic was examined. Sixty SPF mice were divided into three groups. The As exposure group was administered with 4 ppm As(2)O(3) through drinking water for 60 days. The protective group was treated with both 4 ppm As(2)O(3) and 150 mg/kg taurine. The control group was given drinking water alone. The levels of NE, DA, and 5-HT were determined by HPLC in the cerebrum and cerebellum of mice. Ultrastructure of synapses in brain tissue of mice was observed in these groups by transmission electron microscopy. The mRNA expressions of dopamine beta hydroxylase (DBH), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), and tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) as NE, DA, and 5-HT synzymes were also analyzed by real-time RT-PCR. The results showed that the concentrations of NE, DA, and 5-HT; the number of synaptic vesicles; and the expressions of TH, TPH, and DBH genes in the brains of mice exposed to As alone were significantly decreased. However, administration of taurine significantly alleviated the toxic effect on biochemicals detected in the experiment, compared with that in the brain of mice exposed to As alone. These results indicated that taurine was effective in counteracting the decreased biogenic amine neurotransmitter level and the mRNA expressions of their synzymes induced by arsenic.

  19. Physiological significance of taurine and the taurine transporter in intestinal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, M; Satsu, H

    2000-01-01

    Taurine transport in human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells was down-regulated by culturing the cells in taurine-containing media and was up-regulated in a taurine-free medium. This adaptive regulation was associated with changes in both the Vmax and Km values of taurine transport. A change in the mRNA level of the taurine transporter (TAUT) in this regulation was also observed. The presence of such a regulatory mechanism for maintaining the intracellular taurine content at a certain level suggests that taurine plays an important role in the intestinal cell functions. The intracellular taurine content was increased when Caco-2 cells were exposed to a hypertonic stress. TAUT was up-regulated via the increased expression of TAUT mRNA in the hypertonic cells, suggesting that taurine serves as an osmolyte and protects the cells from osmotic stress. Similar up-regulation of TAUT was observed in the small intestine of water-deprived rats.

  20. Taurine Ameliorates Renal Oxidative Damage and Thyroid Dysfunction in Rats Chronically Exposed to Fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adedara, Isaac A; Ojuade, Temini Jesu D; Olabiyi, Bolanle F; Idris, Umar F; Onibiyo, Esther M; Ajeigbe, Olufunke F; Farombi, Ebenezer O

    2017-02-01

    Excessive exposure to fluoride poses several detrimental effects to human health particularly the kidney which is a major organ involved in its elimination from the body. The influence of taurine on fluoride-induced renal toxicity was investigated in a co-exposure paradigm for 45 days using five groups of eight rats each. Group I rats received normal drinking water alone, group II rats were exposed to sodium fluoride (NaF) in drinking water at 15 mg/L alone, group III received taurine alone at a dose of 200 mg/kg group IV rats were co-administered with NaF and taurine (100 mg/kg), while group V rats were co-administered with NaF and taurine (200 mg/kg). Administration of taurine significantly reversed the fluoride-mediated decrease in absolute weight and organo-somatic index of the kidney in the exposed rats. Taurine significantly prevented fluoride-induced elevation in plasma urea and creatinine levels in the exposed rats. Moreover, taurine restored fluoride-mediated decrease in the circulatory concentrations of triiodothyronine, thyroxine, and the ratio of triiodothyronine to thyroxine. Taurine ameliorated fluoride-mediated decrease in renal antioxidant status by significantly enhancing the antioxidant enzyme activities as well as glutathione level in the exposed rats. Additionally, taurine inhibited fluoride-induced renal oxidative damage by markedly decreasing the hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde levels as well as improved the kidney architecture in the treated rats. Collectively, taurine protected against fluoride-induced renal toxicity via enhancement of thyroid gland function, renal antioxidant status, and histology in rats.

  1. Taurine inhibits ischemia/reperfusion-induced compartment syndrome in rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji-xian WANG; Yan LI; Li-ke ZHANG; Jing ZHAO; Yong-zheng PANG; Chao-shu TANG; Jing ZHANG

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To investigate effects of taurine on ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced compartment syndrome in rabbit hind limbs.Methods: Rabbits underwent femoral artery occ lusion after ligation of branches from terminal aorta to femoral artery.After a 7-h ischemia, reperfusion was established with the use of heparinized by iv infusion 10 min before shunt placement.During reperfusion, anterior compartment pressure (ACP) was monitored continuously in the left lower extremity.Gastrocnemius muscle triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) level, taurine content and myeloperoxidase activity were assayed.Oxidative stress was induced in the in vitro gastrocnemius muscle slices by free radical generating systems (FRGS),and the malondialdehyde content was measured in presence or absence of taurine.Results: After 7 h of ischemia, none of the parameters that we measured were different from those before ischemia, except that TTC reduction decreased by 80%.In the control group, after 2 h of reperfusion, ACP increased 4.5-fold, and gastrocnemius muscle taurine content was reduced by 33%.In taurine-treated animals, at 2 h reperfusion, the mean arterial blood pressure and heart rate were increased, by 6% and 10%.ACP decreased by 39%, muscle edema decreased by 16%, TTC reduction increased by 150%, and lactate dehydrogenase decreased by 36% compared to control group.Plasma and muscle taurine content increased by 70% and 88%, respectively.In the taurine-treated group, at 2 h reperfusion, plasma malondialdehyde and conjugated diene content were decreased by 38% and 23%,respectively, and muscle malondialdehyde and conjugated diene content decreased by 22% and 30%, respectively compared to the control group.At 2 h reperfusion,myeloperoxidase activity was increased 3.5-fold in control animals.In the in vitro study, taurine decreased malondialdehyde content in muscle slices incubated with hypochlorous acid in a dose-dependent manner, but there was no change when incubated with hydrogen peroxide and

  2. The Taurine Content of Japanese Seaweed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Azusa; Ono, Ayuko; Mizuta, Shoshi; Kamiya, Mitsunobu; Takenaga, Takaaki; Murakami, Shigeru

    2017-01-01

    Japanese and South Koreans have a dietary habit of eating seaweed. Although it is known that some seaweed contains taurine, there have been few detailed analyses on the taurine content of seaweed other than the major types of edible seaweed. In the present study, we determined the content of free amino acids, including taurine, in seaweed obtained along the Sea of Japan coast. The taurine content in the seaweed varied according to the species. Among the 29 different types of seaweed that were studied, red algae contained relatively high concentrations of taurine. In contrast, the taurine content was low or undetectable in brown and green algae. The algal alanine level was relatively higher in brown sea algae, which was in sharp contrast to its taurine level. No clear trends were observed with regards to the distribution of the other free amino acids, including aspartic acid, glutamic acid, and phenylalanine. Considering the physiological role of taurine in cellular homeostasis, the algal taurine content may be associated with the growing environment. Taurine-rich red edible algae such as mafunori (Gloiopeltis tenax)/fukurofunori (Gloiopeltis furcata), kabanori (Gracilaria textorii), and ogonori (Gracilaria vermiculophylla) may be used to create functional foods that are rich in naturally occurring taurine.

  3. Taurine Biosynthesis in a Fish Liver Cell Line (ZFL) Adapted to a Serum-Free Medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chieh-Lun; Watson, Aaron M; Place, Allen R; Jagus, Rosemary

    2017-05-25

    Although taurine has been shown to play multiple important physiological roles in teleosts, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying dietary requirements. Cell lines can provide useful tools for deciphering biosynthetic pathways and their regulation. However, culture media and sera contain variable taurine levels. To provide a useful cell line for the investigation of taurine homeostasis, an adult zebrafish liver cell line (ZFL) has been adapted to a taurine-free medium by gradual accommodation to a commercially available synthetic medium, UltraMEM™-ITES. Here we show that ZFL cells are able to synthesize taurine and be maintained in medium without taurine. This has allowed for the investigation of the effects of taurine supplementation on cell growth, cellular amino acid pools, as well as the expression of the taurine biosynthetic pathway and taurine transporter genes in a defined fish cell type. After taurine supplementation, cellular taurine levels increase but hypotaurine levels stay constant, suggesting little suppression of taurine biosynthesis. Cellular methionine levels do not change after taurine addition, consistent with maintenance of taurine biosynthesis. The addition of taurine to cells grown in taurine-free medium has little effect on transcript levels of the biosynthetic pathway genes for cysteine dioxygenase (CDO), cysteine sulfinate decarboxylase (CSAD), or cysteamine dioxygenase (ADO). In contrast, supplementation with taurine causes a 30% reduction in transcript levels of the taurine transporter, TauT. This experimental approach can be tailored for the development of cell lines from aquaculture species for the elucidation of their taurine biosynthetic capacity.

  4. Taurine Biosynthesis in a Fish Liver Cell Line (ZFL Adapted to a Serum-Free Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chieh-Lun Liu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Although taurine has been shown to play multiple important physiological roles in teleosts, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying dietary requirements. Cell lines can provide useful tools for deciphering biosynthetic pathways and their regulation. However, culture media and sera contain variable taurine levels. To provide a useful cell line for the investigation of taurine homeostasis, an adult zebrafish liver cell line (ZFL has been adapted to a taurine-free medium by gradual accommodation to a commercially available synthetic medium, UltraMEM™-ITES. Here we show that ZFL cells are able to synthesize taurine and be maintained in medium without taurine. This has allowed for the investigation of the effects of taurine supplementation on cell growth, cellular amino acid pools, as well as the expression of the taurine biosynthetic pathway and taurine transporter genes in a defined fish cell type. After taurine supplementation, cellular taurine levels increase but hypotaurine levels stay constant, suggesting little suppression of taurine biosynthesis. Cellular methionine levels do not change after taurine addition, consistent with maintenance of taurine biosynthesis. The addition of taurine to cells grown in taurine-free medium has little effect on transcript levels of the biosynthetic pathway genes for cysteine dioxygenase (CDO, cysteine sulfinate decarboxylase (CSAD, or cysteamine dioxygenase (ADO. In contrast, supplementation with taurine causes a 30% reduction in transcript levels of the taurine transporter, TauT. This experimental approach can be tailored for the development of cell lines from aquaculture species for the elucidation of their taurine biosynthetic capacity.

  5. Role of taurine in spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, R C; Seki, Y; Yosida, J

    2006-08-01

    Taurine is a sulfur amino acid. It is found endogenously in human and several others tissues. It is significantly in high concentration in mammals. Human body contains about 0.1% of body weight as taurine. It has a number of physiological and pharmacological actions. It is also used in the therapy of important organs dysfunctions. In spinal cord it has inhibitory effects; like antiepileptic and anti-nociceptive. Taurine also inhibits substance p induced biting and scratching behavior. In spinal cord injury elevated level of taurine has been observed. Higher level of taurine has been also recorded in SCI therapy using, known clinical agent methyl prednisolone (MP). The increased taurine concentration seems to be involved in protection and regeneration of tissues following injury. In SCI along with physical injury secondary activities also takes place which are complex in nature. Secondary activity includes vascular events and activation of neutrophils, resulting endothelial damage. Activated neutrophils; release a variety of inflammatory mediators such as myeloperoxidase (MPO), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and some others. It is believed that taurine exert its protective action through scavenging of ROS and down regulating several other inflammatory mediators like tumor necrosis factors (TNFalpha). The inside of mechanism reveals toxic substance HOCl is produced by MPO is converted to less toxic substances through scavenging action of taurine. Amino acid therapy has its own limitations and to over come such situation there is a need to develop small, simple lipophilic analogs of taurine. Use of taurine analogs has provided better results; for example, N- chloro taurine (NCT) which is a taurine derivative has exhibited therapeutic advances over taurine. Taurine and its analogs with sound experimental and clinical support may constitute a new class of therapeutic agents for SCI., and perhaps this review may provide enough material to think of this.

  6. Taurine and fish development: insights for the aquaculture industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Wilson; Rønnestad, Ivar; Dinis, Maria Teresa; Aragão, Cláudia

    2013-01-01

    Expansion of the aquaculture industry is limited by incomplete knowledge on fish larval nutritional requirements. Nevertheless, it is believed that dietary taurine deficiencies may be particularly critical for fish larvae. The reasons include the high taurine levels found during egg and yolk-sac stages of fish, suggesting that taurine may be of pivotal importance for larval development. Moreover, unlike aquaculture feeds, natural preys of fish larvae contain high taurine levels, and dietary taurine supplementation has been shown to increase larval growth in several fish species. This study aimed to further explore the physiological role of taurine during fish development. Firstly, the effect of dietary taurine supplementation was assessed on growth of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) larvae and growth, metamorphosis success and amino acid metabolism of Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) larvae. Secondly, the expression of taurine transporter (TauT) was characterised by qPCR in sole larvae and juveniles. Results showed that dietary taurine supplementation did not increase sea bream growth. However, dietary taurine supplementation significantly increased sole larval growth, metamorphosis success and amino acid retention. Metamorphosis was also shown to be an important developmental trigger to promote taurine transport in sole tissues, while evidence for an enterohepatic recycling pathway for taurine was found in sole at least from juvenile stage. Taken together, our studies showed that the dependence of dietary taurine supplementation differs among fish species and that taurine has a vital role during the ontogenetic development of flatfish, an extremely valuable group targeted for aquaculture production.

  7. Taurine Biosynthesis by Neurons and Astrocytes*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitvitsky, Victor; Garg, Sanjay K.; Banerjee, Ruma

    2011-01-01

    The physiological roles of taurine, a product of cysteine degradation and one of the most abundant amino acids in the body, remain elusive. Taurine deficiency leads to heart dysfunction, brain development abnormalities, retinal degradation, and other pathologies. The taurine synthetic pathway is proposed to be incomplete in astrocytes and neurons, and metabolic cooperation between these cell types is reportedly needed to complete the pathway. In this study, we analyzed taurine synthesis capability as reported by incorporation of radioactivity from [35S]cysteine into taurine, in primary murine astrocytes and neurons, and in several transformed cell lines (human (SH-SY5Y) and murine (N1E-115) neuroblastoma, human astrocytoma (U-87MG and 1321 N1), and rat glioma (C6)). Extensive incorporation of radioactivity from [35S]cysteine into taurine was observed in rat glioma cells as well as in primary mouse astrocytes and neurons, establishing the presence of an intact taurine synthesis pathway in these cells. Interestingly, exposure of cells to cysteine or cysteamine resulted in elevated intracellular hypotaurine without a corresponding increase in taurine levels, suggesting that oxidation of hypotaurine limits taurine synthesis in cells. Consistent with its role as an organic osmolyte, taurine synthesis was stimulated under hypertonic conditions in neurons. PMID:21778230

  8. Taurine biosynthesis by neurons and astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitvitsky, Victor; Garg, Sanjay K; Banerjee, Ruma

    2011-09-16

    The physiological roles of taurine, a product of cysteine degradation and one of the most abundant amino acids in the body, remain elusive. Taurine deficiency leads to heart dysfunction, brain development abnormalities, retinal degradation, and other pathologies. The taurine synthetic pathway is proposed to be incomplete in astrocytes and neurons, and metabolic cooperation between these cell types is reportedly needed to complete the pathway. In this study, we analyzed taurine synthesis capability as reported by incorporation of radioactivity from [(35)S]cysteine into taurine, in primary murine astrocytes and neurons, and in several transformed cell lines (human (SH-SY5Y) and murine (N1E-115) neuroblastoma, human astrocytoma (U-87 MG and 1321 N1), and rat glioma (C6)). Extensive incorporation of radioactivity from [(35)S]cysteine into taurine was observed in rat glioma cells as well as in primary mouse astrocytes and neurons, establishing the presence of an intact taurine synthesis pathway in these cells. Interestingly, exposure of cells to cysteine or cysteamine resulted in elevated intracellular hypotaurine without a corresponding increase in taurine levels, suggesting that oxidation of hypotaurine limits taurine synthesis in cells. Consistent with its role as an organic osmolyte, taurine synthesis was stimulated under hypertonic conditions in neurons.

  9. Photobleaching of Hypocrellin B and 2-Taurine Substituted Hypocrellin B in Plasma Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Hui-Ying; ZHANG Yang; GU Ying; ZHAO Jing-Quan

    2008-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a new methodology to utilize jointly a photosensitizer and light to destroy the target tissues of diseases via some photochemical reactions. On the other hand, the photosensitizer molecules may also be photo-bleached during PDT, furthermore, their interaction with biomolecules and the photobleaching properties in blood vessels are critical to treatments of microvascular diseases. In consideration of these, the photobleaching processes of HB and its analogue THB in plasma solutions were investigated in the current work. It was observed that the photobleaching was predominately mediated by singlet oxygen reactions in well-oxygenated aqueous solution in the presence of plasma substrate which not only greatly enhanced the photobleaching rate but also led to different photoproducts due to distinctly different reaction mechanisms. The relative photobleaching mechanisms were proposed based on the structural information and the redox potentials of the photosensitizers.

  10. Antenatal taurine supplementation increases taurine content in intrauterine growth restricted fetal rat brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fang; Teng, Hui-Yun; Liu, Jing; Wang, Hua-Wei; Zeng, Li; Zhao, Li-Fang

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed to determine the influence of antenatal taurine supplementation on taurine content in the brains of fetal rats with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Experiments were performed at the Central Laboratory of Bayi Children's Hospital Affiliated to Beijing Military General Hospital in China from January to June 2013. Fifteen pregnant rats were randomly divided into three groups: normal controls, an IUGR group and an IUGR + antenatal taurine supplement group (Taurine group) (n = 5). The IUGR model was induced using a low-protein diet throughout gestation. Rats in the taurine group were fed a diet supplemented with 300 mg/kg/day taurine for 12 days after conception until natural delivery. Two fetal rats were randomly selected in every litter, and taurine levels in the brains of rats were detected using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results showed that (1) the mean body weight of the fetal rats in the normal control, IUGR and IUGR + antenatal taurine supplement groups was 6.619 ± 0.4132, 4.509 ± 0.454, and 5.176 ± 0.436 g (F = 429.818, P taurine levels in the brains of the fetal rats in the normal control, IUGR and taurine groups were (2.399 ± 0.134) × 10(5), (1.881 ± 0.166) × 10(5) and (2.170 ± 0.191) × 10(5) μg/g (F = 24.828, P taurine levels in IUGR fetal rat brains were lower than in the control animals, and that antenatal taurine supplementation could significantly increase taurine levels in the brains of fetal rats with IUGR.

  11. The role of taurine in infant nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesney, R W; Helms, R A; Christensen, M; Budreau, A M; Han, X; Sturman, J A

    1998-01-01

    The importance of taurine in the diet of pre-term and term infants has not always been clearly understood and is a topic of interest to students of infant nutrition. Recent evidence indicates that it should be considered one of the "conditionally essential" amino acids in infant nutrition. Plasma values for taurine will fall if infants are fed a taurine-free formula or do not have taurine provided in the TPN solution. Urine taurine values also fall, which is indicative of an attempt by the kidney to conserve taurine. The very-low-birth-weight infant, for a variety of reasons involving the maturation of tubular transport function, cannot maximally conserve taurine by enhancing renal reabsorption and, hence, is potentially at greater risk for taurine depletion than larger pre-term or term infants, and certainly more than older children who have taurine in their diet. Taurine has an important role in fat absorption in pre-term and possibly term infants and in children with cystic fibrosis. Because taurine-conjugated bile acids are better emulsifiers of fat than glycine-conjugated bile acids, the dietary (or TPN) intake has a direct influence on absorption of lipids. Taurine supplementation of formulas or TPN solutions could potentially serve to minimize the brain phospholipid fatty acid composition differences between formula-fed and human milk-fed infants. Taurine appears to have a role in infants, children, and even adults receiving most (> 75%) of their calories from TPN solutions in the prevention of granulation of the retina and electroencephalographic changes. Taurine has also been reported to improve maturation of auditory-evoked responses in pre-term infants, although this point is not fully established. Clearly, taurine is an important osmolyte in the brain and the renal medulla. At these locations, it is a primary factor in the cell volume regulatory process, in which brain or renal cells swell or shrink in response to osmolar changes, but return to their

  12. Branched-chain amino acids inhibit the TGF-beta-induced down-regulation of taurine biosynthetic enzyme cysteine dioxygenase in HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, Asami; Ishizaki, Sonoko; Takehana, Kenji; Fujitani, Shoji; Sonaka, Ichiro; Satsu, Hideo; Shimizu, Makoto

    2014-05-01

    Taurine deficiency has been suggested to contribute to the pathogenesis and complications of advanced hepatic diseases. The molecular basis for a low level of taurine associated with hepatic failure is largely unknown. Using carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced cirrhotic rat model, we found that the activity and expression of cysteine dioxygenase (CDO), a rate-limiting enzyme in taurine synthesis, were significantly decreased in the liver of these rats. To investigate the underlying mechanisms for the suppression, we examined the effects of pathological cytokines on CDO expression in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. Among the several cytokines, transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), one of the key mediators of fibrogenesis, suppressed Cdo1 gene transcription through the MEK/ERK pathway. Finally, we further examined potential effects of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) on CDO expression, as it has been reported that oral BCAA supplementation increased plasma taurine level in the patients with liver cirrhosis. BCAA, especially leucine, promoted Cdo1 gene transcription, and attenuated TGF-β-mediated suppression of Cdo1 gene expression. These results indicate that the low plasma level of taurine in advanced hepatic disease is due to decreased hepatic CDO expression, which can be partly attributed to suppressive effect of TGF-β on Cdo1 gene transcription. Furthermore, our observation that BCAA promotes Cdo1 expression suggests that BCAA may be therapeutically useful to improve hepatic taurine metabolism and further suppress dysfunctions associated with low level of taurine in hepatic diseases.

  13. Role of taurine in the pathogenesis of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Shigeru

    2015-07-01

    Taurine is a sulfur-containing amino acid that is present in mammalian tissues in millimolar concentrations. Taurine is involved in a diverse array of biological and physiological functions, including bile salt conjugation, osmoregulation, membrane stabilization, calcium modulation, anti-oxidation, and immunomodulation. The prevalence of obesity and being overweight continues to rise worldwide at an alarming rate. Obesity is associated with a higher risk of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and other clinical conditions. Ingestion of taurine has been shown to alleviate metabolic diseases such as hyperlipidemia, diabetes, hypertension, and obesity in animal models. A global epidemiological survey showed that 24-h urinary taurine excretion, as a marker of dietary taurine intake, was inversely associated with BMI, blood pressure, and plasma cholesterol in humans. In addition, taurine chloramine, an endogenous product derived from activated neutrophils, has been reported to suppress obesity-induced oxidative stress and inflammation in adipocytes. Synthetic activity and concentration of taurine in adipose tissues and plasma have been shown to decrease in humans and animals during the development of obesity, suggesting a relationship between taurine deficiency and obesity. In this review, I summarize the effects of taurine on the progression of obesity in animal models and humans. Furthermore, I discuss possible mechanisms underlying the antiobesity effects of taurine. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Quantitative and Topographical Analysis of the Losses of Cone Photoreceptors and Retinal Ganglion Cells Under Taurine Depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadj-Saïd, Wahiba; Froger, Nicolas; Ivkovic, Ivana; Jiménez-López, Manuel; Dubus, Élisabeth; Dégardin-Chicaud, Julie; Simonutti, Manuel; Quénol, César; Neveux, Nathalie; Villegas-Pérez, María Paz; Agudo-Barriuso, Marta; Vidal-Sanz, Manuel; Sahel, Jose-Alain; Picaud, Serge; García-Ayuso, Diego

    2016-09-01

    Taurine depletion is known to induce photoreceptor degeneration and was recently found to also trigger retinal ganglion cell (RGC) loss similar to the retinal toxicity of vigabatrin. Our objective was to study the topographical loss of RGCs and cone photoreceptors, with a distinction between the two cone types (S- and L- cones) in an animal model of induced taurine depletion. We used the taurine transporter (Tau-T) inhibitor, guanidoethane sulfonate (GES), to induce taurine depletion at a concentration of 1% in the drinking water. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and electroretinograms (ERG) were performed on animals after 2 months of GES treatment administered through the drinking water. Retinas were dissected as wholemounts and immunodetection of Brn3a (RGC), S-opsin (S-cones), and L-opsin (L-cones) was performed. The number of Brn3a+ RGCs, and L- and S-opsin+ cones was automatically quantified and their retinal distribution studied using isodensity maps. The treatment resulted in a significant reduction in plasma taurine levels and a profound dysfunction of visual performance as shown by ERG recordings. Optical coherence tomography analysis revealed that the retina was thinner in the taurine-depleted group. S-opsin+cones were more affected (36%) than L-opsin+cones (27%) with greater cone cell loss in the dorsal area whereas RGC loss (12%) was uniformly distributed. This study confirms that taurine depletion causes RGC and cone loss. Electroretinograms results show that taurine depletion induces retinal dysfunction in photoreceptors and in the inner retina. It establishes a gradient of cell loss depending on the cell type from S-opsin+cones, L-opsin+cones, to RGCs. The greater cell loss in the dorsal retina and of the S-cone population may underline different cellular mechanisms of cellular degeneration and suggests that S-cones may be more sensitive to light-induced retinal toxicity enhanced by the taurine depletion.

  15. Taurine's effects on the neuroendocrine functions of pancreatic β cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuttitta, Christina M; Guariglia, Sara R; Idrissi, Abdeslem El; L'amoreaux, William J

    2013-01-01

    Taurine plays significant physiological roles, including those involved in neurotransmission. Taurine is a potent γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) agonist and alters cellular events via GABA(A) receptors. Alternately, taurine is transported into cells via the high affinity taurine transporter (TauT), where it may also play a regulatory role. We have previously demonstrated that treatment of Hit-T15 cells with 1 mM taurine for 24 h significantly decreases insulin and GABA levels. We have also demonstrated that chronic in vivo administration of taurine results in an up-regulation of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), the key enzyme in GABA synthesis. Here, we wished to test if administration of 1 mM taurine for 24 h may increase release of another β cell neurotransmitter somatostatin (SST) and also directly impact up-regulation of GAD synthesis. Treatment with taurine did not significantly alter levels of SST (p > 0.05) or GAD67 (p > 0.05). This suggests that taurine does not directly affect SST release, nor does it directly affect GAD synthesis. Taken together with our observation that taurine does promote GABA release via large dense-core vesicles, the data suggest that taurine may alter membrane potential, which in turn would affect calcium flux. We show here that 1 mM taurine does not alter intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations from 20 to 80 s post treatment (p > 0.05), but does increase Ca(2+) flux between 80 and 200 s post-treatment (p taurine may induce a biphasic response in β cells. The initial response of taurine via GABA(A) receptors hyperpolarizes β cell and sequesters Ca(2+). Subsequently, taurine may affect Ca(2+) flux in long term via interaction with K(ATP) channels.

  16. The change of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 expression level in rats with late-stage traumatic brain injury and the therapeutic effect of taurine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying CAI

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the change of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5 expression level in rats with late-stage (the 7th day traumatic brain injury (TBI and the role of taurine. Methods The left cerebral TBI rat models were made by using lateral fluid percussion method. A total of 30 specific pathogen free (SPF male Sprague-Dawley (SD rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: sham operation group (control group, TBI model group (TBI group and taurine treatment group (taurine group. Wet and dry weight method was used to measure the brain water content. Real-time fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR and Western blotting were used to detect the change of mRNA and protein expression of aquaporin 4 (AQP4 and mGluR5 in each group.  Results Compared with control group, the brain water content (t = 4.893, P = 0.002, AQP4 mRNA (t = 6.523, P = 0.000 and protein (t = 4.366, P = 0.008 expression were upregulated, while mGluR5 mRNA (t = 5.776, P = 0.001 and protein (t = 3.945, P = 0.014 expression were downregulated in TBI group. After taurine treatment, the brain water content (t = 2.151, P = 0.140, AQP4 mRNA (t = 1.144,P = 0.432 and protein (t = 0.367, P = 0.804 decreased to normal, while mGluR5 mRNA (t = 1.824, P = 0.216 and protein (t = 1.185, P = 0.414 increased to normal. Correlation analysis showed brain water content was negatively correlated with mGluR5 mRNA (r = -0.617, P = 0.014 and mGluR5 protein (r = -0.665, P = 0.007, while it was positively correlated with AQP4 protein (r = 0.658, P = 0.008.  Conclusions Taurine can significantly increase the mGluR5 expression level of brain issue in the late-stage (the 7th day of TBI and decline brain edema and brain water content. It may be a potential protective agent as an inhibitory neurotransmitter. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2016.08.008

  17. Taurine and atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Shigeru

    2014-01-01

    Taurine is abundantly present in most mammalian tissues and plays a role in many important physiological functions. Atherosclerosis is the underlying mechanism of cardiovascular disease including myocardial infarctions, strokes and peripheral artery disease and remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Studies conducted in laboratory animal models using both genetic and dietary models of hyperlipidemia have demonstrated that taurine supplementation retards the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. Epidemiological studies have also suggested that taurine exerts preventive effects on cardiovascular diseases. The present review focuses on the effects of taurine on the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. In addition, the potential mechanisms by which taurine suppress the development of atherosclerosis will be discussed.

  18. Deletion of the γ-Aminobutyric Acid Transporter 2 (GAT2 and SLC6A13) Gene in Mice Leads to Changes in Liver and Brain Taurine Contents*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yun; Holmseth, Silvia; Guo, Caiying; Hassel, Bjørnar; Höfner, Georg; Huitfeldt, Henrik S.; Wanner, Klaus T.; Danbolt, Niels C.

    2012-01-01

    The GABA transporters (GAT1, GAT2, GAT3, and BGT1) have mostly been discussed in relation to their potential roles in controlling the action of transmitter GABA in the nervous system. We have generated the first mice lacking the GAT2 (slc6a13) gene. Deletion of GAT2 (both mRNA and protein) neither affected growth, fertility, nor life span under nonchallenging rearing conditions. Immunocytochemistry showed that the GAT2 protein was predominantly expressed in the plasma membranes of periportal hepatocytes and in the basolateral membranes of proximal tubules in the renal cortex. This was validated by processing tissue from wild-type and knockout mice in parallel. Deletion of GAT2 reduced liver taurine levels by 50%, without affecting the expression of the taurine transporter TAUT. These results suggest an important role for GAT2 in taurine uptake from portal blood into liver. In support of this notion, GAT2-transfected HEK293 cells transported [3H]taurine. Furthermore, most of the uptake of [3H]GABA by cultured rat hepatocytes was due to GAT2, and this uptake was inhibited by taurine. GAT2 was not detected in brain parenchyma proper, excluding a role in GABA inactivation. It was, however, expressed in the leptomeninges and in a subpopulation of brain blood vessels. Deletion of GAT2 increased brain taurine levels by 20%, suggesting a taurine-exporting role for GAT2 in the brain. PMID:22896705

  19. Experimental evidence for therapeutic potential of taurine in the treatment of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, Christopher L.; Nivala, Angela M.; Gonzales, Jon C.; Pfaffenbach, Kyle T.; Wang, Dong; Wei, Yuren; Jiang, Hua; Orlicky, David J.; Petersen, Dennis R.; Maclean, Kenneth N.

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of obesity is now at epidemic proportions and has resulted in the emergence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) as a common metabolic disorder that can lead to liver injury and cirrhosis. Excess sucrose and long-chain saturated fatty acids in the diet may play a role in the development and progression of NAFLD. One factor linking sucrose and saturated fatty acids to liver damage is dysfunction of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Although there is currently no proven, effective therapy for NAFLD, the amino sulfonic acid taurine is protective against various metabolic disturbances, including alcohol-induced liver damage. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the therapeutic potential of taurine to serve as a preventative treatment for diet-induced NAFLD. We report that taurine significantly mitigated palmitate-mediated caspase-3 activity, cell death, ER stress, and oxidative stress in H4IIE liver cells and primary hepatocytes. In rats fed a high-sucrose diet, dietary taurine supplementation significantly reduced hepatic lipid accumulation, liver injury, inflammation, plasma triglycerides, and insulin levels. The high-sucrose diet resulted in an induction of multiple components of the unfolded protein response in the liver consistent with ER stress, which was ameliorated by taurine supplementation. Treatment of mice with the ER stress-inducing agent tunicamycin resulted in liver injury, unfolded protein response induction, and hepatic lipid accumulation that was significantly ameliorated by dietary supplementation with taurine. Our results indicate that dietary supplementation with taurine offers significant potential as a preventative treatment for NAFLD. PMID:21957160

  20. Effect of Dietary Taurine on Semen Quality, Serum Hormone Content and Seminal Plasma Antioxidant Capability of Breeding Boars%牛磺酸对种公猪精液品质、血清激素含量及精浆抗氧化能力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李方方; 蒋超群; 朱宇旌; 郑丽莉; 高原; 孟玲; 郭福来; 丁兰; 张勇

    2016-01-01

    本试验旨在研究牛磺酸( Tau)对种公猪性欲、精液品质、血清激素含量及精浆抗氧化能力的影响。选用24头年龄、体重相近的健康成年大约克夏种公猪,随机分为4个组,每组6个重复,每个重复1头猪。各组分别饲喂牛磺酸添加水平为0(对照组)、2、4、6 g/kg的饲粮,试验期90 d,分为1~45 d和46~90 d 2个阶段。结果表明:1)试验46~90 d时,添加6 g/kg牛磺酸显著提高了种公猪的性欲( P<0.05)、采精量( P<0.01)、精子活力( P<0.05),4 g/kg牛磺酸改善了精子密度和精子畸形率( P<0.05);2)与对照组相比,6 g/kg牛磺酸水平组极显著提高了种公猪血清促黄体素(LH)含量(P<0.01),显著提高了睾酮(T)含量(P<0.05);3)试验46~90 d时,6 g/kg牛磺酸显著降低了种公猪精浆丙二醛(MDA)含量(P<0.05),显著提高了超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活力(P<0.05),4 g/kg牛磺酸显著提高了谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶(GSH-Px)活力(P<0.05)。由此可见,饲粮中长期添加牛磺酸可以调控种公猪血清激素含量,增加精浆抗氧化能力,进而增强种公猪性欲,提高种公猪精液品质,本试验条件下牛磺酸适宜添加水平为6 g/kg。%This study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary taurine on libido, semen quality, serum hormone content and seminal plasma antioxidant capability of breeding boars. Twenty four healthy adult large Yorkshire breeding boars with similar age and weight were randomly divided into 4 groups with 6 replicates per group and 1 pig per replicate. Breeding boars were fed diets supplemented with 0 ( control) , 2, 4 and 6 g/kg taurine, respectively. The feeding trial lasted for 90 days consisted of 2 periods of 1 to 45 days and 46 to 90 days. The results showed as follows:1) the libido (P<0.05), semen production (P<0.01) and the sperm motility ( P<0.05) of breeding boars in 6 g/kg taurine level group were significantly higher than those in con-trol group during 46 to 90 days. The sperm

  1. Effect of oral taurine on morbidity and mortality in elderly hip fracture patients: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Stijn, Mireille F M; Bruins, Arnoud A; Vermeulen, Mechteld A R; Witlox, Joost; Teerlink, Tom; Schoorl, Margreet G; De Bandt, Jean Pascal; Twisk, Jos W R; Van Leeuwen, Paul A M; Houdijk, Alexander P J

    2015-05-29

    Hip fracture patients represent a large part of the elderly surgical population and face severe postoperative morbidity and excessive mortality compared to adult surgical hip fracture patients. Low antioxidant status and taurine deficiency is common in the elderly, and may negatively affect postoperative outcome. We hypothesized that taurine, an antioxidant, could improve clinical outcome in the elderly hip fracture patient. A double blind randomized, placebo controlled, clinical trial was conducted on elderly hip fracture patients. Supplementation started after admission and before surgery up to the sixth postoperative day. Markers of oxidative status were measured during hospitalization, and postoperative outcome was monitored for one year after surgery. Taurine supplementation did not improve in-hospital morbidity, medical comorbidities during the first year, or mortality during the first year. Taurine supplementation lowered postoperative oxidative stress, as shown by lower urinary 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine levels (Generalized estimating equations (GEE) analysis average difference over time; regression coefficient (Beta): -0.54; 95% CI: -1.08--0.01; p = 0.04), blunted plasma malondialdehyde response (Beta: 1.58; 95% CI: 0.00-3.15; p = 0.05) and a trend towards lower lactate to pyruvate ratio (Beta: -1.10; 95% CI: -2.33-0.12; p = 0.08). We concluded that peri-operative taurine supplementation attenuated postoperative oxidative stress in elderly hip fracture patients, but did not improve postoperative morbidity and mortality.

  2. Regulation of taurine transport at the blood-placental barrier by calcium ion, PKC activator and oxidative stress conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background In the present study, we investigated the changes of uptake and efflux transport of taurine under various stress conditions using rat conditionally immortalized syncytiotrophoblast cell line (TR-TBT cells), as in vitro blood-placental barrier (BPB) model. Methods The transport of taurine in TR-TBT cells were characterized by cellular uptake study using radiolabeled taurine. The efflux of taurine was measured from the amount of radiolabeled taurine remaining in the cells after the uptake of radiolabeled taurine for 60 min. Results Taurine uptake was significantly decreased by phosphorylation of protein kinase C (PKC) activator in TR-TBT cells. Also, calcium ion (Ca2+) was involved in taurine transport in TR-TBT cells. Taurine uptake was inhibited and efflux was enhanced under calcium free conditions in the cells. In addition, oxidative stress induced the change of taurine transport in TR-TBT cells, but the changes were different depending on the types of oxidative stress inducing agents. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and diethyl maleate (DEM) significantly increased taurine uptake, but H2O2 and nitric oxide (NO) donor decreased taurine uptake in the cells. Taurine efflux was down-regulated by TNF-α in TR-TBT cells. Conclusion Taurine transport in TR-TBT cells were regulated diversely at extracellular Ca2+ level, PKC activator and oxidative stress conditions. It suggested that variable stresses affected the taurine supplies from maternal blood to fetus and taurine level of fetus. PMID:20804613

  3. 33S NMR cryogenic probe for taurine detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobo, Fumio; Takahashi, Masato; Maeda, Hideaki

    2009-03-01

    With the goal of a S33 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) probe applicable to in vivo NMR on taurine-biological samples, we have developed the S33 NMR cryogenic probe, which is applicable to taurine solutions. The NMR sensitivity gain relative to a conventional broadband probe is as large as 3.5. This work suggests that improvements in the preamplifier could allow NMR measurements on 100 μM taurine solutions, which is the level of sensitivity necessary for biological samples.

  4. Taurine concentrations in fetal, neonatal and pregnant rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akahori,Shuichiro

    1986-04-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of taurine in the fetal and neonatal organs, and the maternal organs, plasma and urine of rats between the 15th day of gestation and the 21st day after birth were determined using an automatic amino acid analyzer. In the fetal liver and brain and in the placenta, the taurine concentration was the highest of all ninhydrin positive compounds. In the fetal liver and placenta, the concentrations of taurine increased significantly with the gestational days. Concentrations of taurine in the brain were much higher in the fetus and neonate than that in the adult. Moreover, the total amount of taurine per fetus increased markedly after the 15th day of gestation, and near term, reached almost the same amount as in the adult rat liver. In contrast to this, a significant decrease was observed in the taurine concentration in the maternal liver and muscle near term. The concentration of taurine in the urine of pregnant rats decreased near term, but in the plasma of pregnant rats the concentration of taurine did not change during pregnancy.

  5. Pharmacology of taurine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oja, Simo S; Saransaari, Pirjo

    2007-01-01

    Taurine has a number of physiological functions, e.g., in cell volume regulation and inhibitory neuromodulation. Taurine and its derivatives have also been tested as potential pharmacological agents in many pathological states. We endeavor here to review the present status of this investigation. Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) is a simple sulfur-containing amino acid present in virtually all cells throughout the animal kingdom. In particular, it is enriched in electrically excitable tissues such as brain, retina, heart and skeletal muscles. In the central nervous system, taurine has been implicated in two major phenomena; in cell volume regulation [1-3] and in inhibitory neuromodulation or neurotransmission [4-7]. Its function as a neurotransmitter implies the existence of specific taurine receptors and the neuromodulatory role, an interference with functions of other transmitter systems. There is scant evidence to corroborate the first assumption, but ample for the latter. In other tissues taurine has also been thought to act as an antioxidant in cell protection and to have beneficial effects on cardiovascular functions. These taurine properties are only partially explored so far but taurine and many of its derivatives have been tested as potential pharmaceutical agents in a number of pathological states.

  6. Dilated cardiomyopathy in an American cocker spaniel with taurine deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavaghan, B J; Kittleson, M D

    1997-12-01

    An American Cocker Spaniel with low plasma taurine concentration (taurine. Improvement in all echocardiographic indices were noted over a 22 week follow-up, most notably an increase in left ventricular shortening fraction to 20%, a decrease of E-point septal separation from 14 mm to 7 mm and marked left ventricular remodelling. This degree of improvement in myocardial function may represent a direct link between dilated cardiomyopathy in the American Cocker Spaniel and plasma taurine deficiency. Alternatively, this response may reflect a breed-related cardiomyopathy with a natural history and therapeutic response not commonly seen in the more common large breed cardiomyopathy presentations.

  7. The potential protective role of taurine against experimental allergic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Sun-Young; Kim, Hyung-Min; Jeong, Hyun-Ja

    2017-09-01

    Taurine has been widely evaluated as a potential therapeutic agent in chronic inflammatory disorders and various infections. However, the potential role of taurine in regulating allergic inflammatory responses is currently unknown. The present study was designed to evaluate the in vitro effects of taurine on the levels of thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) and other pro-inflammatory cytokines and activation of caspase-1 and nuclear factor (NF)-κB as well as the phosphorylations of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and calcium ionophore A23187 (PMACI)-triggered human mast cell line, HMC-1 cells. Furthermore, we assessed the therapeutic effects of taurine on ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic rhinitis (AR) animal models. Here, the obtained results showed that taurine dose-dependently inhibited the production and mRNA expression of TSLP and pro-inflammatory cytokines in HMC-1 cells exposed to PMACI. Taurine attenuated the phosphorylation of JNK and p38 in activated HMC-1 cells. Moreover, taurine brought a significant inhibition of the activities of NF-κB and caspase-1. In an OVA-induced AR animal model, the increased levels of nose rubbing, histamine, immunoglobulin E, TSLP, and interleukin IL-1β were dramatically reduced by the administration of taurine. In summary, taurine could serve as potential novel remedy of allergic inflammatory disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Protective effect of taurine against potassium bromate-induced hemoglobin oxidation, oxidative stress, and impairment of antioxidant defense system in blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mir Kaisar; Mahmood, Riaz

    2016-03-01

    Potassium bromate (KBrO3 ) is widely used as a food-additive and is a major water disinfection by-product. KBrO3 causes severe toxicity in humans and experimental animals. Bromate is considered a probable human carcinogen and a complete carcinogen in animals. We have investigated the potential role of taurine in protecting against KBrO3 -induced oxidative stress in rat blood. Animals were given taurine for 5 days prior to KBrO3 and then sacrificed. Blood was collected and used to prepare hemolysates and plasma, which were then used for the analysis of several biochemical parameters. Administration of single oral dose of KBrO3 alone induced hepato- and nephro-toxicity as evident by elevated marker levels in plasma. Lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation were increased both in plasma and erythrocytes, suggesting the induction of oxidative stress. KBrO3 increased methemoglobin, nitric oxide, and hydrogen peroxide levels. It also altered the activities of the major antioxidant enzymes and lowered the antioxidant power of blood. Administration of taurine, prior to treatment with KBrO3 , resulted in significant attenuation in all these parameters but the administration of taurine alone had no effect. These results show that taurine is effective in mitigating the oxidative insult induced in rat blood by KBrO3 . © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Taurine suppresses oxidative stress-potentiated expression of lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor and restenosis in balloon-injured rabbit iliac artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokce, G; Ozsarlak-Sozer, G; Oran, I; Oktay, G; Ozkal, S; Kerry, Z

    2011-12-01

    1. In endothelial cells, the major receptor for the binding and internalization of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is the lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor (LOX-1). The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of taurine on intimal thickening and LOX-1 expression under normal and oxidative conditions. 2. The iliac artery of rabbits were subjected to balloon injury and oxidative stress was induced by 14 days treatment of rabbits with 75 mg/kg, s.c., buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), a specific inhibitor of glutathione synthesis. Taurine was administered in drinking water (1%, w/v) for 14 days in the presence (BSO + Taurine group) and in the absence of BSO treatment (Taurine group). In taurine and placebo groups, rabbits were injected with 4 mL, s.c., 0.9% NaCl (vehicle for BSO) for 14 days. 3. Taurine (1% in drinking water, w/v) preserved plasma levels of anti-oxidants and lowered the increased blood pressure induced by BSO. The stenosis rate of 29.92% in the placebo group increased to 72.20% in the BSO group, which was significantly reduced to 42.21% by taurine (P treatment reduced the BSO-induced increase in LOX-1 expression at both the protein and mRNA levels (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively). 4. The results demonstrate that the stenosis rate and LOX-1 expression correlate well with oxidative status. Manipulation of LOX-1 expression by taurine may have therapeutic benefits in preventing restenosis.

  10. Functions of Maternally-Derived Taurine in Fetal and Neonatal Brain Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tochitani, Shiro

    2017-01-01

    Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) is a sulfur-containing organic acid, which has various physiological functions, including membrane stabilization, cell-volume regulation, mitochondrial protein translocation, anti-oxidative activity, neuroprotection against neurotoxicity and modulation of intracellular calcium levels. Taurine also activates GABAA receptors and glycine receptors. Mammalian fetuses and infants are dependent on taurine delivered from their mothers via either the placenta or their mother's milk. Taurine is a molecule that links mother-fetus or mother-infant bonding.This review describes the functions of taurine and the mechanisms of action of taurine in fetal and brain development. Taurine is involved in regulating the proliferation of neural progenitors, migration of newly-generated neurons, and the synapse formation of neurons after migration during fetal and neonatal development. In this review, we also discuss the environmental factors that might influence the functional roles of taurine in neural development.

  11. Effect of taurine on mRNA expression of thioredoxin interacting protein in Caco-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondo, Yusuke; Satsu, Hideo; Ishimoto, Yoko; Iwamoto, Taku; Shimizu, Makoto

    2012-09-28

    Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid), a sulfur-containing β-amino acid, plays an important role in several essential biological processes; although, the underlying mechanisms for these regulatory functions remain to be elucidated, especially at the genetic level. We investigated the effects of taurine on the gene expression profile in Caco-2 cells using DNA microarray. Taurine increased the mRNA expression of thioredoxin interacting protein (TXNIP), which is involved in various metabolisms and diseases. β-Alanine or γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), which are structurally or functionally related to taurine, did not increase TXNIP mRNA expression. These suggest the expression of TXNIP mRNA is induced specifically by taurine. β-Alanine is also known to be a substrate of taurine transporter (TAUT) and competitively inhibits taurine uptake. Inhibition of taurine uptake by β-alanine eliminated the up-regulation of TXNIP, which suggests TAUT is involved in inducing TXNIP mRNA expression. The up-regulation of TXNIP mRNA expression by taurine was also observed at the protein level. Furthermore, taurine significantly increased TXNIP promoter activity. Our present study demonstrated the taurine-specific phenomenon of TXNIP up-regulation, which sheds light on the physiological function of taurine. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of taurine on anxiety-like and locomotor behavior of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Idrissi, Abdeslem; Boukarrou, Latifa; Heany, Wally; Malliaros, George; Sangdee, Chaichan; Neuwirth, Lorenz

    2009-01-01

    Taurine is one of the most abundant free amino acids especially in excitable tissues, with wide physiological actions. We have previously reported that chronic supplementation of taurine in drinking water to mice increases brain excitability, mainly through alterations in the inhibitory GABAergic system. In this study we investigated the effects of chronic versus acute taurine treatment on anxiety-like and locomotor behaviors using two behavioral tests: elevated plus-maze and open-field. These two test conditions generated different levels of anxiety, and both anxiolytic and anxiogenic effects of taurine could be assessed. We used two paradigms for taurine treatment: Acute injection versus chronic supplementation. In the open field test, taurine supplementation increased whereas taurine injection suppressed locomotor activity. We found that taurine supplementation induced an increase in the total distance traveled, the overall movement speed, the time the animals spent mobile, the number of line crossings, and the time the animals entered the center zone. In the elevated arm maze, taurine injection suppressed anxiety whereas taurine supplementation was anxiogenic. The major findings of this are two folds: First these results suggest that taurine might play a role in the modulation of anxiety and locomotor activity. Second, taurine when injected acutely had opposite effects than when administered chronically.

  13. Taurine and the renal system

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Taurine participates in a number of different physiologic and biologic processes in the kidney, often reflected by urinary excretion patterns. The kidney is key to aspects of taurine body pool size and homeostasis. This review will examine the renal-taurine interactions relative to ion reabsorption; renal blood flow and renal vascular endothelial function; antioxidant properties, especially in the glomerulus; and the role of taurine in ischemia and reperfusion injury. In addition, taurine plays a role in the renal cell cycle and apoptosis, and functions as an osmolyte during the stress response. The role of the kidney in adaptation to variations in dietary taurine intake and the regulation of taurine body pool size are described. Finally, the protective function of taurine against several kidney diseases is reviewed. PMID:20804616

  14. Taurine exerts hypoglycemic effect in alloxan-induced diabetic rats, improves insulin-mediated glucose transport signaling pathway in heart and ameliorates cardiac oxidative stress and apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Joydeep; Vasan, Vandana; Sil, Parames C., E-mail: parames@bosemain.boseinst.ac.in

    2012-01-15

    Hyperlipidemia, inflammation and altered antioxidant profiles are the usual complications in diabetes mellitus. In the present study, we investigated the therapeutic potential of taurine in diabetes associated cardiac complications using a rat model. Rats were made diabetic by alloxan (ALX) (single i.p. dose of 120 mg/kg body weight) and left untreated or treated with taurine (1% w/v, orally, in water) for three weeks either from the day of ALX exposure or after the onset of diabetes. Animals were euthanized after three weeks. ALX-induced diabetes decreased body weight, increased glucose level, decreased insulin content, enhanced the levels of cardiac damage markers and altered lipid profile in the plasma. Moreover, it increased oxidative stress (decreased antioxidant enzyme activities and GSH/GSSG ratio, increased xanthine oxidase enzyme activity, lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation and ROS generation) and enhanced the proinflammatory cytokines levels, activity of myeloperoxidase and nuclear translocation of NFκB in the cardiac tissue of the experimental animals. Taurine treatment could, however, result to a decrease in the elevated blood glucose and proinflammatory cytokine levels, diabetes-evoked oxidative stress, lipid profiles and NFκB translocation. In addition, taurine increased GLUT 4 translocation to the cardiac membrane by enhanced phosphorylation of IR and IRS1 at tyrosine and Akt at serine residue in the heart. Results also suggest that taurine could protect cardiac tissue from ALX induced apoptosis via the regulation of Bcl2 family and caspase 9/3 proteins. Taken together, taurine supplementation in regular diet could play a beneficial role in regulating diabetes and its associated complications in the heart. Highlights: ► Taurine controls blood glucose via protection of pancreatic β cells in diabetic rat. ► Taurine controls blood glucose via increasing the insulin level in diabetic rat. ► Taurine improves cardiac AKT/GLUT4 signaling

  15. The effect of subacute supplementation of taurine on spatial learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Koichi; Arko, Matevz; Kawaguchi, Tomohiro; Kuwahara, Masayoshi; Tsubone, Hirokazu

    2009-04-01

    Although the effect of taurine on the heart and liver is well studied, there has been no direct observation concerning the effect of taurine on spatial learning and memory at the behavior level. In this study, we tested the effect of subacute taurine supplementation with evaluation by the Morris water maze method. Although swim distance to find the platform of taurine-supplemented rats was significantly longer than that of control rats due to increase of swimming velocity, escape latency and the efficacy of learning and memory was comparable in both groups. These results suggest that taurine supplemented orally does not affect the learning and memory function.

  16. Taurine Alleviates the Progression of Diabetic Nephropathy in Type 2 Diabetic Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jang Hyun Koh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The overexpression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF is known to be involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. In this study, the protective effects of taurine on diabetic nephropathy along with its underlying mechanism were investigated. Experimental animals were divided into three groups: LETO rats as normal group (n=10, OLETF rats as diabetic control group (n=10, and OLETF rats treated with taurine group (n=10. We treated taurine (200 mg/kg/day for 20 weeks and treated high glucose (HG, 30 mM with or without taurine (30 mM in mouse cultured podocyte. After taurine treatment, blood glucose level was decreased and insulin secretion was increased. Taurine significantly reduced albuminuria and ACR. Also it decreased glomerular volume, GBM thickness and increased open slit pore density through decreased VEGF and increased nephrin mRNA expressions in renal cortex. The antioxidant effects of taurine were confirmed by the reduction of urine MDA in taurine treated diabetic group. Also reactive oxygen species (ROS levels were decreased in HG condition with taurine treated podocytes compared to without taurine. These results indicate that taurine lowers glucose level via increased insulin secretion and ameliorates the progression of diabetic nephropathy through antifibrotic and antioxidant effects in type 2 diabetes rat model.

  17. Modulation of plasma fibrinogen levels by medication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maat, M.P.M. de; Kodex, M.; Kastelein, J.J.P.

    1996-01-01

    Elevated plasma fibrinogen levels represent an increased risk for cardiac events. This has enhanced the interest in identifying agents that can normalize elevated plasma fibrinogen levels. Agents that have this capacity are the lipid lowering fibric acid derivatives (e.g. ciprofibrate) and the plate

  18. Effect of taurine supplementation on hyperhomocysteinemia and markers of oxidative stress in high fructose diet induced insulin resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Mesallamy Hala O

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High intake of dietary fructose is accused of being responsible for the development of the insulin resistance (IR syndrome. Concern has arisen because of the realization that fructose, at elevated concentrations, can promote metabolic changes that are potentially deleterious. Among these changes is IR which manifests as a decreased biological response to normal levels of plasma insulin. Methods Oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT were carried out, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA was calculated, homocysteine (Hcy, lipid concentrations and markers of oxidative stress were measured in male Wistar rats weighing 170-190 g. The rats were divided into four groups, kept on either control diet or high fructose diet (HFD, and simultaneously supplemented with 300 mg/kg/day taurine via intra-peritoneal (i.p. route for 35 days. Results Fructose-fed rats showed significantly impaired glucose tolerance, impaired insulin sensitivity, hypertriglyceridemia, hypercholesterolemia, hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy, lower total antioxidant capacity (TAC, lower paraoxonase (PON activity, and higher nitric oxide metabolites (NOx concentration, when compared to rats fed on control diet. Supplementing the fructose-fed rats with taurine has ameliorated the rise in HOMA by 56%, triglycerides (TGs by 22.5%, total cholesterol (T-Chol by 11%, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C by 21.4%. Taurine also abolished any significant difference of TAC, PON activity and NOx concentration among treated and control groups. TAC positively correlated with PON in both rats fed on the HFD and those received taurine in addition to the HFD. Fructose-fed rats showed 34.7% increase in Hcy level. Taurine administration failed to prevent the observed HHcy in the current dosage and duration. Conclusion Our results indicate that HFD could induce IR which could further result in metabolic syndrome (MS, and that taurine has a protective role against

  19. The effect of taurine on the relationship between NO, ADMA and homocysteine in endotoxin-mediated inflammation in HUVEC cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasaoglu, Ozge Tugce; Turkozkan, Nurten; Ark, Mustafa; Polat, Belgin; Agilli, Mehmet; Yaman, Halil

    2014-10-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of taurine on the relationship between nitric oxide (NO), asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and homocysteine (Hcy) in endotoxin-induced human umblical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) cultures. For this reason, four groups were formed (n=12). Control group consists of HUVEC cultures without any treatment. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and LPS+taurine groups were treated with 10 μg/mL endotoxin, 5 μg/mL taurine and endotoxin+taurine (same doses), respectively. Nitrite/nitrate (NOx), ADMA and Hcy levels were measured. There was a significant increase of NOx, ADMA and Hcy in endotoxemia (p<0.05). Taurine treatment elevated NOx levels significantly (p<0.01) in taurine and LPS + taurine group compared to control group, while it reduced NOx levels compared to LPS group. In contrast, taurine decreased ADMA levels to the control level both in taurine and taurine+LPS group compared to LPS. Hcy levels increased significantly compared to taurine group (p<0.05) and did not change compared to LPS group. Taurine was effective on ADMA-NO relationship whereas no beneficial effect was observed in Hcy levels (p<0.05).

  20. Taurine increases testicular function in aged rats by inhibiting oxidative stress and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiancheng; Zong, Xiaomeng; Wu, Gaofeng; Lin, Shumei; Feng, Ying; Hu, Jianmin

    2015-08-01

    In males, the decline of androgen synthesis, spermatogenesis and sexual function are the main phenotypes of aging, which may be attributed to testicular dysfunction. Taurine can act as an antioxidant, a testosterone secretion stimulator, a sperm membrane stabilizer and motility factor, and an anti-apoptotic agent. Recent observational studies suggested that taurine may play an important role in spermatogenesis, but to date whether taurine has anti-aging effects on testes remains unknown. We found that in aged rats testicular SDH and G6PDH activities, marker enzymes of testes, serum testosterone, testicular 3β-HSD and 17β-HSD mRNA expression levels were significantly increased by taurine treatment. Taurine administration also markedly raised the sperm count, viability and motility, decreased the sperm abnormality. Our data suggested that taurine can postpone testicular function deterioration in aged rats. Importantly, we observed obvious elevation of testicular antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GSH, GSH-Px) activities, and remarkable reduction of ROS and MDA by taurine administration, indicating taurine can decrease testicular oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation in aged rats. Finally, we found taurine effectively reduced testicular DNA fragmentation, increased testicular Bcl-2 protein expression, and decreased cytochrome c, Bax, Fas, FasL and caspase-3 expression, suggesting taurine can prohibit aged testicular apoptosis by mitochondrial dependent and independent signal pathway. In summary, our results indicated that taurine can suppress testicular function deterioration by increasing antioxidant ability and inhibiting apoptosis.

  1. Downregulation of hepatic betaine:homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) expression in taurine-deficient mice is reversed by taurine supplementation in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurkowska, Halina; Niewiadomski, Julie; Hirschberger, Lawrence L; Roman, Heather B; Mazor, Kevin M; Liu, Xiaojing; Locasale, Jason W; Park, Eunkyue; Stipanuk, Martha H

    2016-03-01

    The cysteine dioxygenase (Cdo1)-null and the cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase (Csad)-null mouse are not able to synthesize hypotaurine/taurine by the cysteine/cysteine sulfinate pathway and have very low tissue taurine levels. These mice provide excellent models for studying the effects of taurine on biological processes. Using these mouse models, we identified betaine:homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) as a protein whose in vivo expression is robustly regulated by taurine. BHMT levels are low in liver of both Cdo1-null and Csad-null mice, but are restored to wild-type levels by dietary taurine supplementation. A lack of BHMT activity was indicated by an increase in the hepatic betaine level. In contrast to observations in liver of Cdo1-null and Csad-null mice, BHMT was not affected by taurine supplementation of primary hepatocytes from these mice. Likewise, CSAD abundance was not affected by taurine supplementation of primary hepatocytes, although it was robustly upregulated in liver of Cdo1-null and Csad-null mice and lowered to wild-type levels by dietary taurine supplementation. The mechanism by which taurine status affects hepatic CSAD and BHMT expression appears to be complex and to require factors outside of hepatocytes. Within the liver, mRNA abundance for both CSAD and BHMT was upregulated in parallel with protein levels, indicating regulation of BHMT and CSAD mRNA synthesis or degradation.

  2. Plasma substance P levels in fibrositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, W J; Chiu, B; Inman, R D

    1988-12-01

    The mechanism of pain in the fibrositis syndrome is unknown. We measured plasma levels of substance P in 32 patients with fibrositis and 26 sex and age matched controls using a radioimmunoassay. The mean plasma level of substance P in the patients with fibrositis was 371 +/- 91 pg/ml and in controls 397 +/- 84 pg/ml (p = NS). We conclude that determination of plasma levels of substance P in fibrositis is of no diagnostic value. This does not exclude the possible role of substance P as a neurotransmitter in the fibrositis syndrome.

  3. Effect of dietary taurine supplementation on growth, feed efficiency, and nutrient composition of juvenile sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juvenile sablefish were fed a low taurine, basal feed with seven graded levels of supplemental taurine to determine taurine requirements for growth and feed efficiency. The basal feed was plant based, formulated primarily with soy and corn proteins with a minimal (9%) amount of fishmeal. The unsuppl...

  4. Is taurine a functional nutrient?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouckenooghe, Thomas; Remacle, Claude; Reusens, Brigitte

    2006-11-01

    Taurine, a free amino acid, is found in millimolar concentrations in most mammalian tissues. Mammals are able to synthesize taurine endogenously, but some species such as humans are more dependent on dietary sources of taurine. A growing body of evidence suggests that taurine plays a preponderant role in many physiological processes, which will be summarized in this review. Evidence for the requirement of taurine in the human diet has been obtained in many studies involving animal models and a few clinical trials. Recent and past studies suggested that taurine might be a pertinent candidate for use as a nutritional supplement to protect against oxidative stress, neurodegenerative diseases or atherosclerosis. Taurine has demonstrated promising actions in vitro, and as a result clinical trials have begun to investigate its effects on various diseases. Taurine appears to have multiple functions and plays an important role in many physiological processes, such as osmoregulation, immunomodulation and bile salt formation. Taurine analogues/derivatives have recently been reported to have a marked activity on various disorders. Taken together, these observations actualize the old story of taurine.

  5. Interactions between taurine and ethanol in the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olive, M F

    2002-01-01

    This purpose of this review will be to summarize the interactions between the endogenous amino acid taurine and ethyl alcohol (ethanol) in the central nervous system (CNS). Taurine is one of the most abundant amino acids in the CNS and plays an integral role in physiological processes such as osmoregulation, neuroprotection and neuromodulation. Both taurine and ethanol exert positive allosteric modulatory effects on neuronal ligand-gated chloride channels (i.e., GABA(A) and glycine receptors) as well as inhibitory effects on other ligand- and voltage-gated cation channels (i.e., NMDA and Ca(2+) channels). Behavioral evidence suggests that taurine can alter the locomotor stimulatory, sedating, and motivational effects of ethanol in a strongly dose-dependent manner. Microdialysis studies have revealed that ethanol elevates extracellular levels of taurine in numerous brain regions, although the functional consequences of this phenomenon are currently unknown. Finally, taurine and several related molecules including the homotaurine derivative acamprosate (calcium acetylhomotaurinate) can reduce ethanol self-administration and relapse to drinking in both animals and humans. Taken together, these data suggest that the endogenous taurine system may be an important modulator of effects of ethanol on the nervous system, and may represent a novel therapeutic avenue for the development of medications to treat alcohol abuse and alcoholism.

  6. Effects of taurine intake on serum lipids in young women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadako Matsui

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Taurine is an abundant amino acid in human cells, promoting ocular and biliary health, which is also used to treat congestive heart failure, hypertension, and hepatitis. Recently, taurine-enriched energy drinks have become popular with young adults, but the effects of taurine on serum lipids in young adults are unknown. Objective: We studied the influence of oral administration of taurine on serum lipid levels in healthy young women. Methods: Ten healthy young women with a mean body mass index of 20.0kg/m2, apolipoprotein E (apoE phenotype 3/3 and normal menstrual cycles participated. Each subject was instructed to orally ingest 1g of taurine powder after each meal (3g/day in addition to their usual diets during one menstrual cycle. Before and at the end of taurine intake, physical measurements and blood collection were performed in the morning after a 12-h fast, and 3-day weighted dietary records were obtained. Concentrations of serum lipids, apolipoproteins, and fatty acids in the serum phospholipid fraction were measured. Results: The subjects showed good compliance with taurine intake and none reported adverse effects during the experimental period. After taurine intake, concentrations of total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, free cholesterol, and apolipoprotein B (apoB increased (p<0.05, while phospholipids tended to increase (p=0.051. Fatty acids in the serum phospholipid fraction also significantly increased (p<0.05. However, triglyceride, remnant-like particle cholesterol, remnant-like particle triglyceride, apoE, the apolipoprotein A-1 (apoA- 1/apoB ratio and the LDL-C/apoB ratio were unchanged. Furthermore, body weight was significantly increased (p<0.01, but did not correlate with changes either in serum lipids or nutrient intakes. Conclusion: These results suggest that high taurine intake affects lipoprotein metabolism and increases serum lipids in slightly lean young women.

  7. Taurine ameliorates cholesterol metabolism by stimulating bile acid production in high-cholesterol-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Shigeru; Fujita, Michiko; Nakamura, Masakazu; Sakono, Masanobu; Nishizono, Shoko; Sato, Masao; Imaizumi, Katsumi; Mori, Mari; Fukuda, Nobuhiro

    2016-03-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of dietary taurine on cholesterol metabolism in high-cholesterol-fed rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two dietary groups (n = 6 in each group): a high-cholesterol diet containing 0.5% cholesterol and 0.15% sodium cholate, and a high-cholesterol diet with 5% (w/w) taurine. The experimental diets were given for 2 weeks. Taurine supplementation reduced the serum and hepatic cholesterol levels by 37% and 32%, respectively. Faecal excretion of bile acids was significantly increased in taurine-treated rats, compared with untreated rats. Biliary bile acid concentrations were also increased by taurine. Taurine supplementation increased taurine-conjugated bile acids by 61% and decreased glycine-conjugated bile acids by 53%, resulting in a significant decrease in the glycine/taurine (G/T) ratio. Among the taurine-conjugated bile acids, cholic acid and deoxycholic acid were significantly increased. In the liver, taurine supplementation increased the mRNA expression and enzymatic activity of hepatic cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), the rate-limiting enzyme for bile acid synthesis, by three- and two-fold, respectively. Taurine also decreased the enzymatic activity of acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP). These observations suggest that taurine supplementation increases the synthesis and excretion of taurine-conjugated bile acids and stimulates the catabolism of cholesterol to bile acid by elevating the expression and activity of CYP7A1. This may reduce cholesterol esterification and lipoprotein assembly for very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) secretion, leading to reductions in the serum and hepatic cholesterol levels. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  8. Partial Agonism of Taurine at Gamma-Containing Native and Recombinant GABAA Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kletke, Olaf; Gisselmann, Guenter; May, Andrea; Hatt, Hanns; A. Sergeeva, Olga

    2013-01-01

    Taurine is a semi-essential sulfonic acid found at high concentrations in plasma and mammalian tissues which regulates osmolarity, ion channel activity and glucose homeostasis. The structural requirements of GABAA-receptors (GABAAR) gated by taurine are not yet known. We determined taurine potency and efficacy relative to GABA at different types of recombinant GABAAR occurring in central histaminergic neurons of the mouse hypothalamic tuberomamillary nucleus (TMN) which controls arousal. At binary α1/2β1/3 receptors taurine was as efficient as GABA, whereas incorporation of the γ1/2 subunit reduced taurine efficacy to 60–90% of GABA. The mutation γ2F77I, which abolishes zolpidem potentiation, significantly reduced taurine efficacy at recombinant and native receptors compared to the wild type controls. As taurine was a full- or super- agonist at recombinant αxβ1δ-GABAAR, we generated a chimeric γ2 subunit carrying the δ subunit motif around F77 (MTVFLH). At α1/2β1γ2(MTVFLH) receptors taurine became a super-agonist, similar to δ-containing ternary receptors, but remained a partial agonist at β3-containing receptors. In conclusion, using site-directed mutagenesis we found structural determinants of taurine’s partial agonism at γ-containing GABAA receptors. Our study sheds new light on the β1 subunit conferring the widest range of taurine-efficacies modifying GABAAR function under (patho)physiological conditions. PMID:23637894

  9. Enzymes of the taurine biosynthetic pathway are expressed in rat mammary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueki, Iori; Stipanuk, Martha H

    2007-08-01

    Taurine is the most abundant free amino acid in the body and is present at high concentrations during development and in the early milk. It is synthesized from cysteine via oxidation of cysteine to cysteinesulfinate by the enzyme cysteine dioxygenase (CDO), followed by the decarboxylation of cysteinesulfinate to hypotaurine, catalyzed by cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase (CSAD). To determine whether the taurine biosynthetic pathway is present in mammary gland and whether it is differentially expressed during pregnancy and lactation, and also to further explore the possible regulation of hepatic taurine synthesis during pregnancy and lactation, we measured mammary and hepatic CDO and CSAD mRNA and protein concentrations and tissue, plasma and milk taurine concentrations. CDO and CSAD mRNA and protein were expressed in mammary gland and liver regardless of physiological state. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated the expression of CDO in ductal cells of pregnant rats, but not in other mammary epithelial cells or in ductal cells of nonpregnant rats. CDO was also present in stromal adipocytes in mammary glands of both pregnant and nonpregnant rats. Our findings support an upregulation of taurine synthetic capacity in the mammary gland of pregnant rats, based on mammary taurine and hypotaurine concentrations and the intense immunohistochemical staining for CDO in ductal cells of pregnant rats. Hepatic taurine synthetic capacity, particularly CSAD, and taurine concentrations were highest in rats during the early stages of lactation, suggesting the liver may also play a role in the synthesis of taurine to support lactation or repletion of maternal reserves.

  10. Separation methods for taurine analysis in biological samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, Shifen; Ding, Xiaojing; Liu, Yongjian

    2002-12-05

    Taurine plays an important role in a variety of physiological functions, pharmacological actions and pathological conditions. Many methods for taurine analysis, therefore, have been reported to monitor its levels in biological samples. This review discusses the following techniques: sample preparation; separation and determination methods including high-performance liquid chromatography, gas chromatography, ion chromatography, capillary electrophoresis and hyphenation procedures. It covers articles published between 1990 and 2001.

  11. Taurine enhances the sexual response and mating ability in aged male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiancheng; Lin, Shumei; Feng, Ying; Wu, Gaofeng; Hu, Jianmin

    2013-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that taurine is abundant in male reproductive organs, and can be biosynthesized by testis, but the taurine concentration will reduce with aging. The levels of serum LH, T, NOS, and NO were found to be obviously increased by taurine supplementation in aged rats in our previous study. In addition, aging will result in a significant decline in sexual response and function, which may be attributed to the androgen deficiency. Furthermore, NO has been proposed as a crucial mediator of penile erection. That makes us hypothesize that there is potential relationship between taurine decline and erection dysfunction in aged males. So the primary aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of taurine on male sexuality in rats. Taurine was offered in water to male aged (20 months old) rats for 110 days. The effects of taurine on the sexual response, mating ability, levels of serum reproductive hormones, and penile NOS and NO levels were investigated. The results showed that taurine can significantly reduce the EL and ML; obviously increase the ERF, MF, IF, and EJF; stimulate the secretion of GnRH, LH, and T; and elevate penis NOS and NO level in aged rats. The results indicated that taurine can enhance the sexual response and mating ability in aged male rats by increasing the level of testosterone and NO, but the exact mechanism of which needs to be further investigated.

  12. Ontogenetic taurine biosynthesis ability in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuan; He, Gen; Mai, Kangsen; Xu, Wei; Zhou, Huihui

    2015-07-01

    Taurine (2-aminoethane sulfonic acid) plays important roles in multiple physiological processes including osmoregulation, bile salt conjugation and membrane protection. It is known that taurine biosynthesis varies in different fish species. However, its ontogenetic regulation has not been clear. In the present study, we found that the hepatic concentrations of taurine increased marginally with rainbow trout growth. The mRNA expression, protein levels and enzyme activities of key enzymes involved in taurine biosynthesis, cysteine dioxygenase (CDO) and cysteine sulfinate decarboxylase (CSD), were analyzed. Our results showed that the mRNA levels and protein abundances of CSD increased dramatically with the development of rainbow trout stages while the enzyme activities showed a slight improvement. However, the expression and activities of CDO decreased with rainbow trout growth. These results provide valuable information on defining the exact supplementation of taurine in diets for different stages of rainbow trout and give new insights into elucidating the regulation of taurine metabolism in rainbow trout. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Protective effects of taurine against closed head injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ming; Zhao, Yumei; Gu, Yi; Zhang, Yazhuo

    2015-01-01

    Taurine, an abundant amino acid in the nervous system, is reported to reduce ischemic brain injury in a dose-dependent manner. This study was designed to investigate whether taurine protected the brain against closed head injury (CHI) in rats. Taurine was administered intravenously 30 min after CHI. It was found that taurine lessened body-weight loss and improved neurological functions at 7 days after CHI. Moreover, it lowered brain edema and blood-brain barrier permeability, enhanced activity of superoxide dismutase and the level of glutathione, and reduced levels of malondialdehyde and lactic acid in traumatic tissue 24 h after CHI. In addition, it attenuated neuronal cell death in hippocampal CA1 and CA3 subfields 7 days after CHI. All of these effects were dose dependent. These data demonstrated the dose-dependent protection of taurine against experimental CHI and suggest that taurine treatment might be beneficial in reducing trauma-induced oxidative damage to the brain, thus showing the potential for clinical implications.

  14. Taurine in neonatal nutrition - revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) was isolated from ox (Bos Taurus) bile in 1827 but, until the mid to late 1970, it was thought to be merely a by-product of sulfur amino and metabolism. In 1975, it was noted that taurine deficiency in cats was associated with retinal degeneration which was reve...

  15. Taurine Homeostasis and Volume Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasantes-Morales, Herminia

    2017-01-01

    Taurine content is high (mM) in mammalian brain. By its major role as an osmolyte, taurine contributes to the cell volume control, which is particularly critical in the brain. Taurine participates in osmotic adjustments required to maintain the organization and size of intracellular compartments. It counteracts volume fluctuations in unbalanced transmembrane fluxes of ions and neurotransmitters, preserving the functional synaptic contacts. Taurine has a key role in the long-term adaptation to chronic hyponatremia as well as in other pathologies leading to brain edema. Together with other osmolytes, taurine corrects cell shrinkage, preventing mysfunction of organelles and apoptosis. Swelling corrective taurine efflux occurs through a leak pathway, likely formed by LCRR8 protein isoforms. Shrinkage-activated influx comes largely by the increased activity of the Na(+)/Cl(-)-dependent transporter. The brain taurine pool results from the equilibrium between (i) dietary intake and active transport into the cell, (ii) synthesis in the brain itself or import of that synthesized elsewhere, and (iii) leak and posterior excretion. The interplay between these elements preserves brain taurine homeostasis in physiological conditions and permits the proper adjustments upon deviations of normal in the internal/external environment.

  16. Physiological roles of taurine in heart and muscle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schaffer, Stephen W; Jong, Chian Ju; Ramila, K C; Azuma, Junichi

    2010-01-01

    .... The present review discusses several physiological functions of taurine. First, the observation that taurine depletion leads to the development of a cardiomyopathy indicates a role for taurine...

  17. 21 CFR 573.980 - Taurine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Taurine. 573.980 Section 573.980 Food and Drugs... Listing § 573.980 Taurine. The food additive taurine (2-amino-ethanesulfonic acid) may be safely used in... in the feed of growing chickens. (b) It is added to complete feeds so that the total taurine content...

  18. Effect of taurine in rat milk on the growth of offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, J M; Rho, J Y; Suzuki, M; Nishihara, M; Takahashi, M

    2000-07-01

    The physiological significance of taurine in milk in the growth of rat pups was investigated. Our results confirmed that taurine was at an exceptionally high concentration in rat milk during the lactational period, especially for the first few days after birth. Pups taking no milk from natural dams but from foster mothers at an advanced lactational period showed a slower growth rate. Intraperitoneal administration of taurine to the foster mothers in the first five days restored this growth retardation. On the other hand, intraperitoneal administration of beta-alanine, a transport antagonist of taurine, to the natural dams through the lactational period induced a slower growth rate of pups. This beta-alanine treatment to dams increased beta-alanine concentration, but did not decrease taurine concentrations in milk, and serum taurine concentration in the pups receiving this milk was elevated. Direct administration of beta-alanine to pups also increased the serum taurine concentrations dose-dependently. Beta-alanine administration to pups significantly decreased [3H]taurine incorporation into all the organs examined, and in contrast. [3H]taurine concentrations in serum and urine were elevated. Thus, beta-alanine inhibited taurine incorporation into cells and accelerated taurine excretion into either urine or milk. Serum IGF-I levels in pups receiving beta-alanine either directly or via their mothers was significantly lower than those in control pups. Cumulatively, taurine ingestion from milk at an early lactational period seems critical for normal growth of rat neonates due to its role in maintaining normal serum IGF-I levels.

  19. Taurine Induces Proliferation of Neural Stem Cells and Synapse Development in the Developing Mouse Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivaraj, Mattu Chetana; Marcy, Guillaume; Low, Guoliang; Ryu, Jae Ryun; Zhao, Xianfeng; Rosales, Francisco J.; Goh, Eyleen L. K.

    2012-01-01

    Taurine is a sulfur-containing amino acid present in high concentrations in mammalian tissues. It has been implicated in several processes involving brain development and neurotransmission. However, the role of taurine in hippocampal neurogenesis during brain development is still unknown. Here we show that taurine regulates neural progenitor cell (NPC) proliferation in the dentate gyrus of the developing brain as well as in cultured early postnatal (P5) hippocampal progenitor cells and hippocampal slices derived from P5 mice brains. Taurine increased cell proliferation without having a significant effect on neural differentiation both in cultured P5 NPCs as well as cultured hippocampal slices and in vivo. Expression level analysis of synaptic proteins revealed that taurine increases the expression of Synapsin 1 and PSD 95. We also found that taurine stimulates the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 indicating a possible role of the ERK pathway in mediating the changes that we observed, especially in proliferation. Taken together, our results demonstrate a role for taurine in neural stem/progenitor cell proliferation in developing brain and suggest the involvement of the ERK1/2 pathways in mediating these actions. Our study also shows that taurine influences the levels of proteins associated with synapse development. This is the first evidence showing the effect of taurine on early postnatal neuronal development using a combination of in vitro, ex-vivo and in vivo systems. PMID:22916184

  20. Taurine plays an important role in the protection of spermatogonia from oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higuchi, Masato; Celino, Fritzie T; Shimizu-Yamaguchi, Sonoko; Miura, Chiemi; Miura, Takeshi

    2012-12-01

    It has been demonstrated that taurine has various physiological functions in the body. We demonstrated that taurine is abundant in the serum, liver, muscle and testis of the Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica). In the eel testis, taurine is found mainly in spermatogonia and is weakly expressed also in the Sertoli cells. We have further found in the eel testis that taurine is actively accumulated via the sodium/chloride-dependent taurine transporter (TauT; SLC6A6), which is expressed in germ cells. In our current study, the effects of taurine on the anti-oxidant response were examined. Taurine was found to promote the total superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the testis. Moreover, our results indicate that taurine does not affect the mRNA levels of copper-zinc (Cu/Zn) SOD or manganese SOD, but promotes the translation of Cu/Zn SOD. Overall, our present data suggest that taurine may modulate Cu/Zn SOD at the translational level and thereby may play an important role in the protection of germ cells from oxidative stress.

  1. Taurine protects DNA of lymphocytes against oxidative alteration in riding horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokól, Janusz Leszek; Sawosz, Ewa; Niemiec, Tomasz

    2009-01-01

    . The addition of taurine to feed caused smaller oxidative stress, manifested by lower concentration of TBA-RS in plasma and of 8-oxo-dG in lymphocytes. The taurine lowered the lipid peroxidation intensity that occurred in horses due to the oxidative stress caused by physical effort. Furthermore, taurine......The study aimed at evaluation the effect of dietary supplement of taurine on the oxidation-reduction status in riding horses, and especially on the extent of oxidative DNA degradation in lymphocytes. Ten Thoroughbred and half-bred geldings aged 6-13 years were classified according to breed...... and amount of work done into two groups - control (C, n=5) and experimental (E, n=5), the latter fed the diet with addition of 40 g taurine/horse/day. Blood samples were withdrawn from the horses' jugular vein before commencing the riding season and then after 30 days of working. In the blood some selected...

  2. Taurine protects DNA of lymphocytes against oxidative alteration in riding horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sokól, Janusz Leszek; Sawosz, Ewa; Niemiec, Tomasz

    2009-01-01

    The study aimed at evaluation the effect of dietary supplement of taurine on the oxidation-reduction status in riding horses, and especially on the extent of oxidative DNA degradation in lymphocytes. Ten Thoroughbred and half-bred geldings aged 6-13 years were classified according to breed...... and amount of work done into two groups - control (C, n=5) and experimental (E, n=5), the latter fed the diet with addition of 40 g taurine/horse/day. Blood samples were withdrawn from the horses' jugular vein before commencing the riding season and then after 30 days of working. In the blood some selected....... The addition of taurine to feed caused smaller oxidative stress, manifested by lower concentration of TBA-RS in plasma and of 8-oxo-dG in lymphocytes. The taurine lowered the lipid peroxidation intensity that occurred in horses due to the oxidative stress caused by physical effort. Furthermore, taurine...

  3. Taurine, glutathione and bioenergetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Svend Høime; Grunnet, Niels

    2013-01-01

    Biochemistry textbook presentations of bioenergetics and mitochondrial function normally focus on the chemiosmotic theory with introduction of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and the electron transport chain, the proton and electrical gradients and subsequent oxidative phosphorylation and ATP...... to be independent of the matrix pH. Finally a simplified model for mitochondrial oxidation is presented with introduction of GSH as redox buffer to stabilise the electrical gradient, and taurine as pH buffer stabilising the pH gradient, but simultaneously establishing the equilibrium between the NADH/NAD(+) redox...

  4. Serum taurine and risk of coronary heart disease: a prospective, nested case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcik, Oktawia P.; Koenig, Karen L.; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Pearte, Camille; Costa, Max; Chen, Yu

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid), a molecule obtained from diet, is involved in bile acid conjugation, blood pressure regulation, anti-oxidation and anti-inflammation. We performed the first prospective study of taurine and CHD risk. Methods We conducted a case-control study nested in the New York University Women’s Health Study to evaluate the association between circulating taurine levels and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Taurine was measured in two yearly pre-diagnostic serum samples of 223 CHD cases and 223 matched controls and averaged for a more reliable measurement of long-term taurine levels. Results Mean serum taurine was positively related to age and dietary intake of poultry, niacin, vitamin B1, fiber, and iron, and negatively related to dietary intake of saturated fat (all p values ≤ 0.05). There was no statistically significant association between the risk of CHD and serum taurine levels. The adjusted ORs for CHD in increasing taurine tertiles were 1.0 (reference), 0.85 (95% CI, 0.51–1.40), and 0.66 (0.39–1.13; p for trend = 0.14). There was a significant inverse association between serum taurine and CHD risk among women with high total serum cholesterol (>250 mg/dl) (adjusted OR = 0.39 (0.19–0.83) for the third vs. first tertile; p for trend = 0.02) but not among those with low total serum cholesterol (p for interaction = 0.01). The data suggest a possible inverse association of serum taurine with diabetes and hypertension risk. Conclusions The findings suggest that high levels of taurine may be protective against CHD among individuals with high serum cholesterol levels. PMID:22322924

  5. Specific role of taurine in the 8-brominated-2'-deoxyguanosine formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asahi, Takashi; Nakamura, Yoshimasa; Kato, Yoji; Osawa, Toshihiko

    2015-11-15

    At the sites of inflammation, hypohalous acids, such as hypochlorous acid and hypobromous acid (HOBr), are produced by myeloperoxidase. These hypohalous acids rapidly react with the primary amino groups to produce haloamines, which are relatively stable and can diffuse long distances and cross the plasma membrane. In this study, we examined the effects of taurine, the most abundant free amino acid in the leukocyte cytosol, on the hypohalous acid-dependent formation of 8-chloro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-CldG) and 8-bromo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-BrdG). The reaction of taurine with HOBr yielded taurine bromamine, which is the most stable among other bromamines of amino acids. Taurine also enhanced the bromination of only dG among the four 2'-deoxynucleosides, whereas it inhibited the 8-CldG formation. The specificity of taurine for the enhanced formation of halogenated dG is completely different from that of nicotine, an enhancer of chlorination. The amount of dibrominated taurine (taurine dibromamine) closely correlated with the formation of 8-BrdG, suggesting that taurine dibromamine might be a plausible mediator for the dG bromination in vivo. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Ethanol- and/or Taurine-Induced Oxidative Stress in Chick Embryos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily J. Berning

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Because taurine alleviates ethanol- (EtOH- induced lipid peroxidation and liver damage in rats, we asked whether exogenous taurine could alleviate EtOH-induced oxidative stress in chick embryos. Exogenous EtOH (1.5 mmol/Kg egg or 3 mmol/Kg egg, taurine (4 μmol/Kg egg, or EtOH and taurine (1.5 mmol EtOH and 4 μmol taurine/Kg egg or 3 mmol EtOH and 4 μmol taurine/Kg egg were injected into fertile chicken eggs during the first three days of embryonic development (E0–2. At 11 days of development (midembryogenesis, serum taurine levels and brain caspase-3 activities, homocysteine (HoCys levels, reduced glutathione (GSH levels, membrane fatty acid composition, and lipid hydroperoxide (LPO levels were measured. Early embryonic EtOH exposure caused increased brain apoptosis rates (caspase-3 activities; increased brain HoCys levels; increased oxidative-stress, as measured by decreased brain GSH levels; decreased brain long-chain polyunsaturated levels; and increased brain LPO levels. Although taurine is reported to be an antioxidant, exogenous taurine was embryopathic and caused increased apoptosis rates (caspase-3 activities; increased brain HoCys levels; increased oxidative-stress (decreased brain GSH levels; decreased brain long-chain polyunsaturated levels; and increased brain LPO levels. Combined EtOH and taurine treatments also caused increased apoptosis rates and oxidative stress.

  7. Taurine chloramine produced from taurine under inflammation provides anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chaekyun; Cha, Young-Nam

    2014-01-01

    Taurine is one of the most abundant non-essential amino acid in mammals and has many physiological functions in the nervous, cardiovascular, renal, endocrine, and immune systems. Upon inflammation, taurine undergoes halogenation in phagocytes and is converted to taurine chloramine (TauCl) and taurine bromamine. In the activated neutrophils, TauCl is produced by reaction with hypochlorite (HOCl) generated by the halide-dependent myeloperoxidase system. TauCl is released from activated neutrophils following their apoptosis and inhibits the production of inflammatory mediators such as, superoxide anion, nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukins, and prostaglandins in inflammatory cells at inflammatory tissues. Furthermore, TauCl increases the expressions of antioxidant proteins, such as heme oxygenase 1, peroxiredoxin, thioredoxin, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase in macrophages. Thus, a central role of TauCl produced by activated neutrophils is to trigger the resolution of inflammation and protect macrophages and surrounding tissues from being damaged by cytotoxic reactive oxygen metabolites overproduced during inflammation. This is achieved by attenuating further production of proinflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen metabolites and also by increasing the levels of antioxidant proteins that are able to scavenge and diminish the production of cytotoxic oxygen metabolites. These findings suggest that TauCl released from activated neutrophils may be involved in the recovery processes of cells affected by inflammatory oxidative stresses and thus TauCl could be used as a potential physiological agent to control pathogenic symptoms of chronic inflammatory diseases.

  8. Taurine depresses cardiac contractility and enhances systemic heart glucose utilization in the cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCormack, Tyson J; Callaghan, N I; Sykes, A V; Driedzic, W R

    2016-02-01

    Taurine is the most abundant amino acid in the blood of the cuttlefish, Sepia officinalis, where levels can exceed 200 mmol L(-1). In mammals, intracellular taurine modulates cardiac Ca(2+) handling and carbohydrate metabolism at much lower concentrations but it is not clear if it exerts similar actions in cephalopods. Blood Ca(2+) levels are high in cephalopods and we hypothesized that taurine would depress cardiac Ca(2+) flux and modulate contractility in systemic and branchial hearts of cuttlefish. Heart performance was assessed with an in situ perfused systemic heart preparation and contractility was evaluated using isometrically contracting systemic and branchial heart muscle rings. Stroke volume, cardiac output, and Ca(2+) sensitivity were significantly lower in systemic hearts perfused with supplemental taurine (100 mmol L(-1)) than in controls. In muscle ring preparations, taurine impaired relaxation at high contraction frequencies, an effect abolished by supra-physiological Ca(2+) levels. Taurine did not affect oxygen consumption in non-contracting systemic heart muscle, but extracellular glucose utilization was twice that of control preparations. Collectively, our results suggest that extracellular taurine depresses cardiac Ca(2+) flux and potentiates glucose utilization in cuttlefish. Variations in taurine levels may represent an important mechanism for regulating cardiovascular function and metabolism in cephalopods.

  9. Regulation of taurine homeostasis by protein kinase CK2 in mouse fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Daniel Bloch; Guerra, Barbara; Jacobsen, Jack Hummeland

    2011-01-01

    is a critical step in cell proliferation, differentiation and induction of apoptosis. In the present study, we use mouse NIH3T3 fibroblasts and Ehrlich Lettré ascites tumour cells with different CK2 expression levels. Taurine uptake via the Na(+) dependent transporter TauT and taurine release are increased...

  10. Taurine protects cardiac contractility in killifish, Fundulus heteroclitus, by enhancing sarcoplasmic reticular Ca(2+) cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Elenor F; MacCormack, Tyson J

    2017-05-23

    Intracellular taurine is abundant in many animals and it influences an array of physiological processes, including osmoregulation, metabolism, and cardiac contractility. Taurine is an important osmolyte in teleost hearts, but its role in stress tolerance, cardiac metabolism, and contractility has not been assessed. The goal of this study was to determine if ventricular taurine concentration changes in response to environmental stress and to characterize its influence on contractility. Cardiac taurine concentrations varied in killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) but were generally maintained following acute environmental challenges. In isometrically contracting ventricular strips, supplemental taurine (40 mmol L(-1)) protected peak tension development (F max) at high stimulation frequencies, an effect abolished by treatment with ryanodine, a blocker of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) release. In the presence of ryanodine, taurine-treated preparations were also better able to maintain F max at supraphysiological extracellular Ca(2+) levels, but a prior anoxia exposure abolished this effect. Taurine had no impact on basal F max during or after anoxia, but it provided additive protection to high-frequency contractility post-anoxia. Tissue oxygen consumption and extracellular glucose utilization were unaffected by taurine in non-contracting preparations, indicating that it does not impact energy metabolism. Overall, the results suggest that cardiac taurine levels are well maintained on acute time scales in this highly stress-tolerant species. Supplemental taurine has no effect on aerobic metabolism in vitro, but it significantly improved cardiac contractility in a manner dependent upon sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) cycling. The data indicate that taurine likely plays an important role in the regulation of cardiac performance in teleosts.

  11. Immunonutrition: the role of taurine.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Redmond, H P

    2012-02-03

    Taurine is a sulfonated beta amino acid derived from methionine and cysteine metabolism. It is present in high concentrations in most tissues and in particular in proinflammatory cells such as polymorphonuclear phagocytes. Initial investigation into the multifaceted properties of this non-toxic physiologic amino acid revealed a link between retinal dysfunction and dietary deficiency. Since then a role for this amino acid has been found in membrane stabilization, bile salt formation, antioxidation, calcium homeostasis, growth modulation, and osmoregulation. Our own group has demonstrated a key role for taurine in modulation of apoptosis in a variety of cell types. This review summarizes our current knowledge of taurine in nutrition, host proinflammatory cell homeostasis, therapeutic applications, and its potential immunoregulatory properties. It is our belief that taurine, similar to arginine and glutamine, is now more than worthy of critical clinical analysis.

  12. The effect of long-term taurine supplementation and fructose feeding on glucose and lipid homeostasis in Wistar rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lea Hüche; Orstrup, Laura Kofoed Hvidsten; Hansen, Svend Høime

    2013-01-01

    The nonprotein amino acid taurine has been shown to counteract the negative effects of a high-fructose diet in rats with regard to insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. Here we examined the long-term (26 weeks) effects of oral taurine supplementation (2% in the drinking water) in fructose-fed Wistar...... rats.The combination of fructose and taurine caused a significant increase in fasting glucose compared to the control diet without changing hepatic phosphoenol pyruvate carboxykinase mRNA levels. The combination of fructose and taurine also improved glucose tolerance compared to control. Neither a high......-fructose diet nor taurine supplementation induced significant changes in body weight, body fat or total calorie intake, fasting insulin levels, HOMA-IR, or insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation in skeletal muscle.Fructose alone caused a decrease in liver triglyceride content, with taurine supplementation...

  13. Taurine increases hippocampal neurogenesis in aging mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Gebara

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with increased inflammation and reduced hippocampal neurogenesis, which may in turn contribute to cognitive impairment. Taurine is a free amino acid found in numerous diets, with anti-inflammatory properties. Although abundant in the young brain, the decrease in taurine concentration with age may underlie reduced neurogenesis. Here, we assessed the effect of taurine on hippocampal neurogenesis in middle-aged mice. We found that taurine increased cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus through the activation of quiescent stem cells, resulting in increased number of stem cells and intermediate neural progenitors. Taurine had a direct effect on stem/progenitor cells proliferation, as observed in vitro, and also reduced activated microglia. Furthermore, taurine increased the survival of newborn neurons, resulting in a net increase in adult neurogenesis. Together, these results show that taurine increases several steps of adult neurogenesis and support a beneficial role of taurine on hippocampal neurogenesis in the context of brain aging.

  14. Effect of Taurine on Febrile Episodes in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Islambulchilar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of our study was to evaluate the effect of oral taurine on the incidence of febrile episodes during chemotherapy in young adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Methods: Forty young adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, at the beginning of maintenance course of their chemotherapy, were eligible for this study. The study population was randomized in a double blind manner to receive either taurine or placebo (2 gram per day orally. Life quality and side effects including febrile episodes were assessed using questionnaire. Data were analyzed using Pearson’s Chi square test. Results: Of total forty participants, 43.8% were female and 56.3 % were male. The mean age was 19.16±1.95 years (ranges: 16-23 years. The results indicated that the levels of white blood cells are significantly (P<0.05 increased in taurine treated group. There was no elevation in blasts count. A total of 70 febrile episodes were observed during study, febrile episodes were significantly (P<0.05 lower in taurine patients in comparison to the control ones. Conclusion: The overall incidence of febrile episodes and infectious complications in acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients receiving taurine was lower than placebo group. Taurine’s ability to increase leukocyte count may result in lower febrile episodes.

  15. Effects of taurine on tolerance to and dependence on morphine in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, E; Tamayo, L

    1984-02-01

    The effects of taurine on the analgesic response to morphine, on the intensity of tolerance and on physical dependence were examined. Taurine induced a hyperalgesic state and attenuated morphine analgesia in mice. The hyperalgesia was maximal at a dose level of 1.5 mg/kg i.p., while the effects of higher doses (6.0 and 10.0 mg/kg) were masked by a depression of the animals' gross behavior. Taurine induced a dose related antagonism of morphine tolerance. The amino acid administered 30 min before naloxone, produced a partial reduction in the abstinence signs in the chronically treated mice. Taurine also attenuated the abstinence behavior when administered during the course of dependence. The results are consistent with taurine antagonism to the known effects of morphine on intracellular calcium disposition in nervous tissue.

  16. Dietary taurine can improve the hypoxia-tolerance but not the growth performance in juvenile grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huijun; Tian, Lixia; Huang, Junwa; Liang, Guiying; Liu, Yongjian

    2013-10-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary taurine, as a feed additive, on the hypoxia-tolerance and growth performance of the juvenile grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus, one of the most important and intensively cultured freshwater fish, with the largest production in China. Graded levels of taurine (0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2 and 2.5 g kg(-1) dry diet) were fed to grass carp juveniles (mean weight: 5.26 ± 0.03 g) for 8 weeks. The survival time during acute hypoxia increased as dietary levels of taurine increased, with the highest dose of taurine resulting in the best acute hypoxia-tolerance. The erythrocyte osmotic fragility in grass carp was significantly improved when dietary taurine level was at least 1.5 g kg(-1) diet and can be improved much more when dietary taurine level was up to 2.5 g kg(-1) diet. A significant correlation between hemolysis rate of the erythrocyte osmotic fragility test and the survival time of acute hypoxia (r = -0.873, P = 0.023 taurine may contribute to its role of enhancing acute hypoxia-tolerance in grass carp. Dietary taurine cannot improve growth performance of grass carp, but it can increase the value of mesenteric fat index, indicating that dietary taurine influences the lipid metabolism. This study provides valuable information to improve hypoxia-tolerance of grass carp.

  17. Taurine Concentrations Decrease in Critically Ill Patients With Shock Given Enteral Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Mechteld A R; van Stijn, Mireille F M; Visser, Marlieke; Lemmens, Stéphanie M P; Houdijk, Alexander P J; van Leeuwen, Paul A M; Oudemans-van Straaten, Heleen M

    2016-02-01

    Nutrition studies in the intensive care unit (ICU) have shown that adequate enteral nutrition (EN) support has clinical benefits. However, the course of amino acid concentrations in plasma has never been investigated in patients admitted with shock receiving EN. We hypothesized that plasma concentrations, when deficit, increase during EN and that persistent deficiency is associated with poor outcome. In 33 septic or cardiogenic shock patients receiving EN, plasma amino acid concentrations were measured during 5 days. Changes in amino acid concentrations, correlations with clinical outcome variables, and regression analyses were studied. On ICU admission, several plasma concentrations were deficient. Plasma concentrations of almost all amino acids increased. In contrast, taurine decreased by >50%, from 47.6 µmol/L on admission to 20.0 µmol/L at day 1, and remained low at day 5. Taurine (admission) correlated with time on mechanical ventilation (R = -0.42, P = .015). Taurine decrease within 24 hours correlated with Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II predicted mortality (R = 0.43, P = .017) and Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score (R = 0.36, P = .05). Regression analyses confirmed correlations. Several amino acids were deficient in plasma on ICU admission but increased during EN. Taurine concentrations declined and were associated with longer periods of mechanical ventilation and ICU support. Fast taurine decline correlated with severity of organ failure. These findings support the role of taurine during ischemia, reperfusion, and inflammation. Taurine may be an essential candidate to enrich nutrition support for critically ill patients, although more research is required. © 2015 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.

  18. Dairy products and plasma cholesterol levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Ohlsson

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol synthesized in the body or ingested is an essential lipid component for human survival from our earliest life. Newborns ingest about 3–4 times the amount per body weight through mother's milk compared to the dietary intake of adults. A birth level of 1.7 mmol/L plasma total cholesterol will increase to 4–4.5 mmol/L during the nursing period and continue to increase from adulthood around 40% throughout life. Coronary artery disease and other metabolic disorders are strongly associated with low-density lipoprotein (LDL and high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol as well as triacylglycerol concentration. Milk fat contains a broad range of fatty acids and some have a negative impact on the cholesterol rich lipoproteins. The saturated fatty acids (SFAs, such as palmitic acid (C16:0, myristic acid (C14:0, and lauric acid (C12:0, increase total plasma cholesterol, especially LDL, and constitute 11.3 g/L of bovine milk, which is 44.8% of total fatty acid in milk fat. Replacement of dairy SFA and trans-fatty acids with polyunsaturated fatty acids decreases plasma cholesterol, especially LDL cholesterol, and is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. Available data shows different effects on lipoproteins for different dairy products and there is uncertainty as to the impact a reasonable intake amount of dairy items has on cardiovascular risk. The aim of this review is to elucidate the effect of milk components and dairy products on total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, and the LDL/HDL quotients. Based on eight recent randomized controlled trials of parallel or cross-over design and recent reviews it can be concluded that replacement of saturated fat mainly (but not exclusively derived from high-fat dairy products with low-fat dairy products lowers LDL/HDL cholesterol and total/HDL cholesterol ratios. Whey, dairy fractions enriched in polar lipids, and techniques such as fermentation, or fortification of cows feeding can be used

  19. Plasma levels and urinary excretion of amino acids by subjects with renal calculi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanassova, Stoyanka Slavcheva; Panchev, P; Ivanova, M

    2010-05-01

    Plasma levels and urinary amino acid excretions were estimated by high-performance liquid chromatography in 15 control subjects and 36 stone formers (SFs) classified according to the stone type: (1) 22 cases with calcium oxalate stones; (2) four cases with pure uric acid stones; (3) 10 cases with magnesium-ammonium phosphate stones, either pure or mixed with apatite. Some types of stones (namely oxalate and uric acid calculi) are mainly formed as a result of a metabolic deficiency that may affect the amino acid metabolism, and thus may be reflected in the urinary amino acid pattern. Data demonstrated clearly that there is a general tendency towards decreased amino acid excretions in all SFs with all types of stones. As a whole, one can observe a higher percentage of patients with calcium oxalate and phosphate calculosis, who have low urine excretions of amino acids; about 50% are the SFs with lower urine excretion of serine, glycine, taurine and i-leucine; the high percentage of patients with CaOX calculi shows lower urine excretions of tyrosine and ornithine.

  20. Plasma homocysteine levels in female patients with eating disorders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levine, J.; Gur, E.; Loewenthal, R.; Vishne, T.; Dwolatzky, T.; Beijnum, I.M. van; Sela, B.A.; Vered, I.; Yosef, G.; Stein, D.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine plasma homocysteine, vitamin B(12), and folate levels in females with restricting and bingeing/purging eating disorders (EDs). METHOD: Adolescent and adult female patients were compared to appropriate control groups with regard to plasma homocysteine levels. RESULTS: The plasma

  1. Downregulation of the taurine transporter TauT during hypo-osmotic stress in NIH3T3 mouse fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Daniel Bloch; Friis, Martin Barfred; Hoffmann, Else Kay

    2012-01-01

    The present work was initiated to investigate regulation of the taurine transporter TauT by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the tonicity-responsive enhancer binding protein (TonEBP) in NIH3T3 mouse fibroblasts during acute and long-term (4 h) exposure to low-sodium/hypo-osmotic stress. Taurine...... by ROS under hypo-osmotic, low-sodium conditions, whereas the TauT mRNA level is unaffected. Acute exposure to ROS reduces taurine uptake as a result of modulated TauT transport kinetics. Thus, swelling-induced ROS production could account for the reduced taurine uptake under low-sodium...

  2. Effect of Cordyceps sinensis and taurine either alone or in combination on streptozotocin induced diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Zahraa Z El Ashry, Fatma; Mahmoud, Mona F; El Maraghy, Nabila N; Ahmed, Ahmed F

    2012-03-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the antidiabetic effects of Cordyceps sinensis, taurine and their combination in comparison with glibenclamide both in vivo and in vitro using streptozotocin rat model. The diabetic rats were orally given glibenclamide, C. sinensis, taurine or Cordyceps and taurine combination for 21 days. Their effects were studied both in vivo and in vitro. Oral administration of Cordyceps, taurine and their combination decreased serum glucose, fructosamine, total cholesterol, triglycerides levels, insulin resistance index and pancreatic malondialdehyde content. Cordyceps significantly increased serum insulin, HDL-cholesterol, total antioxidant capacity levels, β cell function percent, and pancreatic reduced glutathione (GSH) content. However, taurine was unable to elevate pancreatic GSH level to a significant level. These natural products and their combinations were more effective than glibenclamide in reducing insulin resistance index and they had stronger antioxidant properties. Cordyceps and taurine significantly enhanced glucose uptake by diaphragms of normal and diabetic rats in absence and presence of insulin. In conclusion, Cordyceps and taurine either alone or in combination have less potent hypoglycemic effects than glibenclamide; however, they have more ability to reduce insulin resistance and stronger antioxidant properties.

  3. Determination of taurine in human plasma by high performance capillary electrophoresis after pre- column derivatization with 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate%9-芴甲氧羰酰氯柱前衍生-高效毛细管电泳法测定人血浆中牛磺酸

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛勇; 薛丰; 孙成均

    2011-01-01

    A high performance capillary zone electrophoresis ( CZE ) method for the determination of taurine in plasma is presented in this paper. After removed protein in plasma with acetonitrile and centrifuged, taurine in supematant was derivatized with 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate (FMOC-Cl) at room temperature and dark place for 20 min in borate buffer (pH9. 5 ), the derivatized product was separated on a bare fused-silica capillary (50 μm I.D. , 50 cm of total length, and 41 cm effective length) using a 40 mmol/L sodium acetate buffer (pH 4. 6) at 22kV and detected at 265nm. Under the optimum condition, the determination time was within 9 min. The method showed a good linearity within the concentration range of 2. 5 ~40. 0 mg/L for taurine ( r =0. 9995 ) with a detection limit ( S/N = 3 ) of 0. 8 mg/L. The relative standard derivations (RSDs) of migration times and peak areas for determination of taurine standards were 0. 27% and 1.8%, respectively, and recoveries were between 90. 3% and 108. 0%. The method was used to measure taurine contents in plasma from 18 healthy persons and the taurine contents of 15.8 ± 3.2 μg/mL were found. The method was simple, rapid,accurate, sensitive and suitable for the determination of taurine in human plasma.%建立了区带毛细管电泳法快速测定人血浆中牛磺酸的方法.血浆样品经乙腈沉淀蛋白并离心后,上清液中牛磺酸与9-芴甲氧羰酰氯在室温及pH 9.5条件下避光反应20 min,生成具有紫外吸收的衍生产物,以40 mmol/L的乙酸钠(pH 4.6)为运行缓冲溶液,熔融石英毛细管为分离柱;分离电压22kV;紫外检测.实验结果表明:在优化的实验条件下,样品检测仅需9 min,牛磺酸质量浓度在2.5~40.0 μg/mL范围内具良好线性关系(r=0.9995),检出限为0.8 mg/L(S/N=3),迁移时间和峰面积RSD分别为0.27%和1.8%,加标回收率90.3%~108.0%.用本法测定18名健康成人血浆中的牛磺酸,均值为15.8±3.2μg/mL.

  4. Taurine exerts anti-osteoclastogenesis activity via inhibiting ROS generation, JNK phosphorylation and COX-2 expression in RAW264.7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hae Jin; Kim, Sung-Jin

    2013-12-01

    Taurine is one of the abundant amino acids present in mammalian cells. It exerts various physiological actions such as wound healing, radioprotection, neuroprotection and anti-anxiety. In the present study, we sought to determine if taurine could inhibit osteoclastogenesis and explore the potential role of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) with reactive oxygen species (ROS). The level of intracellular ROS generated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was measured with DCFH-DA staining and fluorescence microscopic analysis was also performed in response to taurine in RAW264.7 cells. The expression of COX-2 and phosphorylation status of JNK by LPS was analyzed by Western blot analysis in the presence of taurine. Osteoclastogenesis was induced by LPS in the absence or presence of taurine and TRAP assay was performed to confirm the formation of osteoclast cells. ROS production was significantly enhanced by LPS and taurine treatment inhibited the ROS generation in a dose-dependent manner. The fluorescence microscopic analysis clearly showed the inhibition of ROS staining by taurine. Western blot analysis indicated that taurine significantly inhibited LPS induced COX-2 protein expression and it also inhibited phosphorylation of JNK. Taurine at the same concentration inhibited osteoclastogenesis induced by LPS, suggesting that taurine prevent osteoclast differentiation by inhibiting ROS generation. Inhibition of COX-2 expression and JNK phoshorylation could be an important mechanism by which taurine exerts anti-osteoclastogeneis.

  5. Impacts of acute imipramine treatment on plasma and brain amino acid metabolism in mice given graded levels of dietary chicken protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasawa, Mao; Murakami, Tatsuro; Tomonaga, Shozo; Sato, Mikako; Takahata, Yoshihisa; Morimatsu, Fumiki; Furuse, Mitsuhiro

    2012-12-01

    Several studies have shown a relationship between depression and animal protein intake. To evaluate whether the difference of dietary chicken protein levels induces an antidepressant-like effect and potentiates acute antidepressant effects, three levels of dietary chicken protein were used as the representative animal protein with imipramine used as the antidepressant. In addition, the effects of dietary chicken protein on brain metabolism were evaluated. Open field test (OFT) and forced swimming test (FST) were conducted on the 27th and 28th days, respectively. OFT and FST were not influenced by both imipramine and dietary protein levels. However, characteristic effects of imipramine treatment on brain monoamine metabolism were observed in the cerebral cortex and hypothalamus. In addition, dietary protein significantly increased taurine and L-ornithine levels even though these amino acids were not contained in the diets. In conclusion, the metabolism of several amino acids in the plasma and brain were altered by dietary chicken protein.

  6. Effects of taurine and housing density on renal function in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zi-Li; Gao, Yang; Ma, Hai-Tian; Zheng, Liu-Hai; Dai, Bin; Miao, Jin-Feng; Zhang, Yuan-Shu

    This study investigated the putative protective effects of supplemental 2-aminoethane sulfonic acid (taurine) and reduced housing density on renal function in laying hens. We randomly assigned fifteen thousand green-shell laying hens into three groups: a free range group, a low-density caged group, and a high-density caged group. Each group was further divided equally into a control group (C) and a taurine treatment group (T). After 15 d, we analyzed histological changes in kidney cells, inflammatory mediator levels, oxidation and anti-oxidation levels. Experimental data revealed taurine supplementation, and rearing free range or in low-density housing can lessen morphological renal damage, inflammatory mediator levels, and oxidation levels and increase anti-oxidation levels. Our data demonstrate that taurine supplementation and a reduction in housing density can ameliorate renal impairment, increase productivity, enhance health, and promote welfare in laying hens.

  7. Effects of taurine and housing density on renal function in laying hens*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zi-li; Gao, Yang; Ma, Hai-tian; Zheng, Liu-hai; Dai, Bin; Miao, Jin-feng; Zhang, Yuan-shu

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the putative protective effects of supplemental 2-aminoethane sulfonic acid (taurine) and reduced housing density on renal function in laying hens. We randomly assigned fifteen thousand green-shell laying hens into three groups: a free range group, a low-density caged group, and a high-density caged group. Each group was further divided equally into a control group (C) and a taurine treatment group (T). After 15 d, we analyzed histological changes in kidney cells, inflammatory mediator levels, oxidation and anti-oxidation levels. Experimental data revealed taurine supplementation, and rearing free range or in low-density housing can lessen morphological renal damage, inflammatory mediator levels, and oxidation levels and increase anti-oxidation levels. Our data demonstrate that taurine supplementation and a reduction in housing density can ameliorate renal impairment, increase productivity, enhance health, and promote welfare in laying hens. PMID:27921400

  8. The influence of dietary taurine and reduced housing density on hepatic functions in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zili; Zhang, Jinqiu; Ma, Haitian; Dai, Bin; Zheng, Liuhai; Miao, Jinfeng; Zhang, Yuanshu

    2014-07-01

    To investigate the influence of dietary taurine and reduced housing density on hepatic functions in laying hens, green-shell laying hens were randomly assigned to 3 groups: a free-range group, a caged group with low-density, and a caged group with high-density. Each group was further divided into the control (C) and taurine-treatment (T) groups. All the test birds were fed the same basic diet, except that the T groups were supplemented with 0.1% taurine. After 15 d, sera and liver were aseptically collected. The results show that dietary taurine supplementation and reduced housing density significantly attenuated physiopathological changes in the liver. When compared with the free-range group, serum alanine aminotransterase and aspartate aminotransterase in the caged hens were significantly higher and were deceased by taurine (P caged hens was higher than that in free-range hens, and taurine reduced serum inducible nitric oxide synthase activities in the low-density group (P < 0.05). Nuclear factor-κB DNA-binding activity increased significantly in the high-density housing group when compared with the other 2 housing patterns and was decreased by taurine (P < 0.05). Taurine reduced the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α mRNA in all 3 rearing patterns, IL-4 mRNA expression in the high-density group, and IL-10 in the low-density group (P < 0.05). Malondialdehyde levels decreased in serum and liver from T groups and serum total antioxidation capability levels increased significantly (P < 0.05) in the low-density group. Dietary taurine supplementation decreased acetyl-CoA and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c mRNA expression in the high-density groups (P < 0.05). Taurine significantly increased lipoprotein lipase mRNA expression in the high-density group and peroxisome proliferator receptor mRNA expression both in the low- and high-density groups (P < 0.05). Taurine supplementation reduced total cholesterol levels in the low- and high-density groups

  9. Substantia nigra osmoregulation: taurine and ATP involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Ingrid; Dopico, Jose G; Sabate, Magdalena; Gonzalez-Hernandez, Tomas; Rodriguez, Manuel

    2007-05-01

    An extracellular nonsynaptic taurine pool of glial origin was recently reported in the substantia nigra (SN). There is previous evidence showing taurine as an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the SN, but the physiological role of this nonsynaptic pool of taurine has not been explored. By using microdialysis methods, we studied the action of local osmolarity on the nonsynaptic taurine pool in the SN of the rat. Hypoosmolar pulses (285-80 mosM) administered in the SN by the microdialysis probe increased extrasynaptic taurine in a dose-dependent way, a response that was counteracted by compensating osmolarity with choline. The opposite effect (taurine decrease) was observed when osmolarity was increased. Under basal conditions, the blockade of either the AMPA-kainate glutamate receptors with 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dionine disodium or the purinergic receptors with pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulfonic acid modified the taurine concentration, suggesting that both receptors modulate the extrasynaptic pool of taurine. In addition, these drugs decreased the taurine response to hypoosmolar pulses, suggesting roles for glutamatergic and purinergic receptors in the taurine response to osmolarity. The participation of purinergic receptors was also supported by the fact that ATP (which, under basal conditions, increased the extrasynaptic taurine in a dose-dependent way) administered in doses saturating purinergic receptors also decreased the taurine response to hypoosmolarity. Taken together, present data suggest osmoregulation as a role of the nonsynaptic taurine pool of the SN, a function that also involves glutamate and ATP and that could influence the nigral cell vulnerability in Parkinson's disease.

  10. Taurine drinking ameliorates hepatic granuloma and fibrosis in mice infected with Schistosoma japonicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yan-Rong; Ni, Xian-Qiang; Huang, Jie; Zhu, Yong-Hong; Qi, Yong-Fen

    2016-04-01

    In schistosomiasis, egg-induced hepatic granuloma formation is a cytokine-mediated, predominantly CD4(+) Th2 immune response that can give rise to hepatic fibrosis. Hepatic fibrosis is the main cause of increased morbidity and mortality in humans with schistosome infection. Taurine has various physiological functions and hepatoprotective properties as well as anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activity. However, little is known about the role of taurine in schistosome egg-induced granuloma formation and fibrosis. We aimed to evaluate the therapeutic potential of taurine as preventative treatment for Schistosoma japonicum infection. Mice infected with S. japonicum cercariae were supplied with taurine drinking water (1% w/v) for 4 weeks starting at 4 weeks post-infection. Taurine supplementation significantly improved the liver pathologic findings, reduced the serum levels of aminotransferases and area of hepatic granuloma, and prevented fibrosis progression. In addition, taurine decreased the expression of the granulomatous and fibrogenic mediators transforming growth factor β1, tumor necrosis factor α, monocyte chemotactic protein 1α and macrophage inflammatory protein 1α as well as the endoplasmic reticulum stress marker glucose-regulated protein 78. Thus, taurine can significantly attenuate S. japonicum egg-induced hepatic granuloma and fibrosis, which may depend in part on the downregulation of some relevant cytokine/chemokines and reducing the endoplasmic reticulum stress response.

  11. Taurine homeostasis requires de novo synthesis via cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase during zebrafish early embryogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yen-Chia; Ding, Shih-Torng; Lee, Yen-Hua; Wang, Ya-Ching; Huang, Ming-Feng; Liu, I-Hsuan

    2013-02-01

    Cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase (Csad) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the de novo biosynthesis of taurine. There are a number of physiological roles of taurine, such as bile salt synthesis, osmoregulation, lipid metabolism, and oxidative stress inhibition. To investigate the role of de novo synthesis of taurine during embryonic development, zebrafish csad was cloned and functionally analyzed. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR showed that csad transcripts are maternally deposited, while whole-mount in situ hybridization demonstrated that csad is expressed in yolk syncytial layer and various embryonic tissues such as notochord, brain, retina, pronephric duct, liver, and pancreas. Knockdown of csad significantly reduced the embryonic taurine level, and the affected embryos had increased early mortality and cardiac anomalies. mRNA coinjection and taurine supplementation rescued the cardiac phenotypes suggesting that taurine originating from the de novo synthesis pathway plays a role in cardiac development. Our findings indicated that the de novo synthesis pathway via Csad plays a critical role in taurine homeostasis and cardiac development in zebrafish early embryos.

  12. Taurine drinking ameliorates hepatic granuloma and fibrosis in mice infected with Schistosoma japonicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Rong Yu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In schistosomiasis, egg-induced hepatic granuloma formation is a cytokine-mediated, predominantly CD4+ Th2 immune response that can give rise to hepatic fibrosis. Hepatic fibrosis is the main cause of increased morbidity and mortality in humans with schistosome infection. Taurine has various physiological functions and hepatoprotective properties as well as anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activity. However, little is known about the role of taurine in schistosome egg-induced granuloma formation and fibrosis. We aimed to evaluate the therapeutic potential of taurine as preventative treatment for Schistosoma japonicum infection. Mice infected with S. japonicum cercariae were supplied with taurine drinking water (1% w/v for 4 weeks starting at 4 weeks post-infection. Taurine supplementation significantly improved the liver pathologic findings, reduced the serum levels of aminotransferases and area of hepatic granuloma, and prevented fibrosis progression. In addition, taurine decreased the expression of the granulomatous and fibrogenic mediators transforming growth factor β1, tumor necrosis factor α, monocyte chemotactic protein 1α and macrophage inflammatory protein 1α as well as the endoplasmic reticulum stress marker glucose-regulated protein 78. Thus, taurine can significantly attenuate S. japonicum egg-induced hepatic granuloma and fibrosis, which may depend in part on the downregulation of some relevant cytokine/chemokines and reducing the endoplasmic reticulum stress response.

  13. Taurine: the appeal of a safe amino acid for skeletal muscle disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Annamaria; Pierno, Sabata; Camerino, Diana Conte

    2015-07-25

    Taurine is a natural amino acid present as free form in many mammalian tissues and in particular in skeletal muscle. Taurine exerts many physiological functions, including membrane stabilization, osmoregulation and cytoprotective effects, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions as well as modulation of intracellular calcium concentration and ion channel function. In addition taurine may control muscle metabolism and gene expression, through yet unclear mechanisms. This review summarizes the effects of taurine on specific muscle targets and pathways as well as its therapeutic potential to restore skeletal muscle function and performance in various pathological conditions. Evidences support the link between alteration of intracellular taurine level in skeletal muscle and different pathophysiological conditions, such as disuse-induced muscle atrophy, muscular dystrophy and/or senescence, reinforcing the interest towards its exogenous supplementation. In addition, taurine treatment can be beneficial to reduce sarcolemmal hyper-excitability in myotonia-related syndromes. Although further studies are necessary to fill the gaps between animals and humans, the benefit of the amino acid appears to be due to its multiple actions on cellular functions while toxicity seems relatively low. Human clinical trials using taurine in various pathologies such as diabetes, cardiovascular and neurological disorders have been performed and may represent a guide-line for designing specific studies in patients of neuromuscular diseases.

  14. Plasma and semen ascorbic levels in spermatogenesis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    were significant decreases in the seminal and plasma ascorbic acid concentrations ... maintenance of sperm cell lipid membrane has generated increasing interest. .... function and its association with the genesis of reactivc oxygen species.

  15. Effect of taurine and potential interactions with caffeine on cardiovascular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Stephen W; Shimada, Kayoko; Jong, Chian Ju; Ito, Takashi; Azuma, Junichi; Takahashi, Kyoko

    2014-05-01

    The major impetus behind the rise in energy drink popularity among adults is their ability to heighten mental alertness, improve physical performance and supply energy. However, accompanying the exponential growth in energy drink usage have been recent case reports and analyses from the National Poison Data System, raising questions regarding the safety of energy drinks. Most of the safety concerns have centered on the effect of energy drinks on cardiovascular and central nervous system function. Although the effects of caffeine excess have been widely studied, little information is available on potential interactions between the other active ingredients of energy drinks and caffeine. One of the active ingredients often mentioned as a candidate for interactions with caffeine is the beta-amino acid, taurine. Although taurine is considered a conditionally essential nutrient for humans and is thought to play a key role in several human diseases, clinical studies evaluating the effects of taurine are limited. However, based on this review regarding possible interactions between caffeine and taurine, we conclude that taurine should neutralize several untoward effects of caffeine excess. In agreement with this conclusion, the European Union's Scientific Committee on Food published a report in March 2003 summarizing its investigation into potential interactions of the ingredients in energy drinks. At the cardiovascular level, they concluded that "if there are any interactions between caffeine and taurine, taurine might reduce the cardiovascular effects of caffeine." Although these interactions remain to be further examined in humans, the physiological functions of taurine appear to be inconsistent with the adverse cardiovascular symptoms associated with excessive consumption of caffeine-taurine containing beverages.

  16. Paradoxical sleep deprivation increases plasma endothelin levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.D. Palma

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The endothelins (ET-1, 2 and 3 constitute a family of 21 amino acid peptides with potent biological activities. ET-1 is one of the most potent endogenous vasoconstrictors so far identified and its increased concentration in plasma appears to be closely related to the pathogenesis of arterial hypertension as well as to obstructive sleep apnea (OSA. OSA patients exhibit repetitive episodes of apnea and hypopnea that result in hypoxia and consecutive arousals. These patients are chronically sleep deprived, which may aggravate the hypertensive features, since literature data show that sleep deprivation results in hypertension both in humans and in animals. Based on the reported relationship between ET-1, hypertension and sleep deprivation consequences, the purpose of the present study was to determine plasma ET concentrations in paradoxical sleep-deprived animals. Male Wistar rats, 3 to 4 months old (N = 10 per group, were deprived of sleep for 24 and 96 h by the platform technique and plasma ET-1/2 was measured by radioimmunoassay. Analysis of plasma revealed that 96 h of sleep deprivation induced a significant increase in ET-1/2 release (6.58 fmol/ml compared to control (5.07 fmol/ml. These data show that sleep deprivation altered plasma ET-1/2 concentrations, suggesting that such an increase may participate in the genesis of arterial hypertension and cardiorespiratory changes observed after sleep deprivation.

  17. Low arginine plasma levels in patients after thoracoabdominal aortic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijveldt, R J; Prins, H A; Siroen, M P; Rauwerda, J A; Teerlink, T; van Leeuwen, P A

    2000-08-01

    Thoracoabdominal aortic surgery is a high-risk procedure and associated with a significant morbidity and mortality. Ischemia reperfusion of visceral organs and lower extremities is one of the most important determinants of this morbidity. Arginine is the precursor of nitric oxide and arginine plasma levels are important in maintaining organ blood flow. Furthermore, arginine is important in wound healing and the immune system. Because of increased utilization of arginine, low arginine plasma levels could be expected after thoracoabdominal aortic surgery. We therefore measured arginine plasma levels in these patients. Six patients with thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm were included in this study. University Hospital Vrije Universiteit, Department of Surgery, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Six patients undergoing thoracoabdominal aortic surgery. Plasma levels of arginine were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Very low arginine plasma levels were seen on the first postoperative day. From day 1 arginine slowly increased, but did not reach normal plasma levels on day 6. A significant decrease of arginine plasma levels was found and because of the fact that arginine has multiple functions, it may be important to keep these arginine plasma levels at normal or even higher levels in patients undergoing major vascular surgery. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2000) 54, 615-617.

  18. Sulfoacetate generated by Rhodopseudomonas palustris from taurine

    OpenAIRE

    Denger, Karin; Weinitschke, Sonja; Hollemeyer, Klaus; Cook, Alasdair M.

    2004-01-01

    Genes thought to encode (a) the regulator of taurine catabolism under carbon-limiting or nitrogen-limiting conditions and (b) taurine dehydrogenase were found in the genome of Rhodopseudomonas palustris. The organism utilized taurine quantitatively as a sole source of nitrogen (but not of carbon) for aerobic and photoheterotrophic growth. No sulfate was released, and the C-sulfonate bond was recovered stoichiometrically as sulfoacetate, which was identified by mass spectrometry. An inducible ...

  19. Revisiting AFLP fingerprinting for an unbiased assessment of genetic structure and differentiation of taurine and zebu cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utsunomiya, Yuri Tani; Bomba, Lorenzo; Lucente, Giordana; Colli, Licia; Negrini, Riccardo; Lenstra, Johannes Arjen; Erhardt, Georg; Garcia, José Fernando; Ajmone-Marsan, Paolo

    2014-04-17

    Descendants from the extinct aurochs (Bos primigenius), taurine (Bos taurus) and zebu cattle (Bos indicus) were domesticated 10,000 years ago in Southwestern and Southern Asia, respectively, and colonized the world undergoing complex events of admixture and selection. Molecular data, in particular genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers, can complement historic and archaeological records to elucidate these past events. However, SNP ascertainment in cattle has been optimized for taurine breeds, imposing limitations to the study of diversity in zebu cattle. As amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers are discovered and genotyped as the samples are assayed, this type of marker is free of ascertainment bias. In order to obtain unbiased assessments of genetic differentiation and structure in taurine and zebu cattle, we analyzed a dataset of 135 AFLP markers in 1,593 samples from 13 zebu and 58 taurine breeds, representing nine continental areas. We found a geographical pattern of expected heterozygosity in European taurine breeds decreasing with the distance from the domestication centre, arguing against a large-scale introgression from European or African aurochs. Zebu cattle were found to be at least as diverse as taurine cattle. Western African zebu cattle were found to have diverged more from Indian zebu than South American zebu. Model-based clustering and ancestry informative markers analyses suggested that this is due to taurine introgression. Although a large part of South American zebu cattle also descend from taurine cows, we did not detect significant levels of taurine ancestry in these breeds, probably because of systematic backcrossing with zebu bulls. Furthermore, limited zebu introgression was found in Podolian taurine breeds in Italy. The assessment of cattle diversity reported here contributes an unbiased global view to genetic differentiation and structure of taurine and zebu cattle populations, which is essential for an

  20. Plasma levels of acylated ghrelin in patients with functional dyspepsia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yeon Soo Kim; Joon Seong Lee; Tae Hee Lee; Joo Young Cho; Jin Oh Kim; Wan Jung Kim; Hyun Gun Kim; Seong Ran Jeon; Hoe Su Jeong

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the relationship between plasma acylated ghrelin levels and the pathophysiology of functional dyspepsia.METHODS:Twenty-two female patients with functional dyspepsia and twelve healthy volunteers were recruited for the study.The functional dyspepsia patients were each diagnosed based on the Rome Ⅲ criteria.Eligible patients completed a questionnaire concerning the severity of 10 symptoms.Plasma acylated ghrelin levels before and after a meal were determined in the study participants using a commercial human acylated enzyme immunoassay kit; electrogastrograms were performed for 50 min before and after a standardized 10-min meal containing 265 kcal.RESULTS:There were no significant differences in plasma acylated ghrelin levels between healthy volunteers and patients with functional dyspepsia.However,in patients with functional dyspepsia,there was a negative correlation between fasting plasma acylated ghrelin levels and the sum score of epigastric pain (r =-0.427,P =0.047) and a positive correlation between the postprandial/fasting plasma acylated ghrelin ratio and the sum score of early satiety (r =0.428,P =0.047).Additionally,there was a negative correlation between fasting acylated ghrelin plasma levels and fasting normogastria (%) (r =-0.522,P =0.013).Interestingly,two functional dyspepsia patients showed paradoxically elevated plasma acylated ghrelin levels after the meal.CONCLUSION:Abnormal plasma acylated ghrelin levels before or after a meal may be related to several of the dyspeptic symptoms seen in patients with functional dyspepsia.

  1. Taurine: A Potential Ergogenic Aid for Preventing Muscle Damage and Protein Catabolism and Decreasing Oxidative Stress Produced by Endurance Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia G. De Carvalho

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of taurine and chocolate milk supplementation on oxidative stress and protein metabolism markers, and aerobic parameters in triathletes.Methods: A double-blind, crossover study was conducted with 10 male triathletes, aged 30.9 ± 1.3 year, height 1.79 ± 0.01 m and body weight 77.45 ± 2.4 kg. Three grams of taurine and 400 ml of chocolate milk (TAUchoc, or a placebo (chocolate milk (CHOC was ingested post exercise for 8 weeks. Oxidative stress marker levels, and 24 h urinary nitrogen, creatinine, and urea excretion were measured before and after 8 weeks of training and supplementation with TAUchoc or CHOC. A maximal incremental running test on a treadmill was performed in order to evaluate aerobic parameters: Vmax, heart rate (HR and rate of perceived exertion (RPE.Results: TAUchoc treatment during the 8 weeks resulted in increased taurine plasma levels (PRE 201.32 ± 29.03 μmol/L and POST 234.36 ± 35.51 μmol/L, p = 0.01, decreased malondialdehyde levels (19.4%, p = 0.03 and urinary nitrogen excretion (−33%, p = 0.03, and promoted positive nitrogen balance (p = 0.01. There were no changes in reduced glutathione (TAUchoc PRE 0.72 ± 0.08 mmol/L and POST 0.83 ± 0.08 mmol/L; CHOC PRE 0.69 ± 0.08 mmol/L and POST 0.81 ± 0.06 mmol/L, vitamin E plasma levels (TAUchoc PRE 33.99 ± 2.52 μmol/L and 35.95 ± 2.80 μmol/L and CHOC PRE 31.48 ± 2.12 μmol/L and POST 33.77 ± 3.64 μmol/L, or aerobic parameters, which were obtained in the last phase of the maximal incremental running test (Vmax TAUchoc PRE 13 ± 1.4 km/h and POST 13.22 ± 1.34 km/h; CHOC PRE 13.11 ± 2.34 km/h and POST 13.11 ± 2.72 km/h, the heart rate values were TAUchoc PRE 181.89 ± 24.18 bpm and POST 168.89 ± 46.56 bpm; CHOC PRE 181.56 ± 2.14 bpm and POST 179.78 ± 3.4 bpm, and the RPE were TAUchoc PRE 8.33 ± 2.4 AU and POST 9.1 ± 2.1 AU; CHOC PRE 8.11 ± 4.94 AU and POST 8.78 ± 2.78 AU.Conclusion: Taurine supplementation

  2. Plasma glutamine levels and falciparum malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, G; Planche, T; Agbenyega, T; Bedu-Addo, G; Owusu-Ofori, A; Adebe-Appiah, J; Agranoff, D; Woodrow, C; Castell, L; Elford, B; Krishna, S

    1999-01-01

    Glutamine deficiency is associated with increased rates of sepsis and mortality, which can be prevented by glutamine supplementation. Changes in glutamine concentration were examined in Ghanaian children with acute falciparum malaria and control cases. The mean (SD) plasma glutamine concentration was lower in patients with acute malaria (401 (82) mumol/L, n = 50) than in control patients (623 (67) mumol/L, n = 7; P sepsis and dyserythropoeisis.

  3. Protective effects of taurine on doxorubicin-induced acute hepatotoxicity through suppression of oxidative stress and apoptotic responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Katsuhito; Fukuno, Shuhei; Oda, Ayano; Konishi, Hiroki

    2016-01-01

    The organ toxicity of doxorubicin (DOX), an anthracycline antineoplastic agent, narrows the therapeutic window despite its clinical usefulness. In the present study, we determined whether taurine protected against DOX-induced hepatic injury, and explored the molecular mechanisms underlying the suppressive effects of taurine in terms of alterations in oxidative stress and apoptotic responses. DOX-induced body weight loss was completely suppressed by taurine treatment. Elevations in the serum activity levels of lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase by DOX were also dose-dependently attenuated by a concurrent treatment with taurine. Superoxide dismutase activity and reduced glutathione content in the liver were decreased following the administration of DOX, whereas these changes were suppressed when 10 mg/kg taurine was given in combination with DOX. Taurine attenuated the increased expression of mRNAs for Fas and Bax after DOX exposure. Furthermore, the formation of cleaved caspase-3 protein in the group given DOX with taurine was lower than that in the group treated with DOX alone. Our results suggest that taurine can protect against DOX-induced acute hepatic damage, the underlying mechanism of which is attributable to the suppression of oxidative stress and apoptotic responses.

  4. Taurine supplementation has anti-atherogenic and anti-inflammatory effects before and after incremental exercise in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadian, Mehdi; Roshan, Valiollah Dabidi; Aslani, Elaheh; Stannard, Stephen R

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the anti-atherogenic and anti-inflammatory effect of supplemental taurine prior to and following incremental exercise in patients with heart failure (HF). Patients with HF and left ventricle ejection fraction less than 50%, and placed in functional class II or III according to the New York Heart Association classification, were randomly assigned to two groups: (1) taurine supplementation; or (2) placebo. The taurine group received oral taurine (500 mg) 3 times a day for 2 weeks, and performed exercise before and after the supplementation period. The placebo group followed the same protocol, but with a starch supplement (500 mg) rather than taurine. The incremental multilevel treadmill test was done using a modified Bruce protocol. Our results indicate that inflammatory indices [C-reactive protein (CRP), platelets] decreased in the taurine group in pre-exercise, post-supplementation and post-exercise, post-supplementation as compared with pre-exercise, pre-supplementation ( p exercise, post-supplementation and post-exercise, post-supplementation as compared with pre-exercise, pre-supplementation in the placebo group ( p exercise, post-supplementation and post-exercise, post-supplementation as compared with pre-exercise, pre-supplementation ( p 0.05). our results suggest that 2 weeks of oral taurine supplementation increases the taurine levels and has anti-atherogenic and anti-inflammatory effects prior to and following incremental exercise in HF patients.

  5. Taurine Protects Lens Epithelial Cells Against Ultraviolet B-Induced Apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayang, Wu; Dongbo, Pang

    2017-10-01

    The massive uptake of compatible osmolytes is a self-protective response shared by lens exposed to hypertonic stress and ultraviolet stress. This study aimed to investigate the protective effects of taurine against ultraviolet B-induced cytotoxicity in the lens epithelial cells. Real-time PCR was used to measure osmolytes transport. Radioimmunoassay was used to measure osmolytes uptake. Cell counting kit-8 assays were used to measure cellular viability. Flow cytometry analysis was used to measure apoptosis level. Compared with normotonic stress, hypertonic stress-induced osmolytes uptake into the lens epithelial cells such as betaine, myoinositol and taurine. UVB exposure increased osmolytes transporter mRNA expression together with osmolytes uptake. Moreover, taurine suppressed UVB-induced cell apoptosis in the lens epithelial cells significantly. The effect of compatible osmolyte taurine on cell survival rate may play an important role in cell resistance and adaption to UVB exposure.

  6. A case study involving allergic reactions to sulfur-containing compounds including, sulfite, taurine, acesulfame potassium and sulfonamides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stohs, Sidney J; Miller, Mark J S

    2014-01-01

    A case study is reported whereby an individual with known sulfite and sulfonamide allergies develops hypersensitivity to taurine above a threshold level as well as to the non-nutritive sweetener acesulfame potassium, compounds that are not normally associated with allergic reactions. Sulfites, sulfonamides, taurine and acesulfame potassium all contain a SO3 moiety. Challenge tests provide evidence for the hypersensitivities to taurine and acesulfame potassium. The subject is also allergic to thiuram mix and thimerosal, sulfur containing compounds, as well as to various food products. This may be the first case where hypersensitivities to taurine and acesulfame potassium have been documented and reported. Several mechanistic explanations are provided for the untoward reactions to taurine and acesulfame potassium. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Protective role of taurine against genotoxic damage in mice treated with methotrexate and tamoxfine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Sally S; Hafiz, Nagla A; Abd El-Rahim, Abeer H

    2011-01-01

    The genotoxic actions of anti-neoplastic drugs can lead to the development of secondary cancers in patients in extended remission. One of the most attractive approaches to disease prevention involves the use of natural antioxidants to protect tissue against toxic injury. We investigated the modulatory effects of exogenously administered taurine, on the genotoxicity of two well known anti-neoplastic drugs methotrexate (MTX) and tamoxifen (TAM) in Swiss albino mice. The animals were randomly divided into six groups consisting of ten mice each. Two groups were received single intraperitoneal injection of MTX (10 mg/kgb.wt.) and TAM (50 mg/kgb.wt.) to induce genotoxicity. Two other groups were treated orally with taurine (100 mg/kgb.wt.) for nine days prior to MTX and TAM administration. A vehicle treated control group and taurine control groups were also included. The protective effects of taurine were monitored by apoptosis assays and level of reduced glutathione (GSH), a key antioxidant, in liver, chromosomal aberrations in somatic and germ cells as well as sperm count, motility and morphology. The results indicated that taurine pre-treatment showed significant increment in the levels of GSH content, reduction in DNA fragmentation and ladder formation in hepatic tissue, suggesting the antioxidant activity of taurine may reduce the toxic effects of MTX and TAM. Treatment with taurine showed also significant reduction in the frequency of chromosomal aberrations in both somatic and germ cells. Moreover, it increases sperm count and motility, and decreases the incidence of sperm abnormalities. In conclusion, it appears that taurine protects against anti-neoplastic drugs-induced genotoxicity in somatic and germ tissues and may be of therapeutic potential in alleviating the risk of secondary tumors in chemotherapy.

  8. Impact of taurine depletion on glucose control and insulin secretion in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Takashi; Yoshikawa, Natsumi; Ito, Hiromi; Schaffer, Stephen W

    2015-09-01

    Taurine, an endogenous sulfur-containing amino acid, is found in millimolar concentrations in mammalian tissue, and its tissue content is altered by diet, disease and aging. The effectiveness of taurine administration against obesity and its related diseases, including type 2 diabetes, has been well documented. However, the impact of taurine depletion on glucose metabolism and fat deposition has not been elucidated. In this study, we investigated the effect of taurine depletion (in the taurine transporter (TauT) knockout mouse model) on blood glucose control and high fat diet-induced obesity. TauT-knockout (TauTKO) mice exhibited lower body weight and abdominal fat mass when maintained on normal chow than wild-type (WT) mice. Blood glucose disposal after an intraperitoneal glucose injection was faster in TauTKO mice than in WT mice despite lower serum insulin levels. Islet beta-cells (insulin positive area) were also decreased in TauTKO mice compared to WT mice. Meanwhile, overnutrition by high fat (60% fat)-diet could lead to obesity in TauTKO mice despite lower body weight under normal chow diet condition, indicating nutrition in normal diet is not enough for TauTKO mice to maintain body weight comparable to WT mice. In conclusion, taurine depletion causes enhanced glucose disposal despite lowering insulin levels and lower body weight, implying deterioration in tissue energy metabolism. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Investigating the in vitro effect of taurine on the infant lymphocytes by sister chromatid exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergun, Mehmet Ali; Soysal, Yasemin; Kismet, Erol; Akay, Cemal; Dundaroz, Rusen; Ilhan, Mustafan; Imirzalioglu, Necat

    2006-06-01

    Taurine (2-aminoethane sulphonic acid) is normally present in most mammalian tissues and the most abundant free amino acid in lymphocytes. It participates in various important physiological activities including modulation of the functioning of the central nervous system, cell proliferation, viability and prevention of oxidant-induced injury in many tissues. Its levels in human milk are very high which may be the most important difference from cow's milk. In contrast, an inverse association between breast-feeding and carcinogenesis in childhood or later in life has been suggested by several studies. The study group consisted of eight healthy infants. Peripheral blood was collected and lymphocytes were cultured with either Taurine or Mitomycin C (MMC). Sister chromatid exchange in lymphocytes of the infants were calculated. Statistical differences were found between untreated and MMC-treated lymphocytes, untreated and MMC plus taurine-treated lymphocytes, and between MMC and MMC plus taurine-treated lymphocytes (P = 0.012). The results indicated that taurine plays a protective role in MMC-induced sister chromatid exchange in human lymphocytes. The authors suggest that the high levels of taurine found in human milk may induce protecting effects from breast-feeding against DNA damage and malignancy.

  10. The role of NADPH oxidase in taurine attenuation of Streptococcus uberis-induced mastitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Jinfeng; Zhang, Jinqiu; Ma, Zili; Zheng, Liuhai

    2013-08-01

    In order to evaluate the role of taurine on the oxidative stress mediated by NADPH oxidase in Streptococcus uberis-induced (S. uberis) mastitis, rats were administered daily (per os) 100mg/kg of taurine (group TS) or an equal volume of physiological saline (group CS) from gestation day 14 until parturition. Seventy-two hours after parturition, approximately 100cfu of S. uberis was infused into each of 2 mammary glands. Pretreatment with taurine significantly decreased mRNA and protein expression of p47phox and p22phox in mammary tissues. The total anti-oxidation capability (T-AOC) levels and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities decreased, while malondialdehyde (MDA) levels increased both in mammary tissues and serum of rats with intramammary S. uberis infusion. Gavage administration of taurine moderated this change. Concentrations of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-6 in mammary glands decreased as a result of taurine administration. Significant differences (Ptaurine has the ability of regulating redox conditions which leads to the suppression of oxidative stress and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. This phenomenon may be ascribed to taurines's ability to inhibit the expression of NADPH oxidase. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Quantification of taurine in energy drinks using ¹H NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohmann, Monika; Felbinger, Christine; Christoph, Norbert; Wachter, Helmut; Wiest, Johannes; Holzgrabe, Ulrike

    2014-05-01

    The consumption of so called energy drinks is increasing, especially among adolescents. These beverages commonly contain considerable amounts of the amino sulfonic acid taurine, which is related to a magnitude of various physiological effects. The customary method to control the legal limit of taurine in energy drinks is LC-UV/vis with postcolumn derivatization using ninhydrin. In this paper we describe the quantification of taurine in energy drinks by (1)H NMR as an alternative to existing methods of quantification. Variation of pH values revealed the separation of a distinct taurine signal in (1)H NMR spectra, which was applied for integration and quantification. Quantification was performed using external calibration (R(2)>0.9999; linearity verified by Mandel's fitting test with a 95% confidence level) and PULCON. Taurine concentrations in 20 different energy drinks were analyzed by both using (1)H NMR and LC-UV/vis. The deviation between (1)H NMR and LC-UV/vis results was always below the expanded measurement uncertainty of 12.2% for the LC-UV/vis method (95% confidence level) and at worst 10.4%. Due to the high accordance to LC-UV/vis data and adequate recovery rates (ranging between 97.1% and 108.2%), (1)H NMR measurement presents a suitable method to quantify taurine in energy drinks.

  12. Methodological Studies on Plasma Endotoxin Level and Endotoxin Inactivation Capacity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚国相; 杨乃发; 薛新波; 赵玉沛; 蒋朱明

    2004-01-01

    To establish stable methods for detecting plasma endotoxin level and endotoxin inactivation capacity in a normal population and general surgical patients and evaluate their perioperative changes, 50 healthy people and 50 patients receiving gastrointestinal operation were enrolled, their plasma endotoxin levels and plasma endotoxin inactivation capacity were assayed. Our results showed that plasma endotoxin levels were 0.044±0.009 EU/ml in the normal population and 0.044±0.023 EU/ml in the preoperative patients. Endotoxin level peaked 3 h after the operation (0.223±0.041 EU/ml), and then decreased rapidly on the first day after the operation (0.134±0.164EU/ml). Endotoxin inactivation capacity also had the same time course as endotoxin level. Systemic inflammatory response syndrome and infection induced another elevation in the time course. It is concluded that establishing the endotoxin standard curve by using pyrogenic free water is better than by using plasma. Plasma endotoxin inactivation capacity can be used as an indirect indicator of postoperative immune depression. Plasma endotoxin level and endotoxin inactivation capacity peaked shortly after operation, indicating surgical stress is closely related with the changes.

  13. Islet cryopreservation: improved recovery following taurine pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardikar, A A; Risbud, M V; Remacle, C; Reusens, B; Hoet, J J; Bhonde, R R

    2001-01-01

    Simple and efficient freezing methods with maximal postthawing recovery form the basis of ideal cryopreservation. Taurine (2-amino ethanesulfonic acid), an end-product of sulphur amino acid metabolism, is one of the most abundant free amino acids in the body. The membrane stabilizing, free radical scavenging, and osmoregulatory roles of taurine have been well documented. We studied the effect of physiological and supra-physiological concentrations (0.3 and 3.0 mM) of taurine on islet cryopreservation. Islet viability on cryopreservation was significantly improved in both the taurine-treated groups (91.9 +/- 2.3% in 0.3 mM and 94.6 +/- 1.58% in 3.0 mM group, p taurine group, as examined under phase contrast and quantified by islet morphometric analysis (p Taurine-treated islets showed significant reduction in lipid peroxidation (0.905 and 0.848 nM MDA/microg protein for 0.3 and 3.0 mM taurine, respectively, p 200 mg/dl) following removal of the graft. Suboptimal islet transplantation using 250 IE suggests that the grafted islet mass was inadequate for diabetes reversal. In addition, no significant differences were observed in the islet insulin content between the three groups following cryopreservation of the islets at -196 degrees C. Our studies indicate that taurine pretreatment and its continued presence during islet cryopreservation improves the postthawing viable recovery of islets.

  14. [Plasma homocysteine levels in patients with ischemic heart disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márk, L; Erdei, F; Márki-Zay, J; Nagy, E; Kondacs, A; Katona, A

    2001-07-29

    In the latest years it became clear that beside traditional cardiovascular risk factors the high plasma homocysteine level increases the risk of atherosclerotic diseases too. Metaanalysis of 27 papers found that 10% of population's coronary risk is attributable to homocysteine and a 5 mumol/l increase in its plasma level elevates the coronary risk by as much as 0.5 mumol/l cholesterol increase. Recent studies have shown an inverse relation between the levels of plasma homocysteine and that of folic acid, vitamin B6, vitamin B12. The latters are cofactors and substrates of the homocysteine and methionin metabolism. The plasma total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglyceride, lipoprotein(a), Apo A1, Apo B and homocysteine concentrations were examined in 39 patients suffering from coronary artery disease treated in the Cardiac Rehabilitation Department of our hospital. Twenty of them were treated by folic acid and vitamin B6 for a three week period. The mean (+/- SD) plasma homocysteine concentration was 15.60 +/- 6.14 mumol/l. In the treated subgroup the mean (+/- SD) plasma homocysteine concentration was 17.3 +/- 7.00 mumol/l, the mean (+/- SD) plasma folic acid level was 8.58 +/- 4.6 mumol/l. After the three week treatment period (folic acid and vitamin B6) the plasma homocysteine level decreased by 26.5% (p = 0.012), that of folic acid increased by 68.7% (p = 0.002). From the plasma lipids the level of total- and LDL-cholesterol decreased significantly (6.7% and 10.4%, P gen of the metylenetetrahydrofolate-reductase (MTHFR) enzyme there was a significant correlation with homocysteine level (r = 0.436, p = 0.010), and a negative, but not significant correlation with the folic acid level (r = -0.354).

  15. Effects of taurine supplementation on hepatic markers of inflammation and lipid metabolism in mothers and offspring in the setting of maternal obesity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minglan Li

    Full Text Available Maternal obesity is associated with obesity and metabolic disorders in offspring. However, intervention strategies to reverse or ameliorate the effects of maternal obesity on offspring health are limited. Following maternal undernutrition, taurine supplementation can improve outcomes in offspring, possibly via effects on glucose homeostasis and insulin secretion. The effects of taurine in mediating inflammatory processes as a protective mechanism has not been investigated. Further, the efficacy of taurine supplementation in the setting of maternal obesity is not known. Using a model of maternal obesity, we examined the effects of maternal taurine supplementation on outcomes related to inflammation and lipid metabolism in mothers and neonates. Time-mated Wistar rats were randomised to either: 1 control : control diet during pregnancy and lactation (CON; 2 CON supplemented with 1.5% taurine in drinking water (CT; 3 maternal obesogenic diet (high fat, high fructose during pregnancy and lactation (MO; or 4 MO supplemented with taurine (MOT. Maternal and neonatal weights, plasma cytokines and hepatic gene expression were analysed. A MO diet resulted in maternal hyperinsulinemia and hyperleptinemia and increased plasma glucose, glutamate and TNF-α concentrations. Taurine normalised maternal plasma TNF-α and glutamate concentrations in MOT animals. Both MO and MOT mothers displayed evidence of fatty liver accompanied by alterations in key markers of hepatic lipid metabolism. MO neonates displayed a pro-inflammatory hepatic profile which was partially rescued in MOT offspring. Conversely, a pro-inflammatory phenotype was observed in MOT mothers suggesting a possible maternal trade-off to protect the neonate. Despite protective effects of taurine in MOT offspring, neonatal mortality was increased in CT neonates, indicating possible adverse effects of taurine in the setting of normal pregnancy. These data suggest that maternal taurine supplementation

  16. Human plasma DNP level after severe brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Yi-lu; XIN Hui-ning; FENG Yi; FAN Ji-wei

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine the relationship between DNP level after human severe brain injury and hyponatremia as well as isorrhea.Methods: The peripheral venous plasma as control was collected from 8 volunteers. The peripheral venous plasma from 14 severe brain injury patients were collected in the 1, 3, 7 days after injury. Radioimmunoassay was used to detect the DNP concentration. Meanwhile, daily plasma and urine electrolytes, osmotic pressure as well as 24 h liquid intake and output volume were detected.Results: The normal adult human plasma DNP level was 62. 46 pg/ml ± 27. 56 pg/ml. In the experimental group, the plasma DNP levels were higher from day 1 today 3 in 8 of the 14 patients than those in the control group (P1 =0.05, P3 =0.03). Negative fluid balance occurred in 8 patients and hyponatremia in 7 patients. The increase of plasma DNP level was significantly correlated with the development of a negative fluid balance (r=-0.69,P<0.01) and hyponatremia (x2 =4.38, P<0.05).Conclusions: The increase of plasma DNP level is accompanied by the enhancement of natriuretic and diuretic responses in severe brain-injured patients, which is associated with the development of a negative fluid balance and hyponatremia after brain injury.

  17. Modulatory effects of taurine on jejunal contractility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Q.Y.; Chen, D.P.; Ye, D.M.; Diao, Y.P.; Lin, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) is widely distributed in animal tissues and has diverse pharmacological effects. However, the role of taurine in modulating smooth muscle contractility is still controversial. We propose that taurine (5-80 mM) can exert bidirectional modulation on the contractility of isolated rat jejunal segments. Different low and high contractile states were induced in isolated jejunal segments of rats to observe the effects of taurine and the associated mechanisms. Taurine induced stimulatory effects on the contractility of isolated rat jejunal segments at 3 different low contractile states, and inhibitory effects at 3 different high contractile states. Bidirectional modulation was not observed in the presence of verapamil or tetrodotoxin, suggesting that taurine-induced bidirectional modulation is Ca2+ dependent and requires the presence of the enteric nervous system. The stimulatory effects of taurine on the contractility of isolated jejunal segments was blocked by atropine but not by diphenhydramine or by cimetidine, suggesting that muscarinic-linked activation was involved in the stimulatory effects when isolated jejunal segments were in a low contractile state. The inhibitory effects of taurine on the contractility of isolated jejunal segments were blocked by propranolol and L-NG-nitroarginine but not by phentolamine, suggesting that adrenergic β receptors and a nitric oxide relaxing mechanism were involved when isolated jejunal segments were in high contractile states. No bidirectional effects of taurine on myosin phosphorylation were observed. The contractile states of jejunal segments determine taurine-induced stimulatory or inhibitory effects, which are associated with muscarinic receptors and adrenergic β receptors, and a nitric oxide associated relaxing mechanism. PMID:25387674

  18. Modulatory effects of taurine on jejunal contractility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q.Y. Yao

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid is widely distributed in animal tissues and has diverse pharmacological effects. However, the role of taurine in modulating smooth muscle contractility is still controversial. We propose that taurine (5-80 mM can exert bidirectional modulation on the contractility of isolated rat jejunal segments. Different low and high contractile states were induced in isolated jejunal segments of rats to observe the effects of taurine and the associated mechanisms. Taurine induced stimulatory effects on the contractility of isolated rat jejunal segments at 3 different low contractile states, and inhibitory effects at 3 different high contractile states. Bidirectional modulation was not observed in the presence of verapamil or tetrodotoxin, suggesting that taurine-induced bidirectional modulation is Ca2+ dependent and requires the presence of the enteric nervous system. The stimulatory effects of taurine on the contractility of isolated jejunal segments was blocked by atropine but not by diphenhydramine or by cimetidine, suggesting that muscarinic-linked activation was involved in the stimulatory effects when isolated jejunal segments were in a low contractile state. The inhibitory effects of taurine on the contractility of isolated jejunal segments were blocked by propranolol and L-NG-nitroarginine but not by phentolamine, suggesting that adrenergic β receptors and a nitric oxide relaxing mechanism were involved when isolated jejunal segments were in high contractile states. No bidirectional effects of taurine on myosin phosphorylation were observed. The contractile states of jejunal segments determine taurine-induced stimulatory or inhibitory effects, which are associated with muscarinic receptors and adrenergic β receptors, and a nitric oxide associated relaxing mechanism.

  19. Modulatory effects of taurine on jejunal contractility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Q.Y.; Chen, D.P.; Ye, D.M.; Diao, Y.P.; Lin, Y. [Dalian Medical University, Dalian, Liaoning (China)

    2014-10-14

    Taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid) is widely distributed in animal tissues and has diverse pharmacological effects. However, the role of taurine in modulating smooth muscle contractility is still controversial. We propose that taurine (5-80 mM) can exert bidirectional modulation on the contractility of isolated rat jejunal segments. Different low and high contractile states were induced in isolated jejunal segments of rats to observe the effects of taurine and the associated mechanisms. Taurine induced stimulatory effects on the contractility of isolated rat jejunal segments at 3 different low contractile states, and inhibitory effects at 3 different high contractile states. Bidirectional modulation was not observed in the presence of verapamil or tetrodotoxin, suggesting that taurine-induced bidirectional modulation is Ca{sup 2+} dependent and requires the presence of the enteric nervous system. The stimulatory effects of taurine on the contractility of isolated jejunal segments was blocked by atropine but not by diphenhydramine or by cimetidine, suggesting that muscarinic-linked activation was involved in the stimulatory effects when isolated jejunal segments were in a low contractile state. The inhibitory effects of taurine on the contractility of isolated jejunal segments were blocked by propranolol and L-NG-nitroarginine but not by phentolamine, suggesting that adrenergic β receptors and a nitric oxide relaxing mechanism were involved when isolated jejunal segments were in high contractile states. No bidirectional effects of taurine on myosin phosphorylation were observed. The contractile states of jejunal segments determine taurine-induced stimulatory or inhibitory effects, which are associated with muscarinic receptors and adrenergic β receptors, and a nitric oxide associated relaxing mechanism.

  20. Characterization of taurine as anti-obesity agent in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye Min; Do, Chang-Hee; Lee, Dong Hee

    2010-08-24

    Taurine plays an important role in reducing physiological stress. Recent studies indicated that taurine may serve as an anti-obesity agent at the cellular level. This study characterizes taurine's potential anti-obesity function in C. elegans, which have become a popular in vivo model for understanding the regulatory basis of lipid biosynthesis and deposition. Two strains of C. elegans were raised on a normal or high-fat diet: N2 (normal) and RB1600, a mutant in tub-1 that serves as a tubby homologue and functions parallel to the 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase gene (kat-1) in regulating lipid accumulation. Taurine's effect on lipid deposition was characterized according to assays of Sudan black B staining, triglyceride content measurement, food consumption, and mobility comparison. When N2 was treated with taurine after the culture in the high-fat media, the worms showed lower lipid accumulation in the assays of the Sudan black B staining and the triglyceride quantification. The anti-obesity effect was less evident in the experiment for RB1600. When the amount of taurine was increased for the high-fat-diet-treated N2 strain, fat deposition decreased and mobility increased in a dose-dependent manner. In the food consumption assays, taurine did not cause a significant change in food intake. Taken together, these results strongly imply that taurine plays an important role in reducing fat deposition by modulating cellular pathways for lipid accumulation and stimulating mobility, but not the pathways for lipid biosynthesis and food intake.

  1. Physiological role of taurine--from organism to organelle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, I H; Kristensen, D M; Holm, J B; Mortensen, O H

    2015-01-01

    Taurine is often referred to as a semi-essential amino acid as newborn mammals have a limited ability to synthesize taurine and have to rely on dietary supply. Taurine is not thought to be incorporated into proteins as no aminoacyl tRNA synthetase has yet been identified and is not oxidized in mammalian cells. However, taurine contributes significantly to the cellular pool of organic osmolytes and has accordingly been acknowledged for its role in cell volume restoration following osmotic perturbation. This review describes taurine homeostasis in cells and organelles with emphasis on taurine biophysics/membrane dynamics, regulation of transport proteins involved in active taurine uptake and passive taurine release as well as physiological processes, for example, development, lung function, mitochondrial function, antioxidative defence and apoptosis which seem to be affected by a shift in the expression of the taurine transporters and/or the cellular taurine content. © 2014 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. EFFECT OF ACUPUNCTURE ON PLASMA GLUCOSE LEVEL IN HUMAN VOLUNTEERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amit Kumar Chakraborty; Mrigendranath Gantait; Biswapati Mukherjee

    2006-01-01

    Objective To observe the changes of plasma glucose level (PGL) in human volunteers after acupuncture. Methods Seventy-seven human volunteers were taken up from the acupuncture clinic. All of pletion of acupuncture. All cases were at four hours abstinence from food before doing acupuncture. Results Plasma glucose level varied 5 mg% or more in 62 cases (80.51%) and only those were considered for computation. PGL increased in cases who had generally plasma glucose level below 90 mg% before acupuncture;and PGL decreased in cases who had plasma glucose 90 mg% or above. In 10 control cases there was no variation of the considerable level of 5 mg% in any case. Conclusion Bi-directional variation of PGL after acupuncture indicates that acupuncture can be used to maintain optimum PGL through endogenous mechanism,suggesting that it is applicable in controlling hyperglycemia in diabetes mellitus patients.

  3. Assessing plasma glucose and lipid levels, body weight and acute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessing plasma glucose and lipid levels, body weight and acute toxicity following oral ... Diabetes was induced in male and female Wistar rats with alloxan ... had good hypoglycemic activity and good effects on cardiovascular risk factors.

  4. Taurine transport in human placental trophoblast is important for regulation of cell differentiation and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desforges, M; Parsons, L; Westwood, M; Sibley, C P; Greenwood, S L

    2013-03-21

    The outer epithelial cell layer of human placenta, the syncytiotrophoblast, is a specialised terminally differentiated multinucleate tissue. It is generated and renewed from underlying cytotrophoblast cells that undergo proliferation, differentiation and fusion with syncytiotrophoblast. Acquisition of fresh cellular components is thought to be balanced by apoptosis and shedding of aged nuclei. This process of trophoblast cell turnover maintains a functional syncytiotrophoblast, capable of sufficient nutrient transfer from mother to foetus. Foetal growth restriction (FGR) is a pregnancy complication associated with aberrant trophoblast turnover and reduced activity of certain amino acid transporters, including the taurine transporter (TauT). Taurine is the most abundant amino acid in human placenta implying an important physiological role within this tissue. Unlike other amino acids, taurine is not incorporated into proteins and in non-placental cell types represents an important osmolyte involved in cell volume regulation, and is also cytoprotective. Here, we investigated the role of taurine in trophoblast turnover using RNA interference to deplete primary human trophoblast cells of TauT and reduce intracellular taurine content. Trophoblast differentiation was compromised in TauT-deficient cells, and susceptibility of these cells to an inflammatory cytokine that is elevated in FGR was increased, evidenced by elevated levels of apoptosis. These data suggest an important role for taurine in trophoblast turnover and cytoprotection.

  5. Protection of the ischemic myocardium by propionylcarnitine taurine amide. Comparison with other carnitine derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regitz, V; Paulson, D J; Noonan, J; Fleck, E; Shug, A L

    1987-01-01

    The cardioprotective effect of the two synthetic carnitine derivatives, propionylcarnitine taurine amide (PCTA) and butyrylcarnitine taurine amide (BCTA), were studied in isolated perfused rat hearts. The protective effects of PCTA and BCTA were compared with those of chemically similar compounds, which have already been investigated in part and reported on; i.e. propionylcarnitine, carnitine, taurine and the combination of propionylcarnitine and taurine. The addition of either PCTA or BCTA significantly improved the recovery of cardiac function of ischemic reperfused hearts. PCTA (0.5 mM) treated hearts regained 75%, 91% and 89% of their preischemic values for cardiac output, left ventricular pressure and dp/dt after 90 min ischemia and 15 min reperfusion. These parameters of cardiac function remained impaired in control hearts which recovered only 38% of the initial preischemic cardiac output, 73% of initial intraventricular developed pressure and 64% of initial positive dp/dt. The cardioprotective effects of PCTA, BCTA and propionylcarnitine were in the same range. However, PCTA and BCTA acted in 20-fold lower molar concentrations compared to propionylcarnitine. Carnitine (11 mM), taurine (11 mM) as well as the combination of propionylcarnitine and taurine at low concentrations had no cardioprotective effect in these experiments. Myocardial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and creatine phosphate (CP) concentrations were significantly higher in the PCTA or BCTA treated hearts than in controls, and lactate levels were reduced.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Cholesterol-lowing effect of taurine in HepG2 cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Junxia; Gao, Ya; Cao, Xuelian; Zhang, Jing; Chen, Wen

    2017-03-16

    A number of studies indicate that taurine promotes cholesterol conversion to bile acids by upregulating CYP7A1 gene expression. Few in vitro studies are concerned the concentration change of cholesterol and its product of bile acids, and the molecular mechanism of CYP7A1 induction by taurine. The levels of intracellular total cholesterol (TC), free cholesterol (FC), cholesterol ester (EC), total bile acids (TBA) and medium TBA were determined after HepG2 cells were cultured for 24/48 h in DMEM supplemented with taurine at the final concentrations of 1/10/20 mM respectively. The protein expressions of CYP7A1, MEK1/2, c-Jun, p-c-Jun and HNF-4α were detected. Taurine significantly reduced cellular TC and FC in dose -and time-dependent ways, and obviously increased intracellular/medium TBA and CYP7A1 expressions. There was no change in c-Jun expression, but the protein expressions of MEK1/2 and p-c-Jun were increased at 24 h and inhibited at 48 h by 20 mM taurine while HNF4α was induced after both of the 24 h and 48 h treatment. Taurine could enhance CYP7A1 expression by inducing HNF4α and inhibiting MEK1/2 and p-c-Jun expressions to promote intracellular cholesterol metabolism.

  7. Exogenous taurine attenuates mitochondrial oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress in rat cardiomyocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yujie Yang; Yue Zhang; Xiaoyu Liu; Ji Zuo; Keqiang Wang; Wen Liu; Junbo Ge

    2013-01-01

    Taurine,a conditionally essential amino acid,plays a critical role in cardiovascular function.Here we examined the effect of taurine on mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum in rat cardiomyocytes during glucose deprivation (GD).Data showed that cell viability,intracellular taurine contents,and taurine transporter expression were decreased during GD.In contrast,an increase in reactive oxygen species and intracellular Ca2+ contents was observed.GD also caused disrupted mitochondrial membrane potential,apoptotic cell death,and dissociation of unfolded protein response (UPR)-relative proteins in cardiomyocytes.Signal transduction analysis showed that Bcl-2 family protein balance was disturbed,caspase-12 was activated and UPR-relative protein levels were up-regulated.Moreover,pre-treatment with 80 mM exogenous taurine attenuated GD effect in cardiomyocytes.Our results suggest that taurine have beneficial effects on inhibiting mitochondria-dependent cell apoptosis and UPR-associated cell apoptosis and might have clinical impfications on acute myocardial infarction in future.

  8. A case of taurine-containing drink induced anaphylaxis

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Seung-Eun; Lee, Suh-Young; Jo, Eun-Jung; Kim, Mi-Young; Yang, Min-Suk; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Kim, Sae-Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Taurine is one of most abundant free amino acids in mammalian tissue. It has been used for various health functional foods as a main ingredient in food industry. A 33-year-old female patient repeatedly experienced generalized itching, urticaria, dyspnea and dizziness after drinking taurine-containing drinks. The patient showed positive response to oral challenge tests with taurine-containing drinks. The patient also showed positive response with synthetic taurine but not with natural taurine....

  9. Influence of dietary taurine and housing density on oviduct function in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Bin; Zhang, Yuan-shu; Ma, Zi-li; Zheng, Liu-hai; Li, Shuang-jie; Dou, Xin-hong; Gong, Jian-sen; Miao, Jin-feng

    2015-06-01

    Experiments were conducted to study the effects of dietary taurine and housing density on oviduct function in laying hens. Green-shell laying hens were randomly assigned to a free range group and two caged groups, one with low-density and the other with high-density housing. Each group was further divided into control (C) and taurine treatment (T) groups. All hens were fed the same basic diet except that the T groups' diet was supplemented with 0.1% taurine. The experiment lasted 15 d. Survival rates, laying rates, daily feed consumption, and daily weight gain were recorded. Histological changes, inflammatory mediator levels, and oxidation and anti-oxidation levels were determined. The results show that dietary taurine supplementation and reduced housing density significantly attenuated pathophysiological changes in the oviduct. Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) DNA binding activity increased significantly in the high-density housing group compared with the two other housing groups and was reduced by taurine supplementation. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) mRNA expression in the high-density and low-density C and T groups increased significantly. In the free range and low-density groups, dietary taurine significantly reduced the expression of TNF-α mRNA. Supplementation with taurine decreased interferon-γ (IFN-γ) mRNA expression significantly in the low-density groups. Interleukin 4 (IL-4) mRNA expression was significantly higher in caged hens. IL-10 mRNA expression was higher in the high-density C group than in the free range and low-density C groups. Supplementation with taurine decreased IL-10 mRNA expression significantly in the high-density group and increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in the free range hens. We conclude that taurine has important protective effects against oviduct damage. Reducing housing density also results in less oxidative stress, less inflammatory cell infiltration, and lower levels of inflammatory mediators in the oviduct

  10. Concentrations in plasma clozapine levels in schizophrenic and schizoaffective patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias García, Celso; Iglesias Alonso, Ana; Bobes, Julio

    2017-08-22

    There is great variability in plasma levels of clozapine. The objective of this study is to know the characteristics of patients treated with clozapine and the relationship between them and the variability of plasma levels. Descriptive, cross-sectional study of all patients currently treated with clozapine in a Psychiatric Service with a diagnosis of schizophrenic psychosis or schizoaffective disorder. The present study assessed physical situation, psychopathology and functionality of the patients and explored the associations and correlations between clinical variables and plasma levels. We studied 39 patients, predominantly men, with negative and depressive symptoms and cardiovascular risk factors (metabolic syndrome and smoking). Significant variability in dose and even greater in clozapine levels were observed. The levels of clozapine at equal doses/kg of body weight were higher in non-smokers, they had positive correlation with BMI and negative correlation with systolic BP, disruptive behaviors and number of cigarettes consumed. Plasma level monitoring clozapine is an important tool to avoid clozapine plasma levels monitoring and minimize undesirable clinical situations (metabolic syndrome, sedation, negative symptoms and functional impairment). It is also important to control the effects of a smoking habit for optimum drug bioavailability. Copyright © 2017 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Plasma obestatin levels in normal weight, obese and anorectic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamrazilová, H; Hainer, V; Sedlácková, D; Papezová, H; Kunesová, M; Bellisle, F; Hill, M; Nedvídková, J

    2008-01-01

    Obestatin is a recently discovered peptide produced in the stomach, which was originally described to suppress food intake and decrease body weight in experimental animals. We investigated fasting plasma obestatin levels in normal weight, obese and anorectic women and associations of plasma obestatin levels with anthropometric and hormonal parameters. Hormonal (obestatin, ghrelin, leptin, insulin) and anthropometric parameters and body composition were examined in 15 normal weight, 21 obese and 15 anorectic women. Fasting obestatin levels were significantly lower in obese than in normal weight and anorectic women, whereas ghrelin to obestatin ratio was increased in anorectic women. Compared to leptin, only minor differences in plasma obestatin levels were observed in women who greatly differed in the amount of fat stores. However, a negative correlation of fasting obestatin level with body fat indexes might suggest a certain role of obestatin in the regulation of energy homeostasis. A significant relationship between plasma obestatin and ghrelin levels, independent of anthropometric parameters, supports simultaneous secretion of both hormones from the common precursor. Lower plasma obestatin levels in obese women compared to normal weight and anorectic women as well as increased ghrelin to obestatin ratio in anorectic women might play a role in body weight regulation in these pathologies.

  12. Clinical significance of plasma metastin level in pancreatic cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katagiri, Fumihiko; Nagai, Kazuyuki; Kida, Atsushi; Tomita, Kenji; Oishi, Shinya; Takeyama, Masaharu; Doi, Ryuichiro; Fujii, Nobutaka

    2009-03-01

    Metastin, which is a 54-residue peptide coded by KiSS-1 gene, is an endogenous ligand to a G-protein-coupled receptor GPR54. Metastin suppresses a malignant tumor to metastasize and regulates secretion of gonadotropine releasing hormone. Physiological action of metastin has been focused on in oncology. It is reported that less KiSS-1 gene and more hOT7T175 gene which codes GPR54 are expressed in pancreatic cancers than in normal pancreatic tissues; however, there is no study that investigates the relationship between clinicopathological characteristics and plasma metastin concentration in pancreatic cancer patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between plasma metastin-like immunoreactive substance (LI) levels and clinical characteristics in pancreatic cancer patients. Thirty-three patients with pathologically confirmed pancreatic cancer before or just after treatments and 24 healthy volunteers were included in the study. Patients were grouped according to the International Union Against Cancer TNM classification. Plasma metastin-LI was measured by enzyme immunoassay. The plasma metastin-LI levels of cancer patients were significantly higher when compared with healthy volunteers. Significant relationship was not found between the plasma metastin-LI levels and the clinicopathological factors such as tumor size, invasion, lymph node metastasis and distant metastasis. The plasma metastin levels may be a significant biomarker to predict the presence of pancreatic cancer and could be used in pancreatic cancer screening.

  13. Association of plasma manganese levels with chronic renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-González, Cristina; López-Chaves, Carlos; Gómez-Aracena, Jorge; Galindo, Pilar; Aranda, Pilar; Llopis, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential trace element involved in the formation of bone and in amino acid, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. Mn excess may be neurotoxic to humans, affecting specific areas of the central nervous system. However, relatively little is known about its physiological and/or toxicological effects, and very few data are available concerning the role of Mn in chronic renal failure (CRF). This paper describes a 12-month study of the evolution of plasma Mn levels in predialysis patients with CRF and the relationship with energy and macronutrient intake. The participants in this trial were 64 patients with CRF in predialysis and 62 healthy controls. Plasma levels of creatinine, urea, uric acid, total protein and Mn were measured. The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was calculated using the Cockcroft-Gault index. The CRF patients had higher plasma levels of creatinine, urea, uric acid and Mn and a lower GFR than the controls. Plasma Mn was positively correlated with creatinine, plasma urea and plasma uric acid and was negatively correlated with the GFR and the intake of energy and macronutrients. In conclusion, CRF in predialysis patients is associated with increases in circulating levels of Mn.

  14. Sulfoacetate generated by Rhodopseudomonas palustris from taurine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denger, Karin; Weinitschke, Sonja; Hollemeyer, Klaus; Cook, Alasdair M

    2004-10-01

    Genes thought to encode (a) the regulator of taurine catabolism under carbon-limiting or nitrogen-limiting conditions and (b) taurine dehydrogenase were found in the genome of Rhodopseudomonas palustris. The organism utilized taurine quantitatively as a sole source of nitrogen (but not of carbon) for aerobic and photoheterotrophic growth. No sulfate was released, and the C-sulfonate bond was recovered stoichiometrically as sulfoacetate, which was identified by mass spectrometry. An inducible sulfoacetaldehyde dehydrogenase was detected. R. palustris thus contains a pathway to generate a natural product that was previously believed to be formed solely from sulfoquinovose.

  15. Plasma Adiponectin Levels in Acute Liver Failure Patients Treated with Plasma Filtration with Dialysis and Plasma Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Nakae, Hajime; Uji, Yoshitaka; Maeda, Kazuhisa; Tani, Tohru; Eguchi, Yutaka

    2015-08-01

    Plasma filtration with dialysis (PDF) is a blood purification therapy in which simple plasma exchange (PE) is performed using a selective membrane plasma separator while the dialysate flows outside of the hollow fibers. Improvement of hypoadiponectinemia is considered to be a useful therapeutic approach for ameliorating fatal conditions including cardio-metabolic and infectious disease. We investigated the effects of PDF in comparison to PE in terms of plasma adiponectin (APN) changes in patients with acute liver failure. Seventeen patients with liver failure were studied; PDF was performed 55 times and PE 14 times. Plasma APN levels increased significantly after PDF, while decreasing significantly after PE. PDF appears to be among the most useful blood purification therapies in acute liver failure cases in terms of increasing APN levels.

  16. Level crossings, excess times and transient plasma-wall interactions in fusion plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Theodorsen, Audun

    2016-01-01

    Based on a stochastic model for intermittent fluctuations in the boundary region of magnetically confined plasmas, an expression for the level crossing rate is derived from the joint distribution of the process and its derivative. From this the average time spent by the process above a certain threshold level is obtained. This provides novel predictions of plasma-wall interactions due to transient transport events associated with radial motion of blob-like structures in the scrape-off layer.

  17. A case of taurine-containing drink induced anaphylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Eun; Lee, Suh-Young; Jo, Eun-Jung; Kim, Mi-Young; Yang, Min-Suk; Chang, Yoon-Seok; Kim, Sae-Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Taurine is one of most abundant free amino acids in mammalian tissue. It has been used for various health functional foods as a main ingredient in food industry. A 33-year-old female patient repeatedly experienced generalized itching, urticaria, dyspnea and dizziness after drinking taurine-containing drinks. The patient showed positive response to oral challenge tests with taurine-containing drinks. The patient also showed positive response with synthetic taurine but not with natural taurine. Skin prick test and basophil activation test with the synthetic taurine were negative. To our knowledge, there has been no report of taurine-induced hypersensitivity reactions. We herein report the first case of taurine-containing drink induced anaphylaxis, especially by synthetic taurine.

  18. Acute effect of smoking on plasma Obestatin levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saroglou Maria

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking and smoking cessation are considered to be associated with weight changes. We have recently shown that smoking acutely increases plasma levels of ghrelin, a known orexigenic hormone. Obestatin is a peptide encoded by the ghrelin gene, which opposes ghrelin effects on food intake. We conducted a study in adult volunteers measuring plasma levels of obestatin immediately after initiation of smoking. Methods 31 volunteers (mean age 32.2 ± 9.2 years and mean BMI 25.7 ± 4.1, 17 smokers and 14 non-smokers, were enrolled in our study. The 2 groups were matched in age and BMI. Plasma obestatin concentrations were determined at baseline (T0, 2 (T2, 5 (T5, 15 (T15, and 60 (T60 minutes after the initiation of smoking. Results In all 31 subjects, no significant difference in the mean values of plasma obestatin levels was observed from baseline at T2, T5, T15 and T60 after initiation of smoking (overall p = 0.15. However, a trend for higher obestatin levels was noted in smokers vs non-smokers (overall p = 0.069, which was not related to the pack-years. Conclusion On the contrary with ghrelin's response after smoking initiation, there is no such an acute response of plasma obestatin levels.

  19. Taurine and magnesium supplementation enhances the function of endothelial progenitor cells through antioxidation in healthy men and spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katakawa, Mayumi; Fukuda, Noboru; Tsunemi, Akiko; Mori, Mari; Maruyama, Takashi; Matsumoto, Taro; Abe, Masanori; Yamori, Yukio

    2016-12-01

    Endothelial damage is repaired by endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), which are pivotal in preventing cardiovascular diseases and prolonging lifespan. The WHO Cardiovascular Diseases and Alimentary Comparison Study demonstrated that dietary taurine and magnesium (Mg) intake suppresses cardiovascular diseases. We herein evaluate the effects of taurine and Mg supplementation on EPC function and oxidative stress in healthy men and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Healthy men received taurine (3 g per day) or Mg (340 mg per day) for 2 weeks. SHRs and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were housed with high-salt drinking water (1% NaCl). The SHRs received 3% taurine solution and/or a high-Mg (600 mg per 100 g) diet for 4 weeks. Their peripheral blood mononuclear cells were separated to quantify EPC colony formation. Oxidative stress markers in their peripheral blood were evaluated using a free radical analytical system and a thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) assay. Taurine and Mg supplementation significantly increased EPC colony numbers and significantly decreased free radical levels and TBARS scores in healthy men. Taurine and Mg supplementation significantly increased EPC colony numbers and significantly decreased TBARS scores and free radical levels in SHRs. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase component mRNA expression was significantly higher in the renal cortex of salt-loaded SHRs than in WKY rats, in which it was suppressed by taurine and Mg supplementation. Taurine and Mg supplementation increased EPC colony formation in healthy men and improved impaired EPC function in SHRs through antioxidation, indicating that the dietary intake of taurine and Mg may prolong lifespan by preventing the progression of cardiovascular diseases.

  20. Alterations of taurine in the brain of chronic kainic acid epilepsy model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baran, H

    2006-10-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the changes of taurine in the kainic acid (KA, 10 mg/kg, s.c.) chronic model of epilepsy, six months after KA application. The KA-rats used were divided into a group of animals showing weak behavioural response to KA (WDS, rare focal convulsion; rating scale 3 up to 3 h after KA injection). The brain regions investigated were caudate nucleus, substantia nigra, septum, hippocampus, amygdala/piriform cortex, and frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital cortices. KA-rats with rating rats with rating >3 developed spontaneous recurrent seizures and six months after injection increased taurine levels were found in the caudate nucleus (162.5% of control) and hippocampus (126.6% of control), while reduced taurine levels were seen in the septum (78.2% of control). In summary, increased taurine levels in the hippocampus may involve processes for membrane stabilisation, thus favouring recovery after neuronal hyperactivity. The increased taurine levels in the caudate nucleus could be involved in the modulation of spontaneous recurrent seizure activity.

  1. Plasminogen and fibrinogen plasma levels in coronary artery disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Luciana Moreira; Carvalho, Maria das Graças; Sousa, Marinez de Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Objective The formation of thrombi at the site of atherosclerotic lesions plays a central role in atherothrombosis. Impaired fibrinolysis may exacerbate pre-existing coronary artery disease and potentiate its evolution. While the fibrinogen plasma level has been strongly associated with the severity of coronary artery disease, its relevance in the evaluation of plasminogen in coronary artery disease patients remains unclear. This study evaluated fibrinogen and plasminogen levels in subjects with coronary artery disease as diagnosed by angiography. Methods This is a cross-sectional study. Blood samples obtained from 17 subjects with angiographically normal coronary arteries (controls), 12 with mild/moderate atheromatosis and 28 with severe atheromatosis were evaluated. Plasma plasminogen and fibrinogen levels were measured by chromogenic and coagulometric methods, respectively. Results Fibrinogen levels were significantly higher in the severe atheromatosis group compared to the other groups(p-value < 0.0001). A significant positive correlation was observed between the severity of coronary artery diseaseand increasing fibrinogen levels (r = 0.50; p-value < 0.0001) and between fibrinogen and plasminogen levels (r =0.46; p-value < 0.0001). There were no significant differences in the plasminogen levels between groups. Conclusion Plasma fibrinogen, but not plasminogen levels were higher in patients with coronary artery disease compared to angiographically normal subjects. The plasma fibrinogen levels also appear to be associated with the severity of the disease. The results of this study provide no evidence of a significant correlation between plasma plasminogen levels and the progress of coronary stenosis in the study population. PMID:23049444

  2. Plasma BDNF levels following weight recovery in anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Kathryn E; Jimerson, David C; Pillai, Anilkumar; Wolfe, Barbara E

    2016-10-15

    Preclinical studies have implicated brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the regulation of eating behavior and body weight. As reviewed in this report, prior studies of BDNF levels in anorexia nervosa have yielded variable results, perhaps reflecting effects of malnutrition and psychiatric comorbidity. The goal of the current report was to assess plasma BDNF as a biomarker in weight-recovered individuals with a history of anorexia nervosa (ANWR). Study groups included women meeting criteria for ANWR and healthy female controls. Participants were in a normal weight range, free of current major psychiatric disorder, and free of medication. Self-ratings included eating disorder symptoms, depression and anxiety. Plasma BDNF levels were measured by enzyme linked immunoassay. Plasma BDNF levels were not significantly different for ANWR and control groups. Plasma BDNF levels were inversely correlated with anxiety ratings in controls (p<0.02) but not in the ANWR group. This report provides new evidence that circulating BDNF concentrations do not differ in healthy controls and ANWR free of psychiatric comorbidity. Additionally, the data provide new information on the relationship between plasma BDNF and anxiety in these two study groups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of Addition of Taurine on the Liquid Storage (5°C of Mithun (Bos frontalis Semen

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    P. Perumal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to assess the effect of taurine on sperm motility, viability, total sperm abnormalities, acrosomal and plasma membrane integrity, enzymatic profiles such as reduced glutathione (GSH, glutathione peroxidase (GPX, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and catalase (CAT, and biochemical profiles such as cholesterol efflux and malondialdehyde (MDA production. A total of 50 ejaculates were collected twice a week from 8 mithun bulls, and semen was split into 4 equal aliquots and diluted with the TEYC extender. Group 1: semen was without additives (control; groups 2 to 4: semen was diluted with 25 mM, 50 mM, and 100 mM of taurine, respectively. Seminal parameters and enzymatic and biochemical profiles were assessed at 5°C. Inclusion of taurine into diluent resulted in significant ( decreases in percentages of dead spermatozoa, abnormal spermatozoa, and acrosomal abnormalities after liquid storage compared with the control group. Additionally, taurine at 50 mM has significant improvement in quality of mithun semen than taurine at 25 or 100 mM stored in in vitro at 5°C. It was concluded that the possible protective effects of taurine on sperm parameters are from enhancing the function of antioxidant enzymes, preventing efflux of cholesterol from cell membranes and decreased MDA production.

  4. Taurine zinc solid dispersions attenuate doxorubicin-induced hepatotoxicity and cardiotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Mei, Xueting; Yuan, Jingquan; Lu, Wenping; Li, Binglong; Xu, Donghui

    2015-11-15

    The clinical efficacy of anthracycline anti-neoplastic agents is limited by cardiac and hepatic toxicities. The aim of this study was to assess the hepatoprotective and cardioprotective effects of taurine zinc solid dispersions, which is a newly-synthesized taurine zinc compound, against doxorubicin-induced toxicity in Sprague-Dawley rats intraperitoneally injected with doxorubicin hydrochloride (3mg/kg) three times a week (seven injections) over 28 days. Hemodynamic parameters, levels of liver toxicity markers and oxidative stress were assessed. Taurine zinc significantly attenuated the reductions in blood pressure, left ventricular pressure and ± dp/dtmax, increases in serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities, and reductions in serum Zn(2+) and albumin levels (Ptaurine zinc dose-dependently increased liver superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione concentration, and decreased malondialdehyde level (PTaurine zinc dose-dependently increased liver heme oxygenase-1 and UDP-glucuronyl transferase mRNA and protein expression (Ptaurine zinc inhibited c-Jun N-terminal kinase phosphorylation by upregulating dual-specificity phosphoprotein phosphatase-1. Additionally, taurine zinc inhibited cardiomyocyte apoptosis as there was decreased TUNEL/DAPI positivity and protein expression of caspase-3. These results indicate that taurine zinc solid dispersions prevent the side-effects of anthracycline-based anticancer therapy. The mechanisms might be associated with the enhancement of antioxidant defense system partly through activating transcription to synthesize endogenous phase II medicine enzymes and anti-apoptosis through inhibiting JNK phosphorylation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Potential benefits of taurine in the prevention of skeletal muscle impairment induced by disuse in the hindlimb-unloaded rat.

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    Pierno, Sabata; Liantonio, Antonella; Camerino, Giulia M; De Bellis, Michela; Cannone, Maria; Gramegna, Gianluca; Scaramuzzi, Antonia; Simonetti, Simonetta; Nicchia, Grazia Paola; Basco, Davide; Svelto, Maria; Desaphy, Jean-François; Camerino, Diana Conte

    2012-07-01

    Hindlimb unloading (HU) in rats induces severe atrophy and a slow-to-fast phenotype transition in postural slow-twitch muscles, as occurs in human disuse conditions, such as spaceflight or bed rest. In rats, a reduction of soleus muscle weight and a decrease of cross-sectional area (CSA) were observed as signs of atrophy. An increased expression of the fast-isoform of myosin heavy chain (MHC) showed the phenotype transition. In parallel the resting cytosolic calcium concentration (restCa) was decreased and the resting chloride conductance (gCl), which regulates muscle excitability, was increased toward the values of the fast-twitch muscles. Here, we investigated the possible role of taurine, which is known to modulate calcium homeostasis and gCl, in the restoration of muscle impairment due to 14-days-HU. We found elevated taurine content and higher expression of the taurine transporter TauT in the soleus muscle as compared to the fast-twitch extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle of control rats. Taurine level was reduced in the HU soleus muscle, although, TauT expression was not modified. Taurine oral supplementation (5 g/kg) fully prevented this loss, and preserved resting gCl and restCa together with the slow MHC phenotype. Taurine supplementation did not prevent the HU-induced drop of muscle weight or fiber CSA, but it restored the expression of MURF-1, an atrophy-related gene, suggesting a possible early protective effect of taurine. In conclusion, taurine prevented the HU-induced phenotypic transition of soleus muscle and might attenuate the atrophic process. These findings argue for the beneficial use of taurine in the treatment of disuse-induced muscle dysfunction.

  6. The preventive effects of taurine on neural tube defects through the Wnt/PCP-Jnk-dependent pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qinghua; Liu, Yang; Wang, Hui; Ma, Li; Xia, Hechun; Niu, Jianguo; Sun, Tao; Zhang, Li

    2017-07-17

    The aim of this study was to clarify the protective role of taurine in neuronal apoptosis and the role of the Wnt/PCP-Jnk pathway in mediating the preventive effects of taurine on neural tube defects (NTDs). HT-22 cells (a hippocampal neuron cell line) were divided into a control group, a glutamate-induced apoptosis group, and glutamate (4.0 mmol/L) plus low-dose taurine (L; 0.5 mmol/L) and high-dose taurine (H; 2.0 mmol/L) groups. The MTT assay was used to monitor cell proliferation and cell survival. Immunofluorescence and Western blot analyses were used to determine caspase 9 expression. Retinoic acid (RA) induced embryonic NTDs in Kunming mice, thus establishing an NTD model. Pregnant mice were divided into a control group, an RA (30 mg/kg body weight) group, and an RA (30 mg/kg body weight) plus taurine (free drinking of 2 g/L solution) group. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot analyses were used to detect the expression of Dvl, RhoA and phosphorylated (p)-Jnk/Jnk in the embryonic neural tubes. In HT-22 cells, the apoptosis rate was significantly higher and caspase 9 activation was also significantly increased in the glutamate-induced apoptosis group compared to the L and H taurine groups. In the NTD model, the expression levels of Dvl, RhoA, and p-Jnk were significantly higher in the RA group than in the control group, whereas they were significantly reduced in the RA + taurine group. This study suggests that taurine has positive effects on neuronal protection and NTD prevention. Moreover, the Wnt/PCP-Jnk-dependent pathway plays an important role in taurine-mediated prevention of NTDs.

  7. Knockout of the murine cysteine dioxygenase gene results in severe impairment in ability to synthesize taurine and an increased catabolism of cysteine to hydrogen sulfide

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    Ueki, Iori; Roman, Heather B.; Valli, Alessandro; Fieselmann, Krista; Lam, Jimmy; Peters, Rachel; Hirschberger, Lawrence L.

    2011-01-01

    Cysteine homeostasis is dependent on the regulation of cysteine dioxygenase (CDO) in response to changes in sulfur amino acid intake. CDO oxidizes cysteine to cysteinesulfinate, which is further metabolized to either taurine or to pyruvate plus sulfate. To gain insight into the physiological function of CDO and the consequence of a loss of CDO activity, mice carrying a null CDO allele (CDO+/− mice) were crossed to generate CDO−/−, CDO+/−, and CDO+/+ mice. CDO−/− mice exhibited postnatal mortality, growth deficit, and connective tissue pathology. CDO−/− mice had extremely low taurine levels and somewhat elevated cysteine levels, consistent with the lack of flux through CDO-dependent catabolic pathways. However, plasma sulfate levels were slightly higher in CDO−/− mice than in CDO+/− or CDO+/+ mice, and tissue levels of acid-labile sulfide were elevated, indicating an increase in cysteine catabolism by cysteine desulfhydration pathways. Null mice had lower hepatic cytochrome c oxidase levels, suggesting impaired electron transport capacity. Supplementation of mice with taurine improved survival of male pups but otherwise had little effect on the phenotype of the CDO−/− mice. H2S has been identified as an important gaseous signaling molecule as well as a toxicant, and pathology may be due to dysregulation of H2S production. Control of cysteine levels by regulation of CDO may be necessary to maintain low H2S/sulfane sulfur levels and facilitate the use of H2S as a signaling molecule. PMID:21693692

  8. Plasma Actin, Gelsolin and Orosomucoid Levels after Eccentric Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tékus, Éva; Váczi, Márk; Horváth-Szalai, Zoltán; Ludány, Andrea; Kőszegi, Tamás; Wilhelm, Márta

    2017-02-01

    The present study investigated the acute effect of eccentric exercise on blood plasma actin, gelsolin (GSN) and orosomucoid (AGP) levels in untrained and moderately trained individuals, and their correlation with exercise induced muscle damage (EIMD) markers (CK, intensity of muscle soreness and maximal voluntary contraction torque deficit). Healthy physical education students (6 untrained, 12 moderately trained) participated in this research. Actin, GSN, AGP and CK levels were measured in blood plasma at baseline, immediately, 1 h, 6 h and 24 h post-exercise comprising 90 eccentric quadriceps contractions performed on a dynamometer. There was significant time main effect for GSN, AGP, CK and significant difference was found between baseline and the lowest value of post-exercise GSN (p exercise AGP (p exercise and CK activity at 6 h, p exercise, p eccentric exercise do not seem sensitive to training status. The plasma actin level is used as an indicator of injury, however, our results suggest that it is not an accurate marker of EIMD, while plasma GSN concentrations show a better relationship with EIMD and the post-exercise inflammatory process. The elevated plasma AGP and the correlation between GSN and AGP seem to be promising for assessment of exercise-induced muscle injury.

  9. Neuroprotective influence of taurine on fluoride-induced biochemical and behavioral deficits in rats.

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    Adedara, Isaac A; Abolaji, Amos O; Idris, Umar F; Olabiyi, Bolanle F; Onibiyo, Esther M; Ojuade, TeminiJesu D; Farombi, Ebenezer O

    2017-01-05

    Epidemiological and experimental studies have demonstrated that excessive exposure to fluoride induced neurodevelopmental toxicity both in humans and animals. Taurine is a free intracellular β-amino acid with antioxidant and neuroprotective properties. The present study investigated the neuroprotective mechanism of taurine by evaluating the biochemical and behavioral characteristics in rats exposed to sodium fluoride (NaF) singly in drinking water at 15 mg/L alone or orally co-administered by gavage with taurine at 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight for 45 consecutive days. Locomotor behavior was assessed using video-tracking software during a 10-min trial in a novel environment while the brain structures namely the hypothalamus, cerebrum and cerebellum of the rats were processed for biochemical determinations. Results showed that taurine administration prevented NaF-induced locomotor and motor deficits namely decrease in total distance travelled, total body rotation, maximum speed, absolute turn angle along with weak forelimb grip, increased incidence of fecal pellets and time of grooming, immobility and negative geotaxis. The taurine mediated enhancement of the exploratory profiles of NaF-exposed rats was supported by track and occupancy plot analyses. Moreover, taurine prevented NaF-induced increase in hydrogen peroxide and lipid peroxidation levels but increased acetylcholinesterase and the antioxidant enzymes activities in the hypothalamus, cerebrum and cerebellum of the rats. Collectively, taurine protected against NaF-induced neurotoxicity via mechanisms involving the restoration of acetylcholinesterase activity and antioxidant status with concomitant inhibition of lipid peroxidation in the brain of rats. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Synthesis and characterization of Taurine

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    B Bayarmaa

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Have been obtained 2-aminoethanesulfonic acid (taurine from ethanolamine, sulfuric acid and sodium sulfite during the synthesis in laboratory condition. The process involves two steps of reactions, the first was esterification of ethanolamine with sulfuric acid to produce the intermediate product of 2-aminoethyl ester which than was extended to the second step by sulfonation with sodium sulfite to produce 2-aminoethanesulfonic acid. Resulting product was analyzed using 1H-NMR, IR, FAB-MS analysis and examined purity characterizations of the synthesized products. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5564/mjc.v14i0.200 Mongolian Journal of Chemistry 14 (40, 2013, p57-60

  11. Assessing Stress in Arctic Lemmings: Fecal Metabolite Levels Reflect Plasma Free Corticosterone Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauteux, Dominique; Gauthier, Gilles; Berteaux, Dominique; Bosson, Curtis; Palme, Rupert; Boonstra, Rudy

    Interest in the ecology of stress in wild populations has triggered the development of noninvasive methods for quantifying stress hormones. Measurement of fecal corticosteroid metabolites (FCMs) is one such method, but it is still unclear whether FCMs can be a reliable proxy of free plasma glucocorticoids. To assess the validity of this assumption, we carried out a robust assessment on brown lemmings (Lemmus trimucronatus) from Bylot Island, Nunavut, Canada, that were hand captured and anesthetized and related plasma glucocorticoid levels to fecal metabolite glucocorticoid levels. We examined endogenous factors that could explain interindividual variability. Blood corticosterone was measured from samples obtained on capture and 30 min later, and FCM levels were measured from animals kept in captivity for 72 h. Plasma free corticosterone increased 135-fold over baseline values 30 min after capture, which confirmed that initial handling was perceived as a stressor. We found that FCM levels were highly related with free (marginal [Formula: see text] = 0.53) but not with total ([Formula: see text] = 0.02) corticosterone levels, regardless of age, sex, and reproductive condition. FCM levels started increasing 2 h after capture and reached maximum levels 4 h after capture. No circadian rhythm in FCMs was found. Plasma total corticosterone levels were much higher in adult females compared with adult males, but this difference was much smaller when measuring free corticosterone levels and FCM levels. Our results suggest that FCM levels are good measures of stress by being closely related to plasma free corticosterone levels in brown lemmings.

  12. Plasma protein carbonyl levels and breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossner, Pavel; Terry, Mary Beth; Gammon, Marilie D; Agrawal, Meenakshi; Zhang, Fang Fang; Ferris, Jennifer S; Teitelbaum, Susan L; Eng, Sybil M; Gaudet, Mia M; Neugut, Alfred I; Santella, Regina M

    2007-01-01

    To study the role of oxidative stress in breast cancer risk, we analysed plasma levels of protein carbonyls in 1050 cases and 1107 controls. We found a statistically significant trend in breast cancer risk in relation to increasing quartiles of plasma protein carbonyl levels (OR = 1.2, 95% CI = 0.9-1.5; OR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.2-2.0; OR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.2-2.1, for the 2(nd), 3(rd) and 4(th) quartile relative to the lowest quartile, respectively, P for trend = 0.0001). The increase in risk was similar for younger ( or = 15 grams/day for 4(th) quartile versus lowest quartile OR = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.1-4.7), and hormone replacement therapy use (HRT, OR = 2.6, 95% CI = 1.6-4.4 for 4(th) quartile versus lowest quartile). The multiplicative interaction terms were statistically significant only for physical activity and HRT. The positive association between plasma protein carbonyl levels and breast cancer risk was also observed when the analysis was restricted to women who had not received chemotherapy or radiation therapy prior to blood collection. Among controls, oxidized protein levels significantly increased with cigarette smoking and higher fruit and vegetable consumption, and decreased with alcohol consumption >30 grams per day. Women with higher levels of plasma protein carbonyl and urinary 15F(2t)-isoprostane had an 80% increase in breast cancer risk (OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.2-2.6) compared to women with levels below the median for both markers of oxidative stress. In summary, our results suggest that increased plasma protein carbonyl levels may be associated with breast cancer risk.

  13. Physiological roles of taurine in heart and muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Taurine (aminoethane sulfonic acid) is an ubiquitous compound, found in very high concentrations in heart and muscle. Although taurine is classified as an amino acid, it does not participate in peptide bond formation. Nonetheless, the amino group of taurine is involved in a number of important conjugation reactions as well as in the scavenging of hypochlorous acid. Because taurine is a fairly inert compound, it is an ideal modulator of basic processes, such as osmotic pressure, cation homeostasis, enzyme activity, receptor regulation, cell development and cell signalling. The present review discusses several physiological functions of taurine. First, the observation that taurine depletion leads to the development of a cardiomyopathy indicates a role for taurine in the maintenance of normal contractile function. Evidence is provided that this function of taurine is mediated by changes in the activity of key Ca2+ transporters and the modulation Ca2+ sensitivity of the myofibrils. Second, in some species, taurine is an established osmoregulator, however, in mammalian heart the osmoregulatory function of taurine has recently been questioned. Third, taurine functions as an indirect regulator of oxidative stress. Although this action of taurine has been widely discussed, its mechanism of action is unclear. A potential mechanism for the antioxidant activity of taurine is discussed. Fourth, taurine stabilizes membranes through direct interactions with phospholipids. However, its inhibition of the enzyme, phospholipid N-methyltransferase, alters the phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine content of membranes, which in turn affects the function of key proteins within the membrane. Finally, taurine serves as a modulator of protein kinases and phosphatases within the cardiomyocyte. The mechanism of this action has not been studied. Taurine is a chemically simple compound, but it has profound effects on cells. This has led to the suggestion that taurine is an

  14. Physiological roles of taurine in heart and muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Stephen W; Jong, Chian Ju; Ramila, K C; Azuma, Junichi

    2010-08-24

    Taurine (aminoethane sulfonic acid) is an ubiquitous compound, found in very high concentrations in heart and muscle. Although taurine is classified as an amino acid, it does not participate in peptide bond formation. Nonetheless, the amino group of taurine is involved in a number of important conjugation reactions as well as in the scavenging of hypochlorous acid. Because taurine is a fairly inert compound, it is an ideal modulator of basic processes, such as osmotic pressure, cation homeostasis, enzyme activity, receptor regulation, cell development and cell signalling. The present review discusses several physiological functions of taurine. First, the observation that taurine depletion leads to the development of a cardiomyopathy indicates a role for taurine in the maintenance of normal contractile function. Evidence is provided that this function of taurine is mediated by changes in the activity of key Ca2+ transporters and the modulation Ca2+ sensitivity of the myofibrils. Second, in some species, taurine is an established osmoregulator, however, in mammalian heart the osmoregulatory function of taurine has recently been questioned. Third, taurine functions as an indirect regulator of oxidative stress. Although this action of taurine has been widely discussed, its mechanism of action is unclear. A potential mechanism for the antioxidant activity of taurine is discussed. Fourth, taurine stabilizes membranes through direct interactions with phospholipids. However, its inhibition of the enzyme, phospholipid N-methyltransferase, alters the phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine content of membranes, which in turn affects the function of key proteins within the membrane. Finally, taurine serves as a modulator of protein kinases and phosphatases within the cardiomyocyte. The mechanism of this action has not been studied. Taurine is a chemically simple compound, but it has profound effects on cells. This has led to the suggestion that taurine is an

  15. Plasma separation: physical separation at the molecular level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueroult, Renaud; Rax, Jean-Marcel; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2016-09-01

    Separation techniques are usually divided in two categories depending on the nature of the discriminating property: chemical or physical. Further to this difference, physical and chemical techniques differ in that chemical separation typically occurs at the molecular level, while physical separation techniques commonly operate at the macroscopic scale. Separation based on physical properties can in principle be realized at the molecular or even atomic scale by ionizing the mixture. This is in essence plasma based separation. Due to this fundamental difference, plasma based separation stands out from other separation techniques, and features unique properties. In particular, plasma separation allows separating different elements or chemical compounds based on physical properties. This could prove extremely valuable to separate macroscopically homogeneous mixtures made of substances of similar chemical formulation. Yet, the realization of plasma separation techniques' full potential requires identifying and controlling basic mechanisms in complex plasmas which exhibit suitable separation properties. In this paper, we uncover the potential of plasma separation for various applications, and identify the key physics mechanisms upon which hinges the development of these techniques.

  16. Neuroprotection of taurine against reactive oxygen species is associated with inhibiting NADPH oxidases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Zhou; Gao, Li-Yan; Lin, Yu-Hui; Chang, Lei; Wu, Hai-Yin; Luo, Chun-Xia; Zhu, Dong-Ya

    2016-04-15

    It is well established that taurine shows potent protection against glutamate-induced injury to neurons in stroke. The neuroprotection may result from multiple mechanisms. Increasing evidences suggest that NADPH oxidases (Nox), the primary source of superoxide induced by N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor activation, are involved in the process of oxidative stress. We found that 100μM NMDA induced oxidative stress by increasing the reactive oxygen species level, which contributed to the cell death, in vitro. Neuron cultures pretreated with 25mM taurine showed lower percentage of death cells and declined reactive oxygen species level. Moreover, taurine attenuated Nox2/Nox4 protein expression and enzyme activity and declined intracellular calcium intensity during NMDA-induced neuron injury. Additionally, taurine also showed neuroprotection against H2O2-induced injury, accompanying with Nox inhibition. So, we suppose that protection of taurine against reactive oxygen species during NMDA-induced neuron injury is associated with Nox inhibition, probably in a calcium-dependent manner. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of taurine supplementation on bone mineral density in ovariectomized rats fed calcium deficient diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Mi-Ja

    2009-01-01

    Taurine supplementation has been shown to have a beneficial effect on femur bone mineral content in ovariectomized rats. It therefore seemed desirable to find out whether the beneficial effect of taurine on ovariectomized rats fed calcium deficient diet could also be reproduced. Forty female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups. One group was OVX and the other group received sham operation (SHAM), and received either control diet or a taurine supplemented diet for 6 weeks. All rats were fed on calcium deficient diet (AIN-93: 50% level of calcium) and deionized water. Bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) were measured in spine and femur. The serum and urine concentrations of calcium and phosphorus were determined. Bone formation was measured by serum osteocalcin and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) concentrations. Bone resorption rate was measured by deoxypyridinoline (DPD) crosslinks immunoassay and corrected for creatinine. Urinary calcium and phosphorus excretion, osteocalcin in blood and cross link value were not significantly different among the groups. Within the OVX group, the taurine supplemented group had not higher femur bone mineral content than the control group. This study established the need for a study on the taurine effect on bone with different calcium levels.

  18. Tissue Taurine Depletion Alters Metabolic Response to Exercise and Reduces Running Capacity in Mice

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    Takashi Ito

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Taurine is a sulfur-containing amino acid found in very high concentration in skeletal muscle. Taurine deficient mice engineered by knocking out the taurine transporter gene exhibit skeletal muscle wasting, structural defects, and exercise intolerance. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism underlying the development of metabolic abnormalities and exercise intolerance in muscle of the TauTKO phenotype. Running speed and endurance time of TauTKO mice were lower than those of control mice. Blood lactate level was elevated by >3-fold during treadmill running in TauTKO mice but remained largely unaltered by exercise in WT mice. Blood glucose was cleared faster during treadmill running in TauTKO mice than WT mice. AMP-activated kinase (AMPK β-2 subunit was reduced in TauTKO muscle concomitant with a reduction in α1 and α2 subunits of AMPK. The level of PPARα and its targets, Gpx3, Cpt2, and Echs1, were also decreased in TauTKO muscle. Collectively, taurine depletion impairs metabolic adaptation to exercise in skeletal muscle, a phenomenon associated with a downregulation of AMPK and diminished NADH utilization by the mitochondrial respiratory chain. These findings suggest a crucial role of taurine in regulating energy metabolism in skeletal muscle of exercising TauTKO mice, changes that contribute to impaired exercise endurance.

  19. Imunoidentification of Albumin and Osteopontin in Seminal Plasma of Taurine and Zebuine Bulls/ Imunoidentificação de Albumina e Osteopontina no Plasma Seminal de Reprodutores Taurinos e Zebuínos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Costa Mattos

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Two dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was performed in seminal plasma of seven Bos taurus taurus and seven Bos taurus indicus bulls with high semen freezability, from an artificialinsemination center. In a 8% polyacrylamide gels, three bands of 195, 66 and 55 kDa, present in 100% of the samples in both sub-species, were analyzed by their optical densities. In Bos taurus samples, the opticals densities of 55 kDa band, imunoidentified as osteopontin were superior (pAs proteínas do plasma seminal de 14 reprodutores (7 Bos taurus taurus e 7 Bos taurus indicus, foram analisadas por eletroforese bidimensional, em géis de poliacrilamida a 8%, corados por Comassie Blue. Três bandas protéicas, presentes em 100% das amostras de plasma seminal, foram quantificadas de acordo com a densidade óptica exibida: 195 kDa, pI 6,5-7,5 ; 66 kDa, pI 5,4 e 55 kDa, pI 4,5. As amostras de plasma seminal provenientes de taurinos apresentaram densidades ópticas significativamente superiores (p < 0,05 às dos zebuínos na banda de 55 kDa, que foi imunoidentificada como osteopontina. As demais proteínas analisadas não apresentaram variações significativas entre as subespécies. A banda protéica de 66 kDa, foi imunoidentificada como albumina. Nas amostras provenientes de taurinos, as densidades ópticas das três bandas protéicas quantificadas não evidenciaram variação significativa entre os reprodutores. Entretanto, nos zebuínos, as densidades ópticas da albumina apresentaram diferenças significativas entre os touros (p < 0,05.

  20. Plasma brain natriuretic peptide levels in COPD without pulmonary hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed G. El Gazzar

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Plasma BNP can be used as a useful prognostic biomarker of COPD and a good predictor of exacerbation, As BNP level was significantly higher in COPD patients than in control groups, (p < 0.005 and also significantly higher in grade (IV, III than grade (II and was significantly higher in grade (II than grade (I COPD patients, BNP level significantly higher (p < 0.005 during exacerbation than during remission of COPD patients.

  1. Plasma and platelet serotonin levels in patients with liver cirrhosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the relationship between plasmaand platelet serotonin levels and the degree of liverinsufficiency.METHODS: The prospective study included 30 patients with liver cirrhosis and 30 healthy controls. The degree of liver failure was assessed according to the Child-Pugh classification. Platelet and platelet poor plasma serotonin levels were determined.RESULTS: The mean plasma serotonin level was higher in liver cirrhosis patients than in healthy subjects (215.0± 26.1 vs 63.1 ± 18.1 nmol/L; P < 0.0001). The mean platelet serotonin content was not significantly different in patients with liver cirrhosis compared with healthy individuals (4.8 ± 0.6; 4.2 ± 0.3 nmol/platelet; P > 0.05).Plasma serotonin levels were significantly higher in ChildPugh grade A/B than in grade C patients (246.8 ± 35.0vs132.3 ± 30.7 nmol/L; P < 0.05). However, platelet serotonin content was not significantly different between Child-Pugh grade C and grade A/B (4.6 ± 0.7 vs 5.2 ± 0.8nmol/platelet; P > 0.05).CONCLUSION: Plasma serotonin levels are significantly higher in patients with cirrhosis than in the controls and represent the degree of liver insufficiency. In addition,platelet poor plasma serotonin estimation is a better marker for liver insufficiency than platelet serotonin content.

  2. Change of plasma visfatin level in the population with different glucose tolerances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨媚

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate the change of plasma visfatin level and the relationship of plasma visfatin level to body mass index (BMI) , waist hip ratio (WHR) , blood glucose, plasma insulin levels as well as other factors in the subjects with different glucose tolerances. Methods Fasting and glucose loading 2 h plasma visfatin levels were assayed by ELISA in patients with type 2 diabetes

  3. The role of taurine in diabetes and the development of diabetic complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, S H

    2001-01-01

    The ubiquitously found beta-amino acid taurine has several physiological functions, e.g. in bile acid formation, as an osmolyte by cell volume regulation, in the heart, in the retina, in the formation of N-chlorotaurine by reaction with hypochlorous acid in leucocytes, and possibly for intracellular scavenging of carbonyl groups. Some animals, such as the cat and the C57BL/6 mouse, have disturbances in taurine homeostasis. The C57BL/6 mouse strain is widely used in diabetic and atherosclerotic animal models. In diabetes, the high extracellular levels of glucose disturb the cellular osmoregulation and sorbitol is formed intracellularly due to the intracellular polyol pathway, which is suspected to be one of the key processes in the development of diabetic late complications and associated cellular dysfunctions. Intracellular accumulation of sorbitol is most likely to cause depletion of other intracellular compounds including osmolytes such as myo-inositol and taurine. When considering the clinical complications in diabetes, several links can be established between altered taurine metabolism and the development of cellular dysfunctions in diabetes which cause the clinical complications observed in diabetes, e.g. retinopathy, neuropathy, nephropathy, cardiomyopathy, platelet aggregation, endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. Possible therapeutic perspectives could be a supplementation with taurine and other osmolytes and low-molecular compounds, perhaps in a combinational therapy with aldose reductase inhibitors. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Two weeks taurine supplementation reverses endothelial dysfunction in young male type 1 diabetics.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moloney, Michael A

    2010-10-01

    Type 1 diabetics have a well-recognised risk of accelerated cardiovascular disease. Even in the absence of clinical signs there are detectable abnormalities of conduit vessel function. Our group has previously reported reversal of endothelial dysfunction in diabetics with pravastatin. In young asymptomatic smokers, taurine supplementation has a beneficial impact on macrovascular function, assessed by FMD, and shows an up-regulation of nitric oxide from monocyte-endothelial cell interactions. We hypothesise that taurine supplementation reverses early endothelial abnormalities in young male type 1 diabetics, as assessed by applanation tonometry, brachial artery ultrasound and laser Doppler fluximetry. Asymptomatic, male diabetics (n=9) were scanned prior to treatment and then randomised in a double-blind cross-over fashion to receive either 2 weeks placebo or taurine. Control patients (n=10) underwent a baseline scan. Assessed diabetics had detectable, statistically significant abnormalities when compared with controls, in both arterial stiffness (augmentation index) and brachial artery reactivity (FMD). Both of these parameters were returned to control levels with 2 weeks taurine supplementation. In conclusion, 2 weeks taurine supplementation reverses early, detectable conduit vessel abnormalities in young male diabetics. This may have important implications in the long-term treatment of diabetic patients and their subsequent progression towards atherosclerotic disease.

  5. Taurine suppresses osteoblastic differentiation of aortic valve interstitial cells induced by beta-glycerophosphate disodium, dexamethasone and ascorbic acid via the ERK pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiang; Li, Jian-ming; Liao, Xiao-bo; Hu, Ye-rong; Shang, Bao-peng; Zhang, Zhi-yuan; Yuan, Ling-qing; Xie, Hui; Sheng, Zhi-feng; Tang, Hao; Zhang, Wei; Gu, Lu; Zhou, Xin-min

    2012-10-01

    Aortic valve calcification (AVC) is an active process characterized by osteoblastic differentiation of the aortic valve interstitial cells (AVICs). Taurine is a free β-amino acid and plays important physiological roles including protective effect of cardiovascular events. To evaluate the possible role of taurine in AVC, we isolated human AVICs from patients with type A dissection without leaflet disease. We demonstrated that the cultured AVICs express SM α-actin, vimentin and taurine transporter (TAUT), but not CD31, SM-myosin or desmin. We also established the osteoblastic differentiation model of the AVICs induced by pro-calcific medium (PCM) containing β-glycerophosphate disodium, dexamethasone and ascorbic acid in vitro. The results showed that taurine attenuated the PCM-induced osteoblastic differentiation of AVICs by decreasing the alkaline phosphate (ALP) activity/expression and the expression of the core binding factor α1 (Cbfα1) in a dose-dependent manner (reaching the maximum protective effect at 10 mM), and taurine (10 mM) inhibited the mineralization level of AVICs in the form of calcium content significantly. Furthermore, taurine activated the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) pathway via TAUT, and the inhibitor of ERK (PD98059) abolished the effect of taurine on both ALP activity/expression and Cbfα1 expression. These results suggested that taurine could inhibit osteoblastic differentiation of AVIC via the ERK pathway.

  6. Enhancing effect of taurine on CYP7A1 mRNA expression in Hep G2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, N V; Chen, W; Suruga, K; Nishimura, N; Goda, T; Yokogoshi, H

    2006-02-01

    Taurine has been reported to enhance cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) mRNA expression in animal models. However, no in vitro studies of this effect have been reported. The Hep G2 human hepatoma cell line has been recognized as a good model for studying the regulation of human CYP7A1. This work characterizes the effects of taurine on CYP7A1 mRNA levels of Hep G2 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In the dose-dependent experiment, Hep G2 cells were treated with 0, 2, 10 or 20 mM taurine in the presence or absence of cholesterol 0.2 mM for 48 h. In the time-dependent experiment, Hep G2 cells were treated with 0 or 20 mM taurine for 4, 24 and 48 h with and without cholesterol 0.2 mM. Our data revealed that taurine showed time- and dose-response effects on CYP7A1 mRNA levels in Hep G2 cells. However, glycine - a structural analogue of taurine - did not have an effect on CYP7A1 gene expression. These results show that, in agreement to previous studies on animal models, taurine induces the mRNA levels of CYP7A1 in Hep G2 cells, which could enhance cholesterol conversion into bile acids. Also, Hep G2 cell line may be an appropriate model to study the effects of taurine on human cholesterol metabolism.

  7. Abnormal plasma prothrombin (PIVKA-II) levels in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Y

    1989-05-01

    The concentration of abnormal prothrombin, or the protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist II (PIVKA-II) in 102 patients with hepatic disorders was measured by an enzyme immunoassay method. The concentration of PIVKA-II in the plasma was elevated in 11 out of 18 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and also in a patient with hepatoblastoma. There was no correlation between serum alpha-fetoprotein and plasma PIVKA-II levels. The PIVKA-II level was normal in 11 patients who had metastatic carcinoma or cholangiocellular carcinoma. Moreover, benign diseases of the liver did not cause an elevation in PIVKA-II. PIVKA-II might be an useful marker of hepatocellular carcinoma because, like alpha-fetoprotein, its level changes in close relation to the effects of treatment.

  8. Physiological role of taurine - from organism to organelle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambert, Ian Henry; Kristensen, David Møbjerg Boslev; Holm, Jacob Bak

    2015-01-01

    in mammalian cells. However, taurine contributes significantly to the cellular pool of organic osmolytes and has accordingly been acknowledged for its role in cell volume restoration following osmotic perturbation. This review describes taurine homeostasis in cells and organelles with emphasis on taurine...

  9. Radioimmunological analysis of plasma cortisole levels and daily plasma cortisole variation following triamcinolone acetonide therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, F.; Schuster, E.

    1980-08-01

    Plasma cortisol levels in a four-point daily profile were measured by radioimmunoassay before and during treatment with corticoid-containing ointments (triamcinolone acetonide) in 21 patients with psoriasis, who had no endocrine disorders. In the pretreatment phase there were typical circadian fluctuations of the plasma cortisol concentrations. Already after two days of treatment a significant suppression of adrenal function could be detected. This disfunction increased during continuous treatment. In comparison with a fluorimetric method, the radioimmunoassay allowed a better differentiation. This could be due to a lack of specificity and to susceptibility to erroneous measurement of the fluorimetric method. We could also confirm that the distribution of plasma cortisol levels is not a linear but a logarithmic one. Considering the log-normal distribution different mean values and variances are obtained.

  10. Therapeutic effect of taurine against aluminum-induced impairment on learning, memory and brain neurotransmitters in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenting, Lu; Ping, Liu; Haitao, Jiao; Meng, Qiao; Xiaofei, Ren

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the study was to demonstrate the therapeutic effect of taurine against aluminum (Al)-induced neurological disorders in rats. Forty-two Wistar rats were randomly allotted into six groups: control (saline only), Al exposure (281.4 mg/kg/day for 1 month), Al + taurine (Al administration as previously plus taurine, doses were 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg/day, respectively, for the next 1 month) and prevention group (along with the Al administration as previously, 400 mg/kg/day taurine was treated for 1 month. During the next 1 month, rats were given taurine 400 mg/kg/day only). Starting from the sixth week, the body weight gain was significantly reduced in Al exposure group compared with saline (P < 0.05), and at the eighth week, the gain in prevention group was increased compared with Al (P < 0.05). Brain coefficient was gained in Al exposure compared with saline or prevention group (P < 0.05). Al exposure resulted in learning and memory impairment by increasing the escape latency and searching distance, meanwhile, decreasing the swimming time in the quadrant of platform and the numbers of crossing the platform (P < 0.05). Unsurprisingly, taurine treatment (400, 800 mg/kg/day and prevention) significantly protected against Al-induced brain dysfunction (P < 0.05). The Al exposure led to significant decreases in levels of γ-GABA and Tau, meanwhile, increased in level of Asp and Glu compared with saline (P < 0.05). And yet, taurine treatment partially reversed the deteriorated changes. The results suggested that taurine probably has neuroprotective effect against Al-induced learning, memory and brain neurotransmitters dysfunction.

  11. Plasma carnitine levels in patients receiving home parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowyer, B A; Fleming, C R; Ilstrup, D; Nelson, J; Reek, S; Burnes, J

    1986-01-01

    Patients on long-term home parenteral nutrition (HPN) are known to frequently develop hepatic steatosis or steatohepatitis. The etiology of this steatosis or steatohepatitis is unknown, but carnitine deficiency has been one of the postulated mechanisms. The importance of L-carnitine in hepatic fatty acid oxidation and the steatosis observed in primary and acquired carnitine deficiencies prompted us to determine plasma carnitine levels in 37 patients receiving long-term HPN. Thirteen patients (35%) had low total and free plasma carnitine levels. Fifteen of the 37 HPN patients were matched for age and sex with 15 patients with Crohn's disease who did not require HPN. Mean total and free plasma carnitine values were significantly lower (p less than 0.001) in these 15 HPN patients (32.2 +/- 11.9 and 28.4 +/- 10.8) when compared to Crohn's patients not requiring HPN (49.1 +/- 10.9 and 46.4 +/- 11.5). Associations were not detected between plasma carnitine and clinical or biochemical parameters that might have explained the low values.

  12. Chronic treatment with taurine after intracerebroventricular streptozotocin injection improves cognitive dysfunction in rats by modulating oxidative stress, cholinergic functions and neuroinflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeta, K H; Singh, Devendra; Gupta, Y K

    2017-03-08

    The present study investigated the neuroprotective effects of taurine, an essential amino acid for growth and development of central nervous system. Intracerebroventricular streptozotocin (ICV-STZ) model of cognitive impairment was used in male Wistar rats (270 ± 20 g). Morris water maze, elevated plus maze and passive avoidance paradigm were used to assess cognitive performance. Taurine (40, 60 and 120 mg/kg) was administered orally for 28 days following STZ administration on day 1. Oxidative stress parameters (malondialdehyde, glutathione, nitric oxide and superoxide dismutase) and cholinesterases (acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase) activity were measured at end of the study in the cortex and hippocampus. Levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, expression of rho kinase-II (ROCK-II), glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) were studied in cortex and hippocampus. STZ caused significant cognitive impairment as compared to normal control. Chronic administration of taurine attenuated STZ-induced cognitive impairment. Increased oxidative stress and increased levels of TNF-α, IL-1β induced by STZ were also significantly attenuated by taurine. Taurine significantly (p < 0.05) decreased the STZ-induced increased expression of ROCK-II in cortex and hippocampus. Further, STZ-induced increased activity of cholinesterases was significantly (p < 0.001) mitigated by taurine. STZ decreased the expression of ChAT in hippocampus which was significantly (p < 0.05) reversed by taurine. However, GSK-3β expression was not altered by either STZ or taurine. The present study indicates that taurine exerts a neuroprotective role against STZ-induced cognitive impairment in rats. This effect is probably mediated by modulating oxidative stress, cholinesterases, inflammatory cytokines and expression of ROCK-II. Thus, this study suggests a potential of chronic taurine administration in cognitive impairment of Alzheimer's type.

  13. Plasma Leptin Levels in Children Hospitalized with Cholera in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkard, Brie; Uddin, Taher; Rahman, M Arifur; Franke, Molly F; Aktar, Amena; Uddin, Muhammad Ikhtear; Bhuiyan, Taufiqur Rahman; Leung, Daniel T; Charles, Richelle C; Larocque, Regina C; Harris, Jason B; Calderwood, Stephen B; Qadri, Firdausi; Ryan, Edward T

    2015-08-01

    Vibrio cholerae, the cause of cholera, induces both innate and adaptive immune responses in infected humans. Leptin is a hormone that plays a role in both metabolism and mediating immune responses. We characterized leptin levels in 11 children with cholera in Bangladesh, assessing leptin levels on days 2, 7, 30, and 180 following cholera. We found that patients at the acute stage of cholera had significantly lower plasma leptin levels than matched controls, and compared with levels in late convalescence. We then assessed immune responses to V. cholerae antigens in 74 children with cholera, correlating these responses to plasma leptin levels on day 2 of illness. In multivariate analysis, we found an association between day 2 leptin levels and development of later anti-cholera toxin B subunit (CtxB) responses. This finding appeared to be limited to children with better nutritional status. Interestingly, we found no association between leptin levels and antibody responses to V. cholerae lipopolysaccharide, a T cell-independent antigen. Our results suggest that leptin levels may be associated with cholera, including the development of immune responses to T cell-dependent antigens. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  14. Taurine depletion caused by knocking out the taurine transporter gene leads to cardiomyopathy with cardiac atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Takashi; Kimura, Yasushi; Uozumi, Yoriko; Takai, Mika; Muraoka, Satoko; Matsuda, Takahisa; Ueki, Kei; Yoshiyama, Minoru; Ikawa, Masahito; Okabe, Masaru; Schaffer, Stephen W; Fujio, Yasushi; Azuma, Junichi

    2008-05-01

    The sulfur-containing beta-amino acid, taurine, is the most abundant free amino acid in cardiac and skeletal muscle. Although its physiological function has not been established, it is thought to play an important role in ion movement, calcium handling, osmoregulation and cytoprotection. To begin examining the physiological function of taurine, we generated taurine transporter- (TauT-) knockout mice (TauTKO), which exhibited a deficiency in myocardial and skeletal muscle taurine content compared with their wild-type littermates. The TauTKO heart underwent ventricular remodeling, characterized by reductions in ventricular wall thickness and cardiac atrophy accompanied with the smaller cardiomyocytes. Associated with the structural changes in the heart was a reduction in cardiac output and increased expression of heart cardiac failure (fetal) marker genes, such as ANP, BNP and beta-MHC. Moreover, ultrastructural damage to the myofilaments and mitochondria was observed. Further, the skeletal muscle of the TauTKO mice also exhibited decreased cell volume, structural defects and a reduction of exercise endurance capacity. Importantly, the expression of Hsp70, ATA2 and S100A4, which are upregulated by osmotic stress, was elevated in both heart and skeletal muscle of the TauTKO mice. Taurine depletion causes cardiomyocyte atrophy, mitochondrial and myofiber damage and cardiac dysfunction, effects likely related to the actions of taurine. Our data suggest that multiple actions of taurine, including osmoregulation, regulation of mitochondrial protein expression and inhibition of apoptosis, collectively ensure proper maintenance of cardiac and skeletal muscular structure and function.

  15. Periodontal treatment decreases plasma oxidized LDL level and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaki, Naofumi; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Ekuni, Daisuke; Yamanaka, Reiko; Morita, Manabu

    2011-12-01

    Periodontitis induces excessive production of reactive oxygen species in periodontal lesions. This may impair circulating pro-oxidant/anti-oxidant balance and induce the oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in blood. The purpose of this study was to monitor circulating oxidized LDL and oxidative stress in subjects with chronic periodontitis following non-surgical periodontal treatment. Plasma levels of oxidized LDL and oxidative stress in 22 otherwise healthy non-smokers with chronic periodontitis (mean age 44.0 years) were measured at baseline and at 1 and 2 months after non-surgical periodontal treatment. At baseline, chronic periodontitis patients had higher plasma levels of oxidized LDL and oxidative stress than healthy subjects (p surgical periodontal treatment were effective in decreasing oxLDL, which was positively associated with a reduction in circulating oxidative stress.

  16. Plasma Lactate Dehydrogenase Levels Predict Mortality in Acute Aortic Syndromes

    OpenAIRE

    Morello, Fulvio; Ravetti, Anna; Nazerian, Peiman; Liedl, Giovanni; Veglio, Maria Grazia; Battista, Stefania; Vanni, Simone; Pivetta, Emanuele; Montrucchio, Giuseppe; Mengozzi, Giulio; Rinaldi, Mauro; Moiraghi, Corrado; Lupia, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In acute aortic syndromes (AAS), organ malperfusion represents a key event impacting both on diagnosis and outcome. Increased levels of plasma lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), a biomarker of malperfusion, have been reported in AAS, but the performance of LDH for the diagnosis of AAS and the relation of LDH with outcome in AAS have not been evaluated so far. This was a bi-centric prospective diagnostic accuracy study and a cohort outcome study. From 2008 to 2014, patients from 2 Emergency...

  17. Relationship between Plasma Leptin Level and Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anoop Shankar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Leptin is an adipose tissue-derived hormone shown to be related to several metabolic, inflammatory, and hemostatic factors related to chronic kidney disease. Recent animal studies have reported that infusion of recombinant leptin into normal rats for 3 weeks fosters the development of glomerulosclerosis. However, few studies have examined the association between leptin and CKD in humans. Therefore, we examined the association between plasma leptin levels and CKD in a representative sample of US adults. Methods. We examined the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey participants >20 years of age (n=5820, 53.6% women. Plasma leptin levels were categorized into quartiles (≤4.3 Fg/L, 4.4–8.7 Fg/L, 8.8–16.9 Fg/L, >16.9 Fg/L. CKD was defined as a glomerular filtration rate of <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 estimated from serum creatinine. Results. Higher plasma leptin levels were associated with CKD after adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, smoking, alcohol intake, body mass index (BMI, diabetes, hypertension, and serum cholesterol. Compared to quartile 1 of leptin (referent, the odds ratio (95% confidence interval of CKD associated with quartile 4 was 3.31 (1.41 to 7.78; P-trend = 0.0135. Subgroup analyses examining the relation between leptin and CKD by gender, BMI categories, diabetes, and hypertension status also showed a consistent positive association. Conclusion. Higher plasma leptin levels are associated with CKD in a representative sample of US adults.

  18. [Preoperative digitalization. Measurement of digoxin plasma levels (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, H J; Rietbrock, N

    1976-09-01

    In a study of 233 patients from the department of surgery and anesthesiology taking digoxin preparations 64, per cent exhibit digoxin levels in the therapeutic range (0.6--1.5 ng/ml), 19 per cent had subtoxic concentrations ranged from 1.6--2.0 ng/ml and 7 per cent were in the toxic range (greater than 2 ng/ml). In patients treated with digoxin before admission to hospital subtherapeutic levels were most frequent. An average loading dose of digoxin 1 mg or more on one day may result in subtoxic and toxic digoxin levels on the second day, in patients receiving less than 1 mg digoxin daily an increasing frequency of plasma digoxin concentrations of 1.5 ng/ml or higher values was present on the third day. Averaged plasma digoxin concentrations were correlated with daily maintenance dose. There was, however, a wide individual variation in digoxin plasma concentrations. A low incidence of toxic digoxin plasma levels was observed in patients receiving a daily oral maintenance dose of 0.375 mg digoxin (Lanicor). For prophylactic digitalization of patients with normal renal and thyroid function the following schedules or statistical guidlines are proposed: Lanicor (bioavailability 60%): oral loading dose of 0.75 mg over two days, and then daily oral maintenance dose of 0.375 mg; Novodigal (bioavailability 80%): oral loading dose of 0.6 mg over two days and then daily oral maintenance dose of 0.3 mg; Digoxin i.v.: intravenous loading dose of 0.5 (0.4) mg over two days and then 0.25 (0.2) mg daily intravenous maintenance dose. For any patient needing treatment with digitalis glycosides therapy must be individual and dynamic. The reasons for toxic concentrations were frequently attributed to wrong dosage.

  19. Taurine protects cisplatin induced cardiotoxicity by modulating inflammatory and endoplasmic reticulum stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Sayantani; Sinha, Krishnendu; Banerjee, Sharmistha; Sil, Parames C

    2016-11-12

    Oxidative stress, ER stress, inflammation, and apoptosis results in the pathogenesis of cisplatin-induced cardiotoxicity. The present study was designed to investigate the signaling mechanisms involved in the ameliorating effect of taurine, a conditionally essential amino acid, against cisplatin-mediated cardiac ER stress dependent apoptotic death and inflammation. Mice were simultaneously treated with taurine (150 mg kg(-1) body wt, i.p.) and cisplatin (10 mg kg(-1) body wt, i.p.) for a week. Cisplatin exposure significantly altered serum creatine kinase and troponin T levels. In addition, histological studies revealed disintegration in the normal radiation pattern of cardiac muscle fibers. However, taurine administration could abate such adverse effects of cisplatin. Taurine administration significantly mitigated the reactive oxygen species production, alleviated the overexpression of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), and inhibited the elevation of proinflammatoy cytokines, adhesion molecules, and chemokines. Cisplatin exposure resulted in the unfolded protein response (UPR)-regulated CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (CHOP) up-regulation, induction of GRP78: a marker of ER stress and eIF2α signaling. Increase in calpain-1 expression level, activation of caspase-12 and caspase-3, cleavage of the PARP protein as well as the inhibition of antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 were reflected on cisplatin-triggered apoptosis. Taurine could, however, combat against such cisplatin induced cardiac-abnormalities. The above mentioned findings suggest that taurine plays a beneficial role in providing protection against cisplatin-induced cardiac damage by modulating inflammatory responses and ER stress. © 2016 BioFactors, 42(6):647-664, 2016. © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  20. Post-operative monitoring of cortical taurine in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage: a microdialysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Micheli, E; Pinna, G; Alfieri, A; Caramia, G; Bianchi, L; Colivicchi, M A; Della Corte, L; Bricolo, A

    2000-01-01

    Intracerebral MD enables the retrieval of endogenous substances from the extracellular fluid (ECF) of the brain and has been demonstrated to be a sensitive technique for early detection of subtle vasospasm-induced neurometabolic abnormalities in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The aim of this study was to monitor cortical extracellular concentrations of energy metabolism markers, such as glucose and lactate, neurotransmitter amino acids, such as glutamate, aspartate, GABA and taurine to identify any neurochemical patterns of cerebral ischemia. A prospective clinical study was conducted on a group of 16 patients with non-severe SAH operated on within 72 hours after initial bleeding. Following aneurysm clipping, an MD catheter was inserted in the cortical region where vasospasm could be expected to develop, and perfused with artificial CSF at 0.3 microl/min flow rate. Dialysate was collected every 6 hours and then analyzed on High Performance Liquid Cromatography (HPLC) for glucose, lactate, pyruvate, glutamate, aspartate, GABA and taurine. Mean ECF taurine concentrations ranged from 1.4 + 0.7 to 12.3 + 7.8 micromol/l in single patients: global mean value was 5.8 + 3.8 micromol/l. In this series, the highest absolute taurine value was 25.7 micromol/l, observed in a patient who developed clinical and radiological signs of cerebral ischemia. Nine patients presented clinical disturbances related to cerebral vasospasm. In this setting, representing a mild-to-moderate hypoxic condition, MD data demonstrated that lactate is the most sensitive marker of cellular energy imbalance. Increased lactate levels positively correlated with glutamate (P<0.0001), aspartate (P<0.0001), GABA (P<0.0001) and taurine (P<0.0001) concentrations. These results suggest that also in humans increased taurine levels reflect a condition of cellular stress. This study confirms that MD is a sensitive technique to reveal subtle metabolic abnormalities possibly resulting in cell damage.

  1. Kissing reduces allergic skin wheal responses and plasma neurotrophin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimata, Hajime

    2003-11-01

    The effect of kissing on allergen-induced skin wheal responses and plasma neurotrophin levels were studied in 30 normal subjects, 30 patients with allergic rhinitis (AR), and 30 patients with atopic dermatitis (AD). All of the patients with AR or AD are allergic to house dust mite (HDM) and Japanese cedar pollen (JCP). They are all Japanese and they do not kiss habitually. The subject kissed freely during 30 min with their lover or spouse alone in a room with closed doors while listening to soft music. Before and after kissing, skin prick tests were performed using commercial HDM allergen, JCP allergen, as well as histamine and control solution, and wheal responses were measured. Simultaneously, plasma levels of neurotrophin, including nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) and -4 (NT-4) were measured. Kissing significantly reduced wheal responses induced by HDM and JCP, but not by histamine, and decreased plasma levels of NGF, BDNF, NT-3, and NT-4 in patients with AR or AD, while it failed to do so in normal subjects. These finding indicate that kissing have some implication in the study of neuroimmunology in allergic patients.

  2. Plasma bupivacaine levels following single dose intraarticular instillation for arthroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinig, R P; Holtgrewe, J L; Wiedel, J D; Christie, D B; Kestin, K J

    1988-01-01

    Arthroscopy of the knee was performed using 30 ml single dose intraarticular instillations of 0.5% or 0.25% solutions of bupivacaine (Marcaine). A total of 18 patients (mean age, 34 years), divided into two groups, participated in this study. Venous plasma levels were measured at 0, 10, 20, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, and 240 minute intervals following a single instillation into the knee joint. All patients had suspected traumatic internal derangement of the knee. Electrocardiogram tracings, blood pressure, and neurologic assessment were monitored at each venous sampling interval or more often if clinically indicated. The type and amount of supplemental anesthesia were also recorded. None of our 18 patients required a general anesthetic because of pain although the following procedures were performed: meniscectomy, plica release, abrasion chondroplasty, loose body retrieval, and limited meniscal repair. A new methodology for the measurement of plasma bupivacaine using the gas chromatograph mass spectrometer is described. Monitoring specific molecular mass fragments allows the measurement of picogram per milliliter levels of bupivacaine. The highest peak plasma concentration occurred 20 minutes after instillation of 30 ml of 0.5% bupivacaine. The 625 +/- 225 ng/ml level was well below the 2,500 to 4,000 ng/ml reported to elicit early subjective CNS symptoms of bupivacaine toxicity. Thus, a single dose intraarticular instillation of 30 ml 0.5% or 0.25% bupivacaine is convenient, efficacious, and pharmacologically safe for routine clinical arthroscopy.

  3. Evidence that acute taurine treatment alters extracellular AMP hydrolysis and adenosine deaminase activity in zebrafish brain membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosemberg, Denis Broock; Kist, Luiza Wilges; Etchart, Renata Jardim; Rico, Eduardo Pacheco; Langoni, Andrei Silveira; Dias, Renato Dutra; Bogo, Maurício Reis; Bonan, Carla Denise; Souza, Diogo Onofre

    2010-09-06

    Taurine is one of the most abundant free amino acids in excitable tissues. In the brain, extracellular taurine may act as an inhibitory neurotransmitter, neuromodulator, and neuroprotector. Nucleotides are ubiquitous signaling molecules that play crucial roles for brain function. The inactivation of nucleotide-mediated signaling is controlled by ectonucleotidases, which include the nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (NTPDase) family and ecto-5'-nucleotidase. These enzymes hydrolyze ATP/GTP to adenosine/guanosine, which exert a modulatory role controlling several neurotransmitter systems. The nucleoside adenosine can be inactivated in extracellular or intracellular milieu by adenosine deaminase (ADA). In this report, we tested whether acute taurine treatment at supra-physiological concentrations alters NTPDase, ecto-5'-nucleotidase, and ADA activities in zebrafish brain. Fish were treated with 42, 150, and 400 mg L(-1) taurine for 1h, the brains were dissected and the enzyme assays were performed. Although the NTPDase activities were not altered, 150 and 400 mg L(-1) taurine increased AMP hydrolysis (128 and 153%, respectively) in zebrafish brain membranes and significantly decreased ecto-ADA activity (29 and 38%, respectively). In vitro assays demonstrated that taurine did not change AMP hydrolysis, whereas it promoted a significant decrease in ecto-ADA activity at 150 and 400 mg L(-1) (24 and 26%, respectively). Altogether, our data provide the first evidence that taurine exposure modulates the ecto-enzymes responsible for controlling extracellular adenosine levels in zebrafish brain. These findings could be relevant to evaluate potential beneficial effects promoted by acute taurine treatment in the central nervous system (CNS) of this species. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A role of taurine in mitochondrial function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Svend Høime; Andersen, Mogens Larsen; Cornett, Claus

    2010-01-01

    The mitochondrial pH gradient across the inner-membrane is stabilised by buffering of the matrix. A low-molecular mass buffer compound has to be localised in the matrix to maintain its alkaline pH value. Taurine is found ubiquitously in animal cells with concentrations in the millimolar range...... and its pKa value is determined to 9.0 (25 degrees C) and 8.6 (37 degrees C), respectively. Localisation of such a low-molecular buffer in the mitochondrial matrix, transforms the matrix into a biochemical reaction chamber for the important matrix-localised enzyme systems. Three acyl-CoA dehydrogenase...... enzymes, which are pivotal for beta-oxidation of fatty acids, are demonstrated to have optimal activity in a taurine buffer. By application of the model presented, taurine depletion caused by hyperglycemia could provide a link between mitochondrial dysfunction and diabetes....

  5. Association of plasma lipid levels with atherosclerosis prevalence in psittaciformes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaufrère, Hugues; Vet, Dr Med; Cray, Carolyn; Ammersbach, Mélanie; Tully, Thomas N

    2014-09-01

    The prevalence of atherosclerosis is high in the captive psittacine population and increases with age and female sex. The genera Psittacus, Amazona, and Nymphicus are predisposed to atherosclerosis, whereas the genera Cacatua and Ara are less susceptible. Plasma cholesterol and lipoprotein abnormalities have been suggested as risk factors in the development of atherosclerosis as observed in mammals. To investigate whether the psittacine genera susceptibility to atherosclerosis and the known risk factors of age and sex could be associated with differences in the lipid profile, a retrospective analysis was conducted on blood lipid values from 5625 birds. Prevalence values were obtained from a previously published, large, case-control study and were compared with identified trends in plasma lipid profiles. Genus-specific differences were identified in plasma total cholesterol values that corresponded to observed trends in the prevalence of clinically important atherosclerotic lesions, which were also highly correlated. The effect of age was significant but was mild and may not account for the dramatic increase in atherosclerosis prevalence observed with age. In addition, Quaker parrots ( Myiopsitta monachus ), which were used as experimental models for psittacine atherosclerosis and dyslipidemia, were found to have the highest values in all lipid profile parameters. The results of this study suggest that the differences observed in prevalence among species of the psittacine genera may partly be explained by differences in plasma total cholesterol levels. Results also support the use of Quaker parrots as models for studying atherosclerosis and dyslipidemia.

  6. FABP4 plasma levels are increased in familial combined hyperlipidemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabré, Anna; Lázaro, Iolanda; Cofán, Montserrat; Jarauta, Estibaliz; Plana, Núria; Garcia-Otín, Angel L.; Ascaso, Juan F.; Ferré, Raimón; Civeira, Fernando; Ros, Emilio; Masana, Lluís

    2010-01-01

    The lipid profile of familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCHL) shares some characteristics with atherogenic dyslipidemia seen in diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and obesity. Adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4) appears to be a determinant of atherogenic dyslipidemia. We examined relationships between FABP4 plasma concentrations, dyslipidemia, and metabolic variables in patients with FCHL. We studied 273 unrelated FCHL patients and 118 control subjects. FABP4 was higher in FCHL than controls, with mean levels of 21.8 (10.1) μg/l and 19.2 (9.2) μg/l, respectively (adjusted P= 0.012). In FCHL, FABP4 correlated to body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, insulin levels, and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index (all P< 0.05), but not to lipid levels, whereas in obese patients, FABP4 correlated to triglyceride levels (r = 0.303, P= 0.014) and very low density lipoprotein size (r = 0.502, P = 0.001), as determined by nuclear magnetic resonance. Associations of FABP4 with BMI and waist circumference, but not with insulin levels, persisted in this subgroup. Plasma FABP4 does not influence the lipid phenotype of FCHL. In a small subgroup of obese FCHL, FABP4 levels were associated with triglyceride-rich lipoproteins independent of insulin resistance. These results support a hyperlipidemic mechanism of FCHL different from similar metabolic conditions where fat mass is strongly related to FABP4 and hypertriglyceridemia. PMID:20388924

  7. Hip Osteonecrosis Is Associated with Increased Plasma IL-33 Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jinhui; Guo, Wanshou; Li, Zirong; Li, Shirui; Wang, Peng

    2017-01-01

    The recently discovered IL-33 as an IL-1 cytokine family member has been proved to be specifically released from osteonecrotic bones. We aimed to investigate the potential role of IL-33 in the development of osteonecrosis of femoral head (ONFH). Forty patients diagnosed with ONFH and forty age-, sex-, and body mass index- (BMI-) matched healthy subjects were included in this prospective study between March 2016 and September 2016. A commercially available ELISA kit was used to test the level of plasma IL-33. The IL-33 levels were compared among different ARCO stages, CJFH types, and etiology groups. Plasma IL-33 levels were significantly higher in the ONFH patients than that in the control subjects. The levels of IL-33 did not differ significantly among the ONFH patients with different ARCO stages. The IL-33 levels of patients with CJFH type L3 were significantly higher than that of patients with types L1 and L2. No significant differences were observed in IL-33 levels between steroid-induced, alcohol-induced, and idiopathic patients. Our findings seem to indicate that IL-33 effects may be detrimental during ONFH, which appeared to be associated with the prognosis of ONFH. The IL-33 deserves particular attention in the pathogenesis of ONFH. PMID:28167850

  8. Plasma total antioxidant capacity is associated with dietary intake and plasma level of antioxidants in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Yang, Meng; Lee, Sang-Gil; Davis, Catherine G; Kenny, Anne; Koo, Sung I; Chun, Ock K

    2012-12-01

    Increased plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) has been associated with a high consumption of fruits and vegetables. However, limited information is available on whether plasma TAC reflects the dietary intake of antioxidants and the levels of individual antioxidants in plasma. By using three different assays, the study aimed to determine if plasma TAC can effectively predict dietary intake of antioxidants and plasma antioxidant status. Forty overweight and apparently healthy postmenopausal women were recruited. Seven-day food records and 12-h fasting blood samples were collected for dietary and plasma antioxidant assessments. Plasma TAC was determined by vitamin C equivalent antioxidant capacity (VCEAC), ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays. TAC values determined by VCEAC were highly correlated with FRAP (r=0.79, Pantioxidants and represents more closely the plasma antioxidant levels than ORAC and FRAP.

  9. Taurine attenuates hippocampal and corpus callosum damage, and enhances neurological recovery after closed head injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Y; Zhao, Y; Qian, K; Sun, M

    2015-04-16

    The protective effects of taurine against closed head injury (CHI) have been reported. This study was designed to investigate whether taurine reduced white matter damage and hippocampal neuronal death through suppressing calpain activation after CHI in rats. Taurine (50 mg/kg) was administered intravenously 30 min and 4 h again after CHI. It was found that taurine lessened the corpus callosum damage, attenuated the neuronal cell death in hippocampal CA1 and CA3 subfields and improved the neurological functions 7 days after CHI. Moreover, it suppressed the over-activation of calpain, enhanced the levels of calpastatin, and reduced the degradation of neurofilament heavy protein, myelin basic protein and αII-spectrin in traumatic tissue 24 h after CHI. These data confirm the protective effects of taurine against gray and white matter damage due to CHI, and suggest that down-regulating calpain activation could be one of the protective mechanisms of taurine against CHI. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Plasma-cortisol levels in experimental heatstroke in dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assia, Ehud; Epstein, Yoram; Magazanik, Avraham; Shapiro, Yair; Sohar, Ezra

    1989-06-01

    The effect of external heat-load, exercise and dehydration on dynamic changes in plasma cortisol during the development of heatstroke was investigated. Thirty-three unanesthetized dogs were tested under two sets of climatic conditions: comfort conditions and hot-dry climatic conditions, half of them while exercising. Half of the dogs in each group were rehydrated. None of the dogs that were investigated at room temperature suffered heatstroke. Of the dogs exposed to high ambient temperature, all of the exercising, as well as five out of six non-hydrated dogs and one rehydrated non-exercising dog suffered heatstroke. Significant dehydration (6% 7% of body weight), occurred only under hgh ambient temperature. Plasma cortisol levels of all dogs that suffered heatstroke rose conspicuously for at least 5 h and returned to normal levels 24 h later. Cortisol levels of dogs who did not experience heatstroke remained within the normal range. Cortisol levels correlated with the severity of the stress leading to heatstroke. High and rising levels of cortisol, several hours after body temperature returns to normal, may support the diagnosis of heatstroke.

  11. Ghrelin plasma levels and appetite in peritoneal dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Abelardo; Cirugeda, Antonio; Amair, Ruth; Sansone, Gabriela; Alegre, Laura; Codoceo, Rosa; Bajo, M Auxiliadora; del Peso, Gloria; Díez, Juan J; Sánchez-Tomero, José A; Selgas, Rafael

    2004-01-01

    Anorexia-associated malnutrition is a severe complication that increases mortality in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Ghrelin is a recently-discovered orexigenic hormone with actions in brain and stomach. We analyzed, in 42 PD patients, the possible relationship between ghrelin and appetite regulation with regard to other orexigens [neuropeptide Y (NPY), NO3] and anorexigens [cholecystokinin (CCK), leptin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha)]. All orexigens and anorexigens were determined in plasma. Eating motivation was evaluated using a visual analog scale (VAS). The patients were divided into three groups: those with anorexia (n = 12), those with obesity associated with high intake (n = 12), and those with no eating behavior disorders (n = 18). A control group of 10 healthy volunteers was also evaluated. Mean plasma levels of ghrelin were high (3618.6 +/- 1533 mg/mL), with 36 patients showing values above the normal range (anorexia had lower ghrelin and NPY levels and higher peptide-C, CCK, interleukin-1 (IL-1), TNFalpha, and GIP levels than did the other patients. Patients with anorexia also had an early satiety score and low desire and pleasure in eating on the VAS and diet survey. We observed significant positive linear correlations between ghrelin and albumin (r = 0.43, p anorexia show relatively lower ghrelin plasma levels than the levels seen in obese patients or in patients with normal appetite. The role of ghrelin in appetite modulation is altered in uremic PD patients, and that alteration is possibly associated with disorders in insulin and growth hormone metabolism.

  12. Increased nociceptin/orphanin FQ plasma levels in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ferenc Szalay; Mónika B Hantos; Andrea Horvath; Peter L. Lakatos; Aniko Folhoffer; Kinga Dunkel; Dalma Hegedus; Kornélia Tekes

    2004-01-01

    AIM: The heptadecapeptide nociceptin alias orphanin FQ is the endogenous agonist of opioid receptor-like1 receptor.It is involved in modulation of pain and cognition. High blood level was reported in patients with acute and chronic pain,and in Wilson disease. An accidental observation led us to investigate nociceptin in hepatocellular carcinoma.METHODS: Plasma nociceptin level was measured by radioimmunoassay, aprotinin was used as protease inhibitor.Hepatocellular carcinoma was diagnosed by laboratory,ultrasound, other imaging, and confirmed by fine needle biopsy. Results were compared to healthy controls and patients with other chronic liver diseases.RESULTS: Although nociceptin levels were elevated in patients with Wilson disease (14.0±2.7 pg/mL, n=26),primary biliary cirrhosis (12.1±3.2 pg/mL, n=21) and liver cirrhosis (12.8±4.0 pg/mL, n=15) compared to the healthy controls (9.2±1.8 pg/mL, n=29, P<0.001 for each), in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma a ten-fold increase was found (105.9±14.4 pg/mL, n=29, P<0.0001). High plasma levels were found in each hepatocellular carcinoma patient including those with normal alpha fetoprotein and those with pain (104.9±14.9 pg/mL, n=12) and without (107.7±14.5pg/mL, n=6).CONCLUSION: A very high nociceptin plasma level seems to be an indicator for hepatocellular carcinoma. Further research is needed to clarify the mechanism and clinical significance of this novel finding.

  13. The effect of taurine on chronic heart failure: actions of taurine against catecholamine and angiotensin II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Takashi; Schaffer, Stephen; Azuma, Junichi

    2014-01-01

    Taurine, a ubiquitous endogenous sulfur-containing amino acid, possesses numerous pharmacological and physiological actions, including antioxidant activity, modulation of calcium homeostasis and antiapoptotic effects. There is mounting evidence supporting the utility of taurine as a pharmacological agent against heart disease, including chronic heart failure (CHF). In the past decade, angiotensin II blockade and β-adrenergic inhibition have served as the mainstay in the treatment of CHF. Both groups of pharmaceutical agents decrease mortality and improve the quality of life, a testament to the critical role of the sympathetic nervous system and the renin--angiotensin system in the development of CHF. Taurine has also attracted attention because it has beneficial actions in CHF, in part by its demonstrated inhibition of the harmful actions of the neurohumoral factors. In this review, we summarize the beneficial actions of taurine in CHF, focusing on its antagonism of the catecholamines and angiotensin II.

  14. Review: Taurine: A “very essential” amino acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Wen

    2012-01-01

    Taurine is an organic osmolyte involved in cell volume regulation, and provides a substrate for the formation of bile salts. It plays a role in the modulation of intracellular free calcium concentration, and although it is one of the few amino acids not incorporated into proteins, taurine is one of the most abundant amino acids in the brain, retina, muscle tissue, and organs throughout the body. Taurine serves a wide variety of functions in the central nervous system, from development to cytoprotection, and taurine deficiency is associated with cardiomyopathy, renal dysfunction, developmental abnormalities, and severe damage to retinal neurons. All ocular tissues contain taurine, and quantitative analysis of ocular tissue extracts of the rat eye revealed that taurine was the most abundant amino acid in the retina, vitreous, lens, cornea, iris, and ciliary body. In the retina, taurine is critical for photoreceptor development and acts as a cytoprotectant against stress-related neuronal damage and other pathological conditions. Despite its many functional properties, however, the cellular and biochemical mechanisms mediating the actions of taurine are not fully known. Nevertheless, considering its broad distribution, its many cytoprotective attributes, and its functional significance in cell development, nutrition, and survival, taurine is undoubtedly one of the most essential substances in the body. Interestingly, taurine satisfies many of the criteria considered essential for inclusion in the inventory of neurotransmitters, but evidence of a taurine-specific receptor has yet to be identified in the vertebrate nervous system. In this report, we present a broad overview of the functional properties of taurine, some of the consequences of taurine deficiency, and the results of studies in animal models suggesting that taurine may play a therapeutic role in the management of epilepsy and diabetes. PMID:23170060

  15. Role of taurine on acid secretion in the rat stomach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Taurine has chemical structure similar to an inhibitory neurotransmitter, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Previous studies on GABA in the stomach suggest GABAergic neuron is involved in acid secretion, but the effects of taurine are poor understood. Methods The effects of taurine on acid secretion, signal transduction, and localization of taurinergic neurons were determined in the rat stomach using everted whole stomach, RIA kit and immunohistochemical methods. Results We used antibodies against taurine-synthesizing enzyme, cysteine sulfuric acid decarboxylase (CSAD), and taurine. CSAD- and taurine-positive cells were found in the muscle and mucosal layers. Distributions of CSAD- and taurine-positive cells in both mucosal and muscle layers were heterogeneous in the stomach. Taurine at 10-9~10-4 M induced acid secretion, and the maximum secretion was at 10-5 M, 1.6-fold higher than the spontaneous secretion. Taurine-induced acid secretion was completely inhibited by bicuculline and atropine but not by cimetidine, proglumide, or strychnine. Atropine and tetrodotoxin (TTX) completely inhibited the acid secretion induced by low concentrations of taurine and partially inhibited induced by high concentrations. Verapamil, a calcium blocker agent, inhibited acid output elicited by taurine. We assumed all Ca2+ channels involved in the response to these secretagogues were equally affected by verapamil. Intracellular cAMP (adenosine 3', 5'-monophosphat) in the stomach significantly increased with taurine treatment in a dose-dependent manner. High correlation (r=0.859, p taurine concentrations with cAMP was observed. Conclusions Our results demonstrated for the first time in taurine-induced acid secretion due to increase intracellular calcium may act through the A type of GABA receptors, which are mainly located on cholinergic neurons though cAMP pathway and partially on nonneuronal cells in the rat stomach. PMID:21294907

  16. Plasma levels of catecholamines and asymmetric dimethylarginine levels as predictive values of mortality among hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dziedzic Marcin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess plasma concentration of catecholamines and asymmetric dimethyl arginine levels and a possible relationship to predict the mortality rates among hemodialysis patients. The study population comprised 27 subjects, aged 65-70 years. Each patient underwent dialysis thrice a week. Furthermore, the median duration of hemodialysis was 3.5 years. Based on the conducted research, it can be concluded that the concentrations of adrenaline and the level of asymmetric dimethylarginine have predictive value of mortality among hemodialysis patients. Of note, lowering plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine concentration may represent therapeutic target for prevention of progressive renal damage.

  17. Amelioration of nandrolone decanoate-induced testicular and sperm toxicity in rats by taurine: effects on steroidogenesis, redox and inflammatory cascades, and intrinsic apoptotic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Maha A E

    2015-02-01

    The wide abuse of the anabolic steroid nandrolone decanoate by athletes and adolescents for enhancement of sporting performance and physical appearance may be associated with testicular toxicity and infertility. On the other hand, taurine; a free β-amino acid with remarkable antioxidant activity, is used in taurine-enriched beverages to boost the muscular power of athletes. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of the possible protective effects of taurine on nandrolone decanoate-induced testicular and sperm toxicity in rats. To achieve this aim, male Wistar rats were randomly distributed into four groups and administered either vehicle, nandrolone decanoate (10mg/kg/week, I.M.), taurine (100mg/kg/day, p.o.) or combination of taurine and nandrolone decanoate, for 8 successive weeks. Results of the present study showed that taurine reversed nandrolone decanoate-induced perturbations in sperm characteristics, normalized serum testosterone level, and restored the activities of the key steroidogenic enzymes; 3β-HSD, and 17β-HSD. Moreover, taurine prevented nandrolone decanoate-induced testicular toxicity and DNA damage by virtue of its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic effects. This was evidenced by taurine-induced modulation of testicular LDH-x activity, redox markers (MDA, NO, GSH contents, and SOD activity), inflammatory indices (TNF-α, ICAM-1 levels, and MMP-9 gene expression), intrinsic apoptotic pathway (cytochrome c gene expression and caspase-3 content), and oxidative DNA damage markers (8-OHdG level and comet assay). In conclusion, at the biochemical and histological levels, taurine attenuated nandrolone decanoate-induced poor sperm quality and testicular toxicity in rats. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Lipoic acid effects on glutamate and taurine concentrations in rat hippocampus after pilocarpine-induced seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P S Santos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pilocarpine-induced seizures can be mediated by increases in oxidative stress and by cerebral amino acid changes. The present research suggests that antioxidant compounds may afford some level of neuroprotection against the neurotoxicity of seizures in cellular level. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the lipoic acid (LA effects in glutamate and taurine contents in rat hippocampus after pilocarpine-induced seizures. Wistar rats were treated intraperitoneally (i.p. with 0.9% saline (Control, pilocarpine (400 mg/kg, Pilocarpine, LA (10 mg/kg, LA, and the association of LA (10 mg/kg plus pilocarpine (400 mg/kg, that was injected 30 min before of administration of LA (LA plus pilocarpine. Animals were observed during 24 h. The amino acid concentrations were measured using high-performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC. In pilocarpine group, it was observed a significant increase in glutamate content (37% and a decrease in taurine level (18% in rat hippocampus, when compared to control group. Antioxidant pretreatment significantly reduced the glutamate level (28% and augmented taurine content (32% in rat hippocampus, when compared to pilocarpine group. Our findings strongly support amino acid changes in hippocampus during seizures induced by pilocarpine, and suggest that glutamate-induced brain damage plays a crucial role in pathogenic consequences of seizures, and imply that strong protective effect could be achieved using lipoic acid through the release or decrease in metabolization rate of taurine amino acid during seizures.

  19. Analysis of Plasma Homocysteine Levels in Patients with Unstable Angina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Tavares

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE - To determine the prevalence of hyperhomocystinemia in patients with acute ischemic syndrome of the unstable angina type. METHODS - We prospectively studied 46 patients (24 females with unstable angina and 46 control patients (19 males, paired by sex and age, blinded to the laboratory data. Details of diets, smoking habits, medication used, body mass index, and the presence of hypertension and diabetes were recorded, as were plasma lipid and glucose levels, C-reactive protein, and lipoperoxidation in all participants. Patients with renal disease were excluded. Plasma homocysteine was estimated using high-pressure liquid chromatography. RESULTS - Plasma homocysteine levels were significantly higher in the group of patients with unstable angina (12.7±6.7 µmol/L than in the control group (8.7±4.4 µmol/L (p<0.05. Among males, homocystinemia was higher in the group with unstable angina than in the control group, but this difference was not statistically significant (14.1±5.9 µmol/L versus 11.9±4.2 µmol/L. Among females, however, a statistically significant difference was observed between the 2 groups: 11.0±7.4 µmol/L versus 6.4±2.9 µmol/L (p<0.05 in the unstable angina and control groups, respectively. Approximately 24% of the patients had unstable angina at homocysteine levels above 15 µmol/L. CONCLUSION - High homocysteine levels seem to be a relevant prevalent factor in the population with unstable angina, particularly among females.

  20. Decreased plasma levels of the endothelial protective sphingosine-1-phosphate are associated with dengue-induced plasma leakage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michels, M.; Japtok, L.; Alisjahbana, B.; Wisaksana, R.; Sumardi, U.; Puspita, M.; Kleuser, B.; Mast, Q. de; Ven, A.J.A.M. van der

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A transient endothelial hyperpermeability is a hallmark of severe dengue infections. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) maintains vascular integrity and protects against plasma leakage. We related plasma S1P levels to dengue-induced plasma leakage and studied mechanisms that may underlie the

  1. Multi-level molecular modelling for plasma medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaerts, Annemie; Khosravian, Narjes; Van der Paal, Jonas; Verlackt, Christof C. W.; Yusupov, Maksudbek; Kamaraj, Balu; Neyts, Erik C.

    2016-02-01

    Modelling at the molecular or atomic scale can be very useful for obtaining a better insight in plasma medicine. This paper gives an overview of different atomic/molecular scale modelling approaches that can be used to study the direct interaction of plasma species with biomolecules or the consequences of these interactions for the biomolecules on a somewhat longer time-scale. These approaches include density functional theory (DFT), density functional based tight binding (DFTB), classical reactive and non-reactive molecular dynamics (MD) and united-atom or coarse-grained MD, as well as hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) methods. Specific examples will be given for three important types of biomolecules, present in human cells, i.e. proteins, DNA and phospholipids found in the cell membrane. The results show that each of these modelling approaches has its specific strengths and limitations, and is particularly useful for certain applications. A multi-level approach is therefore most suitable for obtaining a global picture of the plasma-biomolecule interactions.

  2. Atomic properties in hot plasmas from levels to superconfigurations

    CERN Document Server

    Bauche, Jacques; Peyrusse, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    This book is devoted to the calculation of hot-plasma properties which generally requires a huge number of atomic data. It is the first book that combines information on the details of the basic atomic physics and its application to atomic spectroscopy with the use of the relevant statistical approaches. Information like energy levels, radiative rates, collisional and radiative cross-sections, etc., must be included in equilibrium or non-equilibrium models in order to describe both the atomic-population kinetics and the radiative properties. From the very large number of levels and transitions involved in complex ions, some statistical (global) properties emerge. The book presents a coherent set of concepts and compact formulas suitable for tractable and accurate calculations. The topics addressed are: radiative emission and absorption, and a dozen of other collisional and radiative processes; transition arrays between level ensembles (configurations, superconfigurations); effective temperatures of configurat...

  3. Amelioration of nandrolone decanoate-induced testicular and sperm toxicity in rats by taurine: Effects on steroidogenesis, redox and inflammatory cascades, and intrinsic apoptotic pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Maha A.E., E-mail: mahapharm@yahoo.com

    2015-02-01

    The wide abuse of the anabolic steroid nandrolone decanoate by athletes and adolescents for enhancement of sporting performance and physical appearance may be associated with testicular toxicity and infertility. On the other hand, taurine; a free β-amino acid with remarkable antioxidant activity, is used in taurine-enriched beverages to boost the muscular power of athletes. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of the possible protective effects of taurine on nandrolone decanoate-induced testicular and sperm toxicity in rats. To achieve this aim, male Wistar rats were randomly distributed into four groups and administered either vehicle, nandrolone decanoate (10 mg/kg/week, I.M.), taurine (100 mg/kg/day, p.o.) or combination of taurine and nandrolone decanoate, for 8 successive weeks. Results of the present study showed that taurine reversed nandrolone decanoate-induced perturbations in sperm characteristics, normalized serum testosterone level, and restored the activities of the key steroidogenic enzymes; 3β-HSD, and 17β-HSD. Moreover, taurine prevented nandrolone decanoate-induced testicular toxicity and DNA damage by virtue of its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic effects. This was evidenced by taurine-induced modulation of testicular LDH-x activity, redox markers (MDA, NO, GSH contents, and SOD activity), inflammatory indices (TNF-α, ICAM-1 levels, and MMP-9 gene expression), intrinsic apoptotic pathway (cytochrome c gene expression and caspase-3 content), and oxidative DNA damage markers (8-OHdG level and comet assay). In conclusion, at the biochemical and histological levels, taurine attenuated nandrolone decanoate-induced poor sperm quality and testicular toxicity in rats. - Highlights: • Nandrolone decanoate (ND) disrupts sperm profile and steroidogenesis in rats. • ND upregulates gene expression of inflammatory and apoptotic markers. • Taurine normalizes sperm profile and serum testosterone level

  4. Taurine Provides Neuroprotection against Retinal Ganglion Cell Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froger, Nicolas; Cadetti, Lucia; Lorach, Henri; Martins, Joao; Bemelmans, Alexis-Pierre; Dubus, Elisabeth; Degardin, Julie; Pain, Dorothée; Forster, Valérie; Chicaud, Laurent; Ivkovic, Ivana; Simonutti, Manuel; Fouquet, Stéphane; Jammoul, Firas; Léveillard, Thierry; Benosman, Ryad; Sahel, José-Alain; Picaud, Serge

    2012-01-01

    Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) degeneration occurs in numerous retinal diseases leading to blindness, either as a primary process like in glaucoma, or secondary to photoreceptor loss. However, no commercial drug is yet directly targeting RGCs for their neuroprotection. In the 70s, taurine, a small sulfonic acid provided by nutrition, was found to be essential for the survival of photoreceptors, but this dependence was not related to any retinal disease. More recently, taurine deprivation was incriminated in the retinal toxicity of an antiepileptic drug. We demonstrate here that taurine can improve RGC survival in culture or in different animal models of RGC degeneration. Taurine effect on RGC survival was assessed in vitro on primary pure RCG cultures under serum-deprivation conditions, and on NMDA-treated retinal explants from adult rats. In vivo, taurine was administered through the drinking water in two glaucomatous animal models (DBA/2J mice and rats with vein occlusion) and in a model of Retinitis pigmentosa with secondary RGC degeneration (P23H rats). After a 6-day incubation, 1 mM taurine significantly enhanced RGCs survival (+68%), whereas control RGCs were cultured in a taurine-free medium, containing all natural amino-acids. This effect was found to rely on taurine-uptake by RGCs. Furthermore taurine (1 mM) partly prevented NMDA-induced RGC excitotoxicity. Finally, taurine supplementation increased RGC densities both in DBA/2J mice, in rats with vein occlusion and in P23H rats by contrast to controls drinking taurine-free water. This study indicates that enriched taurine nutrition can directly promote RGC survival through RGC intracellular pathways. It provides evidence that taurine can positively interfere with retinal degenerative diseases. PMID:23115615

  5. Role of taurine on acid secretion in the rat stomach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Jau-Der

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Taurine has chemical structure similar to an inhibitory neurotransmitter, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA. Previous studies on GABA in the stomach suggest GABAergic neuron is involved in acid secretion, but the effects of taurine are poor understood. Methods The effects of taurine on acid secretion, signal transduction, and localization of taurinergic neurons were determined in the rat stomach using everted whole stomach, RIA kit and immunohistochemical methods. Results We used antibodies against taurine-synthesizing enzyme, cysteine sulfuric acid decarboxylase (CSAD, and taurine. CSAD- and taurine-positive cells were found in the muscle and mucosal layers. Distributions of CSAD- and taurine-positive cells in both mucosal and muscle layers were heterogeneous in the stomach. Taurine at 10-9~10-4 M induced acid secretion, and the maximum secretion was at 10-5 M, 1.6-fold higher than the spontaneous secretion. Taurine-induced acid secretion was completely inhibited by bicuculline and atropine but not by cimetidine, proglumide, or strychnine. Atropine and tetrodotoxin (TTX completely inhibited the acid secretion induced by low concentrations of taurine and partially inhibited induced by high concentrations. Verapamil, a calcium blocker agent, inhibited acid output elicited by taurine. We assumed all Ca2+ channels involved in the response to these secretagogues were equally affected by verapamil. Intracellular cAMP (adenosine 3', 5'-monophosphat in the stomach significantly increased with taurine treatment in a dose-dependent manner. High correlation (r=0.859, p Conclusions Our results demonstrated for the first time in taurine-induced acid secretion due to increase intracellular calcium may act through the A type of GABA receptors, which are mainly located on cholinergic neurons though cAMP pathway and partially on nonneuronal cells in the rat stomach.

  6. Taurine provides neuroprotection against retinal ganglion cell degeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Froger

    Full Text Available Retinal ganglion cell (RGC degeneration occurs in numerous retinal diseases leading to blindness, either as a primary process like in glaucoma, or secondary to photoreceptor loss. However, no commercial drug is yet directly targeting RGCs for their neuroprotection. In the 70s, taurine, a small sulfonic acid provided by nutrition, was found to be essential for the survival of photoreceptors, but this dependence was not related to any retinal disease. More recently, taurine deprivation was incriminated in the retinal toxicity of an antiepileptic drug. We demonstrate here that taurine can improve RGC survival in culture or in different animal models of RGC degeneration. Taurine effect on RGC survival was assessed in vitro on primary pure RCG cultures under serum-deprivation conditions, and on NMDA-treated retinal explants from adult rats. In vivo, taurine was administered through the drinking water in two glaucomatous animal models (DBA/2J mice and rats with vein occlusion and in a model of Retinitis pigmentosa with secondary RGC degeneration (P23H rats. After a 6-day incubation, 1 mM taurine significantly enhanced RGCs survival (+68%, whereas control RGCs were cultured in a taurine-free medium, containing all natural amino-acids. This effect was found to rely on taurine-uptake by RGCs. Furthermore taurine (1 mM partly prevented NMDA-induced RGC excitotoxicity. Finally, taurine supplementation increased RGC densities both in DBA/2J mice, in rats with vein occlusion and in P23H rats by contrast to controls drinking taurine-free water. This study indicates that enriched taurine nutrition can directly promote RGC survival through RGC intracellular pathways. It provides evidence that taurine can positively interfere with retinal degenerative diseases.

  7. Taurine provides neuroprotection against retinal ganglion cell degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froger, Nicolas; Cadetti, Lucia; Lorach, Henri; Martins, Joao; Bemelmans, Alexis-Pierre; Dubus, Elisabeth; Degardin, Julie; Pain, Dorothée; Forster, Valérie; Chicaud, Laurent; Ivkovic, Ivana; Simonutti, Manuel; Fouquet, Stéphane; Jammoul, Firas; Léveillard, Thierry; Benosman, Ryad; Sahel, José-Alain; Picaud, Serge

    2012-01-01

    Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) degeneration occurs in numerous retinal diseases leading to blindness, either as a primary process like in glaucoma, or secondary to photoreceptor loss. However, no commercial drug is yet directly targeting RGCs for their neuroprotection. In the 70s, taurine, a small sulfonic acid provided by nutrition, was found to be essential for the survival of photoreceptors, but this dependence was not related to any retinal disease. More recently, taurine deprivation was incriminated in the retinal toxicity of an antiepileptic drug. We demonstrate here that taurine can improve RGC survival in culture or in different animal models of RGC degeneration. Taurine effect on RGC survival was assessed in vitro on primary pure RCG cultures under serum-deprivation conditions, and on NMDA-treated retinal explants from adult rats. In vivo, taurine was administered through the drinking water in two glaucomatous animal models (DBA/2J mice and rats with vein occlusion) and in a model of Retinitis pigmentosa with secondary RGC degeneration (P23H rats). After a 6-day incubation, 1 mM taurine significantly enhanced RGCs survival (+68%), whereas control RGCs were cultured in a taurine-free medium, containing all natural amino-acids. This effect was found to rely on taurine-uptake by RGCs. Furthermore taurine (1 mM) partly prevented NMDA-induced RGC excitotoxicity. Finally, taurine supplementation increased RGC densities both in DBA/2J mice, in rats with vein occlusion and in P23H rats by contrast to controls drinking taurine-free water. This study indicates that enriched taurine nutrition can directly promote RGC survival through RGC intracellular pathways. It provides evidence that taurine can positively interfere with retinal degenerative diseases.

  8. Plasma lactoferrin level as a predictor to endothelial dysfunction in patients with obstructive sleep apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abir Zakaria

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion The present study showed that low circulating plasma lactoferrin levels in OSA patients independently predict endothelial dysfunction as assessed by FMD%. High BMI in OSA patients negatively influences plasma lactoferrin levels unrelated to other OSA severity predictors.

  9. Taurine zinc solid dispersions enhance bile-incubated L02 cell viability and improve liver function by inhibiting ERK2 and JNK phosphorylation during cholestasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Mei, Xueting; Yuan, Jingquan; Lai, Xiaofang; Xu, Donghui

    2016-07-29

    Dietary intakes of taurine and zinc are associated with decreased risk of liver disease. In this study, solid dispersions (SDs) of a taurine zinc complex on hepatic injury were examined in vitro using the immortalized human hepatocyte cell line L02 and in a rat model of bile duct ligation. Sham-operated and bile duct ligated Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with the vehicle alone or taurine zinc (40, 80, 160mg/kg) for 17days. Bile duct ligation significantly increased blood lipid levels, and promoted hepatocyte apoptosis, inflammation and compensatory biliary proliferation. In vitro, incubation with bile significantly reduced L02 cell viability; this effect was significantly attenuated by pretreatment with SP600125 (a JNK inhibitor) and enhanced when co-incubated with taurine zinc SDs. In vivo, administration of taurine zinc SDs decreased serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities in a dose-dependent manner and attenuated the increases in serum total bilirubin, total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels after bile duct ligation. Additionally, taurine zinc SDs downregulated the expression of interleukin-1β and inhibited the phosphorylation of Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase2 (ERK2) in the liver after bile duct ligation. Moreover, taurine zinc SDs had more potent blood lipid regulatory and anti-apoptotic effects than the physical mixture of taurine and zinc acetate. Therefore, we speculate that taurine zinc SDs protect liver function at least in part via a mechanism linked to reduce phosphorylation of JNK and ERK2, which suppresses inflammation, apoptosis and cholangiocyte proliferation during cholestasis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of exercise on plasma adiponectin levels in athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Mirjana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue is an endocrine organ which releases biologically active adipokines. Adiponectin, an adipocyte-derived protein structurally similar to complement 1q, plays a significant role in metabolic disorders, due to its insulin sensitizing, anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic properties. AdipoR1 and AdipoR2, mediate the metabolic actions of adiponectin by activating adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors- alpha (PPAR-α which leads to an increase in fatty acid combustion and energy consumption, fatty acid oxidation and glucose uptake in myocytes and reduces gluconeogenesis and thus leads to increased insulin sensitivity. Plasma adiponectin level is affected by multiple factors: gender (females have higher plasma adiponectin levels, obesity-linked diseases (metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus type 2 and atherosclerosis are associated with lower adiponectin levels, lifestyle -including exercise. Yet, to date, little is known about the response of adiponectin concentrations to exercise and, in particular, the response of this hormone to training in population of athletes. The aim of this review is to overview the published evidence for the effects of exercise on adiponectin levels in athletes. Adiponectin concentration presents a delayed increase (30 min after short-term intense performance, by athletes, both male and female. It seems that adiponectin concentrations do not change in response to long-term exercise. No significant difference was found in total adiponectin and/or high-molecular weight (HMW oligomers in long-term effects of high physical training in athletes. Adiponectin can serve to monitor training loads and the establishment of individual limit values of training loads. Further studies are needed to clarify possible mechanisms by which adiponectin might influence energy homeostasis during heavy training in elite athletes.

  11. In-vitro examination of the positive inotropic effect of caffeine and taurine, the two most frequent active ingredients of energy drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaban, R; Kornberger, A; Branski, N; Buschmann, K; Stumpf, N; Beiras-Fernandez, A; Vahl, C F

    2017-08-10

    Our study aimed to evaluate changes in the contractile behavior of human myocardium after exposure to caffeine and taurine, the main active ingredients of energy drinks (EDs), and to evaluate whether taurine exhibits any inotropic effect at all in the dosages commonly used in EDs. Myocardial tissue was removed from the right atrial appendages of patients undergoing cardiac surgery and prepared to obtain specimens measuring 4 mm in length. A total of 92 specimens were exposed to electrical impulses at a frequency of 75 bpm for at least 40 min to elicit their maximum contractile force before measuring the isometric contractile force (ICF) and duration of contraction (CD). Following this, each specimen was treated with either taurine (group 1, n = 29), or caffeine (group 2, n = 31) or both (group 3, n = 32). After exposure, ICF and CD measuring were repeated. Post-treatment values were compared with pre-treatments values and indicated as percentages. Exposure to taurine did not alter the contraction behavior of the specimens. Exposure to caffeine, in contrast, led to a significant increase in ICF (118 ± 03%, p caffeine and taurine also induced a statistically significant increase in ICF (124 ± 4%, p caffeine was similar to that achieved by a combination of both caffeine and taurine (p = 0.2). The relative ICF levels achieved by administration of caffeine and a combination of taurine and caffeine, respectively, were both significantly higher (p caffeine altered the contraction behavior of the specimen significantly in our in-vitro model, taurine did not exhibit a significant effect. Adding taurine to caffeine did not significantly enhance or reduce the effect of caffeine.

  12. Effect of taurine on rat Achilles tendon healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdemir, Ovunc; Lineaweaver, William C; Cavusoglu, Turker; Binboga, Erdal; Uyanikgil, Yigit; Zhang, Feng; Pekedis, Mahmut; Yagci, Tugay

    2015-01-01

    Taurine has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant characteristics. We have introduced taurine into a tendon-healing model to evaluate its effects on tendon healing and adhesion formation. Two groups of 16 rats underwent diversion and repair of the Achilles tendon. One group received a taurine injection (200 mg/ml) at the repair site, while the other group received 1 ml of saline. Specimens were harvested at 6 weeks and underwent biomechanical and histological evaluation. No tendon ruptured. Average maximum load was significantly greater in the taurine-applied group compared with the control group (p taurine-applied group compared with the control group (p  0.05). After histological assessment, we found that fibroblast proliferation, edema, and inflammation statistically decreased in the treatment group (p taurine may have an effect on adhesion formation.

  13. Taurine in milk and yoghurt marketed in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzi, Pamela; Pizzoferrato, Laura

    2013-02-01

    Taurine, a free amino acid, was studied as natural compound of different typologies of milk: pasteurized, ultra-high temperature (UHT), microfiltered whole and semi-skimmed cow's milk; pasteurized and UHT goat's whole milk and raw buffalo's whole milk. Moreover, taurine contents in yoghurt from cow and goat's milk were evaluated. The data obtained in this research showed that no significant variations of taurine occurred in cow's milk subjected to different technological processes and between whole and semi-skimmed milk. The amount of taurine was less (p taurine occurred between goat and buffalo's samples. The amounts of taurine in yoghurt reflected, substantially, the content of this molecule in the milk of the relevant animal species. These results are noteworthy because data available in the literature on this molecule in commercial dairy products are old or few.

  14. Effects of Taurine Administration on Carbohydrate Metabolism in Skeletal Muscle during the Post-Exercise Phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yumiko; Tamura, Yuki; Matsunaga, Yutaka; Kitaoka, Yu; Terada, Shin; Hatta, Hideo

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported that taurine (2-aminoethanesulfonic acid; dose: 0.5 mg/g body weight) administration after treadmill running at 25 m/min for 90 min increased the glycogen concentration in the skeletal muscle of ICR mice at 120 min after the exercise (Takahashi et al. 2014). In the current study, we further investigated the effects of taurine administration on glycogen repletion and carbohydrate metabolism in the tibialis anterior muscle after endurance exercise. The metabolomic profiles of the tibialis anterior muscle at 120 min after the exercise were analyzed by a capillary electrophoresis-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (n=6). Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (F1,6P), a glycogenolytic/glycolytic intermediate produced by phosphofructokinase, was significantly lower in the taurine-treated group than that in the control group (ptaurine-treated group than in the controls. At that time, phosphorylated Ser(293) on the E1α subunit of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) tended to be higher in the taurine-treated mice than in the controls (p=0.09, n=5). There was a positive correlation between phosphorylation of the PDH E1α subunit at Ser(293) and glycogen concentration (r=0.73, ptaurine treatment during the post-exercise phase was accompanied by the lower levels of glycogenolytic/glycolytic intermediates.

  15. Acute ammonia toxicity in crucian carp Carassius auratus and effects of taurine on hyperammonemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Qianyan; Li, Ming; Yuan, Lixia; Song, Meize; Xing, Xiaodan; Shi, Ge; Meng, Fanxing; Wang, Rixin

    2016-12-01

    The four experimental groups were carried out to test the response of crucian carp Carassius auratus to ammonia toxicity and taurine: group 1 was injected with NaCl, group 2 was injected with ammonium acetate, group 3 was injected with ammonium acetate and taurine, and group 4 was injected with taurine. Fish in group 2 had the highest ammonia and glutamine contents, and the lowest glutamate content in liver and brain. Serum superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH) activities, red cell count (RBC), white cell count (WBC), lysozyme (LYZ) activity, complement C3 content of fish in group 2 reflected the lowest, but malondialdehyde content was the highest. Importantly, serum SOD and GSH activites, RBC, WBC, and LYZ activity, C3, C4 and total immunoglobulin contents of fish in group 3 were significantly higher than those of fish in group 2. This study indicates that ammonia exerts its toxic effects by interfering with amino acid transport, inducing ROS generation, leading to malondialdehyde accumulation and immunosuppression of crucian carp. The exogenous taurine could mitigate the adverse effect of high ammonia level on fish physiological disorder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Prophylactic and therapeutic effects of taurine against aluminum-induced acute hepatotoxicity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, Wael M; Al-Kahtani, Mohamed A; Abdel-Moneim, Ashraf M

    2011-08-30

    Aluminum is a well known neurotoxin and a possible candidate of hepatotoxins to humans. Using natural antioxidants against metal-induced hepatotoxicity is a modern approach. In the present study, Aluminum (AlCl(3)) intoxication (a single injection of 25mg Al(3+)/kg, i.p.) for 24h in mice resulted in elevations in serum alanine aminotransferase activity and serum tumor necrosis factor and hepatic malondialdehyde levels. Aluminum reduced the activities of glutathione peroxidase, glutathione S-transferase, quinone oxidoreductase, and catalase in liver. In addition, Al caused hepatic hemorrhage, cellular degeneration as well as necrosis of hepatocytes. Ultrastructure examination showed swelling of mitochondria, derangement of rough endoplasmic reticulum cisternae and pleomorphic nuclei with abnormal chromatin distribution. Taurine, a sulfur-containing amino acid was administered to mice daily for 5 days before (at 100mg/kg, i.p.) or 2h after (a single dose of 1g/kg, i.p.) aluminum administration. Treating mice with taurine at either dosing regimens, pre- or post-aluminum administration alleviated aluminum oxidative damaging effects. The rate of recovery was better when taurine was administered prior to Al. Taurine had anaphylactic and therapeutic activity against hepatotoxicity induced by aluminum in mice.

  17. Assessment of resveratrol, apocynin and taurine on mechanical-metabolic uncoupling and oxidative stress in a mouse model of duchenne muscular dystrophy: A comparison with the gold standard, α-methyl prednisolone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capogrosso, Roberta Francesca; Cozzoli, Anna; Mantuano, Paola; Camerino, Giulia Maria; Massari, Ada Maria; Sblendorio, Valeriana Teresa; De Bellis, Michela; Tamma, Roberto; Giustino, Arcangela; Nico, Beatrice; Montagnani, Monica; De Luca, Annamaria

    2016-04-01

    Antioxidants have a great potential as adjuvant therapeutics in patients with Duchenne muscular dystrophy, although systematic comparisons at pre-clinical level are limited. The present study is a head-to-head assessment, in the exercised mdx mouse model of DMD, of natural compounds, resveratrol and apocynin, and of the amino acid taurine, in comparison with the gold standard α-methyl prednisolone (PDN). The rationale was to target the overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) via disease-related pathways that are worsened by mechanical-metabolic impairment such as inflammation and over-activity of NADPH oxidase (NOX) (taurine and apocynin, respectively) or the failing ROS detoxification mechanisms via sirtuin-1 (SIRT1)-peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) (resveratrol). Resveratrol (100mg/kg i.p. 5days/week), apocynin (38mg/kg/day per os), taurine (1g/kg/day per os), and PDN (1mg/kg i.p., 5days/week) were administered for 4-5 weeks to mdx mice in parallel with a standard protocol of treadmill exercise and the outcome was evaluated with a multidisciplinary approach in vivo and ex vivo on pathology-related end-points and biomarkers of oxidative stress. Resveratrol≥taurine>apocynin enhanced in vivo mouse force similarly to PDN. All the compounds reduced the production of superoxide anion, assessed by dihydroethidium staining, with apocynin being as effective as PDN, and ameliorated electrophysiological biomarkers of oxidative stress. Resveratrol also significantly reduced plasma levels of creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase. Force of isolated muscles was little ameliorated. However, the three compounds improved histopathology of gastrocnemius muscle more than PDN. Taurine>apocynin>PDN significantly decreased activated NF-kB positive myofibers. Thus, compounds targeting NOX-ROS or SIRT1/PGC-1α pathways differently modulate clinically relevant DMD-related endpoints according to their mechanism of action. With the

  18. Effects of periconceptional undernutrition on maternal taurine concentrations in sheep

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thorstensen, Eric B; Derraik, José G B; Oliver, Mark H; Jaquiery, Anne L; Bloomfield, Frank H; Harding, Jane E

    Taurine has an important role in numerous physiological processes, including many aspects of fetal development such as development of the pancreas and brain, and requirements increase during pregnancy...

  19. Investigation of X- and Y-specific single nucleotide polymorphisms in taurine (Bos taurus) and indicine (Bos indicus) cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderung, C; Hellborg, L; Seddon, J; Hanotte, O; Götherström, A

    2007-12-01

    Initially, domesticated African cattle were of taurine type. Today, we find both African Bos taurus and Bos indicus cattle, as well as their crossbreeds, on the continent of Africa and they all share the same set of African taurine mitochondrial DNA haplogroups. In this study, we report genetic variation as substitutions and insertions/deletions (indels) on both the X and Y chromosomes, and use the variation to assess hybridization between taurine and indicine cattle. Six African cattle breeds (four Sanga breeds, including Raya Azebu, Danakil, Caprivi, Nguni; and two Zebu breeds, including Kilimanjaro Zebu and South Kavirondo Zebu) were screened for six new X-chromosomal markers, specifically three single nucleotide polymorphisms and three indels in the DDX3X (previously DBX) and ZFX genes, and five previously identified Y-chromosomal markers in the DDX3Y (previously DBY) and ZFY genes. In total, 90 (57 bulls and 33 cows) samples from the African breeds were analysed. We identify five diagnostic haplotypes of indicine and taurine origins on both the X and Y chromosomes. For each breed, the level of indicine introgression varies; in addition to pure taurine, indicine and hybrid X-chromosome individuals, recombinant X-chromosome variants were also detected. These markers are useful molecular tools for assessing the level of indicine admixture in African cattle breeds.

  20. The role of cardiorespiratory fitness on plasma lipid levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parto, Parham; Lavie, Carl J; Swift, Damon; Sui, Xuemei

    2015-11-01

    Dyslipidemia is a treatable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated the importance of treatment for abnormalities in total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides. Aside from pharmacotherapy, exercise and cardio-respiratory fitness have been shown to have beneficial effects on decreasing cardiovascular disease risk. Even though previous data regarding the benefits of exercise on plasma lipids have been somewhat conflicting, numerous studies have demonstrated that exercise increases HDL-cholesterol and reduces the triglyceride levels. Also, smaller, more atherogenic LDL particles seem to decrease with increases in cardio-respiratory fitness and exercise, and favorable blood lipid profiles seem to persist longer through the adult life span.

  1. Maternal taurine supplementation attenuates maternal fructose-induced metabolic and inflammatory dysregulation and partially reverses adverse metabolic programming in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, M; Reynolds, C M; Sloboda, D M; Gray, C; Vickers, M H

    2015-03-01

    Excessive fructose consumption is associated with insulin resistance (IR) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and high fructose intake during pregnancy can lead to compromised fetal development in the rat. Evidence suggests that the amino acid taurine can ameliorate fructose-induced IR and NAFLD in nonpregnant animals. This study investigated the efficacy of taurine supplementation on maternal fructose-induced metabolic dysfunction and neonatal health. Time-mated Wistar rats were randomized to four groups during pregnancy and lactation: (a) control diet (CON), (b) CON supplemented with 1.5% taurine in drinking water (CT), (c) CON supplemented with fructose solution (F) and (d) F supplemented with taurine (FT). Maternal and neonatal weights, plasma cytokines and hepatic gene expression were analyzed. Maternal hyperinsulinemia, increased homeostasis model assessment of IR indices and elevated proinflammatory cytokines were observed in F group and normalized in FT group. Maternal fructose-induced hepatic steatosis accompanied with increased liver weight was ameliorated with taurine supplementation. Maternal hepatic sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c and fatty acid synthase expression was significantly increased in the F group compared to the CON, CT and FT groups. Neonatal hepatic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase expression was increased in male F neonates compared to the CON, CT and FT groups and was increased in female F and FT neonates compared to CON and CT. Interleukin-1β expression was decreased in male CT and FT neonates compared to other male groups. Hepatic tumour necrosis factor receptor-1 was lower in the male FT group than the F group. These results demonstrate that maternal taurine supplementation can partially reverse fructose-induced maternal metabolic dysfunction and may ameliorate adverse developmental programming effects in offspring in a sex-specific manner. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Nonlinear associations between plasma cholesterol levels and neuropsychological function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendell, Carrington R; Zonderman, Alan B; Katzel, Leslie I; Rosenberger, William F; Plamadeala, Victoria V; Hosey, Megan M; Waldstein, Shari R

    2016-11-01

    Although both high and low levels of total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol have been associated with poor neuropsychological function, little research has examined nonlinear effects. We examined quadratic relations of cholesterol to performance on a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. Participants were 190 older adults (53% men, ages 54-83) free of major medical, neurologic, and psychiatric disease. Measures of fasting plasma total and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were assayed, and LDL cholesterol was calculated. Participants completed neuropsychological measures of attention, executive function, memory, visuospatial judgment, and manual speed and dexterity. Multiple regression analyses examined cholesterol levels as quadratic predictors of each measure of cognitive performance, with age (dichotomized as quadratic effect of Total Cholesterol² × Age was identified for Logical Memory II (b = -.0013, p = .039), such that the 70+ group performed best at high and low levels of total cholesterol than at midrange total cholesterol (U-shaped) and the Quadratic associations between HDL cholesterol and cognitive performance were nonsignificant. Results indicate differential associations between cholesterol and neuropsychological function across different ages and domains of function. High and low total and LDL cholesterol may confer both risk and benefit for suboptimal cognitive function at different ages. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Changes in plasma TIMP-1 levels after resection for primary colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, C.; Lomholt, A.F.; Davis, G.J.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increased plasma levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP-1) are associated with poor outcome in colorectal cancer (CRC), however postoperative changes in plasma TIMP-1 levels after resections for CRC have not been thoroughly evaluated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Plasma samp...

  4. Increasing taurine intake and taurine synthesis improves skeletal muscle function in the mdx mouse model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrill, Jessica R; Pinniger, Gavin J; Graves, Jamie A; Grounds, Miranda D; Arthur, Peter G

    2016-06-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal muscle wasting disease associated with increased inflammation, oxidative stress and myofibre necrosis. Cysteine precursor antioxidants such as N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) and l-2-oxothiazolidine-4-carboxylate (OTC) reduce dystropathology in the mdx mouse model for DMD, and we propose this is via increased synthesis of the amino acid taurine. We compared the capacity of OTC and taurine treatment to increase taurine content of mdx muscle, as well as effects on in vivo and ex vivo muscle function, inflammation and oxidative stress. Both treatments increased taurine in muscles, and improved many aspects of muscle function and reduced inflammation. Taurine treatment also reduced protein thiol oxidation and was overall more effective, as OTC treatment reduced body and muscle weight, suggesting some adverse effects of this drug. These data suggest that increasing dietary taurine is a better candidate for a therapeutic intervention for DMD. Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal muscle wasting disease for which there is no widely available cure. Whilst the mechanism of loss of muscle function in DMD and the mdx mouse model are not fully understood, disruptions in intracellular calcium homeostasis, inflammation and oxidative stress are implicated. We have shown that protein thiol oxidation is increased in mdx muscle, and that the indirect thiol antioxidant l-2-oxothiazolidine-4-carboxylate (OTC), which increases cysteine availability, decreases pathology and increases in vivo strength. We propose that the protective effects of OTC are a consequence of conversion of cysteine to taurine, which has itself been shown to be beneficial to mdx pathology. This study compares the efficacy of taurine with OTC in decreasing dystropathology in mdx mice by measuring in vivo and ex vivo contractile function and measurements of inflammation and protein thiol oxidation. Increasing the taurine content of mdx muscle improved both in vivo and ex

  5. Plasma YKL-40 levels in healthy subjects from the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojesen, Stig E; Johansen, Julia S; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2011-01-01

    Plasma YKL-40 is a new biomarker in patients with cancer and inflammatory diseases. High plasma YKL-40 is associated with poor prognosis. Our aim was to determine reference levels in healthy subjects....

  6. Sulfur X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Living Mammalian Cells: An Enabling Tool for Sulfur Metabolomics. in Situ Observation of Uptake of Taurine Into MDCK Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gnida, M.; Sneeden, E.Yu; Whitin, J.C.; Prince, R.C.; Pickering, I.J.; Korbas, M.; George, G.N.

    2009-06-01

    Sulfur is essential for life, with important roles in biological structure and function. However, because of a lack of suitable biophysical techniques, in situ information about sulfur biochemistry is generally difficult to obtain. Here, we present an in situ sulfur X-ray absorption spectroscopy (S-XAS) study of living cell cultures of the mammalian renal epithelial MDCK cell line. A great deal of information is retrieved from a characteristic sulfonate feature in the X-ray absorption spectrum of the cell cultures, which can be related to the amino acid taurine. We followed the time and dose dependence of uptake of taurine into MDCK cell monolayers. The corresponding uptake curves showed a typical saturation behavior with considerable levels of taurine accumulation inside the cells (as much as 40% of total cellular sulfur). We also investigated the polarity of uptake of taurine into MDCK cells, and our results confirmed that uptake in situ is predominantly a function of the basolateral cell surface.

  7. Plasma Cytokine Levels in Astronauts Before and after Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Satish K.; Aggarwal, Barat B.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Hammond, Dinne K.; Castro, Victoria A.; Stowe, Raymond; Pierson Duane L.

    2008-01-01

    Space flight is a unique experience and results in adverse effects on human physiology. Changes have been reported in various physiological systems, including musculoskeletal, neurovestibular, cardiovascular, endocrine, immunity and increased latent viral reactivation as well as others. The potential mechanisms behind these changes are not fully understood. Various cytokines such as IL-1, IL-6, TNF and chemokines have been linked to several of these changes, like muscle loss, bone loss, fatigue, sleep deprivation and viral reactivation. Eighteen astronauts (15 M and 3 F) from 8 spaceflights and 10 healthy age-matched adults (6 M, 4 F) were included in the present study. A panel of 21 plasma cytokines was analyzed with the Luminex 100 to measure the cytokines in these subjects 10 days before the flight (L-10), 2-3 hour after landing (R+0), 3 days after landing (R+3), and at their annual medical exam (AME). IL-10, IL-1, IFN-alpha, MCP-1 and IP-10 increased significantly at L-10 as compared with AME levels. IL-6 and IFN-alpha showed significant increases at R + 0 (P less than .05) over their baseline levels (AME). Cytokine levels at R+3 were not significantly different from R+0. IL-10 and IL-6 have been reported to increase in during viral reactivation. These data show that there was a shift from TH1 to TH2 cytokines L-10 and R+0. We also studied viral reactivation in 10 of the 18 subjects included in the present study before, during, and after space flight. Increased salivary varicella zoster virus (VZV) shedding in these subjects was found either during or after the mission. VZV shedding correlated with the increased levels of cytokines especially IL-10 and IL-6. Overall, our data suggests that cytokines may play an important role in regulating adverse changes in astronauts, and further studies are needed to fully understand the mechanism.

  8. Sequential plasma angiogenic factors levels in women with suspected preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltajian, Kedak; Bajracharya, Surichhya; Salahuddin, Saira; Berg, Anders H; Geahchan, Carl; Wenger, Julia B; Thadhani, Ravi; Karumanchi, S Ananth; Rana, Sarosh

    2016-07-01

    Alterations in circulating angiogenic factors are associated with the diagnosis of preeclampsia and correlate with adverse perinatal outcomes during the third trimester. Analysis of the sequential levels of plasma angiogenic factors among patients admitted for evaluation of preeclampsia. We performed an observational study among women with singleton pregnancies admitted to Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts, for evaluation of preeclampsia at less than 37 weeks of gestation. Plasma samples were collected on admission and daily for the first 3 days and then weekly until delivery. Doppler ultrasound was performed on admission (within 48 hours) and then weekly (within 24 hours of blood collection) to evaluate uteroplacental and umbilical blood flows. Maternal demographics, hospital course, mode of delivery, diagnosis of hypertensive disorder, adverse maternal outcomes (elevated liver function enzymes, low platelet count, pulmonary edema, cerebral hemorrhage, convulsion, acute renal insufficiency, or maternal death), and adverse fetal/neonatal outcomes (small for gestational age, abnormal umbilical artery Doppler, fetal death, and neonatal death) were recorded. Circulating angiogenic factors (soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase and placental growth factor were measured on automated platform in a single batch after delivery and in a blinded fashion. Data are presented as median (25th to 75th centile), mean, or proportions as appropriate. During the study period, data from 100 women were analyzed for the study, and 43 had adverse outcomes. Women with adverse outcomes had lower gestational age of delivery, higher systolic and diastolic blood pressures during hospitalization, and lower birthweight and placental weight (all P preeclampsia, women at risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes have higher soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase/placental growth factor ratio on admission, which continued to rise until delivery. Women with high soluble fms-like tyrosine

  9. Associations between dietary acrylamide intake and plasma sex hormone levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogervorst, Janneke G.; Fortner, Renee T.; Mucci, Lorelei A.; Tworoger, Shelley S.; Eliassen, A. Heather; Hankinson, Susan E.; Wilson, Kathryn M.

    2013-01-01

    Background The rodent carcinogen acrylamide was discovered in 2002 in commonly consumed foods. Epidemiological studies have observed positive associations between acrylamide intake and endometrial, ovarian and breast cancer risks, which suggests that acrylamide may have sex-hormonal effects. Methods We cross-sectionally investigated the relationship between acrylamide intake and plasma levels of sex hormones and SHBG among 687 postmenopausal and 1300 premenopausal controls from nested case-control studies within the Nurses’ Health Studies. Results There were no associations between acrylamide and sex hormones or SHBG among premenopausal women overall or among never-smokers. Among normal-weight premenopausal women, acrylamide intake was statistically significantly positively associated with luteal total and free estradiol levels. Among postmenopausal women overall and among never-smokers, acrylamide was borderline statistically significantly associated with lower estrone sulfate levels but not with other estrogens, androgens, prolactin or SHBG. Among normal weight women, (borderline) statistically significant inverse associations were noted for estrone, free estradiol, estrone sulfate, DHEA, and prolactin, while statistically significant positive associations for testosterone and androstenedione were observed among overweight women. Conclusions Overall, this study did not show conclusive associations between acrylamide intake and sex hormones that would lend unequivocal biological plausibility to the observed increased risks of endometrial, ovarian and breast cancer. The association between acrylamide and sex hormones may differ by menopausal and overweight status. We recommend other studies investigate the relationship between acrylamide and sex hormones in women, specifically using acrylamide biomarkers. Impact The present study showed some interesting associations between acrylamide intake and sex hormones that urgently need confirmation. PMID:23983241

  10. Effect of fishmeal replacement by soy protein concentrate with taurine supplementation on hepatic intermediary metabolism and antioxidant status of totoaba juveniles (Totoaba macdonaldi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bañuelos-Vargas, Isaura; López, Lus M; Pérez-Jiménez, Amalia; Peres, Helena

    2014-04-01

    The effect of dietary incorporation of soy protein concentrate (SPC) and the concomitant supplementation with taurine on hepatic intermediary metabolism and antioxidant status of totoaba (Totoaba macdonaldi) juveniles was assessed. Four isoproteic and isolipidic diets were formulated containing either 30 or 60% of SPC (diets SP30 and SP60), supplemented or not with 1% of taurine (diets SP30T and SP60T). A fish meal (FM) based diet, without SPC and taurine supplementation, was used as a control. Triplicate groups of 32 totoaba juveniles (average body mass=7.5g) were fed these diets over 45days. Results revealed that dietary FM replacement by SPC depressed the overall intermediary metabolism. Activity of key enzymes of amino acid catabolism and gluconeogenesis was significantly reduced and a trend to reduce glycolysis and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity was observed. The incorporation of the highest level of SPC also significantly increased hepatic lipid peroxidation and the activity of superoxide dismutase. Concomitant taurine supplementation restored the activity of amino acid catabolic and gluconeogenic enzymes and hexokinase to levels similar of those of the control diet. Taurine supplementation also led to a significant increase of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and catalase activity, as well as to a significant reduction of liver lipid peroxidation. These results suggest that taurine may play an important metabolic modulation action on totoaba fed SPC based diets, contributing to the enhancement of the overall metabolism and to the reduction of liver oxidative damage.

  11. Effect of Taurine on The Respiratory System of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammer E.M

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate the effect of taurine on isolated trachea and pulmonary artery of rats and the possible mechanism(s of action. The possible antioxidant effect of taurine was also studied by measuring its protective effect against cyclophosphamide induced lung injuiry. Taurine produced a concentration dependent relaxation in the isolated tracheal strips and pulmonary arterial rings precontracted by serotonin (2x10-4 mM. The relaxing effect of taurine was not influenced by pretreatment with nitric oxide synthase inhibitor (L-NAME , cysteinyl leukotreines receptor 1 blocker (montelukast , H1 receptor blocker (chlorpheniramine , β-adrenoceptor blocker (propranolol, potassium channel blocker (amiodarone , cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor (indomethacin or muscarinic receptor blocker (atropine. Preincubation with adenosine receptor blocker (aminophylline significantly potentiated the relaxing effect of taurine in the tracheal strips and pulmonary arterial rings. Cyclophosphamide (CYP, 150 mg/kg administerated i.p. in a single dose was used to produce lung injuiry in rats. CYP caused marked increase in lung lipid peroxides (MDA and decrease in lung reduced glutathione (GSH. Administration of taurine (1% in drinking water starting 7 days before CYP and continuing throughout the duration of the experiment (24 hours improved significantly the lung GSH and MDA. It can be concluded that taurine relaxes precontracted rat tracheal strips and pulmonary arterial rings probably by direct effect on the smooth muscles. Also, the observed antioxidant activity of taurine which may contribute to its relaxant effect suggesting the usefulness of turine in pulmonary hypertension.

  12. Plasma IGFBP-2 levels after postoperative combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy predict prognosis in elderly glioblastoma patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Han

    Full Text Available It has been found that preoperative plasma IGFBP-2 levels correlate with prognosis in glioma patients. The prognostic value of plasma IGFBP-2 after postoperative combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy in glioma patients is unknown. Plasma IGFBP-2 levels in 83 glioblastoma patients after postoperative radiotherapy plus chemotherapy were analyzed using an IGFBP-2 ELISA kit. We found that after standard therapy plasma IGFBP-2 levels significantly correlated with the patient's age (R = 0.738, P<0.001 and Karnofsky performance status (KPS, R =  -0.633, P<0.05. Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs of death according to plasma IGFBP-2 levels adjusted for patient clinical characteristics. Plasma IGFBP-2 levels significantly correlated with overall survival in glioblastoma patients (multivariate HR = 1.035; 95% CI, 1.024-1.047; P<0.001. The effect of plasma IGFBP-2 levels on survival seemed to differ according to patients' age. Among patients older than 60, high plasma IGFBP-2 levels were associated with a significant increase in overall mortality (HR = 1.097; 95% CI, 1.055-1.140; P<0.001. In contrast, plasma IGFBP-2 levels conferred no significant effect on mortality among patients younger than 60. Elevated plasma IGFBP-2 levels after combined postoperative radiotherapy and chemotherapy in elderly glioblastoma patients correlate with poor KPS score and predicts poor prognosis.

  13. Caffeine suppresses amyloid-beta levels in plasma and brain of Alzheimer's disease transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Chuanhai; Cirrito, John R; Lin, Xiaoyang; Wang, Li; Wang, Lilly; Verges, Deborah K; Dickson, Alexander; Mamcarz, Malgorzata; Zhang, Chi; Mori, Takashi; Arendash, Gary W; Holtzman, David M; Potter, Huntington

    2009-01-01

    Recent epidemiologic studies suggest that caffeine may be protective against Alzheimer's disease (AD). Supportive of this premise, our previous studies have shown that moderate caffeine administration protects/restores cognitive function and suppresses brain amyloid-beta (Abeta) production in AD transgenic mice. In the present study, we report that acute caffeine administration to both young adult and aged AD transgenic mice rapidly reduces Abeta levels in both brain interstitial fluid and plasma without affecting Abeta elimination. Long-term oral caffeine treatment to aged AD mice provided not only sustained reductions in plasma Abeta, but also decreases in both soluble and deposited Abeta in hippocampus and cortex. Irrespective of caffeine treatment, plasma Abeta levels did not correlate with brain Abeta levels or with cognitive performance in individual aged AD mice. Although higher plasma caffeine levels were strongly associated with lower plasma Abeta1-40 levels in aged AD mice, plasma caffeine levels were also not linked to cognitive performance. Plasma caffeine and theophylline levels were tightly correlated, both being associated with reduced inflammatory cytokine levels in hippocampus. Our conclusion is two-fold: first, that both plasma and brain Abeta levels are reduced by acute or chronic caffeine administration in several AD transgenic lines and ages, indicating a therapeutic value of caffeine against AD; and second, that plasma Abeta levels are not an accurate index of brain Abeta levels/deposition or cognitive performance in aged AD mice.

  14. Plasma levels of immunosuppressive mediators during cardiopulmonary bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Borrelli

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate plasma levels of two mediators with immunosuppressive properties, complement fraction C3a (C3a and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1, during extracorporeal circulation. The proliferation index after phytohaemagglutinin (PHA stimulation of isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells was also investigated. Sixteen patients undergoing hypothermic (n = 8, group 1 and normothermic (n = 8, group 2 cardiopulmormry bypass (CPB were enrolled in this study. As a control, we evaluated four patients undergoing thoracovascular operations without CPB. Blood samples were collected before CPB but after anaesthesia, every 30 min during CPB, at the end of CPB and 10 min after protamine administration. Both C3a and TGF-β1 increased significantly during CPB and after protamine administration in the hypothermic as well as the normothermic group. In the latter case the increase of C3a and TGF-β1, although more prominent, was not significantl higher than in the former group. Conversely, the proliferation, index of peripheral mononuclear cells had already decreased 30 min after CPB was started and remained depressed throughout the CPB time. These results suggest a possible role of C3a and TGF-β1 in the immunological changes occurring during extracorporeal circulation.

  15. Elevated levels of procoagulant plasma microvesicles in dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, James O; Hamali, Hassan A; Singh, Ruchir; Abbasian, Nima; Parsons, Ruth; Patel, Amit K; Goodall, Alison H; Brunskill, Nigel J

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular (CV) death remains the largest cause of mortality in dialysis patients, unexplained by traditional risk factors. Endothelial microvesicles (EMVs) are elevated in patients with traditional CV risk factors and acute coronary syndromes while platelet MVs (PMVs) are associated with atherosclerotic disease states. This study compared relative concentrations of circulating MVs from endothelial cells and platelets in two groups of dialysis patients and matched controls and investigated their relative thromboembolic risk. MVs were isolated from the blood of 20 haemodialysis (HD), 17 peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients and 20 matched controls. Relative concentrations of EMVs (CD144(+ ve)) and PMVs (CD42b(+ ve)) were measured by Western blotting and total MV concentrations were measured using nanoparticle-tracking analysis. The ability to support thrombin generation was measured by reconstituting the MVs in normal plasma, using the Continuous Automated Thrombogram assay triggered with 1µM tissue factor. The total concentration of MVs as well as the measured sub-types was higher in both patient groups compared to controls (p0.3). Dialysis patients have higher levels of circulating procoagulant MVs than healthy controls. This may represent a novel and potentially modifiable mediator or predictor of occlusive cardiovascular events in these patients.

  16. Elevated levels of procoagulant plasma microvesicles in dialysis patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James O Burton

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular (CV death remains the largest cause of mortality in dialysis patients, unexplained by traditional risk factors. Endothelial microvesicles (EMVs are elevated in patients with traditional CV risk factors and acute coronary syndromes while platelet MVs (PMVs are associated with atherosclerotic disease states. This study compared relative concentrations of circulating MVs from endothelial cells and platelets in two groups of dialysis patients and matched controls and investigated their relative thromboembolic risk. MVs were isolated from the blood of 20 haemodialysis (HD, 17 peritoneal dialysis (PD patients and 20 matched controls. Relative concentrations of EMVs (CD144(+ ve and PMVs (CD42b(+ ve were measured by Western blotting and total MV concentrations were measured using nanoparticle-tracking analysis. The ability to support thrombin generation was measured by reconstituting the MVs in normal plasma, using the Continuous Automated Thrombogram assay triggered with 1µM tissue factor. The total concentration of MVs as well as the measured sub-types was higher in both patient groups compared to controls (p0.3. Dialysis patients have higher levels of circulating procoagulant MVs than healthy controls. This may represent a novel and potentially modifiable mediator or predictor of occlusive cardiovascular events in these patients.

  17. Plasma Cytokine Levels During Long-Duration Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucian, Brian E.; Zwart, Sara R.; Quiriarte, Heather A.; Smith, Scott M.; Sams, Clarence F.

    2012-01-01

    Determine the in-flight status of immunity, physiological stress, viral immunity/reactivation. Specific measurements include leukocyte distribution, T cell function, cytokine production profiles (mRNA, intracellular, secreted, plasma), virus-specific T cell number/function, latent herpesvirus reactivation, stress hormone levels. Determine the clinical risk related to immune dysregulation for exploration class spaceflight, as well as an appropriate monitoring strategy for spaceflight-associated immune dysfunction, that could be used for the evaluation of countermeasures. Specific Study Objectives: Determine the nutritional status of astronauts before, during, and after spaceflight ensure adequate intake of energy, protein, and vitamins during missions. The Clinical Nutritional Status Assessment measures dietary intake, body composition, protein, bone, iron, mineral, vitamin, and antioxidant status (60 total analytes). Currently, it is a medical requirement for U.S. crewmembers on-board the ISS. The results of data analysis are used both to understand the connections between nutrition and human health during space flight, and to develop effective dietary strategies to reduce adverse health impacts (including bone loss, loss of important vitamins and minerals, and increased genetic damage from radiation).

  18. TAURINE REGULATION OF VOLTAGE-GATED CHANNELS IN RETINAL NEURONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowan, Matthew JM; Bulley, Simon; Purpura, Lauren; Ripps, Harris; Shen, Wen

    2017-01-01

    Taurine activates not only Cl−-permeable ionotropic receptors, but also receptors that mediate metabotropic responses. The metabotropic property of taurine was revealed in electrophysiological recordings obtained after fully blocking Cl−-permeable receptors with an inhibitory “cocktail” consisting of picrotoxin, SR95531, and strychnine. We found that taurine’s metabotropic effects regulate voltage-gated channels in retinal neurons. After applying the inhibitory cocktail, taurine enhanced delayed outward rectifier K+ channels preferentially in Off-bipolar cells, and the effect was completely blocked by the specific PKC inhibitor, GF109203X. Additionally, taurine also acted through a metabotropic pathway to suppress both L- and N-type Ca2+ channels in retinal neurons, which were insensitive to the potent GABAB receptor inhibitor, CGP55845. This study reinforces our previous finding that taurine in physiological concentrations produces a multiplicity of metabotropic effects that precisely govern the integration of signals being transmitted from the retina to the brain. PMID:23392926

  19. Plasma Lactate Dehydrogenase Levels Predict Mortality in Acute Aortic Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morello, Fulvio; Ravetti, Anna; Nazerian, Peiman; Liedl, Giovanni; Veglio, Maria Grazia; Battista, Stefania; Vanni, Simone; Pivetta, Emanuele; Montrucchio, Giuseppe; Mengozzi, Giulio; Rinaldi, Mauro; Moiraghi, Corrado; Lupia, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In acute aortic syndromes (AAS), organ malperfusion represents a key event impacting both on diagnosis and outcome. Increased levels of plasma lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), a biomarker of malperfusion, have been reported in AAS, but the performance of LDH for the diagnosis of AAS and the relation of LDH with outcome in AAS have not been evaluated so far. This was a bi-centric prospective diagnostic accuracy study and a cohort outcome study. From 2008 to 2014, patients from 2 Emergency Departments suspected of having AAS underwent LDH assay at presentation. A final diagnosis was obtained by aortic imaging. Patients diagnosed with AAS were followed-up for in-hospital mortality. One thousand five hundred seventy-eight consecutive patients were clinically eligible, and 999 patients were included in the study. The final diagnosis was AAS in 201 (20.1%) patients. Median LDH was 424 U/L (interquartile range [IQR] 367–557) in patients with AAS and 383 U/L (IQR 331–460) in patients with alternative diagnoses (P < 0.001). Using a cutoff of 450 U/L, the sensitivity of LDH for AAS was 44% (95% confidence interval [CI] 37–51) and the specificity was 73% (95% CI 69–76). Overall in-hospital mortality for AAS was 23.8%. Mortality was 32.6% in patients with LDH ≥ 450 U/L and 16.8% in patients with LDH < 450 U/L (P = 0.006). Following stratification according to LDH quartiles, in-hospital mortality was 12% in the first (lowest) quartile, 18.4% in the second quartile, 23.5% in the third quartile, and 38% in the fourth (highest) quartile (P = 0.01). LDH ≥ 450 U/L was further identified as an independent predictor of death in AAS both in univariate and in stepwise logistic regression analyses (odds ratio 2.28, 95% CI 1.11–4.66; P = 0.025), in addition to well-established risk markers such as advanced age and hypotension. Subgroup analysis showed excess mortality in association with LDH ≥ 450 U/L in elderly, hemodynamically stable

  20. Taurine activates GABAergic networks in the neocortex of immature mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Aurel Sava

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Although it has been suggested that taurine is the main endogenous neurotransmitter acting on glycine receptors, the implications of glycine receptor-mediated taurine actions on immature neocortical networks have not been addressed yet. To investigate the influence of taurine on the excitability of neuronal networks in the immature neocortex, we performed whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from visually identified pyramidal neurons and interneurons in coronal slices from C57Bl/6 and GAD67-GFP transgenic mice (postnatal days 2-4. In 46 % of the pyramidal neurons bath-application of taurine at concentrations ≥ 300 mM significantly enhanced the frequency of postsynaptic currents (PSCs by 744.3 ± 93.8 % (n = 120 cells. This taurine-induced increase of PSC frequency was abolished by 0.2 mM tetrodotoxine, 1 mM strychnine or 3 mM gabazine, but was unaffected by the glutamatergic antagonists 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX and (± R(--3-(2-carboxypiperazine-4-yl-propyl-1-phosphonic acid (CPP, suggesting that taurine specifically activates GABAergic network activity projecting to pyramidal neurons. Cell-attached recordings revealed that taurine enhanced the frequency of action potentials in pyramidal neurons, indicating an excitatory action of the GABAergic PSCs. In order to identify the presynaptic targets of taurine we demonstrate that bath application of taurine induced in GAD67-GFP labeled interneurons an inward current that is mainly mediated by glycine receptors and can generate action potentials in these cells. We conclude from these results that taurine can enhance network excitability in the immature neocortex by selectively activating GABAergic interneurons via interactions with glycine receptors.

  1. Variant innate immune responses of mammary epithelial cells to challenge by Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and the regulating effect of taurine on these bioprocesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Liuhai; Xu, Yuanyuan; Lu, Jinye; Liu, Ming; Bin Dai; Miao, Jinfeng; Yin, Yulong

    2016-07-01

    Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) are important pathogens causing subclinical and clinical bovine mastitis, respectively. Taurine, an organic acid found in animal tissues, has been used for the treatment of various superficial infections and chronic inflammations. We challenged a bovine mammary epithelial cell (MEC) line (MAC-T) or a mouse mammary epithelial cell line (EpH4-Ev) with either E. coli or S. aureus and compared the responses of MECs to these 2 pathogens. We also examined the regulatory effects of taurine on these responses. Receptor analyses showed that both TLR2 and TLR4 are upregulated upon exposure to either E. coli or S. aureus. Taurine pre-treatment dampened upregulation to some extent. E. coli and S. aureus stimulated comparable levels of ROS, which could be inhibited by taurine pre-treatment. E. coli infection elicited a dramatic change in iNOS expression. Taurine significantly decreased iNOS expression in the S. aureus challenged group. Protein microarray demonstrated that 32/40 and 8/40 inflammatory molecules/mediators were increased after E. coli or S. aureus challenge, respectively. The fold changes of most molecules were higher in the E. coli infection group than that in the S. aureus infection group. Taurine negatively regulated the inflammatory profile in both bacterial infections. Pro-inflammatory cytokines (such as TNF-α) connected with TLR activation were down-regulated by taurine pre-treatment. The influence of TAK-242 and OxPAPC on cytokine/molecule expression profiles to E. coli challenge are different than to S. aureus. Some important factors (MyD88, TNF-α, IL-1β, iNOS and IL-6) mediated by TLR activation were suppressed either in protein microarray or special assay (PCR/kits) or both. TAK-242 restrained ROS production and NAGase activity similar to the effect of taurine in E. coli challenge groups. The detection of 3 indices (T-AOC, SOD and MDA) reflecting oxidative stress in vivo, showed that

  2. Plasma Potassium Levels in Healthy Prehypertension Subjects and the Role of A High Potassium Drink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farapti, Farapti; Sayogo, Savitri; Siregar, Parlindungan

    2017-02-24

    Most populations around the world consume less than the recommended levels of potassium. Long term low potassium intake could lead to decreased plasma potassium levels and induce hypokalemia. The increasing of plasma potassium levels 0,2-0,4 mmol/L by improving potassium intake decreased significantly blood pressure (BP). Assessing plasma potassium levels in healthy people related to potassium intake have not been studied. In this study, we analysed plasma potassium levels in prehypertension (PHT) subjects and to evaluate the effect of tender coconut water (TCW) as a high potassium drink on plasma potassium levels in PHT adults. Thirthy-two female aged 25-44 years were randomly allocated to 14 days on TCW or water in a parallel randomized clinical trial . The treatment (T) group received TCW 300 ml twice daily and the control (C) group received water 300 ml twice daily too. At baseline, plasma potassium levels was 3.71±0.41 mmol/L, and 22.58% were categorized as hypokalemia. After 14 days treatment, potassium plasma level between T and C groups were not significantly different (p=0,247). The change of plasma potassium levels in both groups showed tendency to increase but not statistically significant (p=0.166). In healthy prehypertension women, the low levels of potassium plasma may be caused by low potassium intake for long time and intervension with TCW 300 ml twice daily for 14 consecutive days has not proven yet to increase plasma potassium levels. It is necessary to give higher dose and longer time to increase potassium plasma in low potassium plasma level subjects.

  3. Plasma levels of OLFM4 in normals and patients with gastrointestinal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Stine N; Glenthøj, Anders J; Heebøll, Sara;

    2015-01-01

    levels in plasma, the majority with OLFM4 in plasma between 0 and 0.1 μg/ml, mean 0.028 μg/ml while 10% of both normals and patients with cancers had OLFM4 between 4 and 60 μg/ml, mean 15 μg/ml. The levels were constant over time. The background for this high plasma level is not known, but must be taken...

  4. Relationship among serum taurine, serum adipokines, and body composition during 8-week human body weight control program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Jeong Soon; Park, Ji Yeon; Zhao, Xu; Jeong, Jin Seok; Choi, Mi Ja; Chang, Kyung Ja

    2013-01-01

    Human adipose tissue is not only a storage organ but also an active endocrine organ to release adipokines. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship among serum taurine and adipokine levels, and body composition during 8-week human body weight control program in obese female college students. The program consisted of diet therapy, exercise, and behavior modification. After the program, body weight, body fat mass, percent body fat, and body mass index (BMI) were significantly decreased. Serum triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels were significantly decreased. Also serum adiponectin level was significantly increased and serum leptin level was significantly decreased. There were no differences in serum taurine and homocysteine levels. The change of serum adiponectin level was positively correlated with change of body fat mass and percent body fat. These results may suggest that body fat loss by human body weight control program is associated with an increase in serum adiponectin in obese female college students. Therefore, further study such as taurine intervention study is needed to know more exact correlation between dietary taurine intake and serum adipokines or body composition.

  5. Plasma GLP-2 levels and intestinal markers in the juvenile pig during intestinal adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paris, Monique C; Fuller, Peter J; Carstensen, Bendix

    2004-01-01

    , villus height, lactase, sucrase, maltase, crypt depth, or villus/crypt ratio. Plasma GLP-2 levels increase in the first weeks following massive small intestinal resection. The increase in plasma GLP-2 levels was enhanced by supplementation of the diet with CPC. The changes in GLP-2 levels observed...

  6. Plasma levels of soluble endothelial cell protein C receptor in patients with Wegener's granulomatosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boomsma, MM; Stearns-Kurosawa, DJ; Stegeman, CA; Raschi, E; Meroni, PL; Kurosawa, S; Tervaert, JWC

    Elevated soluble thrombomodulin (sTM) levels are an accepted marker of endothelial damage. The physiological significance of plasma endothelial protein C receptor (sEPCR) levels is not known. To assess the relevance of this plasma protein in Wegener's granulomatosis (WG), sEPCR levels were measured

  7. Taurine and pioglitazone attenuate diabetes-induced testicular damage by abrogation of oxidative stress and up-regulation of the pituitary-gonadal axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Twab, Sanaa M; Mohamed, Hanaa M; Mahmoud, Ayman M

    2016-06-01

    Chronic hyperglycemia is associated with impairment of testicular function. The current study aimed to investigate the protective effects and the possible mechanisms of taurine and pioglitazone against diabetes-induced testicular dysfunction in rats. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin injection. Both normal and diabetic rats received taurine (100 mg/kg) or pioglitazone (10 mg/kg) orally and daily for 6 weeks. Diabetic rats showed a significant (P Taurine and pioglitazone alleviated hyperglycemia, decreased pro-inflammatory cytokines, and increased circulating levels of insulin, testosterone, LH, and FSH. Gene and protein expression of LH and FSH receptors and cytochrome P450 17α-hydroxylase (CYP17) was significantly (P taurine and pioglitazone. In addition, taurine and pioglitazone significantly decreased lipid peroxidation and DNA damage, and enhanced activity of the antioxidant enzymes in testes of diabetic rats. In conclusion, taurine and pioglitazone exerted protective effects against diabetes-induced testicular damage through attenuation of hyperglycemia, inflammation, oxidative stress and DNA damage, and up-regulation of the pituitary/gonadal axis.

  8. Increased plasma levels of soluble IL-2R are associated with severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, P H; Morris-Jones, S; Theander, T G;

    1994-01-01

    Plasma samples from children with mild and severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria and from children with unrelated diseases were collected to investigate whether the clinical outcome of infection was associated with plasma factors which reflected the activity of different cells of the immune system....... Children with severe P. falciparum malaria had significantly higher plasma levels of soluble IL-2R than children with mild malaria. Plasma levels of IL-2R and levels of parasitaemia were significantly correlated. Neither parasitaemia nor plasma levels of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), IL-6......, lymphotoxin (LT), interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), IL-4, soluble IL-4R or soluble CD8 differed significantly between the two groups of children with malaria. High plasma levels of soluble CD8 were associated with failure of lymphocytes to produce IFN-gamma in vitro following stimulation with P. falciparum...

  9. Combined administration of taurine and monoisoamyl DMSA protects arsenic induced oxidative injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flora, Swaran J S; Chouhan, Swapnila; Kannan, Gurusamy M; Mittal, Megha; Swarnkar, Harimohan

    2008-01-01

    Arsenic is a naturally occurring element that is ubiquitously present in the environment. High concentration of naturally occurring arsenic in drinking water is a major health problem in different parts of the world. Despite arsenic being a health hazard and a well documented carcinogen, no safe, effective and specific preventive or therapeutic measures are available. Among various recent strategies adopted, administration of an antioxidant has been reported to be the most effective. The present study was designed to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of monoisoamyl dimercaptosuccinic acid (MiADMSA), administered either individually or in combination with taurine post chronic arsenic exposure in rats. Arsenic exposed male rats (25 ppm, sodium arsenite in drinking water for 24 weeks) were treated with taurine (100 mg/kg, i.p., once daily), monoisoamyl dimercaptosuccinic acid (MiADMSA) (50 mg/kg, oral, once daily) either individually or in combination for 5 consecutive days. Biochemical variables indicative of oxidative stress along-with arsenic concentration in blood, liver and kidney were measured. Arsenic exposure significantly reduced blood delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity, a key enzyme involved in the heme biosynthesis and enhanced zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) level. Clinical hematological variables like white blood cells (WBC), mean cell hemoglobin (MCH), and mean cell hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) showed significant decrease with a significant elevation in platelet (PLT) count. These changes were accompanied by significant decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and increased catalase activity. Arsenic exposure caused a significant decrease in hepatic and renal glutathione (GSH) level and an increase in oxidized glutathione (GSSG). These biochemical changes were correlated with an increased uptake of arsenic in blood, liver and kidney. Administration of taurine significantly reduced hepatic oxidative stress however co

  10. Combined Administration of Taurine and Monoisoamyl Dmsa Protects Arsenic Induced Oxidative Injury in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swaran J. S. Flora

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic is a naturally occurring element that is ubiquitously present in the environment. High concentration of naturally occurring arsenic in drinking water is a major health problem in different parts of the world. Despite arsenic being a health hazard and a well documented carcinogen, no safe, effective and specific preventive or therapeutic measures are available. Among various recent strategies adopted, administration of an antioxidant has been reported to be the most effective. The present study was designed to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of monoisoamyl dimercaptosuccinic acid (MiADMSA, administered either individually or in combination with taurine post chronic arsenic exposure in rats. Arsenic exposed male rats (25 ppm, sodium arsenite in drinking water for 24 weeks were treated with taurine (100 mg/kg, i.p., once daily, monoisoamyl dimercaptosuccinic acid (MiADMSA (50 mg/kg, oral, once daily either individually or in combination for 5 consecutive days. Biochemical variables indicative of oxidative stress along-with arsenic concentration in blood, liver and kidney were measured. Arsenic exposure significantly reduced blood δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD activity, a key enzyme involved in the heme biosynthesis and enhanced zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP level. Clinical hematological variables like white blood cells (WBC, mean cell hemoglobin (MCH, and mean cell hemoglobin concentration (MCHC showed significant decrease with a significant elevation in platelet (PLT count. These changes were accompanied by significant decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD activity and increased catalase activity. Arsenic exposure caused a significant decrease in hepatic and renal glutathione (GSH level and an increase in oxidized glutathione (GSSG. These biochemical changes were correlated with an increased uptake of arsenic in blood, liver and kidney. Administration of taurine significantly reduced hepatic oxidative stress however co

  11. Effects of taurine deficiency and chronic methanol administration on rat retina, optic nerve and brain amino acids and monoamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Quevedo, A; Obregón, F; Urbina, M; Roussó, T; Lima, L

    2003-08-01

    A chronic methanol (MeOH) intoxication scheme (2 g/kg/day ip for 2 weeks) was carried out in Sprague-Dawley rats, previously depleted of folates with methotrexate (MTX). beta-Alanine (beta-Ala), 5%, was also administered to some animals in the drinking water. Amino acids were determined in plasma, retina, optic nerve, hippocampus and posterior cortex by HPLC with fluorescence detection and monoamines in retina, hippocampus and posterior cortex by electrochemical detection. Beta-Ala administration reduced taurine (Tau) levels in plasma, hippocampus and posterior cortex, but not in retina and optic nerve. Aspartate (Asp) concentration in the optic nerve was increased in MTX-MeOH treated animals, and the administration of beta-Ala did not modify this elevation. The association of beta-Ala with MTX-MeOH produced an increase of threonine, and a decrease of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in the retina without modifying 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid, whereas in the hippocampus an elevation of asparagine was observed. We conclude that, in the retina, beta-Ala in combination with MTX-MeOH increased serotonin and decreased dopamine (DA) turnover rate, and resulted in changes in the amino acid balance, that could affect glycinergic activity. On the other hand, in the hippocampus, Asp metabolism could be affected by Tau depletion with beta-Ala.

  12. Physical activity affects plasma coenzyme Q10 levels differently in young and old humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Pozo-Cruz, Jesús; Rodríguez-Bies, Elisabet; Ballesteros-Simarro, Manuel; Navas-Enamorado, Ignacio; Tung, Bui Thanh; Navas, Plácido; López-Lluch, Guillermo

    2014-04-01

    Coenzyme Q (Q) is a key lipidic compound for cell bioenergetics and membrane antioxidant activities. It has been shown that also has a central role in the prevention of oxidation of plasma lipoproteins. Q has been associated with the prevention of cholesterol oxidation and several aging-related diseases. However, to date no clear data on the levels of plasma Q during aging are available. We have measured the levels of plasmatic Q10 and cholesterol in young and old individuals showing different degrees of physical activity. Our results indicate that plasma Q10 levels in old people are higher that the levels found in young people. Our analysis also indicates that there is no a relationship between the degree of physical activity and Q10 levels when the general population is studied. However, very interestingly, we have found a different tendency between Q10 levels and physical activity depending on the age of individuals. In young people, higher activity correlates with lower Q10 levels in plasma whereas in older adults this ratio changes and higher activity is related to higher plasma Q10 levels and higher Q10/Chol ratios. Higher Q10 levels in plasma are related to lower lipoperoxidation and oxidized LDL levels in elderly people. Our results highlight the importance of life habits in the analysis of Q10 in plasma and indicate that the practice of physical activity at old age can improve antioxidant capacity in plasma and help to prevent cardiovascular diseases.

  13. Zinc and copper levels in plasma, erythrocytes, and whole blood in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldor, Y; Walach, N; Modai, D; Horn, Y

    1982-04-01

    Zinc and copper levels in erythrocytes, plasma, and whole blood were determined in 35 cancer patients and compared with 24 normal individuals. A decrease in zinc was found in all three blood constituents of the cancer patients. The decrease was significant in plasma and whole blood and nonsignificant in erythrocytes. Copper levels in the cancer group showed a slight and nonsignificant increase in erythrocytes, plasma, and whole blood. The copper to zinc ratio revealed a significant increase only for plasma levels. Further investigations are indicated to determine whether these two elements could serve as indicators for diagnosis or prognosis in cancer patients.

  14. THE MODULATORY ROLE OF TAURINE IN RETINAL GANGLION CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zheng; Bulley, Simon; Guzzone, Joseph; Ripps, Harris; Shen, Wen

    2017-01-01

    Taurine (2-aminoethylsuphonic acid) is present in nearly all animal tissues, and is the most abundant free amino acid in muscle, heart, CNS and retina. Although it is known to be a major cytoprotectant and essential for normal retinal development, its role in retinal neurotransmission and modulation is not well understood. We investigated the response of taurine in retinal ganglion cells, and its effect on synaptic transmission between ganglion cells and their pre-synaptic neurons. We find that taurine-elicited currents in ganglion cells could be fully blocked by both strychnine and SR95531, glycine and GABAA receptor antagonists, respectively. This suggests that taurine-activated receptors might share the antagonists with GABA and glycine receptors. The effect of taurine at micromolar concentrations can effectively suppress spontaneous vesicle release from the pre-synaptic neurons, but had limited effects on light-evoked synaptic signals in ganglion cells. We also describe a metabotropic effect of taurine in the suppression of light-evoked response in ganglion cells. Clearly, taurine acts in multiple ways to modulate synaptic signals in retinal output neurons, ganglion cells. PMID:23392924

  15. Biophysical insight into the anti-amyloidogenic behavior of taurine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Sumit Kumar; Alam, Parvez; Khan, Javed Masood; Siddiqui, Mohd Khursheed; Kalaiarasan, Ponnusamy; Subbarao, Naidu; Ahmad, Zeeshan; Khan, Rizwan Hasan

    2015-09-01

    In this work, we investigated the inhibitory ability of taurine on the aggregation of Human serum albumin (HSA) and also examined how it controls the kinetic parameters of the aggregation process. We demonstrated the structural alterations in the HSA after binding to the taurine at 65 °C by exploiting various biophysical techniques. UV-vis spectroscopy was used to check the turbidometric changes in the protein. Thioflavin T fluorescence kinetics was subjected to explore kinetic parameters comparing the amyloid formation in the presence of varying concentration of taurine. Further, Congo red binding and ANS binding assays were performed to determine the inhibitory effect of taurine on HSA fibrillation process and surface hydrophobicity modifications occurring before and after the addition of taurine with protein, respectively. Far UV CD and Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) confirmed that taurine stabilized the protein α-helical structure and formed complex with HSA which is further supported by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Moreover, microscopic imaging techniques were also done to analyze the morphology of aggregation formed. Taurine is also capable of altering the cytotoxicity of the proteinaceous aggregates. Molecular docking study also deciphered the possible residues involved in protein and drug interaction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Long-lasting enhancement of corticostriatal neurotransmission by taurine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chepkova, A N; Doreulee, N; Yanovsky, Y; Mukhopadhyay, D; Haas, H L; Sergeeva, O A

    2002-10-01

    Taurine occurs at high concentrations in the forebrain and its distribution varies with (patho)physiological conditions; however, its role in neural function is poorly understood. We have now characterized its effects on corticostriatal synaptic transmission. Bath application of taurine (10 mm) to slices obtained from mice and rats exerted a biphasic action on corticostriatal field potentials. The fast and reversible inhibition by taurine was accompanied by a depolarization and conductance increase in medium spiny neurons and was sensitive to gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A and glycine receptor (GlyR) antagonists. A long-lasting enhancement (LLETAU) of field potentials was recorded after taurine withdrawal. The LLETAU was not prevented by N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA)- or by GABAA receptor-antagonists, but was sensitive to the GlyR-antagonist strychnine and blocked by the competitive taurine uptake inhibitor guanidinoethylsulphonate (GES, 1 mm). GES at 10 mm evoked an enhancement of field potentials similar to LLETAU. LLETAU depended on protein kinase C activation as it was blocked by chelerythrine, but was unaffected by trifluoperazine, and thus independent of calmodulin. LLETAU was significantly smaller in juvenile than in mature rodents. Activation of GlyRs and the specific taurine transporter by taurine evoke a long-lasting enhancement of corticostriatal transmission.

  17. Atrophic cardiac remodeling induced by taurine deficiency in Wistar rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariele Castilho Pansani

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Micronutrient deficiency is observed in heart failure patients. Taurine, for example, represents 50% of total free amino acids in the heart, and in vivo studies have linked taurine deficiency with cardiomyopathy. METHODS: Thirty-four male Wistar rats (body weight = 100 g were weighed and randomly assigned to one of two groups: Control (C or taurine-deficient (T (-. Beta-alanine at a concentration of 3% was added to the animals' water to induce taurine deficiency in the T (- group. On day 30, the rats were individually submitted to echocardiography; morphometrical and histopathological evaluation and metalloproteinase activity, oxidative stress and inflammation evaluation were performed. Tissue samples were collected to determine the taurine concentration in the heart. RESULTS: Taurine deficiency led to decreases in: ventricular wall thickness, left ventricle dry weight, myocyte sectional area, left ventricle posterior wall thickness and ventricular geometry. With regard to heart function, the velocity of the A wave, the ratio between the E and A wave, the ejection fraction, fractional shortening and cardiac output values were decreased in T (- rats, suggesting abnormal diastolic and systolic function. Increased fibrosis, inflammation and increased activation of metalloproteinases were not observed. Oxidative stress was increased in deficient animals. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that taurine deficiency promotes structural and functional cardiac alterations with unique characteristics.

  18. Effect of Taurine on the antimicrobial efficiency of Gentamicin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islambulchilar Mina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Context: Gentamicin is mainly used in severe infections caused by gram-negatives. However toxicity including nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity is one of the most important complications of its treatment. The production of free radicals seems to be involved in gentamicin toxicity mechanism. Taurine, a major intracellular free β-amino acid, is known to be an endogenous antioxidant. So potentially the co-therapy of taurine and gentamicin would reduce the adverse effects of the antibiotic. Objectives: In this study, we wished to know the effect of taurine on the antibiotic capacity of gentamicin. methods: strains of P. aeruginosa, E. coli, S. aureus and S. epidermidis were used as test organisms. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of gentamicin in the presence and absence of taurine at quantities from 40 to 2 mg/L were determined using macro-dilution method. Results: MICs were determined in the various concentrations of taurine for bacterial indicators. The MIC values of gentamicin for P. aeruginosa, S. aureus and E. coli remained unchanged in the values of 2.5, 5 and 20 μg/ml respectively in the absence and presences of different concentrations of taurine. The bactericidal activity of gentamicin against S. epidermidis was increased by addition of taurine in the concentrations higher than 6 mg/L. Conclusion: According to our study the antibacterial activity of gentamicin against the indicator microorganisms were not interfere with taurine at selected concentrations. Further in vivo studies are needed to establish if a combination of gentamicin and taurine would have the same effect.

  19. Protective effect of taurine on the light-induced disruption of isolated frog rod outer segments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasantes-Morales, H.; Ademe, R.M.; Quesada, O.

    1981-01-01

    Isolated frog rod outer segments (ROS) incubated in a Krebs-bicarbonate medium, and illuminated for 2 h, show a profound alteration in their structure. This is characterized by distention of discs, vesiculation, and a marked swelling. The light-induced ROS disruption requires the presence of bicarbonate and sodium chloride. Replacement of bicarbonate by TRIS or HEPES protects ROS structure. Also, substitution of sodium chloride by sucrose or choline chloride maintains unaltered the ROS structure. Deletion of calcium, magnesium, or phosphate does not modify the effect produced by illumination. An increased accumulation of labeled bicarbonate and tritiated water is observed in illuminated ROS, as compared with controls in the dark. The presence of taurine, GABA, or glycine, at concentrations of 5-25 mM, effectively counteracts the light-induced ROS disruption. Taurine (25 mM) reduces labeled bicarbonate and tritiated water levels to those observed in the dark incubated ROS.

  20. Fish protein hydrolysate elevates plasma bile acids and reduces visceral adipose tissue mass in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liaset, Bjørn; Madsen, Lise; Hao, Qin

    2009-01-01

    Conjugation of bile acids (BAs) to the amino acids taurine or glycine increases their solubility and promotes liver BA secretion. Supplementing diets with taurine or glycine modulates BA metabolism and enhances fecal BA excretion in rats. However, it is still unclear whether dietary proteins...... varying in taurine and glycine contents alter BA metabolism, and thereby modulate the recently discovered systemic effects of BAs. Here we show that rats fed a diet containing saithe fish protein hydrolysate (saithe FPH), rich in taurine and glycine, for 26 days had markedly elevated fasting plasma BA...

  1. Levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 in plasma and urine frompatients with bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holten Andersen, MN; Brunner, N; Nielsen, HJ;

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To assess the potential use of plasma and urine levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP-1) in urothelial cancer. Methods: TIMP-1 levels were determined in urine and plasma from healthy donors (n=26), patients with bacterial bladder infection (n=24), urothelial bladder adenoma...

  2. Levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 in plasma and urine from patients with cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holten-Andersen, Mads Nikolaj; Brünner, Nils; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen;

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To assess the potential use of plasma and urine levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP-1) in urothelial cancer. METHODS: TIMP-1 levels were determined in urine and plasma from healthy donors (n=26), patients with bacterial bladder infection (n=24), urothelial bladder adenoma...

  3. Plasma levels of apolipoprotein E and risk of stroke in old age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, P. van; Mooijaart, S.P.; Craen, A.J.M. de; Rensen, P.C.N.; Heemst, D. van; Westendorp, R.G.J.

    2007-01-01

    Recently, high plasma apoE levels have been shown to be related to increased cardiovascular mortality, independent of APOE genotype. Here we studied the association of plasma apoE levels with risk of stroke. Within the Leiden 85-plus Study, a prospective population-based study of 561 subjects aged

  4. Plasma levels of apolipoprotein E and cognitive function in old age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooijaart, S.P.; Vliet, P. van; Heemst, D. van; Rensen, P.C.N.; Berbée, J.F.P.; Jolles, J.; Craen, A.J.M. de; Westendorp, R.G.J.

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between structural variants of the apolipoprotein E gene, APOE ε2/ε3/ε4, and dementia is well established, whereas the relationship of plasma apoE levels with dementia is less clear. Plasma apoE levels are under tight genetic control but vary widely within the various genotypes

  5. Levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 in plasma and urine from patients with cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holten-Andersen, Mads Nikolaj; Brünner, Nils; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To assess the potential use of plasma and urine levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP-1) in urothelial cancer. METHODS: TIMP-1 levels were determined in urine and plasma from healthy donors (n=26), patients with bacterial bladder infection (n=24), urothelial bladder adenoma...

  6. Caloric restriction and exercise increase plasma ANGPTL4 levels in humans via elevated free fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kersten, S.; Lichtenstein, L.; Steenbergen, E.; Mudde, K.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Hesselink, M.K.; Schrauwen, P.; Müller, M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE-: Plasma lipoprotein levels are determined by the balance between lipoprotein production and clearance. Recently, angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) was uncovered as a novel endocrine factor that potently raises plasma triglyceride levels by inhibiting triglyceride clearance. However, v

  7. Modulation of plasma fibrinogen levels by ticlopidine in healthy volunteers and patients with stable angina pectoris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maat, M.P.M. de; Arnold, A.E.R.; Buuren, S. van; Paul Wilson, J.H.; Kluft, C.

    1996-01-01

    Elevated plasma fibrinogen levels represent an increased risk for cardiac events. Ticlopidine is a drug that inhibits the ADP-induced aggregation of blood platelets and it also has been described that ticlopidine can decrease the plasma fibrinogen level in patients with vascular diseases. The

  8. Modulation of plasma fibrinogen levels by ticlopidine in healthy volunteers and patients with stable angina pectoris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maat, M.P.M. de; Arnold, A.E.R.; Buuren, S. van; Wilson, J.H.P.; Kluft, C.

    1996-01-01

    Elevated plasma fibrinogen levels are associated with an increased risk for cardiac events. Ticlopidine is a drug that inhibits the ADP-induced aggregation of blood platelets and it also has been described that ticlopidine can decrease the plasma fibrinogen level in patients with vascular diseases.

  9. Plasma S100 beta and NSE levels and progression in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koch, Marcus; Mostert, Jop; Heersema, Dorothea; Teelken, Albert; De Keyser, Jacques

    2007-01-01

    Plasma levels of the glial cell marker S100 beta and the neuronal marker neuron-specific enolase (NSE) are elevated in various conditions of central nervous system damage. In this study we investigated whether plasma levels of S 1000 and NSE are related to disease progression in multiple sclerosis (

  10. Modulation of plasma fibrinogen levels by ticlopidine in healthy volunteers and patients with stable angina pectoris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maat, M.P.M. de; Arnold, A.E.R.; Buuren, S. van; Paul Wilson, J.H.; Kluft, C.

    1996-01-01

    Elevated plasma fibrinogen levels represent an increased risk for cardiac events. Ticlopidine is a drug that inhibits the ADP-induced aggregation of blood platelets and it also has been described that ticlopidine can decrease the plasma fibrinogen level in patients with vascular diseases. The mechan

  11. Modulation of plasma fibrinogen levels by ticlopidine in healthy volunteers and patients with stable angina pectoris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maat, M.P.M. de; Arnold, A.E.R.; Buuren, S. van; Wilson, J.H.P.; Kluft, C.

    1996-01-01

    Elevated plasma fibrinogen levels are associated with an increased risk for cardiac events. Ticlopidine is a drug that inhibits the ADP-induced aggregation of blood platelets and it also has been described that ticlopidine can decrease the plasma fibrinogen level in patients with vascular diseases.

  12. Plasma S100 beta and NSE levels and progression in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koch, Marcus; Mostert, Jop; Heersema, Dorothea; Teelken, Albert; De Keyser, Jacques

    2007-01-01

    Plasma levels of the glial cell marker S100 beta and the neuronal marker neuron-specific enolase (NSE) are elevated in various conditions of central nervous system damage. In this study we investigated whether plasma levels of S 1000 and NSE are related to disease progression in multiple sclerosis (

  13. Plasma Histamine And Serotonin Levels In Children With Nephrotic Syndrome And Acute Poststreptococcal Glomerulonephritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagwa Mohamed and Talaat El sayed

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Plasma histamine and serotonin concentrations were measured using fluorimeteric assay in 40 children with renal diseases. Minimal change nephrotic syndrome (15 focal segmental glomerulosclerosis(10 and acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis(15 to determine the relation between plasma levels of histamine and serotonin and these various types of renal diseases in children. Plasma histamine level was significantly increased in group of children with acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis. Plasma serotonin levels were significantly increased in all 3 groups of patient, when compared with those of controls. Raised plasma histamine in acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis group may be evidence of the acute immunological inflammation and defective renal excretion due to mild renal impairment in these children. Raised plasma serotonin in all 3 groups of patients may be due to diminished uptake and release of serotonin from platelets in children with minimal change nephrotic syndrome and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and due to defective renal execretion in children with acute poststreptococcal glomerulo-nephritis.

  14. Taurine Inhibits Myocardial Fibrosis via PKC-ERK1/2 Signaling Pathways

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li-ying; LI Hong; YANG Shi-jie

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the important role of taurine in inhibiting proliferation of myofibroblasts(myoFb) and myocardial fibrosis.However,the underlying mechanisms are unclear.The present study was designed to shed light on this issue through exploring the signal pathways via in vitro experiments.Angiotension Ⅱ (AngⅡ) treatment significantly increased myoFb proliferation and the levels of collagens Ⅰ and Ⅲ(P<0.05),whereas taurine,PKCαt(PKC:protein kinase C) specific inhibitor L-threo-dihydro-sphingosine(D4681),ERK1/2 inhibitor (PD98095) abrogated myoFb proliferation and collagen levels(P<0.05,P<0.01,respectively),and increased the G0/G1 phase rate and decreased S phase rate.Immunocytochemistry,confocal fluorescence staining and image analysis showed that taurine could inhibit the translocation and expression of p-PKCαtin membrane,and then inhibit nuclear translocation and expression of p-ERK1/2.These results have statistically significant differences compared with those of AngⅡ group(P<0.0l).Western blot results also show that taurine could inhibit the protein expression of p-PKCαt and p-ERK1/2.We used p-PKCα specific inhibitor D4681 in order to elucidate the relationship between p-PKCα and p-ERK1/2 in signal transduction pathways.Finally,the results show that the protein expression of p-ERK1/2 and nuclear translocation were suppressed in D4681 group.

  15. Plasma levels of oestriol-17 beta, oestriol and human placental lactogen during bed rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, P C; Mok, H; Ratnam, S S

    1976-11-01

    Plasma unconjugated oestradiol-17 beta, total oestriol and human placental lactogen levels were measured in twelve healthy volunteers admitted for bed rest in the last trimester of pregnancy. No significant alteration in levels was observed.

  16. Study of plasma amino acid levels in children with autism: An Egyptian sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida M. ElBaz

    2014-04-01

    Conclusions: Autistic children had lower levels of some plasma amino acids except for glycine and glutamic acids and phosphoserine were increased with normal serum levels of urea, ammonia, total proteins, albumin and globulins (alpha 1, alpha 2, beta and gamma.

  17. Plasma ion levels of freshwater and marine/estuarine teleosts from Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexssandro Geferson Becker

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate Na+, Cl-, K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ levels in the plasma of freshwater and marine/estuarine teleosts collected at different salinities (0 to 34 from the estuarine and freshwater portions of the São Gonçalo channel in Southern Brazil. Any relationship between plasma ion levels and salinity and the capacity of ionic regulation of teleosts found at three or more different salinities (Genidens barbus and Micropogonias furnieri was also investigated. Results showed no relationship between plasma ion levels and salinity when considering all species together, but the two species collected from three or more different salinities showed a significant positive relationship between plasma ion levels and salinity, indicating that G. barbus and M. furnieri have a high capacity to regulate plasma ion levels at both low and high salinities.

  18. The contribution of different adipose tissue depots to plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Sunelle A; Pieters, Marlien; De Lange, Zelda

    2016-11-01

    Increased plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) level is considered a mechanistic pathway through which obesity contributes to increased cardiovascular disease risk. Abdominal adipose tissue specifically, is a major PAI-1 source with visceral adipose tissue (VAT), an ectopic fat depot, generally considered to produce more PAI-1 than subcutaneous adipose tissue. However, this does not necessarily lead to increased plasma PAI-1 levels. This review provides an overview of studies investigating the association between body fat distribution and plasma PAI-1 levels. It discusses factors that influence this relationship and also considers the contribution of other tissue to plasma PAI-1 levels, placing the relative contribution of adipose tissue into perspective. In conclusion, the relationship between VAT and plasma PAI-1 levels is not fixed but can be modulated by a number of factors such as the size of the subcutaneous adipose tissue depot, ethnicity, possibly genetics and other obesity-related metabolic abnormalities.

  19. Daily melatonin administration at middle age suppresses male rat visceral fat, plasma leptin, and plasma insulin to youthful levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, D D; Boldt, B M; Wilkinson, C W; Yellon, S M; Matsumoto, A M

    1999-02-01

    Human and rat pineal melatonin secretion decline with aging, whereas visceral fat and plasma insulin levels increase. Melatonin modulates fat metabolism in some mammalian species, so these aging-associated melatonin, fat and insulin changes could be functionally related. Accordingly, we investigated the effects of daily melatonin supplementation to male Sprague-Dawley rats, starting at middle age (10 months) and continuing into old age (22 months). Melatonin was added to the drinking water (92% of which was consumed at night) at a dosage (4 microg/ml) previously reported to attenuate the aging-associated decrease in survival rate in male rats, as well as at a 10-fold lower dosage. The higher dosage produced nocturnal plasma melatonin levels in middle-aged rats which were 15-fold higher than in young (4 months) rats; nocturnal plasma melatonin levels in middle-aged rats receiving the lower dosage were not significantly different from young or middle-aged controls. Relative (% of body wt) retroperitoneal and epididymal fat, as well as plasma insulin and leptin levels, were all significantly increased at middle age when compared to young rats. All were restored within 10 weeks to youthful (4 month) levels in response to both dosages of melatonin. Continued treatment until old age maintained suppression of visceral (retroperitoneal + epididymal) fat levels. Plasma corticosterone and total thyroxine (T4) levels were not significantly altered by aging or melatonin treatment. Plasma testosterone, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and total triiodothyronine (T3) decreased by middle age; these aging-associated decreases were not significantly altered by melatonin treatment. Thus, visceral fat, insulin and leptin responses to melatonin administration may be independent of marked changes in gonadal, thyroid, adrenal or somatotropin regulation. Since increased visceral fat is associated with increased insulin resistance, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, these results

  20. Effects of taurine and/or ginseng and their mixture on lipid profile and some parameters indicative of myocardial status in streptozotocin-diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afaf Abbass Sayed Saleh

    2012-10-01

    The results indicated that the administration of taurine or ginseng showed a remarkable amelioration in glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C, insulin and free T3 levels. The maximum amelioration in the level of glucose, HbA1C, insulin and free T3 occurred in diabetic rats that received the mixture of taurine and ginseng. Additionally, treatment of diabetic rats with two antioxidants induced a significant reduction in serum cholesterol, triglycerides and low density lipoprotein levels. The antioxidants also displayed a significant decrease in the activities of cardiac enzymes, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, creatine kinase (CK, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH and the levels of serum endothelin-1 with a significant elevation in the levels of serum total nitric oxide (TNO in the diabetic animals group. The results suggest that a combination treatment between taurine and ginseng might represent the treatment of patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD which is related to diabetic disorder.

  1. Plasma cathepsin S and cystatin C levels and risk of abdominal aortic aneurysm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lv, Bing-Jie; Lindholt, Jes Sanddal; Cheng, Xiang

    2012-01-01

    Human abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) lesions contain high levels of cathepsin S (CatS), but are deficient in its inhibitor, cystatin C. Whether plasma CatS and cystatin C levels are also altered in AAA patients remains unknown.......Human abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) lesions contain high levels of cathepsin S (CatS), but are deficient in its inhibitor, cystatin C. Whether plasma CatS and cystatin C levels are also altered in AAA patients remains unknown....

  2. Physical activity opposes the age-related increase in skeletal muscle and plasma endothelin-1 levels and normalizes plasma endothelin-1 levels in individuals with essential hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyberg, Michael Permin; Mortensen, Stefan Peter; Hellsten, Ylva

    2013-01-01

    AIMS: Endothelin-1 has potent constrictor and proliferative activity in vascular smooth muscle, and essential hypertension and aging are associated with increased endothelin-1-mediated vasoconstrictor tone. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of physical activity, hypertension...... performed lifelong physical activity had similar plasma and muscle endothelin-1 levels as the young controls and had higher ET(A) receptor levels. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that aerobic exercise training opposes the age-related increase in skeletal muscle and plasma endothelin-1 levels and normalizes...... plasma endothelin-1 levels in individuals with essential hypertension. This effect may explain some of the beneficial effects of training on the cardiovascular system in older and hypertensive subjects....

  3. Plasma brain natriuretic peptide levels are elevated in patients with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bando, Sachiko; Soeki, Takeshi; Matsuura, Tomomi; Tobiume, Takeshi; Ise, Takayuki; Kusunose, Kenya; Yamaguchi, Koji; Yagi, Shusuke; Fukuda, Daiju; Iwase, Takashi; Yamada, Hirotsugu; Wakatsuki, Tetsuzo; Shimabukuro, Michio; Muguruma, Naoki; Takayama, Tetsuji; Kishimoto, Ichiro; Kangawa, Kenji; Sata, Masataka

    2017-01-01

    Natriuretic peptides have been proposed as biomarkers of cardiovascular disease, especially heart failure. Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) has also been shown to be upregulated at the transcriptional and translational levels by pro-inflammatory cytokines in cardiac myocytes. Although we often measure plasma BNP levels in cancer patients, it remains unknown whether cancer-related inflammation affects the plasma BNP levels. We investigated the relationship between the BNP and human cancers. We retrospectively studied 2,923 patients in whom the plasma BNP levels and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured and echocardiography was performed. Patients with clinically evident heart failure (NYHA II or higher), heart disease requiring medical treatment or surgery, renal dysfunction, and inflammatory disease were excluded. There were 234 patients in the final analysis. Blood sampling was performed before surgery and chemotherapy. In addition, we evaluated the relationship between the inflammation and plasma BNP levels in mouse models of colon cancer. Of the 234 patients, 80 were diagnosed with cancer. Both the plasma BNP and serum CRP levels were significantly higher in cancer patients than those without. There were no significant differences in the echocardiographic parameters. There was a significant positive correlation between the plasma BNP and serum CRP levels in cancer patients (r = 0.360, P<0.01) but not in those without. In cancer patients, only the CRP correlated with the BNP independent of the age, creatinine level, hypertension, and body mass index. In addition, in nude mice with subcutaneous colon cancer, the plasma BNP level was elevated compared with that in non-cancer mice, and there was a significant relationship between the plasma BNP and serum levels of the inflammatory markers. In cancer patients, as well as colon cancer model mice, the plasma BNP levels were elevated, possibly due to cancer-related inflammation. The effect of cancer on the BNP

  4. Post-prandial decrease in plasma growth hormone levels is not related to the increase in plasma insulin levels in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishihara, Koki; Kobayashi, Ryoko; Suzuki, Yutaka; Sato, Katsuyoshi; Katoh, Kazuo; Roh, Sang-Gun

    2017-06-26

    In the present study, we examined whether the post-prandial reduction in plasma growth hormone (GH) levels is related to the increase in plasma insulin levels in ruminants. We performed two experiments: intravenous bolus injection of insulin (0.2 IU/kg body weight) or glucose (1.0 mmol/kg body weight) was administered to increase the plasma insulin levels in male Shiba goats. In the insulin injection experiment, significant (pincrease in GH concentrations was observed, 15-20 min after the injection; it was accompanied with a significant (pincrease in cortisol concentrations at 45-90 min, when compared to the concentrations in the saline-injected controls. The glucose injection significantly (pincreased the plasma GH concentration at 20-45 min; this was not accompanied by significantly higher cortisol concentrations than were observed for the saline-injected control. Hypoglycemia induced by the insulin injection, which causes the excitation of the adrenal cortex, might be involved in the increase in insulin levels. Based on these results, we conclude that post-prandial increases in plasma insulin or glucose levels do not induce a decrease in GH concentration after feeding in the ruminants.

  5. Relationship between the plasma levels of neurodegenerative proteins and motor subtypes of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jian; Zhang, Jiejin; Wang, Xixi; Zhang, Li; Jiang, Siming; Yuan, Yongsheng; Li, Junyi; Zhu, Lin; Zhang, Kezhong

    2017-03-01

    The aim of our study is to examine the plasma levels of the four kinds of neurodegenerative proteins in plasma: α-syn, T-tau, P-tau181, and Aβ-42 in Parkinson's disease (PD) and to evaluate the relationship between their plasma levels and PD motor subtypes. 84 patients with PD were enrolled in our study, and finally, 73 of them were classified into the tremor-dominant subtype (TD) and the postural instability gait difficulty subtype (PIGD). Their motor performance was evaluated by a series of clinical assessments: Freezing of Gait Questionnaire (FOGQ), Timed Up and Go (TUGs), Tinetti balance, and Tinetti gait. Plasma levels of these proteins were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The plasma level of α-syn was significantly higher in PD patients when compared to controls (p = 0.004), and significantly higher in the PIGD group when compared to the TD group (p = 0.03). While the plasma level of Aβ-42 was significantly lower in PD patients than in controls (p = 0.002), and significantly lower in the PIGD group than in the TD group (p = 0.05). In PD patients, the plasma level of α-syn (r = -0.355, p score, even after performing multiple linear regression (p = 0.002). While the plasma level of Aβ-42 (r = -0.261, p score and remained correlate when performed multiple linear regression (p = 0.005). The patients with PIGD subtype are characterized with a lower level of plasma Aβ-42 and a higher plasma level of α-syn, which may be used as biomarkers for diagnosis and progression of the subtypes of PD.

  6. Combination of DFP and Taurine Counteracts the Aluminum-Induced Alterations in Oxidative Stress and ATPase in Cortex and Blood of Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Tong; Liu, Ping; Zhang, Zhen; Hu, Jinyu; Kong, Zhengqiao

    2016-11-01

    The study investigated the combined effect of 1,2-dimethyl-3-hydroxypyrid-4-one (DFP) and taurine on aluminum (Al) toxicity in cortex and blood of rats. The control group received 1 ml/kg/day saline solution for 8 weeks. Other animals were exposed to Al at a dose of 281.40 mg/kg/day orally for 4 weeks. Then, they were administered with 1 ml/kg/day saline solution, 400 mg/(kg·day) taurine, 13.82 mg/(kg·day) DFP, 27.44 mg/(kg·day) DFP, 400 mg/(kg·day) taurine +13.82 mg/(kg·day) DFP, and 400 mg/(kg·day) taurine +27.44 mg/(kg·day) DFP for 4 weeks. The changes in markers of oxidative stress, activities of antioxidant enzymes, and triphosphatase (ATPase) in the cortex and blood were determined. Administration of Al led to significant increase in the malondialdehyde (MDA) level and decrease in the activities of antioxidant enzymes, Na(+)K(+)-ATPase, Mg(2+)-ATPase, and Ca(2+)-ATPase in the cortex and blood, compared with the control group. DFP was observed to reverse alteration of these parameters except for Ca(2+)-ATPase activity. Treatment with taurine caused significant increase of GSH-Px activity and decrease of the MDA level in the cortex and serum and rise of Na(+)K(+)-ATPase in the blood. Effects of DFP combined with taurine were investigated and found to provide a more significant benefit than either drug alone. Combined intake of taurine and DFP could achieve an optimum effect of therapy for Al exposure.

  7. Krill protein hydrolysate reduces plasma triacylglycerol level with concurrent increase in plasma bile acid level and hepatic fatty acid catabolism in high-fat fed mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie S. Ramsvik

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Krill powder, consisting of both lipids and proteins, has been reported to modulate hepatic lipid catabolism in animals. Fish protein hydrolysate diets have also been reported to affect lipid metabolism and to elevate bile acid (BA level in plasma. BA interacts with a number of nuclear receptors and thus affects a variety of signaling pathways, including very low density lipoprotein (VLDL secretion. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether a krill protein hydrolysate (KPH could affect lipid and BA metabolism in mice. Method: C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat (21%, w/w diet containing 20% crude protein (w/w as casein (control group or KPH for 6 weeks. Lipids and fatty acid composition were measured from plasma, enzyme activity and gene expression were analyzed from liver samples, and BA was measured from plasma. Results: The effect of dietary treatment with KPH resulted in reduced levels of plasma triacylglycerols (TAG and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs. The KPH treated mice had also a marked increased plasma BA concentration. The increased plasma BA level was associated with induction of genes related to membrane canalicular exporter proteins (Abcc2, Abcb4 and to BA exporters to blood (Abcc3 and Abcc4. Of note, we observed a 2-fold increased nuclear farnesoid X receptor (Fxr mRNA levels in the liver of mice fed KPH. We also observed increased activity of the nuclear peroxiosme proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα target gene carnitine plamitoyltransferase 2 (CPT-2. Conclusion: The KPH diet showed to influence lipid and BA metabolism in high-fat fed mice. Moreover, increased mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and elevation of BA concentration may regulate the plasma level of TAGs and NEFAs.

  8. Nicotine, cotinine, and trans-3-hydroxycotinine levels in seminal plasma of smokers: effects on sperm parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacifici, R; Altieri, I; Gandini, L; Lenzi, A; Pichini, S; Rosa, M; Zuccaro, P; Dondero, F

    1993-10-01

    Sperm samples from 44 cigarette smokers and 50 nonsmokers attending an infertility clinic were examined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay and HPLC-mass spectrometry for the presence of nicotine (NIC), cotinine (COT), and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine (THOC) in seminal plasma. Smokers were found to have levels of COT and THOC in seminal plasma that were similar to those found in serum. The level of NIC was significantly increased in seminal plasma compared to serum. Total motility of spermatozoa was significantly and negatively correlated to COT and THOC levels in seminal plasma. Forward motility of spermatozoa was correlated only with cotinine semen levels. On the basis of these results, we suggest that the presence of tobacco smoke constituents in seminal plasma could provide a warning of the adverse effects of cigarette smoke on the physiology of reproduction.

  9. Correlation analysis between plasma D-dimer levels and orthopedic trauma severity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li-dan; LIU Hong-bo; LI Yu-neng; MA Hai-mei; LIU Ya-bo; WANG Man-yi

    2012-01-01

    Background The correlation between the plasma D-dimer level and deep vein thrombosis has not been conclusive in various studies.The aim of this research was to study the relationship between plasma D-dimer levels and the severity of orthopedic trauma by retrospective examination of orthopedic trauma cases.Methods Clinically acute trauma and non-acute trauma patients were selected and their plasma D-dimer levels were measured.Plasma D-dimer levels in patients of these two groups were compared.The relationship between the plasma D-dimer level and the severity of the trauma was also studied.Results There were 548 cases in the acute trauma group and 501 cases in the non-acute trauma group.The levels of plasma D-dimer were significantly higher in the acute trauma group than in the non-acute trauma group (P <0.01).In the acute trauma group,the correlation between the D-dimer level and the number of fractures was a positive linear correlation (r=0.9532).Conclusions Elevated plasma D-dimer is common in trauma patients.The D-dimer level and the number of fractures in the trauma patients are closely correlated.D-dimer is not only an indicator for the diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolus,but also an indicator of the severity of trauma in acute trauma patients.

  10. Complex Kinetics in the Reaction of Taurine with Aqueous Bromine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Complex Kinetics in the Reaction of Taurine with Aqueous Bromine and Acidic Bromate : A Possible Cytoprotective Role against Hypobromous Acid. ... toxicity of bromine and hypobromous acid in the slightly basic physiological environments.

  11. Taurine prevents ultraviolet B induced apoptosis in retinal ganglion cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayang, Wu; Dongbo, Pang

    2017-06-07

    Compatible osmolytes accumulation is an active resistance response in retina under ultraviolet radiation and hypertonicity conditions. The purpose of this research is to investigate the protective role of taurine on retina under ultraviolet B radiation. Osmolytes transporters was measured by quantitative realtime PCR. Osmolytes uptake was estimated by radioimmunoassay. Cell viability was caculated by MTT assay. Cell apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry analysis. Hypertonicity accelerated osmolytes uptake into retinal ganglion cells including taurine, betaine and myoinositol. Ultraviolet B radiation increased osmolytes transporter expression and osmolytes uptake. In addition, osmolyte taurine remarkably prevented ultraviolet B radiation induced cell apoptosis in retinal ganglion cells. The effect of compatible osmolyte taurine on cell survival rate may play an important role in cell resistance and adaption to UVB exposure.

  12. Protective Roles of N-acetyl Cysteine and/or Taurine against Sumatriptan-Induced Hepatotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Khalili Fard

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Triptans are the drug category mostly prescribed for abortive treatment of migraine. Most recent cases of liver toxicity induced by triptans have been described, but the mechanisms of liver toxicity of these medications have not been clear. Methods: In the present study, we obtained LC50 using dose-response curve and investigated cell viability, free radical generation, lipid peroxide production, mitochondrial injury, lysosomal membrane damage and the cellular glutathione level as toxicity markers as well as the beneficial effects of taurine and/or N-acetyl cysteine in the sumatriptan-treated rat parenchymal hepatocytes using accelerated method of cytotoxicity mechanism screening. Results: It was revealed that liver toxicity induced by sumatriptan in in freshly isolated parenchymal hepatocytes is dose-dependent. Sumatriptan caused significant free radical generation followed by lipid peroxide formation, mitochondrial injury as well as lysosomal damage. Moreover, sumatriptan reduced cellular glutathione content. Taurine and N-acetyl cysteine were able to protect hepatocytes against sumatriptan-induced harmful effects. Conclusion: It is concluded that sumatriptan causes oxidative stress in hepatocytes and the decreased hepatocytes glutathione has a key role in the sumatriptan-induced harmful effects. Also, N-acetyl cysteine and/or taurine could be used as treatments in sumatriptan-induced side effects.

  13. Clinical Implication of Plasma Hydrogen Sulfide Levels in Japanese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kunihiro; Sagara, Masaaki; Aoki, Chie; Tanaka, Seiichi; Aso, Yoshimasa

    2017-01-01

    Objective The goal of the present study was to investigate the plasma hydrogen sulfide (H2S) levels in patients with type 2 diabetes, as the plasma H2S levels in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes remain unclear. Methods The plasma H2S levels were measured in 154 outpatients with type 2 diabetes and 66 outpatients without diabetes. All blood samples were collected in the outpatient department from 09:00 to 10:00. The patients had fasted from 21:00 the previous evening and had not consumed alcohol or caffeine or smoked until sample collection. The plasma H2S levels were measured using the methylene blue assay. The plasma H2S levels were determined in triplicate, and the average concentrations were calculated against a calibration curve of sodium sulfide. Results The patients with type 2 diabetes showed a progressive reduction in the plasma H2S levels (45.1±15.5 μM versus 54.0±26.4 μM, p<0.05), which paralleled poor glycemic control. There was a significant correlation between a reduction in the plasma H2S levels and the HbA1c levels (β=-0.505, p<0.01), Furthermore, a reduction in the plasma H2S levels was found to be related to a history of cardiovascular diseases in patients with type 2 diabetes (39.9±13.8 μM versus 47.5±15.9 μM, p<0.01). Conclusion Collectively, the plasma H2S levels were reduced in patients with type 2 diabetes, which may have implications in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease in diabetic patients. The trial was registered with the University Hospital Medical Information Network (UMIN no. #000020549). PMID:28049995

  14. The determination of phenazone in blood plasma for obtained sistem suitable test of monitoring drug level

    OpenAIRE

    Mochamad Lazuardi

    2007-01-01

    The determining of Phenazone to human blood plasma from healthy man after separated by solid phase extraction (SPE) and spectroscopic measurements has been investigated. The objective of that research was to obtain system suitable test for determine the Phenazone level in biological fluids (human blood plasma), for new performed dosage regimented in clinical dentistry. The method can be divided into the following four steps. 1. Centrifugation the blood sample, 2. Extraction from blood plasma ...

  15. The effect of different alcoholic beverages on blood alcohol levels, plasma insulin and plasma glucose in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, L C; Couri, S; Trugo, N F; Lollo, P C B

    2014-09-01

    In the present work we studied the effects of four alcoholic beverages on blood alcohol levels, plasma insulin concentrations and plasma glucose concentrations in men and women. The volunteers were healthy non-smokers and they were divided according to sex into two groups of ten individuals. The alcoholic beverages used in the study were beer, red wine, whisky and "cachaça". In men, ingestion of the distilled drinks promoted a spike in blood alcohol levels more quickly than ingestion of the fermented drinks. In women, beer promoted the lowest blood alcohol levels over the 6h of the experiment. Whisky promoted highest blood alcohol levels in both sexes. The ingestion of wine promoted a significant difference in relation to the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) as a function of gender. The ingestion of cachaça by women produced BAC levels significantly smaller than those obtained for wine.

  16. Correlation between plasma component levels of cultured fish and resistance to bacterial infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maita, M.; Satoh, K.-I.; Fukuda, Y.; Lee, H.-K.; Winton, J.R.; Okamoto, N.

    1998-01-01

    Mortalities of yellowtail Seriola quinqueradiata artificially infected with Lactococcus garvieae and of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss artificially infected with Vibrio anguillarum were compared with the levels of plasma components measured prior to challenge. The levels of plasma total cholesterol, free cholesterol and phospholipid of fish surviving infection were significantly higher in both yellowtail and rainbow trout than those of fish which died during the challenge test. Mortality of yellowtail with plasma total cholesterol levels lower than 250 mg/100 ml was significantly higher than that of fish which had cholesterol levels higher than 275 mg/100 ml (p < 0.05). Rainbow trout whose cholesterol was lower than 520 mg/100 ml suffered a significantly higher mortality due to vibriosis than fish having cholesterol levels higher than 560 mg/100 ml (p < 0.005). These results indicate that low levels of plasma lipid components may be an indicator of lowered disease resistance in cultured fish.

  17. Taurine Provides Neuroprotection against Retinal Ganglion Cell Degeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolas Froger; Lucia Cadetti; Henri Lorach; Joao Martins; Alexis-Pierre Bemelmans; Elisabeth Dubus; Julie Degardin; Dorothée Pain; Valérie Forster; Laurent Chicaud; Ivana Ivkovic; Manuel Simonutti; Stéphane Fouquet; Firas Jammoul; Thierry Léveillard

    2012-01-01

    Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) degeneration occurs in numerous retinal diseases leading to blindness, either as a primary process like in glaucoma, or secondary to photoreceptor loss. However, no commercial drug is yet directly targeting RGCs for their neuroprotection. In the 70s, taurine, a small sulfonic acid provided by nutrition, was found to be essential for the survival of photoreceptors, but this dependence was not related to any retinal disease. More recently, taurine deprivation was inc...

  18. Interaction of GABA-mimetics with the taurine transporter (TauT, Slc6a6) in hyperosmotic treated Caco-2, LLC-PK1 and rat renal SKPT cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Rune Nørgaard; Lagunas, Candela; Plum, Jakob; Holm, René; Nielsen, Carsten Uhd

    2016-01-20

    The aim of the present study was to investigate if basic GABA-mimetics interact with the taurine transporter (TauT, Slc6a6), and to find a suitable cell based model that is robust towards extracellular changes in osmolality during uptake studies. Taurine uptake was measured in human Caco-2 cells, porcine LLC-PK1 cells, and rat SKPT cells using radiolabelled taurine. Hyperosmotic conditions were obtained by incubation with raffinose (final osmolality of 500mOsm) for 24h prior to the uptake experiments. Expression of the taurine transporter, TauT, was investigated at the mRNA level by real-time PCR. Uptake of the GABA-mimetics gaboxadol and vigabatrin was investigated in SKPT cells, and quantified by liquid scintillation or HPLC-MS/MS analysis, respectively. The uptake rate of [(3)H]-taurine was Na(+) and Cl(-) and concentration dependent with taurine with an apparent Vmax of 6.3±1.6pmolcm(-2)min(-1) and a Km of 24.9±15.0μM. β-alanine, nipecotic acid, gaboxadol, GABA, vigabatrin, δ-ALA and guvacine inhibited the taurine uptake rate in a concentration dependent manner. The order of affinity for TauT was β-alanine>GABA>nipecotic acid>guvacine>δ-ALA>vigabatrin>gaboxadol with IC50-values of 0.04, 1.07, 2.02, 4.19, 4.94, 31.4 and 39.9mM, respectively. In conclusion, GABA mimetics inhibited taurine uptake in hyperosmotic rat renal SKPT cells. SKPT cells, which seem to be a useful model for investigating taurine transport in the short-term presence of high concentrations of osmolytes. Furthermore, analogues of β-alanine appear to have higher affinities for TauT than GABA-analogues.

  19. Plasma Antimicrobial Peptide LL-37 Level Is Inversely Associated with HDL Cholesterol Level in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Meguro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Relation between atherosclerosis and innate immunity has attracted attention. As the antimicrobial peptide, LL-37, could have an important role in atherosclerosis, we supposed that there could be a meaningful association of plasma LL-37 level with risk factors for cardiovascular disease in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods. We evaluated plasma LL-37 level and other clinical markers in Japanese subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (n=133, 115 men and 18 women; age 64.7±11.5 years; HbA1c 8.1±1.6%. Plasma level of LL-37 was measured by ELISA. Results. Mean plasma LL-37 level was 71.2±22.3 ng/mL. Plasma LL-37 level showed significant correlations with HDL cholesterol (r=−0.450, P<0.01, triglyceride (r=0.445, P<0.01, and high sensitive C-reactive protein (r=0.316, P<0.01 but no significant correlation with age, body mass index, HbA1c, estimated glomerular filtration rate, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, or vitamin D binding protein. Multiple linear regression analysis showed significant correlations of plasma LL-37 level with HDL cholesterol (β=−0.411, P<0.01 and high sensitive C-reactive protein (β=0.193, P<0.05. Conclusion. Plasma LL-37 level was positively correlated with inflammatory markers and negatively correlated with HDL cholesterol in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  20. Plasma cortisol levels in malnourished children with and without superimposed acute stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paisey, R. B.; Angers, Marielena; Frenk, S.

    1973-01-01

    Plasma cortisol levels were measured in 13 children with marasmus, in 7 with kwashiorkor, and in 24 normal children. Cortisol levels in the malnourished children did not differ from those of the normal group, either before or after 15 or 30 days of treatment, unless there was superimposed acute stress. Stress caused by complications such as hypoglycaemia, infection, hypothermia, or acidosis led to raised plasma cortisol levels. PMID:4733640

  1. Comparison of the developmental changes of the brainstem auditory evoked response (BAER) in taurine-supplemented and taurine-deficient kittens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallecalle-Sandoval, M H; Heaney, G; Sersen, E; Sturman, J A

    1991-01-01

    A similar development of the brainstem auditory evoked response is present in taurine-supplemented and taurine-deficient kittens between the second postnatal week and the third month of life. Between birth and the second postnatal week kittens from mothers fed the 1% taurine diet showed earlier maturation of the brainstem auditory evoked response as indicated by lower threshold, shorter P1 latency and shorter central conduction time when compared to the kittens from mothers fed the 0.05% taurine diet. These results suggest an important role of taurine in the anatomical and functional development of the auditory system.

  2. Effect of fishmeal replacement by soy protein concentrate with taurine supplementation on growth performance, hematological and biochemical status, and liver histology of totoaba juveniles (Totoaba macdonaldi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Lus M; Flores-Ibarra, Maricela; Bañuelos-Vargas, Isaura; Galaviz, Mario A; True, Conal D

    2015-08-01

    The effect of dietary inclusion of soy protein concentrate (SPC) and simultaneous supplementation with taurine on the growth, hematology, blood biochemistry, and liver histology of totoaba (Totoaba macdonaldi) juveniles was assessed. Four isoproteic and isolipidic diets were formulated containing either 30 or 60% of SPC (diets S30 and S60), supplemented or not with 1% of taurine (diets S30T and S60T). A fishmeal-based diet formulated for totoaba nutritional requirements, without SPC and taurine supplementation, was used as a reference diet. Triplicate groups of 32 totoaba juveniles (average body weight 7.5 ± 0.6 g) were fed these diets for 45 days. Results showed that growth performance in fish fed S30, S30T, and S60T was similar to fish fed the reference diet. Red blood cells and hematocrit in fish fed with supplemented taurine in both levels of SPC (S30T and S60T) were similar to the fish fed the RD; the addition of taurine improved the state of hydration of totoaba. Plasmatic hemoglobin in fish fed the lower SPC level was similar to fish fed the RD. The mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration in fish fed S30T was similar to fish fed the RD, taurine supplementation prevented the development of hypochromic anemia in this group of fish. Plasmatic albumin in fish fed S30 was similar to fish fed the RD. Plasmatic total protein and globulin concentration increased and AL:GLB (albumin:globulin ratio) decreased in fish fed the SPC-based diets despite taurine supplementation. The protein profile showed that taurine supplementation did not prevent a possible inflammatory process (increased globulins, decreased AL:GLB) in juvenile totoaba fed both levels of SPC. Glucose concentration was similar in fish fed S30, S30T, and S60T. The histological hepatic index was highest in fish fed S60. These results suggest that with an appropriate nutritional level, taurine may play an important modulatory role in the hematology and blood biochemistry status in totoaba fed SPC

  3. Effects of taurine on gut microbiota and metabolism in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haining; Guo, Zhengzhao; Shen, Shengrong; Shan, Weiguang

    2016-07-01

    As being a necessary amino acid, taurine plays an important role in the regulation of neuroendocrine functions and nutrition. In this study, effects of taurine on mice gut microbes and metabolism were investigated. BALB/C mice were randomly divided into three experimental groups: The first group was administered saline (CK), the second was administered 165 mg/kg natural taurine (NE) and the third one administered 165 mg/kg synthetic taurine (CS). Gut microbiota composition in mice feces was analyzed by metagenomics technology, and the content of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) in mice feces was detected by gas chromatography (GC), while the concentrations of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were detected by a LPS ELISA kit and a SOD assay kit, respectively. The results showed that the effect of taurine on gut microbiota could reduce the abundance of Proteobacteria, especially Helicobacter. Moreover, we found that the SCFA content was increased in feces of the NE group while LPS content was decreased in serum of the NE group; the SOD activity in serum and livers of the NE and CS groups were not changed significantly compare to that of the CK group. In conclusion, taurine could regulate the gut micro-ecology, which might be of benefit to health by inhibiting the growth of harmful bacteria, accelerating the production of SCFA and reducing LPS concentration.

  4. Effect of Pioglitazone on Plasma Levels of Phenytoin in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolghasem Jouyban

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Interaction between drugs represents a major clinical concern for health care professionals and their patients. Patients affected by both type 2 diabetes and epilepsy may be prescribed pioglitazone and an anti-epileptic drug such as phenytoin  concurrently. The aim of this study was to consider the interaction of pioglitazone with phenytoin in an experimental model. According to the result of this study, concurrent use of phenytoin and pioglitazone in clinic may cause therapeutic failure of phenytoin which may cause seizures and during seizures the cardiac function may be affected. Material and Methods: Two groups of rats were treated for 30 days. In group 1 (control group saline (10 ml/kg and phenytoin   (30 mg/kg were administered daily by intragastric gavage. In group 2 (test group , pioglitazone (10 mg/kg was administered daily 60 minutes before phenytoin  (30 mg/kg. Two hours after the last intragastric gavage, animals were anesthetized with ether and 2 ml of blood was drawn from the heart into a syringe containing Ethylenediaminetetraacetic (EDTA, and phenytoin  concentration in rat plasma was determined by High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC.The study consisted of 2 groups of 10 male adult Wistar rats. Results: Compared with control group, concurrent use of pioglitazone and phenytoin   was associated with significantly lower mean plasma concentrations of phenytoin : 2.08 ± 0.03  µg/ml VS 1.2 ± 0.02  µg/ml. Conclusion: Concurrent use of pioglitazone and phenytoin was associated with a significant decrease in plasma concentration of phenytoin in this experimental model. In clinic, this interaction may cause seizures and it has been shown that both cardiac and respiratory functions may affected by seizures.

  5. Elevated plasma levels of chemerin in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mengliu; Yang, Gangyi; Dong, Jing; Liu, Ying; Zong, Haihong; Liu, Hua; Boden, Guenther; Li, Ling

    2010-10-01

    Chemerin is a recently discovered metabolic regulator hormone. The pathophysiologic role of this hormone in humans remains unknown. In this study, we have compared plasma chemerin levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with or without hypertension and in control subjects. We also assessed the association of plasma chemerin with body composition and metabolic parameters in these subjects. Plasma chemerin levels were found to be markedly increased in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with hypertension as compared with patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and normal controls (P < 0.01). Multiple regression analysis showed that waist circumference, diastolic blood pressure, 2-hour plasma insulin after glucose overload, and HbA1c were independently related factors influencing plasma chemerin levels. The present work indicates the potential link of chemerin with the pathogenesis of insulin resistance, obesity, and metabolic syndrome.

  6. Decline of plasma 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) levels upon testosterone administration to elderly men with subnormal plasma testosterone and high DHT levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooren, L J; Saad, F; Haide, A; Yassin, A

    2008-10-01

    The study was performed to measure the impact of testosterone (T) administration on circulating levels of 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Group 1 (32 men; mean age 61 years; mean T 6.9 +/- 1.9 nmol l(-1)) were treated for 15 months with long-acting T undecanoate. Group 2 (23 men, mean age 60 years, mean T 7.6 +/- 2.0 nmol l(-1)) were treated for 9 months with T gel. Plasma T and DHT were measured before and after 9 months T administration. In the men treated with T undecanoate plasma T and DHT were also measured after 12 and 15 months. Before T administration, plasma DHT ranged from 0.39 to 1.76 nmol l(-1) (0.30-1.90 nmol l(-1)). Mean DHT declined upon T administration from 0.95 +/- 0.50 to 0.55 +/- 0.30 nmol l(-1) (P DHT > 0.60 nmol l(-1) had fallen from 1.29 +/- 0.50 to 0.70 +/- 0.60 nmol l(-1) (P DHT levels declined upon T administration when they were in the higher range of normal (>0.6 nmol l(-1)), with a profound shift of DHT/T ratios presumed to be an indicator of a reduced 5alpha-reductase activity. Below plasma DHT levels of 0.6 nmol l(-1), responses of plasma DHT to T administration varied.

  7. Systematic construction of a conceptual minimal model of plasma cholesterol levels based on knockout mouse phenotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pas, N.C.A. van de; Soffers, A.E.M.F.; Freidig, A.P.; Ommen, B. van; Woutersen, R.A.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Graaf, A.A. de

    2010-01-01

    Elevated plasma cholesterol, a well-known risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, is the result of the activity of many genes and their encoded proteins in a complex physiological network. We aim to develop a minimal kinetic computational model for predicting plasma cholesterol levels. To define th

  8. Elevated plasma vitamin B12 levels and cancer prognosis: A population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendt, Johan Frederik Håkonsen; Farkas, Dora Kormendine; Pedersen, Lars;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Elevated plasma vitamin B12 levels (cobalamin, Cbl) are associated with increased short-term cancer risk among patients referred for this laboratory measurement. We aimed to assess prognosis in cancer patients with elevated plasma Cbl. METHODS: We conducted a population-based cohort...

  9. Elevated Plasma Homocysteine Level in Vascular Dementia Reflects the Vascular Disease Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Nilsson

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with vascular dementia (VaD exhibit particularly elevated levels of plasma total homocysteine (tHcy compared to patients with other psychogeriatric diseases. Methods: We investigated the main determinants (age, renal impairment, cobalamin/folate status and presence of extracerebral vascular disease of plasma tHcy in 525 patients with VaD. Furthermore, 270 patients with depression were used as a reference group to reveal the potential specificity of elevated plasma tHcy in patients with VaD. Results: Elevated plasma tHcy levels in patients with VaD could only partly be attributed to cobalamin/folate deficiency or renal impairment. Plasma tHcy might also be related to the vascular disease process since patients with depression and vascular disease exhibited similar plasma tHcy levels to patients with VaD. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that elevated plasma tHcy might be a sensitive marker for the vascular disease process in patients with VaD and that the level also is a reflection of changes in the other main determinants of plasma tHcy.

  10. Effect of methadone on plasma arginine vasopressin level and urine production in conscious dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellebrekers, L.J.; Mol, J.A.; Brom, W.E. van den; Wimersma Greidanus, T.B. van

    1987-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of i.v. methadone on the plasma arginine-vasopressin (AVP) levels and urine production in 9 conscious dogs. A highly significant increase from the baseline plasma AVP values of below 3 pg/ml occurred within 5 min following methadone administration. Max

  11. Decreased plasma urotensin Ⅱ levels inversely correlate with extent and severity of coronary artery disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective To determine the plasma urolensin Ⅱ(UⅡ) levels in various types of coronary heart disease and to clarify how the plasma UⅡ levels correlate with the clinical presentation, extent and severity of coronary artery atherosclerosis (CAD). Methods: One hundred and three aged patients undergoing elective diagnostic coronary angiography for proven or clinical suspected coronary heart disease were enrolled in this study. The extent and severity of coronary artery disease were evaluated by vessel score and Gensini score, respectively. Plasma UⅡ levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. Results: The plasma UⅡ levels in the patients with modest to severe coronary stenosis (3.03±0.34 pg/ml, 1.83±0.67 pg/ml) were significantly lower than that in subjects with normal coronary artery (4.80±1.11 pg/ml, P<0.001). The plasma UⅡ levels in patients with coronary heart disease were also significantly lower than that in patients with insignificant coronary stenosis (P < 0.001). Compared to patients with stable angina pectoris, plasma UⅡ levels in patients with acute coronary syndrome were significantly decreased (1.89±0.51 pg/ml vs 2.42±0.77 pg/ml, P< 0.001). Plasma UⅡ levels were found to be negatively correlated with the severity of coronary artery stenosis (r = -0.488, P<0.001), as well as the vessel score (r = -0.408, P<0.05) in the patients with CAD. Conclusion: Significant inverse correlations exist between the plasma UⅡ levels, and the extent and severity of coronary artery stenosis. These findings suggest that plasma UⅡ contribute to the development and progression of coronary artery stenosis, and may be a novel marker to predict clinical types, as well as the extent and severity of coronary artery disease in the patients.

  12. Effects of Postoperative Enteral Immune-enhancing Diet on Plasma Endotoxin Level, Plasma Endotoxin Inactivation Capacity and Clinical Outcome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Guoxiang; XUE Xinbo; LU Xingpei; WANG Jianming; QIAN Jiaqin

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the postoperative plasma endotoxin level, plasma endotoxin inactivation capacity and clinical outcome after administration of an enteral diet supplemented with glutamine, arginine and ω-3-fatty acid in patients undergoing gastrointestinal operations on an prospective, randomized and double-blind design. 40 patients undergoing gastrointestinal operations were randomized into two groups, with each having 20 patients. One group received standard enteral nutrition and the other was fed the formulation supplemented with glutamine, arginine and ω-3-fatty acid. The two groups were isonitrogenous. The infusion was started from day 1 after surgery and continued for 7 days. Blood samples were collected on the morning of day 1 before operation and on the morning of 1, 4 and 7 day(s) after operation and analyzed for plasma endotoxin level and endotoxin inactivation capacity (EIC). Our study found no differences between the two groups on plasma endotoxin level. After surgery a rapid reduction in plasma endotoxin inactivation capacity was observed in both groups, a significant recovery of the plasma endotoxin inactivation capacity was observed on morning of day 4 after surgery in the study group (0.12±0.02 EU/mL and 0. 078±0.022 EU/mL respectively, P<0.01). Shortened hospital stay was observed in the experimental group (11.7±2.0 days in the control group and 10.6±1.2 days in the experimental group respectively, P=0.03). It is concluded that perioperative parenteral nutrition supplemented with glutamine, arginine and ω-3-fatty acid ameliorated postoperative immunodepression but without direct effect on endotoxemia.

  13. Factors Associated With Plasma IL-6 Levels During HIV Infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borges, Álvaro H; O'Connor, Jemma L; Phillips, Andrew N

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Elevated interleukin 6 (IL-6) levels have been linked to cardiovascular disease, cancer and death. Persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection receiving treatment have higher IL-6 levels, but few data are available on factors associated with circulating IL-6. METHODS......: Participants in 3 trials with IL-6 measured at baseline were included (N = 9864). Factors associated with IL-6 were identified by linear regression. Demographic and HIV variables (nadir/entry CD4(+) cell count, HIV RNA level, antiretroviral therapy regimen) were investigated in all 3 trials. In the SMART...... education, whereas black race was associated with lower IL-6. Higher HIV RNA levels were associated with higher IL-6 levels, and higher nadir CD4(+) cell counts with lower IL-6 levels. Compared with efavirenz, protease inhibitors were associated with higher and nevirapine with lower IL-6 levels. Smoking...

  14. Scallop protein with endogenous high taurine and glycine content prevents high-fat, high-sucrose-induced obesity and improves plasma lipid profile in male C57BL/6J mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tastesen, Hanne Sørup; Keenan, Alison H.; Madsen, Lise;

    2014-01-01

    High-protein diets induce alterations in metabolism that may prevent diet-induced obesity. However, little is known as to whether different protein sources consumed at normal levels may affect diet-induced obesity and associated co-morbidities. We fed obesity-prone male C57BL/6J mice high-fat, hi...

  15. Impact of plasma transaminase levels on the peripheral blood glutamate levels and memory functions in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamada, Yoshihiro; Hashimoto, Ryota; Yamamori, Hidenaga; Yasuda, Yuka; Takehara, Tetsuo; Fujita, Yuko; Hashimoto, Kenji; Miyoshi, Eiji

    2016-06-01

    Blood aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) levels are the most frequently reliable biomarkers of liver injury. Although AST and ALT play central roles in glutamate production as transaminases, peripheral blood levels of AST and ALT have been regarded only as liver injury biomarkers. Glutamate is a principal excitatory neurotransmitter, which affects memory functions in the brain. In this study, we investigated the impact of blood transaminase levels on blood glutamate concentration and memory. Psychiatrically, medically, and neurologically healthy subjects (n = 514, female/male: 268/246) were enrolled in this study through local advertisements. Plasma amino acids (glutamate, glutamine, glycine, d-serine, and l-serine) were measured using a high performance liquid chromatography system. The five indices, verbal memory, visual memory, general memory, attention/concentration, and delayed recall of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised were used to measure memory functions. Both plasma AST and ALT had a significant positive correlation with plasma glutamate levels. Plasma AST and ALT levels were significantly negatively correlated with four of five memory functions, and plasma glutamate was significantly negatively correlated with three of five memory functions. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that plasma AST, ALT, and glutamate levels were significantly correlated with memory functions even after adjustment for gender and education. As far as we know, this is the first report which could demonstrate the impact of blood transaminase levels on blood glutamate concentration and memory functions in human. These findings are important for the interpretation of obesity-induced metabolic syndrome with elevated transaminases and cognitive dysfunction.

  16. Plasma cytokine levels and risks of abdominal aortic aneurysms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liao, Mengyang; Liu, Cong-Lin; Lv, Bing-Jie

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is characterized by inflammatory cell accumulation in AAA lesions that produce inflammatory cytokines and advance its pathogenesis. Peripheral cytokines may predict the degree or risk of AAA. METHODS AND RESULTS: ELISA determined plasma interleukin-6 (IL6......), IL10, IL17A, IFN-γ, and C-reactive protein (CRP) from 476 AAA patients and 200 controls. AAA patients had lower IL6, IFN-γ, IL10, IL17A, and higher CRP than controls. IL10 correlated positively with IFN-γ, IL17A, or IL6, but not CRP in control or AAA populations. IL10 associated negatively...... with systolic blood pressure, whereas CRP associated positively with diastolic blood pressure and body mass index. CRP was an independent AAA risk factor and correlated positively with aortic diameters before and after adjustments for other risk factors. IFN-γ, IL17A, and CRP correlated positively with cross...

  17. Potential role of plasma myeloperoxidase level in predicting long-term outcome of acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Mehmet Gungor; Yalcin, Ridvan; Okyay, Kaan; Poyraz, Fatih; Bayraktar, Nilufer; Pasaoglu, Hatice; Boyaci, Bulent; Cengel, Atiye

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the prognostic importance of plasma myeloperoxidase levels in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) at long-term follow-up, and we analyzed the correlations between plasma myeloperoxidase levels and other biochemical values. We evaluated 73 consecutive patients (56 men; mean age, 56 ± 11 yr) diagnosed with acute STEMI and 46 age- and sex-matched healthy control participants. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to the median myeloperoxidase level (Group 1: plasma myeloperoxidase ≤ 68 ng/mL; and Group 2: plasma myeloperoxidase > 68 ng/mL). Patients were monitored for the occurrence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), which were defined as cardiac death; reinfarction; new hospital admission for angina; heart failure; and revascularization procedures. The mean follow-up period was 25 ± 16 months. Plasma myeloperoxidase levels were higher in STEMI patients than in control participants (82 ± 34 vs 20 ± 12 ng/mL; P = 0.001). Composite MACE occurred in 12 patients with high myeloperoxidase levels (33%) and in 4 patients with low myeloperoxidase levels (11%) (P = 0.02). The incidences of nonfatal recurrent myocardial infarction and verified cardiac death were higher in the high-myeloperoxidase group. In multivariate analysis, high plasma myeloperoxidase levels were independent predictors of MACE (odds ratio = 3.843; <95% confidence interval, 1.625-6.563; P = 0.003). High plasma myeloperoxidase levels identify patients with a worse prognosis after acute STEMI at 2-year follow-up. Evaluation of plasma myeloperoxidase levels might be useful in determining patients at high risk of death and MACE who can benefit from further aggressive treatment and closer follow-up.

  18. Plasma leptin levels in healthy children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blum, W F; Englaro, P; Hanitsch, S

    1997-01-01

    changes, leptin levels and various hormonal parameters were investigated in a large cohort of healthy children and adolescents (312 males, 401 females, age 5.8-19.9 yr). For this purpose, a specific and sensitive RIA was developed that allowed the accurate measurement of low leptin levels in young lean...... children. With this assay, leptin proved to be a comparatively stable protein under common conditions of blood sampling and storage. Leptin levels increased in girls with age (r = 0.47, P

  19. Plasma oxytocin but not prostaglandin F2 alpha metabolite levels at cerclage may predict preterm delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, O; Böhmer, S; Goeschen, K; Fuchs, A R

    1991-06-01

    Plasma oxytocin and prostaglandin F2 alpha metabolite (PGFM) concentrations were measured in 45 patients admitted for cerclage during the second trimester. Samples were collected before, 3 hours after, and 3 days after the Shirodkar procedure. Uterine activity was recorded by external tocography twice daily for 30 minutes. Twenty-eight women with uncomplicated pregnancy and commensurate gestational age served as controls. Cervical length, measured by ultrasonography, was significantly shorter before cerclage (36 +/- 2 mm) than after cerclage (43 +/- 2 mm) or compared with controls (48 +/- 1 mm). Bishop scores ranged from 3-6 (median 4) in the cerclage group and 0-1 (median 0) in controls. Fifteen cerclage patients and one control delivered preterm 5-22 weeks after the procedure. Initial plasma PGFM levels were significantly higher in cerclage patients than in controls. The cerclage procedure caused an immediate rise in plasma PGFM and a subsequent fall below initial levels to control values. Neither the initial levels of PGFM nor the increments 3 hours after cerclage correlated with the outcome of pregnancy. By contrast, plasma oxytocin levels before cerclage were significantly higher in patients who subsequently delivered preterm than in those who delivered at term. Cerclage resulted in a significant fall in plasma oxytocin at 3 hours in patients with preterm delivery, but after 3 days the oxytocin levels had returned to the precerclage values. Patients who had increased uterine contractions had significantly higher plasma oxytocin levels but lower PGFM levels than those without contractions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Plasma homocysteine level in cardiac syndrome X and its relation with duke treadmill score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timurkaynak, Timur; Balcioglu, Serhat; Arslan, Ugur; Kocaman, Sinan A; Cengel, Atiye

    2008-03-01

    To investigate the plasma homocysteine level and the relationship between plasma homocysteine level and duke treadmill score (DTS) in cardiac syndrome X (CSX) patients. Seventy-nine patients (36 male, 43 female, mean age: 50 +/- 8.8 years) admitted to Gazi University Hospital, Ankara, Turkey with typical effort angina, positive stress test, and angiographically normal coronary arteries between January and September 2006 were included in this prospective and controlled study. Thirty asymptomatic patients (11 male, 19 female, mean age: 47.6 +/- 8.3 years) with 2 cardiovascular risk factors were chosen as a control group. Plasma homocysteine level was measured in both groups and DTS was calculated in the CSX group. Plasma homocysteine was measured with the AxSYM homocysteine immunoassay method in both groups. Plasma homocysteine level was higher in the CSX group compared to the control group (16.5 +/- 4.9 micromol/L, n=79, versus 12.4 +/- 4.1 micromol/L, n=30, p<0.001). The DTS was -2.7 +/- 5.3 in the CSX group. There was a negative correlation between the DTS and homocysteine levels in the CSX group. (r= -0.506, p<0.001). Plasma homocysteine level, which is known to cause endothelial dysfunction and microvascular ischemia were higher in CSX patients. Also, this increase in homocysteine level inversely correlated with the DTS, which represents the magnitude of ischemia.

  1. Increased FGF21 plasma levels in humans with sepsis and SIRS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gariani, Karim; Drifte, Geneviève; Dunn-Siegrist, Irène; Pugin, Jérôme; Jornayvaz, François R

    2013-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a key regulator in glucose and lipid metabolism and its plasma levels have been shown to be increased not only in humans in different situations such as type 2 diabetes, obesity, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease but also in animal models of sepsis and pancreatitis. FGF21 is considered as a pharmacological candidate in conditions associated with insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to compare FGF21 plasma levels in patients with sepsis, in patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), and in healthy controls. We measured FGF21 plasma concentrations in 22 patients with established sepsis, in 11 with SIRS, and in 12 healthy volunteers. Here, we show that FGF21 levels were significantly higher in plasma obtained from patients with sepsis and SIRS in comparison with healthy controls. Also, FGF21 levels were significantly higher in patients with sepsis than in those with noninfectious SIRS. FGF21 plasma levels measured at study entry correlated positively with the APACHE II score, but not with procalcitonin levels, nor with C-reactive protein, classical markers of sepsis. Plasma concentrations of FGF21 peaked near the onset of shock and rapidly decreased with clinical improvement. Taken together, these results indicate that circulating levels of FGF21 are increased in patients presenting with sepsis and SIRS, and suggest a role for FGF21 in inflammation. Further studies are needed to explore the potential role of FGF21 in sepsis as a potential therapeutic target.

  2. A Fall in Plasma Free Fatty Acid (FFA) Level Activates the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Independent of Plasma Glucose: Evidence for Brain Sensing of Circulating FFA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Young Taek; Oh, Ki-Sook; Kang, Insug

    2012-01-01

    The brain responds to a fall in blood glucose by activating neuroendocrine mechanisms for its restoration. It is unclear whether the brain also responds to a fall in plasma free fatty acids (FFA) to activate mechanisms for its restoration. We examined whether lowering plasma FFA increases plasma corticosterone or catecholamine levels and, if so, whether the brain is involved in these responses. Plasma FFA levels were lowered in rats with three independent antilipolytic agents: nicotinic acid (NA), insulin, and the A1 adenosine receptor agonist SDZ WAG 994 with plasma glucose clamped at basal levels. Lowering plasma FFA with these agents all increased plasma corticosterone, but not catecholamine, within 1 h, accompanied by increases in plasma ACTH. These increases in ACTH or corticosterone were abolished when falls in plasma FFA were prevented by Intralipid during NA or insulin infusion. In addition, the NA-induced increases in plasma ACTH were completely prevented by administration of SSR149415, an arginine vasopressin receptor antagonist, demonstrating that the hypothalamus is involved in these responses. Taken together, the present data suggest that the brain may sense a fall in plasma FFA levels and activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis to increase plasma ACTH and corticosterone, which would help restore FFA levels. Thus, the brain may be involved in the sensing and control of circulating FFA levels. PMID:22669895

  3. Plasma Levels of Folates, Riboflavin, Vitamin B6, and Ascorbate in Severely Disturbed Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, D. V. Siva

    1979-01-01

    The plasma levels of folic acid, ascorbic acid, pyridoxine, and riboflavin were studied in 125 severely emotionally disturbed children (ages 5-16 years) to determine whether they had overt vitamin deficiencies. (Author/DLS)

  4. Betaine supplementation lowers plasma homocysteine levels in healthy men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenge, G.R.S.; Verhoef, P.; Katan, M.B.

    2003-01-01

    Elevated levels of plasma total homocysteine are associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease. Betaine and 5-methyltetrahydrofolate can remethylate homocysteine into methionine via independent reactions. We determined the effect of daily betaine supplementation, compared with both folic a

  5. Plasma vanillylmandelic acid level as an index of psychological stress response in normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, M; Hata, A; Niwa, S; Hiramatsu, K; Honda, H; Nakagome, K; Iwanami, A

    1996-06-26

    The relationships between psychological stress responses and plasma levels of vanillylmandelic acid (VMA), 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG), homovanillic acid (HVA), and 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA) were investigated in normal volunteers. Two questionnaires were used to measure stress: the Psychological Stress Response Scale (PSRS) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Plasma levels of VMA--but not MHPG, HVA, and 5-HIAA--showed significant positive correlations with PSRS emotional and cognitive-behavioral stress and STAI state anxiety. Significant positive correlations were also found between plasma levels of VMA and MHPG and psychological stress responses measured repeatedly in a longitudinal study of an Olympic swimmer. Plasma VMA measurements, which reflect the level of activity of the peripheral sympathetic nervous system, may provide a useful biochemical index of psychological stress responses in normal subjects.

  6. Effect of supplemental taurine on juvenile channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taurine is a beta-amino sulfur amino acid found in most animal tissues. It has many important biological functions in mammals including membrane stabilization, antioxidation, cellular osmoregulation, detoxification, neuromodulation, and brain and eye development. Taurine supplementation in juvenil...

  7. Natural taurine promotes apoptosis of human hepatic stellate cells in proteomics analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Deng, Xin; Liang, Jian; LIN, ZHI-XIU; Wu, Fa-Sheng; Zhang, Ya-ping; Zhang, Zhi-Wei

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To study the differential expression of proteins between natural taurine treated hepatic stellate cells and controls, and investigate the underlying regulatory mechanism of natural taurine in inhibiting hepatic fibrosis.

  8. Associaton between plasma osteopontin levels and severity of coronary heart disease in non-diabetic subjects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏芹

    2014-01-01

    Objective To seek the association between plasma osteopontin(OPN)levels and severity of coronary heart disease in non-diabetic subjects.Methods A total of 166stable angina patients free of diabetes were enrolled in the study.Clinical characteristic of patients was recorded.Plasma OPN levels were measured by an enzymelinked immunosorbent assay method.Coronary heart disease was determined by coronary artery angiography.The extent of coronary artery stenosis was represented as the

  9. Plasma calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase levels in normal British schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Round, J M

    1973-07-21

    In a cross-sectional survey 624 schoolchildren were screened for plasma calcium, inorganic phosphate, and alkaline phosphatase levels. Plasma magnesium and alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes were also estimated in some cases.No significant difference was found between adult and childhood values for calcium and magnesium. Levels of alkaline phosphatase and inorganic phosphorus varied with both age and sex. The magnitude of these variations in normal ranges is of clear importance in assessing data from individual paediatric or adolescent patients.

  10. Impact of elective resection on plasma TIMP-1 levels in patients with colon cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, J. H.; Basse, L.; Svedsen, M. N.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Pre- and post-operative plasma tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) levels have a prognostic impact on patients with colorectal cancer. However, the surgical trauma may play an essential role in regulation of plasma TIMP-1 levels, which in turn may influence subsequent TIMP......-1 measurements. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Consecutively, 48 patients with colon cancer (CC) and 12 patients with nonmalignant colonic disease were randomised to undergo elective laparoscopically assisted or open resection followed by fast track recovery. Plasma samples were collected just before and 1...

  11. Impact of elective resection on plasma TIMP-1 levels in patients with colon cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, J. H.; Basse, L.; Svedsen, M. N.;

    2006-01-01

    -1 measurements. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Consecutively, 48 patients with colon cancer (CC) and 12 patients with nonmalignant colonic disease were randomised to undergo elective laparoscopically assisted or open resection followed by fast track recovery. Plasma samples were collected just before and 1......OBJECTIVE: Pre- and post-operative plasma tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) levels have a prognostic impact on patients with colorectal cancer. However, the surgical trauma may play an essential role in regulation of plasma TIMP-1 levels, which in turn may influence subsequent TIMP...

  12. The effects of taurine on vigabatrin, high light intensity and mydriasis induced retinal toxicity in the pigmented rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Allan D; Truchot, Nathalie; Pickersgill, Nigel; Thale, Zia Irene; Rosolen, Serge G; Botteron, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The overall purpose of this study was to establish a model that may be used for examining the effect of Vigabatrin-induced retinal toxicity in pigmented rats, and subsequently examine the possible effects of taurine on the retinal toxicity. In the first part of the study, pigmented Long Evans rats were subjected to combinations of induced mydriasis, low/high light intensities (40/2000 lx) and oral administration of near-MTD (Maximum Tolerated Dose) doses (200 mg/kg/day) of Vigabatrin for up to 6 weeks. The combination of mydriasis and high light intensity applied to Long Evans rats resulted in retinal damage that was increased by the administration of Vigabatrin. In the second part of the study Long Evans rats were subjected to combinations of induced mydriasis and high/low light intensity (40/2000 lx) while being orally administered low (30 mg/kg/day) or high (200 mg/kg/day) doses of Vigabatrin for up to 6 weeks. In addition, selected groups of animals were administered taurine via the drinking water (20 mg/ml), resulting in systemic taurine concentrations of approximately threefold the endogenous concentration. The combined results of the studies demonstrate that retinal damage can be induced in pigmented animals when combining mydriasis and high light intensity. Retinal damage was functionally evaluated by electroretinography (ERG), then confirmed by histopathology. While depending on mydriasis and high light intensity, administration of Vigabatrin increased the retinal toxicity and resulted in the formation of rosette-like structures in the retina in a dose-related manner. Administration of taurine did not alleviate the Vigabatrin-induced retinal toxicity, as demonstrated either functionally by ERG or morphologically, although systemic concentrations of 3-fold the endogenous levels were reached, and it was thus not possible to demonstrate a protective effect of taurine in these pigmented animals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Interleukin-7 Plasma Levels in Human Differentiate Anorexia Nervosa, Constitutional Thinness and Healthy Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germain, Natacha; Viltart, Odile; Loyens, Anne; Bruchet, Céline; Nadin, Katia; Wolowczuk, Isabelle; Estour, Bruno; Galusca, Bogdan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Interleukin-7 (IL-7) is a cytokine involved in energy homeostasis as demonstrated in rodents. Anorexia nervosa is characterized by restrained eating behavior despite adaptive orexigenic regulation profile including high ghrelin plasma levels. Constitutional thinness is a physiological condition of resistance to weight gain with physiological anorexigenic profile including high Peptide YY plasma level. Healthy obesity can be considered as a physiological state of resistance to weight loss with opposite appetite regulating profile to constitutional thinness including low Peptide YY plasma level. No studies in IL-7 are yet available in those populations. Therefore we evaluated circadian plasma levels of IL-7 in anorexia nervosa compared to constitutional thinness, healthy obese and control females. Materials and Methods 10 restrictive-type anorexia nervosa women, 5 bingeing/purging anorexia nervosa woman, 5 recovered restrictive anorexia nervosa women, 4 bulimic females, 10 constitutional thinness women, 7 healthy obese females, and 10 normal weight women controls were enrolled in this cross-sectional study, performed in endocrinology unit and academic laboratory. Twelve-point circadian profiles of plasma IL-7 levels were measured in each subject. Results 24h mean IL-7 plasma levels (pg/ml, mean±SEM) were decreased in restrictive-type anorexia nervosa (123.4±14.4, pobese patients (51±3.2, pobesity, with low IL-7, is once again in mirror image of constitutional thinness with normal high IL-7. PMID:27611669

  14. Effects of antinutritional factors on plasma lipoprotein levels in Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, J M; Mai, K S; Ai, Q H; Zhang, W B; Wang, X J; Xu, W; Liufu, Z G; Cai, Y H; Chen, W

    2012-02-01

    This study examined the effects of four types of antinutritional factor (phytic acid, stachyose, soy saponins and soy isoflavones) on lipoprotein levels in plasma of Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. A basal diet was prepared with fish meal as primary protein source, the other diets were supplemented with 0·2, 0·4 or 0·8% phytic acid, 0·4, 0·8 or 1·5% stachyose, 0·1, 0·35 or 0·7% soy saponins and 0·10, 0·35 or 0·70% soy isoflavones, by dry mass, in place of white flour in the basal diet. Total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) levels in plasma of P. olivaceus were not affected by phytic acid or stachyose. In general, addition of 0·2-0·8% phytic acid or 0·4-1·5% stachyose decreased plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, increased plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels, thereby increasing the LDL-C:HDL-C ratio. By contrast, supplementation with 0·35-0·7% soy saponins generally depressed plasma TC levels and the LDL-C:HDL-C ratio. Supplementation with 0·35-0·7% soy isoflavones, however, increased plasma TC and TG levels. These results indicate that soy saponins may be partly responsible for the cholesterol-lowering effects of soybean meal.

  15. Investigation of the Protective Effects of Taurine against Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Retinal Changes via Electroretinogram and Retinal Histology with New Zealand White Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Tung-Hsing Chiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective role of orally administered taurine against diabetic retinal changes via electroretinogram (ERG and retinal histology on rabbits. Rabbits were randomly assigned into groups: Group I (vehicle administration only; Group II (diabetes: induced by 100 mg/kg alloxan injection; Group III (diabetes and fed with 200 mg/kg taurine; and Group IV (diabetes and fed with 400 mg/kg taurine. The body weight and blood glucose levels of the rabbits were monitored weekly. The ERG was measured on weeks 5 and 15. Retinal histology was analyzed in the end of the experiment. Results revealed that a taurine supplement significantly ameliorates the alloxan-induced hyperglycemia and protects the retina from electrophysiological changes. Group II showed a significant (P0.05 between all groups and when compared with those of Group I. Our study provides solid evidences that taurine possesses an antidiabetic activity, reduced loss of body weight, and less electrophysiological changes of the diabetic retina.

  16. Decreased plasma chemerin levels in women with gestational diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hare, K J; Bonde, L; Svare, J A

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: To evaluate fasting and post-prandial serum chemerin levels in pregnant women with and without gestational diabetes, and again following delivery when normal glucose homeostasis is re-established. METHODS: Chemerin levels were measured in serum from nine women with gestational diabetes......, and from eight age- and BMI-matched pregnant women with normal glucose tolerance during two meal tests: in the third trimester and 3-4 months post partum. All women with gestational diabetes re-established normal glucose tolerance after delivery. RESULTS: Meal intake did not affect serum chemerin levels....... The group with gestational diabetes had lower mean serum chemerin levels during the third trimester compared with the group with normal glucose tolerance (28 ± 1.3 vs. 88 ± 3.5 ng/ml, P

  17. DNA damage and plasma homocysteine levels are associated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-01-18

    Jan 18, 2010 ... thyroid, approximately 80 - 85% is generated outside the thyroid primarily by conversion of T4 by selenium- dependent 5'deiodinase in the liver and kidney. .... hormone levels and hyponatremia in children with gastroenteritis.

  18. Effect of space flights on plasma hormone levels in man and in experimental animal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macho, L.; Kvetňanský, R.; Vigaš, M.; Németh, S.; Popova, I.; Tigranian, R. A.; Noskov, V. B.; Serova, L.; Grigoriev, I. A.

    An important increase of plasma hormone levels like insulin, TSH and aldosterone was observed in human subjects after space flights, however in the changes of plasma content of ACTH, cortisol, adrenaline and noradrenaline the individual variations were observed in relation to number and duration of space flight. For evaluation of the effects of these changes in plasma hormone levels on metabolic processes also the experiments with small animals subjected to space flights on a board of biosatellite of Cosmos series were running. An elevation of plasma levels of corticosterone, adrenaline, noradrenaline and insulin was found in rats after the space flights of duration from 7 to 20 days. It was demonstrated, that the increase of corticosterone in plasma is followed by the activation of enzymes involved in the aminoacid metabolism in rat liver (tyrosine aminotransferase, tryptophanpyrolase, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase). After a short recovery period (2 to 6 days) the plasma corticosterone concentration and also the activity of liver enzymes returned to control levels. The exposition of animals to stress stimuli during this recovery period showed higher response of corticosterone levels in flight rats as compared to intact controls. The increase of plasma catecholamine levels was not followed by elevation of lipolysis in adipose tissue. This is due to lower response of adipose tissue to catecholamine because a decrease of the stimulation of lipolysis by noradrenaline was observed in animals after space flight. The increase of insulin was not followed by adequate decrease of glucose concentration suggesting a disturbances in glucose utilization similarly as in cosmonauts after a long-term space flight. These results showed that changes in plasma hormone levels, observed after space flight, affected the regulation of metabolic processes in tissues.

  19. The Effect of Sodium Restricted Diet on Plasma Visfatin Levels in Hypertensive Patients with Visceral Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Rotkegel

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim/Background: Experimental and clinical studies revealed contradictory data concerning the influence of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone (RAA system activation on visfatin release. The aim of the present study was the assessment of the effect of dietary sodium restriction with RAA system activation on visfatin level in hypertensive and normotensive patients with visceral obesity. Methods: The study included 24 hypertensive patients with visceral obesity (12 women and 22 normotensive subjects with visceral obesity (11 women constituting the control group. Plasma renin activity, plasma insulin, aldosterone and visfatin levels were determined twice, on normal-salt diet after 6-8 h in recumbent position and the second time after 3 days of dietary sodium restriction and upright position for 2 h. Dietary compliance was controlled by 24 h natriuresis measurement. Results: Hypertensive patients had significantly higher plasma visfatin level than the control group [11.0 (8.5-13.5 vs. 6.8 (6.0-7.6 ng/ml, p=0.003]. Dietary sodium restriction and upright position caused significant increase in PRA and plasma aldosterone level in both groups. While, plasma visfatin level remained unaffected. In the combined group plasma visfatin levels correlated with BMI (r=0.398, waist circumference (r=0.391, glucose (r=0.328, insulin (r=0.663, HOMA-IR (r=0.698, triglycerides (r=0.500 and CRP (r=0.546 but not with percentage of fat mass, percentage of trunk fat, and blood pressure values. Conclusions: 1 Increased plasma visfatin concentration may play a significant role in the pathogenesis of hypertension in patients with visceral obesity. 2 RAA system activation by dietary sodium restriction and upright position has no effect on plasma visfatin levels in subjects with visceral obesity.

  20. Plasma, salivary and urinary cortisol levels following physiological and stress doses of hydrocortisone in normal volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Caroline; Greco, Santo; Nguyen, Hanh H T; Ho, Jui T; Lewis, John G; Torpy, David J; Inder, Warrick J

    2014-11-26

    Glucocorticoid replacement is essential in patients with primary and secondary adrenal insufficiency, but many patients remain on higher than recommended dose regimens. There is no uniformly accepted method to monitor the dose in individual patients. We have compared cortisol concentrations in plasma, saliva and urine achieved following "physiological" and "stress" doses of hydrocortisone as potential methods for monitoring glucocorticoid replacement. Cortisol profiles were measured in plasma, saliva and urine following "physiological" (20 mg oral) or "stress" (50 mg intravenous) doses of hydrocortisone in dexamethasone-suppressed healthy subjects (8 in each group), compared to endogenous cortisol levels (12 subjects). Total plasma cortisol was measured half-hourly, and salivary cortisol and urinary cortisol:creatinine ratio were measured hourly from time 0 (between 0830 and 0900) to 5 h. Endogenous plasma corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) levels were measured at time 0 and 5 h, and hourly from time 0 to 5 h following administration of oral or intravenous hydrocortisone. Plasma free cortisol was calculated using Coolens' equation. Plasma, salivary and urine cortisol at 2 h after oral hydrocortisone gave a good indication of peak cortisol concentrations, which were uniformly supraphysiological. Intravenous hydrocortisone administration achieved very high 30 minute cortisol concentrations. Total plasma cortisol correlated significantly with both saliva and urine cortisol after oral and intravenous hydrocortisone (P cortisol and urinary cortisol:creatinine ratio may provide useful alternatives to plasma cortisol measurements to monitor replacement doses in hypoadrenal patients.

  1. Changes in plasma catecholamine and neuropeptide Y levels after sympathetic activation in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poncet, M. F.; Damase-Michel, C.; Tavernier, G.; Tran, M. A.; Berlan, M.; Montastruc, J. L.; Montastruc, P.

    1992-01-01

    1. Plasma levels of noradrenaline (NA) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) were evaluated in two experimental models associated with an increase in sympathetic tone: conscious dogs which were subject to either sinoaortic denervation or acute administration of the alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist yohimbine. 2. Dogs that had undergone sinoaortic denervation exhibited a two fold increase in plasma NA without any change in NPY levels. 3. Yohimbine (0.05 mg kg-1 i.v. as a bolus) produced similar effects. A higher dose of yohimbine (0.5 mg kg-1 i.v.) increased both plasma NA (7 fold) and NPY (6.5 fold) levels. 4. The present results indicate that changes in plasma catecholamines and NPY are not always concomitant. They suggest that the simultaneous release of NA and NPY is only observed under in vivo conditions for a marked increase in sympathetic tone. PMID:1596679

  2. Influence of acute exposure to high altitude on basal and postprandial plasma levels of gastroenteropancreatic peptides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf L Riepl

    Full Text Available Acute mountain sickness (AMS is characterized by headache often accompanied by gastrointestinal complaints that vary from anorexia through nausea to vomiting. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of high altitude on plasma levels of gastroenteropancreatic (GEP peptides and their association to AMS symptoms. Plasma levels of 6 GEP peptides were measured by radioimmunoassay in 11 subjects at 490 m (Munich, Germany and, after rapid passive ascent to 3454 m (Jungfraujoch, Switzerland, over the course of three days. In a second study (n = 5, the same peptides and ghrelin were measured in subjects who consumed standardized liquid meals at these two elevations. AMS symptoms and oxygen saturation were monitored. In the first study, both fasting (morning 8 a.m. and stimulated (evening 8 p.m. plasma levels of pancreatic polypeptide (PP and cholecystokinin (CCK were significantly lower at high altitude as compared to baseline, whereas gastrin and motilin concentrations were significantly increased. Fasting plasma neurotensin was significantly enhanced whereas stimulated levels were reduced. Both fasting and stimulated plasma motilin levels correlated with gastrointestinal symptom severity (r = 0.294, p = 0.05, and r = 0.41, p = 0.006, respectively. Mean O(2-saturation dropped from 96% to 88% at high altitude. In the second study, meal-stimulated integrated (= area under curve plasma CCK, PP, and neurotensin values were significantly suppressed at high altitude, whereas integrated levels of gastrin were increased and integrated VIP and ghrelin levels were unchanged. In summary, our data show that acute exposure to a hypobaric hypoxic environment causes significant changes in fasting and stimulated plasma levels of GEP peptides over consecutive days and after a standardized meal. The changes of peptide levels were not uniform. Based on the inhibition of PP and neurotensin release a reduction of the cholinergic tone can be postulated.

  3. Taurine attenuates radiation-induced lung fibrosis in C57/Bl6 fibrosis prone mice.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Robb, W B

    2010-03-01

    The amino acid taurine has an established role in attenuating lung fibrosis secondary to bleomycin-induced injury. This study evaluates taurine\\'s effect on TGF-beta1 expression and the development of lung fibrosis after single-dose thoracic radiotherapy.

  4. Plasma leptin levels in healthy children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blum, W F; Englaro, P; Hanitsch, S

    1997-01-01

    Leptin, the product of the ob gene, is thought to play a key role in the regulation of body fat mass. Beyond this function, it appears to be an integral component of various hypothalamo-pituitary-endocrine feedback loops. Because childhood and puberty are periods of major metabolic and endocrine...... changes, leptin levels and various hormonal parameters were investigated in a large cohort of healthy children and adolescents (312 males, 401 females, age 5.8-19.9 yr). For this purpose, a specific and sensitive RIA was developed that allowed the accurate measurement of low leptin levels in young lean...... children. With this assay, leptin proved to be a comparatively stable protein under common conditions of blood sampling and storage. Leptin levels increased in girls with age (r = 0.47, P

  5. Effect of explosive noise on gastrointestinal transit and plasma levels of polypeptide hormones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen-Bin Mu; Yu-Xin Huang; Bao-Min Zhao; Zhen-Xiong Liu; Bing-Hua Zhang; Qing-Li Wang

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of firing noise on gastrointestinal transit and probe its mechanism by measuring the levels of plasma polypeptide hormones.METHODS: Atotal of 64 SD rats were randomly divided into a control group and three stimulating groups. Firing noise of different intensity by sub-machine guns was used as inflicting factor. The effect of firing noise on liquid substance gastrointestinal transit and solid substance gastrointestinal transit was observed by measuring the ratio of carbon powder suspension transmitting and barium sticks transmitting respectively.Plasma levels of polypeptide hormones were measured by radio-immunoassay.RESULTS: The noise accelerated gastrointestinal transit of solid food by more than 80 db;and accelerated gastrointestinal transit of liquid food significantly by more than 120 db. Meantime, plasma levels of plasma motilin (MTL)(157.47±16.08; 151.90±17.08), somatostatin (SS)(513.97±88.77; 458.25±104.30), substance P (SP)(115.52±20.70; 110.28±19.96) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) (214.21±63.17; 251.76±97.24)remarkably changed also.CONCLUSION: Within a certain intensity range,the firing noise changes the levels of rat plasma gastrointestinal hormones, but the gastrointestinal transit is still normal. Beyond the range, the noise induces plasma hormone levels disturbance and gastrointestinal transit disorder.

  6. Circulating FGF23 levels in response to acute changes in plasma Ca(2+).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravesen, Eva; Mace, Maria L; Hofman-Bang, Jacob; Olgaard, Klaus; Lewin, Ewa

    2014-07-01

    The regulation of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) synthesis and secretion is still incompletely understood. FGF23 is an important regulator of renal phosphate excretion and has regulatory effects on the calciotropic hormones calcitriol and parathyroid hormone (PTH). Calcium (Ca) and phosphate homeostasis are closely interrelated, and it is therefore likely that Ca is involved in FGF23 regulation. It has recently been reported that dietary Ca influenced FGF23 levels, with high Ca increasing FGF23. The mechanism remains to be clarified. It remains unknown whether acute changes in plasma Ca influence FGF23 levels and whether a close relationship, similar that known for Ca and PTH, exists between Ca and FGF23. Thus, the aim of the present study was to examine whether acute hypercalcemia and hypocalcemia regulate FGF23 levels in the rat. Acute hypercalcemia was induced by an intravenous Ca infusion and hypocalcemia by infusion of ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA) in normal and acutely parathyroidectomized rats. Intact plasma FGF23 and intact plasma PTH and plasma Ca(2+) and phosphate were measured. Acute hypercalcemia and hypocalcemia resulted as expected in adequate PTH secretory responses. Plasma FGF23 levels remained stable at all plasma Ca(2+) levels; acute parathyroidectomy did not affect FGF23 secretion. In conclusion, Ca is not a regulator of acute changes in FGF23 secretion.

  7. Relationship between Plasma Triglyceride Level and Severity of Hypertriglyceridemic Pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng-Huei; Chou, Yu-Ching; Shangkuan, Wei-Chuan; Wei, Kuang-Yu; Pan, Yu-Han; Lin, Hung-Che

    2016-01-01

    Background Hypertriglyceridemia is the third most common cause of acute pancreatitis, but whether the level of triglyceride (TG) is related to severity of pancreatitis is unclear. Aim To evaluate the effect of TG level on the severity of hypertriglyceridemic pancreatitis (HTGP). Design Retrospective cohort study. Methods We reviewed the records of 144 patients with HTGP from 1999 to 2013 at Tri-Service General Hospital. Patients with possible etiology of pancreatitis, such as gallstones, those consuming alcohol or drugs, or those with infections were excluded. The classification of severity of pancreatitis was based on the revised Atlanta classification. We allocated the patients into high-TG and low-TG groups based on the optimal cut-off value (2648 mg/dL), which was derived from the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve between TG level and severity of HTGP. We then compared the clinical characteristics, pancreatitis severity, and mortality rates of the groups. Results There were 66 patients in the low-TG group and 78 patients in the high-TG group. There was no significant difference in the age, sex ratio, body mass index, and comorbidity between the 2 groups. The high-TG group had significantly higher levels of glucose (P = 0.022), total cholesterol (P = 0.002), and blood urea nitrogen (P = 0.037), and lower levels of sodium (P = 0.003) and bicarbonate (P = 0.002) than the low-TG group. The incidences of local complication (P = 0.002) and severe and moderate form of pancreatitis (P = 0.004) were significantly higher in the high-TG group than in the low-TG group. The mortality rate was higher in the high-TG group than in the low-TG group (P = 0.07). Conclusions Higher TG level in patients with HTGP may be associated with adverse prognosis, but randomized and prospective studies are needed in the future verify this relationship. PMID:27727299

  8. Plasma ficolin levels and risk of nephritis in Danish patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanha, Nima; Pilely, Katrine; Faurschou, Mikkel; Garred, Peter; Jacobsen, Søren

    2017-02-01

    Given the scavenging properties of ficolins, we hypothesized that variation in the plasma concentrations of the three ficolins may be associated with development of lupus nephritis (LN), type of LN, end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and/or mortality among patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). SLE patients attending a Danish tertiary rheumatology referral center were included. Plasma concentrations of ficolin-1, ficolin-2, and ficolin-3 were determined and dichotomized by the median into high and low. LN was defined by clinical criteria; type of LN by renal biopsy; ESRD follow-up time was defined as time from onset of LN to the development of ESRD or censoring at the end of follow-up. The study included 112 SLE patients with median disease duration of 8 years of which 53 (47%) had LN at the time of inclusion. During a median follow-up of 10 years, five patients developed ESRD. Sixteen patients died. Odds ratios (ORs) of LN were 1.2 (95% CI: 0.6-2.7), 4.1 (95% CI: 1.7-9.7), and 0.9 (95% CI: 0.4-2.0) for patients with low ficolin-1, ficolin-2, and ficolin-3 plasma levels, respectively. The distribution of histological classes differed between patients with high and low plasma levels of ficolin-1 (p = 0.009). Patients with high ficolin-1 plasma levels had an increased risk of ESRD. There was no association between the levels of the analyzed plasma ficolins and mortality. Low plasma ficolin-2 levels were associated with an increased risk of having LN. High plasma levels of ficolin-1 were associated with the histological subtype of LN and development of ESRD.

  9. Is Taurine a Biomarker in Autistic Spectrum Disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eunkyue; Cohen, Ira; Gonzalez, Maripaz; Castellano, Mario R; Flory, Michael; Jenkins, Edmund C; Brown, W Ted; Schuller-Levis, Georgia

    2017-01-01

    Taurine is a sulfur-containing amino acid which is not incorporated into protein. However, taurine has various critical physiological functions including development of the eye and brain, reproduction, osmoregulation, and immune functions including anti-inflammatory as well as anti-oxidant activity. The causes of autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) are not clear but a high heritability implicates an important role for genetic factors. Reports also implicate oxidative stress and inflammation in the etiology of ASD. Thus, taurine, a well-known antioxidant and regulator of inflammation, was investigated here using the sera from both girls and boys with ASD as well as their siblings and parents. Previous reports regarding taurine serum concentrations in ASD from various laboratories have been controversial. To address the potential role of taurine in ASD, we collected sera from 66 children with ASD (males: 45; females: 21, age 1.5-11.5 years, average age 5.2 ± 1.6) as well as their unaffected siblings (brothers: 24; sisters: 32, age 1.5-17 years, average age 7.0 ± 2.0) as controls of the children with ASD along with parents (fathers: 49; mothers: 54, age 28-45 years). The sera from normal adult controls (males: 47; females: 51, age 28-48 years) were used as controls for the parents. Taurine concentrations in all sera samples were measured using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using a phenylisothiocyanate labeling technique. Taurine concentrations from female and male children with ASD were 123.8 ± 15.2 and 145.8 ± 8.1 μM, respectively, and those from their unaffected brothers and sisters were 142.6 ± 10.4 and 150.8 ± 8.4 μM, respectively. There was no significant difference in taurine concentration between autistic children and their unaffected siblings. Taurine concentrations in children with ASD were also not significantly different from their parents (mothers: 139.6 ± 7.7 μM, fathers: 147.4 ± 7.5 μM). No significant

  10. PLASMA ZINC LEVEL IN LACTATING WOMEN: ISFAHAN – 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A MAHMOUDIAN

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Zinc is an important trace mineral for human health specially in children. The zinc of nursing mothers affects on their milk and so health of their childs. This study assesses the serum zinc level in lactating women of Isfahan city. Methods. In a cross sectional study, 100 lactating women who were sited under care of Isfahan rural and urban health centers were selected by multistage cluster and simple random sampling. The food recall questionnair was completed and 10 ml blood sample was obtained from each subject. Serum zinc level was measered by atomic absorption. Results. Mean age of participants was 24.7 ± 4.9 years. Mean zinc concentration was 70.4±8.01 µg/dl. About 63 percent of subjects had serum zinc level less than 75 µg/dl (significant zinc deficiency and of this group 19/1 percent had severe zinc deficiency (less than 60 µg/dl. The mean of serum zinc level by BMI (< 20, 20-25, > 25 were 63.1, 70 and 75.7 (P < 0.0001. In person s that eat more frequency of meat and dairy products weekly, zinc levels were more than others (P < 0.01. Discussion. Zinc deficiency was common problem in lactating women of Isfahsn and this have harm effects on their childrens. Zinc deiifciency in children is one of causes responsible for growth retardation, suscebtibility to infections and learning disabilities. The nutrition of our people aren"t sufficient for lactating women"s needs. Other data indicated for zinc deficiency of soils. Planning such as fortification of soils, subside to meat the important source of zinc and using of zinc supplements for lactating women and other high risk groups must be done by responsible structures.

  11. Perinatal taurine exposure affects adult arterial pressure control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roysommuti, Sanya; Wyss, J. Michael

    2012-01-01

    Taurine is an abundant free amino acid found in mammalian cells that contributes to many physiologic functions from that of a simple cell osmolyte to a programmer of adult health and disease. Taurine’s contribution extends from conception throughout life, but its most critical exposure period is during perinatal life. In adults, taurine supplementation prevents or alleviates cardiovascular disease and related complications. In contrast, low taurine consumption coincides with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, obesity and type II diabetes. This review focuses on the effects that altered perinatal taurine exposure has on long-term mechanisms that control adult arterial blood pressure and could thereby contribute to arterial hypertension through its ability to program these cardiovascular regulatory mechanisms very early in life. The modifications of these mechanisms can last a lifetime and transfer to the next generation, suggesting that epigenetic mechanisms underlie the changes. The ability of perinatal taurine exposure to influence arterial pressure control mechanisms and hypertension in adult life appears to involve the regulation of growth and development, the central and autonomic nervous system, the renin-angiotensin system, glucose-insulin interaction and changes to heart, blood vessels and kidney function. PMID:23070226

  12. Taurine deficiency and MELAS are closely related syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Stephen W; Jong, Chian Ju; Warner, Danielle; Ito, Takashi; Azuma, Junichi

    2013-01-01

    MELAS (mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes) is a mitochondrial disease caused by one or more mutations of tRNA(Leu(UUR)). These mutations reduce both the aminoacylation of tRNA(Leu(UUR)) and a posttranslational modification in the wobble position of tRNA(Leu(UUR)). Both changes result in reduced transcription of mitochondria-encoded proteins; however, reduced aminoacylation affects the decoding of both UUG and UUA while the wobble defect specifically diminishes UUG decoding. Because 12 out of the 13 mitochondria-encoded proteins are more dependent on UUA decoding than UUG decoding, the aminoacylation defect should have a more profound effect on protein synthesis than the wobble defect, which more specifically alters the expression of one mitochondria-encoded protein, ND6. Taurine serves as a substrate in the formation of 5-taurinomethyluridine-tRNA(Leu(UUR)); therefore, taurine deficiency should mimic 5-taurinomethyluridine-tRNA(Leu(UUR)) deficiency. Hence, the wobble hypothesis predicts that the symptoms of MELAS mimic those of taurine deficiency, provided that the dominant defect in MELAS is wobble modification deficiency. On the other hand, if the aminoacylation defect dominates, significant differences should exist between taurine deficiency and MELAS. The present review tests this hypothesis by comparing the symptoms of MELAS and taurine deficiency.

  13. Determining plasma morphine levels using GC-MS after solid phase extraction to monitor drug levels in the postoperative period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Santos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To implement a selective and sensitive analytical method to quantify morphine in small volumes of plasma by gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS, aimed at post-operatively monitoring the drug. METHOD: A gas-liquid chromatographic method with mass detection has been developed to determine morphine concentration in plasma after solid phase extraction. Morphine-d3 was used as an internal standard. Only 0.5 mL of plasma is required for the drug solid-phase extraction in the Bond Elut-Certify®, followed by the quantification of morphine derivative by GC-MS using a linear temperature program, a capillary fused silica column, and helium as the carrier and make-up gas. The method was applied to determine morphine content in plasma samples of four patients during the postoperative period of cardiac surgery. Patient-controlled analgesia with morphine was performed by a venous catheter, and a series of venous blood samples were collected. After the oro-After the orotracheal extubation, morphine plasma levels were monitored for up to 36 hours. RESULTS: The run time was 16 minutes because morphine and the internal standard were eluted after 8.8 minutes. The GC-MS method had 0.5 -1000 ng/mL linearity range (r²=0.9995, 0.1 ng/mL limit of detection, intraday and interday precision equivalent to 1.9% and 6.8%, and 0.1% and 0.8% systematic error (intraday and interday, respectively. The analytical method showed optimal absolute (98% and relative (100.7% recoveries. Morphine dose requirements and plasma levels are discussed. CONCLUSION: The analytical gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method is selective and adequate for morphine measurements in plasma for applications in clinical studies.

  14. Determining plasma morphine levels using GC-MS after solid phase extraction to monitor drug levels in the postoperative period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Veronica; López, Karin Jannet Vera; Santos, Luciana Moraes; Yonamine, Mauricio; Carmona, Maria José Carvalho; Santos, Silvia Regina Cavani Jorge

    2008-06-01

    To implement a selective and sensitive analytical method to quantify morphine in small volumes of plasma by gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), aimed at post-operatively monitoring the drug. A gas-liquid chromatographic method with mass detection has been developed to determine morphine concentration in plasma after solid phase extraction. Morphine-d3 was used as an internal standard. Only 0.5 mL of plasma is required for the drug solid-phase extraction in the Bond Elut-Certify, followed by the quantification of morphine derivative by GC-MS using a linear temperature program, a capillary fused silica column, and helium as the carrier and make-up gas. The method was applied to determine morphine content in plasma samples of four patients during the postoperative period of cardiac surgery. Patient-controlled analgesia with morphine was performed by a venous catheter, and a series of venous blood samples were collected. After the oro-After the orotracheal extubation, morphine plasma levels were monitored for up to 36 hours. The run time was 16 minutes because morphine and the internal standard were eluted after 8.8 minutes. The GC-MS method had 0.5 -1000 ng/mL linearity range (r(2)=0.9995), 0.1 ng/mL limit of detection, intraday and interday precision equivalent to 1.9% and 6.8%, and 0.1% and 0.8% systematic error (intraday and interday, respectively). The analytical method showed optimal absolute (98%) and relative (100.7%) recoveries. Morphine dose requirements and plasma levels are discussed. The analytical gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method is selective and adequate for morphine measurements in plasma for applications in clinical studies.

  15. Acute modification in plasma lipid levels in ultramarathon runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emed, Luiz Gustavo Marin; Passaglia, Daniela Gunther; Guerios, Surya T; João, Paula G D; Moser, André I S; Abdalla, Dulcinéia S P; Guarita-Souza, Luis Cesar; Mikilita, Emanuella Stella; Baena, Cristina Pellegrino; da Costa, Ana Beatriz Brenner Affonso; Faria-Neto, José Rocha

    2016-09-01

    We aimed to evaluate the effects of a 24-h ultramarathon, an aerobic test of high physical load, on lipid profile and apolipoproteins B (ApoB) and A1 (ApoA1) levels, minimally modified low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and oxidised LDL. Prospective evaluation of 16 male athletes who participated in an ultramarathon run, where the objective was to run the greatest distance possible in 24 h. Fourteen participants completed the run. The mean distance achieved was 133.1 km (maximum of 169.6 km). There was a trend in reduction of triglycerides and total cholesterol (P = 0.06 and 0.05, respectively), without significant modifications in high-density lipoprotein, LDL and ApoA1 levels (P = 0.16; 0.55 and 0.67). There was a marked reduction in ApoB levels (P < 0.001), correlated directly to the distance covered (Pearson R = 0.68). Accordingly, an increase in the LDL/ApoB ratio was observed. The stress of this physical activity was not associated to an increase in minimally modified LDL or oxidised LDL. Lipid profile levels were not acutely altered by prolonged physical activity. Similarly, there was no evidence of greater oxidation of LDL over a 24-h period of physical activity. The reduction in ApoB was directly proportional to the distance covered, suggesting an acute positive change in phenotype of LDL molecules.

  16. Two independent apolipoprotein a5 Haplotypes influence human plasma triglyceride levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennacchio, Len A.; Olivier, Michael; Hubacek, Jaroslav A.; Krauss, Ronald M.; Rubin, Edward M.; Cohen, Jonathan C.

    2002-09-16

    The recently identified apolipoprotein A5 gene (APOA5) has been shown to play an important role in determining plasma triglyceride concentrations in humans and mice. We previously identified an APOA5 haplotype (designated APOA5*2) that is present in {approx}16 percent of Caucasians and is associated with increased plasma triglyceride concentrations. In this report we describe another APOA5 haplotype (APOA5*3) containing the rare allele of the single nucleotide polymorphism c.56C>G that changes serine to tryptophan at codon 19 and is independently associated with high plasma triglyceride levels in three different populations. In a sample of 264 Caucasian men and women with plasma triglyceride concentrations above the 90th percentile or below the 10th percentile, the APOA5*3 haplotype was more than three-fold more common in the group with high plasma triglyceride levels. In a second independently ascertained sample of Caucasian men and women (n 1/4 419) who were studied while consuming their self-selected diets as well as after high-carbohydrate diets and high-fat diets, the APOA5*3 haplotype was associated with increased plasma triglyceride levels on all three dietary regimens. In a third population comprising 2660 randomly selected individuals, the APOA5*3 haplotype was found in 12 percent of Caucasians, 14 percent of African-Americans and 28 percent of Hispanics and was associated with increased plasma triglyceride levels in both men and women in each ethnic group. These findings establish that the APOA5 locus contributes significantly to inter-individual variation in plasma triglyceride levels in humans. Together, the APOA5*2 and APOA5*3 haplotypes are found in 25 50 percent of African-Americans, Hispanics and Caucasians and support the contribution of common human variation to quantitative phenotypes in the general population.

  17. Seminal plasma zinc level may be associated with the effect of cigarette smoking on sperm parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, R-Z; Gao, J-C; Zhang, H-G; Wang, R-X; Zhang, Z-H; Liu, X-Y

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cigarette smoking on seminal plasma zinc levels and sperm parameters, and to examine the role of seminal plasma zinc. Semen samples from 79 non-smokers and 68 smokers were obtained. There was a significant decrease in seminal plasma zinc in smokers and a clear correlation between seminal plasma zinc levels and the extent of smoking. Sperm parameters (concentration, motility and morphology) among smokers were significantly lower in comparison to non-smokers. These parameters were also significantly decreased among smokers with abnormal zinc levels, while there was no significant difference between non-smokers with normal zinc and non-smokers with abnormal zinc levels. As previous studies have shown that seminal plasma zinc is associated with a decrease of anti-oxidant defences, seminal plasma zinc could be a contributor to the effects of cigarette smoking on sperm parameters. In conclusion, cigarette smoking can affect sperm parameters and this study may help towards providing a mechanistic explanation.

  18. Progranulin Levels in Plasma and Cerebrospinal Fluid in Granulin Mutation Carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeter, Lieke H.H.; Patzke, Holger; Loewen, Gordon; Dopper, Elise G.P.; Pijnenburg, Yolande A.L.; van Minkelen, Rick; van Swieten, John C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Pathogenic mutations in the granulin gene (GRN) are causative in 5-10% of patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD), mostly leading to reduced progranulin protein (PGRN) levels. Upcoming therapeutic trials focus on enhancing PGRN levels. Methods Fluctuations in plasma PGRN (n = 41) and its relationship with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, n = 32) and specific single nucleotide polymorphisms were investigated in pre- and symptomatic GRN mutation carriers and controls. Results Plasma PGRN levels were lower in carriers than in controls and showed a mean coefficient of variation of 5.3% in carriers over 1 week. Although plasma PGRN correlated with CSF PGRN in carriers (r = 0.54, p = 0.02), plasma only explained 29% of the variability in CSF PGRN. rs5848, rs646776 and rs1990622 genotypes only partly explained the variability of PGRN levels between subjects. Conclusions Plasma PGRN is relatively stable over 1 week and therefore seems suitable for treatment monitoring of PGRN-enhancing agents. Since plasma PGRN only moderately correlated with CSF PGRN, CSF sampling will additionally be needed in therapeutic trials. PMID:27703466

  19. Liver and plasma levels of descarboxyprothrombin (PIVKA II) in vitamin K deficiency in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harauchi, T; Takano, K; Matsuura, M; Yoshizaki, T

    1986-04-01

    Descarboxyprothrombin (PIVKA II) is a precursor of prothrombin without biological activity, and it increases with vitamin K deficiency. We studied the time course changes in liver and plasma levels of PIVKA II during the progress of vitamin K deficiency in rats. Good correlation was observed between liver PIVKA II and plasma PIVKA II and between liver or plasma PIVKA II and plasma prothrombin in experiments in which rats were fed a vitamin K-deficient diet. Feeding of a vitamin K-deficient diet or fasting caused marked increases in liver and plasma PIVKA II in male rats and a weaker response in female rats. Warfarin, a vitamin K antagonist, caused an abrupt increase in liver PIVKA II, but the increase in plasma PIVKA II was delayed about 3 hr. Plasma prothrombin decreased from about 30 min later. Factor VII decreased similarly to prothrombin, and changes in the prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time were slower than the changes in these substances. Sex differences were not seen in these warfarin actions. These observations indicate that liver and plasma PIVKA II are sensitive markers of vitamin K deficiency in rats, and assay of PIVKA II can be useful for analyzing the action mechanism of drugs which influence blood coagulation.

  20. Administration of Bioflavonoides Improves Plasma Levels of Adipocyte Hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boncheva M.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Since time immemorial the fruits of aronia melanocarpa (rich of bioflavonoides have been known for their medicinal properties. Present-day research of the pharmacological effects of aronia melanocarpa juice and fruits intake indicates that their high contents of anthocyanins is closely related to the health enhancing properties of this plant. This is a key fact which can be used in the prevention of most commonly spread, socially significant diseases, reducing for instance the total risk of cardio-vascular diseases. The great molecular variety anthocyanins possess and the role they play in cell metabolism, are still being investigated. This gives grounds to study the effects of Aronia melanocarpa on human cells, tissues, and organs. The aim of this study is to trace the effect of 150-200 ml aronia melanokarpa juice daily oral intake on the adipocyte hormones leptin (Lp, resistine (Rs and adiponectin (Adn blood levels in 10 patients with high body mass index (BMI, kg/m2 and high waist circumference. We used ELISA methods for hormonal analyses. During the study-period of two months patients did not change anything in their lifestyle. In the study group, the levels of Rs, Lp and Adn changed significantly compared to their baseline levels (averages, ng/mL - 6.93 ± 0.137, 18.40 ±1.021 and 7.98 ± 0.077 vs. 5.06 ± 0.011, 15.23 ± 0.906 and 10.45 ± 0.103 at the end of the second month, respectively. Compared with the control group of 6 people, matched for BMI, not receiving aronia melanocarpa juice, these values were markedly different. Patients taking aronia melanokarpa juice report improvement in various conditions that have caused them discomfort before the research started: pain in the muscles and joints faded away and were replaced by a new feeling of strength, headache attacks disappeared, improvement in memory and sleep were reported, regular defecation, no signs of gastric discomfort, better vision, a quicker auditory reaction, motivation

  1. Plasma levels of trefoil factors are increased in patients with advanced prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Else Marie; Borre, Michael; Poulsen, Steen Seier;

    2006-01-01

    . EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: In 79 patients with prostate cancer, 23 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia, and 44 healthy individuals plasma TFF1, TFF2, and TFF3 were determined with ELISAs and compared with clinical stage and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) values. Plasma levels of TFF were compared......PURPOSE: Through cDNA array analyses and immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays, trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) was recently shown to be overexpressed in prostate cancer. The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of using the levels of trefoil factors as a plasma marker for prostate cancer...... with the immunohistochemical expression of TFF and chromogranin A in 30 prostate cancer tissue samples. RESULTS: Patients with advanced prostate cancer had significantly higher plasma concentrations of TFF1, TFF2, and TFF3 (P

  2. Changes in Plasma Copeptin Levels during Hemodialysis: Are the Physiological Stimuli Active in Hemodialysis Patients?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmée M Ettema

    Full Text Available Plasma levels of copeptin, a surrogate marker for the vasoconstrictor hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP, are increased in hemodialysis patients. Presently, it is unknown what drives copeptin levels in hemodialysis patients. We investigated whether the established physiological stimuli for copeptin release, i.e. plasma osmolality, blood volume and mean arterial pressure (MAP, are operational in hemodialysis patients.One hundred and eight prevalent, stable hemodialysis patients on a thrice-weekly dialysis schedule were studied during hemodialysis with constant ultrafiltration rate and dialysate conductivity in this observational study. Plasma levels of copeptin, sodium, MAP, and blood volume were measured before, during and after hemodialysis. Multivariate analysis was used to determine the association between copeptin (dependent variable and the physiological stimuli plasma sodium, MAP, excess weight as well as NT-pro-BNP immediately prior to dialysis and between copeptin and changes of plasma sodium, MAP and blood volume with correction for age, sex and diabetes during dialysis treatment.Patients were 63 ± 15.6 years old and 65% were male. Median dialysis vintage was 1.6 years (IQR 0.7-4.0. Twenty-three percent of the patients had diabetes and 82% had hypertension. Median predialysis copeptin levels were 141.5 pmol/L (IQR 91.0-244.8 pmol/L. Neither predialysis plasma sodium levels, nor NT-proBNP levels, nor MAP were associated with predialysis copeptin levels. During hemodialysis, copeptin levels rose significantly (p<0.01 to 163.0 pmol/L (96.0-296.0 pmol/L. Decreases in blood volume and MAP were associated with increases in copeptin levels during dialysis, whereas there was no significant association between the change in plasma sodium levels and the change in copeptin levels.Plasma copeptin levels are elevated predialysis and increase further during hemodialysis. Volume stimuli, i.e. decreases in MAP and blood volume, rather than osmotic

  3. Increased plasma free fatty acid and triglyceride levels after single administation of toluene in rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Setsunori; Tanabe, Koichi; Shiono, Hiroshi (Shimane Medical Univ., Izumo (Japan)); Maseda, Chikatoshi (Shimane Prefectural Police Headquarters, Matsue (Japan)); Fukui, Yuko (Kyoto Univ. (Japan))

    1988-01-01

    Changes of plasma lipids (triglyceride, TG: total cholesterol, Cho; and phospholipids, PL), free fatty acid (FFA), and blood glucose (BG) were studied in male rabbits after toluene administration (0.5 g/kg per os). Hypertriglyceridemia was observed at and after 2 h. Plasma FFA and BG were elevated temporarily during the early stage and lowered gradually thereafter. Initially, plasma Cho and PL were virtually unchanged, by the Cho levels increased slowly after 6 h. The hypertriglyceridemia observed may have some adverse effects on heart function.

  4. Genetic effects of an air discharge plasma on Staphylococcus aureus at the gene transcription level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zimu; Wei, Jun; Shen, Jie; Liu, Yuan; Ma, Ronghua; Zhang, Zelong; Qian, Shulou; Ma, Jie; Lan, Yan; Zhang, Hao; Zhao, Ying; Xia, Weidong; Sun, Qiang; Cheng, Cheng; Chu, Paul K.

    2015-05-01

    The dynamics of gene expression regulation (at transcription level) in Staphylococcus aureus after different doses of atmospheric-pressure room-temperature air plasma treatments are investigated by monitoring the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The plasma treatment influences the transcription of genes which are associated with several important bio-molecular processes related to the environmental stress resistance of the bacteria, including oxidative stress response, biofilm formation, antibiotics resistance, and DNA damage protection/repair. The reactive species generated by the plasma discharge in the gas phase and/or induced in the liquid phase may account for these gene expression changes.

  5. Simultaneous treatment of low-level miscellaneous solid waste by thermal plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amakawa, T.; Adachi, K.; Yasui, S. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    Volume reduction is a cost saving method for the final disposal of radioactive waste. On one hand, arc plasma heating can provide sufficient heat independent of the chemical and physical properties of waste, therefore enabling stable heating at high treatment rates. CRIEPI (central research institute of electric power industry) focused on the advantages of arc plasma heating, and has clarified that arc plasma heating can be used in a simultaneous melting treatment process for low-level miscellaneous mixed solid waste, generated from nuclear power plants for volume reduction, and in the stabilization of radionuclides. (authors)

  6. Taurine as a marker for the identification of natural Calculus Bovis and its substitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Kayoko; Azuma, Yuko; Kawase, Masaya; Takahashi, Toshiharu; Schaffer, Stephen W; Takahashi, Kyoko

    2013-01-01

    Calculus Bovis (C. Bovis) is a commonly used animal-derived therapeutic preparation. To meet the increasing clinical demand for the preparation, two artificial substitutes for Bos Taurus have been introduced in China: artificial C. Bovis and in vitro cultured C. Bovis. However, information on their efficacy and safety is inadequate. Therefore, we investigated the biological differences between the commonly used natural preparation and its two substitutes, with the aim of not only identifying the differences but also providing a procedure to distinguish between the different preparations.In the study, we prepared 9 natural C. Bovis, 2 artificial C. Bovis, and 2 in vitro cultured C. Bovis preparations for evaluation. Differences were noted between the three preparations relative to their effect on viability of cardiac fibroblasts from 1-day-old Wistar rats. Although natural C. Bovis had no effect on cell viability, 1-h treatment of the cells with 0.25 mg/ml of the substitutes significantly reduced cell viability, as detected by the MTS assay. Based on liquid chromatography and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, the preparations also differed in composition. Indeed, the substitutes contained more taurine, cholic acid, iron, magnesium, and calcium than the natural preparations. They also differed spectroscopically.The present results reveal significant biological differences between natural C. Bovis and two of its substitutes. Since the substitutes appear to contain more taurine, cholic acid, and elements, these constituents may serve as markers to distinguish between natural C. Bovis and its substitutes.

  7. Vitamin K plasma levels determination in human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusaro, Maria; Gallieni, Maurizio; Rizzo, Maria Antonietta; Stucchi, Andrea; Delanaye, Pierre; Cavalier, Etienne; Moysés, Rosa M A; Jorgetti, Vanda; Iervasi, Giorgio; Giannini, Sandro; Fabris, Fabrizio; Aghi, Andrea; Sella, Stefania; Galli, Francesco; Viola, Valentina; Plebani, Mario

    2017-05-01

    Vitamin K (phylloquinone or vitamin K1 and menaquinones or vitamin K2) plays an important role as a cofactor in the synthesis of hepatic blood coagulation proteins, but recently has also aroused an increasing interest for its action in extra-hepatic tissues, in particular in the regulation of bone and vascular metabolism. The accurate measurement of vitamin K status in humans is still a critical issue. Along with indirect assays, such as the undercarboxylated fractions of vitamin K-dependent proteins [prothrombin, osteocalcin (OC), and matrix gla protein], the direct analysis of blood levels of phylloquinone and menaquinones forms might be considered a more informative and direct method for assessing vitamin K status. Different methods for direct quantification of vitamin K serum levels are available. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods coupled with post-column reduction procedures and fluorimetric or electrochemical detection are commonly used for food and blood analysis of phylloquinone, but they show some limitations when applied to the analysis of serum menaquinones because of interferences from triglycerides. Recent advancements include liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LCMS/MS) detection, which assures higher specificity. The optimization and standardization of these methods requires specialized laboratories. The variability of results observed in the available studies suggests the need for further investigations to obtain more accurate analytical results.

  8. Plasma cortisol levels in captive wild felines after chemical restraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.P. Nogueira

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available Eight Panthera onca (Po, 13 Felis concolor (Fc, 7 Felis yagouaroundi (Fy, 7 Felis tigrina (Ft and 5 Felis pardalis (Fp specimens from São Paulo State zoos were used. All animals were restrained with darts containing 10 mg/kg ketamine and 1 mg/kg xylazine. Venous blood samples were collected as soon as possible (within 15-20 min and serum was frozen until the time for cortisol quantification. Cortisol was determined using a solid phase radioimmunoassay with an intra-assay coefficient of 8.51%. Data were analyzed statistically by the Kruskal-Wallis test, followed by Dunn's multiple comparisons test, and the one-sample t-test, with the level of significance set at P<0.05. Data are reported as means ± SEM. Cortisol levels differed among the captive felines: Po = 166 ± 33a, Fc = 670 ± 118b, Fy = 480 ± 83b, Ft = 237 ± 42ab, Fp = 97 ± 12a nmol/l (values followed by different superscript letters were significantly different (P<0.001. Since most of the veterinary procedures on these species involve chemical restraint, these results show the necessity of preventive measures in order to minimize the effect of restraint stress on more susceptible species

  9. Higher Plasma Myostatin Levels in Cor Pulmonale Secondary to Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Rong Ju

    Full Text Available To analyze plasma myostatin levels and investigate their relationship with right ventricular (RV function in patients with cor pulmonale secondary to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD.The study recruited 81 patients with advanced COPD and 40 age-matched controls. The patients were divided into two groups: those with cor pulmonale and those without. Echocardiography was used to evaluate RV function and morphology, and the value of tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE less than 16 mm was considered RV dysfunction. Plasma myostatin levels were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP levels were analyzed as a comparison of myostatin.The data detected cor pulmonale in 39/81 patients, with the mean value of TAPSE of 14.3 mm. Plasma myostatin levels (ng/mL were significantly higher in patients with cor pulmonale (16.68 ± 2.95 than in those without (13.56 ± 3.09, and much higher than in controls (8.79±2.79, with each p<0.01. Significant differences were also found in plasma BNP levels among the three groups (p<0.05. Multivariate regression analysis suggested that myostatin levels were significantly correlated with the values of TAPSE and RV myocardium performance index among the COPD patients, and that BNP levels were significantly correlated only with systolic pulmonary arterial pressure, with each p<0.05.Plasma myostatin levels are increased in COPD patients who have cor pulmonale. Stronger correlations of plasma myostatin levels with echocardiographic indexes of the right heart suggest that myostatin might be superior to BNP in the early diagnosis of cor pulmonale in COPD.

  10. Fructose levels are markedly elevated in cerebrospinal fluid compared to plasma in pregnant women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice J Hwang

    Full Text Available Fructose, unlike glucose, promotes feeding behavior in rodents and its ingestion exerts differential effects in the human brain. However, plasma fructose is typically 1/1000 th of glucose levels and it is unclear to what extent fructose crosses the blood-brain barrier. We investigated whether local endogenous central nervous system (CNS fructose production from glucose via the polyol pathway (glucose → sorbitol → fructose contributes to brain exposure to fructose.In this observational study, fasting glucose, sorbitol and fructose concentrations were measured using gas-chromatography-liquid mass spectroscopy in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, maternal plasma, and venous cord blood collected from 25 pregnant women (6 lean, 10 overweight/obese, and 9 T2DM/gestational DM undergoing spinal anesthesia and elective cesarean section.As expected, CSF glucose was ~ 60% of plasma glucose levels. In contrast, fructose was nearly 20-fold higher in CSF than in plasma (p < 0.001, and CSF sorbitol was ~ 9-times higher than plasma levels (p < 0.001. Moreover, CSF fructose correlated positively with CSF glucose (ρ 0.45, p = 0.02 and sorbitol levels (ρ 0.75, p < 0.001. Cord blood sorbitol was also ~ 7-fold higher than maternal plasma sorbitol levels (p = 0.001. There were no differences in plasma, CSF, and cord blood glucose, fructose, or sorbitol levels between groups.These data raise the possibility that fructose may be produced endogenously in the human brain and that the effects of fructose in the human brain and placenta may extend beyond its dietary consumption.

  11. Plasma Soluble CD163 Level Independently Predicts All-Cause Mortality in HIV-1-Infected Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Troels Bygum; Ertner, Gideon; Petersen, Janne; Møller, Holger Jon; Moestrup, Søren K; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper; Kronborg, Gitte; Benfield, Thomas

    2016-10-15

    CD163, a monocyte- and macrophage-specific scavenger receptor, is shed as soluble CD163 (sCD163) during the proinflammatory response. Here, we assessed the association between plasma sCD163 levels and progression to AIDS and all-cause mortality among individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV). Plasma sCD163 levels were measured in 933 HIV-infected individuals. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) associated with mortality were computed by Cox proportional hazards regression. At baseline, 86% were receiving antiretroviral treatment, 73% had plasma a HIV RNA level of Plasma sCD163 levels were higher in nonsurvivors than in survivors (4.92 mg/L [interquartile range {IQR}, 3.29-8.65 mg/L] vs 3.16 mg/L [IQR, 2.16-4.64 mg/L]; P = .0001). The cumulative incidence of death increased with increasing plasma sCD163 levels, corresponding to a 6% or 35% increased risk of death for each milligram per liter or quartile increase, respectively, in baseline plasma sCD163 level (adjusted HR, 1.06 [95% CI, 1.03-1.09] and 1.35 [95% CI, 1.13-1.63], respectively). Plasma sCD163 was an independent marker of all-cause mortality in a cohort of HIV-infected individuals, suggesting that monocyte/macrophage activation may play a role in HIV pathogenesis and be a target of intervention. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Evaluation of plasma reactive oxygen metabolites levels in obese subjects with periodontal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snophia Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Result and Conclusion: In this study, obese subjects with chronic periodontitis (Group I had mean plasma ROM levels (442.3 ± 15.65 Carratelli unit [CARR U] showing 100% subjects with high oxidative stress. Obese subjects with chronic gingivitis (Group II had mean plasma ROM levels (358.7 ± 20.61 CARR U indicating 86.7% subjects with oxidative stress. Obese subjects with healthy periodontium (Group III had 46.7% subjects with slight oxidative stress, and the mean ROM level was 320.2 ± 17.57. Nonobese subjects with healthy periodontium (Group IV had 80% of subjects with normal oxidative stress and the mean plasma ROM level was 296.9 ± 20.35 CARR U. The intra- and inter-group comparison showed significant difference (P < 0.001. From our study, we report that obese subjects with periodontitis have more oxidative stress compared to obese subjects with healthy periodontium.

  13. Levels of lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide, and antioxidant vitamins in plasma of patients with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkuş, Selami; Naziroğlu, Mustafa; Eriş, Sevilay; Yalman, Kadir; Yilmaz, Nigar; Yener, Mahmut

    2009-06-01

    The etiology of fibromyalgia is not clearly understood. In recent years, a few studies have investigated the possible role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the etiology and pathogenesis of fibromyalgia. The aim of this study was to investigate plasma antioxidant vitamins, lipid peroxidation (LP), and nitric oxide (NO) levels in patients with fibromyalgia and controls. The study was performed on the blood plasma of 30 female patients and 30 age-matched controls. After a fast of 12 h, blood samples were taken, and plasma samples were obtained for measurement of vitamins A, C, E, and beta-carotene concentrations and levels of LP and NO. Concentrations of vitamins A (p fibromyalgia than in controls, and LP levels were significantly (p vitamin C and beta-carotene and levels of NO did not change significantly. These results provide some evidence for a potential role of LP and fat-soluble antioxidants in the patients with fibromyalgia.

  14. Transcranial magnetic stimulation and BDNF plasma levels in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelucci, Francesco; Oliviero, Antonio; Pilato, Fabio; Saturno, Eleonora; Dileone, Michele; Versace, Viviana; Musumeci, Gabriella; Batocchi, Anna P; Tonali, Pietro A; Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo

    2004-03-22

    Low- and high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the motor cortex results in lasting changes of excitatory neurotransmission. We investigated the effects of suprathreshold 1 Hz rTMS on brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plasma levels in 10 healthy subjects and effects of either 1 Hz or 20 Hz rTMS in four amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients. BDNF levels were progressively decreased by 1 Hz rTMS in healthy subjects; there was no effect of 1 Hz rTMS on BDNF plasma levels in ALS patients, an effect probably due to the loss of motor cortex pyramidal cells. High frequency rTMS determined a transitory decrease in BDNF plasma levels. Cumulatively these findings suggest that rTMS might influence the BDNF production by interfering with neuronal activity.

  15. Plasma Soluble CD163 Level Independently Predicts All-Cause Mortality in HIV-1-Infected Individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Troels Bygum; Ertner, Gideon; Petersen, Janne

    2016-01-01

    Background: CD163, a monocyte- and macrophage-specific scavenger receptor, is shed as soluble CD163 (sCD163) during the proinflammatory response. Here, we assessed the association between plasma sCD163 levels and progression to AIDS and all-cause mortality among individuals infected with human...... immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV). Methods: Plasma sCD163 levels were measured in 933 HIV–infected individuals. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) associated with mortality were computed by Cox proportional hazards regression. Results: At baseline, 86% were receiving antiretroviral treatment......, 73% had plasma a HIV RNA level of CD163 levels were higher in nonsurvivors than in survivors (4.92 mg/L [interquartile range {IQR}, 3.29–8.65 mg/L] vs 3.16 mg/L [IQR, 2...

  16. Plasma Soluble CD163 Level Independently Predicts All-Cause Mortality in HIV-1-Infected Individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Troels Bygum; Ertner, Gideon; Petersen, Janne

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: CD163, a monocyte- and macrophage-specific scavenger receptor, is shed as soluble CD163 (sCD163) during the proinflammatory response. Here, we assessed the association between plasma sCD163 levels and progression to AIDS and all-cause mortality among individuals infected with human...... immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV). METHODS: Plasma sCD163 levels were measured in 933 HIV-infected individuals. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) associated with mortality were computed by Cox proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: At baseline, 86% were receiving antiretroviral treatment......, 73% had plasma a HIV RNA level of CD163 levels were higher in nonsurvivors than in survivors (4.92 mg/L [interquartile range {IQR}, 3.29-8.65 mg/L] vs 3.16 mg/L [IQR, 2...

  17. Peanut consumption increases levels of plasma very long chain fatty acids in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Christina; Wong, Derek; Cederbaum, Stephen; Lim, Bennie; Qu, Yong

    2012-11-01

    Peanut consumption has been suspected of raising plasma very long chain fatty acid (VLCFA) levels in humans. The effect of peanut consumption on VLCFAs was studied in six human subjects. After 3 to 4h of peanut butter ingestion, plasma C26:0 and C26:0/C22:0 were found to be significantly elevated to levels seen in patients with peroxisomal disorders. These levels returned to normal within 12h. Peanut consumption needs to be accounted for when interpreting VLCFAs.

  18. Overwinter fasting and re-feeding in rainbow trout: plasma growth hormone and cortisol levels in relation to energy mobilization

    OpenAIRE

    Pottinger, T.G.; Rand-Weaver, M; Sumpter, J.P.

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated the roles of cortisol and growth hormone during a period of fasting in overwintering salmonid fish. Indices of carbohydrate (plasma glucose, liver glycogen), lipid (plasma free fatty acids) and protein metabolism (plasma protein, total plasma amino acids) were determined, together with plasma growth hormone (GH), cortisol and somatolactin levels (SL) at intervals in three groups of rainbow trout (continuously fed; fasted for 9 weeks then fed; fasted for 17 weeks). In f...

  19. Lack of correlation of glucose levels in filtered blood plasma to density and conductivity measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, David M; Ash, Stephen R

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research project was to determine whether the glucose level of a blood plasma sample from a diabetic patient could be predicted by measuring the density and conductivity of ultrafiltrate of plasma created by a 30,000 m.w. cutoff membrane. Conductivity of the plasma filtrate measures electrolyte concentration and should correct density measurements for changes in electrolytes and water concentration. In vitro studies were performed measuring conductivity and density of solutions of varying glucose and sodium chloride concentrations. Plasma from seven hospitalized patients with diabetes was filtered across a 30,000 m.w. cutoff membrane. The filtrate density and conductivity were measured and correlated to glucose levels. In vitro studies confirmed the ability to predict glucose from density and conductivity measurements, in varying concentrations of glucose and saline. In plasma filtrate, the conductivity and density measurements of ultrafiltrate allowed estimation of glucose in some patients with diabetes but not others. The correlation coefficient for the combined patient data was 0.45 which was significant but only explained 20% of the variability in the glucose levels. Individually, the correlation was significant in only two of the seven patients with correlation coefficients of 0.79 and 0.88. The reasons for lack of correlation are not clear, and cannot be explained by generation of idiogenic osmoles, effects of alcohol dehydrogenase, water intake, etc. This combination of physical methods for glucose measurement is not a feasible approach to measuring glucose in plasma filtrate.

  20. Changes of Plasma Levels of Brain Natriuretic Peptide in Patients with Chronic Heart Failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pei Xiaoyang; Pan Ying; Hu Xuesong; Li Song; Xu Yawei; Yu Xuejing

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the changes of plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF).Methods Plasma BNP concentrations in patients with CHF (n=56) and in normal controls (n=60) were measured with specific radioimmunoassay. Left ventricular ejection fraction in patients with chronic heart failure was measured with 99mTc gated cardiac blood pool scintigraphy. Results The results showed that Plasma BNP concentrations in patients with CHF were significantly higher than normal controls (223±79 ng/L vs 40±15 ng/L, P < 0.01). Plasma BNP concentrations had a significant negative correlation with left ventricular ejection fractions(r=-0.68, P <0.01 ). Conclusions These results indicates that Plasma BNP levels are increased in patients with CHF, and they markedly increased according to the severity of heart failure classified by NYHA classification. The plasma BNP levels may be a biochemical parameter for evaluating the left ventricular function.

  1. Effect of anticonvulsants on plasma testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barragry, J M; Makin, H L; Trafford, D J; Scott, D F

    1978-01-01

    Plasma sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and testosterone levels were measured in 29 patients with epilepsy (16 men and 13 women), most of them on chronic therapy with anticonvulsant drugs. Sex hormone binding globulin concentrations were increased in both sexes and testosterone levels in male patients. It is postulated that anticonvulsants may induce hepatic synthesis of SHBG. PMID:569688

  2. [Measurement and correlation analysis of plasma VEGF level in the patients of hyperthyroidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoni; Wang, Guangrong; You, Jinhui

    2013-04-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a glycoprotein that promotes endothelial regeneration, stimulates formation of collateral blood vessels and increases vascular permeability. The purpose of this study was to measure the peripheral blood plasma level of VEGF and FT3, FT4, TSH and to analyze the correlation of the level of VEGF and TSH, FT3, FT4, age and gender in the patients of hyperthyroidism. The relationship between hyperthyroidism and VEGF was investigated as well. The plasma level of VEGF in 45 hyperthyroidism patients and 27 healthy persons were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), while plasma FT3, FT4, TSH were detected by chemiluminescence. The result showed that the plasma level of VEGF in hyperthyroidism patients [(92.53 +/- 62.38) pg/mL] was significantly lower than that in the control group [(158.28 +/- 77.15) pg/mL] (P hyperthyroidism patients (P > 0.05). These results suggested that the peripheral blood plasma level of VEGF in hyperthyroidism patients was significantly lower than that in the control group. Further experimental investigations are needed to estimate the relationship between VEGF and hyperthyroidism.

  3. Seminal Plasma HIV-1 RNA Concentration Is Strongly Associated with Altered Levels of Seminal Plasma Interferon-γ, Interleukin-17, and Interleukin-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Jennifer C.; Anton, Peter A.; Baldwin, Gayle Cocita; Elliott, Julie; Anisman-Posner, Deborah; Tanner, Karen; Grogan, Tristan; Elashoff, David; Sugar, Catherine; Yang, Otto O.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA level is an important determinant of the risk of HIV-1 sexual transmission. We investigated potential associations between seminal plasma cytokine levels and viral concentration in the seminal plasma of HIV-1-infected men. This was a prospective, observational study of paired blood and semen samples from 18 HIV-1 chronically infected men off antiretroviral therapy. HIV-1 RNA levels and cytokine levels in seminal plasma and blood plasma were measured and analyzed using simple linear regressions to screen for associations between cytokines and seminal plasma HIV-1 levels. Forward stepwise regression was performed to construct the final multivariate model. The median HIV-1 RNA concentrations were 4.42 log10 copies/ml (IQR 2.98, 4.70) and 2.96 log10 copies/ml (IQR 2, 4.18) in blood and seminal plasma, respectively. In stepwise multivariate linear regression analysis, blood HIV-1 RNA level (pplasma HIV-1 RNA level. After controlling for blood HIV-1 RNA level, seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA level was positively associated with interferon (IFN)-γ (p=0.03) and interleukin (IL)-17 (p=0.03) and negatively associated with IL-5 (p=0.0007) in seminal plasma. In addition to blood HIV-1 RNA level, cytokine profiles in the male genital tract are associated with HIV-1 RNA levels in semen. The Th1 and Th17 cytokines IFN-γ and IL-17 are associated with increased seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA, while the Th2 cytokine IL-5 is associated with decreased seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA. These results support the importance of genital tract immunomodulation in HIV-1 transmission. PMID:25209674

  4. ApoE plasma levels and risk of cardiovascular mortality in old age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon P Mooijaart

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The epsilon2, epsilon3, and epsilon4 alleles of the apolipoprotein E gene (APOE encode three isoforms, apoE2, E3, and E4, respectively. The apoE isoforms circulate in different plasma concentrations, but plasma concentrations of the same isoform also differ between individuals. Whereas the isoforms have been associated with cardiovascular disease, the relation between plasma apoE levels and cardiovascular disease is unknown. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We assessed APOE genotypes, plasma levels of apoE, cardiovascular risk factors, and mortality in a population-based sample of 546 individuals aged 85 y who participated in the Leiden 85-plus Study and were prospectively followed for specific causes of death for 5 y. Participants in the highest tertile of apoE levels suffered a twofold-increased risk of cardiovascular mortality (hazard ratio compared to lowest tertile, 2.08; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.30 to 3.33. Among the 324 participants with the epsilon3epsilon3 genotype, the hazard from cardiovascular disease was threefold increased (highest versus lowest tertile 3.01; 95% CI 1.60 to 5.66, with similar estimates for men and women. Other causes of death were not increased significantly. Plasma levels of apoE in epsilon3epsilon3 participants were positively correlated with total cholesterol (p < 0.001, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p < 0.001 and triglycerides (p < 0.001 and negatively with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (p = 0.010. Adjustment for plasma lipids did not change the hazard ratios, whereas interaction was absent. The risk associated with high levels of apoE, however, was strongest in participants from the lowest tertile of C-reactive protein (CRP levels and absent in those from the highest tertile (p(interaction < 0.001. Among participants from the lowest tertile of CRP levels, those with a high apoE levels had a significantly steeper increase in CRP than those with low apoE levels (p = 0.020. Similar

  5. Hormonal Influence on Coenzyme Q10 Levels in Blood Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Pontecorvi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10, also known as ubiquinone for its presence in all body cells, is an essential part of the cell energy-producing system. However, it is also a powerful lipophilic antioxidant protecting lipoproteins and cell membranes. Due to these two actions, CoQ10 is commonly used in clinical practice in chronic heart failure, male infertility, and neurodegenerative disease. However, it is also taken as an anti-aging substance by healthy people aiming for long-term neuroprotection and by sportsmen to improve endurance. Many hormones are known to be involved in body energy regulation, in terms of production, consumption and dissipation, and their influence on CoQ10 body content or blood values may represent an important pathophysiological mechanism. We summarize the main findings of the literature about the link between hormonal systems and circulating CoQ10 levels. In particular the role of thyroid hormones, directly involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis, is discussed. There is also a link with gonadal and adrenal hormones, partially due to the common biosynthetic pathway with CoQ10, but also to the increased oxidative stress found in hypogonadism and hypoadrenalism.

  6. Decrease of extracellular taurine in the rat dorsal hippocampus after central nervous administration of vasopressin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brust, P; Christensen, Thomas; Diemer, Nils Henrik

    1992-01-01

    The extracellular amino acid concentrations in the left and right dorsal hippocampus of male rats were studied before and during application of vasopressin into the right hippocampus. The method of intracerebral microdialysis was used for both arginine vasopressin administration and monitoring...... of the composition of the extracellular fluid. The concentrations of 16 amino acids were measured by HPLC in the perfusate samples. The level of taurine declined 20% in the right hippocampus during perfusion with vasopressin, whereas o-phosphoethanolamine decreased in both sides, the left 20% and the right 24...

  7. Plasma cell-free DNA levels are elevated in acute Puumala hantavirus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuula K Outinen

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Puumala hantavirus (PUUV causes a hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome called nephropathia epidemica (NE. The aim of the present study was to evaluate plasma cell-free DNA (cf-DNA levels and urinary cf-DNA excretion in acute NE as well as their associations with the severity of the disease. METHODS: Total plasma cf-DNA was quantified directly in plasma of 61 patients and urine of 20 patients with acute NE. We also carried out a qualitative high-sensitivity lab-on-a-chip DNA assay in 20 patients to elucidate the appearance of cf-DNA in plasma and urine. RESULTS: The maximum plasma cf-DNA values taken during acute NE were significantly higher than the control values taken after the hospitalization period (median 1.33 µg/ml, range 0.94-3.29 µg/ml vs. median 0.77 µg/ml, range 0.55-0.99 µg/ml, P<0.001. The maximum plasma cf-DNA levels correlated positively with maximum blood leukocyte count (r = 0.388, P = 0.002 and the length of hospital stay (r = 0.376, P = 0.003, and inversely with minimum blood platelet count (r = -0.297, P = 0.020. Qualitative analysis of plasma cf-DNA revealed that in most of the patients cf-DNA displayed a low-molecular weight appearance, corresponding to the size of apoptotic DNA (150-200 bp. The visually graded maximum cf-DNA band intensity correlated positively with the maximum quantity of total plasma cf-DNA (r = 0.513, P = 0.021. Maximum urinary excretion of cf-DNA in turn was not markedly increased during the acute phase of NE and did not correlate with any of the variables reflecting severity of the disease or with the maximum plasma cf-DNA level. CONCLUSIONS: The plasma levels of cf-DNA are elevated during acute PUUV infection and correlate with the apoptotic cf-DNA-band intensity. The plasma cf-DNA concentration correlates with some variables reflecting the severity of the disease. The urinary excretion of cf-DNA does not reflect the degree of inflammation in the kidney.

  8. Kinetic parameters and intraindividual fluctuations of ochratoxin A plasma levels in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Studer-Rohr, I. [Inst. of Toxicology, Swiss Federal Inst. of Tech. and Univ. of Zurich, Schwerzenbach (Switzerland); Dept. of Food Science, Swiss Federal Inst. of Tech., Zurich (Switzerland); Schlatter, J. [Toxicology Section, Div. of Food Science, Swiss Federal Office of Public Health, Zurich (Switzerland); Dietrich, D.R. [Dept. of Environmental Toxicology, Univ. of Konstanz, Konstanz (Germany); Inst. of Toxicology, Swiss Federal Inst. of Tech. and Univ. of Zurich, Schwerzenbach (Switzerland)

    2000-11-01

    The mycotoxin ochratoxin A (OTA) is a rodent carcinogen produced by species of the ubiquitous fungal genera Aspergillus and Penicillium. OTA is found in a variety of food items and as a consequence is also found in human plasma (average concentrations found in this study: 0.1-1 ng OTA/ml plasma). To improve the scientific basis for cancer risk assessment the toxicokinetic profile of OTA was studied in one human volunteer following ingestion of 395 ng {sup 3}H-labeled OTA (3.8 {mu}Ci). A two-compartment open model consisting of a central compartment was found to best describe the in vivo data. This two-compartment model consisted of a fast elimination and distribution phase (T{sub 1/2} about 20 h) followed by a slow elimination phase (renal clearance about 0.11 ml/min.) and a calculated plasma half-life of 35.55 days. This half-life was approximately eight times longer than that determined previously in rats. In addition, the intraindividual fluctuation of OTA plasma levels was investigated in eight individuals over a period of 2 months. The concentrations determined ranged between 0.2 and 0.9 ng OTA/ml plasma. The plasma levels in some individuals remained nearly constant over time, while others varied considerably (e.g. increase of 0.4 ng/ml within 3 days, decrease of 0.3 ng/ml within 5 days) during the observation period. This intraindividual fluctuation in OTA plasma levels, which may represent differences in OTA exposure and/or metabolism, as well as the large difference in plasma half-life in humans compared to rats must be taken into consideration when the results of rat cancer study data are extrapolated to humans for risk assessment purposes. (orig.)

  9. Ascorbic acid, garlic extract and taurine alleviate cadmium-induced oxidative stress in freshwater catfish (Clarias batrachus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Puneet, E-mail: puneetbiochem@gmail.com [Aquatic Biotechnology and Fish Pathology Laboratory, Department of Animal Science, M.J.P. Rohilkhand University, Bareilly-243 006 (India); Prasad, Y. [Aquatic Biotechnology and Fish Pathology Laboratory, Department of Animal Science, M.J.P. Rohilkhand University, Bareilly-243 006 (India); Patra, A.K. [West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences, Kolkata-700037 (India); Ranjan, R.; Swarup, D.; Patra, R.C. [Division of Medicine, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar-243122 (India); Pal, Satya [Env. Eng. Lab., Deptt. of Civil Engineering, I.I.T., Roorkee-247667 (India)

    2009-09-01

    An experiment was conducted to investigate bioaccumulation potential of cadmium (Cd) and changes in oxidative stress indices in liver and kidney tissues from Cd-exposed catfish (Clarias batrachus) with or without simultaneous treatment of water with ascorbic acid, garlic extract or taurine. C. batrachus (n = 324) with average length of 20 {+-} 4 cm and weight of 86 {+-} 5 g were used for the present investigation. Fishes were divided into nine groups (I to IX) each comprising 36 fishes. The fishes of groups II, III, IV and V were challenged with 5 ppm of cadmium chloride monohydrate (CdCl{sub 2}.H{sub 2}O), whereas groups VI, VII, VIII and IX were exposed to 10 ppm CdCl{sub 2}.H{sub 2}O solution for a period of 45 days. Group I was kept as negative control and the fishes of this group were maintained in water containing no added Cadmium. Group II and VI were maintained as Cd exposed non treated control to serve as positive controls. Fishes of III and VII, IV and VIII, V and IX received ascorbic acid (5 ppm), extract of dried garlic (5 ppm) or taurine (5 ppm), respectively during the entire experiment period. The concentrations of Cd in liver and kidney increased significantly following exposure to Cd and the level continued to rise with the increase in exposure duration. Treatment of tank water with ascorbic acid, garlic or taurine significantly reduced the Cd concentrations in tissues compared to the positive control group, but the level in Cd exposed groups was greater than the negative control group. Fishes exposed to Cd and treated with ascorbic acid, garlic or taurine had reduced oxidative stress as evidenced from lower concentration of lipid peroxides and higher activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase in liver, kidney and erythrocytes compared to fishes exposed to Cd. The reduction in Cd induced oxidative stress was highest in ascorbic acid treated group followed by garlic and taurine treatment. The results suggest that ascorbic acid, garlic and

  10. Plasma Folate and Vitamin B12 Levels in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Lian-Hua; Quan, Zhen-Yu; Piao, Jin-Mei; Zhang, Ting-Ting; Jiang, Meng-Hui; Shin, Min-Ho; Choi, Jin-Su

    2016-06-30

    Folate and vitamin B12 involved in the one-carbon metabolism may play a key role in carcinogenesis and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) through influencing DNA integrity. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the association of plasma folate and vitamin B12 levels with HCC in a case-control study on 312 HCC patients and 325 cancer-free controls. Plasma concentrations of folate and vitamin B12 in all the subjects were measured by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. Meanwhile, the information of HCC patients' clinical characteristics including tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage, tumor size and tumor markers were collected. The patients of HCC had significantly lower folate levels than those of controls; there was no significant difference in the mean of plasma vitamin B12 levels. We also observed an inverse association between the levels of plasma folate and HCC: the adjusted odds ratios (OR) (95% confidence intervals (CI)) of HCC from the highest to lowest quartile of folate were 0.30 (0.15-0.60), 0.33 (0.17-0.65), and 0.19 (0.09-0.38). Compared to the subjects in the lowest quartile of plasma vitamin B12, only the subjects in the highest quartile of vitamin B12 exhibited a significant positive relationship with HCC, the adjusted OR was 2.01 (95% CI, 1.02-3.98). HCC patients with Stage III and IV or bigger tumor size had lower folate and higher vitamin B12 levels. There was no significant difference in the mean plasma folate levels of the HCC cases in tumor markers status (AFP, CEA and CA19-9 levels), whereas patients with higher CEA or CA19-9 levels retained significantly more plasma vitamin B12 than those with normal-CEA or CA19-9 level. In conclusion, plasma folate and vitamin B12 levels could be associated with HCC, and might be used as predictors of clinical characteristics of HCC patients. However, further prospective studies are essential to confirm the observed results.

  11. Plasma adiponectin levels correlate positively with an increasing number of components of frailty in male elders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaw-Shiun Tsai

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Frailty is an important geriatric syndrome. Adiponectin is an important adipokine that regulates energy homeostasis. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between plasma adiponectin levels and frailty in elders. METHODS: The demographic data, body weight, metabolic and inflammatory parameters, including plasma glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, c-reactive protein (CRP and adiponectin levels, were assessed. The frailty score was assessed using the Fried Frailty Index (FFI. RESULTS: The mean (SD age of the 168 participants [83 (49.4% men and 85 (50.6% women] was 76.86 (6.10 years. Judged by the FFI score, 42 (25% elders were robust, 92 (54.7% were pre-frail, and 34 (20.3% were frail. The mean body mass index was 25.19 (3.42 kg/m(2. The log-transformed mean (SD plasma adiponectin (µg/mL level was 1.00 (0.26. The log-transformed mean plasma adiponectin (µg/mL levels were 0.93 (0.23 in the robust elders, 1.00 (0.27 in the pre-frail elders, and 1.10 (0.22 in the frail elders, and the differences between these values were statistically significant (p  = 0.012. Further analysis showed that plasma adiponectin levels rose progressively with an increasing number of components of frailty in all participants as a whole (p for trend  = 0.024 and males (p for trend  = 0.037, but not in females (p for trend  = 0.223. CONCLUSION: Plasma adiponectin levels correlate positively with an increasing number of components of frailty in male elders. The difference between the sexes suggests that certain sex-specific mechanisms may exist to affect the association between adiponectin levels and frailty.

  12. Taurine inhibits osteoblastic differentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells via the ERK pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Xiao-bo; Zhou, Xin-min; Li, Jian-ming; Yang, Jin-fu; Tan, Zhi-ping; Hu, Zhuo-wei; Liu, Wei; Lu, Ying; Yuan, Ling-qing

    2008-05-01

    Vascular calcification develops within atherosclerotic lesions and results from a process similar to osteogenesis. Taurine is a free beta-amino acid and plays an important physiological role in mammals. We have recently demonstrated that vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) express a functional taurine transporter. To evaluate the possible role of taurine in vascular calcification, we assessed its effects on osteoblastic differentiation of VSMCs in vitro. The results showed that taurine inhibited the beta-glycerophosphate-induced osteoblastic differentiation of VSMCs as evidenced by both the decreasing alkaline phosphate (ALP) activity and expression of the core binding factor alpha1 (Cbfalpha1). Taurine also activated the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) pathway. Inhibition of ERK pathway reversed the effect of taurine on ALP activity and Cbfalpha1 expression. These results suggested that taurine inhibited osteoblastic differentiation of vascular cells via the ERK pathway.

  13. Cardiac and skeletal muscle abnormality in taurine transporter-knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Takashi; Oishi, Shohei; Takai, Mika; Kimura, Yasushi; Uozumi, Yoriko; Fujio, Yasushi; Schaffer, Stephen W; Azuma, Junichi

    2010-08-24

    Taurine, a sulfur-containing beta-amino acid, is highly contained in heart and skeletal muscle. Taurine has a variety of biological actions, such as ion movement, calcium handling and cytoprotection in the cardiac and skeletal muscles. Meanwhile, taurine deficiency leads various pathologies, including dilated cardiomyopathy, in cat and fox. However, the essential role of taurine depletion on pathogenesis has not been fully clarified. To address the physiological role of taurine in mammalian tissues, taurine transporter-(TauT-) knockout models were recently generated. TauTKO mice exhibited loss of body weight, abnormal cardiac function and the reduced exercise capacity with tissue taurine depletion. In this chapter, we summarize pathological profile and histological feature of heart and skeletal muscle in TauTKO mice.

  14. The effects of propionylcarnitine taurine on cardiac performance in aerobic and ischemic myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molaparast-Saless, F; Nellis, S H; Liedkte, A J

    1988-01-01

    Carnitine, certain of its derivatives, and the amino acid metabolite, taurine, when administered independently in prior studies have been shown to improve cardiac mechanic and/or metabolism. The purpose of these studies is to test a new compound, propionylcarnitine taurine (PCT), which potentially combines these actions, in a therapeutic trial to preserve function in a setting of myocardial ischemia. In the main protocol, PCT was administered (0.71 mg/kg/min I.V.) to eight extracorporeally perfused, intact, working swine hearts over a 70 min perfusion trial and compared with seven similarly prepared placebo hearts. Left anterior descending (LAD) flows were held at aerobic levels (6.3 +/- 0.3 ml/min/g dry) for 40 min and then reduced acutely by 50% for 30 min. Serum fatty acids (FA) in both groups were augmented to 1.27 +/- 0.5 mumol/ml. Contractility (measured regionally from shortening rates of ultrasonic crystals placed in the LAD circulation); myocardial oxygen consumption (MVO2); and FA oxidation (measured from 14CO2 production rates from labeled palmitate infused into the LAD perfusate) were obtained serially throughout the perfusion trials. Regional contractility was significantly increased in PCT-treated hearts as compared with placebo hearts both during normal and ischemic flows. Treatment appeared to deplete free carnitine stores in both aerobic and ischemic myocardium but failed to modify acyl CoA levels. In seven additional animals PCT was shown to independently stimulate fatty acid oxidation (about 39 delta % increase) at aerobic flows. Lastly in nine separate animals (4 placebo; 5 treatment) prepared and studied identically to those of the main protocol, taurine alone (0.2 mg/kg/min infused IV for 70 min) was without influence in reproducing mechanical benefits. Thus, PCT favorably enhances regional contractility in conditions of myocardial ischemia, presumably by the positive inotropic effects of the propionylcarnitine constituent of the compound.

  15. Impact of plasma fibrinogen levels in benign and malignant soft tissue tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asanuma, Kunihiro; Matsumine, Akihiko; Nakamura, Tomoki; Matsubara, Takao; Asanuma, Yumiko; Oi, Toru; Goto, Mikinobu; Okuno, Kazuma; Kakimoto, Takuya; Yada, Yuuki; Sudo, Akihiro

    2016-01-01

    Fibrinogen, a 340 kDa glycoprotein synthesized in the liver, is known to be involved in tumor angiogenesis, enlargement, and metastasis. Elevated plasma fibrinogen levels are associated with tumor progression in many cancer patients. However, there are no reports about differences in fibrinogen levels between benign and malignant soft tissue tumors. The purpose of this study was to clarify whether preoperative plasma fibrinogen levels can be used for differential diagnosis of benign or malignant soft tissue tumors. The plasma fibrinogen levels from 102 primary soft tissue tumor patients were measured before biopsy or treatment. Fibrinogen levels were analyzed and compared to various clinical parameters. According to receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, a threshold of serum fibrinogen of 315 mg/dL identified malignant patients with 60.9% sensitivity and 87.5% specificity. The diagnostic accuracy was evaluated by area under the curve (AUC: 0.805). Over 315 mg/dL of fibrinogen was associated with a significantly increased risk of malignancy by multiple logistic regression analysis (OR: 6.452, p= 0.0004). We demonstrated that plasma fibrinogen levels have a relationship with tumor malignancy of soft tissue tumors. High fibrinogen levels can be a helpful subsidiary tool for the prediction of malignant soft tissue tumors with other diagnostic tools.

  16. Two distinct modes of hypoosmotic medium-induced release of excitatory amino acids and taurine in the rat brain in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renée E Haskew-Layton

    Full Text Available A variety of physiological and pathological factors induce cellular swelling in the brain. Changes in cell volume activate several types of ion channels, which mediate the release of inorganic and organic osmolytes and allow for compensatory cell volume decrease. Volume-regulated anion channels (VRAC are thought to be responsible for the release of some of organic osmolytes, including the excitatory neurotransmitters glutamate and aspartate. In the present study, we compared the in vivo properties of the swelling-activated release of glutamate, aspartate, and another major brain osmolyte taurine. Cell swelling was induced by perfusion of hypoosmotic (low [NaCl] medium via a microdialysis probe placed in the rat cortex. The hypoosmotic medium produced several-fold increases in the extracellular levels of glutamate, aspartate and taurine. However, the release of the excitatory amino acids differed from the release of taurine in several respects including: (i kinetic properties, (ii sensitivity to isoosmotic changes in [NaCl], and (iii sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide, which is known to modulate VRAC. Consistent with the involvement of VRAC, hypoosmotic medium-induced release of the excitatory amino acids was inhibited by the anion channel blocker DNDS, but not by the glutamate transporter inhibitor TBOA or Cd2+, which inhibits exocytosis. In order to elucidate the mechanisms contributing to taurine release, we studied its release properties in cultured astrocytes and cortical synaptosomes. Similarities between the results obtained in vivo and in synaptosomes suggest that the swelling-activated release of taurine in vivo may be of neuronal origin. Taken together, our findings indicate that different transport mechanisms and/or distinct cellular sources mediate hypoosmotic medium-induced release of the excitatory amino acids and taurine in vivo.

  17. Plasma levels of beta-endorphin and serotonin in response to specific spinal based exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Sokunbi

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Exercises as the primary mode of treatment for low back disorders aim to achieve pain reduction, improvement in functional abilityand quality of life of for low back disorder sufferers. However the bio-chemical events associated with the use of these exercises in terms of theireffects on pain relieving neuropeptides have not been well established. Thisstudy was carried out to investigate the effects of spinal stabilisation, backextension and treadmill walking exercises on plasma levels of serotonin andbeta-endorphin.Twenty volunteers (10 males and 10 females without low back pain participated in the study. They were randomly allocated either to one of theexercise groups, where participants carried out one of the spinal stabilisation, back extension and treadmill walkingexercises or the control (no exercise group. The main outcome measures used in this study were plasma levels of serotonin and beta-endorphin measured with Enzyme linked immuno absorbent assay (ELISA technique.The results of this study showed that spinal stabilisation and treadmill walking exercises produced significantincrease in plasma serotonin levels (P < 0.05 however there were no significant changes in the plasma levels of beta-endorphin in all the exercise groups (P > 0.05.It could be that biochemical effects associated with stabilisation and treadmill walking exercises therefore mayinvolve production of serotonin and its release into the plasma.

  18. Myoglobin plasma level related to muscle mass and fiber composition: a clinical marker of muscle wasting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Marc-André; Kinscherf, Ralf; Krakowski-Roosen, Holger; Aulmann, Michael; Renk, Hanna; Künkele, Annette; Edler, Lutz; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Hildebrandt, Wulf

    2007-08-01

    Progressive muscle wasting is a central feature of cancer-related cachexia and has been recognized as a determinant of poor prognosis and quality of life. However, until now, no easily assessable clinical marker exists that allows to predict or to track muscle wasting. The present study evaluated the potential of myoglobin (MG) plasma levels to indicate wasting of large locomotor muscles and, moreover, to reflect the loss of MG-rich fiber types, which are most relevant for daily performance. In 17 cancer-cachectic patients (weight loss 22%) and 27 age- and gender-matched healthy controls, we determined plasma levels of MG and creatine kinase (CK), maximal quadriceps muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) by magnetic resonance imaging, muscle morphology and fiber composition in biopsies from the vastus lateralis muscle, body cell mass (BCM) by impedance technique as well as maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2)max). In cachectic patients, plasma MG, muscle CSA, BCM, and VO(2)max were 30-35% below control levels. MG showed a significant positive correlation to total muscle CSA (r = 0.65, p max as an important functional readout. CK plasma levels appear to be less reliable because prolonged increases are observed in even subclinical myopathies or after exercise. Notably, cancer-related muscle wasting was not associated with increases in plasma MG or CK in this study.

  19. Plasma S100A12 Levels and Peripheral Arterial Disease in End-Stage Renal Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yayoi Shiotsu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: S100A12 is an endogenous ligand of the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE. Plasma S100A12 levels are high in end-stage renal disease (ESRD patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis (HD. Peripheral arterial disease (PAD is common in HD patients and is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality rates in this population. To date, however, no study has specifically assessed the relationship between plasma S100A12 and PAD in HD patients. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 152 HD patients in our affiliated hospital. We investigated PAD history and patient characteristics and quantified plasma S100A12 levels in all participants. Results: HD patients with PAD (n = 26; 21.9 [13.6–33.4] ng/ml showed significantly higher plasma S100A12 levels than HD patients without PAD (n = 126; 11.8 [7.5–17.6]ng/ml; p Conclusion: These results suggest that plasma S100A12 levels are strongly associated with PAD prevalence in ESRD patients undergoing HD.

  20. Preoperative plasma leptin levels predict delirium in elderly patients after hip fracture surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xue-Wu; Shi, Jun-Wu; Yang, Ping-Shan; Wu, Zhu-Qi

    2014-07-01

    Leptin is considered to be a modulator of the immune response. Hypoleptinemia increases the risk for Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. The present study aimed to investigate the ability of plasma leptin level to predict delirium in elderly patients after hip fracture surgery. Postoperative delirium (pod) was evaluated using the Confusion Assessment Method. Prolonged postoperative delirium (ppod) was defined as delirium lasting more than 4 weeks. Plasma leptin levels of 186 elderly patients and 186 elderly controls were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Plasma leptin level was substantially lower in patients than in controls (4.6±2.2ng/ml vs. 7.5±1.8ng/ml, Pdelirium and also prolonged delirium in elderly patients after hip fracture surgery.

  1. Decreased plasma neurotrophin-4/5 levels in bipolar disorder patients in mania

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    Izabela G. Barbosa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate two poorly explored neurotrophins (NT, NT-3 and NT-4/5, in bipolar disorder (BD. Methods: Forty patients with type I BD (18 in remission and 22 in mania and 25 healthy controls matched for age, gender, and educational attainment were enrolled in this study. All subjects were assessed by the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview; the Young Mania Rating Scale and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale were used to evaluate severity of symptoms in BD patients. Plasma levels of NT-3 and NT-4/5 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Results: BD patients in mania presented decreased NT-4/5 plasma levels in comparison with controls (p < 0.05. There were no significant differences in NT-3 plasma levels between BD patients and controls. Conclusion: These findings corroborate the view that neurotrophin dysfunction is associated with mood states in patients with BD.

  2. Corticotropin-releasing hormone and progesterone plasma levels association with the onset and progression of labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatelou, F; Deligeoroglou, E; Vrachnis, N; Iliodromiti, S; Iliodromiti, Z; Sifakis, S; Farmakides, G; Creatsas, G

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE OF LNVESTIGATION: To examine the relationship between maternal plasma progesterone along with corticotropin- releasing hormone (CRH) plasma levels and the progression of labor. Maternal serum CRH and progesterone were measured during the latent phase of labor, active labor, and 24 hours postpartum in women who went into spontaneous labor and delivered vaginally at term. Progesterone (P) levels in women delivered by an elective cesarean section at term were also measured as baseline. Mean maternal plasma P was 18% higher in the active phase than in the latent phase of labor (p labor (p labor progresses, P and CRH increase and subsequently decrease precipitously in the immediate postpartal period. P levels tend to drop in women who are in early labor compared with non-laboring full-term women.

  3. Plasma and urine DNA levels are related to microscopic hematuria in patients with bladder urothelial carcinoma.

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    de Almeida, Eduardo Ferreira Pedroso; Abdalla, Tomás Elias; Arrym, Tiago Pedromonico; de Oliveira Delgado, Pamela; Wroclawski, Marcelo Langer; da Costa Aguiar Alves, Beatriz; de S Gehrke, Flávia; Azzalis, Ligia Ajaime; Alves, Sarah; Tobias-Machado, Marcos; de Lima Pompeo, Antonio Carlos; Fonseca, Fernando Luiz Affonso

    2016-11-01

    a) Objective: An increase in cell-free DNA was observed in the plasma of many cancer patients. This major biomarker can be used to differentiate patients with malignant neoplasms from those with benign neoplasms or healthy patients. Depending on the characteristic of the tumor, there are qualitative variations in the circulating cell-free DNA. Today, studies on the concentration of fragments of circulating cell-free DNA and their respective sizes in patients with bladder cancer are not plentiful in the literature. A 100% effective plasma tumor marker, which would help in the diagnosis and follow-up of bladder cancer, is yet to be developed; therefore, cell-free DNA levels in the plasma may represent a valuable biomarker for the diagnosis, prognosis and follow-up of patients with this type of tumor. b) Design and methods: In this study we analyze the kinetics of plasma and urine DNA concentrations in patients with bladder cancer, relating them to the other clinical laboratory variables. c) Results: Patients with hematuria showed a positive correlation with urine DNA. d) Conclusion: An increase in plasma and urine DNA was unprecedentedly reported over time, a fact that may come in handy in the prognosis of patients. Furthermore, microscopic haematuria is correlated with plasma and urinary DNA levels.

  4. Assessing plasma levels of selenium, copper, iron and zinc in patients of Parkinson's disease.

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    Hai-Wen Zhao

    Full Text Available Trace elements have been recognized to play an important role in the development of Parkinson's disease (PD. However, it is difficult to precisely identify the relationship between these elements and the progression of PD because of an insufficient number of patients. In this study, quantifications of selenium (Se, copper (Cu, iron (Fe and zinc (Zn by atomic absorption spectrophotometry were performed in plasma from 238 PD patients and 302 controls recruited from eastern China, which is so far the largest cohort of PD patients and controls for measuring plasma levels of these elements. We found that plasma Se and Fe concentrations were significantly increased whereas Cu and Zn concentrations decreased in PD patients as compared with controls. Meanwhile, these four elements displayed differential changes with regard to age. Linear and logistic regression analyses revealed that both Fe and Zn were negatively correlated with age in PD patients. Association analysis suggests that lower plasma Se and Fe levels may reduce the risk for PD, whereas lower plasma Zn is probably a PD risk factor. Finally, a model was generated to predict PD patients based on the plasma concentrations of these four trace elements as well as other features such as sex and age, which achieved an accuracy of 80.97±1.34% using 10-fold cross-validation. In summary, our data provide new insights into the roles of Se, Cu, Fe and Zn in PD progression.

  5. Effects of cytostatic drugs on plasma level and renal excretion of beta-acetyldigoxin.

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    Kuhlmann, J; Zilly, W; Wilke, J

    1981-10-01

    Mucosal defects decrease digoxin absorption in patients with malabsorption syndromes. Since the intestinal mucosa can be damaged by cytostatic drugs, we investigated their effects on digoxin plasma levels and urinary digoxin excretion. In six patients with malignant lymphoma who received 0.8 mg beta-acetyldigoxin before and 24 hr after treatment with a combination of cyclophosphamide, oncovin, procarbazine, and prednisone (COPP) or cyclophosphamide, oncovin, and prednisone (COP), plasma digoxin concentrations were measured 0 to 8 hr after the dose and areas under the plasma concentration-time curves were calculated. In 15 patients on 0.3 mg of beta-acetyldigoxin daily, plasma glycoside concentrations and renal excretion were measured daily before and after COPP, COP, cyclophosphamide, oncovin, cytosine-arabinosine, and prednisone (COAP), or adriamycin, bleomycin, and prednisone (ABP) treatment schemes. The diminished steady-state glycoside plasma concentrations and daily renal glycoside excretion during the 24 to 168 hr after the cytostatic drug established reversible impairment of digoxin absorption. The delayed time to peak after a single dose of digoxin during cytostatic drug therapy shows that extent and rate of digoxin absorption are reduced. To maintain adequate control of digoxin therapy in patients treated with cytostatic drugs, plasma levels should be monitored.

  6. Assessing plasma levels of selenium, copper, iron and zinc in patients of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hai-Wen; Lin, Jie; Wang, Xue-Bao; Cheng, Xing; Wang, Jian-Yong; Hu, Bei-Lei; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Xiong; Zhu, Jian-Hong

    2013-01-01

    Trace elements have been recognized to play an important role in the development of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, it is difficult to precisely identify the relationship between these elements and the progression of PD because of an insufficient number of patients. In this study, quantifications of selenium (Se), copper (Cu), iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) by atomic absorption spectrophotometry were performed in plasma from 238 PD patients and 302 controls recruited from eastern China, which is so far the largest cohort of PD patients and controls for measuring plasma levels of these elements. We found that plasma Se and Fe concentrations were significantly increased whereas Cu and Zn concentrations decreased in PD patients as compared with controls. Meanwhile, these four elements displayed differential changes with regard to age. Linear and logistic regression analyses revealed that both Fe and Zn were negatively correlated with age in PD patients. Association analysis suggests that lower plasma Se and Fe levels may reduce the risk for PD, whereas lower plasma Zn is probably a PD risk factor. Finally, a model was generated to predict PD patients based on the plasma concentrations of these four trace elements as well as other features such as sex and age, which achieved an accuracy of 80.97±1.34% using 10-fold cross-validation. In summary, our data provide new insights into the roles of Se, Cu, Fe and Zn in PD progression.

  7. Decreased plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in institutionalized elderly with depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Chin-Liang; Liang, Chih-Kuang; Chou, Ming-Yueh; Lin, Yu-Te; Pan, Chih-Chuan; Lu, Ti; Chen, Liang-Kung; Chow, Philip C

    2012-06-01

    To compare the differences in plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels among institutionalized ethnic Chinese elderly participants with major depression, those with subclinical depression, and a nondepressed control group. A cross-sectional study. The veterans' home in southern Taiwan. One hundred sixty-seven residents. Questionnaires including the Minimum Data Set Nursing Home 2.1, Chinese-language version, and the short-form Geriatric Depression Scale, Chinese-language version. Depressive disorder was diagnosed by a well-trained psychiatrist using DSM-IV-TR (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, text revision) criteria. We measured plasma BDNF levels in the following 3 groups: nondepressive subjects (n = 122), subclinically depressive subjects (n = 33), and subjects with major depression (n = 12). Plasma BDNF was assayed using the sandwich ELISA method. We noted a significantly negative association between age and plasma BDNF in the regression model. There was no significant correlation between BDNF plasma levels and body weight or platelet counts. We found that plasma BDNF was significantly lower in the major depressive group (mean, 115.1 pg/mL; SD, 57.2) than in the nondepressive group (mean, 548.8 pg/mL; SD, 370.6; P depressive group (mean, 231.8 pg/mL; SD, 92.4; P depressive disorder but also in those with subclinical depression. This makes the plasma BDNF level a potential biological marker for clinical or subclinical depression. Copyright © 2012 American Medical Directors Association, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The effect of dietary fat level and quality on plasma lipoprotein lipids and plasma fatty acids in normocholesterolemic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, K; Johnson, L; O'Dea, K; Sinclair, A J

    1994-02-01

    This study examined the effect on the plasma lipids and plasma phospholipid and cholesteryl ester fatty acids of changing froma typical western diet to a very low fat (VLF) vegetarian diet containing one egg/day. The effect of the addition of saturated, monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fat (PUFA) to the VLF diet was also examined. Three groups of 10 subjects (6 women, 4 men) were fed the VLF diet (10% energy as fat) for two weeks, and then in the next two weeks the dietary fat in each group was increased by 10% energy/week using butter, olive oil or safflower oil. The fat replaced dietary carbohydrate. The VLF diet reduced both the low density lipoprotein (LDL)- and high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels; addition of the monounsaturated fats and PUFA increased the HDL-cholesterol levels, whereas butter increased the cholesterol levels in both the LDL- and HDL-fractions. The VLF diet led to significant reductions in the proportion of linoleic acid (18:2 omega 6) and eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 omega 3) and to increases in palmitoleic (16:1), eicosatrienoic (20:3 omega 6) and arachidonic acids (20:4 omega 6) in both phospholipids and cholesteryl esters. Addition of butter reversed the changes seen on the VLF diet, with the exception of 16:1, which remained elevated. Addition of olive oil resulted in a significant rise in the proportion of 18:1 and significant decreases in all omega 3 PUFA except 22:6 compared with the usual diet. The addition of safflower oil resulted in significant increases in 18:2 and 20:4 omega 6 and significant decreases in 18:1, 20:5 omega 3 and 22:5 omega 3. These results indicate that the reduction of saturated fat content of the diet (unsaturated fat, reduced the total plasma cholesterol levels by approximately 12% in normocholesterolemic subjects. Although the VLF vegetarian diet reduced both LDL- and HDL-cholesterol levels, the long-term effects of VLF diets are unlikely to be deleterious since populations which habitually

  9. Alteration of plasma glutamate and glutamine levels in children with high-functioning autism.

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    Chie Shimmura

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It has recently been hypothesized that hyperglutamatergia in the brain is involved in the pathophysiology of autism. However, there is no conclusive evidence of the validity of this hypothesis. As peripheral glutamate/glutamine levels have been reported to be correlated with those of the central nervous system, the authors examined whether the levels of 25 amino acids, including glutamate and glutamine, in the platelet-poor plasma of drug-naïve, male children with high-functioning autism (HFA would be altered compared with those of normal controls. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Plasma levels of 25 amino acids in male children (N = 23 with HFA and normally developed healthy male controls (N = 22 were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography. Multiple testing was allowed for in the analyses. Compared with the normal control group, the HFA group had higher levels of plasma glutamate and lower levels of plasma glutamine. No significant group difference was found in the remaining 23 amino acids. The effect size (Cohen's d for glutamate and glutamine was large: 1.13 and 1.36, respectively. Using discriminant analysis with logistic regression, the two values of plasma glutamate and glutamine were shown to well-differentiate the HFA group from the control group; the rate of correct classification was 91%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present study suggests that plasma glutamate and glutamine levels can serve as a diagnostic tool for the early detection of autism, especially normal IQ autism. These findings indicate that glutamatergic abnormalities in the brain may be associated with the pathobiology of autism.

  10. Hard photon production from unsaturated quark-gluon plasma at two-loop level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, D. E-mail: ddutta@apsara.barc.ernet.in; Sastry, S.V.S.; Mohanty, A.K.; Kumar, K

    2002-11-18

    The hard photon production from bremsstrahlung and annihilation with scattering that arise at two-loop level are estimated for a chemically non-equilibrated quark-gluon plasma in the framework of Hard Thermal Loop (HTL) resummed effective field theory. The rate of photon production is found to be suppressed due to unsaturated phase space compared to equilibrated plasma. For an unsaturated plasma, unlike the effective one-loop case, the reduction in the effective two-loop processes is found to be independent of gluon fugacity, due to an additional collinear enhancement arising from the decrease in thermal quark mass but strongly depends on quark and antiquark fugacities. It is also found that the photon production is dominated by bremsstrahlung mechanism, since the phase space suppression is higher for annihilation with scattering, in contrast to the equilibrated plasma where annihilation with scattering dominates the photon production.

  11. Plasma selenium levels in healthy blood bank donors in the central-eastern part of Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cauwenbergh, Rudy; Robberecht, Harry; Van Vlaslaer, Veerle; De Smet, Annie; Emonds, Marie-Paule; Hermans, Nina

    2007-01-01

    Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, with Zeeman background correction and after improved matrix modification, was used to measure the plasma selenium content of healthy blood bank donors in the central part of Belgium. The mean plasma selenium concentration of 80 men and 80 women was 79.7+/-4.4ng/mL with a range of 55.0-117.4ng/mL. There was no gender difference observed. Plasma selenium level was significantly highest for the adult group, aged 45-64 years, compared to the others, except the young adults (18-24 years). The mean plasma selenium concentration measured corresponded well with literature data for Belgium. The obtained values were found to be in the medium range, compared with recent literature values for the European countries.

  12. Carbon dioxide-induced anesthesia results in a rapid increase in plasma levels of vasopressin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Brian; Varon, Jack; Chait, Brian T; Kreek, Mary Jeanne

    2009-06-01

    Brief anesthesia, such as after exposure to high levels of carbon dioxide, prior to decapitation is considered a more humane alternative for the euthanasia of rodents, compared with use of decapitation alone. Studies of the levels of certain stress hormones in plasma such as corticosterone and ACTH have supported the use of this method of euthanasia in endocrinological and molecular studies. In the current study, rats were briefly exposed to a chamber filled with carbon dioxide until recumbent (20-25 sec), immediately killed via decapitation, and trunk blood collected; findings were compared with rats killed via decapitation with no exposure to carbon dioxide. RIAs were used to measure arginine vasopressin (AVP) and ACTH immunoreactivity (ir) in plasma. Whereas ACTH-ir levels remained steady after brief exposure to carbon dioxide (in accordance with results of other investigators), AVP-ir levels were increased by more than an order of magnitude. These results were confirmed by quantitative capillary-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, indicating this observation of rapid increase in plasma AVP-ir levels is not due to nonspecific recognition by the antibody used in the RIA. Likewise, using capillary-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we observed a rapid increase in plasma oxytocin levels after carbon dioxide exposure. These surprising findings have important implications for the design and interpretation of studies involving brief carbon dioxide exposure prior to decapitation as well as those with euthanasia resulting from carbon dioxide-induced asphyxiation.

  13. Plasma and Saliva Irisin Levels of Patients with Diabetic Nephropathy and Non-Diabetic Proteinuria

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    Ali GÜREL

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Primary glomerular diseases or some systemic disorders such as diabetes (DM may cause proteinuria. Irisin (IRI is a hormone secreted as a response to physical exercise by the skeleton muscle and thought to be protective against many metabolic disorders such as DM, obesity. Decreased levels of irisin were observed in chronic kidney disease (CKD, type 2 DM and obesity. The aim of this study was to determine IRI levels in blood and saliva of proteinuric patients with and without diabetes. MATERIAL and METHODS: Sampling was from 15 diabetic, 15 non-diabetic proteinuria and 13 healthy control subjects. IRI concentrations were measured by using commercial ELISA kits. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 12. Groups were compared by the Kruskal-Wallis test and then Mann–Whitney post hoc test was performed. RESULTS: Plasma and saliva IRI levels of non- diabetic group were higher than the diabetic group. There was a significant positive correlation between plasma IRI concentrations and HDL, albumin levels but a negative correlation between plasma IRI and LDL levels. CONCLUSION: IRI levels were low both in plasma and saliva in diabetic subjects. IRI may be an important marker and/or therapeutic agent for disorders associated with energy expenditure and kidney diseases in the future.

  14. Plasma fibrinogen levels are correlated with postoperative distant metastasis and prognosis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Danhong; Zhou, Xia; Bao, Wuan; Chen, Ying; Cheng, Lei; Qiu, Guoqin; Sheng, Liming; Ji, Yongling; Du, Xianghui

    2015-11-10

    This study investigated the correlation of preoperative plasma fibrinogen level with distant metastasis and prognosis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). A total of 255 patients with ESCC who underwent surgery in Zhejiang cancer hospital (Hangzhou, China), between October 2006 and December 2009, were evaluated in this retrospective study. Population controls were selected from a pool of cancer-free subjects in the same region. Each patient and cancer-free people provided 3-mL pretreatment blood. Plasma fibrinogen level was measured by the Clauss method. The effects of hyperfibrinogenemia on locoregional relapse-free survival (LRFS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), relapse-free survival (RFS), and overall survival (OS) were assessed using Kaplan-Meier analysis. Independent prognostic factors were identified in the multivariate Cox analysis. The proportion of hyperfibrinogenemia was higher in ESCC patients than those in controls (40.4% vs 13.6%). Subjects with hyperfibrinogenemia had a significantly higher risk of ESCC than those with normal plasma fibrinogen level (adjust OR = 4.61; 95% CI = 3.02-7.01, P fibrinogen level were independent prognostic factors of ESCC (P fibrinogen level was significantly associated with elevated risk of ESCC. Preoperative plasma fibrinogen level was a predictor of distant metastasis and independently associated with prognosis of patients with ESCC.

  15. Assays to measure nanomolar levels of the renin inhibitor CGP 38 560 in plasma

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    Cumin, F.; de Gasparo, M.; Wood, J.M.; Schnell, C.; Frueh, F.; Graf, P. (Ciba-Geigy Limited, Basel (Switzerland))

    1989-10-01

    A radioinhibitor binding assay and an enzyme inhibition assay have been developed to measure plasma levels of CGP 38 560, a potent human renin inhibitor. The detection limit of the assays was between 0.5 and 1 pmol/ml. There was a good correlation (r = 0.989) between the two assays for the measurement of human plasma spiked with CGP 38 560 in concentrations from 1.9 nM to 12 microM. Intra-assay variability was 6.1-17.3% and 4.4-27.2% for the radioinhibitor binding assay and the enzyme inhibition assay, respectively. Interassay variability was 6.0-28.2% and 3.8-28.4% for the radioinhibitor binding assay and the enzyme inhibition assay, respectively. Blood samples were collected during a pharmacological study performed in normotensive human volunteers on an unrestricted diet who were infused during a 30-minute period with CGP 38 560 A (50 micrograms/kg). Similar values for the concentrations of renin inhibitor in plasma were obtained with the radioinhibitor binding assay and the enzyme inhibitor assay, and there was a significant correlation between values obtained with the two different methodologies (r = 0.94). The plasma levels of renin inhibitor reached a maximum at the end of infusion and then decreased rapidly, indicating a short plasma half-life. The changes in biochemical parameters, plasma renin activity, and plasma concentration of active renin could be related to the concentrations of CGP 38 560 measured in the plasma.